(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report Upon the Condition and Progress of the U.S. National Museum During the Year Ending June ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



I 



> 



W 
% 



■</> 



■*»>-' 



^^ft,^RA^'^ 



,US7 



ANNUAL REPORT 



BOARD OF REGENTS 



SMITHSONIAN^ INSTITUTION, 



THE OPERATIONS, EXPENMTBRES. ANI) CONDITION 
OF THE INSTITUTION 



TEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1908. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 




WASHINGTON: 

OOVRRKHENT PRINTINU OFFICB. 
1905. 



AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE PUBLIC PRINTIN(* AND BINDIN(i, AND TH» 

DIHTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC DOCUMENTS. 

Approved January 12, 1895. 

"Of the Report of the Smithsonian Institution, t*?n thousand copies; one thousand 
copies for the Senate, two thousand for the House, tive thousand for distribution In- 
the Smithsonian Institution, and two thousand for distribution by the National 
Museum." 

II 



REPORT 



OF THE 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM, 



UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 



THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 



FOR 



TlIK YKAR KNlJlNCil^ .nTNK 30, 1903, 



III 



I r?r-v^70 



•■NCNAL aOOKBINOINe CO. 



3C;:..;i 013 c t:h-7n 

2 ^ fiDH ^' "-• 



4UAUTV CONTROL MARK 



REPORT OF THE U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 



SUBJECTS. 

I. Report of the Assintant Secretiirj' of the Siuithsouian Institution, 
with Appendices. 

II. Pupcrs descriptive of Maseuni Huildings. 



United States National Museum, 

Under direction of the Smithsonian Institution, 

Washingfon, OeUiher 1, 1903. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report upon the present 

ooudition of the United States National Museum, and upon the work 

accomplished in its various departments during the fiscal year ending 

June 30, li>03. 

Very respectfully, 

Richard Rathbun, 

AsHistiint Secretary ^ in charge of the U. S. National Muaeum. 

Mr. S. P. Lang LEY, 

Secretary^ Sinithsmmtn lnHtitutio7u 

VII 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

BCTB V 

£K OF Transmittal vii 

ENT8 IX 

OF Illustrations xi 

PART 1. 

Rkport of the Assistant Secretary. 

General Considerations. 

museum of record 7 

museum of research 9 

I e<lucational museum 10 

ilditional museum building 12 

Summary of the Operations of the Year. 

opriations and ex[)enditures 15 

lings 16 

tions to the collections 17 

orations 25 

ibution and exchange of spt^cimens 26 

irches 28 

ress in the installation of the exhibition collections i^ 

jrs 38 

ings and lectures 39 

«pondence 40 

ligations 41 

try 44 

Dgraphy 45 

eration of the Executive Departments of the Government 45 

Louisiana Purchase Exfiosition 45 

lization and staff 46 

>log>' 47 

Rei»ort8 ok Head Curators. 

rt on the Department of Anthrojiology for the year ltK)2-3 51 

Jifts '. 52 

Purchases 54 

transfers 54 

exchanges 55 

xmns 55 

/are of the collections 56 

explorations 57 

Researches 58 

Itorage 60 

IX 



X CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Ileport on the Department of Biology for the year 1902-3 61 

Exhibition collections (31 

.Explorations 64 

Accessions 65 

Work on the study series 71 

Loan of collections and cooperation of specialists 74 

Distribution of duplicates 7(> 

Laboratory use of collections by investigators 76 

Scientific researches and publications 77 

Expositions vSO 

Personnel .si 

Report on the Department of Geology for the year 1902-3 83 

Accessions H;i 

Division of Geology 83 

Division of Mineralogy 84 

Section of Invertebrate Paleontology 86 

Section of Vertebrate Paleontology 86 

Section of Paleobotany 86 

Routine 86 

Exchanges and loans 88 

Present condition of collections 88 

Research 89 

APPENDICES. 

L The Museum staff 93 

IL List of accepsions 95 

IIL Bibliography 143 

PART II. 
Papers Descriptive ok Muskum Buildings. 

The United States National Museum: An account of the buildingfl occupied by 

the national collections. By Richard Rathbun 177 

Studies of the museums and kindre<l institutions of New York City, Albany, 
Buffalo, and Chicago, with notes on some European institutions. By A. H. 

Meyer 311 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 



t 



The United Stater National Museum: An Accx)unt of the Buildings Oocupibd 

BY THE National Collectionb. 

Bv Richard Rathbun. 

Facing page. 

1 . North front of the Smithsonian Institution building 177 

2. Plan of the Smithsonian park, showing location of the present buildings, 

and site of the new Museum building 186 

3. The Smithsonian Institution building, viewed from the northwest 195 

4. Original ground plans, Smithsonian Institution building 201 

5. Main or north entrance of the Smithsonian Institution building 207 

6. liower main hall, Smithsonian Institution building 219 

7. (ialleries in lower main hall, Smithsonian Institution building 221 

H. West range, Smithsonian Institution building 225 

9. West hall, Smithsonian Institution building 229 

10. Print room, Smithsonian Institution 233 

1 1 . Main upper hall, Smithsonian Institution building 235 

12. North front, National Museum building 239 

13. North front. National Museum building 241 

14. Rotunda, National Museum building 243 

15. North hall, National Museum building 245 

16. South hall, National Museum building 247 

17. West hall, National Museum building 249 

18. Northeast court, National Museum bui hling 263 

19. West-south range, National Museum building 257 

20. I..etrture hall. National Museum building 259 

21. Tentative Hoor plan, **A," for the new building for the National Museum. 289 

22. Tentative floor plan, "B," for the new building for the National Museum. 291 

23. Floor plan of the new building for the National Museum 297 

24. Plan of basements. National Museum building 309 

25. Plan of main floor. National Museum building 309 

26. Plan of gallery and second floor. National Museum building 309 

27. Plan of third floor, National Museum building 309 

28. Plan of l)aj«ement and flrst floor, SniitliHonian Institution building 1^09 

29. Plan of second and third floors, Smithsonian Institution building 309 

21 



XII LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Stitdies of the Museums and Kindred Institutions op New York City, Albany, 
buffau), and cuicago, with notes on some european institutions. 

By A. B. Meyek. 

Pacini^ page. 

1. American Museum of Natural History. General view of the cx>mplet«(l 

building as planned 328 

2. American Museum of Natural History. Hall of Mexican antiquities 336 

3. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Stnences. General view of the projecteil 

museum building 338 

4. Metro(K>litan Museum of Art 346 

5. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Middle hall 349 

6. New York Public Library. Sketch of building in course of erection 351 

7. Columbia University, New York City. Library building 369 

8. New York Clearmg House, New York City 384 

9. University Club House, New York City 385 

10. State Capitol at Albany. East front 392 

11. State Capitol at Albany. West staircase 396 

12. State Capitol at Albany. Home education department, with traveling 

pictures 400 

13. Buffalo Public Library 404 

14. Buffalo Public Library. A corner in Children's Room 408 

15. Field Columbian Museum. South front 410 

16. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Completed portion 430 

17. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Main floor 433 

18. Chicago Histori(»al Society t 440 

19. Art Institute of Chicago 442 

20. Original building of the Art Institute of Chicago. ( Now the Chi(«goClub) . 444 

21. Art Institute of Chicago. Hall ofSculpture 446 

22. Art Institute of Chi(^o. Picture Gallery on first floor 448 

23. Art Institute of Chicago. Exhibit of jade objects 450 

24. John Crerar Library, Chicago, Illinois 452 

25. John Crerar Library. Reading room 454 

26. John Crerar Library. Book stacks 456 

27. Newberry Library, Chic^o, Illinois 459 

28. Chicago Public Library 473 

29. Chicago Public Library. A portion of the stairway 474 

30. Chicago Public Library. Delivery room 478 

31. Chicago Public Library. Large reading room 478 

32. University of Chicago. General view of the University buildings, look- 

ing from the Midway Plaisance 491 

33. Museum of Natural History (part of British Museum), Kensington, 

London 522 

34. Museum of Natural History, Kensington, London. Entrance hall 524 

35. Royal College of Surgeons, London. Hall of comi>arative anatomy 528 

36. Municipal Technical School, Manchester, England 545 

37. John Ry lands Library, Manchester, England 548 

38. University of Minburgh. Old University 554 

39. C<>riH>nition Museums and Art Galleries, Glasgow, Si-otland 562 

40. Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts 594 



* • 



LT8T OF ILLHSTBATIONS. XIII 

TEXT FIGURES. 



Studies of the Museums and Kindred Institutions of New York City, Albany, 
Buffalo, and Chicago, with Notes on some European Institutions. 

By A. B. Meyer. 

Page. 

I . American Museum of Natural History. South front 330 

'2. American Museum of Natural History. Ground plan 332 

3. American Museum of Natural History. Section through the middle axis. 334 

4. American Museum of Natural History. Cross section through the oldest 

wing :I35 

5. American Museum of Natural History. Floor plan of the Mexican hall.. 335 

6. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. A comer in the room devoted 

to Botany MO 

7. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Plan of first floor of the projected 

building 341 

8. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Finisheii portion of the museum 

(1897) 342 

9. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Picture gallery 344 

10. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Plan of first floor ^ 347 

11. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Plan of second floor 348 

12. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sketch of completed building as planned . 349 

13. New York Public Library. Plan of basement 352 

14. New York Public Library. Plan of first floor 353 

15. New York Public Library. Plan of second floor^ 354 

16. New York Public Librarj'. Plan of third floor 356 

17. Columbia University. General plan of university buildings 359 

18. Columbia University. Plan of first floor of library 369 

19. Columbia University. Seminar rooms on third floor of library 370 

20. Columbia University. Ground plan of seminar rooms shown in fig. 19. . . 372 
2L Fire-proof policy room of the New York Life Insurance Coin[)any 380 

22. Another portion of the room shown in fig. 21 ,'i81 

23. Ground plan of the room shown in figs. 21 , 22 382 

24. Docimient case, with double-roller curtain 382 

25. Case for folio volumes, with roller curtain and books on rollers 38i^ 

26. Long, low case, or desk top, with marble lyase. 0{>ening behind 384 

27. Ceiling and floor constniction 386 

28. Prismatic, ribbed-glass unit of the American Luxfer Prism Company 388 

29. Single prism, as made by the American Luxfer Prism Company 388 

30. Course of ray of light through a parallel glass 389 

31 . Course of ray of light through a prism 389 

32. Field Columbian Museum. Plan of ground floor 412 

33. Field Columbian Museum. Plan of gallery 413 

34. Field Columbian Museum. Case with movable partition 421 

.'V>. Field Columbian Museum. Top and partition of case shown in fig. 34 422 

36. Field Columbian Museum. TyiM's of c«ses and racks 423 

37. Fiel<l Columbian Museum. Typen of cases and racks 424 

38. Field Columbian Museum. TyiK»s of cases and ra(;ks 425 

39. Field Columbian Museum. I lerbariuni c^m 426 

40. Chicago Academy of Scriences. Plan of second fioor 432 

41. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Plan of thinl or gallery floor (in partn) . . . 433 

42. Chi(;ago Academy of Sciences. Cross section along the line A B shown in 

fig. 41 4;w 

43. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Case showing fossils 437 



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

44. Art Institute of Chicago. Crofls section 444 

45. Art Institate of Chicago. Firet-floor plan 445 

46. Art Institate of Chicago. »Second-floor plan 446 

47. Newberry Library. Principal entrance 461 

48. Newberry Library. Plan of basement 462 

49. Newberry Library. Plan of first floor 462 

60. Newberry Library. Plan of second floor 463 

61. Newberry Library. Plan of third floor 463 

62. Newberry Library. Plan of fourth floor 464 

63. Newberry Library. Catalogue case 468 

64. Newberry Library. Catalogue in book fomi ( Rudolph index book) 470 

56. Chicago Public Library. Plan of first floor 475 

66. Chicago Public Library. Plan of second floor 475 

67. Chicago Public Library. Plan of third floor 476 

68. Fisher Building, Chicago, northeast comer of Van Buren and Dearborn 

streets : 480 

69. Chicago Public Library. Steel construction between the floors 481 

60. Chicago Public Library. A fireproof vault : 482 

6L Plan of ventilating plant (Chicago Telephone Company) 484 

62. Plan of ventilating plant. (Chicago Telephone Company) 484 

63. Plan of ventilating plant. (Chicago Telephone Company ) 485 

64. Plan of ventilating pl^mt. (Chicago Telephone Company ) 485 

66. Chicago Public Library. Part of iron book stsuck 486 

66. Chicago Public Library. Series of book stacks 487 

67. Chicago Public Library. Closable alcove 488 

68. Chicago Public Library. Book racks for folios 489 

69. University of Chicago. Walker Museum 492 

70. University of Chicago. Haskell Oriental Museum 493 

71. University of Chicago. Kent Chemical Laboratory 494 

72. University of Chicago. Ryerson Physical Laboratory 495 

73. University of Chicago. Hull biological laboratories. (Physiological and 

anatomical) 496 

74. University of Chicago. Hull biological laboratories. (Zoological an<l 

botanical) 498 

75. University of Chicago. Hull Physiological I^aboratory 499 

76. University of Chicago. Yerkes Astronomical 01)servat<)ry 500 

77. University of Chicago. The great telescope at the Yerkes Observatory. . . 501 

78. University of Chicago. Cobb I^ecture Hall 50,S 

79. University of Chicago. Hitchcock Hall. Dormitory for male students. . 505 

80. University of Chicago. Dormitories for female students 505 

81. Museum of Natural History, London. Plan of ground floor 522 

82. Museum of Natural History, London. Plans of upi>er floors 523 

83. Museum of Natural History, London. Side gallery containing fossil rei>- 

tiles. Skeleton of an Iguanodon in the foreground 525 

84. University Museum, Oxford. Ethnographical section. (Pitt Rivers col- 

lection) 533 

85. University Museum, Oxford. (Pitt Rivers collection. ) A comer of upper 

gallery 5i^ 

86. Owens College, Manchester, England. Manchester Museum. First floor. 542 

87. Owens College, Manchester, England. Manchester Museum. 8ec<jnd 

floor and galleries 542 

88. Municipal Technical School, Manchester, England. Plan of first floor . . . 546 

89. John Ry lands Library, Manchester, England. Plan of second floor 550 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XV 

nivereity of Edinburgh. Part of new university 654 

niveraity of Edinburgh. Anatomical inuBeura 655 

.U8eum of Science and Art, Pklinburgh, Scotland. Plan of first floor 557 

iuseum of Sc*ience and Art, Edinburgh. West hall (engineering section) 558 

[useuin of Science and Art, Edinburgh. East hall (natural history) 558 

[useum of Strience and Art, PMinburgh. (art) 559 

[useum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, (art) 559 

ational Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, Scotland 561 

arporation Museums and Art (Galleries, Glasgow, Scotland. Plan of first 

floor 563 

orporation Museums and Art (Galleries, Glasgow, Scotland. Plan of 

second floor 564 

Corporation Museums and Art Galleries, (ilasgow, Scotland. Arrange- 
ment of heating and ventilating installation 566 

Corporation Museums and Art Galleries, Glasgow, Scotland. Arrange- 
ment of heating and ventilating installation 567 

Corporation Museums and Art Galleries, Glat^>w, Scotland. Arrange- 
ment of heating and ventilating installation 568 

City Technical School and Free Public Museums, Liverpool, England... 571 

Free Public Museums, Liverpool, England. Plan of lower fl(X)r 573 

Frve Public Museums, Liverpool, Epgland. Plan of upper floor 573 

Free I^iblic Museums, Liverpool. One of the longitudinal galleries of 

the upper floor in new building 574 

Free Public Museums, Liverpool. One of the longitudinal galleries of 

the lower floor in new building 575 

National Library of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland .w 578 

Science and Art Museums, Dublin, Ireland. Natural history building .. 579 
Nrience and Art Museums, Dublin, Ireland. Hall of the zoological 

<iepartment 580 

Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. Collation of comparative 

anatomy. First floor of the * ' ( Jaleries d' Anatomic * * 587 

Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. Collecticm of paleontology 

and anthri)pology. Second floor of the "(taleries d* Anatomic*' 588 

Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. Part of the anthropological 

collection. (jJaliery of secrmd fl<x>r of the 'HTaleries d'Anatomie" ...^ 589 

Library of Saint ( Jenevicve, Paris, France 594 

Royal Museum of Natural History, Brussels, Belgium. One of the long 

sides of the building 597 

Royal MuscMim of Natural History, Brussels, Belgium. Narrow side of 

Imilding, with entrance 598 

Etoyal Museum of Natural History, Brussels, Belgium. Large lower hall. 599 

Prr)vincial Museum, Hanover, (Tcrmany 604 

Provin<'ial Museum, Hanover, Geniianv. Plan of second storv H05 

Provincial Museum, Hanover, (Jermany. A room on the second story.. 606 



■ 



r»^KT I. 



REPORT UPON THE CONDITION AND PKOiJHESS OF THE 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM DURING THE YEAR 

ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 



BY 



RICHARD RATHBUN, 

ASSISTANT 8ISCRKTAKV OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITl'TION, 
IN CHARGE OF THE V. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



\ 



NAT MU8 1903 1 



} 



REPORT 

UPON 



THE CONDITION AND PROGRESS OF THE U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 



BY 



RiciiAKi) Ratiibux, 
AifjfiMfwt Secreiurtj of the Smiiliaonum InstUuliwij in rhartjeof the XL S. National Miiseuvu 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

The United States National Museum had its origin in the act of 
Congress of 1846 founding the Smithsonian Institution, which made 
the formation of a museum one of the principal functions of the 
latter, and provided that — 

Whenever suitable arrangements can be made from time to time for their recep- 
tion, all objects of art and of foreign and curious research, and all objects of natural 
history, plants, and geological and mineralogical specimens lielonging to the United 
States, which may be in the city of Washington, in whosesom'cr custody they may 
be, shall >>e delivered to such persons as may h% autliorized by the Board of Regents 
to receive them, and shall be so arranged and classified in the building erected for 
the Institution as best to facilitate the examination and study of them; and when- 
ever new specimens in natural history, geology, or mineralogy are obtained for the 
museum of the Institution, by exchanges of duplicate specimens, which the Regents 
may in their discretion make, or by <lonation, which they may receive, or otherwise, 
the Regents shall cause such new specimens to be appropriately classe<l and arranged. 

The principal and accumulated interest of the Smithsonian fund 
amounted at that time to about $750,000, a sum considered ample to 
meet the needs of the various operations in which it was proposed that 
the Smithsonian Institution should engage. In 1846 probably not 
more than one or two universities or learned establishments in Amer- 
ica had so large an endowment, and it was apparently the idea of 
CongrCvSs that the fund was sufficient l>oth for the erection of a build- 
ing and for the care of the collections which would be turned over 
to it or acquired by the national surveys, and in other ways. The 
Museum thus began as an integral part of the Institution, coordinate 
with its library, and was required bv law to provide for the Govern- 
ment collections which had previously accumulated, a duty which the 

3 



4 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Institution did not see its way clear to fultill until 1858, when Con- 
gress began to make small j^early appropriations to aid in this purpose. 
So inadequate, however, were the sums voted that for many years the 
slender income of the Institution continued to ]x> di-awn upon to insure 
the maintenance of what was then justly called the Smithsonian 
Museum, since the building was paid for out of the Smithson fund, a 
considerable portion of the collections was and still is the property of 
the Institution, through exploration and gift, and a number of the offi- 
cials connected with the Museum were employed at its expense. 

The first scientific collection to come into the possession of the Insti- 
tution — and, in fact, it accompanied the ]>equest — was the small but 
valuable mineralogical cabinet of James Smithson, the founder, who 
was himself a chemist and mineralogist of repute and a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of London. 

The nucleus of the National Museum was, however, virtually acciuired 
by the National Institute, a society organized in Washington about 
1840, having for its avowed purpose the direction of the Smitlison 
bequest and the pursuit of objects in consonance with the teniis of that 
foundation. One of these objects w^as the gathering of liistorical and 
natui*al history specimens from both oflicial and private sources, most 
prominent among the former having been the United States Exploring 
Expedition around the world from 1838 to 1842. Kooms in the Patent 
Office building were secured for the museum of the society, which was 
practically recognized as the appropriate place of deposit for all Gov- 
ernment collections retained in Washington. Another important serv- 
ice rendered by the society was, as the late Dr. G. Brown Goode has 
said, in the direction of educating public opinion "to consider the 
establishment of such an institution worthy of the Government of the 
United States." Failing, however, to secure the public recognition at 
which it aimed, it became inactive upon the establishment of the Smith- 
sonian Institution in 1846, and its charter, which expired in 1861, was 
not renewed. The Government collections in its possession, which 
came practically under the care of the Commissioner of Patents, were 
turned over to the Smithsonian Institution in 1858. Other material 
directly under the control of the National Institute remained at the 
Patent Office until 1862, and a part of the historical objects were held 
there until 1883. 

Previous to 1858, however, important materials for a museum were 
being accumulated at the Smithsonian Institution, at it^ own cost and 
through the activities of its assistant secretary. Prof. Spencer F. 
Baird, beginning even before his appointment to that office in 1850. 
The personal bent of Professor Baird was toward the collection of 
natural history specimens for purposes of study. With the approval 
of Secretary Henry he put into opei'ation plans foi- the accomplish- 
ment of this object, which, fostered and encoumged, were soon yield- 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 5 

ing regular and abundant returns. Professor Baird's own vacations 
were spent in field work. Officers of the Army and Navy and of other 
branches of the Government service, fishermen, fur ti-aders, private 
explorers, and such powerful organizations as the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany and the Western Union Telegraph Company, were enlisted in 
the work and rendered valuable assistance. The influence exerted by 
these beginnings hiis been lasting and widespread, as shown in the 
extensive natural history operations of subsequent National and State 
surveys, the organization of the Fish Commission and Bureau of Eth- 
nology, and the support given to scientific collecting by many other 
bureaus of the Government. 

The discussion of plans for the organization of the Smithsonian 
Institution, which devolved upon the first Board of Regents, led, in 
January, 1847, to the unanimous adoption of the following resolution 
expressing approval of the museum feature as one of its important 
functions: 

Remlved, That it is the intention of the act of Congress establishing the Institution, 
and in accordance with the design of Mr. Rmithson, as expressed in his will, that 
one of the principal modes of executing the act and the trust is the accumulation of 
colleirtions of specimens and objects of natural history and of elegant art, and the 
gradual formation of a library of valuable works pertaining to all departments of 
human knowledge, to the end that a cx)pious storehouse of materials of science, 
liu*rature, and art may l)e provided, which shall excite and diffuse the love of learn- 
ing among men, and shall assist the original investigations and efforts of those who 
may devote themselves to the pursuit of any branch of knowledge. « 

The policy thus announced has prevailed to the present day. 

In 1879, when most of the existing Government surveys, whose 
work included the collecting of specimens in the field, had been estab- 
lished, Congress deemed it important to pmctically reenforce the pro- 
visions of the act founding the Institution, in order that there might 
be no doubt as to the proper disposition of the material certain to be 
derived from thase various sources, by the following enactment in the 
sundry civil appropriation act for 1880: 

All collections of rocks, minerals, soils, fossils, and objects of natural history, 
archeology, and ethnology, made by the Coast and Interior Sur\'ey, the (feological 
Sorvey, or by any other parties for the Government of the United States, when no 
longer needed for investigations in progress shall l>e deposited in the National 
Masenm. 

Although the name ''National Museum" was sometimes used in the 
earlier reports of the Smithsonian Institution, it did not appear in any 
of the laws of Congress until 1875. Its general employment may be 
said to date from the time of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition 
of 1876, the first exposition in this country in which the Government 
participated, and the first to make known to vast numbers of the 

people of the United States the existence of national collections at 

" • _ _ — - -- - 

^ Report of Committee on Organization, p. 20. 



6 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Washington, as well as new methods of installing and exhibiting 
niuseinn materials, differing radically from the older cabinets of col- 
lege or local nmsemns, which had prevailed up to that period. After 
its close the Government exhibits brought back to Washington, 
together with the extensive gifts made to the United States by private 
persons and foreign governments, rendered necessary the early erec- 
tion of a new and separate building, devoted entirely to museum 
purposes. Since that time Congress has mainly provided for the 
maintenance of the Museum, but its management remains, by the 
fundamental act, under the authority of the Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, administered through their Secretar\ , w ho is ax ojfficlo 
the keeper — a form of government insuring a consistent and uniform 
policy and a nonpartisan administration of its affairs. The* greater 
part of the Smithsonian building is still used for museum pui*poses, 
and the Institution, as well as most of the scientific bureaus at Wash- 
ington, cooperate, both through men and material, in enlarging and 
caring for the national collections. 

The scope of the National Museum as defined by law comprises 
practically all branches of science and of the arts which admit of 
museum treatment. With exceedingly limited means for making pur- 
chases, and therefore almost entirely dc^pendent as to the character 
of its collections upon Oovernment explorations, personal donations, 
and exchanges, its different departments have had a very unequal 
growth. The subjects best represented are American ethnolog}- and 
archeology, geology, zoology, and l)otany. A fair begiiming has l>een 
made in the exceedingly important branches of the industrial arts 
and American history, and scarcely more is required to place these 
two departments on a proper basis than sufiicient room to display 
the necessary collections, which are certain to be rec^eived, in greater 
part through gratuitous contributions, when it is known that the 
Museum is prepared to care for them. In the department of the fine 
arts the collection is still very small, but the subject is one which 
must sooner or later receive earnest consideration by the (foveriunent. 

The specimens in all branches are classified in two serit\s; one, com- 
prising the bulk of the material, being arranged for the purposes of 
scientific research and reference in laboratories and storerooms, to 
which students are freeh' admitted; the other, selected with regjird to 
their general educational value and public interest, and accompanied 
by descriptive labels, ]>eing displayed in glass-covered cases in the 
public halls. The duplicate specimens not required for exchanges 
are made up into sets for distribution to schools and colleges, as 
opportunity offers. Papers descriptive of the collections, both tech- 
nical and popular, are published for gratuitous circulation to the 
extent of three or more volumes vearlv, and, finallv, the Museum 
has come to be regarded as a bure^iu of information in respect to all 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 7 

.subjects with which it is even in the remotest degree concerned, the 
correspondence which this involves now constituting one of its heaviest 
tasks. 

The history of the Museum, as pointed out by the late Dr. Goode, 
may be divided into three epochs, which he characterized as follows: 

Firnt, the j)eri(Kl from the foundation of the Smithsonian Institution to 1857, dur- 
ing which time Hj)e<!imen8 were collected solely to serve as materials for research. 
No sjiecrial effort was made to exhibit them to the public or to utilize them, except 
aH a foundation for scientific description and theory. 

Second, the perioil from 1857, when the Institution assumed the custody of the 
•'National Cabinet of Curiosities," to 1876. During this period the Museum l)ecame 
a place of deposit for scientific collections which had already been studied, these col- 
lections, so far as convenient, Xmng exhibited to the public and, so far as practicable, 
made to serve an educational purpose. 

Third, the present period (!)eginning in tlie year 1876), in which the Museum has 
undertaken more fully the additional task of gathering collections and exhibiting 
them on account of their value from an educational stand]X)int. 

During the first perio<l the main object of the Museum was scientific research; in 
the second, the establishment lx*c«me a museum of record as well as of research, 
while in the third period has been added the idea of jmblic education. The three 
ideas — reconl, research, and education — cooperative and mutually helpful as they 
are, are essential to the development of every great nmseum. The National Museum 
endeavors to promote them all. 

In the same connection, Dr. Goode also defined the scope and objects 
of the Museum in the following concise manner: 

It is a museum of record, in which an? preserved the material foundations of an 
enormous amount of scnentitit; knowledge — the tyjxjs of numerous past investigations. 
This is especially the case with those Tiiaterials that have starved as a foundation for 
the reports upon the resources of the United States. 

It is a museum of researt^h, which aims to make its contents serve in the highest 
degree as a stimulus to inquiry and a foundation for scientific investigation. Research 
is necessary in order to identify and group the objects in the most ])hilosophi(»al and 
ingtmctive relations, and its officers are therefore selecteil for their ability an investi- 
gators, as well as for their trustworthiness as custodians. 

It is an educational museum, through its policy of illustrating by specimens ever^' 
kind of natural object and every manifestation of human thought and activity, of 
displaying descriptive lalxjls adapted to the popular mind, and of distributing its 
publications and its named series of <luplicates. 

AS A MUSEUM OF RE(X)RD. 

In its function as a museum of record the growth of the National 
Museum has been unprecedented, due mainly to the rapid exploration 
and development of a rich and extensive country under the liberal 
and progressive policy of the Government. From scientific institu- 
tions throughout the world, from foreign governments, and from indi- 
viduals abundant stores of great value have been received, either as 
gifts or through the medium of exchange of specimens, and a small 
appropriation in recent years has permitted of some purchases to 
supply desiderata. 



8 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The principal sources of the collections may be briefly suninmrized 
as follows: 

1. The explorations carried on more or less directly under the 
auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, or })y the Institution in con- 
nection with educational institutions or commercial establishments 
and the efforts, since 1850, of its officers and correspondents toward 
the accumulation of natural histor}' and anthropological material. 

2. The United States Exploring Expedition around the world from 
1838 to 1842, the North Paciiic, or Perry, Exploring Expedition from 
1853 to 1856, and many subsequ(»nt naval expeditions down to and 
including the recent operations in the West Indian and Philippine 
waters. 

3. The activities of members of the United States diplomatic and 
consular service abroad. 

4. The Government surveys at home, such as the Paciiic Railroad 
surveys, the Mexican and Canadian boundary- surveys, and tlic surveys 
carried on by the Engineer Corps of the U. S. Army; and the activi- 
ties of officers of the Signal Corps, and other branches of the Anny 
stationed in remote regions. 

5. The explorations of the U. S. Geological Survey, the l^ S. Fish 
Commission, the Department of Agriculture, the Ikireau of Americjui 
Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, and other scientitic branches 
of the Government. 

6. Donations and purchases in connet^tion with the several exposi- 
tions at homo and abroad in which the Museum and Fish Commission 
have participated, among these having been the Centennial Exhibition 
at Philadelphia in 1876, the International Fisheries ^Exhibitions at Berlin 
in 1880 and at London in 1883, the New Orleans Cotton Centeimial 
Exposition in 1884 and 1885, the Cincinnati Exposition of 1888, the 
World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, and the expositions 
at Atlanta in 1895, at Nashville in 1897, at Onmha in 1898, and at 
the Pan-American Exposition of 1901. The returns from the World's 
Fair in Philadelphia were of greatest extent, comprising, besides the 
collections displayed by the United States in illustration of the animal 
and mineral resources, the fisheries, and the ethnology of the native 
races of the country, valuable gifts from thirty of the foreign gov- 
ernments which participated, as well as the industrial collections of 
numerous manufacturing and commercial houses of Europe and 
America. 

7. Exchanges with foreign and domestic museums and with indi- 
viduals. 

Immediately preceding the Centennial ICxhibition of 1870, when the 
collections were entirely provided for in the Smithsonian building, 
the number of entries of specimens in the Museum record books was 
about 235,000. In 1884, when the additional room afforded by the new 
building gave opportunity for taking a provisional census of the large 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 9 

cce88ions received from Philadelphia and from other sources, the 
umber had grown to 1,471,000. At the close of the year covered by 
bis report the total number of recorded specimens was 5,654,864. 

While these figures convey no impression of the bulk of the collec- 
ions, when it is considered that by 1885 all of the space in both build- 
ngs was completely filled, and in fact so overcrowded that a third 
»uilding was already being asked of Congress, some conception may 
►e had of the conditions now existing. The storerooms arc packed to 
heir utmost capacity, making it difficult to gain access to the speci- 
aens or to provide adequately' for their safety. For man}^ years most 
•f the objects received have had to be stored in outside and unsafe 
tructures, where they are mainly piled up in the original packing 
oxes, and where has already accumulated enough material of great 
ntrinsic and scientific value to fill an additional building as large as 
hat now occupied by the main collections. 

AS A MUSEUM OF RESEARCH. 

In order to permit of their examination and study, as provided in 
he act of establishment, the collections of tlie Museum are, to the 
xtent of its accommodations, arranged systematical!}' and in a manner 
onvenient for reference. Access to the reserve or study series, so 
ailed, consisting of the main bod}' of the collections and as complete 
1 all the groups as the accessions have made possible, is given to all 
•roperly qualified persons engaged in original research. The oppor- 
unities thus afforded are widely availed of, the Museum being visited 
very year by many investigators, some of world-wide distinction, 
oming from the scientific centers of European and other foreign 
ountries, as well as from all parts of the United States. Material is 
Iso occasionally sent out to representatives of other institutions 
aving the means of providing for its safe-keeping, when required in 
he working up of special subjects, or for comparison in connection 
^ith their own collections. 

The custodianship of the collections being the first and most impera- 
ive duty devolving upon the scientific staff of the National Museum, 
ts members find comparatively little time during office hours for 
dvancing knowledge, though they are mostly well qualified for such 
rork, being selected with special reference to their ability to identify 
nd classify the specimens under their charge in accordance with the 
itest researches. As a matter of fact, however, the staff does pro- 
uce every year a large number of papers descriptive of the coUec- 
ions, which together constitute an important contribution to scientific 
iterature. 

Among the honorary officers having their laboratories at the Museum 
re a number of assistants employed by other scientific bureaus to con- 
uct investigations on material kept here in their charge, and in whose 
esolts the Museum shares. 



10 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Many collections have, from time to time, })een ti'ansferred b>' the 
Geological Survey, the Fish Commission, the Department of Agricul- 
ture, and other branches of the Government to the custody of the 
Museum in advance of their tinal working up, in order to provide for 
their safe storage and to secure the better facilities for study here 
afforded. Under this arningement the amount of research work car- 
ried on in the Museum l)uilding has been greatly increased. 

Though having little means to expend for field work, members of 
the Museum staff are occasionally giv^en opportunities to participate 
in the explorations of other Government Imreaus or of private expedi- 
tions, in connection with which special researches may be carried on, 
though th(^ chief advantage results from the ac(|uisition of new and 
valuable material and a knowledge of the conditions under which it 
occurred in nature. 

AS AX EDUCATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The educational side of the Museum is intended to consist niainlv 
of an exhibition of all the classes of objects which it represents, so 
mounted, installed, and labeled as to directly interest and instruct the 
general public. The principal difficulty incident to the proper instal- 
lation of such a collection, conceding all the space required, lies in the 
selection of its parts, so that while enough is display ed to convey the 
amount of information which it is intended to impart, the visitor shall 
not be overburdened or confused with details. While this policy is 
being followed in the National Museum so far as its means permit, 
the lack of room has always prevented a complete or satisfactory 
development of the plan, and every succeeding year the conditions in 
this respect giow worse instead of better through the increasc^d crowd- 
ing of the halls. The advances in recent years have been chiefly in 
the methods of display, in the character of individual and group 
mountings, and in the labeling, in all of which directions exceptional 
progress has been made. 

Two years ago it was announced that all of the halls designed for 
public use were then for the first time permaiu^ntly open, though none 
were above addition or improvement^ while in some the arrangement 
was entirely provisional. This was only accomplished by the transfer 
of large quantities of material to outside storage, but during the past 
year it has unfortunately been again necessary to shut off one of the 
most attractive halls in order to furnish increas(^d space for work- 
rooms. 

In this connection it seems appropriate to refer to the work of 
Doctor Goode, than whom no museum administmtor ever had a better 
understanding of the public needs. He lal)ored earnestly and con- 
scientiously to make this a museum for as well as of the people, and 
the plans now being carried out are, in all their essential features, of 
his making. While the assistants might be relied upon to armnge and 



KEPOBT OF ASSISTANT SEORETABY. 11 

umiDtain the studj' series in a manner acceptable to the specialist, the 
interests of the public always remained in his immediate charge. He 
was ever occupied in devising ways for so presenting the features of 
nature and the activities of mankind that by the very force of his sur- 
roundings the visitor was bound to receive and carry with him some 
definite impressions, some new bit of knowledge. Doctor Goode's 
la})ors in this field ranged from the planning of the general scheme to 
the most minute details of case architecture and fittings. His official 
connection with nearly all the important expositions of the past quar- 
ter of a century and his exhaustive studies of all the principal museums 
of Europe and the United States gave him exceptional opportunities 
for observation and experiment. Though a young man when he died, 
none other had acquired so ripe an experience and none is more worthy 
of being followed. 

An incidental though very popular educational feature of the 
Museum, having for its purpose the promotion of scientific teaching 
throughout the country, has been the distribution to schools and col- 
leges of its duplicate specimens, properly identified and labeled, and 
put up in carefully selected sets. Inadequate means have prevented 
this measure from being carried out on the scale which the resources 
of the Museum would admit of, but many hundreds of such sets have 
already been given away. 

Scarcely a year passes that some exposition, either at home or 
abroad, is not occupying the attention of the Museum, and through 
this means its existence and aims are brought constantly and promi- 
nently l)efore the public. These expositions have of late followed one 
another so closely and have required such extensiv^e preparations as 
to interfere greatly with the ordinary work of the Museum, but the 
practice of introducing new and varied features, of showing a fresh 
series of objects or improved groupings in connection with each one, 
insures a substantial gain, as the collections are returned to Washing- 
ton, besides fulfilling the im|X)rtant function of making museum 
methods known to the people of the United States and stimulating 
the growth of museums in many quarters. 

Though mainly technical and most useful to the investigator, the 
publications of the Museum can be classed, in a general way, as 
l)elonging to its educational side, being the medium through which 
the nature and extent of its collections are made known. The Annual 
Report, first printed as a separate volume of the Smithsonian Report 
in 1884, and now in its twentieth volume, consists, besides the admin- 
istrative part, mainly of semipopular papers on interesting portions of 
the collections. The Proceedings and Bulletins are almost exclusively 
technical, the shorter papers being assigned to the former and the 
larger and more exhaustive works to the latter. Of the Proceedings 
twenty-four complete volumes have been issued, and of the Bulletloa 
fifty-two numbers. 



12 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

AN AODITIONAI. MUSEUM liUII.OING. 

For over two decudcs a f(^w paragraphs in this report have been 
atinuall}^ devotod to an account of the crowded and unsafe condition 
of the national collections, and the consequent impossibility of further 
complying with the law for their proper classification, arrangement, and 
care. Fortunately these conditions are soon to be remedied through 
the erection of an additional building, having a capacity far exceeding 
that of the existing structures combined, with exhibition halls to the 
extent of nearly 5 acres, and facilities for all kinds of nmseum work. 

In the last report it was announced that Congress had authorized 
the preparation of plans for this new building, which was to l>e con- 
structed of brick and terra cotta at a limit of cost of $1,500,(X)0, and 
to occupy a site on the north side of the Mall opposite the Smith- 
sonian Institution. Such a building, though large enough to relieve 
the immediate demands for additional space, would provide very 
inadequately for the growth of the collections, and the mat<5rial named 
for the fronts was not considered entirelv suitable for a structure of 
the character proposed. Nearly a year was occupied in examining 
into the requirements of the collections and in studying the principal 
features of other museums. During the winter of 11)02-3, a series 
of tentative plans was prepared, and accompanied })v a supplementary 
report liy the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution was submitted 
to a special committee consisting of the Congressional Ilegents, "to 
represent to Congress the pressing needs of additional room for the 
proper exhi})ition of specimens belonging to the National Museum.'' 
On January 23, 1903, the same papei*s were tmnsmitted to Congress 
and printed as Document 314 of the House of Representatives. 

The plans provided for a large rectangular building, four stories 
high including the basement, which was to be in all essential features 
the equivalent of a story, well lighted and entirely serviceable for 
museum purposes. The cost of the whole building, constructed of 
brick and term cotta, was estimated at $3,000,000, but one-half of the 
structure, in symmetrical form, could be built for §1,500,000, thus 
meeting the requirements of the act of 1902. The special committee 
of the Regents al)ove mentioned adopted the report of the Secretary, 
though urging the larger building, in the following resolution: 

That under the limitations of the law the committee hereby report to Congress Plan 
B for a new National Museum building as the best obtainable for the amount men- 
tione<l; but, in the judj^ment of the committee, the lai^r plan, A, is l)elieviKl to Ik? 
the one which should l)e adopted, and we therefore ask that Congress shall make 
the appropriation for it instead of for the smaller plan. 

Hearings followed before the Committees on Appropriations of 
both the House and Senate, and a plea was made for the use of granite 
instead of brick and terra cotta. The House took no action, but a bill 



REPOBT OF ASSISTANT SECBETABY. 13 

for the erection of the entire building in granite, at a limiting cost of 
$3,500,000, was adopted by the Senate, and the measure in this shape 
was finally agreed to in conference between the committees of the two 
Houses. The bill as passed, being an item in the sundry civil act for 
1904, was as fellows: 

Building for National Museum: To enable the Regents of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion to commence the erection of a suitable fireproof building with granite fronts, for 
the use of the National Museum, to be erected on the north side of the Mall, Iwtween 
Ninth and Twelfth streets, northwest, substantially in accordance with the Plan A, 
prepared and submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
under the provisions of the act approved June twenty-eighth, nineteen hundred and 
tw^o, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Said building complete, including 
heating and ventilating apparatus and elevators, shall cost not to exceed three mil- 
lion five hundred thousand dollars, and a contract or contracts for its completion is 
hereby authorized to be entered into subject to appropriations to be made by Con- 
gress. The construction shall be in charge of Bernard R. Green, Superintendent of 
Buildings and Grounds, Library of Congress, who shall make the contracts herein 
authorized and disburse all appropriations made for the work, and shall receive as 
full compensation for his services hereunder the sum of two thousand dollars annually 
in addition to his present salary, to be paid out of said appropriations. 

At a meeting of the lioard of Regents held on March 12, 11)03, a 
committee to represent the Board in connection with the work of con- 
struction was designated by resolution as follows: 

That the Secretary, with the advice and consent of the Chancellor and the chair- 
man of the executive committee, l>e authorized to represent the Board of Regents so 
far as may \)e necessary in consultation with Bernard R. Green, to whom the con- 
struction and contracts for the new Museum building are committed by Congress in 
the act making an appropriation for that purpose. 

Messrs. Hornblower & Marshall, of Washington, who made the ten- 
tative plans, were .selected as architects and before the close of the 
ii.scal year their part of the work was well under wa}' . It is expected 
that about four or five yeai's will be required for the construction of 
the building. 



SUMMARY OP THE OPERATIONS OF THE YEAR. 



APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES. 

The (Congressional appropriations for the nmintonanec of the National 
Museum during the fiscal year ending rlunc 30, 1908, amounted to 
$281,400, a decrease of $8,(H)<) as (compared with the previous year, the 
changes })eing as follows: The hill for 1902 contiiined three specific 
appropriations, one of ^5,000 for the construction of two gtdleries, one 
of $5,<M)0 for electrical installation, and one of $12,500 for new hoilers, 
while the appropriations for 1903 comprised a new item of $7,000 for 
preparing and printing the Contributions from the U. S. National 
Herbarium, heretofore pulilished by the Department of Agriculture, 
$5,000 for the preparation of plans for an additional Museum Imilding, 
and an increase of $2,500 in the appropriation for furniture and 
fixtures. 

The following tables show the expenditures during the year 1902-3 
under each item of the appropriations for the past two years: 

Apjrropriationjt mid exjyeiidiiures for the fiscal year endimj Juiie. 30y 190.i. 



Object. 



Prcfcn'atioii <»f rollection« 

Furniture and fixtures 

Heatinjir. lighting, and electrical Hcrvico 

Ropain to buildings, shope, and shedn 

B<M>k»i. pamphlets, and periodicals 

Purchaue of specimens 

Rent of workshops, etc 

I Vwtage 

Pnhlifihing Contributions, National Herbarium. 
PUns for additional building, National Museum 
Printing and binding 

Total 



Appn)pria- 

tiOHH. 


ExiK.'iidi- 
turcs. 


Hultince 

.hi no 30, 

1902. 


8180,000 


8170, 402. KO 


89, 597. 20 


22,500 


20,803.76 


1,696.24 


1H,000 


16,037.37 


1,962.63 


15,000 


13,471.03 


1,528.97 


2,000 


1,393.38 


606.62 


10,000 


5,999.81 


4,000.69 


4,400 


4,399.92 


.08 


500 


500.00 
3,027.49 




7,000 


3,972.51 


5,000 


1,956.80 


43.20 


17,000 


16,994.41 


5. 59 


281,400 


267,986.27 


23,418.73 



15 



16 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 19a3. 



Disbursementu from uiwxpcudid Uiluiweif of nppropriutioim fur the Jiscal year ending June 

30, 1902, 



Object. 



Balance 
I June SO, 
1902. 



Kxpendi- 
tures. 



Preservation of collections 8o, 709. 7K 

Furniture and flxturcH '2, 136. 15 

HeatiuK and lighting, etr 1, 560. 43 

Building repairs, etc 1 . 938. 30 

Galleries 37.92 

Bookft, pamphlets, and periodicals 1 , 112. 97 

Porchase of 8i)ecimenN 2. 471. 30 

Rent of workshops, etc .OK 



f5,550.62 
2.131.08 
1,558.83 
1.911.07 
3«>. 75 
944.70 
2,410.0-1 



Balance 

June 90, 

1903. 



1159.16 

5.07 

1.60 

27.23 

1.17 

198.27 

55.26 

.08 



Total 14, 996. %\ 



14,549.09 



447.84 



Disburseineiits from the appropriations for lUOO-1901 were made 
as follows: Preservation of collections, t>4:9.()l; books, pamphlets, and 
periodicals, $86.74, leaving balances of $24.88 and $5.40 respectively. 
These balances, together with the unexpended balances of the appro- 
priations for furniture and fixtures, heating and lighting, building 
repairs, purchase of specimens, and rent of workshops, amounting to 
174.41, have reverted to the surplus fund of the Treasur}'. 



Appropriatioiu( for the year endbiy June SO, 1U04. 

f*re8ervation of collections 

Furniture and fixtures 

Heating, lighting, and electrical service 

Purchase of specimens 

Books, ]>amphlets, and periodicals 

Repairs to buildings, shops, and sheds 

Rent of workshops and temporary storage (quarters 



Postage 

Additional building for National Museum 

Printing labels, blanks, and Bulletins and Proceedings, an<i for landing 
books for the Library 



$180,000 

22,500 

18,000 

10,000 

2,000 

15,000 

4,400 

500 

250,000 

17,000 



Total 519,400 

BUILDINGS. 

At its last session, ending March 4, 1903, Congress authorized, in 
the sundry civil act for 1003-4, the construction of an additional lire- 
proof building of granite for the Mational Museum, at a cost not to 
exceed $3,500,000, and appropriated $250,000 for the reciuirements of 
the first year. The preparation of the final plans was begun near 
the close of the fiscal year, and the work will be pushed as rapidly as 
possible. 

The roofs on the several sections of the Museum building have con- 
tinued to give trouble, as new leaks develop during every heavy rain 
and snow storm. This is more especially the case with the slate cov- 
erings over the main halls, but the tin roofs are also in bad condition 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 17 

id both demand constant attention and repair, at some expense, 
efore many years a new roof will become absolutely necessary, but 
1 the meantime it is proposed, should the regular appropriations suf- 
le for the purpose, to gradually replace the slate coverings with bet- 
T material, as only in this manner can the more pressing difficulties 
3 even temporarily overcome. 

The leaks which have occurred through many years, and the f re- 
aent repairs to walls and ceilings, had so defaced the interior of the 
reater part of the Museum building as to render it unsightly in the 
ctreme. At the beginning of the fiscal year it was decided to remedy 
lese conditions so far as possible by painting those parts of the build- 
\g which required it, in accordance with a simple but artistic scheme 
r color. The rotunda and main halls were first completed, and next 
iree of the courts, leaving only one of the latter to be done during 
le current yesir. The ranges do not call for any changes in this 
jspect at present. With this improvement the building has now 
jen placed in a far more presentable condition than ever before. 
Another improvement in the Museum building has been the arrange- 
ent of inner screen doors at the eastern or freight entrance, so as to 
ose off from the public or exhibition halls the vestibule in which 
ickages are received. Some of the rooms over this same entrance, 
5ed by th^ Division of Plants, have also been modified and enlarged. 
The archieological hall in the Smithsonian building has been closed 
► the public during nearly the entire year. In September, 1902, so 
any large pieces of plaster fell from the ceiling that its condition was 
jclared unsafe, and though all of the loose plaster was subsequently 
smoved, 3- et the appearance of the hall does not justify its reopening 
: present. It is expected, however, to make such temporar\^ repairs 
jfore the close of another year as will permit of its being again made 
;cessible. 

ADDITIONS TO THE C50LLECTION8. 

The number of accessions or separate lots of material received dur- 
ig the year was 1,643, being 234 more than in 1902. They comprised 
50ut 236,580 specimens of all kinds, bringing the total number of 
>ecimens in the several departments of the Museum up to about 
,654,864. There were also received for identification 886 lots of speci- 
lens, the most of which were returned to the senders with the infor- 
lation requested. 

The most constant and important sources of material are the national 
irveys and explorations, whose collections are, by law, transferred 
) the custody of the Museum as soon as the necessary studies upon 
lem have been completed. The bureaus which figure most promi- 
ently in this work are the Geological Survey, the Fish Commission, 
16 Biological Survey, and the Divisions of Insects and Plants of the 

NAT MU8 1903 2 



18 REPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 19a*J. 

Department of Agriculture, and the Bureau of American Ethnology of 
the Smithsonian Institution, though valuable contributions are occa- 
sionally obtained from other branches of the Government service, and 
oflScers of the Army and Navy stationed in the new possessions have, 
in their individual capacity, been rendering nnich assistance. A very 
large share of the additions to the collections is, however, received 
from private individuals and establishments through donation and 
exchange, and the exhibition series derives many of its attractive 
features from loans or deposits. Field collecting by members of the 
Museum staff is almost prohibited by the lack of funds, and the acqui- 
sition of specimens by purchase is seriously restricted because of the 
small amount appropriated for that purpose. 

A complete list of the accessions for the year is given in Appendix 
II, and the important ones are described in the reports of the head 
curators. Only some of the more noteworthy ones will, therefore, be 
referred to in this connection. 

The total number of specimens added in the Department of Anthro- 
pology was 24,311), of which 16,181 specimens belonged in the Division 
of Prehistoric Archeology, 4,547 in Ethnology, and 1,502 each in 
History and the Graphic Art«. One of the most valuable acquisitions 
consisted of material recently collected by Dr. W. L. Abbott in 
Sumatra and the Stmits Settlements, and illustrated the native arts 
and industries of a region but poorly represented in American museums. 
The many objects, numbering over 1,500, secured in the Philippine 
Islands by the late Col. F. F. Hilder, of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, for the Government exhibit at the Pan-American Exposi- 
tion, have been turned ovxr to the Museum bv the Government Board. 
This collection is of especial interest in that it furnishes much author- 
itative information regarding the life and customs of the natives of 
the largest of our new possessions. Dr. Frank Russell, formerly of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology, secured important material from 
the Pima Indians of southern Arizona, which, together with many 
ethnologiail objects from other sources, have been transferred by the 
Bureau to the custodv of the Museum. Several collections made bv 
Lieut. G. T. Emmons, of the United States Navy, illustrating the arts 
of the Chilcat and other Alaskan tribes, have also been acijuired. 

An extremely noteworthy collection deposited in the Museum by 
Mr. S. S. Rowland, of Washington, D. C, consists of ol)jects repre- 
senting Buddhist religious art, such as bronze and woixlen images of 
Buddha and Buddhist saints, shrines, temple lamps, and sacred writ- 
ings on palm leav^es, and also of several oriental maiuiscripts in 
Hebrew, Arabic, and other languages. Miss Eliza R. Scidmore, of 
Washington, also deposited a number of examples of Buddhist and 
Hindu religious art. Twenty-eight Jewish ceremonial objects from 
North Afric4i were obtained from Mr. Ephraim Deinard, of Kearney, 
New Jersey, one of the most interesting pieces being an ark of carved 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 19 

wood, containing a parchment scroll of the Pentateuch. The Egyp- 
tian exploration fund has presented some valuable Greeco-Egyptian 
papyri. 

Among the accessions in the Division of Prehistoric Archeology 
i¥ere a collection of implements and other objects obtained by Mr. 
W. H. Holmes from near Kimmswick, Missouri, with the assistance 
3f Mr. Gerard Fowke, who also transmitted a number of hammer- 
atones, flint nodules, and other objects from ancient quarries near 
Darter, Kentucky, and a series of implements and specimens of ore, 
nrhich had been mined for use as paint, from aboriginal mines at 
Leslie, Missouri, collected by Mr. Holmes. About 3,000 specimens of 
)tone implements, gathered by the late Mr. Frank Hamilton Gushing, 
including spearheads, arrowpoints, harpoons, and tools of various 
kinds, and a very important collection made by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes 
in Porto Rico and Santo -Domingo were received from the Bureau of 
A^merican Ethnology. The material from Santo Domingo comprises 
nany types new to the Museum, while that from Porto Rico contains 
jeveral stone rings or collars, sculptured pillow stones, the remains of 
luman skeletons, and various other objects. 

A collection of stone implements of various types, pottery, bowls, 
rases, etc., chiefly from the Mississippi Valley and the Pueblo region, 
^as obtained from Mr. E. O. Matthews, of Parral, Mexico, and many 
)bjects illustrative of the stone age in Uruguay were received in 
exchange from the Museo Nacional at Montevideo, through the cour- 
tesy of Senor Luis A. de Herrera, secretary of the Uruguayan lega- 
:ion at Washington. Mr. H. W. Seton-Karr, of London, England, 
presented a series of paleolithic quartzite implements selected from a 
x)llection made by him in the Lateritic deposits near Madras, India. 

A series of models of United States war vessels, including gunboats, 
nonitors, protected cruisers, and rams, deposited in the Museum by 
:he Navy Department, forms a very attractive exhibit, being of espe- 
cial interest to the public. The War Department has also deposited a 
arge number of models of heavy seacoast cannon, mountain howitzers, 
md other types of ordnance formerly used by the Army, and examples 
)f small arms. 

Many relics of General and Mrs. U. S. Grant, of great intrinsic as 
veil as historic value, have been presented to the Museum l)y their 
children, through Brig. Gen. Frederick D. Grant, U. S. Army. 
rhey include clothing worn by General (irant during the civil war, 
commissions to different ranks in the Army, a cabinet present to Mrs. 
>rant by the Empress of Japan, said to be one thousand years old 
ind valued at $20,000; several Japanese vases presented by the 
Emperor of Japan, a lady's toilet set in gold from the King and Queen 
)f Siam, and numerous other objects. 

Eight hundred and thirty-seven gold, silver, and copper coins were 
lonated to the Museum by Mr. E. M. Chapman, of New York Clt^, 



20 BEPOKT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Casts of the Neanderthal and Prague ancient crania were purchased 
for the newl}' established Division of Physical Anthropology, which 
has also secured five valuable head-hunter's skulls from New Guinea, 
and a large series of crania and parts of human skeletons from the 
Army Medical Museum, the U. S. Fish Commission, and other sources. 

The Department of Biology received about 110,000 specimens, of 
which approximately one- third were botanical. In zoology the Division 
of Insects led with 37,684 specimens, followed by marine invertobratos 
with 12,471 si^ecimens, mammals with 7,435 specimens, mollusks with 
6,332 specimens, and birds with 3,800 specimens. 

The zoological specimens contributed by Dr. W. L. Abbott con- 
sisted of a large number of deer, squirrels, porcupines, and a new 
ape, collected in Sumatra and on the adjacent islands, and in the Riou 
Linga Archipelago, south of Singapore. Many of the species are new 
to science. The donations made by Doctor Ablwtt, as the result of his 
recent extensive explorations in the East Indies, now comprise about 
2,500 mammals and nearly 4,000 birds, besides several thousand speci- 
mens in other branches of natural history. 

Large collections of bird skins and eggs, fishes, corals, mollusks, 
crustaceans, and other marine invertebrates, obtained during the 
expedition of the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Alhatrosfi to the 
Hawaiian Islands and to Samoa, have been transmitted to the Museum 
and will be referi'ed to more in detail in the next re|X)rt. They 
include interesting series of the birds of the Laysan Islands. 

Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, presented a quantity of mammals 
from the Yellowstone National Park and from Fort Snelling, Minne- 
sota, and the Hon. B. S. Kairden, United States consul at Batavia, 
two undescribed species of Tragulus from Java. An important collec- 
tion of bats was obtained from Mr. William Foster, of Sapuca3\ 
Paraguay; and one of bats and rodents from Mr. T. Tsuchida, of 
Misaki, Japan. A valuable skeleton of the porpoise, Pseudorca 
crassidens^ from the Hawaiian Islands, the first re|K>rted from that 
region, was contributed by Prof. C. H. (xilbert, of the Leland Stan- 
ford Junior University. 

Several rare birds of paradise and other valualilc specimens, includ- 
ing a pair of flightless cormorants, from the Galapagos Islands, were 
received from Mr. A. Boucard, Isle of Wight, England, and a Javan 
jungle fowl, a black- winged peacock, and other birds from Mr. Homer 
Davenport, Morris Plains, New Jersey. The Bishop Museum, of 
Honolulu, presented about 40 bird skins, including several species not 
previousl}^ represented in the Museum collection, and 295 interesting 
specimens from Chiriqui, Costa Rica, including a number of cotypes, 
and 52 bird skins from Ilonduitis were obtiined from Mr. Outmm 
Bjuigs, of Boston, partly as a gift and partly in exchange. The most 
im|X)rtant accession to the Oological collection was a fossil e^^yr of 
Aepyomis Qiiaximu^ from Madagascar. Valuable birds' eggs from 



ftEK>&t OB* ASSISTAKT SECRETARY. 21 

Australia, South America, and other countrievS were also received from 
different sources. 

Reptiles from southern Florida were contributed by Mr. E. J. 
Brown, of Lemon City, and a fine series of salamanders was presented 
by Messrs. Brimley Brothers, of Raleigh, North Carolina. From 
Prof. P. Biolley, of the National Museum of San Jose, Costa Rica, 
there were obtained several very interesting specimens, including a 
new gecko, described by Doctor Stejneger as Sphserodactylus pacificus. 
Eighteen snakes from the island of Cyprus were purchased from 
Giacomo Cecconi, of Florence, Italy, and 29 snakes from Jamaica and 
Michigan were donated by Prof. H. L. Clark, of Olivet College, 
Michigan. 

The accessions to the collection of fishes were numerous and impor- 
tant. Dr. O. P. Jenkins, of Leland Stanford Junior University, 
donated 42 types of Hawaiian fishes, constituting a second installment 
of a series of types the first of which were transmitted in 1901. A 
valuable collection of tj^pes and cotypes of Japanese fishes was received 
from Dr. David S. Jordan, president of the same university. A large 
salmon, weighing about 50 pounds, taken at Cascapedia, Canada, was 
presented by Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, of Philadelphia. A deep-sea 
pelican fish, captured at a depth of between 2,000 and 3,000 fathoms, 
during the survey for the Pacific cable, was transmitted by the officers 
of the U. S. S. Kero^ and a largo conger eel was received from Mr. 
Louis Mowbray, of Bermuda, through the New York Aquarium. 

Besides the mollusks obtained by the Fish Commission expedition to 
the Hawaiian Islands, a number of well-preserved land shells from the 
same region were donated by Mr. W. H. Henshaw, of Hilo, Hawaii. 
Interesting collections of shells were also received from Rev. Henry 
Loomis, Yokohama, Japan; Mr. F. A. Woodworth, San Francisco, 
California; Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd, Burnett, California, and the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. A specimen of the i^are Valuta 
mammilla Sowerby, from Tasmania, and other valuable Australian 
shells, were also added to the mollusk collection. 

Among the most important additions to the Entomological Division 
were a collection of nearly 19,000 specimens of gall wasps, parasites, 
etc., from Canada, transmitted by the Department of Agriculture; a 
series of Costa Rican insects of different orders purchased from Mr. 
P. Schild, of New York City; about 2,000 specimens of Chilean insects 
from Mr. E. C. Reed, Concepcion, Chile; 277 specimens of African 
Lepidoptera received in exchange from the Royal Museum of Natural 
History, Stockholm, Sweden, through Dr. Yngve Sj5stedt, including 
examples of several species described by Doctor Aurivellius; a collec- 
tion of mites, including types and cotypes, from Prof. Robert Wol- 
oott, of the University of Nebraska; specimens of many oixlcrs and 
comprising types and cotypes from Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell^ TSas^X* 
Las Vegas, New Mexico; about 700 spoeimena oi EiVivo^pewi CoX^o^Xftx** 



i2 REPOET OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

from Dr. W. H. Valway, Cleveland, Ohio, and a valuable seriej? of 
Venezuelan Cicindellidae and Scarabaeidae from Mr. Edw. A. Klages, 
of Grafton, Pennsylvania. An important exchange was made with the 
American Entomological Society, whereby the Museum received 95 
species of Mexican and Central American Hymenoptera, including 
many cotypes. Thirty-four cotypes of Coleoptera were presented by 
Prof. H. C. Fall, of Pasadena, California. 

The Division of Marine Invertebrates obtained through exchange 
with the Museum of Natuml History, Paris, France, about 50 species 
of fresh-water crabs. A series of Japanese crustaceans, including 
many interesting specimens collected b}- Dr. David S. Jordan and Mr. 
J. O. Snyder, was presented by the Leland Stanford Junior University. 
A number of crustaceans from the Maldive Islands, collected by Mr. 
Alexander Agassiz in 1901 and 1902, was received from the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and similar mate- 
rial from Costa Rica and Cocos Island was acquired through exchange 
with the National Museum of Costa Rica. Among other accessions 
of special interest may be mentioned four lots of isopod crustaceans, 
including types obtained by the Harriman expedition, received from 
Prof. Trevor Kincaid, Seattle, Washington; 23 specimens of echino- 
derms and crustaceans from Great Britain and from various localities 
in the East, contributed by Mr. H. W. Parritt, of London, England; a 
quantity of foraminifera from Great Britain and the Seychelles Islands, 
presented by Mr. H. Sidebottom, Cheshire, England, and a collection 
of parasites of fishes, transmitted by Prof. Edwin Linton, of Washing- 
ton, Pennsylvania. A very interesting series of European parasites, 
comprising trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes, was deposited in 
the Museum by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of 
Agriculture. 

To the osteological collection were added a skeleton of the giant 
salamander, Siebofdiaja/xmica^ presented by the Imperial Museum of 
Tokyo; three skeletons of Harris's cormorant, Nanopterum hamsi^ 
purchased from Mr. R. H. Beck, of Berry essa, California, and a skele- 
ton of musk ox from EUesmere I^and, representing a species new to 
the Museum, from Mr. J. S. Warmbath, of Washington, District of 
Columbia. 

The National Herbarium has been enriched by a collection of about 
1,400 plants from the Philippine Archipelago, contributed b}^ the Phil- 
ippine Bureau of Agriculture, and b}' another collection from the same 
locality received from the Royal Botanical (lardens, Kew, England. 
Mr. William R. Maxon, of the Museum staff, obtained a large collec- 
tion of ferns and other plants during a collecting trip of about two 
months' duration in Jamaica. Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, pre- 
sented a large series of plants collected in the Yellowstone National 
Park, and Capt. John Donnell Smith, of Baltimore, Maryland, who 
las made extensive contributions to the Herbarium, continued hi 



BEPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARy. 23 

donations during the past 3'C5ar, transmitting a scries of plants from 
the West Indies and Central America. 

The collections in the Department of Geology were increased by 
about 102,000 specimens, of which 97,000 were fossil invertebrates. 
As in past years, the principal accessions were from the U. S. 
Geological Survey. Among the more important ones were a series of 
minerals, rocks, and ores, constituting a portion of the exhibit made 
by the Survey at the expositions recently held in Buffalo and Charles- 
ton, and a collection of rocks from Arizona, California, Idaho, Colo- 
rado, Oregon, and Washington. An interesting lot of tourmalinitic 
quartz from Little Pipestone district, Montana, of which some of the 
specimens are covered on one side with parallel layers of amethysts of 
different hues, accompanied the former. 

A valuable series of massive and cut polished stalactites and stalag- 
mites from the Copper Queen mine was presented by Mr. James 
Douglas, of Bisbee, Arizona. Interesting examples of volcanic bombs 
and lavas from Cinder Buttes, Idaho, were received from Prof. I. C. 
Russell; specimens of fluorite and associated rocks, from Mr. R. S. 
Bassler and Mr. E. O. Ulrich; specimens of halloysite from Hart 
County, Kentucky, from Hon. J. H. Stotsenburg, of New Alban}', 
Indiana; specimens of talc, from the North Carolina Talc and Mining 
Company, and a collection of igneous rocks from Holyoke, Massachu- 
setts, from Prof. B. K. Emerson. 

A specimen of palla^ite, weighing 851 pounds, from Mount Vernon, 
Kentucky; a mass of meteoric iron from Arispe, Mexico, weighing 
116 pounds; a mass of meteoric iron from Persimmon Creek, in North 
Carolina, weighing 9 pounds, and a meteoric stone weighing nearly 9 
pounds, from Hendersonville, North Carolina, are among the most 
impoilant additions to the meteoric collections. 

A small piece of the only known specimen of footeite was donated 
by Mr. Warren M. Foote, of Philadelphia, and man}^ very desirable 
minerals, some of which were not previously represented in the 
Museum collection, were obtained from different sources. 

The largest and most valuable addition to the Division of Strati- 
graphic Paleontology was the second installment of the E. O. Ulrich 
collection of Paleozoic bryozoans, comprising alx)ut 75,000 specimens 
and 2,500 microscopic slides. The collection as a whole is the most 
extensive of its kind in existence and contains many unique specimens. 
About 14,000 corals, crinoids, mollusks, and other fossil invertebrates 
from the Mississippi Valley Paleozoic were received from Dr. Carl 
Rominger, of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Many of these have been figured 
and described in the reports of the Geological Survey of Michigan. 
The Andrew Sherwood collection of Pennsylvania Upper Devonic 
vertebrate and invertebrate fossils is also entitled to special notice. 
It was brought together by Mr. Sherwood, and includes many choice 
slabs filled with large brachiopods and mollusks, besides about 3,000 



24 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



small specimens. Smaller collection.s of interesting fossil inverte- 
brates were contributed by the U. S. Geological Surve}-; Dr. Charles E. 
Beecher, of Yale University; Mr. John M. Nickels, of Cincinnati, 
Ohio; Mr. W. T. Lee, of Trinidad, Colomdo, and others. 

The collection of vertebrate fossils was increased by several impor- 
tant additions, one of which, comprising the teeth of Mastodon hum- 
holdti and Mastodon cordillerum and casts of mandibular rami, was 
received from the British Museum, London, England. Dr. H. J. 
Herbein, of Pottsville, Pennsylvania, contributed a slab of sandstone 
showing reptilian footprints, from Mount Carbon, Pennsylvania, and 
Mr. Whitman Cross, of the U. S. Geological Survey, collected and 
transmitted a tooth of CladodttsJbrjno&usiHay) from Needle Mountains 
quadrangle, Colorado. 

About 500 specimens of Triassic plants, collected in Connecticut 
and Massachusetts by Mr. S. Ward Loper, of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, have been turned over to the Museum; a small series of fossil 
plants from the Permian of Ohio was donated by Mr. H. Herzer, of 
Marietta, Ohio, and about 80 specimens of Paleozoic plants were 
received with the Ulrich collection above mentioned. 

The number of entries made in the catalogue books of the various 
departments was 41,091. 

The number of accessions received annually since 1881 has been as 
follows: 



Year. 



Accession 

New. 
(inclusive). 



1881 1 9890-11000 

1882 ! 11001-12500 

1883 i r2501-13900 

1884 i 13901-15550 

1885 January to June , 15551-16208 

1886 ' 16209-17704 

1887 ' 17705-19360 

1888 1 19351-20831 

1889 1 20832-22178 



1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

18W 

1895 i 28312-29534 

1896 I 29535-30833 



22179-23340 
23341-24627 
24528-25884 
25885-27160 
27151-28311 



1897 30834-32300 

1898 3'2301-33741 

1899 ' 33742-3o2:« 

1900 ' 35239-36705 

1901 :16706-38175 

1902 :i^l76-39584 

1903 39585-41227 



Number of 

accessions 

during 

the year. 



1,111 
1,600 
1,400 
1,650 
658 
1,496 
1,646 
1,481 
1,347 
1,162 
1,187 
1,357 
1,266 
1.161 
1.228 
1.290 
1,467 
1,441 
1.497 
1,467 
1.470 
1.409 
1,643 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



25 



The approximate number of specimens received by the Museum 
during the year and the total number in the possession of the Museum 
at the close of the year are recorded in the following table: 



Dividon. 



Anthropology: 

Ethnology 

Historic archeology ... 

Prehistoric archeology 

Technology , 

Graphic arts 

Medicine 

Religions 

History and biography . 

Physical anthropology . 

Ceramics 

Photography 

Music. 

Biology: 

Mammals 



Birds 



Birds' ^gs 

Reptiles and batrachians 

Fishes 

MoUusks 

Insects 

Marine invertebrates 

Helminthology 

Comparative anatomy 

Plants 

Forestry 

Geology: 

Physical and chemical geology 

Mineralogy 

Invertebn^te paleontology 

Vertebrate paleontology 

Paleobotany 



Total 



u Entries in catalogues. 



EXPLORATIONS. 



Received 
in 1992-3. 


Total. 


i 

! 4,647 


478,061 


20 


2,223 


16, 181 


372,979 


; 149 


31,193 


1,602 


8,896 


I 7 


6,889 


92 


2,769 


1,502 


43,048 


99 


2,770 


146 


4,610 


9 


1,800 


66 


1,626 


7,436 


82,436 


3,800 


133,636 


1,470 


64,046 


a8?2 


44,426 


1,000 


157,601 


6,332 


929,037 


37,084 


1,623,684 


12.471 


518, ?20 


a&i6 


5,737 


«115 


15,946 


38,403 


56.1,405 




749 


2,820 


78,559 


«445 


35,878 


97,000 




«36 


543,337 


1,782 




236,680 


5,654,864 



Fewer explorations than usual were carried on last year directly by 
the Museum, owing to insufficient means for that purpose. Field work 
under the Bureau of American Ethnolog}^, which yielded interesting 
collections of objects, since deposited in the Museum, as before men- 
tioned, was conducted by Mr. William H. Holmes, Mr. Gerard Fowke, 
and Dr. J. Walter Fewkes. Mr. Holmes visited the aboriginal hema- 
tite mines at Leslie, Missouri, and Doctor Fewkes an ancient quarry 
in Carter County , Kentucky, while Doctor Fewkes also spent consider- 
able time in Santo Domingo and Porto Rico. 

The important explorations of Dr. William L. Abbott in Sumatra 
and the adjoining islands, as well as on the maiulaiviSL ol \i\i^ ^\x^\\s^ 



26 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 11)03. 

Settlements, have already been referred to under the heading of 
^'Additions to the Collections.'' These explorations, which are carried 
on entirely at the expense of Doctor Abbott, have now been in prog- 
ress for several years, and through his generosity the National Museum 
has been the fortunate recipient of the very large and extremel3^ valu- 
able collections that he has made. 

In the spring of 1903 Mr. F. A. Lucas, accompanied by Mr. William 
Palmer and Mr. J. W. Scollick, all of the Museum staff, visited one of 
the stations of the Cal)ot Steam Whaling Company on the coast of 
Newfoundland in the interest of the St. Louis Exposition for the pur- 
pose of securing as complete a representation as possible of a large 
sulphur-bottom whale. He was entirely successful, returning with a 
perfect skeleton of a specimen measuring about 78 feet long, and with 
molds of the exterior, from which a cast of the entire animal will be 
made. These specimens at the close of the exposition will be exhib- 
ited in the Museum. 

Through the courtesy of the Geographical Society of Baltimore, the 
Museum was enabled to send Mr. B. A. Bean and Mr. J. H. Riley with 
an expedition to the Bahama Islands, where they were to make collec- 
tion of the fishes and land animals of that region. The party was still 
absent at the close of the vear. 

Dr. H. G. Dyar, with Mr. RoUa P. Currie, of the National Museum, 
and Mr. A. N. Caudell, of the Department of Agriculture, accom- 
panied an expedition to British Columbia under the auspices of the 
Carnegie Institution, and it is expected that they will bring back a 
large and important collection of insects. 

Mr. S. Ward Loper, of the IT. S. Geological Survey, made for the 
Museum an interesting collection of Triassic plants in Connecticut and 
Massachusetts, and through arrangements with the Director of the 
Survey, Hon. Charles D. Walcott, Mr. Charles Schuchert, of the 
Museum staff, spent several weeks in Virginia and Georgia with 
the special laew of determining the geological horizons of the southern 
part of the Appalachians. Incidental to this study he collected many 
fossils. Seveml weeks were spent by Mr. R. S. Bassler in Ohio, 
Indiana, and Kentucky collecting invertebrate fossils. A small collec- 
tion of natural history specimens, obtained about Franz Josef Land 
by the Baldwin-Ziegler expedition of 1902 to the Polar regions, was 
presented to the Museum by Mr. William Ziegler. It is hoped that 
the second expedition, now in progress under the same auspices, will 
result in additional accessions from that little-known region. 

DISTRIBUTION AND KXCHANGK OF SPECIMENS. 

The number of specimens furnished to specialists outside of the 
Museum for study was 12,529, almost twice as many as during the 
previous year, while the sets of duplicates distributed to educational 



REPORT OK ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



27 



mcnts in this country, together with those used in making 
?s with individuals and institutions both at home and abroad, 
jd 33,228 specimens. The educational series consisted of 
nvertebrates, fishes, and geological material illustrating the 
f rock weathering and soil formation. 

•llowing table shows the number of lots of specimens of all 
it to each State and foreign country: 



It 



1 
1 

12 
4 

11 



Colambia 18 

1 

3 

46 

/ 

8 

1 



North Carolina 6 

Ohio 11 

PeiiDBylvania 25 

Texas 4 

Utah 4 

Vermont 1 

Washington 2 

West Virginia 1 

Wisconsin 5 

Wyoming 2 

Hawaii 2 

Philippine Islands 1 



etts 



pehire. 

y 

CO 



2 


Austria 


5 


1 


Bavaria 


1 


2 


Canada 


3 




Denmark 


2 


;ui 


England 


12 


n 


France 


7 


5 


Germany 


4 


18 


Holland 


1 


2 


Italy 


5 


2 


New South Wales 


1 


4 


New Zealand 


1 


12 


Norway 


2 


2 


Sweden I^ 


99 







g the more important exchanges received from foreign estab- 
9 were the following: From the British Museum of Natural 
London, four casts of the jaws and teeth of mastodons; the 
otanic Gardens, Kew, London, 983 plants from the Philip- 
nds and Guiana, 21 duplicate plates from '^Refugium Botan- 
nd two living plants; the Museum of Natural History, Paris, 
5ies of Argulida* from South America; the Ik)tanical Museum, 
Grermany, 665 plants from Europe and Africa; the Royal 
al and Anthropological-Ethnographical Museum, Dresden, 
jnmals and a specimen of Scffps vmnadein^h from Celebes; the 
iturhistorisches Hof museum, Vienna, 100 specimens of Euro- 
ptogams; the Royal Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, 
imens of Lepidoptera; the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. 
Tg, 102 specimens of land and fresh- water shells from Central 
e Royal Museum, Turin, specimens of fossil Nummulites and 
es; the Royal Gardens, Calcutta, 120 plants from India; the 



28 REJPOM OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Botanic Gardens, Durban, Natal, 100 South African plants; the 
Botanic Gardens, Sydney, New South Wales, 30 plants from New 
South Wales; the Museo Nacional, Montevideo, Uruguay, 35 paleo- 
lithic implements. 

The material obtained in exchange from individuals abroad was as 
follows: From Mr. W. E. Helman, London, 30 birds' eggs from Ice- 
land and England; from Mr. H. W. Parritt, London, 23 specimens of 
echinoderms and crustaceans; from Mr. B. W. Priest, Norfolk, Eng- 
land, 4 boxes of foraminifera from the island of Jersey; from Mr. 
H. Sidebottom, Cheadle Hume, near Stockport, Cheshire, foramini- 
fera from Great Britain and the Seychelles Islands; from M. Ernest 
Andr^ Haute-Saone, France, 10 specimens including 4 cotypes of 
Mutillids; from M. Georges Lachenand, Limoges, France, 30 speci- 
mens of European mosses and hepatica; from M. Stanislas Meunier, 
Museum of Natural History, Paris, a meteorite from Tadjera, Algiers; 
from M. Phileas Rousseau, Notre Dame de Mont, Vendee, 19 speci- 
mens of trilobitos, 5 of BeUerophon and other fossils from the Silu- 
rian formation of France; from Mr. A. Callier, Rosswein, Saxony, 
273 plants from Russia; from Dr. Aristides Brezina, Vienna, meteor- 
ites from Jellica, Merciditas, and San Juliao; from Mr. Julius Bohm, 
Vienna, a piece of meteorite from Erghes, Somaliland, Africa, weigh- 
ing 427 grams; from Mr. Embr. Strand, Christiania, Norway, 261 
specimens of Lepidoptem and 20 specimens of Orthoptera; from Mr. 
G. van Roon, Leiden, Holland, 120 specimens of Coleoptei*a; from 
Dr. K. Kishinouye, Imperial Fisheries Bureau, Tokyo, Japan, photo- 
graphs of Japanese corals; from Dr. T. H. Holland, director of the 
Geological Survey of India, a meteorite from Shergooty, India; from 
Mr. F. H. McK. Grant, North Carlton, Melbourne, Australia, a speci- 
men of Upper Silurian starfish and a specimen of Lower Silurian 
cephalopod; from Dr. A. Duges, Guanajuato, Mexico, 32 insects. 

RESEARCHES. 

Under the act of Congress founding the Smithsonian Institution the 
Museum staff is charged with the classification and arrangement as well 
as with the care and preservation of the national collections, and 
although man}^ of the accessions have been previously worked up, the 
greater number reach the Museum unstudied and unnamed. 

In selecting the assistants in every grade, therefore, it has been 
necessary from the beginning to consider their qualifications with 
reference to expert knowledge of the groups of specimens to be placed 
under their charge, and in this manner a very effective though small 
staff of paid scientific workei*s has been assembled. The greater part 
of the time of these assistants has, naturally, to be given to the routine 
duties attendant upon the receipt, assorting, labeling, cataloguing, and 
disposition of the collection as received, but by working outside the 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 29 

>fficial hours, a characteristic of every zealous man of science, they 
ire to be credited every year with important progress in classification 
md in other studies. Besides the paid assistants, however^ there are 
learly as many volunteer or honorary members of the scientific staff, 
illing positions for which the appropriations are insuflScient to make 
provision, and from these also extensive results in the elaboration of 
x)llections are obtained. But notwithstanding these facts the Museum 
iepends to a large extent, for the study of its collections, on the 
cooperation of scientific men belonging to other institutions, their 
svork being done gratuitously, and frequent calls are made upon its 
resources to aid in researches conducted under other auspices. 

In the Department of Anthropology, Prof. O. T. Mason, the Acting 
Head Curator, was mainly occupied in completing his revised paper 
3n aboriginal basketry which is to appear as an appendix to the 
Annual Report for 1902. Dr. A. Hrdlicka, Assistant Curator of 
Physical Anthropology, made a study of the Lansing skeleton, includ- 
ing an examination of other material. A description of the Parsee 
3reed and ceremonials represented in the collections of the Museum 
svas prepared by Dr. I. M. Casanowicz and published in the American 
Anthropologist. Dr. Cyrus Adler and l^r. Casanowicz continued their 
wrork on a bibliography of Assyriology. 

Among the investigators from other places who were given facilities 
for making studies on anthropological subjects were M. Pittier, head 
3f the National Museum of Costa Rica; Dr. Carl von den Steinen, of 
Berlin; Dr. Hjalmar Stolpe, director of the Royal Museum of Sweden 
it Stockholm; Prof. Hartmann, of Stockholm; Dr. A. B. Hunter of 
Elaleigh, N. C; Dr. E. A. Bogue, of New York City; and Dr. Walde- 
mar Bogoi'as, of the American Museum of Natural History. Doctor 
Bogoras's visit was made in the interest of his explorations among the 
bribes of northeastern Siberia and for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether any material of Siberian origin was contained in the extensive 
Eskimo collection of this Museum. 

In the Department of Biology Mr. G. S. Miller, jr.. Assistant Cura- 
tor of Mammals, gave special attention to the working up of Doctor 
Abbott's collections of East Indian mammals, in which he has already 
iiscovered 17 new species of mouse deer (genus Tragulu^)^ 16 new 
-jpecies belonging to other orders, and one new genus {Lenothrix). 
[n the Museum collection of American bats, he has found 20 unde- 
w?ribed species, diagnoses of which have been published in the pro- 
ceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. He has 
ilso prepared notes on a number of species of bats and rodents. Dr. 
E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, made a study of the ocelots, the results of 
s^hich were printed in the Museum Proceedings. Dr. M. W. Lyon, jr., 
tias completed a list of the tv'pe specimens of mammals, exclusive of 
cetaceans, in the collections of the Museum, which number 469 species 



30 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

and subspecies. Photographs of the types are still to be prepared. 
Doctor Lyon has also pursued investigations on the osteology of the 
rabbits, and has published two brief notes on other mammals. The 
head curator of biolog}^ Dr. Frederick W. True, completed an enten- 
sive and important monograph on the North American and European 
species of whalebone whales, his manuscript being submitted for pub- 
lication toward the close of the year. He also prepared papers on 
Doctor Philippi's species of Chilean porpoises, on a killer whale 
stranded on the coast of Maine, and on a species of Proddphinm 
obtained at Honolulu; and notes on the name of the common porpoise 
of the genus TuvHiiojys^ and on the occurence of the pollack whale, 
Bala^maptera horealis^ in American waters. 

The second volume of Mr. Robert Ridgway's manual of North and 
Central American birds, containing 854 pages of text and 22 plates, 
was issued during the year. It deals with the families of Tanagers, 
Troupials, Honey Creepers and Wood Warblers (Tanagridse, Icteridsc, 
Coerebidae and Mniotiltidse), comprising 77 genera and 433 species 
and subspecies. "The preparation of the third volume, covering 15 
families, is well advanced, about 400 pages being now in type. A 
paper by Dr. Charles W. Richmond on the birds collected by Doctor 
Abbott and Mr. C. B. Kloss, in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands has 
been published, and Doctor Richmond has also spent mu(»h time in 
working up the Abbott collection of birds from the west coast of 
Sumatra, and a collection from the South Pacific. He has likewise 
made considerable progress with the card catalogue of the genera and 
species of birds. Dr. William L. Ralph continued the preparation of 
material for a volume on the life-histories of North American birds 
with special reference to their nests and eggs, supplemental to the 
unfinished work of the late Major C. E. Bendire, U. S. Army. 

Dr. Leonhard Stejneger completed his report on the reptiles of 
Porto Rico and has been engaged in the investigation of the reptile 
fauna of Eastern Asia. Papers by Doctor Stejneger on Holbrookes 
salamander and on the reptiles of the Huachu(ui Mountains, Arizona, 
were published by the Museum during the year. 

In connection with an extensive work on the Tertiary mollusks 
of Florida, Dr. W. H. Dall prepared reviews of the recent species of 
Veneridaj, Carditacea, Cyrenacea, and Astartidie. Mr. Bartsch con- 
tinued his studies on the Pyramidellidte, which wore nearly finished at 
the close of the year. 

Dr. W. H. Ashmead continued his work upon the classification of 
the Chalcid-flies, which is now in course of printing by the Carnegie 
Museum, and published several papers on the wasps of the groups 
Vespoidea, Proctotrypoidea, and Cynipoidea. He had also in course 
of preparation monographs on the North American Bmconida> and the 
Jai^Jinese Hymenopteni, and a catalogue of North American Hyme- 



BEPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 31 

noptera. Mr. D. W. Coquillett was occupied in identifying and arrang- 
ing the Diptera and completed a revision of the genera of the family 
Empididie. A paper by him descriptive of 4 new genera and 94 new 
species of North American diptera was printed in the Proceedings. 
Mr. Nathan Banks published 1 6 papers on spiders and other entomo- 
logical subjects. A paper on dragon-flies and one on ant-lions, by 
Mr. Kolla P. Currie, were published by the Entomological Society of 
Washington. Mr. Currie continued work on a catalogue of North 
American Neuropteroid iiLsects, and on a monograph of the ant-lions. 
Mr. August Busck published two papers on the codling-moth and one 
on a new species of the family Yponomentidie, and also a revision of 
the American moths of the family Gelechiida;. The Museum Proceed- 
ings for the year contained a paper by Dr. H. (>. D3'ar on the larvae 
of moths from Colorado, and an additional sec^tion of Dr. John G. 
Smith's monograph of the moths of the family Noctuida\ 

The researches by Dr. J. E. Benedict includexl a revision of the 
genus LephloiKi^ descriptions of new Galatheidte, Albuneidte, and 
Dromida?, and studies upon the Anomuran ci'abs collected in Japanese 
and Hawaiian waters by the Fish C/onmiission steamer Alhitrons^ and 
upon several interesting annelids. Miss M. J. Rathbun continued 
work on a monograph of the fresh-water crabs based on the collec- 
tions of the U. S. National Museum, the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris, the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard University, 
and other institutions. She also prepared live short papers on 
crustaceans which were printed during the year. 

Miss Harriet Richardson completed reports on the Isopod crustace- 
ans collected in Hawaii and Japan by the Fish Commission steamer 
Alhatrms^ and in Japan by the U. S. S. Polos in 1881, and by Dr. 
D. S. Jordan and J. O. Snyder in 1900, and also on some cymothoids 
collected by Dr. C. H. Gill)ert on the west coast of Central America, 
and on the American Epicaridea in the U. S. National Museum. 

Dr. C. W. Stiles, Custodian of the helminthological collections, 
made an extended investigation of a parasitic disease prevalent among 
the people of the Southern States, which he found to be due to the 
attacks of an undescribed species of hook-worm, Unclnarla amerkana^ 
and carried on inquiries regarding the frequency of the occurrence of 
parasites in men. He published twelve papers during the year relat- 
ing to parasitology, three of these having been prepared conjointly 
with Dr. Albert Hassall and Mr. Charles A. Pfender; and also the 
first three parts of an index-catalogue of medical and veterinary 
zoology, with Doctor Hassall as coauthor. 

In the Division of Plants, an unusual amount of routine work, espe- 
cially in connection with the rearrangement of the collections, pre- 
vented the accomplishment of much scientific research. A third 
section of Dr. J. N. Rose's studies of Mexican and Central American 
plants, and a jmper by the same author in conjunction with Mr. 



32 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

W. B. Hemsley on the geuus Julianm were printed. Doctor Rose also 
continued work on the Crassulaceae of North America conjointly with 
Doctor Britton, and completed a preliminary paper relating to that 
group of plants. Mr. C. L. Pollard contributed a number of notes 
to the Plant World, and described two new violets from the United 
States. With Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell he also published descriptions 
of four new plants from New Mexico. Mr. W. R. Maxon continued 
his studies on the Museum collection of ferns, and Mr. Edward S. 
Steele completed a monograph on a section of the genus Lacimaria. 

Access to the collections in biology were accorded during the year 
to a considerable number of visiting naturalists. The meetings of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Society 
of American Naturalists, and other affiliated societies during convoca- 
tion week brought together in Washington many prominent investi- 
gators, and while their time was limited, some of them took advantage 
of the opportunity to examine specimens in the line of their specialty. 
The committee on nomenclature of the American Ornithologists' Union 
during its meeting from April 16 to 18 made extensive use of the 
bird collection in determining the status of North American species. 
Among individual ornithologists to whom the same privilege was 
given were Prof. W. W. Cooke, Mr. E. W. Nelson, Mr. H. C. Ober- 
holser, and Mr. W. H. Osgood, of the Department of Agriculture; 
Mr. Outram Bangs, of Boston; Dr. J. Dwight, jr., of New York City; 
and Mrs. Florence Merriam Bailey, of Washington. 

Mr. Thomas Barber, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, was here for 
some time studying the Old World chameleons, which he proposes to 
monograph. Among students of entomology who conducted work 
at the Museum were Dr. W. J. Holland, Director of the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; Prof. John B. Smith, of Rutgers 
College, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Dr. James A. G. Rehn and Mr. 
J. Chester Bradley, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Mr. H. H. Ballou, 
of Amherst, Massachusetts, and Dr. Walter Horn, of Berlin, Germany. 

Prof. W. P. Hay, of Howard University, Washington, continued 
his studies upon crayfishes and other fresh-water crustaceans, and 
completed descriptions of the species collected by himself at Mam- 
moth Cave, Kentucky, and Nickajack Cave, Tennessee, and by Dr. 
C. H. Eigenmann in Cuba. Prof. G. I. Hamaker, of Trinity College, 
Durham, North Carolina, examined the specimens of Cerianthus; Miss 
Katherine J. Bush, of the Peabod}^ Museum of Yale University, cer- 
tain type specimens of Annelids, and Dr. S. J. Holmes, of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, certain species of Amphipod crustaceans. 

The principal visiting botanists have been Dr. N. L. Britton, Direc- 
tor of the New York Botanical Garden; Dr. L. M. Underwood, of 
Columbia University, New York City; Mr. Theodor Holm, of Brook- 
land, District of Columbia; and Dr. E. L. Greene, of the Catholic 
University, Washington. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 33 

The herbarium has also lieeii iionstaiitly utilized by the l)otanists of 
the Department of Agriculture. 

A large amount of material from the Department of Biology was 
lent to specialists for study or sent to them for working up in the 
interest of the National Musemn. The Biological Survey of the 
Department of Agriculture had the use of man}' specimens of mam- 
mals, and specimens of the same group were sent out of the city as 
follow^s: 

To Mr. James A. G. Rehn, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natui-al 
Sciences, 41 specimens of several groups for use in his report on 
terrestrial vertebrates collected in portions of southern New Mexico 
and western Texas, ])esides 14 specimens of Xyctln(mii(i<: to Mr. D. G. 
Elliot, of the Field Columbian Museum, 35 spe(»imens for use in con- 
nection with his work on the mammals of Middle America; to Dr. 
J. A. Allen, of the Americjin Museum of Natural History, 108 speci- 
mens for use in connection with his studv of the mammals of eastern 
Siberia; to Mr. J. L. Bonhote, of the British Museum of Natuml 
History, who is making a study of the Malayan fauna, 18 skins and 
skulls of Mva: to Dr. John M. Ingersoll, of Cleveland, Ohio, who is 
working upon the comparative anatomy of the ithmoid region of the 
mamma ian skull, 10 specimens of skulls; to Dr. Harris H. Wilder, of 
Smith Col.ege, for use in embryologicJil studies, specimens of the 
embrj'o of Mania javanica; to Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, sta- 
tioned at Fort Snelling. Minnesota, i) specimens of manmials from the 
Philippine region; and to Mr. Witmer Stone, of the Academy of 
Natuml Sciences, Philadelphia, specimens of Xijctlcthxui. 

The Division of Birds furnished 13 specimens of Parm hudsimicua^ 
and 68 specimens, mainly of (Hoatris^ to Mr. Frank M. Chapman, of 
the American Museum of Natural History; 8 specinjens from the 
Malay Peninsula, Java, and Sumatra to Mr. AVitmer Stone, of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadel|)hia; 2\) specimens of plover 
to Dr. Jonathan Dwight, jr., of New York City; and smaller lots to 
Mr. Walter K. Fisher and Mr. Joseph Grinnell, of Palo Alto, Cali- 
fornia; Mr. Outran! Bangs, of Boston; Mr. W. C. Ferril, of tlie State 
Historical and Natural History Society, Denver, Colorado; Dr. 11. M. 
Strong, of Haverford College; Mr. Carl Hellniayr, of the Zoological 
Museum, Munich, Bavaria, and Mr. \V. A. Bryan, of the Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu. 

The loans from the Division of Insects have been numerous and 
included several large lots rei^uested for monographic purposes. The 
principal sendings were as follows: A large (juantity of uuiterial, chiefly 
representing Odonata and Pl(»copteni to Prof. James G. Needham, of 
Lake Forest University, Illinois; about 2,500 l>ees of th(» family Andre- 
nida^ to Mr. H. L. Viereck, of the Academy of Natuml Sciences of 

WAT MU8 1903 3 



34 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Philadelphia; over 6(K) specimens, mostly of Dermaptera and Orthop- 
tem, to Mr. James A. G. R(?hn, of the same academy; 285 specimens 
of Odonata to Dr. Philip P. Calvert, also of the Philadelphia Academy, 
1,883 specimens of Sphecida^ to Dr. IL C. Fernald, of Amherst, Massa- 
chusetts; 1,570 sj>eeimens of Ptinidae to Prof. H. C. Fall, of Pasadena, 
California; 532 specimens of Jassoidea, for use in writing up the 
Mexican and (Central American speckles of this group for the Biologia 
Centrali-Americana, to Prof. Elme;* D. Ball, of the State Agricultural 
College of Utah; over 200 specimens of Nomadida? to Prof. T. D. A. 
Cockerell, of Ea«t l^as Vegas, New Mexico; 1,000 specimens of Myri- 
apoda to Dr. Karl M. Friedr. Kraejx?lin, Naturhistorisches Museum, 
Hamburg, Germany; specimens of the families Multillidw,Thynnidie, 
Myrmarida*, etc., to M. Ernest Andre, of Gray, France; 10(> speci- 
mens of Ophionids, to Dr. E. P. Felt, New York State entomologist; 
55 specimens of Fulgoridie to Mr. Otto H. Swezey, of the Ohio Stute 
University; 125 specimens of Tettigida? to Prof. J. L. Hancock, of 
Chicago, Illinois; specimens of Tabanidie to Prof. J. S. Iline, of the 
Ohio State Universit}-; specimens of Lepidoptem to Dr. W. J. Hol- 
land, of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg; specimens of Cephidte to 
Mr. J. Chester Bradlev, of the Acadeniv of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia; specimens of Fulgoridte to Prof. W. S. Blatchley, State geolo- 
gist of Indiana; specimens of Noctuida* to Prof. John B. Smith, of 
Rutgers College, New Jersey; and specimens of Hemiptera to Prof. 
R. Uhler, of Baltimore. 

A number of specialists connected with other institutions are engaged 
in studying for the Museum the entire material of sevenil groups of 
marine invert(*brates, and all report satisfactory progress at the close 
of the year. Prof. Charles L. Edwards, of Trinity College, Hartford, 
has the pedate holothurians; Prof. Hubert Lyman Clark, of Olivet 
College, Michigan, the apodal holothurians; Prof. C. C. Nutting, of 
the University of Iowa, the hydroids, of which he has nearly ready 
a monograph of the Sertularia; Dr. Charles B. Wilson, of the State 
Normal School, Westfield, Massachusetts, the parasitic copepods, one 
family of which, the Argulidiv, was completed and reported on during 
the year; Mr. R. W. Sharpe, of Wilmette, Illinois, the ostracoda; 
Mr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the U. S. Geological Survey, the madre- 
pomrian corals, and Prof. A. G. Mayer, scientific director of the 
museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, who is finish- 
ing the uncompleted studies of the late Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, on the 
Museum collection of Achatinellida*. 

Material from the Division of Marine Invertebrates was also sent 
out during the year as follows: To Dr. R. P. Bigelow, of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, the stomatopcxls <'ollected by the 
Fish Commission stcnimer AUmtrosH in Hawaiian and Samoan waters, 
for report; to Prof. H. Coutiere, of the Ecole Superieure de Pharmacia, 



BEPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 35 

iris, the AlpheidsB obtained on the same expedition and the j^eneral 
Li^eum collection of this group, for monographing; to the Rev. T. 

R. Stebbing, of Tunbridge Wells, England, new species of amphi- 
•ds from Costa Rica and Cocos Island; to Dr. S. J. Holmes, of the 
[liversity of Michigan, specimens of New England amphipods; to 
r. J. P. McMurrich, of the same university, specimens of Atlantic 
atst actinians; to Dr. C. B. Davenport, of the University of Chicago, 
ecimens of fresh-water polyzoa from Maine. 

From the Division of Plants the principal loans were as follows: To 
r. Oakes Ames, the Ames Botanical Laboratory, North Easton, 
assachusetts, about 400 specimens of orchids; to Dr. L. M. Under- 
)od, of the New York Botanical Garden, specimens of ferns from 
)rto Rico, Guatemala and Cuba; to Dr. P. A. Rydberg, of the same 
tablishment, 217 specimens; to Dr. John K. Small, also of the New 
>rk Garden, several specimens of ditferent groups; to Dr. B. L. 
>bin8on, of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, 272 speci- 
3ns; to Mr. C. S. Sargent, of Harvard University, specimen of 
ocorin; to Mr. C. D. Beadle, of the Biltmore Herbarium, 287 speci- 
5ns of Rudheckia^ 322 of Coreopsis^ and representatives of other 
oups; to Prof. William Trelease, director of the Shaw Botanical 
irden, St. Louis, specimens of yucca; to Mr. R. F. Griggs, of the 
lio State University, specimens of Porto Rican and Guatemalan 
ints; to Dr. C. E. Waters, of Johns Hopkins University, specimens 

Pliegopterw; to Mr. Aven Nelson, of the University of W^-oming, 
specimens; to Mrs. Caroline W. Harris, of Ticonderoga, New York, 
ecimens of Umhllicariu and Sttcta; to Mr. E. G. Baker, of the 
itish Museum of Natural History, specimens of LdclniarM; to the 
)yal Botanical Garden, Kew, I^ndon, four plants; to Mr. C. L. 
lear. Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, District of Columbia, 
ecimens of fungi; to Mr. Theodor Holm, of Brookland, District of 
>lumbia, specimens of Careoc^ ScirpuSy Betula^ LychnU^ etc. 
In the Department of Geology Mr. Wirt Tassin conducted investi- 
tions upon the meteorites in the Museum collection and Mr. W. C. 
lalen made a study of the rock specimens collected in Greenland in 
97 bv Mr. Charles Schuchert and Mr. David White. Mr. Schuchert 
ntinued his researches on the Ijower Devonic fauna and completed a 
idy of the Cvstidea of the Manlius and Coevmans formations. Mr. 

S. Bassler has in preparation papers on fossil Bryozoa and Ostra- 
da, one of these reviewing the Bryozoa of the Rochester shale being 
A\ advanced. 

Among the visitors to this department were Mr. G. C. Martin and 
r. M. V. Twitchell, of the Maryland Stut<». (jeological Survey, who 
>rked upon the colUn^tion of fossils from the Miocene formation 

Maryland; Mr. F. B. Laney, of the (Geological Survey of North 
krolina, who studied the collection of building stones in prepamtion 



36 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

for work along this line in North Carolina; Dr. Arthur Hollick, 
assistant curator of botany in the New York Botanical Grardens, who 
made examinations of fossil plants in connection with his work on the 
island series of the Upper Cretaceous in preparation for his proposed 
investigations on the Yukon River during the summer of 1903; and 
Prof. H. F. Osborn, Dr. S. W. Williston, Dr. O. P. Hay, Mr. J. B. 
Hatcher, and Dr. William Patten, all of whom are carrying on 
researches of greater or less extent upon fossil vertebrates. 

Among the most important loans and gifts made from this depart- 
ment during the year were material furnished to the Division of 
Chemistry and Physics of the U. S. Geological Survey, and the Divi- 
sion of Roads and the Bureau of Soils of the Department of Agricul- 
ture; specimens of Upper Carboniferous insects to Dr. C. E. Beecher, 
of the Peabody Museum of Yale University; specimens of Crinoids to 
Prof. A. W. Grabau, of Columbia University; specimens of Tertiary 
insects to Prof. S. W. Williston, of the University of Chicago, for 
monographic work; a large number of Carboniferous insects to Dr. 
Anton Handlirsch, of the Royal Austrian Muvseum, Vienna, also for 
monographic work; and a large mmiber of Lower Siluric graptolite« 
from New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts, to Dr. John M. Clarke, 
State paleontologist of New York. 

PKOORESS IN THE INSTALIJ^TIOX OF THE EXHIBITION COLLECTIONS. 

The overcrowded condition of the public halls which began a num- 
of years ago precludes any extensive additions to the exhibition series, 
and this must continue until the completion of the new building 
recently authorized b}' Congress. Small objects can be given a place 
here and there, but any considerable changes are rendered possible 
only through the withdrawal and transf(»r to stoi-age of collections 
already on display. During the past year the principal progress made 
in this connection has had reference to improvements in the methods 
and details of installation. 

In the Department of Anthropology temporary- accommodations 
have been furnished on the gallery of the north-west court for the 
impoiiant ethnological collections from the Philippine Islands dis- 
played at the Pan-American Exposition. The entire Eskimo collection 
has been gone over, and the large series of specimens secured by the 
Museum -Gates expedition has bei^n arranged in the stoi^age-cases of 
the Pueblo court. The labeling of the historical collections has l^een 
completed, and new case lal)els have becMi prepared for the Divisions 
of Historic and Prehistoric Archeology and for the section of historic 
religious ceremonials. The cases containing iho manuscripts and vari- 
ous editions of the Bible were repaintinl, and the collections rearranged 
to facilitate their examination by visitors. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 37 

The work of completing the exhibition series in several of the divi- 
sions of the Department of Biologj-, and of improving their appearance 
by changes in methods of installation, has been vigorously pushed. 
Progress in tliis regard was. most* noticeable in the halls devoted to 
mammals, marine invertebrates, insects, and fishes. About 200 case 
labels have been added to the exhibits of mammals, birds, reptiles, 
batrachians, insects, and the lower invertebrates, and a series of case 
labels for the collection of comparative anatomy has been completed. 

The interiors of the wall-cases, in the galleries of the south hall 
containing Old World mammals, have been repainted in a color simi- 
lar to that used in the corresponding cases on the main floor, and this 
change has resulted in displaying the specimens to much better 
advantage. A similar change has also been made in regard to the 
floor cases in the gallery containing small mammals. Three new 
cases have been constructed against the south wall of this hall. One 
contains the North American weasels and related forms; the two 
others, the smaller South American mammals. The cases on the 
main floor of the south hall have been furnished with new fittings, so 
that they are now uniform in design and color. The labeling of the 
American small mammals has been greatly improved, while the labels 
for the Old World series have been revised and very largely replaced 
with new ones. 

Considerable improvement has been made in the appearance of the 
exhibition of marine invertebrates, which occupies the west hall in the 
Smithsonian building. The interior of all the wall-cases has been 
repainted in black, as furnishing a better background for the corals 
and sponges than the maroon formerly employed. The display of 
insects in the next adjoining hall or corridor has been enlarged by 
extensive additions to the systematic series of North American insects, 
which it is hoped to complete during the coming year. 

The wall cases in the south-east range of the Museum building have 
been retronstructed, and the systematic collection of casts of North 
American fishes has been rearranged and installed to much better 
advantage than formerly. A number of casts of large and striking 
species have l)een repaired and repainted. The labeling of the casts 
of reptiles and batrachians exhibited in floor cases in the same range 
has also been largelj- revised. 

The bird groups displayed in the main hall of the Smithsonian 
building, sixteen in numl)er, have been partly renovated, and one of 
them, consisting of three fine specimens of the Argus pheasant, pre- 
sented to the Museum some years age })y Dr. W. L. Abbott, has been 
entirely remounted, making it the most striking feature of the room. 

Many important changes have been made in the halls containing the 
geological collections. The exhibit of geographic ores in the south- 
west court has been carefully overhauled, the cases being thoroughly 



38 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



cleaned and the specimenn rearranged. The nonmetallic minerals, 
exhibited in the gallery of the same court, have been similarly worked 
over. The cases in the west- south range containing the stratigraphic 
and historical collections have been reconstructed and the specimens 
rearranged. The collection of fossil plants has been partially rear- 
ranged, and new labels have replaced the temporary ones on the Pale- 
ozoic specimens. Labels have also been printed for the Triassic plants. 
To the exhibition of vertebrate paleontology will soon be added a 
specimen of Cluosaunis^ the preparation of which has occupied nearly 
a year, and the mounted skeleton of a mastedon obtained at Church, 
Michigan, in 1901. 

VISITORS. 

There was, during the past year, a large increase in the number of 
visitors to the national collections. The total number of persons 
admitted to the Museum building was 315,307, against 173,888 for 
1902, an increase of 81 per cent; and to the Smithsonian building 
181,174, against 144,107 for the previous year, an increase of about 26 
per cent. 

The following tables show, respectively, the attendance during each 
month of the past year, and during each year beginning with 1881, 
when the Museum building was iirst opened to the public: 



July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December . 



January. 
Februar>' 
March... 

April 

May 

Jun*' 



Year and month. 



1902. 



1«KW. 



Smithsonian 
building. 


Museum 
building. 


10.935 


11,&» 


13,601 


18,880 


12,719 


19,.t06 


59,096 


131,448 


9,032 


14,437 


9.785 


13.037 



Total 

Approximate daily average on u ba.sis of 'M'A days in tho ywir 



9,286 
10,722 
16,122 
11.256 

9.909 




13.631 
14.455 
16.527 
26,6rt4 
17,443 
17,430 



BEPOBT OF ASSISTANT 8ECBETABY. 



39 



Number of visitors to the MiiAe^im and SmitJutonian buildings sinee the opening of the 

former in 188 1. 



Year. 



1H81 

1882 

1883 

18^ (half year) 
18M-8!>a 

1885-86 

1886-^ 



1887-J» 



1888-891. 



1890-91 
1891-92 



1892-93 «. 



1893-94 



1894-95 . . 
1896-96.. 
lS96-97a. 



1897-98 
l«98-99 



189^1900 . . 
1900-1901 «. 



1901-2 
1902-3 



ToUl. 



Muflenm 


Smithflonian 


buildiDg. 


building. 


150,000 


100,000 


167,455 


162,744 


202,188 


104,823 


97,661 


45,565 


205.026 


105,993 


174,225 


88,960 


216,562 


98.562 


249,665 


102,863 


374,843 


149.618 


274,324 


120,894 


286,426 


111,669 


269,825 


114,817 


319,930 


174,188 


195.748 


103,910 


201,744 


105,658 


180, 5a5 


103.650 


229,606 


115,709 


177,254 


99,273 


192,471 


116,912 


225,440 


138,147 


216,556 


151,563 


173,888 


144,107 


315,307 


181,174 


5,096 649 


2,725,789 



« Years of Presidential inauguration. 



MEETINGS AND LECTURES. 

In accordance with the custoni of previous years, certain scientific 
societies and other bodies wen^ allowed the use of the lecture hall in 
the Museum building for the purpose of holding meetings and giving 
lectures, as follows: 

On September 20, 1002, the associates and friends of Maj. John 
Wesley Powell gathered here to commemorate the life and services of 
this distinguished public man, the founder and director of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology and for some time Direc^tor of the Geological 
Survey, whose lamented death occurred but three days before. 

From November 18 to 2i) a national conference of the various Audo- 
bon societies of the United States was held, in conjunction with the 
American Ornithologists' Union. 

On November 22 Prof. John Ritchie, jr., of the Yerkes Observa- 
tory, delivered under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution an 
interesting lecture on Recent Celestial Photography. 

On November 25 Dr. L. O. Howard, Entomologist of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Honorary Curator of Insects in the National 
Museum, lectured on the subject of Entomology before an audience 
composed largely of officers of the United States Arm\' and Navy. 



40 REPORT (►F NATTIONAL MUSEUM, 19a3. 

On D<»coinlM»r 27 seviM'al interesting talks, illustrated with lantern 
slides, Avere given l)v members of the Soeiety for the Preservation of 
Wild Flowers. 

In the evening of January 1, 11K)8, an informal reception was ten- 
dered to the members of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of S<'ience, the American Society of Naturalists, and other 
affiliated societies, then in session in this citv. 

During February and March a course of free Saturday afternoon 
lectures was given, under the auspices of the Biological Society of 
Washington, as follows: February l-t. An entomologist in ('hina and 
Japan, by Mr. C. L. Marlatt; February 21, Ancient birds and their 
associates, })y Mr. Frederics A. Lucas: February 28, Views of Liberia, 
bj^ Prof. (). F. Cook; March 7, The making of new plants, by Mr. 
H. J. Web})er; March 14, Three sununers in Alaska, by Mr. Wilfred 
H. Osgood. 

On April 4 the lecture hall was used for the graduating exercises of 
the Naval Mediciil School, and on April 14 for those of the Army 
Medical School. 

The National Academy of Sciences held its annual meeting from 
April 21 to 2J^, 1903, the business meetings taking place in the offices 
of the assistant secretarv, and the reading of papers in the lecture 
hall. 

(M)RKKSI»ONI)KNCE. 

One of the most onerous duties which has devolved upon the 
Museum from the time of its establishment has been the furnishing 
of information in response to inquiries from the public at large upon 
all the various subjects within the scope of its several departments. 
The letters received containing such requests average several daily 
throughout the year, and are nirely confined to a single subject, often 
relating to collections of greater or less size which are transmitted 
for identilicjition. Nearly 1H)0 lots of sjK^cimens were received under 
these conditions during th(» past year. These communications also 
have reference, in many casivs, to th(» building up and maintenance of 
collections, the construction of cases, the inst^illation, labeling, and 
cataloguing of specimens, and other topics connected with museum 
administmtion. Every communication of this diameter, made in 
good faith, is responded to as promptly as possible, although the 
labor involved draws very heavily upon th(» time of l)oth the scien- 
tific and tin* clerical staffs. 

A considenible proportion of the work of furnishing information 
is accomplished through the nuKiium of Museum publications, of 
which more than 2(>,0()() volumes and iMimphlets were distributed 
during the year, besides the sendings to regular correspondents. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 41 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The publications of the Museum have consisted of an annual report, 
comprising tht* second part, or volume, of the annual report of the 
Smithsonian Institution; of a series of Proceedings for the ordinary 
technical papers, and of a series of Bulletins for the longer technical 
papers or monographs. In 1894 the National Herbarium, which, for 
lack of space, had been held at the Department of Agriculture since 
1869, was returned to the National Museum, but the publication con- 
nected with it and entitled ^' Contributions from the National Herba- 
riunr' established in 1890, continued to be issued by the Department 
of Agriculture until this year, when Congress, upon the recommenda- 
tion of the Secretary of Agriculture, transferred its management to 
the National Museum, in accordance with the following item in the 
sundrv civil act for 1908: 

For printing and publishing the contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium, the e<litions of which shall not be less than three thousand copies, 
including the preparation of necessary illustrations, proof reading, bibliographical 
work, and special editorial work, seven thousan<l dollars: Prorided^ That one-half of 
said copies shall be plac^ on sale at an advance of ttni \)eT centum over their cost. 

Under this provision volumes ii and vii previously published and 
entitled respectively Botanj" of Western Texas, by J. M. Coulter, and 
Systematic and Geographic Botany and Aboriginal Use of Plants, by 
Coulter, Rose, Cook, and Chesnut, the editions of which had become 
exhausted, were reprinted, and also the following new Contributions, 
parts 1, 2, and 3 of volume viii, consisting of Studies of Mexican 
and Central American Plants, })y J. N. Rose; Economic Plants of 
Porto Rico, by O. F. Cook and G. N. Collins; and A Study of cer- 
tain Mexican and Guatemalan speci(\s of PolypoduDu^ by William R. 
Maxon. 

Of the Bulletins of the Museum the most important one issued was 
the second volume of Robert Ridgwax's extensive monograph on the 
Birds of North and Middle America, covering the families Tanagridae 
(Tanagers), Icteridaj (Troupials), C(ere})id}e (Honey Creepers), and 
Mniotiltida; (Wood Warblers). The third volume, sent to the printer 
before the close of the fiscal year, treats of th(» Motacillidie (Wagtails 
and Pipits); Ilirundinidte (Swallows), Vireonidte (Vireos), Ampelidiai 
(Waxwings), Ptiliognatidje (Silk(»n Chatterers), Dulida^ (Palm Chat- 
terers), I^niida' (Shrikes), Corvidje (Crows and »Ia3's), Paridai (Tit- 
mice), Sittidie (Nuthatch<\s), C(»rthiida^ (Creepers), Troglodytida? 
(Wrens), Cinclidje (Dippers), Channeiida* (Wrentits), and Sylviidae 
(Kinglets, etc.). 

Another noteworthy bulletin was that by Dr. Harrison G. Dyar, of 
the Division of Insects, entitled A List of North American Lepidop- 
tera and Kev to the Liteniture of this Order of Insects. It is num- 
l>ered 52, and comprises 72»^ octsivo pages. 



42 REPORT OE* NATIONAL MUSKtJM, 1903. 

The intere&t manifested in the history and anthropology of our 
Philippine and other insular possessions rendered desinible the issu- 
ance of instructions for the guidance of collectors of objects in these 
branches, and to secure this purpose there has been printed an addi- 
tional part of Bulletin 39 (Pai-t Q), prepared by Mr. W. H. Holmes 
and Prof. O. T. Mason, under the title Instructions to Collectors of 
Historical and Anthropological Specimens. 

The twenty-fourth volume of Proceedings, printed in bound format 
the beginning of the fiscal year, contains thirty-four papers (1241 to 
1274, inclusive), all of which were issued in the form of-separates dur- 
ing the preceding year. Fifteen of these papers were prepared by 
members of the Museum staff, ten by Dr. David Starr Jordan and his 
assisttmts, being mainly descriptions of Japanese fishes represented in 
the Museum collections, and the remainder by other correspondents 
and collalx)rators of the Museum. 

Papers numbered from 1275 to 1305, constituting volume xxv, 
and those numbered from 1306 to 1332 of volume xxvi, were also 
printed by June 30. It is expected that imml)ers 1333 to 1349 will 
soon be published, and that volumes xxv and xxvi will appear in 
bound form during the summer of 1903. 

There is a continuous demand for certain of the Museum publica- 
tions no longer in stock, but the means this 3'ear have permitted the 
reprinting of only the following: Mr. Robert Kidgway's paper on the 
Humming Birds, from the Museum Report for 1900; Dr. StejnegerV 
paper on The Poisonous Snakes of North America, from the Report 
for 1893; Bulletin 37, entitled A Preliminary Catalogue of the Shell- 
bearing Marine MoUusks and Bmchiopods of the Southeastern Coast 
of the United States, by Dr. William H. Dall; parts F, G, H, I, J, K 
of Bulletin 39, containing directions for collecting insects, shells, min- 
erals, rocks, specimens illustrating the aboriginal uses of plants and 
fossils, and the lii*st volume of Bulletin 47, entitled Fishers of North 
and Middle America, bv Doctors flordan and Evermann. 

All the pu})lications of the Museum are distributed l)y the Offic*e of 
Correspondence and Documents, and it is estimated that during the 
year not less than 10,000 volumes and 35,000 separate papers were 
sent to libraries and individuals in the United States and foreign 
countries. 

Appendix IV of this report contiiins a list of the publications of the 
Museum, of the members of its staff, and also of outside collalK)rators 
to the extent that the papers of the latter were based on Museum 
material. Th(» number of authors is 90, and the total number of 
papers mentioned by title is 277. 



&EPOBT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



43 



In the following table the publications above mentioned are grouped 
by subjects: 



Subject. 



Papers 

by 
Museum 
ofiElcers. 



Papers 

by other 

investi- 

Kators. 



Bibliosraphy 

Biusrraphy 

Birds 

Botany 

Comparative anatomy 

Ethnology 

Exploration 

Fishes 

Fossils 

General natural hi8tor>- . . 

Geology 

Insects 

Mammals 

Marine invertebrates 

Mollusks 

Parasites 

Physical anthropolc^y ... 

Religious ceremonials 

Reptiles and batrachians 
Miscellaneous 



1 
5 
15 
11 
2 
2 

1 

3 

14 



Total 



4 

68 
22 

4 

15 
13 
1 
4 
7 
5 



200 



22 
3 
3 



19 
4 
3 
4 

10 
1 

7 



Total. 



1 
5 
37 
14 
5 
2 
1 

22 

18 

3 

8 

78 

23 

14 

15 

13 

1 

4 

8 

6 



277 



By permission of the Secretaiy the following twelve papers, pre- 
pared by members of the staff and relating to material in the posses- 
sion of the Museum, were printed in publications other than those of 
the National Museum, namely: New Species of Plants from Mexico, by 
C. L. Pollard (published in the Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington); An overlooked specimen of Chilonycter is pilot Is^ and 
six short notes and papers on Chiroptera, by G. S. Miller, jr. (pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington); 
Description of a new Quail-dove from the West Indies, by «r. II. Riley 
(published in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington); 
Pycraft's Classification of the Falconiformes, by Robert Ridgway (pub- 
lished in Science); Descriptions of a New Species of Gecko from Cocos 
Island, by Leonhard Stejneger (published in the Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington); On the Manlius Formation of 
New York, by Charles Schuchert (published in the American Geolo- 
gist); A newly found Meteorite from Mount Vernon, Christian County, 
Ky., by George P. Merrill (published in the American Geologist); 
two papers on new Traguli^ by Gerrit S. Miller, jr. (published in the 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington); Revision of 
the North American Crassulacea^, by J. N. Rose, conjointly with Dr. 
N. L. Britton (published in vol. 2 of the Bulletin of the New York 
Botanical CJarden); On the Faunal Provinces of the Middle Devonic 



44 REPORT OF NATIONAL MHSEUM, 1903. 

of America and the Devonic Choral Subprovince8 of Russia, with two 
Paleographie Maps, by Charles Schuchert (published in the AniericaD 
Geologist); A New Liuid Shell from California, by Paul Bartsch (pul>- 
lished in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington). 

TJBKABY. 

The assignment to the library of two of the galleries erected last 
year, one in the west-north, the other in the north-west I'ange, has 
added a considei-able amount of space, which has long been needed. 
This area hjis l>een fitted up with convenient stacks, permitting a gen- 
ei*al overhauling and a more systematic rearrangement of the books 
and pamphlets. During the latter part of the summer of 1902 the 
library was closed for a time to enable this work to be carried out. 
Its contents were classified and a hirge number of volumes belonging 
to the Smithsonian deposit were turned over to the Institution for 
transmission to the Library of Congress. 

The increase of the library has been mainly due to two very impor- 
tant gifts — the Hubbard and Sc^hwarz and the Dall collections. The 
former, consisting of 3(K) l)ooks and 1,500 pamphlets, was brought 
together by Mr. II. (i. Hubbard and Mr. E. A. Schwarz (Custodian 
of Coleoptera in the Museum), while carrying on their studies more 
or less conjointly, and forms an accessory to their large collection of 
insects, presented by them to the Museum several years ago. It is 
an entomological library, having reference mainly to the American 
Coleoptera. The contribution by Dr. William H. Dall, Honorary 
Cuiator of Mollusks, comprises about 1,()00 bound volumes and about 
2,000 pamphlets on the mollusca, a special librar}' of great value, which 
has been accumulated by Dr. Dall during many years of research. It 
is accompanied l)y a card catiilogue covering the literature of Con- 
chology, both recent and fossil, down to about I860, though materially 
added to since then. 

The al>ove collections and also the Cioode library, purchased in 1898, 
have })een provided with book-plates. 

The Museum library now i)ossesses 1J),101 bound volumes, and 
32,0(>3 unbound pamphlets, periodicals, etc. The cataloguing done 
during the year compristMl l*l<) books, 1,571 pamphlets, and 9,838 parts 
of periodicals, and 3,3 U> cards were added to the authoi's* catalogue. 

The number of books, pamphlets and piM'iodicals borrowed from the 
general library was 18,750, while the* number assigned to the sectional 
libraries was 4,833. Then* has })e*»n no change in the sectional libra- 
ries, which are as follows: 

Administration Jiinls. 

Administrative assistant IJotanv. 

Anthropology. ' Children's room. 

Biology. , Comparative anatomy. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 45 

Mitor. Molhwks. 



Ethnology. 
Fishes. 

History. 

In.sect8. 

Mammals. 

Mfirine invertebrates. 

Materia medica. 

Mesozoic fossils. 

Mineralogy. 



Oriental archeology. 

PaleolK)tanv. 

ParasitetJ. 

Photograpliy. 

Prehistoric anthrojiology. 

Reptiles. 

Stratigraphic paleontology 

Superintendent. 

Taxidermy. 

Technology 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 



Mr. T. W. Smillie, photographer of the Museum, reports that 1,689 
negatives, 3,867 silver prints, 807 platinum prints, 41) lantern slides, 
and 1,016 blueprints have been made, and a large number of prints 
have been mounted. Under Mr. Smillie's direction much photographic 
work has also been done for the National Zoological Park and the 
Astrophysical Observatory, an assistant having been furnished by 
those bureaus for that purpose. 

Mr. Smillie has continued to act as chairman of the board of exam- 
iners in photography for the IT. S. Civil Service Commission. 

CXX)PERATION OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT. 

The Museum has received, as usual, important assistance from 
several of the Departments and Bureaus of the Government. Its rela- 
tions to the U. S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Fish Commission, the 
Biological Survey, and the Divisions of Entomology and JJotany of the 
Department of Agriculture, and the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
especially in regard to the transmission of collections, have been 
referred to elsewhere. Officers of the Armv and Navv stationed in 
the new possessions have made valuable contributions, and representa- 
tives abroad of the Department of State have been instrumental in 
securing interesting material. The Departments of War and of the 
Navy have rendered generous help toward building up the collections 
of history and of the implements of war, having presented and 
deposited during the year many objects of exceeding interest and 
value. The Army Medical Museum has cooperated most liberally in 
promoting the welfare of the recently established Division of Physical 
Anthropology, and special acknowledgments are due to the Quarter- 
master's Department of the Army for many courtesies in connection 
with the transportiition of specimens and outfits to and from distant 
points. 

THE LOUISIANA rilRCMASE EXPOSITION. 

An act providing for the celel)ration in the city of St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, of the one hundredth anniv<»rsary of the acquisition by the 
United States of the "Louisiana Territory," purchased from France, 



46 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

was approved by the President of the United States on March 3, 1901. 
The sundiy civil bill for the year ending June 30, liH)3, carried an 
appropriation of $800,000 to enable the Executive Departments, and 
also the Smithsonian Institution and its bureaus, the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, the Department of Lal)or, the Library of Congress, and the 
Bureau of the American Republics, to prepare suitable exhibits for the 
occasion. Out of this appropriation the sum of |il 10,000 was allotted 
to the Smithsonian Institution. Congress also appropriated $450,000 
for the construction of a building for the display of the Government 
collections. 

Dr. Frederick W. True, Head Curator of Biology, has been desig- 
nated by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution to represent the 
Institution and its bureaus on the Government board. The exposition 
is expected to open on April 30 and to close on November 30, 1904. 
The preparation of the exhibits under the Smithsonian Institution was 
well under way at the ('lose of the year, and it is intended that the 
display made shall surpass any previous efforts by this branch of the 
Government. 

ORGANIZATION AND STAFF. 

The organizati(m of the Museum comprises an administrative ofSce 
and three scientific departments, as follows: Anthropology, with 9 
divisions and 4 sections; Biology, with 9 divisions and 13 sections, 
and Geology, with 3 divisions and 3 sections. This shows an increase 
of one division in Anthropology and of one section in Biology, the 
former relating to physical anthropology, the latter to the lower algse, 
which have been separated from the higher algie. At the close of the 
year the scieiitilic staff consisted of 3 head curators, 17 curators, 13 
assistant curators, 15 custodians, 12 aids, 4 associates, and 2 collabo- 
rators, a total of 00 persons, only about one-half of whom were under 
salary from the National Museum, the othei-s, mainly employees of 
other Government bureaus, serving in a volunt-eer or honorary 
capacity. 

Mr. \V. II. Holmes, Head Curator of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, having })een apix)inted Chief of the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology, Prof. O. T. Mason, Curator of Ethnology, was on November 
15, 1902, placed in charge of the Department as acting head curator. 
Dr. A. Hrdlicka, whose researchers on the physical characteristics of 
man are widely known, was on May 1, 19o3, designated as assistant 
curator of the newly organized Division of Physical Anthropology. 
Dr. G. T. Moore, of the Department of Agriculture, was appointed 
custodian of the section of lower alga> on May 25, and at the same 
time the designation of Mr. W. T. Swingle was changed to custodian 
of the section of higher algjc. 

On Decemb(»r 31, 11H)2, Mr. Charles T. Simpson resigned his posi- 
t/o/j an principal aid in the Division of Mollusks, being succeeded by 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 47 

Mr. Paul Bartsch, whose place was in turn taken by Mr. William B. 
Marshall, appointed aid on April 1. Mr. R. G. Paine was made an 
iid in the Division of Reptiles and Batrachians on April 6, and Mr. 
r. Wayland Vaughan, Custodian of the Madreporarian Corals on 
June 30. 
A list of the members of the Museum staff is given in Appendix I. 

NECKOUX4Y. 

It is gratifying to note that during the past year no deaths have 
^cc'urred in connection with the Museum staff, though among its 
friends there have been several losses, onlv two of which will be men- 
tioned here. 

The first was that of Maj. J. W. Powell, explorer, geologist, and 
inthropologist, for some time director of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
uid the founder and director of the Bureau of American Ethnolog}\ 
\n account of his life and work will be found in the first volume of 
:he Smithsonian report for 1902, and it need only be recalled here that 
u nearly all the varied subjects of his personal studies and of his 
idininistrative oversight he was brought into close relations with the 
Vluseum, which is indebted to him for valuable collections, for wise 
suggestions, and for a continued interest in its welfare. 

The second loss resulted from the death of Dr. James Cushing 
Merrill, of the United States Army, which occurred in Washington 
3n Octoljcr 27, 1902. Doctor Merrill was born in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1853, and after attending school in Germany, he entered 
the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, from which 
he was graduated in 1874. About a year later he was appointed 
assistant surgeon in the United States Army. While stationed at 
various military posts in the west and southwest, he devoted much 
time to the study and collection of birds and eggs, generously giving 
away his collections, the National Museum being one of his fav^ored 
beneficiaries. The accession records show that between 1875 and 1896 
no less than 28 separate lots of specimens were received from him, 
these including a large number of valuable skins, eggs, and nests of 
birds, besides mammals, fishes, and other natural history material. 
Doctor Merrill was elected an active member of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union at its first congress in 1883. He was a careful and 
accumte observer of the habits of birds and mammals, and also con- 
tributed several important papers to scientific literature. Two of 
these were published in the Proceedings of the National Museum, 
their titles being as follows: Notes on the Ornithology of Southern 
Texas, being a list of birds observed in the vicinity of Fort Brown, 
Texas, from February, 1876, to June, 1878, and On the Habits of the 
Rockv Mountain Goat. 



REPORTS OF UK AD CURATORS. 



:port on thk department of ANTHKOI'OLCxjy By Otis T. Mason. 

:fORT on the department <>F HIOI/mjY By Frederick W. True. 

:P0RT f>N THE DEIWRTMENT of (;E0I.()<;Y By Georok p. Merrill. 



NAT Mi'« 1903 1 49 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 53 

of Japan; pair of modern bronze vases from the Empress of Japan; 
gold toilet set from the King and Queen of Siam; lady's silver perfume 
case from the Maharaja of Dekkan; poems of Japanese authors; ball 
dress and slippers worn b}' Mrs. Grant at President Grant's second- 
Inauguration ball; hu^quered })amboo case, gold-embossed, said to be 
one thousand years old, and valued at many thousand dollars, from 
the King and Queen of Siam; death mask of General Grant; riding 
boots worn by General Grant at Appomattox, Virginia; velvet belt 
worn by General Grant; saddle valise; two commissions; five addresses 
to General Grant received when a))road; five certificates to General 
Grant; menu cards, etc. Presented })v the children of General and 
Mrs. Grant, through General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. Army. 

6. Sword and shoulder straps worn by Gen. Frederick D. Grant, 
D. S. Army, during the war with Spain, while participating in the 
campaigns in Porto Rico and the Philippine Islands and in the Peking 
Relief Expedition; pre^sented by Gen. Frederick D. Grant, U. S. 
Arm3\ 

7. Painting, "The March of Time," from the artist, Mr. Henry 
Sandham, London, England. 

8. Plaster bust of George Washington, made from a life mask taken 
by Jean Antoine Houdon at Mount Vernon in 1785; from Miss Eliza- 
beth Bryant Johnston. 

9. Bronze bust of Hon. Horatio King; f nmi his son, Mr. Horatio C. 
King. 

10. Cane of Horace Greeley; from Mr. H. S. Manning. 

11. Costume worn by Prof. S. F. B. Morse when at the courts of 
Europe; from his heirs, through Mrs. Franz Rummel. 

12. Relics of Governor William Shannon, of Ohio and of Kansas; 
from Mrs. Osborn Shannon. 

13. Six pieces of American made porcelain, decorated and presented 
by Mr. E. Lycett, Atlanta, Georgia. 

14. Ten Graeco- Egyptian papyri, from the Egyptian Exploration 
Fund. 

15. The Division of Physical Anthropology has been enriched by 
gifts of crania and parts of the human skeleton from Mr. E. W. Nelson, 
Dr. John W^alsh, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, Mr. Clarence B. Moore, the 
U. S. Fish Commission, Dr. D. S. Lamb, L. C. Harris, and the Army 
Medical Museum. 

10. Collection of 887 \)iectvs of gold, silver, and copper coins, from 
Mrs. E. M. Chapman. 

17. An Austrian flint-lock pistol used in the Napoleonic wars; pre- 
sented by Baron P. Paumgarten, chancellor of the Austro-Hungarian 
£mbassv. 

18. Several Morse telegraph keys of the earliest type used in this 
oountry; presented by Mr. C. M. Lewis. 



54 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903, 

19. A number of important accessions which have been in the 
Museum for several years as deposits have, during the year, been 
presented to the Institution and thus have l>ecome permanent exhibits. 
• Among these are: Dividing engine and slide re.st invented by James 
Kamsden, presented b}' the executors of his estate; Morse telegraph 
register and relay, loaned by Mr. Charles Heaton and now presented 
by Mr. Charles M. Heaton, jr.; collections of decorations conferred 
upon Prof. S. F. B. Morse by various foreign governments, viz: 
Order of the Legion of Honor of France; the Royal American 
Order of Isabella the Catholic of Spain; Order of the Tower and 
Sword, Portugal; Order of St^. Maurice and Lazarus, Italy; Order of 
Nichan-Iftikhar, Turkey; medal of merit established in 1884: by King 
Frederick William, of Wurttemberg; medal for scientific merit estab- 
lished by Frederick William IV of Prussia, set in the lid of a gold 
snuffbox; presented by J. E. F. Morse, Mrs. Franz Rummel, W. G. 
Morse, S. F. B. Morse, S. M. Perry, and K L. Morse. 

I»URCHA8ES. 

The purchases in ethnology were: Thirty-nine specimens of Pueblo 
pottery from Col. C. A. Deane; 13 specimens of Chippewa Indian 
quill work from Rev. I). C. Lee; 103 specimens of basketry, masks, 
etc., from Lieut. G. T. Emmons, U. S. Navy; 195 specimens of Bud- 
dhist art from Dr. Carl C. Hanson; 74 specimens of mission Indian 
basketrv from Mr. H. N. Rust. 

In ceramics: Five pieces of Syrian glass from Mr. Thomas B. Clark. 

In historic religious ceremonials: Tw^enty -eight objects from North 
Africa illustrating Jewish religious ceremonials, from Mr. Ephraim 
Deinard. 

In physical anthropology: Crania and other objects from Mr. C. A. 
Nelson, Mr. B. Sturtz, Mr. N. Dumarest, Mr. Walter G. Hill, Mr. 
Roy W. Kelley, and Mr. W. C. Hill. 

In metrology: A set of German silversmith's weights of the six- 
teenth century and a rare surveyors compass of French manufacture. 

TRANSFERS. 

A number of valuable collections transferred to the Museum by the 
Bureau of American Ethnology include the following: 

1. Stone implements, ornaments, pottery, et<\, numbering l^Z^A 
specimens, from the Mississippi Valley and the Pueblo region, col- 
lected by Mr. E. O. Matthews. 

2. Collection made by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes in the islands of Santo 
Domingo and Porto Rico, including elaborately carved stone pestles, 
zemes or mammiform stones with sculptured devices, a stone hatchet 
with human figure carved in low relief, stone hatchets with handle 

and blade id a single piece, stone '^collars," amulets, polishing stones^ 



REPOBT OF ASSISTANT 3ECRETABY. 55 

stone tmlls, pottery, a "regurgitating" or swallowing bone niade 
from the rib of a manatee and finely carved with a human figure, etc. 
This remarkable collection comprises 1,287 specimens. 

3. A series of implements and other objects collected by Mr. VV. H. 
Holmes and Gerard Fowke from an aboriginal hematite mine at Leslie, 
Missouri. The raining tools include roughly grooved mauls, hammer 
stones, and picks of stone and hematite. There are also specimens of 
the ore mined and used as paint, a large mass of hematite weighing 
l,00i) pounds, showing marks of the ancient mining tools, and arrow 
points, leaf -shaped blades, and spearheads of flint. 

4. An archeological collection comprising 3,058 specimens, obtained 
by Mr. Frank K. Cushing, from the shell heaps on Campbell and 
Torrey Islands, Maine. It consists of stone implements, such as 
knives, spearheads, arrow points, scrapers, and drills; an interesting 
series of bone objects, among which are harpoon heads, arrow points, 
awls, needles, and a large number of pieces of animal bones showing 
marks of cutting and sawing. There are also fragments of rude 
pottery. 

Collections of Dr. Frank Russell, of Harvard, accessions 39990 and 
39991, secured by him among the Pima Indians of southern Arizona. 
A description of the collection will appear in a forthcoming report of 
the Bureau of American Ethnology. The first of these consists of 289 
specimens and was received as a deposit from the Bureau of Ethnology; 
the latter consisting of 44 specimens of Pima baskets, was purchased. 

EXCHANGES. 

1. Ethnological specimens, 41 in number, including baskets, a tobacco 
bag, a pipe, a woman's knife, and other Indian articles; from Lieut. 
G. T. Emmons, U. S. Navy. 

2. Two fowling pieces and three Filipino swords; from Mr. Paul 
Beckwith. 

3. Stone implements, from Uruguay, forwarded by the Museo 
Nacional of Montevideo through Senor Luis A. de Hererra, secretary 
of the Legation of Uruguay, in exchange for North American archeo- 
logical and ethnological specimens. 

LOANS. 

1. One hundred and thirty-one specimens of oriental metal work, 
lacquer, and porcelain, including a number of examples of Buddhist 
and Hindu religious art; by Miss Eliza Ruhama Scidmore. 

2. Forty-seven objects of Buddhist religious art; by S. S. Howland. 

3. Relics of Gen. Alexander Macomb, senior major-general of the 
United States Army from 1821 to 1848, consisting of swords, uniforms, 
chapeaux, etc. ; by Mrs. F. G. d'Hautville. 



56 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

4. Derringer pistol, once the property of Henry Cla^-; By Mr. B. B. 
Per row. 

5. Collection of 26 relics of the Revolutionary period; by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, through Mrs. William Lind- 
say, chairman of the relic committee. 

6. Pewter platter, land grant, etc.; by tlie National Society of 
Colonial Dame?, through Miss Virginia Miller, chairman of the relic 
committee. 

7. Fossil skull from an ancrient river terrace at Lansing, Kansas; by 
Mr. M. C. Long. 

8. Anthropometric appiiratus; by the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York, and the Army Medicul Museum, Washington. 

9. Collection of pikes and lances used l)y Confederates during the 
civil war, uniforms of the same period, guns captured in varioa*^ 
Indian campaigns, swords and an old musket from the ship Someniei^ 
war of 1812; by the War Department. 

10. A series of six models of United States war vessels, deposited bv 
the Navy Department, is of special interest. The vessels represented 
are the cruiser Baltitnovc^ gun})oats Y(n'li(»n)^ Peird^ and Bancroft', 
double-turreted monitors Miautonamoh and Mimti-rey; i*am Katnhdin: 
and dynamite gun})oat VeHuvfiiH. 

11. Models of cannon and howitzers used in the United States Armv 
between 1845 and 1S65, and a large collection of rifles, muskets, and 
other small arms; by the War Department. 

12. Siunoan outrigger c^inoe, by Mrs. J. L. Jayne. 

13. Daguerreotype of Mrs. Dolly Payne Madison, wife of President 
Madison, by Mrs. C. S. Brooks. 

c:ake of the collections. 

The numerous accessions of the year, especially the large collections 
of Abbott, Hilder, and others, liavt* made it necessary to contract the 
exhibition space in order to make room for the ever-growing study 
series and for laboratory purposes. The demands of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition and of the n(»wly -established Division of Physical 
Anthropology for spaxe have increased the embarrassment. The con- 
gestion has been sonu^what relieved by fitting up the galleries over 
the south-west and west-north ranges, but overcrow^ding is still every- 
where apparent. 

The usual watchfulness over the ethnological collections to protect 
them from insects and rust has been exercised, and Mr. Joseph Palmer 
has devoted a large part of his time to the work of overhauling, reno- 
vating and poisoning. 

Until additional (exhibition space is provided the installation of new 
material is practically at an end, exci^pting where exhibits that have 
been long* lK»fore {\ic public are replaced l)v others of greater interest. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 57 

The work of labeling the exhibits has been carried forward with all 
possible energy during the year, and great advance has been made 
over previous years, especially in the labeling of the larger units, such 
as halls, alcoves, groups of exhibits, and cases. 

In the Division of Ethnology the Philippine collection has been 
temporarily arranged in cases in the north-west court gallery; the col- 
lections obtained through the Museum-Gates expedition in Arizona 
during the previous year have been placed in good order in the storage 
series of the Pueblo court, and Mr. Thomas W. Sweeny has classified 
and rearranged the large Eskimo study collection in the storage bases of 
the north-west range. Mr. Joseph Palmer and Mr. Charles Luscombe 
have been engaged in mendings modeling, making facsimilies of 
specimens, and allied la}K)ratory work. 

During the entire fiscal yesLV the hall of prehistoric archeology has 
been closed on account of repairs, but the work of cataloguing and 
caring for the collections has gone on without interruption under the 
supervision of Mr. E. P. Upham. 

A large collection of Washington relics, transferred to the Museum 
from the Patent Ofiice, has Ix^en installed in the hall of American history 
in connection with cognate exhibits, under the supervision of Mr. 
A. H. Clark and Mr. Paul Beckwith. The exhibition series in this 
division is all labeled and the crowded condition of the study series 
has been greatly relieved by removing portions of it to the new gal- 
leries. It has long been felt that a suitable catalogue of the historical 
collections should be prepared for publication by the Museum, and 
during the year this work was initiated by the employment of Miss 
Elizabeth Bryant Johnston, who has completed a descriptive catalogue 
of the personal relics of George Washington. 

In the Division of Physical Anthropology there is as yet no exhibition 
series, the time of the new curator. Doctor Hrdlicka, having been 
devoted to organizing the division and fitting up a laboratory of 
anthropometry. 

In the sections of historic religious ceremonials and classical arche- 
ology, few changes have been made save that the labeling has been 
carried practically to completion. 

In the Division of Medicine the curator has been engaged in prepar- 
ing a card catalogue of the collections. Elach specimen, whether on exhi- 
bition, in the study series or in storage, has an individual card, giving 
name, number, collector, mode of acquisition, etc. 

EXriX) RATIONS. 

During the year a very limited amount of field work has been under- 
taken by members of the Department's staff. Mr. W. H. Holmes 
continued his explorations in archeology on behalf of the Bureau of 
Ethindogy. Under his dii*ection numerous mound relics and fossil 



58 REPf)RT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

bones of ancient nmnimals were obtained near Kimmswick^ Missouri, 
by Mr. Gemrd Fowke, and extensive collections were made in ancient 
flint <iuaiTies and workshops in Carter County, Kentucky, and in Har- 
rison County, Indiana, illustmtin^ all the phases of flint working. 

Mr. Holmes, aided by Mr. Fowke, made investi^tions in a hematite 
mine at L(\slie, Missouri, obtiiining the collections referred to on a 
preceding piigQ. 

Dr. J. Walter Fowkt^s, of the Bureau of Ethnology, concludwl 
important exjdonitions in the islands of Santo Domingo and Porto 
Rico. It has long been known that the latter island was in some way 
a sacred retreat of the ancient inhabitants of the Antilles. Many 
years ago a large collection of objects of stone was presented to the 
Museum by (ieorgt* Latimer, and Doctor Fewkes was successful in 
supplementing this with valuable material, adding many new forms. 
In addition to his archeological explorations. Doctor Few^kes made 
careful studies of the natives, including the whites, blacks, and rem- 
nants of ancient al)origines. 

Dr. W. L. Abbott, of Philadelphia, lias continued his explorations 
in the northern {xjrtion of the island of Sumatra and the small islands 
adjoining, and the mainland in the Straits Settlements, contributing 
the vahiable vollections already described. 

RESEARCHES. 

One of the chief aims of the Department of Anthropology has always 
been to favor and encoui*age research, not only on the part of members 
of the staff but of investigators elsewhere. Much attention has been 
paid during the year to correspondence on every to|tic connected with 
anthropology, and to o])tain, if ix)ssible, for the friends of the Institu- 
tion information that is not within their re^wh. Literature published 
by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum on anthropo- 
logi<'al subjects has been freely distributed. This remark applies 
eciually to the ethnology of America, the Philippine Islands, and inci- 
dentally to other parts of the world. The curators have been almost 
daily importuned for information concerning the nature and use of 
archeological relics. 

A collection of Indian shields was sent to Mr. James Mooney, Mount 
Scott, Oklahoma, for study in the field. 

In the Division of History (|uestions arise (constantly as to the mean- 
ing of inscriptions and the readings on coins and medals. Already, in 
the n(»w Division of Physical Anthropology a beginning has been 
made in supplying special instructions to observers and students. In 
the Division of Ceramics errors with reference to the age and sources 
of pottery are corrected. With the public, great interest is mani- 
fested in the ''Synoptic Series'' of the Museum, and teachei*s are con- 
stantly receiving instructions with reference to the development of 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 59 

various lines of industrial apparatus. All the divisions of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology have been active in this regard during the past 
year. 

In December Dr. Hjalmar Stolpe, director of the Royal Museum of 
Sweden, Stockholm, studied Polynesian and South American col- 
lections. 

Professors H. Pittier, of Costa Rica, and C. V. Hartmann, of Stock- 
holm, received instructions in casting archeological specimens in the 
anthropological laboratory. 

In March Dr. A. B. Hunter, of Raleigh, North Carolina, received 
instructions in making casts, photographs, and other methods of 
ethnological investigation with a view to studying the negro of the 
South. 

Mr. Wells 4?". Andrews, statistician of the Immigration Bureau in 
the Treasury Department, made studies in the Division of Ethnology 
in order to classify immigrants into the United States. The scheme 
furnished has been adopted by the Department. 

Dr. Waldemar Bogoras, of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, made a careful examination of the Eskimo collection 
in order to find Siberian material. His results will appear in the 
publications of that institution. 

Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, jr., and Mr. Ernest Thompson Seton 
received instructions in the methods of piimitive tire-making. 

Dr. Carl Von den Steinen, of Berlin, made a special study of the 
technological processes employed by the North American Indians, 
especially in weaving and basketry. 

Subsequent to the meeting of the Society of Americanists in New 
York, many of the foreign delegates visited the Museum, where a 
reception was held in their honor. 

Dr. E. A. Bogue made an examination of the denture in the Indian 
crania. 

The Curator of the Division of Ethnology tinished his comprehen- 
sive work on American Indian basketry and Doctor Hough submitted 
for publication his monograph on the results of the Museum-Gates 
expedition to Arizona in 1901, which was printed in the Annual Report 
of the National Museum for that year. 

Dr. A. Hrdlicka published a report on the Lansing skeleton in the 
American Anthropologist for June. 

An address delivered bv Dr. Cyrus Adler in connection with the 
opening of the Semitic umseum of Harvard University was published 
by that institution. 

Dr. I. M. Casanowicz published foiu* papers based mainly on the col- 
lections in the National Museum. 



60 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1»03. 

STORAGE. 

Numerous specimens have been stored in building outside of the 
Museum, but it has been the policy of the Department not to send out 
of the building any specimens which can not be replaced in case of Iojs**. 
As a result of this policy, the crowding of the halls has l)ecome more 
embarrassing. Even the offices of the curators five being used as 
receptacles of valued material for which there is no present place of 
storage. 

Since the death of Dr. Thomas Wilson, Curator of the Division of 
Prehistoric Archeology , in 1902, Mr. Holmes has given especial atten- 
tion to the interests of this division and has been faithfuUv assisted 
by Mr. E. P. Upham. 



REPORT ON THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOOT 

FOR THE TEAR 1902-3. 

By Fkedekick W. Tkue, 
Head Curator. 

The principal features of the year covered by this report were the 
improvement of the installation of the exhibition series, brought 
about largely by "placing the supervision of the work in the hands of 
a single officer, and the enlargement of the quarters for the National 
Herbarium. In the majority of classes the number of specimens 
added to the collections was less than last year; but in scientific value 
there was no appreciable decline. The number of zoological speci- 
mens added was not less than 70,000, of which 9,000 were vertebrates. 
About 35,000 botanical specimens were also received. Some important 
improvements were made in the installation of the great zoological 
study series, but the need of more space and better facilities were 
keenly felt. Preparations for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. 
Louis, 1904, were actively begun, and were in an advanced condition 
at the close of the year. 

EXHIBITION COLLECTIONS. 

With the consent of the Assistant Secretary, Mr. F. A. Lucas, 
Curator of the Division of Comparative Anatomy, was placed in tem- 
porary charge of all exhibition work of the Department, November 
1, 1902, and all the taxidermists and other natural history preparators 
were directed to report to him. By this change the work has been 
much better coordinated than hitherto, and the results obtained dur- 
ing the year have been very satisfactory. The curators of the several 
divisions are still called upon to select specimens^for the exhibition 
series, to furnish technical information for labels, or for the use of the 
preparators, etc., but they are not expected to regularly supervise the 
work of the preparators or to install collections in the exhibition 
cases. There has been a growing recognition among the curators of 
natural history museums of the fact that the needs of the general pub- 
lic and of the special student and investigator are quite diverse, and 
that endeavors to combine in one series collections of interest to both 
are little better than a waste of time. The general public and the gen- 
eral student are only confused by a nuiltiplicity of specimens repre- 
senting small variations of one species, or illustrating small steps in a 

61 



62 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

single vital process, while the special student and investigator never 
has too many speciniens, and can seldom make much progress with 
scant material. 

The principal improvements during the year were in the halls 
devoted to mammals, marine invertebrates, insects, and fishes. The 
interior of the wall-cases of the South Hall gallery, containing Old 
World mammals, was reiminted to correspond in color with the cases 
on the main floor and to set off the specimens properly, the color of 
the unpaint(»d burlap background having proved too dull. At the 
same time the floor cases on the gidler}' continuing the small mammals 
were refitted to correspond with those below. The result has been 
a great improvement in the gen(»nil appearance of the cases and visi- 
bility of the collections. The very attractive group of African horse- 
tailed monk(»ys, CohUmA nntdnfnH^ prepared some time ago with 
specimens presented by Dr. W. L. Abbott, was placed in a new 
case especially adapted for properly displaying it. The specimens 
were cleaned and the accessories renovated bv the chief taxidermist. 
On the main floor, devoted to American mammals, the south wall-cases 
mentioned in last years report were finished and filled with South 
American mammals, which are now installed in a satisfac'tory manner. 
No room has as y(»t been found, howevcM-, for such large forms as the 
tapir, pampas deer, et<'. The majority of the floor-cases were furnished 
with new fittings, uniform in design and color. The group of Rocky 
Mountiiin sheep made originally for the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, lSJj8, was taken from sUjnige and erected at the northwest cor- 
ner of the hall. The artificial rock-work was cut down and partially 
remodeled and {\w specimens renovated by the chief taxidermist 
This completes the represcMitation by groups of the principal large 
ruminants of North America, except that space has not been found for 
the White (loat group. The intention is to let this take the place of 
one of the two caribou groups. Numerous small mammals were 
added to the genenil North American series. A number of large 
mammals were mounted during the year for the St. Louis Exposition, 
but wmII not be displayed in Washington until the close of the exposi- 
tion. New uniform printed lalx^ls for the entire American series of 
small mammals, revised and brought up to date as regards nomencla- 
ture, etc., were printed and plac^ed vf\t\\ the specimens during the 
year. The labels for the Old World series w^ere also revised, and, 
where nec(»ssary, new" ones were prepared, printed, and put on the 
specimens. The entire mammal exlii})it, therefore, with a few excep- 
tions in some groups, is now thoroughly and satisfactorily labeled. 
The Indian rhinoceros, which had been on exhibition for many j'^ears, 
was withdrawn, as it had become unsightly through the cracking of 
the skin and could not be repaired satisfactorily. 

In the hall in the Smithsonian building devoted to the lower inverte- 
brates the Jnteriors of all the wall-cases were repainted. As these 



REPORT OF A88I8TANT SECRETARY. 63 

:ases, for the most part, contain corals, it was decided to use black for 
he hac^kground as best suited to bring the specimens into relief. The 
'X>rals and sponges were rearranged and some specimens added to the 
jeneral North American series. 

In the insect hall the exhibit of North American species was extended 
)y the addition of representatives of the orders Lepidoptera, Euplex- 
)ptera, Orthoptei^a, Hemiptera, and Diptera. 

After the collection of fishes exhibited at the Pan-American Expo- 
iition, Buffalo, 1901, was returned, a reclassification of all the casts 
va« made, the series being divided into two sections — marine fishes 
ind fresh-water fishes. The cases standing against the walls were 
•econstructed and furnished with large glass and paneled bases, so as 
o present a uniform appeamnce around the hall. A large shark and 
leveral other fishes of very large size were placed on top of the cases 
ind provided with new fmmed labels. The descriptive labels used at 
Buffalo were mounted on standards of uniform design and placed 
)eside the species to which they refer. The series now exhibited, aside 
rom the small representation of deep-sea fishes, is entirely North 
\.merican. While it is desired to exhibit various series from other 
Mirts of the world, there is not suflScient room for this purpose in the 
)resont quarters. For this reason the South American fishes preserved 
n formalin have been temporarily withdrawn. These preparations 
verc in quite good condition when last examined, but they are not 
intirely satisfactory for exhibition on account of the bleaching of the 
olors, dullness of the eyes, etc. Experiments were made during the 
-ear in casting from formalin specimens. The results were quite satis- 
actory, and it is believed that a series of casts made in this way and 
minted might prove best for a permanent exhibit. A number of 
Qolds of fishes and some casts of large fishes, which have been used by 
he United States Connnission of Fish and Fisheries in connection with 
'arious expositions, were transferred to the Museum by the Commis- 
ioner. Several of these casts were repaired and placed on exhibition, 
i8 already mentioned. 

All the labels for the reptiles and batrachians were reprinted in the 
ame style as the mammal labels, the object being toliave all the faunal 
abels uniform as regards matter and general appearance. Instead of 
he particular locality in which a specimen exhibited was obtained, 
hese labels contain a brief statement of the geograi)hical range of the 
pecies represented, together of course with the common and scientific 
lames, the catalogue number of the specimen, and in the case of gifts, 
he name of the donors. Specimens received from Government sur- 
reys are labeled with the names of the organizations which transmitted 
hem. 

Few changes of importance were made in connection with the 
exhibits of birds and niollusks, })ut copy was prepared for new labels 
'or the entire North American series of birds. The labels had not 



64 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

been printed when the year (closed. The groups of birds, 16 in num- 
ber, which were originally" made for various expositions, were over- 
hauled, and the eases made dust tight as far as possible and provided 
with new framed labels. Under present conditions it is not deemed 
expedient to build new cases for these groups. The beautiful speci- 
mens of the Argus pheasant presented some time ago by Dr. W. L. 
Ab})ott, were brought together I)}' the taxidermists in the form of a 
group, with ground-work, and placed in a new case. This group is one 
of the most atti^active and interesting objects in the entire exhibition 
series. The baseboards of all the large alcove-cases were repainted. 

In order to find room for the enlargement of the National Herba- 
rium it became necessary to abandon the limited spac^e on the East 
Hall gallery previously allotted for botanical exhibits. This was done 
most reluctantly, but in view of the necessities of the case it was 
deemed unavoidable. With this change the Museum definitely aban- 
doned making lx)tanical exhibits for the present, but with the hope 
that after the new building provided for by Congress is erected, abun- 
dant room will be found for such collections. 

During the year each of the exhibition halls was provided with a 
large sign, calling attention in a few words to its contents, as for 
example, ''Lower Invertebrates,'' ''American Mammals," etc. In 
addition, uniform framed case labels, about 200 in number, were 
provided for all the cases containing mammals, birds, reptiles, 
batrachians, insects, and lower invertebrates. The series of case 
labials for the exhibit of comparative anatomy was also completed. 

A considerable number of requests were received during the year 
for photographs of various groups and single objects in the exhibi- 
tion series, chiefly for puri>oses of publication. The Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing made photographs and sketches of the 
mounted bison as a basis for the figure of that animal placed on 
the now ten-dollar bill. An American eagle was mounted in a special 
attitude for a similar purpose. Prof. M. M. Metcalf , of the Woman's 
College of Baltimore, made a number of photographs of skeletons 
and other objects for a forthcoming work on evolution. Dr. D. G. 
Elliot, of the Field Columl)ian Museum, Chicago, obtained photo- 
graphs of certain whale skulls for a work on the mammals of Central 
America. 

EXPLORATIONS. 

In the spring of 1903, Mr. F. A. Lucas, accompanied by Messrs. 
William Palmer and J. W. Scollick, visited one of the stations of the 
Cabot Steam Whaling Company, Newfoundland, toobtain a large whale 
for the St. Louis Exposition. Toward the close of the fiscal year Mr. 
Lucas reported that the skeleton and cjists of the exterior of a sulphur- 
bottom whale, about 75 feet long, had been obtained. B}^ invitation 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY, 65 

f the Geographical Society of Baltimore, Messrs. B. A. Bean and 
. H. Riley accompanied the expedition of the society to the Bahamas 
collect aquatic and land vertebrates. By invitation of Dr. L. O. 
loward. Dr. H. G. Dyar, accompanied by Mr. R. P. Currie, of the 
i^ational Museum, and Mr. A. N. Caudell, of the Department of Agri- 
ulture, made an expedition to British Columbia to collect insects, and 
specially mosquitoes, under the auspices of the Carnegie Institution. 
At, G. S. Miller, jr., spent a few weeks in collecting small mammals 
a the vicinity of Hampton, Virginia. Messrs. Richmond, Ashmead, 
Jartsch, and Currie spent some days in Philadelphia in the study of 
he zoological collections of the Academy of Sciences, and Dr. Rose 
isited the Museum of the New York Botanical Garden. Mr. W. R. 
ilaxon spent two months in Jamaica (April and May, 1903), where 
le made a very large collection of plants, and especially of ferns. 
le also obtained some fine examples of the large white ant nests found 
Q the island. 

ACCESSIONS. 

The accessions of the year, considered as separate lots of varying 
izes received from different sources, were considerably less than last 
ear, except in the Division of Plants and the Section of Birds' Eggs. 
?he accessions of plants were greater in number than in any year since 
81^5, lx»ing in all 575, but the number of specimens comprised in them 
fAs less than in the previous year, viz, about 53,500 specimens in 
902, and about 35,000 in 1903. The accessions of birds' eggs, on the 
ontrary, aggregated more specimens than in 1902. The whole num- 
ber of zoological speciinens received during the year was, as already 
tated, about 70,000; of plants about 35,000 specimens. A notable and 
iiost important feature of the accessions was an inirease in the num- 
ber of types and cotypes j)resented, which comprise insects, fishes, 
>irds, and crustaceans. Among the hirgest zoological accessions 
eceived were a collection of al)out 19,000 gall wasps and parasites 
Qade in Canada, and transmitted by the I'. S. Department of Agricul- 
ure; about 4,000 Costa Rican insects, purchased from Mr. P. Schild, 
►f Hamburg, Germany; about 2,000 Chilean insects, presented by 
Ar. E. C. Reed, of Concepc*ion; a collection of about 2,000 fish, birds' 
ggs, mollusks, and other marine invertebrates from the Hawaiian 
slands, transmitted by the U. S. Fish Commission; a collection com- 
)rising about 1,500 birds' eggs, insects and mammals from Paraguay; 
he East Indian collections of Dr. Abbott, consisting of more than 
,200 mammals, birds, reptiles, etc. Considering the character of Dr. 
Lbbott's collections, which contain hundreds of mammals, they should 
perhaps have been mentioned first, as it is obviously more difficult to 
ssemble large numbers of these animals than of any other class. The 
irgest collection of plants received during the year was one made by 

NAT MU8 1903 5 



66 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, . 1903. 

Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, in the Yellowstone National Park. It 
comprises about 5,3(X) specimens, and was very generously donated to 
the Museum by the collector. This is probably the largest scientific 
collection of plants ever made in the park. Next in size was the col- 
lection made by Mr. William R, Maxon, of the Museum staff, in 
Jamaica, comprising al>out 2,0<)0 specimens, chiefly ferns. 

It is a pleasure to record the continued activity of Dr. W. L. 
Abbott in the exploration of the East Indies. The collections received 
during the year were chiefly from the coast and islands of northwest- 
ern Sumatra, as far south as Siboga, and from theRiou Peninsula, just 
south of Singapore. They comprise, as already mentioned, mammals, 
birds, reptiles, and batrachians, flshes, and insects. The Sumatran 
mammals, about 500 in number, were studied by Mr. G. S. Miller, jr., 
who discovered among them a new ape {Macaais fuscus)^ four new 
species of mouse deer (genus Tragulm)^ nine new squirrels, a new genus 
and five new si)ecies of mice, and a new porcupine (Tricky % nuicrotis). 
The birds from the same region also comprised about 500 specimens, 
representing 152 species, of which 19 were found by Dr. C. W. Rich- 
mond to be new to science. The collections from Pahang and the 
Riou Archipelago have already yielded four new species of mouse 
deer, and are probably as important as the preceding one for the light 
they will throw on the distribution of Malayan species. The National 
Museum has received from Dr. Abbott, since the beginning of his 
explorations in the East Indies, no less than 2,500 mammals, 3,900 
birds, 800 reptiles and batrachians, besides very numerous specimens 
of other classes. 

In 1902 the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Alha;t/ross was sent to 
the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of continuing the investigation 
of the fisheries. In the course of this work large collections were 
made in various branches of natural history and transmitted to the 
Museum. Those received during the year covered by this report were 
a valuable collection of birds' eggs, about 1,500 marine mollusks in 
alcohol, many new to the Government collections, and about 100 species 
apparently undescribed; a collection of corals, and a second lot of 
crustaceans. The Commission also transmitted a collection of 85 birds, 
mainly from Laysan Island, north of Hawaii, including the type of a 
tern, Procehternia saxatills Fisher. From the Albatross Samoan Expe- 
dition of 1902 were received corals and crustaceans in addition to the 
specimens transmitted last year. The Commission also furnished 
about 800 specimens of the commoner species of marine invertebrate* 
of Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for distribution to educational estab- 
lishments, together with a small collection of fishes from the same 
locality, a specimen of the Tile fish {Lopholdtilus)^ from 70 miles off 
Nomans Land, the type and cotype of a new species of white-fish 
{Coregonns stanleyi)^ from Aroostook County, Maine, and a cotype of 
a new fish {Iladrajdenis evermanni)^ from Tippecanoe Lake, Indiana. 



BEPORT OF ASSISTANT 8ECBETABY. 67 

Prof, T. D. A. Cockerell, of East Las Vegas, New Mexico, pre- 
sented eight lots of insects of different orders, containing many new 
species, and including types and cotypes of species described by him; 
also three lots of ampbipod crustaceans and leeches, the former rep- 
resenting a new form found in a warm spring. 

An interesting collection of reptiles and batrachians from northern 
Mexico and North Carolina was purchased from Brimley Brothers, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. It contained a series of a salamander 
{Desmognathus tputdrlinacidata)^ which had not been recognized since 
Holbrookes time. From the same source was obtained a small collec- 
tion of North Carolina fishes, one of which was found to be unde- 
scribed and was named Notropu Irrimteyi by Mr. B. A. Bean; also 
eight specimens of the very rare skipper, Pamphlla Carolina Skinner. 

Among the most impoiiant purchases of the year were the zoological 
collections made by Mr. William Foster in the vicinity of Sapucay, 
a small town near Ascuncion, Paragua3\ They comprise about 800 
insects, 600 birds' eggs, and 350 small mammals. The mammals were 
orincipally bats. The specimens were all carefully prepared and 
labeled and filled important gaps in the Government collections. 

Mamrruds. — In addition to Dr. Abbott's East Indian mammals and 
uhose from Paraguay just mentioned, the Museum received several 
other accessions which deserve mention. Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. 
Army, added to his generous donations of previous j^ears two collec- 
tions of small mammals, one from the Yellowstone Park, comprising 
about 300 specimens, and the other from Fort Snelling, Minnesota, 
comprising about 200 specimens. The collections of European small 
mammals, already very rich, was increased by two collections, one 
from Switzerland and one from Norway. An excellent series of 
Japanese rodents and bats, purchased during the year, represents the 
first well-prepared collection of mammals received by the Museum 
from that country. Mr. B. S. Rairden, United States Consul at 
Batavia, Java, obtained for the Museum two specimens of a Javan 
mouse-deer, which proved to be an undescribed species of much inter- 
est, and was named Tragulus focalinm by Mr. G. S. Miller, jr. A 
somewhat imperfect but very valuable skeleton of a peculiar porpoise 
from the Hawaiian Islands was presented by Prof. Charles H. Gilbert 
of the Stanford University. It represents the species Psevdorca eras- 
sldens^ a form intermediate between the killers and blackfish, which 
has not been obtained hitherto from the vicinity of the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

Birds. — Mr. Homer Davenport, of Morris Plains, New Jersey, pre- 
sented to the Museum during the year 22 large and valuable birds 
from his extensive aviary, among which were an Australian Goose, a 
Javan Jungle-fowl, a Black- winged Peacock, Pavonigripennis^ regarded 
by some zoolog^ts as a distinct species, and several beautlivA "^Vi^^dJ^- 
ants, including Diaitl's Fire-back Pheasant, Lop/iura diardi* ^\o\bl 



68 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Mr. A. Boucard were purchased two rare birds of paradise, Paradisea 
gidlielmi and Rhipidomis guilielmir-IIL A pair of rare flightless 
cormorunts from the Galapagos Islands, and about 300 birds from 
this group and the islands oflf the west coast of Mexico, including a 
series of Nesomimus trifasciatm^ were also purchased. The Bishop 
Museiun^ Honolulu, presented a collection of the birds of Guam, com- 
posing alx)ut 44 specimens, representing species not previously con- 
tained in the Government collection. Mr. Outrani Bangs, of Boston, 
presented about 50 desirable Honduras birds, and about 300 specimens 
from Chiriqui, Costa Rica, were obtained from him in exchange. The 
Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture, transmitteil a 
fine collection of birds' eggs from different parts of North America. 

Reptihs and hatnuhlans, — Messrs. Brimley and Sherman presented 
a fine series of salamanders from North Carolina, and Mr. E. J. Brown 
a number of rare reptiles from southern Florida. In a small collec- 
tion from Cocos Island, Costa Rica, presented by Prof. P. BioUey, 
were five specimens of a new gecko, described by Doctor Stejneger 
under the name of Sphxrodaetylus jxicijicus, 

Fishss. — ^The accessions of fishes were remarkable on account of the 
number of type specimens and cotypes included among them. An 
especially important accession consisted of 42 types of species of 
Hawaiian fishes, collected in 1889 and described by Dr. O. P. Jenkins, 
of Stanford Universit3\ These were donated to the Museum by Doc- 
tor Jenkins, and are a continuation of the series presented in 1901. A 
collection of Jajmnese fishes, comprising 75 species, of which 3 were 
represented by types and 16 b}' cotypes, was presented by Stanford 
University. They were collected by President D. S. Jordan, by the 
Universitv of Tokvo, and by K. Otaki. Included with them were the 
types of Bryoatemma iavHodr.H and Bryolojyhus lysinius^ two species 
o})tained near Unalaska Inland by the Alhatross, The types of the Jap- 
anese species Dracimetta ictnlca and Cyttopsis Itea were also received 
during the year. 

Among single specimens of interest should be mentioned a very large 
pipe-fish, Fistuluria tahaccaria^ 4^ feet long, from Campeche Bank, 
Mexico, presented by E. E. Saunders & Co. Dr. S. Wier Mitchell 
presented a large salmon weighing 47 pounds, taken by him at Cas- 
capedia, Quebec. Casts of this fine fish and of the pipe-fish were made 
for the exhibition series. A deep-sea pelican-fish, genus Gastroatomm. 
was received during the year from the U. S. S. Nero. It was obtained 
during the survey for the trans-Pacific cable at a depth of between 
2,000 and 3,000 fathoms. Mr. Louis Mobray, of Bermuda, obtained 
a living specimen of the large Conger eel, Chaniiomuraena vittcUu^ and 
sent it to the New York Aquarium. Upon its death, which occurred 
in a few months, it was sent to the Museum by the director of the 
aquarium, at the suggestion of Prof. C. L. Bristol. Dr. J. C. Thomp- 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 69 

I, U. S. Navy, presented a small but interesting collection of fishes 
ni the Dry Tortugas, Florida. The accessions from the U. S. 
ih Conimission and from Mr. H. H. Brimley have been already 
ntioned. (See pp. 65 and 67.) 

Mcllusks, — In addition to the collections of the U. S. Fish Commis- 
n, already referred to, mention should be made of the donations of 
3 constant contributors to the Museum, Mrs. T. S. Oldroyd and 
V. H. Loomis. Mrs. Oldroyd presented alK)ut 150 marine shells 
►m California in exceptional!}- fine condition, and Mr. Loomis's 
^cimens of about 50 species from Japan and the Loochoo Islands 
luded many desiderata. California shells were also presented by 
•. F. A. Wood worth, of San Francisco, and Hawaiian land shells 
Mr. H. W. Henshaw, of Hilo, Hawaii. A second consignment of 
d and fresh-water shells from centml Asia was received from the 
perial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. Among single 
^cimens of special value should be mentioned a fine Valuta mamilla^ 
irge and very rare shell from Tasmania. A collection of Australian 
d and fresh-water shells, comprising species not previously repre- 
ited in the Museum, was purchased. 

Insects. — The three largest accessions of insects — the U. S. Depart- 
nt of Agriculture collection from Canada (18,947 specimens), the 
sta Rican collection purchased of P. Schild (4,000 specimens), and 
5 collection from Chili presented by Mr. E. C. Reed (2,021 speci- 
ns) — have already been mentioned. Many of the remaining acces- 
ns, 254 in number, contain material of great interest and value, but 
is obviously impossible to refer in detail to more than a few of 
jm in this report. (For a complete list see Appendix II.) One 
the most important was a collection of African butterflies received 
exchange from the Royal Natural History Museum, Stockholm, 
lich imduded examples of many species described by Doctor Auri- 
lius. Another important exchange was effected with the American 
itomological Society, through which the Museum received examples 
about KX) species of Mexican and Central American H3^menoptem, 
.ny of them cotypes of species described by Mr. Oesson. Prof, 
arles Robertson, of Carlenville, Illinois, presented cotypes of 19 
jcies of Hymenoptera described ))y him. A similar collection of 
leoptei*a, presented by Prof. H. C. Fall, of Pasadena, California, 
itained 34 cotypes of his species. A collection of mites, containing 
3es and cotypes, was presented by Prof. Robert H. Wolcott, of the 
liversity of Nebraska. 

Lower invertebrates, — The accessions of lower invertebrates, like 
)8e of fishes, are noteworthy on account of the number of types and 
,ypes included among them. The collections transmitted by the 
S. Fish Commission have been already mentioned. From the 
is^um d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, was received a v^ixsaXjXfc 



70 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

exchange comprising about 50 species of fresh-water crabs, nearly all 
of which were previously unrepresented in the Government cojlection. 
Many of the specimens were cotypes. The Stanford University pre- 
sented a series of desirable specimens of Japanese crustaceans col- 
lected b}^ Doctor Jordan and Mr. J. O. Snyder in 1900. It included 
several species previously undescribed. A small but interesting col- 
lection of crustaceans from the Maldive Islands, including several 
cotypes, was received in exchange from the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. They were collected by Doctor Agassiz and party in 1901-2. 
Dr. S. J. Holmes, of the University of Michigan, presented 14 lots of 
New England amphipod crustaceans, among which were tyj>es of sev- 
eral species. Two smaller lots, with representations of other orders 
of crustaceans from Costa Kica and Cocos Island, were presented by 
the Museo Nacional, of San Jos^, Costa Rica. Among them were 
types of species of amphipods described by T. R. R. Stebbings. Four 
lots of isopod crustaceans, including types, were presented b}'^ the 
Harriman Alaskan expedition. Dr. C. H. Eigenmann, of the Indiana 
State University, presented specimens of 4 species of crustaceans from 
Cuba, including types of 8 species. 

A valuable collection of European paiusites, comprising treniatodes, 
cestodes, and nematodes, was received by the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and catalogued in the 
section of helminthological collections, National Museum. The Mu- 
seum received a collection of parasites of fishes from Prof. Edwin 
Linton, of Washington, Pennsylvania. The study collection of para- 
sites is considered the finest scientific collection of the kind now existing 
in the United States. 

Plants, — The total number of accessions to the National Herbarium 
during the year was 595, a number which has not been reached for the 
last eight years. Of this number, 120 accessions, comprising about 
5,000 specimens, were receiv(»d through the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 

Doctor Mearns's large collection from the Yellowstone National 
Park, which constituted the most extensive accession of the year, has 
already been mentioned. Probably next in interest is the collection 
made by Mr. W. R. Maxon, of the Museum staff, in Jamaica, which 
comprised about 2,000 specimens, chiefly ferns. Two important col- 
lections from the Philippine Islands, comprising about 1,400 specimens, 
were received in exchange from the Insular Bureau of Agriculture, 
Manila. These are believed to be the first collections from the islands 
made by American botanists. Another collection of Philippine plants, 
comprising about 1,000 specimens, was received from the Royal Botani- 
cal Gardens, Kew, England, in continuation of an exchange with that 
institution. Capt. J. Donnell Smith has continued his valuable dona- 
tions of West Indian and Central American plants. He presented 
during the year a sixth series, consisting of 375 specimens. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 71 

Purchases of plants to the amount of $1,000 were made during the 
\'ear. The most important items were continuations of the California 
collections of Mr. A. A. Heller (1,055 specimens) and the Nevada col- 
lection of Prof. C. F. Baker (481 specimens). Other purchases were 
as follows: Plants in the United States (3,223 specimens), viz, Maine 
(639), California and Arizona (989), Georgia (497), Ohio (405), Missis- 
sippi (693); plants from Central and South America, viz, Mexico (296), 
Costa Rica (452), Venezuela (256). 

Of the plants transmitted by the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
during the year, the most important are the collections of Messrs. 
F. A. Walpole and W. W. Gorman from Alaska (1,323 specimens) and 
those of Messrs. F. V. Coville, V. K. Chesnut, David GriflSths, and 
others, from Washington, Oregon, and California (1,368 specimens). 

WORK ON THE STUDY SERIES. 

In the Division of Mammals about 3,000 skulls of small species were 
cleaned during the year, two-thirds of which were those belonging to 
specimens in the collection of the Biological Survey, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. All the large skulls of the regular Museum series, 
with the exception of about 100, have been cleaned, but about 1,500 
small skulls still need cleaning. Little could be done toward continu- 
ing the rearrangement of the skins of small species for lack of room 
and cases, but the work of making over skins which were deteriorating 
on account of faulty preparation progressed satisfactoril}^ about 400 
skins having been renovated during the year. It is a cause of much 
regret that nothing could be done toward improving the condition of 
the large skins in vats and in the cases of the upper laboratory, many 
of which are in imminent danger of destruction. There are known to 
be from 1,000 to 1,500 of the size of a wolf and upward which need 
attention. Some of these are large antelopes and other important 
mammals which are now difficult to obtain. The collection of mam- 
mals in alcohol was thoroughly overhauled, and is in an excellent con- 
dition as regards both preservation and arrangement. The large 
storage case behind the wall case in the South Hall, used for the storage 
of mammal skulls, was roofed over to exclude dust, and provided with 
shelving. It is intended to fit the alcoves with standard racks and 
drawers next year for the better installation of the valuable series of 
skulls kept there. 

The laboratories of the Division of Birds are much overcrowded, 
and many devices have to be resorted to in order to accommodate the 
collections. It has been found necessary to place different parts of 
the collections in rooms widely separated, which greatly increases the 
difficulties of administration. Some little improvement was made in 
the arrangement of the collection of large birds in the west basement, 
but progress was slow on account of insufficient help and s^po^^. \X>S& 



72 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1603. 

a satisfaction to report that the Passerine birds, which arc the ones 
most consulted, are at present well arranged and entirely accessible. 
About half the study collection, comprising, perhaps, 65,000 specimens, 
is without standard Museum labels, and many of the water birds need 
new labels. Some progress in replacing worn out labels was made 
during the year. 

The condition of the collection of birds' eggs is very satisfactory. 
For a collection of such great size the proportion of perfect specimens 
is remarkably large. Considerable progress was made in the rearrange- 
ment of both eggs and nests, but more new cases will be required 
before it can be completed. 

The curator of the Division of Reptiles and Batrachians was without 
assistants this year until April, and progress in the rearrangement of 
the study series was necessarily slow. A considerable advance has 
been made, however, and the collection is now in good condition and 
its accessibility increased. 

In the Division of Fishes, the principal operation was the prepara- 
tion of a series of 50 sets of specimens for distribution to educational 
institutions. These sets average about sixty species each, making a 
total of some 3,250 individual sjjecimens in all. Until the staff of this 
division is increased, little can be done beyond keeping the collection 
from deteriorating. 

The study series of mollusks is all in fairly good condition and is 
accessible, so that any specimens wanted can be brought to hand in a 
few moments. The collection of Naiades was put in perfect order, 
and the cataloguing and numbering of the boxes of duplicates brought 
up to date. The remainder of the Jeffreys collection of shells is now 
most in need of attention. On account of the intricacies of the case 
the work can not be done rapidly. As in other divisions the need of 
more space is keenl}' felt. 

The great systematic collection of insects of all orders, with the 
exception of the Rh3^nchota, is at present in excellent condition, well 
arranged, and accessible to students. The curator of the Division of 
Insects, Dr. L. O. Howard, reports as follows on the work of the 
division: 

The insect collections are in excellent condition, increasing rapidly in the differ- 
ent orders, and all being rearranged in the standard insect drawers, in systematic 
order. It is believed, if the same liberality is continued in supplying us with these 
standanl insect drawers as last year, that the valuable collections in the different 
orders will be soon safely secured and pennanently rearranged. 

The Lepidoptera are now all arranged in these drawers and this order is in excel- 
lent shape. This work has been done almost entirely by Doctor Dyar, who deserves 
great credit, not only for making many additions to the collection through his friends 
and correspondents, but also for putting the collection in such admirable order. 

Mr. E. A. Schwarz still continues the rearrangement of the beetles, and during the 
past few months has rearranged several families down to the Lampyridse. It will, 
however, be a long time before this large order can be rearranged, and Mr. Schwarz 



REPORT OP ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 78 

will require many more drawers before his task is completed. In a few days he will 
begin arranging the material from the PhiUppine**, West Indies, and South America. 

Dr. Ashmead is almost continuously at work on the Hymenoptera, and has rear- 
ranged the Chalcidoidea and part of the Cynipoidea. If room No. 3, now occupied by 
him, is fitted up with racks to contain standard insect drawers he could, the com- 
ing year, rearrange this whole order in these drawers. He considers it important 
that this be done immediately to more securely conserve the many hundreds of val- 
uable types and cotypes represented in the collection. 

The Schmidt boxes, in which many types are still kept, he considers unsafe for 
keeping valuable tyj)eH. Hundreds of types and cotypes are now being sent to us 
from all over the world and j)roper facilities must be provided for the present pres- 
ervation of all types intrusted to the Museum. 

Mr. Currie still continues his work on the Neuropteroid insects and has made some 
important additions to the orders Odonata, Neuroptera, and Trichoptera. 

The Orthoptera have been removed to Dr. Dyar*s room and have been rearranged 
into the standard insect drawers by Mr. Caudell, who has done much work on these 
insects, made large additions of specimens, and is substantially in charge of the order. 

Mr. Coquillett also continues his work on the Diptera with indefatigable industry 
and has worked up, named, and rearrangeil several families. The additions to the 
family Culicidae, or the mosquitoes, are especially large and noteworthy. 

Very little work is being done in the other orders of insects not mentioned, 
although Mr. Heidemann finds time to do something occasionally with the Rhynchota. 

Our collection of Rhynchota, or bugs (Hemiptera and Homoptera), is large and 
valuable, and should be placed immediately in charge of a competent specialist. 

In the Division of Marine Invertebrates a special cataloguer was 
employed for four months to bring up the cataloguing of the crusta- 
ceans, holothurians, etc., which had fallen behind on account of lack of 
suflScient clerical assistance. One hundred new sets of duplicate inver- 
tebrates were prepared for distribution to accademical establishments. 
Some small sets were also prepared to meet special demands. The 
extensive collections in alcohol were thoroughly overhauled, the bot- 
tles replenished and new labels added where necessary. This impor- 
tant part of the zoological collections is now in good condition. 
Additional shelving was provided for the collection of anomuran crus- 
taceans and worms in the rooms assigned in the north tower of the 
Smithsonian building. The Museum benefited b}^ the gratuitous 
seri^ices of Mr. T. W. Vaughan, of the U. S. Geological Survey, who 
rearranged the collection of corals so as to make room for the reception 
of recent additions. 

The scope of the Section of Helminthological Collections, under the 
custodianship of Dr. C. W. Stiles, was enlarged during the year by 
the introduction into the catalogues of the collections of the IT. S. 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. The collections of the 
Division of Zoology, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, are also catalogued in this section of the Museum. 

The need of enlarging the quarters for the National Herbarium was 
so urgent that the space allotted for an exhibition on the east hall bal- 
cony was, as already stated, added to the laboratory. One hundred 
and eleven new standard insect-proof cases were added dvxxvii^XJafc^^ax^ 



74 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

making a total of 225 now in use. About 125 additional cases will be 
required to complete the reinstallment of the herbarium, and it is 
hoped that these can be provided next 3'ear. The Honorary Curator, 
Mr. F. V. Coville, reports as follows regarding the work done on the 
collections during the year: 

Durinj? the year we have added 111 standard insect-proof cases, making 255 now 
in use. It is hope<l that some 125 new cases will be built during the coming year, 
which will about complete the installation of the collection. It will then be in a 
better condition than ever before. Very few insecta are to be found in our new cases. 

At the time the herbarium was actually transferred to the National Museum, July 
1, 1894, we began to stamp every herbarium sheet added to the collection. It was 
assumed that there were then not less than 200,000 sheets in the herbarium, and the 
stamp therefore was set at 200,000. The number of specimens stamped and abided to 
the herbarium since then is 220,000. Of these 17,055 have been added this year. 

The work of recording the old part of the herbarium has almost ceased and speci- 
mens are only stamped in cases where they are sent away as a loan. This record 
extends from 1 to 27,218. In addition to this, 125,001 to 156,835 have been stamped. 

It was decided at the close of the year that all the herbarium sheets 
hereafter printed should bear the legend "United States National 
Museum" as well as the impress of the numbering stamp, which bears 
the words "United States National Herbarium." 

Blueprints of the standard herbarium cases adopted by the Museum 
were sent by request to the chief of the Insular Bureau of Agriculture, 
Manila. 

At the suggestion of Dr. C. W. Stiles the matter of imperfections in 
the red labels used inside of receptacles containing type specimens of 
animals preserved in liquid was taken up by a special committee. 
The committee submitted a report recommending the sole use of 
labels printed with a permanent ink containing sulphide of mercury. 

LOAN OF COLLECTIONS AND COOPERATION OF SPECIALISTS. 

The loan of specimens to specialists in the United States and in 
foreign countries for purposes of scientific research continued during 
the year as usual. Only the more important transactions of this char- 
acter can be noticed in this report. As explained last year, the Museum 
usually benefits quite as much by these transactions as the persons who 
obtain the use of the material, as the specimens are studied, identified, 
and also quite commonly labeled. The results of the investigations 
are sometimes published by the Museum, sometimes by the scientific 
organizations to which the specialists belong, and sometimes under 
private auspices. 

In the Division of Birds, 11 loans were made, comprising 188 speci- 
mens. Mr. Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural 
History, obtained the use of 6S specimens, chiefly shore larks, genus 
Otocoris. Forty-five specimens of warblers, genus Dei^drolca^ were 
sent to Mr. Joseph Grinnell, of Palo Alto, California, to assist him 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 75 

in determining the California forms of D. aestvoa. Dr. Jonathan 
Dwight, jr., obtained the loan of 29 specimens of plovers (genus 
Aegialitis) for use in connection with his studies of the molting of 
birds. All the lots sent out, with one exception, were returned dur- 
ing the year. The loans of mammals were more numerous, amounting 
in all to 29 lots, comprising about 300 specimens. Dr. J. A. Allen 
obtained the use of 110 specimens of seals and other mammals for use 
in his work on the mammals of eastern Siberia. Forty -one specimens 
were sent to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn to assist him in the preparation of a 
report on the mammals of southern New Mexico and western Texas, 
and 14 bats, of the genus Nyctinomii^^ for use in identifying bats of that 
genus from the Bahama Islands. Dr. D. G. Elliot, of the Field Colum- 
bian Museum, borrowed 35 specimens in connection with his work on 
Central American mammals. Other loans were chiefly to the scientific 
assistants in the Biological Survey, Department of Agriculture. The 
majority of the material was returned during the year. The moUusks, 
of the family Achatinellidse^ loaned to the late Alpheus Hyatt, were 
transferred after his death to Prof. A. T. Mayer, who is engaged in 
completing the work left unfinished by Professor Hyatt. Of insects, 
9 loans were made, the most important being a collection of 626 
Orthoptera and Dermaptera, which was sent to Mr. J. A. G. Rehn, of 
Philadelphia. Dr. Philip P. Calvert, of Philadelphia, received 285 
specimens of dragon flies (Odonata), and Dr. E. P. Felt, of Albany, 
New York, 106 specimens of ophionid hymenoptera. The material 
loaned was, for the most part, still in the hands of the specialists at the 
close of the year. Of marine invertebrates, exclusive of mollusks, 9 
loans were made, 2 of which deserve mention. Prof. H. Coutifere, of 
the ficole Sup^rieure de Pharmacie, Paris, received the crustaceans of 
the family Alpheidae collected by the Hawaiian and Samoan expedi- 
tions of the Fish Commission steamer Albatross^ and also the general 
Museum collections of that family for report. All the specimens of 
the so-called Holothurla atra were sent to Prof. Charles L. Edwards, 
of Trinity College, in connection with his studies of variation. The 
stomatopod crustaceans, collected by the staff of the steamer AUmtrosa 
in Hawaii and Samoa, were sent to Dr. R. P. Bigelow, of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, who volunteered to report on them. 
Three lots of ostracoda were sent to Mr. R. W. Sharpe, of Wilmette, 
Illinois, who has undertaken to report on this group for the Museum. 
A number of skulls of mammals were sent to Dr. J. M. IngersoU, 
of New York, who is engaged in a comparative study of the sinuses of 
the nose. Plants were loaned during the year, chiefly to the botanists 
of the Ames Botanical Laboratory, North Easton, Massachusetts, the 
Biltmore Herbarium, the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, the 
New York Botanical Garden, and to Dr. C. E. Waters, Mr. Karl W. 
Wiegand, and Mrs. Caroline W. Harris. 



76 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

DISTRIBUTION OF DUPLICATES. 

As already stated, 100 new sets of marine invertebrates from the 
duplicate collections, were made up during the year, for distribution 
to educational establishments, in accordance with the long-standing 
practice of the Museum. Each set contained about 200 specimens, 
representing from 92 to 99 species, making in all about 20,000 speci- 
mens. During the year 50 of the^e sets were distributed. About 
one-half of them were sent to high schools and other pulilic schools 
throughout the United States, and the remainder to various universi- 
ties, colleges, normal schools, public libraries, seminaries, academies, 
training schools, and science clubs. 

About 50 sets of fishes were also made up for distribution. 

A series of 60 skins of monkeys, and some other mammals which 
were without data as regards localities, etc., and hence of no especial 
value in the study collection of the Division of Mammals, wei"e dis- 
tributed to four colleges, which signified their desire to make use of 
the material in teaching. 

LABORATORY USE OF COLLECTIONS BY INVESTIGATORS: 

The collections of mammals, birds, insects and plants were frequently 
consulted by the naturalists of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
as in previous years. Mrs. Vernon Bailey pursued studies of birds in 
connection with her book on birds of the Western United States. 
Mr. Outram Bangs, of Boston, examined the collections of neotropi- 
cal birds, and the committee on nomenclature, of the American Orni- 
thologists Union, examined a large amount of material for the purpose 
of ascertaining, as in past years, the status of newly described North 
American species. The series of Old World chameleons was studied 
by Mr. Thomas Barber, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, who has in 
preparation a monographic work on these reptiles. In an endeavor 
to establish the real status of the snake, known as Tropidimotm erythro- 
(jaHtei\ Prof. H. L. Clark, of Olivet College, Michigan, made compari- 
sons of specimens in the Museum. Comparisons of insects were made 
by the following entomologists: Prof. John B. Smith (Noctuidae), 
Dr. W. J. Holland (Moths), Dr. J. A. G. Rehn (Orthoptera), Mr. J. C. 
Bradley (parasitic ii3'menoptera and sawflies), Mr. H. H. Ballou 
(Specidae). Dr. Walter Horn, of Berlin, Germany, examined the 
collections of Coleoptera and identified some of the exotic material. 
He spoke highly of the work of the late Martin L. Linell, who was for 
many years an aid in the Division of Insects. 

As for some ye^rs past, Dr. N. L. Britton, director of the New York 
Botanical Garden, was a frequent visitor to the herbarium. During 
the past }■ ear he was principally interested in studying the Crassula- 
ceae. Dr. E. L. Greene spent much time in reviewing certain of the 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 77 

Papaveraceae, and Mr. Theodor Holm, the Carices. Dr. L. M. Under- 
wood, of Columbia Univ^ersity, examined the collections of ferns. 

Inquiries were received from Stanford University concerning the 
methods of cataloguing and labeling employed in the Department, and 
were answered as fully as circumstances would permit. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES AND PUBLICATIONS. 

This very important branch of the work of the Department, the founda- 
tion, indeed, and the final aim of all its other activities, was carried on with 
no less ardor than in previous years. The segregation of work on the 
exhibition series, explained in a preceding page, left the scientific 
staff somewhat more time in which to pursue investigations, while the 
activity of systematists in various parts of the country, involving the 
use of the Government collections, showed no abatement. 

It is only possible in this place to mention some of the more impor- 
tant investigations carried on by the members of the scientific staff of 
the Museum. A complete list of all papers based on the Museum col- 
lections published by the staff for the year will be found in Appendix II 
of this volume. It is interesting to note that the articles exceed 160 
in number, and appeared in about thirty different journals, including 
the following: Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, Bulletin of 
the U. S. National Museum, Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Science Yearbook of the Carnegie Institution, The Auk, 
Naturen, Nautilus, American Journal of Pharmacy, Journal of Con- 
chology, Smithsonian Report, Biographical Memoirs of the National 
Academy of Sciences, Canadian Entomologist, Journal of the New 
York Entomological Society, Psyche, Proceedings of the Entomolog- 
ical Society of Washington, Entomological News, Transactions of the 
Entomological Society, Country Life in America, Bulletin of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Zoologischer Anzeiger, Public 
Health Report, Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, American Medicine, Bulletin of the 
Hj'gienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health Service, Journal of Com- 
parative Medicine, Contributions from the National Herbarium, Annals 
of Botany, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Plant World, and 
Fern Bulletin. 

The second volume of Mr. Robert Ridgway's extensive manual of 
North and Central American birds, containing 854 pages of text and 
22 plates, was published during the year. It deals with the families 
of Tanagers, Troupials, Honey Creepers, and Wood Warblers (Tana- 
gridae, Icteridae, Coerebidse, and Mniotiltidae), comprising 77 genera 
and 433 species and subspecies. 

The preparation of the third volume, covering 15 families, was in an 
advanced stage at the close of the year, about 400 pages bft\w^ ^x^^^^ 



78 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

in type. Dr. Charles W. Richmond's paper on the birds collected by 
Doctor Abbott and Mr. C. B. Kloss in the Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands was published by the Museum during the year. Doctor 
Richmond spent considerable time in identifying the Abbott collection 
of birds for the west coast of Sumatra and in working up a collection 
from the South Pacific. He continued work on the card catalogue of 
the genera and species of birds. Two papers on South AmericAn birds 
in the Museum collection, by Mr. H. C. Oberholser, appeared during 
the year, and also one by Dr. W. K. Fisher on a new tern from the 
Hawaiian Islands. Dr. William L. Ralph continued the preparation 
of material for a supplementary volume on the life histories of North 
American ])irds, with special reference to their nests and eggs, to com- 
plete the important work left unfinished by the death of Major C. E. 
Bendire. 

Dr. L. Stejneger completed his study of the reptiles of Porto Rico, 
and handed the manuscript in for publication in November. It is 
hoped that means will be found for it« publication at an early date. 
When the year closed he was still engaged in the investigation of the 
herpetological fauna of eastern Asia. Papers by Doctor Stejneger on 
Holbrook's salamander and on the reptiles of the Huachuca Moun- 
tains, Arizona, were published by the Museum during the year. 

In accordance with the arrangement made with President D. S. 
Jordan, the Museum published during the year 14 papers on Japanese 
fishes, prepared by himself and conjointly with other ichthyologists. 
Two papers on the osteology of fishes, by Mr. E. C. Starks, were pub- 
lished, and a brief paper by Dr. Theodore Gill on the use of the name 
"torpedo." 

In connection with an extensive work on the Tertiary molluski^ 
of Florida, Dr. W. H. Dall prepared reviews of the recent mollusks 
of the groups Veneridte, Carditacea, C3'renacea, and Astartidse. Dr. 
Bartsch continued work on the Pyramidellidae, and had nearly com- 
pleted the investigation at the close of the year. 

The researches carried on by Mr. G. S. Miller, jr., had for their 
principal object the elucidation of Doctor Abbott's collections of East 
Indian mammals. As stated on a previous page, he found in the col- 
lection studied 17 new species of mouse deer, genus Trugvlus^ and 16 
new species in other orders, together with a new genus, Lenothrue. 
In going over the Museum collection of American bats, he detected 20 
undescribed species, diagnoses of which are published in the Proceed- 
ings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. He also pre- 
pared a number of notes on different species of bats and rodents. 
Dr. E. A. Mearns, U. S. Army, made a study of the ocelots in the 
Museum collection and in other collections, the results of which were 
published in September, 1902, as Proceedings paper No. 1286. Dr. 
M. W. Lyon, jr., completed and handed in for publication his list of 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 79 

pe 8pecimeDS of mammals, exclusive of cetaceans, in the collections 

the Museum. As photographs of the types are to be prepared, this 
talogue has not yet been published. It records the presence of type 
eciniens, or type material, of 469 species and subspecies. (This is 
elusive of the type specimens in the collection of the Biological 
irvey, IT. S. Department of Agriculture, which are probably at least 

many.) Dr. Lyon has also pursued investigations relative to the 
teology of the rabbits, and published two brief notes on other mam- 
als. The Head Curator completed his comparison of North American 
id European species of whalebone whales, and toward the close of 
e year submitted a manuscript of about 1,000 pages, with 50 plates, 
e also prepared papers on Dr. Philippi's species of Chilean porpoises, 
{ a killer whale stranded on the coast of Maine, and on a species of 
roddphhms obtained at Honolulu; and notes on the name of the com 
on porpoise of the genus Tursiops^ and on the occurrence of the 
»llack whale, Balstnojytera horeaJis^ in American waters. 
Doctor Ashmead continued his study of the classification of the 
lalcid flies, which was in course of publication by the Carnegie 
useuni at the close of the year, and a series of papers on the wasps 

the groups Vespoidea, Proctotr^'poidea, and Cynipoidea, was pub- 
ihed in the Canadian Entomologist and other entomological journals, 
e continued work on his monographs of North America Braconidse, a 
liilippinc H^^menoptera, Japanese Hymenoptera, and also a catalogue 

North American Hymenoptera. Mr. D. W. Coquillett was occupied 

identifying and arranging the Diptem, and completed a revision of 
e genera of the family Empididse. A paper by him describing four 
iw genera and 94 new species of North America diptera appeared in 
e Museum Proceedings in September, 1902. Mr. Nathan Banks 
iblished 16 papers on spiders and on other subjects of a more general 
laracter. A paper on dragon flies, and one on ant lions, by Mr. K. P. 
irrie, were published by the Entomological Society of Washington 
iring the year. Mr. Currie continued work on a catalogue of 
orth American Neuropteroid insects, and on a monograph of the ant 
)ns. Mr. August Busck published 2 papers on the codling moth, 
id one on a new species of the family Yponomentidae. His revision 

the American moths of the family Gelechiidae was published by the 
useum during the year. The Museum Proceedings for the year also 
•ntained a paper by Dr. H. G. Dyar on the larva of moths from 
>lorado, and an additional section of Dr. John B. Smith's monograph 

the moths of the family Noctuidae. Dr. J. E. Benedict published 
ascriptions of new species of Galatheidae, and completed a revision of 
e genus Lepidopn^ and descriptions of other new Albuneidae. He 
^ engaged in the study of the anomuran crabs from Japan and the 
awaiian Islands, collected by the Alhatrom^ some new cmbs of the 
mily Dromidae, and some interesting annelids. Miss M. J. RathbusL 



80 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

continued work on a monograph of the fresh-water crabs, based on the 
collections of the National Museum, the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris, the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, and 
other institutions. She also published five short papei'S on crusta- 
ceans during the year, one of which, describing new Hawaiian crabs, 
appeared in the Museum Proceedings. Dr. Harriet Richardson pub- 
lished descriptions of two new isopods. Two papers on crustaceans 
collected in and near Mammoth Cave and Nickajack Cave, by Prof. 
\V. P. Hay, were published by the Museum. 

Dr. Charles B. Wilson completed his study of the collection of 
North American copepod crustaceans of the family Argulidse, the 
results of which were published by the Museum as Proceedings paper 
No. 1302. It occupies 107 pages, and includes a review of all the 
species of the family and a bibliography, and is accompanied by 20 
plates. 

Dr. C. W. Stiles, Custodian of Helminthological Collections, made 
an extended investigation of a parasitic disease prevalent among the 
people of the Southern States, which he found to be due to the attacks 
of a new species of hookworm, Uncinaria anierwana. He also carried 
on investigations regarding frequency of the occurrence of parasites 
in men. He published nine papers relating to parasitology' during 
the year and three others along the same line conjointly with Dr. 
Albert Hassall and Mr. Charles A. Pfender; also the first three paits 
of an index catalogue of medical and veterinary zoology, Doctor Has- 
sall being a coauthor. The stuff of the National Herbarium was too 
fully ()(*cupied during the year with routine work and the rearninge- 
ment of the collections to devote a great deal of time to investigations. 
A third section of Doctor Rose's studies of Mexican and Central 
American plants was published, and a paper in joint authorship with 
Mr. ^\^ W, Hcmsley on the f^enus Jtf/laiu'a. He continued work on 
the Crassulacete of North America conjointly with Doctor Britton, 
and (•onn)leted a preliminary paper relating to that group of plants. 
Mr. V, L. Pollard pu))lished a number of notes in the Plant World, 
and described two new violets from the United States. He also pub- 
lished conjointly with Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell descriptions of four 
new i)lants from new Mexico. Mr. W. K. Maxon continued studies on 
the Museum collection of ferns, and Mr. Edward S. Steele completed 
a monograph of the genus lAicinnria, 

KXPOSITIONS. 

As stated in the last report, a part of the collections displayed at 
the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, 1901, were later transferred 
to the Charleston p]xposition, which closed May 31, 1902. The 
exhibit made at the latter place was returned to Washington in June. 



REPORT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 81 

In the meantime preparations were begun for the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, St. Louis, 1904. The schedule of exhibits for this expo- 
sition, approved by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
includes the display of a series of specimens of the large game mam- 
mals of the world, the cast of an adult sulphur-bottom whale (the 
largest existing animal), a series of the largest and most attractive 
birds, such as the ostriches, pheasants, birds of paradise, etc. ; large 
reptiles, such as the crocodiles, alligators, boas, pythons, cobras, and 
the like; a series of models of deep-sea fishes; a systematic series of 
invertebrates, arranged with the special view of illustrating modern 
methods of museum installation and labeling; a series of the eggs of 
vertebrates; a collection of butterflies. An exhibit from the National 
Herbarium, and some minor exhibits, will probably be decided upon 
later. A representation of the Children's Rgom, showing the methods 
to interest children in the study of animate nature, will also be made. 
A report on the Pan-American Exposition was submitted during this 
year, and will be found in the Assistant Secretary's report for 1900- 
1901, pp. 177 to 231. The Head Curator, having been in charge of 
the exhibit of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum at 
the Charleston Exposition, also submitted a report in that connection 
which will be found in the Assistant Secretary's report for 1901-2, 
pp. 1G5 and 166. 

PERSONNEL. 

Mr. F. A. Lucas, Curator of the Division of Comparative Anatomy, 
was, as already mentioned, placed in temporary charge of all exhibits 
of the Department of Biology, November 1, 1902. 

Dr. L. Stejneger served as acting Head Curator during the month 
of August, 1902, and for about one week in October of that year. 

Dr. G. T. Moore, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, was 
appointed custodian of lower algae in the National Herbarium, May 
25, 1903. 

Dr. Marcus W. Lyon, jr.. Aid in the Division of Mammals, was 
appointed chief special agent for the exhibit of the Smithsonian 
Institution and National Museum at t^e Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion, November 1, 1902. 

Mr. Charles W. Simpson, Aid in the Division of Mollusks, resigned 
December 31, 1902. 

Mr. R. G. Paine was appointed Aid in the Division of Reptiles and 
Batrachians, July 1, 1902. 

Mr. W. B. Marshall was appointed Aid in the Division of Mollusks, 
April 1, 1903. 

Mr. W. V. Warner was appointed preparator January 17, 1903, and 
was assigned to work on the permanent exhibit of insects. 

HAT MU8 1903 6 



82 REPORT. OF NATIONAL MUESUM, 1903. 

Mr. W. E. Scollick was appointed preparator in the Division of 
Mammals, May 14, 1903, and was assigned to the work of cleaning 
skulls of small mammals. 

Mrs. K. E. Earll, assistant in the National Ilerlmriuni, wiis given 
leave of absence without pay from July 1 to October I, 1902. 

Miss L. V. Schaeffer, prepamtor in the same division, was trans- 
ferred to the library, Jul}' 1, 1902. 

Miss J. Harvie served as a volunteer tissistant in the Division of 
Marine Invertebrates for about nine months. 



EEPORT ON THE DEPAETMSHT OF GEOLOGT 

FOE THE TEAE 190S-3. 

By Gborge p. Merrill, 
Head Curator, 

year that has just closed compares very favorably with those 
ately preceding, both as to the number and value of the acces- 
The Department is to be particularly conj^ratulated on acquiring 
Dinger and Sherwood collections of vertebrate and invertebrate 
another large portion of the Ulrich collection, and three entire 
ites from Kentucky and North Carolina, as noted below. The 
ample of the Shergotty, India, meteorite, secured through 
rtesy of Dr. T. H. Holland, and a fragment of the celebrated 
d- bearing meteorite from Novo Urei, Russia, are also worthy of 



1. 



ACCESSIONS. 



otal number of accessions rec/cived by the Department is shown 
lar form below, those for 1900-11)01 and 1901-2 being also 
yr purposes of comparison: 



Divisiona and sectionn. 



r 

te paleontology 
paleontology- .. 

»y 



1902-3. 


1901 


-2. 


1900-1901. 


371 




276 


2H2 


110 




137 


149 


86 




36 


48 


22 




65 


93 


16 




10 


21 


604 




624 


593 



is been stated in previous reports, little idea of values can be 
d from these figures. I give below, therefore, a list of some 
more important materials received, either in the way of gift, 
je, or exchange. 



DIVISION OF GEOLOGY. 



series of massive and cut polished stalactites and stalagmites 
le Copper Queen Mine, Bisbee, Arizona, and copper ore from 
ri, Mexico; the gift of James Douglas. 

vo large specimens of pegmatite from Auburn, Maine; coUec- 
bhe Head Curator. 

83 



84 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

3. A large series of economic materials exhibited by the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey at the Buffalo and Charleston expositions, and at the 
close of the latter turned over to the National Museum. It includes 
upwards of 400 specimens. 

4. A collection of igneous rocks from Holyoke, Massachusetts^ 
described by B. K. Emerson in a paper read before the Geological 
Society of America, December, 1902; the gift of B. K. Emerson. 

5. A collection of volcanic bombs and lavas from Cinder Buttes, 
Idaho; collected by I. C. Russell. 

6. One fine large specimen of native arsenic from the Double Stand- 
ard Mine, Santa Cruz Count}-, Arizona; through exchange with \V. 
O. Crosby. 

7. A collection of fluorite and associated rocks and minerals from 
Kentucky; made by R. S. Bassler and E. O. Ulrich. 

8. A fine series of halloysite from Hart County, Kentucky; the 
gift of Hon. J. E. Stotsenburg. 

9. A very complete series of talcs from the North Carolina Talc and 
Mining Company-, of Swain County, North Carolina; the gift of the 
company. 

10. Quadrangle series of rocks from the IT. S. Geological Survey, 
as follows: Globe Copper district, Arizona; San Luis Obispo, Cali- 
fornia; Silter City, Idaho; Telluride, Colorado; Silver City and 
De Lamar, Idaho; Coos Bay, Port Orford, and Roseburg, Oregon; 
EUensburg, Washington; La Plata, Colorado; and Crater I^e, 
Oregon. 

DIVISION OF MINERALOGY. 

1. A collection of some 200 specimens of minerals from various 
American localities, received from the U. S. Geological Survey at the 
close of the Pan-American and Charleston expositions. Conspicuous 
in this series are the fine tourmalinitic quartzes from Little Pipestone 
district, Montana, the larger being some 2 feet in length and coated on 
one side with a parallel growth of small, richh'-colored amethyste. 
A second example is a crystal of smoky quartz some 18 inches in 
length, with good terminations, but bi'oken across the bottom so as to 
show the sagenitic black tourmaline. The series also contains several 
cross sections of crystals, 3 or more inches in diameter, showing 
to good advantage the zonal arrangement of the quartz and tourma- 
line; also a very complete series of aurichalcites and specimens of the 
comparatively rare minerals coloradoite and melonite, as well as fine 
tourmalines from California, endlichite from New Mexico, quartz 
from North Carolina and New York, parisite from Montana, cinnabar 
from Utph and California, fluorite from New Hampshire, gothite f rom 
Colorado, melanotekite from New Mexico, barite from Colorado, 
graftonite from New Hampshire, etc. 



REPORT OK ASSISTANT SECRETARY. 



8S 



2. A series of zeolites from the trap rocks of New Jersey; the gift 
of W. S. Disbrow. 

3. A series of specimens of copper tellurides from the Good Hope 
mine, including the new species rickardite; the gift of Dr. L. M. Weiss. 

4. A fragment from the only known specimen of footeite; the gift 
of Warren M. Foote, of Philadelphia. 

5. Through purchase and exchange with the Foote Mineral Com- 
pany, of Philadelphia, and other dealers, the following minerals, not 
before represented in the collections, w^ere obtained: 



Paramelaconite. 

Baddeleyiie. 

Lewisite. 

Derbylite. 

Ram melnbex)^ te. 

Gninlingite. 

Skutterudite. 

Fentlandite. 

Zeophyllite. 

Lunebergite. 

Areeneopleite. 

Pearceite. 

Nasonite. 

Klinozoisite. 

Szaibelyite. 

Pinakiolite. 

Edingtonite. 

Sapphirine. 



Graftonite. 

Vandiestite. 

Eulytite. 

Wittichenite. 

Molysite. 

Mazapilite. 

Fuggerite. 

Dundasite. 

Bavenite. 

Larderellite. 

Footeite. 

Rickardite. 

Stembergite. 

Pyropissite. 

Langbeinite. 

Penfieldite. 

Tieucophu'iiicite. 



6. Through purchase and exchange, in part for the St. Louis Expo- 
sition, the following meteorites have been added to the collection: 



Locality. 



Aleppo, Syria 

Arispe, Mexico: 

Crofls section 

Entire individual 

Baratta. New South Walefl 

Barbotan, France 

Bath Furnace, Kentucky 

(Chateau Renard, France 

Elbof^n, AuRtria 

Ergheo, Africa 

Qilgoin Station, New South WalcH 
Hendersonville, North Carolina . . 

Hex River, South Africa 

Holland's Store, Georgia 

Indian Valley, Virsrinia 

Jelica, Servia 



Weight. 

Oranuf. 
ir»7 

9.695 

'>,2G1 

451 

273 

,'123 

im 

71 
416 
290 
4,479 
332 
122 
569 

16 



L( reality. 



Kodaikaual, India 

Majalahtl, Finland , 

MerceditaA, Chile 

Mooresfort, Ireland 

Mount Vernon, Chrifltlan (Tounty, Ken 

tucky 

Novo Urtd, RiisHia 

Orvlnio, Italy 

Perdmmon Creek, North Carolina 

Reed dty, Michigan 

Saline TowuHMp. Kansa;* 

Sao Juliao, Portugal 

Shergotty, India 

Sokobanja, Servia 

Tadjern, Algeria 



Weight. 



Granu. 

90 

346 

206 

117 

nl.'V9.21 
83.5 
53 
4,252 

263 

289 

671 

286 

219 
79 



a Kilograms. 



86 REPORT OF NATIONAL MU8KUM, 1903. 



RKCTION OF IN>'KBTEBRATB PALBONTOLOOY. 



1. A collection of some 1,200 species (76,000 specimens) of brvozoji 
and 2,5(X) thin sections, from the E. O. Ulrich collection. 

2. The Carl Rominger collection of Mississippi Valley Paleozoic 
invertebrates. This consists largely of corals (many of which are 
figured and described in the reports of the Geological Survey of 
Michigan), crinoids, and mollusks, representing not less than 14,00() 
specimens. 

3. The Andrew Sherwood collection of Pennsylvania Upper Devonic 
vertebrate and invertebmte fossils. This contains many choice slabs 
filled with largo bmchiopods and mollusca, besides about 3,000 small 
specimens. 

4. Collections of trilobites with limbs {Triarthrus hecki) studied bv 
Doctor Walcott and described in the Pro<*eedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, 1894; of Little Metis sponges, and some 
twenty boxes of Paleozoic fossils, from the U. S. Geological Survey. 

5. One large slab containing 18 fine specimens of melonites and some 
185 labeled specimens from the Marcellus limestone; rei»«ived from 
Dr. C. E. Beecher, of Yale University. 



SBXTION OK VBRTRBRATB PALBONTDUHIY. 



1. Casts of mandibular rami; teeth oi Mastodon humboldtiani Ma^- 
toihm cordillemm ; received from the British Museum. 

2. Cast of ^^^ of EiiuaiH crassus. 

3. Reptilian footprints in sandstone, from Moimt C-arbon, Penn- 
svlvania. 

4. A tooth (type) of CJadodun farnumis^ from Needle Mountains 
quadrangle, Colomdo; collected ])v Whitman Cross. 



HK(TI<»N OF l*ALFX> BOTANY. 



1. Eighty-three specimens of Paleozoic plants, from the Ulrich 
collection. 

2. A small series of fossil plants, from the Permian of Ohio. 

8. Four hundred and eighty-eight spe(*imens of Triassic plants, from 
Connecticut and Massachusetts; received from the U. S. Geological 
Surv(»v. 

UOUTTNK. 

During the year under considenition the geographic exhibit of 
economic minemls in tlie southwest court has been largely overhauled 
and cases and specimens cleaned and rearranged. The collection of non- 
metallic minerals on the ])ah*ony has likewise undergone rearrange- 
ment. The case containing the stratigraphic and historical collections, 
against the south wall in the west-south mnge, has been entirely recon- 
stxnicted and the collections reinstalled. In the course of this work 



REPORT OF AcJSISTANT SECRETARY. 87 

some 2,500 blocks constructed on a new plan were introduced. These 
are made of a tripartate veneering and only about one-fourth inch in 
thickness. 

In six floor upright exhibition cases and one wall-case, double doors 
have been replaced by single, thus more than doubling the size of the 
glass. The improvement is so great as to suggest the advisability of 
carrying out the work in all the cases of this type. 

The collections on the west front of the Museum have been over- 
hauled and many specimens removed to storage, whereby the appear- 
ance of the west front is considerably improved. The work has, as 
usual, been done under the direct supervision of Mr. Newhall. 

Manascript for about 1,300 labels has been prepared and sent to the 
Government Printer. Upward of 6,000 specimen and reference cards 
have also been prepared, and an equal number of specimens numbered. 

The work of preparing the type catalogue has progressed but slowly, 
only about 300 slips having been written. The large influx of new and 
especially type material, has made it seem advisable to postpone the 
immediate publication of this list. This work, together with the gen- 
eral stenographic and clerical work of the department, has remained 
in the hands of Mrs. Jouy and Miss Graves. 

In the section of invertebi^ate paleontology^ a large amount of work 
has been done in arranging the new materials, particularly those of 
the E. O. Ulrich collection. During the year there were identified or 
placed in final museum condition upward of 16,000 specimens. These 
are recorded in the registers, but, on account of lack of clerical help, 
have not been numbered, nor have cards been made for the card 
catalogue. 

Dr. Peale reports that work on the paleobotanical series has con- 
tinued along the same lines as last year. The exhibition series has been 
partially rearranged and new labels have l)een printed- and exchanged 
for the temporary labels of the Paleozoic portion of the collection. 

Work in the section of vertebrate paleontology has proceeded but 
slowly, owing to the small force engaged. Mr. Stewart has been at 
work during almost the entire year upon a mount of the Cfaosaurus. 
The work is now nearly completed, and it is expected that during the 
coming fall this very interesting vertebi*ate fossil will be placed on 
exhibition in the southeast court. The hind limb of a Brrmtosaurus 
has been prepared and placed on exhibition during the time under 
consideration. 

No explorations have been carried on during the year at the expense 
of the Museum. Messrs. Schuchert and Bassler and the Head Curator 
have been in the field on various occasions, but either at their own 
expense or that of other organizations. Much valuable material has 
thus been obtained. 



88 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

EXCHANGE8 AND LOANS. 

There have been sent out from the Division of Geology during this 
period, to various individuals and students, some 1,262 individual 
specimens and 1,288 pounds of miscellaneous material — this entirely 
aside from such materials as are ordinarily loaned for study and inves- 
tigation. For the last-named purposes there have been loaned during 
the 3'^ear, from the Division of (ieology: 

To T. Nelson Dale, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, specimens of roofing 
slates and thin sections. 

To George I. Adams, IT. S. (Geological Survey, 9 specimens of 
gypsum. 

To George F. Barker, University of Pennsylvania, 3 specimens of 
uraninite. 

From the Division of Mineralogy, material has been furnished to 
the Chemical and Phvsical Department of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, to the Division of Roads of the Department of Agriculture, and to 
the Bureau of Soils of the same Department. Samples of the Putnam 
County, Georgia, and Admire, Kansas, meteorites were sent to Dr. 
E. (3ohen, Greifswald, Germany, for use in his researches on meteoric 
iron. 

From the Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology there were loaned 
to Dr. C. E. Beecher 43 specimens of Upper Carboniferous insects. 
To A. W. Grabau, Columbia Universitv, 8 crinoids. To Dr. M. Coss- 
mann, Paris, 10 Cretaceous gastropods. To Prof. S. W. Williston, 
Universitv of Chicago, 257 specimens of Tertiary insects. To Dr. 
John M. Clarke, State paleontologist, Albany, New York, a large lot 
of Lower Silurian graptolites; and to the Royal Austrian Museum 
(Dr. Handlirsch), 562 Carl>oniferous insects. 

Portions of collections in the section of vertebrate paleontology 
have been studied by Dr. E. C. Case, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Prof. 
S. W. Williston, University of Chicago; Dr. J. B. Hatcher, Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; Prof. II. F. Osborn, of the Amer- 
iciin Museum of Natural History in New York City; and Dr. John 
M. Clarke, State paleontologist of New York. 

The paleobotanical collections, as usual, have been continually 
available to th(^ paleobotanists of the U. S. Geological Survey. In 
addition, Dr. Aithur Ilollick, of the New York Botanical Gai'dens, 
has on several <>(*casions visited the Museum in connection with his 
work on the island series of the Upper Cretaceous. 

PRKSEXT CONDITION OF COLLKCTTIONS. 

It may be safely stated that, as a whole, the collections are in better 
condition than ever before. The improvement has been constant, and 
though not as rapid as one could wish, is fairly satisfactory — perhaps 
as satisfactory as can ])e expected in the present building. Naturally 



REPORT OP ASSISTANT SECRETARY, 89 

there must be a constant weeding out of old material and the insertion 
of new in order that the collections may be kept up to date, but expan- 
sion along any lines other than that of vertebrate paleontology is 
practically prohibited through lack of space. The work which is now 
being done in connection with preparations for the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition will, on the assumption that the collections return to 
us in safety, fill the halls to their utmost extent, and it will unques- 
tionablv be necessary to store a considerable amount of less desirable 
material. 

Mention may be made here of the mounted skeleton of the Church, 
Michigan, mastodon, collected by Mr. Alban Stewart in the spring of 
11K)1, which is now in an advanced state of preparation. This gives 
the Museum its fii^st complete mounted representative of this interest- 
ing group of quadrupeds. 

The acquisition for the workshops of a one-half horsepower motor 
with flexible shaft and fittings for drilling and cutting, and a 'Slenny 
Lind" polisher, together with a renewal of the large grinding bed and 
the remodeling of the reciprocating stone saw, have greatly facilitated 
the work of the preparators. 

The work of the year, as on previous occasions, has been compli- 
cated by preparation for an exposition. 

RESEARCH. 

Various influences have prevented the Head Curator from taking an 
active part in research in connection with the Museum collections. 
Numerous brief papers have been published, but as they were not, for 
the most part, based upon Museum materials, they need not be men- 
tioned here. 

In connection with Mr. Tassin, investigations have been made upon 
the meteorite collections, but the results as yet are far from ready for 
publication. 

The Head Curator has in course of preparation a work upon the 
History of American Geology. This is as yet so far from complete 
as to need no special notice at this time. 

Mr. Schuchert has continued his studies on Lower Devonic fossils, 
as reported last year. A report to be published by the Geological 
Survey of Maryland on this subject is progressing satisfactorily, and 
it is expected will be ready for the printer some time during the com- 
ing year. 

Mr. Schuchei-t has also completed a study of the Cystidea of the 
Manlius and Coeymans formations. The paper is about ready for pub- 
lication. 

Mr. R. S. Bassler has in preparation studies on the Bryozoa and 
Ostracoda. A paper reviewing the entire Bryozoa of the Rochester 
shales will, it is expected, be completed during the convlu^ \qvi\\fc,^. 



90 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Mr. Phalen has made a study of rocks collected })y Messrs. Schiichort 
and White in Greenland in 1897. 

Papei-s by memljers of the U. S. Geological Survey upon materials 
in the section of paleobotany are noted in the bibliogmphy. 

The personnel of the Department remains the same as last year. Mr. 
J. W. Coleman, skilled laborer in the section of vertebmte paleon- 
tology, who had been away on leave of absence, returned to work on 
Septeml>er 19, 1902, ])ut finally severed hid connection with the 
Museum during the latter part of June. 



APPENDIXES. 



91 



APPENDIX II. 



List of Accessions, 1902-3. 



L., 8ingajx)re, Straite 
^rf^e and exceedingly 
tions of natural history 
the coast and islands of 
Sumatra and the Riou 
th of Singaj)ore, includ- 
indred mammals, birds, 
batrachians, fishes and 
mting a large number of 
1 t)eing new to science; 
esting collei»tionfl of eth- 
rial from Sumatra, Anda- 
>bar Islands, comprising ! 
Hi specimens ilhistrating I 
industries of primitive I 
0243); one large and two i 
an boats (41161). I 

. (See under Smithso- | 

n.) j 

TiA. (See under Smith- I 
ion.) 

San Diego, Cal.: Two 
iifornia. 41199. 

Inglewood, Cal.: Ten 
.Iifornia. 41222. 

LEXANDER. (See under 
nparative Zoology, C^aui- 

jRKAr OF, Manila, V. I.: 
I and sixty-eight plants 
ippine Islands, ol>taine<l 
the Bureau of Forestry 
lants collected chiefly by 
•ill (40646). Exchange. 

Department of, Hon. 
»n. Secretary: Nine hnn- 
renty-four specimens of 
cted in Texas and Mexico 
a. T.Townsend (39656); 



Agrici'lture, Department of — Cont'd, 
received through the Biological Sur- 
vey, dried specimens of invertebrates 
from Hudson Bay, collected by Mr. 
E. A. Preble (40020) ; 50 specimens of 
fresh-water and marine shells from 
the Hudson Bay region (40028); gall 
insects, parasitic Hymenoptera and 
Diptera, representing, the collection 
of Dr. William Brodie, Toronto, Can- 
ada (40171) ; received through Dr. I-.. 
O. Howard, lizard, Cnemidophorvs 
gularisy from (ioliad County, Texas, 
collected by Hon. J. D. Mitchell 
(40188); 2 species of land shells from 
Guatemala (40193) ; 9 specimens of 
land shells from Mexico, collected by 
Messrs. E. VV. Nelson and E. A. Gold- 
man (41080); slugs in alcohol, from 
Cuba, Texas, and Florida (41151); 
received through the Biological Sur- 
vey about 30 specimens, represent- 
ing 5 species of land and fresh- water 
shells from Mexico (40406) ; 6 beetles 
(40423). 
Material deposited in the National Her- 
harium: Plant, collected by Mr. H. 
Mertens at Unalaska (39616); 4 
specimens of RibeSj collecte<l in New 
Mexico by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerel 1 
(39666); 23 specimens of Ribes, col- 
lected by Mr. L. Spath, Berlin, Ger- 
many (39680); plants, collec*ted by 
Mr. F. A. Walpole in Alaska (39770); 
plant, collected by Miss Dorothy 
Merriam in Cahfornia (39775); 2 
sj)ecimens of Cotyledon^ collected by 
Mrs. Blanche Trask in California 
(39781); plant from South America 
(40059); 3 plants from the District 



96 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



AuKUTLTURK, DEPARTMENT OF — CoiltM. 

of Columbia (40082); 168 plants, col- 
lected in Alaska by Messrs. A. H. 
Brooks and C. G.Vringle (40100);. 
siKJcimen of Amphiahniia and speci- 
men of Tijphiops from Porto Ri(», 
collected by Dr. August Bu8(!k 
(40116); plant from Mr. W. L. R. 
Lynd, Dover, New Jersey (40126); 
143 plants, collected in the District 
of Columbia by Mr. (ieorge H. ShuU 
(40172); 8 plants from Texas, col- 
lecteil by Mr. Vernon Bailey (40245); 
326 plants from Oregon, collei^ted 
by Mr. F. V. Coville (40246); 2 
plants from California, coUectetl 
by Mr. J. B. Davy (40247); 6 plants 
from New Mexico, collected by Mr. 
D. W. Caldwell (40248); 2 plants 
from California, collected by Dr. 
C. Hart Merriam (40249): 4 plants 
from California, collected by Mr. 
H. M. Hall (40250); 5 plants from 
Wyoming, collected by Messrs. T. 
A. Williams and David Griffith 
(40251); 214 plants from Wash- 
ington, collected by Mr. J. B. 
Flctt, of Tacoma (40268); 631 plants, 
collected in Alaska bvMr. M. W. Gor- 
man (40285) ; 5 plants from the 
United States (40294); 176 plants, 
collecteil in Alaska by Mr. W. L. 
Poto (40302); 5 plants from Michi- 
gan and other localities (40318); 
67 plants from the University of 
Minnesota, obtained by various col- 
lectors from different localities 
(40319); 130 plants, collected in 
Alaska by Mr. A. J. Collier (40320); 
about 100 plants, collected in Alaska 
by Mr. F. A. Walpole (40372); 2 
plants from Washington, collected by 
Mr. J. B. Flett (40373) ; 34 plants from 
California, collected by Mr. H. M. 
Hall (40374); plant from California, 
collected by Mr. D. P. Barrows 
(40386) ;4l plants, colleckHl in Ontario 
and Washington by Mr. F. V. Coville 
(40387) ; plant from Canada, collected 
by Dr. J. Fletcher (40388); 3 plants, 
collected bv Dr. C. Hart Merriam 
and Mr. E. A. Preble in California 
and British Columbia (40472); 69 
plantiJ, collected in Utah by Mr. II. 



Agriculture, Department of — (>)nt'd. 

D. Langille (40492); plants, wllected 
in Oregon by Mr. F. A. Walpole 
(40493); 2 plants from Porto Rico, 
collected by Mr. C. F. Curt (40535); 
9 plants from various localitie:: 
(40536); 87 plants from Alaska 
(41540); 27 plants from Alaska 
(4a541 ) ; 3 plants from El Paso, Texaj», 
collected by Mr. J. H. Gant (40563); 
256 plants from California, collected 
by Dr. V. K. Chesnut (40564); 772 
plants, collecte<l by Mr. David Grif- 
fith in Washington and Oregi>n 
(40591); 4 plants from New Mexico 
(40724); 2 plants from Vancouver 
Island (40794) ; 3 plant* from Idaho 
(40795); about 200 plants, collected 
in Michigan by W. F. Wight in 
1902 (40801); 3 plants (Picea) from 
Canada, collected by Mr. F. V. Co- 
ville (40827) ; 3 plants (conifers) from 
Arizona, collected by Mr. Coville 
(40828); conifers, principally from 
California, collected by Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam and Mr. Vernon Bailey 
(40829); 31 i>lant8 from California, 
collected by Mr. Vernon Bailey 
(40830); 3 plants from California, 
collecte<l by Dr. A. K. Fisher (40831 ); 
U i)lants from California, collected 
by Messrs. C. Hart Merriam and 
Vernon Bailey (40832) ; 8 plants from 
British Columbia, collected by Mr. 

E. A. Preble (40833); 12 plants from 
Texas, collected by Mr. Vernon Bai- 
ley ( 40834 ) ; 24 i>lant8 from (California, 
collected by Dr. C. Hart Merriam 
(40835); 32 plants from California, 
collected by Dr. C. Hart Merriam 
(40836); plant from California, col- 
lected by Mrs. M. H. Manning 
(40937) ; 95 plants, collected by Mr. 

F. V. Coville in the western section 
of the United States and Mexico 
(40940); 10 specimens o( Junci from 
Ix)uisiana, Utah, and Georgia, col- 
lected! bv Messrs. C. R. Ball, M. E. 
Jones, and A. H. Curtiss (40989); 
9 plants from Maryland, collected by 
Mr. Coville (40990); 309 plants, col- 
letrted in Texas, New Mexico, and 
California by Mr. Vernon Bailey 
(41027); 5 plants from Oregon and 



LIST OF ACCXSSIONS. 



97 



AoRiciTLTrR'k, Dbpartmbnt of — Cont'd. 
Wanhington (41028); 82 RpeciroenH 
of gnseeSj collescted in the DiBtrict of 
Columbia by Mr. L. H. Dewey 
(41101); plant, collected in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia by Mr. E. L. Mor- 
ris (41163). 
(See under W. J. Beal; Berlin, (Jer- 
inany, Botanical Museum; J. J. 
C-mwley; E. M. Ehrhom; H. (). 
Hall; R. M. Han>er; John W. HarHh- 
Iteiver; Sheldon Jackson ; MinneHota, 
I'niversity of; Hon. J. D. Mitchell; 

E. N. Plank; Scientitic American; 
J. F. Shaw; Jare<l G. Smith; J. .\. 
Townsend; Mrs. Blanche Tnu*k; 

F. M. Webster; F. L. Wyckoff . ) 

Alexani)er,William H., San Juan, Torto 
Rico: Marine shells. 40226. 

Alkkkn, J. I)., Stiidisches Museum fiir 
Natur- Volker, Handelskunde, Bremen, 
(rermany: Two cotypes of Agritjtes 
rremiotles Meyer. 39995. 

Ai.LRN, Thomas W., St. Joseph, Mo.: Car- 
)>oniferrms fossiliferous shales. Ex- 
change. 40863. 

Allen, William F., Pacific ( Jrove, Cal.: 
About 50 plants from California. 41 168. 

Allison, Andrew, Bay St. 1x)uis, Miss., 
and Ixilxlel, La.: Four si)e<*iinens of 
Bat, PipiMrHlfin suhflainiy^ from (.leoiyia 
(3^599); 10 plants (:i9620); 4 binls* 
skins (39646); toad {Unfo tenlig'moBm)^ 
from Bay St. Ix>uis (39712); toarl 
(397K7); 33 birds' skins from Missis- 
sippi (39840); Tree frr)g, Ibjla gratium 
('19872); mole {Sralo})s atitmtinu)^ 
{1^9967); toad {Engifntoma rarolinmse), 
(40704); l>at {Lnsiurim horraliK wm/- 
nfpliu<), (40882); 2 siiecimens of Florida 
nnl bat, [jfisinrHJi ItorrfillM M'minitlun^ 
from I^)iiisiana (41<W>5); Sjmdef«M>t, 
Sraphinpui^ hf^ffrttohii (40103) ; snake 
{Slorrrifi dekatfi) (41157). (See rtlw» 
under Charles Marshall. ) 

American Entomoi^kjk-al Company, 
BrrM>klyn, N. Y. : Receivwl thrc>u)2:ti 
Mr. (Jeorjri^ Franck, inana^T. Four 
moths (new to th<* Museum colUs'tion). 
Exchange. 41174. 

NAT MUS 1903 7 



American Entomological Society, Phila- 
delphia, Pft. : One hundred and twenty - 
one specimens, representing 95 species 
of Mexican and (Julian Ichneumonoi- 
dea. Exchange. 40805. 

American Museum ok Natural History, 
New York City: Instrument for meas- 
uring skull capacity. Loan. 8411. 

American Waltiiam Watch Company, 
Waltham, Mass. : Keceive<l through Mr. 
E. A. Marsh, general superintendent. 
Mounted and unmounted photogra])hs 
of a large model watch movement. 
41128. 

Ames, Oakbh, North t^ton, Mass.: Seven 
specimens of orchids from Culta. Ex- 
change. 40814. 

Ami, Dr. H. M., Geological Survey of 
(^anada, Ottawa, Canada: Two speci- 
mens of TrochoiiteH canadensis from 
Montmort^ncy River, Quebec. 40335. 

Anderson, C. R., Victoria, British Co- 
lumbia: Plant fn»m British Columbia. 
41203. 

Anderson, J. R., Vi<!toria, B. C: Plants 
from British C:oliimbia. (40f>75; 40804). 

Anderson, O. M., Wilmington, N. C: 
Plant from North Carolina. 40i:«. 

Anderson, Rev. R. W., Wando, S. C-.: 
( )ak -galls (408<Jrt ) ; Moth {Mamedra lan- 
dahiliH (in. ), and a Tortricid (4mnm). 

Andrk, Krnest, Haute- Saone, Franc**: 
Ten siMHrimens of Mutillids including 
4 cotyiH*s. Exchange. 39684. 

Antrim, Walter. (See under Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Comjiany.) 

Armstron*}, C. C. (SvHJ un<ler W. N. 
Ciute.) 

Army Medical MrsKiM. ( Sim' iind**r War 
l)t»partinent.) 

Arnold ARKoRFriiM, Jamaica Plain, 
Mass.: Twciity-ri^ht sj)eciinens <>f Cm- 
tirgim from tlie rnited States. Ex- 
change. 4UXX). 

Arnold, Ralph. Pasa<lena, Cal. : SjKM'i- 
iiions of Miorciic ostnicmla. 40702. 

AsiTNWALi., F. K., Atlanta, <;a. : Four 
plants froni (itnirgia. 39871. 



98 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



AiKTix, W. M., McLallen Comere, Pa.: 
Water beetle, OjhiMeH fimhrutfatuH Say. 
:I9601. 

Baarda, p. J., van, Bedfoni, Ma8H. : One 
hundred and twenty-five speriniens of 
nioPHes from Holland. 41141. 

BABt'<KK, Mrx. P. H., Washington, I). C: 
Basket an<l Imndle of (leonria pine 
straws (4<X*VM); coile*! basket of wire 
jfrass from iSorrento, Florida (40rt96). 

Backi's, II. H., Riverside, Cal.: Snake 
{ hnnpropeith wuUicinctun) tnmi Cali- 
fornia. 40187. 

BAn)N, S. E., Krie, Pa.: Sj)ecimens of 
Xifwphua. (39623; :W739). 

Bag LEV, Prof. W. S., Waterville, Me.: 
SjKvimen of Oliolm phaou (?). 404<)5. 

l^AiLEY, (Jen. (i. W., Waterville, Minn.: 
Four Chinese* <l()ll8an<l a i)ortion of the 
tusk of a Mast<Mlon (.*{iM)19); j)ottery 
ilrinkiu); cups, iK)ttery idol, vast*, and 
8t«Hd mirror (40042). 

Bailky, Vkknon. Washington, I). C: 
Fourteen si)eriinen8of Cadi from Texas 
(39H:{3); re<eiv(?<l tli rough the Depart- 
ment of .\griculture, 3 plants from New 
Mexico (41030). (Sw also under De- 
partment of Agriculture.) 

Hakkk, Mnj. A. D., Dundtn*, N.Y.: SjK'ci- 
men of Ichncumon-tly, or " I^)ng 
Sting," lihi/Hsa prrstKixarin Linmi'US. 
39970. 

I^AKKii, ('. F., lA'land Stanford Junior 
rniversitv, Stanfonl Tniversitv, Cal.: 
Twn hundred and eighty-(»ne plants 
fn.in California (purchase) (39782); 82 
siK'cimcns of Diptera from Ormshy, 
N<n:ida, and Santa Clara and Mateo 
counties, Calif(»rma (gift) (40308); 747 
plants from Nevada and the Pacific 
slope, California (purchase*) (40390); i\ 
specimens ( 2 HjK'cies) of IhTmit-crabs 
from Nicaragua (gift) (40928); ^M) spec- 
imens (28 specit»s) of marine, land, and 
fresh -wMt<*r .«hells prin<M pally from 
Xicanigua (gift) (40948); spe<'imen of 
Sfduw from California (gift) (41103). 

IVvKKK, Dr. Fha.nk, SuiM*rinten<lent, Na- 
tional Zoological Park: Brea<l bowl, 
stone hanuner, stom* hat<'}H>t, and a 
stxjne ax. 4()81H3. (See also under 



Baker, Dr. Frank — Continued. 
Smithsonian Institution, National Zoo- 
logical Park. ) 

Bakkr, F. C. (See under Chicago Aca'i- 
emy of Sciences.) 

Bakrk, L. K., Chester, Pa.: Photograph 
of tablet erected by the Daughter «»{ 
the American Revoluti(»n, April It*. 
1903, at Chester. 41194. 

Baker, William H. (See under Pa»tal 
Telegraph C-able Comi>any.) 

Baldridge, Mn?. Maria, San Pedro, Cal.; 
Los Angeles, Cal.: Three 8i)ecimensof 
Cjfprira spadiced (404II6); 3 specimem* 
(2 species) of marine inollusks frf>in 
Newport Beach, near San Petiro, Cal. 
(40763); 3 sijecimens of Murfx from 
California (41036). 

BALDWlN-ZEKiLER PoLAK F^XPEDITIOX: 

lieceived through Mr. J. R. Champ, 
8ec*n»tar V . M iscel lanetms in vertebrates, 
molluskn, fishes, fossils, nxrks, and fot«^il 
plants from Franz Josef I.And. 40988. 

Balre, Miss M. v., Shejmnisville, Ky.: 
Flint spearhea*! with core of nodule. 
4W*20. 

Ball, C. K. (See under Department of 
Agriculture. ) 

Ball, (J. Arthur, FMmonton, Alberta. 
Canada: Nest and 3 eggs of Canarla Jay, 
Perisiireus rmmdeu^lXf from no^thwe^1 
(Canada (purchase) (:W891); skin of 
Canada Jay (gift) (40478). 

Ballaik, I)., Washington, D. (•. : Male! 
of the Ja<*obi electric motor. l*urcliase. 
40789. 

Bancroft, \V. J., ].<owell, Mass.: Jade 
tablets and jatle seal. Purchase. 408S7. 

Bano-Haas, a. (See under A. Stan- 

<linger. ) 

Ban(;s, OiTRAM, Boston, Mass.: Two 
liundrtMl an<l ninety-four birds' skins' 
fnnn Central America and Colombia 
lexehangtM (4(X)76); 2 s])ecimens of 
liiit<ih'uhrHs mAanoth (40545); 52 birds' 
f^kins from Honduras (gift) (40641). 

Bannkhmann (iRanitr ('ompaxy, Chi- 
eago, 111.: Cube of granite from a 
quarry at Ke<lgranite, Waushara 
County, Wis. 40077. 



LIST OF A00ES8I0NS. 



99 



Barber, A. W., (General Land Office, 
Interior Department, Washington, 
D. C : Hearth of fire-drill and a speci- 
men of Indian turnip or **Tip8inna," 
4a328. 

Barbkr, H. 8., U. 8. National Museum: 
Copi)erhea<l snake, Agkiatrodon conUtr- 
irixy from Plummers Island, Maryland, 
(.39705); Red bat^ Lasimnis borecdu 
(31)794). (See also under Rolla P. 
Carrie. ) 

Bard, T. D., Chelsea, Ind. T.: Speci- 
men of Franklin's Gull, Lariis franklin i. 
40893. 

Barnes, (teorue D. (See under W. C. 
Barnes.) 

Barnes, W. C, Decatur, III.: Three 
hundre<l and forty-three specimens of 
Lepidoptera. 40360. 

Barnes, W. C. and E. M. Duncan, Sani- 
bel, Fla. : Received through George 1). 
Bamef*. Marino shells from Sanibel 
Island. 40278. 

Barrott, a. F., Oswego, N. Y.: Rude 
grooveil axe, double bladed, from Mc- 
Guire's wharf, Westmoreland County, 
Va. 40869. 

Barrows, D. P. (See under Department 
of Agriculture. ) 

Bartlett, H. H., Indianapolis, Ind.: 
PhyllopKxis from Fall Creek, near 
Indianapolis (40932); specimen of 
Xnirir kirkhmdiiirom Indiana (41071 ). 

Bartlett, Rith A., Kittery, Me.: Speci- 
men of Moth {EudrjfOM grata Fabr. ). 
;W73l. 

Barthch, Paul, U. S. National Museum: 
Skull of bla(*k bear, Urxiui amencanu^^ 
from the Dismal Swamp, Va. 40602. 

Bakhi.kr, R. S., U. S. National Museum: 
Fossils of the Cincinnati formation 
from Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky 
(40227); Richmond and Clinton for- 
mation fossils from Indiana and Ohio 
(40228). 

B.\te8, Dr. E. N., Boston, Mass.: Fifty- 
one United States musket flints (40616) ; 
flint-lock gun formerly owned by John 
Bums (40659). 



Bbal, W. J., Agricultural College, Mich.: 
Received through Department of Agri- 
culture. Two hundred plants from 
Michigan. Exchange. 40142. 

Bearden, C. E., Wylie, Tex.: Larva of a 
lepidopterous insect. 41 106. 

Beck, R. H., Berryessa, Cal. Received 
through Ernst Hartert, Tring Museum, 
Tring, England: Five birds* skeletons 
from Galapagos arid other Pacifi<t coast 
islands (40326) ; 327 birds' skins from 
the (jralapagos islands and vicinity 
(40912). Purchase. 

Beckwith, Paul, U. S. National Museum: 
Lithographic coi)y of an anniversary 
ode to the late President McKinley, 
executeil by tlie Sisters of Mary of 
Baltimore, Maryland (gift) (39956); 
bronze official souvenir badge of the 
thirty-sixth annual encampment of tlie 
Grand Army of the Republic (gift) 
(40009); 2 single-barrel Spanish fowl- 
ing pieces (exchange) (40224); collec- 
tion of miscellaneous photographs 
(gift) (40354); 2 silver groats, Edward 
I of England, 1154-1179 A. D., and 2 
copi)er coins, Ptolemeus II to Ptolemy 
VIII, 2a5-247 B. C. (gift) (40709); half 
maravadi of Ferd VII, 1826, Spain 
(gift) (40819); land document, Balti- 
more County, Maryland, 1744, with 
the seal of the Province of Maryland 
(gift) (40821); invitation to the dedi- 
cation ceremonies of the Louisiana 
I^irchase Exposition, April 30 and 
May 1, 1903; complimentary card and 
admittance card to grounds (gift) 
(40985); pistol and a revolver (pur- 
chase) (41001); silver groat of Edward 
1st, King of England, 1272-1307 (gift) 
(41190). 

Beech ER, Dr. C. E. (See under Yale 
University Museum.) 

Beede, Prof. J. W., Indiana University, 
Bloomington, In<l. : Five specimens of 
Plfnrotomnria from the Waverlv forma- 
tion near Bloomington (gift) (40178); 
siHicimens of foraminiferal washings 
from the St. Ix)uis formation near Ilar- 
rodsburg, Indiana. Exchange. 40198. 



100 



BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Bblding, I^, Stockton, Cal.: Nest and 3 
ef^ of Wilsouia pvuiilla pileoltiUi from 
California (397(K)); 30 8i)ecimen8 of 
Xifmphpca polyaepala from Stockton, 
Cal. (397W). * 

Bell, C. C, an<l (\ S. Taintkr, Washint;- 
ton, D.- C: Bronxe me<lal. Ixmui. 
8399. 

Betzhoovek, (J. M., jr. ( See under John 
Strother. ) 

Benedict, J. E., jr., Wocnlside, Md.: 
Forty-six Hpe<*imen8 of Emerita ielpinda 
(Say) from Anbury Park, N. J. 39878. 

Benjamin, Mrn. MAKcrs, Washington, 
D. C. : ThrtHj baskets. Exchange. 
40163. 

Benjamin, Dr. Marcus, V. S. National 
Museum: Five samples of materials 
use<l in the manufacture of baskets 
(40()W); l)adge of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science*, 
Ilenver, Colo., 1901 (411.%). 

Benson, ('apt. H. C., V. S. A., Jefferson 
Barracks, Mo.: One hundrwl and 
thirty-three binis' eggs from New 
Mexico an<l Arizona (40427); 14 binls' 
eggs from the Philippine Islands 
(4048:^). 

Hewjman, K. W., SuitlaiKl, Md. : (m»at 
Blue heron. :W724. 

Berlin, (iKU.MANV, Botanical Mchki'm: 
Five huHilred and Hcvonty plant** from 
FAiro|H* and Africa (lUMiOO); rcc»'ive<l 
through tlie Ocpartmcnt of Agricul- 
tun*. 9') plant.-^ from Euro|>eand .Vfrica 
i.S'.MW)5). Kx<hange. 

Bkknick Pat ami Bishop Miskcm, llono- 
lulii, Hawaiian Islands: KrccivHl 
through Mr. William T. Brighain, 
director. Forty-four birds' skins, and 
4 binls' nests and eggs, from the islan<l 
of (iuain, collected by Mr. A. Si»ale. 
Kxchangc. 405.S7. 

BiiiDLK, H. B., Wasbiiigton, D. ('.: 
Digger-wasp, Stizun Kprrltn^tm Drury. 
;W814. 

Bikderman, C-. U., Florence, Ariz.: Ten 
sptH'imensof C'icindelas from Harrison, 
Ark., and 7 specimens from Hogne 
River, Oregon. 40987. 

BiLLn»s, A., l^wrenceburg, Ind.: Frt»sh- 
water shelJH. 40044. 



BiOLLSV, Prof. P., Instituto Fisico-Geo- 
grafioo de Costa Rica, Ban Joe^*, Costa 
Rica: Two species of lizards from (V-oe 
Islands. 40400. (See also under ^^an 
Joe^, Costa Rica. ) 

Biological Society of Washingtdx. 
(See under J. 11. Schuette.) 

Bird, Henry, Rye, N. Y. : Four moths 
of the genus Gortyna and 3 lar\'«'. Ex- 
change. 40348. 

Bittenbender, Howard, Bloomsburfs, 
Pa. : Spear head and 10 arrow i>ointj>. 
39943. 

Black well, W. A., Northeast, Md.: 
Specimen of Hellljender, ( Yyfti}fm\nchn* 
alleghaniensiii, from the Susquehanna 
flats. 40135. 

Blake, C. C, Woman's Temple, Chicago, 
111.: Two cubes of oolitic limestone; 
from (ireen River, Kentucky, and Bed- 
ford, Ind. 40173. 

Bl.\nkinsiiip, J. W., Bozenian, Mont.: 
Fifteen plants from Montana. 411«>'). 

Bl.\tchley, Dr. W. S., State geologist. 
Indianaix>lis, Ind.: Spei*inienof **Blue 
racer," Hdncttnion flavimUrii^f from In- 
diana. 40780. 

B<'»HM, Julius, Vienna, Austria: Piece of 
a meteorite from Ergheo, Somaliland, 
Afrii-a, 427 grams. Kxchang(\ 40844. 

Bolton, Dr. M. C, Washington, I). C: 
Spwimen of dolomite frt>m (^>rtina, 
Austrian Tyrol ( 4001 1 ) ; silver facsimile 
of a sealing-wax impression made by 
Dr. Joseph Priestley (40225); jewshari> 
(4(M>79). 

Bonar, ("apt. R. M., assistant surgeon, 
r. S. A., Doamarinos, (^avite, V. l'- 
Two katydirls belonging to the family 
LoiMistida'. 39924. 

Bond, Frank, Washington, I). C: Wea- 
sel, PutoviuH iii(iri])fHy innn (^heyenne. 
Wvo. 41014. 

Botanic (i.vRDENs. {See under Sydney, 
Ni'w South Wales, Australia.) 

Botanical Mcskcm. ( See under Berlin, 
(icnnanv.) 

Boc( ahi), a.. Oak Hill, Spring Vale, near 
Uy<le, bsKof Wight, England: Three 
birds' skins. Purchase. L. P. X. 
40600. 



List OF A00JBS8IONS. 



101 



BouLB, t)r. M. (Seeander Paris, France, 
Museum of Natural History. ) 

BouLENG ER, G . A . ( See under Sir George 
Newnes. ) 

BouviEK, Prof. E. L. (See under Paris, 
France, Museum of Natural History. ) 

BowDisii, B. S., New York City: Skin of 
Euphcniia sdateri from Porto Kica 
40124. 

Bower, John, Sr., Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Kailge of the Farra^t Association of 
Naval Veterans, 18()1-1865. 40107. . 

Bowles, J. H., Tacoma, Wash.: Two 
nests and 5 egf^s of Streakeil homed 
lark, (Mocoritt alpestris slrignta^ from 
WashinKtx)n. 40157. 

B<iwMAN, C. W., Devils Lake, N. I)ak.: 
( iolden-eye duck. 39673. 

Bowman, E. L., Clarion, Pa.: Specimen 
of Cennatia forceps L. 39658. 

I^)WMAN, William A., Lloyd, Mont.: 
Ninetet»n birds* eggs from Montana. 
40112. 

Brace, A. C, Canandaigua, N. Y.: 
Myriapod representing the species Or- 
inntia forceps L. 40229. 

Bradford, Rear- Admiral R. B. (See 
under Navy Department.) 

Bradford, Mrs. Sidney, Avery Island, 
I^. : Four negatives of baskets. I/oan. 
8457. (Returned.) 

Brainerd, Erastus, Seattle, Wash.: Sil- 
ver medal struck in Germany in com- 
memoration of the visit of Prince 
Henry of Prussia to the United Stat4»s 
(40614) ; 8 si)ecimen8of gold from Idaho 
Bar, Rampart district, Alaska, and 2 
specimens of gold and silver from Slate 
Creek, same district (40608). 

Brainerd, Dr. Ezra, Middlebury Col- 
lege, Middlebury, Vt: Two hundred 
and eight specimens of violets from 
Vermont (gift; exchange) (39988; 
40060); 55 specimens of violets (ex- 
change) (40078). 

Brakelev, J. Ti'RN'ER, Ilomefstowii, 
N. J. : Living larva*, puiw and t^ggs of 
Cuiici<lK\ 40213. 

Branch, H. Sklwyn, Roseau, Dominica, 
West Indies: Eight birds' skins an<l 5 
beetles. 39651. 



Brandbore, T. S., San Diego, Gal.: 
Forty-six plants from Lower California 
(gift) (40559; 40577; 40578); 326 plants 
from Arizona and California, collected 
by C. A. Purpus (purchase) (40603); 
122 plants from Lower California (ex- 
change) (40729). 

Brannbr, Dr. J. C, Stanford University, 
Cal.: Two fossil crabs from Brazil. 
Deposit. 39624. 

Bracnton, Ernest, Los Angeles, Cal.: 
Seven hundred plants from California 
(purchase) (40322); 12 plants from 
California (gift) (40758; 40884; 4ia'>0). 

Brescia, Athen.cum. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution.) 

Breton, Miss A dele, Peabody Museum, 
Cambridge, Mass.: Twelve obsidian 
flaked implements. 40300. 

Brezina, Aristides, Vienna, Austria: 
Meteorites from Jellica, Merciditas, 
and San Juliao. Exchange. 40676. 

Brigham, Hon. J. H. (See under Gov- 
ernment Boanl, Pan-American Expo- 
sition. ) 

Brigham, Dr. W. T. (See under Ber- 
nice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Hono- 
lulu, Hawaiian Islands.) 

Brimley, C. S., Raleigh, N. C: Four 
dragon-flies (gift) (39679); 6 speci- 
mens of dragon-flies, including Neha- 
/emia]>osUa Hagen, Anonudagrion hastn- 
tum Say, and Legt^» rectangularis Say 
(gift) (40038) ; 8 specimens of Pamphila 
raro/ma Skinner (purchase) (40871); 5 
dragon-flies (gift) (40915); 11 speci- 
mens of Odonata igiit) (41063). 

Brimley, H. H. (See under State Mu- 
seum, Raleigh, N. C. ) 

Brimley Brotiier.s, Raleigh, N. C: 
Reptiles and batrachians from Mexico 
and the United States (39697; 40041). 
Purchase. 

Brink, T. F., Nashville, 111.: Chrysalis 
of butterfly ( Grapta interrogation is 
Fabr.) 39631. 

British Muskum. (See under Ix)nd(>n, 
England.) 

Bkitton, L. H., Edgewater, N. J.: In- 
dian woven scArf. Ix)an. 8149. 



102 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Brizard, Brou88E, Art'ata, Cal. : Un- 
inounte<l photo^^phH of Indian 
baflkets. 40486. 

Brizari), Paiti. a. (See under Phoenix 
Wooil and Coal Company; also under 
"The Curio. '») 

Broc'KETt, Paul, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion: Woodcut design of Washington 
Mormment; life of Jefferson Davis in 
live tableaux, and eight eampaign 
badges. 40627. 

BaoDiE, Dr. W^illia.m. (See under De- 
|)artment of Agriculture. ) 

Brooks, A. H. (See under Department 
of Agriculture. ) 

Broompikli), (jr. W., Mackinaw Island, 
Mich. : Caddis-wornis of a noun>pteroid 
insect Injlonging to the order Trichop- 
tera. 41127. 

Brown, C. T., Richmond, Va.: Copi)er 
coin (^Hindu-Britannit!). 40666. (See 
also under Department of Agriculture. ) 

Brown, E. J., Lemon City, Fla. : Rep- 
tiles, birds, bats, an<l insects from 
lA^monCitv. 40,S01. 

* 

Brown, Mrs. J. Crosby, Orange, N. J.: 
Nyckelhaupa (purchase) (89668); fid- 
dle of American make (gift) (39752); 
bass horn, gounl mandolin, ami 2 cAne 
flutes (exchange) (41172). 

Brown, N. H., Lander, Wyo. : SjK*ci- 
mons of Triassic fossils. 89774. 

Brown, Mrs. X. M., Ashtabula, Ohio: 
Three hundred and thirty-two plants 
collected in Mexico bv K. W. Nelson 
and K. A. (loldman (purchase) 
(8971.S); 818 plants collected by the 
same persons (purchase) (89719); 248 
plants from Mexico colIectiHl })y Mr. 
Nelson (purchase) (4(M>()4); 128 plants 
from Mexico also obtaine<l bv Mr. 
Nelson (purchase) (40755). 

Brown, Thomas, Department of Agricul- 
ture, Auckland, New Zealand: Re- 
ceived, through Dr. L. O. Ilowanl, five 
speciniens of lii.*<e(;ts. 4(K)95. 

Brown, Kev. William, Northbend, 
Wash.: Three si)ecimens of Lt/rajMr- 
(lon (ii(j*nitfU}H from Spokane County. 
4(XK)8. 



Browne, Dr. W. G., Atlanta, Ga.: Two 
specimens of Lubljer grai!«*ho[>per, />i>- 
tyopharu* reiiculcUus Thunb. (89H70; 
39671). 

Brownlev, p]., Norfolk, Va.: Caterj^illiw 
of Jxigwi cri»imta PackartL ;^864. 

Brijes, C. T., Zoologii!al Laboraton-, 
Columbia Unlversitv, New York Citv: 

' Thirty-seven spetnmens of Hymenoj^- 
t«ra and 3 sptK^imens of Coleoptera. 
40143. 

Bryan, W. Alanson, Bemice Pauahi 
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii: 
Four lizanls and specimens of cnista- 
ceans from Marcus Island (40394; 
40737) . 

Bryson, Mrs. Mary, Barton, Fla.: Pes- 
ter plate. 39795. 

BvcKMAN, Mrs. M. N. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnol- 

t>gy- ) 

BvLKLEY, Mrs. A. L. (See under Na- 
tional Society of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. ) 

BuLKLEY, Barry. (See imder CitiziMis' 
Executive Committee, (i. A. R. Fji- 
campment. ) 

BuLLARi), Charles, Cambridge, Mase.: 
Thirty specimens of Nymphea from 
Wisconsin. 39850. 

Bi'M(jARi>NER, Edward, Lawrence, Kans.: 
Six lx>tanical specimens from Kansas, 
including Staphyka (rifoliah.; Enony- 
WHS (itrapurpureiui Jsu.*q.; Rhamimts latt- 
reolata Pursh; ( brmn* amomujn Will (?); 
Am<>rj)fni frvtict>m L., and Or/rwiw ajjywn- 
fofia Michx. 39877. 

Bunnell, J. H. & Co., New York City: 
received through A. J. Wise: Knox & 
Shain Morse telegraph registers Nos. 
8032 and 8095. (40788; 40906.) 

BnicEss, L. S., Wasliington, D. C. : Paint- 
ing on shell and a cutting knife. Loan. 

7826. 

HiRMEisTER, W. L. J., Chicago, 111.: 
Digger Indian skull and some small 
]M)nes. 40664. 

Birr, Mrs. Ehenkzer, Bridgeport, Conn.: 
Poino Indian basket from Lake County, 
Cai.; three photographs. 40776. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



108 



BuBCK, August, Department of Agricul- 
ture: Forty-six specimens of Chilomyc- 
fm> from Baracoa, Cuba. 40691. (See 
also under Department of Agriculture. ) 

BiTLER, Miss Fauhtina, Portland, Me.: 
Plant. 39662. 

BiTTo.v, F. L., Oakland, Cal. : Five speci- 
mens, 2 species, of land shells from 
Mexico (39778); specimen of Nettasto- 
mella dnnmn Cpr. from Bolinas, Cal. 
(4a338). 

Cahn, Lazard, New Brighton, N. Y.: 
Fomteen specimens of mineraln. Pur- 
chase. 40957. L. P. X. 

Calcitta, India, Royal Gardens: One 
hun<lred and twenty plants from India. 
Kxchange. 39917. 

Caldwell, D. W. (See under Depart- 
ment of Agriculture) . 

Caldwell, H. R., Foochow, China: 
Bird**' eggs, insects, and coins of China. 
40:Mo. 

California Academy of Sciences, San 
Francisco, Cal.: Plant from Nevada, 
colIecte<i by Prof. P. B. Kennedy (gift) 
( 40183) ; 20 plants from California (ex- 
change*) (40280); 4 specimens of Coty- 
ledon from Monterey, collecte<l by Miss 
Alice Eastwood (exchange) (40663). 

Calif<irnia, l-NivERsiTY OF, Berkeley, 
Cal.: Four specimens of Cotyledons. 
39854. 

Callahan, J. IL, Baltimore, Md.: Kvans 
picmeer gun. Purchase. 40743. 

Callier, A., Rosswein, Saxony, Ger- 
nianv: Two hundre<l and seventv- 
three plants from Russia. Exchange. 
40647. 

Calvert, Dr. P. P., Academy of Natural 
S<.*ien<'es, Philadelphia, Pa. : Four spe- 
cies of dragon flies (new to the Museum 
collection). 40334. 

Calvert, Lieut. W. J., U. S. A., Fort Mc- 
Henry, Baltimore, Md.: Moro gun 
made in Mindanao and captured at the 
surren<ler of Manila. I»an. 7688. 

Canby, W. M., Wilmington, Del. r Forty 
s{)ecimens of OratPcg^iB from Delaware. 
Exchange. 40817. 

Cannon, W. A., New York Botanical 
(xarden, Bronx Park, N. Y.: Two hun- 



Cannon, W. a. — Continued, 
dred and thirty-five plants collected 
on Roan Mountain, North Carolina. 
(40964; 40965.) (Purchase and gift.) 

Carrico, E. T., Stithton, Ky.: Five un- 
mounte<l photographs taken during a 
storm in Stithton, 2 arrowheads, spear- 
head, and specimen of pottery. 40052. 

Carroll, J. A., superintendent, MescA- 
lero Indian Agency, Mes<»alero,N. Mex. : 
Mescalero Apac^he basket. Exchange. 
40469. 

Carroll, J. J., Waco, Tex.: Abnormal 
egg of White-necked Raven, Connis 
fTtfptoleucitSy from Texas (gift) (39627); 
4 eggs of Mexican Jacana, Jacana «p?- 
nosa (exchange) (39824). 

Carroll, J. M., Washington, D. C. ; re- 
t»eive<l through W J McGee: Nails 
believed to have been used in the con- 
struction of the White House, and in 
making repairs after the partial burn- 
ing of the building in 1813. 39742. 

Carruth, F. H. & J. H., Lobdell, I^.: 
Bat {Cbrynorhinus macrotis). 40787. 

Carruth, G. H., Ix)bdell, Ia.: Carabid 
beetle, Calomma myi Dejeau. 40972. 

Carter, Dr. R. K., Blue Dirge Summit, 
Pa.: Chrysomelid beetle, Coptoci/cln 
(jiitfcta Olivier. 39856. 

Caste, F. L., Sandy ville. W. Va. : Speci- 
men of Walking-stick, Diapheromera 
Jcmornio Say. 39901. 

Casto, Ca])t. Mark, Pleasantville, N. J.: 
Two marine shells from New Jersey. 
40534. 

Cathcart, Miss E. W., Washington, D. C. : 
Plant from Marvland. 40315. 

« 

Cattell„G. W., Woodbury, N. J.: Speci- 
men of wood from New Jersev. 39702. 

Caudell, a. N., Department of Agricul- 
ture: Two hundred and ninetv-six in- 
sects (40147); 5 insects of the family 
IxK'Ustidflp (40760). 

(^KccoNi, Dr. (iiAcoM(),Vallombro8a, Flor- 
ence, Italy: Bats and reptiles. Pur- 
chase. 39771. 

Chamberlain, E. B., Washington, D. C: 
Two si)ecimens of moss(»s from Maine. 
40314. 



104 



BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Champ^J. H. (See under Bald win-Zeigler 
Polar Expe<lition.) 

Chandler, II. P., Lincoln School, Pasa- 
dena, Cal.: Plant from California. 
40366. 

Chandler, HoRACK,Fairville, New Bruns- 
wick: Clover-mite [Bryobia pratensis 
(rarman). 39889. 

Chapman, Mrs. C. N., Sault Ste. Marie, 
Midi.: Thirteen specimens of Eskimo 
clothing; and implements from Fort 
Chun'hill, Canada. Purchase. 41187. 

Chapman, Mrs. E. M.,\Va8hin>?ton, D. C. : 
Ancient and modern silver and copper 
coins. 41018. 

C'HKRKiK, Georob K., Brooklyn Institute 
of Arts ami Sciences, Brooklyn, N. Y.: 
Six bats from Venezuela. 39808. 

Chesntt, V. K., Bozeman, Mont.: Three 
plants from Montana (39874; 39890). 
(See also under Dej)artmcnt of Agricul- 
tnrc. ) 

('mcAtJo Academy op Sciences, Chicago, 
111. : Keceivcil through Frank C. Baker, 
<leep-sea shells from Yacatan Channel 
(gift) (40150); re<*eived through Wil- 
liam K. Higley, 6 mounteil l)irds (ex- 
chan^c) (41158). 

Citizens' Execi'tive Committee, (t. A. R. 
Encampinent, 1902: Received through 
Barry Bulkley, secretary, 38 badges 
of the Thirty-sixth National Encamp- 
ment* of the (i. A. R., held at Wash- 
in^'tcn, 0. C, Octobi'r 0-10, 1902. 
:iW)77. 

Clahk, Trof. Huhert Lyman, Olivet Col- 
lege, Olivet, Mich.: Receive*! through 
Professor AVheeler, ])lant from Mich- 
igan (399G4); lizards from Jamaica. 
(40.'J3()); snake { I'Jutnuia hrarhystfnna) 
from Michigan (40949); 4 batrachians 
from Micliigan (41072); 11 lishes, in- 
chuling fjj/ro(lontii< moriDf/a: Lfihrisffmns 
pectin ifer; Irarli inotus; Minutnmt}! n)i; 
SipJ'osloina: Fknu^frr (t (Jin is, aii<l Fnn- 
tiulns (41227). 

Clahk, T. B., New York CMty: Four 
sjH'cimens of ancient glassware from 
Syria. Punthase. 397.SH. 

Clark, Prof. William B., Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md.: Specimens 



Clark, Prof. William B. — Continued, 
of washings containing foesil Ostracoila. 
Exchange. 40395. 

Clarke, Hopewell, St. Paul, Minn.: 
Rocks and ores from near Winston, 
Mont. (39635); specimens of malachite 
and malachite calcite (39882). 

Clements, F. E., Minnehaha, Colo.: 
Two HpecimeuB of Sedutn from Colo- 
rado. 39768. 

Cloonan, E. a., St. Louis, Mo.: Dragon- 
fly, AnajrjiiniiJUi Drury. 39865. 

Clitte, W. N., Binghamton, N. Y.: 
Thirty-tive fernn from New Zealand, 
collected by C. C. Armstrong. Pur- 
chase. 40284. 

(Jockerell, l*rof. T. D. A., East Ia« 
Vegas, N. Mex. : Unio from New Mex- 
ico (39862); Coleoptera, Diptera, 
Uymenopteraan<l other orders (39888); 
16 8i)ecimen8 (4 species) of hymenoj>- 
terous parasites (39999); 90 si^ecimens 
of insects from New Mexico (40115); 
47 jmrasitic Hymenoptera, bred from 
coccids collected at Zapotlan, Mexia^ 
by Prof. C. II. Tyler Townsend (40204); 
insects, mollusks, and crustaceans 
(40255); cotype of Lamprempii 
chichirneca Wheeler and Melander, 
from Mexico (40257); carbonifercnis 
fossil, 3 nKH3ozoic fossils and 7 fo^^il 
plants (40458); 471 specimens of in- 
sects, including Diptera, Trichoptera, 
Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, 
Rhynchota, and Lepidoptera (40612); 
3 si^ecimens of cockleburs, XaiUliium 
( 4()f587 ) ; miscellaneous insects (40703) ; 
am phi pods, leeches, and a geophilid 
from Las Vegas Hot Springs (40707); 
l)lant fnmi New Mexico (40722); 2 
])lant8 from New Mexitx) (40725); 91 
si>ecinjens of Lepidoptera, 24 speci- 
mens of Orthoptera, 39 specimens of 
Diptera, (k^ specimens of Hymenop- 
tera, and 1 specimen of Neuroptera 
(40998); miscelleneous insects (41042); 
mollusks and crustaceans from San 
Pedro, Cal. (41075); 11 land shells 
from Pecos, N. Mex. (41170). (See 
iindiT Department of Agriculture.) 

Cocks, R. S., New Orleans, La.: Two 
plants from lx>uisiana. 40803. 



UAt OF AOCfissioird. 



165 



CoKER, R. £., U. S. Fish CommiBBion, 
Beaufort, N. C: Anneli<i8 from Beau- 
fort. 40978. 

CoLEY, Jambb, Norway, S. C: Snake. 
40841. 

Collie, G. L., Beloit Ck>IIege, Beloit, 
Mich. : Nine species of Mokawkian fos- 
sils from the Bellefont section, Penn- 
sylvania. 41008. 

« 

Collier, A. J. (See under Department 
of Afirriculture; also under Interior De- 
partment, U. 8. Geological Survey.) 

Collins, F. S., Maiden, Mass.: Seventy- 
five specimens of Algje (:^)728); 100 
8{>ecimens of plants ( Phycotheca Bore- 
ali- Americana) (40W2); 50 specimens 
of North American algaj (41205) . Pur- 
chase. 

Collins, G. N., and O. F. Cook, Depart- 
ment of Agric'ulture. Two dragon- 
flies, st^me-fiy, and ant-lion fnmi Tapa- 
chula, Mexico. 40096. 

Collins, J. F., Provideni-e, R. I.: 
Twenty-i^ne siKHiimens of violets from 
Rho<le Island. Exchange. 40857. 

Collins, William A., Waterhury, Conn.: 
Spider, Argiope auratia Lucas ( = Argi- 
ope. riparh Hentz). 39907. 

Colt's Patent Firearms Manikactitr- 
in(j Company, Hartford, Conn.: Re- 
ceive! through L. C. (4rover, president. 
Two automatic Colt pistols (40481; 
40999). 

Columbia College, New York Citv. 
Plant obtained by Dr. M. Darlington 
at West Chester, Pa. 40898. 

CoMSTOCK, Prof. J. Henry, Cornell I'ni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y.: Type si)eciinen 
of LytnoymUha amiMockii. 40j)97. 

CoNr.DoN, J. W. (See under Miss Alice 
Eastwooil. ) 

Cook, Prof. O. F., Department of Agri- 
culture: Two specimens of Phrynids 
from Porto Rico (40098); 24 misc^el- 
laneous insei'ts and aratrhnids from 
Porto Rico (40203). (See under New 
York Botanical Garden; also under 
G. N. Collins.) 

Cooke, A. C, East Liberty, Ohio: Luna 
moth, Actios luna Liiimfus. 39628. 



Cooke, Dr. P. M., Denver, Colo.: Speci- 
men of Grapevine leafhopper, Typhlo- 
cyha vUu Harris. 40097. 

Cooke, W^. W., Department of Agricul- 
ture: Nest and 3 eggs of HelmirUhophUa 
pinua. 41225. 

Cooper, William, Milo, Me.: Sample of 
ro<!k with supposed traces of animal or 
plant life. 39743. 

Cooper, W^ B., U. S. National Museum: 
Bronze 50 cash, issued 1850-1851, by 
the Tartar dynasty, Chinese Emjwre. 
40412. 

Copper Queen Consolidated Mining 
Company, New York Citv. Receiveil 
through James Douglas, president. 
Tinte<l stalactite and sections of Naco- 
zari ores (39773); 2 sections of tinte<l 
stalatrtite (39755) . 

CoQuiLLETT, D. W., Department of Agri- 
culture: 2,214 specimens of Diptera. 
:i9585. 

CoRBETT, L. L., Watkins, N. Y.: Seven- 
teen stone implements. 40510. 

Corning, J. H., Washington, D. C: 
C\ibe of polished marble from (juarry 
at Kakles Mills, Washington County, 
Md. 40237. 

Cohsmann, M. Maurice, Paris, France: 
Tbree sj^ecies of rare Kocene fossils 
from the Paris Itasin. Itt)918. 

ConuiLiN, Mrs. W. H. (Sci^ under 
Mather, Fred, testate of.) 

CoviLLE, F. V. (See under Department 
of Agriculture.) 

(^ox, Emery, Brightwoo<l, D. C: Scret^'h 
owl, Megascops nsio. 39797. 

Cox, Miss Hazel, Brightwoo<l, I). (•.: 
Oven-bird, Seinrui< aunfcapUlufi. 39870, 

Craighead, Krwin, Mo])ile, Ala.: Hcm)- 
(ioo charm used by the negroes of Ala- 
bama. 411(>0. 

C'RAWKORD, Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa.: 

Plant. :mm. 

Crawford, Lamar, Washington, D. C: 
Stone implements, fragments of |M)t- 
tcry, etc., from a nx'k-sh»'lter on Spuy- 
ten Duyvil Creek, near Fort George, 
Manhattan Island, N. Y. 41004. 



106 



HEPORt OF NATIONAL MtTSEUM, 190^. 



Crawford, Mrs. Margaret, Brightwood, 
D. C. : ^nov,'yow\, Xyrtai uyctea, 40986. 

Crohby, D. J., Department of Agricul- 
ture: SiK»ciinen of Paruir quinquefolium 
colkH;te<i in Virginia. 40454. 

Crohby, F. W. Washington, D. C. : Trilo- 
bites fron) Mount Stephens on the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railroad (gift) (39980); 
gla(!ial clay from West Seattle, Wash, 
(purchase) (40027); 2 specimens of 
concretionary diorite from near San 
Diego, Cal. (gift) (41049). 

Crosby, W. ()., Massachusetts Institute 
of Ttnhnology, Boston, Maas.: Sj>eci- 
men of native arsenic from Santa Cruz 
County, Ariz. Exchange. 40899. 

Cross. L. T. (See under Montello(iran- 
ite Company.) 

Cross, Whit.man. (See under Inti»rior 
Department, T. S. (Geological Survey.) 

Crowlkv, J. J., Logan, Mont.: Receive<l 
.through Department of Agriculture. 
Plant fn)m Montana. 4114(). 

Crozier, Brig. (Jen. William, V. S. A. 
(See under War l^jpartment. ) 

CrMMiNs, M. D., Pierceton, Ind.: Arrow- 
hea<ls, hatchet^, and fossils from Kos- 
ciusko County, Ind., and 3 specimens 
of ore from Colorado and Kansa^^. 
39735. 

CrRRiK, R. P., and 11. S. Barber, V. S. 
Xatij)nal Mnseuni: 3,982 insects repre- 
senting diff(*rcnt orders from Plum- 
mers Islaiul, Marvland. 4010(). 

» 

CiHKY, Cai»t. (iK(»h<;e. (See undiT I Ion. 
B<*rnard S. Rodey. ) 

CruT, C. F. (Sec under Department of 
Agriculture. ) 

CruTiss, A. II. (St'c uixlcr Department 
of .Vgricultun*. ) 

CrsHiN(i, Mrs. F. II., (larrett Park, MjI.: 
Forty-six blankets, baskets, pj)ttery, 
and other articles. Purchase. 41193. 

CrsHiMJ, Frank JI. (<ieceased). (See 
under Smithsonian Institution, Bureau 
of Fthnology. ) 

CrsicK, W. C., T^nion, Oreg. : Twospeci- 
mens of iSV</?///< from Oregon (4(K)34*); 
24 plants from Oregon {40500). 

CiTTTs, Mrs. F. (;., Riverside, Wash.: 
Pu]>u<»/Sphinx-in(»th. 41200. 



Daggett, Hon. John, Black Bear, Ol.: 
Pie<* of twine used by the Indians of 
the I^wer Klamath Kiver in making 
their net«, and specimen of plant from 
which a fiber resembling hemp is oh- 
taine<l. 39798. 

Daniel, J. W., jr., Washington, D. C: 
Bat ( 3/o/o*«i« /(Wi/m) ; rat {Oryzom\is), 
from Sapu(«y, Paraguay. 41062. (See 
under A. Royeter. ) 

Daniel, Dr. Z. T., Siletz Indian Agency, 
Oreg. : Braes key and a potato masher. 
39677. 

DANIKL8, L. K, Indianapolis, Ind.: 
Twenty-live specimens of Carb<:>niferoii!» 
insectH. Deposit. 40339. 

Dannefakri), S., Auckland, New Zealand: 
Two ei)ecimenBof Apieryx hunjeri from 
Stewart Islands, New Zealand. I^ir- 
chase. 40075. 

Dannehl, Henry. (See under James 
McDonnell. ) 

Darlincjton, Dr. M. N. (See under Co- 
lumbia College, New York. ) 

Davenport, Dr. C. B., University of Cbi- 
cjigo, Chicago, 111.: Four species of 
fresh- water brvozoans. 40(>11. 

Davenport, H. C, F^ast Orange, N. J.: 
Trai)ogan Pheasant, TVa/w/Kin mtym 
( 401 34 ) ; Sonnerat's Jungle fowl, (iaJhu 
soiin<*r(itif an<l a Brazilian tree duck, 
DvudronjguavhlHata (40467); Trajxtgan 
Pheasant [Orioruh) (40496); 7 birds, 
in the llesh, including 3 siKrimens new 
to the Museum collection (4(H>8:^) : Bean 
goost» (40747); 3 specimens of Black- 
winged jHiacock, Pam ni(/rij)€iinis; also 
3 specimens of (ifillus lafayeHij Pom 
ri-UtatxLH variety (41125); specimen of 
(SalluH rarlus and a specimen of Chryiao- 
InpJm.^ amherstiif ( 41 1 78 ) ; Java |>eacock, 
Pftro inuticutt; 3 Jungle fowls {GaJlvf 
hank'ira) and a hybrid (widlns Umkmi X 
i<tm rurntii ( 4 1 1 84 ) . 

Davidson, \., l^>s ^Vngeles, Cal.: Four 
plants from California (40934; 41069). 

Davis Hkotiikrs, Diamond, Ohio: Four- 
iKirrel Kt»mingt<ni i)epper-l)ox jdstol 
(40607); six-shot revolver, Maynanl 
patent, 1845; six -shot Connecticut A mis 
Ojmpany revolver, 18:U (40944). Pur- 
chase. 



LIST OF ACORSSIONfl. 



107 



Davy, J. B. (See under Department of 
Agriculture.) 

Dauley, Cole, Dade City, Fla.: Spider 
(Arroscmui gracile Walkener). 40447. 

Day, Dr. D. T., U. S. (Geological Survey: 
Two Hpecimens of magnetite from the 
eastern section of Porto Rico (40854); 
niinerais from Santa Catalina Island, 
California, collected by Mr. Splittstoeser 
(40874). (See also under Interior De- 
partment, U. S. (Geological Survey. ) 

Dayton, C. N., New York City: Twenty- 
four photographs. Purchase. 41060. 

Deam, V. C, Bluffton, Ind.: Three speci- 
mens of TriUium (406»8); 4 plants 
representing the spetnes Cardamine 
jM'miAfflranirn Mohl and Trillium sessile 
L. (41021). 

I) KANE, Cecil A. (See under Smithsonian 
Institution, Bureau of Ethnology. ) 

Dbdrick, a. v., Seattle, Wash.: Speci- 
mens of stream tin.«tone and iron, from 
a i)lacer deposit on Back Creek. 40393. 

Deemkk, Christian, National Military 
1 1 onus Dayton, Ohio: Two brass screws 
and a gilded wocnlen ball from the 
r. S. S. CninlHTland. 40132. 

Dei SARD, Efhraim, Kearny, N. J. : He- 
brew ceremonial objects. I*urcha8<». 
39909. 

De Kalb, \V. CyV). S. Fish CJommission: 
I>3aves and flowers of Nj/mpha' rarit- 
gala from Tar Kiln Pond, near Little 
Sel>ago I^ke, North Windham, Me. 
:i9(508. 

Delay, C. K.. Nuthall, Ind. T.: Copy of 
ordinance to dissolve the union l)etween 
the Stat*^ of Mississippi and other 
States. 39790. 

Demokidoff, K., St. Petersburg, Russia: 
Five sjKH'imens of hymenopterous par- 
asites reprewnting 2 species (40708); 2 
hymenopterous ]>arasites {("ntoUjccus 
( Jteromalus ) pellncidiis Fr)r8ter ) ( 4 1 1 97 ) . 

Dempsey, p. O., I^ngdon, D. C. : Piece 
of woo<l from Chancel lorsville Imttle- 
field, transfixed bv a ramrcxi. Pur- 
chase. 40741. 

DEN'Tf).\, S. F., Wellesley Faniis, Mass.: 
Six mounted fishes, including Exornim 
uUitans, lAic,t(/phry% Irieomity Scams 



Denton, S. F. — Continaed. 
cceruleuSf Scarus vetula, PseudoscaruB 
guacamaia, and Diodtm hysirijr, Pur- 
cha^^. (See also under U. S. Fish 
Commission.) L. P. X. 40678. 

De Peer, Howard, Carlock, 111.: Speci- 
men of Jjcptocoris triviUala Say. 40144. 

Dbsciiamps, Emile, Shanghai, China: 
Fishes from India, and crustaceans, 
echinoderms, insects, and shells from 
Singapore and vicinity. Purchase. 
39708. 

Dewey, L. II. (See under Department 
of Agriculture. ) 

Dev. J. H., Evei^green, Ala.: Eggs of 
Microcentrum reiininerve. 4(X)99. 

Deyrolle, Les fils d' Emile, Pans, 
France: Twenty-two specimens of 
Mesozoic corals from France (40793); 
small collection of mammals (41017). 
Purchase. 

Dickinson, W. E., New York City: Two 
Aleutian baskets (purchase, L. P. X.) 
(40876); Aleutian baskets (purchase) 
(40877) . 

DiDCOTT, John, (Ottawa, Ohio: Carved 
elk horn. Purchase. L. P. X. 40781. 

DiLLER, Dr. J. S. (See under Interior 
Department, U. S. Geological Survey.) 

DiNwiDDiK, ('ouRTENAV, (ireenwoo<l, Va. : 
Parasitic wasp {Midilla orcidaUalw Lin- 
naeus). 39843. 

DiNwiDDiE, W. W., t7. S. Naval ()bser\'a- 
tory, Washington, 1). C. : Sf)ecimen8of 
marcasite and lignite from Washington, 
I). C. (39906; 40376.) 

DiHBROW, Dr. W. S., Newark, N. J.: Two 
coin balances and an astronomical 
mo<lel. 40279. 

DiTMARS, R. L., New York Zoological 
Park, New York City: Five young 
water snakes from South Carolina 
3989(); 39897. 

DoANE, K. W^., Fisheries Experiment 
Station, Pearson, Wa»^h.: Shrimps. 
40)3:^. 

DoDOE, Byron E., Davison, Mich.: Stone 
relics. Dei)08it. 8037. 

DoiKiE, C. K. (See under E. L. Morris.) 

Dodge, G. M., I^uisiana, Mo.: Nine 
8i)ecimens of I^epidoptera. 40477. 



108 



BElK)Bt OF NAtiOI^At MUSEtJH, 1903. 



Douglas, James. (See under Copper 
Queen (^Consolidated MiningCoinpany. ) 

Doty, C. E., Washington, D. C: Forty- 
one photographs of scenes in Habana 
and vicinity. 40304. 

DouviLLE, Prof. Henri. (See under 
Paris, France, fecole des Mines. ) 

Dowell, IhiiLip, U. S. National Museum: 
Plants from Connecticut, District of 
Columbia, and other localties. (39830; 
39950; 39951.) 

Drake, C. M., Eureka, Cal.: Specimen 
of BoHchjtUika gtrohUacea (Jray, from 
California. 39948. 

Dresden, Germany, Royal Zoological and 
Anthroix)logical-Ethnographical Mu- 
seum: Received through Dr. A. B. 
Meyer. Small mammals (40668); 
specnmens of Scops manadnvtin from 
Celebes (40791 ) . Exchange. 

Driver, F. W., Montserrat, West Indies: 
Thret» lizards. 39747. 

Di'DLEY, J. G., National Zoological Park, 
Washington, D. C. : Red Imt, Ixmurus 
}toreali8. 41088. 

DuciiiM, Dr. A.,(iuanajuato, Mexico: Fifty- 
three specimens of Mexican insects 
(gift) (399a'>; 4a573); 32 insects (ex- 
change) (40121) ; parasitic insects (gift) 
(40593); 14 wasps and a bee (gift) 
(40878). 

Dr.MAREsT, Rev. M. (See under Smith- 
sonian Inntitution, Bureau of American 
Ethnology. ) 

Duncan, E. M. (See under W. C. 
JiariieH. ) 

DrpHEV, H. F., San til Rosa, Cal. : Twenty- 
wvcn flint arrowheads. 40742. 

Di'HHVN, Natal, Africa, Natal Botanic 
(iardon: Received througli J. Medley 
Wood, curator. One hundred South 
African i)lants. Exchange. .S9801. 

Di'Rv, Chaklf:.s, Cincinnati, Ohio: Thirty 
HiH-'ciinens, 8 Hi>e('ies <»f l)ij>tera (40375 ) ; 
4 specinieiKsof Dipteraand lA'pidoptera 
( 1 species new to the collection) 
(4a532). 

Dyar, Dr. Harrison (i., V. S. National 
MustMiin: One hundred and six six»ci- 
mens of Diptera from (Vnter Harbor, 
New York (40014); 229 specimens of 



Dyar, Dr. Harrison G. — Continued, 
insects (40148); plant from British Co- 
lumbia (41167). 

Fames, Dr. E. H., Bridgeport, Conn.: 
Fifty-one plants from Connecticut. 
Exchange. 40317. 

EAfirrwooD, Miss Alice, California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, San Francisco, Cal: 
Two specimens of Cotyledons from 
Santa Barbara (exchange) (39603); 7 
plants from California (gift) (397B4); 
i!0-type of Spraguea pulchellu Eastwood, 
(X)lle<!ted in California by J. W. Cong- 
don (gift) (39828 X; 14 plants from Cali- 
fornia (40800; 40813; 41112; 41149; 
41202). (See also under California 
Academy of Scieni^es. ) 

Eaton, A. A., Seabrook, N. H.: One 
himdreil si)ecimen8 of IHtridophyta fn»m 
New p]ng]and (40itt9); 50 speiamenfiof 
J'^juisetnm from Massachusetts (4071^)). 
P^xchange. 

Eaton, Dr. T. T., Louisville, Ky.: Blank 
check on the Bank of Martinique. 
41188. 

Edwards, Vinal N. (See under U. S. 
Fish Commission.) 

Egoleston, W. W., Rutland, Vt.: Four 
plants from Vermont. 40139. 

PxiVPT Exploration Fund, London, Eng- 
land: Received through Miss Emily 
Patterson. Ten pieces of Egyptian 
papyri. 39965. 

KiiRHoRN, Edward M., Mountain View, 
Cal. : Receiveil through Deimrtment of 
Agriculture: One himdred and seventy- 
nine specimens of insei^ts, including 
Rhynchota, Diptera, and Hymenoptera. 
40702. 

EiciENMANN, Dr. C. H., Indiana State 
University, Bloomington, Ind. : Twenty- 
seven specimens (4 s]>ecies) of crusta- 
ceans from Cuba. 40026. (See also 
under Indiana, University of.) 

Ki.sKN, Dr. (iustav, San Francisco, Cal.: 
Receive<l through Dr. L. O. Howard: 
Two hundn'd and twenty-three speci- 
mens of insects from Antigua and Goa- 
temalu, including Hymenoptera, Hemi- 
ptera, Orthoptera, and Neuroptera. 
40174. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



109 



P^NOLiBiiy G. L.,& Co., New York City: 
Nineteen Hpeciinens of minerals (pur- 
chase) (40155); specimen of anargite 
an<l 2 specimens of fluorite (purchase) 
L. P. X. (40156); 8 8i)ecimen8 of min- 
erals (imn^hase) L. P. X. (40590); 9 
Hpecimens of minerals from the Andes 
of Ovalle, Chile (purchase) L. P. X. 
(40958). 

Kntwistle, W. B., Washington, D. C. : 
Specimen of Florida galinule, (iallimUa 
galeata. 3^>98:i. 

Khopi's Millstone (Company, Kingston, 
N. Y. : Received through Mr. A. Hayes. 
8mall millstone from (juarries near Ao 
cord, N. Y. 39921. 



Elliot, D. G., Field Colombian Museum, 
Chicago, 111.: Two bats. 40186. 

Klliott, C. B., Riverside, Conn.: Crab- 
spider, Acrownia nigostim Htz. 39903. 

Klliott, R. M., U. S. Fish Commission: 
Turtle, Kinostemfm pehnnyliHinieumy 
from the Potomatr River. 41057. 

Ellis, George W., Monrovia, Liberia: 
Two hundred and fourteen ethnological 
specimens. Tx>an. 8512. 

Klmer, a. D. E., Paloalto, Cal.: Two 
hundred plants from California. Pur- 
chase. 40062. 

Emerson, A. 8. (See imder National 
Marble Company, Murphy, N. C. ) 

Emerson, Prof. B. K., Amherst College, 
Amherst, Mass. : Fourteen specimens of I 
diabase and associated rock from Mas- i 
sachusetts. 40343. I 

Emmons, Lieut. G. T., U. S. N., Prince- ! 
ton, N. J.: Tobacco bag, Kuskokwim I 
lamp, 2 l)erry- winnowing baskets an<l 
37 gambling sticks (exchange) (40054); 
Alaskan basket (gift) (40055); set of 
tools used by a Tlinkit Indian wood- 
carver in making dugout canoes, masks, 
etc. (gift) (40238); ethnological objects 
fn>m British Columbia (purchase) 
(40349); baskets, masks, and other 
objects (purchase) L. P. X. (40383); 
South coast l>asket (exchange) (40881 ) ; 
2 masks, 2 mortars, wand club, and a 
wooden figure (purchase) (41221). 
(See under Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology. ) 



EsTEELEY, G. W., Washington, D. C: 
Caseworm {Thyridopteryx fpherenurfor- 
mis Hald). 39629. 

Evermann, Dr. B. W., U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, Washington, D. C: Planta, 
land and fresh-water shells from Cali- 
fornia. (40324; 41044.) 

Fahs, R. Z., Kirkland, Wash. : About 50 
specimens (11 species) of land and 
fresh-water mollusks from the north- 
western section of the United States. 
40487. 

Fall, Prof. H.C., Pasadena, Cal.: Thirty- 
seven beetles, 30 being wtypes. 40210. 

Fargo, J. F. : Received through Mr. Wirt 
Tassin, U. S. National Museum. Corun- 
dum in granite from San Antonio Can- 
yon, San Bernardino County, Cal. 
Exchange. 40955. 

Farrington, Prof. O. C. (See under 
Field Columbian Museum. ) 

Faxon, Dr. Walter. ( See under Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. ) 

Featherstonhaugh, Dr. Thomas, Wash- 
ington, D. C. : Three watch movements. 
40325. 

Ferguson, A. M., University of Texas, 
Dallas, Tex. : Specimen of Sedum from 
Texas (40629); plant from Texas 

(40629). 

Ferguson, C. B., Sulzer, Prince of Wales 
Island, Alaska: Specimen of epidote. 
40129. 

Fernali), M. L., Gray Herbarium, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.: Twenty plants from 
Maine. Exchange. 40815. 

Ferris, C. C, San Diego, Cal.: Butterfly 
( T}ieda htimuii Harris) . 401 61 . 

Fewkes, Dr. J. Walter, Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology: Eleven torches from 
Porto Rico and 2 sa^ldle bat*ketH (40914) ; 
2 Spanish swords (40927); cylindrical 
liasket ina<le from a palm-leaf sheath, 
in open-(!()iled work with cover, made 
by prisoners in a Porto Rican i)rison 
(40113); l)ond indenmityft)r possession 
of slaves, isHue<l in Porto Rico, April 6, 
1876 (4ia'>4). 

Fible, Miss Sarah, Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Hat, l>elt, unfinished l)elt, baskets, and 
specimens of raphia. 39938. 



110 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Field CJoix'mbian Musei'm, Chicago, 111.: 
Plaster cast of a ntone collar (exchange) 
(40162); received thmugh Mr. F. J. V. 
Skiff, director, cast of sciilptureil cylin- 
drical stone (exchange) (40351); re- 
ceive<l through Prof. S. E. Meek, rep- 
tiles and l)atrachians* from Mexico 
(exchange) (40379); niete<jrite from 
Saline Township, Kans. (exchange) 
(4a'>85); received through Dr. O. C. 
Farrington, secttion of meteorite from 
Indian Valley, Floy<l County, Va. ( ex- 
change* ) (40853). 

Finn, \a)Vih D., Blacknburg, S. C. : Sixk^"!- 
men of iron ore and asl)e8to8 from 
mines near Blacksburg. 40740. 

Fischer, V. (i., Washington, 1). C. : 
Three baskets and a leather water 
bottle. 40043. 

Fisir Commission, I'. S., Hon. (i. M. 
Bowers, Commissioner: I'adille-fisli, 
Dog-fish, and (Jar-pike (3t)959); Cirri- 
peds from Porto Rico, colle<'ted by the 
steamer Fish Iliwk, in 1889 (39998); 
received through Vinal N. Edwards, 
cral)s, shrimps, and fishes from Woods 
Hole, Mass. (40084); moMs of fishes 
made bv S. F. Denton for the Fish (>)m- 
missi<m exhibit at the WorM's Colum- 
bian Exposition (4()18(>); dried plants 
from islands in theceiitral PacificOcean, 
obtained during the cruise of the AlUi- 
tnm in 18»9-nKK) (40199); 4 si)eci- 
mens ( type and cotyiH's) of l*ri>n'hU'rna 
sd.iatillH from Necker Island (40215); 
crabs representing the genus Parutjnns, 
from Sbeepscot River, Maine, collected 
])v W.C. Kendall (4()3(>,3); crustaceans, 
corals, and mollusks collected during 
the A/ff(itrotM Hawaiian ExpcHlition of 
1902 anrl tlie Samoan Expedition of the 
saints year (40409); received through 
Dr. C. H. (filbert, Hawaiian (Alhotr()s.s) 
crustaceans and (•< )rals (40520 ) ; received 
through D/. D. S. Jordan, Japanese 
fishes collected bv the steamer AJhn- 
troni* (4<J525 ) ; tyjK'S and several cotypes 
of fishes coIlecte<l in Maine bv W. C. 
Kendall (40()73); specimen of darter, 
IladropternH eicnuamu, cotype, col- 
lected in T^ake Tippecanoe, Indiana, 
by W. J. Moenkhaus (40686); about ; 



Fi8H Commission, U. S. — Continued. 
1,(X)0 specimens of land and fresh- 
water shells from Indiana (40807); 
imperfect skeleton of a cetacean repn.*- 
senting the species Pi*eud(jrca crftmdeni' 
(40812); plants collected by Mr. Chan- 
(rey Juday at Twin Lakes, Coloradu 
(41091); 81 binls* skins, princii)ally 
from I^ysan Island, birds' eggs and 
nests from Lavsan Island and Ne<^'ker 
Island, and 2 human skulls and fra^'- 
inents of skulls from I^aiiai, Hawaiian 
Islands (41092). (See under Dr. O. P. 
Jenkins. ) 

FisHKK, Dr. A. K., Department of Agri- 
culture: Nest and 4 eggs of lldmhi- 
thxtphila pinus, 41226. (See also un<ler 
Department of Agriculture; and Hardin 
Irwin. ) 

Flemixo, J. H., Lake Joseph, Muskoka, 
Ontario, Canada: Specimen of Xymphira 
mrietjuta from I^ke Joseph. 39<>89. 

Fleti'iiek, Dr. James, Central P^xperi- 
ment Farm, Ottawa, Canada: Speci- 
mens of Xytnpha'fi hybrida&nd Xympfuni 
vnrifgata (39704); received through Dr. 
L. O. Howard, cynipid gall (39758); 25 
specimens of Lepidoptera (40484); 3 
plants from Canada (40561 ). (See 
under Department of Agricultun*.) 

Fi.i-rrcHEu, Orri.v K., Acting Hospital 
Steward, Manila, Philippine Islands: 
Two eggs of Afegapodins riimmhiffi from 
the Philippine Islantls. 40701. 

FLFrrr, J. B., Tacoma, Wash.: Specimens 
of \ffmphua jKjlysepala^ and 120 plantis 
from Washington (gift and exchange). 
39606; 40111. See under Department 
of .Vgriculture. ) 

Flint, Dr. James M., U. S. N. (retired): 
Japanese martin {MuMelfi). 40352. 

FoHs, F. J., Marion, Ky.: Specimen of 
tluorite (gift) (4(H)60); 19 spe<-ies of 
subcarboniferous fossils and 2 speci- 
mens of prismatic sandstone (gift) 
(40721); siKicimen of fluorite (ex- 
change) (40798). 

FooTE Mineral Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa.: Fourteen sj>ecimenfl of minerals 
from various localities (purchase) 
(40127) ; tourmaline in lepidolite from 



LIST OK ACCESSIONS. 



Ill 



FcH»TE MiNKRAL CoMPASY — Continued. 
Mesa (iran<Ie, Cal. (purchase) (40380); 
11 HiK.rinienH of niineralH from various 
hx-aliticH (purcha>«e) (40571); 23 speci- 
iiienj* of inineralH from variouH l(K»litieH 
(exchange) (40711); 6 eiKKjiinene of 
mineralH (Imrcha^*e) (40956). L. V. X. 

FooTE, Warren M., Phila<lel]>hia, Pa.: 

Spei'iiiienH of footeite. 40713. 
FoRen" AND Stream IYblishinu Company, 

New York City: Two brook trout, Sal- 

velinaa fimtimiUs. 40784. 
F()RE^<^RY lii'REAr. (See umier Burt»au of 

Agrirulture, Hiilippine Inlands ) 
Foss, Capt. F. E., U. S. N., Washington, 

D. C. : Itelic taken from a church in 

Paranaka province, Philippine Inlandn, 

40424. 

Foster, Frederic De P. ( See under Saint 
Nicholas* Society. ) 

F'oster, William, Sapucay, Paraguay, 
South America: Mammal nkinn, birds' 
eggs, 23 binls' nests and 11 binls* nkins, 
also colle<*tion of natural history sjKHi- 
mens (39979; 40:i4H; 41039); 721 siH»ci- 
mens of insects (41 122). Purchase. 

FowKE, (terard, ('hiilicothe, Ohio: Pre- 
historic Indian reli<'s; 12 flint nod- 
ules from near Corydon, liid. (401 W; 
41217) . (See under Sniithsonian Insti- 
tution, Bureau <>f American Kthnology.) 

Franck, (ikor<je. (Set» umler .\merican 
Entomological Company. ) 

Frank, II. L., President Montana San<l- 
st<me Comimny, Butte, Mont.: He- 
ceive<l through J. E. Horsford, Helena, 
Mont. SampU»8 of sandstone, onyx, 
and granite from Montana. 40342. 

Fra.nsceschi, Dr. C. F., Santa Barl)ara, 
Cal.: S<»e<ls from Califoniia. 4072«. 

Eraser, Dr. W., Corwith, Iowa: Sphinx- 
moth. 39835. 

French, Dr. Cecil, Washington, I). C. : 
Young wild turkey from near Warn.»n- 
ton, Va. (40123); canvas-back duck 
(40353); skin of Cinnannm teal, (iuer- 
fineduht njanojUrm, from Texas ( 40476). 

Friend, Eimjar N., Washington, D. C. : 
Specimen of lea<l-covere<l telcplione 
cable. 4a516. 

Frierson, L. S., Frierson, Ia. : Thre<' 
specimens of MeretrU from China 



Frierson, L. S. — Continued. 

(39605); fresh-water shells (40:^12); 8 
specimens of weevils representing the 
species Chalcodermus icneus Boheman 
(41105). 

Fryer, Mrs. M. A. B., Kingston, Jamaica: 
Car\'ed stone metate. Pun*hase. 40001. 

Galpin, Rev. F. W., Hattield Vicarage, 
Harlow, Englan<l: Two reproductions 
of musical instruments, viz, a zinck or 
zinker of (rerman manufacture during 
the sixteenth century, and an Italian 
Cromorna. 4(X)23. 

(tant, J. II. (Set^ under Dei>artment of 
Agricultun*. ) 

(tardner, X. L., Universitvof California, 
Berkeley, Cal.: Two sj)ecimens of Co- 
tyledons from Califoniia. 41024. 

(tarretson, Charles, Reliance, Va. : Wild 
cat, Ltfii.r rujKM. Purchase. 40408. 

< rEARiiART, Peter, Clearfield, Pa.: Worm 
l)elonging to the genus Gorditu*. 3993^^. 

(lEE, N. (tisT, SiKX'how Cniversity, De- 
]>artment ai Natural Sciences, Soochow, 
China: Three small miniature figures 
carve<i in wo<xl. 40550. 

(lERRARD, E., & Sons, London, England: 
Skeleton ai an Australian gix)se, (Weop- 
sIm inn'iv hnlUtmhr. 39645. 

(JiLHERT, Mrs. A. p., I^ogan, Okla.: 

Spt»cimen of KremofmtcH ftalii}>eM Say. 

39746. 
(iILBkrt, Dr. C. H. (See under I*. S. Fish 

ConimiK^ion.) 
(iiLL, DeLancy. (SeeumlerSniithsonian 

Institution, Bun»au of Ethnology. ) 

(JiLVE, A. P., I>ogan, Okla.: Sulphugid, 
EnmoUttt':^ jHiIlijtei* Say. 39H19. 

(iiRACLT, A. A., Virginia P(>lyte<'hnic In- 
stitute, Blacksburg, Va. : Four speci- 
mensof parasitic II ymenoptera (40681 ); 
4 siXM'imens ( )f SyrterrpiM hatatt/idfii Ashm. 
(40918). 

<iLENN, Prof. L. C., Vanderl>ilt I'niver- 
sity, Nashville, Tenn.: Meteorite fn>m 
3 miles northwest of Ilendersonville, 
N. C. Exchangi\ 41155. 

(lOLDMAN, E. A., Washington, I). C: 
Fourteen plats from Mexico ami Cali- 
fornia. (39809; mm.) (Si»e under 
Dei>artinent of Agriculture; also under 
Mrs. N. M. Brown). 



112 



E£POBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Goldsmith, B., Washington, D.C.: Badge 
preeiente<l to Spanish War Veterans by 
the District of Columbia. Purchase. 
39905. 

CJoRBY, iS. S. (See under Hon. J. H. 
Stotsenburg.) 

Gordon, James B. , Stonington, Me. : Cube 
of granite from quarries at Crotch Is- 
land, Maine. 39952. 

GoRMAX., M. W. (See under DeiMirt- 
ment of Agriculture.) 

Goru), Miss M. M. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnol- 
og>'.) 

(tovkrxment Hoard, Pan-Amkricax Ex- 
iMwiTioN, Buffalo, N. Y. : Received 
through Hon. J. H. Brighaui, chairman. 
Philippine collection of ethnological 
objects and natural-history material 
exhibited under the Government Board 
at the Exposition. Deposit. 39609. 

G RABAT, Dr. A. W., Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York City: Specimens of 
Rochester shale fossils from western 
New York. Exchange. 408(W. 

Grant, Brig. (ien. F. I)., U. S. A. (Be- 
<iueathed by Mrs. Julia Dent (Jrant 
to the National Museum): Ancient 
Japanese gold cubinet presented to 
Mrs. (Jrant by the Empress of Japan; 
|)air of modern bronze vases presented 
to Mrs. (4 rant by the Emperor of Japan; 
lady's gold toilet set and seven cuj>s 
presented to Mrs. (Jrant by the King 
and Ciueen of Siam; lady's ornamental 
scent bottle made of tihigrec silver and 
sent to Mrs. (Jrant ])y the Maharaja of 
Dekkan; Japanese poems written by a 
celebrated Japan(\^» poet and presented 
to (Jeneral (Jrant during his visit in 
Japan; dress worn by Mrs. (Jnint at 
the se<'ond inaujrnral ball of (Jeneral 
(Jrant; pair of white satin slippers worn 
by Mrs. (Jrant; Siamese t'hest (»f bam- 
l>oo and gilt presentetl to Mrs. (Jrant 
bytheKingand(2ueen of Spain (4().S92); 
24 relics of (Jeneral (Jrant, in<'lu<ling 
regulation riding boots and Ix'lt, sad- 
dle, valise, commissions, addr<.»sses of 
welcome, menu cards, certificates of 
membership to various military and 
other orders, etc. (40682). 



Grant, Brig. Gen. F. D., U. S. A., San 
Antonio, Tex.: Shoulder straps worn 
by himself during the Porto Rican cam- 
paign and in the Philippine Islandi* 
(gift) (40692); sword worn by him- 
self during the Spanish- American war 
(gift) (40838); death mask of the late 
Gen. U. S. Grant (deposit) (8152). 

Grant, F. H. McK., North Carlton, Mel- 
bourne, Victoria, Australia: Specimen 
of Upper Silurian starfish and a speci- 
men of Lower Silurian cephalopod. 
Exchange. 40295. 

(trant, Gborgk B., Pasadena, ( -al. : Plant 
from California. 40993. 

(Jrant, Jbsse R. (See under Brig. (Jen. 
F. D. Grant. ) 

Grant, U. S. (See under Brig. (len. 
F. D. Grant. ) 

Graves, Dr. C. B., New London, Conn.: 
Sixteen spet^imens of violets from Con- 
necticut. Exchange. 40219. 

Gray Herbarium, Cambri<lge Station, 
Boston, Mass.: Two hundred an<l 
twenty-five plants from different locali- 
ties (exchange) (40101); 3 plants from 
California and Mexico (gift) (40218); 
34 plants from various localities (ex- 
change) (40816). 

Greble, Mrs. E., Washington, D. C: 
Three baskets. Loan. 7908. (Re- 
turnwl. ) 

(iREKN, R. A., U. S. National Museum: 
Hat {M}/otisHubul<ttti4t}j from Maryland. 
39H41. 

(iREcjEK, D. K., Fulton, Mo.: Three spe- 
cies of marine shells (gift) (;i9729); 
('and)rian fossils from PoU»8i, Mo., and 
vicinity (ex<*hange) (39744) ; 5 speci- 
mens i}i JUninchnuella Htriatoro*tata from 
theUpiKTChoteau limestone of Tahiiip 
River, Knox County, Mo. (exchange) 
(407H5). 

( Jreciory, V. H., Chiswick, Ixmdon, Eng- 
lan<l: Ten meteorites. Purchase. 40619. 

GuiFFiTH, David. (Sei» under Department 
of -\griculture.) 

(Jkixnell, Joskimi, Palo Alto, Cal.: Two 
skins (topotyjH^s) of Dendroica vHifXL 
brewHirA, 40895. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



118 



Gbinold, Emerson R., Grand Ledge, 
Mich.: Cast of Indian pipe in Grand 
Ledge fire clay. Exchange. 40488. 

Gbout, Dr. A. J., Brooklyn, N. Y.: Fifty 
specimens of mosses from the United 
States and Ecuador (exchange) (40046) ; 
50 specimens of mosses from the United 
States (purchase) (40491). 

Grover, L. C. (See under Colt's Patent 
Fire Arms Manufacturing Company. ) 

Grubb», Dr. K. B., assistant surgeon U. 8. 
A., Iligan, Philippine Islands: Snake, 
scorpion, and slug from the Philippine 
Islands. 40233. 

Gbumbacii, Ernest, Pueblo, Cal. : Opos- 
sum (MarmofHi murina), 40179. 

GuERDHUM, 8. C, Mount Pleasant, Wash- 
ington, D. C: Mammals from Iowa. 
Purchase. 39996. 

Guthrie, Ossian, Chicago, 111.: Glacial 
bowlders from Sacket Harbor, N. Y. 
40497. 

Haogbtt, Mrs. G. B., ZufXi, N. Mex. : Three 
Zufii baskets of modem manufacture. 
39741. 

Hall, Miss Annie S., Cincinnati, Ohio: 
Gold medal presented to Charles Fran- 
cis Hall by the Soci^t^' de Geographic 
of France. 40030. 

Hall, H. M., University of California, 
Berkeley, Cal. : Fifty plants from (Cali- 
fornia. (39831, 40628, 407o9, 40885, 
40904, 40935, 41084). (See also under 
Department of Agriculture. ) 

Hall, H. 0., Washington, D. C. : Received 
through Department of Agriculture. 
Plant from Maryland. 40035. 

Hamilton, 8. H., American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City: Two 
specimens of manganese from Panupo, 
Santiago, Cuba. Purchase. 39587. 

Hammell, John, Madison, Ind.: S{)e<.*i- 
mens of Richmond fossils. Exchange. 
40307. 

Hanley, D. T., Baltimore, Md.: Five- 
Iwirreled revolver. Purchase. 40851. 

Hanson, Dr. C. C, Ocoto, Wis.: Collec- 
tion of Buddhistic religious objects. 
Purchase. 39920. 

NAT Mrs 1903 8 



Hardestv, Owen G. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnol- 

ogy.) 

Harding, E. H., Washington, D. C: Pair 
of silver spectai^les worn by John Hard- 
ing, aid to General Washington during 
the war of the Revolution. 40413. 

Harper, R. M., CoUegepoint, N. Y.: 
Twelve specimens of Dryopteria Jfori- 
(Zarwf from Georgia (exchange), (40047) ; 
155 specimens of Alga?, fungi, Bryo- 
phita and Pteridophyta collected in 
Georgia (purchase), (40504); about 40 
specimens of Cretaceous and Pxxwne 
fossils from western Georgia (gift), 
(40507); 505 plants from Geoi^ia (pur- 
chase), (40685) ; 2 plants from Virginia, 
received through the Department of 
Agriculture (41129). 

Harriman Alaskan Expedition. Receiv- 
ed through Prof. Trevor Kincaid, Uni- 
verity of Washington, Seattle, Wash.: 
Isopods. 40695. 

Harrington, W. Hague, Ottawa, Canada: 
Received through Dr. L. O. Howard. 
Nine specimens of Diptera. 40333. 

Harris, Lieut. Jesse R., U. 8. A., Wash- 
ington, D. C. : Brass coin balance. 
40498. 

Harris, L. C, Eldorado, Cal. : Cranium of 
a Digger Indian found in a cave, and a 
sacrificial bow from a medicine lodge. 
41156. 

Harrison, 1). C, Bay Bank, Hampton, 
Va. : Three plants from Virginia. 41 148. 

Harshberger, J. W., University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.: Received 
through Department of Agriculture. 
Eighty-seven plants from Moxi<'o and 
the West Indies. 39925. 

Hartert, Ernst. (See under R. II. Bt^ck.) 

Hartley, Frank, Cumberland, Md. : Ma- 
terial containing minute fossils (39685); 
fossils, corals, and ostracoda (39919). 

Harvey, Frank, Albuqueniue, N. Mex.: 
Nineteen photographs of Indian Imsket- 
rv. 39823. 

Harvey, Fred, Kansas City, Mo.: Four- 
teen specimens of Washoe baskets. 
Purchase. 41185. 



114 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903, 



Harvey, Prof. R. V., Vancouver, Brit- i 
ish Columbia: Seven moths. (39654, I 
40093. ) ' 

I 

Hassall, Dr. Albert, Bureau of Animal 
Industry, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C: Eleven specimens ^ 
( 2 species) of ( hlliphora forttmata Walk, 
and CaUiphom diw Esch., from the Phil- 
ippine Islands. 40015. 

Hasse, Dr. H. K., Soldiers' Home, Cal.: 
Sixteen plants from California (39602; 
39661; 39853; 39855). 

Hathaway, IsAAr, Lexington, Ky. : Cast 
of the Bath Furnace meteorite. Pur- 
chase'. L. P. X. 40852. 

Hatry, ()tto, Pittsburg, l*a. : Forty-five 
plants from Pennsylvania. Exchange. 
41171. 

d'HAiTviLLK, Mrs. F. U., receiveil 
through Mrs: Frank Wheaton, Wash- 
ington, 1). C. : Personal relics of Gen. 
Alexander Macomb, V. S. A'. I>oan. 
8501. 

Hay, Prof. W. P., Washington, 1). C: 
Twospeiumensof A'//7/j;>/i.'ift (ultYn<t from 
near Pcx'omokc City, Md. (39829); 5 
specimens of Pohfpod'nun jutltjpodioidt'H 
ctillectf^l near( Jreat Falls, Md., (40456) ; 
wea«<'l from near Chevy Cha*<e, Md. 
(4120S). 

Haycuaft, C p.. Fellowship, Fla. : Kchi- 
noid of the genus MarropiicnKtt's from 
the (iulf roiustne^r Fellowship. 39867. 

Hayf>', a. (See under Ksopus Millstone 
Company. ) 

Haywan), Joseph M.. St. (George, Ber- 
muda: SjHM'imen of soft stone impreg- 
nated with sea shells; 2 spe<'imens of 
hanl sandstone, and 2 shells. 40757. 

Hkaton, C. M., Takonia Park, D. C. : 
^Iorseregisti^ran<larelay, 1848. 39777. 

Heidemann, ()tto. Department of Agri- 
culture: One hundre<l and sixtv-one 
si)ecies of North American Hemiptera 
[ 398.38 ) ; 2 1 y i>es < )f J*frifjriirs (jallaj- 1 I(m- 
demann (40133). 

Hkideniiei.mkk, K., Washington, 1). C. : 
Sextant made bv W. Desilva, of Liver- 
jM)ol, England. Purchase. 41038. 

Hkisman, .1. J., Jjtitz, Pa.: Six butter- 
m^, 40752. 



Heller, A. A., Lancaster, Pa.: Fourhan- 
dred and fifty plants from CftlifonuA 
(purchaae) (39709); plant (g:ift) (39769); 
545 plants fn)m California (purchase) 
(40081); 27 plants from Pennsylvania 
(exchange) (40201); 53 plants from 
California, collected by Messrs. Heller 
and Brown (gift) (40575); 109 plant? 
from California (gift) (40576); 36 speci- 
mens of ferns, cassias, and umbellifene 
from Porto Rii-o (gift) (40630); 460 
plants from California and Porto Bii'o 
(purchase) (40636); 2 plants from Cali- 
fornia (gift) (41113). 

Helman, W. E., Ix)ndon, England: Thirty 
birds' eggs from Iceland and England. 
Exchange. 41020. 

>Iemp, Miss A., Jefferson, Md. : Hair ball 
from the stomach of an ox. 40066. 

Henlv, Miss K., Fort Myer Heights, Va,: 
Saddle-back caterpillar, Sabitif gtimuUa 
Clemens. 40146. 

Hexshaw, II. W., Hilo, Hawaii: Worms 
and crustaceans ( 39887 ) ; land and fresh- 
water shells from the Hawaiian Islands: 
(40063); hermit-crab from a large Ih- 
Hum (40340); sea serpent, Hydrxu p/«- 
tnrm, from Laupahoehoe, near Hilo 
(40420); 150 specimens of Surcinta 
(40428); lizards (40671); 15 si>et*imens 
of VUmm t^nella (H140). 

Herbein, Dr. H. J., Pottsville, Pa.: Slalw 
showing fossil footprints. Purchase. 
40570. 

1 1 EKKEKA, Loris A. HE. (Scc uudcr Mon- 
tevideo), ITruguay, Museo Nacional. ) 

IIkkzer, Rev. H., Marietta, Ohio: Mass 
of ctalcilied seeds of hackberry, and 2 
fos.^il i>lants (39754; 40655). 

Hkwett, F., I-ichigh University, Bethle- 
hem, Pa. : Three specdmensof tellurium 
from Vulcan mine, near lola, Colo. 
40378. 

HioGiNs, W. (See under Interior De- 
pai-tment, V. S. Geological Sur\'ey.) 

Hkjlev, William K. (See under Chi- 
cago Academy of Sciences.) 

Hill, Walter (•., Brooklyn, N. Y.: Nine 
Dyak skulls (40410; 40845). Pur- 
chase. 

HiLLEBRANi), 1 >r. W. F., U. S. Geological 
Survey: Specimen of yttrialite. 40128. 



LIST OF A00ES8ION8. 



115 



HiLLMAN, Prof. F. H., Department of 
Agricaltare: Several specimens of para- 
sitic Hymenoptera. 39817. 

HrrcHcocK, Prof.C. H., Hanover, N. H.: 
Sixteen specimens of fossils from the 
Upper Silarian of littleton, N. H.; 
15 specimens from the Onondaga for- 
mation at Owl's Head, Lake Mem- 
phremagog, Vermont. Exchange. 
40810. 

Hrrx, P. T., jr., West Norwalk, Conn.: 
Saddle-back caterpillar of Empretia 
gtimtUea Clements. 39993. 

Hodge, F. W., Smithsonian InsUtotion: 
Tumble beetle (39632); diminutive 
Navaho blanket, made in 1895, and used 
as a badge by the National Irrigation 
Congress at Albuquerque, New Mexico 
(41218). 

HoHiESEL, Frank, New York City: Two 
pieces of cinder from Mount Pel^, 
Martinique. 40767. 

Holland, Dr.T. H., Director, Geological 
Survey of India, Calcutta, India: 
Specimen of meteorite, weighing 293 
grams, from Shergotty, India. Ex- 
change. 40847. 

HoLLioEB, F. A., Findlay, Ohio: Trilo- 
biie (Calymeneniagarensis). 40036. 

Holm, Thbodor, Brookland, D. C. : 
Specimen of Gerardia holmiana. 40068. 

Holmes, J. S., Bowmans Bluff, N. C: 
Skin of "Moon eye,'* or " Toothed her- 
ring,'* Hiodon seUnaps (39732); Speci- 
men of OphiogUmmm pumilum from 
Texas (40321); specimen of silicifie<l 
palm wood from Jasper, Texas (40674). 

Holmes, Dr. S. J., University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich.: Amphipods from 
New Fjigland, including type speci- 
mens. 40579. 

Holmes, W. H., Chief, Bureau of Eth- 
nology: Collection of flaked flints, 
and flint nodules from Wyandotte 
Cave, Indiana and vicinity (39612); 
fragments of pottery and bone imple- 
ments collec;tc<l from a mound near 
Kimmswitk, Mo. (39827); 16 flints 
colleiTted in Missouri (40899); 34 
archeologicral specimens and ores col- 
lected in Missouri (40900) . (See also 
tinder Smithsonion Institution, Bureau 
of Ethnology.) 



Holt, William P., Geneva, Ohio: Clay- 
iron stone from Ashtabula Creek near 
Kingsville, Ohio. 39637. 

HoLTON, Miss Nina G., Department ol 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C: Spec- 
imen of Cynipid gall, CaUirhiftis seminar 
tor Harris. 41005. 

HoLZiNGER, J. M. (See under Minne- 
sota, University of.) 

HoopEs, H. E., Media, Pa.: Boimd col- 
lection of photographs of New Mexico 
and Arizona pueblos. 40432. 

HoBSFx>RD, J. E., Washington, D. C: 
Psycho bicycle. 40967. (See under 
H. L. Frank.) 

HofiTSMAN, W. J., Busch, Oklahoma: 
Received through Interior Depart- 
ment, U. S. Geological Survey. Spec- 
imen of selenite. 41040. 

HoTCHKiss, Charles R., Brownsville, 
Tenn. : Specimen of Gordius. 40896. 

Hough, Dr. Walter, [J. S. National Mu- 
seum: Two photographs of Healy wolf. 
30926. 

House, Homer D., Oneida, N. Y.: Two 
specimens of Hydrostia and PolygoneUa 
from central New York. Exchange. 
39851. 

Houston, Col. A. J., Beaumont, Tex.: 
Commission of Gen. Samuel Houston, 
1835, Texas State army; commission 
as second lieutenant, Seventh Regi- 
ment U. S. A.; commission as first 
lieutenant. First Regiment U. S. A. 
Loan. 8536. 

Howard, Dr. L. O. (See under Depart- 
ment of Agriculture; Thomas Brown; 
Gustav Eisen; Dr. James Fletcher; 
W. Hague Harrington; George B. 
King; G. van Roon.) 

Howell, E. E., Washington, D. C: Five 
specimens of minerals. 40954. 

Howland, Frank, Little Rock, Ark.: 
Received through George F. Kunz. 
Silicified wood from 30 miles south of 
Little Rock. 40197. 

Hrdlicka, Dr. A., U. S. National Mu- 
seum: Covered basket of palm leaf 
made by the Yaki Indians, Sonora, 
Mexico; cigarettes and com husks for 
coversj from the same tribe, and saddle 
bags made from the ixtle fiber com- 



116 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Hrdlicka, Dr. A. — Continued, 
inonly need in Mexico (40941); gun- 
barrel flute from Pueblo de Taot*, New 
Mexico (40970); Springfield 45 flxed 
ammunition; powder and projectile 
made by the Ya(iui Indians (40975); 
untini8he<l l)a8ket made by the Apache 
Indians (41043). \ 

HcBBARi), II. (i. (Sei^ under K. A. , 
Schwarz. ) 

HrMPiiREY, Charleh, New York City: 
Ninety-two butterflies, 12 dragon flies, i 
and a fulgorid. 40513. \ 

Humphreys, J. W., Colon, ('olombia: 1 
Bat (Artibeuii). 39893. 

Hunter, Clay, Clifton, Ariz. : Four cases 
of a trichopterous insect. 40969. 

Hunter, William, WashingUm, I). C: 
Plant from the District of Columbia. 
40479. 

HuNTiN<JTON, J. H., Baker City, Greg.: 
Rocks from Oregon. 39638. 

Hurlo<'k, Miss M. C, Church Hill, M<1.: 
Four plants from Maryland. (39791; 
39847. ) 

Hurter, Julius, St. Louis, Mo.: Reptiles 
and batrachians. Exchange. 40398. 

Hutchinson, C. E., Ix)8 Angeles, Cal.: 
Two hundre<l and seven six^cimens of 
in8e<'ts. 41041. 

Imperial Academy of Sciences. (Sec 
under St. Petersburg, Russia.) 

Indiana, University ok. Zoological De- 
partment, Bloomington, Ind. : RectMved 
through I*rof. C. H. Eigenmann. Pani- 
site from the Hi<le of a spi»cimen of 
OdmitoHtilhe from Arroyo, Trementina, 
Paraguay. 40744. 

Interior Department, U. S. Patent ()f- 
^♦•e: Copies of 84 j>atent*< of antoharps 
and alliiMl instniments. 4085(). 
rutted StntcA (ieolo(jical Stinrij: Four 
hundred specimens of Cambrian 
bra<'hiopo<.ls (39642); whale verte- 
bra — Pleistocene of Fort C -as well, 
N. C. ; whale vertebra — l*>>cene of 
Castle Hayne, N.C. ; t(M)th of Dt'udeii 
»tTratHH from the P^ocene of Ca*<tle 
Hayne, and ti»eth of a Shark, Car- 
charodon iiuru*ulatu»y from the Eo- 
cene of Castle Hayne (39648) ; eco- 



Interior Department — C-on tinned, 
nomic material exhibited at the 
Charleston Exposition (39908); spei*- 
iinens of quicksilver ores from Texas, 
collected by Dr. D. T. Day (39954); 
sample of kaolin from Edgar, Putnaoi 
C'Ounty, Fla., collected by T. Way- 
land Vaughan (39686); specimen of 
selenite from Death Valley, Califor- 
nia, and a specimen of tungsten ore 
from the Snake range, Nevada, col- 
lected by F. B. Weeks (40a58); 103 
specimens of minerals from various 
localities (40131); left humerus of a 
fossil bison, probably representing 
the species Bitson crasgicomi*, ob- 
tained by Arthur J. Collier at the 
Palisades on the Yukon (40242); fop- 
sil sponges collected by Hon. Charlei> 
D. Walcott at Little Metis, New 
Brunswick (40298); specimen of 
Arfvedsonite from St. Peter's Dome, 
east side of the gulch opposite Eureka 
tunnel. El Paso County, Tex., col- 
lei^ted by Whitman Cross (404«); 
87 thin sections of rocks from San 
Luis quadrangle, California, collected 
by Mr. Cross (40523); 62 specimens 
of rocks from Silver City, Idaho, 
quadrangle, collected by W. Lind- 
gren (40546); reser\'e and duplic'ate 
collections from the Telluride qua«l- 
rangle, Colorado (40595); Triassio 
fossils collected by Prof. S. Ward 
Ix)perin 1890-91 (40450); rocks and 
ores from Globe copper district, Ari- 
zona (40494); specimen of sandstone 
from Iron Mountain, Menominee 
district, Michigan (40632); tooth of 
Shark, ClcuitxitLsformimis {type), from 
Lime Mesa, Needle Mountains, Colo- 
rado (40662) ; 2 specimens of gypsum 
from Oklahoma, collec^ted bv Bailev 
Willis (40()84); ores and rocks from 
Silver City and De I^mar, Idaho, 
collected i)y W. Lindgren (40719); 
rocks from Roseburg, Coos Bay, and 
Port Orford quadrangle, Oregon, col- 
lected by Dr. J. S. Diller (40735) ; re- 
serve and exchange collections of 
rocks from Ellensbuiig quadrangle, 
Washington, collected by George 0. 
Smith (40859); rocks from La PlaU 
quadrangle, Colorado, reserve and 



LIST OF ACOESSIOirS. 



117 



Interior Department — Continued. 

duplicates (40875); 3 specimens of 
minerals (40952); Crater Lake col- 
lection of rocks (40963); 140 speci- 
mens of Triarthrus becki from Rome, 
N. Y., with appendages, studied and 
describwi by Hon. C. D. Walcott 
(41011); rock-bearing gold (?) from 
Harris quarry, near I-iaceyville, Pa., 
c>i>llected by W. Higgins (41139); fos- 
sil wood and Hot Springs material 
from the Yellowstone National Park 
(41154); Lower Cambrian brachio- 
pods of the genera OholuSy Obolella, 
LinffuflGj LinffvUepis, Acrothekj and 
Orlhis (41173); collection of rocks 
from Ascutney Mountain, Vermont 
(41181); Ori8"kany fossils from Key- 
ser, W. Va., and vicinity, collected 
principally by Ira Sayles. (See un- 
der J. W. Horstman. ) 

International Acheson Graphite Co. 
(See under W. O. Snelling. ) 

Irwin, Hardin, Havre, Mont. Received 
through Dr. A. K. Fisher: Salaman- 
der (AmbysUtma tigrinum)^ from Mon- 
tana. 40006. 

Jackson, J. W., Manc^hester, England: 
Fresh - water shells from England. 
(39820; 39926.) 

Jackson, Sheldon, Sitka, Alaska. Re- 
ceive<i through Department of Agri- 
culture: Four plants from Unalaska 
River. Alaska. 39716. 

Jackson, Sidney William, Sydney, Aus- 
tralia: Three hundred anji twenty-nine 
shells (83 species) of Australian land 
shells (40806); 202 specimens (51 spe- 
cies) of fresh-water shells from Aus- 
tralia (41096). Purchase. 

Jackson, Miss Victoria, Bowling Green, 
Ky. : Fifteen species of land and fresh- 
water shells. 40471. 

Jayne, Mrs. J. L., Washington, D. C: 
Samoan outrigger canoe. Deposit. 8422. 

Jenkins, Dr. O. P., Leland Stanford Jun- 
ior University, Stanford University, 
California: Received through U. S. Fish 
Commission. Type specimens of new 
species of fishes collected at Honolulu, 
Hawaii, in 1889. 40470. 



Jenks, a. £. (See under Smithsonian 
Institution, Bureau of Ethnology.) 

Jennings, J. H., Washington, D. C: 
Specimen of Tung-K wan-San, a med- 
ical powder. 40275. 

John, Andrew, Washington, D. C: Set 
of 8 pieces of Seneca Indian gambling 
dice. Purchase. 40840. 

Johnson, Prof. C. W., Wagner Free In- 
stitute, Philadelphia, Pa. : Seven speci- 
mensof Diptera, including four cotypes. 
39748. 

Johnson, C. W., Boston Society of Nat- 
ural History, Boston, Mass. : Nine speci- 
mens of Diptera. 40618. 

Johnson, J. T., Galesburg, 111.: Plant 
39699. 

Johnston, Elizabeth Bryant, Washing- 
ton, D. C. : Two photographs of Indian 
groups (40739) ; plaster bust of George 
Washington made from the life mold 
by Jean Antoine Houdon at Mount 
Vernon in 1785 (41137). 

Johnston, Miss Louise, Wooster, Ohio: 
Costume of the Yow people of China. 
Purchase. 39910. 

Jones, G. M., Richmond, Va. : Brass 
medal commemorating the departure of 
the American Army from Valley Forge. 
Purchase. 39611. 

Jones, M. E. (See under Department of 
Agriculture. ) 

Jones, Wyatt W., Bozeman, Mont.: One 
hundred and fifty plants from Mon- 
tana. Purchase. 39857. 

Jordan, Dr. D. S. (See under U. S. Fish 
Commission; also under Leland Stan- 
ford Junior University. ) 

JuDAY, Chancey. (See under U. S. Fish 
Commission. ) 

Kearney, T. H. and W. R. Maxon, 
Washington, I). C. : Thirty specimens 
of plants collected on Pluramers Island, 
near Cabin John, Md. 40460. 

Kellerman, Dr. W. A., Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio: Specimens of 
Nymphfea advena from Cadiz Junction, 
Harrison County, Ohio; Buckeye I^ke, 
Ohio; and Martinton, W. Va. (39618; 
39700; 39804); 2 specimens of Nymph«a 



118 



REPORT OF KATIOKAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Kellerman, Dr. W. A. — Continued. 
variegaUi from Ohio (.'^9805); 7 plante 
from Ohio and West Virginia (40369). 

Kelly, Rov W., Oregon City, Oreg.: 
Skull of a Flathead Indian, l^irchase. 
40720. 

Kendall, Dr. AV. C. (See under U. S. 
Fish Commission. ) 

Kenly, Mrs. E. M., Wewt End, W. Va.: 
Fossil shells, leaves, and ferns. 40680. 

Kennedy, Dr. Ja.mes S., U. S. V., Sa- 
lee<io, Samar, P. I. : Sj)ecimen of Red- 
uviid, an insect representing the species 
Dungada rubra Amyot and Serville. 
39922. 

Kennedy, Pmf. P. B. (See under C'ali- 
fornia Ac-ademy of Sciences. ) 

Kennedy, Mrs. T. L., 0[)elika, Ala.: 
Specimens of a scale insc^ct infesting 
water oaks. 41210. 

Kenoyer, L. a., IndejKindence, Kans. : 
Five plants from Kansas. 39863. 

Kekrison, Davenport, Jacksonville, Fla. : 
Si)ider {PhifUppus nudux Hentz). 
39803. 

Kkw, ExciLAND, Royal Botanic (tar- 
DEXs: Al)out one thousand plants from 
the Philipj)ine Islands and (Uiiana; 
21 <luplicate plates from "Refugium 
Botanicum" (40305); 2 living plants 
from Kew Gardens (40502). P^x- 
change. 

Killky, W. H., Cleveland, Ohio: Medal 
conferred bv the State of New Jersev 
on its citizen soldiers who participated 
in the Spanish- American war; 21 jas- 
per aii<l ()l)sidiaii arrow j)oints. 40377. 

Kixcaid, Prof. Trevor, rniversity of 
Washington, Seattle, Wash.: Sixty- 
live Hi)eciinenH of moths. 40271. (See 
niwlcr llarri man Alaskan Exjxnlition. ) 

Kino, Cyrcs A., Winona l^ke, Ind.: 
Specimens oi Xij}iipha(i (tilretin from 
I^ke Winona. 3%91. 

KiNiJ, Capt. Edward L., V. S. A., War 
Department, Washington, D. (\: Iron 
bit from the Philipjnne Islands. 41110. 

Kino, (iKoR<iE B., I^wrence, Mass.: Ke- 
ceive<l through Dr. L. 0. Howard. 
Nine specimens of Phylloi)ods repre- 
senting the species Branch ipns vernal ii^ 
Verrill (?). 40730. 



King, Horatio C, Brooklyn, N. Y.: 
Bronze bust of the late Hon. Horatio 
King, by Dunbar, a Washington scalp- 
tor. 40716. 

KiNQSLEY, Warren S., Edwardsbun;, 
Mich. : Specimen of Viola, 411(16. 

Kipper, F. G., Newport News, Va.: Cop- 
per ore from Wall Mine, Halifax 
County, Va. 40717. 

K IRELAND, E. O., Baltimore, Md.: 
Swords and flag captured during the 
Civil War, 1861-1865 (40950); Colt'sre- 
volver, Walsh revolver, double-action 
revolver, pepper-box pistol, pair of 
flint-lock pistols, Hall's breech-loading 
itarbine, and a Hall breech-loading 
rifle ( 40951 ) . Purchase. 

KiRKPATRiCK, Harrv C, Meadville, Pa.: 
Specimens of Nymphtea advena. 39617. 

KiRsc'H, Louis. (See under Williams- 
burgh Scientific Society. ) 

KisHiNOUYK, Dr. K., Imperial Fisheries' 
Bureau, Tokyo, Japan: Three photo- 
graphs of Japanese precious coral. 
40230. Exchange. 

K.IELLMAN, Prof. F. R., ITpeala, Sweden: 
Nine plants from Europe representing 
species of cultivated Ribes, 39913. 

K. K. Natitriiistorisches Hofmdsecx. 
(See under Vienna, Austria.) 

Klac.eh, E. a., Crafton, Pa. : Collection of 
I^pidopterafrom Venezuela (purchaw) 
(39806); specimen of wood affected 
with Scolytus muticue (gift) (40642); 
48 8[>ecimen8 of Cicindelas from Vene- 
zuela (gift) (41175). 

Knii'owitsch, Dr. N. (See under St. 
Petershurg, Imperial Academy of Sci- 
ences. ) 

Koch, Miss Em.ma A., Erie, Pa. : Received 
through J. H. Kocn. Album of dried 
flowers und 165 mounted photographs. 
40922. Three albums of paintings on 
rice paper, by Chinese artists. JxMin. 
8428. 

Kocii, J. 1 1. , Erie, Pa. : East Indian copper 
eoins and a l)etelnut (40749; 40820). 

Kcx'H, O., Sheboygan, Wis.: Fishhook 
and 3 fragments of pottery. ExchaoRe. 
39972. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



119 



Krbager, Frank O., Pallman, Wash.: 
Four hundred and ten plants from 
northern Washington. Purchase. 
40514. 

KuNz, George F. (See under Frank 
How land; also under Henry S. Man- 
ning.) 

KuNZE, Dr. R.E., Phoenix, Ariz.: Thirteen 
plants from Arizona and a specimen of 
the fruit of Opuntia greggii; photograph ; 
3 plants from Arizona; 34 specimens 
of Lepidoptera, 70 specimens of Orthop- 
tera and 2 specimens of Busern micro- 
phyUa, (40067; 40109; 40181; 40206; 
40214; 40309; 40310.) 

KwiAT, A., Chic^ago, 111.: Twenty-seven 
specimens of Lepidoptera. 40556. 

Lacey, Howard, Kerrville, Tex.: Three 
skins and skulls of Odocoileiut from 
Kerrville. 40846. 

Lachenand, Georges, Limoges, France: 
Sixteen specimens of Bryophyta from 
France (39812) ; 30 specimens of mosses 
and Hepatica from Europe (40371). 
Exchange. 

Laree, F. H., Brookline, Mass.: Speci- 
men of Corocordtilia libera Sel vs. 40258. 

m 

Lamb, Dr. D. S., Army Medical Museum, 
Washington, D. C: Anatomical and 
anthropological specimens (40921 ; 
41066; 41133; 41159; 41215). 

Land, John, Wagersville, Ky.: Chrysalis 
of a butterfly (Papilio asterias Fabr.). 
39902. 

Landsberg, Fred., Victoria, British Co- 
lumbia: Antique Chilcat blanket. 
Purchase. L. P. X. 40526. 

Laney, F. B. (See under North Caro- 
lina Talc and Mining Company.) 

Langille, H. D. (See under Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. ) 

Lang LEY, Dr. S. P. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution; and also under 
Stevens Institute of Technology. ) 

Latchford, Hon. F. R., Ottawa, Canada: 
Unionidse from Canada. 39821. 

Layne, J. £., Marco, Fla.: Plant, and a 
piece of pottery from near Marco 
Island, Florida (39912; 41132). 



Lbary, J. L., superintendent, U. S. Fish 
Commission, San Marcos, Tex.: Bo- 
tanical specimens consisting of root and 
seeds of Nymphwa (sp. nov. ). 39707. 

Lee, D. C, Harbor Springs, Mich.: 
Eleven quill baskets, floor mat, and an 
Indian pipe. Purchase. 39776. 

Lee, W. McD., Irvington, Va.: Fossil 
crab from the Rappahannock River, 
near Chesapeake Bay. Purchase. 
40341. 

Lee, W. T., Trinidad, Colo.: Seventy- 
five specimens of Mesozoic inverte- 
brate fossils from Colorado, Wyoming, 
and Mexico; I^wer Silurian brachiopod 
small slab from Palmer Lake. 40669. 

Leprov, H. Maxwell, Bridgetown, Bar- 
bados, West Indies: Bats, lizanls, fish, 
mollusks, and other invertebrates from 
Barbados and other islands of the 
J^esser Antilles. 40276. 

Lehman, J. B., Edwards, Miss.: Snake 
(Haldea gtrialula) from Mississippi. 
41002. 

Leighlev, E. 0., Baltimore, Md. : Six- 
teen fossils from Cleveland, Ohio. 
39701. 

Leland Stanford Junior University, 
Stanford University, Cal.: Crustaceans 
from Japan collet^ted by Messrs. Jor- 
dan and Snyder (39698); received 
through Dr. David S. Jordan, presi- 
dent, Japanese fishes collected by the 
steamer Albcitross (40524); 16 speci- 
mens (7 species) of Isopods (40908). 

Le Souef, D., Parkville, Victoria, Aus- 
tralia: Birds' eggs from Australia. 
Purchase. 41ia3. 

Lewis, C. M., Reading, Pa.: Morse tele- 
graph keys made by Clark, and by 
Neff. 40609. 

Lindgren, W. (See under Interior De- 
partment, U. S. Geological Survey. ) 

Lindsay, Mrs. William. (See under 
National Society of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution. ) 

Linn, Miss L. I., Highland, Md. : Luna 
moth. 41073. 

Linton, Prof. Edwin, Washington, Pa.: 
Parasitic worms. 39730. 



120 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



London, England, British Museum. 
Receive<l through Dr. A. Smith Wood- 
ward. Four (»Hts of jaws and teeth of 
Masto<lons (39844); received through 
Oldtield Thomas; Alcoholic specimens 
of Bats (}fyi<tticin<i) from New Zealand, 
and DicHdurushom Guatemala (40445). 
Exchange and Gift. 

I»N(i, M. C, Kansas City, Mo.: The 
I^ansing Skull. I.K)an. 7915. 

Loom IS, Rev. H., Yokohama, Japan: 
Sixty 8j)ecimens (48 species) of mol- 
lusks and 2 Immacles from Japan and 
the J^>ochoo Islands (40623); speci- 
mens of Coleoj)tera from Japan (40626). 

Ix)fEK, Prof. S. Ward. (See under In- 
terior Department, I^ S. Geological 
Survey. ) 

I^ouBAT, Duke of. (See under New 
York Botanical < Jarden. ) 

lioroiiHORorcJii, Mrs. J. II., Tenally- 
town, D. C. : Death tag used during the 
Civil War. 4(m2. 

Lucas, F. A., U. S. National Museum: 
Mole {Si'alops (u/uatifu^) j from Vir- 
ginia. 39966. 

LrcAs, J. J., Society Hill, S. C.: Plant. 

39962. 
LiU)iN(iT()N, Quartermaster-(ieneral M. I. 

(See under War Department. ) 

LiTNKLL, Dr. J., lA»eds,N. Dak. : Ten plants 
from North Dakota. J^xchange. 39858. 

LrsBv, (Jeorijk B., Olivet, Md.: Beetle 

( Dffitaxirs tilifus) . 40753. 

LvcKrr, Kdwakd, Atlanta, (ia. : Seven 
siiuill porcelain vases and a heart- 
shaped porcelain dish (40(X)8): white 
ponvlain vase (40085); 2 small **Mur- 
rhinc" va.ses, carved out of natural 
rock by Persian or Chinese workers, 
and afterwards glaze<l and lired in a 
kiln by the donor. (40527.) 

LvNi), W. L. R. (See under Dei)artment 
of Agriculture. ) 

Lyon, M. W., Jr., T. S. National Museum: 
Specimens of A7/ //!/>/<.''« r<tnt(/at(t, Nj/m- 
ph:va adrena and Caslalia from New 
Jcrst^y (39723, 39740) ; plants from New 
Jersey (39780, 39811). 

MacDade, Clarke, Newport News, Va. : 
I^arva of Iakjou opercular^, 40090. 



McBride, W. S., Marshalltown, Iowa: 
Three specimens of Plaiyocrinm. Ex- 
change. 40929. 

McCallum, D. M., Floreeville, Tex.. 
Specimen of wild Plum, Pnmus glan- 
dulom Terr, and Gray. 40639. 

McCoMB, G, T., Lockport, N. Y.: Speci- 
meiiB of Rochester shale fossils (ex- 
change) (40850) ; specimens of Niagara 
fossils from Niagara County, N. Y. 
(exchange) (40901); Clinton and Niag- 
ara fossils from Lockport (exchange) 
(40943); 13 specimens of Atrypa nodw- 
triata from the Clinton lenses near 
Loc^kport (gift) (41126). 

McCoRMicK, John, Washington, D. C: 
American sporting rifle. Purchase. 
40152. 

McCune, Mrs. Alice, Mosier, Oreg.: Pu- 
pa of beetle {Prionus ndifortncws). 
39813. 

McDonnell, James, Fredericksburg, Va. 
Received through Mr. Henry Dannehl: 
Specimen of Siren hicertina, 40404. 

McGee, W J (See under Carroll, J. 
M. : also under Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, Bureau of Ethnology. ) 

McGiRR, Hon. T. L., municipal court, 
Manila, P. I.: Shells from the Philip- 
pine Islands (40040); amulet or "An- 
ting-Anting,*' Chinese playing-cards; 
copi>er coins, and a book ( * * Amiterias" ) 
(40624). 

McifREGOR, R. C, Museun> of Natural 
History, Manila, P. I.: Reptiles from 
Hawaiian and Philippine Islands (pur- 
chase) (40911); petrel (deposit) 
(40019). 

McKiNNEv, R. E. B., AVashington, D. C: 
Thrive violets. 41152. 

McLaigiilin, a. C, Houston, Tex.: 
Samples of oil from Texas. Excliange. 
40032. 

McNeil, Mary S., St. Joseph, Mo., re- 
ceived through W. H. McNeil: Five 
unmounted photographs of Indian 
baskets. 40461. 

McNeil, W. H. (See under Mary S. 
McNeil. ) 

Mackenzie, Kenneth K. (No address 
given). Mo.: Umbelliferae from Mis- 
souri. 39660. 



LIST OF ACCE88IOKS. 



121 



Macoun, John, Geological Survey of 
Canada, Ottawa, Canada: One hundred 
plants from Canada. Exchange. 
40888. 

Haiden, J. H. (See under Sydney, New 
South Wales, Australia.) 

Malambbr, Jambs M., Washington, D. C. : 
Rose-breasted grosbeak, Xarnektdia 
ludanriana. 39982. 

Mannino, Henry S., New York City, 
received through George F. Kunz: 
Gold-headed cane which belonged to 
the late Hon. Horace Greeley. 40596. 

Manning, Mrs. M. H. (See under De- 
partment of Agriculture.) 

Marsh, E. A. (See under American 
Waltham Watch Company.). 

Marsh, Dr. W. H., U. S. M. H. S., Solo- 
mons, Md. : Badge of the U. S. Military 
Surgeons Meeting in Washington, 1). C, 
in 1902 (39762); sutler's check for 5 
cents. Fifth liegiment U. S. Cavalr>', 
1861-1865 (39942). 

Marshall, Charles, Bay St. Louis, Miss., 
receiveil through Andrew Allis(^n: 
Four specimens of Otstalia from I^ke 
Shore, Miss. :i9594. 

Marshall, George, U. S. National Mu- 
seum : Red squirrel, Sciunut hudsonicuitf 
from Laurel, Md. (40347); 2 specimens 
of Microtus from Laurel (40568); Field 
mouse, Microtus pentutylvanicus (41077). 

Marvin, Dr. Marion F., contra<;t surgeon, 
U. S. A., Talisay, Province of Batangas, 
P. 1. Centipede. 40613. 

Mason, Marci's & Co., W^orcester, Mass.: 
Two specimens of cocoa bean infested 
by a Phycitid moth, Epheslia htchnu'Wi. 
39900. 

Mason, Prof. O. T., U. S. National Mu- 
seum: Bailge of the reception commit- 
tee of the Thirty-sixth Annual Encamp- 
ment, Grand Army of the Republic, 
October 6, 1902 (40459); 2 Tuscarora 
snow snake sticks (40710); bitterwood 
cup from Jamaica (40754) ; British half 
farthing, 1901 (40818); 4 photographs 
of megalithic monuments of Brittany 
(40889); **hen and nest" puzzle 
(41191); photograph of ' ' Kit Carson ' ' 
(41192). 



Mather, Fred, estate of, received through 
Mrs. W. H. Coughlin: Four diplomas 
awardeil to Mr. Mather; gold gilt 
medal, Berlin, 1880; silver medal, 
Paris, 1879, and a copper medal, Ber- 
lin, 1880. (Bequest.) 40584. 

Mathews, H. H., Boston, Mass.: Sample 
of red roofing slate from quarries in 
Hampton County, N. Y. 406a5. 

Matthews, E. O. (See under Smithson- 
ian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology. ) 

Matthews, W. A., Caney, Tex.: Plant 
from Texas. 41164. 

Maudsley, Alfred, London, England: 
Plate illustrating the ruined cities of 
Mexico. 40153. 

Maxon, W. R., U. S. National Museum: 
Specimens of Nympha'a hybrkla and 
Nyinphmi iKiriegata from Thousand 
Island Park, New York (39607, 39621 ); 
309 specimens of ferns collected in cen- 
tral and northern New York (39757); 
20 phanerogams from Virginia (40452) ; 
2 specimens of Cypriped'mm hirmtum 
and Canlophylluin ihaUctroides from 
Fairfax County, Virginia (40457) ; 60 
s})ecimens of phanerogams collected on 
Plummers Island, Maryland (40463); 
6 birds* eggs, termites, about 2,500 
plants, and other natural history speci- 
mens from Jamaica (41010; 41053; 
41104). 

Maxon, W. R., and T. H. Kearney: 
Thirty plants collecte<i on Plummers 
Island. 40460. 

Maxon, W. R.,and 0. L. Pollard, U. S. 
National Museum: Specimen of Cyprl- 
pedium hirmtum. 40796. 

Maxwell, C. W., Lynchburg, Va.: Mis- 
sissippi cattish, IcUilurui^panctatus; alsf) 
specimens of "Blazing Star," Chamieli- 
rium luteum (L. ) A. (iray. 409(J2. 

May, Capt. Frederick, Washington, I).(\ : 
Spanish naval officer's chapeau and a 
double barreled Lafoucheux pistol. 
40872. 

May, H. B., Washington, I). C: Officer's 
uniform of the Unite<i States Navy, 
worn in 1800. I^l^chase. 39934. 

Mead, Miss M. H., Washington, D. C. 
Rei'cived through liev. A. G. Wilson: 
Ladies bicycle. 40667. 



122 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Mbabnh, Dr. E. A., U. S. A., Fort Snell- 
ing, Minn., and Fort Yellowstone, 
Wyo. : Six specimens of Nyinphiva 
polysqpaUiy mammals, birds, reptiles, 
plants, and shells from Yellowstone 
National Park, Wyoming (397:«; 
40331); &S s|)ecimens, including skins 
and skulls of mammals and wapiti 
antlers from Wyoming (40433); rabbit 
(Lepus); 77 birds* skins; natural his- 
tory specimens of different kinds, prin- 
cipally from Fort Snelling; poisoned 
bullets, geological material (40567; 
40894; 40968; 40976; 41099; 41145), 
marine shells, and crustaceans from 
Washington (41189); mammals and 
birds from Oregon (41214); nest an<l 
4 eggs of Junco irregonus (41224). 

Medford, H. C\, Tupelo, Miss.: FohsII 
plant from Binningham, Ala. 39672. 

Meek, Prof. S. E. (See under Fiel<l Co- 
lumbian Museum.) 

Meeker, J. C. A., Bridgei)ort, Conn.: 
Specimens of Ni/mphwa rariegata from 
Pembroke I-Ake, near Bridgeport. 
39688. 

ME.MMiNGfcR, E. R., Flat Rock, N. C. : 
Three plants. 41031. 

Mekkiam, Dr. C. Hart, Department of 
Agriculture: Two Panamint Shoshone 
baskets. Purchas^^ 41186. (See also 
under Department of Agriculture.) 

Merria.m, Mins Dorothy. (See under 
Deimrtment of Agriculture. ) 

Merrick, II. D., New Brighton, Pa.: 
Fifty moths (40094); 40 specimens of 
Lepidoptera and 2 8j)ecimensof Neurop- 
tera (40169); 2o specimens of I/*»pidop- 
tera (40485). 

Merrill, Mr. K. D. (St^e under Bureau 
of Agriculture, Manila, P. I.) 

Merrill, Dr. (J. P., V. S. National Mu- 
seum: Two i>ieces of j)egmatite from 
Aubuni, Me. (39S61); slabs of silicitied 
wcKxi from the vicinity of the National 
Zoological Park (40891); s|>ecimen of 
granite from Rowan County, N. C. 
(41058); fresh and weathered gnuiite 
from Mount Airy, N. C. (41078); cnide 
and ground talc from Cherokee County, 
N. C. (41100); geological specimens 
from Macon an<l C'lay <'otmti(»s, N. (\ 
(41124). 



Mertbns, H. (See under Department of 
Agriculture. ) 

Metc^alf, Prof. M. M., Wonaan*8 College, 
Baltimore, Md.: Two hundred speci- 
mens of Lepidoptera from India. 40528. 

Meunier, Stanislas, Museum of Natural 
History, Paris, France: Meteorite from 
Tadjera, Algiers. Exchange. 39799. 

Meybnberu, E., Pecoe City, Tex.: Re- 
ceived through Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, National Zoological Park. Whip- 
tailed scorpion, and a specimen of 
Joins (39767); homed toad, and lana 
ofan insect (39659). 

Meyer, Dr. A. B. (See under Dresden, 
Germany, Royal Zoological and Anthro- 
pological-Ethnographical Museum. ) 

Miller, Prof. A. M., Kentucky State Col- 
lege, Lexington, Ky. : Four fossil plants 
from Kentucky. 39975. 

Miller, Mrs. E. P., care Gerrit S. Mil- 
ler, jr., U. S. National Museum: Two 
specimens of Shrew-moles, JBtoriVia, and 
2 White-footed mice, Peromysnt*^ from 
Peterboro, N. Y. (39595); specimens of 
CaMalia (uberasa from Little Hunting 
Creek, Fairfax County, Va. (39721). 

Miller, Gerrit S., jr., I'. S. National 
Museum: Twenty^four plants from 
Geneva, N. Y. (39622; 39674); 3 speci- 
mens of AUium, plants, specimen of 
(iaUnmga, 10 specimens of oaks, rep- 
tiles, mammals, binls, and plants, spec- 
imen of Chamidiriumj 3 specimemi of 
Oxalix and Thalictrum from Virginia 
(39692; 39802; 39822; 39987; 41015; 
41070; 40431); 2 specimens of Lycoiio- 
(Hum collected in Ontario by C. V. ()g- 
den (40466). 

Miller, John, Engineer Corps, U. S. A., 
Washington, D. C. : Ashes from the 
volcano of Mayon, All)ay I'rovince, 
P. 1. 40547. 

Miller, Mary F., Washington, D. C- 
Two plants from New York. 40108, 

Miller, (). ()., Cambridge, Mass.: Two 
hundred and fifty-fflx plants collected 
in Venezuela. Purchase. 39726. 

Miller, Miss Virginia. (See under Na- 
tional Society of the Colonial Damee of 
America. ) 



LIST OP ACOESSIOXS. 



128 



Milwaukee Public Mubbttm, Milwaukee, 
Wi{<.: Four enakes and a turtle. 30588. 

MiMMACK, Mira KATHERiNEyWashin^n, 
D. C: Unifonn of Capt. Charles ^. 
Colliiui, consisting of a dress coat, 
(»cke<l hat and plume, pair of epaulets, 
swoiil and belt, aiguillette. Loan. 7861. 

Minnesota, University of, Minneapolis, 
Minn.: Seventy-two specimens of 
mouses from Minnesota, collected by 
J. M. Holzinger (exchange) (39615); 
57 s}>e(*imens of mosses from Minne- 
sota, received through the Department 
of Agriculture (40031). (See also un- 
der Department of Agriculture.) 

MiHHouRi Botanical Harden, St. Louis, 
Mo.: Spet'imen of Echeveria (gift) 
(40425); plant (exchange) (40480). 

Mitchell, Hon. J. D., Victoria, Tex.: 
Crustaceans (39639); receive<l through 
Dt^partraent of Agriculture, plant from 
Texas (39714); crustaceans {Orchegtia 
sp., and Apu$ irquali* Packard), toad 
(Bufo compactilM) from Sanx) Creek, 
Texas (40073); invertebrates from 
Texas, including Aptis feqnnli* Pa<.'kard, 
CV/>rw(?), and an alcyonarian coral; 
also treetoads, probably IlyUi i*emi- 
fcutnatus (40154); al)out 20 specimens 
(4 spe(!ie8) of land and freshwater 
shells from Mexici) (40622). (See 
under Department of Agriculture. ) 

Mitchell, R. H., Memphis, Tenn. : 
Specimen of Skipjack or "Blue Her- 
ring," Pomobobus rhrynochloris Rafi- 
nesque. 41207. 

Mitchell, Dr. S. AVeir, Grand Cascape- 
dia, Quebec, Canada: Specimen of Sal- 
ini»n, Sitlmo mUiT, 39634. 

Moenkhauh, W. J. (See under U. S. Fiph 
C-ommission. ) 

MoNTAciuE, II. C, Washington, I). C. : 
K€»ntucky B. L. carbine; Harpers Ferry 
musket, 1847, and I^efaucheaux {KK'ket 
revolver. Purchase. 39610. 

MoNTAVON,W. F.,Siniloan,T.Aguna, P. I.: 
Two specimens of Siraralwi.*i<l l>eetle, 
Xylotryipes dichotnmus Linnaeus. 40190. 

MoNTELLO Granite Company, Montello, 
Wis.: Received through L. T. Cn)ss, 
superintendent. Cube of granite from 
quarries at Montello. 40104. 



Montevideo, Uruguay, Museo Nacional: 
Received through Louis A. de Herrera. 
Thirty-five paleolithic implements from 
Uruguay. Exchange. 40654. 

MooNEV, J AMES. (Seeun<lerSmithsonian 
Institution, Bureau of (Ethnology. ) 

• 

Moore, Clarence B., Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Five plaster casts of rare forms of stone 
implements (39753) ; crania from an 
Indian mound in Florida (41068). 

Moore, E. N., New Orleans, I^.: Sala- 
mander (Ambyttoma opacum) from the 
Mississippi River. 41012. 

Moore, I. N., State Normal Strhool, 
Slippery Rock, Pa.: Spe<!imen of Cla- 
donia from Pennsylvania. 40991. 

Moore, Rev. T. V., Catholic University, 
Washington, I). C. : Forty-eight speci- 
mens of Myxamycftes from near T^ke 
George, New York. :W59. 

Moorehead, J. M., Greensboro, N. C. : 
Historical orations and photographs of 
monuments at Guilforrl battle ground. 
40569. 

Moorehead, Warren K., Pineville, Mo. : 
Two specimens of stalactite containing 
bones and flint flakes. 40966. 

Moreira, Carlos. (See under Rio Ja- 
neiro, Brazil, Museu Nacional. ) 

Morgan, Dr. A. P., Preston, Ohio: 
Twenty-four spwimens of Myxomycete* 
fnmi Ohio. 39957. 

MoRREV, John B., Washington, D. C: 
Stone implements used by cliff-<lwel- 
lers, San Juan River, Northern New 
Mexico. Exchange. 41121. 

Morrill, R. W., Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, Amherst, Mass.: Speci- 
men of parasitic Hymenoptera. 40574. 

Morris, E. L., Department of Agriculture*: 
I^rge mass of Middle Devonic lime- 
stone with corals, brachioiMxls and 
ostracods, cf)llecte<l at Port Austin, 
Michigan (gift) (39860); 3 plants from 
Michigan, collected by C. K. Dodge 
(exchange) (40797). (See also under 
l>epartment of Agriculture. ) 

Morrison, Donald P., Washington, D. C. : 
Native Filipino costume, Morn) cannon, 
and a Filipino spear. l>oan. 7936. 



124 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MU8KUM, 1903, 



M0R8B, Fj, C, Lc»rain, Ohio. Twenty- j 
five npecimeiis of Comiferous fomils 
from Johnnon Island, Sandiiflky Bay, 
Ohio. i:xchange. 41198. 

MoRHE, HeirH of S. F. B. : Received 
through Edwanl Lind Morei*. Collec- 
tions of personal relics of the late S. F. 
B. Morse (41019) ; costume worn by 
the late S. F. B. Morse when visiting 
the (Hiujrts of KuroiK?, rew»ived through 
Mrs. Franz Rummol. (4108:5.) Gift 
of the heirs, James E. F. Morse, W. 
(i. Morse, R. F. B. Morse, K. L. Morse, 
S. M. Perry, and C. M. Rummel. 

MoRTOx, Dr. Henry, riH.'eived thmugh 
Henry Sanniel Morton, executor, and 
Quincy L. Morton. The original Rams- 
den <lividing engine and slide-rest. 
40282. 

MosKLEY, K. L., Sandusky, Ohio: Speci- 
men of Leaf-nost* bat from (vuimanLs, 
P. 1. (gift) (40446); 4a5 plants from 
Ohio (exchange) {407,S2). 

MosH,\ViLUAM, Ashton-under-Lyne, Eng- 
land : Marine and lan<l shells. 396H9. 

Mowbray, Ix>riH, St. (itM.)rgt% Bermuda: 
Si)ecimen of Moray {Cfunnionmur.'nui 
rittata). (Jift 40105. (See binder New 
York A<iuarium. ) 

MoYER, S. J., Fort ( I rant. Ariz.: Pujm of 
Sphinx moth. :W8;M. 

Mtlfori), Mias K. A., Hem|)stead, N. Y.: 
Five specimenH of violets from New 
York. 40:^57. 

MvNROK, Miss Hklkn, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution: M<Mlel of nnimmy-cas*»an<l tomb 
furniture. I)(*iM>sit. 8007. 

MiRRAY. S. H., Washingt-on,!). (\:Worm 

( (iordulH sp. ) .'59783. 

MiHEo Xac'ional. (Stv under Monte- 
video, Truguay. ) 

MisEo Nacional. (SetMinder San .lose'', 
Costii \{\cx\. Central America.) 

MrsEo N.\cioNAL. (See under Kio Ja- 
neiro, Brazil.) 

MrsEi'M OF CoMi*AR-\TivE Z(M)ixKJY, Cam- 
bridge, Mass.: Received through Dr. 
W. McM. Woodworth. Cralw from 
the Maldive Islands, collecte<l by Alex- 
an<ler Agassiz (exchange) (40087); re- 
ceived through Dr. Walter Faxon, 21 
sptH'imens (13 species) of fresh-water 
Craljs (gift) (41196). 1 



MrsKUM OF Natoial History. (See 
under Paris, France. ) 

Myattway, Emma, Falls City, Nebr.: 
Chrysalis of PapUio turrnts Linmeus. 
39992. 

Nast, Thomas, Guayaquil, Ecuador : Col- 
lection of batterilies and moths. 40244. 

Natal Botanic (tarden. (See under 
Durban, Natal, Africa.) 

National Collateral Loan and Jew- 
elry Company, Washingtrm, D. C: 
Pistol and revolver. Pun^hase. 
39687. 

National Marble Company, Murphy, 
N. C : Received through A. S. Emer- 
son. Two specimens of blue marble 
from quarries near Murphy. 40358. 

National Society of the Cou>m.\l 
Dames of America: Received through 
Miss Virginia Miller, chairman of the 
relic committee. Amsterdam daggiT 
(1467), and a land grant signeil by 
Thomas (5reen (8228); silver gravy 
lK)at, 2 ])ewter platters, and a framed 
photograph (8381). Loan. 

National Society of the Daughters 
OF THE American Revolution: Ke- 
ceived through Mrs. William Lindsay. 
Postal itird signed L. L. R. Pitkin, and 
a piece of Dove Mill paper (7836); re- 
ceived through Mrs. Lindsay and Mrg. 
A. L. Bulkley, Brooklyn, N. Y.: (Iravy 
<lish and cover, Ja(>8nese punch bowl 
and two wine glasses (8004); relic of 
prison ship Jer^ey^ two letters and four 
photographs of daughters of soldien: 
of the Revolutionary Army, metal 
tray, two photographs of Ebenezer 
IIul)l)ani's house, and a piece of pine 
from Floating Bridge (8091; 8166); 
fragment of wood from the Old North 
Church (8137); frame containing cx>py 
of "South Carolina Gazette and Coun- 
try Journal " of Tuesday, November 15, 
1768; frame containing twelve pieces of 
(Continental paper money useil during 
the Revolutionary war; **Col. William 
Washington's Battle Flag** in frame 
(illustration); frame containing auto- 
graph of Mrs. F. M. Pickens, a iiews- 
pajK^r clipping, and a button from a 
military overcoat worn by Greneral An- 
drt»w Hckens at the battle of Cowpens; 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



125 



National Society of the Daughters of 
THE American Revolittion — Cont*d. 
framefl engraving of Moultrie will; 
framed portrait of Mrs. Iredell; **Copy 
of Treaty of 1795 between the United 
States and Spain; '' bullet used during 
the Revolutionary war; goblet made 
from a piece of an oak tree at Mount 
Vernon, plante<l by (ieneral Washing- 
ton; Htripofwood taken from a stool 
made from a piece of timber from the 
M(U(fioirer; chip from a bench on which 
wounde<l soUiiers were laid during the 
liattle of Brandywine; bit of wood 
from the British man-of-war Somerset^ 
which was lost off Cape Cod in 1783; 
four pieces of wood from Independence 
Hall, and a glass jar containing water 
from Jasper Springs (8238). Loan. 

Navy Department, Washington, D. C: 
Received thnmgh Rear-Admiral R. B. 
Bnulfonl. Sample of volcanic dust 
which fell aboard the American steam- 
ship Nftmlnm (39643); modelsof8U. S. 
vessels, with cases and tables for same 
(39676); two Locust gun-carriages cap- 
tured by the U. S. Army, at Santiago, 
Cuba, in 1898 (40039) ; received through 
Bureau of Onlnance, Rear-Admiral 
Charles O'Neil, chief, revolving gun 
(small arms) (40555); received through 
Bureau of lv|uipment, A. C. Wren, act- 
ing chief, specimen of dust which fell 
on the decks of the steamship Hogarth 
while in the vidnity of Cape Verde 
Islands (40762); receive<l through Bu- 
reau of Kquipment, Rear-Admiral R. B. 
Bradfonl, chief, 2 specimens of volcanic 
<last, which fell upon the deck of the 
steamship Amazonense on March 22, 
1903, 190 miles to windward of St. Vin- 
cent Island, and upon the deck of the 
schooner Marion Ijmise on March 21^, 
alM>ut 80 mik»8 to windward of the same 
i.sland (40910). Deposit. 

Navy-Yard, Washington, I). (■.: Re- 
ceived through Capt. E. C. Pendleton, 
superintendent of naval gun factory. 
Three photographs of revolving g»ms 
of early type. 40102. 

Nei^)N, Charles A., E<idyville, Ky.: 
Collection of Indian relics from rot^k 



Nelson, Charles A. — Continaed. 
quarry near Eddyville. Purchase. 
40283. 

Nelson, C. Z., Galesburg, 111.: Four 
plants from Illinois, including Nemo- 
phUa menziesix Hook, and Am, Calen- 
dula officianalis L., Eupatorium agerato- 
ides and Ambrogia trifolia L. 40538. 

Nelson, E. W., Department of Agricul- 
ture: Twenty-six plants from North 
America (39710); 86 plants, c»ollected 
in Mexico (40756). Purchase. (See 
under Department of Agriculture; also 
under Mrs. N. M. Brown. ) 

NESMmi, H. M., Lone Grove, Tex.: 
Specimens of tropper ores from Texas 
(40521); pecan nuts from Texas 

(40560). 

Newcomb, H. H., Boston, Mass.: Ten 
specimens of Chionobas kalahdin . 40332. 

Newcomb, William, Tenafly, N. J.: Two 
microscopic mounts of PolycisHna, 
41093. 

Newlon, Dr. W. S., Oswego, Kans. : 
Specimen of Naticopms altoneyms 
McChesnev. 40391. 

Newman, H. W., post quartermaster- 
sergeant, U. S. A., Fort Greble, James- 
town, R. I.: Indian baskets. I.ioan. 
7972. 

Newneh, Sir (iKORGK, Wildcroft, Putney 
Heath, I^jndon, England (n»ceived 
through (i. A. Boulenger, British 
Museum): Fishes collected by the 
Southern Crow expedition. 39766. 

New York Aquarium, New York City: 
Moray (Channomursnia Htlata), col- 
lecte<l in Bennuda by Mr. Ix)uis Mow- 
brav. 40105. 

• 

New York Botanical Garden, Bronx 
Park, N. Y.: Two plants (exchange) 
(39614; 39694); 143 plants collectiKi on 
the Island of St. Kitts (exchange) 
(:W17); received through PK>f. O. F. 
Cook, plant from St. Kitts (gift) 
(40061); 5 plants (exchange) (40045; 
40281) ; 44 plants from Porto Rico and 
St. Kitts (exchange) (402i)3); plant 
(exchange) (40359); 150 plants from 
the West Indies (exchange) (40361); 



126 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



New York Botanical Garden — Cont'd. 
9 plants (exchange) (40426; 40489; 
40490; 40501; 40515); 102 plants from 
Mexico, prei*ented to the New York 
Botani(!al (iarden hy the Duke of Lou- 
l>at (exchange) (40731); 28 plants (ex- 
change) (40887; 40902; 41085; 41130; 
41153; 41204). 

Niblack, Lieut. Commander A. P., 
U. S. N.: Three Moorish flint-lock 
guns. Ix)an. 8119. 

N1CKEL8, John M., Cincinnati, Ohio: 
Types of thnH.» Hi>ecieH of fossil bryo- 
zoan (exchange) (,'i9H9ti); fossils fn)m 
the RcH»hester shales, I..o<.rkport, N. Y., 
and fossil bryozoans, CallofMra (ex- 
change) (40337); 500 sfH-^cimens <»f 
Paleozoic fossils (gift) (40355). 

Nixon, S. D., Baltimore, Md.: Two turtle 
shells, ilit'lopuH yuttatns (1^9955); stone 
axe, fossil shells, and a pie<*e of i)etri- 
fuHl wood (40053); shells of a cral) 
{0<'ciirrijiH:< rnricoht Linnieus) from 
Navassa Islan<ls (40212). 

NoLTE, Kmilioj Coyuca de Catalan, (Juer- 
rero, Mexico: Two specimens of tree 
cotton (39678) ; OHi>ecimensof minerals 
from .Mcxii'o (3iK)r)3). 

Noon, a. II., Nogalcs, Ariz.: A meteorite 
weighing 113 jsmnds, from ArisjH*, 
Sonoro, Mexico. I*un*hase. L. P. X. 
41003. 

North Carolina Talc and Mininci Com- 
i»any, Ih'witts, N. C. : Specimensof talc 
collected hv K. I». I^nev. 41111. 

• ■ 

Norton, Nki>, Colehrook, N. If.: Ni<-kcl 
ore (3^*H)7): wimple of molylxlemim 
from m*ar Ij«*xington, Vt. (40025). 

O'Nkii., Rear-Ailmiral Ciiari.fx, V. S. N. 
(See un<ier Navy Department. ) 

Ohkriioi-skr, II. ('., Biological Survey, 
I>ej>artment of Agriculture: Ten binls' 
nkins from Norway. 40517. 

()(;okn,(^. V. (S<'eun(h*r(icrritS. Miller, 

jr.) 
OiiDKN, Dr. II. ('., Milwanktv, Wis.: 

Three j)lants from Wisconsin. .'>9771^. 

( )li)Rovi), Mrs. T. S., Burnett, Cal. : Murine 
shells from California (404:i5; 41037). 

Olka <le, Don S«»nor Serveriano, Monte- 
vi<leo, Cruguay: Miwellaneoiis shells 
and chalcedonic giKKles. 40005. 



Oncinr, C. R., »San Di^po, Cal. : Nineteen 
plants from California and Lower C^- 
fomia (40723; 40826; 40886; 40903; 
41023; 41026; 41076). 

Orr, Lycurcjuk, Presto, Idaho. Bay 
guano from Idaho. :i9880. 

Osborne, A. C, Washington, D. C: Two 
carvings made from peach stones. 
39915. 

<)sLOR, K. J., Alcott, Colo.: Specimen of 
Mvluctlln lieris L., from Oracle, Ariz. 
41201. 

OsTERHouT, Gborije E., Ncw Wiudsor, 
Colo. : 8i)ecimen of an umlxdifer from 
Colorado. 41025. 

OwKN, F. D., War De^jartment, Wash- 
ington, D. C. : Frame containing l)adges> 
ami cards relating to the unveiling 
ceremonies of the Ro<'}i'nulH*au statue, 
39885. 

Owen, Mrs. M. W., Sepaculite, Panz«)s, 
(luatemala: Photographs illustrating; 
the native arts of the wild Indian triltes 
in the i«iterior of (iuatemala (39881); 
Imiian net l)ag (40421). 

Pa(je, L. W., Division of Roads, Depart- 
ment of Agriculture: Rocks consisting 
of various road materials. .'{9968. 

Palmer, Dr. Kdward, Washington, D. C: 
Ten si>ecie8 of land and fresh-water 
mollusks, isoixnls from Alvarez, State 
of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, and an in- 
Hect (gift) (40407); 296 plants from 
Mexico (purchase) (40495); 65 plant." 
from Mexico ( pun'hase) (40562 ); ethno- 
logical material collected in San \a\\9, 
Poto^<i, and San Felipe, Mexico (gift) 
(4a581); 228 plants from Russia (pur- 
chasiO (40<>58); fire fan (gift) (41109). 

Palmer, Dr. T. S., Department of Agri- 
culture: Turtle {PKtidemys concinna) 
from Louisiana. 40824. 

Palmer, Willia.m, U. S. National Mu- 
seum: Skin of Ikild eagle (39984): 
s|H»cimen of Piimn ntnthus collected in 
Virginia (40455); 4 hinis* skins from 
South Carolina au<l Cuha (40474). 

Palmer, W. C., (ToldslK)ro, N. C. : Geo- 
logi<'al material. 40706. 

Pan-American K.\'i»osition, Buffalo, N. Y. 
(StH? under Government Board.) 



LIST OF A0CE8SION8. 



127 



Paris, France, £cole pes Mines: Re- 
i-eived through Prof. Henri Douville. 
Specimen and two pieces of the type 
specimen of Ileterolrypa frondomy Ed- 
wards and Haime. 40557. 

Paris, France, Museum of Natural 
Hiotory: Received through Prof. E. L. 
Bouvier. Fresh-water crabs (41216); 
received through Dr. M. Boule, pieces 
of the type 8i>ecimen of the bryozoan 
representing the species Chfeietes fron- 
domisi and ChxMes mammulatus d*Orbi- 
gny (40417). 

Parish, S. B., San Bernardino, Cal. : 
Plants from C^ilifomia (40207, 40508). 

Parker, A. C, Bridgton, N. J. : Myriapod 
(JuluH). 41211. 

Parker, Charles V., Trinidad, Colo.: 
Foot l)one of camel or llama-like ani- 
mal common in western territoy dur- 
ing the Pliocene perioil. 40208. 

Parker, John W., Sergeant, V. S. In- 
fantry, Xanana, Samar, Philippine 
Islands: Beetle. 89816. 

Parker, William F., Montezuma, Colo.: 
Snow -fly, ('hiorwa niveicidf Dean. 
40291. 

Park HURST, J. H., U. S. National Mu- 
seum: Judgment of a justice of the 
I>eace, date<l October, 1826. 39898. 

Parkinson, T. B., Detroit, Mith.: Silu- 
riun an<l Devonian fossils. Purchase. 
41082. 

Parritt, II. W., London, England: 
Twenty-three specimens (14 sp<»cies) 
of e<*hino<ierms and crustaceans. Ex- 
change. 40274. 

Parsons, J. I., Colebrook, N. II.: Speci- 
men of Bill-fish (Round White fish) 
(:oregoints quaf^rilaterali*. 40769. 

pARTRiiKiE, R. H., Washington, D. C: 
Specimen of gold in quartz, from Orange 
Countv, Va. Purchase. 40959. 

Patterson, Miss Emily. (See under 
Egypt Exploration Fund.) 

Paumcjarten, Baron P., Washington, 
D. C. : FIint-h)ck pistol of Austrian 
make. 40694. 

Payne, E. J., Olympia, Wash.: Specimen 
of gypsum from Alaska. 40411. 



Peck, J. Y., St. Augustine, Fla.: Eight 
plants from Florida. 40802. 

Pendleton, Capt. E. C, U. S. N. (See 
under Navy-yard, Washington, D. 0.) 

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Cam- 
den, N. J. : Received through Walter 
Antrim. Diploma awarded by the 
New Jersey State Agricultural Society, 
1858, for the engine **John Bull." 
40511. 

Perdew, G. M., Cuml)erland, Md.: Two 
plants from the vicinity of Cumber- 
land. 39845. 

Perrow, B. B., Louisville, Ky.: Pistol <»f 
Henry Clay. Loan. 8272. 

Pettit, Miss Katherine, Lexington, Ky. : 
Three photographs illustrating the 
primitive life of the Kentucky moun- 
taineers of Knott County, Ky. (40273); 
12 photographs representing the proc- 
ess of making woollen cloth by hand 
in the Kentucky mountains (39796). 

Peyster, Frederic J. dk. (See under 
St. Nicholas Society. ) 

Pfordte, Otto F., Rutherford, N. J.: 
Three specimens of wulfenite from 
PlumosaMine, Huepac,Orizpe,Sonora, 
Mexico (exchange) (40919); specimens 
of chalce<lony, paramelaconite, pecto- 
lite, and thaumasite from various locali- 
ties (gift) (40953); 3 specimens of 
thaumasite from West Paterson, N. J. 
(exchange) (41097). 

Phalen, W. C, r. S. National Museum: 
Specimens of pyramorphite fn)m near 
Patagonia, Ariz. (49668); rocks illus- 
trating the geology of Boston Basin 
(40553). 

Phoenix W<x)1) and Coal Company, 
Phoenix, Ariz.: Receive<l through Paul 
A. Brizani, secretary. Two Pima bas- 
kets. Purchase. L. P. X. 406:«. 

PicKERELL, A. J., Prt^^ott, AHz. : Speci- 
men of Agave from Arizona. 40182. 

Pierre, Abb^, Mouliiis, France: Four- 
tc*en specimens of ))ar&^itic Hymenop- 
tera. 40879. 

Pike River Granite Co.mfany, Amlwi^g, 
Wis.: Two specimens of granite from 
quarries at Amberg. 40263. 



128 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



PiNYAN, A. H., Bisbee, Ariz.: Antler of 
deer ( OdocoUetift) from Arizona. 39792. 

Piper, C. V., Pullman, Wash.: Specimen 
of Sedum from Washington. 40033. 

PiTTiER, H., Director del Instituto Ffsico- 
Geografico National, San Jose, Costa 
Rica: Nineteen plants from Central 
America (gift) (40184); 228 plants from 
Costa Rica (gift; purchase) (40292; 
4a565); 156 plants from Costa Rica 
(purchase) (40566). 

Plank, K. N., Decatur, Ark.: Receive<l 
through Dei)artment of Agriculture. 
Plant from Arkansas. 39989. 

Pli'maciier, Hon. K., U. S. consul, Mara- 
cailK), Venezuela: Seven photographs 
of Venezuelan natives (49837) ; received 
through Dei)artment of State, 2 models 
of Indian huts (40159). 

PoLiNc, O. C, Quincy, III.: Eleven speci- 
mens of rare I^epidoptera (40013) ; 12 
Hpec'imens of Coleoptera, 22 sf)ecimenH 
of Neuroptera, 2 sjKH'imens of Rhyn- 
chota, 6 8i>ecimens of Hymenoptera, 
and 71 siwcimens of Diptera (40594). 

Pollard, C. L., and W. R. Maxon, U. S. 
National Muneum: Two specimens of 
()fpnpedium hirftutum and (hniophyilnm 
tluUictroiden from Fairfax County, Va. 
(40457); npccimcu of Cijpripfdium 
hirsiittuii (40796). 

PooLK, Kk'HARI), Poolesvillc, Md.: Bal<l 
cjigle in immature phmiagc. 4(K)21. 

I*<>sTAL Telk<;rai'ii Cable Company, 
New York City: Receivcnl through 
William H. Baker, vice-prenident and 
general mahavrtT. Sample of the c<mi- 
mercial Pacific cable laid U'tween San 
Francinco and Honolulu. 40t>47. 

PoTLN<;, H. <i., Sausalito, Cal.: Six pho- 
tographic! views in Japan. 40()17. 

PoTo, W. L. (See under Department t>f 
Agriculture. ) 

Potomac Klkctkic Powek C-omi'any, 
Washington, 1). C. : Kecoivetl through 
L. E. Sinclair, sujierintendent. Fif- 
teen olwolete forms of arc lamps, et(!. 
40913. 

Powell, J. I)., Archer City, Tex.: Beetle 
( Dijmistes titym L. ) . 396.3,3. 



Preble, £. A.: Man's reindeer coat 
Deposit. 8328. (See also under De- 
partment of Agriculture. ) 

PREVER, Dr. PiETRo. (See under Turin, 
Italy, Royal Museum. ) 

Price, Mrs. John P., Florence, AUu: 
Sjiecimen of ThfJt/phonus giganUw. 
40839. 

Price, Miss S. F., Bowling Green, Ky.: 
Fourteen specimensof ferns (exchange) 
(40004); 30 specimens, 5 speciee of 
fresh-water shells (gift) (40429). 

Priest, B. W., Norfolk, England: Fora- 
m in if era from Jersey, England. Ex- 
change. 39997. 

Prinole, C. G., University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Vt.: One hundred and 
ninety- two plants and 50 seeds fmm 
Mexico (40849; 41029; 41219; 41220). 
Purchase. (See also under Depart- 
ment of Agriculture.) 

pROKEs, J. N., Jackson, * Minn. : Speci- 
men of calcareous tufa from Des Moines 
River, Jackson. Exchange. 41051 

Prouten, Mrs. Bertha, Cleves, Ohio: 
Beetle {Alaus oculatus Liniuros). 
39630. 

Vv{Hiy John, Markleton, Pa.: Bat {Lofi- 
u nut iKtrealis ) . 39772. 

Pi'RDON, Arthur, Arthur City, Tex.: 
Royal horneii caterpillar, Citherotm 
regalU. 39598. 

PrKPrs,C. A., San Diego, Cal.: One hun- 
dred and eighty-four plants from Cal- 
ifornia and Central America (purchase 
and gift) (40453; 41022). (See under 
T. S. Brandegee. ) 

(2CAINTANCE, Prof. A. L., Maryland Agri- 
cultural College, Coll^:e Park, Md.: 
Types of Ale^frode^ martaUi QxxBLmiaJiiX, 
from Java, and Alq/rodea spinifera 
(iuaintance, fmm Japan. 40644. 

Ra'ci'e, C. E., deputy minister of lands, 
mines, and fisheries, Quebec, Canada: 
S|K'cimen * of Salmon, Salmo mIot. 
40206. 

Racjan, M. M., ( i reencastle, Ind.: Flint- 
chipi>ed arrow point. 40000. 



LIST OF A0CE88ION8. 



129 



Ion. B. D., U. 8. Consul, Ba- 
v'a. Pair of Mouse deer ob- 
ith the assistance of Dr. van 
, of the Botanic Gardens in 
rg. 40434. 

W. L., U. S. National Mu- 
ibbit (Lepusamericanun) fonn 
ike, New York (:i9974) ; 4 eggs 
throated Green warbler, Den- 
ewy from New York (40862) ; 
ort-tailed hawk, Buieo brack- 
>m Florida (40870); nest and 

HuHset-backed thrush, Jlyio- 
UaUiy from California (40925). 

OHE, Mexico, Mexico: Ashes 
volcano of Santa Maria in 
la. 40451. 

Charles D., Santiago, Cul>a: 
ven moths. 400t)5. 

. A., Durham, N. C: Rose 
3sentlng the 8j)ecies Rhodites 
9 L. 40994. 

^ L., U. S. Geological Survey: 
M of lawHonite from Tihuron 
I, Marion County, Cal. 40779. 

aiiN, Sanford, Fla. : Twenty- 
ts from Florida (exdiange) 
37 plants from Florida (gift) 
0110; 40205). 

Mrn. Richard, Wai?hington, 
lie *' 1,000" puzzle and the 
5zle. 40651. 

NK L., Bocas del Toro, Re- 
Colombia: Sixteen species of 
lells from Colombia. 40583. 

., MuHeo de Concepcion, Con- 
Jhile: Large and valuable col- 
f Chilean innecls, including 
•a, Hymenopteni, an<l other 
nd consisting of 2,051 sjwci- 
0222. 

«« Genevieve, Fort Trumbull, 
Qd(m, Conn.: Specimen of 
\rkii (Gray) from South Af- 
rchase. 40176. 

, J., Dallas, Tex.: Forty-two 
m Texas. (39727; 40267.) 

A. J., C<mnersville, In*!.: Ar- 
spearheads. 40270. 

r. S. J., Beaver Dam, Ky.: 
n Kentuckv. 39873. 



Rhoadb, S. N., Audubon, N. J. : Six speci- 
mens of Nymphsca variegata from Clem- 
en ton, N. J. (39884); specimens of 
Nymphxa advena from Haddonfield 
and Newton Creek, near Collingwood, 
N.J. (39303.) 

Richmond, A. B., Patagonia, Ariz.: 
Specimens of native lead from Pata- 
grmia (39586; 39846); siiecimen of 
chak^nthite from Santa Cruz County, 
Ariz. (40064). 

RicKER, P. L., Washington, D. C: Six 
hundred and thirty-nine plants from 
Maine (purchase) (39695); 5 plants 
from Mississippi (gift) (40140); 27 
plants from Maine (gift) (40239); 10 
specimens of lichens and Hepatic^, 
principally from Florida and (Jeorgia 
(gift) (40449). 

RicKET, C. B., New York City: Two 
plants from New York. 40992. 

RiCKSECKER, A. E., Redfield, S. Dak.: 
Two hundriMl an<i fifty plants from St. 
Croix, Dutch West Indies (purchase); 
39 specimens from St. Croix (gift) 
(4a503). 

Riddle, L. C., Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio: Four sjiecimens of 
Ilymenoptera. 40mi 

RiiKiWAV, Robert, V. S. National Mu- 
seum: Twenty-one binls' skins, a bird's 
nwt, and 2 set« of eggs, also a collei'tion 
of plants (3JM)04); skin of Gn»at honied 
owl from Illinois (39986); si)ecimen of 
Carolina paroquet, Connrtut carol hiermiji 
(40518); 2 specimens of Carolina paro- 
quets (41142). 

Riley, J. H., V. S. National Museum: 
Common mole (SfrilojtM (Kpuiticutt) from 
Falls Church, Va. (40200); 2 birds' 
skins from Virginia (40416); skin of 
Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus 
crinUvn (40475); si)eciinen of Sprea<l- 
ing adder, Heterodon iihttyrhimiSy from 
Falls Church (40808); 9 eggs of Wild 
turkey, Mdeagrii^ (jnlhpdvo silrestri^f 
from Fairfax County (409:^); set of 
eggs of Cooper's hawk, Acci2)iter cooperiy 
from Virginia (41009). 

Riley, Prof. R. R., I^misiana, Mo.: Fos- 
siliferous clay from the Kinderhook 
formation at Louisiaaa. '^V^^^. 



I4U8 1903 9 



130 



REl»ORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Rio Janeiro, Brazil, Muhbo NArioxAL; 
retviveti through Carlos Moreira. 
SpefimeiiH of recent Hrazilian coraln. 
40191. 

Riix^niE, J., jr., Boston, Mass.: Marine 
nhells. Exchange. 89756. 

Roberts, Charles (i., Baltimore, Md.: 
Jjesif of a Sooth African plant repre- 
senting the sjjecies fjiiutidendrou argett- 
tuju R. Br. (40649); spt^cimens of Coc- 
cid, sometimes known as '* ground 
|)earls,*' from Cape Colony, Africa 
(40738). 

Roberts, (Jeorcie E. (See under United 
States Mint. ) 

Roberts, Mrs. Percy, Montcagle, Tenn. : 
Plant. 3<.K>13. 

Roberts, Dr. T. S., Minnca{M)liH, Minn.: 
Twelve siHM'imcnsof Xi/niph;va variegnta 
from I^kc Itasca, Minn. 39737. 

Robertson, Prof. Charles T., Carlinvillc, 
111.: Xinetet'ii species of Ilymenoptera 
representing co-tyiK»s, 4 sjK'cies of 
Tiphiida*, 13 spccifs of Kunienida*, and 
2 species of (Vropalida*. 40842. 

KoBLvtrrTE, F. M., Cochise, .\riz. : Eighty- 
one birds' skins from Arizona. Pur- 
chase. 40232. 

KoBiNsoN, J. II., Washington, I). C. : 
French lH*an from the District of Co- 
lnml)ia. 39785. 

Robinson, T. K., Lanham, Md.: One hun- 
dred aisl twenty plants collected at 
Thousand Isles, New York. Purchase. 
39S8(). 

Robinson, Capt. Wirt, V. S. .\., West 
Point, N. Y.: Two skins of ('hurdt'ilts 
}ninor and lilnrintx pnllulns, and a 
bird's egg from trojiical .\merica 
(3W<)9); mis«'ellam*ous insects (3in)71 ); 
specimen of J'njfi/in hounrns (40092); 
100 fi[)ecimens of l^'pidoptera (ex- 
change) (40209); 28 moths ( 40554); 
eggs of AmpuJlaria from Palm Jicach, 
Fla. (40945). 

RoDKY, Hon. HkrnauoS., Ihiuscof Kep- 
rcsentiitives, Wa'^hington, I). C. : Sam- 
ple of Manila hemp from the Philippine 
Islands, collected by Cai>t. <ieorgc 
Curry, of Manila. 4(H)38. 



Rogers, Dr. A. P., Columbia rnivereity. 
New York City : ( )8traeode-bearinjj r«xk 
from the coal meaeiures of Kant«H 
(40418); 5 epecimeiis of Cgciuit romim- 
nis from Kansas City, Mo. (40768). 

RoMBURti, Dr. VAN. (See under Rou. 
B. 8. Rairden.) 

RooN, G. VAN, Rotterdam, IlolUnd: 
One hundred and twenty speciiiifrtf 
(42 species) of Coleoptera and 1 Cicada 
(40018); received through Dr. L. 0. 
Howard, 55 l^eetles from Java, B()^ 
neo, and other localities (40170). Ex- 
change. 

Rose, A. G., Ferguson, S. C. : Pujia of a 
butterfly ( Papilio n^eri(n< ) . .398ti2. 

RosK, Dr. J. N., U.S. National Museum: 
Small Mexican l)asket and 20 speci- 
mens of tortilla or com i^kes. 408.^5. 

RoussEA r , Phi leas, Notre Dame de Moni/i. 
Vendikj, France: Nineteen trilobites. 5 
specimens of Bellerophou^ and 4 other 
fossils from the Silurit! of Framr. 
Exchange. 39859. 

RowLKE, W. W.,» Ithaca, N. Y.: (hie 
hundre<l and thirty plants from trie 
Isle of Pines, West Indies. Purcliaw. 
3<)916. 

Rowley, Prof. R. R., Ixmisiana, Mo.: 
SjHJcimen of I^ower Burlington de<'om- 
pose<l chert, containing minute fossil?- 
40022. 

Royal Botanic (tardens. (Sei» umhr 
Kew, I>(mdon, England. ) 

Royal Gardens. (See under Cahnitta, 
India.) 

Royal Muski'.m. (See under Turin. 
Italy.) 

Royal Mi'sei'm of Natural Histoky. 
(Sec un<ler Stockholm, Swetlen. ) 

Royal Zoouhjical and Anthroi'du*'- 
ical-Kthn(h;raphical Mi'seum. (S^* 
under Dresden, (iemiany.) 

KoYsTKR, .v., Suffolk, Va. : Receivinl 
through J. W. Daniel, jr. Plant from 

Virginia. 39800. 

RroiKKR. Mrs. .M. L., Knoxville, Tenn.: 
"Old Line Whig flag,** used during 
the Henry Clay cami)aigu at Arlington, 
Va., in 1840. 40083. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



131 



RrFFix, Hon. J. N., 17. 8. i-ousul, Ahuh- 
cion, Paraguay, South America. Na- 
tive ft»ather coHtunies from Parajruay 
(purrhase; 41089; L. P. X. 41090). 

KuMMKL, Mrs. Franz. (Sec under Heirs 
of S. F. B. Morse.) 

KrMMKL, F. M., Washington, I). C: 
lieetle ( LtfcojHut vilUmi Casey) . 40843. 

Ri'><sELL,I)r. Frank. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution, Bureau of Eth- 
nology. ) 

RiKSKLL, Prof. Israel, V. S. Geological 
Survey: Ethno1ogi(*al material, mam- 
mals, and a bird from the Eskimos of 
the l^)wer Yukon (39927) ; voU-anic 
material from Cinder Buttes, Idaho 
(40344). 

Ri'SMELL, William. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution, Bureau of Eth- 
nology. ) 

lirsT, II. N. (See under Smithsonian 
Institution, Bureau of Ethnology. ) 

RvEH.M)N, R. (i., Wayne, N. J.: Wam- 
pum }>elt of Sc»necA Indians. Loan. 
7S92. 

.<T. Mary's Academy, ^Monroe, Mich.: 
Receive*! through Sist<»r M. Catherine. 
SiKH-imens of cahrite from Monroe and 
a Hi>ecimen of celestine from Scofield. 
40007. 

St. Nicholas S(K'IETy, New York City: 
Received through the (U)mmittee, 
Charh?s A. Schermerhorn, Frederic 
de P. Foster, and Frtnleric J. de Peyster. 
Medal of the St. Nicholas Societv com- 
memorating the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of tlie granting of 
munici{>al government to New Am- 
stenlam. 41067. 

St. pETKRSBiR(i, RrssiA, Imperial Acai>- 
EMY OK Sciences: Receive*! through 
Dr. N. KniiHDwitsch. One hundred 
and two specMmens (46 siKfies) of land 
and fresh- water shells from centml 
Asia. Exchange. 41051. 

San Jose, (.'osta Rica, Miseo Nacional: 
RtHvive<i through Pn)f. P. Biol ley. 
Ainphi{)ods and crustaceans. (40625; 
410*)8.) 

Sampson, Frank R., Woodcliff**, N. J.: 
Continental bill, 20 shillings, New lyon- 
d(m, 1776. 4a5H8. 



Samson, Henry W., Washington, D. C: 
Copper coin of Persia. 40653. 

Sanderson, Prof. E. Dwight, Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College, College 
Station, Tex.: Hermaphrodite speci-* 
men of (Jrgyia leucostigma. 40401. 

Sandham, Henry, London, England. 
(See under Smithsonian Institution.) 

Sands, W. A., Auburndale, Fla. : Sphinx 
moth, Protoparce nisticd Fabr. 39596. 

Sarkis, Dr. E. D., Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Two pairs of Persian stockings, Persian 
cap, and Persian coin. 40897. 

Sartoris, Miss Nellie Grant. (See un- 
der Gen. F. I). Grant. ) 

Saunders, E. E. & Co., Pen8acx>la, Fla.: 
- Trumpt4-tish or fiute-mouth, Fitiularia 
tafxtrana. 40509. 

Savage, J. (i., Rosslyn, Va.: Beetle 
( Coprix carolhia L. ) . 39683. 

Saville, M. H. (See under Smithsonian 
Institution, Bureau of Ethnology. ) 

Sayleh, Ira. (See under Interior De- 
jjartment, U. S. (geological Survey.) 

Schermerhorn, Charles A. (See under 
St. Nicholas Societv. ) 

ScHEUBER, Miss E. \V., Livingston, Mont. : 
Fifty-three plants from Yellowst<me 
National Park. Purchast\ 40542. 

ScHiLi), P., New York City: Collection of 
insects from Costa Ricii, including Co- 
leopteni, Hemiptera, Diptera, and 
Hymenoptera. Purcltase. 3^)653. 

ScHLt*TER, AViLHELM, Hallc-an-der-Saale, 
Germany: Ten mammals (purchase) 
(40051 ); (rast of an egg of Moa, Kuieu^ 
rrammn (gift) (40065) ; 6 Sipiirrels from 
Java (purchase) (40074); 14 mammals 
from Java (purchase) (4111^5); skele- 
ton of a nibbit (purchase)t(404I9); 11 
mammals from New(iuinea (purchasi') 
(40670); 4 specimens of Trngnli from 
Ceylon (gift) (41059). 

ScHMii), F. S., Washington, I). C. : Par- 
rot [Aiiunoitii) (.SiH)S5); Australian 
ground pigeon, (iiopfuifMsrrijfta (40468) ; 
monkey (4055.S); nightingide (40745); 
Indian starling, 7)'}nrnnrlins jKujoddrum 
(41177). 

SciiNECK, Dr. J., Mount Carniel, III.: 
Ba.t {Corynorhinuii »wicroli*^ V^^>^\'1Y, ^ 



132 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1003. 



HciiNBCK, Dr. J. — Continued. 

plants from various lo<'alitie8 in the 
Unite<l States (39960); specimen of 
Corynorhinus nuicrotis from Mount Car- 
mel (40522). 

ScHUCHKRT, Charles, U. 8. National Mu 
seum: About 100 si)e(?imcns of Helder- 
bergian material fn)m Cumberland, Md. 
(:I9641); fossils colle<!te<i in Virginia, 
West Virginia, and (Jreorgia (40177). 

Sc'HrETTE, J. H., Green bay. Wis. (re- 
ceived through the Biological Society 
of Washington, D. C): Thirty speci- 
1 1 lens of Oratirg^is. 4 1 1 50. 

Sc^nrsTKR, Adolk and Renjamin, Hol- 
brook, Ariz.: Two masks of llopi In- 
dians from W^alpi, Ariz. Purchase. 
40a56. 

Schwa RZ, Dr. K. A., I)ei>artment of Ag- 
riculture: Five «je<l« from the West 
Indies collei'te<l by H. (J. IIubl)ard 
(40221); 53 Hrx^cimeuH of l^epidoptera 
from Cuba (408(57). 

SciDMORE, MisH K. R., AVashington, I). 
(\: Pencil outlines of a human foot 
(4()60()) ; bra«H fixed ammunition caf^e 
for 4-pounder gun tired from the V. S. 
S. (Uipnpia, May 1, 1S9H (4(KKH)); regu- 
lation army shoe worn during 18<)1-18<)5 
(40924) ; 113 HiK^cimenn, in<'luding eth- 
nological material, coraini<"H, and relig- 
ious objects from China. l^)an. 8:^73. 

SciKNTiKic .Vmkkican, Ncw Vr)rk Citv 
nM.'cive<l through I)ej)artment of Ag- 
ri<"ulture): Si)ecimen of tVi/pUfxtf-gia 
(/nindiiforn Hrown, from Mexico. 
39876. 

ScoLUC'K, W\ E., r. S. National Museum: 
Bat (ytfctlrejyM) from Oxonhill, M<1. 
41079. 

Scott, T. A., Washingt<ni, 1). C.: Myria- 
pod found in a lumch of l)ananaH. 
40202. 

Skale, a. (See under licrnici' Panahi 
Bishop Museum, Honoluhi, Hawaiian 
Islands. ) 

Skk, James W. (See under Charles L. 
Whi taker. ) 

Skkcjkr, (i. A., liranchville, Md.: Garter 
snake from Maryland (39895): black 
snake, Znmen'n* roiu^tridor^ froniBranch- 
ville, Md. (40422). 



Seton, E. T., Wyndygoul, Coscob, Conn.: 
Eleven deer from Montana. Purchaw. 
40938. 

Seton-Karr, H. W., Wimbledon, S. AV., 
England: Fifteen paleolithic imple- 
ments from the lateritic deposit** of 
Poonili, India. 40597. 

Seymour, A. B., Cambridge, Mass: S{iei'i- 
men of Trichomaneif j>eterm from Tal- 
lulah Falls, Cia. 40640. 

Shaorock, T. T., Culpeper, Va.: Beetle 
( DynagUs tityus L. ) . 39636. 

Shannon, Mrs. Osborn, Washington, I>. 
C: Uniform worn by the late (gov- 
ernor Shannon, of Ohio and Kausa{>, 
when United States minister to Mexiinj 
in 1844. 39978. 

Shaw, Clarence II., Phoenix, Ariz.: 
Zufli shirt, and a collection of phot<:>- 
graphs. 40718. 

Shaw, (fEomiE R., Arnold Arboretum, 
Boston, Mass.: Fifteen plants, inclu«l- 
ing pine cone«, etc., from Cuba an«l 
various localities (40635; 40688). 

Shaw, J. F., Somerset, Tex. (ret*eive«l 
through Department of Agriculture): 
Three plants {Cucmnis dijwacew Eh- 
reub, and (^uerats lir^iniana Mill) from 
Texas. 41217. 

Shaw, K. E., Alberene, Va.: Burrowing 
snake, ('arjHyphis nm<mu»^ from Vir- 
ginia. :W786. 

Shkc'kleh, John E., Washington, D. C: 
Immature Osprey or Fish hawk, from 
Bay Ridgis Md. ' 39734. 

Shkli>on, E. p., Portland, Oreg.: Fonr 
plants from Oregon (exchange) (40114;; 
S plants from California and ()reg«>n 
(gift) (40214; 40402; 40448); 250 plant? 
from ()n»gon (pun^hase) (40(>77); •'> 
plants from ( )regon (gift) (40883; 41169^. 

Shepherd, T. M., Alexandria, Va.: Plant:? 
from Texas. 39793. 

SHEKinAN, Mrs. Irene Rucker, and 
MichaklV. Sheridan: Trustees. Fonr 
pieces i)i Flemish tapestry, represent- 
ing scenes in the life of Alexander the 
(ircat. Deposit. 8458. 

Sherman, John D., New York City: 
Twenty-thnn* s|>einmen8 (6 species) of 
North American beetles. 39923. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



133 



Sherwood, Andrew, Mansfield, Pa. : Pre- 
historic stone hammer (gift) (40382); 
(•ollet-tion of Upper Devon ic vertebrate 
and invertebrate fossils from Pennsyl- 
vania (purchase) (41123). 

Shilling, Mrs. Mart A., Washington, 
D. C. : Haversack and knife with car- 
tridge-case handle carried by the late 
Corpl. (ieorge F. Shilling during the 
Cuban lampaign. 39949. 

Short, John W., Liberty, Ind.: Two 
plants. 40592. 

SurFKLDT, Dr. R. W., New York City: 
Twosi>ecimen8of.4toM«ocu/a<i«. 41006. 

Shulak, Rev. Francis X., St. Ignatius 
College, Chicago, 111.: Specimens of 
smoky quartz and other minerals (40368; 
49960). 

Shull, George H., Havre deiJrace, Md., 
Washington, D. C, and University of 
Chicago: Specimens of Sabbatia dodo- 
randra (L) B. S. P., and Pteridium aqiii- 
linum (L) Kuhn (39899); plant from 
Virginia (:i9989); plant from New York 
(41114); 2 plants from New York 
(41131). (See under Department of 
Agriculture. ) 

SiDEBOTTOM, H., Chcadlo Hume, near 
Stockport, Cheshire, England: Forami- 
nifera from Great Britain and the Sey- 
chelles islands. Exchange. 39640. 

SiciorRNKY, AV. S., Washington, D. C. : 
Two hundred and thirty-one photo- 
graphic views of the Philippine Islands. 
40120. 

8iM>ioNi>s, H. L., Los Angeles, Cal.: Rab- 
bit-skin blanket. Purchase. 40811. 

Simpson, C. B., Department of Agricul- 
ture: Five butterflies from Idaho. 
40868. 

SiMH, Claude E., Doverhill, Ind.: Eighth 
een pent rem ites. Purchase. 39789. 

Sinclair, L. E. (See under Potomac 
Ele<!tric Power Company. ) 

SisTKR M. Catherine. (See under St. 
Mary^s Academy, Monroe, Mich.) 

S.roHTEDT, Dr. Yngve. (See under Stock- 
holm, Sweden, Royal Museum of Nat- 
ural History.) 

Skifk, F. J. V. (See under Field Co- 
lumbian Museum. ) 



Skinnbr, Dr. Henry, Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. : Four 
specimens of Tegrodera aloga Skinner 
(cotypes). 41176. 

Slater, William M., Washington, D.C.: 
Specimen of rutile from Roseland, Nel- 
son County, Va. 39941. 

Slosson, Mrs. A. T., Franconia, N. H.r 
Specimen of Dipteron (Elachiptera for- 
mom Loew. ), from Mount Washington, 
New Hampshire (40016); 28 specimens 
of parasitic Hymenoptera (40089); 12 
specimens of parasitic Hymenoptera 
from Biscayne Bay, Florida (new to 
Museum collection) (40259). 

Smith, A. D., Peoria, 111.: Myriapod ( Cer- 
matia forceps Ij) . 41007. 

Smith, Miss Annie M., Brooklyn, N. Y.: 
Thirty specimens of mosses from North 
Carolina. Exchange. 41086. 

Smith, C. L., Iowa City, Iowa: Plant from 
Mexico. 41147. 

Smith, E. G., Arlington, Iowa: Prehis- 
toric copper spearhead. Loan. 7833. 
(Returned.) 

Smith, George O. (See under Interior 
Department, U. S. Geological Survey. ) 

Smith, Henry, Milwaukee, Wis.: Three 
models of boomerangs. 40384. 

Smith, Herbert H., Pittsburg, Pa.: Two 
thousand one hundred and ninety-three 
plants from South America. Purchase. 
41206. 

Smith, Jared G., Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Honolulu, Hawaii. Re- 
ceived through Department of Agri- 
culture: Plants from the Hawaiian 
Islands. (39720; 39722; 41102.) 

Smith, Prof. J. B., New Brunswick, N. 
J.: One hundred and nineteen slides 
showing parts of Lepidopteria mounted 
in balsam (40414); five types of Noc- 
tuids (40643.) 

Smith, Capt. J. Donnell, Baltimore, Md. : 
Three hundred and seventy-five plants 
from Central America and the West 
Indies. 41048. 

Smith, L. Bertrand, New York City.: 
Skull of young walrus ( Odohsenus) from 
Franz Josef I^nd. 41107, 



134 



REl*ORT OF NATIONAL MUSEriM, 19a3. 



Smith, Mre. Rachkl S., Lincoln, Va.: 
I^H»tU^ (Ih'Rmiiceru» jHiUiatits Foreter). 
41047. 

Smith, Thorn, Isabella, Tenn. : Meteorite- 
iron from the southwestern »e<'tion of 
Cherokee County, N. C (purchase) 
L. P. X. (40746); specimens of zoisite 
(exchange) (41095). 

Smith & Wesson, Springfield, Mass.: 
New military revolver. 40122. 

Smithsonian Institi^'ion, Mr. S. P. I^ng- 

ley, secretary: 

Bronzed plaster bust of Cuvier. 39652. 
Bequeathetl to the Institution by Mr. 
Charles Al)ert, through Miss Con- 
stantia AlH?rt, AVashington, I). C. 

Collection of weights and measuring 
api>aratus purchaseil by >Ir. S. P. 
I^ngley from Mr. J. Charles Wohl- 
lK)ld, Nuremburg, (Jermany. 40029. 

Rroiize medal commemoiating the cen- 
tennial anniversary of the Athemeum 
of Brescia. 40t)73. Presented to the 
Institution bv the Athemeum. 

Original o'i\ painting of "The March of 
Time." 40194. Presented bv Mr. 
Henry Sandham, lx)ndon, Knglaml. 

Traimn Uhd from the Burenu nf A inerican 
Kthnohnjiiy Mr. \V. II. Holmes, chief. 

Ancient Mexican st(nie voke, received 
through Mr. :M. H. Saville (H9590); 
colh'ction of relics fnun ruins in 
Arizona, collected by Mr. ('e<-il A. 
Dciinc, Denver, Col« ». ( 39591 ) ; 
tlirough Miss Mabel M. (iouM, war 
lx)nnct obtained from a Sioux Indian 
and a fur bag ma<ie by the Oglala In- 
dians (o96r>0); n'ccive<l through H. 
K. Wadsworth, Indian war bonnet 
(.'{9681 ) ; received through ().(;. Har- 
<lesty, stone HjK'arhcad (3968'J); 
through Lieut, (t. T. Kmmons, 
r. S. N., Princeton, X. J., skin fur 
blanket obtained from the Cliilcat 
Indians and an unfinished basket 
fn.m the same tribe (;)98'J()); 50 bas- 
kets from Thompson River, Biitish 
Cohnnbia. 16 anti«|ue masks and a 
wooden seat from British Cohnnbia, 
colU'cted bv Lieut. (1. T. ICnmions 
(.S99()4): ethnological <"ollectioii ob- 
tiiineil bv Dr. Frank Russell from 
the Pima Indians of Arizona (:>tH»9()); 



Smfthsonian I NSTiTi'TioN — Continut**!. 
collwtion of biiskets fn»m the Pima 
Imlians, obtaiiUHl by Dr. Frank Rus- 
sell (39991 ); HiHHrimens of (luarrysitc 
material fnun aboriginal quarries <if 
Carter County, Ky., obtained by Mr. 
Gerard Fowke, Chillicothe, Ohio 
(40021); received through E. 0. 
Matthews, collection of prehistoric 
stone relics (4(X)48) ; baskets matle by 
the Mission Indians, 2 pairs of yu(\« 
sandals from Santa Rosa, willow grain 
basket, 2 nets for carrying wihl hemp, 
and a wooden needle, ci>llectetl by 
Mr. H. N. Rust, Los Angeles, Cal. 
(40049); 90 ethnological objects from 
the middle West, obtained from the 
Indians of that section through Rev. 
Michael Dumarest (40071); 11 lx)xes 
containing archeological material 
from the shell heai)s of Maine, col- 
lei^teil by the late Frank H. Cushin^ 
(40192); 6 plastic figures of P^gyptian 
gods, obtained through Mrs. Mario 
N. Buckman, Boston, Mass. (40231): 
ethnological material and ge<.)Iogical 
si)ecimens, collected by W J MciJeo, 
James Mooney, and others (40264 1: 
colltH^'tion of f)ottery casts, oti*. 
(40329); ethnological material, binls, 
and plants, collected by Mrs. M. C. 
StevenH(m (40350); ethnological ma- 
terial, collected by Messrs. Jann>!» 
Mooney, I)el-«ancy (rill, A. E. Jenk?, 
and others in Salt River Vallev from 
among the Chippewa Indians, Cher- 
okee Indians, and from localities in 
Mexico (40385); collet^ted by Mrs. 
M. C. Stevenson, sun shrine i-ontaiii- 
ing a numlHT of concretions, Ht>pi 
cotton kilt, embroidere<l and (xaintc^l, 
to be used at the base of a white 
mask, taldet l)elonging to a plunie«l 
serpent, red pottery bowl (archaic), 
fragments of pottery from ruins we?t 
and northwest of Zufii, and a fetish 
of Kolouise (40396); Pegan costume, 
obtained from William Russell, 
Washington, D. C. (4a572) ; receiveil 
through Mr. W. H. Holmes bronze 
medal of the Geographical Soi*ietyof 
K(»umania, June 15, 1900 (41016): 
stone implements from the West In- 
• lies, consisting of 800 siief'imeni- 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



185 



•NMiTHMONiAN Inktitution — Continue^l. 
(41087) ; photographs and other ma- 
terial i)ertaiiiing to phyflical aiithn)- 
pology (41138). Deposit 
Transmitted from tlie Naiiatial Zoological 
Parky Dr. Frank Baker, superin- 
tendent: 
Specimen of Tantalus loculator (39625); 
monkey {Cebus hypoleu'cus); lynx 
{LifTu: nifus floridanus); monkey 
( Mavactis maurus) ; lynx ( Lynx cana- 
densis) (39626); specimen of Lynx 
rufuSf llama; Cebus; specimen of Lit- 
ira hudsonicai specimen of Felis leo 
and Macacus cynomolgus (39928); 
specimen of nine-banded Armadillo 
and specimen of Celnis (39929) ; Pix»ci- 
nien of Cebus and a lion (3991^); 
I^nzarotte pigeon, Great blue heron, 
and Bald eagle (39931) ; White stork 
and Sun bear (39932): Tasnianian 
wolf, Thylacjfnus cinorephahiSy and 
Ocelot, Felix pardal is (39944); sj)eci- 
nien of Nicobar pigeon (39945); 
l>«dl>eater*8 cockatoo (39946); Iwa 
constrictor (39947); Alligator lizard, 
Scelqthorxis and Glass snake, Ophio- 
saurus veniralis (40164); Prairie dog 
{Cynomys ludorlcianus) ; Black- 
handed Spider monkey, AteUs geoff- 
royi; Apellamonkey,CW/w«a/>f//«; Ca- 
puchin monkey, Celmscapucimis; kan- 
garoo (Macropus)\ Prong-horn ante- 
loix», Antilocapra americana (40ir)o); 
Roseate spoonbill, Ajaja njajoy and 
specimen of Bull snake, Piiuophis 
stiyi (40166) ; 2 Bald eaglt»s, Haliaius 
lucocephalus (40167); buffalo {Bison 
americanns) , ami a specimen of Pha- 
langiMa (40168); si)ecimen of Dnsy- 
procta aguti (40209); specimen of 
Ilyacinthine macaw, Anodorhynchus 
hyacijithinns (40211 ) ; bittern (40252) ; 
pptwimen of Rocky Mountain shi»cp, 
Ons viontana (40253); Worxlland 
caril>ou, Rangifer caribou, and skelc- 
t4>n8 of Wooilland carilxju and 
lijingifer caril)ou (40254); 2 speci- 
inens of American bison. Bison 
amtricanus; Sun Injar, Vrsns nialay- 
auiis; an<l 3 specimens of Ft'l'is 
li'o; <iniy wolf, Cnn'n< lapis griseo- 
afbn:* (40437); skin and skeleton of 
Rtnl kanguHK), Mncmpas rufust, 
and Bintun)ng, Arrtichs hlnhmmg 



Smithsonian Institition — Continued. 
(40438) ; gopher snake, Spiloies corals 
couperii (40439) ; 3 Parson finchesand 
a (/alifomia comlor, I^seudogryphus 
califomiamis (40440); Golden eagle, 
Aqaila chryssdor; 2 specimens of 
Strawberry finch, 2 Painted finches 
and a Black duck (40441) ; 4 Painted 
finches, Gray-coated mundi, Nasaa 
narica, and a boa constrictor (40442) ; 
Six-banded armadillo, Dasyptts til- 
losusy and a boa constrictor (40443); 
Java sparrow (40444); specimen of 
VesL-foyvlyPavocristatus (40770) ; Black 
swan. King parrakeet, grouse, and 
Whistling swan (40771); turtle (Che- 
lone imbricata); iguana {Iguana tuber- 
ndata); Gila monster, Ileloderma sus- 
pectum {40772); Marsh hawk, CiVctm 
sp.; 2 Painted finches; White stork, 
Ciconia alba, and a Pea-fowl, Pavo 
eristatus (40773); Rocky Mountain 
sheep, Ovis montana; 2 specimens of 
American bison, Bison americanus; 
Prong-horn antelope, Antilocapra 
americana; Black squirrel, Sciurus 
carolinensis; Bay lynx. Lynx rufus; 
Black bear, Lrsiis americanus; Agouti, 
Dasyproda (40774); monkey {Cerco- 
pitherus) (40775); Mandarin duck, 
Df'ndronessa g<dericidxjta (40860); Ro- 
seate spoonbill, and Ilawk-bill turtle 
(40861); Parrakeet, Flamingo {Phce- 
n icopterus ruber ) , Golden eagle, A quila 
chnjsniifr. Loon {Urinator imber) 
(41116); Snowy owl, Nyciea nyctea; 
Mandarin duck, Dendronema galericu- 
fata; Parrakeet (Amazona); 2 speci- 
mens of Phamicopterus ruber (41118); 
Spi<ler monkey, .4(«/e« (41117) ; kanga- 
roo (}facropus giganteus); Gray wolf, 
fhnis lupus griseo-albus{41'[lb) ; (ireen 
heron, Ardea virescens^ and common 
l)oa, Boa constrUior (41 1 19) ; specimen 
of Macacos cynornolgus; Mexican 
Agouti, Dasj/prfwta mexicana; Euro- 
l)ean j)orcupine, Hystrix cristata; Col- 
lareii pecrcary, Dicotyles tajaca; Eyra 
cat, Felis eyra; and Fallow det^r, 
Damn vulgaris (41120); Gray wolf, 
Can is lupus griseo-(dhus (41143); 2 
spe(!hnenH of Sandhill crane, (irus 
canadensis (41144). (See under E. 
MeyenlK'rg. ) 



136 



SEPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1»03. 



Khytii, ('. II., Hamilton Collt^-, Clin- 
ton, X. Y.: Spefiiiu-MH (if Syrmiuwe 
dvkf, 40236. 

Skkllisc, Waltbb O., Wellington, D. C: 
Carboriintlujn, Artiflcial i-onmdiim, and 
pencilg maile JroDi artificial frrsphite, 
fmiolhelntiTnalional Acheson <iraiili- 
ite ('oiii|iany. Niafsara Falls, N. Y. 
;«t9SK. 

Sniidiir\hh, Pnit. R. K, WaBhin(rt<in Ag- 
nin1tiiralKx|H'riiiicntStMtii>n,I>ullman, 
Wash. : Tlmi- M|>eciTncnH ot P-iluuxifi' 
yi-ori: llolil. 410KI. 

SsvoEK, Bi.A\Dis, Washington, D. C: 
Thrtf imii-ijointi'd arrows nmnl by 
Bomii neRmt^, Suitaii. 40181*. 

Snviiek, J. O. (See under LeiamI Stan- 
ford Junior I'niversity.) 

SoELKER, W. II., Washiii^n, I>. 0,: 
Ten s|>ecimen)) (2 siiecieslodBnil shells 
iToni the District nt CiilHml'ia, 40589. 

SoMERH, ^IrH. II., Santa Barl>ara, Cul. : 
Plant from Californirt. 40323. 

8<>n-Ei(iiv & Fi'i.Tos, I^indon, Knifland: 
Specimen of Vittiita mammiUa (in.y. 
I-iircliase. 4(>li:C. 

Spatii. L. (Sit" under Department of 
AKricultnri'. ) 

Si'ENCKH, A. (',, r. S. Geological Snrvey: 
Two I'lantH (fniils of cycadH) from lla- 
Imna, Cnlm. 4m!»tl. 

Si'i.iTnrroKBKii, Mr. (S,H'Under Dr. H. T. 
Day.) 

•■SiMHTs Akikl.d," Chicairo, 111.: Dipter- 
oiiji larva liikeii from the iiaaal cavity 
of a spike liili'k niptnnil at Monterey 
Connly, Cal. Hl«ll. 

STAM.iNOEn, Dr. A., .m.l .A. ItAM.-HAAS, 
Berlin, (ierrnany: S,.v.-ti hundr.-.i and 
sixly-ciKhl l.ntt.TllicH.iiid moth^. I>ur- 






41:^13 



Stanton, Dr. T. W., l'. S. ( ie,.loi-ii«l 

Survey: Plant from ('uiKornia. :iHfie4. 

Ktatk DKeiHTMEN-T. (Sec under Hon. 

v.. \\. I'luiUilchfT. 1 

Statk MisKiM. Kideii.'li, N. C: Kei-eivin! 
through Mr. 11. H. Itriniley. Ty|H' 
ii|M'i'imeii of AVifnviw lirimloil iiud rep- 
nventalivcMof Hevera! otlivri'ju'cii'H of 
Ciiiie KiviT liflheH ^^0:^:«l); wilaniiimlert" 
Bii'l Hiiiiken fro:ii North Carolina 

(4fK>fil ). 



Stbarns, W. a., Atlanta, Ga.: Fcwils 
and Unionidte. 39647. 

Stebhinb, James K., Ashtabula, Ohiu: 
Opal. Deposit. 40010. 

Stbblb, E. I^. K-|pxir(iiien( of Agriml- 
ture: Fourteen ]ilanlH from the Distrirt 
of Columbia and Maryland. (397111: 
40220.) 

Sterri!, J. If.. Ann Arbor, Mioh.: Thre? 
Hlieciniensof n-pasels(niforiiM). 41(in, 

Stkjskubr, Miss Thora, Christianb, 
Norway: Forty-sis mammals (roniOvre 
i-i^ale. Norway (4031.t); tiS small 
mammals from Norway (41032). Pnr- 

Sterei, Dr. v., New Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Specimens of BratuJupa*ax\d ostrenxl^. 
40931. 

Stkrrett, J. A., Springland, Pierce Mill 
road, Washington, D. C; Specimen of 
Hawkmoth,/Vi.;iim;WpM/xoiti.;nj»Hul>- 
ner (39839) 2l speiimenfi of dragon- 
flies from Haquett« lake. New York 
(40017). 

STEVK.sa, A. F.p Pond, Ark.: Four speci- 
mens of Lower Carboniferous fn«jlf 
from Pond. 40303. 

Stevens, F.U,StateAgricnltural College. 
Kaleigb, N. C: Plant. 39675. 

Stevbss, I. W., Cedar, Colo.: Specimens 
of ores. 39592. 

Stevens IssriTifTE op Tbciis-oloov, Ho- 
lioken, N. J.: Received through Mr. 
S. r. I.angley. Brass Barton batton. 
40223. 

Stkvenbon, Jlrs. M, C. (See under 
Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of 
Kthnology.) 

Stewart, Mrs, A. A.. St. James, Lon|( 
Island; Twowpecimena of beetle repre- 
Bcntinj; the sjiecies Xytonietm mlyrat- 

mm. 



Stew 



Potter 
X. J. 



, Frank H., Philadelphia, Pa: 
y fragments from Salem County, 
40712. 



■TKWAHT, S.oii-soM T., Little Rock, Aril.: 
Two valvi>s of a sgieclea ot tlnio. with 
uttui-hecl pearls. Purchase. 40079. 

-TiLWEU., L. W., Deadwood, S. Dak.: 
.Mmiit 700 specimene of Jumsetc foeeil? 
friiui WvomiiiR and . South Dakota. 
I'l-rr!,:,;-,'. :!97!t3. 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



187 



, E. B., Denver, Colo.: Homed 
nd eight young ones. 39894. 

LM, Sweden, Royal Museuk of 
LAL Hiotory: Received through 
igve Sjostedt. Two hundred and 
-eeven specimens of exotic Lepi- 
■a. Exchange. 39657. 

D, II. L., Stuttgart, Ark.: Seven 
rraphs of mound relics. 40288. 

Miss Ellen, Eatiit Lexington, 
Plan of Washington City, 1800, 
igure of General Washington, 
3<1 on linen. 40580. 

«'RG, Hon. J.- H., New Albcmy, 
Ret"eive<l through 8. 8. Gorby, 
3ave, Ky. Samples of halloy- 
oni various localities in Hart 
y, Ky. 410:^'>. 

(IARLE8, Springvale, Va. : Stone 
nd on Springvale farm, Fairfax 
y, Va. 41162. 

Embr., Christiania, Norway: 
undred and sixty-one specimens 
pidoptera and 20 si)e<.nmens of 
ptera. Exchange. 40823. 

R, John, Charlestown, W. Va. : 
ed through G. M. Beltzhoover, 
tograph note dated January 28, 
igned by James Rumsey. Loan. 

Miss Lai'ra, Jamesport, Mo.: 
leaves infesteil with insects. 

Dr. 8. C, Washington, 1). C: 
slic snakes from South Africa. 

HELD, Mrs. Anna, Cumberland, 
Specimen of Edrioar'mtis samiUnSy 
wo large segments of a crinoid 
Q from theOriskany of Franklin, 
iton County, W. Va. 4a505. 

B., Bonn, Germany: Two casts 
nan skulls from the (juaternary, 
'rague. Purchase. 4040.S. 

[enrv, Auckland, New Zealand: 
jecimens (five 8i)ecieH) of marine 
from New Zealand (40548); 18 
lens of Unionida; (40i):i:i). 

Otto IL, Ohio State University, 
bus, Ohio: Eight si^ecimens of 
;ic Hymenoi)tera. 40552. 



Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 
Botanic Gardens: Received through 
J. H. Maiden, diretrtor. Thirty plants 
from New South Wales. Exchange. 
40473. 

Taff, J. A., U. 8. Geological Survey: 
Specimen of Nymphiea dealbata 
(39936); specimen of NothoUena deal- 
bata collected in Indian Territory 
(40002). 

Tainter, C. S. (See under C. C. Bell.) 

Tassin, Wirt, U. S. National Museum: 
Collection of pieces of rope made mto 
square knots, splices, l)ends, hitches, 
etc. (40175); two diamond crystals 
(40873). (See under J. F. Fargo. ) 

Taylor, C. B., Kingston, Jamaica: Four 
specimens of tree-toads and a snake, 
from Jamaica. 40531. 

Tedescue, Leon (t.. University of Cin- 
cinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio: Specimens 
of Calymene niagaremds Hall, from 
Graft(m, 111. 39589. 

The Curio, Phoenix, Ariz.: Received 
through Paul A. Brizard. Three 
Apache lx)wl-shaped l)askets. Pur- 
chase. 41056. 

Thomas, Henry, Manomet, Mass.: Wa- 
ter-lizard, Amf/ystoma manilaium, from 
Massachusetts. 40689. 

Thomas, Oldfield, British Museum of 
Natural History, London, England: 
Skeleton of Lep\iH and skeleton of 
Peiletes; also two skins and skulls of 
I Microtu* (40539); South American 
mammals (40665). (See under Lon- 
don, Kngland, British Museum of Nat- 
ural History.) 

Thompson, Hu(;h M., St. Ix>uis, Mo.: 
Pseud omorph of py rite-galena from 
southwestern Missouri. 40365. 

TnoMi»80N, Dr. J. C, T. S. N., Navy- 
yard, New York City: Fishes from 
the vicinity of Dry Tortugas, Florida, 
including AurhenojU^rus^ Malacocteinis^ 
hficr(>9}Hithodim^ Jfofocentnan, Elopn^ 
and OgiUna. 40601. 

Thorn, A. K., U. S. Natiimal Museum: 
Two salamanders from Twining City, 
I). C. (40057; 40118). 



138 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 11W3. 



TiLDKN, J. K., riiiversity of Minnesota, 
Minnea|X)IiH, Minn.: ()m» hnndnsl 
plants. I*iin*haHt». ,'W711. 

ToLLiN, ()., Clmk(»laskets Fla.: Three 
plants from Florida. 40958. 

TouMEY, J. W., Yale University, New 
Haven, C*inn. : Two hundred ami eijrhty 
plants from Arizona. KUl 

TowNHKNi), C. II., U. S. Fish ConiniiHBion: 
SiKH'inien of Petawni^, HUp])OHed to be , 
from New (ruinea. 39973. 

TowNSEND, Prof. C. H. T. (StH» under 
Department of Agriculture; also under 
Prof. T. 1). A. CcH'kerell.) 

TowNHKXi), .1. A., received through De- 
partment of Agriculture. Twenty-seven 
plants colle<*te<i in Oregon. 40765. 

Townsend-Barbek Taxidermy and Zoo- 
L(m;ical (\>MrANv, El l*aso, Tex.: Im- 
I>erial WcMwlpccker (39725) ; male speci- 
men of Mountain Siieep, Orix me.rlranuji^ 
from Carri/oil Mcmntains, Mexico ( L. P. 
X.) (402S9): through C. II. T. Town- 
send, president, female specimen of 
Oris ///*'.nVv///f/.s from Carrizal Mountains i 
(40290). Purchase. 

TuAiv, N. H., Aulmrn, Me.: Six sixri- 
mens of frilwMite schist from Auburn. 
4(Hi9:i. 

TKAiMiAiiKN, F., Hozeman, Mont. : Speci- 
mens of hismnthinite, stephanite, and 
cdrundum from Montana. Kxchange. 
40130. 

TKASK,^Irs. Blanche, Aval<»n,(al.: Four 
specimens «»f Cotyledons from Califor- 
nia (39S52); reccivcil thnnigli I>ei)art- 
mcnt of Agriculture. 5 plants from San 
( Memente Island, ('alitornial 10240); 84 
plants (j)unhasc) ( 4(H) 10 i; spt"cimen of 
7//A*/////a/'///f////'/(ial)l)(40714) ; lOjilants 
fnnn Caiifornia (40t>23; 412(K)): 4 ma- 
rine shells from California (4104<)K 
(See also under Department of Agri- 
culture.) 

Tkki.kask, Dr. William, Missouri liotan- 
ical (Jarden, St. Louis, Mo.: Spet-imen 
of A'/itrc miH'visl. '.VM)fV,]. 

Thinj; MrsKCM, Tring. Kngland. (Se4» 
under R. II. IUmU.) 

Tin K, Dr. F. \V., C. S. National Museum: 
Plant from Maine. ;5«»SS:i. 



TsrciiiDA, T., Zoological lAlx>rator>-, 
Misaki, Ja[>an: Ilodenti; and small 
niammalH from Jajian. (40137; 41033.) 
Punthase. 

TrRiN, Italy, Royal Muhki'm: Received 
through Dr. Pietro Prever. Speciinen{> 
of fossil Nummulites and Orbitoideti. 
Exchange. 40256. 

rLRicH, E. O., U. S. Geological Survey: 
About 1,250 species of Paleozoic plantt^, 
corals, echin(Klerms, pteropo<ls, aad 
cnistaceans, including about 180 tyi)e 
lots and 10,000 specimens (purchase) 
(39866); meteorite from Christian 
County, Ky. (purchase) L. I*. X. 
(40543); about 75,000 specimens of f«B»- 
sil hryozoans representing about l,2iW 
sjiecies, with nearly 670 types (pur- 
chase) (41170); crinoids, bryozi^ns, 
brachiopods, an<l trilobites, represent- 
ing princiimlly the Lower Silurian 
system of the Mississippi Valley (pur- 
ciias<') L. P. X. (41180). 

rNnKRW(K)n, John, Washington, D. C: 
Spi»n(rer rifle. I^^r(•hase. 40050. 

rxiTEo States Mint, Philadelphia, Pa.: 
licH-eived through (ieorge E. Robertj*, 
director. Bronze memorial medal of 
I*n»sident McKinley, and a bronze cojh 
iwr medal of Lieut. Victor Blue. Pur- 
chase'. 40311. 

Fnited States National Museum: The 
following models were ma<1e in the 
AnthroiK)logicral I^lx)ratorii'8: Plaster 
cast of Egyptian scarab (39765); model 
of a ( 'hinese musical instrument (34749) ; 
model in plaster of a Mexican collar or 
yoke (30750); model of drilled ceremo- 
nial butterfly and models of a polishe*! 
stone knife and a stone club (39751): 
moilel of an arghool (39825); four 
models of a Jouet (40072); three pUi»- 
ter casts of a large Mexican idol and 
three plaster casts of a small Mexican 
i<lol (40145); two models of the *' Tower 
of Silence" (40158); four casts of Cofta 
Kican metate (402.'W); four casts of a 
stoiM* yoke fnmi Mexico (40235); two 
(•(>pii«s of a large whistle (Spapakuilla) 
aiul ;i copy of a double reeil (40241); 
model of a marine trumpet (40261); 
three ciL^ts of a stone yoke (4028rt); 
t\v(» casts of Htone "IVilmas** (40287); 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



189 



\\TB* National Muhki'm— Con- 
I. 

tH of **I5ear Mother** (40:i06); 
heail, (tuit and i»ainte(l 

four caHtM of Owta Kii*aii 

(40366); four c^to froDi 
ed saiidBtone block (40381); 
» of Porto Rii^n collar (40397) ; 
3tri of a stone collar (40549); 
d twocantflof the I^ansing skull 

four canttf or carved ptone 
from Nicaragua (40598); four 

stone **(fod of Water** from 

(40599); four cast** of stone 

)620) ; four cafltH of a stone head 

four castii of an Kfiiffv vane 
, four catftH of a large stone 
(4065<)) ; four ca^ts of a stone 
•ni Ecuador (40<557); fournio<i- 
[)ages flute or flageolet (40761 ) ; 
d ca*'t of marble bust of Prof. 
i. Morse (40777); plaster cast 
len handle for stone hatchet 
he B. E. Doilge colleirticm 
; copy of flute (40822); set of 

gambling dice (40880); two 
horn rattles (40865) ; moilel of 
t i^noe (40?K)o); Sioux shot 
)907); l)Owl and nix dice used 
Senei'a Indian gambling ))one 
10916); ca*<t of stone sculpture 
uman female ligure (40917); 
)f oljmlete SeiK»ca implements 
"itten history of each (40939); 
•dels of ol)solete implements 

the kSenei-a Indians (40974); 
human figure (40t)79); ciist of 
ligure (40t)80) ; cast of human 
40981); cast of carve<l stone 
40982); cast of trip<Ki vasi» 
; cast of piiK» (411K)4); cast of 
10(i5); cast of largt» ol)sidian 
(41223). 

Dr. W. II., Cleveland, Ohio, 
undreil sjHM'imcnsof KurojH'an 
»ra and h4 siKM'imens (►f Lcpi- 
, 40070. 

•RTJ, E. C, New York City: 
.nts from <ruatcmala. 3971."), 

ix, II. E., Wnshingtcui, I>. C. : 
ster shells from Tcrre Bonne 
uisiana. 40405. 



Van Dykb, Dr. E. C, Eaat Oakland, 
Cal.: Thn*e hundred and twehtv-six 
si)eciinens of insects, including Diptera, 
Coleoptera, 1 1 y menoptera, Lepidoptera, 
and other onlers. 39655. 

VAr«iiAN, T. VVayland, U. 8. Geological 
Survey: Six tspecies of land shells from 
Salt Mountain, Alabania. 39593. (See 
under Interior Department, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. ) 

Veitch, James, and Sons, Royal Exotic 
Nursery, Chelsea, England: Six hun- 
dred and fifty-nine plants from China. 
40482. 

Venable, E. p., Vernon, British Colum- 
bia: Seven speed mens of IIvmenoptt»ra. 
40415. 

Verrill, a. H., New Haven, C/onn.: 
Fi f ty specimens of 1 ^pidoptera. 40091 . 

Very, C. F., Big Clifty, Ky.: Samples of 
asphalt from Kentucky. 40299. 

Vienna, Ai:stria, K. K. NATrRniaroRi- 
scHEsIIoFMrsErM: One hundre<l speci- 
mens of Oyptogams from Europe 
(39706); 115 si)ecimens of Kryptogamir 
ext^icaiUr, Cent. VIII (4073:^). Ex- 
change. 

Wadsworth, H. E. (See under Smith- 
sonian Institution, Bureau of Eth- 
nology. ) 

Walcott, Hon. C. I)., Director V. S. 
(leological Survey: Snake (Eutwnui m- 
f/rmix), from (irand Cailon, Arizona 
(40977); s|)e<Mmen of Middle Carlion- 
iferous sandstone slab with reptile 
tracks, <*oIle<*tcHl on the Grand View 
trail. Grand (.'ail(m, Arizona, by Mr. 
Walcott (41094). (See under Interior 
I)ei>artment^ U.S. (ieological Sur\'ey.) 

W AU'oTT, Mrs. H. L. T., Claremont, Cal. : 
Twenty-live siK»cimens of land-shells 
from California. 40750. 

Walker, Dr. K. L., Carnegie, Pa.: Fer- 
ruginous concH'ticms an<l g(H)logical 
siK'cimens (40728; 40799). 

Wallin(j, W. p., (\»mer, Oreg.: Sj^ci- 
men of arsi'nopyrite, or mispickel,and 
arsenide of iron. 40t)61. 

\Vau»ole, F. a. (S<»eunder Depiirtment 
of Agriculture. ) 

W.\i>*n, Harry, Washington, I). C.: Two 
lire Htitrks. 4050«;. 



140 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



Walah, Dr. John, Washington, I). C: 
Ten skulls and two lower jaws of 
Kskini(»s from Greenland, and a piece of 
a vertebra. 39976. 

War Department, received through 
Quartermaster-General Ludington, U. 
S. A. Two United StaU»8 Army regu- 
lation rificH (404.'iO); receive<l through 
Brig. (ieii. William Crozier, chief of 
Ordnance Department, coUecticm of 
models of ol)Holete ortlnaiure ami ord- 
nance stores (40848). Deposit. 
Annif Mf'dintl Mujtftim: Instruments for 
tem|)orary use in physical anthro- 
pology. Ijo&n. 8439. 

Ward, Charles G., Rochester, N. Y. : 
Cast of the interior of brain cavity of 
the Neanderthal skull. Pur(!hase. 
40782. 

Ward, II. A., Chicago, 111.: Meteorite 
from AlepjM), Syria (purchase) ( 39940) ; 
meteorite from Baratta, New f>outh 
Wales (purchase) (40009); meteorite 
from (iilgoin station, New South AVales 
( exchange ) ( 40086 ) ; slab of a meteorite 
from Arispe, Sonora, Mexico (pur- 
chase ) L. P. X . ( 40297 ) ; meteorite from 
Bath Furnace, Kentucky (exchange) 
(40587); two meteorites (exchange) 
(4070.*)); meteorite from Majalahti, 
Finland, weighing 34() gnims (ex- 
change) (407(>4). 

Ward, Rowland (Limited), London, 
Kngland: Spe<*imen of Norwegian elk, 
Parnlven ( 40783 ) ; giraffe ( (i'miffa ) from 
the northern j)art of Lake Baringo 
(40790). Pnrchasc\ L. P. X. 

Wahd's Natihal Science Kstablish- 
MKNT, HochcHtcr, N. Y.: Trilo])ite ( /^o- 
tdnn) and a cyst id from Trenton Falls, 
New Y<>rk (39745); ])an<led diabase 
dike in granite from Norway, Maine; 
orl)iculardioritefrom ('orsi<'a; porphy- 
ritic diabas<' from Sault Stc. Marie, 
Canada (39848); skeleton of Rhva, or 
South American ostricli (40151); 3 
sf>ecimensof (juartz ( L. P. X.) (40^)72); 
skin of Plat If pus and v\i^ of Ajtteri/.v 
(L. P. X.) (4074.S); II cast.sof meteor- 
itt*s (41045). Purchase. 

Warmhath, J. S., Wilmington, Mass. : 
Eight adult and young (Ireenland 
hares, 3 white foxes and 2 blue foxes 



Warmbath, J. 8. — Continned. 
(40024); 5 young Arctic hares (40119). 
Purchase. 

Warner, W. V., Washington, B.C.: Six 
sixicimens of Culex gignifer Coq. 40512. 

Warrex, E. R., Colorado Springs, Colo.: 
Plants from Colorado: 26 photographs 
of plants. 40634.* 

Washixoton, Dr. H. S., I.,ocust Cirove, 
N. J.: Two si)ecimens of iron ore. 
40727. 

Waters, Dr. C. E., John Hopkins Uni- 
versity, I^ltimore, Md.: Specimen of 
Corallor hiza (39832); 3 plants from 
Hampton, Maryland (40185); 15planti» 
principally collected in Marylanil 
(40370.) 

Watkixs, W. G., Grizzly Flats, CaL: 
Twenty-two ferns from California 
(39690; 40519; 40700. ) 

Weaver, J. M., Riley ville, Va.: Speci- 
men of Neuropteron, Corydaluf cogiuita 
Hagen. 39815. 

AVeber, J. H., Oroville, Cal.: Specimen 
of argentiferous-auriferous copper from 
Josephine C-ounty, Oregon. 40734. 

Webster, Prof. F. M., Urbana, III: Re- 
ceived through Department of Agricul- 
ture. Specimens of parasitic Hymen- 
optera. 39818. 

Weed, Prof. W. H., IT. S. Geological 
Survey: Two specimens of Mexican 
])ines, 40697. 

Weeks, F. B. (See under Interior De- 
partment, I-. S. Geological Survey.) 

Weiss, L. M., Good Hope Mine, Vulcan. 
Colo.: Ten specimens of native tellu- 
rium and copper telluride from (too<1 
lIoi>e Mine. 40631. 

AVelus, Mrs. James H. (See under Mff. 
.Marv Hrvson. ) 

Wenzel, H. W., Philadelphia, Pa.: Six- 
teen si>ecimens of Coleoptera. 40012. 

Wesley, William <& Son, London, Eng- 
land: (Jraphometer and a hydrome- 
ter. Punhase. 4a525. 

WuKATON, Mrs. F. G. (See under Mn». 

F. (i. d'Naut ville.) 
Wheelkk, W. M., University of Texas 

.\ list in, Tex.: Ten reptiles from Texas. 

4()r)S(). 



LIST OF ACCESSIONS. 



141 



Professor. ( See under H ubert 
Clark. ) 

1, C11ARLE8 L.) Hamilton, Ohio: 
[I through Janiefl W. See. Span- 
i press electrotype from Cuba. 

rPAix), VVatonga, Okla. : Chey- 
ir bonnet. Purchase, L. P. X. 

'r. C. A., Washington, D. C: 
(cimens of clover from Plurope 
erica. 40266. 

AVID, V. S. Geological Survey: 
K^imens of ferns from Pennsyl- 
59810); specimens of bitumi- 
il from Ohio and West Virginia 
; 3plant8 from Virginia (40367) ; 
fxik from Mahoning, Annstrong 
Pa. (40892); skull of Pine 
MicTohis pinetorunif from Web- 
ings, W. Va. (41108). 

2, MissC. R., Richfield Springs, 
Plant. 39667. 

J., Maryland A(«demy of Sci- 
ialtimore, Md.: Three sj^ci- 
Oriskany corals from Cumber- 
d. 40277. 

li, G. W., Klk City, Idaho: 
'US of kaolin. 41061. 

, Charles F., New York City: 
si)ecimenH (10 species) of Ter- 
isils from an asphalt mine, Mina 
Elmira, near Bejucal, i)rovince 
na, Cuba. 39849. 

r. F., Washington, D. C: Two 
1 and sixty-six plants from Cal- 
40125. (See also under De- 
it of Agriculture. ) 

Miss Ethel, Florahome, Fla. : 
une<l minature of the brother 
ral Ripley. Loan. 8070. 

Prof. Frank A., Universitv of 
)akota, Grand Forks, N. Dak.: 
ipecimens of Uiiio priscuny and 
cimens of Oimprfoma produvta; 
^il plants. 40080. 

N, D. F., Montevallo, Ala.: Al- 
jirrel (Sdvrvx). 40751. 

, T. A. (See under I)ej)art- 
Agriculture. ) 



Wl LLIAMSBURG SCIENTIFIC SOCIBTY, 

Brooklyn, N. Y.: Received through 
Louis Kirsch, president. Two speci- 
mens of cut and polished golden topaz 
(exchange) (39644); five cut and pol- 
ished amethysts (gift) (39713.) 

Williamson, Prof. E. B., Bluffton, Ind.: 
Six specimens of dragon flies (40530); 
fragments of three species of Cambaras 
from near Bluffton (39763) ; two speci- 
mens of Crayfish {dtmhanis bJandm- 
ffii acutus) from Wells County, Ind. 
(40984). 

Willis, Bailey. (See under Interior 
Department, U. S. Geological Survey.) 

WlLMER, Col. L. WORTHINGTON, Rydc, 

England: One hundred and twenty- 
five specimens (66 species) of Tertiary 
fossils from Barton, England. 41212. 

Wilson, Rev. G. A. (See under Miss 
Mary A. Mead.) 

WiNSBORO Granite Company, Rion, S. C. : 
Two dressed cubes of granite. 40715. 

Wise, A. S. (See under J. II. Bunnell 

&Co.) 

WonLBOLi), J. (Charles. (See under 
Smithsonian Institution. ) 

Wou'orr, Rohekt H., University of Ne- 
braska, Lincoln, Nebr. : Collection of 
mites. 40117. 

Woltz, George, IT. S. National Museum: 
Tin whistle. 4(X)88. 

Wooi>, J. Medley. (Set^ under Durban, 
Natal, Africa.) 

Wood, N. R., U. S. National Museum: 
Twelve birds. 39981. 

WooDRow, (ioRDON B., Lowcsvillc, Va. : 
Sj>ecimens of amethyst crystals. 39875. 

WooDRiFF, Maj., C. K., U. S. A., Batan- 
gas, P. I.: Filipino fire-syringe. 40778. 

Woodward, A. Smith. (See under Lon- 
don, Englaml, British Museum. ) 

Woodward, Dr. R. M., AVashington, 
1). C. : Collection of mound-builders' 
relics. 40149. 

WooDwoRTH, F. A., San Francis(!o, Cal.: 
Twenty-five specimens (six species) of 
land-shells fn^m California (40946); 40 
specimens of Viirea drnpamaldi Beck, 
from San Francisco (41074). 



142 



KK1H>RT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1U03. 



W<x>i)w<)KTii, Dr. W. McM. (See under 
MuHcum of Ck>ini>arative Zoology. ) 

WooLHON, Miss (i. A., IMttefoixl, Vt: 
Tree-froR. 39879. 

WoRCKSTER, Hon. Dean C, setTetary of 
the interior, Manila, I*. I.: Two hun- 
dre<l and seventy-nine photographs of 
native Filipinos. 39994. 

WoRTHKN, C. K., Warsaw, 111.: Pair of 
Harris Cormorants ( 404^2 ) ; Black l)ear, 
UrsfUfft mericanum (4(M>15). Purchase. 
L. P. X. 

Wren, Christopher, Plymouth, Pa.: 
Specimen of basanite, used by Indians 
in making implements. 40282. 

Wrenn, A. C. (See under Navy DejMirt- 
ment, Bureau of P^juipment. ) 

Wrkjht, l*rof. Albert T., OlKjrliu Col- 
lege, ()l)erlin, Ohio: Two siwcimens of 
dragon-ilieH and a Siali<l, fn>m Japan. 
402(50. 

Wycoff, K. L., Port Townnend, Wash.: 
Receiveil through the Department of 
Agriculture. Five plants from Wash- 
ington. 40141. 

Yale I niverwitv Mtskim, New Haven, 
Conn.: Keceivetl through Dr. C. K. 
Beecher. I^rge slab with 18 line 



Yale Univermty Mtsecm — Continual. 
si)ei'imensc»f Mflonites from the St. \/m 
limestone, at St. Louis, Mo., and i:>» 
siHH'imens (25spt?cie8) of Staffonl iiim- 
stone fossils from Ix^roy and Batavia, 
N. Y. 40648. 

Yeateh, W. S., Atlanta, Ga.: GtHjlogical 
specimens. 398(i9. 

YouN(i, William, Detroit, Mich.: Stone 
implements and a water-worn siiecimHi 
of a cyathophylloid coral. Exchangf. 
39937. 

YoL'N(j Brothers, Cartersville, (ia.: 
Mole cricket, GryllvkUpa horeali* Bonn. 
398:^. 

Zaleski, S. L., Fish Springs, Utah: Two 
sj>ecimensof Ynccii (j'dbertiaim an<l thrt* 
other plants. (40265; 40316.) 

Zeis, Carl C, Fre<lalba Park, Cal.: 
lieptiU»s and inse<*ts from San IWr- 
nardino Mountains, California (40825 1; 
sixK'imen of an orthopteron (40971). 

ZoLLiKoFER, K. H., St. Galleu, Switzer- 
land: Seventy mammal skins fnuii 
Switzerlan<l and 5 l)at« fnmi (iretnt; 
(41034); 102 mammals from Switzer- 
land (401.36). Purclia«e. 



APPENDIX III. 
Bibliography, 1902-3. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE MUSEU^I. 



AHinTAL BEPOBT. 

Annual Report | of the | Boanl of Re- 
gents I of the I SmithKonian Institu- 
tion, I showing I the operationp, ex- 
penclitures, and condition | of the Insti- 
tution I for the I year ending June 30, 
1900. I — I Report | of the | U. S. Na- 
tional Museum. | — | Washinj^ton: | 
Government Printing Office. | 1902. 

8VO.. pp. I-XVI, 1-738, pis. 122, U'.xt figs. 
126. 

PSOCESBIHQB. 



Smithsonian Institution. | United States 
National Museum. | — | Procee<ling8 | 
of the I United States National Mupe- 
um. I — I Volume XXIV. | — | Pub- 
linhed under the direction of the Smith- 
^<onian Institution. | — | Washington: 
Government Printing Office. | 1902. | 

8vo, pp. I-XV, 1-971, pis. l-^Ci, ttJXt figs. 
138. 

BULLETDI. 

The Birds | of | North and Middle Amer- 
ica: I A Desc^riptive Catalogue | of the | 
Higher Groups, Genera, Species, and 
Subspecies of Birds | known to occur in 
North America, from the | Arctic Lands 
to the Isthmus of Panama, | the West 
Indies and other islands | of the Caril)- 
l)ean Sea, and the | (.vulapagos Archi- 
pelago. I By I Rf>l)ert Ridgway, | Cura- 
tor, Division of Binls. | — | Part II. 



Family Tanagrida>— The Tanagers. | 
Family Icteridse — The Troupials. | 
Family Coerebidse — The Honey Creep- 
er. I Family Mniotiltidai— The Wood 
Warblers. | — | Washington: | Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. | 1902. | 

Bulletin 50, Part II, 8vo, pp. I-XX, 1-884, 
pis. I-XXII. 

A List I of I North American Lepidopte- 
ra I and | Key to the Literature of this 

I Order of Insects. | By | Harrison G. 
Dyar, Ph. D., | Custodian of Lepidop- 
tera, United States National Museum, 

I assisted by | C. H. Fernald, Ph. D., 
the late Rev. George I). Hulst, | and 
August Busck. I — I AVashington: | 
Government Printing Office. | 1902. 

Bulletin 5"2, hvo., pp. I-XIX, 1-723. 
REPRIKT. 

.V Preliminary Catalogue | of the | Shell- 
bearinjr Marine ^lollnsks and Brai;hio- 
pods I of the I Southeastern Coast of 
the United States, | with illustrations 
oi many of the speciew. | By | AVilliam 
liealey Dall, A. M., | Honorary Cura- 
tor Division of Mollusks, U. S. National 
Musi»um. I — I Reprint | To which are 
added twenty-one plates [with expla- 
nations, and a supplementary list of 
sjjecies] not in the e<lition of 1889. | — 
I Washingt<^m: | (government Printing 
Office. I 1903. 



Bulletin :i7, Svi.., jip. 1-232. pis. I-XCV. 
COHTSXBUnOirB FBOM THE UNITED 8TATE8 NATIONAL HEKBASIUM. 

VOLUME VIII. 

Part 1. Studies of Mexican an<l Central Ameritran Plants*. Ky J. N. Rose. pp. 1-55, 

pis. I-XII, text figs. 1-1 1. 
Part 2. Economic Plants of Porto Rico. By O. K. Cook ami (i. N. Collins, pp. 

57-269, pis. XIII-LX, text tigs. 1-13. 
Part 3. A study of Certain Mexican and (iuatemalan Species of Pobfpodiam. By 

WMlliam R. Maxon. pp. 271-280, pis. LXI, LXH. 



144 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



PAFEB8 PUBLI8HEI) IH 8SPABATS FOBM. 

FROM VOLUME 25, PROCEEDINOB OF THB U. 8. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



No. 1275. 



No. 1276. 



No. 1277. 



No. 1278. 



No. 1279. 



No. 1280. 



No. 1281. 



No. 1282. 



No. 128:^. 



No. 1284. 



No. 12.S5. 



No. 1286. 



A list of the beetles of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. By 
Henry Ulke. pp. 1-57. 

Some new South American 
birds. By Harry C. Ober- 
holser. pp. 59-68. 

The Casas Grandes meteorite. 
By Wirt Tassin. pp. 69-74, 
pis. i-iv. 

A review of the Oplegnathoid 
fishes of Japan. By David 
Starr Jordan and Henry W. 
Fowler, pp. 75-78. 

Descriptions of two new species 
of Squaloid sharks from Ja- 
pan. By David Starr Jordan 
and John Otterbein Snyder, 
pp. 79-81, figs. 1, 2. 

New diptera from North Amer- 
ica. By D. W. Co<iuillett. 
pp. 83-126. 

List of birds eollerte<i by Wil- 
liam T. Foster in Paraguay. 
By Harry C. Oberholser. 
pp. 127-147. 

The reptiles of the Huachuca 
Mountains, Arizona. By 
Leonhard Stejneger. pp. 
149-158. 

Contributions toward a mono- 
graph of the h'pidopterous 
faniilv Noctuida' of Boreal 
North America. A revision 
of the moths referred to 
the y:vnu8 Jji'urfmid^ with de- 
scription of new S]>ecies. By 
John B. Smith, pp. 151)- 
209, pis. v-vi. 

A list of spiders collecttHi in 
Arizona bv Messrs. Schwarz 
and Barber during the sum- 
mer of 1901. Bv Nathan 
Banks, pp. 211-221, pi. vii. 

Observations on the crustattcan 
fauna of the region about 
Maumioth Cave, Kentucky. 
By William Perry Hay. i>p. 
223-236, fig. 1. 

The Ocelot cats. By iMlgar A. 
Mearns. pp. 237-249. 



No. 1287. A review of the trigger-fishes, 
file-fishes, and trunk-fishes 
of Japan. By David Starr 
Jordan and Henrv W. Fow- 
ler. pp. 251-286, figs. M. 

No. 1288. Birds collected bv Dr. AV. L. 
Abbott and Mr. C. B. Kk>s? 
in the Andaman and Niro- 
bar islands. By Charles AV. 
Richmond, pp. 287-314. 

No. 1289. Notes on a collection of fishes 
from the island of Formosu 
By David Starr Jordan and 
Barton Warren Evermann. 
pp. 315-368, figs. 1-29. 

No. 1290. Descriptions of the larva of 
some moths from Coloratlo. 
By Harrison G. Dyar. pp. 
369-412. 

No. 1291. A re\aew of the cling-fishes 
(Gobiesocidffi) of the waters 
of Japan. By David Starr 
Jordan and Henry W. Fow- 
ler, pp. 413-416, fig. 1. 

No. 1292. Observations on the crustacean 
fauna of Nickajack Cave, 
Tennessee, and vicinity. By 
William Perry Hay. pp. 
417-439, figs. 1-8. 

No. 1293. A review of the Blennoid fishes 
of Japan. By David Stan- 
Jordan and John Otterbein 
Snyder, pp. 441-504, figs. 
1-28. 

Nos. 1294 and 1295. A new fresh-water 
isopod of the genus Mam^- 
xdhis from Indiana, and a 
new terrestrial isopod of the 
genus Pseudarmadillo from 
Cuba. By Harriet Richarrl- 
son. pp. 505-511, figs. 1-4 
and 1-4. 

No. 1296. A review of the Chjetodontidff 
and related families of fiehes 
found in the waters of Japan. 
By David Starr Jordan and 
Henry W. Fowler, pp. 513- 
563, figs. 1-6. 



BIBLIOGBAPHT. 



145 



1297. The relationship and osteology 

of the Caproid fishes or 
Antigoniidse. By Edwin 
Chapin Starks. pp. 565-572, 
figs. 1-3. 

1298. Notes on little-known Japanese 

fishes, with description of a 
new species of Aboma. By 
David Starr Jordan and 
Henry W. Fowler, pp. 573- 
576, fig. 1. 

1299. Cambrian Brachiopoda: Acra- 

ireta; LinnarswneiUi; Obolus; 
with descriptions of new spe- 
cies. By Charles D. Wal- 
cott. pp. 577-612. 

1900. On certain species of fishes 
confused with Bryostemma 
polyadocephalum. By David 
Starr Jordan arid John Ot- 
terbein Snyder, pp. 613- 
618, figs. 1-3. 

1301. The shoulder girdle and char- 
acteristic osteology of the 
Hemibranchiate fishes. By 
Edwin Chapin Starks. pp. 
619-634, figs. 1-6. 



No. 1302. North American parasitic cope- 
pods of the family Argulidie, 
with a bibliography of the 
group and a systematic re- 
view of all known species. 
By Charles Branch Wilson, 
pp. 635-742, pis. viii-xxvii, 
figs. 1-23. 

No. 1303. A review of the Ophidioid fishes 
of Japan. By David Starr 
Jordan and Henry W. 
Fowler, pp. 743-766, figs. 
1-6. 

No. 1304. A revision of the American 
moths of the family Gele- 
chiidiu, with descriptions of 
new species. By August 
Busck. pp. 767-938, pis. 

IXVIII-XXXII. 

No. 1305. A review of the dragonets (Cal- 
lionymidip) and related 
fishi»« of the waters of Japan. 
'By David Starr Jon Ian and 
Henr\' \V. Fowler, pp. 939- 
959, fijvs. 1-9. 



FBOM VOLUME 26, PBOCEEDING8 OF THE U. H. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



1306. A review of the Berycoid fishes 

of Japan. By Davi<i Starr 
Jordan and Henry W. Fow- 
ler, pp. 1-21, figs. 1-4. 

1307. Japanese stalk-eyed crusta- 

ceans. By Mary J. Rath- 
bun, pp. 23-55, figs. 1-24. 

1308. A review of the Hemibranchi- 

ate fishes of Japan. By 
David Starr Jordan and Ed- 
win Chapin Starks. pp. 57- 
73, figs. 1-3. 

1309. Descriptions of new species of 

Hawaiian cra))s. By Mary 
J. Rathbun. pp. 75-77, figs. 
1-3. 

1310. Contribution to a monograph 

of the insects of the order 
Thysanoptera inhabiting 
North America. Bv War- 
ren Elmer Hinds, pp. 79- 
242, pis. i-xi, text figs. 1-127. 

NAT HUB 1903 10 



No. 1311. DeHcription of a new genuH and 
46 new siKJciew of crusta- 
ceans of the family (laiathe- 
ida* with a list of the known 
marine speiies. By James 
E. Bent^ict. pp. 243-334, 
figs. 1-47. 

No. 1312. Synopsis of the family Veneri- 
(Ite of the North American 
recent 8i)ecies. By William 
Healy Dall. i>p' 3:^5-412, 

pis. XII-XVI. 

No. 1313. On the lower Devonic and On- 
taric formations of Mary- 
land. By Charles Schu- 
chert. pp. 4K^424. 

No. 1314. Observations on the num}>er of 
younjr of the I^siurine bats. 
By Marcus Ward Lyon, jr. 
pp. 425-426, pi. XV 11. 

No. 1315. Note on the 8t»a anemone. Sa- 
ga rt in jHujnri Verrill. By 
J. Playfair McMurrich. pp. 
427-428, figs. 1, 2. 



146 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



No. 1316. On a small collection of crusta- 
ceans from the island of 
Cuba. By William Perry 
Hay. pp. 429-435, figs. 1-3. 

No. 1317. Mamuials collect eil by Dr. W. 
L. Abbott on the coast and 
islands of northwest Suma- 
tra. By Gerrit S. Miller, jr. 
pp. 437-484, pis. xviii-xix, 
1 map. 

No. 1318. Birds collected by Dr. W. L. 
Abbott on the coast and 
islands of north wt»8t Suma- 
tra. By Charles W. Rich- 
mond, pp. 485-524, 1 map. 

No. 1319. A review of the Synentogna- 
thous fishes of Japan. By 
David Starr Jordan and Ed- 
win Chapin Starks. pp. 
525-544. figs. 1-3. 

No. 1320. Notes on the osteology and re- 
lationship of the fossil binis 
of the genera Ilesperoruin, 
IlaryerUtj Fiaptornii<y and Dia- 
trymti. By Frederic; A. Lu- 
cas, pp. 545-556, figs. 1-8. 

No. 1321. Rediscovery of one of Hoi- 
brook's Salaman<lers. By 
Leonhard Stejneger. pp. 
557-558. 

No. 1322. A new Procelsterna from the 
Leeward Islands, Hawaiian 
grouj). By Walter K.Fisher. 
])p. 559-563. 

No. 1323. The structural features of the 
bryozoau genus JJomotri/jHi, 
with descriptions of species 
from t hi' Ci ncinnatian group. 
J^y Ray S. Bassler. pp. 565- 
591, pis. xx-xxv. 



No. 1324. A review of the Elasmobran- 
chiate fishes of Japan. By 
David Starr Jordan and 
Henry W. Fowler, pp. 593- 
674, pis. xxvi-xxvii, fig?. 
1-10. 

No. 1325. The c^erebral fiaearee of the At- 
lantic walrus. By Pierre A. 
Fish. pp. 675-688, pis. 

XXVIII-XXIX. 

No. 1326. Description of a new species of 
sculpin from Japan. By 
David Starr Jordan and Ed- 
win Chapm Starks. pp. 
689-690, fig. 1. 

No. 1327. On the identification of a spe- 
cies of eucalyptus from the 
Philippines. By Joseph 
Henry Maiden, pp. 691- 
692. 

No. 1328. Supplementary note on BUek- 
erin miitukurii and on certain 
Japanese fishes. By David 
Starr Jordan, pp. 693-696, 
pi. XXX, figs. 1-3. 

No. 1329. The use of the name *' torpedo" 
for the electric catfish. Bv 
Theodore Gill. pp. 697-698. 

No. 11^0. A review of the Cepolidie or 
band-fishes of Japan. By 
David Starr Jordan and 
Henry W. Fowler, pp. 699- 
702, fig. 1. 

No. 1331. A genealogic stady of dragon- 
fiy wing venation. By James 
(J. Needham. pp. 703-764, 
pis. xxxi-uv, figs. 1-44. 

No. 1332. A review of the Cobitidse or 
loaches of the rivers of Japan. 
By David Starr Jordan and 
H enry W . Fo wler . pp. 76&- 
774, figs. 1, 2. 



BIBLIOORAPHT. 



147 



FROM BULLETIN 39. 

Fiart Q. Instmctions to collectors of historical and anthropological specimens. 
(Especially designed for collectors in the insular possessions of the United States.) 
By William Henry Holmes and Otis Tufton Mason, pp. [1]-[16]. 

PAPERS BY OFFICERS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AND OTHERS, BASED 
WHOLLY OR IN PART UPON THE NATIONAL COLLECTIONS. 



ADLER, Cyrus. [Address on muse- 
ums.] 

Addresses delivered at the formal opening 
of the .Stmitic Museum of Hansard Univer- 
sity. Cambridge, 1903, pp. 14-18. 

ALLEN, J. A.; BANGS, Outram; EV- 

ERMANN, Barton Warren; GILL, 

Theodore; HOWELL, Arthur H.; 

JORDAN, David Starr; MERRIAM, 

C. Hart; MILLER, Gerrit S., Jr.; 

NELSON, E.W.; RATHBUN,Mary J. 

and THOMAS, Oldfield. A method 

of fixing the type in certain genera. 
Scienee (new series), xvi, No. 394, July 18, 
1902. pp. 114-115. 
When no type Is indicated, but the name 
of an inchided species is used for the new 
generic name, that species shall l>e regarded 
as the type. 

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' 
UNION COMMITTEE ON NOMEN- 
CLATURE. Eleventh Supplement to 
the American Ornithoh^giflts' Union 
Check List of North American Birde. 

yluJIr, XIX, No. 3, July, 1902, pp. 315-343. 
A list of about 120 cases, involving changes 
of nomenclature or additions to the Check 
IJst of North American Birds, acted on by the 
Cr>mmlttee on Nomenclature at a meeting 
held in Washington, Apr. 17-23, 1902. 

ASHMEAD, William H. Clai«ification 
of fossorial, predaceons, and parasitic 
wai9|)e, or the 8U])erfamily Vespoidea. 
(Paper No. 6.) 

Canadian Entomologist, xxxiv, July, 1902, 

pp. 1«3-16C. 

Treats of the family Vespidw, which is 

divided into two subfamilies, the Vespiiiseand 

the Polistina-. In all 17 genera are tabulated. 

Classification of the foseorial, pre- 

da<reous, and parasitic wasps, or the 
subfamily Vespoidea. (Paper No. 7.) 

(Xinadian Entomologist, XX xiv, Aug., 1902, 
pp. 203-210. 
Treat** of the family Eumenidse, which is 
divided into four subfamilies, viz: (1) Ischno- 
gasterinse, (2) Discoelinse. (3) Raphigloosinte, 
and (4) Eumeninar. T\^e subfamily Eumen- 
iuw is a^ain divided into three tribes: Eume- 



ASHMEAD, William H.— Continued, 
nini, Odynerini, and Alastorinl. In all 38 
genera are tabulate<l, two of which, Micreu- 
mencs and Monobidla, are new. 

Classification of the fossorial, pre- 
daceons, and parasitic wasps, or the 

subfamily Vespoidea. (Paper No. 8.) 
Canadian Entomologist, xxxiv, Sept., 1902, 
pp. 219-231. 
Treats of the families Masaridse and Chry- 
sididae. The Masaridte arc divided into two 
tribes, the Masarini and the Euparagini. 
Twelve genera are tabulated, one, Pseudoina- 
saris, toeing new. The family ChrysididaB is 
divided into seven subfamilies: (1) Pamo- 
pinae, (2) ChrysidinsB, (3) Hedychrinse, (4) 
Elampinee, (5) Allocoelinse, (6) Cleptlnee, 
and (7) Ameseginse. In all, 39 genera are 
tabulated, of which number two, Psrudoma- 
lus and Mesitlopterus, are new. Two new spe- 
cies of Mesitlopterus, M. kahlil and M, town- 
stndi, arc described. 

Classific^ation of the fossorial, pre- 
daceons, and parasitic wasps, or the 
superfamily Vespoidea. ( Paper No. 9. ) 

Canadian Eni(»nologist, xxxiv, Oct., 1902, 

pp. 2r»M-272. 

Treatj^of the family Bethylida> which is 

divided into three subfamilies. Th« first 

subfamily or the Bethylinie is then taken up, 

one genus, Probethylus, being new. 

The Hymenopterous parasites of 



Phenacoccus carallm Cockerell. 

Canadian Entomologist, xxxiv, Dec., 1902, 
pp. 301-302. 
Lists four species of hymenopterous para- 
sites from this coccid, two. Blepyrus phcna- 
cocci and Tetrastichns blepyri, being new. 
Xanihttencyrtus nigroclavus, the type of a 
new genus, is also described. 

Classification of the fossorial, pre- 



daceous, and parasitic wasps, or the 

subfamily Vespoidea. (Paper No. 10. ) 

Canadian Entomologist, xxxiv, Dec. 1902, 
pp. 287-293. 
Treats of the remaining subfamilies of the 
Bethylidse, the Emboleminie, and the Dryi- 
ninas also of the family Trigonalidie. 

Mr. Ashmead places in the Emboleminee 
Cameron's genus Olixon, which was described 
as a Braconid. 



148 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM^ 1903. 



ASHMEAD, William H. (Wopnlea ver- 
sus Agenioxenuif. 

Ent. yru'«, XIII, Dec, 1902, p. 318. 
Refutea-Mr. Verick'8 views that Affenioxmus 
Axhmead is 8ynon>inous with Ccropaleti 
Latreille. 

ClaaBification of the foeeorial, pre- 



daoeous, and parasitic wasps, or the 
superfaniilv Vespoidea. (Pai)er No. 

11.) 

Canadian Entouutlogitt, xxxv, Jan., 1903. 
pp. 3-8. 
Treats of the familie:* Sapygida. Myzini- 
d», and Scoliidae. Four goiuTa art* tabu- 
latoil in the 8apygid» and ten genera in the 
Myzinidje. The Scoliida; are divided into 
two subfamilien, the Scoliinaj and the Elidi- 
ng. Eight genera are tabulated, one, Tet- 
rascolia, being new. 

Classi illation of the pointed-tailed 



wa.»<p, or the superfamily Proctotypoi- 
dea (I). 

Jtturn. y*w York Ent. Soc., X, Dec., 1902. 

(Published Jan., 1903), pp. 240-247. 

Mr. Ashmead divider the RUi>erfamily into 

eight families and tabulates the genera of 

the IVlecinidap, Helorida', and Belytidai. 

Twenty-eight genera are charaeterized. 

Classification of the fossorial, pro- 



daceoiiH and parasitic wa.s|>s, or the 
snpt'rfamilv Ve8iK>idea. (Paper No. 
12.) 

nuKiduxn Kntomolo(;iitt, xxxv, Feb., 1903, 
pp. 3«M4. 
Treat.H of the families Tiphiida-, ('oHilidu'. 
and Khof>al«>f*omidii". In the Tiphiidie fiv«: 
penem are tabulated: in the Cosllidjf nine 
genrra are recognize*!, oiu'. ImttiphUi, iK'ing 
d<'.M<!ribe<l as new. Only a single genus is 
known in the Rhoi>alosoinidii'. 

Classification of the pill- wani^n ami 



the parasitic Cynipoidea. ( I. ) 
/V7/c/*<. X. 1903, Jan.- Feb.. pp. 7-13. 
Mr. .\>hnifad separates this superfamily 
into two families, the Figitida' and tlu'Cyni- 
pidie. The first is then divid<'d into six sub- 
families: (1) Figitina.*, (2) Onychilna-. {\\\ 
.Viiacharinn", (h Liopteriiue. (o) Eucoilina-. 
and (0) Xystiua-. Tables f(»r rerogniziug the 
gein.'ra of the first three subfamilies are given, 
in which 23 genera are tabulated, one genus. 
Khffrria, iK'ing new. 

[Review of] Si>ecios des Hynn*n- 



opteres d'P^urope et d'Aljfcrie Ix.»s Mu- 
tillides. - Par Eme*<t Andn'. 

(Hnaditiu EntomolofjM, xxxv, Feb., VMU, 
pp. v^-m. 
Mr. Ashmead notices and reviews this work. 



ASHMEAD, William H. [Keview of] 

MoDographie dee Cynipides dT^arofH^ 

et d' Algerie. Par V Abbe J. J. Kieffer. 

Pfyche, X, Feb., 1908, pp. 43-46. 

This represents a review of this work l>y 

Mr. Ashmead. 

ClaaBlfication of the pointed-tailnl 

wasps, or the super&mily Proctotn- 

poidea. (II.) 

Joum. y. V, EnL Soc., xi. Mar., 1908. pp. 
28-35. 
Treats of the families Diapriids and Cer- 
aphronids. Two snbfamlliefi, Spilosmicriiix 
and Diapriinse, are recognised in the Diaprii- 
dsB, and 31 genera are tabulated. The Ctn- 
phronidie are also divided into two Biibfam- 
ilies, the Megaspilinie and the Ceraphroniiub. 
13 genera being tabulated. 

Cla88ifi(*ation of the foaaorial, piv- 



daceous, and parasitic wasps, or the 
superfamily Vespoidea. (Paper No. 
13.) 

Canadian Eniomologitt^ xxxv, Apr.. 19itV. 
pp. 93-107. 
Treats of the family Thynnids, which ii> 
divided into three subfamilies: (1) Th.vn- 
nidK; (2) Methocins, and (3) Rhagigasterinif:. 
A table of the genera of the Thynninx S» 
given in whleh 28 genera are eharaeteriK'^. 
12 being new, namely, Thynnidca.ZafpiUAhtih- 
ntis, Pscudaduruf, Gu€rinin9, Oephalttths/nnuf. 
ITmtithynnuM, AeolothynnvSt Ptntdef^fyhojtUm, 
Pycnothynnut, Kluffianut, Pmunmothynnu*. 
and SpiJothynnu*. 

Classification of the gall- wasps and 



the parasitic Cjmipoids, or the super- 
family Cynipoidea. II. 

Putychf, vol. X, Apr., 1908, pp. 69-73. 
Tn>atH of the subfamilies Liopterinar and 
EneoilinsD. In the former 8 genera are tabu- 
lat(Kl, in the latter 04 genera. Nine genera, 
namely, Zamifchut, Tropidmcorta, Promht- 
vioera, fhlonteucoila, TH99odontaitpi9, Dirtinteh. 
Ziuut'ltein, Pseudaicoila, and Tbfrap/a^tfa, arc 
deserilK'd a.** new. 

A new Oryssid from Chatham It»- 



lands, Bismarck Archipelago. 

Pittfrhe, vol. X. Apr., 1903. p. 73. 
I)eseril>es Opkrynopu$ schannitttlandi, new 

si>eeie.«i. 

Description of a new ApanteU*. 

Trrh. Jiull. Xew Uampahire AffHc. Erp. Sta.. 
No. fi. iy03, p. 229. 
I>eseribes Ajtanteln cUHocampH', new ep. 

\ new genua in the Vespidse. 

Ent. Xnvft, xiv, June, 1908, p, 182. 
This new genus is* proposed for Vrtpa dcry- 
fuiilt s Sanssure. eollected by Dr. W. L. Abbott 
in Trong, Lower tiiam. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



149 



ASH MEAD, William H. Two new 

Hymenopterous paiusitee. 

Eni. AVir*, xf V, June, 1908, pp. 192-198. 
Dificribes Dryinu$ ormenidU end Cheiloneu- 
rus fwezeyi, bred by Mr. Otto H. Sweaey, from 

Classification of the fossorial, 

predaceous, and parasitic wasps, or the 

superfamily Vespoidea. (Paper No. 

14.) 

Canadian EntamciogUl, xxxT, June, 1908, 

pp. 166-158. 

Treats of the subfamilies Methooinee and 

Rhagigasterinse. Eleven genera are tabu- 

' lated, of which one Andreu9, frt>m Congo, 

Africa, is described as new. 

Classification of the pointed-tailed 



wasps, or the superfamily Proctotry- 
poidea. III. 

Joum. N. Y. Eni. Soc., xi, June, 1908, pp. 
86-99. 
Treats of the families Scelionldee and Platy- 
gasteridfie. The Bcelionidse are divided into 
four subfamilies: (1) Telenominee. (2) Bsei- 
nae, (3) Telcasina, and (4) Scelionina'. Forty- 
one genera are tabulated, Cacellu* being a 
new name for Cacus Riley, which is preoccu- 
pied. The Platygasteridse are divided into 
two subfamilies: (1) Inostemminse and (2) 
Platygasterins. Twenty-five genera are tab- 
ulated. 

Some new genera in the Cynipoi- 



dea. 



Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash., v, 1908, pp. 221-222. 
In this paper Mr. Ashmead briefly desoribeM 
the 9 new genera indicated in Psyche, viz: 
KieffcrUila, Zamischus, TropideiicoUa, Pro- 
miomera, Odonleucoila, Trimodoniaspiit, IH- 
rueoela, ZatucoUa, and Pirudeucoila. 

Description of a new genus in the 



Pireninse. 

Indian Museum Notes, Calcutta, India, v, 
1903, pp. 61-62. 
Describes Ewycephalus aleocki. 

The Homoptera of Alaska. 

The Harriman Expedition, pp. 129-137. 
Gives a list of the species found in Alaska 
and describes several new species. 

BAILEY, Florence Merrl\m. Hand- 
book of Birds | of the | Western United 
States I including | the Great Plains, 
Great Basin, Pacific Slope, | and Lower 
Rio Grande Valley | By Florence Mer- 
riam Bailey | With thirty-three full- 
page plates by Louis Agassiz Fuertes | 
and over six hundred cuts in the text 
I [Vignette] | Boston and New York 



BAILEY, Florence Merriam — Cont'd. 

Houghton, Mifflin and Company | The 

Riverside Press, Cambridge | 1902. 
12mo., pp. i-xc+ 1-512. 
A systematic treatise of the birds of the 
Western United States, with brief descrip- 
tions of the various species, their nests and 
eggs. The work is furnished with keys to 
the higher groups, as well as to the genera 
and species. Several local lists are included, 
and extended biographical notices of the 
more interesting species are given. 

BANGS, OuTRAM. Description of a new 
thrush from Chiriqui. 

Proc. New England Zool.Club, in, Oct. 10, 

1902, pp. 91-92. 

Merula leurauchen cnephosa is a new sub- 
species from the Volcan de Chiriqui. 

A new race of Scotothorus veraepacis 

from Chiriqui. 

Proc. New England Zool. Club, iii, Feb. 6, 

1903, pp. 103-104. 

A new subspecies of Sc(Uotharus veratpacis 
from Divala, Chiriqui, is de.M<'ribed as S. v 
dumicola. 

Description of a new subspecies of 

Manacus candei ( Parzud. ). 

Proc. New England Zool. Club, in, Feb. 6, 
1903, pp. 105-106. 
Manacus candei eleciilis in described as a 
new subspecies from Ceiba, Honduras. 

A new race of Vireostjlva josephse 



from Chiriqui. 

Proc. New England Zool. Club, iv, Mar. 24, 
1903. pp. 9-10. 
Vireojosepharchiriquiensis{p.9) is described 
as new. 

(See also under J. A. Allen. ) 



BANKS, Nathan. New genera and 
species of Acarians. 

Canadian Entonwlogisi, July, 1902, p. 171- 
176. 4 figs. 
Describes two new genera, and eight new 
species. Three other genera are new to the 
country-. 

Notes on entomology. 

Science (new series). July 25, 1902, pp. 
154-156. 
Reviews various recent papers. 

The Common spiders of the United 



States. 

Canadian Entomologist, Aug.. 1902, p. 218. 
Reviews this book by Prof. J. H. Enerton. 

A list of spiders collected in Ari- 



zona by Messrs. Schwarz and Barl)er 
during the summer of 1901. 



150 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903, 



BANKS, Nathan — Continued. 

iVfx'. r. S. X(U. JfM#.. XXV. No. 12W, Sept. 
10, 1902, pp. 211-221, pi. VII. 
New Hj>eeIo«: Pnndhettima Imrhtri, Mnrpitmi 
ntlHipilosa, Di^cojioma hinfuUi. 

A new Phalagid from the Blaek 



Mountains, N. C. 

Jourii. y. v. Ent. Sttc., Sept.. 1902, p. 142. 
Dewribes ncoti*lrnum bntnnen. 

Daddy lonj;lep=r from Mt. Katah- 



diii, Maine. 

Ent. AVj/v, De<'., 1902, p. 308. 
A re<*f>rd of Ave spooler. 

Slet»pinghabit«<)f (»ertain Ilyinen- 



optera. 

Jourtt. y. v. Entoni. StM'., Dei*.. 1902. pp. 
20*i-214, 1 Hjf. 
Treats of the Hleeping habiiN of Home fosso- 
rial wasp.s ami bt(^s. 

An application of the law of pri- 



ori tv 



Seitnce (new Hefiej*). Jan. !♦». 190:?, p. 115. 

— Notes on entomology. 

Srinur (new series), .Tan. 23, 11H)3. pp. 
IM-l.V). 
Notes on recent literature. 

— Se<'ondarv h^exual charai.'ters in 



BANKS, N.\THAN. Neuropteroiil inserts 

of Arizona. 

Proc. EiU.Soc. Wash., v. No. 4, Apr.lSOS. 
pp. 237-245, 1 pi. 
Annotated list of the npccie^ with 6)»riy- 
tion.s of 1 new genus and 10 new fspwies. 

Notes on Ceria iriUijttotii Kahl. 

Proc. Ent. So€. Wcuh., v. No. 4. June.lvoi. 
p. 310. 
A record of the occurrence of thijisjwfiw 
near Washington, I). O. 

Notes on entomology. 

Science (new serieH), June 19, lytiS, pp. 
; 982-983. 

( Reviews of several recent papers. 

I BARTSCH, Paul. A new land ^M 
j from California. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wcwh., xvi, June 2r». Wfi. 
pp. 103-104. 
In this paper SonorcUa tcolcottiana is de 
H<'ribed as new. The .specimens were et>llecieil 
by Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott, of DtHlham, Ma<*.. 
at Palm Springs. San Diego County. Cal. The 
type and a fine series are entered as No. 17WW7. 
U. S. N. M. The species is named in h«»or 
of Mrs. Wolcott. 

(See also under William He.\ley 



Hpi<ler8. 

PffM'. Ent. S4ic. ]Viii<h., V. No. 2. pp. 104-107. 
Feb.. 1903. 
A con.siileralion ni the iM>s.sibU' nses of the 
variou.sse<'on<lary sexual ehiiractrrs in s[>i«U'r«< 
of the I'nited State-*. 

New Smviithiiridje from the Dis- 



trict of Columbia. 

Proc. Kilt. Sor. M'ufh., v. No. 2. FeJ»., 190:5, 

pp. ir)4-i5.'>. 

Description of three new species. 

A new germs of Solfugida. 

Knt. .%>»/•.«. M»\r.. IWA. pp. 7^-79. 1 tig. 
Ih'scriplion of limit rtttrcrha nilifoniicd, new 
K<*iius and s]M'('ies. 

T}ioM(^ manuscript names. 

Si'it Htr (new s«.'ri('S). Mar. 27. ll»0:i. ]>. rKMt. 
A reply to articles by Professors Bather and 
('(K-kcrell. 

Notes on I>nicl»viu'muri of tlic li. 



fcro.i' group. 

Pntc. Ent. S«i<\ M'ai^h.. v. No. :!. Mar.. IW;;. 
pp. 17:5-177. 1 pi. 
Synopsis of tho group and (l«*s<Tiption of ;{ 
nt'W spK.'('ies. 

A revision of the Neatctic Chrv- 



Hopidje. 

Tinntt. Anicr. Ent. .'<4>c., xxix. .\pr.. 190;i. 

pp. i:r-ir»2. 

Monogra[»hie treatment of tin* .V» spo<ies, 
dosrribing 2 new g«*nera ami 7 lU'W sjKM'it-i. 



Dall. ) 

BASSLER, Ray S. The structural fea- 
tures of the bryozoan genus HoHuArujKi, 
w^ith descriptions of spec^ies from the 
Cincinnatian gnmp. 

Proc. r. S. yal. Afw., xxvt. No. l:iA 
Mar. 28, 1903, pp. ."iefwigi, pis. 20-2ri. 
In this T>aper the genus ITomotryya is full.v 
discussed with 26 species, of which 19 are 
either new species or varieties. 

BENEDICT, James E. Description of 

a new genus and 46 new species of 

crustaceans of the family CfalatheidH*, 

with a list of the known marine species?. 

Proc. V. S. Nat. Mug., xxvi. No. 1311. 

Dw. 29, 1902, pp. 24^-334, 47 text figs. 

Ba.sed chiefly on material obtained hy thf 

i:. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatrutt* i\\a- 

ing the last twenty years. Artificial keysait 

given for the species examined. 

BOWDISH, B. S. Binlsof Porto Rico. 

Auk, XIX. No. 4, Oi't., 1902, pp. $16-366, xl. 
No. 1, Jan., 1903, pp. 10-23. 
Notes on 91 species collect^nl or observed in 
Porto Kieo by the writer, with a supplement- 
ary list t»f 70 additional spe<>ie8 recorded by 
otliers. 

J^KEWSTER, William. Birds of the 
Cape Region of Lower California. 

7^;//. Mu». Omp. Zool., XLI. No. 1, Sept. 
1902. pp. 1-241. with one map, 
A complete account of the avifauna of ilrt 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



151 



BREWSTER, William— Continued. 
Cape region of Lower California, based largely 
on the author's collection. 

Totanus nwJanoleucus /r<izari (p. 65), Mcgas- 
Cftpaxantusi (p. 98), Bvbovirginianus dachittus 
(p. 96), and TachycineUi thcUammi brachyptera 
(p. 167) are described as new, and many spe- 
cies are recorded for the first time from the 
Cape region. A full bibliography accompa- 
nies the paper. 

BUSC'K, August. Notes on the Ceroe- 
torna group of Yponomeutidte with 
descriptions of new North American 
species. 

Journ. X. r. Ent. Soc., XI, No. 1, Mar., 1903, 
pp. 45-59. 

Notes on Brackenridge Clemens 

types of Tineina. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Wcuh., v, No. 3, Apr. 3, 
1903, pp. 181-220. 

Dimorphism in the codling moth 



{Ci/dia pomonella simpsoniif n. var. ). 
Pntc. Ent. Soc. Wash., v, No. 3, Apr. 3. 
1903, pp. 23&-286. 

A revision of the American 



codling moth. 

Journ, X. y. Ent. Sftr., xi. No. 2, .Tune, 
1903, pp. 106-111. 

(See also under H. G. I)yar.) 



moths of the family Gelechiid>p, with 
def^criptions of new species. 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mtu., xxv, No. 1304, May 
9, 1903, pp. 767-938, pK XXVfil-xxxil. 

New genera: Paralechia, Ntodactylota, Deo- 
dona, ProBtomcus. 

New species: Paltodora magnella, P.dietzielUi, 
P. anteliflla, Telphuga hetulcUn, Ari«UAelia hifn- 
9ckUUi, A. argentijera, A. cockrrella, A. iwir- 
fottellii, A. quinquepunctfUa, RrcuriHiria colu- 
britur, R. craisttjcUa, R. nitjra, Trypani^ma 
fngeUa, Epithectu sylvicoleUa, Gnf/rimoschcma 
ftaccharisetla, O. aemicydioncUa, G. duditUn, 
G. JloreUa, G. bankslella, G. bntanclla, G. tetra- 
dymirUa, Seodactylota barberdla, Dcocloiui 
yuccaaella, Prodomeus brunneiis, Aprowrcnia 
kear/ottella, Anaeamp^ia cy delta, A. ptiltodori- 
rUa, Gdechia arizondla, G. cohradensis, G. tro- 
phrUa, G. dentdla, G. sistrdla, G. cdtdtimuuMa, 
G. pauidla, G. unifaacidla, G. arMdla, G. 
stri(Udla,G.hibi»cdla, G.cockereUi,G.variahiliM, I 
G. barncsiella, G. Umdendla, G. dyaridUi, G. 
nigrimaculdia, O. gerotincUa, a. jtaneUn, G. 
tibdia, TrichotaphefemaldeUa. 

New name: Aittoneda. 

On the generic name of the 



CASANOWICZ, I. M. The collection of 
oriental antiquities in the United States 
National Museum. 

Journ. Am. Oriental Sf>c., xxili, 1902, pp. 



CASANOWICZ, I. M.— Continued. 

of the contents and the arrangement of the 
several sections of the divisions of historical 
antiquities and historic religions in the U. 8. 
National Museum. 

Die Irtysch-Ostjaken und ihre 



Volk8|>oe8ie. 

Am. Anthropologist (new series), vol. 4, 

1902, pp. 295-296. 

Review and extracts of S. Patkanov's work 

of the same title, with especial reference to 

the statu of mental culture and religious he- 

llefs and customs among that people. 

Jewish ceremonial objects in the 



United States National Museum. 

Jewish Comment, xvi, 1903, pp. 5-6, with 
Ipl. 
Description of objects illustrating Judaism, 
especially from North Africa, which recently 
came to the Museum. 

Parsee religious ceremonial objects 



in the United States National Museum. 
Am. Anthropologist (new series), vol. 5, 
190}, pp. 71-75, with 2 pis. 
The article gives a review of the history 
and the fundamental beliefs, and of the 
sacred scriptures of the Parsees, and a descrip- 
tion of the collection at the Museum. 

CHAPMAN, Frank M. List of birds 

collected in Alaska, by the Andrew J. 

Stone Expedition of 1901. 

Bull. Am. Xat. Hist, xvi, Aug. 18, 1902, 
pp. 231-247. 
A ILstof 68 species collected in Alaska, with 
the collector's field notes. Lagopns leucurus 
peninstdaris (p. 236), and Cyanocitta stdleri 
borealis (p. 240) are described as new sub- 
species, and critical remarks are offered on 
the Purus hudsonicus group of chickadees. 

CLARK, AusTi.v H. The birds of Mar- 
garita Island, Venezuela. 

Ank, XIX, No. 3, July, 1902, pp. 268-267. 
An account of 57 species observed by the 
author during a short visit to Margarita 
Island. Two species are described as new, 
viz, Synallaxis albescens nesiotis (p. 264), and 
Icterus xanthomus helioeides (p. 265). 

CLARK, Hubert Lyman. The water 
snakes of southern Michigan. 

Am. yaturalist, xxx\u, Jan., 1908, pp. 1-23. 
Considers the red-bellied water snake of 
southern Michigan to be identical with Natrix 
erythrogast/r and distinct from X. sipedtm. 
On pages 20-21 special reference is made to 
the specimens borrowed from the U. 8. Na- 
tional Miweum. 

CC)CKP:RKLL, Theodore D. A. (See 
under Charles Loitih Pollard. ) 



/. 



The article gives a summary de»<ription <;f COLLINS, < J. N. (See under < >. F. C'ooK. ) 



152 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



COOK, 0. F., and COLLINS, G. N. 

E<*on()ini(! ])liintH of Porto Rico. 

OtiUrih. r. S. Sat. JfrH>., viii. Part 2, June 
1903, pp. 57-269, pin. XllI-LX, tt'xt 



27. 



llgs. 1-13. 

COQUILLETT, D. W. New dii»tera 
from North America. 

PnM\ r. S. yat. 3/tw., xxv, No. 12«0. Sept. 
12, 1902, pp. ftl-126. 
New ifonera: Meiifnuefla, Jhinulmoiitia, 

New Hpecies: Orimarga arizftiwnsiif, Cnhx 
himaciilatiiif, ('. fletchvri^ C niunmigcTy Crra- 
topfujon yhihcr, C. inermi*, C. fxili*, C. iftith 
mnlh, ('. jtiloHh, ('. ajtrorus, C. belluni, C. 
HfpiaiHijtc^, lltUromyia prattii, lymypu* sUlUi- 
tuK, T. difCfiior, T. nhf^nig, T. barbiri, T. veHim- 
tiis, T. pnlltns, T. occuUntalis, T. guttuUirU, 
OrthocladiuH clepBydrutt, 0. pltitypu*, O. jmIUuh. 
iyirotopun varipe^, ChiroJtomu« pulchripatnis, 
(\ varipcnniif, C. atrinianus, C. pattiatUH, BSbio 
tenutjM:*, Scatopfte raricornis, Simulium/ulvum, 
X virg(itum,'^.pf(iHCurn. Aochlctusob«curm», Eu- 
]niryphu8 tah<MUHif(, E. ttpicnli», E. cnietgcrus, 
E, alrivrnti-u. E. umplu9, Bombylius recurrutf, 
(rcrtm si gin a, P»at<i<Uru:bia Jiavircps, J*, pilima, 
Mythicomyia sciUellata, JT. pictipcs, Rluimpho- 
iiiyia albtiUi, Cutcrebrahisfrio, MeigenifUahinei, 
Advumlui liinata, Paradm<mtia brevut, A'eara 
longiconiiH, Chirtojthclps jhtlita, Pelaiachina 
limatn, IWudapinops nigra, Ifyalomyodes dor- 
mlh, (kstrophania calm, 0. setom, Exoruttoidcfi 
harringtoni, EtnriMa tristlnm, yntutrwa sdi- 
gera, Phttrocfrm istcninlis, FruntinasctijH'^, Stur- 
mUi Umata, S. austrina, S. di^ailis, Masicera 
polUa, Eutheni bicnUtr. Muscopteryx tibialis, M. 
obscnrn, Phorirhuia cintrosa, Brnrhycoma 
pftbicornis, li. stiosa, (i:ediopsiH rockercUii, (V. 
facialis, (i. ovtUaris, Paraphyto sarrophugina, 
Meriaiiia ctudybirn AmfAtinanrata, Gymnoinma 
nuadrisftosa, Mynrcrabirittata, Mrgaparin fln- 
votbi, Chulon*! flaiupennis, Phaonia pnllididn, 
Mydna jinnnMniix, Chirosia capUo, Pselaphc- 
phila Hiuiiliii. Cnhithita XHttipcnnis. Spih^rapha 
/nirfura. 

COCTIKRK, II. Sur quelques eap^cen 
nouvelh's <lii j?enre Automate, de Man. 

Itidl. .V'/x. //<W. yat. Pari*, 1902. No. 5, pp. 

3:j7-:U2. 
Three PiK'cies are de8('ril>ed, A. gardineri, 
A. talisviaui, uinl A. nigosa. The lust is from 
the r. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatrttss 
i\Ti'i\tiii\gs in the Bay of Panama; A. gardineri 
is fnmi Kingsraill Island. 

(TRKIK, R«)LL.\ P. Mynnelefmidae 
from Arizona. 

J*roi\ Ent. StH'. Wash., V. No. 1. pp. 272-2.H4. 

Author's e.xtras (»f this paiwr were pub- 
lished June V.i, 1903. 

The i)aper ronsists of a list of the sjKJcies of 
ant-lion flies ooenrrinjr in .Vrizona. «>ompile<l 
from previous ])ublished rwords and from 
tin* material in the T. S. National Museum. 



CURRIE, RoLLA P.— Continued. 

ihe American Entomological Society collec- 
tion, and in the collections of Mr. Nathan 
Banks and Mr. CliarleH C. Adamn. Thirty 
Hpecies and two varieties are enumerated, o( 
which number 7 species and two ^iirieties w 
described a.s new. Three of the new species 
are from the collection made by Mesni. 
Schwarz and Barber in 1901. All of the type» 
are in the I'. 8. National Museom. 

The Odonata collot'ted bv Mesprs. 



Schwarz and Barlxjr in Arizona and 
Now Mexico. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Waeh., V, No. 4, pp. 29tU3US. 

Author's extras were published June 11 
1908. 

This is a report upon a collection of drsgun 
flies made during the summer of 1901. 
Twenty-four species and two varieties are 
listed. One new species is described and is 
named Isehnura barbcri. The male append- 
ages of Ischnura damula Calvert and /. barbcri 
are figured. All of the specimens are in the 
U. S. National Museum. 

DALL, William Healey. Reports of 
the Princeton University expeditioDfl 
to Patagonia. Palaeontology, Part II. 
Tertiary Invertebrates, by A. R Ort- 
mann, Ph. D. 

.Sf-iVwcc (new series), xvi, No. 394, July 1*^. 
1902, pp. 111-112. 
A review of Doctor Ortmann's monograph 
of the Tertiary Invertebrates of Patagonia. 

Ijetter to the editor. 

Science (new series), xvi, No. 395. July 3S. 
1902, pp. 150-151. 
A letter discussing views on nomenclature 
in zoology expressed in a previous article by 
Dr. O. F. Cook. 

Dr. J. G. Cooper. 

Srii'nce (new series), xvi, No. 898, Aug. 15, 
1902, pp. 268-269. 
Obituary notice of the late Dr. J. G. Cooper. 
for many years a collaborator of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

New species of Pacific coast shells. 

yautUm, XVI, No. 4, Aug., 1902, pp. 4S-44. 
TritHa atomaria, T. panatnensj*, and Eraio 
(Aigostata from Panama Bay: C^inrUa ting- 
Icyi from the Gulf of California, and the genus 
("i^clinclla, which represents Myaia (of Europe) 
in American waters, are described as new. 

A (juestion of nomenclature. 

Rn'tn- critique de PaUo&oologie, vi, Oct. 
1902, pp. 223-224. 
Letter to the editor favoring the view that 
names of masculine and feminine termina- 
tions. (»therwise similar, should not be re- 
plied when employed for different genera, 
MS liable to be superseded on tliat aeocrant. 



BIBLIOOBAPHY. 



158 



DALL, William Healev. Noteoii vivi- 
parity in (*orbicula and Cardita. 

Seimce (new scrien) xvi, No. 410. Nov. 7, 
1W2, pp. 743-744. 
Notes the discovery in Otrbicuia from 
Uruguay and Vmerieardia from Alanka of a 
large number of well-developed young ohelU 
in the atrium of the oviduct of gravid femalei*. 
[Included in a notice of the ProceedingR of 
the Bibl logical Society of Washington, meet- 
ing of Oct. 28, 1902.] 

Note on Neocorhicuda Fischer. 

yavtUus, XVI, No. 7. Nov., 1902, pp. 82-83. 
Note on the diacover>* of large numbern of 
nepionic young shelln in the atrium of the 
maternal ovary of Neoctfrbicula. 

Jack London's Local color. 

yew York Timf$ Saturday Rcviar, vil. No. 
49. Dec. 6. 1902. viii. No. 2, Jan. 10, 1903. 
A criticism of the supposed '* local color" 
of the ethnolrjgy of the publications of a pop- 
ular writer on Alaska. 

The Grand Gulf formation. 

Sritnce (new series) xvi, No. 415, Dec. 12, 
1902, pp. 946-947. 
An attempt to clear up some of the con- 
fusion which has been caused in geological 
literature by the recent use of the name 
"Grand Gulf" to designate rocks of v-ery 
difTerent ages. 

Synopsis of the family Veneridte 



and of the North American recent 

species. 

Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mut., xxvi. No. 1312, Dec. 
29, 1902, pp. 336-412. pi. Xll-xvi. 
A review of the history, distribution, bib- 
liography, nomenclature, and clas8it)cation 
of this family of bivalve mollusks, and a 
summary of the recent species known to 
exist on the eant and west coasts, respec- 
tively, of the North American continent. 
The following groups, genera, subKcncra, or 
sections are named and deflne<l &s new: Sub- 
genus Ptlccyom, sections (of Dosinia) Aiiftrf^- 
dotinia, Doiinuca, Dotinorbitt Dosinuiia, Jhtri- 
ndla: subgenus Gratelmtpina (for CyihcriopfiH 
Connul, not McCoy), section Solandcnna (of 
SuHtitn); section Hadiocrista, section I^armn- 
lina, section EucaUitta, section IlyphnntoBoma, 
section Lamtiliconcha; subgenuN I^pidocar- 
dia, subgenus Cyclorisnia (for Cydothyi* Con- 
rad, not McCoy), section Macridiscntt, section 
Aftomnlodisau, section Mercimtmia, section 
SattMrangia, section Protapro, subKenus 
Protaihara, section OaUithncn; are described 
as new and defined. TranttnnelUi ttimpitmi, 
THwlti ahaamU, T. nasuta, T. brofUiana, (^Ulo- 
cardia zonata^ Cytherea stHffillina, C. callimor- 
pha, C. mazyckii, from the east vinv*t of . 
America: and dementia tolida, OUhtcurdia 
cathnria, Pitaria tomctuui, P. callicoiimlaf 
Cytherea magdaUnm, C. lepidogty]^, Cydinella 
tingleyit Chione »chotiii, <%ionr abUtmitn, 
Chione pertinela^ Ventu apodrmn, I*nphia it»l- 



DALL, William Healey — Continued. 
culttsa, and P. ftphidia oralis from the west 
coast of America arc described and figured 
as now. A number of species hitherto unfig- 
ured or imperfectly delineated are now fig- 
ured in an accurate manner. 

On the genus Gemma Deshayes. 

Joum. C\)nchology, Manchester, England, 

X, No. 8, Dec. 1902, pp. 238-243. 

A review and revision of the genus and 

the species belonging to it. The name iVpAi- 

dia is substituted for PsephU Carpenter, nr)t 

Guen^. 

On the preservation of the marine 



animaln of the northwest coast. 

Hep. SmUfuKmian Inst., 1901 (1902), pp. 
683-688. 
A summary of the conditions under which 
the marine mammals of the northwest coast 
of America exist and a dist'ussion of the 
probability of being able to preserve them 
from extermination. 



A new Crasmtellites from Brazil. 

NautilH«, XVI, No. 9, Jan., 1903, pp. 101-102. 
CrasMitrUitm brattiliensU from otT Kio de 
Janeiro, is descrilK'd as new, from a region 
where the genus was previoasly unknown. 

Hawaiian Physidte. 

yautUus, XVI, No. 9, Jan. 1903, p. 106. 
A note announcing the discovery of tnie 
Physidx in the Hawaiian Lslands, where pre- 
viou.sly it had beensupjxjsed that the reversed 
shells (resembling Phytui, and oft<>n so calle<l 
by early writers on this fauna) occurring there 
all belongiKl to the Limnxidir. 

Synopsis of the Carditacea and of 

the American species. 

PrtH'. Aetid. Nat. Sci. Philn. for 1902, Jan. 
1903, pp. 696-716. 
This paper, on the same lines as the synop- 
sis of the Venrridar, reviews the CurdUidx 
and the CyeUtcardiidsr and gives lists of the 
spe<'ies foun<l on the cast and west coasts of 
North and South America, with numerous 
notes. The following are describe<l and flg- 
uriKl as new : \ 'enericardia armilla, \ \ moniliata, 
V. youldii, V. incim, V. deam9ii,V. akutkana^ 
and Oirditn sulcosa. Vcnericardia rudif Gray, 
and V. monilicoMa Gabb, are revived for valid 
species, and Cardita grayi is proiK)sed for C. 
crassa Gray, not Lamarck. The new sp>ecie8 
named in this fiaper are figure<l on the plntes 
accompanying the Synopwis of the AstartitUe 
tq. v.). 

Ili»view of the claf«ifi(«tion of the 



Cvrenairea. 

J*roc. liUtl. Sttr. \Va*h., xvi, Feb. 21. 1903, 
pp. 5-8. 
This is a very condensed statement of the 
clarification propose<i for the Cyrenidir and 
Sph:triidar. Miwlontopitis is proposed for Miih 
don SanfllHTger (not Carpenter), and J^ofltteh- 
eriaUiT Pifekeria Bemardi (not Desvoldy). 



154 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



BALL, WiLLiA>f Healey — Continue<l. 
Thi' followinif groupH are named and briefly 
diagiK^sed as new: Section Corbiculina, Ttl- 
linoctjclais, and Cyren(Kl<mar, under C\)rbicula: 
Hcction Cyclocaiyx, subgenera CymcUocyrUis, 
and TropUlocyclas, under i>phwrium. It Is 
also pointed out that i^^clas (Bruguiere) Link, 
1807, is based on Venus Ulandioa Linnaeus, 
which afterwards became the type of Cypriiia 
Lamarck, Arctiea Schumacher, and Cyprini- 
axlea Rovereto. 

Note on the name Miodon, 

yduiilus, XVI, No. 12. Apr, 1903. p. 143. 
The new name Munloniigcus is pjroinxsed for 
the genuH Miodoii Carpenter, 18Co (not Du- 
mC'ril, 1859). 

Biographical memoir of Augustus 



Aadison Gould, 180.^186(), l)y Jeffries 
Wyman, with additions by William 
Healey Dall, read before the National 
Academy of Sciences, April 22, 1908. 

Biugraphiral Mtnwirs, yiit. Acad. .Vi., 
Washington, 1903, pp. 93-113. 
Contains a revision and enlargement of 
Wyman's memoir, with Scudder's bibliog- 
raphy of Gould's writings, and the addition 
of a iM>rtruit and facsimile signatures. Also 
issued soparately with cover. 

A preliminary catalogue | of the 



sliell-l)earing marine molluskH and 
brachiopods | of the | southeastern 
coast of the Unite<l States, | with illus- 
trations of many of the sj>ecies. | lU* | 
William Healey Dall, A. M., | Honor- 
ary Curator Division of Mollusks, U. S. 
National Museum. | — | Reprint. | To 
which are added twenty -one plates 
[with explanations and a supplemen- 
tary list of si)ecies] not in the edition 
of IHSi). I — ! Washington: | (Tovern- 

ment IMnting Oflice. | nK)3. 

Hull. r. S. Xnt. Mn«., No. 37, 1903, pp. 
1-232. pis. i-xcv. 

DALL, Wii.lia.mHealkv, and BAKTSCH, 

Pail. A new Kissoa from California. 
yaiUiliis, XVI. 8, Dec, 1902, p. 9-1. 
lii^ma kclfftfi is docribed as new. It is 
named in honor of Mr. F. \V, Kelsey. of l^an 
Diego, Cal., who collected the s])ecimens at 
Pacilic Beach, Cn I. The type and two speci- 
mens are registered as No. ir>S60.'), I'.S.N.M. 
States National Museunu 

DYAR, H.MiRisoN (j. Descriptions of the 

larva? of some nn»ths from Colorado. 

I^oc. r. N. yat. Mum., xxv, No. 1290, .Sept. 
23, 1902. pp. 309-412. 
New speeit'^: finnriiniDtrhrmn ciKiuUhitrUd. 
Uracilnria i hialn'tica) ptutsiiKniidUi. 



DYAR, Harrison G. A list | of | North 
American Lepidoptera and | key to the 
literature of this | order of insects. ] By 
Harrison G. Dyar, Ph. D., | custodian 
of Lepidoptera, United States National 
Museum, | assisted by | C. H. Fer- 
nald, Ph. D., the late Rev. Georige D. 
Hulst, I and August Busck, | — 1 
Washington: | Government Printing 
Office. I 1902. 

BuU. V. S. Nat. Mu9., No. hi, 1902 (1908i. 
pp. i-xlx, 1-723. 

EVERMANN, Barton W. (See under 
J. A. Allen and David S. Jordan.) 

FERNALD, C. H. (See under Harri- 
son G. Dyar.) 

FISH, Pierre A. The cerebral fissores 
of the Atlantic walrus. 

Proc. V. S. Niit. Mws., XXVI. No. 1325. Apr. 
9, 1903, pp. 675-688. pis. xxviii-xxix. 

FISHER, Walter K. A new Proeel- 
Hterna from the Leeward Islands, Ha- 
waiian group. 

Pror. U. ^^ Nat. Mum., XXVI, No. 1822, Jan. 
29. 1903, pp. 559-663. 
I*ro<rUaenm mxaiilii (p. 659) Is desrribed *> 
. a new 8p)€cies. 

FOWLER, Henry W. (See under David 
Starr Jordan.) 

(ilLL, Theodore. General historj* of 

birds. 

Osprcy, VI, No. 7. July, 1902, pp. 3S-i2. 
The Heventh chapter of a proposed work va 
ornithology. 

The story of a word — Mamnial 

Pop. Sci. Monthly, LXi, Sept., 1902. pp.*M- 
438. 
The etymology and singtilar form of the 
word Mammalia have been erroneoiuly giren 
in all dictionaries a.H derived from the Latin 
adjective mammalu and as cognate with vari- 
ous words in living European languages. It 
is contended that the name was first given hf 
Linnicus in 1758, and that he formed it in 
analogy with Animalia and derived it directly 
from the noun Mamma and added the snfflx 
-lUiii. A history of the use of the word is 
given. 

The first use of Mammals and 



ManimaliaiiH. 

Srirnce (new series), xvi. No. 417, Dec. 36. 

1902, pp. 1034-1036. 

The earliest use of the word Mammals teeoa 

to have been made by Good in 1813 in tbf 

Paiitalogia, and that of Mammalians by KirtT 

in 1H35 in his Bridgewater treatise. 



BIBLIOOBAPHY. 



155 



GILL, Theodore. The hosts of Argulids 

and their nomenclature. 

Science (new serien), xvii, No. 418, Jan. 2, 
1903, p. 33. 
The names of the fish-hopts of many of the 
upecies described in the " Monograph of North 
Americ-an Parasitic Copepods of the family 
Argiilidff," by C. B. Wilson, are corrected 
and the flMhes identified. 

The bones of the shoulder girdle 



of fishes. 

Science (new series), xvii, No. 424, Feb. 
13, 1903, pp. 2&5-256. 
The most characteristic system of bones of 
the pisciform vertebrates is manifest in the 
shoulder girdle, and the classes of selachians 
and typical fishes, or teleoetomes, have been 
segregated under the name LyTr^era, on ac- 
count of the Qharacter of this girdle. The 
consideration of the t)one8, however, mili- 
tates decidedly against the acceptance of the 
views generally held. Scapula and coracoid 
were given originally to the composite bon« 
and Its process familiar Irom manifestation 
in man. The bones of fishes to which the 
names have been given are certainly not ho- 
mologous. They, in fact, are only developed 
as such in fishes specialized as telcosts and 
very remote from the pnmitive stock of the 
terrestrial vertebrates. A special nomencla- 
ture is therefore necessary. The so-called 
scapula has been designs ted as hypercoracoid, 
the coracoid as hypocoracotd. and the Span- 
genstuck, or precoracoid, as metocoracoid. 
The mesocoracoid disappears in most fishes, 
all the acanthopterygians and offshoots from 
that stock t>eing deprived of that ossicle. 

The systematic relations of the 

fish genus Lamprut. 

Saence (new series), xvii, No. 424, Feb. 
13, 190a, pp. 2&6-257. 
Recently the foremost ichthyologist of Eu- 
rope. Doctor Boulenger. reexamined the 
oeteoiogy of Lampna, and especially the 
shoulder gtrdie, and attained novel concep- 
tions as to the athnilies ot that genus. The 
numoer oi bones in the shoulder girdle ol 
Lamprii is the same as in ordinary acanthop 
terygian fishes, out two oi them have been 
interpreted l.rom a different standpoint than 
by nls predecessors. (1) The very large \yone 
which occupies the lower and posterior part 
ol the girdle was considered by him to tjc a 
peculiar bone, named interclavicle, and 
homologlzcd with a bomou>'mous t>oneof the 
hemtbranchs, and (2) the smaller one imme- 
diately above it and behind the bones .sup- 
porting the pectoral fin was regarded as a 
'•coracoid' or nypocoracoid. Therefore he 
considered it as the representative not only 
ol a peculiar family (Lamprididsfc), but of an 
independent higher group named Selenich- 
thyes and coordinated with the Hemibranchn 
and Lophobranchli, the three t>eing as<aociate<l 
together as representativen of n sntx)r<1or to 



GILL, Theodore — Continuea. 

which the new name Catosteomi was given. 
To test this conclusion the skeleton of Lampris 
was submitted to renewed examination. 
That examination forced the author to ac- 
ceptance of the principal ideas of the older 
ichthyologists; four actinosts, or pterygials, 
are recognized, and the coracoid of Boulenger 
is identified with the fourth. The hypocora- 
coid is found in the interclavicle of Boulen- 
ger. As a consequence, the genus is restored 
to the group of acanthopterygians. Never- 
theless, the differences between Lampria and 
all other fishes are sufficiently great to entitle 
it to rank as the type of a family (Lampridi- 
dai),aswell as a special superfamily (Lam- 
pridoidea). 

Origin of the name Monotremes. 

Science (new series), xvii, No. 428, Mar. 
13, 1903. pp. 433-434. 
It is shown that the name Monotremes was 
given by E. Geoffroy as an ordinal designation 
(in French form only) in 1803, the order 
(ordre) diagnosed, and the genera "Omi- 
thorhinchwi" and ** Echidna" referred to it. 

Homologies of the anterior limb. 

Science (new series), xvii. No. 430, Mar. 
- 27, 1903, p. 489. 
It is contended that Polypterua gives us a 
key to the problem in question, as has been 
already urged by the writer in 1872, 1»78, and 
1882. This view, after long neglect, was 
independently urged later by others, especi- 
ally Emery and Pollard, but with differences 
of detail. The humerus, radius, ulna, carpal, 
and metacarpal Ixjnes are found in a recog- 
nizable condition \v\ Polypterus. That genus 
is the nearest ol the living fishes in relation- 
ship to the amphibians and (onsequently all 
terreslrml vertebrates 

The use oi tiie name Torpedo for 

the electric catfishes. 

Ptoc I S. ^at Mus. XXVI, No 1329. Apr. 
9, 1903, pp. 697 bVto. 
1 1 18 shown that the name Torpedo was used 
in " Purcbas his Piigrlmes " published in 1625, 
lor the eiectnc catfish oi Malapterurut etec 
tnciis ol the Nile. Two sections descriptive 
of the fish occurring m thai work (pp. UHH, 
1545) are reproduced. 

Bibliographical memoir | of | 



John Edwards Holbrook. | 1794-1876. 
I — I Read belore the National Acad- 
emy of S( lences, | April 22, 1903. | — | 
Washington, D. C. | Press of Jiid<l and 

Detweiler | 1903. | 

[8 vo., cover, title -i- 47-77 pp.. 2 pi.] 
An advance reprint irom the Biographical 
Memoirs ol the >ationai Academy ol Sciences, 
VI, pp. 47-77, with portrait and letter. Besides 
the biography ol HolbtooK a Dibiiography is 
appended, giving analyses and correlations 
of the dlflereni iKlitlons ol Hoi brook's works 
on reptih»sand fishes. 



156 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 19a3. 



(ilLl., TnE<)iK)RK. Walbauin and luno- 
inialiHiii. 

Sf'iftin' (lU'W writ?x), XVII, No. 43t», May K. 
19(K, p{». 7l4-7ir.. 
In refutHti«ni of Mr. Henry W. Fowler's 
eontcntion that " WHllMum is nonbinomial," 
it is demonstratiKl, by un nnalysis of his treat- 
ment of the geiniM/Vi/Z/tx, that he wax binomial. 
Remarks on the attitmle of Linna*us with 
re!*i>e<'t to binomial nomenelatnn* art* pre- 
fixed. 

The (leviUiph and H*m\v other 

finhi^ in North Carolina. 

[•"itregt and Strnim, i.x, No. l.>*2. May :», 
1<H)3, p. 431. 
Kefen'n<'e is made to vari(»us tish names 
useii in Hrickell'M "Natnral History of North 
(:an>lina." pubUshe<l in 1737. The story of 
the devilfish running away with a " veaw.'l 
for a league or two" Is repeated. Information 
is aske<1 if eertiiin names are still used for 
fishes, viz, "Sea-Tenoh" for the Tautog, 
" Welchmen " for blaek basses, and "Irish- 
men" for rrappit*s. 

The first e<lition of Holhrook's 



North American Heri)etolo^y. 

.*<ricni'f ( new series) . xvii. No. 140, June 
5, 1903. pp. 910-912. 
Supplement to the Biogniphical Memoir of 
HolbrcK)k. It had In^en universally sup|)osed 
that the first i'<1ition bad tH>en discontinued 
with the third volume. Mr. Witmer Stone, 
however, found a eopy ol a fourth V(»lume in 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of IMilla- 
<lelphia. and an analysis of this is publishnd, 
with considerations on its t)earing on nomen- 
clature. The volume appears to have lK*en 
suppressed. 

(See alno iincier J. A. .\llkn. ) 



(JHINNKLL, JO.HEPII. The Califomia 
Ydlow Warhler. 

t'imdor, V. No 3. May 19. VM\, pp. 71-73. 
A dis<'usvion o| the California y««llow war- 
l)lers, with description of a new sul>sj»ecies, 
I)t utirou'ii irstivn ttrnvHtfri. 

1 1 ASSA LL, Alhkkt. ( Stt:* iin<ier( 'iiAKi.ra 
W. Stiles.) 

HAY, WiLLiA.M Pkkky. Observations on 
the<Tiistaeean fauna of the rej^ioti alnuit 
Mammoth ('a\(', Kentnckv. 

/Vm'. I . S. y<lt. Mnn., \XV, No. I'iSo, Sefjt. 
12. VM)l. pp. 22;t-2:i(i, 1 text Hk. 
liascM on nialcnal obtained duriiiu a visit 
by thr wntt-r t«> .Mainni<»th Cavi' in VM)l. \ 
new ani[»lii|M>d. iinmrnttnifi j/mjntujuiis, i.-* de- 
MTitM'd, ami alM) a iww I«»r!ii of craylish, 
(\imhiinif> Ixirtniui fnichrofdii'. 

Observations on the crtistaeean 



HAY, William Perry — Continued. 

I>ef«(Ti^>e» visits made by himself toNii-U- 
jack T-aveand other cavea in Tenni<wei> aivI 
(leonria. Amimg the cnistaceans «'oll«H'ted 
there is one new amphipod, fiammanu fmr- 
puroHcenr, and two new Kuhi«i>eeit*»t of '"a»- 
ftanu, C. barionii mratvSt and ('. Uitimanut 
tttricUuf. 

On a small (ollection of cmsta- 



iaima of Nickajaek Cave, Tennrss*H\ 
and vb'initv. 

Pntr ! . > ynt. Mux., XXV, No. V:*fl. Sept. 
2.S i9i>.: pp. 117-189. 1 map and s fijrs. in 
text. 



ceans from the island of Cuba. 

Proc. V. S. NaJt. Muf., xxvi, No. 1316. Feb. 
2, 1903, pp. 429-135, 3 text figs. 
The collection wa« made by Dr. C. H. 
Eigenmann. while investigating the fauna of 
limestone eavema in Cuba. F<»urte«n »pfCM 
are enumerated, of which three are nev. 
CirvUma athnuU, Patarmonete* efprumaniii.aihi 
/*. ctibtnM*: the first two are subtermncHn 
and blind. 

HELLER, EDMtTXD. Pai)ers from the 
Hopkins-Stanford Galaiiagos Expe«li- 
tion, 1898-99. XIV. Reptile**. 

Prttc. Wash. Acad. Sci., v, Feb. 26, IW 
pp. 39-98. 
The account of PhyUodactyluf tubrmdotn* 
is based on the specimens in the r. S. National 
Museum, lent for the purpose. 

HEMSLEY, W. Botting. (See under 
Joseph N. Rose.) 

HENDERSON, John B., Jr. (See un- 
der Charles T. Simpson.) 

HINDS, Warre.n Elmer. Contribution 
to a monograph of the insects of tlie 
order Thyeanoptera inhabiting North 
America. 

J^fjc. U. S. Nat. Mu9., XXVI, No. 1310, IV-c. 
20, 1902, pp. 79-242, pis. i-xi, text fljjs. 
1-127. 

HOLMES, William H., and MAS(^N, 
Otis Ti'fton. InHtmetions to c^illect- 
orH of hititorical and anthropolopcal 
KiK»eiineni«. 

null. V. S. yat. .Via., No. 39, Part Q, Anjf. 
K 1902, pp. [1]-II6]. 

HOWARD, L. O. The warfare against 
iiios(|uit<K\s — A record of whathai* l>een 
lU'compliHhed the last two years — How 
to exterminate mosquitoes — A pnn'- 
tical work for village improvement s«»- 
eieties. 

(^nintrij Life in America, Apr., 1903, in, 
No. 6, pp. 2ftl-2«8, flsfs. 100-106. • 

( )nr enemies the insects. 

Youths' (V/w/Mifiton, A^t. SO, 1903, pp. 211- 
212. 

The tomb of Thomas Say. 

Ctinmliou Kntomttlogiil^ XXXV, No. 6. M«y 
1. \\m. i>i». 13M-139. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



157 



HOWARD, L. O. The world-wide cm- 

sade. 

Proceeding9 Pirtt AnU-motquito Conven- 
tion, Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan., 1904, pp. 
19-21', 1 fig. (portrait). 
A brief rcTlew of anti-moflquito work then 
going on in different parts of the world. 

HOWELL, Arthur H. (See under J. A. 
Allen. ) 

H RDLICK A , Ales. The Lansing skele- 
ton. 

Am. AnthropologUi (new seriea), v. No. 2, 
April-June. 1908, pp. S23-330. 

The paper in a description of the skeleton 
and a comparison of the skull with several 
Indian crania from the same general region. 

The conclusion is that the skeleton, so far 
as the physical characteristics are concerned, 
is practically identical in type with that of 
the modem Indian of the same region and 
presients no indicationsof any great antiquity. 

HULST, George D. (See under H-\rri- 
soN G. Dyar.) 

JORDAN, David Starr. Supplemen- 
tary note on Bleekeriamii^ukurii and on 
certain Japanese fishes. 

Proc. V. S. Xat. Mus., xxvi, No. 1328, Apr. 
9. 1908, pp. 69a-696, pi. XXX, figs. 1-3. 

(See also under J. A. Allen.) 

JORDAN, David Starr, and EVER- 
MANN, Barton Warren. Notes on 
a collection of fishes from the Itfland 
of Formosa. 

Proc. V. S. ycU. Mus., XXV, No. 1289, Sept. 
24, 1902. pp. 316-368, figs. 1-29. 
New species: Zacco evolnns, Acheilognathuti 
tnesembrimtm, AnguiUa rem(fera, GymnUhorojt 
pe$ca(lori«, Ophicephalut tadianus, Channajor- 
momxna, BU:ekeria mittukurii, Pemphcrit npc- 
tercuiei, SrmipUruM maUubarat, Piectorhynchus 
ocyuru$, Folydactylus rhadinu*, Cfurrops nyr- 
Umblema, Hemipleronotua verrcns, SiUagoar<AH$, 
Solaria* namiyei, BrotulafomuMX, Cynotflos^tis 
dij>la9iftf. 

JORDAN, David Starr, and FOWLER, 

Henry W. A review of the Oplegna- 

thoid fishes of Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,xx\, No. 1278, Aug. 
30. 1902, pp. 76-78. 

A review of the trigger-fishet*, file- 
fishes, and tnmk-fishes of Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mut., xxv, No. 1287, Sept. 
17, 1902, pp. 251-286, figs. 1-6. 
New genus: Rudariiu. 
New species: Rudariua ercotUs, Brachaiu^ 
tere* idrarum. 

A review of the cling-fishes (Gobi- 



efloi'ida') of the waters of Japan. 

Proc. v. S. Nat. Mum., xxv, No. 1291. Sept. 
19, 1902, pp. 413-416. fig. 1. 
New genus: Anpaitma. 
New ^>ecies: Atipaama ciconiar. 



JORDAN, David Starr, and FOWLER, 
Henry W. A review of the Chseto- 
dontidtt and related families of fishes 
found in the waters of Jaf>an. 

Proc. U. S. Not. Mu8., xxv, No. 1296, Sept 
30. 1902, pp. 513-663, figs. 1-6. 
New species: Oyttopsi* itea, Antiffonia ttein- 
dachneri, Chsttodon dsedalma, Coradion dctmo- 
te», Holacanthus ronin. 

Notes on little-known Japanese 

fishes, with description of a new spe- 
cies of Aboma. 

Proe. U.S. Nat. Mu$., xxv, No. 1298, Oct. 
•2, 1902, pp. 673-676. fig. 1. 
New species: Ahoma snyderi. 

A review of the Berycoid fishes of 



Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvi. No. 1306, Nov. 
25, 1902, pp. 1-21, figs. 1-4. 

A review of the Ophidioid fishes 



of Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus., xxv, No. 1303, Dec. 
2, 1902, pp. 743-766, figs. 1-6. 
New genus: Hierichihys. 
New species: Hierichthys mcryptcs, Lycrn- 
chelys jxxcilimon, Bothrocara zcsta, Otophidium 
asiro, Porogadus giintheri. 

A review of the Elasmobranchiate 



fishes of Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxvi, No. i:i24,Mar. 
30, 1908, pp. 593-674, pis. xxvi-xxvii, 
figs. 1-10. 

A review of the Cepolidte or band- 



fiphes of Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nal. J/m*., xxvi. No. 1330. Apr. 
9, 1903, pp. 699-702, fig. 1. 

A review of the Cobitidw, or 



loaches of the rivers of Japan. 

Proc. r. S. Nat. .Mus., xxvi, No. 1332, Apr. 
9, 1903, pp. 76^774, figs. 1, 2. 

A review of the dragonete (Cal- 



lionymidfe) and related fishes of the 
waters of Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxv. No. 1305, May 
9, 1903. pp. 939-959, figs. 1-9. 
New gcnere: Dractmetta, L\iUiurichihy». 
New spec it's: Dracimettn xcnica, Cnlliurich- 
thys doryssus, CaUionymus Jlaffris, C. caUiste, 
C. rirgis. 

JORDAN, David Starr, and SNYDER, 
John Otferbein. A review of the 
Blennoid fishes of Japan. 

Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., xxv. No. 1*293, Sept. 
26, 1902, pp. 441-6(V1, figs. 1-28. 
New genera: ZacaUcs, Azuma, Ztmrchias, 
Abryois. 

New spe<'les: Tripterygion cthcostoma, T. 
ftai^iirum, ZacaUes bryojtc, Prtroscirtes rfatus, 
Aspidontus trmsulus, A. dasson, iScarticMhys 
f^osima', S. stfUifcr, Aztima cmmnUnv, Br>jo- 
stemma otohimr, B.saibme, AUctTXOfcVvetvja'nv.V.tvV.^ 



158 



REPOKT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903, 



JORDAN, David Starr, and SNYDER, 
John Otterbein — Continued. 

Xeozoartfs a*:indachneri, Z^Kirrhinn veiifftrus, 
Opisthoccntru* zonope, Ahnjois azntiiw, Ermt- 
grammus epaUax, Sticfutus nozmar, Lumitaius 
fmderi. 

Descriptions of two new species of 



Squaloid sliarks from Japan. 

Proc. U. S. Xat. Mm., xxv. No. 1279, Sept. 
2. 1902, pp. 79-^1, figs. 1, 2. 
New genus: Deania. 

New »pe<'les: Etmopterus lur{frr, Deania 
eglantina. 

On certain species of tishes con- 



f listed with Bn/osU'mfiia jwlynctocepha- 

lum. 

Proc. V. S. Xat, Mun., xxv. No. 1300, Nov 
4, 1902, pp. 613-618. figs. 1-3. 
New genus: BryoUtphus. 
New 8pe<.'ii«: Bn/fnttrmma tartKxht*. It. dav>- 
rntum, Bryolophnt lyaimus. 

JORDAN, David Starr, and STARKS, 

Edwin Chapin. A review of the 

llemibranchiate fishes of Japan. 

Proc. V. S. Sat. Mun., xxvi, No. 1308. Dee. 
2, 1902, pp. 57-73, figs. 1-3. 

A review of the Synentojrnathous 

fishes of Japan. 

Prftc. V. S. yat. Mus., XXVI, No. 1319, Feb. 
4, 1903, pp. 525-544, figs. l-Ji. 

IH^scription of a new Hi>ecie8 of 



sen 1 pin from Japan. 

/YfX". V. S. Xnt. Muc. xxvi. No. 1326, Apr. 
11. 1903. pp. r)89. 690, fig. 1. 

KNOWLTON, Frank II. Chanjje of 
name of Firus.^ lu'spiria, from tiie vicin- 
ity of Ashland, Oreg. 

/Vor. JHol Soc. Wash., XV. Apr. 25. I9tr2, 
p. 81), 
The name Fiats* hfuperia hn.s been u.«te<l in 
the Bulletin of tht? T. S. ( Jcol<^ic4il Survey on 
the Flom of the Montana Formation, for a 
plant from the North Fork of Dutton C'n»ek in 
the Laramie Plains. Wyoming, and also for a 
difT«.TentsjH.'eic.sfroin the vicinity of Ashland, 
OreR., in the 20th Annual Rei)ortof the V. S. 
(Jeologlcal Survey, and a.s the former ante- 
dat(rs the latter, the change to Ficunf ap]tlt(jn- 
Ui is made. 

Notes <»n the fossil fruits and lig- 
nites of Brandon, Vt. 

Bull. Torny Botan. ('tub, No. 29. Nov., 19(»2. 
pp. 635-641, pi. 25. 
The (K'currcnce and geological position of 
the lignites are dest^ribed and the conclusion 
reached that in age they are younger than 
the Kocene. These Brandon lignites are also 
determined to be largely eouifenms. SeUM'te<l 
specimens ujMm examination were found to 
be only varietally diflerent from Schmaul- 



KNOWLTON, Frakk H.— C'ontinued. 

haiwen'8 PitoxyUm micrc/porotrnm, and for the 
Brandon form the name Pityoxylon «um)fx>ro- 
»um. brnndonianum is proposed. One hdaU 
specimen vra.s detennincd to be dicotyledo- 
nous, probably allied to Betuia. The author 
had intended making an exhaustive micro- 
stropic study of the structare of the fruits m> 
abundant in thi»c lignites, but wa^ prevented 
from completing the work, and therefore pn>> 
scnts only some scattered notes on a few of 
the s]M.H;ies, to one of which he gives the new 
name Ciurumites Icmpiereuxii, 

Report on a small collection of 

fossil plants from the vicinity of Porcu- 
pine Butte, Montana. 

Bull. Tnrrcy Botan. Clttb, No. 29, Dec.. 1902, 

pp. 70fy-709. pi. 26. fig. 1 (in text). 

In this jtaper four spcries are enumerated. 

among them one that is new — TiUia wccdii— 

and the age of the beds in which they occur 

is given as the Fort l^'nion Tertiary. 

Fossil flora of the John Day basin, 



Orejron. 

Bull. r. S. Geol. Sun., No. 204, 1902. M». 
1-113, pLs. i-xvii. 
The .lohn Day basin lies in north central 
Oregon between the north and sonth ningiV 
of the Blue Mountains, (Covering an area of 
approximat(>ly 10,000 square miles, drained by 
the ,Iohn Day River and its tributaries. The 
tlora of the basin, as sit forth in this paper. 
oomprLses 150 fonns distributed among ^ 
natural families and the anomalous group uf 
Phyllites. Of the 150 forms enumerated. 24 
have not been Hpe<'if)cally named, and 44 
sp<>cies and one variety arc dcMcribed as new, 
the preWously known species numbering 81. 
The bcHls are all of Tertiary age. ranging frooa 
Lower Eocene to Upper Miocene. The ood- 
ditions prevailing in the John Dayba.<inin 
Tertiary times extended into <*entral Wash- 
ingtou, northwestern Idaho, and \ve«teni 
Oregon. 

KOTINSKY, Jacob. The first North 
American I^af-gall Diasjune. 

Proc. Ent. Sf}C. Wash., v. 1908. pp. 149-1% 
Describes CntptophyliatpU liquidambarw. 

new species. 

LrCAS, P'redkric A. Palteontological 

notes. 

Sciaur ^new series), xvi.No. 402, Sept. 12. 
1902. p. -435. 
The name Ihiccntrurut is proposed to re- 
place OmnMnurHs, this being preoccupied. 
llopliUmxiiru^ inarshi is proposed to replsce 
stt ijiMtaunm mnrnhi, thisdinosaurbeing shovn 
to be related to Polaeanthu*. 

Aves. 

Text Book of PaUtontology, by Karl von 
Zittel, Nov., 1902, pp. 256-278, figs. 30- 
373. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



159 



XUCAS, Frederic A. — Continue<l. 

A brief descriptioii of the osteology and 
main divifdons of the Clam Avcs, with special 
reference to fossil species. Based partly on 
palseontologicnl and osteological material in 
the Museum collections. 

Animals before man in North 

America. 

D. Appleton & Co., Nov.. 1902, pp. i-vil, 
1-291, 6 pis. and numerous text flgs. 

A popular account of the succession of life 
in North America. 

Many references to specimens in the U. 8 
National Museum. 

The weapons of liinle. 

Bird Lore, Nov.-Dec., 1902, pp. 182-1K5, « 
text flgs. 

The Dinosaurs or Terrible Lizards. 

Bep. SmUhg4mian Inst., 1901 (1902), pp. 
Wl-«47, pit*. 1-4. 
A popular account of the DlnosaurH, re- 
printed from '* Animals of the Past." 

The Greatest Flying Creature, tlie 



pp. 



Great Pterodactyl OniUhoxtmna. 

Rep. Smithfonian Inst, 1901 (1902). 
654-659, pis. 1-3. 1 text fig. 
A popular account of this flying reptile, 
comparisons heing made with hird^ and Imts 
as to size and power of flight. 

Notes on the osteology and rela- 



tionships of the fossil i)irds of the ^^n- 

em He^peromi^f Ifayeriaj BapUprtnt* and 

Diatryma, 

Proc. U. S. yat. Mua.. xxvi. No. 1:^20, 
Feb. 4, 1908, pp. 545-^56, 8 figs. 
Additional information is given as to the 
structure of the skeleton in Hatperurim and 
Baptomis; the genus Haycria is proposed for 
Hcfperomis gracUU, and it Is suggested that 
Diatryma belongs in the Stereonithes. 

night. 

Article in International Cydopstdia, Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 
An account of the mechanism of flight a.s 
found in various animals, especially verte- 
brates, and the method by which it is per- 
formed. 

LYON, Marcus W., Jr. Lophofftomn 

renezueliv vhangiid tA> ToiuUui renezueUv. 
Pror. BiU. Soc. Wash., xv. Dec. 16, 1902, 
p. 24«. 

Observations on the numl)er of 

young of the Lasiurine bats. 

Pror. r. S. Nat. M%i*., XXVI, No. 1314, Jan. 
26, 1908, pp. 425-426, pi. xnil. 
Four young usually are produced at a 
birth. 



McMURRICH, J. Playfair. Note on 
the Sea Anemone, Sagartia paguri Ver- 
rill. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., xxvi, No. 1315, Jan. 
27, 1903, pp. 427-428. 2 text figs. 
Description of sfK'cimens obtained by Dr. 
D. S. Jordan and Mr. J. O. Snyder in Japan, 
where the species lives adherent to the chela 
and the shell of the hermit crab, Diogenes 
(dwardsii (de Haan). 

MAIDEN, Joseph Henry. On the 
identification of a species of Encalifptua 
from the Philippines. 

I*roc. r. S. Nat. Mus., xxvi. So. 1327, Apr. 
11, 1903, pp. 691, 692. 

MARLATT, G. L., Rosuiu^ of the search 
for the native home of the San Jose 
scale in Japan and ('hina. 

BuU. IHv. Ent.. V. S. Dept. Agric. (now 
series). No. 37, Oct. 3, 1902, pp. 65-78. 

Preliminary report on the impor- 
tation and present status of the Asiatic 

ladybinl (Chilocorim similift). 

Bull. Dir. Ent., V. S. Dept. Agrie. (new 
series). No. 37, Oct. 3, 1902, pp. 78-84. 

Predatory insects which affect the 



usefulness of scale-feeding Coccinel- 
lida?. 

Bull. Dir. Ent., I'. S. Dept. Agric. (new 
series), No. 37, Oct. 3, 1902. pp. R4-87. 

Report of the Acting Entomolo- 



gint for 1902. 

Ann. Hep. V. S. Dept. Agrir. 1902, pp. 
1K9-207. 
This report was submitted Aug. 2, 1902. and 
publL«<hcd in Doc, 1902. Extras with title 
page and table of contimts wore printed. 

Collecting notes on moscjuitoes in 



Oriental countries. 

I*r<}C. Ent. Soc. Wa^h., v. No. 2, pp. 111-123. 
Author's extras were published Jan. 31. 
1903. 

Notes on the perio<lical cicada in 



the District of Columbia in 1902. 

Proc. Ent. Sttc.. Wn*h., V, No. 2, pp. 124- 
126. 
Author's extras were published Feb. 4, 1903. 

.\n early record of the periodical 



cicada. 

/Vof. Ent. Stjc. ir(wA..v. No. 2, pp. 12<>-127, 
Author's extras were published Feb. 4, 1903. 

A chalcidid parasite of the Asiatic 



ladyl)irfl. 

PriH-. Eut..^tc. WiVfh., V. No.2. pp. i:iH-139. 
Author's extras were published Feb. 4, 1908. 



160 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



MARLATT. C. L. The lime, nulphur, j 
and salt wanli. 

arc. Dir. Ent., V. S. Jicitt. Agriv., Div. uf 
Ent. (MM'ond writes), No. 52, pp. 8, Feb. 
20, 1908. pp. I to 8. 

The Entomological Club of the 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. Report by the secre- i 

tary. ' 

raw. A'w/.. XXXV. Mar., IVKW, pp. .'W-A«: | 
XXXV, Apr., 1903, pp. 79-87. 

Jai)an*8 foremost entomologist. 

Ent. yeirtt, XIV, No. 3. Mar., 1903, pp. av 
6M, pi. IV. 

I low to control the San Jose scale. 

Cirr. Dir. Eut., V. S. Jk-pt. Aijric. Dir. • 
Ent. (Heoond 8eri*»»). No. 42. 7 pp.. Mar. ■ 
•25, 1903. Third edition, extensively re- 
vised. 

Scale innectH and mites on citrus ' 



MAXON, AViLLiAM R. Notes on Amer- 
lean ferns, vi. 

FemBuU., xi, Apr., 1903, pp. 38-10. 
(1) Mention is made of a cristate form i>f 
Woodwinfia gpinuloM from CalifomiA. i2> 
Adiantum mudtttHin Underw. is reported fn«n 
Arizona. (3) PolyttichummunitumifiUiarivM 
fnib«p. nov., is described from Lower Califor- 
nia. 

A study of certain Mexican and 

Guatemalan species of Polypodinm, 
OmtHb. V. S. Xat. Herharium, vili, pt. 3, 
June 27, 1908, pp. i-v; 271-279, pis, Lii. 
LXII. 

A summar>* of resolts attending a iitudy •>! 
plants referred to, or closely related to, Pdf- 
podium auhpftioUUum Hook. Potirpodivm ac- 
qucdis, P. tcretae^ P.firmulum, P.jiMidetu and 
P. adelphnm are dowrlbed an new. 

(See also under LrciEN M. I'nder- 



trecf. I 

Fhrmerit' Bull., V. .S. Dntt- Agric. JHr. Ent., 
No. 17.>. Apr. 17, 1903. pp. 42. figt*. 31. 
lie vision of the Yearbook article by Mr. 
Marlatt. 

Ai)plicd entomology in Japan. , 

JiuU. Dir. Ent., V. S. Ihpt. Agric. (new 
series), No. 40, pp. .'>G-fi:J, pK i. ii. (It»- ' 
.sued Apr. 2:>, 1903.) i 

A h<mPt»-lK>at colUH^-ting trip in I 

China. ' 

(Mn. Ent., XXXV, A]»r., IWW. pp. 79-X7. | 

Tbc San J().»*e scale — itn natural i 



home and natunil (»nemy. 

ytnrh(>ok V. S. Jh-jU. Agric, 1902. [»]». l.Vv- 
174. 
Author's extnis wert» isnued .Tune 6. 190:J. 

MARSHALL. William H. Tea. ' 

Am. ,Toinn. Phnrmurif. i.xxv. No. -J, Feb.. 
IIMW. pp. 71MM. 
Part of H liM'ture bef«»re the PhannaceuticMl ' 
.V.sjMM'ialioii of the Philrtdeli»hia ColleRe oi 
I'harnmey. l>eH(Tibes the Ixitany. ffeojjraphy 
and hi.»«tory, iMiltivation. pn*paration, ohem- 
istry, efloi'ts, wx'inl status, adultemnts. and 
commerce of tea. 

MASOX, (>TiH Ti i-TON. (Sec under Wil- 
liam II. IIOLMKS. ) 

ALVXON, WiLLi.\M Ii. A Jaf^newroly- 
l^xly. 

I*tfp. Sri. yncM, xxxvi, Oct.. 19<r2. ]•. 2'Jl. 2 
\)\s. 
A iMjpular account of the iK'culiar way Piilij- 
pittliiim jnjHtnirnm has of formiuK spirals by 
the sidewise tortion of its midrib. 

A lx)taiiiHtH' mocca. | 

]*f(int World, \i, Feb., 1U03. p. :i.^. 
Noleontht! Ilart's-tongue in Central New 
York. 



WOOD. ) 

MAYER, P. Die CaprelliiUe der Sibojja- 

Expedition. Monographie xxxiv Iiuf: 

I Uitkomsten op Zoologisch, | Botan- 

isch, Oceano-graphiBch en (leologisi'b 

(tebied | verzanield in Nederland2>ch 

Oo8t-lndie 1899-1900 | aan boord II. 

M. Sibo^ onder commando van | Lui- 

tenant ter zee I* kl. G. F. Tydeman | 

uitgegeven door | Dr. Max Weber | 

Prof, in Amsterdam, Leider der Expe- 

ditie I I^eiden | Juin 1903 | 
Folio, 160 pp.. plH. i-x. 
A eomprehcnidvc work eoTcring not oiilj 
the results of the Siboga ExpeditioD, bat cpI- 
lei*tionR from many different moaenms. Hej* 
to the genera and specieii are given, aleo t 
bibliography, faunal lliitB of speoieK, *» wd! 
as a list of the Siboga collection, and a rlutp- 
ter on the morphology, biology, and fAy- 
lojjeny of the CaprelUdie. 

M EARNS, EiKiAR A. The Ocelot cat^. 
Pntc. r. S. Nat. Mus., XXV. No. WW. Sept. 
17, 1902, pp. 237-249. 
New spot;! cm: Frlia cottarieenau, F. rqvatv 

rial is. 

M ERRIAM, C. Hart. (See un«ler J. A. 
Ali.kn.) 

MERRILL, Gboroe P. A newlv fotuwl 

metvorite from Mount Vernon, Cbrii»- 

tian Comity, Ky. 

.1 m . (irt^ogist, X X XI , Mar. . 1908, pp. 15<^1% 

a brief jmper giving a preliminanr nutitf 

of ii 8r>l-poiind pallaidte that had n>cenily 

<(>me into the poasesBion of the NatioDal Mo- 



stMim. 



Stones I for | Building and Dei- 

nnition. I By | (reorge P. Merrill' 
( 'urator of ( re<^loi0:y in the Uniteid Stat** 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



161 



MERRILL, Gborob P.— Continued. 
National Maseum and Professor of 
Geology | in Columbian University; 
author of "Rocks, Rock- weathering, 
and I Soils," "The Nonmetallic Min- 
erals,'' etc. I Third edition, Revised 
and Enlarged. | New York: | John 

• Wiley & Sons. | London: Chapman & 
Hall, Limited. | 1903. 

8 vo., pp. i-xi, 1-551. pin. I-XXXIII, figH. 
1-24. 
This U a third edition of a work published 
in 1891 and based upon the author's catalogue 
of the Collection of building and ornamental 
stones in the U. S. National Museum form- 
ing a part of the Report of the U. S. National 
Museum for 1886. 

MILLER, Gbrrit 8., Jr. Two new Ma- 
layan mouHe deer. 

pTffC. Biol. Soc. Wa*h., xv. Aug. 6, 1902, 
pp. 173-175. 
Tragulus varus (p. 173) and T. bomeaniis 
(p. 174). 

Twenty new American bate. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Hci. Phila. May. 1902, pp. 
389-412. (IsKued Sept. 12. 1902.) 
Described as new: Antrozous minor (p. 389). 
PipiMreUus cinnamomeug (p. 390), fHtsyptenis 
floridanus (p. 392), Nydinomops (new genu8) 
(p. 393), Syriinonwit* yucatnnicu» (p. 393), 
Molosmtut nigricang (p. 395), ifolotunm prdiom* 
(p. 3%). Nydinomtu antiUularum (p. 398), 
Natalu* major (p. 898), NattUiut mrjricanus, 
(p. 399), Chilonycteris innioricnieis (p. 400), 
Chilonyctcris merieana {]>. 401) , Mormoiyp* tu- 
midicfpg (p. 403). Dermanura vara (p. 404), 
Dermanura phstotis (p. 405), Vampyrups /«- 
tnostu (p. 4(^), Stenoderma lurite (p. 407), 
Hemiderma tricolor (p. 408), Brachyphylla 
nana (p. 409), MonophyUua cubanus (p. 410), 
and Monophyllus lucise (p. 411). 

A new bat from the Island of 



Dominica. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16, 1902. 
pp. 243-244. 
Myotis dominicensis, p. 243. 

Two new tropical Old World bats. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16. 1902, 
pp. 245-246. 
yyciinomus pusiUus (p. 245) , and Nyctinomus 
j€ibensis (p. 246). 

The common Nijctinomtut of the 



Greater Antilles. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16, 1902, 
p. 248. 
A distinct species which should be known 
as Nyctinomus muscultts Qundlach, 

The external characters of Brachy- 



phylla nana Miller. 

Proe. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Pw, J6, 19p2, 
p. 249. 

JfAT MTO 1W3 U 



MILLER, Gebiut S., Jr. An overlooked 

specimen of Chilonycteris pmhtis. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16, 1902, 
p. 249. 

A second specimen of Plerygiites 

azoreum, Thomas. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16, 19(^, 
p. 250. 

The status of Nyctinomus nevadensis 



(H. Allen). 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16, 1902, 
p. 250. 
Identical with Nyctinomops depressus 
(Ward). 

The generic position of Nyctinomus 



orthotis H. Allen. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Dec. 16, 1902, 
p. 250. 
A member of the genus Promops. 

Mammals collected bv Dr. W. L. 



Abbott on the coast and islands of 

Northwest Sumatra. 

Proi\ U. S. Nat. Mus., XX vi. No. 1317, Feb. 
3, 1903, pp. 437-484. 
The following species are described as new: 
Tragulus amacnus (p. 439), Tragulus jugularis 
(p. 440), Tragulus briTipes (p. 443), Tragidus 
russt'us (p. 444). Rafufafcmoralis (p. 447), Ba- 
tufa vigrescais (p. 448), Ratu/a Iscnata (p. 449), 
Sciurus manstiiuris (p. 451), Sciurus bnncarus 
(p. 451), Sciurus snturatua (p. 4.'>3), Sciurus 
pretiums (p. 454), Sciurus ubericolor (p. 465), 
Sciurus trcbus (p. 456). Mm simaJuretms (p. 
458^, Mus surdus (p. 160), Mus domitor (p. 461), 
Mus catcllijir (p. 4r>4), Lmnthrix (new genus) 
(p. 46<'»). Lenothrix canus (p. 466), TrichyBma- 
crofis (p. 469). and .\facacus fiiscus (p. 476). 

Descriptions of eleven new Malay- 



an Mouh»e Deer. 

Prftc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xvi, Mar.l9, 1903, pp. 

31-44. 

The following npecles are described as new: 

Tragulus lulescens (p. 32). Tragulus Jlavicollis 

(p. 33), TragtduK /ormosus (p. 34), Tragulus 

focaliniis (p. 35), Tragulus virgicollis (p. 37), 

Tragulus natunw (p. 38), Tragulus ttuhru/us 

(p. 39), Tragulus rubeus (p. 40), Tragulus 

rmmlus (p. 41). Tragulus laTicatnmsis (p. 41), 

Tragulus lampensis (p. 42). 

A new name for Mu^ atralns Miller. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xvi, Mar. 19, 1903, 
p. 50. 
Mus atridorsum \» substituted for Mub airatus 
Miller. 1902 (not Mus airatus Philippi. 1900). 

The technical name of the Indian 



Flying Fox. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xvi. Mar. 19, 1903, 
p. 50. 
The species should be known as Ft^opws 

giganteus (BrOwilch). 



162 



REPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



MILLER, Gerrit S., Jr. The short- 
leaved eundew in Virginia. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xvi. June 25, 1903, 
p. 102. 
The plant is recorded from the vicinity of 
Hampton, Va. 

(See also under J. A. Allen and 

Leonhard Stejneger. ) 

NEEDHAM, James G. A genealogic 
study of dragon-fly wing venation. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu*., xxvi, No. 1331, Apr. 
16, 1903, pp. 70a-764, pis. xxxi-Liv, 
figs. 1-44. 

NELSON, E. \V. The nomenclature and 
validitv of certain North American 
Gallintr. 

Aiik, XIX, No. 4. Oct., 1902, pp. 386-391, 
pl«. XIV. XV. 

Reply to Mr. OkHvIc (irant'H "KemHrkson 
the Species of American (Tiillina> recently 
described and not en on their nomenclature" 
(Ibis, 1902, pp. 233-24.5^ in which vnriouH 
errors appearing in Mr. (J rant's paper are 
rectified. 

(See alno under J. A. Allen. ) 

0BERH0L8ER, Hakky 0. Some new- 
South American birds. 

Proc. V. S. Nat. Mint., xxv, N(». 1276, Awg. 
30, 1902. i)p. 59-68. 
DescriptionH of 12 new siiecies and sub- I 
species and 1 new jfenus, viz.: Tfinmnophilii.^ 
ttphriH/agtfr (p. 59 1, Sf/wilfnwiif i*pi.ri notiiiK 
(p. 60), -\V/t/ro;W« prrmoptfrun tp. 61). 
Ovhthirca rujtmnrf/inutn ocrophila (p. 61), 
MfVMCOTulim alntint (p. 62). .V. iftkinptrnis 
fiipUuttuit (p. 63), lihiim'hvciidns acoiius (p. 
63), Pcrimiftriccus (p. 64). Ihrnitrircus pani- 
jnirtum (p. 61), Pinjunolnt'cns aUrni (p. 6o). 
Sirtjgttut ifibiUifor atimnstus (p. (H\), Irturuit 
pifrrhopttnis curnpHus ([>. (►M), ami rcUru,-i 
pyrrhoptcniM nnjoptilu." (p. (is), 

List of birds collected bv William 



OBERHOLSER, Harry C.-<V)ntinued. 
Oatherpcs mrzieanvi> poliopHlus is indicated as 
new. 

A synopsis of the genus Pmhri- 



T. Foster in Paraguay. 

Proc. V. S. xVa^ Mut:., xxv. No. 12K1, Scjit. 
8. 1902. pp. 127-147. 
A list of alxmt 60 sprcics, with critical 
iioteK. 

A new cliff swallow from Texas. 

Prur. Biol. Sor. Hnnh.. XVl, Feb. 21, 19l«, 
pp. 1.V16. 
Pf^trochdiilou luhifr<ntii inchimi is descrilHHl 
from I^angtry. Tex. 

I)e8(.!riptioii of a new N'irco. 

I*ri>i\ Biol. i<oc. Wash.. .\VI. F<'b. 21. UKVA. 
pp. 17-18. 
V'irco hfVii vn tiivs i.s described as a n<>w sub- 
sfK-'cies from southwestern Tcxa.s. 

A review of the genus Cdtherpr.'i. 

Auk, XX, No. 2, April, 1903. pp. 19«>-19S. 
('ondensed diagnoses and geographical di.s- 
trihutions of five fonnf of thi.<igenus, of which 



partis. 

Auk, XX, No. 2, April, 1903, pp. 19^201. 
Notes on the seven rec<^:nized fonojiof tbU 
genu8, to which are added the type localities 
and geographical distribution of each fonn. 

PFENDER, Charles A. (See under 
Charles W. Stiles. ) 

POLLARD, Charles Louis. Plants ii?ed 
for Cuban confectionerv. 

Ptant World, v, July, 1902, pp. 131-132. 

A new station for the Grav Pt)lv- 

pody. 

Plant World, v, July, 19112, pp. 133-1S4. 

P ( ) L L A R D, Charles I^ouw, and 
KNOWLTON, Frank Hall. 

Plant World, v. 16H-170. Sept., 19i«2. pp. 
168-170. 
A sketch of F. H. Knowlton's scientific and 
literary work. 

Two new violets from the east- 
ern United States. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wcuh., xv, Oct 10, 1902, 
pp. 201-208. 
Describes VioUi tcnuipas and V. mwlfordar. 

The families of flowering plant.*. 

(Concluded from previous year.) 

l^ant World Sujtplement, July-Dec.. 1902, 
pp. 235-253. 

POLLARD, Charles Uiuis, and CWK- 

ERELL, THEt)iK)RE D. A. Four new 

plants from New Mexi(X). 

iVfx*. Biol. Soc. Wash., xv, Aug. 6, l»l 
pp. 177-179. 
Violo u'ilmnttar. Primula fUisiit, and Arhil- 
ltd Uuriflora are described as new specie**. 

PKEBLE, Edward A. Birds of Keewa- 

tiii. 

Sorth Am. Fauna, No. 12, O-t. 31. 190:; 

pp. 75-131. 

An annotated list of all birds known t«» 

(K'cur in this portion of the Hudson Bay n>- 

gion, with copious references to previous 

records. 

RATHBl'N, Mary J. Note on the 
^'enorif name of the horseshoe crab. 

PrtH'. Biol. Soc. Wash., XV, Oct. 10. 1902, 
p. 196. 
(iivcs references to three binomial writers 
who have used the name Xiphosura prior t» 
tin* tirst description of Limidus. 

' l)e8(Tii)tions of new species of 

Hawaiian crabs. 

Pn>r. r. S. Nat. Mas., xxvi. No. 1309, Nov. 
18. 1902, pp. 75-77, 4 text flgB. 



BIBLIOGBAPHY. 



163 



RATHBUN, Mary J.— Continued. 

The crabs described, Cyclograptnis hmshaw, 
and Ositu hawaiiensis, were obtained by 
MeH8T8. H. W. Henshaw and R. C. McGregor. 

Japanese stalk-eyed crustaceans. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu8., XX VI. No. 1807. Nov. 

28, 1902, pp. 2a-66, 24 text figs. 

Based on a collection made by Dr. David 

8. Jordan and Mr. J. O. Snyder in 1900. Nine 

shrimpfi and one hermit crab are described as 

new. 

The first series of specimens is in the U. S. 
National Moseum. 

Cralw from the Maldive Islands. 

BiUl. 3Ius. Comp. ZooL, Hansard 0)U€g€^ 

XXXIX. No. 5, Dec. 1902. pp. 123-138, 1 

plate. 
A list of 28 spdue.** obtaine<1 by Prof. Alex- 
ander AgH.««(i7. and party in 1901-1902, chiefly 
in the lagoons of the Maldive atolls. Six 
spHN'ies are des<"ribed as new. 

(See also under J. A. Allen.) 



RA VENEL, W. de C. The ran-Ameri- 
can Exposition. Report of the repre- 
sentative of the U. S. Fish Commission. 

Rep. U. t>. Fish Om., 1901 (1902), pp. 289- 
651, pis. 6-20. 

RICHARDSON, Harriet. A new fresh- 
water Isopmi of the genus MancaHfUuH 
from Indiana (p. 121>4). A new terres- 
trial Isopod of the genus Psemhirjiuidillo 
from Cuba (p. 1295). 

Pr<M\ r. S. Sat. Mum., xxv, Nos. 1294 ami 

1295. Sept. 25. 1902. pp. 505-511. H t»-xt 

figs. 

The fiD»t spe<'ie.s ManaisdluH danidm wa.s 

rollei'teii by Mr. L. E. Daniels at Lily I^ike, 

Laporto. Iiid.; the hccoihI, l*n<ndnmio<IiUo 

(jUliiinuit. was obtained at the Isle «>f IMnes, 

Cuba, by Messrs. William Palmer niid J. H. 

Riley. 

RICHMOND, (^H.\RLEs W. Descriiition.'* 
of eight new birds from islands off the 
west coast of iSumatra. 

Pnte. Iiu)l. Stpc. Woith., xv, .Vug. rt, 19ir2, 
pi». 1«7-190. 
Ihiiieomis major (p. 18JS) l*itiitinuit al}botti (]*. 
18X), Thriponax imrvu* (p. 1S9), lli/pothi/tnix 
abboUi (p. 1H9), Ifypothyinis consobrina (p. 
189), Maicwapterun notaitnn (p. 190). and Sf<t- 
ehyriit baujnkam« (p. 190) are described a.v new 
Hpecies from Simalurand other islands off the 
west coast of Sumatra. 

Birds collected bv I>r. W. I.. 



.\MKjtt and Mr. C. B. Kloss in the .An- 
daman and Nicobar islands. 

I*rm\ V. S. Nat. Mug., xxv. No. Ijss. Sopt. 
17, 1902, pp. 2H7-314. 
A list of 101 species from the .\n(lamausand 
>Mcobars, with notes by the colle<;t*>r>«. Zoi*- 



RICHMOND, Charles W.— Continued. 

terops ventraHn (p. 288), Stumia erythropygva 
kaichalenna (p. 295), Rhinomyias nicobarica 
(p. 295), Arachnechthra Mom (p. 297), Pitta 
abboUi (p. 298), Spilomis klossi (p. 304), Astur 
chmUiui (p. 306), OsmotreroncfUoroptera anda- 
manica (p. 308), and Excaifactoria trinkutemris 
are described as new. DiMemurusmaiabariciu 
otio»u8 is a new name for D. afflnis, preoccu- 
pied. 

[Review of] P5ertoni*s **Aves 

Nuevas del Paraguay." 

Auk, XIX, No. 4, Oct., 1902, pp. 414-416. 

Note on Pinaroloxiaa hiornata 



(Oould). 

Proc. liioL Sjc. HVw/*., xv, Dec. 16, 1902, 
pp. 247-248. 
Note showing that Pinaroloxia* inoniatn is 
identical with CoatniiH at/asnizi. 

Birds collectetl ])v Dr. W. L. Ab- 



bott on the coast and islands of North- 
west Sumatra. 

/Vor. r. S. Nat. Mns., xxvi. No. 1318, Feb. 
4, 190:^. pp. 485-524. 
A li.stof 151 species collected or observed on 
the coast and islands of Northwestern Suma- 
tra, with field notes by the ('ollect4)r. The fol- 
lowing species are named for the first time: 
SpUornis ahbotli (p. 492), Piaorhina umhra (p. 
494). PdartfopHifi fiimaluren^iit (p. 498). /*. soda- 
lis (p. 499), MacropUryx jxrloinja (p. 502), 
Cyaiwdrrnia /ulviventris (p. 507). TchHrai pr<t- 
ccra {p. 510), (Iramtilus bahit mfin (p. 513), O. 
fimnlummtis (p. 513), Caiiijuphtuja romptd (p. 
514). Oriolus innnduH (p. 517). Cnlumlta (jriwa 
and Corvustcmiirinttris w.r(t ri'named <'. plHUtma 
ami <'. compihiUtr, res|>ectively, l»oth of the 
former names being pre<H*('Upied. 

KID(J\VAY, Robert. Smithsonian In- 
stitution. I United States National Mu- 
Heuni. I — I Bulletin | of the | Ignited 
States National Museum. | No. 50. | 
— I Part II. I [Seal] Washington: j 
<iovernment Printing Office. | 1902. 

The Binls | of | North and Middle 
.\merica: | .\ Descriptive Catalogue | 
of the I Higher (froups, Genera, Spe- 
cies, and Su])-species of Birds | Known 
to (K'cnr in North America, from the | 
Arctic Lands to the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama, I the West Indies and Other 
Islands | of the (^aribbt^an Sea, ami 
the I (ialapagos Archii)elago. | By | 
Kol)ert Kidgway, | Curate )r, Division 
of Birds. I — I Part II. | Family Tana- 
gridt'c — The Tanagers. | P^andly Icteri- 
<he — The Troui)ials. | Family Oerebi- 
die — The Honey Creepers. | Family 



164 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUdEXJH, 1903. 



RIDGWAY, Robert— Continuecl. 
Mniotilti(lH> — The Wood Warblers. | 
— I Washington: | (lovemment Print- 
ing Offiw. I 1902. 

8 vo., pp. i-xx, l-8»4. pis. i-xxii. (Pub- 
liHhtHl Oct. 16, 1902.) 
The preuent part of this monograph deals 
with four exclusively American families of 
Passeres (Tana<jrri<lar. Icterida', C«rrebid», 
and Mniotiltida*), embracintir 77 genera and 
433 spet'ies and subspecies. The treatment of 
species is Kimilar to that follow(*d in the first 
part of the work. Brief di^scriptions of the 
known -pluniaKCH aire given, followed by 
measurements, the Ke<^nii>hical ranges, an«i 
a full synonymy. The following forms are 
intnfduc*^! as new: Fhaninflhraupig rubiru 
ml»ttni (p. 115 1. i'ompintlMi/pi/t aimricnua rn- 
nuiiinir {\K i>'f}), (rn>thhjpiit iin^mipta (p. 677). 
(i. trhjiia (p. 677), G. finvida (p. 67Ki. /»'. ml- 
i^tni mit'rorhyiu'hn \\i. 6^5), WUmntia jniAiUo 
rhrytttpia (j*. 714), Hn^ili uUniit cnlirintnin Jln- 
rtitffns (p. 7r>r)), Mild HhiHlintwichla nnna cj-i- 
mia (p. 770). Outline drawings representing 
the (•harH<'ters of the 77 genera treate<i in this 
[►art are giv»'ii in the 22 plates accompanying 
the volume. 

[Koview of] I*y<*nift*H (MaHHilica- 

tion of thr FalconifornieH. 

S4'i*-mf (new seriirs). xvii. Mar. 27. IVUXi, 
r)0»J-511. 
\ review of I'ycraft'M {mikt tm the cliissiti- 
cation of this group, in which the reviewer 
IH»intsout the gn-at similarity lK»twecn the 
pn'M'iit arrangement and «>n(> fonnnlatedand 
pnhlisluMl by him nearly thirty years iH'fore. 

KILEY, .1. II. The aiithoritv for th<- 

nain(> ft'etttriftjon rhrtfxla. 

Auk XIX, No. I.Oct., 1<I02. p. \m. 
('aIlsHtt('Utiontothcfa<'t that Salva<lori, not 
H«>napar(t>, should he «juoted as atUhority for 
tin* alM>ve namr. 

I)t'.*«Tii»tion of a m*w <^iiail Dove 



from \\iv Went Imlie.s. 

/Vof. /;/*»/. N/f. M'fJ*/!., XVI. Ffh. 21. llUKi. 
pp. 1:MJ. 
(i<ulr;/(;tni salt:* ili'MTiU**! fn>ni .^alrn Island. 

ROSE, JosKiMi N. Studies of Mexican 

and Central .Vnieriean plants. No. l^. 
Cotdrih. I'. S. yat.JInh.. viii. No. 1. June, 
1«KK{. pp. 1 .V). pN. 1-12. tigv. 111. 
DcwHIm's two n»*w gt'Ut'ra and r>s siH.'cies, 
revises wveral g<*ncra suoh as I'otiauthfs, 
Man/rtild, <v»/o</a«/«t. and Cornii*. and re.vtf)res 
Mnnjrrda to gnieric rank. 

KOSK, Jo-sKi-H N., with IIKMSLKY, W. 

HoTTiNii. l)iagnoH*s Sjtfcirruni (jnuriH 

Juliana Schh'oht. America' Tropinc 
Annah of liotany, xvn. No. 66. Mar., 190:i. 
pp. 44.S-446. 
The genus and species are redescrll»ed and 
two new species are added. 

This paper is to be followed by an illustrated 
monograph, 



SCIIUCHERT, Charles. On the Lower 
Devonic and Ontario fonnationt> of 
Mar>'land. 

Proc. V. S. yat Mu9., xxvi, No. 1313. Ftb. 
3, 1903, pp. 413-424. 
Describes in detail the entire Upper Siloiic 
strata of Maryland, which have a united 
thicknem of 8,109 feet. These fonnationji are 
followed by the Lower Devonic deposits, with 
a thicknem of 608 feet (Helderbcr^ian, 20 
fc>et, and Oriskanian, 348 feet). The TariiKu 
fomiationj) are baaed on fossil content as tixA 
by the New York series, are of the North At- 
lantic type, and were laid down in the Cmn- 
l>erlHnd Mediterranean. 

[Review of] ** Mormt on Hviu^' 



})nu*hioiKKis.*' 

Am. lifitUigiM, Feb.. 1903, pp. 112-121. 
\ review of " Olwervations on living bmrh- 
io|KMls." by Edward 8. Morse. The reviewer 
adds otlier observations ljaw>d on fossil fonn!i 
and ewjiecially regarding the punctate shHl 
of bnichio|MMis. 

Tlie I. II. llarriH eullc^tion of in- 



vertehrate fctenils in the V. S. National 
Mii«nnn. 

Am. (ittilitgut, Mar.. 19UCi, pp. 131-135. 
This paper presents a biographic sketch «*i 
Mr. Harris and an aifount of his large c'lu- 
cinnatian citllection, as now installeil in this 
Museum. Also a list of the many ci^llectoni 
and paleontohn^ists boni or raise<l in the n*- 
gioii of the Cincinnatian nicks. 

On the ManliiiH formation of New- 



York. 

Am. (irttlogitU Mar., 1903, pp. l(H)-17s. 
The " Coralline lime»t<»ne"coiTellated with 
the Niagara, is here shown to be but a [lart of 
the Manlius formation as originally detlnH 
by Vaiuixem. The Manlius formation b 
then redefined: the fauna of the lV)bleskiH 
nicml»er is also reviewed. 

SIM1»S()N, ('iiARLKs T. A new Naia«i 
from New Zealand. 

StiHtUunt, XVI. No. 3, July, 1902, p. :». 
JHjtltxlon Mvfwfrrt is described as new. 

ShMl^SON, Charles T., and HENDER- 
SON, John B., Jr. A new Haitien 

C-hondropoma. 

yautiltju<. XVI, No. 8, Dei".. 1902, pp. i!iS-8». 
("hondropoma supcrbum from Thomaaeau. 
Haiti, is described and figured as new. The 
type i.** in the collection of the V. S. National 
Mu.M'uni (No. 168798). 

SMITH, JoH N B. Oontributioiui towani 
a monograph of the lepidopterouM foui- 
ily Noctuidw of Boreal North Anierii«. 
A revinion of the mothfl referred to the 
genus lAiicania^ with descriptions d 
new 8i)ei'ie8. 

Proc. v. S. yat. Mut„ XXV, No. 1288; Sepl. 
13, 1902, pp. l&^-m, I>]S. T, Ti. 



BIBUOGBAPHT. 



165 



TMITH, John B.— Continueti. 

N«'W K(>niu.: yeieucania. 

New HjK'oieR: Jjcucania lutfopallen$, L. rubri- 
jmUentt, L, olntrurior, L, limitata, L. Mera, L. 
ti/7>/i>, L. mcgaflin, L. nntrroctnrn, L. calgari- 
ana, L. orrgona, L. palluirca, Nrleucnnia nirei- 
cotia^ y. citroneUa. 

New name: Latcania lutina. 

SNYDER, John Otterbein. (See under 
David S. Jordan.) 

STARKS, Edwin Chapin. The relation- 
nhip an<l osteology of the caproicl fiphee 
or Antigoniidse. 

PrtH'. V. S, Nat. Mum., xxv, No. 1297, Sept. 
25, 1902, pp. 565-572, figs. 1-3. 

The shoulder ginlle and cliaracter- 

istic ostt»ology of the Hemi branchiate 
fiphef). 

Prtjc. r*. 5. Nat. Miui., XXV, No. 1301. Nov. 
4, 1902, pp. ril9-6:VI. figK. 1-6. 
New 8iH*ci««: Macrorhampho*us miJifiu: 

(See also under David S. Jcirdan. ) 



STEARNS, R. E. C. Iffilx var. rirnnu- 

rtiriuata and PyramUixila elrodi. 

Smttilun, XVI, 6. Oct., 1902, pp.61-4V2. 

Pijramiduhi elrofli and Kpiphnt- 

ijimophfira rirrumrtirinata . 

yaittiluii, XVI, 7, Nov., 1902, pp. Ki-M. 

The Oriental Svcamon* as a ntret^t 



tree. 

J'aciJIr Rurftl IWntf, Dw. 20. 1902, San 
Franciiwo. 
KecommendM the planting in California 
Btri'eti* and det»cril)e« the ineritM, ete. 

Ihac.gma (wstntih for l)asketry pur- 



poses, etc. 

Paci/lr Rural Prew, Fet). 21. 1908. Pan 
Francifiico. 
HuggeMtK theUKe of the leaver for nialcing 
liafiketif, hampere, matui etc. 

Mollusks occurrinj? in Houthern 



California. 

Xautihm, xvi, 12, April, 1908, pp. lltt-l.-M. 

Eucalyptus cultivate<l in the 



rnite<i States. 

SHrnce, xvii. May 29, 1908. pp. 8.'»8-860. 

STKTNEGER, Leonhard, Blue foxes on 

the Pribylof Islands. 

Science (new series), x vi, Ang. 22, 1902, pp. 

SKMtll. 

Diflcuiwes the statiflticii of the number of 

blue foxen killed in the Pribylof iHlands and 

conniders the results obtained from nparing 

the females as satisfactorj'. 

The reptiles of the Huachucha 

Mountains, Ariz. 

Proe.l U. S. Nat. Mus., xxv, No. 1282, Sept. 8, 
IMS, pp. 14»-lfi6. 



8TEJNEGER, Leonhard— CJontinued. 

Described a» new: Lampropeltis pyrrhth 
metama ceAitnop9 (p. 153): type, U. 8. N. M., 
No. 22375; and TantiUa wUcwri (p. 156); type, 
IT. 8. N. M., No. 19674. New name: Ixiwpro- 
peJti* holbrookii foT<y)rmelln mgi Holbrook, not 
of Schlegel (p. 152) . 

Ringduens forekomst omkrin^; 

Bergen. 

Naturen (Bergen), xxvi, Oct., 1902, p. 319. 
A brief note on the occurrence of the ring- 
neck dove ( Cnlumba paiumbus) in the neigh- 
borhood of Bi>rgen. Norway, 

Some generi(! names of turtles. 

Proc.BUA. Sttc. Wwh.. xv., Dec., 16, 1902, 
pp. 235-238. 
Shows that Stcmothcrus Is a synonym of 
Kinostrmon, and that Pclu9io» xnwsX be used 
for the gentu usually known as Stemothce- 
rus: furthermore, that Emyt( syicngleri is the 
type of Offrmjftin necessitating a new generic 
name for G. ^pinom, for which Ueotemytt is 
proposed. 

A salamander new to the District 



of (^oluinbia. 

/VfW. Butl. .SfK*. Wanh., xv, Dec. 16, 1902. 
pp. '239-240. 
So\e» i\\H,i A mhy»loma mm^ulatum has been 
taken at Twining City, D. r. 

Rediscoverv of <uie of Holl)r(X>k*8 



salaniaiKlers. 

/Vf>r. V. S. Nat. Mim.. XXVI. No. 1321. .Ian. 
29, 1903, pj». rv'>7-,ViK. 
The sjK'cies re<liscovered b* Ik-fttmtgmithu« 
quail rimantlatn from the m<»nntains of North 
('arolina. 

Description (►f a new Hi)ecies of 



Gecko from Cocos Inland. 

/Vw. Jihtf. .Sfx-. W(i*h.. XVI, Feb. 21, 1903, 
I»p. 3-4. 
Di»s<TllK'<l as new: Spfurrodadtflug paciflan'; 
tyiM', r. .<?. N. M.. No. :^1057. 

A new name for the 1 lawaiian 



hint genus Oreomyza. 

Pror. Bittl. Sttc. Wa/fh., xvi. Feb. 21. I9I«. 
p. 11. 
Oreomyza Stejneger l>eing pre<»c<"Upie<l, the 
new name OrromyftiB is .vnlMttitutetl. 

Ridgway*8 classification of the 



Falconifonnes. 

SeUficf (new seriw), x^ni, Apr. 17, 1903. 

pp. 628-629. 

Shows that Ridgway's cla8siflcati(m has 

been followed in the che<'k list of North 

American binls publishiHl by the American 

Ornithologists' Union. 

STtUNEGER, Leonhard, and MILLER, 

Gbrrit S., Jr., IMan for a hiological 

survey of the palearctic region. 

YearbiHik (\imegie InMUution, No. 1, 1902, 
pp. 240-266. 



166 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



STFJNEGER, LE<>xiiARi),iiml MILLER, 
(rKKKiT S., Jr. — Continued. 

An flulK»rato scht-mc for a hiotic Mirvey of 
llu* Old World north of thi» tropics, preHrntiMl 
in resiMmw to the invitation of tlio Carnegie 
rnstilution for "siyfK^eHtionH, opinions, and 
advice as to tiehls th«t it «»n»fht to CM'cnpy 
and the In-st nicthiMls for carrying forwanl it8 
w(»rk in those fields." 

STILP>^, Charkfih Wardell. The type 
HiHJcieH of certain jrenem of panusitic 
fla>ci»llateH, particularly (Jraw*i'H jj^enera 
of lS79ana IHSl. 

ZtHtl. Anztif/tr, U'ipz.. No. IVS'J. XXV, Se[»t. 
29. llXrj. pp. f.K«J-t>\»o. 

H(X)k-\vonn ilisea*«e in the South. 

Frecpieney of infection by the para^it*' 
( lununr'ut anur'nutmi) in rural dint rict**. 

l*kth. Ilmlth lit IK, XVII. No. -13. Oct. 24. 
iwr2. pp. 2i;W-24:V4. 
A preliniinary re[M»rt to th«* SurKeon-Geii- 
iTiil, Puhlii* Health and Marin<*-n<»spitMl 
S<Tvice. 

Th(* significance' <»f tlie recent 



.Vinerican case's of h(»ok-\voriii <lisea*<e 
( un(inaria.*<is or anchylostoinia.Mls) in 
man. 

l>ith Ann. li'tji. Ihinttn An i null FiuiiU't., 
r. S. Ihpf. Affrir.. V.Hr2, pp. iKXJl'.t, tlfTM. 
113-1%. 

Fro«;s, toa<ls, and carp {(^ifjtri}ut.'< 

I'firjnn) a.s erad icators of fhike <li.*<ease. 
/*»7/i Ann. I!i ji. Hurt a u Auinml hi'hi.'tt., 
r. S. Ihpt. Afrric, 1902. pp. 220-222. lig-. 
1'.»7-2<K?. 

Further invent igationw on verniin- 



ou.« di.Meases of cattle, .^heep, and ^'oats 
in TexaH. 

/s//i Ann. lit p. Ihirrnu Animal Inthint.. 
r. >. Ihjit. .{i/rir.. I'.Mrj, pp. 2'J;'.-22'.». 

A <ase of infection with th(^ 



doul)le-j)ore«l doj; tapeworm ( Dijtffli- 

tllum r(niiiitnn) in an .\merican child. 
Am. Mulitint, v. No. 2. Jan. lU, IWo, pp. 
\V>-{'*\, W)^. 1-7. 

Report upon the prevalence and 



geographic jlintribution of hook w<»rni 
disease (uncinariasit. or anchvlostomia- 
sis) in the T'nite<l States. 

Hull. UK Itu'.i- /•"^., ^' •'^■. -'*"''. lloilth awl 
Mar.-Ihntp. Strv., Feb., liKG. pp. 1-121. 
figs. 1-Hk 

A parasitic roundworm [Ayumih 



STILES, Charles Wardell. The t\|* 
8i)ecit»8 of the cestocie genu.«« Hmnm- 

Hull. 15, Jlyg. TjoIk, U. S. Ptib. HmUh Mitd 
Mar.'Ump. Serr., May, 1903. pp. 1<»-21. 

STILES, Gharlb* Wardell, and H.\S- 
S A LL, A LBERT. Strotigijloitle^ MtTCttnirtf, 
the c<»rreet name of the parasite of 
C'Otthin China <Harrhea. 

Am. Meflirint. I*hila., iv. No. % Aw«. :ai. 
1902, p. a43. 

liertieUitj new name for the ct^to<le 

p»nu8 /?^/7tVi Blanohartl, 189L 

Science (new w?rie»), xvi. No. 402. .^rpi. VI 
1902, p. 434. 

Index-catalogue of ine<lical and 



mtrmin cullflxy n. g,, n. sp. ) in Ameri- 
can mosi-iuitoes [CuUx soU'wittrnn) . 

Hull. lA, Ihifj. iMh., r. S. Puh. lit tilth ami 
Mar.-Uo8p. iScrv., May, 1903, pp. 15-17. 



veterinary zooU>gy. 

BuU. No. S9, Burtau Animal Indutt.. ('. ^. 
Jkpt. Aijric. Part 1, Authors, k u» Ki-^ 
vedo, pp. 1-46 (i.ssued May, 1902); Pani 
Authors, B to Buxton, pp. 47-1^ \\^\\v*\ 
Feh..l90:i): Parts. Authors, C to ^^ycau. 
pp. 199-:i24 (l*wue<l May, 1903). 

STILES, Charles Wardell, and PFKN- 
DKR, Charles A. The failun* of thy- 
mol to exi»el whipworms (TViV/iun* 
ilt'jtrt'Kjfinscuhi) from dogs. 

Jiturn. Cmnp. Mai. atui VtL Arch.. Philn.. 
XX III, No. 12. Di*c.. 1902, pp. 733-740. 

STONE, Wither. A collection of binls 

from Sumatra, obtained bv Alfred C. 

Harrison, jr., and Dr. H. M. Ililler. 
/V«x'. Acad. Nat. Si'i. Pfiila. for 1902 (Jan. 
'20, 190;^), pp. 670-691. 
A briefly annotatitl list of about 140 ppeciffl 
obtaine<l in the Padang and LampoD); Uiv 
trirts of Sumatra. HMnomj/ian umbratilit 
(Stricklainl) in found to I>e the ot>rrtret nnunf 
of the Buniean siHH'iei*, at pn^sent known a-^ 
A*, jttctttralix (Salvadori), and the Suniatran 
f«»rni is deseri)>ed as Rhinomyioj* tinibnitUif 
rit'hminitli (p. i'ACt). 

TASSIN, Wirt. The Ca«as (Jrandes^ me- 

tei>rite. 

7Vo<\ r. S. Nat. Mm., xxv. No. 1277, Sept. 
2. 1902, pp. 69-74, pi. I-IV. 
An Hualysis of the meteoric iron re|»orted 
as haviiiKbeen found in the ancient Mexican 
ruins of Casa.M Grandes in the State of Chi- 
hualum. A bulk analysis is given, together 
with other determinations of the nickel and 
roUilt. tending to show that the compoedtion 
varies on dilTerent portions. The followlnir 
uiiiieral.s were isolated aiid analyzed sepa- 
rately: Troilite.schreiberHite, taenite: graph- 
itic <'arlxni was also present in small amoiuiU 
and an undetermined aillcate. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



167 



THAYER, Gerald H. The coloration 
au*l relationHhipH of Brewster's War- 
bler. 

Atij:,xix, No. 4, Oct., 1902, pp. 401-402. 
A note sliowing that the typical bird iH 
without a trace (»f yellow on the under sur- 
fa<*e. The relationMhIp« of this warbler with 
JMtninthophila pinu« and H. chryBoptera are 
alito dincuHWHl. 

THOMAS. Oldfieli). (See under J. A. 
Allen.) 

ULKE, Henry. A list of the l)eetleH of 
the District of Columbia. 

Proc. V. S. Nat. .Vint., xxv. No. 1*275, Sept. 
2, 1902, pp. 1-67. 

UNDEKWOOI), LiriKN M., an<l 

MAXON, William R. Notes on a 

colle<'tionof (-uban Pteridopliyta, with 

deseriptions r>f four new species. 

Bull. Turrry Bttt. Club, XX IX, Oct., 19(R», 

pp. 577-684, 1 fig. 

Notes «)n a collection made by Messrs. 

CharlfS LouiM Pollard, William Palmer, and 

Dr. Edward Palmer, in 1902. AUophila grn- 

ri7i>, Polj/iHxlinm cryptum, Agpltniuin wnu»- 

turn, and fh'pltu/ium iiemulum arc described a« 

new. The name PidyMirhum aquijolium is 

lAropoee<l for the homonym IHAyfiichum iliri- 

fnlium of Fi>e. /*. cryptum is figured. 

VArCiHAN, T. Wayland. Fuller's 

earth of southwestern (xeoixia and 

western Florida. 

/'. S. Ciajl. Surv.. Mintral licnnirrcH /or 

1901 (1902), pp. 922-934. 

Give* a general account of the occurrt-nces 

of fullers earth In the region covere<l by the 

report, with the resultu of practical tests and 

analyses made by Dr. Hcinrich Ries. 

Evidence of recent elevation alonj? 

the westward extension of Florida. 
Sdritcf (new series), xvi, 1902, p. 514. 
Presents evidence which tends to show 
that the Florida coast s<mth of Tallahassee is 
rising at a rate of approximately 2 feet a 
century. 

An a<idition to the coral fauna of 



the Aquia Eoirene formation of Mary- 
land. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wath., xv, 1902. pp. 205, 206. 

Reviews the species of Eocene corals of 

Maryland, and cites an additional species, 

HaimenaMrara conJerUx Vaughan, from lower 

Marlborough. 

A redescription of the coral Platy- 



trochug specioftus. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wa»h., xv, 1902, pp. 207- 
209, 5 figs. 
The types (two specimens) of this species, 
named by Gabb and Honi, are redeMcril>ed 
and referred to the genus TrocltocycUhm. 



VAUGHAN, T. Wayland. Corals of 
the Buda Limestone. 

BuU. V. S. Geol. Surr., No. 20B, 1903, pp. 
37-40, 89-92, pis. XXVI, XX VII. 
The Buda limestone is the uppermoet for- 
mation of the Cretaceous Comanche Series of 
Texas. The following species are described, 
ParaamUia ttxana, sp. nov., Tr<tcho»milia (?) 
sp. indet.. Coral sp., Orbicflla (?) taxamu^p. 
nov., I^eptophyUiasp. (No. 1), TjcptophyUia »p, 
(No. 2). 

Fuller's earth <leposits of Florida 

and Georgia. 

BuU. V. S. Gtol. Surv., No. 213, 1902 (1908), 
pp. 392-399. 
This is practically a republication of the 
article cited alH>ve and publLshinl in the Min- 
eral Resoun'es of the U. 8. Geological Survey 
for 1901. 

Corrections to the nomenclature 



of the Eocene fossil corals of the United 
States. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Waah., xvi, 1908, p. 101. 
Proposes the generic name Aldrichiella for 
AUlrichia Vaughan, preoccupied, and shows 
that the ty|>e species of Rhectopaammia 
Vaughan, is the young of Endttpac.hys maclu- 
rei ( Lea) . The former generic name is there- 
fore abandtmed. 

VAUGHAN, T. Wayland, HAYES, C. 

Willaki), and SPENCER, Arthur C. 

RejMirt on a geological reconnaissance of 

Cuba, made under the direction of Gen. 

lA'onard Woo<l, Military Governor. 

Ann. Rfp. Military (iorrmor of (hiba, 1901, 
I)p. 1-128, pis. xxix, figs. 16. 

Contains the results of a general geological 
rei'onnaissance of Cuba and the Isle of Pines, 
made during Mar(>h, April, May, and June. 
1901. by Dr. C. Willard Hayes, in charge, as- 
sisted by Mexsrs. Si>encer and Vaughan. The * 
following chai»ter or i»rincipal section head- 
ings give the scope of the work: (ieography; 
Topography, including mountains, plains, 
drainage; General (it»ology, including strati- 
graphics and structural geology and geologic 
history. The greater portion of the report is 
devoted to the economic geology. The sec- 
tion headings are Gold, Copper, Lead, Man- 
ganese, Iron, Chromium, Bitumen (including 
aiiphalt. mineral tar and petroleum), and 
there are notes on coal, asbestf>s, salt, and 
structural materials. A section is devoted to 
a description of the geology of the Isle of Pines, 
and numerous elevations along the principal 
lines of railway are given In an Appendix. 

Published also in separate form. 

WALCOTT, Charles D. Cambrian 

Brachiopoda: AcrotretOj LinnarsoneHa^ 

Obolus; with descriptions of new species. 
Proc. r. S. N(U. Mu8., xxv, No. 1299^ Nov. 
8, 1902, pp. &l1-«Yi. 



168 



REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



WALCOTT, Charles D.— Continued. 

In this paper Doctor Wak*ott oontinnes hi8 
Htudiofl of Cambrian brachiopods. He dc- 
fincH the genus AcriUretn, 21 new 8pe<'ie8 or 
new varietieH and 12 old Hpeeiei<; the new 
f^enuK Linuarsoiifila, with 2 new and 1 previ- 
ously de>*cribed Hpec'ies; Broggeria, a new 8ub- 
genu8 of OhtAiis, with 1 8iK»cie«. Of Lhi- 
fftdella 4 new and 4 old sjHM'ies are de«»ribe<l, 
and of Wrtionia 1 new 8i>eoieH. 

WHITK, David. Description of a foesil 

alga from the Chemung of New York, 

with remarks on the genus HaJiserites 

Sternberg. 

JiuU. y. y. state Mu9eum, No. r>2, 1901, 
1902, pp. 69&-r>10, pla. 3, 4. 
The principal 8pecimen8 described in this 
paper, which M'an published in the Report of 
the State Paleontologint, are from the Che- 
mungstrataof East WindHor, Broome County, 
N. Y.,and are referrcrd to a new genus, Tham- 
lUiclaOiis, and are named Thamvorlailutt 
clarkei. The new genu8 is differentiated fn)m 
ButhfUr^thh, l*isiUtphyton, und IfaliHcn'tof, to 
the latter of which specimens of the new 
genus have hitherto been referred. The 
UHme Tstniocmda is proiKwed for the mem- 
branaceous algoid pliiiit conforming to the 
genus Haii^ritrs as defined by Pcnhallow. 
The tyt>e species is «aid to l>e T.niiomuia 
ictiqueri luii. formerly illustrated us H(ili»nritnt 
(lechaiianus. 



WHITE, David. Memoir of Ralph 
Dopuy Lacoe. 

BvU. Qfol. Soc. America, Xlli, 1901 (Feb.. 
1908). pp. 509-^15. 
In addition to an account of the life of 
R. D. Lacoe, a bibliography ia given and ref- 
erence made to the conecUonx dcmated by 
him to the U. S. National Museum. Thi><te 
collectionfl embraced about 17,000 Paleoznir 
plant fofisfls, including over 575 desi*ribed or 
figured specimens; ROO Dakota plants, includ- 
ing a large number of types; nearly 5,000 
specimens of fosail insects, of which over 200 
are types; 400 specimens of foasil vertebmtes: 
a large amount of unpublished plant mate- 
rial, and several thousands of insects imrtially 
reported on by Doctor Scudder. 

WILSON, Charles Branch. North 
American parasitic eopepocl« of the 
family Arguliilw, with a bibliography 
of the group and a systematic review 
of all known H|»eciea. 

PrtH-. V. S. yat. Xus., XX v, N<». 1302. Nov. 

25, 1902, pp. 6&^742, pis. VIII-XXVII. 23 

text figs. 
A comprehensive report on the Arguli«l;i.'. 
comprising a historical sket<!h. bibliography, 
an a''C<miit of their ecology, ontogeny, and 
morj.»hology, and a systematic review of the 
species. The following spe«'ies are describt^l 
JLS new : ArpuUts niper, A. viaculo*tu9, A. rtrfi- 
n}hr, A. americanut. 



The following rc'feren(\»H to jjajiers by Dr. TheiKl(>re Gill, published between Sej>- 
teml)er, 18W, and May, 1902, were not fiirnislie<l in time to be included with the 
bibliographien accompanying the reports for those years, and are therefore printe<i 
in connection with the Museum bibliography for 1903, at his request. 



GILL, Theodore. Desirability of cxten- 
.««ion of study of Cjtrp^. ( Editorial. ) 

Oitprq/, IV, No. 1. Sept., 1899. pi>. 9-10. 
The desirability of extending the study of 
eggs beyond tln-ir shells is urged. The in- 
vestigations of Vah-ncieniies jind Fromy on 
the contents of the vrk, publishod in 1854, are 
n-ferrrd to, and the difference l>etweon the 
reaction to )>oiling is indicated in the ca.se of 
the albumen of th«* 1^i>winK. Data are aske<l 
for as "to the absolute and relative time re- 
<juired by the white and yellow to become 
hard in boiling, the degree of lmrdnes.M a<'- 
quired, and the l>ehavior (»f white and yellow 
to reagents." It is als<.) uddtMl that " the e<li- 
bilityandtasteofeggsofdifferent kinds would 
also be i nteresting subj ects for i n vest igat i( »n . " 

Popular ijfuorance of birds. (Kd- 

it4)rial. ) 

Oxprty, IV, No. 3, Nov., 1899, i)p. 43-J-l. 
The wide publication of a note on '* A bird 
w^ith a monkey face" is taken as the text <»f 
an editorial tm the general ignorance of com- 
mon binls. Tin* bird in question wa.s a com- 
mon Bam Owl. 



(JILL, TiiEOTX)RE. The largest binlg. 
(Kditorial.) 

Ospref/. IV, No. 4. Dec., 1899, pp. 57-^. 
The opinion of J. E. Hartiug that the IHwr- 
uis vuiximuH was "the laiigeat known bird 
that had ever lived" is noted. The Thrumf- 
ta» Jiarpjfia, or Harpy Eagle, is declan^ to be 
apiMirently the largest bird of prey, weighing 
'JS to 'M pounds. Attention is called U> the 
overl«Niked fact that the common Turkey 
may be "the largest bird that flies." a.« it 
NoiiH'times may exceptionally attain a weight 
of 70 i^Kiunds. Such a turkey, however, co*»ld 
scarcely lly. 

Esthetic binls: The Bower Binls 



of AuHtralia and New Guinea. 

Ontpmj, IV, No. 4. Jan., 1900, pp. C7-71. 
A summary of the knowledge acquired a^ 
specting the nesting habits of the Bower 
Kinis, or I*tilonorhynchin», is given and the 
"bowers and playing grounds** as well w 
"nests and eggs" of species described and 
illustrated by 3 figures representing the 
.<atin Bower Bird and its nest and eggs, as 
well as the Bower of the Ureat Bower Bird. 



^BIBLIOOBAPHT. 



169 



GILI^ Theodore. Origin of the Ha- 
waiian fauna. 

Otprey, IV, No. 5, Jan., 1900, p. 78. 
An editorial comment on the character of 
the vertebrate fauna of the Hawaiian iRlandn 
in correlation with the omitholofo'- 

Esthetic birds: the hut and the 

garden of the Gardener bird of New 
Guinea. After Odordo Beccari. 

Otprey, IV, No. 6, Feb., 1900, pp. 8a-«6. 
A description I« given of "the bird," "the 
hut," and "the garden" of the Gardener 
bird, Amblyomi* inomalus. In an Introduc- 
tory editorial note additional information is 
given. 

The origin of the Hawaiian fauna 



(editorial. ) 

Onprey, iv, No. 6, Feb., 1900, pp. 90-91. 
A continuation of a former editorial article 
on the Rame mibject. in which the land Nhell- 
bearing («a*«teropods are considered. The 
conclusion is reached that "the extent of 
differentiation and segregation of the pre- 
dominant Achatinellinefl almtjst compels us 
to l>elieve that their progenitors came upon 
the islands very early. With the prest>nt fee- 
ble light to guide us, it seems to be more 
likely that these progenitors cjimc from the 
we*»t<^»f the islauds." This is in contrast with 
the indications furnished by the birds as at 
present understood. We are thus left in an 
uni4ettled condition, and mu.«tt await future 
more detailed studies. 

Mercantile value of eggs. 

Owprry, iv. No. 7. Mar., 1900, pp. 11*9-110. 
In response to an inquiry why a great auk's 
egg .should be considered more valuable tlian 
that of an Aeppomis, the circumstances regu- 
lating value in the nature of demand and 
supply are indicated. 

Love of nature. 

O^prey, iv, No. 9, May, 1900. pp. H1-1J'2. 
An editorial on the cause and manifestation 
of love for nature. 

On the z<K)-geographicaI relations 

of Africa. 

Scienrc (new series), xi, June 8, iy0(), pp. 
900-901. 
An abstract of "a communication to the 
National Academy of Sciences made April IM. 
1900." Itiscontenddl that the African fauna 
" has two sides, facing in opposite directi<ms, 
and it can not be understood without taking 
both into consideration." The assrK'iation of 
Africa with Asia or Europe is "illogical and 
falsifies the record." "Whatever facts a 
classification may be intended to embody, 
the African fauna must be isolated. If we 
wish t<^ express, in our terminology, a former 
condition of afTairs, Eogsea Ls a term adapted 
to do so." 



GILL, Theodore. Eogsea and Antarctica. 

Sclmce (new series), June 8, 1900, p. 913. 
A list of articles by the writer on the geo- 
graphical anias in question. 

=- The African tiger fish. 

Fbrrst and Stream, LV, June 23, 1900, p. 488. 
The African fresh-water "tiger fish," re- 
garded as a superior game fish, is a "member 
of a genus peculiar to Africa {Ili/droryon),'* 
belonging to " the family of Characinids." 

Significance and etymology of the 

word mammal. 

0$prcy, IV, No. 10, June, 1900. pp. 157-159. 
The etymology imagined in the Centur>' 
Dictionary and others is shown to be errone- 
ous. The name mammalia is declared to have 
been formed by Linnaeus in analogy with 
Animalia, from the word mamma with the 
suffix alia. The singular, consequently, 
should be mammal and not mammale. Tlie 
history of the anglicize<l form mammal and 
Mammifer is also indicated. 

Edward Drinker Cope. — Herpeto- 

logical and ichthyological contribu- 
tioiiH. 

Proc. Am. Philmoph. Sov., Memorial Vol- 
ume, I, 1900, pp. 274-296 (Printed Aug. 3, 
1900). 
An address delivere<l at a meeting in mem- 
ory of Edward Drinker Cope, in tlie hall of 
the American Philosophical Sim iety. hold at 
Philadelphia, Nov. 12, 1897. under tlie aus- 
pici's of eight institutions with which Co[k? 
liad been intimately connected. 

The nature of tl>c contributions and tht* in- 
fluence whit'h they exerted on the scienc^es 
under c<.»n8ideration are set forth, 

C'orresipondonce of and about Au- 



. (hibon and HwaiiiHon. 

Oftprry, v, No. 2. Nov. and De«'., 1900, pp. 
23-35. 
A summary is given of the letters fn)m 
Audulion to Swainson, written between 1829 
and ItCtt*, and preserved in tlie collections of 
the Linna.*an S«K'iety of Lond(»n: (*omments 
are given on the relations of the natural- 
ists of that i>eriod. In an editorial in the 
winie volume (pp. 29-:W) further comments 
are adde<l. 

Titles of magazines and ccillec- 



tiouH. 

Oaprqf, V, No. 4, Mar. and Apr., 1901, [). (".2. 
Comments are made on the titles on various 
magazines and collections. 

Names of magazines. 

Oitprty, V, No. 5, May, 1901, pp. 77-78. 
The dl.scussion of the subje<*t commenced 
in the i>re<'eding numlier of the Oitprey is 
('ontinn«'<l and suggestions for improvement 
offered. 



170 



EEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903, 



GILIJ, Theodore. The proper name of 
BilelloHtomii or Heptatrema. 

/V*»r. r. S. Nnt. Mm*., xxili. No. 12»4, 
Jiinefi, 1901, TStS-TSW. 
Tilt* name Heptatrt'ina is traced bark to it« 
orif^iii and the hiHt4»r>'(>f the nomenclature of 
tlie genuN detailed. It is f<h(»wn that the 
earliest name wax EpUUretu* (1819) and that 
oonneqnently the family name nhonld >h« 
Kptatrfiifl:r. 

Note on the jjenus Tfollandia of 

Karsh. 

SHencr. (new KcrieK), xiii, .Tune 1-1, 1901, 
pp. W!^V»50. 
The name HoUandUi, having lieen applied 
in 1892 tt> one genus, eonld not be given to a 
secrond, an<l eon»e«iuently the genus of but- 
terflies uame<l IloUaniUa by Karsch in 1897 
Is renamed HoUandella. The family Ifitlan- 
(tiid:*' is degrade<l to the rank of a subfamily 
nanuMi UoUniidtllinir. 

The i)opularity of White's Sel- 



lM>nie. 

Oitprey, v, Nt>. 7, July, VMM, p. 107. 
In view of the publication of over a liun- 
<lre<l editions^tand of three within the jiast 
year), iin inquiry is institute<l into the cause 
of the popularity of Gilbert White's celebrated 
work. 

Nonienrlatnre at Berlin. 

Oitprtt/, V, No. 8, Aug., 1«»()1. pp. r2(>-127. 
O^mments arc niadt? on .some of the rules 
promulgat«Ml by the rc<'ent Zoological Con- 
gress at Berlin, as well as certain nanuts pub- 
lished by French ornithologists. The «Titi- 
cized names are such as were formed by 
••<'omis»undiug the first part or syllabb-s of 
oiu' w«»Tdand the final elements of another," 
siich as KtnlMrnafff'n <'oniiM»sed of Kiiiltfr[u:n] 
and [Tii]iuujni. 

TIh' ( )Hprey or Fishliawk; its char- 

iu'teristics and hal)its. 

n^tjun/. V, in the following numbers: Ni>. 
1. Sept.. P.»00, pp. 11-12; No. 2. Nov.. IIKK), ! 
pp. 2')-2H; No. ;{. .bin.. PJOl, pp. J(M2: i 
No. 1, Mar.. VM\, pp. r><MU; No. .'>. Mjiy, 
1901. ])p. 7;t-7r»; No. 0. .luiie. P.K)1, pp. 
{Yl-ivi: No. 7, .Inly. 11>01. ]ii». lUVlOt'.; No. 
8, Aug..liHn. pp. 121-12;'>: No. 9, S«'i>t.. 
l'.»01, p. Ill (endj. 

Life and I>«'tterH of Thonuus Henrv 



llnxlev. Bv lii« son, I^»<jnard 11 nx- 

ley. [A review.] 

Osprnj, V, No. 3, Jan. and Feb. 1901, pp. 47-4S. 

Work and worry forthe classicist^. 

Ospny, V, No. 9, .S«*pt., 1901, pp. 142-113. 
An editorial on nomenclature induced by 
siime n-markable names recently published 
involving given and family names, such a** 
tjivnniocopna after PMward I). Cope. Inci- 
dentally s<mie other curious names are re- 
ferre<l to, especially a numln-r of familiar 
binl and cru.stacean names which are evi- 



GILL, Theodore — Continued. 

dently ana^rn^mM of previous ones. A fact, 
not previouHly recognizefl, la that nearly t 
doKcn namett of cmfftaceanH {Cimlana. Ani- 
Ificrti, n^rilana, etc.) are Rimply anagramM nf 
Ouroliue or Oarolitui, 

Ale wives. 

y*Ht8 and Querien (9), vill. No. 206. Not. 
SO. 1901, pp. 451-452. 
In answer to a prevloiw inquir>' (Vol. vii, 
p. 406) the etymology and true name of the 
American Alewife are given. In correition 
of the great New England Dictionar}' it U re 
marked that Alewife was and still is a name 
applied in some places in England to one of 
the Shads, and (piite naturally it waa bronchi 
over to the United States by the immigTant> 
fntm England. Aloofe, given as an etymuii 
and an Indian name, is nothing but AUKi«e. 
the antique s having N^n mistaken for an f. 
Ahxjse, Alo««e, and Alice, as well as Alewife. 
are derivatives fnmi the old Latin Atom. 

William Swaineon and his times. 

Otprey, IV, V, in following niunbers: {n 

IV, No. 7. Mar., 1900. pp. 104-108; (n) iv. 
No. 8, Apr., 1900. pp. r20-l'23; (in) IV, No. 
9, May, 1900, pp. 135-138; (iv) rv. No. 10. 
June, 1900, pp. 154-156; (v) iv, No. 11. 
July, 1900, pp. 166-171; (Vi) v.No.l.Sept.. 
1900, pi». 8-10; (vil) V, No. 3. Jan., 1901, 
pp. 37-39: (VIII) V, No. 4, Mar.. 1901. pp. 
58-59; (IX) V, No. ,5, May, 1901, pp. 71-72: 
(X) V, No. 9. Sept.,1901,pp.l3lV-137: (.xn 

V, No. 10. Oct., 1901, pp. 152-155; (XII) V, 
No. 11, Nov., 1901, pp. 167-172; (Xin) V, 
No. 12, De<'., 1901. pp. 176 (end). 

General history of birds. 

OMprry, VI, in the following numbers: (i). 
Jan., 1902, pp. 1-4; (Ii), Feb., 1902, pp. 
5-12; (III), Mar., 1902, pp. la-N; {vf\ 
Apr.. 1902, pp. 15-20; (v). May, 1902. pp. 
21-2<>; (VI), June, 1902, pp. 27-^4; (viii. 
July, 1902, pp. :«-42. 
The j'hapters of a general work. 
In Chapter I are considered: (p. 1-4) "The 
Knglish name.s:" (4-6) "The bird's place in 
natun';" i'>-i\) "Characters of the class*:" 
(7-8) "The general characters <»f birds;" (Si 
•The i>lumage of birds; " (8-10) "The feather* 
of blnli:'" 00-13) "The arrangement of feath- 
ers;" (13,14) "The color of the plumage:" 
(15-17) "Moulting or molting;" (17-19) 
•Molting iKjricKls;" (19-20) "Individual 
molt: " (20-21) " Color change without molt." 
In Chapter II are discussed: (p. 21) "Gen- 
eml anatomy;" (33-35) "Themuscles;" (35-37» 
"The brain and the rest of the nervous 
system;" (37-38) "The alimentary system:" 
(:i8-39) "The vascular s>'8tem;** (3^-40) "The 
respiratory .system;" (40) "The generative 
system." 

In Chapter III is treated the "Bcologyof 
binls" under separate headings, vix: (10-11) 
"Contrast between uniformity of stnicture 
and variety of habits;" (41-42) " VariaUoiiln 
llight." 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



171 



GILL, Thkot>ore. Life and omitholo^r- 

ic-al lal)orH of Sir John KicharflHon. 

fttltrey, vi. No. 1. Jan.. 1902. pp. 1:M7. with 
pt»rtrnit plato. 
RichaitlMiirH clianw'teriKtirK are coiiKiilerod 
under two f«u*gorie«: (1) "His life" and {'l^ 
" His (iniithological work." 

Biographical notice of John Ca«8in. 

ihtprry, VI. No. 3. Mar. 1*102, pp. 60-5:^. 
An lUHMiiint i!< K^von of Caewin's personul 
chamcteristicj*. 

The works of John Caspin. 

Osprii/, VI, No. 5. May, 1902. pp. ^O-M. 
A rhronologieal fninimation of contribu- 
tions to 8ocietie}4. and full titles of si>parately 
pnblii>he4l workM are given. 



(JILL, Theodore, and SMITH, Hrcjir M. 
Tho Morini^uoid opIh in Amerioan 

watern. 

Sf'itnce (new wries). xi, June 22. liNM), pp. 
97:J-974. 
The Moriiiguoid eeln have iH.-en hitherto 
found only in theHeaj<<»f India and tho Mo- 
lue(*a-In«lian arcliipehigo. A H|>ecieM of one 
<»f the genera, Ajththn/nih'htfiyi', wan recently 
•liweovert'd at Porto Rico and in named A. 
ciiriblHif'UH. The Stilbiitciig tdmirdtiii, referre<l 
by Jordan and Kvennann to the family Mii- 
rs'ncfocitliv, i.-^ a HjK'cieH of Morhiiiua. Ltjtto- 
conger an<l (innliirhihij^ al»w» InOong to the 
family Moriiiguida*. 



XilST OF AUTHORS. 

Adler, Cyru8, U. S. National Museam. 

Allbn, J. A., Aiucricaii Mufleuin of Natural History, New York City. 

American Oknithou musts* Union, Comniittee on Nomenclature. 

AsiiMEAi), William H., U. S. National Museum. 

Bailey, Fu>rkn('k Merriam, Washington, D. C. 

Bancs, Oltram, Boston, Mass. 

Banks, Nathan, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Barthcii, Paul, V. 8. National Museum. 

Ba.ssler, Ray S., U. S. National Museum. 

Bknedkt, James E., U. S. National Museum. 

B<>wi)isH, B. S., New York City. 

Brewster, William, Cambridge, Mass. 

Brs<K, ArorsT, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

("asanowicz, I. M., U. 8. National Museum. 

Chapman, Frank M., American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

Clark, Atstin 11., Newton ville, Mass. 

Clark, Hi'bkrt Lyman, Olivet College, Olivet, Mich. 

C<M'KERKLL, TiiEoiKtRE D. A., Col(>ra(lo Springs, Colo. 

ToLLiNS, G. N., U. S. Dejjartment of Agriculture. 

Cook, (). F., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

CrHiUiLLETT, D. \V., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

CoiTiERE, H., 4 Avenue *le r()l)sc»rvatoire, Parin, France. 

(Vrrie, Rolla p., V. S. National Museum. 

Dall, William Healey, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dyar, Harrison G., U. S.- Department of Agricultun*. 

EvERMANN, Bartijn W., U. S. Burcau of Fisheries. 

Fernald, C. H., Agricultural (>»llege, Amherst, Mass. 

Fish, Pierre A., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

FisiiER, W^ alter K., Paloalto, Cal. 

Fowler, Henry W., Leland Stanford Junior Cniversity, Stanfonl University, Oal. 

(till, Theoikire, Smithsonian Institution. 

Grinnkll, Joseph, Pasadena, Cal. 

Hassall, Albert, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Hay, William Perry, Washington, D. C. 

Heller, Edmund, Ix^land Stanford Junior University, Stanfonl University, Cal. 

Hem.hley, W. Bottino, Royal Botanic (hardens, Kew, England. 

Hkndehson, John B., Jr., Washington, D. C. 

Hinds, W^arren Elmer, Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 

Holmes, William Henry, Chief, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Howard, Leland O., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Howell, Arthur H., U. S. Department of Agricolture. 

Hrdlicka, Ales, U. S. National Museum, 

HuLOT, GsoBOi D. (deceased). 

173 



174 BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Jordan, David Starr, Preeident Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford Uni- 

verdty, Gal. 
KxGWVTOUft Frank Hall, U. S. Geological Survey. 
KoimsKT, Jacob, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Lucab, Frkderic a., U. S. National Museum. 
Lyon, Marcus W., Jr., U. S. National Museum. 
McMuRRiCH, J. Playfair, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Maidbn, Joseph Henry, Director Botanic Gardens, Sydney, New South Wales. 
Marlatt, C. L., U. 8. Department of Agriculture. 
Marshall, William B., U. S. National Museum. 
Mason, Otis Tufton, U. S. National Museum. 
Maxon, William R., U. S. National Museum. 
Maybr, p., Naples Zoological Station. 
Mearns, Edgar A., U. S. Army. 
Merriam, C. Hart, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Merrill, Gkorge P., U. S. National Museum. 
Miller, Gbrrit S., Jr. U. S. National Museum. 
Nbeoham, Jambs G., Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, IlL 
Nelson, E. W., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Oekrholsbr, Harry C, U. S. Department Agriculture. 
Pfbnder, Charles A., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Pollard, Charles L., U. S. National Museum. 
Preble, Edward A., U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Rathbun, Mary J., U. S. National Meseum. 

Ravenbl, W. dr C, Administrative Assistant, U. S. National Museum. 
Richardson, Harriet, U. S. National Museum. 
Richmond, Charles W., U. S. National Museum. 
RiDGWAY, Robert, U. S. National Museum. 
Riley, J. H., U. 8. National Museum. 
Rose, Joseph N., U. S. National Mupeum. 
ScHUCHERT, Charles, U. S. National Museum. 
Simpson, Charles T., Lemon City, Fla. 
Smith, Hugh M., U. S. Fish Commission. 
Smfth, John B., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Snyder, John OrrEimEiN, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University, 

Cal. 
Stares, Edwin Chapin, Leland Stanford Junior University, Stanford University, Cal. 
Stearns, R. E. C, 1/OS Angeles, Cal. 
Stejnbger, Leonhard, U. S. National Museum. 

Stiles, Charlks Wardell, U. S. Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 
Stone, Witmer, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tassin, Wirt, U. S. National Museum. 
Thayer, G. H., Monadnock, N. H. 
Thomas, Oldfield, British Museum (Natural History), South Kensington, London, 

S. W., England. 
Ulke, Henry, Washington, D. C. 

Underwood, Lucien M., Columbia University, New York City. 
Vaughan, T. Wayland, U. S. Geological Survey. 
Walcott, Charles D., Director, U. S. Geological Survey. 
White, David, U. S. Geological Survey. 
W^iLsoN, Charles Branch, State Normal School, Westfield, M^SB. 



P^llT II. 



PAPERS DESCRIPTIVE OF MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 

Page. 

"he United States National Museum: An account of the l)uildings occupied 

l)v the national collections. B v Richard Rath bun 1 77 

tudies of museums and kindred institutions of New York C'ity, Alhany, 
Buffalo, and Chicago, with notes on some European institutions. By 
A. B. Meyer 311 

175 



Reson si U. S Hi 




THH IJNITHI) STATUS NATIONAL MUSHUM: 
AN ACCOUNT OF THF. lUILDINCS OCCUPIHD HV THH 

NATIONAL COLLLCTIONS. 

Bv 
RICHARD RATI I BUN . 

Assistant Secretary of the Smithsottian InstHutioti, in charv^e of the 

U. S. Xat tonal Afuseum. 



NAT Mus I90;i 12 177 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATK8. 

Facing page. 

1 front of the Smithsonian Institution building 177 

of the Smithsonian park, showing location of the present buildings, 

I site of the nt^w Museum building 185 

Smithsonian Institution buihling, vit^wed from the northwest 195 

nal ground j>lans, Smithsonian Institution building 201 

or north entrance of the Smithsonian Institution building 207 

r main hall, Smithsonian Institution Imilding 219 

ries in lower main hall, Smithsonian Institution building 221 

range, Smithsonian Institution building 225 

liall, Smiths(mian Institution building 229 

room, Smithsonian Institution 233 

upper hall, Smithsonian Institution building 2,% 

I front. National Museum building 239 

I front, National Museum building 241 

ida, National Museum building 243 

I hall, Nati(mal Museum building 245 

I hall, National Museum building 247 

hall, Natiomil Musi'um building 249 

least court. National Mu8i»um building 253 

•south range, National Museum building 257 

re hall. National Museum building 259 

itive floor plan, *'A,*' for the new building for the National Museum. . 289 

itive fl<K)r plan, "B," for the new building for the National Musi^um. . 2^)1 

plan of the new Imilding for the National Museum 297 

of basements. National Museum building 309 

of main fl(X)r, National Museum building 309 

of gallery and sea uid floor. National Museum building 309 

of third floor, Naticmal Museum building 309 

r>f l>asement and first floor, Smithsonian Institution building 30^) 

oi second and third floors, Smithsonian Institution building 309 

179 



THE UNITED STATFi; NATIONAL MUSEUM: 
AN ACCOUNT OF THE BUnJ)INGS OCCUPIED BY THE 

NATIONAL COLLECTIONS. 



By Richard Rathbun, 
Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian InstitiUionfin charge of the U. S. National Museum, 



INTRODUCTION. 

The object of this paper is to briefly describe the history and 
character of the several buildings in which the science and art collec- 
tions belonging to this Government have been housed and cared for, 
the time for such an account seeming especially opportune, in view of 
the recent l)eginning of an additional, larger, and more elaborate 
stru<*ture to meet the demands for increased simce. No attempt is 
made to contrast the present accommodations with those provided 
elsewhere for a like purpose, only such criticisms being ofl'ered as 
are directly suggested by the buildings themselv^es. 

The. scope of the U. S. National Museum, as defined by acts of 
Congress, is exceedingly broad, including, besides natural history, 
geolog}', archaeology and ethnology, the various arts and industries of 
man. Its development, resulting largely from Government explora- 
tions, has been greatest in the four subjects first mentioned. The 
collections illustrating the industrial arts, though now mainly in 
stoi-age, are nearly as extensive in the amount of exhibition space 
required, and the}' can be rapidly enlarged and perfected as soon as 
a place is found for them. 

Since the seventh decade of the last century the Museum has been 
(continuously in a state of congestion, and with ever increasing acces- 
sions, it early became n(»cessary to resort to outsi^le stomge, in which 
the amount of material is now extremely large. The demand for 
additional room, therefore, dates back over twenty \^ears, being based 
partly on the necnl of placing these valuable collections und(»r safe 
conditions and partly on the important recjuirement of bringing them 
into service by classification and arrangement. Last year an impor- 
tant step in this direction was realized — the passsige of an act of Con- 
gress under which a more ccmimodious and worthy building will 
speedily be secured. 



182 BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

As to the suitability for museum purposes of the existing buildings 
it may be said that the Smithsonian building was erected before 
much was known of museum needs, and it was moreover designed 
only in part for museum use. Its public halls, though exhibitinjj 
many important defects, have as a whole served their puri)ose well. 
The accommodations for laboratories and the storage of I'eserve collec- 
tions are, on the other hand, very poor, being mainly found in base- 
ment and small tower rooms, inconvenient and badly lighted. 

The Museum building, constructed soon after the Centennial Exhi- 
bition of 1876, primarily for the extensive collections brought to 
Washington from that source, was put up hastily and cheaply, and 
therefore not as substantially sa was advisable. It is practically one 
great exhibition hall, since its partition walls are pierced at frequent 
intervals with broad and high arched openings. The lighting in the 
main is not unsatisfactory, though with a different roof construction it 
could be much improved. Here again, however, fault is to be found 
with the space available for workrooms and storerooms, since, havinjr 
practically no basement, these rooms are confined to the towers and 
pavilions. 

In planning the new granite building an opportunity is offered for 
correcting these faults. Good and <*onvenient laboratories and storage 
rooms have been provided for, and it is intended that the exhibition 
halls shall show a decided improvement over those in the older 
structures. 

The history of the buildings is briefly as follows: 

In 1840 a society was organized in the city of Washington under the 
name of the National Institution, afterwards changed to the National 
Institute, among whose objects was the direction of the Smith- 
son be<[uest, then under discussion by Congress, and the bringing 
together of collections in natural histor\% ethnology, and such other 
subjects as full within the scope of a general museum. Its memlier- 
ship included many prominent persons, among them members of the 
Government and of (yongiess, which gave to the society a recognized 
position and secured to its purposes extensive quarters in the building 
of the Pat(Mit Office. Here were asseml)led the many valuable speci- 
mens brought home by the famous United States FiXploring Expedition 
around the world, as well as others derived from both (lovernment 
and privates sourc(*s, which formed the nucleus of the present national 
collections, soon to pass under other control. 

Under date of December 0, 183S, the President announced to Con- 
gress the receij)t in this country and the investment of the Smithson 
be([uest, amounting to a little more than half a million dollars, and 
also invited the attention of that body to the obligsition devolving upon 
the United States to fulfill the objects of that bequest. During the 
seven and three-quarters 3^ears which ensued to the time of the actual 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 188 

foandation of the Smithsonian Institution, this matter was constantly 
before Congress, the subject of numerous propositions and of extended 
debates. By the will of Smithson the city of Washington was to be 
the home of the establishment, but the character and extent of its 
buildings, as well as their site, depended upon the policy which 
Congress might adopt for carrying out the wishes of the benefactor, so 
tersely yet wisely expressed. 

The bill which was finally passed and received the approval of the 
President on August 10, 1846, gave to the Smithsonian Institution the 
custody of the national collections, and provided for a site and building 
in the following terms: 

AN ACT To establliih the "Smithsonian Institution," for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 

among men. 

Sec. 4. And be it further eruidedy That, after the board of regents shall have met and 
become organized, it shall be their duty forthwith to proceed to select a suitable site 
for such building as may be necessary for the institution, which ground may be taken 
and aj)propriated out of that part of the public ground in the city of Washington 
lying l)etween the patent office and Seventh Street: Provided^ The President of the 
Unitefl States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of 
War, the Setrretary of the Navy, and the Commissioner of the Patent Office, shall 
<;Minsent to the same; but, if the persons last named shall not consent, then such loca- 
tion may be made upon any other of the public grounds within the city of Washing- 
ton, belonging to the United States, which said regents may select, by and with the 
consent of the pers<^>ns herein named; an<l the said ground, so selected, shall be set 
out by proper metes and bounds, and a des<Tiption of the same shall be made, and 
reconle<l in a book to be provided for that pur|K>»e, and signed by the said regents, 
or so many of them as may bt» convened at the time of their .said organization; and 
8U<*h reconl, or a copy thereof, certi fieri by the chancellor and secretary of the board 
of regents, shall l)e received in evidence, in all courts, of the extent and boundaries 
of the lands appropriated to the said institution; and, u[)on the making of such rec- 
ord, such site and lan<ls shall be deemed and taken to be appropriated, by force of 
this act, to the said institution. 

Se<-. 5. Ami be it further enacted, That, so soon as the board of regents shall have 
selected the said site, they shall cause to l)e erected a suitable building, of plain and 
durable materials and structure, without unnecessary ornament, and of sufficient 
.*<ize, and with suitable rfX)ms or halls, for the reception and arrangement, upon a 
liberal scale, of objects of natural history, including a geological an<l mineralogical 
cabinet; also a chemical lab<.)ratory, a library, a gallery of art, and the necessary 
lecture rooms; and the sai<i board shall have authority, by themselves, or by a com- 
mittee of three of their mend>ers, to trontnict for the completion of such buihling, 
w\Hn\ such plan as may l)e diretrted by the lK)ard of rt»gents, and shall take sufficient 
se<-urity for the bui!:ling and finishing the same according t(> the said plan, and in 
the time stipulated in such contract; and may so locate said building, if they shall 
deem it proi)er, as in ap(>earance to form a wing to the patent office building, and 
may so (connect the same with the pn^sent hall of said [)atent office building, 
containing the national cabinet of curiosities, as to constitute the said hall, in whole 
or in part, the deposit for the cabinet of said institution, if they deem it expe<lient 
to do so: provided, said building shall l>e located upon said patent otlice lot, in the 
manner aforesaid: Frorkied, hoiverer, That the whole exjwnse of the building and 

enclosares aforesaid shall not exceed the amount of , which sum is hereby 

appropriated, payable out of money in the treasury not otherwise ap[)ropriated. 



184 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

together with mich sum or sams out of the annual interest accruing to the inHtitu- 
tion, as may, in any year, remain unexpended, after paying the current expensfes nf 
the institution. And duplicates of all such contracts as may be made ))y the Kaid 
board of regents shall be deposited with the treasurer of the United Statep; and all 
claims on any contract made as aforesaid shall be allowed and certified by the l)oanl 
of regents, or the executive committee thereof, as the case may be, and, being nigiieti 
by the chancellor and secretary of the board, shall be a sufficient voucher for settle- 
ment and payment at the treasury of the Unite<l States. And the Ixmrd of regent.-^ 
shall be authorized to employ such persons as they may <leeni necessary to suiierin- 
tend the erection of the building and fitting up the rooms of the institution. And all 
laws for the protection of public property in the city of Washington shall aj>ply t**, 
and be in force for, the protection of the lands, buildings, and other property, of 
said institution. And all moneys recovered by, or accruing to, the institution, shall 
be paid into the treasury of the United States, to the credit of the Smithsonian 
bequest, and separately accounted for, as provide<l in the act approveil July first, 
eighteen hundred and thirty-six, accepting said bequest. 

Sbc. 6. And be it ftirther enacted^ That, in proportion as suitable arrangements can 
be made for their reception, all objects of art and of foreign and curious ri»sH»arch, 
and all objects of natural history, plants, and geological and miners logical sptH'imeuf<, 
l)elonging, or hereafter to Iwlong, Ui the United States, which may U» in the city of 
Washington, in whosesoever custody the same may be, shall be dolivereii to such 
I)ersons as may l)e authorized by the Ixjani of regents to receive them, ami shall W 
arranged in such order, and so classed, as Ixwt [to] facilitate the examination and study 
of them, in the building so as afon^said to l)e erected for the institution; ♦ ♦ * 

Sec. 7. And he it further enacted ^ That the sc'crc^tary of the l)oard of regents nhall 
take charge of the building and pro^HTty of said institution. * * * 

(Statutes IX, 102. Sec also The Smithsonian Institution, D<>cumentM relative to 
its origin and history, ISiiVlKW. I, pp. 429-4:i4. ) 

The Smithsonian building, jis is well known, was placed upon the 
Mall. It was phmned with reference to acconiniodations for a niuseunu 
a libmr}', and other purposes, but the ti*ansfer of the specimens from 
the Patent Office did not take place until 1858, when Congress began 
to make small appropriations for the maintenance of the inuseum 
feature. The collections increased so rapidly that l)y 1875 they were 
occupying fully thrc^e-fourths of the Smithsonian building, and, in 
fact, all parts not actually nMiuin^d for the activities of the parent 
institution, the administrativ«» offi<!es, and the exchange service. 

The C-ent«»nnial Kxhibition at Philadelphia, from whi<*h so large a 
(juantity of valuabh* ()})j(»cts was acquired that they had to be stored 
provisionally in tlie so-calh^d ''Armory l)uilding,'' which the3' com- 
pletely filled, led to the erection of the present Museum building. It 
proved inadecjuate from the beginning, and for many years new 
collections have b«M»n accumulating in outside rent4»d buildings, mere 
storehouse's of brick and wood. 

After a lapse of twenty-five years Congress has again appropriated 
funds to ext4»nd the (juarters, but this time on a far more lil^e ml scale, 
which will permit of the erection of a nnich larger and more substan- 
tial structure, j)resenting a (lignifi<Hl exterior, in better keeping with 
the other permanent buildings of tiic* (jovernment. It will also stand 



SMITHSONIAN 




NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 185 

on the Mall, but along its northern edge, directly facing the Smith- 
sonian building. Upon itn completion, the MuHcum will be in occu- 
pancy of a group of three buildings, counting a part of the Smithso- 
nian as one, and it may safely be predicted that none will long contain 
any vacant space. 

THE SMITHSONIAN GROUNDS. 

In a bill for the organization of the 3uiithsonian Institution, pre- 
pared by Representative John Quincy Adams, and presented to the 
United States Senate on February 18, 183J),^ provision was made for 
an astronomical observatory, to l)e erected under the direction of the 
St^cretar}'^ of the Treasury upon land belonging to the United States, 
which, after its selection, should l>e granted for the purpose and con- 
veyed as a deed of gift to the trustees of the Institution. The locality 
known as Camp Hill, near the banks of the Potomac River and the 
mouth of Rock (^reek, opposite Analostan Island, seems to have been 
under consideration at that time. It was the same site that Washing- 
ton had designated for the National Univei-sity, and was subsequently 
used for the object Mr. Adams had in mind, but under the ilirection 
of the United Stat(?s Naval Estal)Iishm(»nt. 

In another ])ill, introdu<»ed in the Senate by Lewis F. Linn, on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1841/' it was proposed that the entire tnict known as the 
Mall 1m» appropriated for the uses of the Smithsonian Institution, with 
the provision that the buildings should lie erected in accordanci*, with 
plans prepared by and under the suix?rvision of the National Institu- 
tion, to be approved by the President of the United States. In bills 
submitted to the same bo<ly in June and December, 1844, by the 
Library Committee, consisting of Senators Rufus C-hoate, Benjamin 
Tappan, and James McP. Berrien, appeared the* tirst definite chanic- 
terization of the building, which was to be placed upon a siti* to be 
selected in that portion of the Mall lying west of Sev<'nth street. 

The bill for the establishment of the Smitlisonian Institution which 
finally pwissed Congress and received th(» a])proval of tlu* Presi(l<»nt on 
August 10, 1S4(),^ was dnifted by Repres<Mitativ(» R()b<'rt Dalo Owen. 
The seetions relating to the site* and building are (juotcHi on pages \K^ 
ami 1S4 of the introduction. 

UjHni the orgjinization of the Board of Regents attention in regard 
to the site seems tirst to have be<Mi directed toward the Mall, and here 
its location was tinallv established, thout'li not without some difli<*ui- 
twH ynd delay, the ehoic«» being subj<»et to approval by the President 
of the United States, ihe Se(!retari«»s of State, th(» Treasury, War, and 
the! Navy, and the Commissioner of Pat(»nts. At a me(»ting of the 
Regents on September 1», l.S4r». th*» chancellor, the S<»cretary, and the 

^Senate bill 2*»:5, is:^y. /^St-nate hill 245, 1S41. ' Statu tos IX, 102. 



186 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

executive committee, five in all, were constituted a committee on 
grounds and buildings, whose first report, submitted on November 30 
of the same year, resulted in the passage of the following re{K)lutioo: 

That the Ke^^ntij of the Smithsonian Institution do select and adopt as a site for 
their buildingn ho much of the Mall, in the city of Washington!, as lien between 
Seventh street and the river Potomac, if the consent of the persons named in the 
fourth section of the act to establish the Smithsonian Institution for the increase ami 
diffusion of knowledjre among men be obtnine<l thereto; and that uiK>n such consent 
l>eing obtainiHl in due form, the Secretary is hereby instnicteil to i^use the said 
groumi ho stilected to })e sot out by proper metes and bounds. 

On December 1 following the Board amended the above resolution 
by adding the following clause aft^r the word Potoma<T 

Subject to the i)Ower of Congress to grant any portion of the same west of Four- 
t^'senth stnH*t to the Washington Monument Society for the pur]X)t)€^ of erecting a 
monument thereon. 

As consent to this proposition was not obtained, it was re.solved hv 
the Kegeiitson I)eceinl)er 1): 

That a committee of threi* Iw apiK>int4Hi by the chancellor to confer with the 
Fn^nidcnt <»f the Tnit***! Statt»s and the other pt^rsons name<l in the fourth section of 
said a<*t, ami a.*»k their conneiit to the selection by Bai<l Ri*gents of that p<»rtion of 
HJii«I reservation lying U'tween Seventh and Twelfth streets west, in saiil city, as the 
site for tbe ne^'esHary buildings of said institution; and, if such consent be given— 

It Ih further nsn/rni. That sai*! buildings l)e located thereon, an<l at least two hun- 
dred and fifty feet south of the centre thereof. 

The committee (lcsignat4»d consisted of Representatives Hough and 
Owen and Senator Kvans, but failing in the object of their mission, 
the Hoard resolved, on December 2H: 

That the Hegents of the SmithHonian do select and appropriate as the site for 
their buihlings the Honth half of ho niueh of the "Mall,'* in the city of Washington, 
Hi* lies In'tween Ninth and Twelfth streets. 

The consent to this choice }»y the President and other person:^ 
nam<'d in the fourth section of tlie fundamental act was communii*atei} 
to th<» Hcmnl on »Ijiruiary '20, 1S4T, and the further provisions of the 
a<*t were then carried out, riMinely: 

Ami tlH» sai<l ground sn seleeted shall l)e set out by projK'r metes and ]x>undt», 
and a ^leHcription of the same shall he made, and reeorde<l in a liook to be provide«l 
for that j)nrpose, and signed by the said Regent'^, or so many of them as may l>e 
eonvened at the time of their said organizati«)n; and su<*h rtH;<.>rd, or a copy thereof, 
certifinl by the chaniellor and Serretary of the Hoanl of Regents, shall l>e receivt^l 
in evidence, in ail courts, (»f the extent and boundaries of the lands appropriate<l to 
the said Institution; and upon the making of such n*cord such site and lands shall 
Ik* deeme<l and taken to Ik* appropriated, by force of this act, to the said Institution. 

After the close of these j)roc(H>din*^s, however, which at the time 
seemed to be conclusivt* and did tintilly prevail, the subjec»t of a site 
was attain nM)p<Mied and led to further in([uiries and considerations. 
These can best be told in the words of the late Dr. George Brown 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 187 

Groode, as recorded in his paper on the Smithsonian Building and 
Grounds.** 

After the present site had been selected there appears to have been some dissatis- 
faction in reganl to it; nor is this to be wondered at, since at that time the Mall was 
remote from the inhabited portion of the city, being a part of what was then known 
E» "The Island/' now called South Washington. This portion of the city was cut 
off by an old and unsightly canal running to the Potomac and crossed by simple 
wooden bridges at four points between the Capitol and the Potomac River. It was 
nnfenced and waste, occupied from time to time by military encampments and by 
traveling sho^inen. After the completion of the east wing in 1850, when the first 
lectures were held in the Institution, the Regents were o])liged to build plank walks 
for the accommodation of visitors. Indeed, with the exception of the Capitol 
grounds and those surrounding the Executive Mansion, the open places in the city 
were entirely unimproved. 

R<^)on after the selection of the present site the question was reconsidered by the 
Boanl, and a committee appointed to obtain, if jwssible, another Imaticm. In the 
bill as it finally i)assed Congress permission had been given to locate the building 
on the space l)etween the Patent Office and Seventh street, now o(;cupied by the 
building unetl for the offices of the Interior Department. This was partly to enable 
the Institution to utilize for its collecitions the large hall in the Patent Office then 
Eissigne<l to the "National Cabinet of Curiositiew," partly, no doubt, to w»cnre a more 
central location. To obtain this ground, however, it was necessary to have the 
approval of the President of the United States and other public officials, which was 
not found prai'ticable. The committee fixed ninm Judiciary Square, an open space 
of n)Ugh ground, in which at that time the city hall (a jKirtion of the present struc- 
ture), the infirmary, and the city jail were locatetl. Though the adjoining streets 
were entirely vacant, this site was regarde<l as much more accessible than the Mall. 

A proposition was sulHiiitted to the common council of the city of Washington, 
that the site of the city hall should be resigne<l for the use of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution ui)on its offering to pay to the city $50,(XK), a sum deemed sutticient to erect a 
building for the use of the city government up<m the site south of Pennsylvania 
avenue, l)etween St^venth and Ninth streets, now occupitMl by the Center Market. 
A bill was intr<.Kluce<l into Congress, authorizing the Regents to purchase the city 
hall, but the common crouncil refused to consider the i)ro|)osition and the site of the 
Mall was use<l. 

That part of the Mall appropriated to the Institution has l)een known 
a8 the Smithsonian reservation, while to the entire square between 
Seventh street and Twelfth stre(»t, west, ineludin*^ the reservation, 
the name Smithsonian Park has been commonly applied. 

At their mee»tings of December 4, 184(), and January 28, 1847, the 
Regents appropriated a total sum of $4,000 for ^radin^, la>'intif out, 
and planting the grounds of the Institution, und(M' the direction of the 
building committee, which was also authorized to (expend not over 
Hi>,(HK) in the construction of a permanent f(»nc(» around the grounds. 
The latter, however, was erected for less than $500. 

In 1848, the building committee entered into a contract with John 
Douglas, of Washington, to the extent of *?1,()5() for inclosing the 
reservation with a hedge and for planting trees and shrubs. The 

«The Smithsonian Institution, 1846^18iM3. The History of its Firet Half Century, 
pp. 247-2W. 



188 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

architect of the building marked out the paths and roads and indicated 
the positions of the trees and shrubs, to comprise alxiut 100 species, 
principally American. The surrounding hedge was to consist on eai'h 
of the four sides, respectively, of pyrocanthus, osage orange, cherokee 
rose, and hawthorn. Although considerable progress in this work 
seems to have been made during the 3^ear, the contract was considered 
not to have been proper!}' complied with, and it was canceled in 184i*. 
The same year, for the convenience of those who attended the lec- 
tures in the east wing of the Smithsonian building, a walk was built 
from Seventh street to the eastern gate of the grounds and the path 
from the Twelfth Street Bridge was repaired. In speaking of the 
considerable expense which such improvements outsidathe reservation 
entailed upon the Institution, Secretary Henry, in his report for 1840, 
said: 

It is hoi)ed that the authorities of the city of Washington will cause bridges to 
l)e ore<*tcHl across the canal and walks to \ye constnicted through the public grounds 
to facilitate the approach to the building, and that the Institution will not be expected 
to provide acconnnodations of this kind. 

In their report for 1S50, the building committee stated that up to 
th<^ end of that year $8,747.51 had been spent upon the grounds, and 
that pro!)a})ly little more ex])onditure on that account would be neces- 
sary. Portions of the roads about the building had been graded and 
many trees and shrubs set out. An appropriation having been made 
})V Congress for the purpose*, Mr. Andrew J. Downing, at the request 
of the President, was then preparing a plan for converting the entire 
Mall, including the Smithsonian grounds, into a landscaj^e garden. If 
this plan wow adopted, the Smithsonian lot would form part of an 
extended park, of which the Smithsonian building, by its site and 
pi(tures(jU(» style of architecture, would be a prominent and attractive 
featiu'e. 

In isf)!. according to the report of the same committee, the Mall 
WHS in c()Ui's(» of rapid inij)r()vement under Mr. Downing. The cor- 
poration of the city ai)propriated 5^2, 500 for an iron bridge across the 
canal at Tenth stnM^t, and a gravel walk was carried thence to the 
l)uil(lino-. The Smithsonian reservation of li> acres had been indosinl 
with a fence and planted with trees at an (»xpense to the Institution of 
al)out $4,000, hut the execution of Mr. Downing's plan, at the cost 
of the (ieneral (loverninent, would, in \\w view of the committee, 
render unnec(vssarv anv furtluM* dishursemiMits bv the Institution. 
Without surrendering the* right of use of the reservation appropri- 
ated to the Institution, the partition fence JM^tween it and the other 
j)art of the Mall had Ixmmi removed and th(» whole given iq charge of 
Mr. Downing. 

Although ndieved at this period, and at its own request, of the care 
and improvement of its groiuids, which have since remained under the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 189 

supervision of the officer in charge of public grounds, the Institution 
has always maintained a deep interest in the condition of its. surround- 
ings, and has in fact aided materially toward their betterment, as fre- 
quently noted in the reports of Secretary Henry and his successors. 

In 1855 Professor Henry wrote that since the death of the lamented 
Downing but little had been done to C/Omplete the general plans of the 
improvement of the Mall proposed by him and adopted by Congress, 
although an annual appropriation had been made for keeping in order 
the lot on which the Smithsonian building is situated. Regret was 
expressed that Congress had not made an appropriation to promote 
the suggestion of Dr. John Torrey and other botanists of establishing 
here an arboretum to exhibit the various ornamental trees of indi- 
genous growth in this country. 

This scheme wavs never more than tentatively carried out, but in 1899 
the SecretJiry of Agriculture revived the subject, in his annual report, 
from which the following extract is taken: 

One of the needs of the Department iH an aboretnin in which can be brought 
tojjether for study ali the trees that will grow in the climate of Washington. The 
nee<l of such an establishment was felt early in the history of the capital and was 
brought forward more than fifty years ago among the various plans proposed for the 
use of the Smithson l>eque8t, wliich was finally devote<l to the founding of the pres- 
ent Smithsonian Institution. In the report of the building committee of that Insti- 
tution for 1850 the following statement occurs: 

**Mr. Downing, the well-known writer on rural architecture, at the request of the 
President, is now preparing a plan for converting the whole Mall, including the 
Smithsonian grounds, into an extende<l landscape garden, to l)e traversed in different 
directions by graveled walks and carriage drivt»s and planted with sj>ecimen8, prop- 
erly labeled, of all the varieties of trees and shrubs which will flourish in this cli- 
mate.** 

This admirable plan, apparently from lack of financial support from Congress, was 
never systematically prosecuted, and the plantings at first made were so neglected 
that the nurse treei themselves are now being rapidly broken down and destroyed 
by fitonn, disease, and decay. When the grounds of the I)ei)artment of Agriculture 
were laid out, in 18(58, Mr. William Saunders, then, as now, horticulturist of the 
Dei>artment, established a small arboretum commensurate^ with the size of the 
grounds. An arlK)retum in this climate, however, re<iuires an area of several hun- 
dre<l acres. The lime has come when the economics needs of the Department and 
the e<iucation and pleiisure of the pe<jple deman<l a rich collection of trees planted 
so as t4> st?cure the l)est effei'ts of landscajK* art, furnishing complete materials for 
the investigations of the Department of Agriculture, and so managed as to Ix^ a 
pt»rennial means of botimical education. We are now engaj^ed in intrcxUicing useful 
trees from all parts of the world, such as those producing fruits, dyes, nuts, oils, and 
tans, those useful for ornamental purposes, and esiMicially those promising shade, 
shelter, and fuel in the arid region. 

At the present time we have no central place in which to plant and maintain a 
series of these trees for study and propagation. The importations must be sent out 
as fast a they are received, without any opportunity for (^ur investigators to make 
any olwervations on their l>ehavior under cultivation, and in the case of small and 
valuable importations subjecting the whole strx'k to the possibility of total loss. In 
view of these conditions, I wish to bring to the attention of Congress the imjMjrtance 



190 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

of placing at the disposal of this Department an area of suitable size and. situation 
for a comprehensive arboretum. In order to give a specific basis for considera- 
tion of this project, I suggest that the area known as the Mall be set aside for this 
purpose. 

"No part of the public domain," said Professor Henry in 1856, "is 
more used than the reservation on which the Smithsonian building 
stands, but as yet no special appropriation has been made by Con- 
gress for continuing the improvement of the grounds, and it is to be 
regretted that years should be suffered to pass without planting the 
trees which are in the future to add to the beauty, health, and comfort 
of the capital of the nation.-' In the same connection mention is made 
of the l>eautiful monument erocti»d that year near the Institution by 
the American Pomologiciil Society to the memory of Downing— a just 
tribute to the worth of one of the benefactors of our countrv. The 
adoption of his ornamental plan for the public parks of this city was 
in part due to the examf)le of the Regents in embellishing the grounds 
around the Smithsonian building. 

In 1858 Professor Henry remarked that — 

The propoHition to supply the public grounds with a complete series of American 
trees lias h)ng !)een eoiiU'iiipIated, but as no appropriation has been n)a<le by Gmi- 
press for tliis purpose, the Patent Ofliee, conjointly with the Institution, has taken 
the prehniinary steps by issuing a circular asking for seeds of every 8i>ecie8 of our 
forest trees and shrubs that wouM l>e likely to thrive in this latitude. This circular 
has been witlely distributed, an<l it is hoptnl will meet with a favorable response from 
all who are intereste*! in making more generally known, ami in intro<lucing into more 
extensive cultivation, the natural ornamental products of our own soil. The eee<ls 
are to 1k» sent by mail to the Commissioner of Patents and placed in charge of the 
oflicers having the care of the public grounds. 

In 1S()2 Prof(\ssor Henry rrportod that the trees and shrubl^ery in 
the grounds were growing iincdy under the care of the commissioner 
of public grounds, B. H. French, es(i. He also called attention to 
tbc city canal forming the* l)()undjiry of the Smithsonian grounds on the 
noith, and across tbc basin or widest part of which most of the visi- 
tors to th(» Institution bad to j)ass. This basin, since the intnxluction 
of Potomac water, bad become the receptacle of the sewage of the 
city, and was {\\o\\ an innnensc* cesspool, constantly emitting noxious 
etihivia piu^judicial to tbc health and oil'ensive to the senses of all who 
approached the locality. ( 'ertain methods of abating the nuisance were 



suggested. 



As before noted, tbc fence and hedge which originally marked the 
outlines of tbc Smithsonian r(\servation were removed in the time of 
Downing, thus destroying all visible traces of its limits. On the 
south this n\sei'vation is })oundcd by H stre(»t south, on the west by 
Twelfth street west. Its depth from B street is 759 feet 9 inches 
and its length from Twelfth street 1,()S<) feet 8 inches, its eastern line 
coinciding with the western line of Ninth sM'cet. Its area, therefore, 
amounts to about 825,590 sc^uare feet, or a little less than 19 acres. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 191 

The Smithsonian building occupies a central position in the reserva- 
tion, its main entrance being on the axis of Tenth street extended. 
The Museum building, finished in 1881, stands 50 feet to the eastward 
of the Smithsonian building, with its front face nearly on a line with 
the rear face of the latter. It extends back to B street south, and on 
the east overreaches by about 65 feet the limits of the reservation. 
There still remains at the southwest corner of the reservation, border- 
ing on B and Twelfth streets, sufficient space for another structure of 
smaller size than the Museum building, should it ever be considered 
advisable to make such use of it, but otherwise all new buildings must 
l>e placed outside of the reservation. 

The Army Medical Museum, erected in 1886, at the corner of B 

and Seventh streets southwest, is the only other structure in the 

Smithsonian park, and further extensive building operations within 

this square must be carried to its northern side. Such motion has been 

necessjiry in regard to the additional large building for the National 

Museum authorized by Congress in 1903, the center of which, like 

that of the Smithsonian building, will be on a line with the axis of 

Tenth street. 
As to the present condition of the park it may be said that all traces 

of the old canal and creek have long since disappeared, and fairly 
good pjiths and driveways now lead to the Smithsonian and Museum 
buildings. Unfortunatel3% however, no improvement can be noted in 
regard to the trees and shrubs, which were to be made so prominent 
a feature. None have been planted for many years, and the older 
ones are dying out or being destroyed by natural causes, nmch injury 
having l^een produced by severe storms. There has been a <'onstant 
trimming and cutting down, but no attempt to add or build up in this 
direction, and the genei'al effect is of a park larking care and culti- 
vation. 

THE SMITHSONIAN BUILDING. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

In his acxx)unt of the Smithsonian building and grounds, " the late 
Dr. George Brown Goode has said: 

That the Smithsonian Inj?titution, before it could begin active o[)erationH, niupt 
have a home of its own, would doubtless have l)een regarded as a necessity ])y any 
one considering tlie requirements of the future. Richard Hush, however, a})i>ears t4> 
have ^x^en the first to state this idea in words, whicli lie did in a letter addressed, 
November 6, 1838, to the Secretary of State, in response to a rnjuest of the F'resident 
for suggestions in regard to the proper manner of carrying out the beipie^t. * * * 

In bills introduced in the Senate in June and DeiH'nd)er, 1844, by the Library 
Committee — Rufus Choate, Benjamin Tappan, and James McP. Berrien — app<»areii 
the first definite characterization of the building, which was to Im plain and durable, 



«The Smithsonian Institution, 1840-1896: The History of it« First Half Century, 
pp. 247 et $eq. 



192 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

witliout unnecessary ornainent, and to contain provisions for cabinets of natural 
history anci geology, and for a library, a chemical lalH)ratory, and lecture rooms. 
♦ * * The coHt was at that time limited to $80,000. In 1846, however, the bill of 
Dr. Robert Dale Owen, without change of phraseology from those which had pre- 
ceded it in regard to loc-ation and character of the structure, was adopted, but the 
limit of the cost was increased, and $242,129, the exact amount of the Smithsonian 
interest which had at that time accrued, "together with any additional interft«t 
.which might remain after paying the current expenses of the succeeding years," was 
designated for that purjwse. * * * 

From the very beginning Doctor Owen was the chief advocate of a lai^ge and 
showy building. In this matter he was supported by the sympathy of the people of 
Washington, and especially Mr. William W. Seaton, mayor of the city and one of the 
Regents, whose interest in the realization of the plan of Smithson undoubtedly did 
much at last to securt^ ac'tion from Congress. Outside of Washington there was much 
opposition to an expensive building, owing partly to the manner in which the 
bequest of Stephen (jirard had been rendered for many years inoperative by the 
action of its trustees. * * * Pr. Owen, nevertheless, more than any other |)erson 
at that time conct^rned in the establishment of the Institution, seems to have felt 
tliat much of its future success depi»nde<l upon the erection of a building which 
should perform a legitimate duty in dignifying and making conspicuous the work of 
tlie organization to which it lx»longed. Hciircely anyone can doubt that Doctor 
Owen was right and that tlie ust'fulness of the Smithsonian Institution has been 
materially aided by the fact that its l)uilding has for fifty years l)een one of the chief 
architectural ornaments uf the national capital. 

1846 and 1847. 

The first formal action of the Board of Regents, in respect to the 
building called for in the fundamental act, was the pissage of a reso- 
lution on September 9, 1846, authorizing and instructing the Chan- 
cellor, Secretary, and executive conmiittec — 

to take such measures as may be deeme<l by them most proper to obtain plans 
for the erection of buildings, fulfilling all the conditions in rt^ference to them con- 
tained in the hiw organizing this institution, and that said committee report such 
phm as they may aj)i)rove to this Board at it*^ next meeting; and, further, that said 
committee specially rej>ort in regard to the l)est material for said buildings, and to 
the best nuMlesof wanning, lighting, and ventilating the same, with estimates of the 
cost when constnicte<l of different materials, etc. 

The committee so organized consisted of Vice President George 
M. Dallas, chairman; Representatives William J. Hough and Robt»rt 
Dale Owen, (ien. Joseph (i. Totten, and W. W. Seaton, major of 
Washington. 

A notice to architects, inviting competitive designs, was published 
in the Wasliingt-on newsj)apeis of September 22, 1846, and with the 
o])ject of accumulating information that might guide the Board in the 
choice of a plan for the building, a subccmimittee, consisting of Messrs. 
Owen, Hough, and Totten, visited the principal cities of the United 
States; examiniMl many of their most noted structures; had confer- 
ences with several eminent architect^; collected specimens of the best 
stone material, and obtained data regarding the cost of coDStruction. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 193 

This subcommittee reported the results of their inquiries on Novem- 
ber 30, 1846. After which the full— 

committee unanimously selecteil out of thirteen plans that were submitted to them 
by some of the principal architects throughout the country, two by Mr. James Reu- 
wick, jr., of the city of New York, the architect of Grace Church, the Church of the 
Puritans, Calvary Church, and other structures in and near New York; and they 
n'cr)mniended to the Board for adoption one of these, being a design in the later 
Norman, or, as it may, with more strict propriety, l)e called, the Lombard style, as 
it prevaile<l in Germany, Normandy, and in southern Europe in the twelfth cen- 
tury. The design comprises a center building, w^ith two wings, connected with the 
main building by low ranges and a cloister. The entire front is 421 feet, and the 
extreme depth in the center, including the carriage porch, 153 feet. The height of 
the principal tower is 145 feet, and that of the main building, to the summit of the 
battlement, 58 feet. The design includes all the accommodations demanded by the 
charter, to wit: A museum, 200 feet by 50; a library, 90 feet by 50; a gallery of art, 
in the form of a T, 125 feet long; tw^o lecture rooms, one of which is cai>able of con- 
taining from 800 to 1,000 persons, and the other is connected with the chemical 
laboratory; a committee room for the Boanl of Regents; a Secretary's room; a room 
for the effects of Mr. Smithson; a janitor's room, etc. 

At a meeting of the Regents on January 23, 1847, the following 
resolution from the committee was brought up for consideration, but 
no action upon it was taken, nameU': 

That the Norman plan of a building fqr the Smithsonian Institution, furnished by 
James Renwick, jr., of New York, sulistantially as amended, agreeably to the sug- 
gestions of the committee, is apx)rove(l and adopte<l ])y this Board. 

On January 26, 1847, the chuncellor submitted the following reso- 
lutions, which were road and laid upon the table: 

Remlved^ That in view of tlie va.st field of kn()wle<lge, to the increase and diffusion 
of which the act of Congress dire<*t8 the efforts and funds of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, this Board deem it inexixidient and hazanlous to appropriate to the erecticm 
of a building a larger sum than one hundred thousand dollars. 

liesoivedj That John Haviland, of Philadelphia, architect, Ikj re<juested to state in 
writing, formally to this Boanl, whether he will undertake to erect a building upon 
the mo<leI of the central structure he has already planned and furnished to this 
B<jard, with slight changes of arrangement, which will embrace all the chief objects 
expressed in the act of Congress, for the sum of one hundred thousand <lollars; said 
building to be of granite or sandstone. 

Resolved, That the committee of three, hereinafter appointe<l, I)e authorized to 
confer with Mr. Haviland, and that, upon this Board receiving from him the written 
and fonnai undertaking mentioned in the foregoing resolution, they l)e authr>rized to 
engage his services as architect for the execution of his plan and to (;omplete all the 
nfH.*essarv contracts. 

Mr. Alexander D. Bache, one of the Regents, submitted to the 
Board on January 27, 1847, two resoluti(ms of similar import, the 
consideration of both of which was deferred. One of these was as 
follows: 

ficifolrfdy That in the opinion of the Boanl of Regents of the Smithsonian Institu- 
ticm it is unnecessary and inexpedient to expend, in ertn^.ting a building to meet the 
requirements of the act creating the establishment, from the principal of the fund of 

^AT MU8 190:i 13 



194 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

two hundred and forty-two thousand one hundred and twenty-nine dollant referred 
to in the first section of the act, a sum exceeding one hundred thousand dollars. 

The resolutions finally adopted preliminaiT to the work of building 
were agreed to by the Regents on January 28, 1847, nearly all being 
offered by Mr. Owen. The most important follow: 

Retolvedy That the Norman plan of a building for the Smithsonian Institution, 
furnished by James Renwick, jr., of New York, subntantially as aniende<l and 
reduced agreeably to the suggestions of the (X)mmittet% is approved by this Hoani. 

Remlvedj That a building committee of three members of the Boar.], as jirovide*! 
in the fifth section of the act of CongresH, l)c apix)inted, wlio are hereby authorize<l 
and empowered, on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, to enter into contracts for 
the completion of the buildings; and that said committee have power to employ one 
or more persons to superintend the erei*tion of the buildings and the fitting up of 
the rooms of the institution; and that the work shall be done to the entire satisfac- 
tion of the said superintendent or superintendents; and that the said suiierintendoiit 
or superintendents sliall have power, and shall be required, to reject any of the 
material propose*! to l)e employed, and also to object to inferior or insufficient work, 
and to direct its change, at his or their discretion. 

ReMolvedt That in the i)erformance of the duty intru8te<l to them, the building com- 
mittee of thret* hereinl)efore referred to shall give the contrm^ts to the lowejst bidder 
of goo<l reputation, who shall give unexceptionable security, to the entire satisfac- 
tion of the committee, for the i>erformance of said contracts; and such Hocurity shall 
in all cases be taken. No advance shall in any case 1k» made; and fifte4?n iK»r (vnt. 
of all payments shall lx» retaine<l until the faithful performance of the work. 

Besotredf That the building committee, after taking counsel with the Secretary, 
shall carefully revise the 8i)ecifi cations of the plan furnished to this Boanl by the 
architect befpre entering into any contract; and if, after such examination, tliey 
shall \ye of opinion that any mo<iiiication8 of the said plan and si)ecifications are nec- 
essary for the safety, durability, or Iwtter adaptation of the structure, they may 
incor|)orate these in the said H|HH'ilicationH; but no addition to the dimensions of the 
])uil(ling shall l)c made, nor any ornament of any kind adde*!; and the said modifi- 
cations shall have sole reference to the safety, durability, and adaptation of the 
building. And the whole amount of the contract for the said building, including 
the modificntions above provide*! for, shall, under no cirtrnmstancvs, exeetnl the 
amount of the original estimates of the architect, to wit: the sum of two hundred 
and two thousand dollars, with a jHTcentage not exceecling ten per cent, on the said 
sum. 

Renolvedf That the building committee Ix? also authorized to contract for the warm- 
ing an(i lighting of the building; provi(!e<l that the contract for the alxive objects 
shall not exceed five thousand dollars. 

Beiiidvedf That the building committee ]>e also authorized to contnu^t for the fitting 
up and furnishing of the building oi the institution; provided that the ctmtract for 
the same shall not cxivcm! twenty thousan*! dollars. * * * 

And it IxMug <m the one hand desimble that a i>ortion of the buildings to l)e 
erected bv the institution be reiidv for use at an earlv dav, and on the other hand it 
is essential to the solidity and durability of a structure of the size re<iuire<l to 
embrai*e all the (»bject,s specified in the a<'t of C-ongress that its ere(*tion \ye gradual 
and not too rapidly hastened forward: Therefore — 

Remlredy That the building connnittce be instnurted to arrange the contract.*" for 
the buildings of the institution so that the wings of said buildings may In* completed 
in two years from the present time, and the whole complete<l in five years. 

Resolved^ That the building connnittce In? instnict(»<!, in the arrangi^nent of the 
buildiogB, to extend the gallery of art throughout the western range and westt»m 





in 






H 


m... 




^^^r^'i 






|w 




H' 1 ' —A 


rt. ^rr:^ 














■IUl^' 




^^^^E^ce 





NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 195 

wing, and to arrange two lecture rooms, and no more, in the building. Temporary 
arrangements shall be made to receive in the west wing of the building the library 
of the Institution, until the library proper be completed. 

2. Besolf'ed, That the building committee invite proposals for the construction of 
the exterior walls of the building of upper Potomac sandstone, of marble, of granite^ 
and of blue gneiss, respectively, and adopt that one of these four named materials which 
shall be deemed to combine the requisites of cheapness, beauty, and durability. 

The manner of providing for the cost of building aid other matters 
relating thereto were explaineil by Secretary Henry in his report for 
1850, in which he says that — 

The law of Congress incorporating the Institution, while it did not forbid the 
expenditure of a part of the income for other objects, authorized the formation of a 
library-, a museum, and a gallery of art, and the erection of a building, on a li])eral 
scale, for their accommodation. It was, indeed, the opinion of many that the whole 
im*ome ought to be expended on these objects. The Regents did not consider them- 
selves at liberty to disregard the indications of Congress and the opinion expressed 
in favor of collections, and after much discussion it was finally (concluded to divide 
the income into two equal parts, and after deducting the general ex})en8es, to devote 
one-half to the active operations set forth in the plan just described and the other 
to the formation of a library, a museum, and a gallery of art. 

* * * It therefore became absolutely necessary that the income should be 
inorease<i, and in order to do this it was proposed to save the greater part of the 
$242,000 of a<!crued interest which Congress had authorized to l)e expended in a 
building, by erecting at a cost not to exceed $50,000 the nucleus of an e<lifice which 
<.*ould be expanded as the wants of the Institution might re(iuire,and to add the 
remainder to the principal. 

Unfortunately, however, for this proposition, Congress had presente*! to the Insti- 
tution the great museum of the exploring expedition, and a niaj(»rity of the Regents, 
supposing it necessary to make immediate provision for the accominodution of this 
gift, had taken preliminary steps, previous to my appointment, to eonstnut ii large 
building, and, indeed, a majority of the (committee t^^) which the matter was n;ferre<l 
had determined to adopt the plan of the" present iHlifiee. Strenuous op|K)sition was, 
however, made to this, and as a compromise^ it was finally agreed to draw from the 
United States Treasury $250,000 of ac'cnied interest, and instead of expending this 
immetliately in completing the plan of the proposed building to invest it in Treasury 
notes, then at par, and to finish the building in the eoursi* of five years, in part out 
of the interecit of these notes, in part out of the sale of a portion <»f them, and also in 
part out of a portion of the annual interest accruing on the original U'qnest. It was 
estimated that in this way, at the end of five years, ]M*si<les devoting .i5250,0()() to the 
building, the annual income of the Institution would be incrt*}i.'*ed from $.S(),(K)() to 
nearly $40,000, a sum sufficient to carry out all the provisions of the programme. 

It is to be regrette<i that * * * instead of the plan of a costly building there 
ha<l not l)een adopte<l the nucleus of a more sini])Ie e<lifice, which could have lx»en 
moflified to meet the wants which exi>erien('e might indicate. 

The original estimate for the building, furniture, and ini[)rovenient of the grounds 
was $250,000, and could thea<;tual cost havt^ Imh'U confintnl to this sum all the n'sults 
anticipated from the scheme of finance which had ])een adopted would have Ihk^u 
realized at the end of five years. During the past year, however, it lias be<»n found 
necessary, for the better protection of the <'ollertions, to onler the fire[»roofing of 

« 

the interior of the edifice, at an increased expenses of $44,000. This additional <lraft 
on the funds can oidy Xye met by exten<ling the time for the eompletion of the build- 
ing, and even this will require the appn:)j)riation of a jHjrtion of tlie income which 



196 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

ought to be devoted to other puri>06e8. The active operations will suffer meet by 
this draft on the income, since it will he made for the better accommodation of the 
library and the museum. 

On February 5, 1847, it was resolved by the Regents — 

That the building committee, in conjunction with the Secretary, be authorized to 
publish, in such form as they may deem most appropriate, one thousand (ropies of a 
brief treatise, to be entitle<l "Hints on Public An^hitei'ture,** and to l>e illustrate^l 
with designs of the plan of the building adopted for the Smithsonian Institution, 
and, at the option of the committee, with any other designs that are the property of 
the Institution, providwl that the cost of the same shall not exceed one thousand 
dollars, which sum is hereby appropriated for that purpose. 

ThLs allotment was fc?ubsoquently increased to $1,200. The work 
was prepared b}' Doctor Owen, with the assistance of Mr. Renwiok, 
and was published in 1849, under the title '^ Hints on Public Archi- 
tecture, containing, among other illustrations, views and plans of the 
Smithsonian Institution, together with an appendix relative to build- 
ing materials. Prepared on behalf of the Building Committee of the 
Smithsonian Institution, by Kobert Dale Owen, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee.'' It is quarto in size, but does not belong to any of the regu- 
lar series of Smithsonian publications. 

The first building committee of three members, appointed on Feb- 
ruary 5, 1847, consisted of Mr. Robert Dale Owen, Mr. W. W. Sea- 
ton, and Gen. Joseph G. Totten. Changes were made in the compo- 
sition of tlie committee from year to year, and after a brief period 
none of its early meml)ers remained. Reports were submitted annu- 
ally to the Boai'd of Regents up to the close of 1857. The work of 
the connnittee during 1S47 was extremely arduous, comprising the 
sehM'tion of the stone for the building, the preparation of specifica- 
tions, the making of contracts, etc., all of which was accomplished 
within an inci'cKlibly short sj)ace of time. Forty-one meetings were 
held (hirinii* the year. 

Various marble, granit(\ and freestone quarries within a moderate 
distanre of Washington were examined, with the gratuitous assistam*e 
of David Dale Owen, a brother of the regent and a prominent geolo- 
gist, and much information regarding them and the quality of their 
products was obtained. Tlu* in<juiri(\s embraced the chief marble and 
granite ([uarries of Maryland; tlu' freestone (juarries of Aquia Creek, 
Virginia, where the material for the older part of the Capitol, the 
White House, Treasury, and other jniblic buildings in Washington 
had been secured; and the fre(\stone <iuai*ries of the upper Potomac 
River, mostiv in the vicinitv of Seneca C^reek, on the banks of the 
Chesapcak(' and Ohio Canal, about 2y> miles above Washington. 

The marble (juarrics of Maryland (mostly in the vicinity of Clarks- 
ville, about 1*> niiirs from Haltimoi'e) wen* found to yield two quali- 
ties of stone — one line grained and of excellent quality, the other 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 197 

somewhat coarse, highly crystalline, and inferior in quality, known as 
**alum limestone." 

The quarries in the neighborhood of Woodstock, Maryland, fur- 
nished a granite equal to that of Quincy, and not excelled for beauty 
of appearance, compactness of structure, and uniformity of color, 
texture, and composition by any other granite quarries in the United 
States. There was no objection to this stone except on the score of 
expense, unless it be considered that in this material the effect of light 
and shade from projecting surfaces is in a measure lost, while in marble 
and good tinted freestone ever}' shadow is sharply marked. 

The Aquia Creek freestone was not to be trusted, being pervaded 
by dark specks of the protoxide and peroxide of iron, which, in per- 
oxidating, acquire a yellowish or reddish color, and having occasional 
clay holes, such as disfigure the Treasury and Patent Office ])uildings. 

The freestone from the upper Potomac, in the vicinity of SenecA 
Creek, was considered the best and most durable of all the Potomac 
freestones. The lilac-gmy variety found in the Bull Run quarry, 23 
miles from Washington, was especially recommended and pronounced 
to be equal, if not superior, to that supplied for Trinity Church, New 
York, from the quarries of New Jersey. It has a quality that specially 
recommends it to builders. When first quarried it is comparatively 
soft, working freel}'^ before the chisel and hammer; but, b}' exposure, 
it gradually indurates, and ultimatel}' acquires a toughness and con- 
sistency that not only enables it to resist atmospheric vicissitudes, 
but even the most severe mechanical wear and tear. It can, there- 
fore, be worked at less expense than granite or marble and was the kind 
selected for the building. 

All of the above varieties of stone were subjected to tests for dura- 
bility under exposure to the weather, etc., by Prof. Charles G. Page. 
Their cost per cubic foot, delivered in Washington, in accordance 
with the lowest prices quoted b\' quarry owners, was as follows: 

Cento. 

1. Coarse-grained marble or alum limestone, according to quality 50 to 60 

2. Fine-grained marble 70 

3. Granite 46 

4. Aquia Creek freestone 40 

5. Seneca Creek freestone, lilac-gray variety, from Hull Hun (|uarry 20 

Bids for the construction of the l)uilding were received up to March 

15, 1847, and were opened on Marcli 1(). Several were found to be 

proposals for doing only a part or some piirticuhir kind of th(» work, 

but for the erection of the entire luiilding there were fourteen bids, 

varying in amount from $19«),(M)0 to $iUS.ooo. James Dixon Si Co., 

of Washington, were the lowest bidd<M's for ScMieca freestone laid in 

rubble masonry, and also for ashlar finish*, as follows: 

Marble ashlar $228,500 

Seneca freestone ashlar 205, 250 



198 BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The committee decided that regularly coursed ashlar was best suited 
to the design and would make a more substantial piece of work than 
rubble. They also concluded that, with a doubt whether Seneca free- 
stone did not assort even better with the Lombard style of architec- 
ture adopted than marble, it was inexpedient to expend $23,000 addi- 
tional for the latter. The bid of James Dixon & Co. (consisting of 
James Dixon, of Washington, and Gilbert Cameron, of New York), 
at $205,250, was therefore accepted. Mr. Dixon retired from the 
firm on June 1, 1847. 

The contract was signed on March 19, 1847. It included the most 
expensive part of the furniture, such as the shelving, cases, desks, 
drawers, and tables in the laboratory and apparatus room; the book- 
cases, large tables, and alcove desks in the library; the glass cases in 
the museum; the seats in the lecture rooms, elevators, toilet rooms, 
rain-water cisterns; the chairs and tables in the Regents' rooms, flues 
for heating and lighting, etc., but not the heating and lighting plant 
nor the dramage. 

One condition of the contract was that the work should extend 
through five years, or to March 19, 1852. It was also stipulated that 
the building should be erected in such proportions during each year 
as the committee might direct, but so that the payments to the con- 
tractor in each of the first four years of the contract should not exceed 
$41,000 annually, and that the wings and connecting ranges should be 
completed in two years from the date of the contract. 

It was subsequently appended to the contract that in case the Reg^^nts 
should thereafter determine to make important alterations in the plan 
of the building or in the time of its execution, the contractor was to be 
paid pro rata according to the prices in the contract for work executed, 
and reasonable damages if the nature of the case should justly demand it 

The architect, James Ren wick, jr., who resided in New York and 
made approximately monthly visits to Washington, was paid at the 
nite of J^1,.S00 a year, with traveling expenses amoimting to about $300 
more. An assistant architect and superintendent, Mr. Robert Mills, 
was also employed on the grounds, at $1,000 a year. 

The pro})able cost of the building had been estimated as follows: 

Contract for building $231, 000 

Fittinpj up and furniHhing 20, 000 

Wanning and lighting 5, 000 

SiiiH^rint^n<l('nce ( 1^3,000 annually ) 15, 000 

Drainage 1, 350 

Supplying water to building 650 

Total 273,000 

Owing, however, to the contract being lower than was expected, and 
to other facts, the conunittee judged that the expenditures for the 
building for the five years would amount to only about $236,000. 



I 



nauokal litrdEUM — buildikqs. l99 

The location of the building was fixed in the middle of the Smith- 
^nian reservation as to north and south, the center of the main 
structure being upon the axis of Tenth street southwest. 

Toward the close of the year 1847, as stated in the committee's 
report, the contractor was covering in the east connecting range, and 
boped still to cover in the east wing before the frost interfered. He 
liad also begun to laj"^ the foundations of the west wing and connecting 
range, but nothing had yet been done toward the erection of the main 
building. 

The corner stone was laid on May 1, 1847, with imposing Masonic 
u^remonies, the day being regarded in Washington in the nature of a 
public holiday. A procession over a mile in length, composed 
Df the various lodges of Free and Accepted Masons of the District 
3f Columbia, with a large delegation of Masons from Baltimore and 
Philadelphia, the District militia, and three military bands, having 
formed at the city hall, proceeded to the Executive Mansion, where 
it was joined by the President, heads of Departments, members of 
^he diplomatic corps, etc., and thence to the Smithsonian grounds. 
The marshal in chief was Mr. William Beverly Randolph. After 
prayer by the grand chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Maryland, the 
ceremony of laying the stone was performed by Grand Marshal Ben- 
amin B. French, assisted by Col. James Page and Mr. Charles Gilman, 
^rand masters of Pennsylvania and Maryland, respectively. An 
iddress was then delivered by Hon. George M. Dallas, chancellor of 
;he Board of Regents. A national salute was fired by the Columbia 
Artillery and one of the bands played a national air. The ceremonies 
closed with the benediction, pronounced by Rev. Frank S. Evans. 
Che gavel used and the apron worn by the grand marshal were the 
;ame that had been used by Washington in conducting the Masonic 
jeremonies upon the laying of the corner stone of the national Capi- 
ol. In a cavity of the stone were deposited, in a leaden box and 
eaden casket, many articles appropriate to the purpose, and among 
hem an engraved plate, inscribed with the names of the members of 
be establishment, the oflicers and Board of Regents of the Institution, 
be building committee, and the architects. The ceremonies were 
witnessed by at least 6,000 or 7,000 persons. 

1848. • 

At the close of 1848 the building committee reported that the east 
Ning and adjacent range would probably be ready for occupation early 
n January. The interior of this part was at that time finished Except 
:he shelving of the cases for the apparatus and the furnaces and ven- 
tilating apparatus. Battlement«), not in the original plan, had been 
idded to the eastern cloister, as the roof seemed too conspicuous. 



200 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The west wing and connecting range were completed externally, and 
the hall of the gallery of art (intended to be used temporarily for the 
library') was well advanced. Work upon the bookcases was in proof- 
ress. The foundations of the main part of the buildings including 
the towers, were laid, and the superstructure carried about 5 feet 
high. The campanile, octagonal towers, and two smaller corner 
towers of the center building were 30 feet above their foundations. 

1849. 

The entire Smithsonian building, according to the annual statement 
of the building committee for 1849. wjis under roof l)efore winter, the 
work having b(»en pushed to protect the large amount of masonry and 
woodwork. The centml front towers and four corner towers of the 
main l)uilding were carried up as high as the walls of that buildinjf. 
and th(» central rear tower 80 feet high. The work of fitting the west 
wing and connecting range for temporary libmry purposes was still 
in progress. The east wing was taken possession of for the uses of 
the Institution April 10, 1849. 

Th(» following changes wen* made during the year: The lecture hall, 
as originally constructed, in the east wing, proving entirely too small, 
the adjoining appamtus and laborator}- rooms were removed and the 
entire wing formed into one large lecture hall provided with seats for 
1,000 persons. The proposed lecture room in the lower main hall 
was given up, and the space thus obtained was divided, a room 65 by 
50 feet being assigned as a depository for phj^sical apparatus, the 
remaining space heing allotted to the library. The east i*ange was to 
be used for the labomtory and working apparatus rooms, connecting 
on tlie one side with the lecture hall and on the other with the 
apparatus museum. 

Tli(» two stairways, which in the original plan were carried up 
})etween the two north front towers and the main building, were 
(iisponsed with and the ])lace they occupied added to the libi-arv, 
as was also the central hall, and, as before said, a portion of the 
])rop()sed lecture hall. The space for the libmry was thereby nearly 
doubled in size, and tlu* staircase was to occupy the interior of one of 
th(» front towers. A clerestory to the long upper room, or museum, 
of the main })uilding was adopt^nl by the (*ommittee, but was never 
constru<.*te(l. 

Secretary lIcMiry's part in tin* ji}>ov(» changes is thus referred to in 
his report for IS49: 

The j»liin of tlio SinithHonian Imildiii^ was <lesijr!K'<l }>y th<» arehitect and rtHiiiii- 
niendoil to tin* Board by a coiniiiittec* of the Uej^ciits Iwfore the imigramme of oiyani- 
zation was adopted. It in not strange, therefore, when the building came to I* 
c)('mpie<l, that changes in the internal arranjxeineiit should 1x5 deemed advisable, 
which would better uda}>t it to the WiUitH of the Institution. Such changes, at my 



is 









acgts 
a eg 





1 ' ^' 



cl!t4l3 



■ill 

1= 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 201 

Ruggestion, have been made; and for the propriety of these I am responsible. They 
are principally, however, those of nnnplification, and in themselves add nothing to 
t\w inmt of the eiliflce. An increased expense, however, will arise out of the furnish- 
ing of new rooms which have been acquired by the alterations. 

1850. 

The operations during 1850, as «hown by the building committee's 
report, were mainly directed toward the completion of the exterior. 
The central building was roofed and slated, and inclosed in such man- 
ner as to be perfectly protected from the weather. The prin(*ipal 
front tower was carried uj) to a height of 122 feet and covered in 
temiK>nirily for the winter. The lower central tower was completed. 
Th(» ciimjmnile and noilheast corner towers were roofed in. The cen- 
tral south tower was carricnl to a height of 40 feet, and the southeast 
and southwest corner towers were built to the height of the cornice of 
the cell of the main building. 

At this time Secretary- Henry reiK)rt<Hl on tin* general state of the 
finances as follows: 

After all the exptmditurt^H which have iKHin n>adc on the building, grounds, publi- 
(ration.s, n^'archcH, purchahw^ of lN>(>ks and apparatus, not only is the original iKKjuest 
untouclunl, but there is now on hand upwanl of $200,000 of a<vnuMl interest. This 
will 1h» sufficient to finish the exterior of the ImiMing, including all the towers, the 
interior of th(j wings, ranges, and a part of the interior of the main e<lifice; which 
will affor<l sufficient accommcMlation for some years to come, and leave $150,000 to 
Ix^ abided to the principal. 

On February 26, 1850, a portion of the interior framing and floors 
of that part of the main building intended to contain the museum of 
apparatus, fell into the basement, and a meeting of the building com- 
mittee was immediately called to examine into the conditions. This 
accident also led to a meeting of the Regents on Mar(»h 2, at which the 
following resolution was adopted: 

Resolvetlf That the building conunittee In* requeste<l to take under consideration the 
rej)orts of the architect, suiH'rinti'udent, and <'outnictor, on the subjecrt of the late 
accident; that they ass^K'iate with them Professor Baehe, (leneral Totten, tiie Secre- 
tary of the InBtituti<m, and some competeut an<l entirely impartial architect or archi- 
tects; that they make a survey of the whole building, reiMirt the manner, faithful- 
ness, and security in which the building contract has hitherto V)een execute<l, and 
uiMHi the plan most pro{K'T, in their estimation, to repair the damages and finish that 
fiortion of th<^ building in whiirh tin* accident happened and other unfini^he<l i>or- 
tif»ns then*of. 

The committee so d(».signated reported on »Iuly '5, 1S50, its principal 
(conclusions and recommendations Ijciiig as follows: 

1. That the workmanship of the cut sti>neof tlu* exteri<>r is good, and the masonry 
generally, though in some resjM'cts not of the In'st quality, is of a passable^ <-hanu'ter 
with refen'uce to the terms of th<* contract. 

2. That the interior of th<^ main buiMing is defective in the kind of materials orig- 
inally adopted, and to a cNmsiderable degreiun the (pmlityof the materials employed. 



202 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

These coDeist principally of wood, and are not of a proper character for a building 
intended to contain valuable deposits, many of which will be donations to the innti- 
tution, presented with the implied condition that they are to be properly secured 
against danger from fire. This mode of construction was probably adopted by the 
original building committee, in order to lessen the cost of the edifice and to bring it 
within the sum appropriated by the Board. 

3. Although the committee are anxious to save the accrued interest, and to devote 
it to objects more in accordance with the spirit of the original bequest than the enac- 
tion of a costly building; yet, they would recommend that the interior work of the 
center building, as now existing, be removed, and that there be substitute<l for it a 
fireproof structure, in accordance with the plan recommended in the reports of Mr. 
Renwick and of the commission of architects. 

4. The completion of the building on this plan, according to the estimate of the 
commission, requires an additional outlay of about $44,000. To meet this ad<litiona1 
expense, the committee recommend the adoption of the suggestion of their chairman, 
Colonel Davis, that the exterior of the building and the interior of the towers be ('oni- 
pleted in accordance with the plan and within the time specifier! by the t*ontrart, 
and that the remainder of the interior be finished agreeably to the new plan, in the 
course of a number of years, and in such portions as can be paid for out of the annual 
interest of the Smithsonian fund, not otherwise appropriated. The object of this 
p^rt of the proposition is to prevent the derangement of the plan of finance origi- 
nally proposed by Doctor Bache and adopted by the Board of Regents, viz, of saving 
out of the accrued and accruing interest, after paying for the building, the sum of 
$150,000, to l)e added to the principal. 

5. By the addendum to the contract, the Regents have the power of stopping tlie 
building at any stage of its progress on paying the contractor pro rata for the work 
done, according to the prices specified in the contract, and allowijig for reasonable 
damages if the circumstances require the payment of them. The estimates in this 
case are to be made by the architect of the institution or other architects selected 
by the Regents. But with reference to the quality of the work which has been 
done, it is the opinion of the legal adviser of the committee that the decision of the 
architect of the building is final, both with regard to the Regents and the contractor. 

6. In accordance with the forementioned stipulations of the contract, the commit- 
tee have requested Mr. Renwick to furnish an estimate pro rata for completing the 
whole exterior of the building and the interior of the towers, making deductions 
for materials and workiiiansliip which he would have condemned had the building 
l)een completed according to the original plan. The following is the decision of the 
architect, which has l)een agreed to by the contractor, with the understanding 
that nothing is to be paid him on account of profit on work omitted by the proposerl 
change, viz: 

For tinishing the whole exterior of the building, all the interior rooms of 
the towers and of the wingn, the sum of $185, 154 

7. The coiiiinitttH^ recoininend to the Board of Regents that they agree to this 
pro])ositi<)n, and that a n*.<()lutiun l)e adopted directing the contractor to proceed with 
the work in accordance therewith. In recommending this course to the Board, the 
committee act in conformity with the advice of two of the commission of architects, 
viz: Mr. E. B. White and Mr. J. R. Niernsee, who undertook the examination in 
detail of the parts of the ])uilding, and vrave an estimate as the basis of an ec^uitable 
settlement. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 203 

8. By adopting the above som of $185,154 as the amount to be paid to the con- 
tiactor, Mr. Renwick givea the following estimate of the cost of finishing the building 
in accordance with the fireproof plan, viz: 

Amount of proposed contract $185, 154 

Espense of fireproofing the entire center building according to plans and 

estiiiuites of the architects 44, 000 

Expenses common to both plans: 

Plastering center building $8, 000 

Gallery fronts ^ 2,000 

Staircase of library and Museum 425 

Furniture of library and Museum 4,700 

15, 125 

Extra cartage 200 

Materials now on the ground, but which may not be used 1, 000 

• 

Total expense of the building, including fireproofing 245, 479 

9. The original contract, with the addition made to it by direction of the 

building committee, is 209, 810 

Add the estimate of fireproofing 44, 000 

Thus we have for the cost of the building, according to the estimate 
of the commission 253, 810 

NoTB. — ^The foregoing estimates are exclusive of the nalaries of the architect and 
superintendent; also of the cost of the improvement of the grounds and part of the 
furniture. 

This last sum is greater than the preceding by $8,331. The difference, according 
to the statement of Mr. Renwick, is due to the various deductions he has made en 
account of defective materials, imperfect workmanship, and changes in the plan. 

In conclusion, the committee are fully of opinion — and in this they are sustained 
by the commission of architects — that, by adopting the plan of fire-proofing proposed 
by Mr. Renwick and the proposition of the contractor, the building will be ren- 
dered safe and durable at a very reasonable cost, considering the amount of work 
which has been bestowed upon it. 

The committee do not consider it necessary to offer any remarks on the cause of the 
accident which led to these investigations. If th(%ie recommendations be adopted, 
the whole structure of the interior of the main building in wliich the accident 
occurred will be exchanged for one more in accordance with the permanence and 
utility of the edifice, and in this catw. they will conHi<ler the accident as a fortunate 
event. 

1851. 

In view of the report of the spe(;ial cominittee following the acci- 
dent in 1850, the Regents found it necessary to deviate from their 
original intention, and to order the removal of the woodwork which 
had been erected in the interior of the main building and direct that 
its place be supplied by fireproof materials. During isol all the exte- 
rior of the building, including the towers, was completed. Some 
minor changes in interior construction, insuring better fireproofing, 
was also arranged for. 

At a meeting of the Regents on February 27, 1851, it was resolved 
that the executive committee \>e recpu^sted to inquire into the feasi- 
bility of providing buildings for the residences of the officers of the 



204 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Institution on the SnMthsonian grounds or other convenient location, 
and, if they deem expedient, to report plans and estimates for such 
buildings to the Board at their next meeting. The reply of the execu- 
tive committee, made on May 1, 1852, was as follows : 

That after due reflection they have come to the conclusion that it would conduce 
very much to the interests of the Institution if the officers were provided with 
houses on the Smithsonian grounds, so that they might he present on all occasions 
and he as much as possible at all times identified with the operations of the Institu- 
tion; yet at present, while the main edificre is unfinished, they do not tx)n8i<ier it 
advisable to incur the exjHjnHe of additional buildings, and would therefore recom- 
mend that in lieu of the rent of a house $500 be added to the salaries of Professor 
Jewett and Baird» to Ih» jmid fnim the l)egiuning of the present year. 

1852. 

In this year the contract with (iilbert Cameron, including the finish- 
ing of the exterior of the entire building and the interior of the wings, 
connecting ranges, and towers, was declared completed, leaving the 
whole interior of the main building to be finished. All the woodwork 
and plastering of the interior of the main building was, by resolution 
of the Board, to be removed and its place supplied by fireproof mate- 
rials. Mr. Renwick withdrew his services, as it was not thought best 
to continue his salary, and Capt. B. S. Alexander, U. S. Corps of 
Engineers, was employed to prepare detailed drawings and plans for 
the balance of the work. 

Referring to this subject in his report for 1852, Secretary Henry 
wrote: 

From the report of the building committee it appears that the contract'lor finishing 
the interior of the wings and ranges and the rooms of the towers has been completed. 
The whole interior of the main building, comprising a rectangular space of 200 feet 
long, 50 wide, and about 60 high, remains to be finished with fireproof materials. 
It is proposed to divide this space into two stories and a basement. These stories 
will be devoted to the library, the museum, and a large and convenient lecture 
room. 

The business of the Institution would be much facilitated were this part of the 
l)uilding (•onii>leted. Since Congress has authorized the establishment of a library 
and nniseuin, it will be well to place all the objects of interest to the public in the 
main ])uilding and make this exclusively the show part of the establishment, devot- 
ing the wings and ranges and r(X)nis of the towers to the business operations and 
other pnrjMDses of the Institution. In the present condition of affairs there is no part 
of the edifice to which the public has not access, and, consequently, business has to lie 
tnmsacted amidst constant interruptions. The loss of time and effective life to which 
all are exposed who occupy a ]>osition of notoriety in the city of Washington is truly 
lamentable, and wh<*re this is enlianced ])y facility of access to gratify mere curiosity 
the evil becomes scarcely endumble. Progress in business under such circumstances 
cim only ]>e made by an encroachment on the hours usually allotted to rest, and 
that, too, at the exi)ens<' of wa-^ted energies and shorteneti days. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM— -BUILDINGS. 205 

1853. 

Mr. Gilbert Cameron was given the contract for completing the 
structure in accordance with his previous terms, and the building 
committee kept constantly in view the idea of rendering the main 
building entirely fireproof and of constructing it in the most durable 
and substantial manner. These changes of aiTangemcnts delayed 
work until June 13, 1853, from which time onward it was actively 
prosecuted. The committee found great difficulty in deciding upon 
a proper position and plan of a large lecture room, but finally con- 
cluded to place it in the second story in the middle of the main build- 
ing, where the greatest width could be obtained. 

1854. 

At the close of 1854 the building committee reported that the main 
or center building was finished, with the exception of a few unim- 
portant additions. Many changes had been required for the better 
security and adaptation of the building, and they involved an addi- 
tional expense. * 

1855. 

During this year the entire edifice wjis completed, and the final 
report of the architect was approved by the committee. The follow- 
ing account of the interior of the building at this time is taken from 
Secretary Henrj^'s report for 1855, with some annotations from the 
report of the building committee: 

The building is at length completed, and it» several apartmentn are now in a con- 
dition to be applied to the uses of the Inatitution. Ah variouw changeH liave been 
made in the original plan, the following brief dewription may not be inappropriate at 
this time. It consists of a main edifice, two wingn, two connectinj^ ran^cn, four large 
projecting towers, and several smaller ones. Its extreme length from east to west is 
447 feet, with a breadth varying from 49 feet to UM) feet. The interior of the east 
wing is separated into two stories, the upper of which is divide<l into a suite of rooms 
for the accommodation of the family of the Secretary. Tlie lower story principally 
comprises a large single room," at present appropriated to the storaj^e of pul)lication8 
and the reception and distribution of ])ooks c(nmect4Ml with tlie system of exchange. 
The upper story of the eastern conne<'ting range is divided into a mnnber of small 
apartments devoted to the operations in natural history, and tbe lower story is fitted 
up as a working laboratory. 

The interior of th« main eiliiice is 201) feet long by 50 feet wide^ and consists of 
two stories and a Imsement. The u))i)er story is divided into a lecture room capable 
of holding 2,000 persons <* and into two additional rooms, one on either si<le, each 50 

"Heventy-five feet by 45 feet. 

''And 60 feet high from the basement floor to the upper ceiling. 

<*The lecture room, the optical and acoustic pro|KTties of which are j>robably 
unsurpassed by any apartment intemled for the siime [mrposi^ in the United States, 
r>ccupie8 one-half of the upper sU)ry of the main buihling, l>esideH a i>ortion of th(* 
front and rear towers. Its precise Ipngth is 96 fet»t and extreme width 62 feet. It 
will comfortably seat 1,500 i)er8ons, and when crowded will contain upward of 2,000. 



206 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

feet square, one of which is appropriated to a museum of apparatus and the other, 
at present, to a gallery of art Both are occasionally used as minor- lecture rooms 
and for the meetings of scientific, educational, or industrial associations. 

The lower story of the main building consists of one large hall, to be appropriated 
to a museum or a library. It is at present unoccupied, but will be brought into use 
as soon as the means are provided for furnishing it with proper cases for containing 
the objects to which it may }ye appropriated. o 

The basement of this portion of the building is used as a lumber room and ae a 
receptacle for fuel. 

The west wing is at present occupied as a library, and is sufficiently large to 
accommodate all the books which will probably be received during the next ten 
years. The west connecting range is appropriated to a reading room. 

The principal towers are divided into stories, and thus furnish a large number of 
rooms of different sizes, which will all come into use in the varied operations of the 
Institution. A large room in the main south tower is appropriated to the meetings 
of the ''Establishment'' and the Board of Regents; three rooms in one range, in the 
main front towers, are useii as offices; and two rooms below, in the same towers, are 
occupied by one of the assistants and the janitor; other rooms in the towers are ii8e<l 
for drawing, engraving, and workshops. There are in the whole building, of all 
sizes, 90 different apartments; of these 8 are of a large size, and are intended for 
public exhibitions. 

The delay in finishing the building has not only been attended with advantage in 
husbanding the funds, but also in allowing a more complete adaptation of the inte- 
rior to the purposes of the Institution. It is surely better, in the construction of 
such an edifice, to imitate the example of the mollusk, who, in fashioning his shell, 
adapts it to the form and dimensions of his body, rather than that of another animal 
who forces himself into a house intended for a different occupant. The first point 
to l)e settle<l in commencing a building is the uses to which it is to be applied. 
This, however, could not be definitely ascertained at the beginning of the Institution, 
and hence the next wisest step to that of not commencing to build immediately was 
to defer tin* completion of the structure until the plan of operations and the wants of 
the establishment were more precisely known. 

* * * The whole amount expended on the building, grounds, and objects con- 
nected with them is $318,727.01. This excee<ls considerably the original estimate 
and the limit which was at first adopted by the Regents. 

The exccRs has ])oen principally o<'<*a8ioned by substituting fire-proof materials for 
the interior of the main building instead of w(kkI and plaster, which were originally 
intended. 

* * * Wc should not forget that the ordinary expenses of the Institution have 
constantly increased, and that, while the nominal income has remained the same, 
the value of money has depreciated; and, conse^juently, the cai>ability of the original 



''The (vilin^ is supiwirted by two rows of columns extending the whole length. At 
the middle of the space (•orn»8|K)nding to the principal entranc*es are two wing walls, 
by which, with the addition of screens, the whole space may be divided into two 
lar^e rooms, with a hall extending across the building l)etween them. This story 
may be us<.»d for a library or a nniseuni, or for lH)th, as the wants of the Institution 
may require. It is finished in a simple but cluiste style and has received general 
commendation. lnde(Ml, it is, perhaps, in api>earance one of the most imposing 
n)onis in this country, apart from adaptation to its purposes. The floor through 
the middle part is formed of cut stone, that of the other parta is of wood, which, 
resting on th(» arches Iwneath, without sj)ace between to contain air, is considered 
sufliciently fin*proof and not subject to dampness from the variation of temperature 
and humidity of the atmosphere. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 207 

U-qiufst ti) produce ri-sultu has been abridged in a (;orroHponding ])roportion. Besides, 
whi'U the Imildin}^ Ir entirely ocoupierl, tlie expense of warming;, uttendani'e, etc., 
must ne<.ftfflarily l)e much increased l)eyond its prenent amount. The n»i:)air8, on 
au-ount of the peculiar style of architecture a*iopte<l, will ever l)e a heavy item of 
fX]ienditun*. The several pinnacles, buttresses, an<l intersec^ting riH>fH all affonl 
jM lints of peculiar exposure to the injuries of the weather. 

1857. 

In 1857 the building committee .stated that at its last session (^^ongress 
had appropriated $15,000 for cases for the collections belonging to the 
(lovernment. These were then finished and formed a beautiful addi- 
tion to the large hall on the first floor, being ap|;)arentl y well adapted 
to the purpose intended. The west wing, devoted to the li})nirv, had 
lieen furnished with alcoves and a gallery extending around three 
sides of the room, an arrangement serving to increase greiitly the 
a(*commodation and .securitv of the books. 

No report was made by the building conmiittee iifter this year. 

1858. 

In his report for 1858 Secretary Henry states that — 

■ 

In order to increase the capacity of the lan^' nnmi appropriated to tlic collection, 
the cases have been arrange<l in two stories, foniiin^ a wries of aUrovos and a jjallery 
on each side. By the adoption of tliis plan s|)a(v can )n? providiMl for iloul)lc the 
nnmher of specimens which were exhihiteti at the Patent Oilice. 

Coniiiuratively few rejiairs liave l)een re4i"ired during the past year on tlie build- 
injr, though the changes which have l)e<*n neeessary to aeeoninnMlate the incrrasinj? 
o|H'rations of the Institution have involved considerable <*x|hmis«*. The corrijlors, 
which were entirely o]H»n to the northwest wind, havi* been incloseil with «;Iazed 
sashes; a lai^ amount of sjmce has thus lK*en rendered available, and a considerable 
(lortion of the interior of the building protected from the inelemmcy nf the weather. 

During this year the (iovernnient collections at tin* Putcnt Olhce 
were transfernHl to the lower main hall of tin* Sniith.soiiian })uil(ling, 
in accordance with the provisions of the act of Congress «)f AultusI 
UK 1846. 

FIRE OF 18IM. ANI> KKsToKATIoN (»F TMF. HI' I MM N« J. 

On Januarv 24, isri."). the ])nildinj' of the Sinitlisonian Institution 
wjis visited by a destructive tire, which })urn(Ml out the upper story of 
the main building and tin* lar^e towcM-s at the north and south 
entrances. The followint^ atcouiit of this disast(M' is taken from Sec- 
retary Henr3'\s rej^rt for \Hi\i): 

The most important event of ISCkS was the destrnetion of a part of tlie bnlMinir and 
its contents bv the firc^ of Januarv 24. Thi> eviMit must coiiiinne to fonn an immk-Ij 

» » I 

in tli«* history of the Institntinn; and though it ran n«»t but be ronsid<*red a most 
serious disaster, it may yet lead t»i changes nt importance in tlir eorn'ction of tt'U- 
(h>nrif's whieh nu^ht nitimatt'ly li:i\(' absorlH'd tiic anrnial im-ome and nentra1i/<'<i 
the more lil)enil ]M)licy wbi<'b has thnn far Imtu pursue«l. in virw. tlirrefon*. nf the 
ebaraeter <»f the event, as w«'ll a.= t!u' (Muitinuity (»f iIm* history, it is deenieil expe- 



208 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

dient, before proceeding with an account of the operations of the year, to repeat 
briefly the facts connected with the origin and results of the lire. 

It may be well, however, for the better information of those not ac'quainted with 
the Smithsonian building, to premise in regard to it the following particulars: It 
consists of a main edifice 200 feet long and 50 wide, with two large wings and two 
connecting ranges, having in all an extreme length, in an east and west direction, 
of 450 feet. In front and rear of the middle portion are pR>jections, terminate<l by 
high towers, two on the north and one on the south side; moreover, on each comtr 
of the middle building is a snmller tower, and also one on each of. the two wings. 

The whole of the first story of the main building, in a single room, is devote*! to 
the museum; the up]x^r story, in three apartments, was assigned to the lecture room, 
the gallery of art, and the cabinet of apparatus. The west wing is entirely appro- 
priated to the library; the east wing to the residence of the Secretary and a store- 
room for publications and sj^ecimens of natural history. The east connecting ranpt* 
contains the la])oratory and office nM)ms; the west range is an extension of the 
nmseum. In the large towers were the Regents' room, the offices of the Secretary, 
storerooms, and workshop. 

Though the original plan was much admired for it« architectural effect, it was 
soon found that, in relation to the means at the disiM)8al of the building committee, 
it was too expensive to admit in its construction of the exclusive use of tire-proof 
materials; hence, while the exterior was to be constructeil of cut freestone, it was 
concluded to finish the interior in wood and stucco. Fortunately, this plan, which 
waa carried out in regard to the wings, the connecting ranges, and the towers, was 
abandoned before the completion of the main building. After the exterior of thin, 
including the roof, had l>een finished and the framing of the 'interior was in place, 
the latter suddenly gave way and was precipitated int^> the cellar — a mass of brok<*n 
timber. The attention of the Regents having l)een calle<l by this accident to the 
insecurity of the woodwork, they directed that the further progress of the buiMinj; 
should be stoi)pe<l until mean.*< could be acc^uinulated for finishing the remainder of 
the edifice in a more stable manner and with fire-[)roof materials. In acconlance 
with this direction, after an interval of several years, the construction was recom- 
menced under the direction of Capt. (now Gen.) B. S. Alexander, of the Engineer 
Corps, and the whole of the main building, except the inside of the towers and the 
framing of the nxjf, whi(;h had previously been completed, was finished in a sub- 
stantial manner in iron and brick work. The architect advise<i the removal of the 
n)of, hut as this would have swelled the cost of the building still further bt»yond the 
estimate and the means at command, and as the covering was of slate, the framing 
under it was thought to l)e in no danger from fire. This, however, was destined to 
be the jiart on which the first attack of the element was to be made. Thn>ugh a 
mistake in some workmen, the pipe of a stove whi<'h ha<l been temporarily nse<l in 
one of the upper rooms was introduced through the wall into a furring S[>ace resem- 
bling a flue, but which discharged the heated air from the combustion into the h>ft 
immediately under the roof, instead of into the air through the true chimney.'* 

'^Previous to the fire thr large room partly occupied by the Stanley collection (»f 
Indian portraits had been fitted out w ith about 2l):) feet of eases around the walls to 
receive the ethnological specimens in the i)ossession of the Institution. While 
engagcil in rearranging the pictures above these rases, the workmen, with a view to 
their own comfort, unfortunately j>la('ed the pipe of a stove in a ventilating flue 
which opened under the roof, and thus can.^ed the conflagration which destroyed 
the upjKT part of the main buihling. Fortunately, none of the ethnological articles 
had been place<l in this r(»om, and cons(M)uently these specimens, with those of the 
museum and of the ^'cTicral collections, have been preserve<l. (Secretary Henry. 
Report for 1864, p. 31.; 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 209 

The raftern were Het on lire, and l)efore the burning was <li8covere<l the entire wckmI- 
work un<ler the covering was in flames. The progress of the fire was so rapid tliat 
hut few of the contents of the upper rooms could be removed before the nyol fell in. 
The flames soon extended to the lai^ towers, and, as these acted as high chinmeys, 
they greatly increaseii the intensity of the combustion. The conflagration was only 
stayed by the incombustible materials of the main building. Had the original plan 
of constructing the interior of the edifice in wood and plaster l)een fully carried out, 
the whole structure would have been destroyed and the valuable library and rich 
collections of specimens of natural history entirely lost. 

The aperture which deceived the workmen was prolmbly made by those who origi- 
nally plastered the building. It occupied a middle point between two windows, and 
from its position would naturally lead to the inference that it w^as designed to con- 
<luct the pnxlucts of combustion directly into the chimney, from which it wa** only 
separate<l by the thickness of a single brick. For what reason it hail not l)een 
place<l in the middle between the two windows is unknown. It is reuienibered tliat 
some ten years previous to the fire this ojKjning was during several weeks uned for 
the insertion of a stove pipe, without suspicion of accident at the time; but in the 
interval the wowl had undergone a process of drying which rendered it more com- 
bustible. 

(Vmstantly impressed with the fact that the interior of the two wings and the con- 
necting ranges were constructed of combustible material, I have always felt great 
anxiety on account of the liability to conflagration of these parts of tlie building. 
The rest of the edifice, with the exception of the interior of the towers, was sup- 
pose<l to be secure from injury of this nature. A night watch was /'onatantl y kept, 
liarrels and buckets filled with water were placed at suitable points, and strict rules 
were adopte<l prohibiting the carrying of expose<i lights, as well as the pnictice of 
Hmoking, in any partof the edifice. That these precautions were unavailing has been 
sec*n, the fire having l>een comnnmicated at a point where danger wan least sus- 
pecteil, and in a manner which rendered its occurrence s(M»ner or later almost 
inevitable. 

The weather at the time was extremely cold, and Vx»fon> the engines could be 
brought into operation the whole of the roof was in flam<*s. Commencing at the 
we*st end of the center building, the flames were driven by the wind, which blew 
from that direction eastwardly, and, fortunately, away from the library, in the west 
wing. The destruction of the roof of the main biiilding involve<l that of the con- 
tents of the rooms immediately beneath it and also thos<» of the three principal 
towers adjac*ent. In the former were the Indian portrait gallery, the lecture room, 
an<l the apparatus room. The first of these contained the large collection of paint- 
ings by Mr. Stanley and a series of Indian i)ortraits behmging to the <TOvernment. 
The lecture room was constructed on acoustic and optical principles, and not only 
answered perfectly the ends for which it was imme<liately intended, but had served 
also as a model for lecture rooms in various parts of the country. The apparatus 
TfHyni (H'intained the principal |>art of the articles presented by the l-dtv Dr. KoWrt 
Hare, and a largt» number of instruments of recent construction intcnde<l both for 
illustration an<l original research. 

The losses in the south tower were, first, the contents of the Regents' room, 
inchnling the personal effects of Smithson; second, those of a large room above it, in 
which wer^ stored the private library of Reverend Doctor Johns, of Virginia, and the 
public library of Beaufort, South Carolina, <leposited thereat the retjucst <>f Hon. Mr. 
Stanton, for preservation until the en<l of the war; and, thinl, in the attic, a large col- 
lection of public do<*uments and complete sets of the Smithsonian RejMirts, inten<UHl 
for distribution. The effects of Smithson had but little intrinsic value, and wen* 
chiefly prized as mementos of the founder of the Institution. They consisted of a 
number of articles of chemical and physical apparatus, such as were use<l by him in 

JIAT MU« 1903 14 



210 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

his peranibulatory excursions, two small cabinets of minute specimens of minerals, 
a silver-plated dinner service, and a trunk filled with manuscripts. The portrait 
of Smithson while a student at Oxford, a medallion likeness of him in bronze, his 
library, consisting of 150 volumes, and a small painting were saved. The manuscripte 
consisted principally of notes on scrai)s of paper, intended apparently for alphabetical 
arrangement in a commonplace book, after the manner of a philosophical dictionary. 

The losses in the north towers were the contents of the offices of the Secretary, 
including the records and copies of the correspondence of the Institution, the wocxi- 
cuts to illustrate the publications, the steel plates of an expensive memoir, several 
boxes of stereotype plates, a large number of manuscripts of the Secretary on wien- 
tific subjects, four memoirs accepted for publication, about a hundred volunle^• of 
valuable books from the library, used for constant and immediate reference; a large 
number of copies of the Smithsonian Reports and duplicate documents; the contents 
of the workshop, consisting of a lathe, forge, a full set of tools, and an assortment of 
hardware and materials for the construction and repair of apparatus; and of the 
upper room of the highest tower, including the clockwork of an anemometer for 
recording the direction and force of the wind. Not only was this instrument itself 
lost, but all the records which had been obtained by the use of it for the la*<t seven 
years. Fortunately, nearly all the other meteorological records, which w^ere in a 
lower room, were saved. 

The Indian portraits, as far as they were the likenesses of particular indivi<luals, in 
most cases can never -be reproduced, but we are gratified to learn that the extensive 
collection of Mr. Catlin of a similar character has been purchased in Europe by Mr. 
Harrison, of Philadeli)hia, and will be rendered accessible to the student of ethnology. 
Besides this, there are in existence, particularly in Canada, other portraits sufficient 
in number and variety fully to illustrate the characteristics of the race. At the same 
time the loss has fallen very heavily upon Mr. Stanley, the painter and owner of 
this collection. It was the result of the labor of many years among the Indians; it 
constituted the i)ride, as it has been the crowning effort, of his life, and he ardently 
desired that it might l)e transmitted to posterity as a monument of his enterprise and 
industry. The hope is entertained that the (yovernment will see fit to give him an 
order to paint a picture for the Capitol, in which the principal figures of this collec- 
tion and the charac^t eristics of the Indian race may be portrayed. 

The apparatus presented by Doctor Hare was interesting on account of its associa- 
tion with the history of the advance of science in this c*ountr}'. The collection con- 
tained most of the articles invented by the donor, and which are described in the 
scientific journals of the first half of the present century. Among the chemical 
implements were those used by that distinguished chemist in procuring for the first 
time, without the aid of galvanism, calcium, the metallic basis of lime. A number 
of the articles of apparatus presented by Doctor Hare, though injured by the fire, 
may be repaired, and I have taken measures for their restoration. 

Among the articles of historic interest which were lost is the lens used by Priest- 
ley for the evolution of oxygen from the oxide of mercury, and by means of which 
the first distinct recognition of this elementary substance was effected. It had been 
presented to the Institution l)y the nephew of the celebrated philosopher, as was 
also the apparatus employed ])y Priestley in his experiments on bodies in condensed 
atmospheres. The latter was but slightly injured and can readily be repaired. The 
other articles of apparatus may be replaced at an expense of about $10,000. 

The most irrepara])le loas was that of the records, consisting of the ofllcial, scien- 
tific, and miscellaneous correspondence, embracing 35,000 pages of copied letters 
which had been sent, at least 80,000 of which were the composition of the Secretary, 
and 50,000 pages of letters receive<l by the Institution; the receipts for publications 
and si)ecimens; reports on various subjects which have l)een referred to the Institu- 
tion; the records of experiments instituted by the Secretary for the Government; 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 211 

foar manuscripts of original in vestigations which had been adopted by the Institu- 
tion for publication; a large number of papers and scientific notes of the Secretary; 
a series of diaries and memorandum and account books. Fortunately, however, a 
detailed history of the general operations of the Institution is preserved in the 
printed reports, and a large amount of correspondence connected with natural his- 
tory and meteorology was saved. 

Since the occurrence of the fire all the operations have been carried on in the lower 
story of the east wing of the building (the upper part still continuing to be the resi- 
dence of the Secretary) and in the several rooms of the adjoining east range. Con- 
nected with an office in the latter, the lower story of the tower attached to the 
southeast comer of the main building has been converted into a fireproof vault, in 
which all the valuable papers and records are constantly kept, except for the usually 
short time they are required for consultation. To insure the wakefulness and fidelity 
of the watchmen we have introduced the use of an instrument called a "detector," 
which records the number and the times of his visits to the several parts of the 
building. For this instrument, which has rendere<i good service during the past 
year, we are indebte<i to the lil)erality of its inventor, Mr. J. E. Bauerk, of Boston, 
who, in consicleration of the loss which the Institution has sustained by fire, kindly 
presented it free of charge. 

A circumstantial account is given by the building committee of what has l^en 
done towanl the reconstruction of the edifice. From this it will Ik? sc»en that the 
plan adopted contemplates not merely the repair of the damage ])y the tire, but the 
restoration of the several parts in fireproof materials, and with such alterations in 
the divisiim of the interior space as will better adapt it to the uses of the Institution. 

The plans have been prepared and the work 8Ui>erin tended by Mr. Adolph Cluss, 
an art^hitect who was warmly recommended by the mayor of Washington as having 
been successful in designing and erecting the public schoolhouses of the city, as well 
as a numl>er of churches and other buildings. These plans have been (Titically 
examined and, in some cases, modified by the chairman of the building conmiittee. 
General Delafield, who, by his knowledge and experience in the line of engineering, 
has rendered the Institution valuable service. 

No appropriation has yet been made by Congress to aid in the restoration of the 
building. Considering, however, the large amount of Government property intrusted 
to the care of the Institution, it can scarcely l)e doubted that in a normal condititm 
of the national finances, an appropriation for sucrh purpose would have lx;en readily 
granted. 

In consideration of the extraordinary outlay recjuired for the reconstruction of the 
building, an effort has been made to reiluce as much as possible the miscellaneous 
expenses, and to engage in no enteri)rise that is not absolutely necessary to the con- 
tinuance of the general operations. So many articles, however, of furniture and 
stores of hardware and stationery were to l>e replaced that we have not been able to 
reduce the expenditures to as low a point as we could wish; yet it will l>e seen that 
they fall somewhat below those of the preceding year. * * * 

The cost of the restoration of the building in fireprof>f materials without changing 
the external appearance has, as fonnerly stated, y)een far greater tlian was antici- 
pated. Whether the portion of the work yet to be executed will much exceed in 
cost that which has alrea<ly l)een complete<i will depend upon the price of materials 
and of labor. The Institution may in time Ix; able to finish this work without 
encroaching on its present (capital, i>rovided the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
recognize the inadequacy of the payments of interest which for three years were 
made in the depreciated currently of the time. If this allowance be not made and 
no aadstance be received from Congress, then, in order to secure the building and 
its contents from injury by the weather the Institution will be obliged to sacrifice a 



212 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

portion of ite extra fund, and to the extent of this forever diminish its power to 
'* increase and diffuse knowledge among men." 

* * * As the public muneum of the Institution occupied the portion of the 
building constructed of fireproof materials, it escaped destruction by the fire, yet the 
smoke and water to which they were exposed caused some damage to the specimens, 
an<l nmch labor and expense were requisite to restore them to their proper appear- 
ance. 

The report of Secretar}^ Henry immediately following the fire con- 
tains some important statements, which, though made before those 
above quoted, am better supplement them. They are partly as 
follows: 

Although greatly to Ix? regretted on account of the losses incurred, the accident w 
not without compensation in considerations of a different nature; thus it has sensed 
to call forth the expression of a largo amount of kind feeling in regard to the Institu- 
tion and U) direct the attention of Congress to the character and importance of it« 
operations. 

* * * Two grave errors were committeil in the adoption of the present one 
[building]; first, the plan was but little adapted to the uses to which the edifice was 
to l)eapplie<l; second, the style of architecture required a far greater expenditure 
than the amount to which the cost of the building was limited. For the purpose of 
architt^ctural effect the interior was very inconveniently divided. The buttresses, 
turrets, and towers, while they add very little to the accommodation of the building!, 
greatly increased the cost. To have constructed the building in a substantial 
and durable manner in strict conformity with the Lombard style of architecture, 
which was adoi)ted, would have required an expenditure of at least double the 
amount of the sum appropriated for the purpose. It was therefore necessary, in 
order that the exterior might be constructed of freestone, that the interior should be 
finished in wood and stucco, and that thus recourse should be had to the presenta- 
tion of a falsehoo<i to the eye in the very inauguration of an enterprise for the 
advancement of truth. The two wings and the two connecting ranges were com- 
I)leted in this manner. The main l)nilding, which is 200 feet long and 50 feet wide, 
emlxillished with six towers, was also in process of completion, the framinfi^ of the 
interior having l>een finished, when the underpinning gave way and the whole of 
the woodwork fell to the ground. 

After the occurren<'e of this accident a commission of architects appointed to 
examine the building reported that the exterior walls were well built, both in 
regard to construction and materials, but that the plan of finishing the interior 
in wood and stucco was improper for an edifice intended to contain valuable articlee. 
It was therefore recommended that firei)roof materials should be employed for the 
portions of the work whi(!h remained to be constructed. In conformity with this 
recommendation the interior of the main building was completed in iron, stone, and 
brick, with the exception of the roof, which, being covered with slate and not sup- 
posed to be exposed to danger from tire, was suffered to remain. It was this change 
in the mode of constructing a portion of the edifice which, during the late fire, saved 
the contents of the whole from destruction. It however increased the cost of the 
building to upward of $300,000, leaving the remaining parts of the interior of the 
structure in perishable materials. 

* * * Nothing definite can be said at present as to the financial arrangements 
for the re|)air of the Iniilding. The subject is still before Congress, and althoogh the 
idea has been confidently entertained that an ai)propriation would be made for the 
purpose, yet, from the discussion which took j)lace in the meeting of the joint com- 
mittee of the two Houses ap|)ointe<l t(> consi<ler this matter, I do not think a resolu- 
tion authorizing such an appropriation will l^e adopted. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BU1LDING8. 213 

The first meeting of the Regents after the fire was held on January 
28, 1865, having been iralled principally in conseqiuMice of that event. 
The {Secretary presented a brief account of the tire, and of the steps 
immediately taken, through the Secretary of War, to place a tempo- 
rary roof over the main building. This work was done under the 
Quartermaster's Department of the Army, which furnished the neces- 
sary materials and men, the expense being subse(|uently refunded by 
the Institution. This roof was adequate to protect the })uilding from 
storms without interfering with the construction of a permanent 
covering. 

It was announced that the committees on Public Buildings and 
Grounds of both the Senate and House had alrejidy been directed to 
inquire into the origin of the tire, the approximate loss to the (lov- 
ernment and to private persons, the means necessary to preserve the 
remaining portions, etc. In anticipation of the work of these com- 
mittees it was thought advisa))le that a special committee be appointed 
to report directly to the Board, Mr. li. Wallach, a Regent, and Pro- 
fessor Henry, the Secretary, being designated as sucli conmiittee, 
under the following resolution : 

That a (^mmittee bo appointed to inquire into the origin of the fire, to ascertain 
the extent and character of the loss su^taineil, and to make HujrgeHtions as to what 
measures should be a<iopted for the repair and improvement of the buildinj^. 

The report of this committee, submitted at a I^oard meeting on 
February 2, 1865, after reciting the origin of the tin* and explaining 
the losses sustained (amounting, besides the damage to the building, 
to about $20,000 for the Institution and ^2t),000 for individuals), as 
well as the parts saved from injury, all of which have been sufticiently 
described above, made the following suggestions as to what they con- 
sidered should be done. 

There can be no hesitation in adopting the conclusion that steps should he imme- 
diately taken not only to repair the injury, but to improve the <'ondition ()f the 
bailding. 

1. The main edifice should l)e provided with a metallic roof. 

2. For the wooden conical terminations of the towers shouM Ikj suhstitnte<l metallic 
coverings. 

3. All valuable articles 'belonginj? to the Institution or deposite<l in it, inchuiing 
the library, should be platMnl in the main building, which should he <'ut off from the 
wings by iron doors. 

4. Provision should be made for a thorough heating of the whole building by ste^m 
or hot water. 

5. Suggestions should Ix* requested from ccmipetont architect** and engineers as to 
work to be done, and those which are adopted should be embodicnl in working plans 
and drawings. 

6. A building committee of the Board shouM be appointe<l to have charge of the 
work. 

No very exact estimate can as yet be made as to the cost of the repairs, etc., for it 
has not been possible, without ere<rting a s<'affol(ling, to determine whether it will Ih' 



214 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

necessary to take down the high northern tower. Colonel Alexander, of the Engineer 
Corps, however, has informed the committee that he thinks $100,000 will be required 
to make the necessary repairs and improvements. 

The committee can not conclude without adding that, in their opinion, the occur- 
rence of the fire ought not to be allowed to interfere with the active operations of 
the Institution, on which essentially depends the reputation it has established 
throughout the world and its efficiency as an instrument for 'Hhe increase and dif- 
fusion of knowledge among men.'' To the support and extension of these opera- 
tions, therefore, the annual interest from the original fund should, as far as possible, 
continue as heretofore to l>e conscientiously applied. 

At the same meeting measures were discussed for the repair and 
improvement of the building, and the opinion was expressed by the 
Congressional Regents present that an appropriation for the purpose 
would be made by Congress without opposition, but such relief was 
not obtained. 

The joint committee of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
above referred to, made its report to Congress on February 21, 1865, 
after visiting the building, having adopted the report of the Smith- 
sonian committee. At a subsequent meeting of the joint Congressional 
committee Secretary Henry was requested to describe his connection 
with the Institution, to give an account of its objects and operations, 
the origin of the building, and such other facts as might be of public 
interest. Secretary Henry's statement, together with the report of 
the coDMnittees and of the testimony, were printed conjointly as Senate 
Report No. 129, Thirty-eighth Congress, second session, February, 
1865. 

At a meeting held on March 1, 1865, it was resolved by the Regents: 
''That the whole subject of the repairs and reconstruction of the 
building * * * be intrusted to the Chancellor, the Secretary, and 
the executive committee." This committee reported annually during 
the three years from 1866 to 1868, inclusive, and the following extracts 
are from that source: 

1865. The firnt step toward the reconstruction of the building waa to secore the 
services of a competent i^erson as architect and engineer to prepare plans and saper- 
int^nd the work. For this purpose Mr. Adolph Clues, who had designed and 
directed the building of the principal schoolhouses of the city, was employed. 

The next thing to l>e done was the making of a critical survey to ascertain the 
actual state of the walls, and to determine what parts it was necessary first to rebuild. 
This survey force<l u|)on the committee the conviction that the original construction 
of the building, as a whole, was very defective, and, in many respects, unsuited as a 
receptacle of records and other valuable articles, the loss of which could never be 
repaired. The exterior of all the walls consists of a facing of red sandstone, bound 
to an irregular backing of bluestone of very bad workmanship. In the main build- 
ing and in the lower jmrtion of the large south tower was inserted a 4-inch brick 
lining separated by an air space from the main walls. This lining is not bound to 
the walls, and, therefore, does not add to their strength. It is merely a furring, 
intended to prevent dampness by the conden;«ation of moisture from the atmosphere. 
This furring is open at the top, and it was into this that the stovepipe was inserted 



KATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. Si 5 

which led to the accideut by fire. In all the other rooms of the towers the plaster- 
ing was upon the rough rubble work. 

The heavy projecting cornice of the south tower was merely set in place without 
fastening, and, consequently, could not withstand any disturbing action. 

The parts of the building which were not injured by fire, namely, the two wings 
and connecting ranges, as far as the committee have had the opportunity of examin- 
ing, are defective in materials and construction. The floors, in tunne cases, though 
i-overed with flagging and filled in with deafening, rest upon l>eams of i)ine woo<l, 
which is decayed, and in the course of a few years the interior of these parts will 
re«|uire renewal. 

It is proper to state that the foregoing remarks on tlie character of the materials 
and the construction of the building are not applicable to the work on the main edi- 
fi<*e, subsequently executed under the superintendence of Capt. (now (ieneral) B. S. 
Alexander, of the United States Engineers. This work, which principally consisted 
in the arching of the basement and the main story of the upper buildinjj, was exe- 
cute<l in fireproof materials and prevented the extension of the fire, and, conse- 
quently, the destruction of the entire edifice and all its contents. 

From the foregoing account of the original construction of the building, it will not 
l>e surprising that the effect of the fire was found to be much more serious than i)re- 
vious to this survey it had been supposed, and that the work to be <lone could not 
l>e confined to the mere repairing of the injury caused by the fire, but would include 
also the rebuilding of a considerable |)art of the edifice; and this was particularly the 
i^ase on awount of the decision of the Board that the restoration should be in all 
parts indestructible by fire. 

The heavy projecting cornice of the south tower had fallen <lown, in part, and the 
rt»niainder was unfit to receive a new roof. 

The high brick columns, extending from the cellar to the eaves of the main building, 
and supporting the northerti wall of the south tower, wore so iruich damaged by the 
fire as to require to be removed, and consequently, with them the above-mentioned 
wall itself. The lining of the upi)er story of the main buil<ling was also so much 
injure<l that the greater portion of this will reijuire renewal. But the most unstable 
portion of the building, and that which gave rise to most anxiety, was the prin- 
cipal northern tower. This, which is 140 feet high, starts from a sijuare base, and 
is gradually transformed into a regular octagon of smaller dimensions. Four sides 
of this octagon rest upon the sides of the original eciuare, but project into the inte- 
rior, while its other four sides extend diagonally across the angles of the s<iuare, 
and are supp>orted by rough and imperfect corbel work, consisting of nia'^ses of blue- 
stone very seriously affected by the fire. The tower was originally divided into a 
series of stories by transverse wooden l)eams and plank floors, which were entirely 
destroyed. The anxiety in regard to this tower was increased by observing a vertical 
crack extending a considerable portion of the height of the tower, but whether this 
iiad previously been produced by uneijual settling, ami had merely been increase<l 
by the unequal expansion of the exterior an<l interior walls, due to the fire, or 
entirely product by the latter cause, could not be definitely ascertained. As this 
jiart of the building imperatively demanded innnediate care, the architect was 
din»cte<l to give it his first attention. After a due consideration of its then present 
condition and its future use as a receptacle of iieavy articles, it was considered neces- 
sary to erect within it a lining of solid brickwork 9 inches thick, laid in cement, 
fnmi the bottom to the top, firmly unite<l to the original wall, an<l serving as the 
support to iron beams of the brick floor. And, furthermore, it was concluded to fill 
up in brickwork a number of the high, narrow windows in each story, which would 
add to the strength of the structure without affecting externally it« architectural 
appearance. 



2ir> REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM^ 1903. 

A einiilar construction was diret^ted in the other principal north tower, and the 
work in lK)th has Ix^en execute<l in such a manner as to give assurance that th«?e 
parts of the building will not merely lie restored, but will also be rendered more 
stable than they were before the conflagration. The crack above mentioned has been 
found, by the undisturbed condition of a thin stratum of plaster place<l over it, to 
have remained the same, and the walls, for several months previous and during the 
winter, have not undergone any perceptible change. 

While the work immediately required for the safety of the front towers wa« in 
progress, plans were discussed and prepared for the interior of these as well as for 
that of the south tower, with a view to their better adaptation to the wants of the 
establishment. 

The original plan of the building included four principal staircases leaiHng to the 
upper story of the edifice, one on each side of the north entrance, and a similar 
arrangement on the right and another on the left of the south entrance. As these 
occupied a large portion of useful space, it was thought best to increase the size of 
those at the north entrance, dispense with those on the southern, and so arrange the 
heights of the stories of all the towers as to render them more available for the 
business operations of the establishment. 

The work which has been done on the southern tower consists in the removal of 
the north wall and a considerable part of the upper portion of the other three wall?; 
the preparation of a part of the freej»toue, from which to reconstruct the exterior 
wall; the greater portion of the brickwork of the l)asement, and the furnishing of 
the cast-iron colunms intended to replace the brick piers which supported the 
northern wall of this tower. * * * 

This temporary roof, covered with felt saturated with tar, has served the purpose 
intended. It will, however, rapidly deteriorate, and, consequently, the first object 
of the committee, during the coming season, will be to decide on the character of 
the roof, and to hasten its completion as rapidly as the work can properly be 
accomplisheii. 

In the restoration of the building the committee have been governed by the 
following considerations: 

First. To render the work entirely stable, both in regard to material and mode o1 
construction. 

Second. To render it thoroughly fireproof. 

Third. In view of the great cost at present of material and workmanship, and the 
condition of the funds of the Institution, at first to do such work as should be 
necessary to preserve the stability of the several parts of the building, and prevent 
injury to tlie property by the weather. * * * 

1866. The restoration of the building hai* been prosecuted during the last year as 
rai)i(lly as the funds at the disposal of the (Committee and the character of the work 
would i>ermit. * * * 

The large south tower was so much injure<l that 30 feet of the upper portion had 
to l)e taken down and rebuilt, the <'ost of which was much enhanced by the neces- 
sity of recutting a large amount of new stone for the facing. This tower has been 
divided into six stories, affording as many large rooms, the lower for an extension 
of the nmseum, an upj>er one for the meetings of the Regents, and the others for 
storage, etc. The offices for the ac<'onimodation of the Secretary and assistants will 
be in the nothern towers and connecting sj)ace. 

The principal access to the second story of the main Iniilding is by two large iron 
staircases, one on cither side of the northern entrance. These have been completed. 

All the towers and connections with the main building have been covered with 
substantial ro(^)fs. After nuurh in(]uiry and |)ersonal investigation, it was concluded 
to adopt the plan for the roof of the main building of wrought-iron framing and slate 



NATIONAL MrSKUM — Bl'ILDINGS. 217 

o<>vering, the latter 8ecure<i in placn* by wire to iron purlines and pointwl underneath 
by a oriatin}; of ooment. 

• The inside lining of the walln of the .sec^ond story of the building, which had l>een 
nuich injure<l by the fire, has been removed and its platv «upplie(i by a new 9-inch 
brick wall laid in cement, securely tied, and clamiHHl to the outer stonework. 

The chairman of the committee haa given i)er8onal attention to the work in its 
progrens and can state from actual knowle<lge that the i>lan8, material, and work- 
manship are of a satisfactory character, alike cre<litable to the talents and careful 
8a|)ervision of Mr. Clui», the architect. 

1867. It was statetl in the report presentetl to tht^ Board at it« last session that it 
waf proposed, during the yeAr 1867, to roof the main building and towers and finish 
the interior of all the rr>oms, halls, staircases, and main entrance, leaving the large 
room of the uppi»r story over the museum unfinished until funds could Ik* proviileil 
for the purjjose and its future use l>e detenninetl. 

In acconiance with this proposition the ironwork of the rcwif over the museum 
was ere<*te<l early in tht» spring, and covered with slate, fastene<l t<^ the iron purlines 
with wire and j)lafltere<l inside with wall pla*<ter. The iron gutters, as well as the 
roof, were found pt»rfectly secure from leakage <luring tht; hanlest summer rains. 
The seven^ test oi ice and snow during the |>rescnt winter has shown the nec^essity 
for ad<litions in the armngements for con<lucting the water from the roof. Plans for 
this purpose are now un<ler disirussion with the architect for |)ersevering in the orig- 
inal plan, or adopting some additional security that the late severe season has indi- 
<*attMl to Ik* advisable. 

The adaptation of new to old work in restoring the building from the destructive 
effiH'ts of the lire by sul>stituting incombtistible materials for w(M>den partitions, 
fltx»rs, and roofs, has been attended, as was foresi'en, with much labor and exjKjnse, 
as well as making additional means indisiH.*nsable for rendering the roof surfaces, 
valleys, and gutters water-tight in winter, when covered with snow and occasionally 
ice, as well as the summer rains. Like the pu])lic buildings generally in this city 
(and we may say elsewhere) where battlements exten<l al>()ve the eaves, with gutters 
lK*hind them ujwn the riK>f, or resting upon the walls, nmch inconvenience, and at 
tinu*s damage, arises from leaks the result of such a system. It is experienced in 
the Smithsonian building in conse(|U<*nce of the stone battlements capping all its 
exterior walls. The present architect's original design, apiiroved by the committee, 
is set forth in his reiK)rt of the oiK^rations of the year annexed hereto. Neither 
time nor the funds of the Institution would permit his carrying this part of his plan 
into oiHjration; and until it is <lone, tc>gether with some additions that the late 
inclement season has ix)inte<l out as a<lvisable and nect^ssary, the building is not 
se<'ure, nor the pro|K?rty within it, from <lampness and moisture. 

The introduction of the propos4*d wanning apparatus for all the ai>artments is 
the next most essential jmrticular to be undertaken, to be <*ommen('e<l whenever the 
funds of the Institution will justify. 

The security of the sevenil apartments and contents are in a great measure depend- 
ent uiKin such an apparatus as a substitute* for the stoves temporarily in use, and for 
which no |>ermanent smoke lhu*s or other arrangements were provide<l. 

All the r<Kmis in the north tower, forming three suites of thrw in each, with two 
n>om8 on the entrance fi<K»r, one for the janitor an<l the other for a reception room 
for visitors, have lx*en completed an<l are now used and occupied as otfices for con- 
ducting the ojK^rations of the ln.»*titution. Tiie several apartments in this north 
tower above thi*se offices have al.»Jo lK*en completed. The rooms an<l apartments in 
the south tower have also lH*en finished and are now occupied. The lower one, or 
that on the first floor, forms a part of the general miLseum and is now devote<l U) the 
rcH*eption of the larger and most weighty articles of ethnology, such as the stone 
images from Central America and the stone sarcophagus from Syria. 



218 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The apartments on the next story have been fitted up with shelves, bins, and other 
fixtures for the transaction of the business of the literary and scrientific exchanges, 
packing and distributing the same. 

The apartments next al)ove have been finished for the meetings and convenientv 
of the Board of Regents, and those on the three remaining floors liave also l>een tin- 
ished and appropriated to storage and such other purposes as may .become nec*essary. 
In this tower are also provided an elevator with convenient mechanical imwer for 
removing books, specimens, etc., to and from the basement and four stories aliove 
it, etc. * * » 

To increase the accommodation two additional floors have been added to the 
original subdivision of the stories of the north and south towers. To furnisti light to 
the new rooms in the south tower, circular windows have been opened through the 
walls, without interfering with the original architectural effect of the exterior, tiius 
furnishing sufficient light for the purpose for which these apartments are intcnde*^!. 

The cost of the reconstruction during 1865, 1866, and 1867 aniounted 
to $119,528.01, all of which was paid from Smithsonian funds, except 
the sum of $8,883.69 taken from the Congressional appropriation for 
the preservation of the Government collections. 

At the Regents' meeting of January 27, 1868, it was resolved that 
the great hall of the second story of the building and such other rooms 
as are not required for the regular operations of the Institution be 
devoted to the preservation of the scientific collections. It should be 
explained in this connection that before this time the library of the 
Institution had been transferred to the Library of Congress, thus 
increasing the amount of space available for museum purposes. 

A resolution was also adopted at the same meeting that a committee 
be appointed to report to the Regents at their next meeting what 
amount of appropriation should ])e asked of Congress for the care of 
the Museum and for fitting up the great hall for the safe-keeping and 
exhibition of specimens. On May 1, 1868, as a result of this ac*tion 
the following memorial was presented to Congress: 

To the honorable ttie Senate and Hoiise of Representatives in Congress assemMed: 

In behalf of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, the undorpigneil 
l^g leave rt»»i>ectfully to submit to your honorable body the following statement, 
and to solicit such action in regard to it as may be deemed just and proper: 

******* 
It is tnie that Congress, at the time the specimens were transferred to the Institu- 
tion, granted an appropriation of |4,000 for their care and preservation, that l>eing 
the e<}uivalent of the estimated cost of the maintenance of these collections in the 
Patent Office, where they had previously been exhibited. But this sum, from the 
rise in pri(!es and the expansion of the museum by the specimens obtaine<i from 
about fifty exploring expeditions ordered by Congress, scarcely more than defrays 
at the present time one-third of the annual expense. In this estimate no account is 
taken of the rent of the part of the building devoted to the museum of the Govern- 
ment, which at a moderate estimate would Ihj $20,000 per annum. 

Besides the large exj)en(liture wliich has already been made on the building, at 
least 150,000 more will be required to finish the large hall in the second story, 
net^essary for the full display of the si)ecimens of the Government. But the Regents 
do not think it judicious further to embarrass the active oi)eration8 for several years 
to come by devoting a large part of the income to this object, and have therefore 



^^.-.I^t^^'Y 


k^^^^S 


^i% i 


j|^^S^^=* 1 1^ "J 


1 «?^ 


ii^-~I^I 




1 pr^'*2 

11 ^ 1 t,:!'-!-* 


\ 


fl '-i* n 


m 


r=> ■ U 


^ ^? - Jl^^^^^^^miSMM 



NATIONAL yUSEUX — BUILDINGS. 219 

oonchided to allow this room to remain nnfinitihed until other means are provided 
for completing it. 

It 18 not by its castellated building nor the exhibition of the museum of the Gov- 
ernment that the Institution has achieved its present reputation, nor by the irolU'c- 
tion and display of material objects of any kind that it has vindicate<l the intelligence 
and good faith of the Government in the atlminintration of the tru8t. It is by itH 
explorations, its researches, its publications, its diHtribution of specimens, and its 
exchanges, constituting it an active, living organization, that it has rendered itself 
favorably known in every part of the civilized world, has made contributions to 
almost every branch of science, and brought more than ever before into intimato 
and friendly relations the Old and New Worlds. 

• ***««* 

The Boazd of Regents are confident that upon a full consideration of the case, your 
honorable body will grant an adequate support for the collectionn of the Ciovern- 
ment, ami also an appropriation for finishing the re{)airs of the building. 

In conclusion, yoar memorialists l)eg leave to represent on l)ehalf of the B<jard of 
Regents that the usual annual appropriation of $4,000 is wholly inadequate to the 
cost of preparing, preserving, and exhibiting the Rpe<'inien8, the actual ex{)enditure 
for that purpose in 1867 having been over $12,0(X); and they take the Iil>erty of 
respectfolly OTging on your honorable Ixxly the expediency of incrt^asing it to 
$10,000, and that a further sum of $25,000 be appropriated at this sei^Hion of Congress 
toward the completion of the hall requireil for the Government collectionn. 

And your memorialists will ever pray, etc. 

S. P. ClIAHE, 

Chancellor Smithsfmian Inst iltU ion. 
Joseph IIexrv, 
Sen'etary Smithsonian InniitHtiun. 

In his report for the same and the succeeding year. Secretary 
Henry explained that the only exhibition rooms to whicb the general 
public had had admission since the fire were the large hall on the first 
floor of the main building and the adjoining apartment in the south 
tower. This large hall, containing rich collections in ornithology and 
ethnology, presented to the eye a sucjcession of large pi Mars, which 
obstructed the view of the cases. In fitting up the room of corre- 
sponding dimensions in the second story, an opportunity would be 
afforded of adopting arrangements far letter suited foi* a comprehen- 
sive display of the vast number of objects with which in time it would 
l>e furnished, as it was intended that the ceiling of this hall should be 
attached to the long iron ginlers which span the space from wall to 
wall, thus obviating the necessity for intrcKlucing cohanns. In addi- 
tion to the above the west connecting range was provided in ls08 with 
cases for ethnological specimens and op<Mied to the pu}).ic in 1809. 
The west wing was at this time temporarily appropriated to the alco- 
holic specimens and miscellaneous purposes. 

During each of the years 1870 and 1871, Congress appropriated 
$10,(XK) for the fitting up of the large second-story room and other 
work of reconstruction. Those sums, together with about Jt9,0(K) from 



220 REPORT OF NATIONAL MCSEUM, 1903. 

- ■' * . " 

the inrome of the Smithsonian fund, $29,000 in all, were expended for 
that purpose in the latter year. 

A readjustment of quarters in the Smithsonian building was 
announced by Secretary Henr^^ in his report for 1871, as follows: 

Arrangements have been niaile for appropriating the east wing and range to the 
business which may be eonsi(lere<l as belonging exclusively to the essential ol)jeft« 
of the Institution, and devoting the main building, west wing, and towers to the 
Museum. For this purpose the large room on the first floor of the east wing, which 
was formerly used as a museum laboratory and storeroom, has been fitted ui> with 
bins and conveniences for assorting and packing the literary and scientific exchanges 
to be sent to foreign countries. Preparation has also been made for removing the 
chemical laboratory from the first floor of the east range to the space immediately 
below it in the basement, and for applying the whole of the first floor of this part 
of the building to the business offices of the Secretary and his assistants in the line 
of what are called the "ac^tive operations.** 

For the special accommodation of the Museum the large room in the west wing, 
formerly occupied by the library, has been prepared for the rewption of cases for 
mineralogical and geological specimens, while the great hall, 200 feet by 50, in the 
second story of the main building, has been completed and is now ready to receive 
the cuses for the anthropological and other sijccimens. 

Estimates are now })efore Congress for fitting up these rooms with cases for the 
reception and display of the Government collections, and it is hoped that in the 
next report we shall be able to chronicle the commencement, if not the completion, 
of the work. 

The changes consequent upon the extension of the Museum mentioned made a 
rearrangement necessary of the greater part of the basement, so as to obtain addi- 
tional security against fire and greiiter convenience for the storage of fuel, packing 
boxes, and specimens. A floor was laid through the basement, and new passage- 
ways opened, furniHhing better access from one extreme of the building to the other. 
In introducing the fireproof floor into the west wing, advantage was taken of the 
opportunity to increase the height of the room below it, and to co.*^ert it and the 
adjoining rooms in the west range into laboratories and storerooms for natural 
history. 

Furthermore, for better security, the fireproofing of the fioors of the four towers 

on the corners of the main building has been commenced. The rooms in the towers 

furnish studies and dormitories for the investigators in the line of natural history 

who resort to the Institution, esi)eciany during the winter, to enjoy the use of the 

library and the collections for spetnal researches. 

» * » » * * » 

For defraying the expenses of the care and exhibition of the National Museum, 
Congress has annually, for tiie last two years, appropriated $10,000. Although this 
apj^ropriation was more than double that of previous years, still it fell short of the 
actual expenditure. The amount of items chargeable to the Museum during the past 
year, independent of the rent which might have l)eeu charged for the rooms occu- 
pied, or for repairs of the buiMing, was a little more than $13,000. Deducting from 
this sum the $10,000 appropriated V>y C-ongress, there remains $3,000, which was paid 
from the income of the Smithson fund. 

A statement of this detici(^ncy has Unm presente<l to Congress, and we trust that 
the sum of $15,000 will 1k^ appropriated for the same purpose for the ensuing fiscal 
year. 

By the completion of the large room in the second story and the appropriatiou of 
the west wing and connecting nmge to the same purpose, the space allotted to the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 221 

Miiseuiii in the Smithfion building hafl been increafie<l to about threefold. It is pro- 
|w»j»e<l, as wa*» ntated in the last report, to devote the room in the west wing to spevi- 
inens of geology and mineralogy, and the large n^)m in the second story to 8i)et'inienfl- 
of arehieology and paleontology. As preparatory to the fitting uj* of these rooms, 
a series of designs has been pre|)ared at the exjiensti of the Institution t>y B. Water- 
house Hawkins, the well-known restorer of the anrient animals which illustrate the 
paleontology of the Sydenham I^dace, near London. 

ALTERATION8 AND REPAIRS SUBSEQUENT TO 1877. 

On December 10, 1877, the President of the United States trans- 
mitted ^ to Cbngress the report of a commission, consistinjr of Lieut. 
Col. Thomas L. Casey, U. S. Army, the Supervising Architect of the 
Treasury, and the Architect of the Capitol, appointed by him on 
September 27, 1877, to examine the several public buildings in this 
city and determine the nature and extent of their security against 
conflagrations and the measures to be taken to guard the }>uildings 
and their contents from destruction or damagi^ by Kre. This com- 
mission recommended in respect to the Smithsonian building that — 

All the oombustible materials used in the construction of the niiiscuni portion of 
the building shonld be removetl and the parts renewed of tirei>roof construction, 
and the openings connei^ting witli other parts of the buihiin^ should 1k^ supplie<l 
with fireproof doors. 

On the same date the Secretarv of the Interior subiiiittod to C<n\- 
gress an estimate ''to provide additional security against tire in the 
Smithsonian building for the Government collections, §:{,0OO/'and on 
March 27, 1878, Secretary Henry wrote as follows to Senator A. A. 
Sargent: 

I have the honor to inform you that shortly after the fire at the Patent ( >flicc the 
Smithsonian building was vi8ite<l by the (Government committee of insiH'ctiou and 
suggestions made by them as to the tireprcM>fing of the pr)rtion of the edifice devoti'd 
to the collections of the National Museum. These sngj^estions were at once acte«i 
ui>on, at an expense of $2,S03.29, as per detailcMl memorandum herewith, and I 
write to beg that you will kindly connitler the propriety of havinj^ an item intro- 
duced into the deficiency bill whereby the Smithson fund may be reimbursed for this 
outlay. 

The action taken was described as follows: 

Attention having been Hi>ecially called to the condition of the pul)lic Iniildinp? in 
this city on acit>unt of the <le8truction by tire of part «>f the Patent Utlice, it was 
deemed advisable to give additional security to the valuable c<>llei-tions <leposite<l iu 
the Smithsonian ediliw. The main buihlin^, which contains the National Museum, 
iH entirely fireproof, but the c<mne<'tinjr ranjjen and tlu^ two winjrs are not so. It 
waH therefore highly desirable that the main building should 1h» I'ntirely isolated 
from the ranges and wingH. For this puriM>se the larj^e windows fa<'in>r the winjis 
were brickwl up and all the doorways leading from the museum into tin* ranges 
either bricke<l up or fitte<l with iron instead <»f w<MMlen donrs. The <'arj»enter's and 
machinist's shoi)8 were remove<l to the main basement and inclosiMl in l»ri<'k walls. 
The storage roc^ms were made tin»pr«M>f by replacing wooden partitions an<l tliM»rs 
by those of brick. In the high ivntral tower brick [mrtitions have been constructinl 
on the stairways, to prevent tlu? |)assage of tirt^ from one story to ant)ther. 



222 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Secretary Baird also refers to this subject as follows in his report 
for 1880: 

The Smithsonian boilding was one of those carefally examined by the commis- 
sion, and it was recommended that iron doors should be placed in the passageways 
between certain rooms. An appropriation of $3,000 was subseqaently a 
Congress for this purpose; and a contract for its execation. was accordinglj 
into with Mr. Greoige L. Damon, of Boston. After considerable delay in the per- 
formance of this contract, the doors were delivered and put in place by Mr. Damon, 
to the entire satisfaction of the executive committee. This arrangement has greatly 
promoted the safety of the building and its contents from the risk of the spreading of 
any fires which might accidentally occur within its walls. A few additional changes 
are still desirable to give still further security to the public property placed in the 
charge of the Institution. 

In his report for 1879 Secretary Baird writes that during the year 
other alterations had been made in order to increase the eflBciency of 
the building and reduce the expense of superintendence and mainte- 
nance. The document room had been enlarged and refitted. The east- 
ern wing, formerly used by Secretary Henry as a residence, had been 
converted into a series of oflSces. Eleven large fireproof doors had 
l>een placed in the building to isolate the different wings and floors. 
The laboratory had been rearranged and many other improvements 
made, and it was believed that the building was then in a condition of 
thorough eflSciency and adaptation to its scientific purposes. 

In each succeeding report mention is made of necessary repairs and 
alterations of greater or less extent, at the cost of the Smithsonian 
fund, but the annual expenditure for these purposes was generally 
small. Secretary Baird reported in 1881 that — 

At no distant time some expensive work of renovation will be required upon the 
ceiling of the great hall in the second story of the main building, as in some places 
the plaster appears in danger of falling off and injuring the cases and specimens on 
exhibition below. 

In 1882 somewhat extensive changes were made at the west end of 
the building. The basement under the west wing, which had pre- 
viously been occupied indiscriminately for the preservation and elabo- 
ration of the collection of birds and fishes, was subdivided, and each 
subject confined strictly to its own section. 

The western corridor was also at this time fitted up as an exhibition 
hall for fishes. 

At the meeting of the Board of Regents held January 18, 1882, 
Secretarv Baird called attention to the combustible and insecure con- 
dition of the eastern portion of the Smithsonian building, and pre- 
sented plans, prepared at his request by the architects, Messrs. Class 
& Schulze, which, without materially changing the architecture of 
the building, would provide largely increased accommodations for 



« Sundry civil act for 1880. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 223 

oflSccs and workrooms, the storage of publications, the exchange 
system, etc. 

The Board unanimously adopted a resolution, instructing the Secre- 
tary and executive committee to present the subject to Congress and 
request an appropriation for the purpose. The Secretary, in accord- 
ance with this instruction, sent the following letter on the 13th of 
March to the Speaker of the House of Representatives: 

Hon. J. W. Kbifer, 

Speaker of the House of RepresenUUives, 

Sir: By instruction of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, I have 
the honor to transmit to Congress the following resolution, adopted at the last meet- 
ing of the Board, January IS, 1SS2, and, in doing so, beg that it be referred to the 
appropriate committee of the House of Representatives and receive that attention 
which the uiigency of the case requires: 

*^ Resolved f That the Secretary and executive committee present a memorial to 
Congress showing the importance and necessity of rendering the east wing of the 
Smithsonian building fireproof, requesting an appropriation therefor, and, if the 
means are furnished, to proceed with the work/' 

It will be remembered that in January, 1865, a fire occurred in the Smithsonian 
building, which destroyed a large portion of the main edifice, with its adjacent 
towers, and a very large amount of valuable public and private i)roperty. 

The main building was restored with fireproof materials, but the east wing, composed 
entirely of wood and plaster, and which had e8cai)e<l injury, remains in its previous 
dangerous condition. Originally a lecture room, it was fitted up many years ago 
with apartments for the residence of the late Secretary and his family. This applica- 
tion of the wing, however, was discontinued after Professor Henry's death; but the 
rooms thus set apart are entirely unsuited to the operations of the establishment, 
and, while in every way objectionable, the timbers have decayed and no arrange- 
ments are provided for proper lighting, heating, and ventilation. 

The main building and western extension are f)ccupied by the collections of the 
CJovemment; the east wing embraces the offices of the Secretary, chief clerk, corre- 
sponding clerk, and registrar, and also accommodations for the extensive o])e rations 
of the department of international exchanges, the l)enefiti^ of which accrue not only 
principally to the Library of Congress, but to all the public libraries and scientific 
societies throughout the United States. The rooms are filled with the archives, files 
of cr)rrespondence, original scientific manustTipts, vouchers, the stock of Government 
and Smithsonian publications for distribution at home and abroad, etc., and their 
destruction by fire, to which they are constantly exiK)8ed, would l)e greatly detri- 
mental to the interests of the Government and the general public. 

In addition to this, an extensive fire in the east wing would endanger and possibly 
destroy the main portion of the Smiths<^>nian building, the upper and lower halls of 
which contain rare specimens belonging to the Government, and most of which 
could not be replaced. 

Congress has recognized the importance and propriety of gradually reconstructing 
the interior of the Smithsonian building, in fireproof materials, by making appro- 
priations for the purpose at various times between 1870 and 1875; and the last Con- 
gress, in 1879, appropriated $3,000 *'for providing additional security against fire in 
the Smithsonian building." 

It is now proposed to remodel the interior of the east wing, so that without dis- 
turbing its present architectural style, the internal capacity will be doubled by a new 
arrangement of floors, partitions, and roofs, and all the rooms Ik^ adapted to the effi- 



224 RKPORT OK NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

cient prcwecution of the work of the luntitution and the variouH iutereHtn intruble<l 
to its management by Congrt»8H. 

In<*loeed 1 beg to send a copy of the rei)ort of the lH»ard of fin* inHpectors (ap{N)int<'<l 
by the Dintriet Commiwioners ) ajx^n the condition of the 8mith8<mian building. 1 
have the honor to ask, in the name and on l[)ehalf <.»f the Board of Kegent^ that the 
following appn)priation hv made at the present nesHion of Congre»<, viz, ** Fur con- 
tinuing and completing the firepnmfing of the Smithsonian Institution, $50,000." 
I am, very respectfully, your obeilient servant, 

Si»ENCKR F. Baird, Serninry. 
[Extract.] 

Washington, D. C, .yfarrh l.i, lf<i<*. 
The Commissioners of the District of Colimbia. 

Gentlemen: The commission to inspect buildings in the District l>eg leave t^» sul>- 
mit herewith reiM)rt No. 5. 

By invitation of Professor Baird, the ea**t wing and connecting corridor t4» the main 
building of the Smithsonian Institution was visited and inspected. In this i>ortion 
of the building are all the records and valuable documents belonging to the Institu- 
tion. The interior is entirely of wood and illy arninge<i, making it especially unsafe 
and liable to accident from fire, thus endangering the entire building. As a matter 
of safety, this wing and <*orrider should 1h^ completely cleared out and n.»built of tin^ 
proof material and furnisheii with improved modes of comumnitSrtion and i^ress. 

Official extract furnished Prof. S. F. Baird. 

William Tindall, 

Secrt'tari/ Onmnimoners Dii<trict of Columbia. 

The above nieinorial received favonihlc* ("onsidemtion bv the Fortv- 
seventh Congress, resulting in the passage of the following it^m in the 
sundry civil act for 1884: 

For completing the reconstniction, in a firei)r<x)f manner, of the interior of the 
eastern portion of the Smithsonian Institution, ^50,(KH). (Stat. XXII, 628.) 

The preparation of plans, the details of construction, etc., were 
placed in charge of Messrs. Cluss & Schulze, architects. Proposals 
were asked and the bids opened on April 2ft, 1883. The removal of 
the contents of the east wing and corridor was soon effected, the offices 
of clerks and others were transferred to the large adjacent exhibition 
hall, and accommodations for storage were provided by the erection of 
a temporary shed on the south side of the Smithsonian building. 

In 1883 Secretary Baird reported that— 

The ai)propriation was found sutlit'ient to secure the fireprooting of the building, 
but a numl)er of other desirable ol)jects remain to he sei'ured, such as a heating 
apparatus, a passenger elevat/)r, a freight lift; the intrcHluction of speakmg tubes, 
electric hells, telephones, a concrete floor in the basement, an underground comnmni- 
cation Iwtween the Smithsonian and the new Museum buildings, et<.\, for which an 
arhlitional appropriation of $»15,0(K) has l)een asked. 

Two subsequent appropriations were granted by Congress with 
reference to these changes, as follows: 

For iinishing, heating, gas fitting, plund>ing, and completely furnishing the eastern 
portion of the Smithsonian Institution, and for finishing the fourth and fifth stories, 
including liabilities already incurrtHl, $15, (KK). (Sundry civil act for 1885.) 



Ripofl si U. S. N 




West Ranqe, Smithsonian Institution Building, Exhibition of Insects. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 225 

r tinishiiif; and completing the furnishing of the eastern ]>ortion of the Sniithno- 
Inntitution huilcling, $5,60(). (Sundry civil act for 1886. ) 

i his report for 1884 Secretary Baird announced the expenditure 
he appropriation of $15,000 in fitting up the two upper stories of 
building, which had been necessarily left unfinished for lack of 
Is. This included the introduction of iron furring and iron lathing 
the ceilings immediately under the roof, and the fitting up of many 
iie rooms for their special requirements. The rooms in the recon- 
cted portion were then all occupied for the general purposes of 
Institution, notably the departments of administration, of interna- 
al and miscellaneous exchanges, of the reference library, of trans- 
iition, and of publication, the chemical laboratory, etc^ 
1 transferring the offices back to the east end considerable changes 
e made in the lower hall of the main building, including the 
oval of all exhibition cases in the galleries, which have since been 
1 exclusively for laboratory and storage purposes by several 
iitments of zoology. Telephones, speaking tubes, an accurate 
}. service, and other minor conveniences were also introduced at the 
ern end. 

he repoil of the Secretary for 1885 notes the completion of the 
rations in the east wing and corridor in a thoroughly fireproof 
iner, with twice the original number of available ofticc rooms, and 
1 every facility for doing the work mentioned in tlie best possible 
mer. It also calls attention to the unsightly and dilapidated con- 
on of the remainder of the building, used by the Museum, which 
soon require extensive repairs. 

f\ accordance with estimates submitted, the sundry civil act for 
S provided ''for urgent and necessary repairs to c(Mitnil and west- 
portions of the Smithsonian Institution building, $15,000/' In a 
er to the chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, 
3d December 11, 1886, and in his annual report for 18S7, Secretary 
rd explained the reasons for the proposed changes, stating that 
floors, ceilings, and roof of the w^est corridor were the same as in 
original construction and not fireproof, being in fact very com- 
tible. Nearly all of the large alcoholic collections of the National 
scum and the Fish Commission were in or adjacent to this part of 
building, so that should a fire break out it would result not only in 
oiii^ damage to the building, but also in the entire d<vstruction of 
3nsive and valuable portions of the national collections. He also 
ed attention to the fact that, though the Smithsonian building was 
structed at the expense of the Smithsonian fund, it had since 1858 
n almost wholly given over to the purposes of the National 
seum. 

NAT Ml'M V.HYA 15 



226 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The fireproofing was intrusted to Messrs. Class & Scrhulze, archi- 
tects, from whose report the following account of the work is taken. 

The reconstruction extended over the curtain between the main building and the 
west wing, a building of 60 feet in length and 54 feet in width, with an adjoining 
turret containing stairs. It contains a basement where alcoholic specimens are 
kept. 

The main story is mostly occupied by an exhibition hall, extending uj) int<i the 
roof, with a clerestory. Along the north front was originally an open cloister, 
which had l)een for many years temporarily fitted up by framework for officer. 

Permanent provision was ma<le for these purposes, and a mezzanine story formed 
by the insertion of a fireproof upper floor. 

Besides the old, rotten, combustible floors and roofs, a complicate<i system of 
decorative hollow columns and vaults, framed of wooden scantlings, lx)ards, and 
lathe<l plastering, ha<l to be carefully removed, so as not to injure the out«ide walls, 
consisting of a thin cut-stone facing, backed by oniinary rubblework. 

In the reconstruction the Romanesque general character of the building was pre- 
served with the greatest si mi)licity compatible with the surroundings, and also made 
a necessity by the limited appropriation in conjunction with the increased cost of 
decorations in the fireproof materials. 

The fact that the west wing and the central part of the Smithsonian 
building had never been made entirely fireproof was communicated to 
the Regents by Secretary Langley in his report for 1888, in whicli 
attention was also called to the proximity of much inflammable mate- 
rial. He likewise explained that for certain reasons the fireproofini^ 
of the west wing was the more urgent. References to this subject were 
again made in the Secretary's reports for 1889 and 1890, and the 
importance was urged of gaining additional light in the center of the 
main building l)y the construction of a skylight in the roof and a well- 
hole through the second Hoor. 

As these partes of the building were used for the National Museum, 
an appropriation for the proposed changes was asked of Congress, 
beginning in May, 1888, Senator Morrill, a Regent of the Institution, 
pressing the matter with his customary energy. The first bills, relat- 
ing mainly to the W(»st wing, were passed by the Senate twice during 
the Fiftieth Congress (ending March 4, 1889), but failed of action in 
the House. 

The question was again brought up in the Fifty-iirst Congress (1889- 
1801), originating in the Senate, and was discussed in several forms. 
The most comprehensive measure and the one carrying the largest 
appropriation was Senate bill No. 2033, reported on January 27, 1890, 
by Senator Morrill, its wording was as follows: 

That, for the j)urp()ne of fireproofing the roof of the main hall, and that of the 
so-called chaiwl in the went winj< of the Smithsonian building, and to put in a sky- 
liglit and a wellhole to admit light into tlie central jjortion of the lower hall of said 
])uilding, an«l also to rcj)hice some woodwork of the t^^wers, and other repairs, said 
wc>rk to IkmIohc lunh'r the directicui of the Architect of the Capitol with the appn>val 
of tlie KegentH of the Smithsonian Institution, the sum of $45,000 shall be, and 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 227 

hereby is, appropriated out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appro- 
priated. 

On March 6, 1890, Secretary Langley addressed a letter to the 
chairman of the House Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, 
on the subject of the above bill, in which he says that the $45,000 is 
asked to complete the fireproofing and repair of a part of the build- 
ing which for a long period has been almost entirely given over to 
Government purposes rent free. Following are quotations from the 
same letter: 

The portions of the building which are not fireproof are — 

The roof of the so-called "cliapel" in the west wing, which contains collections 
whose mere money value is estimated at over $250,000, but whose value to science is 
inestimable. This is also the only portion of the building which is suitable to devote 
to donations of art objects, which may be expecte<l when the Government provides 
a safe depository for them. 

The ceiling and part of the roof of the main exhibition hall, now occupieil by prob- 
ably the most extensive and valuable archaeological collection in the United States, 
is of combustible material and in urgent need of re])airs, the ceiling threatening to 
fall, in part, and crush the cases and their valuable contents and possibly endanger 
the safety of \i8itors and employees. Both roof« are leaking, and these changes 
involve the replastering and repainting of the walls. 

The floor of the main hall, 200 by 50 feet, is worn out and needs renewal, and all 
this implies special temporary provision for the collection. 

The lower hall is now very tlark, and in replai'ing the roof and ceiling of the 
upper story it is desirable that a large skylight and well hole be inserted, which 
would greatly add to the comfort of visitors by increasing the light and providing 
I letter ventilation. 

The rooms occupied by the Bureau of International Exchanges are in less need of 
repair, but some portion of the amount asked is intended to l>e devoted to the 
extreme east wing, occupied by thene offices. 

In addition to what has been mentioned, there are woo<ien floors and other wo(k1- 
work in the towers which are a source of danger, and it is to ])e observed that, owing 
to the crowde<l condition of the Museum, it has l)een nect^ssary to erect a paint shop 
filled with txjmbustible material immediately against the south wall of the building 
and close to the roof, whose dangerous condition has just been descrilnHi. The 
present state of things is one of continual menace. 

The bill as finally enacted into law, as an itinu in the sundry civil 
act for 1891, was as follows: 

For fireproofing the so-called chapel of the west wing of the Smithsonian build- 
ing, and for repairing the rfH)f of the main building and the ceiling and plastering of 
the main hall of the building, $25,000, said work to be done under the 8ui)ervision 
of the Architect of the Capitol, with the ai)proval of the Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and no portion of the appropriation to be used for skylights in the roof 
nor for wellhole in the floor of the main building. $25,000. (Stat. XXVI, 383. ) 

In his report for 1891 Secretary Langley announces gmtifying 
progress in the changes and repairs up to June. 80, 181U, consisting in 
the entire replacement of the roof of the west wing with a substantial 
construction of iron and slate and the repairing of the roof and of 



228 RElfORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

the ceiling and plastering of the upper hall of the main building. By 
the cloae of the fiscal year 1892 this work was piuctically completed, 
though with the expenditure of only a part of the appropriation, and 
in his report for that year Secretary Langley states: 

I would especially urge that the balance of this appropriation, unexpended by 
reason of a limiting clause introduced in the act, on account of which the money is 
not available for certain repairs originally contemplateil, should be now made avail- 
able by Congress for increasing the storage room in the east wing of the building, 
and at the same time that certain rooms be fitted for the si)ecial needs of the (tov- 
emment Excliange Bureau, now occupying rooms in the main building urgently 
needed for other purposes. 

This request was granted by Congress in the sundry civil act for 
1894, as follows: 

For completing the repairs upon the Smithsonian building, and for such oth«^r 
work as is nee<le<l tf) protec^t the building from further deterioration and to plact* it 
in proi>er sanitary t^ndition, any unexpended balance remaining to the credit of the 
appropriation for fin»proofing, etc., shall be available for the purposes above stateil; 
this work to l>e done under the direction of the Architec^t of the Capitol and in acconi- 
ance with the approval of the, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. (Stat. 
XXVII, 582.) 

The use made of the unexpended balance above referred to is thus 
described in the report of the Secretary for 1893: 

A restrictive clause contained in the appropriation of August 30, 1890, for repairn 
to the Smithsonian building was remove<i by a clause in the sundry civil act for the 
year ending June 30, 18^)4, so that a portion of the amount unexpended bei^me avail- 
able for making nect«sary repairs to the roof of the eastern wing and improving the 
sanitary condition of the building, as well as for increasing the space available for 
storing documents and handling the Government exchanges. The plumbing in the 
eastern part of the building has been thoroughly overhauled and a suite of dark and 
damp rooms in the basement, on the south side, has been transformed into well- 
lighte^l and comfortable offices, thus freeing several rooms upon the first floor, nee<led 
for other purpose's, and making it possible to handle more expeditiously the great 
number of bcM)k8 passing through the exchange office, though even with these new 
rooms additional storeroom for the Government exchanges will be called for at no 
distant day. 

Other small changes at the east end of the building, made mainly 
at the expense of the Smithsonian fund, are described as follows in the 
reports for 1894 and 1895: 

The narrow windows and the small diamond panes of glass admit so little light 
that in winter days some of the rooms where clerical work is carried on need to be 
artificially lightt^d, and in all ciises the occupants lose the advantage of what ought 
to be abun<lant light, considering their ojH»n surroundings in the middle of a park. 
1 think it well to statt^ that while I shouki have made many more changes in the 
intt»rest of the comfort and health of the clerical occupants of the building if I had 
had the m(^auK to <lo so, I have never felt at lilH»rty to alter the external appearance 
of the building when alteration could jMmsibly InMivoidiKl, and I have therefore never 
authoriz(Kl the enlargement of any of the a|>ertureH in the stone work or made any 
changes of this kind which <'ould W. understood as modifying the structural features 
(except in improving the sanitary conditions of the basement), and when any change 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 229 

is* mentioned here it will alwayn bc'iinderHto<xl that it is esBentially the work of the 
carpenter in pmviding for lar^r inflide frames and larj^r lights in the tfashcti and in 
like altcrutionH. 

Thufi, ui the east wing of the building, in the fourth etory, a room for iX)ntaimng 
the archives of the Institution has been provided, which is well lighted by one of 
the few large windows the building possesses and which has been fitted for more 
convenient reference to the records of the Institution. Tbe second floor has IxHtn 
made brighter by repainting and by some additional floor lights in the third floor, 
and the windows in the room especially set apart for the safe-keeping of the engrav- 
ings and books of art belonging to the Institution have l)een thus enlai^ged, while 
some of the rooms on the second floor have been improved by slight alterations in 
the window frames. On the first floor additional quarters were pnnided for the 
library in the rooms which were vacated by the transfer of the exchange deiuirtment 
to the lower floor. 

In oontinning much-needed improvements in the east wing of the Smithsonian 
building, especially with a view to l)etter light and ventilation, the lighting of the 
rooms on the first floor occupied by the library has been greatly improved by 
enlaiging the window frames and replacing the small diamond panes by single 
sheets of glass. Similar changes have l)een made in the Secretary's ofhce, on the 
second floor, as well as in some of the rooms on the thinl ami fourth floors. Several 
rooms on the fourth floor, heretofore of no use except for storage, have been made 
habitable and have proved useful for various iieeiUd puriiosi^s. 

The sanitary condition of the building has been impruveil by the removal of cer- 
tain objectionable features and by the installation of a comprehensive nystem of ven- 
tilation by which pure air at an equable tem|H^rature in assureil in most of the oflice 
rooms. Work upon this was well advanced at the dose of the year. 

Another great improvement added during the year is the introduction of electric 
lights in all the offices of the east wing, the electric {>ower 1x;ing suppliiMl by a spe- 
cial plant, which, with the ventilating apjiaratiw, hnn bei'u pla(;e<l in the 1>asi>inent 
of the sooth tower, where considerable changes wen^ niaile for their accomnuMlation. 

Since the above diites the only altemtions which need he mentioned 
in this connection have been the replacement of the wooden floor in 
the lower main exhibition hall with a terrazzo pavement, tlie fitting 
up of the children's room on the main floor of the south tower, the 
improvement of the conditions on all the other flooi-s of the same 
tower, and the construction of a tunnel t>otween the 8n)ithsonian and 
Musemn buildings, which, while intended primarily for the heating 
pipes, electric wires,* etc., has been made sufficiently large to serve as 
a general passageway. 

On the other hand, it is to be noted, with regret, that the upper 
main exhibition hall, devoted to prehistoric aichieology^ had to be 
closed in 1902 because of the loosening and fall of ])last<»r over a large 
part of the ceiling* and walls. The room was at once r(»cogniz(»d to 
be unsafe for the admission of the pul>li(% and its appearance wivn 
extremely unsightly. Provisional reimirs, to the extent possible from 
the regular appropriation, have recently been completed, and the hall 
will soon again be made serviceable, but a considenible expenditure 
would be required to place it in thoroughly good condition. 



230 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

SMITHSONIAN BUILDING. 
DESCRIPTION. 

Exterior, — ^The building erected for the Smithsonian Institution, in 
accordance with the design prepared by Mr. James Renwick, jr., 
architect, of New York City, is in the later Norman or, as it may with 
more strict propriety be called, the Lombard style, as it prevailed in 
Geimany, Normandy, and southern Europe in the last half of the 
twelfth century; the latest variety of the rounded style, as it is found 
immediately anterior to the merging of that manner in the early 
Gothic. In the general design and most of the details the architect 
adhered to the period to which this st^^le is referable. The general 
feeling, however, which permeates the design, especially in the upper 
towers, is that of a somewhat later era, when all lingering reminis- 
cences of the post and lintel manner had been discarded and the ruling 
principles of arch architecture were recognized and carried out. Tlie 
semicircular arch stilted is employed throughout in doors, windows, 
and other openings. The windows are without elaborately traceried 
heads. The buttresses are not a prominent feature and have no sur- 
mounting pinnacles. The weather moldings consist of corbel courses, 
with bold projection. The towers are of various shapes and size.s. 
The main entrance on the north, sheltered by a carriage porch, is 
between two towers of unequal height. 

In his description of the plan in Hints on Public Architecture, 
Doctor Owen states: 

I am not acquainted with any actual example yet remaining from what has been 
variously called the Lombard, the Norman, the Romanesque, and the Byzantine 
school, with which the Smithsonian building will not favorably compare. In so far 
as the architect has permitted himself to innovate upon ancient precedents from the 
style in which he designed, he has done so, in my judgment, with discretion and 
advantage. * * * I esteem myself fortunate in being able in this book to refer 
to an actual example, at our seat of government, the architect of which seems to me 
t-o have struck into the right roml, to have made a step in advance, and to have 
given us in his design not a little of what may l)e fitting and appropriate in any 
manner (should the giniius of our country hereafter work such out) that shall 
deserve to be name* I as a national style of architecture for America. 

The design as originally curried out consisted of a main centnil 
building, two stories high, and of two lateral wings of a single story, 
connected with the main building by intervening ranges, each of the 
latter having a cloister, with open stone screen, on the north front. 
The only important changes since made have been the reconstruction 
of the east wing and range, which are now four and three stories 
high, respectively, the closing in with stone of the western cloister 
so as to adapt it to laboratory purposes, and the completion of the 
fireproofing of the building. 



NATIONAL MUSEITM BUILDINGS. 281 

The extreme length of the building from east to west is 447 feet. 
The main structure is 205 feet long by 57 feet wide and 58 feet high 
to the top of its corbel course, though, including the main north and 
south towers and the carriage porch, it attains at the center an extreme 
width of 160 feet. The east wing is 82 by 52 feet, the west wing, 
including its projecting apse, 84 by 40 feet and 38 feet high, while 
each of the connecting ranges is 60 by 49 feet. 

The main building has in the center of its north front two towers, 
of which the higher reaches an elevation of 145 feet. In the middle 
of the south front is a single massive tower 37 feet square, including 
buttresses, and 91 feet high. At its northeast corner stands a double 
campanile, 17 feet square and 117 feet high to the top of its iinial, at 
its southwest corner is an octagonal tower finished with open work 
above, and at its southeast and northwest corners are two smaller* 
towers. There is also a small tower at the northwest corner of the 
west wing. 

The location of the building is the center of the original Smith- 
sonian reservation, or the southern and higher part of the so-called 
Smithsonian Park, al>out 20 feet al)ove the average level of Pennsyl- 
vania avenue. The material of which the l)uilding is constructed is a 
fine grade of freestone, of the lilac-gray variety, obtained from quar- 
ries in the new red sandstone near the mouth of Seneca Creek, a trib- 
utary- of the Potomac River, about 23 miles above Washington. The 
fa(^es of the building are finished in ashlar, laid in courses from lo to 
15 in(*hes high. 

At the present time it would not be considered appropriate to design 
a building of this character for museum purposes, because, while most 
of the exhibition halls are more or less adapted to their reiiuinMueiits, 
there is too much waste space, too many dark places, wholly ina(l(»- 
quate accommodations for storage, and few rooms suitabh*- for labora- 
tories, the latter also being mainly inconvenient of access. The 
windows were glazed in the beginning with small square pieces of 
glass, set diamond shape in wooden frames, quite in keeping with the 
style of archite<5ture, though admitting less light than larger panes. 
This manner of glazing has been retuined, except at the (^astern end, 
where, at the time of reconstruction, single lights w(»r<» mainly 
substituted. 

The building was originally constructed in what seemed to he a 
thoroughly substantial manner, but these qualities wen* mainly con- 
fined to the outer walls and the floors. Subsecjuent reconstructions 
have greatly tended to increase its stability, and the building through- 
out is now practically fireproof. This has resulted from tlu» introduc- 
tion of fireproof construction and of iron doors, })y means of which 
any part of the building can readily be cut off from the remainder. 



282 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The foundations arc very substantial and the walls of the building 
very thick, as would be necessary in a structure, of this kind. The 
roofs, except on the connecting ranges, are slated. 

Tnterior. — As first planned, the Museum was to occupy only the large 
upper main hall in the Smithsonian building, the room now and for 
many 3'ears past used for the exhibition collections of prehistoric 
arehffiology. The corresponding hall on the main floor was to l>e 
divided equally' betw^een the library and a large lecture room, while 
the west hall and connecting range were specially constructed for the 
gallery of art. The east hall and range, one story in height, contained 
the smaller lecture room, laboratories, and rooms for apparatus. 

During the progress of the work of building and fitting up, how- 
ever, all of these proposed arrangements were changed, either perma- 
nently or temporarih", the assignments of space at the time of the fire 
of 1865 having been as follows: The east wing* was separated into two 
stories, the upper of which was divided into a suite of rooms for the 
accommodation of the Secretary and his family. The lower story con- 
sisted principally of a single large room, appropriated to the storage 
of publications and their reception and distribution in connection with 
the system of exchanges. The upper story of the eastern connecting 
range contained a number of small apartments devoted to the opera- 
tions in natural histor3% and the lower storj' was fitted up as a work- 
ing laboratory. 

The upper story of the main building was divided into a lecture 
room, cajmble of holding 2,000 persons, and two additional rooms, 
at the ends, 50 feet square, one of which contained a museum of appa- 
I'atus and the other a gallery of art. Ik)th were occasionally used as 
minor lecture rooms and for the meetings of scientific, educational, 
and industrial associations. In 186S, after the rebuilding made neces- 
sary by the tire, this entire* story was assigned to the Museum by a 
resolution of the Board of Regents. The lower story of the main 
building, consisting of one large hall, was unoccupied at firat, but as 
the moans for furnishing were provided it was utilized for the exhi- 
bition of natural history and other collections, the specimens from the 
Patent Office having been mainly transferred to these quarters in 1858. 

The west wing was occupied by the library until its transfer to the 
Library of Congress in 18f)(>, while the west range was used as a read- 
ing room. The tower rooms were utilized for various purposes, one 
large room in the south tower being assigned to the meetings of the 
Estiiblishment and the Board of Regents, and three rooms in the north 
tower to the oflices of the Secretarv. 

Since the fire of 1865 there have l)een even greater changes, as 
detailed in the foregoing historical account. By 1871 the adminis- 
trative oftices had become practically segregated in the e«st wing and 
range, commonly designated together as the '^east end," which was 



NATIONAL MUSEUll — BinLDINGS. 233 

fircproofed and considerably enlarged at the time of its rebuilding in 
18.S4. In 1871 nearly all the remainder of the building was given 
over to the purposes of the National Museuin. 

At the east end are now the offices of the Secretary and of the 
{mrent institution, as well as those for the geneml administration 
of the Government branches under the direction of the Institution, 
the offices of the exchange service and of the international catalogue 
of scientific literature, and rooms for that part of the Smithsonian 
library which is retained at the Institution. In this part of the build- 
ing are also several rooms used conjointly with the Museum^ such as 
the disbursing office, the quarters of the registrar and the shipping 
clerk, and apartments for the storage and distribution of documents. 

Immediately inside the principal or northern entrance of the main 
building is an octagonal vestibule between 17 and 18 feet across, at 
each side of which is a small room about 15 feet square occupied by 
the watch force and as an office of su|>erintendence. Next follows 
a long and high hail containing two iron stairways leading to the 
upper stories. The main lo>ver hall, which measures about 2(H) feet 
long by 50 feet wide and 23 feet 8 inches high, might be expected to 
present exceptional advantages for the exhibition of collections, yet it 
lias several very marked defects. The large windows (14 feet 10 
inches high by 4 feet 5 inches wide), reaching from about 4 feet 5 
inches above the floor to within the same distance of the paneled ceil- 
ing, afford abundant light at the ends, but in the center of the room 
on both the noilh and south sides there is a long blank wall necessi- 
tating artificial lighting over a considenible space. Furtheriiion^ the 
ceiling of the room is supported by two rows of very heavy orna- 
mental columns (3 feet 3 inches wide, 8 feet 1) inches apart, and about 
14 feet distant from the walls) which unite in a series of arches alK)ve. 
Between these colimms and the outer walls, at a height of 8 feet from 
the floor, are four galleries, 15 feet wide, which extend from the ends 
of the hall to the central dark area, and both these columns and gal- 
leries are further means of darkening the middle aisle of the room. 

Except at the sides of the entmnces, where they are arranged in a 
large quadrangle illuminated ])v incandescent elcM'tric lamps, the cases 
forming the main series in this hall ext(»nd from pillar to wall and 
from the floor to the gallery so as to form successive liays or alcoves, 
each lighted by a single window. In some of the alcovc^s there are 
also small square eases, with groups of sp(Him(»ns, and all of the 
above are used for the exhibition of birds. Extending through the 
central aisle is a series of unit wises, with sloping and upright tops, 
for the display and storage of mollusks. 

A passageway from the middle of the hall leads to a small room, 
al>out 25 by 23 feet, forming the main floor of the south tower, the 
exterior entrance to which has been closed. This room has been 



234 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903, 

transformed into the so-called childronV room, with a mosaic floor, 
the walls painted in several tints of green, and the ceiling covered 
with an arbor and vine. Low, light-colored cases, almost wholly of 
glass, contain a series of specimens, mostly animal, chosen to excite 
the wonder of children, besides which there are sevenil painting.^ 
upon the walls and two aquaria with living fishes. 

Adjoining the main hall on the west is the west range (60 b}' 37 
feet), one story high, but surmounted by a clerestor3\ The side roofs 
are supported by two rows of columns, similar to those in the main 
hall but not so heavy, being 6 feet apart and al)out 8 feet 2 inches 
from the side walls. The windows are confined to the south wall. 
Upright cases form alcoves along the sides of the room, while flat- 
topped table cases occupy the centml aisle. This range has recently 
been given over to the exhibition of insects. It previously contained the 
fishes and was originally connected with the library as a reading room. 

The western hall follows and has for a number of years been devoted 
to the display of marine invertebrates exclusive of the molliisks, with 
extensive provisions for the storage of specimens. It has the appear- 
ance of a chapel, by which name it is often designated. It is rela- 
tively very high, with an arched ceiling and skylight, and termiimt«*s 
at the northern end in an apse. Its dimensions, not including the 
apse, are: Length, about 66 feet; width, 35 feet; greatest height, 37 
feet 8 inches. There are windows well up on the south and west sides 
and lower ones in the apse, but none on the east. High up on the 
south wall is a handsome rose window. This room, together with the 
adjoining I'ange, was planned to contain the gallery of art, but from 
the time of its completion until 180C it was occupied by the libi-ary. 
Now upright cases of black walnut occupy the wall space on all sides, 
except in the apse, which contains a s^'noptical collection displayed 
in small cases. The body of the hall has three rows of flat-topped 
and high, square cases, on unit bases fitted with storage drawei-s. 
The small adjoining tower is also used for the storage of marine 
invertebrates. 

The old cloister to the north of the west range, originally open at 
the front, was inclosed with wood at an early date; but when this part 
of the building was fireproofed, the woodwork Was replaced with stone. 
The room thus gained is divided into two well-lighted apartments, 
used as laboratori(\s foi* fishes and marine invertebrates. 

The second floor, as designated on the plans, contains the galleries 
of the main lower hall already described. At the head of the first 
flight of stairs from the main entrance are three small rooms used a^ 
natural-history studies, and at a corresponding height in the south 
tower is a room titted up by the Smithsonian Institution for its collec- 
tion of apparatus. There is also a low second-story room over the 
western cloister, used for the storage cf tishes. 



J. S. Nuionil Muwum. 1M3— 




NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 235 

Propin'ly spoakinjr, the third floor, so named on the plans, is, for the 
iiniin p.irt of the huilding, only the second floor. Tt consists of a 
single lart^e room of the same size as the lower main hall, boinj^ thus 
al)ont 2<K) feet long by 50 feet wide and 21) feet 3 inches high. For- 
merly it contained the picture gallery, a lecture hall, and a nmseum 
of apparatus, but soon after the restonition succeeding the fire of 
l?s05 it was turned over to the depsirtment of prehistoric arclueology, 
which haa occupied it ever since. It is one of the finest halls in the 
possession of the Museum, but for a long time it has be^n in Imd 
condition, owing chiefly to the loosening and fall of plaster. The 
extensive repairs made necessary on this account have, however, 
recently been finished. As the ceiling is supjxjrted from the roof, 
the hall contains no pillars, and there are no gsillei-ies, so that the 
sfjaee is entirely clear; and while the windows liear the same relations 
to the central space as in the lower hall, the light is more freely dis- 
tributed. The luises are of several old patterns, not i)eiinitting of a 
satisfactory installation, especially considering the height of the room, 
which, with proper treatment, could ])e made exceedingh' effective. 
In the north tower on this level an* three* small rooms used as the 
la1)oratorie8 for prehistoric archaeology, and in the south tower is the 
Kegent-s' i-ooiu. 

The floor of the north towers and intervening space next above the 
urchfeological workrooms comprises a suite of three similar roouiM, 
occupied as lalximtories for conchology. Three succeeding floors in 
the same towers, containing six rooms in all, an* utilized us store looms 
for mollusks and other marine inverte}>nites. Above these in the 
taller tower are still six stories, but their high jjositioii reiuleis them 
pnictically unserviceable. The three floors which sueeecKJ the iiegcMits' 
room in the south tower are all used for the stonige of pu)»li(:itions. 

While the Ijasement is of good height, only the (*astern part is in 
proper condition, the central and w«*stern parts reciiiiring to ))e thor- 
oughly renovated, including the building of broad areas along tin* 
exterior to assist in the lighting and ventilation. The heating plant 
is near the center of the basement, but now serves only in a supple- 
mentary capacity. In tin* north tower are the toilet rooms. To the 
eastward from there the basement is mainlv usetl bv the Smitlisonian 
Institution and the International P]xcliange Service; to the westward 
all the available space is given over to Museum storage. There are 
seven small rooms and one large room, one of the former being used 
for supplies, while all the remainder are overfilled with specinn'Ms iu 
the s(*veral groups of ))irds. fishes, mollusks, and marine invertelu ■at<*s. 
With the exception of the birds, the sp(*cimi*ns are mainly alcoholic. 
These collections are verv large and of irreat value, but thev renuire 
at least twice the i)resent amount of sjiact* for their safe arrang(;ment, 
and the darkness and dampness of the rooms unfit them for purposes 
of study. 



236 BEPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

NATURAL-HISTORY WORKSHOP. 

In order to provide more extensive and more suitable quarters for 
the preparators and photographer of the Museum, with inunediate 
reference to preparations for the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibi- 
tion, a small two- story brick building was constructed in 1875 on the 
Mall, a short distance west of the southwestern corner of the Smith- 
sonian building. It consists of a main structure, about 30 by 27i 
feet, and of two wings, each about 28 by 17 feet, on the east and west 
sides. The latter have been used as a stable and a carriage house and 
were somewhat enlarged in 1901 and 1902 at the expense of the 
Smithsonian fund, their present dimensions being those given above. 
The original Congressional appropriation for this building amounted to 
$3,000, but, proving inadequate and in order to hasten its completion, 
the Institution advanced an additional sum of ^3,927. 84, which wa^ 
refunded by Congress in 1877. 

The upper part of the main building was fitted up ajs a photographic 
laboratory, the remainder of the main building, with its basement 
and the rooms over the carriage house, being assigned to the work 
of taxidermy, prepamtion of skeletons, modeling, the painting of 
models, etc. In the course of a few vears the accommodations which 
it furnished were greatly outgrown, and certain divisions of the work 
were transferred elsewhere. At the present time only the upper story 
is occupied for any of these purposes, and principally by the bird 
taxidermists. In 1881 the department of photography was removed 
to the Museum building, and the old rooms were allotted to the use of 
the photographers of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, who remained there until 1884. 

ARMORY BUILDING. 

This building, assigned in 1877 to the purposes of the National 
Museum and now occupied as the headquarters of the U. S. Fish 
Commission, is located at the southern end of that part of the Mall 
lying between Sixth and Seventh streets. It was erected under an 
appropriation of $30,000, granted in the civil and diplomatic act for 
1856, for the use of the local volunteers and militia and as a place of 
deposit for the militiiry trophies of the Revolutionary and other wars, 
and for newly invented and model arms for the military service. It 
is a rectangular brick structure, with man}" large windows, measuring 
about 102 feet long, 58 foot wide, and 40 feet high to the gable. It 
has four stories, including an attic, which afford a combined floor 
space of over 20,000 squan? feet. The building remained dedicated to 
its original uses until after the close of the civil war, when, the militia 
of the District not being organized, it was left unoccupied. 

The use of this building was granted to the Smithsonian Institution, 
in order to provide for the temporary storage of the large collectioDS 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 237 

which were expected to be received from the Centennial Exhibition 
at Philadelphia, by the following provision in the sundry civil act for 
1877: 

For repairing and fitting*up the so-called Armory building, on the Mall between 
Sixth and Seventh streets, and to enable the Smithsonian Institution to store therein 
and to take care of specimens of the extensive series of the ores of the precious 
metals, marbles, building stones, coals, and numerous objects of natural history now 
on exhibition in Philadelphia, including other objects of practical and economical 
value presented by various foreign governments to the National Museum, $4,500: 
Provided, That the said sum shall be expended under the direction of the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The collections, when brought to Washington from Philadelphia and 
stored in this building in their original packing cases, together with 
other collections from national surveys, filled it completely from the 
ground floor to the attic. The sundry civil act for 1878 provided for 
the completion of the interior arrangements and for maintenance in 
the following terms: 

For fitting up the Armory building for storage of articles l)elonging to the United 
States, including those transferred from the international exhibition and expense of 
watching the same, $2,500. 

For 1879 and 1880, the same sum was granted ''for expense of 
watching and storage of articles," etc. An identical amount was 
appropriated for 1881, in which year the National Museum building 
was completed, and the following clause added: ^*and for transfer 
to the new National Museum." 

Some of these collections, with others from the Geological Survey 
and the Bureau of Ethnology, and several workshops were retained, 
however, at the Armory building for a number of years longer, when 
certain quarters, including the main floor, were appropriated to the 
use of the U. S. Fish Commission, of which the Commissicmer, Spencer 
F. Baird, was also keeper of the Museum. The foUow^ing was the 
wording of the act for 1882: 

For expense of watching, care, and storage of duplicate Government collections 
and of property of the United States Fish Comuii.ssion, $2,500. 

The text of the sundry civil items for 1883, 188-1, and 1885, was 
identical, except for the insertion of tlie word 'Aground" in two 
instances and its omission in the others, «nd was as follows: 

For care of the Annory building (and groinuls) and expense of watching, i)r€»Per- 
vation, and storage of the <luplicate collections of tlie Government and of tlie i)rop- 
erty of the United States Fish Conlnli^48ion contained therein, including nalaries or 
compensation of all necessary employees, $2,500. 

In the corresponding ])ill for 188G, '^the property- of the National 
Museum" was substituted for '"the duplicate collections of the 
Government.'" 

During the succeeding tliree years no appropriations wen* made 



238 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

directly for the Aniiory building. It l>ccanie more extensively used 
by the Fish Commission, the Museum retaining only a few workshops 
and some storage quarters on the third floor. The expenses of main- 
tenance and repair were paid by the Commission. In 1888 the newh 
appointed Fish Conmiissioner rcquested that the entire building be 
turned over to the Fish Commission for offiee and hatchery purposes. 
Opposition arising, however, the matter was settled for the time by 
the following item in the sundry civil act for 1889: 

That the building known aa the Armory building, WaHhington, D. C^, shall l>e 
ocimpie<l an at present, jointly by the United States Commission of Fish and Fish- 
eries and the National Museum. 

The act for 1890, however, which is as follows, extended the privi- 
leges of the Fish Commission: 

Fish Commission: For altering and fitting up the interior of the Armory buihlin^, 
<m the Mall, city of Washington, now o<x*upie<l as a hatching station, for the aoroni- 
modation of the ottices of the United States Fish Commission, and for general reiniin* 
if} said building, including the heating apparatus, and for rej>airing and extending 
the outbuildings, $7,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, the same to Ik? 
inmiediately available and to Ixj exjH'nded under the direction of the Architect of 
the Capitol; and for the puri)ose alH)ve named the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution is hereby retjuired to move from the second and third stories of this 
building all properties, exirept such as are connec'ted with the workshoi)s hereinaft«^r 
named, under his control; and the workshops now in the second story of said build- 
ing shall Ik* transferrtMl to ami provl<led for in the thinl story thereof. And the 
Architect of the Capitr>l is hereby dinH!te<l to examine and make rt»jM>rt to Congress 
at its next regidar session as to the practicability and cost of cxmstructing a l.>asement 
story under the National Museum building. 

In his report upon the National Museum for 1890, Doctor Goodo 
states that — 

In the Armory building there are at the present time several hundreds of lx>x(»s 
containing valuable material which has never lH»en unjMicked, sint*e there is no 
space available for the display of the siKicimens. Many of the boxes CH:mtain collec- 
tions which were brought to the ^luseum through the medium of spcinal acti< of 
Congress. 

Realizing, liowevei', tlio inconvenience to the Fish Commission of 
retaining these un(lesiral)le features in the midst of the office quarters 
then in course of construction, a compromise was effected whereby the 
balance of the material in storage was tnmsferred to a large adjacent 
shed erected by the Commission and the workshops to a location near 
the Museum. Some i)arts of these sheds are still used for the same 
purpose. 

THE MUSEUM BUILDING. 
HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

At tlie beginning of ls77 the Hoard of Uc^gents made its first request 
to Congress for niciins to erect a nuiseuin building supplemental to 
the Smithsonian building, wliich for over twenty years had housed the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 239 

•ollcctions of the Governmoiit in conformity with the act establishing 
he Institution. By this time all of the available spacx; in the Smith- 
sonian building was overcrowded with specimens, and the need of 
idditional, spacious quarters liad suddenly arisen, mainly through the 
icquisition of exc^sedingly large collections of great value, donated to 
he United States by foreign governments and other exhibitors at the 
.Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1870. At their meeting of 
lanuary 24, 1877, the question was under discussion by the Regents, 
vhen, on motion of Doctor Parker, the following preamble and reso- 
ution were adopted, and the Secretary was instructed to transmit 
hem to Congress: 

Wliereao CongresB, in the oi^nization of the Smithsonian Institution, directed 
)Kit it siiould make provitfion on a liberal scale for a niusenni to contain all the 
•hjtH'ti* of natural history and of curious and foreign res(*arch, then belonging to or 
ien»afti»r to belong to the Unite<l States Government; and 

Wliereas, in acconlance with this direction, the Institution has developeil and for 
iiany yeant princi]>ally supporteil this National Museum, the collection l)eing 
he pn>i>erty of the Government, while the buihling was erected f(»r their accommo- 
lation, at a cfjst of $500,000, out of the income of the Smiths >n fund; and 

Whereas, on account of the appropriations of Congress for a national exhibit at the 
Vntennial, an<l the lilieral donations which have l)een made by several States of 
he Union, by individuals, and especially by foreign governments, the National 
»[us<>um has sud<len1y increase<l to fourfold its previous dimensions and far beyond 
he i'ai>acity of the Smithsonian building to (contain it: Therefore, 

Hi'iutlved, That Congress Ix? respectfully recpiested to provide accommo4lations for 
hese additional collec^tions by the ere(!tion of a suitable building in connection with 
he present Smithsonian e<lifice. 

This resolution was presented to the St»natc on Jiuuiary 26, 1877, 
iiid to the HoiLse of Representatives on February 2 of the same ^xar, 
>eing referred in the former IkkIv to the Committee on Public 
buildings and Grounds and in the latter to the Committc^c on Appro- 
>riations. 

Under date of Februar}' 5, 1877, the Kegents also tninsmittod to 
^'/ongress a memorial on the same subject, which, besides defining the 
egal objects of the Museum of the Smithsonian Ihstitution and the 
)rigin and extent of its collections, contained the following paragraphs, 
equally pertinent to the needs for added space: 

By an a<:t bearing date July 31, 187t), additional «luties were hiid uyn^n the Smith- 
onian Instituti(m as custodian, and ^4,500 were appropriated "for reiuiiring and tit- 
ing up the so-(ralled Armory buihling, on the ^lall l)etwe*?n Sixth and Seventh 
treets, and to enable the Smithwjnian Institution to store tlicrein and to take care 
»f si)ecimens of the extensive series of the ores of the ])recious metals, marbles, 
>uilding stones, coals, and numerous objects of natural history now on exhibition in 
Philadelphia, including other objects of j)ractical and economical value pres<»ntefl by 
arious fon-ign governments to tlie National Mu«Mnn. 

As a fniit of this act of tlie (ienenU ( JovtTninent, tlieSmithsrniian Institution finds 
Iself the custodian of enormous <'ollections that had Um'II displayetl at tlie (Vnt<*ni 
lial Exi>osition and on the closing of that exhibition had Ix^en pn»senle<l to the 
Jnited States. These donations are made by individuals among our own citizens, 



240 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

by foreign exhibitor, and by several of the States of the Union, and there is scarcely 
a power in the civilized world in any region of the globe which has not taken part in 
these contributions, and some of them with the largest generosity. Men of scienct^ 
most competent to pass judgment, pronounce them to be of immense value and art* 
of opinion that, including the gifts from States of the Union and the exhibits of the 
United States, they could not have been brought together by purchase for less than a 
million of dollars. 

Their adequate exhibition requires an additional building which shall afford at 
least four times the space funiished by the present edifice of the Institution. 

The Government of the Unite<l States is now in possession of the materials of a 
museum exhibiting the natural products of our own country, associated with those 
of foreign nations, which would rival in magnitude, value, and interest the most 
celebrated museums of the Old World. 

The immediate practical (question is. Shall these precious materials be for the most 
part i>acked away in boxes, liable to injury and decay, or shall they be exhibited? 

It was the act of Congress which ordere<l the acceptance in trust of these noble 
gifts to the United States. The receiving of them implies that they will l>e taken 
care of in a manner correfi[>onding to the just exi^ectations of those who gave them; 
and one of the prevailing motives of the donors was that the productions of their 
several lands might continue to he exhibite<l. The intrinsic value of the donations 
is, moreover, enhanctnl by the circumstances under which they were made. They 
came to us in the one hundredth ye^r of our life as a nation, in token of the desire of 
the governments of the world to manifest their interest in our destiny. This con- 
sideration l)ecomes the more ph^ng when we bring to mind that these gifts have 
l)een rewiveil not exclusively from the great nations of Europe from w^hich we are 
sprung, or fnmi the empire and republics on our own continent beyond the line, but 
that they come to us from the oldest alxxle of civilization on the Nile, from the time- 
honored empires and kingdoms of the remotest eastern Asia, and from the princii)al 
states which are rising into intellei'tual and industrial and X)olitical greatness in the 
farthest isles and continent; from states which are younger than ourselves and bring 
their contributions as a congratulat^jry offering to their elder brother. 

We have detMned it our duty to lay these facts and reflections before both Houses 
of Congress and to represent to them that if they, in their wisdom, think that the 
unequaled accunuilation of natural specimens and works interesting to science, the 
evidence of the goo<l will to us that exists among men, should be placed where it can 
l>e seen an<l studied by the i)eople of our own land and by travelers from abroad, it 
will Ik? necessary to make an appropriation for the immeiliate erection of a spacious 
building. Careful incjuiries have Ix^en instituteil to ascertain the smallest sum which 
would l)e adetpiate to that i>urpose, and the plan of a convenient structure has been 
made by Gen(;ral Meigs, the (Quartermaster-General, U. S. Anny. We beg leave 
further to rc^present that to accomplish the purpose there would be need of an appro- 
priation of $2r>0,0<X). This amount is re<iuired not as a first installment, to be fol- 
lowed by others, hut as sufficient entirely to complete the e<lifice. 

Should this appropriaticm be made at an early day, the building could be ready for 
the reception c)f articles before the next session of Congress. 

This ineniorial wa.s referred in })oth Houses to the Committees on 
Public Buildings and Grounds and met with general favor. A bill 
meeting the rotjuirements was passed by the Senate on February 22, 
1877, but a corresponding bill offered in the House on March 2 was 
defeated by objection, possibly because of the lateness of the session, 
less than two days remaining })efore the close of Congress. The 
debates were brief but interesting. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 241 

Senator Morrill, on February 6, 1877, remarked: 

Ah I liuve stated in years jmst, it has seemed Uf \xi a necessity that we shoald pro- 
vide for a national museum. It has ])een the opinion of the Committee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds on the x)art of the Senate, I Iwlieve unanimously, for some 
years that we ouf^ht to take all of the Sfjuares next east of the public grounds, 
throughout the length and breadth of the north and south range of one square, taking 
one square in depth and the whole length, for the purpose of a national museum 
and CongresHional Library, and evidently this matter should be i)rovide<l for at once. 
* * * There are, as I am informed, at least fifty carloads of articUjs that have 
Wmi given to us by foreign governments. Thirty-two or thirty-three out of the forty 
nationalities abroad have given us their entire exhibits at the Centennial Kxhibition. 
Their money value is scan^ly computable, but if it were to l)e computed it exceiMls 
our own, as large as our exhibits were there and as creditable to the country. Our 
own, I believe, in money value, have Ixjen computed at $400,000. Tluwe foreign 
exhibits are compute<l, at least in money value, at the sum of $600,000, ])ut in his- 
torii*al and scientific interest they perhaps surpass anything that has been assembled 
in any national museum on the globe. 

vSenator J. W. Stevenson, on the same day, made the following 
statement: 

1 1 is known to the Senate that the Smithsonian Institution was rei)retfonted at the 
late Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. At the close of that exposition a nunil)er 
of the foreign powers there represente*! and who contributed to that gran«l display, 
at its close generously donate<l to the Smithsonian Institution most of their articles 
and products there exhibited. * * * The motive which prompted thes<^ dona- 
tions to the Smithsonian Institution was un(iuestiona])ly one of amity and respect 
entertained by the foreign powers <lonating them for the Government of the Unittnl 
States. But unquestionably these donors exi>ected tliat this (iovernment would, 
thnmgh the agency of the Smithsonian Institution, keep these arti(!les thus donated 
on public exhibition, and in this way the respective products of each country would 
liecome known to the i>eople of our entire country. 

The articles donate<l are valuable, rare, varie<l, and occupy much space. * * * 
The Smithsonian Institution has no building in which they can ])e cither exliibited 
or safely preserved. They must remain, therefore, in })oxes, subject to injury an<l 
to decay, unless Congress shall take some innne<liate action toward the erection of a 
building in all resj^ecta suitable for their exhibition and preservation. The (upacit y 
of such a building is estimated ])y eomiH?tent architects to Ih» four times as lar^e as 
the Smithwmian building. A plan of such a structure has })een already dniwn by 
( leneral Meigs. ♦ * * 

Professor Henry assures me that witli the erection of the contemi>lated ImlMin^ 
on the plan of General Meigs, with tin* articles now* cm exhibition in the Sniith- 
H'mian Institution with those just donated, we sliall have the nucleus of a national 
museum which, in a few years, will CKiual any in the world. 

In presenting the nKunorial to the House on Fcb»aary 7, 1S77, 
Representative Hiester Clynier said, among other things: 

It may not Ik* disputed that the acceptance of them [the collections from Phila- 
delphia] by the Government impost's an o)>ligation that they shall be preserved and 
exhibittNl for the ^rnititieation and instnKrtion <»f the i)eoi>le. Their j)reservation and 
exhibition nuist be contided to the National ^Inseum, of which, l>y law, the Uegeiits 
of the Smithsonian have the custodv. Thev have presented f«»r our considenition 
the necessity ff)r ereetin^ a suitii})le building for the puriK>ses I have indicated, giv- 
ing' an estimate of its i)rol>able cost. 

NAT Ml s 19ua 1(5 



242 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The bill which passed the Senate as an item in the sundry civil bill, 
but failed of action in the House, in this the second session of the 
Forty-fourth Congress was as follows: 

For a fireproof building for the use of the National Museum, '^00 feet Bijuare, to U' 
erecte(i under the direction and 8ui>ervi8ion of the Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, in accordance with the plan of Maj. Gen. M. C. Meip*, now on file witli 
the Joint Committee of Public Buildings and Grounds, on the southwest comer of 
the grounds of the Smithsonian Institution, the sum of $250,000 is hereby appro 
priated out of any money in the Treasury not other^'ise appropriate* 1; said building 
to l)e placed west of the Smithsonian Institution, leaving a roa^lway V>etween it arul 
the latter of not less than 30 feet, with its north front on a line ]»arallel with the 
north face of the buildings of the Agricultural Deimrtment and of the Smithsonian 
Institution; and all expenditures for the purposes hert»in mentioned, not including 
anything for architectural plans, shall Ije audited by the proper officers of the 
Treasury Department. 

The necessity for a new Museum building was brought to the atten- 
tion of the President of the United States through the following 
communication, dated Octobers, 1877: 

Sir: I have the honor, in Ixjhalf of the Boanl of Regents of the Smithsf>nian Insti- 
tution, to invite your attention to the propriety of recommending to Congress the 
memorial of the Board of Regents (a copy of which is herewith inclostxl), askiiiir 
that an appropriation l)e nimle for a building to accommodate the valuable i-ol lec- 
tions presenttnl to the United States through this Institution at the late international 
exhibition in Philadelphia. 

As explanatory of this recjuest it may l)e proiH»r to state that the Smiths<)niaM 
Institution was authorized })y Congress to receive and take charge of these n>llecti«»ns, 
and that they were prest»nted with the exj)ectation on the jmrt of the donors that 
suitable provision would W made for their disj)lay at the seat of government. They 
consist of full series of articles illustrative of the economic products, the natural his- 
tory, and in many cases the manners, customs, and arts of the foreign countries 
repre^^ented at the Centennial Exhibition, and are of great importance to the 
advancement of science, education, and manufacture. Besides these are the objects 
collected by the Smithsonian Institution and U. S. Fish Commission of the animal, 
mineral, and fishery resources of the United States, also of public interest. 

These artick*s now ccnistitnte, by law, a part of the National Museum, which ha-^^ 
l)een placed by Congress in charge of the Smithsonian Institution. Tliis Mustniiu 
has hitherto In-en accomnujilated in the building erected for the purpose at th»' 
expenst* of the Smithson fund, in accordance with the direction of Congress. This 
edifice, however, is fille*! to overflowing, while there are elsewhere, in storage, from 
the donations previously mentioned, collections of gn»ater magnitude than those in 
the Smithsonian building. 

It is evident that an appropriation for an additional building can not justly In* 
taken from the Smithson fund, and therefore the Board of Regents have made the 
application mentioned in their memorial. This memorial was presented to Congn^ss 
at its last session, when the a]>propriation aske<l for was grante<l by the Senate unani- 
mously, and when, in all pro})a])ility, it would have been granted by the House 
could the proix)sition have l>een brought to the consideration of that body. 
I am, with sentiments of high esteem, your olxnlient st^rvant, 

Joseph Hrnry, 

Secretary tSmilfisonian Iruftitution. 
Hon. RuTUEKFoan B. Hayes. 



RfpcmalU. S NatiDnil Mgi*un^, 1903- 




ROTUNOA. National Museum Buildinq. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 243 

In his mc^sago to the Forty-fifth Congress, first session, De<*.ember 
3, 1877, the President recommended " that an adequate appropriation 
ho made for the establishment and conduct of a national museum linder 
their [the Regents] supervision." 

Acting upon the basis of information supplied during the previous 
session, the same bill was introduced in the House of Representatives 
(H. R. 2662) on January 21, 1878, by Senator Casey Young. It was 
referred to the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, which, 
through Mr. Young, submitted a report (No. 244) upon the measure 
on February 25, 1878. On March 6 following, the bill was again 
brought up, referred to the Committee of the Whole and placed on 
the Calendar, but no further action was taken. A similar bill (S. 132U) 
was submitted in the Senate by Senator Justin S. Morrill on May 27, 
1878, and referred to the Committee on Public Buildings and (j rounds. 

The report of the House committee (No. 244) briefty sets forth the 
history and requirements of the Museum and the steps taken to secure 
the valuable collections exhibited at Philadelphia, and closes as follows: 

The oollectioDs in the Smithsonian building now oi)en to the jmhlic occupy a])out 
.'WjOOO square feet of fioor space. It is quitt^ within Ix)un(l8 to entiniate tiiat the articlen 
Htore<i away will require for their satisfactory exhibition ])etwoen three an<l four 
i'uuvn that area, even allowing for a great reduction of the o])jecta ])y tlie elimination 
an<l distribution of the duplicate specimens. There is no prcninion whatever at 
present for the display of these articles, and unless Congre^ furnishcH the means 
this magnificent property of the people will go to decay and destruction in the course 
of time, the animal products being destroyed rapidly by insects and many objects of 
a mineral or metallurgical character by nist. 

An every day of delay in arranging an<l exhibiting this collection is a<'coinpanied 
with the question of erecting a suitable ])uilding for its accommodation and has 
occupied the attention of the Smithsonian Institution, a i)lan hut* iK'cndcvisi'd which, 
it is believed, will furnish the facilities require<l in the shortest possible interval of 
time and at the minimum of exi>ense. 

To erect an edifice of the neceasary magnitude, in the style of archit(H.'tnre hereto- 
fore adopted by the Government for its use in Washington, would involve an 
expenditure of ^lany millions of dollars, and it could not ]>c completed and available 
for occupation in a shorter perio<l than from live to eight years. Nevertheless, on a 
simple plan originally suggested by (ieneral Meigs, a building somewhat similar in 
<*haracter to those erected for the National ExiK)sition, 30() feets<iuare, or having an 
art»a of 90,000 square feet — something over two acri's — jK'rfectly fireproof, amply 
lighted, and properly a<lapted for all its objects, can be constructe<l for about 
$250,000, and can l)e rea<ly for occupation within ten months, or at most a year, from 
the time of its commencement. ^ 

By the plan contemplated everything would Ik* on one tloor, without any stairways 
or second story, no cellar or fireproof floor iK'ing nMjuired. The single, fioor of the 
building to \h} of concrete, and thiw water an<l vermin i)nH)f; the walls and other 
portions of the building of brick, and the In^ams, rafters, and framework of the roof 
of iron, without a partich^ of woo<l. 

It is therefore much to Ik^ desired that the means be fnniishe<l at an early day for 
the constniction of this building, so that the rich material now belonging to the 
United States Government can Ixi utilized. 



244 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

It is believed that when properly arranged the National Museum of the United 
States will take rank as one of the great industrial and economical displays of the 
natural resources of the globe. The accommodation will then be afforded for the 
exhibition of the mineral wealth of every State and Territory, and the display of 
samples of every new mine, with all the appliances for rendering the study of the 
whole interesting and profitable. The coals, the marbles, and other ornamental 
minerals will be exhibited systematically; the useful and ornamental product^: 
and derivatives of the animal kingdom will be shown — not only Huch as relate to the 
United States, but with illustrations of the whole subject in other parts of the world — 
which can not fail to suggest new and important applications in this country. 
Illustrations of the f(xxl and other fishes of this and other countries, the best meth- 
ods of securing them and of prei>aring them for the requirements of mankind, and 
the \^ried productions of the aboriginal races of North America can also l>e displayed 
on a proper scale. 

During the second session of the same Congress the bill for a new 
building was again brought up in both Houses. Brief remarks were 
made in the Senate and the bill slightly amendexi in regard to the 
wording relative to location. It was passed as an item in the sundry 
civil act for 1880 in the following terms: 

For a fireproof building for the use of the National Museum, 300 feet 8(]uare, to Ik* 
erected under the direction and supervision of the Regents of the Smithsonian Innti- 
tution, in accordance with the plans now on file with the Joint Committee of Public 
Buildings and Grounds, on the southeastern portion of the grounds of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, $250,000: said building to be placed east of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, leaving a roadway between it and the latter of not less than 50 feet, with its 
north front on a line with the south face of the buildings of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment and of the Smithsonian Institution; and all expenditures for the purposee 
herein mentioned, not including anything for architectural plans, shall be audited 
by the proper officers of the Treasury Department. 

The following extracts from the report of the building commission, 
submitted January 19, 1880, give a summary of the building opera- 
tions for 1879: 

Anticii)ating the early ac^tion of Congress in the premises, the Board of Regents, 
on the 17th of January, 1879, adopte<l the following resolution: 

** AVv<o/»yy/, That the executive committee of the Board, or a majority thereof, and 
the 8(HTetary Ix', and they are hereby, authorized and empowereil to act for and in 
the name of the Board of Regents in carrying into effect the provisions of any act of 
Congress that may be passed providing for the erection of a building for the National 
Museum.** 

Accordingly, on the 7th of March, 1879, Hon. Peter Parker and Gen. W. T. Sherman, 
the resident inemlK^rs of the executive committee, with the Secretary, met in the offii-e 
of the Institution, and after organizing under the title of "National Museum Build- 
ing (Annmission," of which (ien. W. T. Sherman was chosen chairman, proceetled 
to adopt such measures aw in their opinion appeared best calculated to realize, with 
the least i)ossible delay, the intention of Congress. 

The connnittec at the outset invited (icn. M. C. Meigs, Quartermaster-General 
V. S. Army, to act in the capacity of consulting engineer to the commission, and 
also w4ected Messrs. Chiss t^ Schulze, whose plans for the new building were those 
approved ]>y Congress, as su|K»rin tending architects. Mr. Daniel Leech was appointeii 
secretarv of the conmiission. 



NATIONAL MUSKITM — BTTTLDINOfl. 245 

To remove as far as possible any doubt as to tbe sufficiency of the appropriation 
for a building in aci^onlance with the plans approve«i ])y Conj^ress, Mr. £<lward 
Clark, Architei^t of the Capitol, and General Meigs, after carefully considering the 
provisional estimates of the architects, informed the cot nmission that in their opinion 
the amount was sufficient for the purpose. 

To obtain a clear understanding of the intent of Congress in making the appro- 
j)riation, as well as to ascertain how^ far, if desirable, the commission might be 
authorized to depart from the plans before the Committees of Public Buildings and 
Grounds when the act was passed, the chairmen of the respective committees (Hon. 
H. L. Dawes and Hon. Philip Cook) were consulted; whereupon these gentlemen 
officially informed the commission ''that, provided the general design be retained, 
it was not their intention, nor that of their committees, to confine the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to the minor details of the aforesaid plans, 
but to authorize any modifications that might appear to them desirable in the interest 
of economy or for the better adaptation of the building to its object." 

On ascertaining that the appropriation could be made immediately available under 
)he clause directing that the accounts should be audited by the projKir officers of the 
Treasury Department, the Secretary of the Treasury was, on the 27th of March, 
requested to designate some one of his force to act as dinbursing officer. Accord- 
ingly Maj. T. J. Hobbs, disbursing clerk of the Department, was selected, and pay- 
ments were authorized to be made by him on vouchers approved by the Secretary 
of the Smithsonian Institution as provided for in the following resolution: 

** Reiolved, That the commission appointed by the Boartl of Regents of the Smith- 
sonian Institution to superintend the construction of a new fireproof building for the 
National Museum hereby authorize Prof. 8. F. Baird, Secretary of the Institution, to 
act as their agent to approve for payment by Thomas J. Hobbs, all bills for services and 
supplies from such funds as are placed in the hands of the latter by said coniniisHion 
for such purposes, and the Secretary of the Treasury is liereby resix»ct fully requested 
to instruct Thomas J. Hobbs, disbursing agent, to i)ay any bills when thus certified 
and found to be otherwise technically correct.*' 

Having thus prepared the way to a commencement of active oix^rations, Hfx^cifica- 
tions were at once prepared and projMJsals invited for carrying on the work, (i round 
was broken on the 17th of April, 1879. 

The concrete foundations were begun on the 29th of April, and the brickwork of 
the walls on the 21st of May, the main walls l)eing completed on the 1st day of 
November. 

In consequence of the low pricx»s of the more important building mate/ials, very 
favorable contracts were maile, especially for the brick re<iuire<l and for the ironwork, 
since the price of iron advanced very materially within a few months from tlu^ date 
referred to. The same is true with regard to glass, bricks, and in fact almost all 

building materials. 

♦ «♦«*«* 

The estimate of $250,000 for the construction of a museum building did not include 
the heating apparatus. As the work ])rogrt»ssed, however, it iH'caine evident that all 
the underground piping for water, gas, and steam, at least, couM U' obtaincnl from 
the fund. 

In anticipation of an appropriation for the purpose*, it wa.'^ deeme<l best to ol>tain 
pn»visional bids for a st«»ani- heating apparatus. Accordingly proposids were invited: 
First, for the underground pijK's; second, for the boilers; third, for the ra<liators. 
The aggregate of the (»stimatt»s for the three items varie<l from $18,940 to $r)5,()80. 

The lowest bid was rejected on a<.!count of inadequacy of the supply of heat. The 
next to the lowest was that of Messrs. Baker, Smith & Co., for $19,7(58, which was 
acw^pted, and a contract made for the underground pijKis for $5,770. 

An appropriation of $30,000 has been asked of Congress for the completion of the 



246 KEPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

heating apparatus throughout, for the gas and water fixtures and the electric appa- 
ratus required for clocks in the huildinjr, for signals, alarms, etc. 

Before the building can be occujueil it must of course be furnished and fitted up 
with cases, of which, as might be exjK'cted, a large provision is n»quired. According 
to a calculation, the cases that will be needed, if placed end to end, will extend to a 
distance of more than 8,000 feet, with a total of shelving surface of about 75,000 squan* 
feet. The frontage of the cases will be over 14,000 feet, so that, allowing for the cross- 
ing from one case to another, a journey of at least 3 miles will be re^piired <»ven to 
take a cursory glance at all the objects in the collection. 

The question of the best material for the cases has not been definitely settle<l, 
the choice lying between iron and hard wood. In order to assist in determining this 
question satisfac^torily, arrangements have been made to obtain working plans of the 
cases U8e<l not only in a number of museums in the Uniteil States, especially in Cam- 
bridge, Boston, and New York, but also in Europe. The new building now l)ein^' 
erected for the <»ollecrtions of the British Musemn is one where it is supp<nae<l the 
best experience has l)een ma<le use of in the plans of the ceases, and arrangement* 
have been made to o])tain copies of the same. The new iron erases of the national 
nmseum at Dresden are also under investigation. Iron is more expensive than woo«l, 
but involves less danger of decay, and there is also an especial advantage in the fac t 
that the material maybe so much thinner as to increase the interior si>ace, while the 
objects in the cases are less obscured. Of course it must not be forgotten that the 
National Museum is expected to discharge its functions for an indefinite period of 
vears. 

The provision of Congress directeil that the new building should be plai^e<l to the 
east of the present Smitlisonian edifice, at least 50 feet from its southeastern corner. 
Thecjuestionwas considenil of having the interval greater than this minimum, but it 
VifLS found that this would involve the extension of the building beyond the boundary 
of the Smithsonian reservation and carry it to the unassigned portion of the scpiart'. 
Although there was nothing in the act to prevent this encroachment, yet in view of 
the possibility that the southeastern jX)rtion of the public land between Seventh and 
Twelfth streets would \ye required for some other purposes, i)erhaps for a Congn»s- 
sional Li])rary, it was thought best to encroach ujxin it as little as i)08sible. 

In addition to its answering the puriK)se for which it was primarily intendeil, it is 
confidently believcH.1 that the new National Museum building will exercise an 
important function in serving as a model for similar establishments elsewhere. 

Of course in a city where the (tost of land is a matter of important consideration, 
the one-story i>lan can not always be carrieil out, the usual position of story al>ove 
story Ixiing necessary to secure the desired spa(;e. Most colleges and universititv, 
however, have ample grounds belonging to them„the occupation of which by largt* 
buildings is all()wa))le. Under such (rircnmstances the same amount of firei>roof 
space can Ihj had for from two-thirds to one-half the usual cost. 

The ollice of member of the building commission has Ix^n by no means a sinecure, 
weekly meetings having been held, with scarcely an interruption, from the first 
organization, as shown by the full reports kept of the i)ro(»eeilings. General Meigs, 
as consulting engineer, until his recent dej)arture on a tour of duty, was present at 
every meeting and cc^ntinually aided the commission by his adviw, rendereil s<i 
vahia})le by his long familiarity with building operations on a large sc^le and with 
the whole (|uestion of the proper construction of contrattts. He visite<i the grountla 
nearly every day and closely inspected the progress of the work. To him are also 
due valuable suggestions on the methods of covering the roofs and on other details. 

Two subsequent reports were made ])V the building commission — one 
covering the year 1S80, the other 1S81. In these the progress of the 
work and tlie dates of comph'tion of inii)ortant parts of the building 



NATIONAL MIJSKUM BUILDINGS. 247 

wore noted. The roofs were finished in April, 1880, and the plaster- 
iiij^ h}' the latter jmrt of July. In the interest of economy in heating 
all outside windows were furnished with two pines of glass. Wooden 
floors were laid in 1X80 in all the lialls, except the four courts, the 
four main halls or nave^j, and the rotunda. Congress was asked for 
an appropriation to defray the expense of a marble or tile floor for the 
naves and rotundsi, and $20, WO was allowed for this purpose, l^ecoming 
available in the summer of 1881. The rotunda was then supplied with 
a floor of encaiLstic tiles and the main halls with floors of marble tiles. 
The approaches to the building were const nicted out of the original 
appropriation. 

The final report of the (commission, dateil elanuar}'- 2, 1882, closes as 
follows: 

In cloeiing thiH its third annual rep^irt, the National MuHcnni ])uil<lin^ coniminsion 
(*ongratulat«8 the Kegents that the new building for the National ^[iLsouin in ho far 
<'onipleted an to berea<ly for oeeupancy, an<l in now asking the Board to take charge 
of the cHlifice the comniiH^ion l)egfl to n»fer to the important fat't that, while a builtl- 
ing 18 presented eijual in every reaiHict to what wat4 anticipat(Hl in case ]>rovision 
should lie made for a<lditional quartern for the national colle<!tions intrusted to the 
CJire of the SuiithMonian Institution, instea4l of incurring a deficiency, tiie fund has 
lH.*en 80 nianage<l an to have to it8 ere<lit at the prc^sent moment an availabh^ balance 
of Home thousands of dollars. 

Having fulfilled the duties with which it was ciiargeil by your nisolution of Janu- 
ary 17, 1879, the commission would resiXH.'t fully ask to lie discharged an<l to ])e author- 
izetl to tuni over to the »St»<'retary of the Smithsonian Institution the building itself, 
and to the Unitefl States Treasury whatever balance of money may remain after 
liiiuidating the last liability on account of the (tonstniction of the tMlifice. 

The appropriations which had been made for the buiklint^ wore as 
follows: 

Building $200, 000 

Steam heating apimratus 25, (XH) 

Water, gas, and electric apparatus 12, 500 

Marble and tile flooring 2<), 000 

SiKM'ial sewer connection 1 , 900 

Total '. : J 1 5 , 400 

The subjects intended to l)e represented in the new buildiiit^ were 
stated by Secretary Baird, in his report for IsTJK to Ix* as follows: 

The peri<.Ml of complete installation of <'olUK'tions on hand an<l the o]K^niiig of the 
building to the public will <le))i*nd upon the amount of the a] )prop nation and tUv 
nipidity with which the contractors may complete their work. The new building 
will Ikj devotetl more jMirticularly to in<lustrial exhiluts, intendtnl to show the 
nninial and mineral resources of the l-nited Stat^iS and their pra<*tical ai)plications 
to the wants or luxuries of man. Tbe department of antbrop(>logy will also be 
largely representtNl. Mow far natural history can lind a place in the l)uil(ling will 
dejiend uiM)n the spax-e re<|uire<l for the colle<'tions mentiontnl. It is conlidently 
exi>ect4Hl that this Imilding when fmisheil will Ihj one of the most attractive objec^ts 
of the kin<l extant and but little inferior to the celel»rate<l museums of foreign 
countries. 



248 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

In his report for 1880 he says: 

I now have the pleasure of stating that the work has been in the greater part 
completed during the year 1880 and that a portion of the building is alrea<ly occii- 
))ied for it» legitimate objects. 

The details of progress and completion will be given in full in the report of the 
building committee and of the architect, to which I would refer. It will l>e j»al!i- 
cient to »&y here that the work has all been done within the estimates and that it 
promises to be even more suitable to its purpose than was anticipated. All tlie 
re(]uirements in regard to light and heat are fully met, and in this resixM't and in 
that of its slight cost in proportion to the spacre obtained, the buildii\g is belif>ve4l to 
have no parallel in the country. Including the building ))roper, the steam heating 
api»aratus, the gas and water fixtures, and all their accessories, the ct^t hat> 
amounted U) less than $3 per square foot of ground floor and to al)out 6 centos j^er 
cubic fiK>t of entin* capacity. 

The first use of the buildlDg wa.s for the inaugural reception to 
President (iarfield on March 4, 18S1, which was granted in accordance 
with the following resolution of the Regents at a meeting held on 
Deceml)er 8, 1S80: 

Whereas the new Museum building is unfinished and not ready for occupancy of 
the (Joveniment collections, and when.»as such a contingency will not again occm, 
and that no i)rece<.ient is to l>e given for the use of the building for other pur]K»sefti: 

ReHoJredy That tlie use of the new National Museum building Ihj granted for tlie 
inaiigurdi reception of the President of the United States on the 4th of March, 1881, 
and that the Secretarv of the Smithsonian Institution l>e authorized to make all 
nccesH;\ry arnmgements for this purpose. 

In 18S1 Professor Baird stated that the building might then be con- 
sidered as completed and ready for its final occupation by the various 
departuKMits which have ])een assigned to it. Some small additions and 
alterations were still retiuired to be made, but they did not interfere 
with the geneml use of the structure. In the l>eginning certain office 
and hiboratorv (juartcrs were granted to the United States Geological 
Siirv(\v, <'spccially in the northeast pavilion, and they continued to be 
so used for several vears. 

It was soon recognized that the building was too small to provide all 
the n(M*cssarv Jiccommodations, even though the Museum continued in 
possession of the same space in the Smithsonian building as before, 
and the inconvonirnce from this source increased rapidly with time. It 
thus also I'csulted that not all of the halls could In? used for exhibition 
l)urpos(»s as intended, and until lately some of them have always been 
closed to the public, that tlu^v might be employed for storage, for 
unpacking, or for woi'k rooms. 

There have ]>een from the beginning many changes in the assign- 
ment of spac(» to the ditl'cM'ent dc^partments, but tninsfers from one 
])uilding to the other iiav<» been few since the occupation of the newer 
structure. Tlie clearing up of th(» exhibition halls, which were never 
in as good condition as now, has been mainly accomplished by the 
heroic nu^thod of sending large <|uantities of specimens to outside stor- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 249 

age and by the fitting up of a few outside workrooms. Another factor 
ill thiM direction has been the construction of a number of galleries, 
a.s explained below. 
Secretary Baird says, in his report for 1882, that — 

The Museum building was received from the hands of the architects in so complete 
a state that but little remained to 1m?! done beyond the tinting of a portion of the 
walls and the filling up of some of the alcoves with canvas frames, etc. There is 
yet much to be done, however, in the construction of the necessary cases for the 
a(H*ommodation of collections. 

The building of cases has, in fact, never ceased, for, while the more 
urgent needs were early supplied, cases of one description or another 
have been added from year to year. Many cases used at national 
ox]X)sitions have been returned in so defa(*ed a condition that it hiis 
been necessary to reject or rebuild them^ and cjises of new and im- 
proved patterns have replaced many of the older ones. 

In 1888 Pi'ofessor Baird remarks that the "building continues to 
pro.ser\'e the reputation it has acquired as representing the maxinmm 
of convenience and adaptation to its purposes with the mininmm of 
original cost and expense for repairs;" and in 1885 ho states that the 
'Miuilding is in excellent condition and has recjuired comparatively 
little in the way of repairs." 

After not many years, however, certain weak points l)egan to 
<levelop, and these have been the cause of nmch con(;ern and have 
necessitated almost continuous repairs, though seldom at great expense. 
The walls are essentially substantial, l)ut the roof was constnurted at too 
little cost and is far below the standard of the lu'ickwork. Its weak- 
ness and incompleteness is evident both in the supporting framework 
and in the covering. The framework has given way in placets under 
heavy falls of snow, and the covering has dcn'eloped numerous leaks, 
most commonly about the breaks in the roof, but elsewh(»re as well, 
and the constant attention of one m(*chanic has been insutficient to 
keep these leaks under control. While it is intended soon to renew 
the worst of this covering, it is now (juite certain that a consid(M*al)le 
jrartof the roof must be wholly rebuilt Ix'fore many yoars. 

The leaks from the roof have so constantlv d<»face(l tlie inside walls 
of the naves and courts that onlv recentlv has it lu^en deemed advisa 
ble to repaint them, a work which was n)ainly accomplished during 
1902 and 1903, and which has greatly improvinl tlu* appearance of the 
exhibition halls. 

The principal other <*hanges in th(» interior of the l)uikling, in the 
nature of permanent improvements, have bciMi tlie rcplac(»ment of the 
wooden floors with cement, the l)uihling of galleries in nearly all 
the halls, and the addition of soni(> skylights. The first has improved 
both the conditifms and the appearance of the halls, and as the floors 
were without proper foundation the f<)rm<ir wooden (covering was 



250 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

inadequate to keep out the moisture or impurities from the soil. The 
galleries have materially increased the amount of spai*.e, and the new 
skylights were rendered necessary by their introduction. These fe4i- 
tures ma}' be briefly referred to as follows: 

In some of the preliminary drawings for the museum building a tier 
of galleries is shown in each of the exhibition halls, but in the plans as 
finally adopted and presented to Congress these features were not 
represented. The height of the several halls, however, was made 
sufficient to permit of their introduction at any time. In view of the 
failure to secure earl}' action by Congress toward the erection of a 
third building, it was decided to urge the construction of these gal- 
leries, in order that some additional space might be acquired. The 
entire sum needed for such a purpose was not requested at once, but 
the estimates for 1893, 1894, 1895, and 1896 each contained an item of 
$8,000, These failed to receive favorable consideration by Congress, 
but the amount named was appropriated in the sundry civil act for 
1897, and other appropriations followed, namely, $8,000 in 1898, 
$10,000 in 1899, and $5,000 in 1902, making a total of $31,000 for this 
purpose. From this amount galleries were erected in all the halls, 
courts, and ranges, except the north hall and the northeast and east- 
noi*th ranges. In the southeast range the galleries have been extended 
so as to form a complete second floor. Though intended primarily 
for exhibition purposes, it has been necessary to assign certain of the 
galleries to the storage of reserve collections and as workrooms, as 
elsewhere explained. 

The only substantial floors laid in the beginning were those in the 
rotunda and the four main halls, as already described, the former 
being of encaustic tiles, the latter of marble squares. The remaining 
floors in all parts of the 'main building were of wood. The latter 
were allowed to remain until thoroughly worn out, being gradually 
replaced l)y more durable material. These changes began in 1891 and 
were not completed until 1900. The first of the new floors, and, in 
fact, the greater number, were constructed of cement, granito, and 
granolithic; the last four were made of terrazzo pavement, siuall 
irregular pieces of marble, laid in cement, and are the most satisfac- 
tory, in api)carauce at least. 

The other work of repair and alteration, conducted at the expense 
of th(» general appropriation for this puqx)se, need not be analyzed 
here. It has produced, as a whole, many marked improvements, 
though for the most part it has been directed toward maintaining the 
building in as fair a condition as the funds have pennitted. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 251 

NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDING. 
DESCRIPTION. 

In describing the present Museum building," the architects, Messrs. 
Chiss & Schulze, spoke of it as follows: 

A mcKlemized Romanesque style of architecture was adopted for the new building 
in order to keep up a relationship with the Smithstjnian building, which is designed 
in Nonnan, a variety of this style. To modeniize this style was found necessary 
on account of the different building material, and to do justice to the purposes of the 
building with its modem demands of perfect^ safety an<l elegance of constructiou, of 
greatest possible available floor spa(»t of easy communications, efficient drainage, a 
well-calculated and pleasing admission of light, free circulation of air, and all other 
hygienic dicta. 

The external architecture is based upon the general arrangement of the interior, 
and shows plainly the prominence of the four naves and the careful management of 
the light for the central |X)rtion of the building. The main entrances are in the 
centers of each facade between two lofty towers of 86 feet height, which suet as l>ut- 
tresses ior the naves. Between the towers, and receding from the doorways, there 
are large arched windows set with ornamented glass, and above those the gables of 
the naves are fonne*!; they contain inscription plates, and are crowned by allegorical 
groups of statuary. The group over the northern gable, designe<l l)y C. Hul)erl, of 
New York, already in position, introduces Columbia as the protectn»« of science and 
in<lustry. * * * 

On the whole, the one-storj' plan which has prevaileil among experts ever since 

he Paris exhibition of 1867 has been mlopttnl. But by the introduction of up|)er 

stories cm those outlying sections reserved for offices, ample office room has been 

secureil without encroaching materially u|X)n the floor space within the scjuare of 

30() feet to which the building was primarily limited. 

Whatever may be the style of architecture represented, the exterior 
of the building can not lay claim to dignity of appearance or to any 
degree of esthetic merit, although by a symmetrical arnuigement of 
towers and pavilions some relief is given to the low outer walls, and, 
viewed a short distance off, the tops of the former mingle with the 
roofs and lantern skylights to produce a not unpicturesque, though 
crude, effect. The walls are of brick, the roofs principiUy of iron 
and slate. The former w^ere well constructed, and should long remain 
in good condition, but the latter were early found to \h\ in greater 
part, unsuitable and insecure. These defects were largely dm* to the 
smallness of the appropriation, only $250,000, which did not permit 
of the best class of workmanship and material, and the failure to pro- 
duce a better architectural effect can probably also ])e accounted for 
in the same way. 

The interior is plain, and its walls are frequently defaced through 
the imperfections of the roofs, but the many criticisms which, from 
the beginning, have been directed agjiinst the arrangement of the 
building are entirely unwarranted. For th(» puipose for which it 
was erected, the exhilntion of specimens, it probably has no superior 

« Anmul KeiM)rt of the Smithsonian Institution for 1879, pp. 130, 131. 



252 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

in thia country and few, if any, abroad. The critics have simply con- 
founded cheapness and crudencss with inadaptation to purpose. It is 
a square building of a single story, consisting of four large naves 
and a central rotunda in the shape of a Greek cross, with ranges and 
covered courts filling in the corners, so as to produce a solid or 
continuous structure every part of which, under the original plan, 
was well lighted. The ranges have large windows, and the naves and 
courts both skylights and clerestory windows. It is the plan so often 
adopted for exposition buildings, and also at times for permanent 
structures, and is especially convenient to the visitor, in that he has 
no stairs to climb. There has at no time in the past been any difliculty 
in so installing the display collections that they could be distinctly 
seen and the labels read. Within a few yeai"s, however, galleries have 
been built in nearly all the halls, as it was necessary to increase the 
amount of space. The height of the halls has permitted this to be 
done without injur^^ to the general effect, Ijut to some extent the light- 
ing has been interfered with, though not so much but that it can l)e 
remedied. 

This building was planned, as above stated, essentially for exhibi- 
tion purposes. The space available for laboratories and storage 
quarters, howev^er, is wholly inadequate, though convenient and well 
lighted. This may be considered as one of the main defects of the 
interior, as it is the one most noticeable to the specialist who wants 
working room, and seldom refers to the exhibition series. A remedy 
for this condition, recommended and urged upon Congress by Pro- 
fessor Baird, was the erection of a smaller fireproof building nearby, 
entirely for laboratory and stonige needs, and especially' for the safe- 
guarding of the alcoholic collections. His ideas were never carried 
out, but it is hoped that in the new })uilding all of these requirements 
will be provided. 

The building has, moreover, served an excellent purpose as an 
object lesson, since the exp(*rience gained in its construction and fur- 
nishing, and in the instillation of its collections, has been invaluable 
in th(» preparations for the newer structure. It will undoubtedly con- 
tinue to be occupied for many years to come, and its complete repair 
will probably he undertaken as soon as the new building is finished. 

The building under description stiinds on the southeast corner of the 
reservation granted to the Smithsonian Institution l?y the fundamental 
act of 1846, and, in fact, overreaches its eastern boundary to aYx)ut 
the extent of the width of Ninth street SW. Its north or front face is 
about on a line with the south face of the Smithsonian building, from 
which its n<»arest corner is distant about 50 feet, while its rear face 
adjoins the sidewalk on B street south. 

The main part of the ])uilding is about 300 foet square and one story 
high throughout, though of very diifenMit elevations. In the center 



Ripox of U. S N 




NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 253 

of each front, at the sides of the entrance, are two tall towers, and at 
the corners are large pavilions, all of which project about 12^ feet 
from the main walls, thus making the extreme linear dimensions of 
the building about 325 feet. The amount of ground covered is 97,786 
square feet, or about 2i acres. 

The primary feature of the plan consists of four naves or main 
halls, the largest in the building, which i*adiate in the form of a Greek 
cross from a central rotunda to the towers above mentioned. Follow- 
ing the outer walls and extending from the naves to the pavilions are 
a series of eight ranges, two on each side. This arrangement leaves 
four courts, inclosed by the naves and ranges, which are roofed over 
and form parts of the actual building. There are, therefore, 17 halls 
in the body of the building, all designed for exhibition purposes. 
These halls are separated by heavy brick walls, having numerous 
broad arched openings reaching nearly to the ceiling. The lower part 
of these openings both from the floor and from the galleries are filled 
in with cases or screens, except where needed as passageways. The 
main halls open broadly into the rotunda. There is one entrance into 
each court, and one at each end of the several mnges for the circula- 
tion of the public. 

The central rotunda attains the greatest height. It is octagonal 
below, with a maximum diameter of 65 feet, and is surmounted by a 
16-sided polygon, 67 feet in diameter, which contains a tier of large 
windows, and is covered with a slate roof rising to a central lantern. 
The height is 77 feet on the side walls, and 108 feet to the top of the 
lantern finial. The four main halls, extending from the inner walls of 
the towers to the rotunda, are 117 feet long by 65 feet wide, their 
height being 42 feet to the top of the side walls, and 56 feet to the 
ridge of the roof. The courts are alx)ut 63 feet scjuare and of the 
same wall height as the main halls. The ranges are all a little less than 
50 feet wide. Those on the north and south sides of the building are 
89 feet long, and those on the east and west sides 63 feet long, the 
lesser length of the latter being due to extensions from the adjoining 
pavilions. They are covered with lean-to roofs, their interior height 
being 26i feet at the outer walls and 31 feet at the inner. 

The several divisions of the building are clearly indicated on the 
exterior by the unequal heights of the walls and roofs. A description 
of these features as seen when approaching the north front will answer 
for the other sides, as all are essentially alike. In the center of the 
north front is the main entrance, bordered by a tall, arched frame- 
work of Ohio sandstone. Above and back of the entrance are the face 
and gable end of the north hall, reaching to a height of about 55 feet 
above the ground, l)earing a stone plate with the inscription *■' National 
Museum, 1879,'" and surniount<Hl by an allegorical group of statuary 
representing Columbia as the protectress of science and industry. At 



254 KEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

each side of the entrance is one of the towers above mentioned, about 
27 feet square and three stories high, topped by a steep roof, with 
small dormer windows toward the base. The extreme heights of the^ 
towers is 85^ feet to the top of the tinial. 

Extending on each side from the towers to the corner pavilions arc 
curtain walls, 27i feet high and 87 feet long, with seven broad, arched 
windows, 8 feet 10 inches wide and 13 feet 7 inches high, the glass in 
the latter being arranged in three vertical series. Between the win- 
dows are narrow buttresses, uniting above in arches. The pavilions 
are about 40 feet square and 36^ feet high to the eaves, the roofs being 
much lower and flatter than on the towers. They are divided into 
three stories, besides a basement, each lighted by eight large, arched 
windows, except the upper story, which has three small windows 
grouped in the center on each side. The top of each pavilion has a 
large lantern skylight. 

From the curtain walls the lean-to metal roof rises over the ranges 
with moderate slope, and abuts against the higher walls of the courts 
and main halls, both of which have a row of clerestory windows on 
each side facing the ranges, those of the main halls extending back only 
as far as the courts. The courts have a large square lantern, from 
which the roof descends on all four sides to the level of the gutters on 
the main halls. The main halls have plain hip roofs about the same 
height as those of the courts, with elongate lantern skylights in the 
middle. The dome of the rotunda, as before explained, rises above 
all other portions of the roof, being the most conspicuous feature of 
the top of the building. All the roofs are covered with slate except 
those of th(». ranges, which are of tin. The slates are nailed to small 
pieces of wood, fitted into small L-shaped pieces of iron, and the plas- 
ter of the ceiling is laid directly upon the rough inner surface so 
formed. Besides the lanterns before mentioned, a numl>er of small 
skylights and ventilators have been built over some of the ranges and 
courts, especially where the recently constructed galleries have inter- 
fered with the lighting. 

The entire framework, as well as the inner sheathing of the roofs, 
are exposed to view, this plan having been followed in the interest 
of econom\^ The roofs of the main halls, the rotunda, and the courts 
arc supported by iron trusses of the Pratt pattern; those over the 
ranges by triangular girders of rivited angle iron. In 1894 some of 
the purlines in the main halls near the rotunda began to buckle and 
were reenforced with angle iron. By li^OO all of the iron work over 
the main halls had begun to show signs of weakness, caused by alternate 
expansion and contraction, thus pioducing many leaks in the slate 
covering, and the entire framework was accordingly braced and 
strengtliened by means of angle ste(»l. The woodwork about the lan- 
terns wns also replaced by iron, and other Improvements were made. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 255 

The inner surface of all the roofs was originally covered with a thin 
coat of plaster. In the ranges the metal top was underlaid by fireproof 
gratings, to which the plaster was applied. As the keying proved 
insufficient or the plaster not strong enough, large pieces began to 
give way at the very beginning, and to eliminate this source of danger 
all the plaster was removed in the ranges, leaving the gratings uncov- 
ered. After being painted, however, the appearance of the ceiling 
proved not to be out of keeping with its surroundings. In one .range 
the ceiling was at the same time covered with corrugated iron, leaving 
an air space between it and the tin roof above, and it was thought by 
the architects that this arrangement would tend to regulate the tem- 
perature of the halls. Nothing further, however, has been done in 
this direction. 

Through failure to secure additional space by the erection of a new 
building, galleries began to be added in the present building in 1896, 
and their construction was continued from year to year until 1902. 
They are now contained in all the halls except the north hall and the 
north-east and east-north mnges, while in the south-cast range they 
have been united so as to form a complete second story. The main 
entnmces to the galleries are from the rotunda, and nearly the entire 
series may l>e traversed without descending to the floor. The width 
of the galleries is from 10 to 14 feet and their height above the floor 
U) feet. The}'^ are of very simple construction, consisting of plain 
iron pillars and girders, with brick archways and cement floors. The 
area gained by this means has amounted to 25,.S2S s(|uare feet. 

All of the masonry of the exterior walls above ground, except jus 
noted })elow, is of red brick laid in black mortar, with numerous hor- 
izontal courses of black brick, and a considerable quantity of buff 
brick in coui*ses and designs to relieve the monotony of color. A 
numl^er of blue brick were originally emi)lov(>d in connection with 
the buff, but they were subse(iuently painted black. There is a base 
course of granite around the entire building, but the window sills, 
copings, etc., are of gi*ay Ohio sandstone. 

The interior walls are plastered in a sand flnish, and were originally 
covered with a grB,y water-color paint, poorly adapted as a background 
for installation. The exhibition cases have been miiinlv constructed 
with mahogany frames, for which maroon was found to be a most har- 
monizing and effective surrounding, and since about 1888 most of the 
walls have been painted this color to a height of about 12 feet from 
the floor, the original color remaining for the most part above. The 
onlv decorations were stenciled fii»:ures on the walls of the rotunda 
and over the archways at the inner ends of the main halls. In ltM)2, 
however, experiments were made looking to a change of color, with 
what is regarded as very satisfactory results. The colors us(»d in the 
main halls and courts are a light red to a height of 15 feet, followed 



256 BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MU8EUM, 1903. 

by a deep ivory, the ceilings being of a lighter ivory. In the rotunda 
the colors range from olive below to ivory above, with stencil decora- 
tions as shown in the plates. This color scheme has not been extended 
to the ranges, which have been repainted from time to time in various 
colors. 

In connection with the original construction of the building, thou<,^li 
under a special appropriation, a floor of encaustic tiles was laid in tlio 
rotunda, and floors of marble squares of various (colors in the four 
large halls or naves. The marble tiling is surrounded by a frieze of 
dark-blue slate, of sufficient width to bridge the ducts containing the 
steam pipes, wires, etc., while around the frieze is a border of parti- 
colored Portland crement. The floors in all the other halls were con- 
structed of 3^cllow pine, partly in preparation for the Garfield inaugu- 
ral ball of March 4, 1881, out of the local fund for that purpose. 
These floors were laid upon a concrete base and began to decay after 
a very few years, requiring frequent and extensive repairs. In is^l 
it became necessary to replace several of them with more substantial 
material, and this continued down to 1898, when the last of the vvoodcMi 
floors disappeared. The substitutes have ]>een cement, granito, and 
finally terrazzo, the last l)eing the most pleasing and apparently the 
most durable. Other floor changes have consisted in the laying of 
mosaic pavements in the vestibules of the main entrance and the north- 
west entrance. In the pavilions and towers. the different stories arc 
separated by arches of brick and concrete, supported by iron beams, 
the floor covering being of Florida pine. Thus the building has been 
rendered essentially fireproof in all parts of its construction. 

An octagonal fountain basin, 20 feet in diameter, composed of a rim 
of molded polished granite and cement floor, occupies the middle of 
the rotunda. From its center rises the original plaster model of the 
goddess of liberty which, in bronze, surmounts the Dome of the 
United States Capitol. 

As l)ef()re stated, the building was constructed with four main 
entrances, one at the centi»r of eac'h front, but onlv two of the.se are 
now used us such, tliat on the north side being for the public and that 
on th(. east side for the delivery of supplies and specimens. The 
entrances on the south and west have been closed and, together with 
the adjacent space, converttnl into headquarters for the departments 
of biology and anthropology, respectively. There is also a small 
entrance on the south side of the northwest pavilion leading directly 
to the administrative otlices. 

The north, or main, entrance has two sets of double doors of black 
walnut paiu^JcHl with hejivy plate glass, the large arched space alwve 
})eing filled in with a latticework of walnut set with glass. In front 
of the entrance is a mosaic platform, bordered In' granite coping, and 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 257 

a))proarhc(l by four low granite steps 37 feet long, which are flanked 
by molded Ijase blocks carrying large candelabra. 

The smallness of the original appropriation prevented the construc- 
tion of a basement under the main building, which would have added 
a large aYnount of space for stomge and workrooms. Small cellars 
were built, however, under the southwest pavilion for the heating 
Ijoilors and the supply of fuel and under the northwest and northeast 
{Nivilions for miscellaneous storage. Advantage was taken of the 
changes in the heating plant in 1901 to construct an underground tun- 
nel, leading from the northwest )mvilion of the Museum building jo 
the east wing of the Smithsonian building, primarily to convoy the 
heating pipes, electrical conduits, etc., but of suitable dimonsious to 
serve as a passageway for individuals, l>eing 70 feet long, 5 feet wide, 
an<l 7 feet high. It has proved of great convenience in stormy weather, 
but fills a much more important purpose at night by giving the small 
watch force a ready means of comnmnication between the two buildings. 

The building is exceedingly well lighted, considering its solid, one- 
story construction. The ranges are amply provided with large win- 
dows, the higher naves and court.s have both skylights and clerestory 
windows, and the naves also receive much light from the largi* win- 
dows between the central towers. The exhibition collocations can, 
therefore, as a rule, be readily seen, though the galleries are responsible 
for the creation of some dark places which did not formerly exist. 
The lighting of the rooms in the towers and pavilions is also excellent. 
The windows are practically all of the same general pattern, and in 
the beginning all were glazed with double pan(\s of glass, the l)etter 
tj retain the heat in winter, but about half of these double panes in 
the towers and pavilions have been made single. Ventilation is pro- 
vided for by means of movable panes of glass in the side windows and 
lanterns, many sashes being pivoted in iron fnimes for that purpose, 
and also in plac^es by ventilators in the roof. 

In 1881 the Museum was presented by the Brush Electrical Company 
with a number of storage cells and a dynamo suitable for operating 
between 30 and 40 incandescent and l^J-candlc iK)wer lamps in the 
lecture hall when evening meetings wore hold. In 181^5 the basomont 
of the south tower of the Smithsonian Institution was furnished with 
a gas engine and dynamo of sufficient i)ower to maintain a small system 
of incandescent lamps in the Smithsonian offices and in a number of 
workrooms and other dark places in both l)uil(lings. This plant was 
totally inadequate for tho reciuiromonts, however, and Congress 
appropriated $:^,r)<K) in 11M)1, and ^5,<M)o in ll*n2, for a complete instal- 
lation of electric wires and fixtures throughout the Museum building, 
which was practically finished in the latt<»r year, the work l>eing done 
by employees of the Museum, This installation extends to the public 
halls, offices, laboratories, storerooms, and workshops, but in the 

yAT ML'9 19U3 17 



258 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Smithsonian l)uilding it reaches only some of the offices and corridors, 
a few storerooms, and the dark center of the main exhibition hall. 
The current for lighting is taken from the mains of one of the city 
companies at the southwest corner of the Museum building. On only 
a few occasions has the entire Museum building been lighted at night, 
and regular night opening for the public can not be undertaken without 
an additional appropriation to cover the extra expense of electric 
current and watchmen. 

All of the cases in the exhibition halls containing especially valu- 
able specimens, as in the historical and gem collections, are ?supi)licd 
with electric burglar alarms. There is also a system of electric call 
boxes distributed through both buildings, which must be visited every 
hour during the night watches, any failure to perform this senicc 
l>eing at once automaticallv announced at the office of the Mutual Dis- 
trict Messenger Comimny in the city. For the prompt conduct of 
business it has likewise been found necessary to make extensive use of 
the telephone system for communi(*ation between offices in different 
parts of the building and with the city. 

The heating of the Museum building was until 1901 accomplished 
by means of four 6()-horsepower steam boilers. In the latter year 
tluv^e were replaced by two 15()-horsepower high-pressure tubular 
boilers, whose capacity is sufficient to heat both of the large buildings 
and the smaller adjacent buildings on the Mall. The boiler room is in 
the basement of the southwest |mvilion. There are also two l)oilersuf 
4S-horsep()wer in the basement of the Smithsonian building, which 
can be used in case of em(»rgency. The new plant is very satisfactory, 
and nuich more economic^il than the old one. 

Soon after the Museum building wju* completed, the north- we«t rangi* 
was set apart as a temponir\^ lecture hall, being furnished with a plat- 
form, liintcMii screen, and several hundred folding chairs. This was 
one of the smaller ranges, and proving inadequate for the requiro- 
UKMits. its fittings, somewhat improved, were transferred to the west- 
north range, which continued to be assigned to this purpose, though 
sometimes used for the preparation of exhibit^, until the increasing 
demands for exhibition space caused it to be turned over to the Deimrt- 
m(»iit of Anthropology. It was found, however, piuctically essential 
to have some place* for scientific meetings, and by placing material in 
storage it became possible to vacate for this purpose the east-north 
range, immediately to the east of the main entrance, and thus equally 
as convenient as the former range. The hall I'emains in a condition 
suitable, to Ix^ turned over to exhibition uses at any time, but its 
fixtun\s for lecture purposes are more permanent in character than 
before. The walls and ceiling have been painted in several tints of 
gr(»en. There is a large speaker's platform and a lantern s(*reen, ami 
on the op|x>sitc side a smaller platform or balcony, where the lantern 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 259 

can be permanently inntalled. Movable armchairs are used for seats, 
and a series of scrreens ace in readiness to reduce or enlarge the lecture 
spjwe, according to the reciuirements. The furniture is entirely of 
oak. The pre^mration of this new lecture hall was accomplished in 
1901, under a special Congressional appropriation. 

The three floor rooms of the cast tower south of the entnince, with 
a slight addition for kitchen purposes, were utilized for a limch room 
until 1901. In that year, however, the addition referred to was 
extended southward to a total length of 77 feet, thus somewhat enlarg- 
ing and improving the conditions, but there is no way of providing a 
suitable lunch room in the present building, important as this feature 
is to the employees and to such visitors as spend nuich time about the 
Museum. 

In connection with the plans of the building (pp. 299-302) a list is 
given of the halls and bf all the rooms contained in the several towers 
and pavilions, together with their sizes and an explanation of the uses 
to which each is put. The exhibitions in geology and in anthropology, 
except the single division of archaeology, are entirely in this building. 
In biology only the mammals, reptiles, fishes, and comparative anat- 
omy- are represented here, the remaining divisions being provided for 
in the Smithsonian building. All of the galleries as well as the halls 
were designed for exhibition purix)ses, but three or four of the former 
are now used for storage, and one for the library. The administra- 
tive offices and the headquarters for the three scientific departments 
are in this building, as well as most of the scientific lalx)ratories. 

BUILDING FOR THE ALCOHOLIC COLLECTIONS. 

Professor Baird stated in his report for 1884 that— 

The preeence of alcohoHc sj^ecimens in lar^i numbers, po important in a Hi*ien- 
tific point of view, greatly endanj^ern the safety of museum building and their con- 
tents, and most of the establishments in Europe have lately taken the precaution to 
constmct separate buildings peculiarly adapted for the purpose. An application was 
made at the last session of Congress for an appropriation to put up a similar build- 
ing in the grounds of the Institution, but it was not acted upon favorably: 

The estimate was as follows: 

For the erection of a fireproof brick storage building east of the National Museum, 
for receiving, unpacking, assorting, and st^)ring the natural-history colle<;tions of the 
(Tovemment, to replace the wooden struc^tures now used for the purpose, $10,000. 

The estimates were renewed for 1886 and 1887 in the following 
terms: 

For the erection of a fireproof building for st<3ring the alcoholic ('ollections of the 
National Museum, $15,000. 

(Note. — The safety of the interior of the National Museum and the Smithsonian 
building is endangere<l by the large nrtml>er of alcoholic s|>ecimens kept therein, and 
it is considered by publitt museums, lM»th at home and abroad, v(*ry im(M)rtant to 



260 AEPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

have a si^iiarate building for tlieir reception and preservation. There are at prewnt 
no suitable accommofiations for these collections. ) 

In 1885 Secretary I^iird remarked that — 

* 

Although the present building is practically fireproof, yet should a fire be started! 
in the vicinity of them? [the alcoholic] specimens it is prolmble that much damafrc 
would be done by the ignition of the many thousands of gallons of alcohol, and the 
destniction of the specimens and of the jars in which they are contained. 

Again in 1886 he refers to the danger of the destruction not only of 
the alcoholic specimens themselves, but of other near-by collections 
should fire break out among the former. All of these propositions 
failed to receive consideration and the matter was not renewed, as it 
was then expected to make provision for the alcoholic specimens in the 
proposed new Museum building. 

In connection with the appropriations for 181>9, however, an esti- 
mate was submitted to Congress for a large^ fireproof building to 
serve essentially the same purpose, fronting on B street south, between 
the National Museum and the Army Medical Museum, appropriate in 
appearance to the former biulding. It was designed to be 130 feet 
long by 50 feet wide, and intended to be used for both workshops and 
storage purposes, thus replacing all of the temporary buildings then 
in use. It failed to receive favorable action, however. The wordinjj 
of the item was as follows: 

For the erection of a fireproof building for workshop and storage purposes for the 
National Miisenui, said building to l)e ('onstructed under the <lirection of the SuptT- 
intendent of the Library of Congress in accordance with the approval of the Secretar)' 
of the Smithsonian Institution, $50,000. 

TEMPORARY AND RENTED BUILDINGS. 

The crowded conditions in the Smithsonian and Museum buildinjjs 
have necessitated the erection from time to time of small f nime struc- 
tures on the Smithsonian and Armory s(iuares, and the renting of build- 
ings south of B street south, for the requirements either of workshops 
and storage , or of the preparation of exhibits for expositions. The 
use of the Armory building and the erection of a brick laboratory have 
alroadv been refornHl to. 

In 18S2 a shed was built to the westward of the Armory building, a 
pirt of which was used for the shelter of Fish Commission cars, and 
the reniainder filled with the collections received from the permanent 
exhibition building in Philadelphia. A second shed was subsequently 
added for the purposes of the National Museum, but only one of these 
now remains and is utilized bv the Museum. 

The larg(» amount of work incident to the preparation of collections 
for the exhibitions at (Cincinnati, Louisville, and New Orleans made it 
necessary to put up a special f niuie building, which was done at the 
expense of the exposition fund during the summer of 1884. It meas- 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 261 

ured about 100 by 50 feet, and was located along B Street south, a 
short distance to the east of the Museum building. It was also made 
to serve for the temporary storage of the material brought back from 
those exhibitions. Some small additions were made and a loft con- 
structed. It remained in use until 1887, when it was torn down and 
the materials of its construction were utilized elsewhere. During 
more or less of the period of its existence it furnished accommodations 
to the taxidermists, and osteologists, and to other preparatory, includ- 
ing those of the Bureau of Ethnology. In it were also stored large 
quantities of specimens, especially geological and ethnological. 

In 1887 two low sheds were built along the south side of and close 
to the Smithsonian building, one on each side of the south tower, and 
extending nearly the entire length of each favade. They were con- 
structed largely of material from the building last above mentioned, 
and were both unsightly and dangerous in their proximity to the 
Smithsonian building. The west shed was at first cut up into 
seven workshops and storage compartments. The east shed was, for 
a time, given over to living animals, but when these were removed to 
the Zoological Park it was used for the storage of cases and supplies. 
Both sheds were more or less employed in the prepanitiohs for the 
World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago. Their removal was 
effected in 1898, under the provisions of an act .of Congress giving 
$2,500 for the purpose. The material derived from them was used 
pirtly in building a shed at the Ninth street annex, referred to below, 
and partly in the erection of the so-called south shed on the Mall 
directly south of the south tower of the Smithsonian building. 

The National .Zoological Park grew out of a small assemblage of 
living animals gathered at the National Museum. The first part of 
this collection was received from the West in 1887 and was installed 
in one end of the eastern of the two sheds along the south side of the 
Smithsonian. Additional specimens obtained in the early part of 
1888 ma^jB it necessary to utilize the entire building for this purpose. 
Later in the year yards were ('onstructed in the grounds south of the 
Smithsonian building for buffalo and deer, and several small buildings 
were also erected. During 1891 the living animals were transferred 
to the park, and the inclosures and buildings which they had occupied 
were all removed except the eastern shed and one small shed farther 
out on the grounds which was modified into a paint shop. 

In the winter of 1889-90 the first of the frame buildings now con- 
stituting the Astrophysical Observatory was erected south of the 
eastern end of the Smithsonian building. It wna subsequently slightly 
enlarged, and three other smaller structures were added in 1893 and 
1898. The fence inclosing this cluster of buildings has recently been 
enlarged to afford some open-air space for experimental purposes, the 
extent of the area now covered l^eing about 176 b}" 78 feet. 



262 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

In 181^8 a frame building of two stories, called the " south shed/- wju« 
built on the grounds south of the south tower of the Smithsonian 
building, being separated from it by the roadway and a strip of lawn. 
It is about 53 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 23 feet high to the eaves. It 
contains the taxidermists' laboratories for mammals and various work- 
shops. 

The only structures now standing on the Mall near the Smithsonian 
and Museum buildings are the laboratory and stable building, the south 
shed, and the buildings of the Astrophysical Observatory. This clear- 
ing of the grounds, however, has only been rendered possible through 
the appropriation of funds by Congress for the renting of outside 
buildings, chiefly south of B street south, and not far distant from the 
Museum, as follows: 

Louisiana avenue near Tenth street NW., from March 15, 1894, to 
June 30, 1895, a period of fifteenth months and sixteen days, at $75 a 
month. 

A part of the old Belt Line street-car stable, comer of B and Third 
streets SW., from July 1, 1895, to March 31, 1896, nine months, at 
$75 a month. 

No. 431 Ninth street SW., from April 1 to June 30, 1896, three 
months, at $75 a month; from July 1, 1896, to date, at $166.66 a month, 
the increase being due to extensive improvements in buildings. 

No. 217 Seventh street SW., August, 1898, at $90 a month; Septem- 
ber 1, 1898, to June 30, 1899, ten months, at $120 a month; July 1, 
1899, to date, at $90 a month. 

No. 313 Tenth street SW., August 1, 1898, to June 30, 1901, thirty- 
live months, at $50 a month; July 1, 1901, to date, at $S0 a month. 
The increased rental in this case was due to the erection of an addition 
to the original building. 

Rear of No. 915 Virginia avenue SW., August 1, 1898, to June 30, 
1899, eleven months, at $50 a month; July 1, 1899, to date, at $30 a 
month. 

The total amounts paid annually for rental of the above buildings 
were, therefore, as follows: 

1894 $263.71 

1894-95 900. 00 

1 8* )5-$M ) 900. 00 

189(M)7 1,999.92 

1897-98 l,99t).92 

1898-^M) 4.389,92 

18<H)- UKX) 4, 0:{9. 92 

1900-UK)1 4,039.92 

liK)l-2 4,399.92 

l902-:{ 4,399.92 

Total 27,333.15 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 263 

The tempoitiry buildiiigH on the Mall and the rented buildings now 
used for the purposes of the Museum, together with the floor area 
<KM'upied in- each, are as follows: 

Square feet. 

Natural liistory laboratory and Htable, on Smithsonian grounds, bird taxider- 
iniirtH on second floor 616 

South shed, on Smithsonian grounds south of Smithsonian building, mammal 
taxidermists, 1,060 square feet; tin shop, 3401 1, 400 

Frame shed adjoining building of U. S. Fish Commission on Armor>' square, 
for storage, as follows: Anthropology, 5,562 square feet; biology, 1,318 
fliiuare feet; geology, 193 square feet 7, 073 

MuHeum Annex at 431 Ninth street SW., consisting of one brick building and 
peveral frame sheds. Rented. Used for 8tr)rage, as follows: Anthropology, 
(>,500 square feet; biology, 3,742 square fwt; giM)l<>gy, 3,456 square feet; 
HU{)erintenden(*e and miscellaneous, 7,431 8(inare feet 21, 129 

BuiMing 309-313 Tenth street SW. Rente<l. Utilized for storage and otlier 
puri>OHes, as follows: AnthroiM)logy, 1,102 wjuare feet; biology, 922 square 
feet; geology, 3,053 sijuare feet; label office, 729 square feet; heating and 
power plant, 620 S(]uare feet 6, 406 

Building at 217 Seventh street SW. Rented. Utilized aa a carpenter shop, 
:iy'iS7 square feet, and anthroiK>l()gical workroom, 268 wjuare feet 3, 656 

Building in rear of 915 Virginia avenue SW. Rented. Utilized as a |)aint 
and glass shop 2, 925 

Total area 43 203 

NEW NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDING. 

HISTORY. 

In his report for 188!i Secretary Baird discussed the inadequacy of 
the Museum building, then scarcely more, than a year old, to house the 
rapidly increasing national collections or to provide for the Museum^s 
own activities and those of the Geological Survey, the latter at that 
time being partly carried on under the same roof. It was proposed 
that a third building be erected on the southwest corner of the Smith- 
sonian reservation for the geological and mineralogical divisions of the 
Museum and for the accommodation of the, (leological Survey. Sec- 
retary Baird's remarks on this subject were as follows: 

Lai>^e and capaciouu ao in the new Museum building, it has ))roveil already inade- 
quate to the existing requirements of the National Museum. This building was 
designed primarily to aoi^omnuKlate the vast number of industrial and economical 
exhibits presented to the United States by foreign governments at the close of the 
Philadel))hia fiXposition of 1K70. A sj>e(!ial appropriation was made byC'ongrc^ss for 
their transfer to Washington, and the anuory building in the sfjuare l)etween Sixth 
and Seventh streets was assigned for their reception. It recjuireil nearly sixty large- 
size<l freight cars to transport the mass. 

Before the liuilding was completed in 1881 and available for its ])ur}K)se8, almost 
equally enormous additions had been made to the collections of the various (Jovern- 
ment expeditions and of the Ethnological Bureau, which, together with many thou- 
samls of objects previously in charge of the Smithsonian Institution, but for which 
then WM no room in the old building, constituted a much larger mass than was 



264 REPORT OF NATIONAL lIUESUM, lOa^. 

originally estimated. It is well known that at the close of .the Centennial Exposi- 
tion a company was organized to take charge of a large portion of the collections 
exhibited on that occasion, and with these and such additional artii-Ies as mtglit 
be obtained to establish what was known as the '^Permanent Exhibition " in the 
main Centennial building, which covers nearly 18 acres. This organization, after 
struggling for existence for several years, finally became unable to continue the effort 
and the collections in its charge were speedily scattered. Many of these ha<l been 
presented to the National Museum with the understanding that they were irt l)e left 
with the Permanent Exhibition Company for a periotl of at least a few years. Others, 
however, including many of the most valuable series, were obtained for the National 
Museum through the efforts of Mr. Thomas Donaldson. All these coUei^tions were 
carefully packe<l under his charge and stored in a building erected by him adjacent 
to the Centennial building. 

An apprc^priation was made by Congress to meet the <*08t of pac^king, shipping to 
Washington, and storing tlie collections in question. About twenty cars were 
required to transport them. They art* now contained in a wcxwlen building ailjactMit 
to the armory, fhere l>eing absolutely no space for them in the National Mu.seum. 

In addition to this a t^binet of at least double the magnitude, made by the Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers and dejwsited with the Pennsylvania Art Museum of Phil- 
adelphia, has l)i'en offered to the Government simply on the condition of transfer to 
Washington and proper exhibition. This is an extremely important tx>llei*tion, illu- 
strating the mining rei^ounres and metallurgy of the United Stat*»8 and foreign coun- 
tries, ami will constitute a most im|)ortant addition to the means of instruction at the 
command of the (lovernment. An appropriation will l)e askeil, and it is IiojhhI 
obtained, for the i)urpose of transferring the collection to Washington; but s(^>nn' 
measures must l)e taken for its ultimate disj)lay. 

An even greater mass of a<lditional material to l)e provided for will be found in thr 
imiustrial collections of the Unite<l States census of 1880, and in the collec'tions of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. Tlu* census collections embrace more particularly the 
building stones of the country, the ores (esj^eeially of the precious metals), the com- 
bustibles, su(;h as coal, petroleum, etc., and the forest timber. 

All these collections are of great magnitude, rej)resenting as nearly as possible a 
full series from all parts of the <'ountry. They are carefully labeled and recorde<l, 
and will l)e accompanied by full descriptions. 

The building-stone collection is esi)e(;ially valuable, consisting, as it does, of many 
thousands of samples of marble, granite, samlstone, and other substances, for the 
most part dressed in 4-inch cubes, each of the faces showing a different surface and 
treatment. 

It is not believed that any establishe<l quarry remains unrepresented in this series, 
while many extremely valuable deposits of ornamental and building stones are pre- 
sente<l therein for the first time. Preparations are in progress for testing the strength, 
re^sistance to torsion and crushing force, and economical properties of all these sam- 
ples. The collection is now so far advanced that when a public building is to Iv 
erected either ])y the States or the General <iovernment it will be possible to sliow 
s)KH'imens of all the In'st building stones in the vicinity of the locality involveil, and 
to }»resent all the neces.sary data Jis to availability, durability, cost of production, etc. 
Much use has already Ikh'u iriade of the collet'tion by the commissioners of State caj)- 
itals, county c(mrt-houses, etc., as well as by agents of the General Government. 

The collection of ori's made by the census agencies is also very extensive, that of 
iron being particularly large. Nearly every iron mine of any pronunence in the 
United States has been visited and samj)les carefully selected by experts. These 
have In^en analyzed under the <lirection of Professor Pum|>elly, and reports presenteil 
as to their chemical and metallurgical proi)erties and economical value. AH the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 265 

ori^inal8 of this researeh are in charge of the Smithsonian Institution awaiting exhi- 
bition. The same may \)e said of similar researches in regard to the ores of all the 
other metalH. 

The work of the U. S. Geological Survey, also of enormous niagnitude — begun 
under Mr. Clarence King and continued under Maj. J. W. Powell — has resulted in 
the accumulation of several tons ol specimens of fossils, rocks, minerals, ores, and 
the like. Very few of these can at present 1h» exhibittMl for want of the necessary 
spaiv. Tlie survey requires a large number of expt»rts and assistants, and is at pres- 
ent very Iraully accommodated. Soine twenty n)oms in the new Museum building 
have l)een assignefl as quarters for the Director of the Survey and his assistants. 

This, however, causes great inconvenience to the other work of the Museum, and 
as the survey now occupies a large building in Washington, for which it pays con- 
siderable rt»ntal, and for want of <|uarters in Washington is obliged to scatter its 
stations over various parts of the United States, it is thought desirable to ask Con- 
gretss for an appropriation to erect a sefr*m< I museum Imilding corresponding in general 
chanu'ter to the first, but on the opposite side of the square, along the line of Twelfth 
stret»t. 

This buiUUng it is propose<l to devote almost entirely to the mineral department 
of the Nati<mal Museum; and when coinpleteil to transfer to it everything of a giH)log- 
ieal and mineralogical natun*, and also to prepare a |x>rtion of it especially for the 
a('eomniodati(»n of the Cieological Survey, which is at j)resent so inconveniently pro- 
vide<l for. By way of economy it is proposeil at first to c<mstnict what will repre- 
sent the western side of the building, in which ottice rooms and chemical and other 
lal>orat<»ries can lx» providwl for. 

It had lx?en propose<l to erect a separate building for the Geological Survey, dis- 
connectinl from the National Museum; but there Innng no ground uvailal)le for this 
purpose, it was thought expedient to ask for an appropriation to furnish the required 
«|uart<»rs on the Smithsonian reservation, which is at prt»sent ample for the purpa«o. 

On the 10th of April last the following bill was acconlingly intriKluceil into the 
House of Representatives and referretl to the C-ommittiKJon Public Buildings and 
(i rounds. The subject is still before that conunittee, and it is inqjossible to state 
what will be its fate during the present session. I would recommend action on the 
]»art of the Board of Regents in this connection, since long l)efore thci e<liti(!e can Ik» 
complete<l the neetl for it will l)ecome extremely urgent. 

•*A BILL (H. R. No. 6781 )for the erection o( a fireproof building on the soutli portion of the Smith- 
Hcmian reservation, for the aeeommodation of the United States Geological Survey, and for other 
purposes. 

** -Be it eiiactedy ci-c. That the sum of two hundred thousand dollars be, and hereby 
is, appropriatetl, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for 
the erection of a fireproof building on the south portion of the Smithsonian reserva- 
tion for the accommodation of the United States Geological Survey, and for other 
purposes: Provided^ That the consent of the Rt^gents of the Smithsonian Institution 
1)6 first obtaineil thereto, and that the building l»e under their direction when com- 
plete<l: And provided further^ That the building l)e erected by the Architect of the 
Capitol, in accordance with plans approveil by the Director of the United States 
< Geological Survey, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Architect 
of the Capitol acting as a Ixmrd therefor." 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Regents on January 17, 
1883, Secretary Baird presented the report from which the above 
extract is taken, called attention to House hill 5781, introduced in 
April, 1882, and urged the necessity for speedy action in relation to 



266 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

an additional building for the use of the Museum and the Geological 
Survey, whereupon the following resolution was adopted: 

Rfaolvedj That the Bi>anl of Regents of the 8inithBonian Institution recommend Ui 
Congress U> enlarge tlie National Museum, so as proi)erly to exhibit the mineral, 
geological, and other <rollections already on hand and increasing each year, l)y the 
ere<*tion of a fireproof building on the southwent comer of the Smithsonian re:<erva- 
tion, similar in style to the present N tional Museum; and they request an appro- 
priation of $300,000 therefor, to be expended under the direction of the Regents of 
the Institution. 

It was also resolved — 

Thatthe (chancellor, (leneral Sherman, and the Secretary be, and they are hereby, 
authurizeil and emi>owered to act fo and in the name of the Boanl of Regents in 
tarrying into effe<*t the provisiouri of any act of Congress which may be fiassed pn>- 
viding for the enaction of an additional building for the Nat'onal Musemn. 

Further strong reasons for the erection of an additional building 
were given in the report of Secretary Baird for 1883, in which he 
says: 

No better illustration t«n l)e had of the increase in the collections of the National 
Museum than the fact that an additional building is urgently require<l for their 
proi)er accommodation, as explained in the last report (1882). 

In 1875 the (M)llections then in charge of the Smithsonian Institution were comfort- 
ably accommo<latcd within tht» limits of the Smithsonian building, in rooms having' 
an aggregate area of 80, OCX) wiuare feet. They consisted principally of specimens of 
natural history and ethnology; confincnl almost entirely to North Amerii^, with tlu' 
exception (jf objects of Polynesian mannfactun», forming jmrt of the Wilkes collec- 
tion. 

In 1875 an appropriation was ma4le by Congress to enable the Smitlisonian Insti- 
tution and the Fish ComniisHion to prej)are an exhibit of objin-.ta illustrating the 
resources of the United States, as <lerive<l from the animal and mineral kingdoms, 
and, with the m^sistanc-e of a si)e('ial aj)propriation to the Indian Bureau, ot a collec- 
tion of North American anthroi)ology. A large sum of money was expended in the 
preparation of this exhibit, which was forwardecl to Philadelphia in 1876, and <.H)n- 
stituted a part of the (Jovermuent display which attra(!ted nmch attention. 

At the clone of thf Philadelphia exhibition very large donations were made to the 
United State,^ by foreign countries, including lM>th the official commissitmers an«l 
individual exliibitorn. Many objects of much interest were contributeil on the same 
occasion from American displays. The>*e collections, filling some fifty freight cars, 
were brought to Wasliingtoti and were stored for a time in the Armory Building, 
assigne<l by Congress for their reception. 

After w»veral fruitless efforts, an ai)propriation of $25(),00l) was obtained for the 
purpose ^ii putting up an inexpensive edifice for t!ie storage of these articles, and 
their transfer was begun in the autumn of IS81, but little more than two years ago. 

Since then large nuinlnTs of collections of very great importance have come to 
hand, trhief among them being the gatherings of the U. S. Geological Survey and of 
the Ethnological Bureau, made on a scale of unexampletl magnitude and well 
lx.'litting the <>pe rat ions of a nation like the United States. The many scientific 
ex])lorati()ns, made either separately by the Smithsonian Institution or conjointly 
with the United States Signal Service or other l)ureaus or Ixxlies, the work of the 
Fisli Connnission, an<l the enormous iiggregate of many smaller collections, have 
tendeil largely to increase the material to be provided for. 



NATIONAL MirSEFM — BUILDTNOft. 267 

In addition to thia, the extiibition }>>' the Uniteil Statt^s at London of illuRtrations 
oi itH fisheries (the freight l>ulk of which amounted to not \esn than 24,000 cubic feet^ 
and consistinf;, in very large part, of new obje(;t8 and articles obtained at the 
i*xi)enfie of the appropriations of Congress for that purpose) must also l)e jirovided 
for; as also the ver>' valuable and oxt<^'nsive (^Ilcctions in mineralogy, geology, and 
metallurgy made by the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and prt>sented to 
the UnitcHl States, but stored in Philadelphia awaiting an appropriation for its 
transfer. 

It may be stated in brief, therefore, that, at the present time, the vast building, 
finished scarcely more than two years ago, is now filled to overflowing; while there 
hi aiUlitional material enough on hand belonging to the Cvovemment to occupy fully 
half of a second building of the same size, and with a probability that the entire 
s{)ace will Ik» re(|uired lK»fon» the construction can In* a<!t^mplishe<l, even supposing 
that it is lK>gun at the earliest possible time. 

The Smithscmian Institution has always acted in hi^rty cooperation witli the affili- 
ated scientific branches of the Government even where no official relationship 
existed, this l)eing notably the cast^ in reganl to the IT. S. Geological Survey. This 
important Bureau, in the rapid increase of its work, has been greatly hampered by 
want of the necessary accomnuxlations; and it was with nmch gratification that the 
Institution proffereil a share of the new building to the Dirt»ctor, Major Powell, for 
the accommo<lati(m of his collections, and for the offiire and lalK)rator>' work. It 
was, however, unable to do as much as was desirable, owuig to the inadequacy of 
quarters for the purpi>se. 

Should an appropriation be made for the new building, for which the Board 
authorize<l application toCongn^ss, it is intended toslmre it with the Geological Sur- 
vey sc» that it may have all the facilities required for its imix)rtant work. 

It will Ixj rememben*d that Congress in the act of 184t» set aside for the use of the 
Smithsonian Institution 20 acres in the southwest corner of the 8(]uare bounded by 
S«*vi»nth and Twelfth streets and north and south B stret^ts, the center of the Smith- 
sonian building Ix'ing exactly in the middle of the square. It was in the southeast 
quarter of this reservation that the new Museum building was ertn'ted, forming a 
very unsymmetrical annex to the original Smithsonian building. It is now proposed 
to take the southwest corner of the rt«ervatiou for the new edifi<rt», which, when 
completed, will Ikj essentially of the genend character of the present Miisinmi build- 
ng, and will restore the proiHjr architectural balance. 

Congress has now bei»n aske<l to make an appropriation for one wing of this new 
building to be specially fitted for the use of the ofiicers and laboratories of the 
National Museum and of the (ieological Survey; and, if the amount van Ik* obtaintHl 
at the present s(»ssi(m, occupation of the building c^n l)e assurtMl within eighteen 
months from the commencement of ojierations. The vacating of the rooms now 
occupied by the Geological Survey will also furnish nuKth-needed ac(;ommo<lation to 
the Museum; jMjsHibly enough until the remainder of the building can be provitled 
for. The j)roi)osetl wing, however, will In^ coin))lete in itself, architettturally, and 
will not involve any addition for its proper haniionious effcH't. 

The followinj^ estimate, Imscd ui)on tlie iHH'oinnicndation to Congress 
filHJve referred to, was submitted in 1S83 for consideration with the 
appropriation hills for 1885, hut failed to he re{H)rted to either House: 

Construction, in a fireproof manner, of an additional musinuu building, to rec^eive 
the collections and lal)orat<3ries in chemistry, geology, mineralogy, metallurgy, taxi- 
dermy, etc; and for the offices and lalH>ratories of the U. S. (ieological Survey, 
to be erected umfer the direction and su{H'rvision of the liegents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, on the southwest comer of the groumls of the Smithsonian Institution, 

t2oo,ooa. 



268 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 19a3. 

From 1882 until the present time the iwjcessity for a new building 
has never ceased to be the subject of greater*or less attention In' the 
Regents and the Secretary. In 1885, after noting the previous steps 
taken, Professor Baird remarket!: 

Tlie need is now much greater than before, as there is enoiigli material in the way 
of vahiable speeimens of economical interent to fill a second building the size of \hv 
present one. This unexhibiteil surplus is now stored in several buildings, 8<")nie in 
Washington and some elsewhere, and consists of important illustrations of the econom- 
ical geology, metallurgy, and other resources of the Unitetl States. In addition to 
what has been on hand for some time, ver>' large collections were presente<l to the 
Government at the New Orleans exhibition, which embraced a great deal of intrinsic 
value as well as of popular and scientific interest. It is earnestly to l)e ho|)e<l that 
this requirement will be met by Congress by the speedy appropriation of an amount 
suitable for the purpose. 

In 1886 Secretary Baird stated that as special provision was desired 
for laboratories and offices, and to give suitable quarters to the U. S. 
Geological Survey and the Bureau of Ethnology, an estimate had l)een 
made of the sum of $250,000 for the purpose of constructing one wing 
and pavilion of the new building, leaving the remainder to be con- 
structed hereafter, should Congress so approve it, at a cost of, per- 
haps, an additional $25(),00(). This estimate, submitted in 1886 for 
the sundry civil bill for 1888, varied but slightly in wording from the 
estimate of 1883. It received no consideitition by Congress and was 
as follows: 

For commencing the construction, in a fireproof manner, of an additional muaeuni 
building to receive the collections and laboratories in t'hemistry, geology, mineralogy, 
metallurgy, taxidenuy, etc., and for offices and lalM>ratories of theU. S. Geologiral 
Survey, to l>e ertvted under the dirt»ction and su|x»rvision of the Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution on the southwest section of the grounds of the Smithsonian 
Institution, $250,000. 

The following extract is from the Museum report of the same 3"ear, 
by Doctor (ioode: 

The National Museuni is now approaching an important crisis in its history. lx» 
future will depend upon the action of Cougress in granting it an ailditional building, 
for without more room its growth can not but \ye in large degree arrested. From 
this time forwanl it will be iiiijM)ssible to develop the collections satisfactorily with- 
out additional space. The laboratories and workshops are alreatly entirely inade- 
quate^ for the storage of the unexhibited coUet^tions and the accommmlation of the 
prepanitors and mechanics, and the exhibition halls do not affon.1 suitable op{K)r- 
tunity for the <lisplay of the materials already in order for public examination. 

At the iinnual meeting of the Board of Regents on January 11, 1888, 
the first leld after the appointment of the present Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Mr. Langley brought to the attention of the 
Regents tlie necessity of contiiuiing the eH'orts toward securing an 
additional museum building, and spoke of the legislatioti previously 
proposed. The Board renewed its recommendation to Congress of 
January 17, 1883, and discussed the matter of providing quarters for 



KATIONAL MITSEUM BFILDING8. 269 

the Geolopcal Survey in the new building, pursuant to the wording 
of House bill No. 5781, presented to Congress in 18S1, and of the 
.^veral estimates subsequently submitted. The chancellor stated as 
his opinion — 

That it was desirable that new museum build inpj should l)e erected in any irase, 
Init that simte by at't of Congress a certain j)art of the public grounds had l)een set 
apart and appropriate<i absolutely and exclusively to the Smithsonian Institution, 
he for one did not want to see anything else place<l on these grounds. 

He further said: 

If the Smithsonian Institution is to grow, it will noe<l them all, and whatever is put 
upon them should be under our excilusive control. . 

The following extract from the report of Secretary Langlcy for 
1888 has reference to this subject: 

Among other nmtters discussed at the last meeting of the Rt»gents was the erection 
of a new Museum building. On this occasion the Rt^gents tacitly reaftirmed their 
re«olution of 1888, recommending to Congress the enlargement of the National 
Museum by the enaction of a fireproof building on thc^ southwest corner of the 
Smithsonian reservation, similar in style to the pn^ent National Museum; but on 
viewing the sketch plans, which had been prepared snl>se<iuently to the resolution, 
so as to include offices for the (Geological Survey, they a«lded an expression of their 
opinion that the new building should l>e planne<l excliL^ively for Museum purjwses. 

It was not at first intended to take action in this matter during the present year, 
but the oven^rowdeil condition of the building, on account of which not only the 
current work but the proper development of the collections is greatly im])eded, 
seemwlto render imme<liate action necessary. A still more urgent need appeare<l to 
Ikj the unsatisfactory sanitary ccmdition of the new Museum building. A commit- 
tee, c(msisting of Dr. J. II. Kidder, chairman, Dr. James M. Flint, V. S. Navy, and 
Mr. J. E. Watkins, was appointed on April 14, to make a careful study of the water 
supply, ventilation, and drainage, and in May submitted a preliminary report, from 
which it appeare<l that an alarming amount of sickneKvand mortality has been mani- 
fi*st among the employes since 1881 — a mortality which can not l>e attril)uted to the 
hx'Ation of the building, which has sometimes l^een pronounced unsanitary, since 
there has l>een no corresponding jvercentage of ill health in the old Smithsonian 
buihling adjoining. The number of days lost by employt^es on account of sickness in 
1886 was 796; in 1887, 875; and in 1888, up to May 10, 2i:^, by far the largest part of 
this loss of time being attributed on the lx>ok8 of the Museum to miasmatic diseases. 
The committee states that there is no reasonable doubt that some, if not all, of the 
ten deaths since 1881 were hastened or induced by the unwholesome condition of this 
building. The committee suggeste<l repairs and modifications of considerable extent, 
including the constniction of continuous cellars under each of the four sides of the 
building, which, in addition to the other necessary expenses, would cost in the neigh- 
liorliood of $40,000. This state of affairs seemed to demand decided action, and it 
l>eing absolutely impossible to make any changes in the present building without 
entirely vacating a portion of it for a considerable pericxl of time, the exigency for 
more accommodation seemed a great deal more urgent than had been at first 
supposed. 

While it became evident, on study of the question, that for the ultimate needs of 
the Museum, a building of but one story, occupying the same area as the present 
Museum, would be insufficient, the question of imme<^iiate action was unexpectedly 
brought up in May by one of the senior Begents, a member of Ihe Senate, who, when 



270 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

viBitin)? the MiiBeiim with Home frieniln, notii^ed ita crowded and utiHaiisfactory con- 
dition. Having learned from me of the mortality and sic.kneflH of the eniployees, he 
inquiriHi as to the feasibility of erecting a new building, an<l offered to use his influ- 
ence to procure? an appropriation, if I could obtain for him a set of skeU'h plans 
within a week, time l^eing, as he stated, a very essential condition. After consulting; 
with the chairman of your executive (^mmittee, I had n<» hesitation in accepting 
such an offer, but a difficulty an^ne from the fact that the sketc^h plans which had 
l)een laid before the Regents in 1882 were in i>art for purposes which the K^^nt^^had 
at their last meeting di8approve<l, and that hence they could not l>e used. By gn'at 
diiigem^e, however, plans for a building to be devot<Hi exclusively to Museum pur- 
poses were prepare<l within the time mentioned. These were based upon an exten- 
sive accumulation of notes and <lrawings, embodying the re(!ord of the l>est reit»nt 
work of museum construction in this country and in Europe, and they were for a 
building, as faraswaa(!(msistentwith these improvements, like the existing Museum. 
The rej>ort submitted by Senator Morrill, to accompany Senate bill 3KW, nmtains 
the corresjwndence on which action was taken, and I have discussed the acts therein 
presented elsewhere under the proper heads. 

The following bill was introdmre^l bv Senator Morrill on June 12, was luissf'ii by 
the Senate on June 20, and at the end of the fiscal year was in the hands of the 
House Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds: 

••A BILL for the erertlon of an ndditional fireproof buildiiiK for lh« iise of the National Mnsuum. 

**/it' U enacted hj the Scmde and Iloiineof RejtreHviitntii'eHof the Vnital Statettitf AmiTini 
in Co7t{preJ!w n^wemhledf That the sum of five hundre<l thousand dollars is hereby 
appropriated, out of any money in the Tn?asury not otherwise* appr(»priated, or s<i 
much thereof as may l)e nec<»s8ary, for the erection of a fireproof buihling for the usp 
of the National Museum, to cover three hundred foc»t square, and to consist of two 
stories and basement, to Xk*. erecteil under the dirtn'tion of the Regents of the Smitli- 
soniati Institution, in ac(;or(lance with the plans now on file with the Committee on 
Public Buildings and Gnmnds of the Senate, on the southwestern [portion of \\\v 
grounds of the Smithsonian Institution. Said building to be placed west of the 
Smithsonian Institution, leaving a roadway between it and the latter of not loss 
than forty feet, with the north front on a line with the south face of the buihling of 
the Agricultural De])artment and of the Smithsonian Institution; and all expendi- 
tures for tin* ])urpose herein mentione<l shall l)e audited by the proper officers of the 
Trea.Mnry Department." 

Tlie building, as proj>ostHl, covers tin* same area as the pre^scnt Museum, and is of 
the Han»e gtMieral style, ho far tis is consistent with the introduction of a second story, 
thu^^ affording nearly three times as much accommodation under the same area of 
roof as the building nr)w in use. The arrangement of the interior of the propose<l 
new structure is, however, considerably modified, as the result of the ex|>eriemx; of 
seven years' occupation of the present building. The eighteen exhibition halls on 
the two main floors are completely isolatiMl from eat^h other, and are capable of sul>- 
divisi(»n into smaller halls. The lighting will \k> e<]ually as good as in the present 
building, the ventilation will be much better, and in other important respects the 
sanitary arrangements will l>e far more satisfactory. 

A l)aseinent story is absolutely necessary, not only with a view to promoting the 
comfort and health of visitors and employees, as well as for securing greater dryness 
and Ix'tti r preservation of the specimens, but also for the purpose of providing lai^ 
apartments for storerooms and work8hoj)s. These proposed improvements in 
arrangement will not, however, interfen* with the possibility of constructing a build- 
ing which shall conform in the essential points of exterior proportion with the main 
features of the present building. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 271 

The present building cx>ntainfl about 80,000 square feet of floor space available for 
exhibition and storage. The building proposed will contain about 220,000 square 
feet. The amount of room for offices and laboratories would be about the same in 
each. The net area in the new building available for exhibition, storage, and office 
rooms, as estimated, would be between five and six acres. 

For the iHjnstnu^tion of the present Museum building an appropriation of $250,000 
w^as made. This sum was supplemented by the following special ap^opriations: 
$25,000 for steam-heating apparatus, $26,000 for marble floors, $12,500 for water an<l 
gas fixtures anct electrical apparatus, and $1,900 for s^iecial sewer connections. The 
total amount expcnde<1 on this building was therefore $315,400, and it is generally 
admitted that the cost of its construction was considerablv less than that of anv 
other similar building in existence; in fact, perhax)8 too cheap to secure the truest 
economy. 

The projKJseii structure can 1h^ erecte<l at a pro|)ortionately smaller cost. I have 
obtained from responsible bidders, who are willing to give bonds for the completion 
of the work in acconlance with the bids which they have submitted, estimates for 
the ere(!tion of the building complete, with steam-heating apparatus and all other 
essential appliances, excepting the electrical equipment, amounting in the aggregate 
to $473,000. Thest^ ])ids, U|M>n which the estimates of cost have been made, were 
not competitive, and it is i>o8sible that Honicthing may be saved through competi- 
tion. It is, however, necessary to prf>vide also for the architect's superintendence, 
and for the removal and reconstruction of tlie Smithsonian stable, which now oc»cu- 
pii'H the site. I therefore think it advisable to make re<iuest for the sum of $500,000, 
in onler that these additional items and other contingencies may U^ covered. 

The plans, though <lrawn in the limited time inipowd, n^pn^sent the results of an 
exhanstive study — which has exten<led over s<»veral years— of plans of the l)est 
modem museum buildings in Kurope and America, ne^irly all of which have been 
personally insx)ect*»<l by officers of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Senate bill No. 8134, a})ove (|iiote<l, when presented to the Senate 
on June 12, 1888, was aeeonipanied by a favorable report from the 
Senate Committee on Public Buildings and (irounds (No. 158J)), and 
contained two letters fi*om Secretary Ijimgley, dated June 2 and 8, 
1888. The fonuer referred mainly to the plans for the proposed 
building, the latter to the collections and needs of the Museum. On 
June 21, an effort was made to have this bill attached to the sundry 
civil bill, an amendment to that effect being proposed by Senator 
Morrill, but no progress was gained b}^ this action, and the bill went 
over to the next session. 

On January 17, 1880, Senator Morrill again submitted the measure 
as an amendment to the sundry civil bill for ISIH), and it was referred 
to the Committee on Appropriations, but no motion was taken. In his 
report for the same 3^ear Secretary Langley shows the in<!reased 
necessity for additional space, in that (V)ngress at its previous session 
had granted the Armory building to the F'ish Commission its its head- 
quarters, requiring the Museum to remove therefrom all but a few of 
its preparators workrooms. 

On December 10, 1HS8, and December li), 1889, l)ills were intro- 
duced in both houses o^ Congress for the erection of a fireproof 
building for the U. S. (ieological Survey ind(»pendently of the National 



272 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Museum, on the south side of the Mall between the Museum building 
and that of the Army Medical Museum, the amount requested for the 
purpose var^nng in the several bills and amendments thereto from 
$300,000 to $800,0CH). Both of these measures failed to pass. The 
report of the House Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, 
submitted February It), 1889, contains a letter from the Director of 
the Survey, from which the following extracts, interesting in this 
connection, are taken: 

In addition to the nwms in the rented [Hooe] building, through the courtesy of 
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution the Surx^ey is permitted to une twenty- 
two rooms in the National Museum, and these are all crowded in such manner that 
work is seriously obstructed. The rooms in the National Museum were temporarily 
given U) the Survey at a time when there was no pressing necessity for their iL«e )>y 
the oflBcers of the Museum; but at the present time the entire Museum is so crowded 
that the Secretary of the Smithsonian and the Director of the Museum are anxioiw 
to have these rooms surrendered for their use. * ♦ * 

The building planneil does not provide for museum space. The statutes now i>rr)- 
vide that the collections of the Geological Survey, when no longer neede<l for 
investigations in progress, shall l)e depositeii in the National Musemn. The i>lan 
contemplated in the bill before your committee provides that the building for the 
Geological Survey shall Ije near to the National Maseum — lietween that building and 
the Army Medical Museum building. Such an arrangement of buildings will 1h» 
highly advantageous to the Survey, as the offices of the Survey would be adjaa'iit 
to the National Museum, and the materials stored in the Museum building would Ik* 
accessible for reference and comparison, as constantly needed. * 

In his annual report for 1890, Assistant Secretary George Brown 
Goode, in charge of the Museum, made the following statements 
regarding the necessity for a new building: 

The necessity for additional room is (constantly increasing, and several of the wl- 
lections, to wit, transportation and engineering, fishes, reptiles, birds* eggs, niol- 
lusks, inst^cts, marine invertebrates, vertebrate and invertebrate fossils, fossil and 
recent plants, are in some instances wholly unprovided for, and in others only in a 
very inadecjuate degree. 

In the main hall of the Smithsonian building is still exhibited the (*oHe<!tion of 
birds. A few cases containing birds' eggs and shells have recently been arranged 
along the center of this hall. 

Eleven of the departments in the National Museum have no space assigrned to 
them in the Museum building, solely on account of its crowded condition. The col- 
lection of prehistoric; anthropological objects remains installed on the second floor 
of the Smithsonian building. The collections of the remaining ten department}^ 
can not Ik* exhibite<l or even proi)erly arranged and classified without more room. 
These collections are at present store^l in the attics and basements of the Smiths*)- 
nian and Armory buildings, and are inacces.sible for study and for the other purpose.** 
for which they were obtaineil. The Hj)ecimenH comprising these collections are not 
simply objects of natural history, iwssessing an abstract interest to the student, but 
represent the application of natural objects to the industries, and, as such, are of 
great imiK)rtance. There are several collections of ores, minerals, building stones, 
and of objects representing various art*? and in<lustries, which are of very great value, 
since they furnish to the American manufacturer and designer information of inesti- 
mable importance. . 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 273 

Tlie increase in the national (collections dnring the last ei^ht years may perliaps 
be best described by the statement that in 1882 the total num]:)er of specimens 
recorded in the Museum was alx>ut 183,000; while in 1890 the records indicated the 
possession of nearly 3,000,000 specimens. It is proper to say in this connection that 
the actual increase was not ho great as shown by the records, since during this period 
a large amount of material previously received had been brought under control and 
placed on the books of the Museum. It should also be ])orne in mind that the pres- 
ent Museum building was planned with reference to the reception of the material in 
its custody at the time of its constniction. 

During the Fifty-first Congress the question of a new building was 
frequently under discussion, but without result. On February 19, 
1890, Senator Morrill, from the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, reported Senate bill No. 2740, which provided: 

That for an additional fireproof ])uilding for the U8e of the National Museum, .'^00 
fc^t wpiare, with two Htories and a basement, t^) be erected under the direction of 
the Architect of the Capitol, with the approval of the Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, in accordance with plans now on tile with the Committee on Public 
Buildings an<l Grounds, on tht; southwestern portion of the grounds of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, there shall l)e api)n>priate<l, out of any moneys in the Treasury 
not otherwis-e appropriated, the sum of $50(),0(^); said building to l)e place<l west of 
the Smithsonian Institution, leaving a roadway Inttween it and the latter of not less 
than 50 feet, with its north front on a line with the south face of the Agricultural 
Department and of the Smithsonian Institution, and constructed as far as practicable, 
after proper a<ivertisement, ])y contract or contracts awarded to the lowest responsi- 
ble bidder, and all expenditures for the purposes herein mentioned shall 1k» audited 
by the proi)er officers of the Treasury Department. 

On April, 9, 1890, the same bill was submitted to the House and 
referred to the Committee on Public Buildings and (t rounds. These 
bills were again brought up in the second session of the sanio Congress, 
in the House on January 9, 1S91 (where it was connnitted to the Com- 
mittee of the Whole), and in the Senate on February 9, 1S91, as an 
amendment to the sundry civil bill for 1S92. The House bill, differ- 
ing somewhat in wording from the Senate bill, was as follows: 

That for an additional fireproof buiMing for the use of the Xational Museum, JiOO 
feet square, with two stories and a basement, to l)e erected l)y the Supervising Archi- 
tect of the Treasury, under the dire<!tion of the Regents of the Smithwmian Institu- 
tion, in general accordance with plans now on file with the (/oinmittee on Public 
Buildings and Grounds, on the southwestern portion of the groun<is of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, there shall be appropriate<l, out of any moneys in the Treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, the sum of |viOO,(X)0; said buiMing to Ih' plac^e<l west of the 
Smithsonian Institution, with its north fnmt on a line with the north front of the 
present Museum building, and constructed as far as practica])le, after ])roi)er adver- 
tisement, by contract or contracts awanled to the lowest responsible bidder, and all 
expenditures for the pur|K>se8 herein mentione<l shall )h? audited ])y the proper 
officers of the Treasury Department. 

Letters in support of the measure were transmitted to Congress by 
Secretary Langley, and some arguments were presented on the floor. 

NAT MUS 1903 18 



274 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The report to the Senate Committee on Public Buildings and Groundi- 
by Secretary Langley, dated January 21, 1890, was mainly as follows: 

I send you herewith a set of sketch plans intendeti to show, in a general way, the 
extent and charat^ter of a ])uilding such as would seem to be nec^easary for the aivoiii- 
nioiiation of the Museum collet'tions in the present and immediate future, and respect- 
fully request for them your attention and a recommendation to Congjeas of the 
necessary means for such a building. 

These plans and sketches are provisional, Imt although not pre8eute<l in detail they 
represent the results of studies, extending over many years, of the plans of the \)esi 
modern museum buildings in Europe and America, nearly all of which have been 
inspected by officers of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The proiK>8(Hl building covers the same area as that iinisheil in 1881. It is iutendeil 
to cr>nsist of two .stories and a basement, except in the central portion, which consists 
of one lofty hall open from the main floor to the roof, the height of which will U' 
9() feet, galleries l)eing place<l on the level of the se<x)nd floor in other j>arts of the 
building. Its interior arrangements are, as you will see, different from those in the 
actual Museum, all the changes having l)een planned in the light of the ex|)erieiK*e 
of nine years* occupation of the present building. It will affortl l)etween two and 
three times as much available space for exhibition and storage under the same area 
of roof. The lift<vn exhibition halls art^ i-ompletely isolate*! from eaidi other, and 
may readily ])e sulnlivided, when necessary, into smaller rooms. The light will l)e 
as goo<l as in the old building, and the ventilation iK»rhai)s still better. The sanitary 
arrangements have been carefully considere<l. 

The necessity f<»r a basement is especially great. In this, plat^ has l>een provided 
for many storage rooms and workshops. The existence of a basement will promote 
the (!omfort and health of visitors .ind employt»es, and by increasing the dryness ni 
the air in the exhibition halls will secure the ])etter preservation of the (H»llections. 
These propose*! changes in the internal arrangements will not interfere with v*m- 
formity with the other pointw of the i>resent Museum building in the essential 
features of exterior proportion. The total capacity of this prescMit building in avail- 
able Hoor space is about 1()(),()(K) square feet; that of the new Imilding somewhat 
exceeds 2(H),(X)(). The present Museum Imilding contains al)out 80,000 feet of floor 
space available for exhibition. That proiM>se<l will c(mtain alx>at 103,300 square feet 
for exhibition. The s])ace devoted to offices and lal)oratorie8 would not l>e much 
more, but the area available for exhibition halls, storage rooms, and workshops far 
greater. The approj»riation for the construction of the present building was $250,000. 

The estimate's of cost on this Iniihling vary greatly with regard to details of con- 
struction on which I <lo not here enter further than to say that the whole should Iw 
absolutely firepro()f throughout, and in view of the further great variation of the 
cost of bniMing materials within the past two years, I am not prepared to state the 
sum which would l)e necessary for its comj)leti()n. It is certain, however, that 
$o()0,(HK), if not siitlii'ient to comjdete it, would 1h' all that would be recjuire<l to 1k» 
expended during' the jjresent year, and I woidd respeirtfully represent the desirability 
of an aj>pro])riation of this amount for the purpos<» in question. 

Yourattenti(m is directe<l to certain facts in regard t^) the character of the mate- 
rials for the a<'conimodati(»n of which this buihling is <lesire<l. The collecti<ms of 
the Smithsonian Institution and of the (ioveniment are especially rich in collections 
of natural history, which may l)e groujx'd in three general classes: The zoological 
collections, the botanical collections, and the geological collections, including not 
only all the geological and mineralogical material, but the greater portion of that 
l)elonging to paleontology, the study of fossil animals and plants forming an essential 
part of modern geological work. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 275 

Besidef^ the natural history coUei'tions, there are ecjually important anthropological 
collections which illustrate the history of mankind at all periods and in every land, 
antl which serve to explain the development of all human arts and industries. In 
everything that relates to the primitive inhahitants of North America, F/skimo as 
well as Indian, these collections are hy far the richest in the world, and with the 
necessary amount of exhihition space the material on hand will he arranged in a 
manner which will produce the most impressive and magnificent effect, the educa- 
tional importance of which can not he overestimated. Again there are collections 
of considerahle extent which illustrate the processes and jjroducts of the various arts 
and industries, as well as what are termed the historical collections, which are of 
esi>ecial interest to a very large numl)er of the visitors to the Museum on account of 
the associations of the objects exhibited with the personal history of representative 
men or with important events in the history of America. 

The collections illustrating the arts and the art industries are relatively small, and 
although in themselves of great interest and value, not to be compared in importance 
with those in natural history and ethnology. 

In a letter addressed on June 7, 1888, to the Hon. Justin S. Morrill, an<l which 
will l)e found in a rej^ort of June 12 of the same year from the Senates Ojmmittee on 
Public Buildings and Grounds, I made a statement of the nipidity of the recent growth 
of the Museum, mentioning that in the five years from 1882 to 1887 the nnm])er of speci- 
mens in the collection have multipliinl no less than sixteen times, and endeavored 
to give an id€»a, though perhaps an inadequate one, of the extent to w^hich the 
pressure for want of space was felt. The evil has grown rapidly worse, and, as I 
have had occasion to mention, it has l)een felt in the last year in a partial arrest of 
the growth of the collections, which emphasizes the demand for more room. The 
present Museum building is not large enough even for the natural history collections 
alone, a numl)er of which are without any exhibition space whatever. 'The propostMl 
building will afford accomnuxlations for the ethnological an<l technological material 
already on hand and for a large part of the natural history material also. The collec- 
tions are still increasing, and the number of specimens, as estimated, is now not far 
from 3,000,000. 

Unless more space is soon provided the development of the (lovemnient collec- 
tions will of necessity be almost completely arrested. 

8o long as there was room for storage, collections not immediately reijuired could 
be received and ]iacked away for future use. This can not longer be done. 

The Armory building, since 1877 assigned to the MiLseum for storage and work- 
shops, is now entirely occupied by the V. S. Fish Conmiission, with the exception 
of four rooms, and by some of the Museum taxidermists, who are now working in 
very contracted space, and whom it is impossible to accommodate elsewhere. 

Increased space in the exhibition halls is needed, the educational value of the col- 
lections being 8t»riously diminished by the present crowdeil system of installation. 
Still more necessary, however, is room for storage, for rearranging the great reserve 
collections, for eliminating duplicate material for distribution to college and school 
museums, and for the use of the taxidermists and preparators engaged in preparing 
objects for exhibition. Space is also require<l for the proi)er handling of the costly 
outfit of the museum cases and appliances for installation, of which there is always a 
considerable amount temporarily out of use or in pr<H-ess of construction. 

In summarizing what has just been said, it nmy Ix? state<l in general terms that the 
amount of space already requireil for exhibition purposes alone, being 207,500 feet 
as against 100,675 now occupied, and this being exclusive of the 108,900 scjuare fei*t 
neede^i for other objects, the accumulations have now reache<l such a i)oint of con- 
gestion that the actual space needs to he doubled, even indei)endently of future 



276 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

increase; and J In^g to rejKiat that, unlesH more space is pmvided, the development 
of the Government collection, which is already partly arrested, will }ye sAnvyei com- 
pletely stopiKMl. 

The hill was passed hy the Senate as a separate measure on April 5, 
1S90, and as an amendment to the sundry civil bill for 1891 on July 
19. In the House no action was secured, though the bill was favor- 
ably reported l)y the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds. 

The (question of placing a basement story under the existing Museum 
)>uilding, which had been under consideration at this time and was 
referred to the Architect of the Capitol, was reported upon to the 
House, under date of March 3, 1890, as follows: 

Architj*xt'8 Office, United States CAriTi>L, 

Wdskingtmiy D. ('., Feffruan/ ;?S, 1890. 

Sir: In compliance with the requirements of the act providing for the sundry civil 
exi»enseflof the Government, approved March 2, 1889, 1 have exaniiueil the National 
Museum, and have estiniatM the cost of constructing the Ijasement story under that 
huildiug. 

It is thought that the only i>ortion of the basement available for workslio])*) and 
suitable for storage would ])e a cellar running around the outer walls of the build- 
ing and extending inwards 30 feet, so that the rooms thus obtained may have light 
and air. 

These rcK)ms should ])e roofed with brick arches supporteil by in>n l:>eanis. Pro- 
vision is nia<ie in the acconii»anying estimate to floor with tiles the entire room? 
under which these basements come, in ]>art, as the present wooden floors of these 
rooms are now in bad condition and will soon be unfit for use. 

estimate. 

Excavating 6,220 yards of tiarth, at $1 $6, 220 

rnderpinning front walls, 672 jwrches, at f57 4, 704 

Stone masonry, inner walls, 1,248 j)erches, at $6 7, 488 

Fireproof flooring (including colunms), 1,866 yards, at $5.50 10, 261^ 

Marble tiling, 30,400 superficial feet, at 75 cents 22, 800 

Fifty-six windows, at 1525 1, 200 

Removing and replacing pij)es and sewers 3, 000 

Removing old floors 300 

Concrete floors in cellars, 1,866 yards, at 90 cents 1, 680 

Total 57, 67.1 

I will say that l)y reason of the sewer, steam, an<l gas pii)es running under the 
])resent floors the work of constructing these basement rooms, though prairticable, 
will be extremelv difti(nilt. 

I l)eg to say that T am of the opinion that a site for a storehouse and for work- 
shoi>s requirtnl may be purchased in the neighlx>rhood of the Museum and a fire- 
proof building erecle<l thereon with a capacity as great as these proposed basement 
rooms for a sum less than will be necessarv to construct this basement. 
Very respectfully, 

Edward Clark, 

Architect United States Capitol. 

The Si'EAKEK OK THE lloi'SE OF KeI'RESKNTATIVKS. 



N ACTIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 277 

On January 28, 1891, in view of the possibility of the passage b\ 
Congress of a bill for a new building, the Regents — 

Rewlvedy That the executive committee of the Boanl of Regent*, or a majority 
thereof, ami tlie Secretary he, and they are herehy, authorizeil and empowere<l to 
act for and in the name of the Board of Rt^ents in carrying into effe(!t the provisionn 
of any wi of Congress that may l)e passed providing for tlie erection of a new build- 
ing for tlie Unite<l States National Museum. 

In the Fifty-second Congress a bill identical with that submitted at 
the beginning of the previous Congress passed the Senate on April 14, 
1892, but in the House it went no further than the Committee on 
Public Buildings and Grounds. In the Fifty-third Congress the same 
measure was again introduced, but failed of action. 

In all the reports of the Secretar}^ from 1892 down, attention was 
called to this ever-pressing subject. The exhibition space in both 
buildings was overfilled. Small specimens could be crowded in here 
and there, but extensive changes meant that old collections must be 
sent to storage for the benefit of something more important or of a 
better class of preparations. Extra storerooms and workrooms were 
imperative, but they could only be provided by renting outside quar- 
ters, with the full understanding that such stnictures were unsafe, and 
that collections to the value of hundreds of thousands of dollars might 
any day be destroyed through the merest accident. Year after year 
the extent and value of the material thus unsafel}' housed has been 
rapidly increasing, and the conditions prevailing have also influenced 
disadvantageousl}^ many owners of valuable and rare specimens, the 
donation or loan of which could easily have ]>oen effected were there a 
safe place for their instiillation. It is known that the Museum has 
been deprived of many large and important accessions from this cause 
alone. 

These circumstances have been explained time and again, but while 
the arguments presented have excited much interest and have secured 
the influence of strong and devoted friends, they have never, until 
within the past two years, obtained the recognition they merit. 

The building of galleries in the Museum building, begun in 1897, 
has aflTorded slight relief, but the total extent of these additions has 
increased but little the former area of the two ])uildings, and in no 
wa3' lessened the need of a new one. 

In the Fifty-fourth Congress Senator Morrill made his final effort 
toward securing the appropriation so nmcli desired by introducing in 
the Senate, on l)ecem})er 10, 1895, ])ill No. 69<S, which differed but 
.slightly in wording from former measures, except that the cost was 
reduced from $5()0,(X)0 to $250,000. It was as follows: 

That for an additional firepnx)f Ijuilding for the use of the National Museum, 300 
feet square, with two ntories and a Iwisenient, t>o l>eertH!teii undt*r the diret^tion of the 



278 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 19a3. 

An^hikvt of tlie Capitol, with the approval of the RegeutH of the Sinithsonian Insti- 
tution, in harmony with the present National Museum bailding, on the southwestern 
portion of the grounds of the Smithsonian Institution, there shall be appropriated, 
out of any moneys in the Trc^asury not otherwise appropriate<l, the sum of $250,000; 
sai<l building to l)e plated west of the Smithsonian Institution, leaving a roadway 
l)etween it and the latter of not less than 50 feet, with its north front on a line 
with the south fiice of the Agricuiltural Department and of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and constructeil, as far as prai^tioable, after ])roix»r advertisement, l)y eontract 
or eontnu!tH approved by the Secretary of the Treasury and awardtnl to the lowest 
re.s|)onsible bidder; and all expenditures for the purpose herein mentioneil shall lie 
audited by the proj)er officers of the Treasury Department. 

This bill wa.s referred to the Committee on Public Buildings and 
Grounds, but on February 27 following Senator Morrill reported an 
amendment, which consisted in substituting for the "Architect of the 
Capitor- the name of iiernard R. Green to have direction of the con- 
struction. It was submitted b\' the committee on March 23, 181>0, 
with a reix)rt (No. 540), consisting of material supplied b}- Secretary 
Langley and Assistant Secretary Goode. The following, by Mr. 
Langley, is extracted from his rei)ort for 1895: 

In my last annual Btat^^nent 1 pointed out three conditions which are operating to 
seriouBly n»tard the growth of the National Museum: First, the lack of space for the 
iiiHtiillaticm of objects which should l>e place<l on exhibition; second, the unsyin- 
metrical growth of the collection; and, third, the fact that the storage of colletrtioni" 
in the woo<len sIuhJs south of the Smithsonian building, as well as in the basement 
of the building itself, is most undesirable and dangerous. The sum of $900, allowed 
for 1S9(), will be necessarily ex|)ended in the rental of shop and storage room in' 
place of the "Armory building." The actually dangen>us wooden sheds must there- 
fore remain occupied until a sum of money is provi<led which will enable me to 
discontinue their use altogether by renting other cjuarters removed entirely from 
proximity to the Smithsonian building. 

The problem of even ]»roviding shelter of any kind for the vast amount of material 
daily receiveii from persons interested in the growth and work of the Museum slill 
remains unsolvc^l. The Institution is placed in an embarrassing ]>osition. It has 
lH»en designated by law as the oidy depository of colleirtions offered to or made 
under the auspices of the (Jovermnent, and can not, under the law, refuse to receive 
them. The fact remains, however, that when accepte<l there is no suitable plaiv in 
whi<!h tr> stoH' tlieuj, and no space in the Museum building to exhibit such of the 
objects as should projH'rly hv shown to the public. As I have alreaily ])ointiHl out, 
there is probably no muHeum in the world in which so small a proportion of the 
objects worthy of exhibition is visible to the jmblic, or in which theobjtH!tM exhibiteil 
are crow<led together so closely. It is now more true than ever that if another 
museum building as large as the ])resent one were i)rovide<l it could Ix* at once filled 
with specimens already on hand. 

Following an* sonu* of the more important parts of Mr. Goode's 
statement: 

The Smithsonian Institution is the custoilian of the National Museum, which is 
the only lawful place of dejMjsit of "all objcM-ts of art and of foreign and curious 
research, and all objects of natural history, plants, and geological and mineralogical 
specimens belonging t^> the Tnited Stat<^s." The nu(;leus of the collections con- 
sists of the specimens brought home by the \Vilkt»s and other explorinij; expedi- 



NATIONAL MTTSEITM — BPILDING8. 279 

lions, bat for many years the Museum was supported entirely at the expense of the 
Smithsonian fund, and a considerable portion of the collections is the property of the 
Institution. 

Professor Huxley defines a museum as **a consultative library of objects." The 
National Museum is such a consultative library, and it is a great deal more. It is an 
a^ncy for the instruction of the people of the whole country, and it keeps in mind 
the neecls of f^ersons whose lives are not (xjcupied in the study of science, as well as 
those of the professional investigator and teacher. 

Its Ijenefits are extendeii without cost or reserve to hundreds of thousands of 
visitors from all parts of the Uniteil States who pass through its doors each year. 

It is also accessory to public e<lucation through the distribution of the duplicate 
specimens in the Museum, which are made up into sets, accurately named, and 
given to public institutions in all parts of the country. 

The history of the Museum is divided into three fwriods: First, that from the 
foundation of the Smithsonian Institution to 1857, during which time specimens 
were t^ollected purely and .solely to serve as materials for research, no s|K»cial effort, 
having l>een made to publicly exhibit them or to utilize them except as a foundation 
for scientific description and theory. SiH'ond, the i>eri(Kl from 1857, when the Insti- 
tution assumed the custody of the "National C-abinet of Curio.sities,*' to 187H. Dur- 
ing this j^eriod the Museum l)t»came a pla4re of de|)osit for scientific material which 
had already been studie<l, this material, so far as practicable, being exhibited to the 
public, and thus made to serve an inluttational purjM^se. Thinl, the present period, 
beginning in the year 1876, during which the Museum has entered upon a career of 
active work in gathering collections and exhibiting them on atrcount of their educa- 
tional value. 

During the first period the main object of the Museum was si'ientific research; in 
the second the establishment Imcaine a museum of record as well as of research; 
while in the third periotl there is growing up also the idea of publi(! education. 

The three ideas, record, research, and education, cooperative and mutually helpful 
as they are, are essential to the development of every great umseuni. The National 
Museum endeavors to promote them all. 

It is a museum of record, in which are preserved the material f >undations of an 
enormous amount of scientific knowledge, the tyi>esof numerous past investigations. 
This is especially the case with those materials that have served as a foundation for 
the reports upon the resources of the United States. 

It is a museum of research, which aims to make its contents serve in the highest 
degree as a stimulus to inquiry and a foundation for s<;ientific investigation. Research 
is necessary in order to identify and group the objects in the most philosophical and 
instructive relations, and its officers are therefore selected for their ability as investi- 
gators as well as their trustworthiness as (uistodians. 

It is an educational museum, through its policy of illustrating by specimens every 
kind of natural object and every manifestation of human thought and activity, of 
displaying descriptive lal>els adapte<l to the jxjpular min<l, and of distributing its 
publications and its named series of duplicates. 

The collections are installed in i>art in the Smithsonian building and in part in 
the large building adjacent, covering 2 J acres of ground, which was erected in 1881 
to afford temporary accommodations for the overflow until such time as an a<iequate 
new building could \je constructed. 

The intrinsic value of such collections as the'st^ can not well be expressetl in figures. 
There are single specimens worth hundreds, others worth thousands, of dollars, and 
still others which are unique and priceless. Many series of specimens which owe 
their value to their completeness and to the labor which has been expended on them 
can not be replaced at any price. The collections at a forced sale would realize 



280 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

more than has been expended on them, and a fair appraisal of their value woald 
amount to several millions of dollars. 

In the direct purchase of specimens but little money has been sjient, less, perhape, 
in fifty years than either France, England, Germany, or Austria expends in a single 
year on similar objects. The entire Museum is the outgrowth of Government expe- 
ditions and ex|x>Hition8. and of the gifts prompted by the generosity of the American 
people. 

If there were more space it would be possible to devote a special hall to the col- 
lections illustrating the life of the races of the Far North — the Eskimos and their kin. 
A large hall might be filled with the wonderful groups of models of the ra(!e«of man- 
kind, and particularly of the different tribes of the North American Indians, cloth«»<l 
in their characteristic costumes and engaged in the arts and occupations j>eculiar to 
each. These groups are recognized in Europe as having no equal, an<l are now ten»- 
l)orarily place<l in the lecture room and in various out-of-the-way comers where 
their effect and usefulness are largely lost. No other museum in the worhl has such 
rich material in this Held, but at present only a small number of exhibition cases can 
be devoted to them and the remainder of the material is stowed away in drawers 
and packing boxes. 

The magnificent mounte<l groups of the larger animals of America, unsurpasseil by 
anything of the kind in the world, are now so crowded together in the midst of other 
collections that they are warcely visible, and some of them are packed away. The 
great fossil vertebrate animals of North America, of which there is a magnificent 
series. A considerable iK)rtion of this collection is now stored in the basement of the 
museum at Yale College for lack of room to receive it here, although it is much 
needed by the geologists* of the (geological Survey for purposes of study. 

Another hall is needed which might well be devoted to economic geology, illus- 
trating the wonderful material wealth of our country and its utilization; and still 
another is needed to illustrate the material resources of the countrv, classified bv 
States. With the j^resent accommodations the materials and ores of each State are 
confined to one or two small cases. A hall of proper extent, arranged upon this 
geographical plan, would be one of the most impressive displays of the kind to l)e 
seen anywhere in the world. 

The building devoted especially to the Museum was erected after the Centennial 
Exhibition in Philadel])hia as a temporary accommo<lation for the collections given 
to the United States by the foreign governments and private exhibitors represented 
on that occasion. It i.s the che4ij)e8t public building of a permanent character ever 
erecte<l, having cost only $2.25 a square foot of floor space available for exhibition. 
The nuiseuni buildings in Central Park, New York, have cost from $30 to $40 a 
square foot. 

The building in Wa.«hingt^n ha.« nerved a good purpose, but is deficient in one of 
the most important particulars; it has no cellars whatever, and very little provision 
for workshops and laboratories. In consequence of this it has been necessary to use 
all kinds of devices f(»r storing' material which ciin not be exhibited in the exhibition 
halls in the bases un<ler the exhibition cases, in small recesses, so ingeniously con- 
trived that their pre.*«ence is not HU8i)ected. It hiis l)een necessary to do this, but the 
result has been to still further increiise the crowded condition. 

.Another disagreeable rcHult i.s that much noisy work has to be done in the Museum 
halls in spaces shut off from the public by screens, and that when preparations for 
exhibitions or unpacking are going on, not only are a i)ortion of the collections 
closed to the public, but there is a constant and unpleasant noise of hammers. 

A temporary relief was secured some ye^irs ago by placing the great herbarium, 
one of the most iniportiuit collections of American plants in the world, in the cus- 
tody of the Agri(!ultural Department; but last year the Secretary of Agriculture 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 281 

found himself unable to longer give these collections house room; and since the 
building in which they were kept is not fireproof, and the destruction of the collec- 
tion would be an incalculable loss to science, there was nothing to do but to receive 
this, and up to the present time a considerable portion of the collection still remains 
in danger of destruction by fire, at the Department of Agriculture. There is also a 
large amount of other material which ought to be arranged for public exhibition in 
a fireproof building which is now in the inflammable wooden structure adjoining the 
I)ei»artment of Agricultun*, and which the Secretary is desirous of transferring, if 
Aci'ommodation can be found for it. 

All the collecrtions of the (Geological Survey are store<l in this building, and a con- 
siderable numl>er of the scientific experts employed by the Survey have office room 
and accommodations to enable them to study in the Museum building. These 
accommodations have become absolutely inadequate, and there is no more room to 
receive the collections which the Director of the Survey deems absolutely necessary 
to have here in Washingtcm in connection with his investigations of the material 
wealth of the country. 

The crowde<l condition of the exhibition halls has been dwelt u{)on, but that of the 
storage rooms is still more congeste<l. In the basement of the old Smithsonian 
building, in its towers, and in various small rooms alx)ut the new building, there is 
a space equivalent to perhaps 200,000 cubic feet, crowded to its utmost capacity with 
boxed material. This material is all carefully recorde<l, and the l<xation and con- 
tents of every box is definitely tixed, ko that when necessary any desired object can 
be referred to; but satisfactory use of the collections is impossible. In one basement 
room, for instance, re crowded 50,000 skins of binls, and 50,000 in an adjacent gal- 
lery, altogether twelve times as many as art^ shown in the exhibition hall. So 
closely are they crowded that it is impossible even to rearrange them, and their 
study is attendeil with great clithculty. It is desired to separate from among these 
the duplicates for distribution to the (colleges and 8<'hools throughout the country, 
and an attempt has l>een made t^> accomplish this, but it has l)een found practically 
impossible. 

The great collection of alcoholic fishes (the result in part of the explorations of the 
Fish Commission), the most extensive in America, and one of the most extensive 
in the world, is stored in two basement rooms and only ac<»essible with the greatest 
difficulty. Furthermore, the crowding of such a mass of alcoholic material in a 
small space is very dangerous, and in case of fire would lead to disastrous results. 
Properly equipped museums, like the British Museum in Ix)nclon, have a special 
fireproof building for collections of this kind, separate from other buildings, and 
provided with special devices for the prevention of fire. 

In addition to the storage within the fireproof buildings there are a number of 
sheds whoee capacity is roughly estimated at 170,000 cubi(! feet, which art^ packed 
with valuable material, and in which most of the workshops are placed. Two of 
these are immediately south of the Smithsonian building, another at the southeast 
comer of the Museum building, two others to the southwest of the old Annory build- 
ing, and another, temporarily hired, halfway between the Museum and the Capitol. 
Until 1888 two floors of the old Armory building wen^ used for the storage of Museum 
material. It then became necessary to give up one floor to accommo<late the increas- 
ing necessities of the Fish Commission, and in 1894 to give it up entirely to the Com- 
mission. At that time an appropriation was made to rent storage rooms in the city. 
Suitable storage rooms can not be rented; we have had to move twice and are now 
l)eing forced to a thinl move. These moves are destructive and exi>ensive. 

The two sheds adjoining the Armory building are getting old and some of the 
timbers are rotting away. They can not be repaired l>i»cause there is no place to put 
the material they contain whiles the work is l)eing done, and they are so crowded 
that temporary readjustments for this purpose are not possible. 



282 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

All of the wooden storage shetin an* in constant danger from destruction by fire. 
This is a matter espcH-aally serious in connection with two long sheds near the Smith- 
sonian building. In his report to the Regents, presented to Congress in 1K94, Secre- 
tary Langley nia<le an earnent ap{)eal for rvVieA in the following words: 

'* I have the uKsuranee of experts that a fire communicated to these rooms would 
sweep through the entire length of the building, and although the building it^U Ls 
fireproof as against any ordinary danger, it may well Imj doubted whether any of the 
colle<'tionH therein exhibitcnl can l)e regarded as safe if the rooms immediately >>elow 
nhould Ih) exiH)stHl to so peculiarly severe a conflagration as would be caused by the 
ignition of these large quantities of inflammable material. Besides this, these wootien 
sheds, which (as I have already intimated) are used not only for storerooms, but for 
workshops, for the preservation of spe(!imens, and also as sheds for the carpenters, 
are likewise liable to cause serious losses should a fire ])e kindle<i in any of them, 
and all of thc»se, I rejieat, are immeiliately under the windows of the Smithsonian 
buihling. 

** In a report recently submitted by one of the inspectors of the Association of Fire 
Underwriters, in response to ;i retjuest from me for a statement as to what insurance 
rat4»s would l>e fixed upon the sheds in question, the Smithsonian building is referred 
to as an undesirable risk, owing solely to the presence of all this inflammable mate- 
rial underneath and in the adjoining sheds, on which latter insurance can not l)e 
place<l for less than 5v4() per $1,000. This is, I am informed, nearly ten times the 
rate whit'h would be charged on an onlinary warehouse. The chief danger, how- 
ever, is not to the sheds themselves or their contents, but to the a^ljoining collec- 
tions, which, without reference to their scientific interest but merely to their intrinsic 
value, repn^i^ent a very large sum of money.*' 

The result of all this crowding and lack of facility for work is that w^hat is accom- 
plished for public inlucation by the Museum requires unnecessary and unusual effort, 
and that the fullest results are not realizini from the appropriations which are ma<1e 
for this branch of the i)ublic service. 

Another result is that the value of the colkn^tions, the property of the nation, is 
not increasing as rapidly as it would otherwise do. The amount of valuable mate- 
rial presented and be<iueatluMl to the Museum is not as great as it seemed likely to 
l)e a few years ago. Nothing which is offere<l is refused, but the authorities of the 
Museum do not feel at liberty to ask for gifts when they can not assure the givers 
that they can l)e suitably caretl for; and pi»rsons having collections to give, being 
awan» of the lack of roon», naturally prefer to place their gifts in institutions where 
there is room to receive them. 

Notwithstanding these hindrances to the Museum's progress, the increment from 
legitimate sources, especially from the various De|>artments of the Government, 
which are require<l by law to dep<3sit their a<*cuniulations here, was during the year 
1895 al)out 127,000 si)e<'inien8. In 1S94 the accessions were more numerous, the 
total exceeding 171,000. This large increase wa.s in part at least due to the fact that 
a large number of collertions were ac«|uinHl at the close of the World's Fair in 
Chicago. These were almost without exception collections which had been pre- 
pared by foreign exhibitors with the Smith.«onian Institution in mind as the ultimate 
place of deposit. 

It would have l)een ])ossible to have obtained an immense number of specimens 
on this occai^ion, but it was deemed proper to refrain from efforts in this direction, 
not only l)eciinse of the considerations just referred to but also on account of the 
desire of the })eople of Cliiciigo to retain such objects in their own city as a begin- 
ning toward a great civic museum which might serve as a permanent memorial of 
the World's Columbian Exposition. It hm* always l)een the policy of the Smith- 
sonian Institution to encourage the development of such institutions throughout the 
United States, and to assist in develoi)ing them, and on this acix)unt many proffers 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 283 

of Bpecimens were declined, with the retx>ininendation that they be offered to the 
Chit«go museum, and, ho far as it was possible to do ho, the attention of exhibitors 
who had collet^tions to dispose of was directed toward that institution. 

A census of the numl)er of specimens now contained in the various departments 
of the Museum shows that the total is about 3,500,000, almost all of which have 
been acquired by gift, in exchange for other specimens, or as an equivalent for 
publications. 

On April 14, 1896, Senator Morrill proposed his bill (Senate No. 
G98 as amended) as an amendment to the sundry' civil bill for 1897, 
and it was referred to the Conmiittee on Appropriations. He spoke 
upon the measure in the Senate on April 10, prefacing his remarks as 
follows: 

Mr. President, when the Smithsonian Institution, designed for "the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge among men," was put into practical oi)eration, it was discov- 
ere<l that a national museum wouUl Ik* a large contributor to the great purpose of 
the foun<ler, and that the nation was destitute of such an institution. The Smith- 
sonian building accordingly early began to l)e temporarily crowded with many gifts 
and objects of rare value, and Hul)se<iuently a separate building for a museum was 
found to be indispensable. Patronized as was this collateral enterprise^ of the Smith- 
sonian by the Government, through many of its Executive Departments, and gui<led 
by the Smithsonian Institution in a scientific and educational direction, as well as in 
the practical diffusion of knowledge, it was sure to Injcome an ini]>ortant but inex- 
pensive institution of publicr education, with a constantly increiwing collecticm of 
ini{X)rtant materials worthy to l)e intrusted to the custody of a national musi'um, 
where they might l)e forever preserved and thus increase^ in value with every 
su<*ceeding generation. 

Ilis closing words were significant and prophetic: 

The mlditional building now earnestly sought will Ix^ e<iual to the preservation 
and exhibition of a very large amount of a<'cunmlated material now unhappily 
8tore<i away, and will also j)rovide some 8])ace for future accumulations that should 
not longer Ik* negU»i*ted. 

The agents of great nmseums abroad are reported to l)e regularly employed here, 
with authority to purchase' any American curios and antiquities, and in some <lirec- 
tions they are suppost^l to have already obtaine<l iK^tter Hi>et!imenH for exhibition 
than have been left for us U) find. 

The New Worl<l, of which the United States form?* so important a part, in its 
prairies and mountains, hills and forests, with their extensive minerals, rocks an<l 
marbles, lakes and rivers, with the animals, game, birds, and fish, the story of the 
prehistoric ratv, the legends of the Indian triln's, as well as the notable m<Miern 
history and life of the i>resent inhabitants, all seem to have distinctive features of 
their own which lK»l<mg almost exclusively to the western half of the glolw dis- 
covered by Columbus. This va.st and com])aratively ungathered continental liel<l, 
with its alK)unding American treasures, should Ik* harvested by our National MustMim 
and not surrendered to the uiore diligent foreign explorers to a<lorn and enrich only 
Kun>pean museums. 

As long as it shall Ik; conducted by the Smithsonian Institution its broatl non- 
partisan reputation as a national mustnnn of tlu^ highest chara<'ter will not Ik* likely 
ever to lie disputed or impeairhe<l. 

While this additional building, with its a<lditional story and cellar, will more than 
double the (!apacity of the present museum, it is probable as the years go by that it 
will be necessary to keep step with the research, progress, and reconl of the Ameri- 
can people, and as early as 1926, when our (xipulation will Ix* not less than 140,()0(),000, 



284 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

it may beexpecte<l tliat another and grander building in the rear of the Smithsonian, 
facdiig on wuth B street and connecting the two wings, will be required to mark and 
illustrate the age. 

On April 25, 1896, in the absence of Senator Morrill, Senator Georj^i- 
Gniy, also a Smithsonian Regent, moved the amendment to the sundry 
civil hill, sa>nng in support of the measure that — . 

The Senator from Vermont is one of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. 
I also have the honor to 1h» one of that Ixxly, and I know something in that way of 
the necessities for the building provided for in this amendment. There is a large 
amount of exceedingly valuable scientific material which is housed there in temporar)- 
\i'oo<len .she<l8, exposed to the jieril of conflagration, and which would entail if it wen* 
dentroyed incalculable loss, not only upon the Government of the United Stales, but 
upijn the scientific world. There are matters there now thus insecurely housed that 
could not Ik* replaced. We all know what a credit the Smithsonian Institution is to 
the country and to the science of tbe country. There is no department of the Gov- 
ernment that is better conducte<l, more conscientiously administered in all of iti» 
branches, an<l from which then* an* so many benefits, direct and indirect, diffusing 
themselves among all the people of the country. 

The amendment was then agreed to by the Senate, but the House 
disagreed, and on May 21 the Senate receded from its amendment. 
Although the bill was again introduced in the Senate at the beginning 
of the second session of the Fifty-fourth Congress (January 28, 1897), 
the subject obtained no further consideration. 

In LS97 several expedients were suggested for the relief of the 
national collections, none of which had relation to the contemplated 
new building. In January of that year inquiries made by the Houne 
Connnittee on Appropriations were replied to by Secretary Langley 
as follows: 

i have delayed this reply till I could consult a trustworthy architect as to whether 
the walls of the Museum buildinjj would ))ear the a^lditional strain if other stories 
were adde<l. It appears to be his opinion that the cost of enlarging the present 
structure by a<lditional heijjfht would not l)e warrante<l by the result, and that the 
piin in exhibition s])ace would l>e largely offset by its loss below from the interfer- 
eni!e with li^ht. 

Ah regards your inquiry about the building known as the Army Medical Museum, 
I have to say that thi.s in located at tl»e comer of Seventh and B streeets southwest, 
and covers about 21,(K)() square feet of ground. The center building on B street is 
112 feet in length and 54 feet H inches in width, exclusive of ornamental and other 
projections. It has a basement, and is three full storii^s in height. A fourth story 
is over the main (intrance on H street. The structure is flanked l>y two wings on 
eacb side, 60 by 131 feet, with biisement. The heights of the stories are as follow**: 
Ha.'iement, 11 feet; first story, 15 feet; secon<l story, center building, 14 feet, wings, 
32 feet; third story, center building, 13 feet; fourth story, center building, extends 
to the roof. The total floor space, if the floor were complett»d at the thinl story, 
would be nearly 90,000 s<|uare feet, including the biisement, and though all the 
building as now arranginl is not adapted to muscnnn exhibition purposes, it (X)uld 
he use<l so as to ])e a very great helj). 

At a meeting of the Regents on January 27, 1897, the Secretary 
announced that he had betMi asked by the Joint Committee on the 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 285 

Library what the National Museum had which would serve todecomto 
the new Library building, whereupon it wan resolved — 

Tliat in the opinion of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution it will 
not be expedient or wise to interfere with the integrity of the National Museum by 
lending, for the decoration of the Library building, any of the articles or property 
now in its care. 

At a subsequent meeting of the Board, February 1, on the sugges- 
tion of Dr. Charles D. Walcott, in his capacity as Director of the 
U. S. Geological Survey, it was resolved — 

That the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution look with favor upon 
the proposition to establish a museum of practical and industrial geology in the 
neighborhood of the National Museum. 

It has, however, since been arranged that this special feature shall 
remain a part of the National Museum. 

In his report for 1808, as Acting Assistant Secretary in charge of 
the National Museum, Doctor Walcott discussed as follows the neces- 
sity for a new building: 

The present National Museum building was erected with the view of covering the 
laiigest amount of space with the least outlay of money. In this respect it may be 
considered a success. It is, in fac^t, scarcely more than the shadow of such a massive, 
dignified, and well-finished building as should be the home of the great national 
collections. There is nee<led at once a spacious, absolutely fireproof building of 
several stories, constructeti of durable materials, well lighted, modern in (H|nipment 
and on such a plan that it can l)e adde<l U) as occ^on demands in the future. A 
site for such a building is already owned by the (lovenmient; only the building 
needs to l)e providtnl for. What the C'apitol building is to the nation, the Library 
building to the National Library, the Smithsonian building to the Smithsonian 
Institution, the new museum building should \ye to the National Museum. * * * 

The growth of the U. S. National Musuem was rapid under the successful charge 
of the late Dr. G. Brown Goode. When the character of the building and the funds 
available for its maintenance are considered, it compares favorably with any modem 
museum. It has received large collections from the scientific departments of the 
Government, and through private contribution (with some additions by purchase 
and exchange), all of which have been accommodated a*i well as could be in the 
inadequate laboratories, storerooms, and exhibition space. The galleries just com- 
pleted have added 16,000 sciuare feet of floor space, which will help to a certain 
extent to relieve the crowded condition of the exhibition halls and courts IkjIow. 
As an illustration of the present conditions and the necessity for more room, atten- 
tion is called to the anthropological collections, which illustrate the development 
an<l progress of man an<l his works. If the material now in the possession of the 
Government in this department should Ik' proptTly placed on exhibition, it would 
oixnipy the entire space in the present ^la'^euni Imilding. The great collections in 
»)ology, botany, economic geology, general geology, and pak»ontology should l>e 
entirely removed and placed in a building proi>erly constructed for their study and 
exhibition. 

In the present building there is a great deficiency in laboratory facilities. Cura- 
tors and assistants are hampered for want of room in which to lay out, arrange, 
classify, mount, and lal)el specimens. There should also be rooms in which students 
covld bring together and compare various series of objects, and have at hand books 
and scientific apparatus. The present Museum building contains a few rooms suita- 



286 EEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

>>le for the purposes nientione<l, but the majority have to be used as storerooms, 
lalioratories, and officen, and are therefore too much crowded to aerve in any one 
of thcHe capacitien. Owing to the pressure for space, courts, halls, an<l gallcrici» 
intended for exhibition purposes, bf>th in the Smithsonian building and in the 
Museum building, are unavoidably occupie<l to a considerable extent as lalioratoriej* 
and storerooms. This lack of laboratory space is extremely detrimental to the 
interests of the Museum. 

Beyond six small basement rooms under two of the corner pavilions the pre«Mit 
building has al)solutely no provision in the way of basement or other nxniis for the 
storage of collections which come in from day to day from Government field collect- 
ors or private donors, or such as are separated for distribution or hehl for the use of 
students. To remedy this defect many expedients have necessarily l)een re^fortid 
to, such as ])lacing storage cases (faced with mahogany to make them j)re8entable) in 
the exhibiti(m halls, hiring storage rooms in private 1)uildings, and filling up otfii-es, 
entrances, staircase landings, and passageways not al^solutely imlispensable. The 
ingenuity which has l)een exercised in this direi*ti<m ])y some of the curators is very 
great, ancl the annoyances that are daily endure<l in the interest of preserving the 
collections deserve notice. What is needled is a series of sjiacious firepn>of l>a.Mementi< 
for the less i>erishal)le objects, the collections pn»serve<i in alcohol, and the ordinarj* 
stores and ttM)lH, and e<iually spacious dry lofts and rooms for those collections an<l 
stores which require prot/cction from dampness. 

The pre8i»nt Museum buihling, though large in extent, is c>vercrowde<l. It wa.** 
built with the chea|>est materials and under the cheaj;)est system of (»nstruction. Ita 
lack of architectural dignity an<l the indifferent character of the materials of which 
it is constructe<l give it the api)earance of a temi)orary structure and tend tocheajien 
the effect of the really g<XMl cases and the very valuable collections which it contains. 
The visitor is every whert^ confronte<l with rough wall?, unfinishe<l ceilings, and 
o]>trusive trusses and suj>ports. It should also be rt»meml>er(Ml that a considerable 
j>orti<m of the collections are still in the kSmithsonian building, where the crowding 
is scarcely less than in the Museum building. 

The followinj^ are probii])ly the hist published remarks by Senator 
Morrill on the Hu])j(H*t to which so miieh of his energy had been g^iven. 
They were made at a meeting of the Board of Regents on January 26, 
18J)S: 

As some of y(»u know, I have been urging a new Museum buihiing for about ten 
years. The bills I have introdiH'iMl havi* pa.ssed through the Senate several times, 
but never through the House. 1 may say now that I shall not live long enough to 
get the mciisure complete*!. It wjis heretofore contemplated that there should be a 
Museum building on the west of the Smithsonian building, in a position correspond- 
ing with the present Museum building, and these two were to l)e connected by a 
building on H street, thus making the largest museum in the country. I have now 
alx)ut decide<l to abaiKlon that plan arnl try to secure the building on B street first 
I merely state this in order to ascertain whether the change of plan is favored by the 
Board of Regents. 

The suggestion was adopted by the Hoard, but was subse(|uently 
abandoned when the present phuis w^ere started. 

The report upon the U. S. National Museum for 1901 contains the 
following condensed account of the condition and requirements of the 
collections, by the present assistant secretary in charge: 

Attention has repeatedly l)een calle<l to the inade<iuacy of the present accommo- 
dations for the national collections. The Smithsonian building had become fully 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 287 

occupied some twenty-live years ago, when the large contributionn to the (tovem- 
raent from exhibitors at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition led to the erection 
of the Mnaeum building, completed in 1881. By 1883 this structure was also filled, 
and though numerous -effort* have since been made to secure more ample quarters, 
all have met with failure. In 1888, 1890, and 1892 the Senate vote<l $600,000 for a 
new building, and in 1896, $250,000, )>ut none of these measures was even considered 
in the House of Representatives. 

There has lieen no abatement in the number of collections received annually, but 
in fact a general increase from year to year, and a severe task has thus devolved 
upon the Museum authorities in arranging for their disposition. New spe<'imens 
have constantly been added to the exliibition halls and storage rooms until both are 
overcrowded to the extent that in the one the objects, as a nile, can not 1h' properly 
viewe<l by visitors, and in the other their classification has become impossible, and 
they are for the most part practically inaccessible for study. But so extensive have 
been the a^^x^essions that only a part ctould be disjKJsetl of in this manner, and it 
became nei'essary, several years ago, to resort to outsi<le storage, which is now pro- 
vide<l for in an old woo<ien shed y\y>on the Mall and in several rented buildings. 
Nrmeof these buildings is of fireproof construction, though they contain collections 
of great value an*! in large i)art not replaceable. Tlun' also lack facilities for the 
classification and arrangement of the si^eciiiiens, which are i)acked away in shipping 
boxes, and for the time serve no purpose of any kin<l. 

The collections made by the Cioveniment surveys, of which the Museum is the 
legal custodian, can continue to be received and 1ious(m1, an ad<litionaI storage build- 
ings may l)e lease<l, if necessary, though the further provision of the law to make 
them at all times available for study an<l examination can no longer be carrie<l out. 
The same applies to specimens obtaine<l by purcha.«e or exchange an<l to such dona- 
tions as are given without condition. The Museum is in fact being resolve<l into a 
mere storehouse of material which conies to it mainly without solicitation, and its 
larger purpose, while never lost sight of, is Inroming more and more diflicult to 
maintain. Its reserve or record c(»llection8 in every branch should be so systemat- 
ically arrange<l that any sin^cimens desired for stu<ly could immediately be f(Mm<l; 
the public exhibition should comprise the entire range of Museum subjects, and be 
installed effectively an<i without crowding, an<l there should be ample an<l well- 
appointe<l working quarters, in which all the a<'tivitie8 of the establishment could 
be conveniently carried on. 

With the conditions as they now are, it is not to Ik^ wondered at that the National 
Museum lat'ks that character of supi>ort which has done so much for many other 
museums. Its donations are generally small and relatively unimportant. The 
possessors of large and valuable collwtions will not present them where they can 
not be at once displayed or well arrangcfl. Such inducements (um now rarely l)e 
offered here, but many of the larger museums elsewhere owe their principal growth 
to genenms gifts from wealthy patrons of science an<l the arts. Specific men- 
tion could l)e made of several large collections which their owners wouhl have 
preferre<l to place at the national capital, but which have been given to or deposited 
in other museums, because in Washington they would have to l>e j)acked away for 
an indefinite perio<l, at great risk of injury and destruction. 

The amount of fir)or space occupie<l by the national collections is very much 
smaller than would api)ear to the casual visitor. The two main buildings contain, 
in fact, only 195,486 s^piare feet, to which the outside buildings, mostly rented, add 
43,203 square feet, making a total of 2.S8,689 scjuare feet. The latter are partly occu- 
pied by workshops, but are mainly used for the gross storage of sjH'cimens, and in no 
case for exhibitifm or for the arrangement in classified order of the reserve series. 

In London the subject** represented by the United States National Museum are 
distributed among several museums, such as the British Museum, leaving out the 



288 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Library, the Victoria and AllKfrt Museum, and the Mueeuiu of Practical (4eolo$!\', 
which now have an ag)?regate of 989,388 square feet of floor 6pac«, srion to U> 
increased by 400,000 or 500,000 square feet in the new addition to the Victoria an<l 
Albert- Museum. In Berlin seven of the national museums relating U) natural his- 
tory and the industrial arts possess some 575,000 square feet of area, and the new 
National History Museum of Vienna has over 350,000 square feet alone. In our own 
country, the Americ^an Museum of Natural History in New York City, which, when 
completed, will cover a ground area of over'5J acres, already has 356,800 square U-^t 
of floor space available. 

A study of the conditions in Washington has shown that to properly arrange the 
national collections and provide for the growth of perhaps fifteen or twenty yean* 
would require additional floor space to the extent of something like 400,000 nr 
500,000 square feet. If this were obtained through the construction of a new build- 
ing having that amount of room, it wouhl still be necessary to utilize both of the 
present buildings, and this seems the preferable course to pursue. 

The eflforts of Senator Morrill, though so perHistent and well 
directed, were not to }>ear their fruit, as he himself had intimated, 
until after his lamented death, and, in fact, there was to be a lapse of 
five years before the culmination of his wishes was definitely assured. 
Ills large share in the final result must not be forgotten. Four times 
did he secure a majority vote in the Senate, and his influence in the 
House is shown by the favorable consideration given his bills by the 
connnittees to which they were referred. His part, it is now recog- 
nized, was in the direction of educating, of impressing upon Congress 
the needs of the national collections, which he did by keeping the sub- 
ject continually alive for over ten years, through the frequent intro- 
duction of bills, the presentation of reports in which the requirements 
of the Museum were set forth in detail, and his own impressive 
remarks upon the floor. It ciime, therefore, to be not a question of 
whether the Museum should have additional and more worthy quarters, 
but rather one of finance; could the necessary funds^ in the opinion of 
Congress, be granted for the purpose? 

Accordingly, the following request, which appeared in the Book of 
Estimates for 1903, occasioned no surprise: 

Pliinn for additional fireproof building, National Museum: For the preparation, 
under the direction of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, of prelmiinary 
planH for an additional (ireproof ))uil<ling for the United States National Museum, to 
be erected on the Mail )H»t\veen Ninth and Twelfth stret^ts west, including; the 
expenw oi collecting necessary data, said plans and such recommendations thereon 
as the SecH'tary of the Smithsonian InHtitutiou may deem neceesarj* to be transmitt<>4i 
to Con^resH at its next ri'gular session, live thousand dollars, to be immediately 
available. 

Xofp nrroinpfttiip'nfj fnlimitti'. — In 1879 Congrt^ss appropriated $250,000 for the erec- 
tion of a l)uiMing to nie(»t the urgent nee<ls of the National Museum. The etnicture 
then put up, and completed within the appropriation, was practically only a large 
sti)rehonHe, with few of the facilities demanded by a lai^e museum, and was at the 
time ex[)ected to fill but a temporary' want. It has in fact, however, been made to 
serve a most useful purpose and should continue so to do, but its accommodations 
have in all respects been long outgrown. By 1885 its exhibition halls and storage 



(Uponol U. S. NiUoni 




NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 289 

rooms were already filled; by 1890 they were in a congested condition. Sinw then 
it has l)een nei^espary to lease temporary quartern for the incoming cf»llectionH, these 
quarters l)eing increaseil from year to year until they now hold as much in quantity 
as the Museum building itself. In these places the collections are in constant dan- 
ger from fire, ami Imng 8tore<l in packing (»ases, are subject to deterioration. 

The National Museum is constantly in receipt of large and im[)ortant collections 
from private soun'es, which add to its wealth of tn^asures. The collections are 
mainly, however, the product of the Government surveys, o])tained at great cost and 
constituting the material reconls of all national explorations. They are, therefore, 
practically not replai*eable. All collections from these sources were by C'ongre^'sional 
acts of 1846 and 1879 committed to the custody of the Smithsonian Institution, with 
provision for their scientific classification and arrangement. Under the conditions 
existing it becomes impossible to carry out either the 8i)irit or the letter of the law. 
It is recommended that the sum of $5,000 Ihj appropriate<l for the preparation of 
plans for a new Museum building. 

Certain tentative sketch plans had previously been prepared, in 
order to indicate to the Regents the general style and approximate size 
of a building which it was thought would best meet the reciuirements. 
The cost of such a building in stone was estimated at fi'om ^5,000,000 
to $6,00(),()00. The matter was discussed with the Committees on 
Appropriations of l>oth Houses of Congress, the Secretary and others 
appearing l)efore them in su])port of the measure. A definite sum for 
the cost of the })uilding had not been fixed, nor were the tentative 
plans considered as entirely appropriate to be followed. It was 
explained that the amount named in the estimate was required to per- 
mit of a more careful study of the conditions, and that the plans to 
be prepared would emlxxly only the actual needs. The item was not 
reported by the House committee, but passed the Senate with a clause 
limiting the cost of the ])uilding to 5^2,500,000. In conference, how- 
ever, this limit was reduced to ^1,500,000, the bill as passed, in con- 
nection with the sundry civil act for lJJi)3, being as follows: 

Plans for additional building, National Museum: For the prejMiration, under the 
direction of the Set^retary of the Smithsonian Instituticm, of preliminary plans for an 
additional fireproof steel-frame brick and terra cotta building, to cost not exceeding 
one milli<m five hundred thousand dollars, for the United States National Museum, 
to lie erected, when appropriated for, on tlie Mall, l)etween Ninth and Twelfth 
street* west, said plans when completed to be transmitte<l by the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution to Congress, five thousand dollars. 

The preliminary plans called for by the above act were completed 
during the following winter and on January 22, 1903, they were pre- 
sented, together with an explanatory report, to a special committee of 
the Board of Regents, appointed the previous year, ^'to represent to 
Congress the pressing necessity of additional room for the proper 
exhibition of specimens l)elonging to the National Museum." This 
committee, consisting of the six (^congressional Regents, namely, Sen- 
ators O. H. Piatt, S. M. C-ullom, and F. M. C'ockrell, and Kepresenta- 
tives R. R. Hitt, Rol>ert Adams, jr., and Hugh A. Dinsmore, after 

NAT MU8 1903 19 



290 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

a full discussion, passed the following resolution, which was suW- 
quently transmitted to Congress: 

That under the limitations of the law the committee hereby rejjort to Conjnvi-H 
Plan B for a new National Museum building as the best obtainable for the amount 
mentioned; but in the judgment of the committee the larger plan, A, is iK-lievttl 
to be the one which should ])e adopted, and we therefore ask that Congrep? Khali 
make the appropriation for it instead of for the smaller plan. 

On January 23, 1903, the plans and report were transmitted to Con- 
gress and printed as Document No. 314, House of Representatives. 
Fifty -seventh Congress, second session. The arguments presented in 
the report have practically all been set forth in previous jiages of this 
paper, and therefore only such extracts need be quoted here as relate 
to the plans and to the questions directly concerning their prepmnition. 
Of the plans themselves only two are given, one, marked '^V,'' show- 
ing the outlines of the entire building as then designed, the other, 
marked '' B,-' showing the half of the building, which it was estimated 
could he erected for th(» sum of Jt^l,500,<)(X), the limit of cost lirst 
e.stablished. Following are the extracts from the rei)ort prepared by 
the assistant secretary in charge of the Museum: 

The plan contemplates a nnrtangular building al)Out 4H6 feet front by alM>ut .'>4.i 
feet deep an<l alx)ut SO ft^et higli incUidiug the l)asement. The building is ilesi^uil 
for four floors, and will afford alniut 4(K),0(X) wpiare fi»et of floor ypace, the first and 
siM'ond floors to l)e u«*d for exhibition, the Iwisement and upper floor for storap\ 
workrooms, and other puri)ose.s necessiiry to th(5 conduct of a museum. It could U* 
erected in substantial form as a fireproof building for a sum notexceetiiiig$:^,000,l)00. 

The plan has l>een <lesigned in such a manner that approximately one-half of the 
building could be constructe<l at once, presenting the appearance of a coinpleteil 
building and suitable for the Museum no(»d8. This half wofild consist of the main 
or south wing and the middle wing, and is exhibited in a separate drawing. Whilst 
it would in no way provide for the growth of the Mustnnn, it would relieve the 
present congested ccmdition of the exhibition halls, rt^nder possible a projKjr classiti- 
cation of the reserve collections, and remove the necessity of employing any renteil 
buildings. 

The plan of the building has Ix^en drawn after a study of all imj[>ortaut exi2«tin^' 
museums, both in this country and abroa<l, and einlnMlies their useful features* and 
avoids defects which have l>een reveale<l in the course*, of time. It is expected that, 
sliould this building be authorize*!, it would be superior for museum pur|)osi»s to any 
building in this country or abroad, and it is respectfully recommended that the .sum 
of $1,500,000 be appropriated for the construction of substantially so nuich of \\w 
building as is exhibited in Plan H. 

The National Museum occujucs the building erected for its use in ISSl, the greater 
l>art of the Smithsonian building, j)artsof threedetachtnl buildings on the Mall, and 
several rente*! buildings south of K street S\V. The area n'pre8ente<l, together with 
the general use to whicli the several t!ooi*s of the larger buildings and each of the 
smaller buihlings are <!evr>tpd, is shown in the following table: 

Smithsonian building: Square feet. 

Basement (mainly storage an<! heating plant ) 11, 77S 

Ground flo(»r (mainly exhibition halls) 17,372 

Second lloor (mainly workrooms ) 6, 587 



Ripoitof U. S, Nnianil Mumm. tMJ Rathbvn, 




NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 291 

Square feet. 

Thinl floor (mainly exhibition) 10,889 

I'ppor j>art of north tower ( workrooms and storai^) 2, 617 

East end (offices, sliipping rooms, etc. ) 2, 755 

51,998 

Museum building: 

Ground floor (exhibition) 74, 209 

( iallery floor (mainly exhibition) 28, 986 

Central towers and pavilions (mainly workrooms, storage, offices, 

library, etc.) 40,293 

143,488 

Outside buildings: 

Smithsonian stable ( taxidermist's w^orkroom ) 615 

Frame building on Smithsonian reservation (taxidermist's and 

1 mechanical workshop) 1, 400 

Frame Imilding on Armory Square (storage of specimens) 7, 073 

Buildings at No. 431 Ninth street SW. (rente<l — storage of speci- 
mens ami property) 21, 129 

Building No. 309 to 313 Tenth street SVV. ( rented— st/^rage of 

specimens, preiwrators* and mechanical workshoiw) 6, 406 

Building No. 217 Seventh street SW. (rente<l — carpenter shops) . 3, 655 
Building in rear of 915 Virginia avenue SW. (rented, jiaint and 

glass shop) 2, 925 

43,203 

Total space now (K'(;upie<l 2158, 689 

The allotments of space by subjects and by dejiartments is as follows: 

By subjects: s^iimrefeet. 

Exhibition 112,697 

Storage of reserve collections, scientific laboratories, ami workrooms... 75,468 
Cieneral and miscellaneous purjwses, including mechanical workshops 
and st/)rage, heating plant, library, lecture hall, public comfort, 
administrative offices, etc 50, 524 

Total 2:W,689 

By defjartments: 

Anthropology, inclu<iing ethnology, arclueology, Anierica.n history, and 

arta and industries 78, 280 

Biolog}-, including zoology and lK)tany 72, 914 

Geology, including division of practical geology 36, 971 

(leneral and miscellaneous jnirposes 50, 524 

Total 238,689 

An inspection of the several buildings shows contlitions which are exceedingly 
deplorable for the National Museum of a great country. Kvery branch is seriously 
hanipi*red by the total ina<lequa(!y of the spac'e assigned it, and the i>roper disposition 
of specimens long ago Ijeeame impossible, with the rt»sult that year after year valu- 
able collections, often of lai^e size, have ha<l to l)e packeil away in insecure rented 
buildings, where they are also inaccessible. While the Museum buiMing is not ill 
a^lapted to exhibition purposes, it is much too small to si^rve the present needs. Its 
halls are overcrowded, the cases being generally phwecl so near together that two 
fiersons can scarcely pass l)etween them and no effective view of their contents can 
be obtained. An increase in space of one-half to two-thinis at least would be nec- 
essary to properly display the present contents of these halls. 



292 KEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Having practically no basement, the only space available for the reserve storajre, 
workrooms, and offices is the small rooms of the central towers an<l corner pavihons, 
except that some of the gallerit^s designed for exhibition have from necessity l)een 
turned over io these purposes. In tht»se quarters the specimens are packetl almrjitt 
solidly, in cases generally reaching to such a height as to make acc^ess to the upper 
ones extremely inconvenient. The workers have scarcely room in which to place 
their tables, and there is little space any where for the spreading out of specimens for 
purposes of study and classification or of preparation for exhibition. 

In the Smithsonian building, which was originally designed to be used only in 
small part for museum purposes, the conditions are similar. There are four exhi- 
bition halls, three used for zoology and one for prehistoric archjeology. The latter, 
fK'cupying the entire upper floor of the main building, has, through the loosening 
and fall of large areas of plaster from the ceiling, been pronounceil unsafe and closed 
to the public until funds can be obtained for its repair and renovation. The large 
corre.<»i)on(ling room on the ground floor has four galleries extending nearly its entire 
length, which some fifteen years ago were turned into work and storage quarters 
for several branches of zoology. They are overcrowded with ca^es and tables and 
are, moreover, extremely unhealthful places for the assistants stationed there because 
of the impure air arising from the exhibiticm floor below. 

In the basement is stored the greater part of the valuable alcoholic collection of 
the Museum, in a series of dark, damp rooms, wholly unsuited to the purpose, and 
where a great deal of work has to Ikj carried on. The other workrooms and store- 
rooms in the Smithsonian building, besides two or three small (mes on the main 
floor, are in the north tower, which is utilized for these purposes up to the height of 
the seventh story. It is scarcely necessary to explain that many of these rooms, all 
of whioli are very small, are inconvenient of access, and that specimens can be car- 
ried to and from them only with difficulty. 

Many of tlie activities of the Museum and much the greater part of its storage have 
for a long period had to l)e provided for in outside buildings, partly on the Mall and 
partly rented at an annual expense of over $4,000. The taxidermists are quartere^l 
in the upjHT part of the Smithsonian stable and in a temporary frame structure hack. 
of the Smithsonian building. On Armory square, adjoining the Fish Commission 
building, is an old, dilapidated wooden shed filled with specimens. On Ninth street 
SW. there is under lease a large area of land covered with wooden sheds containing 
an immense amount of valuable collections and much other Museum property. The 
greater part of the so-called Marsh collection of vertebrate fossils, which has been 
valued at above $150,000, is still stored in a rented building at Tenth street and Mary- 
land avenue, which also provides 8pa(!e for several preparators* workshops. Two 
other rented Imildingsarc? likewise rt»quired to accommodate the extensi ve carpenter, 
paint, and glazing shops which are requireil for the making of furniture and for the 
repairs al)ont the main buildings. 

In order to c^rry out the purjMises for wliich it exists, the National Museum reqoires 
a greatly increased amount of space and that any additional space provided be better 
adapted to its wants than that now occupied. 

For the exhibition collections a connected series of relatively lai^ rooms or halls 
is needed to i)erniit of the arrangement of the specimens and groups of specimens 
(many Inking of considerable size) in such manner as will best adapt them to the 
comprehensi(»n of the public and, ))y the avoidance of crowding, allow them to be 
viewed effectively. 

The record collections, commonly known a«« the reserve or study scries, comprising 
the bulk of the material in most d«'partnu*nts, while demanding such a convenient 
disjxjsition a*< will insure the reiidy examination of sj)ecimens, require relatively leas 
space than the exhibition collections, as they can be much more oompactly arranged 



i 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 293 

in drawers and on shelves. Yet their extent is so great that the qiie*<tion of their 
ai^'oinuiodation is one of the most ini])ortant ones for consideration. They iiave 
l)een mainly derived fmm the Government surveys of the i>a8t sixty years and rep- 
resent a very lai^e expenditure of puhlic money. 

For the activities of the Museum are needed many well-Iighte<l and well-appointed 
rooms to serve as laboratories for classifying collei^tions and for scientific research 
and as workshops for the preparation of specimens for study and for exhibition. It 
should be noted in this connection that the Museum is called upon to furnish work- 
rooms for several of the scientific bureaus, whose collections are partly studied there, 
and that, by a recent act of Ck)ngress, it is incumbent uix)n the Mus(*um to provide 
facdlities for such students and investigators from any part of the country as may 
choose to visit it for purposes of research. 

Finally, space must be provided for certain general and miscellaneous purposes, 
such as the mechanical workshops and storerooms, the heating plant, public-comfort 
rooms, the library, a lecture hall, the administrative offices, etc. 

An estimate of the amount of space needed has been reached by a careful consid- 
eration of the several requirements as set forth below, namely: 

(1) To relieve the present very congested condition of the exhibition lialls. 

(2) To provide for the display of objects now in storage which are suitable and 
intended for public exhibition. 

(3) Convenient and systematic storage for the vast reserve or record collections, 
which are now for the most part inaccessible for examination. 

(4) Suitable scientific laboratories, preparators' workshops, etc. 

(5) The mechanical workshops require<l in making repairs to buildings and in the 
construction and repair of cases and other furniture and fixtures. 

(6) Offices necessary for administrative and other purposes conmion to all the 
branches of the Museum. 

(7) The space required for the heating plant, the library, a lecture hall, public- 
comfort rooms, and other miscellaneous purposes. 

(8) Pro\T8ion for future growth. The limitation of cost fixed by the sundry civil 
appropriation act of June 28, 1902, prevents the carrying out of any cxtnivagant 
views in this regard; and if the building erected have only the area contemplated by 
the plans submitte<i the National Museum will again be crowded and in need of 
room certainly before the end of another ten years and probably of five years. 

The growth of the Museum for a number of years pa.st has Ijeen mainly through 
the Fi^ceipt of material which by law it must receive and care for. The amount ol 
material declined or diverted elsewhere during the last ten or fifteen years l)ecause of 
the lack of room would have occupietl a very large proj)ortion of the present exhi- 
bition space and have greatly increaseil the money value of tlie collections. The 
same crmditions have prevented the Museum authorities from soliciting large ccmtri- 
Imtions, but with adequate facilities many extensive exhibits can Ik* had for the 
asking. The department of arts and industries, the more prai'tical si<le of the 
Museum, has perhaps suffere<l most from the lack of a(!connno<lations. I^rge exhibits 
have had to be removed to storage, and the growth of this most imi)ortant and 
striking bram^h was necessarily stopped son»e time ago. It should l)e ma<le here, as 
it lias been in all the larger capitals of the world, one of the most im}K>rtant features 
of the national collections, and its incrt»ase, once 8tinmlate<l, would go forward rap- 
idly and at relatively small expense, as generous donations might Iw exjHM'ted from 
all quarters. 

Using the above topics as a basis for calculations, the amount of space imme- 
diately re<iuired has l>een worked out for each of the departments. This information 
is summarized in the following table, which gives also for each subject the space 
now occupied. With regard to the present storage areas, it should l>e borne in mind 



294 



BKPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 



that much of the material is now compactly stored in packing boxes, and if trans- 
ferre<i to clasHifie<l ntorage would Rprea<l out over many times the space. The<iepart- 
nient.s named are tho.se under which the Museum is classified for convenient* of 
administration. 



Subject. 



Exhibition space: 

Department of anthropology, including ethnology, artiheoology, American 
history, and arUs and industrien 

Ik'jMirtment of biology, including zoology and botany 

l)t>partmen t of geology, including museum of practical geology 

Laboratories, workrooms, and storage: 

Department of anthropology 

Department of biolog>- 

Department of geology 

General and miscellaneous: 

Administrative offices, record files, etc 

Mechanical workshops . . . , 

Mechanical and miscellaneous storage 

Library, photographic laboratory, lecture hall, restaurant, public comfort, 
heating and electrical plant, etc 

Entrances, hallways, etc 

Total 



Spare 
now (X*- 
cupied. 


Space re- 
quired. 


Sf/.//W. 


Sv./rrf. 


68,790 


1H4,000 


ai.005 


96,0U0 


19,902 


74.000 


19,490 


81.000 


38,909 


110,000 


17.069 


46,000 


6,506 


12,000 


8,789 


15.000 


r2,oa2 


22,000 


19,056 


31,000 


4,141 









238,689 



670,000 



With regard to the space now occupie<l, there are certain areas which, for various 

reasons, should be abandoned, namely: 

Square feet. 

Rented buildings (area) 34,115 

Outside buildings on the Smithsonian reservation and Armory si]uare, which 
have been used only as temporary expedients and are for the. most part 
insecure structures (area) 9, 088 

Space used for storage and some other purposes in the basement, in the upper 
I)art of the north tower, and at the east end of the Smithsonian building, 
being partly unnuitable and partly inaccessible (area) 12, 885 

Total 56,088 

Deducting this area from the total area now o<*cupied (238,689 square feet) leaves 
182,601 square feet as the amount of space now actually available and appropriate 
for the future needs of the Museum. Again, deducting this amount from the total 
spacte named alwve as required for the Museum (670,000 scjuare feet) leaves approx- 
iuiat(»ly 487,000 square feet to be provided for in a new building. The suni named 
in the sundry civil act of June 28, 1902 ($1,500,000) as the limit of cost for the pro- 
posed new building will not, however, {Hirmit of the erection by any method of 
construction of a building having that amount of space. 

Several plans have been drawn in an effort to reconcile the needs of the Museum 
with the limitation of cost proposed by Congress, but none successfully. The la«4 
plan, contemplating the smallest size of building that it has been judged advisable 
to recommend, is the one herewith presented. It represents a rectangular build- 
ing, having a frontage of about 486 feet, a depth of about 345 feet, not including 
projections, and a height above the ground at the front of about 70 feet. There will 
be two open courts. The building is designed to have four floors, inclusive of the 
basement (which will underlie the entire structure), and will afford about 400,000 
sguare feet of floor space. The first and second floors are intended to be used lor 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 295 

the public* exhibition collections and the bapeinent and upper floor for the reserve 
or re<*ord collections, workrooms, offices, and other general and miscellaneous pur- 
poses. This is an approximately equal division of the space between the public 
halls and the other requirements of the Museum. The plan shows entire simplicity 
of design, and has been drawn with reference to the use of brick and terra cotta in 
the construction of the outer faces, although stone could be substituted for these 
materials if so ordered. 

The interior arrangement above the basement is a combination of large and small 
halls, the three largest halls being lighte<l from above and having two series of gal- 
leries of sufficient width to permit of their being screened off and made into series of 
separate rooms for exhibition and other purposes. This arrangement has been 
a(U)pted as practtically furnishing the largest ix)ssible amount of well-lighteii floor 
space in a building of the size proposed, and as j)re8enting many other important 
advantages. It is felt that a building put up on these lines would in many, if not in 
all, re8j)ect8 prove superior for museum purposes to those of any existing museums, 
either at home or abroad. 

The cost of erecting a building in accordance with the plan submitted in a most 
simple though substantial manner has been estimated at about $3,000,000. The 
plan has been so designe*!, however, that approximately one-half the building can 
be constructed separately, with practically the appearance of a completed building 
and suite<l to the clifferent kinds of museum recjuirements. This half would consist 
of the main or south wing and the middle wing, as represented in a separate draw- 
ing. While this part would not provide for future growth, it would relieve the 
present congeste<l condition of the Museum, make outside storage unnecessary, and 
render possible a safe disposition an<l essentially convenient arrangement of the 
present collections. 

This half section of the building as planne<l could be erected for $1,500,000. 

At the hearing before the House Conimittee on Appropriations, on 
January 23, 1903, the question of legislation for the new building was 
thoroughly di.scussed. It was not doubted that half the building could 
be erected within the limit of $1,500,000 fixed by the act of the previ- 
ous 3'ear, and the entire building for not exceeding $3,000,000, but in 
either case the fronts would require to ])e constructed of brick and 
terra cotta. There was no objection to the use of these materials on 
the score of durability, })ut in view of the large size of the building, 
its conspicuous position, and the fact that it would be expected to rank 
among the prominent public structures at the capital, it was urged 
upon the committee that stone fronts would produce a more dignified 
effect, and that the change in this respect would not add extravagantly 
to the cost of the building. Estimates showed, in fact, that if stone 
were employed the entire building could be erected within the sum of 
lp3,5<)0,f)(H), and one-half the building within $1,625,000. 

The matter was not reported to the House in any form, but in the 
Senate the granting of the full sum was favorably considered, and the 
bill as there passed was finally agreed to in conference as an iten) in 
the sundry civil act for the year ending June 30, 1904. It is as follows: 

Building for National Museum: To enable the Regents of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion to commence the erection of a Huital)le fireproof building with granite fronts, for 
the use of the National MuHcum, to Ih^ erected on the north ftvd^oi VVvvi'^^\,\5fc\.Hi^i«Kv. 



296 REPORT OF NATIONAL ICUSEUM, 1903. 

Ninth aiid Twelfth streets northwest, substantially in accordance with the Plan A, 
prepariMl and submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
un<ler the pn)viHions of the act approved June twenty-eighth, nineteen hundreil ami 
two, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Said Imilding complete, includii)>; 
heating and ventilating apparatus and elevators, shall cost not to exceed three million 
live hundrecl thousand dollars, and a wntract or contracts for its completion is hereby 
authorized to be entered into subject to appropriations to be ma<ie by Congress. 
The construction shall l)e in charge of Bernard R. Green, Superintendent of Build- 
ings and (rrounils. Library of Congress, who shall make the contracts herein author- 
izes! and disburse all appropriations made for the work, and shall receive »» full 
compensation for his services hereunder the sum of two thousand dollars aunually 
in addition to his present salary, to be paid out of said appropriations. 

At a meeting of the Board of Regents on March 12, 1903, the jvassage 
of the above act was announced, and it was resolved: 

That the Secretary, with the advice and consent of the chancellor and the chair- 
man of the executive conunitt<»e, l.>e authorized to represent the Board of RegeutsJ m> 
far aa mav be necessarv in consultation with Bernard R. Green, to whom the con- 
St ruction and contracts for the new Museum building are committed by Congress? in 
the act making an approj)riation for that purpose. 

Some little time was consumed in the preliminary arrangements 
which included the selection of Messrs. Hornblower & Mai'shall, of 
Washington, as the architects of the building. They had made the 
first tentative sketches and the preliminary plans previously mentioned, 
and it may also be said that for a number of years they have Jictod 
for the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum in all matters 
ro(iuiring architectural advice. They have likewise recently visited 
many of the prominent nuiseums of Europe, which has given them an 
invaluable experience in museum requirements. 

At the time of writing the genei'Jil plans, showing the several floors 
and favad(»s, are nearing completion. 

I)i:S(^RlPTl()N. 

It is impossilile at the pnvsent time to descril>e more than the lead- 
ing features of this structure, since, though work u}X)n the foundation 
has !)egun, the plans are not entirely completed. The building will 
l)e rectjuigular in shape, and faccnl with granite on all sides. It will 
have a length of 551 feet, a width of 318 feet, exclusive of projections, 
and a height of stonewoik above the basement floor of 77 feet. There 
will be foui' stori«»s including the basement, which, beginning al)ove 
the level of the adjoining street, will l>e well lighted and entirely 
available for use. The main and se(!ond stories will contain the exhibi- 
tion collections, while the bascMuent and upper story will be allotte<l to 
i]\o many ()th(»r recpiinMuents of a large museum. 

In a general way it may be said that the building will consist pri- 
mai-ily of a main part in the shape of a broad T, comprising three 
wide wings or sections diverging at right angles from a large rotunda 
Ht the soiitJiern oi* principal (Mitranee. Ranges of narrower width, 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 297 

one on each side and two at the north, will connect the three ends of 
the T or main sections so as to inclose two lar^o open courts (each 128 
feet square), and thus complete the quadrangle. The two south sec- 
tions, which, with the rotunda, comprise the front part of the build- 
ing, will project slightly at each end beyond the walls of the side 
ranges. 

The new structure will be located on the north side of the Mall, in 
the so-called Smithsonian Park, al)out midway between Ninth and 
Twelfth streets, directly in front of the Smithsonian building, and with 
its center, like that of the latter, on the axis of Tenth street. While 
the main front and entrance will face southward, or tow^ard the mid- 
dle of the park, there will also be a commodious entrance by way of 
the basement on the north, as an approach from Tenth street. The 
northern fa^de will be about 78 feet from the sidewalk of B street 
north, while the central projection thereof, containing the entiance, 
will reach about 25 feet nearer to the street. 

As the land rises rapidly southward from B street, it has been 
planned to have the basement floor slightl>^ above the level of that 
street, but at the south the top of the basement will be nearly on a 
level with the ground. Suitable embankments will be built along the 
sides of the building, inclosing a l)road area, which will also extend 
along the south front, thus making the basement ecjuivah^nt to a full 
story for at least workroom, laboratory, storage, and heating purposes. 
Its height \^ill be 14 feet. 

The first and second stories, intended for the public, will be 20 feet 
and 19 feet 5 inches high, respectively. The windows will measure 14 
feet 9 inches high in the first and 12 feet high in t\w second, the cor- 
responding ones in the two stories occupying the same embrasure, 
though separated by ornamenttd metal work. These windows will be 
about Hi feet wide, and the intervening wall si)ace about 7 feet wide, 
giving a unit for the installation of exhibits of 18 feet inc^hes. 

The third story will be 12 feet in height, with windows about 7 feet 
high b}' 5 feet 3 inches wide, thus furnishing ample light for all the 
requirements of the lalK)ratories and storerooms. In the three main 
section« of the !)uilding there will l)e still another low story above the 
la.st, suitable for the storage of dried specimens. 

The relatively small amount appropriated for this large building 
hjis demanded simplicity of design and the omission of all extrava- 
gant decoration. The lines and proportiotis Iiav(* been so well planned, 
^however, that the structure can not fail to be on** of great dignity 
and beauty and a worthy addition to the public buildings in Wjt^h- 
ington. The granite will be laid in ashlar courses, but the entrances 
will be worked up with a certain amount of elaborateness. A metal 
dome, with skylight, will cover the rotunda, and there will also be sky- 
lights aVong the main roofs for lighting tl\^^ Ivvv^^e \uv\\s. 



298 BEPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

The rotunda at the south, or main, entrance will be about 116 feet 
square, and lighted entirely from above. It will connect directly 
with the three great halls, which are to be similar in character and 
of the same length and width, about 209 by 116 feet, all provided 
with galleries except at the inner ends adjoining the rotunda. The 
galleries along the sides will be 32 feet wide, leaving an interspace of 
50 feet width. This central or open part of the main halls will be US 
feet long and reach to ceiling lights under the skylights, a distance 
of 60 feet, while the galleries and sides of the first story will receive 
their light from the large windows of the fronts and courts. The 
galleries of the second and third floors are intended to be entirely 
screened off from the central halls and treated as space that can be 
divided to suit the requirements. The space under the galleries may 
be treated in the same way or left open, as circumstances may dictate. 

The remainder of the building, consisting of the ranges on the east, 
west, and north, will be 55 feet in interior width and have solid floors, 
one above the other, their light being entirely obtained from windows. 

The main and second floors will, as before stated, be used wholly 
for the public exhibition collections, while the upper floor will be 
divided into laboratories and storage rooms for the reserve collections. 
The basement will have the same dimensions as the first floor, but 
under the main halls it will require to be lighted artificially. The side 
areas will lie of suflicient width for teams, which may enter the build- 
ing at both ends of the south front. One of the south wings of the 
basement will be utilized for the lx)ilers, power plant, mechanical 
workshops, etc. ; the other, as well as the ranges, probably for labora- 
tories and for the storage of specimens in such lines as can best Ik? 
acconmiodated there, though souk* parts of the ranges may he availed 
of for exhibition purposes. 

TIh» northern entrance will })e by way of the basement, into a large 
vestibule with elevators and stairways. There will also be passage- 
ways leading in all three directions, the central one communicating 
directly with a small lecture hall occupying the center of the middle 
section of the basement. Oti each side of this hall will be a series of 
small rooms, some of which can be used for committee meetings. 

The net floor area of the building will l)e about 411,374 squai'e feet, 
or about y. 44 acres, subdivided as follows: Uasement and main floor, 
ejuh about lir),732 scjuare feet; second and third floors, each about 
88,955 square feet. 

FLOOR SPACE OCCUPIED BY THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The following is a detailed statemetit of the space occupied by the 
Museum on January 1, 1904, arranged mainly in explanation of the 
plans of the two principal existing buildings (Plates 24 and 29). Fig- 
ures are also given for the outside buildings, but the plans for these 
are omitted as being unimpovtiint. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 299 

National Museum Building, 
kxhibition hall8 and galleries. << 



• 



North hall. 

Square feet 

American history (102 feet 6 inches by 62 feet 4 inches) 6,388 

East hall. 

Floor: Technology (102 feet 2 inches by 62 feet 4 inches) 6, 368 

North gallery: Materia medica (75 feet 6 inches by 14 feet) 1, 057 

East gallery: Herbarium (38 feet by 7 feet 6 inches) 282 

South gallery: Herbarium (86 feet 6 inches by 13 feet 6 inches) : . 1, 166 

8,873 

South hall. 

Floor: Mammals (102 feet 1 inch by 62 feet 5 inches) 6,371 

Galleries: Mammals (212 feet 8 inches by 14 feet; 17 feet 3 inches by 

11 feet) 3,169 

9, 540 

West hall. 

Floor: Ethnology, Eastern Hemisphere (102 feet 6 inches by 62 feet 
4 inches) 6,388 

North gallery: Ethnology, Indo- Pacific region (86 feet 9 inches by 13 
feet 9 inches) 1,194 

South gallery: Historic religions (86 feet 9 inches by 13 feet 9 inches) . . 1, 194 

West gallery: Historic religions 301 

9, 077 

Rotunda. 

Floor: American history 2, 516 

Galleries: Miscellaneous 600 

3,116 

Northeast court. ■ 

Floor: Graphic arts (63 feet 1.5 inches by 62 feet 3 inches) 3, 929 

Galleries: Ceramics (209 feet 9 inches by 10 feet 3 inches) 2, 150 

6, 079 

Southeast court. 

Floor: Fossil vertebrates (63 feet 1 inch by 63 feet 1 inch) 3, 979 

North and east galleries: Fossil invertebrates (105 feet 8 inches by 10 feet 

3 inches) 1,083 

South and west galleries: Fossil plants (105 feet 8 inches by 10 feet 3 

inches) 1,083 

6, 145 

Southwest court. 

Floor: Applied geology (63 feet 1 inch by 63 feet 1 inch ) 3, 979 

Gallery: Applied geology (211 feet 4 inches by 10 feet 3 inches) 2, 166 

6, 145 

Northwest court. 

Floor: Ethnology, Pueblo tribes (63 feet 2 inches by 62 feet 3 inches) . 3, 931 

Grallery: Ethnology, Central and South America, Philippine Islands; 

basketry (209 feet 10 inches by 10 feet 3 inches) 2,151 

6, 082 

East-north range. 

Lecture hall (89 feet 4 inches by 49 feet 7 inches) 4, 429 



fl Partly used for claaei^ed storage and laboratory pwrvoaea, «a wcMe^. 



800 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Northeast range. 

Fk]iiare feet. 

Floor: Water transportation (63 feet 2 indies by 49 ifeet 10 iiiches) 3, 14H 

SinUhead range. 

Floor: Reptiles and fishes (63 feet 1 inch by 49 feet 11 inches) 3, 149 

Second floor: Herbarium (63 feet 1 inch by 19 feet 6 inches) 1 , 230 

Second floor: Biological survey, mammal storage (63 feet 1 inch by 

30 feet 5 inches) ' ' 1,918 

6,297 

East-south range. 

Floor: Comparative anatomy (89 feet 6 inches by 49 feet 10 inches) . . 4, 463 
Gallery: Storage, fossil vertebrates and invertebrates (1,394 feet), 

insects (598 feet), (165 feet 2 inches bv 12 feet).... 1,992 

6,455 

Wesl-soiUh range. 

Floor: Systematic geology (89 feet 6 inches by 49 feet 10 inches) 4, 463 

Gallery: Storage, geology (598 feet), paleobotany (1,394 feet), (165 

feet 2 inches by 12 feet) 1,992 

6,455 

Southwest range. 

Floor: Minerals and gems (63 feet 1 inch by 49 feet 11 inches) 3, 149 

South gallery: Minerals, storage (37 feet 11 inches by 12 feet) 455 

North and ea^t galleries: AnthrojKilogical laboratory (101 feet by 12 

feet) 1,212 

4, 816 

Northwest range. 

Floor: Ethnology, Eskimo and Northwest coast tribes (63 feet 2 inches 
])y 49 feet 10 inches) 3, 14i 

Gallery : Librarv (49 feet 10 inches bv 12 feet 3 inches) 610 

3,757 

West-north range. 

Floor: Ethnology, Eastern and Great Plains tribes (89 feet by 49 feet 

7 inches) *. 4,412 

South and west galleries: Li])rary (114 feet5 inches by 12 feet 1 inch). 1, 383 

East gallery: History, storage (49 feet 7 inches by 12 feet 1 inch) 598 

6,393 

Total floor and gallery space 103, 195 

TOWKKS AND PAVILIONS. 

Nifrfh tovrr. 
First floor: 

Main entrance (25 feet 8 inches by 1 .'{ feet ) 334 

SujH'rintendeiice, two ollices 527 

Pro])erty oflice 250 

Captain of the watch 133 

Stairway 126 

Second floor: 

hxlitorial oflices 404 

Hiologicul survey, binl storage 860 

Third floor: 

Coins and medals 129 

Telephone exchange , 1 2t) 

2,892 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 301 

East toxoer. 

First floor; Square feet. 

Entrance 340 

Storage of supplies 256 

Technology, ofiice 275 

Herbarium 256 

Restaurant 1,186 

Second floor: 

Herbarium 1,062 

Third floor: 

Herbarium 378 

3, 753 

Souih tower. 
First fl(X)r: 

Head curator of biology, offices 573 

Comparative anatomy, laboratory 275 

Invertebrate paleontology, laboratory 523 

Second floor: 

Paleobotany, laboratories 845 

Invertebrate paleontology, laboratories 253 

Third floor: 

Paleobotany, laboratories 260 

2, 729 

West tower. 
First floor: 

. Head curator of anthropology, offices 724 

Ethnology, laboratories .' 529 

Stairway 1 33 

Second floor: 

Ethnology, laboratories 247 

Historic archfleology and religions, laboratory 249 

Ethnology, storage 460 

Third floor: 

Ethnology, storage 132 

Ethnology, laboratory 132 

2,606 

Northeast pavilion. 
First floor: 

Mammals, laboratories and storage 1, 032 

Birds' eggs, laboratory and storage 600 

Superintendence 30 

Stair^av 230 

Second floor: 

Ethnology, laboratory -. . . . 189 

Materia medica, laboratory 209 

Reptiles and batrachians, laboratories and storage 1, 206 

Stairway... 213 

Third floor: 

Mammals, storage -. 1, 341 

Basement: 

Mammals, storage, alcoholic and dry 1 , 227 

6, 277 



302 BEPOBT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Southeast pavilion. 

First floor: Square feet. 

Men's toilet room 524 

Women's toilet room 614 

Insects, laboratory and storage (Lepidoptera) 900 

Stairway 100 

Second floor: 

Insects, laboratories and storage 1, 183 

Photographic laboratory 558 

Stairway 110 

Third floor: 

Photographic laboratory 1, 440 

Fourth floor: 

Photograph print room 79 

5,508 

Southwest jxivHUm, 
First floor: 

Engineer's office 186 

Fossil invertebrates, laboratories and storage ■. 784 

Geology, lal)oratorie8 and storage 864 

Stairway 193 

Set^ond floor: 

Head curator of geology, offices 397 

(teology, lalx)ratorie8 and storeroom 1 , 210 

Stairway 232 

Thinl floor: 

Mineralogy, la])oratory 1, 390 

Basement : 

Pump room 169 

Boiler room 848 

Blacksmith shop 1 , 026 

Fuel va u 1 tfl 2, 436 

Stairway 213 

9,948 

NorthweM jmvUion. 

First floor: 

V(.»8tibule and anteroom 414 

Administrative assistant, oftices 872 

Library 929 

Si^cond floor: 

Assistant se(!retary, oftices 1, 040 

Library 502 

S tai r w a y 1 48 

Third floor: 

Oftice of correj^pondence and documents 1, 320 

Basement: 

Storage, electrotypes of publications 766 

Storage, documents 169 

Storage, miscellaneous supplies 420 

6,580 

Total floor space in towers and pavilions 40, 293 

Total floor and gallery space 103, 195 

Total floor space in building 143,488 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 303 

Smithsonian Buildino. 

parts occupied by the national museum 

Basement, 
f*l, ( International exchanges. ) Square feet. 

2. (International exchanges.) 

3. Fuel storage 1,021 

4. Boiler room 675 

5. Machine sliop liS2 

6. Electrical storage and connections 606 

7. Toilet room 63 

ft. (Smithsonian Institution. ) 

9. Meclianical storage 358 

10. Men's toilet room 384 

11. Women's toilet room 353 

12. Supplies, storage 423 

Corri<lor betwet^n 12 and 14. Fishes, alcoliolic storage 270 

13. Molhisks, dry and alcoliolit* storage -. 4(50 

Corridor ]x*twecn 13 and 15. Marine invertebrates, ah'oholic Hti>ra;rc.. . 270 

1 4. Mollusks, alcoholic storage 695 

15. 16, and 17. Marine invertebrates, alcoholic stoi*age 1, 498 

Corridors l)etween 16, 17, and 18. Fishes, alcoholic storage 626 

18. Fishes, aUrohoiic storage 1, 195 

19. Birds, dry and alcoholic storage 1, 367 

20. Fishes, alcoholic storage 1, 132 

FiratflfHrr. 

21. Main entrance hall 279 

22. < )ffice of SufK*rintendence 233 

23. Headquarters of the Watch 230 

24. Game animals and arclueology, exhi])itioii hall (stairway hall ) " 742 

25. Binis, exhibition hall (200 feet 4 inches by 49 feet 11 inches). (The 

exhibition cases of mollusks occupy 739 square feet througli the (ten- 
ter of this hall ) 9,?m2 

26. Children's room, exhibition hall (25 feet 4 inches by 22 ft»et 8 inches) . . . 574 

27. Insects, exhibition hall (60 feet by 37 feet) 2,220 

28. Fishes, laboratory 378 

29. Marine invertebrates, laboratorv 227 

30. Marine invertebrates, exhibition hall (66 feet 7 in(;hes by 34 feet 9 

inches) 2,497 

S^'nmd Jfixjr. 

31 and 32. Mollusks, lalwratory, and storage, two main galleries and one end 

gallery 2, 541 

3:^. Binls, laboratory, and storage, one main gallery and one end gallery 1, 325 

34. Marine invertebrates, laboratory, an<l storage, one main gallery 1,216 

35. (Smithsonian Institution, storage of instruments. ) 

36. Office, exposition archives 97 

37. Birds, laboratory 233 

38. Marine invertebrates, laboratory 325 

«The numbers refer to the floor X)lans of the building ( Plates 28 and 2i>), exclusive 
of the eastern end, which is mostly used by the Smithsonian Institution for adminis- 
trative porpoeee, the library, exchange service, etc. 



304 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

Siiiiare fw t. 

39. Biological lalwratory 2:^^ 

40. Fishes, storage 617 

Third floor. 

41 . Prehistoric archaeology, exhihition hall (200 feet by 49 feet 7 inches) 9, 916 

42. (Smithsonian Institution, fonner Regents' room.) 

43. Prehistoric arch jcology, storage li»s 

44. 46, and 46. Prehistoric archaeology, laboratory 775 

North tower y up])er flotjrtt. 

47-53, and 56. Mollusks, laboratories, an<i storage 1, 372 

54 and 55. Marine inverte!>rate8, storage 266 

57-62. The,»*e rooms constitute the five Uf)per stories of the north tower and 

are not occupied 979 

South toiver, tipper floors. 

The floors al>ove the ohl R<»gents' room are used by the Institution mainly 

for the storage of publications. 

Ef(}<t cihIj' 

63. Registrar's oflice and tiles 424 

64. Shipping office 287 

f>5. Dis])ursing office 471 

66. Ri^gistrar's storage ( l)asement ) S65 

67. Documents, storage, and shipping rooms 708 

Total floor space in Smithsonian 51, 998 

OlTSIDK BriLDINGS. 

Frame biilldimj on resrrratiott mnth of Sinithsoniai^ Imiidint/. 

Sciuare feet. 

Mammal taxidermists' workroom 1, 060 

Tin shop 340 

Total 1,400 

Natiira/ Jlititori/ Lof torn tor if on reserration vrnt of tSmitJtmnian buUdinrf, 
Bird taxidermists' workroom, second floor .^ 615 

Frame ahed ov Arinonj Afptare adjacent to Bureau of Fisheries {ndirely tised for gtonige). 

Anthroi>ology: Square feet. 

f:thnology 490 

Fisheries exhibit 4, 215 

Technology 745 

American historv 112 

5,562 

Biology: 

Mammals 1, 318 

Geology: 

^I inerals 193 

Total 7,073 

Thn*e l)nildings on Smithsonian an<l Armory n*servations 9,088 

" Tuese numbers are not given on the plans. 



NATIONAL MUSEUM BUILDINGS. 305 



t 



uihliuff^ at iSl yhUh i^rcvt S\V, (rvutcti). (fhie hrirk haild'tng, i^vrvml frame nhed^^ 

and a- large wicor4Ted area entirehj imed/or storage.) 

nthn)iM)lo^y: S«iuan; foct. 

Kthnolngy 5, 507 

TwhnoUnyry Sll 

Wator transiH^rtation 122 

American hifitory rt() 

H,500 

ioU»^y: 

Manmmlu .' 2, 010 

BinlH 500 

Comparative anatomy 1,110 

Samples of wikkIh 122 

:5. 742 

er)lt>gy: 

P^!<momi<; jreology 542 

MineralH 5:i5 

FosHil vertebrate« 1 , 024 

Fo8sil invertebratCH 818 

Fofwil plants 542 

H>erintendence : 

CaseH, toolH, etc (>, \m\ 

Ii«>cellaneous supplies 445 

Total 21,129 

HuiUling at Tenth street and Manjlaud areutie S\V. (re)ittd). 

nthroi)ology: 

Kthnolojfv, workroom SKil 

Kthnologv, stora^' 1H5 

1,102 

iolojry: 

('<>iiil)arative anatcmiy, workroom 7(M) 

(\>mparative anatomy, storagi* 21*) 

eology: 

Economic j2eolog\% workroom .'>05 

Ei-onomic geolopy, Htorajje 1 (>5 

F<*«8il vertebrate**, workroom 1 , !()<) 

Fossil vertebrates, storage 1,417 

:{,05.S 

alK'l office 720 

eating and iK>wer plant. . . ^MM) 

Total H,4(K» 

Build ijitj ai Jt7 Seventh stmt S]V. ( rrntcd). 

irpt»nter shop on all thre<» floors ;{, :)87 

nthrop^dogical workn>om ( nKnlel making ) 2<)8 

Total 3 , (V55 

liu'dding in nuirofUl'i I'lr/jinia (irrnnr SW. [nntcd). 

lint and glasn shop, two floors 2, 025 

Total rentcHl biiihlinp* ^2V,VJ<i 

NAT MU8 1003 20 



306 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

TOTAL FLOOR AREA WC'UPIED BY THE TNITEl) STATES NATIONAL MUKEI^M. 

Square f«Yt. 

Museum building 14.'), 4JW 

Smithsonian building 51 , 998 

Three buildings on Smithsonian and Armor>' reservations 9, Os8 

Rented buildings ^ 34^ 1 15 

Total 238,68i> 

U. S. National Museum. 

ALLOTMENTS OF SPACE, ARRASGED BY SUBJECTS, JANUARY 1, 190L 

DEPARTMENT OP ANTHROPOLO<lY. 

Exhibition halh. 
Eth nolog y : P<iuare feet 

Eastern and Great Plains tribes 4, 412 

Pueblo triljes 3,981 

Eskimo and Northwestern trilws 3, 147 

Central and South America 1 , 076 

Eastern Hemisphere 4, 851 

Indo-Pacilie region 1 , 194 

Philippine Islands 5:^7 

Basketry 5.38 

19,fi!W 

Historic archeology 1, M7 

Prehistoric an^heology 9, 91H 

Technology «,36S 

Water tninsiMjrtation 3, 148 

(traphic arts 3,929 

Ceramics 2, ISO 

Materia medica • 1,(^7 

Religions 1, 41^ 

Amcriciin history 8,9W 

Miscellaneous ( rotunda galleries) 600 

Offices, iafforatorlfs, norfcrooins, and :Uorn{fe. 

OHice of Head Curat4)r • 724 

l^bonitorics an<l classilicd stonigc: 

Kthiiology 2, .'iHO 

Historic arclicology and religions 249 

Prehistoric ar<'hc()I<)gy 973 

Tcclinology 275 

Materia nu'dica 209 

American history 727 

5.013 

Preparators* workrooms 1,536 

(iross storage: 

Ethnology 6, 162 

Technology 5, 771 

Water transportation 122 

American historv 172 

10 2f 

Total for anthroi>ology 78, 280 






NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 307 

DSPABTMJfiNT OF BIOLOGY. 

Exhibition halls. 

Square feet 

Mammals 9, 540 

Binis ^ 9,253 

ReptileH and fwhes 3,149 

InPecta : 2,220 

MoHusks 7:» 

Other marine invertebrates 2, 497 

Comparative anatomy 4, 463 

Game animals ^ 742 

Children's room 574 

:«, 177 

OfficeHf InfK/ralories, workroovfiSf and storage. 

Offices of Head Curator 573 

Laboratories and classified storages : 

Mammals 5, 51 8 

Birds 3,532 

Birds' eggH 600 

Reptiles and batrachians 1 , 206 

Finhes 4,451 

Insef-ts 2,6«1 

Molluflks 5, 068 

Other marine invertebrates 3, 802 

(\)mi)arative anatomy 275 

Herbarium 4, 374 

31,507 

Preparators' workrooms: 

Mammal taxidermists 1 , 0(50 

Binl taxidermists 615 

C<^>mparative anatomy 70() 

2,381 

Gross storage: 

Mam mals 3 , 328 

Birds , 500 

Ortuparative anatomy 1, 326 

Plan ts 1 22 

5,276 

Total for biology 72,914 

DErARTMKNT OF <JKOL<MiV. 

Kxhihition halts. 

Systematic geology 4, 4(W 

iCppHed geok)gy (>, 145 

Mineralogy 3,149 

Vertebrate fossils 3,979 

Invertebrate fossils ^ 1 , 08,3 

Fossil plants 1,083 

19,<)02 



808 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

OffireMf fafHmit</ria(y ivorkrooiMj and stortige. 

Office of Ilewl Curator iftiT 

I^l)onitorieH and (*la8Pifie4l ntorage: 

( ieneral ge<)l<Jgy 2, rt72 

Mineralfl 1, H45 

FoHBil vertebraU»8 l^t^M 

Fossil invortebraU^s 1, 5<i0 

Fossil plants 2,49*) 

9, 1170 

Pn»|>araton** workrooms: 

Cieneral j2:eology I<05 

Fossil vertebrates 1, l(i6 

1,471 

Gross storai^: 

General gc^olojry 707 

Minenils 728 

Fossil vertebrates 2, 441 

F<issil invertebrates 813 

Fossil i>lants 542 

5,2:u 

Total for^eology :^J*71 

AI)MI^MSTRATIO^, (iKNKKAL WORKSHOfS AND «n>RAGE, AND MISC'ELLANKOUS. 

Ollices: 

Assistant Sivretary in char^ri' 1, (V40 

Administrative assistant 872 

Corresjiomlenco and dornments 1, 320 

SniK^rintendenre 7H0 

l)isl»nrsinj? offit'or 471 

Kejrif^tration 424 

Shipping 287 

PnifHTty 250 

K>dit<.rial 4m 

Kn^inccr 18*) 

Wat<-h' lM*ad(jiiarterH :i63 

Ti'U'phoiUM'xrhan^rc 12?) 

I /ibrary 3, HTT 

Phnto^raphir Udx^ratory 2.077 

Lrctnrc hall 4, 42^ 

Restaurant 1, 1S6 

T. )ilt't ro( >rns 1. 9:W 

Ib'atin^r plants: 

Boiler room ( Museinn ) 1,017 

Fuel Htora^rt^ (Mnsrmn i 2,4:^ 

BoIUt r<»orn (Smithsonian) (>75 

Fuel stora«:e (Smithsonian i 1,021 

Tenth strict bniMinj: «00 

5.74M 



R«portof U. S. National Museum, 1903. — Rathbun. 



Plate 24. 



SOUTH WEST PAVILION 




NORTH EAST PAVILION. 



♦ • ■ - * - > 





NORTH WEST PAVILION. 



Plan of Basements, National Museum Building. 



Report of U. S. N«tton«l Museum, 1903.— Rathbun. 



Plate 25. 



SOUTH EAST PAVILION. 



SOUTH TOWER. 



SOUTH WEST PAVILION. 




NORTH EAST PAVILION 



NORTH WEST PAVILIOH 



MAJN ENTRANCE 



Plan of Main Floor, National Museum Building. 



Report of U. S. National Museum, 1903. — Rathbun. 



Plate 26. 



SOUTH CAST PAVILION. 



SOUTH TOWER. 



o 

»- 

»- 
< 



SOUTH WEST PAVILION. 





CAST NORTH WANftI 



NORTH EAST PAVILION. 

' 



nnn 



NORTH TOWER. 



o 
h 



NORTH WEST PAVIUOhL 



Plan of Gallery and Second Floor, National Wuseum Building. 



Report of U. S. National Muteurr, 1903.— Rathbun. 



Plate 27. 



SOUTH EAST PAVILION. 



SOUTH TOWER. 



SOUTH WEST PAVIUON. 



TTT 


1 


1 1 » »^ 

• 


1 
1 









p 



n 



^ 




O 

»- 

I- 

< 






n 



o 

h 
h 

hi 



^■■rik 



b— d 



NORTH TOWER. 



m 



NORTH EAST PAVILION. 
Ill f r r 1 

Plan of Third Flcx)r, National Museum Building. 



NORTH WEST PAVILION. 




^1J' 



'I 






fRIi 



'-lilr 



\-\t- 



§ 



xkd 



NATIONAL MUSEUM — BUILDINGS. 809] 

Workshops: Square feet 

Carjienter 3,387 

I^intin^ and ahwn 2, 925 

macksmith 1.026 

Machine 382 

Tinsmith 340 

I^bel printing 729 

8.789, 

Storage: 

Cases, tooln, etff 7,016 

^Iis4*elhineous supplies 1 , 544 

Mechanical sup]>liifes .*i58 

Klw!trical snppli«»H, etc 606 

I'lihlii^ations 877 

Klec'tnitypes of publicrations 766 

Registrar's 865 

12,a32 

Kntrances, halls, stairways, etc 4, 141 

Total for administration, et^* 50, 524 

Sl'MMATIoN BY DKI'ARTMENTS. 

Anthropology 78, 280 

Biol«)gy 72,914 

<ienh>gy 36,971 

Administration, gtMieral \vt>rkBhoj»s and str>ragc, ami miscellaneous 50, 524 

Total 2;W,(589 

SUMMATION II V srBJBCTS. 

Exhibition halls: 

Anthnipology 58, 790 

BioUjgy ;i4,005 

(Jeologv 19,902 

112,697 

Strien title otlic«s, lal)oratories, worknxnns, and (*lajssified storage: 

Anthropology 5, 737 

Biology 31,252 

(Jer>k)gy 10,:^7 

47, .'{56 

Prei)arator8* workrtmms: 

AnthroiK>logy 1, 526 

Biology 2,381 

<;eology 1,471 

' 5, 378 

Gross storage of collections: 

Anthropology 12,227 

Biology 5,276 

Geology 5,231 

22,734 

Adminifitrative offices 6, 506 

Library, photographic laboratory, lecture hall, restaurant, toilet rooms 13, 307 

Heating plants 5, 749 

Workshops (construction and repair) 8,789 

Storage of outfit, supplies, publications, etc 12, 032 

Entrancei, balls, stairways, etc 4,141 

Total 238,689 



f 

t 



■1 



' 1 



STUDIES OF THE MUSEUMS AND KINDRED INSTITUTIONS OF 

NEW YORK CITY, ALBANY, BUFFALO, AND CHICA(;(), 

WITH NOTF.S()N SOME laiROIMLVN INSTITUTIONS. 



By A. H. MF.YER, 

Director of the Royal /oolo^ica/. Anthropological , and Ethnof^raphical 

Museum in Dresden. 



Translation, rexnsed by the author, from Abhandhtn^en iiml ncrichtc des Koniglichcn Zoolo- 
Rischcn un<l Anthropologisch-KthnoKraphiscliPii Mustrunis in Droult-n, Hand IX, igoo-iyoi, and 
Band X, I9<u-i903. 



311 



»' 



: J 



I 



9 



H 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

IJst of ilhigtratioiiP 31 7 

A. — MrsEiTMH OK New York City, Albany, Bufkalo, and Chk'a<so 321 

I ntroiliK'tion 821 

Kffort« of the Ainerii^ii Natural History Mnseunis to increa8(> their 

iiHefulnet^s 824 

I. — The <*itv of New York: 

ft 

1. Ainerioaii MiiMmiu of Natural History 328 

2. Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Art** an<l Seientres 31^ 

8. MetroiK>litau Museum of Art 346 

4. New York Public! Lihmrv 851 

r>. ('nluml)ia University J^58 

(>. Iron furniture, ^lass caws, fireproof Imilclinyfs, li>;htin>; of interiors 

of huil<lin);s, distant heatin>r 380 

Iron furniture 380 

( ila.ss east's 884 

Firepn K)f buildings 385 

Lighting of interiors Ii87 

Distant heating 890 

II. — Albany: 

7. University of the State of New York 892 

New York state Museum 894 

New York State Library 896 

Traveling libraries division 400 

Division of exchanges 401 

Library school 402 

III.— Buffalo: 

8. Buffalo Public Library 404 

Museum of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sttiences 405 

Wf 

Library 406 

IV. — Chicago: 

9. FieM Columbian Museum 410 

10. Chicago Academy of Sciences 430 

1 1. Chicago Historical S(H*iety 439 

12. Art Institute of Chicago 442 

13. John Crerar Library 451 

14. Newberry Library '. 459 

15. Chit»ago Public Library 473 

16. University of Chicago 491 

Walker Museum 492 

Haskell Oriental Museum 493 

Kent Chemical Laboratory 495 

Ryerson Physical Laboratory 495 

Hull Biological laboratories 496 

Yerket ABtronomical Obflervatory 499 

313 



> 



314 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEITM, llKKl. 

A. — MrsErMH of New York ('ity, Albany, Bifkai-o, and (*HirAti<>— (,\mtM. ]*»ge. 
IV. — Chicra}^) — Contiiiuwl. 

16. ITniverHity of (yhicaKO — Continued. 

Library oO'J 

Cobb l^etrture Hall , 5tVJ 

Uvinnafliuin r>0*J 

PowtT house -MM 

I)orniitorie« ^^ 

History of the university r>07 

Female HtudentH 511.' 

(Quarter Hvsteni without vaaitions 512 

KeIi>^iouH foundation 5l:» 

OriLfanization of the university 514 

Klenientarv and seeondarv wluK)l8 510 

Uni versit V extension 5Ui 

ITniverwity afKliations ' 517 

Tniversity Press 517 

Conclusion. 51 s 

B. — NoTKS ox SOMP: EniOPEAX MrsKl'MS and KINDKEO INSTITI'TIONS. 

IntrcMluction 5*Ji) 

V. — 1^>ndon ( England ) : 

17. Museum of Natund Historv 5*J1 

IS. British Museum 52t> 

19. Other I^mdon musi'ums 52S 

Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 52S 

South Kensington, or Victoria. and AllH»rt Muwuin 52t» 

National < iallerv 5;5(i 

National ( Jallerv of British Arts, or Tat4^ (iallerv 5;U> 

WalliU'c collection 5;{1 

Koyal Botani<'al ( hardens 5;U 

Ilorniman Frcv Museum 5:n 

Britisli lire-prevention committee h:V2 

VI.— Oxford (England): 

20. Cnivcrsity Musi'um, ethnographical <lepartment (I'itt Rivers ct»l- 

lecti(»n) .5:1') 

VI 1. — Birmingham ( Kngland): 

*J1. C< )ri»()nit ion Art (iallerv an<l Mus<»um 53S 

VI II. — Manchester ( England ): 

2*J. Manclicstcr museum of Owens ColU»ge 540 

2.S. Peel Park Museum in Salford 544 

24. Various art museums 545 

Whitwortli Institute .545 

Municipal scIkmjI of art,s .545 

Citv art gallerv and Manchester Art Museum 545 

25. Maru'hester Muiiicii»al Technical Sc1um)I 545 

2»>. John RvhuKls Li})rarv 548 

27. Free Reference Li})rary 552 

IX. — E<lin})urgh (Scotland ) : 

28. ['niversity of E<linburgh 554 

Anatomical museum 555 

29. Museum of Science and Art 557 

30. National Museum of Antiquities 560 

3L Various other museumH , 561 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 315 

B. — Notes on some Ei'ropean MrnEUMH and kindred institutions — Cont'd, i'hrc. 
X. — Glasgf>w (Scotland): 

32. Corporation museums and art galleries 562 

;«. Tet^hnical College; MiU^hell Library 569 

XI. — Liverpool (England): 

lU. Library, museum, and art committee 570 

;J5. Free public museums 570 

XIL— Dublin (Ireland).: 

'.\6, Science and Art Museum 577 

37. National Library of Ireland 582 

38. National Galierv 583 

39. Anatomical institute of the uni vensity 583 

University (Trinity College) 584 

XIIL— Paris (France): 

40. Museum of Natural Historv in the Botanical (raniens 584 

Zoological collection 584 

Comparative anatomical, anthn>i)ological, ami {mleontologidil 

collection 585 

41. Notes on various museums and libraries in Paris 591 

Ethnographic museum in the Trot^ailero 591 

(Juimet Museum 591 

Ix)uvre 592 

Galli^'ra Museum 592 

National Library 593 

Saint Genevieve Librarv 594 

XIV. — Bnissels ( lielgium ) : 

42. Royal Museum of Natural History of Belgium 597 

43. Brief notes on various collections and buildings 602 

XV. — Hanover (Germany): 

44. Provincial Museum 603 

45. Veterinary High School; Technical HighSchcM)! 606 

( kmclusion 607 



I • 

» • 
L / 



f 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Facing |m«rc. 

1. American Museum of Natural History. Cieneral view of the completed 

building as planned 328 

2. American Museum of Natural History. Hall of Mexican antiquities 336 

3. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. General view of the projected 

nniseum building 338 

4. Metropolitan Museum of Art 346 

5. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Middle hall 349 

6. New York Public Library. Sketch of building in course of ereittion 361 

7. Columbia University, New York City. Library building 369 

8. New York Clearing House, New York City 384 

9. University Club House, New York City ;i86 

1 0. State Capitol at A 1 bany . East front 392 

11 . State Cajntol at Albany. West staircase 396 

12. State Capitol at Albany. Home-e<lucation department, with traveling 

pictures 400 

13. Buffalo Public Library 404 

14. Buffalo Public Library. A comer in Children's Room 408 

15. Field Columbian Museum. South front 410 

16. Chicago Academy of Scriences. ComplettMl portion V.Vi 

1 7. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Main fl(X)r 433 

18. Chicago Historical S(K*iety 440 

19. Art Institute of Chicago -442 

20. Original building of the Art Institute of Chicago (now the Chicago Club). 444 

21 . Art Institute of Chicago. Hall of Sculpture 446 

22. Art Institute of Chicago. Pit^ture gallery on first floor 448 

23. Art Institute of Chicago. Exhibit of jade objects 450 

24. John Crerar Library, Chicago, Illinois * 452 

25. John Crerar Library. Reading room 454 

26. John Crerar Library. Book stacks 456 

27. Newl>erry Library, Chicago, Illinois 459 

28. Chicago Public Library 473 

29. Chicago Public Library. A portion of the stairway 474 

30. Chicago Public Library. Delivery room 478 

31 . Chicago Public Library. I^rge reading room 478 

32. University of Chic'ago. < Jeneral view of the University buildings, hwking 

from the Midway Plaisance 491 

liii. MusiMim of Natural History (part of British Museum), Kensington, London. 522 

'M. Museum of Natural History, Kensington, Ixindon. Entrance hall 524 

.%5. R4)yal Colli»ge of Surgeons, l^)ndon. Hall of comj>arative anatomy 528 

.%. Munici[>al Technical S(rluM>l, Manclu»ster, England 545 

37. John Rylands Library, Manchester, England 548 

38. University of Edinburgh. Old University 554 

39. Corporation museums and art galleries, (? lasgow, S<!otland 562 

40. Public Library, Boston, Massa^rhusetts 594 



318 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

TEXT FIGURES. 

1 . American Museum of Natural H istory . South front XiO 

2. American Museum of Natural History. Ground plan 332 

3. American Museum of Natural History. Section throujirh the middle axis. 334 

4. American Museum of Natural History. Crose-secticn through the oldest 

wing 335 

5. American Museum of Natural History. Floor plan of the Mexican hall.. 335 

6. Brooklyn Institute of Arts ami Sciences. A comer in the room devoted to 

lK>tany 340 

7. Bnx»klyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Plan of first floor of the projected 

building ^ lUl 

8. BrcM)klyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Finisheil portion of the museum 

(1897) 342 

9. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Picture gallery 344 

10. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Plan of first floor 347 

11. MetroiK)litan Museum of Art. Plan of second floor 348 

12. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sketch of completed huil<ling as planned. 350 

13. New York Public Library. Plan of l)asement 352 

14. New York Public Library. Plan of first floor ;«3 

15. New York Public Library. Plan of second floor 354 

1(J. New York Public Libntry. IMan of third floor 356 

17. rohinibia University. General plan of university buildings 'Sb9 

18. ( 'olunibiu University. Plan of first floor of library 360 

19. Columbia University. Seminar rooms on thinl floor of library 370 

20. Columbia University. Plan of seminar rooms shown in fig. 19 372 

21 . Fire-proof policy room of the New York Life Insurance Company 380 

22. Vnother i>ortion of the room shown in fig. 21 381 

23. Ground plan of the room shown in figs. 21, 22 382 

24. Document cam*, with double-roller curtain 382 

25. Case for folio volumes with roller c!urtain and Ixwks on rollers 383 

2(). Long, low <*ast», or desk toj), with marble base. Opening behind 384 

27. Ceiling and floor constnicticm 386 

2S. Prismatic, ribl)e<l -glass unit of the American Luxfer Prism C-ompany 388 

2t). Single prism, as nia<U' by the American Luxfer Prism Company 388 

IM). ( 'ourse of ray of light through a parallel glass ;i89 

31. Coiirst'of ray of light through a prism 389 

32. Field Cohiiii})iaii Musi'um. Plan of ground floor 412 

33. Field Cohiinbiaii Museum. Plan of gallery 413 

34. Field C\)hnnbian Museum. Case with movable partition 421 

IV). Fiohl (V)luml)ian MustMun. Top and jiartition of ciu<e shown in fig. 34 422 

3<). Field Columbian Museum. Types of cjises and racks 423 

37. Field Columbian Museum. Tyiws of cases an<I racks 424 

38. Field Columbian Mus<Mim. Tyi>es of cases and racrks 425 

39. Field Columbian Museum. Her})arium ciise 426 

40. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Plan of second fl(M)r 432 

41. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Plan of third or gallery floor (in parts)... 433 

42. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Cross section along the line A B shown in 

fig. 41 434 

43. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Ca'^e showing fossils 437 

44. Art In.sti lute of Chicago. Cross section 444 

45. Art Institute of Chicago. First-fl(K)r plan 445 

4(). Art Institute of Chica^jo. Secon<l-floor plan : 446 

47. Newl)errv Li})rarv. Principal entrance 461 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 319 

Page. 

48. New t^erry Library. Plan of baneuient 462 

49. Newt)erry Library. Plan of lirst floor 4H2 

5<>. Newberry Library. Plan of second floor 463 

5L Newlwrry Library. Plan of third floor 463 

52. Newlx»rry Library. Plan of fourth floor 464 

5ii. Newljerry Library. Catalo^ne ease 468 

54. Newberry Library. Catalo);ue in Ijook form ( Kudolph index book) 470 

55. Cbicaj^> Piibli<r Library. Plan of first floor 475 

56. Chicago Publii^ Library. Plan of second floor 475 

57. Chicago Public Library. Plan of third fl(H)r 476 

58. Fisher Building, ("hicago, northeast corner of Van Huren and l)earl)orn 

streets 480 

59. C-hicago Public Li])rary. Steel construction between the floors 481 

60. Chi<'ago Public! Library. A firej)rfK>f vault 482 

61 . Plan of ventilating plant. (Chicjigo T<»lephone C>)nipany ) 484 

62. Plan of ventilating plant. (Chicago Telephone Company ) 484 

63. Plan of ventilating plant (Chicago Telei»hone ( 'ompany ) 485 

64. Plan of ventilating plant. (Chicago Telephone C^mipany ) 485 

65. ('hicag<> Public Library. Part of iron lMK>k stiu*k ... : 486 

66. ( 'hiciigo Public Library. Series of book stacks 487 

67. (Chicago Publi(! Library. Closable alcove 488 

68. Chicago Public liibrary. BcK)k racks for folios 489 

69. Tniversity of Chicago. Walker Museum 492 

70. University of Chicago. Haskell ( )riental Museum 493 

71. I'niversity of Chicago. Kent Chemici\l I^lK^ratory 494 

72. Tniversity of Chicrago. Ryers(>n Physical I-.aboratory 495 

73. I'niversity of (-hicago. Hull Biologic^d l-4ilK)ratjories (physiological and 

anatomical ) 496 

74. Cniversity of Chicago. Hull Biological I^lmratories (zoologiciil and 1h>- 

tanical) 498 

75. Cniversity of Chicago. Hull I hysiological laboratory 499 

76. X^niversity of Chicago. Yerkcs .Vstronomical Observatory 500 

77. Cniversity of Chicago. The great telescojH! at the Yerkes Ol)8ervat4)ry. . . 501 

78. I'niversity of Chicago. Cobb I^'cture Hall 503 

79. University of Chic*ago. Hitchi^ock Hall, dormitory for male students 505 

80. University of Chicago. Dormitories for female students 505 

81. MusiMim of Natural History, l^)ndon. Plan of groimd floor 522 

S2. Museum of Natural History, Lon<lon. Plans of upfier floors 523 

H.'{. Museum of Natural History, I^mdon. Side gallery, containing fossil rejv 

tiles. Skeleton of an Iguanodon in the foregroun<l 525 

84. University Museum, Oxford. Ethnographical stM^tion. (I*itt Rivers col- 

lection ) 53;^ 

85. University Museum, Oxford. (Pitt Rivers colle<*tion.) A comer of upi)er 

gallery 535 

8(J. Owens Collegia Manchester, England, .Manchester Museum. First fl(M)r. . 541 

87. Owens College, Mant^hester, Englaixl, Manchester Mumnim. Second flcKir 

and galleries 542 

88. Municipal Technical School, Manchester, Englan<l. Plan of first floor... 546 

89. John Rylan<ls Library, Manchester, England. Plan of second floor 550 

90. University of ?>linburgh. Part of new university 554 

91 . University of Minburgh. Anatomical Museum 555 

92. Museum of S<*ience and Art, Edinburgh, Scotland. Plan of first fl<H»r 557 

93. Museum of Science and Art, E<linburgh. West hall (engineering section) . 558 



320 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

PaKv 

94. MuHiuiin of Science an<l Art, Edinburgh. East hall (natural histor>' ) - . . <V)H 

95. MuHeuiii of S<-iem*e an<l Art, Minburgh (art) 5n'.> 

iW). Museum of Si-ience and Art, Edinburgh (art) '>)!• 

97. National Museum of Anti<iuitii*H, Edinbui^h, Si*<)tland 5«}l 

98. (/oriM>ration Museumn and Art (ialleries, (Tlasgow, Scotland. Plan of 

first floor 5«;} 

JM). C/orporation Mufleums ami Art Gallericfi, Glasgow, Scotland. Plan of 

HtH*ond floor nM 

100. Corjwration Museums and Art <Talleries, (ilasgow, Si^otland. Arrange- 

ment r»f heating an<l ventilating installation 5Wi 

101. C'Orix)ration Museums and Art (lalleries, Glasgow, Six)tland. Arrange- 

ment of heating and ventilating installation 5«)7 

102. (WiKiration Museums and Art (ialleries, Glasgow, Scotland. Arrange- 

ment of heating and ventilating installation ,V>8 

103. City Technical ScIkk)! and Free Public Museums, Liverpool, England... .^71 

104. Free Public Mustmms, Liverjxwl, England. Plan of lower floor 57.*^ 

105. Fret* Public Museums, Liveri>ool, England. Plan of upper floor 573 

KM). Free Public Museums, Liverpo<:)l. One of the longitudinal galleries of 

the upiH'r floor in new building 574 

107. Frei* Publi<r Museums, LiveriKX)l. One of the longitudinal galleries of the 

lower tl<K)r in new buihiing 575 

lOH. National Library of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland 57S 

109. Science and Art Museums, Dublin, Ireland. Natural History building. . 579 

110. Science and .Vrt Museums, Dublin, Ireland. Hall of the Zoological 

I)ei>artment 58<» 

111. Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. Collection of comi>arative 

anatomy. First fl<M>r of the ''(Jaleries d'Anatomie" 5,s7 

112. MustMuii of Natural History, Paris, France. Collei»tions of paleontology 

and anthropology. Seirond floor of the " Galeries <!' Anatomic" 58S 

ll.'{. Museum of Natural History, Paris, France. Part of the anthro|)ological 

collection. < iallery of se<'ond Hoor of the ** Galeries d* Anatomic '* 5S0 

114. 1 library of Saint ( ienevicve, Paris, France 5m 

115. Royal Museum of Natural History, Brussels, Belgium. One of the long 

sides (»f the building 597 

1 H». Koyal .Museum of Natural History, Brussels, lielgium. Narrow siile of 

building, with entrance 598 

1 17. Royal Museum of Natund History, Brussels, IMgium. I.^U'g^ lower hall. 5W 

lis. Rroviucial Museum, Hanover, (iermany fi04 

119. Provincial Museum, Hanover, ( Jeriuany. Plan of swond .*»tory (i05 

120. Provincial Museum, Hanover, (iermanv. .\ room on the second storv . . 506 



STUDIES OF THK MUSFAIMS AND KIN'DRKD INSTITUTIONS OF 
NIiW YORK CITY, ALBANY. BUFFALO. AND CHICAGO; NOTES 
ON SOME EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS. 



By A. B. Mbyek, 
Ih rector oj'Oie Roffai /CfHdofjinil, Atfthropohgiral^ and J*}thnofjraphiral Mu»emn of l}rettden. 



A.— Museums and Kindrkd Institutions of New York City, 

Albany, Buffaix), and Ciiicacjo." 

introduction. 

The authoritios of tho Roval Collections of Art and Science in 
Dresden coniniissioned nic in 1899 to visit the museums and kindred 
institutions of the United Stat(»s so far as th(\y relate to museum affairs, 
and to jmy special attention to the preservation of the collections from 
tire. lu the time at my disposal I could master only a portion of 
what might properly have been studied. I was moreover obliged to 
eontine myself to the eastern part of that great countr}'; even then 
I had to turn aside from a number of citic^s and scientific centers well 
worthy of study, and I was far from a})le to exhaust the subject even 
in those places that I visited. Tliis will (»xplain many omissions in 
my report. I was in New York from the 8th to the 26th of August 
and from the 19th to the 31st of October, in Albanv from the 26th to 
the 29th of August, in l^uffalo on the 29th and 30th of August, in 
Chicago from the 5th to the 13th of Septem})er, in Washington from 
the 14th to the 27th of September, in Philadelphia from the 27th of 
Septemlier to the 5th of October, and in Boston and Cambridge from 
the r>th to the 19th of October. 

The parts of my report h(»re presented include studies in New York 
City, Albany, Buffalo, and C'hicjigo, and it is intended that other parts 
shall be printed as soon as possible, giving results of my studies in 
Washingt4)n, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cambridge. 

In the United States a sharp distinction can not always be made 
between museums and libraries, since many of the latter also include 



o Tranfllation of tl^ber MuwH»n ch's (Mt'iis (U*r Ven;inijrten Stiiaton von Anierika. 
ReipeHtndien von Dr. A. B. M<\vi*r. Verlu^ von U. KritMllandcr i^ Sohn in B<'rlin. 
1900 and 1901. Part I, Now York StiUo; Part II, (-hiraj^'o. 

NAT jfCH 190:? 21 :;ji 



322 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

collections of art and science; but apart from this the libraries have 
in general already attained a higher degree of development than the 
museums, and for that reason I was the less able to pass them by. 
All things considered, the American libraries perhaps excel those of 
fjurope in architecture and in administration methods, whereas this is 
not yet so decidedly the case with the museums. As both the libra- 
ries and the museums of the United States are almost unknown to us, 
I have assumed this lack of acquaintance in my repoil. However 
great the ignorance of Americans regarding Germany may l>e, it is at 
all events exceeded })y the ignorance of the Germans regarding the 
United States. Although year after year more than a thousand young 
Americans studv in (ierman schools and thousands of men and women 
of the educated classes of the Union annually visit the '^Fatherland," 
as Germany is affectionately called, proportionately few" educated 
(iermans go to the Unit<»d States merely for the purpose of becoming 
acquainted with that country, with the exception of those who go to 
America t6 recuperate in the shai*p atmosphere which stirs there. 

Although German colleagues who had visited American museums 
and Americans who came to Germany told me that "we had not nmch 
to learn there," still the authorit;itive opinions of men like Zittel, Ball, 
and Wallace indicated otherwise. In 1883 the well-known paleon- 
tologist of Munich expressed the opinion that the Americans had Ijiegun 
to make their natural history treasures accessible to the public and to 
specialists in a manner worthy in man}'^ respects of admiration and 
imitation. In 1885 the late director of the Science and Art Muvseunis 
in Dublin was particularly impressed with the methodical planning, 
thoroughness, and order prevailing in the majority of the American 
museums. Many, though of recent date, already displayed an astound- 
ing dovelopnient of strength, and the American people were looking 
forward with great and joyful hopes to a giant increase of their spheres 
of us(»f ulness. Finally the distinguished English naturalist declared, in 
IssT, that the MuscMun of (Comparative Zoology of Harvard University, 
in (iinibridge. Massachusetts, widely know^n as the Agassiz Museum, 
far excelled all Kuro])<»an nuiseums as an educational institution for 
th(» public, for students, and for the special investigator. That, how- 
ever, was half a generation ago, a period which in America counts for 
as nuich as half a century or more with us; in fact, during the last 
twentv vears manv inn)osini^ libraries and museums have been estal)- 
lished in the Ignited Statics. New^ York, above all, shows the evident 
tendencv to become the ''first citv of the world.-' It will at all events 
become thc^ greatest bv its natural power of expansion and its loi^ation. 
The ardent desire of everyone's local patriotism is to accomplish the 
best, and I believe that this aim will in time be attained. We Euro- 
peans nuist, each in his ])lac(», exert all our strength to avoid bein^ 
outstripped. The other great cities of the eastern part of the United 



STUDIES ON MUSEUMS AND KINDRED INSTITUTIONS. 323 

States which were all I was able to visit, likewise offered material 
beyond my expectation in the field of my studies. 

I was considerably impressed with the capacity of Americans in this 
department, and am inclined to maintain that museum affairs in gen- 
eral are on a higher plane than in Europe. This is irrespective of 
material, and refers more to scientific than to art institutions. So far 
as the buildings and administrative affairs are concerned, Europeans 
have few good and many ordinary and even bad museums. The Ameri- 
cans, on the other hand (I speak only of the eastern part of the coun- 
try visited by me), have many more good and fewer ordinarj' or bad 
museums. These inferior museums, however, improve rapidlj% cor- 
responding to the pace maintained in that country, whereas in Europe 
the rate of improvement is hopelessly slow. 

The unparalleled rapid development of affairs in the United States 
as compared with the Old World repels a critical method of examina- 
tion by the observer, not only because what has been accomplished is 
in a high degree worthy of respect and admiration, nay, is often even 
overwhelming, but also because such criticism would, in many cases, 
be forestalled by changed conditions, so that the critic in judging the 
rapidly changing conditions must keep in mind the future not less than 
the present, and muvst even regard the projected as already accom- 
plished. I therefore confine myself in the main portion of my report 
more to making conspicuous the positive, the instructive, and what is 
new to us, and relegate any critical remarks to footnotes, in order 
not to mar the general impression of my statements. With regard to 
those criticisms, I must guard against referring to fjuropean or even 
Dresden museums as if things were better in those. On the contrary, 
things are generallj' not done as well on this side of the '"pond," as 
the Americans call the Atlantic Ocean. 1 should, therefore, have pre- 
ferred to suppress such remarks entirely, but where there is light 
there are generally shadows also, and, honor to tinith, I promised 
Amerif^n friends and colleagues not to do so. It was thought that 
something might be gained here and there by criticism. But, although 
this may not come to pass, I wished to show my gratitude, in some 
measure at least, since the reception accorded me by all those interested 
in similar subjects with whom I had the pleasure of becoming closely 
acc|uainted was so obliging and overcoming that I can hardi}- express 
my feelings in words. There are no men more ready to help or more 
amiable than the learned citizens of the Union, and I hope that they 
will regard my report only as a '"tribute of admiration and gratitude.'" 



324 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1003. 



EFtX)RTS OF THE AMERICAN NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUMS TO 

INCREASE THEIR USEFULNESS.« 

[The following observations, written by Doctor Meyer since the above introduction to the present 

work was printed, are added as of interest herein.] 

There are in the United States 8,000 public libraries containing 
60,fK)0,000 volumes. Sixty of these libraries contain over 100,0(Kj 
volumes each, and four of them have 500,000 each.* The increase in 
the number of public museums does not keep pace with this amazing 
increase in the number of libraries, although it has often been recom- 
mended that a small popular museum be attached to each public library."^ 
There are 350 public museums, of which 250 are natural history muse- 
ums.'' (icrmany has perhaps 500 or more, among them 150 natural 
history museums.*' Of the latter, France has 300,-^ and Gixjat Britain 
250.^7 Of the 250 natui-al history museums in the United States, 175 
belong to scliools and universities, 30 to learned societies, 30 are State 
nuiseums, and 15 are maintained by private individuals or are sup- 
ported by nninicipal funds. The State of New York, with 7,000,<XK) 
inhabitants, has thirty-one natural history museums; Penns3^1vania with 
♦»,(H)(),000, nineteen; Massacluisetts with 3,000,000, seventeen; Illinois 
with 5,000,000, fifteen; Ohio with 4,000,000, fourteen; California with 
1,500,000, ton;'' etc. The natural history museums, therefore, by 
virtue of their iminber, already play an important part not only as 
scientific museums, hut also as a means of popular education, when we 
consider tlie efforts being made to serve the entire community. This 
will be evident fi'oni the following brief account: 

Krluhifinn ('()// frfio?).<<, —As far back as 1860, Ij. Agassiz, perhaps 



'^ Translated from A. H. Meyer: I his BentreluMi der anicrikani^chen naturwis^n- 
schaftlichcM Museen, hreiten Seliiehten des Volks zu dienen. ( Verl>es8erter Sonder- 
ahdriick ans: Die Museen als Volk.sbildnn^sstatten. Berlin, 1904, pp. 93-96. 

/'Report of the (Nunniissionerof Kducation, 1899-1900, Washington, I, 1901, p. 92:V, 
K. I. Antrim. The latest Sta^^e of Libniry Development, Fortinij 1901, XXXI, p. Xi7. 

'See r>. \V. S. .h'vons, M«'thods of Social Keform, lx)ndon, 1883, p. 7?, and E. S. 
Morse, If pn))lie Libraries, why not pnl>lie Museums? Report U. 8. National Museum, 
isaj, pp. 7<;<) 7S0, Washin^'ton, \Hm. \Uo W. J. (\mkl in, The Union of Library 
and Musoum, /*fihlir Llhmrirs, VIII, ltH)3, pp. 3-8; E. \V. (laillard, The Beginning of 
Museum Work in Lil)raries, ib., idem. j>p. t)-ll,and A. 11. Hopkins, The Link I^etween 
Libniry and Museum, ib., idem, j)p. 13-15. 

''A eomjjlete list is contained in A. <J. Meyer, Scinice, new ser., XVII, p. 843, 
New York. 1903. F. J. IL Merrill, Natund History Museums of the Unite*! Stat(*s 
and (''anada; New York State Museum Kulletiu No. «2, 1903. This list names 242. 

' Forn-r and Fischer, Adressbuch der Museen u. !^. w. 1897; Jahrbuch der bildenden 
KuuKt, 1903; Fiiedhuulers Zoologisclu's. A dressbuch, 2 volumes, 1895 and 1901; K. 
Mielke, Museen und Sanunlunjren, Aiduuig, 190.'{. and others. 

7' Annuaire des M usees scientiliqucs et archeologiques. Taris, 1900. 

f/Tlic Report of the British Asso<iati(»n, Manchester( 1SS7), Ix>n<b)n, 1888, pp.97-i:i0. 
Herein are listed 211 nmseums, of which 190 are natural history institutions. 



STUDIES ON MUSEUMS AND KINDRED INSTITUTIONS. 325 

the firet to carefully consider such a plan," had developed the princi- 
ples on which he meant to separate an exhibition collection for visitors 
from a scientific collection for investigators in the museum of compara- 
tive zoology, which he was to establish at Cambridge in the United 
States. He actually carried out these plans a few years later. It was 
a long time before his ideas were adopted in Europe; but all new 
museums in the United States, at least, were similarly arranged from 
that time. In 1881 the U. S. National Museum at Washington adopted 
as of prime importance the gcneml principle ''to place no object on 
exhibition which had not some special educational value and which was. 
not capable of attracting and instructing a large proportion of the 
visitors."* The U. S. National Museum, therefore, definitely adopted 
the principles which subsequently determined to a greater or lesser 
degree the mode of operation of all natural history museums in the 
United States. Consequently, the visitor to a museum is not tor- 
mented with endless series of like or similar objects, and he need not 
himself laboriously pick out from an excess of material the objects 
which are to him comprehensible, instructive, or entertaining. They 
are placed before him without any annoying and tiresome labor on his 
pait. The cMirrj- ing out of this principle, essential to an exhibition 
collection, is in general made easy for the American museums by the 
circumstance that means are willingly furnished them for the purpose. 
Every month at the New York Natural Ilistor}^ Museum they place 
on exhibition those migratory birds which occur in the vicinity at 
that particular time. This fact is mentioned as a characteristic example 
of the way in which nmseum authorities strive to incite the public to 
a direct observation of nature. A. R. Wallace, the well-known Eng- 
lish naturalist, as far back as 1809, descri})ed how apu})lic nmseum for 
the people should l>e constituted;' but such an attempt, or even one 
approximating it, has not yet been niiule anywhere, though much has 
been said and written on the subject. 

Departments for childrrn. — In the large museums, a section maj'^ 
generally be found specially adapted to the comprehension of children. 
All, or nearly all, large libraries also have sections for children; thus, 
for example, the Brookl3n Museum of Arts and Sciences,^ whose 
children's department was visited in the year 11M)2 by more than 
84,(X)0 children. This children's nmseum publishes a small illustrated 

«Bibliotheque iiiiiverHolk' ct Roviu* h!iiiH«', 47 aniuV, iiouv. |K'r. XIV, 18H2, pjK 
527-40. 

''Proceedings of the U. S. National Miir^eum, IV (ISKl), Wju^liington, 1SS2. 
Appendix No. 16. 

<^A. R. Wallacv, MuHeiiiiiflforthe People, MttnniUaiC t^ Magnz\w\ Ix)n(lon, ISIjy, pp.7. 

''See my Anieri(ain Miiseinii Notes, I, pp. 9 and 58 (with illuHtratiunH), in Ahhand- 
lungea und Berichte den Dresdner MuwuniH. Also A Preliminary Account of tlie 
Children's MiiHeuni, Be<lfoni Park, o|>ene<l Deceniln^r Ki, 1K99, Brooklyn, N. Y., 11 
pp., 2 figs., and H. P. Shepatone, A Chihlren'n Mu.si»uni, The Quhrr, Ixmdon, 1901, 
pp. 1182-86, with ligureH. 



326 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1903. 

monthly niagaziue, the Children's Museum Bulletin, in which may be 
found nmch elementary instruction. Instixictive lectures, illustrated 
b}' objects from the collections, are also given there for young teach- 
ers of both sexes. The children's library contains about 3,000 titles. 
Similarly in the National Museum in Washington. This Museum is 
under the direction of the celebrated Smithsonian Institution, which 
was founded in 1846 " for the increase and diffusion of knowled^ 
among men,'' not alone, like our academies, for the advancement of 
'"science" in its more restricted sense. The Smithsonian Institution 
is the most renowned scientific institution in the United States. Its 
director, the noted physicist and astronomer, S. P. Langley, though 
not specially occupied with museum affairs, took personal charge of 
the establishment of this children's room in the great Museum and 
worked out the details with loving care. All labels are worded in such 
a way as to be readily understood by children. The object wjis to 
develop the minds of the children and inspire them with a love for 
nature, as had been proposed by Agassiz. This, it was thought, could 
best 1)0 accomplished hy withholding from them the confused mass of 
objects to be found in a scientific collection, so that they might be 
attracted and interested, but not oppressed and repelled. Langley 
has admirably expressed himself upon this subject and with the himior 
characteristic of Americans." 

Pri2(>H for Hvhool ('hildren, — Direct efforts are made to induce pupils 
of lx)th sexes to visit the museums by offering prizes for essays 
adapted to tlie different classes. This custom has been carried on 
especially at the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, since 1896. The report 
on tlie subject for tlie year U>02 occupies 41 pages.* At the last com- 
petition 47 prizes of from five to twent3'-five dollars were offered. 
The subject-^ proposed were (1) bird life, as illustrated in the museum; 
('J) niiiunals uiul gcinstones in the museum; (3) why I like the Car- 
noj^ic Museum. No composition was to exceed l,20i) words in length. 
Tlic contc^st histod four weeks. Even the te^ichers whose pupils show 
the b(»st tniiniii^ arc suitably rewarded. Last year 813 children took 
part in the contest. The* award of prizes is always made the Oi*casion 
for a great popuhir gathering and resembles a kind of public jubilee. 
The b(»st two (Nsays on bird life are printed in the above-named 
report. They were submitted by boys 13 and 17 years of age. That 
of th(^ younger boy is particularly well done. 

Lrrffu'r^i. (ircat influence is exerted by public lecturer*. Tw« 
striking examples of this may b(» given. The American Museum of 

''The C'hil«lreirn Uooiii in the Smithsonian InHtiiution. By A. B. Paine, Smitk- 
soniiin Report fur 11K)1, i)p. 55:^560, pis i-xx, \Va«hinjj:ton, 1902. See also *SIf. Nicht- 
/o.v, New York and I/>n(lon, Sej)teniber, 1901, pp. 901^73, with fig^ures. 

''See Tlie Carnegie Musenni, Pitt>*l)ni>r. Prize Essay ('ontest, 1901. Publicatious 
of the (-arnegie Museum, Serial Now. 11^ and 19, Pittsburg, 1901 and 1902. 



STUDIES ON MUSEUMS AND KINDRED INSTITUTIONS. 327 

Natural History in New York is divided into 12 departments. The 
department of public instruction stands at tlie head of the list, a cir- 
cumstance which indicates the main object of the museum. The director 
of this department constantly keeps in stock, so to speak, 400 lectures on 
200 different subjects. One series is especially prepared for teachers, 
another for the general public, a third for members of the museum 
and their families. A person maj' become a member by the annual 
payment of $10. In the year 1902, 90 lecturer were delivered before 
27,(X)0 persons.'' The Institute of Arts and Sciences in Brooklj^n holds 
annually more than 4,000 meetings with lectures, exhibitions, and 
instruction for more than 250,000 persons.* A considerable part of 
these lectures and exhibitions devolves upon the museum of the insti- 
tute which is established upon a ver}' large scale. It would be a mis- 
take to suppose that upon this account the scientific affairs of the 
above-named museums are neglected. These are more in the hands 
of other officials. 

Popular 2>^M!<'(itw7V!t. — Many museums publish guides and pam 
phlets on various subjects. In this respect again, the American Museum 
of Natuml History in New York takes the lead. We may recall, for 
example, guides to the collection of birds, guides to the geological 
and paleontological collection; also, a quarterly nuiseuin journal, in 
which all news relating to the nuiseum is published in popular form; 
and, finally, pamphlets such as The Butterflies of New York and Vicin- 
ity, The North American Ruminants, The Collection of Minemls, and 
many others. All are profusely illustmted and thousands of copies 
are sold at modemte prices. 

I^n\dhi(j of vtpJh'ctums, — In different nuiseums, collections are lent 
to public schools for educational purposes. For example, in the N<»w 
York Natural History Museum a large number of such collections of 
50, 1(X), or more specimens each are laid aside and lent for varying 
periods to the schools which apply for them. This is also done by the 
New York State Museum* at Albanv and others. In the first-named 
museum, schoolchildren with their teachers are allowed to study more 
carefully ceilain reserve collections and even to handle the specimens. 
Exceptional ability is, of course, required for the administration of 
such establishments, but the American citizen now demands that the 
museums make themselves useful in as many ways as possible, and 
continually provide some incentive to observation and study. 

Time of opening. — The American museums are almost universally 
open daily from morning till evening, free of charge. On the other 
hand, the numbed of custodians is small as (compared with European 
museums. The citiz(Mi of the United States rarely steals public prop- 

« Annual Report, American Museiirii of Natural Ilintory, New York, 1902, p. 28. 
^ See my American Museum Reports, I, p. 9, loc. cit. 



328 RKPORT OF NATIONAL MUSETTBf, 1903. 

ortv, siiico he ro^irds it as l)elonging to him personally, whereas here 
in (rerniany, the authorities as proprietors antagonize the visitor, who 
is treat(^d more or less as an intruder, and deports himself in an unas- 
suming manner. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the Americans assign a lead- 
ing part in the activity of their museums to the exhibition collections, 
which they arnmge for wide circles of the educated, half-educated, 
and uneducated classes. At the same time, they foster the inten^st^ 
even of little children, and try to stimulate the older ones by offering 
prizes; they make the museums contribute directly to the cause <>f 
education by series of lectures, In' popular publications, and by leml- 
ing collections; and they keep the doors of their museums open to 
everyb(xly from morning till evening. How far all this could Ik' 
adapted to (ierman conditions is a question which ought to \ye discussed 
in a separate article*. 

I.-THE CITY OF NEW YORK. 

[I'Dpulatiuii :i4 tO.UOu. or. iiichKlii)^ its siirniundiiigs, 4,0(X).000 iiilmbitantp.] 
1. AMKKICAN MrsKl'M OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

In comparison with other cities of the Union, New York was very 
slow in organizing a natural history museum, but when, in the year 
18(31L it was<l(»ci(l(*d to establish one, a project on the grandest scale oi 
all was adopted and collecting was innnediately begun in a compre- 
hensive w:iv. 

ft. 

TIk* building occupies a detached position alongside of Central Park 
near great business strcH'ts, and has a richly molded facade of red brick, 
syenite, and granite, with t()W<»rs, jutties, balconies, roofs, etc., in mod- 
ern Honiancscjue style, ai)proaching the French castle type, which was 
inlnKJuccd into Kngland some d(»cades ago. This style has flourished in 
tlic Tnilcd States chicllv throuirh tlie intiuence of the architect Rich- 
anlson. 'i'li(» niuseuni serves for anthropology, ethnography, arche- 
ology, zoology, i)alco!itology, geology, minendogy, and botany. The 
arciiitccts wcn\ and still are, Vaux, Cady, Berg, and See. The inner 
building, \sy> fei^t long, ♦If) feet wid(\ and lUl feet high, the first to lx> 
c()ni|)lct(Ml, was occiii)ic(l in isTT. The existing collections were in the 
meantime accoiuniodatcul in the old arsenal in Central Park. The 
height of the lirst lloor is IS feet; the second and third floors are 
together 'An leci. consisting in reality of only one floor and a gallery, 
the latter wilii :i separate row of windows; the fourth floor 22 feet; 
and the lifth, h'» feet. The dimensions of the halls are 85 bv S5, 155 
bv 7.'», 17"J hv **n, aiul \s:\ hv r>r> feet. In America thev still reckon 
by feet, ecjual to 0.:>or> meter. 

About one-sixth of the ])rojected building is now erected. The 
entire building when completed, which may not l>e for generations. 



STUDIKfl ON MITREUMS AND KINDRED INSTITUTIONS. 829 

will (M'cupy 13 acres,** and will form a quadrangle with four courts, 
each 213 feet square. A dome-like central tower 300 feet high is also 
planned.^ The south side of this quadrangle, 750 feet long and 75 to 
90 feet wide, was completed in 1899, in addition to the previously 
built south arm of the central cross and the ground floor of the central 
building, as mentioned, and forms a palace six to seven stories high, 
including cellar and ground floor — from cellar to roof 127 feet high — 
which has already cost, together with furniture, $2,800,000,^ and 
affords 148,000 square feet of exhibition space. The building and 
furniture are paid for by the city by authority of the government of 
the State of New York. The city also owns the ground. In the year 
1900, $150,000 was available for continuing the construction of the 
building. When the future completion of this enormous building is 
considered it may well be asked whether so great a show museum for 
natural history can still attain its objects. 

The value of the existing collections is estimated at $2,800,0(X), and 
the library contains al)out 44,000 volumes.^ The annual expeases of 
lH8«),000 are l)orne by the city, under authority of the government 
of tlie State of New York; 1^93,000 of these expenses are made up of 
salaries and wages. In the year 1899, $48,000 additional was raised 
by private contribution. Of the 71 employees 14 are scientists. A 
president who serves without salary is at the head of the institution, 
under a lx)ard of trustees of 24 members, mostly patrons of the 
establishment. Together with the president, who is a layman, a 
zoologist or paleontologist looks after the geneml scientific inter- 
ests of the nmseuni,*^^ which are discussed with the higher officials 
as in a university faculty. The institution is divided into six depart- 
ments/ (1) Public instruction; (2) geology, minei^alogy, conchology, 
and marine iiivertebmtes; (3) vertebrates; (4) vertebrate paleontology; 
(5) anthropology (physical anthropology, archeology, and ethnog- 
raphy); (6) entomology. 

Each dei)artment is under the direction of a curator. Three of 
these curators have only two assistants each; one department has one 

«The area in 750 feet square, e