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Full text of "Report upon the invertebrate animals of Vineyard Sound and adjacent waters : with an account of the physical features of the region"

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KNCI.AND IN 1.-71 AM. 1872. 





[Tlir liiimvs rrli-r to tin- iiisi-! ihr n p<.rt.| 

A. Habits and distribution, (of the invertebrate animals) ..................... 

I. (leneral remarks ...................................................... 

II. Fauna of tin- bays and sounds ......................................... 300 

1. Aniiu;ils of tlir rocky shop's between hi^li :ind low water maiks ---- :',o:; 

(Jencral remarks ............... .' ................................ 

Articulates : 

Insects ....... . ............................................. ::::i 

Crnstacra ................................................... :!!-.' 


C'luetopods ____ * ......................................... 317 

OligocluRta ............................................. :'.-' I 

Xenierteans ................................................. 

I'lanarians .................................................. 

Neinatodes ............. . .................................... 

Mollnsks : 

(Jastropods ............ ....................................... 

Lamellihraiielis ........... .. ................................. 307 

Ascidians and liryoxoa ...................................... :'.lt 

Ivadiatcs : 

Echinoderms ................................................. :v. ) i'i 

Aralephs .................................................... 327 

Polyps ................................... . .................. 329 

Protozoa ....................................................... 330 

List of species ................................................... :',:', I 

J. Animals of the sandy shores of the bays and sounds .......... _____ , :;:;i 

iJeneral remarks ................................................ :;:;i 

Articulates : 

Insects ........................ ............................. 

Crustacea ............. ! ..................................... 

Annelids : 

a ............................................. 

Xenierteans ................................................. 

Sijmnculoidrs ............................................... 

Mollusks : 

(Gastropods .................................................. 

I.aim-llihranelis ............................................. 

l!ryo/oa and Aseidians ...................................... 

Kadiat.- : 

Kchinodenns ................................................ 

Polyps ..................................................... 

List of species ................................................... 


u ,| ,|,MnlMili<n oi'inN. it.-l,.;itr animal ( 'out inued. 

I ,,t tin- muddy shores along the bays and sounds ............ 366 

.............................................. :i ' W 


Crustacea ................................................... 

Annelid* .................................................... 371 


............................................... 3Tl 

.................................................. 375 

Echiuodcrms ................................................ 

Acalcp"" ................................................... 376 

................................................... 377 

I. Animals inhabiting the piles and timbers of wharves and bridges, 

tome of vessels, buoys, and other submerged wood- work ........ 378 rniiarks ................................................ 378 


InsecU ..................................... ............... 379 

Crustacea .......................... ........................ - '' 

Annelid* and NYmrrtrans .................................... 3rJ 

M.. Husks: 

Gastropod* ................................................. 382 

Lamrllibranchs ............................................. 383 

Ascidians ................................................... 388 

Bryozoa .................................................... 389 

iiMidrnns ................................................ 389 

Acalephs .............................. . ..................... 389 

r..lyps ..................................................... 391 

List of species ................................................... 392 

imals inhabiting the rocky bottoms of the bays and sounds ...... 394 

i oral remarks ................................................. 394 

Articulates ...................................................... :,'.:, 

Molhwk* ........................................................ :;;: 

Kadiaten ........................................................ 40f> 

Protozoa ........................................................ 403 

List of specie* ................................................... 409 

6. Animals inhabiting gravelly and shelly bottoms .................... 412 

......... ................................. .\]>> 

Articulates ..................................... 11., 


........................................... 420 

Protozoa.. ............................................... Ul 

Lbt of specie* ........................................ 4.^ 

AnimaU inhabiting sandy bottoms ................................. 



" . I:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: % 

Animals inhabiting mudd\ 430 

A. HabitS and distribution Of iu\cilebr:ile animals -Con I ill in il. 

r;ii remai 

\ I I re II I at. -^ , 



List of speoiea 

\iiimals Mvimmiiig free in the water or limiting ;it tin- .surface 

( leiieral remark-- 

A i I i. -nl:i I '- 

Mollnsks (40 

K'adiates 117 

List of species 'l.'.l 

10. l';i nisi tie ;iuiiii;ils 

Ii:teru;il parasit es t.",.", 

External parasites \'>' 

List of species 

III. Fauna of the brackish wafers of estuaries, harbors, &c 400 

(leneral remarks 4(5i 

1. Animals inhabiting tin- sandy shores and bottoms 1<;-.> 

Articulate^ .H'.-j 

Mollnsks 4<i:; 

I^ist of s|)H'i(is 1'' I 

Vl. Animals inhabit in.y; the muddy shores and bottoms 4).~> 

(Jeneral remarks 

Articulates 4(iC 


List of species 470 

.'. Animals inhabiting oyster-beds 472 

(ieneral remarks 47ii 

Articulates 476 

Mollusks 47.") 

Radiates 17 r. 

LiM of sjieeies 1?'"' 

4. Animals inhabiting ; the eel-^rass 17- 

(Jeneral remarks 478 

Art ic iila tes 471) 

Mollusks 17'. 

LM of species 1-0 

5. Animals inhabiting piles of wharves, bridges, lloating timbers. Ac.. 

( Jeneral remarks 1-1 

Articulates 482 

Mollnsks 1-j 

Kadiates 1-1 

List ofspecies l-'J 

IV. I'auna of the eoldei- waters of the ocean shores and outer banks and 


(Jeiieral remarks I- I 

1. Animals inhabiting the rocky shores 

( M-m-ral remarks 

Articulates !-- 




A ll.ii. t-anddwtrilMitK : tebrate animals Continued. 


. draefl ............................... 4 - l) 

......................................... 41>0 

.......... ______ .................................. 41M) 

................................................ 4 - )0 

A i, imaU inhabiting rocky bottoms ................................. 491 

General remarkH ................................................. 4 ( l 

.culaU* .............................................. ....... 41HJ 

MM' ............................................... 4D4 

Radiate ............................................... 4'" ; 

\uimnU inhabiting *amly bottoms ................................. -^ 

General remarks ................................................. 


....................................................... "'<- 

. .> ................................................... ;"'t4 

Animals inbabitin^ niuddy bottoms ................................ " )ll(; 

General remarks ................................................ " "< 

Articulates ...................................................... 

M..llu,ks ........................................................ 

Radiates ........................................................ "!' 

List of species ................................................... 511 

ii-s foiiml in the stomachs of fishes ............................. 514 

< H:il>its ami im-t a inorphoses of the lobster and other crnstacea ............... >'-'- 

igne of the in vertebrates of Southern New England and adja- 

............................................................ ^:-7 

Aiticnlata ...................................................... ^ 

ta ..................................................... ::;; 

^tacea ................................................... ">!."> 

Anm-liila ................................................... 580 

Cephalopoda ............................................... r,:;i 

Oastropodu ................................................. r.i'.t; 

l*aiii-lliliram-hiata ........................................... r.f'.t 

'I uiiiiata ........... , ....................................... 

/'a .................................................... ?i7 

iaU ......................................................... 71:, 

niiMliTiiiata ............................................. 7ir, 

........................................... 7-j-j 

Autliozoa ( or rlv]ii ......................................... 7:57 

7 10 

1 74:> 

l.rt.ita.. --- 


\\\ A. I-!. \ i.iaau,. 




The investigation of the invertebrate lite of these waters, undertaken 
ut the request of the United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisher- 
ies, was actively carried forward during the entire summer of 1871, 
and the very extensive collections then made have been studied by Mr. 
S. I. Smith, Mr. O. Harger, and myself, as thoroughly as possible dur- 
ing the time that has been at our disposal. The work upon the collec- 
tions is by no means complete, but is sufficiently advanced to serve the 
immediate purposes of the Fish Commission. 

To Mr. Smith I aui indebted for the identification of all the Crustacea 
referred to in this report and the accompanying lists, except the Iso- 
pods, which have been determined mostly by Mr. Harger, to whom my 
thanks are also due for several excellent drawings of those animals. 
To Professor A. Hyatt I am indebted for the identification of some of the 
Bryozoa, and for most of the figures of that class. 1 am also under 
obligations to Dr. A. S. Packard, Dr. G. H. Horn, and Dr. H. A. 1 la- 
gen, who have identified the insects inhabiting salt water. 

According to the plans adopted these explorations had in view sev- 
eral distinct purposes, all more or less connected with the investigation 
of the fisheries. The special subjects attended to by this section of the 
Fish Commission party were chiefly the following: 

1st. The exploration of the shores and shallow water for the purpose 
of making collections of all the marine animals and ulgiB living between 
tides, on every different kind of shores including the numerous burrowing 
worms and Crustacea, and to ascertain as much as possible concerninu- 
their habits, relative abundance, stations, \;c. 

I'd. The extension of similar observations by means of the <ln 
trawl, tangles, ;uid other instruments, into all depths down to the d 

ateiS \\hieh were accessible to us. and to make a systeit: 
vey, as complete Me. of all the smaller bays and h ithin 

1 V 


irach. both to obtain complete collections of the animals and plants 

of the bottom, special attention 
to tin- localities knoun to be the feeding grounds of valuable 

Is upon which they are known to feed. 
tin- water and its temperature, both at the surface 
,-d and recorded in as many localities as 
. .l-ing was to be done, and lists of the 

.! pl.u.ts I, ...1 localities or depths were to be prepared, 

oa*to > i >A tin- in:' ipcrature and other physical features 

Me lite. .Many valuable observations of this 
kind \vrn made. 

Ith. Tin- lift' of the s . was to be investigated by means 

and towing nets, on every possible occasion, and at all 

i of diil'eient sixes, made of strong embroidery - 

ran\.-. and attached to stout brass rings, were used with excellent re- 

Milts I. nt very many : Dg things were obtained by hand-nets skil- 

fully used. The MII lace collections are of great interest in themselves, 

,1 importance practically, as they show the nature of the 

tithes that feed ;it or near the surface. 

."ith. Tin- collect ions obtained were to be preserved by the best meth- 

ods tin- purpose of making a more thorough study of them 

than could usually be done at the time, and for the purpose of insuring 

accuracy in their identification and fullness in the special lists for the 

final reports; and I'd. in order to supply the Smithsonian Institution, 

M. and a number of other public museums, both 

i and Ionian, with sets of the specimens collected. For this 

purpose large quantities of duplicates were collected and preserved, 

and \\ill be distributed at an early day. 

of animals which cannot be preserved in good 

conditio: 10 be examined with care and minutely de- 

-.liilr li\ing. The colors and appearance of the soft parts of 
: l)ed in the same way, and also the eggs 

tli. It v at importance to secure accurate 

clr" 'In- living animals, and especially of such as greatly change 

1 appeal aiMc \\hen preserved, such as worms, naked mol- 

Cnfoitnnately the available funds were 

' ' ' cial artist for this purpose 

dnr. immcr, but this delicicnry has been partially remedied by 

.Wipirntly drawn by .Mr. .1. II. Kmerton, Mr. S. I. Smith, 

I the \\i 

1 **"* Itions the relations exisling between the 

"cd for them were to be 

in mind, and all information bearing directly upon this 

..... led. To this end large 

niltl1 i'e\\]y can-ht were examined, and 

[-:; | INN ERTKBBA1 E LKIM LL8 OF N [NE1 \i;i> 8OI 

Hats of the species found in them were made. Most of those thn 

eertained to IK- their ordinary I'ooil were traced to their natural li.i 
from wheiiee (lie lishrs obtain tin-Ill. 

9th. The parasites of fishes, both external and internal. 

collected and preserved for 1'iiture study. 

A large collection of such parasites was made, hut the inh-inal pi 
sites, wliich are very numerous, have not yet been studied. The- inter- 
nal parasites were collected chieily by Dr. I'Mward Palmer. 

The map accompanying the present report serves to show the locali- 
ties explored, and the extent of the labor in dredging and sounding. 
The operations during the lirst six weeks were, under the charge of .Mr. 
S. 1. Smith, who remained until July -">. He NVJIS assisted by Dr. \V. 
(i. Farlow, who also investigated (lie alga*. Professor J. E. Todd, of 
Tabor, Iowa, then took charge of the work for three weeks, until J 
able to join the party, on the 16th of August During the remainder 
of 'the season, until September -'<>, the operations were under my imme- 
diate superintendence ; but Professor A. Hyatt, of Boston; Dr. A. S. 
Packard, of Salem; Dr. Farlow, of Cambridge; and Professor D.C. Katon, 
of New Haven, gave very important aid in carrying out our investiga- 
tions, and our thanks are due to all of these gentlemen for their assist- 
ance. Several other naturalists were present, from time to time, and 
cooperated Nvith our party ill various ways. 

The dredging operations in the shallow waters of Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzard's Bay were carried on at first by means of a sail-boat, but 
during the greater part of the time by means of a steam-launch. The 
divdgings outside of these waters, and off Martha's Vineyard, were all 
done, by means of a United States revenue-cutter, the steamer Mocca- 
sin, under command of Captain J. G. B.iker. Oar thanks are due to 
the officers of the Moccasin, who were very courteous, and gave us all 
the facilities within their power for carrying out our investigations suc- 
illy. Without this important assistance we should have remained 
in complete ignorance of the temperature and peculiar fauna of the 
deeper waters off this shore, for the localities were too distant to be 
reached by means of the steam-launch or sail-boats. 

The examination of the bottom was done by means of dredges of 
various sizes, constructed much like those in general use for this pur- 
pose; by "rake-dredges'' of novel co istruction, consisting of a heavy 
A-shaped iron frame, to the arms of which bars of iron armed with 
long, thin, and sharp teeth, arranged like those of a rake, are bolted, 
back to back; a lectangular frame of round iron, supporting a deep 
and tine, dredge-net, follows just behind the rake to receive and retain 
the animals raked from the soft mud or sand by the rake; a trawl-net^ 
with a beam about fourteen feet long, made of stout, iron gas-pipe, and 
Laving a net, tine toward the end, about forty feet deep, and provided 
with numerous pockets; "tangles,' 7 consisting of an A-shaped iron 
frame, to which frayed-out hemp-ropes are attached. The best form 


has several small chains of galvanized iron attached to the frame by 
one end, so as to drag over the bottom, and the pieces of frayed-out 
rope are attached along the sides of the chains. 

The ordinary dredges can be used on all kinds of bottom, except 
where there are rough rocks and ledges, but they generally merely 
scrape the surface or sink into the bottom but slightly. The rake- 
dredges are used only on bottoms of soft mud or sand, and are intended 
to catch burrowing animals of all kinds, which are always numerous on 
such bottoms. The trawl is adapted for the capture of bottom-iishes, 
as well as for crabs, lobsters, large shells, and all other animals of con- 
siderable size, which creep over or rest upon the bottom. It cannot be 
used where the bottom is rocky or rough, and does not usually capture 
many animals of small size, or those that burrow. It is, however, a 
very important instrument when used in connection with the ordinary 
dredge, for it will capture those species which are too active to be 
caught by the dredge, and much greater quantities of the larger Spe- 
cies than can be obtained by the dredge alone. The "tangles" are 
particularly useful on rough, rocky, or ledgy bottoms, where the dredge 
and trawl cannot be used, but they cannot be depended upon for ob- 
taining all the small species, especially of shells and worms. They 
capture mainly those kinds of animals which have rough or spiny sur- 
faces, such as star-fishes, sea-urchins, corals, bryozoa, rough crabs, &c., 
and those kinds which are disposed to cling to foreign objects, such as 
many of the small Crustacea, which are often taken in countless numbers 
by this means. Star-fishes and sea-urchins are especially adapted to be 
caught by this instrument, and are often brought up in great quanti- 
ties. The tangles can be used on all kinds of bottoms, wherever there 
are any of those kinds of animals which they are adapted to capture. 

The localities where dredgings were made by these various instru- 
ments were located on Coast Survey charts as accurately as possible, 
and were sufficiently numerous to give a pretty satisfactory knowledge 
of the nature of the bottom and its inhabitants throughout the region 
explored. The total number of casts of the dredges made during the 
three months devoted to this work was about 400. A large part of 
these, including all the more important ones, have been located on the 
map accompanying this report. The more important points where the 
temperature of the water was observed have also been indicated on 
the map and the temperatures given, the figures above two parallel lines 
indicating the surface temperature, those leloiv such lines indicating 
the bottom temperature thus : |i?. 

In prosecuting our explorations we soon found that there are, in the 
waters of this region, three quite distinct assemblages of animal life, 
which are dependent upon and limited by definite physical conditions of 
the waters which they inhabit. The first of these includes all those kinds 
which inhabit the bottom and shores of Vineyard Sound, Buzzard's 
Bay, and the other similar bodies of shallow water along this coast from 


Cape Cod westward and southward. These shallow waters consist of 
nearly pure sea-water, which lias ji relatively high temperature, especi- 
ally in summer, for it is warmed up both by the direct heat of the sun, 
acting on the shallow waters spread over broad surfaces of sand, and by 
water coming directly from the Gulf Stream, and bringing not only its 
heat, but also its peculiar pelagic animals. The temperature at the 
surface in August was 60 to 72 Fahrenheit. Owing to this influence 
of the Gulf Stream these waters never become very cold in winter, for 
some of the small, shallow harbors never freeze over. The greater part 
of* the animals inhabiting these bays and sounds are southern forms. 

The second assemblage is a very peculiar one, which inhabits the 
estuaries, ponds, lagoons, harbors, and other similar places, where the 
water is shallow and more or less brackish, and very warm in summer, 
but cold in the winter. The third group inhabits the shores of the 
outer islands and headlands and the bottoms in moderately deep water, 
outside of the bays and sounds. These outer waters are comparatively 
cold, even in summer, and are no doubt derived from an offshoot of the 
arctic current, which drifts southward along our shores in deep water 
and always has a tendency to crowd against and up its submarine 
slopes, in which it is also aided in many cases by the tides. In August, 
the temperature of the surface was 62 to 65, of the bottom 57 to 62 
Fahrenheit. The animals inhabiting these cold waters are mostly 
northern in character and much like those of the coast of Maine and 
Bay of Fundy. The surface waters in the bays and sounds, although 
usually somewhat warmer in summer than those outside, differ less in 
temperature than the bottom waters. Consequently we find less differ- 
ence in the surface animals. We have therefore found it most conveni- 
ent to group all the surface animals together, as a special division of 
those inhabiting the bays and sounds. In each of the groups or assem- 
blages we find that certain kinds are restricted to particular localities, 
depending upon the character of the bottom or shore. Thus there will 
be species, or even large groups of species, which inhabit only rocky 
shores ; others which inhabit only sandy shores ; others which dwell in 
the muddy places ; and still others that prefer the clean gravelly bottoms 
where the water is several fathoms deep, &c. 

I have found it desirable, therefore, in describing the character of the 
marine life of this region, to group the animals according to the locali- 
ties which they inhabit, adopting the three primary divisions given 
above, but, for greater convenience of reference, placing all the parasitic 
species together in one group. The subdivisions of these groups will 
be given under each, in the succeeding pages. 

The primary groups will stand as follows: 

1. The fauna of the bays and sounds. 

2. The fauna of the estuaries and other brackish waters. 

3. The fauna of the cold waters of the ocean shores and outer banks 
and channels. 


In describing the animals belonging in these different divisions and 
subdivisions it has not been found desirable to mention, in this part of 
the report, all the species found in each, but only those that appear to 
be the most abundant and important, and especially those that are 
known to serve as the food of fishes. But in the general systematic list, 
which accompanies this report, all the species of the region, so fa. 
determined, will be enumerated. 


In Buzzard's Bay, Vineyard Sound, Nantucket Sound, and Muskeet 
Channel, (see map,) the water is shallow, being generally less than 8 
fathoms deep, and rarely exceeding 14 fathoms, even in the deepest 
spots. It will be seen by reference to the map, on which soundings have 
been given and contour lines drawn, representing the zones having 
depths below 3, 10, 14, and 20 fathoms, respectively, that the greater 
part of Buzzard's Bay is less than 10 fathoms deep, and that the 3-1'athom 
curve is nearly parallel with the shore lines, and the same is true of the 
6-fathom line, which has not been drawn. The 10-fathoni curve is very 
irregular and only extends a short distance within the mouth of the bay ; 
but an irregular area, in which the water exceeds 10 fathoms in depth, 
the central part over a limited area being about 15 fathoms, is sit- 
uated to the west of Penikese, Nashawena, and Cuttyhunk Islands ; 
this is inclosed on all sides by shallower water. The 14- fathom curve is 
situated from four to eight miles farther off and does not enter the bay 
at all, showing only a very slight curvature in that direction ; yet it 
extends far up Narragansett Bay, and to a considerable distance within 
the mouth of Vineyard Sound, but, like the 10-fathom line, does' not 
enter Muskeget Channel or Nantucket Sound at any point, and shows 
scarcely any curvature toward those waters, which are very shallow 
throughout their whole extent, and much obstructed by banks and 
broad shoals of moving sands. The 20-fathom line at nearly all points is 
situated far off shore, and does not conform at all to the outline of the 
coast. There is, however, an area of water exceeding this depth of! 
Newport, in the mouth of Narragansett Bay. 

Vineyard Sound is deeper and much more varied in its depth and in the 
character of its bottom than Buzzard's Bay or Nan tucket Sound, and 
therefore its fauna is richer in species and the facilities for collecting are 
much greater. In Vineyard Sound the 3 fathom curve follows the out- 
lines of the shore very closely, and the same is true of the G-fathom curve, 
which has not been represented on the map. The 10-fathom line when 
it enters the mouth of the sound incloses the greater part of its width and 
is Approximately parallel with its shores, but after it passes the narrowest 
part of the sound, between the northern end of Martha's Vineyard and 
Wood's Hole, it rapidly narrows and is finally interrupted by shallows and 
sand-bars after passing Holmes's Hole, but there are beyond this sev- 
eral isolated areas of water exceeding this depth and having their long 


axcsnea-rly parallel with tliecentral axis of tlic channel, orrathcr parallel 
with the direction of the tidal currents. One of these areas, south of 
Osterville, Massachusetts, is 15 fathoms deep, but of no great size. 
These deeper depressions are surrounded by banks and ridges of sand, 
some of which rise nearly to the surface and form dangerous shoals; the 
shoals, like the deep channels, have their longer axes parallel with the 
prevailing tidal currents, but as they are mostly composed of loose 
moving sands, they are liable to be altered in form and position by 
severe storms. 

These moving sands are generally very barren of life, and form true 
submarine deserts. Included within and nearly inclosed by the 10- 
fathom line, there is, between Martha's Vineyard and Naushon Island, a 
large area of shallower water, which is connected with the shallow 
water of the shore at the northern end of Martha's Vineyard, off the 
" West Chop," near Holmes's Hole. In some places this shallow rises 
nearly to the surface and forms the " middle ground," and other shoals 
parallel with the current that sets through the channels on either side, 
and consequently nearly parallel with the shore of Martha's Vineyard. 
It is evident that this rather extensive bank is due to the action of the 
tidal current which sweeps around West Chop toward the mouth of 
the sound, following the direction of the deeper channels, the projecting 
point at West Chop furnishing a lee in which the movement of the 
water is retarded and the sediment deposited ; but this action is modi- 
fied by the tidal current which enters the mouth of the sound and flows 
in the opposite direction, for although this current is somewhat less 
rapid, its duration is longer, especially that branch of it which flows 
between the Middle Ground Shoal and Martha's Vineyard, for this flows 
eastward seven hours and twenty-six minutes, while the opposite cur- 
rent flows westward for only four hours and thirty-four minutes ; the 
effect of the current flowing eastward would, therefore, be to keep this 
channel from filling up by the sediments carried along by the westward 
currents. The same effect would be produced in the main channel, out- 
side of this shoal, although the difference in the duration of the flow 
in the two directions is there less, the eastward flow lasting six hours 
and fifteen minutes, while the westward tide lasts five hours and forty- 
five minutes. 

Similar causes determine, without doubt, the position of all the other 
shoals and banks of sand in this region, as well as the existence of the 
isolated deep areas between, them, but in many cases -the direction of 
the wind-waves produced by the more violent storms must betaken into 
account. The 14-fathom line extends into the mouth of the sound, as 
far as a point opposite Nashawena Island ; and beyond this there are 
several isolated areas which are of this depth ; the mo/t extensive of 
these is opposite the southern half of Naushon Island and in a line with 
the main channel at tbe'mouth of the sound. Since the tides are greater 
in Buzzard's Bay than in Vineyard Sound, and neither the times of low 


water and high water, nor the relative duration of the ebb and flow are 
coincident, very powerful currents set through the passages, between 
the Elizabeth Islands, connecting these two bodies of water. This is 
most noticeable in the case of Wood's Hole, because there the channel 
is narrow and shallow, and much obstructed by rocks. These channels 
are, therefore, excellent collecting grounds for obtaining such animals 
as prefer rocky bottoms and rapidly flowing waters. 

The shores of Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's Bay are quite diversified 
and present nearly all kind of stations usually found in corresponding- 
latitudes elsewhere, except that ledges of solid rock are of rare occur- 
rence, but there are numerous prominent points where the shore con- 
sists of large rocks or boulders, which have been left by the denuda- 
tion of deposits of glacial drift, forming the cliffs along the shores. 
Sandy beaches are frequent, and gravelly and stony ones occasionally 
occur. Muddy shores are less common and usually of no great extent. 

In Buzzard's Bay the bottom is generally muddy, except in very 
shallow water about some of the islands, where patches of rocky bot- 
tom occur, and opposite some of the sandy beaches where it is sandy 
over considerable areas. Tracts of harder bottom, of mud or sand, 
overgrown with algre, occasionally occur. In Vineyard Sound the bot- 
tom is more varied. It is sandy over large districts, especially where 
the shoals occur, and in such places there are but few living animals, 
though the sand is often filled with dead and broken shells, but in 
other localities the sand is more compact and is inhabited by a peculiar 
set of animals. Other extensive areas have a bottom of gravel and 
small stones and broken shells 5 on such bottoms animal life is abun- 
dant, and the entire bottom seems to be covered in some places by sev- 
eral kinds of compound ascidians, which form large masses of various 
shapes, often as large as a man's head. In still other places, chiefly off 
rocky points and in the channels between the islands, rocky bottoms 
occur, but they are usually of small extent. Muddy bottoms are only 
occasionally met with. They occur in most of the deep areas which are- 
isolated, and sometimes in the deep channels, but are more common in 
sheltered harbors and coves. 

In Nantucket Sound and Muskeget Channel the bottom is almost 
everywhere composed of sand, and the same is true of an extensive 
area to the east and northeast of Xantucket Island, where shoals of 
moving sand are numerous and often of large size, but in the partially 
sheltered area on the north side of Nantucket, there is more or less mud 
mixed with the sand. 

For greater convenience the following subdivisions have been adopted 
in describing the animals of the bays and sounds: 

1. Rocky shores, between high-water and low-water marks. 

2. Sandy and gravelly shores. 
:>. Muddy shores and flats. 

4. Piles of wharves, buoys, &c. 


5. Kocky bottoms below low- water mark. 
G. Stony, gravelly, and shelly bottoms. 

7. Sandy bottoms. 

8. ]\Iiiddy bottoms. 

9. Free-swim mini;- and surface animals. 
10. Parasitic, animals. 

It must, however, be constantly borne in mind that very few kinds 
of animals are strictly confined to anyone of these subdivisions, and 
that the majority are found in two, three, or more of them, and often in 
equal abundance in several, though each species generally prefers one 
particular kind of locality. In other cases the habits vary at different 
seasons of the year, or at different hours of the day and night, and 
such species may be found in different situations according to the times 
when they are sought. The more common and characteristic species 
are, however, pretty constant in their habits and may be easily found 
in their respective stations at almost any time. 

Since those animals that inhabit the shores, between tides, are most 
frequently seen and can be most easily obtained and studied by those 
who are not professional naturalists, I have entered into more details 
concerning their habits and appearances than in the case of those 
obtained only by dredging. Such species as have not been previously 
named and described in other works will be more fully described in the 
systematic list, to follow 7 this report, and references will there be given 
to descriptions of the others. 



The principal localities where these animals were studied and col- 
lected are at Nobska Point, just east of Wood's Hole ; Parker's Point r 
between Great Harbor and Little Harbor, near Wood's Hole ; the neck 
of land north of Wood's Hole Channel; several localities on Naushon 
and the adjacent islands ; and numerous localities on the shores of Long 
Island Sound, as at Savin Rock and Light-House Point, near Xew 
Haven ; Stony Creek ; Thimble Islands, &c. 

In all these places the rocks, in a zone extending from near low- 
water mark of ordinary tides to near half tide, are generally covered 
with an abundance of " rock- weeds," (Fucus nodosus and F. vesiculosus,} 
which hang in great olive-brown clusters from the sides of the rocks 
or lie flat upon their surfaces when left by the tide, but are floated up 
by means of their abundant air-vessels when the tide rises. Mingled 
with these are several other algae, among which the green " sea-cabbage " 
(Ulva latissima) is one of the most abundant. Below this zone of 
Fucus there is a narrow zone which is only exposed during spring-tides ; 
in this the Ulva and many. other more delicate green and red algfe 
flourish. Above the Focus-zone there is another zone of considerable 
width which is covered for a short time by every tide ; and still higher 


up another zone which is ordinarily only washed by the waves and spray, 
but is in part occasionally covered by unusually high tides. As the 
tides do not rise very high in this region these zones are all much nar- 
rower and less distinctly marked than on the coast further north, and 
especially on the coast of Maine and in the Bay of Fundy, but yet they 
can always be easily recognized and distinguished by their peculiar forms 
of animal and vegetable life. Pools of sea- water left by the tide fre- 
quently OQCiir in each of these zones, among the rocks, and afford 
excellent opportunities for studying and collecting the animals. 

The animals of rocky shores are to be sought for in a variety of ways- 
A few occur quite exposed, clinging to the rocks or weeds, in defiance of 
the surf. These are chiefly univalve shells, barnacles, and such animals 
as grow like plants, firmly attached to solid objects, among these are 
the bryozoa, hydroids, and sponges. A much larger number seek shel- 
ter under the rocks, or on their lower sides, or in crevices and cavities 
between them ; these must be sought by turning over the rocks and ex- 
ploring the crevices concealed by the Fucus, &c. Many other species 
conceal themselves still more effectually by burrowing iu the mud, 
gravel, and sand beneath and between the rocks; these are often 
uncovered in turning over the rocks, but must also be sought for 
by digging with a spade, stout trowel, or some other tool, in the 
dirt exposed when the rocks are removed. The number of curious 
species of annelids, holothuriaus, bivalve shells, actinia*, X:c., which 
can be unearthed in this way is always very surprising to the inexpe- 
rienced in this kind of collecting. Still other kinds can be found by 
carefully examining the pools and discovering the smaller animals by 
their motions, or by the shadows that they cast when the sun shines, 
or by noticing their burrows, or, if time will not admit of a more care- 
ful examination, by sweeping a fine hand-net through the weeds along 
the edges. Many small Crustacea, shells, etc., may also be found cling- 
ing to the corallines and other alga3 growing in such pools, or even 
among the algae lying upon the rocks, and especially among masses of 
detached algse, thrown up by the waves. 

In the uppermost zone the animals are of comparatively few kinds, 
but these usually occur in great abundance. The most conspicuous is, 
perhaps, the common " rock-barnacle" or " acorn-shell," Balanus bal- 
anoides, which adheres firmly to the rocks by its base and can resist 
the most violent surf, even on the outer ocean shores. When left by 
the tide these dull white conical shells are not calculated to attract 
much attention, except on account of their vast numbers, for they 
sometimes completely whiten the rocks for long distances along the 
zone in which they flourish best, and even so crowd against each other 
that they cannot assume their normal form, but become greatly elon- 
gated. But when the tide comes iu, each, one lifts up the double-door 
which closes the aperture at the summit of the shell and puts out an 
organ, bearing a cluster of gracefully curved and fringed arms, which 


it quickly sweeps forward with a grasping motion ami then quickly 
withdraws, as i!' in search of food, and this motion will be repeated with 
great regularity for a long time, unless the creature be disturbed, \\h-n 
it instantly withdraws its net and closes its doors. No one who will 
take the trouble to examine this little animal, when in active operation 
in one of the tide-pools, can fail to admire its perfect adaptation to its 
mode of life and the gracefulness of its motions. The movement 
referred to serves not only to obtain food, which, in the foryi of micro- 
scopic animals, is always abundant in the water, but also to supply 
fresh currents of water for respiration. This creature is also well worthy 
of mention here because it serves as food for the tautog, and probably 
for other fishes that can obtain it at high water. 

Two species of small univalve shells (Littorina) are always to be found 
in abundance clinging to the surface of the rocks, or among the sea- 
weeds, or creeping about in the tide-pools. These are often found quite 
up to high-water mark, but the full-grown ones are more common lower 
clown among the " rock- weeds." One of these (Plate XXIV, fig. 138) 
is subglobular in form, the spire being depressed and the aperture wide. 
This is the Littorina palliata. It varies much in color ; the most com- 
mon color is dark olive-brown, not unlike that of the Fucus, but orange- 
colored and pale yellow specimens are not uncommon, while others are 
mottled or banded with yellow or orange and brown. The second spe- 
cies is more elongated and has a more elevated and somewhat- pointed 
spire. This is Littorina rudis, and it has many varieties of form, color, 
and sculpture; one of its varieties is represented on Plate XXIV, fig. 137. 
Some specimens are smooth, others are covered with revolving lines or 
furrows ; in color it is most frequently dull gray, olive-green, or brown, 
but it is often prettily banded, checked, or mottled with yellow or orange, 
or even black, and sometimes with whitish. This species is viviparous. 
These shells are both vegetarians and feed upon the algae among which 
they live. Another allied shell, the Lacuna vincta, (Plate XXIV, fig. 
139,) is found clinging to the sea weeds at low-water mark and some- 
times in the tide-pools. This is usually pale reddish or purplish 
brown, or horn-colored, and most commonly is encircled by two or more 
darker, chestnut-colored bauds. This also feeds upon the algae. Asso- 
ciated with the last, two or three other kinds of small shells are gener- 
ally found. One of the most abundant of these is the Bittium nigrum, 
(Plate XXIV, fig. 154,) which is, as its name implies, generally black, 
especially when young, but large specimens are often only dark brown 
or even yellowish brown below ; it occurs in great abundance, clinging 
to the sea-weeds and eel-grass at and below low-w r ater mark, and is also 
to be found in the tide-pools and on the under sides of rocks. Associated 
with the last, and resembling it in form and color as w r ell as in habits, 
another much less common species occurs, which is remarkable for hav 
ing its whorls reversed, or coiled to the left, in the direction opposite to 
that of most other shells. This is the Tnforis nigrocindu^ (Plate 


XXIV, fig. 152.) This species is more at home at the depth of a few 
fathoms, among algse. Another still smaller and lighter colored species. 
which often occurs abundantly in similar situations, both on alga.' 
and under stones, is the Eissoa aculeus, (Plate XXIV, fig. 141,) but this 
generally seeks more sheltered situations. All these shells feed upon 
the alga3. With them there can usually be found large numbers of sev- 
eral carnivorous species. The most abundant one is a small but pretty 
shell, having a smooth surface and quite variable in color^though usually 
reddish or purplish brown, and irregularly mottled or banded with yel- 
lowish or whitish, the light-colored spots often taking the form of cres- 
cents, and varying much in size and number. This is the Astyris lunata, 
(Plate XXI, fig. 110.) It lives among the alga?, and also among 
hydroids, and may be found in almost all kinds of localities, both above 
and below low-water mark. It is usually abundant on the under sides 
of rocks among hydroids, &c., and can nearly always be found in 
the tide-pools. Another allied species of larger size, and much less 
common, the Anachis avam, (Plate XXI, fig. 109,) often occurs with it. 
Clinging to the rocks, or sheltered in the crevices and on their under sur- 
faces, a much larger, dull-white or grayish, roughly-sculptured shell can 
usually be found in abundance. This is the Urosalpinx cinerea, (Plate 
XXI, fig. 116,) which the oystermen call " the drill," a name, very suggest- 
ive of its habits, for it gets its living, like many other similar univalve 
shells, by drilling a round hole, by means of the sharp, flinty teeth that 
cover its tongue, through the shells of oysters and other bivalves and 
then sucking out the contents at its leisure. It is usually very abun- 
dant on the oyster-beds, and often proves very destructive. Another 
shell of about the same size, somewhat resembling the last, and having 
similar habits, is often found associated with it on the more exposed 
rocky points, as at Nobska Point, the Wepecket Islands, &c. This is, 
however, a very northern and arctic shell, which extends also around 
the northern coasts of Europe, and is calle:! Purpura lapillus, (Plate 
XXI, figs. 118 and 119 ;) it is here near its southernmost limits, for it 
is not not found in Long Island Sound or farther south ; while the former 
is a southern shell, abundant on the whole southern coast as far as the 
Gulf of Mexico, and rare north ot Cape Cod, except in a few special 
localities of sheltered and warm waters. The Purpura is seldom found 
living much below low- water mark, and prefers the exposed rocky head- 
lands on the ocean shores, where it flourishes in defiance of the break- 
ers. It lays its eggs in smooth, vase- shaped capsules, attached to the 
sides or under surfaces of stones by a short stalk, and usually arranged 
in groups, (Plate XXI, fig. 120.) The eggs of " the drill" are laid in 
similar places, but the capsules have very short stalks, or are almost 
sessile, and are compressed, with an ovate outline, and angular ridges 
pass down their sides. The " limpet," another northern and European 
shell, having a low conical form, is occasionally found clinging to the 
rocks at low-water in this region, but is far more common north of 


Cape Cod. This shell is the Acnuva Icxtmlimilix, (Plate. XXIV. figs. 
lf>(), IfM/,;) it is extremely variable in color, but is most commonly radi- 
ated, checked, or tesselated with brown, pale greenish, and white. It 
grows much larger on. the coast of Maine than here. A peculiar narrow 
form of this shell, (var. alrcm,) represented by fig.159/;, lives on the leaves 
of eel-grass. J>eneath the rocks, and generally attached to their under 
sides, among hydroids, bryozoa, &c.. several species of small, slender, 
pointed, and generally whitish shells occur, which belong to the genus 
Odostomia. The most common of these are 0. trifida. (Plate XXIV, 
lig. 145,) 0. Msuturalis, (Plate XXIV, fig. 146,) and 0. fusca, (Plate 
XXIV, tig. 144,) but other similar species are often to be found. These 
all have the singular habit of spinning a thread of mucus by means of 
which thej* can suspend themselves from any surface. In confinement 
they will often creep along the surface of the water, using the bottom of 
the foot as a float, in a manner similar to that of many fresh-water 
shells. On the under sides of rocks are occasionally found some very 
beautiful and interesting naked mollusks ; but this group of animals is 
far less abundant in this region ihan farther north. The largest and 
finest species observed here is the Doris bifida, (Plate XXV, fig. 176,) 
which grows to be about an inch long. Its body is deep purple, specked 
with white and bright yellow, and the beautiful wreath of gills is cov- 
ered with bright golden specks ; the ends of the tentacles are also bright 
yellow. Its eggs are contained in convoluted gelatinous ribbons, which 
are attached to the under sides of rocks or in crevices. Another rare 
and curious species, the Doridella obscura, (Plate xxv, fig. 173,) is occa- 
sionally found on the under side of stones. This is a small, oval, flat- 
tened species, of a dark browM or blackish color, with small, white re- 
tractile tentacles on the back, but the gills are very small and situated 
underneath, near the posterior end of the body, in the groove between 
the mantle and foot. The eggs are inclosed in a delicate gelatinous 
string, which is coiled up something like a watch-spring, and attached 
to the under side of stones. 

Of bivalve shells several species are common on rocky shores, espe- 
cially in the crevices and under the rocks. Three kinds of muscles are 
usually met with. The species which lives at high-water mark, clus- 
tering about the small upper pools and in the crevices, and having its 
shell ribbed with radiating ridges and furrows, is the Modiola plicatula, 
(Plate XXXI, fig. 238.) This species is far more abundant, however, 
along the borders of estuaries and on sale marshes and muddy shores, 
always preferring the upper zone, where it is covered for a very short 
time by the tide. The most common species among the rocks, toward 
low-water mark, and in the larger pools, is the Mytilus eduli-8, (Plate 
XXXI, fig. 234,) which is the "common muscle" all along our coast 
from Xorth Carolina to the Arctic Ocean. It is perfectly identical with 
the common muscle of Europe, which there forms a very important ar- 
ticle of food, and in many places, as on the coast of France, is exten- 


sively cultivated for the market. On our coast it is seldom used as 
food, although quite as good as on the European shores ; but it is col- 
lected on some parts of our coast in vast quantities to be used for fer- 
tilizing the soil. It is most abundant in the shallow waters of bays and 
estuaries, where the water is a little brackish, but flourishes well in almost 
all kinds of situations where there is some mud, together with solid ob- 
jects to which it can attach itself. Along the coasts of Long Island and 
New Jersey it is taken in almost incredible quantities from the shallow 
sheltered bays and lagoons that skirt those shores. It grows very rapidly 
and under favorable conditions becomes full grown in one season. Like all 
other kinds of true muscles, it has the power of spinning strong threads by- 
means of the groove in its long, slender foot, and, by extending the foot,, 
glues them firmly by one end to rocks, shells, or any other solid sub- 
stances, while the other end is firmly attached to its body. When they 
attach their threads to their neighbors they form large clusters. Thus 
a very firm and secure anchorage is effected, and they are generally 
able to ride out the most violent storms, though, by the giving way of 
the rocks or shells to which they are attached, many are always stranded 
on the beaches after severe storms. They are not confined to the shal- 
low waters, for very large specimens were dredged by me, several years 
ago, in 40 to 50 fathoms in the deep channels between E.istport, Maine, 
and Deer Island, where the tide runs with great force $ and it has since 
been dredged by our parties in still deeper water in the same region, 
showing that it can live and prosper equally well under the most di- 
verse conditions. The specimens from sheltered localities and sandy 
bottoms are, however, much more delicate in texture and more brilliant 
in color than those from more exposed situations. Some of the thinner 
and more delicate specimens, from quiet and pure waters, are translu- 
cent and very beautifully colored with brown, olive, green, yellow, and 
indigo blue, alternating in radiating bands of different widths; while 
others are nearly uniform pale yellow, or translucent horn-color. Those 
from the exposed shores are generally thicker, opaque, and plain dull 
brown, or bluish black, and not unlrequently they are very much dis- 
torted. This species breeds early in the spring. I have found immense 
numbers of the young, about as large as the head of a pin, which had just 
attached themselves to algae, hydruids, &c., on the 12th of April. These 
shells are not destined to remain forever fixed, however, for they not 
only swim free when first hatched, but even in after life they can, at 
will, let go their anchor-threads, or " byssus," and creep about by 
means of their slender "foot," until they find another anchorage that 
suits them better, and they can even climb up the perpendicular 
suit's of rocks or piles by means of the threads of the " byssus," which 
they then stretch out and attach, one after another, in the direction 
they wish to climb, each one being fastened a little higher up than 
the last. Thus, little by little, the heavy shell is drawn up, much in 
the manner employed by some spiders when moving or suspending an 


unusually large victim. Tins common muscle is not only useful to man 
directly as food, and as a fertili/er, but it serves as an important article 
of food for many lishes, both in its young* stages and when full grown. 
The tantog makes many a, hearty meal on the full-grown shells, as do 
several other kinds of lishes, while the "scup" and others devour the 
young. The common star-fishes 1'eed largely upon muscles, as well as 
oysters, and they also have, many other enemies. A small parasitic 
crab, Pinnothere* maculatus. lives in their shells, between their gills, 
in the same manner as the common Pinnotheres ostreum lives in the oys- 
ter. Another larger muscle, sometimes called the " horse-muscle," 
which is the Modiola moil'ioliis, (Plate XXXI, fig. 237,) lives at extreme 
low-water mark in the crevices between the rocks, and usually nearly 
buried in the gravel and firmly anchored in its place. Sometimes it oc- 
curs in the larger pools, well down toward low-water mark. It is, like 
the last, a northern species, and extends to the Arctic Ocean and North- 
ern Europe. It is much more abundant on the northern coasts than 
here, and, although it is almost entirely confined to rocky shores and 
bottoms, it extends to considerable depths, for we dredged it abun- 
dantly in the Bay of Fuudy, at various depths, down to 70 fathoms. 
Like the preceding, it is devoured by the tautog and other fishes. Its 
thick shell, covered with a glossy, chestnut epidermis, and rudely hairy 
toward the large end, are points by which it can easily be recognized, 
and its shape is also peculiar. The common ^ ; long clam," My a arena- 
ria, (Plate XXVI, fig. 179) is very often met with buried in the sand 
and gravel beneath stones and rocks, but it is far more abundant on 
sandy and muddy shores, and especially in estuaries, and will, there- 
fore, be mentioned with more details in another place. 

Another shell, somewhat resembling the "long clam," but never 
growing so large, and more cylindrical in form though usually much 
distorted, is occasionally met with under the rocks or in crevices. This 
is the tSaxicava arctica, (Plate XXVII, fig. 192.) It is much more 
abundant farther north, and has a very extensive range, being found on 
most coasts, at least in the northern hemisphere. On those coasts 
where limestone exists it has the habit of burrowing into the limestone, 
after the manner of Lithodomus and many other shells. The only lo- 
calities on our coast where I have observed this habit are at Anticosti 
Island, in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, where the soft limestones are 
abundantly perforated in this way. On the New England coast lime- 
stones rarely occur, and they have to be content with such cracks and 
crannies as they can find ready made ; consequently their shells, in 
growing to fit their places, become very much distorted. This species can 
also form a byssus, when needed, to hold its shell in position. The 
siphon tube is long and much resembles that of J\Iya, (see fig. 179,) 
but is divided at the end for a short distance, and generally has a red- 
dish color. The " bloody clams," Scapharca tramversa, (Plate XXX, 
iig. 228,) and Argina pcxata, (Plate XXX, fig. 227,) are occasionally 


met with at low water, under or among rocks, and generally attached 
by a byssus, but their proper home is in the shallow waters off shore, 
especially on muddy, shelly, and gravelly bottoms. The fishermen call 
them " bloody clams,' 7 because the gills are red, and when opened they 
discharge a re.d fluid like blood. The little shell called KelUa plunulata 
(Plate XXX, fig. 226) is also sometimes found under stones at low 
water. Attached to the sides and surfaces of rocks and ledges along 
many parts of this coast, young oysters, Ostrcca Virginiana, often 
occur in vast numbers, sometimes completely covering and concealing 
large surfaces of rocks. But these generally live only through one 
season and are killed by the cold of winter, so that they seldom be- 
come more than an inch or an inch and a half in diameter. They come 
from the spawn of the oysters in the beds along our shores, which, dur- 
ing the breeding season, completely fill the waters with their free- 
swimming young. They are generally regarded as the young of u native" 
oysters, but I am unable to find any specific differences between the 
northern and southern oysters, such differences as do exist being due 
merely to the circumstances under w 7 hich they grow, such as the char- 
acter of the water, abundance or scarcity of food, kind of objects to 
which they are attached, age, crowded condition, c. All the forms 
occur both among the northern and southern ones, for they vary from 
broad and round to very long and narrow ; from very thick to very 
thin ; and in the character of the surface, some being regularly ribbed 
and scolloped, others nearly smooth, and others very rough aii^i -regular, 
or scaly, &c. When young and grown under favorable condii/.x'iis, 
with plenty of room, the form is generally round at first, then quite 
regularly oval, with an undulated and scolloped edge and radiating 
ridges, corresponding to the scollops, and often extending out into 
spine-like projections on the lower valve. The upper valve is flatter, 
smooth at first, then with regular lamellae or scales, scolloped at the 
edges, showing the stages of growth. Later in life, especially after the 
first winter, the growth becomes more irregular, and the form less sym- 
metrical ; and the irregularity increases with the age. Very old speci- 
mens, in crowded beds, usually become very much elongated, being 
often more than a foot long, and perhaps two inches wide. In the 
natural order of things this was probably the normal form attained by the 
adult individuals, for nearly all the oyster-shells composing the ancient 
Indian shell-heaps along our coast are of this much- elongated kind. 
Nowadays the oysters seldom have a chance to grow to such a good old 
as to take this form, though such are occasionally met with in deep 
The young specimens on the rocks are generally mottled or ir- 
regularly radiated with brown. They were not often met with on the 
chores of Vineyard Sound, for oysters do not flourish well in that sandy 
region, though there are extensive beds in some parts of Buzzard's 
Jay, and a few near Holmes's Hole, in a sheltered pond. The oysters 
prefer quirt waters, somewhat brackish, with a bottom of soft mud 


containing an abundance of minute living animal and vegetable organ- 
isms. In such places they grow very rapidly, and become fat and fine- 
flavored, if not interfered with by their numerous enemies. I shall 
have occasion to speak of the oyster again, when discussing the fauna 
of the estuaries, &c. 

Another shell, related to the oyster and like it attached by one valve 
to some solid object, is common, adhering to the under sides and edges 
of rocks near low-water mark. This is the Anomia glabra, (Plate 
XXXII, figs. 241, 242,) and it is often called "silver-shell" or " gold- 
shell" on account of its golden or silvery color and shining luster 5 and 
sometimes " jingle-shell" from its metallic sound when rattling about on 
the beach with pebbles, &c. This shell, however, does not grow firmly 
to the rock like an oyster, but is attached by a sort of stern or peduncle ^ 
which goes out through an opening in the side of the lower valve ; this 
is soft and fleshy at first, but late in life often becomes ossified, or rather 
calcified, and then forms a solid plug. 

Of the lower classes of Mollusca, several Ascidians and Bryozoa 
occur under and among the rocks. Among the former the Molcjula 
Manhattensis (Plate XXXIII, fig. 250) is the most common. This 
usually has a subglobular form, especially when its tubes are con- 
tracted, and is almost always completely covered over with foreign mat- 
ters of all sorts, such as bits of eel-grass and sea-weeds, grains of sand, 
&c. When these are removed its color is dark or pale olive-green, 
and the surface is a little rough. This species is often attached to the 
un .^rside of rocks, but is still more frequently attached to sea- weeds 
and eel-grass, and is sometimes so crowded as to form large clusters. 
Another species, having some resemblance to the last when contracted, 
is the Cynthia partita, (Plate XXXIII, fig. 246,) but besides the great 
difference in the tubes and apertures, this has a rougher and wrinkled 
surface and a rusty color. The specimens that grow on the under 
sides of stones are often much flattened, as in the figure, but it grows 
more abundantly attached to the piles of wharves and on shelly bot- 
toms in shallow waters, off shore, and in such places assumes its more 
normal erect position, and a somewhat cylindrical form. Each aper- 
ture is marked with four alternating triangles of flake-white and pur- 
plish red ; This and the preceding are eaten by the tautog. Most of 
the other ascidians are much more at home on the bottom, oft" shore, 
although some of them sometimes occur at low-water on rocks or in 

A delicate and elegantly branched bryozoan, the Bugula turrita, 
(Plate XXXIV, figs. 258, 259,) is often found attached to sea-weeds in 
the pools, and it is also frequently thrown up in large quantities by the 
waves, after storms. A smaller kind, with slender, ivory-white, and 
stellate branches, the Crisia eburnea, (Plate XXXIV, figs. 2GO, 2G1,) 
also occurs on the sea- weeds in pools. And with this is a coarser species, 
which forms calcareous crusts and tubercles, having the surface covered 
2 v 


with the prominent tips of the tubes ; this is the Cellepora ramulosa, and 
like the Crisia it is a northern species, which inhabits also the shores 
of northern Europe. Still other species of bryozoa occur in these situ- 
ations. One of the most abundant is Alcyonidium Mspidum, which 
forms soft gelatinous incrustations around the stems of Fueus. On the 
under sides of the stones several additional kinds occur, the most common 
of which is the Escharella variabilis, (Plate XXXIII, fig. 256,) which 
forms broad calcareous crusts, often several inches across, and of some 
thickness, composed of small perforated cells. While living this species 
is dark-red or brick-red, but it turns green when dried, and then 
fades to yellow, and finally to white. It is far more abundant on shelly 
bottoms, off* shore, in 3 to 10 fathoms of water, and in such places often 
covers every stone, pebble, and shell, over wide areas, and in some 
cases forms rounded coral-like masses two or three inches in diameter 
and more than an inch thick. 

Crustacea in considerable numbers may also be found upon the 
rocky shores. Of crabs four or five species are common, concealed 
under the rocks and in crevices. The " green crab," Carcinus granu- 
latus, occurs quite frequently well up toward high- water mark, hiding 
under the loose stones, and nimbly running away when disturbed. It 
may also be found, at times, in the larger tidal pools. Its bright green 
color, varied with spots and blotches of yellow, makes this species quite 
conspicuous. The common "rock-crab," Cancer irroratiiSj is generally 
common under the large rocks near low-water murk and often lies 
nearly buried in the sand and gravel beneath them. This species is 
usually larger than the preceding, often becoming three or four inches 
across the shell, and though less active it uses its large claws freely 
and with force. It can be easily distinguished by having nine blunt 
teeth along each side of the front edge of its shell or carapax, and by 
its reddish color sprinkled over with darker brownish dots. This crab 
also occurs in the pools, where the comical combats of the males may 
sometimes be witnessed. It is not confined to rocky shores, but is com- 
mon also on sandy shores, as well as on rocky and gravelly bottoms off 
shore. It is widely diffused along our coast, extending both north and 
south, and is common even on the coast of Labrador. Like all the 
other species of crabs this is greedily devoured by many of the larger 
fishes, such as cod, haddock, tautog, black-bass, and especially by 
sharks and sting-rays. Two smaller kinds of crabs are also very abun- 
dant under the stones, especially where there is some mud. These are 
dark olive-brown and have the large claws broadly tipped with black- 
They are often called mud-crabs on account of their fondness for muddy 
places. One of these, the Panopeus depressus, (Plate I, fig. 3,) is decid- 
edly flattened above, and is usually a little smaller than the second, 
the Panopeus Sayi, which is somewhat convex above. They are usually 
found together and have similar habits. A third small species of the 
same genus is occasionally met with under stones, but lives rather 


higher up toward high-water mark, and is comparatively ran-. Tins is 
the Panopcus Ilarrlsii. It can be easily distinguished, for it lacks the. 
black on the ends of the big claws and has a groove along the edge of 
the front of the carapax, between the eyes. This last species is also 
found in the salt marshes, and was originally discovered on the marsix-x 
of the Charles River, near Boston. All the species of Panopcus are south- 
ern forms, extending to Florida, or to the gulf-coast of the Southern 
States, but they are rare north of Cape Cod, and not found at all on 
the coast of Maine. They contribute largely to the food of the tautog 
and other fishes. The lobster, Homarus Americanus, is sometimes found 
lurking under large rocks at low-water, but less commonly here than 
farther north, as, for instance, about the Bay of Fundy. In this region 
it lives also on sandy and gravelly bottoms, off shore, but in rather 
shallow water. It is an article of food for many fishes, as well as for 
man. Active and interesting little "hermit-crabs," Eupagurus longi- 
carpus, are generally abundant in the pools near low-water, and con- 
cealed in wet places beneath rocks. In the pools they may be seen 
actively running about, carrying upon their backs the dead shell of 
some small gastroptfd, most commonly Anachis avara or Ilyanassa 
obsoleta^ though all the small spiral shells are used in this way. They 
are very pugnacious and nearly always ready for a fight when two 
happen to meet, but they are also great cowards, and very likely each, 
after the first onset, will instantly retreat into his shell, closing the 
aperture closely with the large claws. They use their long slender 
antennas very efficiently as organs of feeling, and show great wariness 
in all their actions. The hinder part of the body is soft, with a thin 
skin, and one-sided in structure, so as to fit into the borrowed shells, 
while near the end there are appendages which are formed into hook- 
like organs by which they hold themselves securely in their houses, for 
these spiral shells serve them both for shields and dwellings. This 
species also occurs in vast numbers among the eel-grass, both in the 
estuaries and in the sounds and bays, and is also frequent on nearly all 
other kinds of bottoms in the sounds. It is a favorite article of food 
for many of the fishes, for they swallow it shell and all. A much 
larger species, belonging to the same genus, but having much shorter 
and thicker claws, (Eupagurus polUcaris^) is also found occasionally under 
the rocks at low-water, but it is much more common on rocky and shelly 
bottoms in the sounds and bays. Its habits are otherwise similar to the 
small one, but it occupies much larger shells, such as those of Lunatia 
heros, Fulgur carica, &c. This large species is devoured by the sharks 
and sting-rays. 

The Amphipods are also well represented on the rocky shores by 
a considerable number of species, some of which usually occur in 
vast numbers. These small Crustacea are of great importance in con- 
nection with our fisheries, for we have found that they, together with the 
shrimps, constitute a very large part of the food of most of our more rain- 


able edible fishes, loth of the fresh and salt waters. The Amphipods, though 
mostly of small size, occur in such immense numbers in their favorite 
localities that they can nearly always be easily obtained by the fishes 
that eat them, and no doubt they furnish excellent and nutritious food, 
for even the smallest of them are by no means despised or overlooked 
even by large and powerful fishes, that could easily capture larger 
game. Even the voracious blue-fish will feed upon these small crusta- 
cea, where they can be easily obtained, even when menhaden and other 
fishes are plenty in the same localities. They are also the favorite 
food of trout, lake white-fish, shad, flounders, soup, &c v as will be seen 
from the lists of the animals found in the stomachs of fishes. One 
species, which occurs in countless numbers beneath the masses of decay- 
ing sea- weeds, thrown up at high-water mark on all the shores by the 
waves, is the Orchestia agilis SMITH, (Plate IV, fig. 14,) which has 
received this name in allusion to the extreme agility which it displays in 
leaping, when disturbed. The common name given to it is " beach-flea,' 7 
which refers to the same habit. Its color is dark olive-green or brown, 
and much resembles that of the decaying weeds among which it lives, 
and upon which it probably feeds. It also constructs burrows in the 
sand beneath the vegetable debris. It leaps by means of the append- 
ages at the posterior end of the body. 

A much larger species, and one of the largest of all the amphipods, is 
the Gammarus ornatus, (Plate IY, fig. 15,) which occurs in great num- 
bers beneath the stones and among the rock- weed near low-water mark. 
The males are much larger than the females, and sometimes become 
nearly an inch and a half long. They cannot leap like their cousins 
that live at high-water mark, but skip actively about on their sides 
among the stones and gravel, until they reach some shelter, or enter 
the water, when they swim rapidly in a gyrating manner back down- 
ward, or sideways. But although they can swim they are seldom 
met with away from the shore or much below low-water mark. The 
zone of Fucus is their true home. This species is abundant on all our 
shores, wherever rocks and Fucus occur, from Great Egg Harbor, New 
Jersey, to Labrador. Its color is generally olive-brown or reddish- 
brown, much like that of the Fucus among which it lives. The only 
good English name that 1 have ever heard for these creatures is that of 
" scuds " given by a small boy, in reference to their rapid and peculiar 

Another smaller species, Gammarus annulatus SMITH, frequently oc- 
curs under stones in similar places, but usually a little higher up. This 
is a pale species, having darker bands, with red spots on the sides of 
the abdomen. Still higher up, G. marinus often occurs. 

With the Gammarus ornatus another, much smaller, light slate-colored 
amphipod is generally to be found. This is the Melita nitida SMITH. Its 
habits appear to be similar to those of the Gammari. Another small 


species, found in the same situations, is the Mcera levis SMITH ; this is 
whitish in color, with black eyes. 

Two species of the genus AmphithoSsAtoo live under rocks at low water, 
but these, like the other species of this genus, construct tubes in whidi. 
they dwell. The Amphithoe maculata (Plate IV, fig. 16) is much the larger, 
and constructs large, coarse tubes of gravel, bits of sea-weed, &c., and 
attaches them in clusters to the under sides of stones. They often leave 
their tubes, however, and may be found free among the weed or under 
stones. The color is generally dark green, though sometimes reddish, 
and there is often a series of light spots along the back, and the whole sur- 
face is covered with minute blackish specks $ the eyes are red. The 
second species, Amphithoe valida SMITH, is much smaller, being gener- 
ally less than half an inch long. It is usually bright green in color, and 
has black eyes. It often lives among the bright green fronds of Ulva 
latissima, and its color is nearly that of the Ulva. 

Another amphipod, resembling a small Gammarns^ about half an inch 
long, and light olive-brown or yellowish brown in color, is sometimes 
found in large numbers swimming actively about in the larger tidal 
pools, and occasionally darting into the growing sea-weeds for rest or 
concealment. This is the Calliopius Iceviusculus. It also often occurs 
in vast numbers swimming at the surface, far from land, not only in the 
sounds and bays, but out at sea, as for instance in the vicinity of St. 
George's Bank and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where it is equally 
abundant. It is devoured in large quantities by numerous fishes. 
The Hyale littoralis occurs near high-water, among algae, and in pools. 

The Isopods are also well represented on the rocky shores. One 
of the most common is the Sph&roma quadridentata, (Plate V, fig. 
21,) which bears some resemblance, both in form and habits, to the 
"pill-bugs, ? which live upon the land. This species is found in abun- 
dance under stones and rocks, or creeping slowly about among the branches 
and roots of sea-weeds, on their sides and upper surfaces, from low- 
water mark nearly up to high-water mark. In color it is exceedingly 
variable, for no two can be found that are alike $ but the colors, consisting 
of irregular blotches and dashes of dark gray, light gray$ slate, greenish, 
and white, are so blended as to imitate very closely the colors of the bar- 
nacles and gray surfaces of the rocks where they live, and no doubt 
they derive considerable protection from their enemies by these imita- 
tive colors. When disturbed they curl themselves up in a ball and fall 
to the bottom. 

Another smaller and much more active species, which has a more 
slender form, is found in vast numbers creeping actively about over the 
rocks and barnacles, and especially beneath rocks and drift-wood. This 
is the Jccra copiosa. It is also excessively variable in color, but shades 
of green, gray, and brown predominate, and cause it to imitate very ef- 
fectively the surfaces of the rocks covered with small green algre, where 


it loves to dwell. It is found nearly up to high-water mark, and lias a 
wide range both northward and southward along the coast. 

Another very common and much larger isopod is the Idotea irro- 
rata, (Plate Y, fig. 23,) which grows to be nearly an inch long. Its 
colors are extremely varied. Often the general color is dark gray, light 
gray, dull green, or brownish, thickly specked and blotched with darker, 
but the colors are often brighter and the markings more definite ; not 
unfrequently a band of white, or yellowish, or greenish, runs along the 
middle of the back, with perhaps another along each lateral border. 
This species occurs creeping among the " rock- weeds" and other alga> 
at low water, in the pools, creeping on the under sides of stones, ad- 
hering to eel-grass, and also among floating sea-weeds, away from the 
shore, and in many other situations. Its colors are generally well 
adapted for its concealment, by imitating, more or less perfectly, the 
rocks and weeds among which it lives. Even those with bright green 
markings are thus protected when living on eel-grass or Ulva ; the dark, 
obscurely marked ones when on dead eel-grass or dark Fiwus ; the grays 
and browns when on stones and among barnacles, &c. This protection 
is not perfect, however, for they often fall victims to hungry fishes of 
many kinds. 

The Idotea pliospliorca HARGER, is a closely allied species, which 
grows even larger. It can easily be distinguished by the tail-piece, 
which is acute in this, but tridentate in the last, and by its rougher sur- 
face and more incised lateral borders. Its colors are similar and equally 
variable, though they are frequently in larger and more definite spots 
and blotches, and the light spots are often bright yellow. It is, as its 
name indicates, decidedly phosphorescent. It lives under the same cir- 
cumstances as the preceding species, but is much less common in this 
region, though it is abundant in the Bay of Fundy. It often occurs 
among the crowded stems of Corallina officinal-ism the larger tide-pools. 

Another related species, the Ericlisonia filiformis HARGER, (Plate 
VI, fig. 26,) also occurs among the Corallina and other algae in the tide- 
pools. This is a smaller species than the two preceding, but is some- 
what similar in its colors, which are equally variable and equally adapted 
for its concealment ; in this the colors are more commonly various tints 
of brown, or dull reddish, or light red, which are well adapted to blend 
with the colors of the Corallines. Quite a different looking creature is the 
Epelys montosus, which is occasionally found concealed beneath stones 
where there is more or less rnud. This species also frequents muddy 
bottoms, and is pretty effectually concealed by its rough-looking back 
and the coating of mud and dirt that always adheres to it. 

Clinging to the hydroids and delicate algae on the under sides of 
stones, and in tide-pools, curious slender-bodied Crustacea belonging to 
the genus Caprella (similar to fig. 20, Plate Y) may often be found in 
considerable numbers, but they are still more abundant on rocky bot- 
toms off shore, They have the habit of holding on firmly by the pos- 


terior legs, nud extending the body out at an angle, with the long, rough 
front legs stretched out in various directions. While in these attitudes 
and at rest they often closely resemble the branches of the hydroids 
and algic among which they live, especially as they also imitate them in 
colors, for all these species are variable in color, being generally gray, 
with darker specks, when living among hydroids, but often bright red 
when living among red algrc. This habit of holding themselves stiffly 
in such peculiar positions recalls the similar habits of many insects, es- 
pecially some of the Orthoptera and the larvae of the geometrid moths, 
and they also recall the larvie, just named, by their singular mode of 
climbing actively about among the branches of the hydroids and algae, 
for they bend the slender body into a loop, bring the hind legs up to the 
front ones, and taking hold with them stretch the body forward again, 
just like those larvae, though their legs are long and slender and differ 
widely in structure. These little creatures are very pugnacious and are 
always ready to fight each other when they meet, or to repel any in- 
truder similar in size to themselves. Their large claws are well adapted 
for such purposes. 

The marine worms or Annelids are very numerous under the rocks be- 
tween tides, and concealed beneath the surface of the gravel and mud 
that accumulates between and beneath the stones and in crevices. 
Many kinds also live in the pools, lurking among the roots of the algae, 
burrowing in the bottom, or building tubes of their own in more ex- 
posed situations. Many of these annelids are very beautiful in form 
and brilliant in color when living, while most of them have curious hab- 
its and marvelous structures. Several species are of large size, grow- 
ing to the length of one or two feet. Some are carnivorous, devouring 
other worms and any other small creatures that they can kill by their pow- 
erful weapons ; others are vegetarians ; but many are mud-eaters, swal- 
lowing the mud and fine sand in great quantities, for the sake of the 
animal and vegetable organisms that always exist in it, as is the case 
with clams and most of the bivalve shells, and many other kinds of 
marine animals. 

All these Annelids are greedily devoured by most kinds of marine fishes, 
whenever they can get at them, and, since many of the annelids leave 
their burrows in the night to swim at the surface, or do this constantly 
at the breeding season, they make an important element in the diet of 
many fishes besides those that constantly root for them in the mud and 
gravel, like the tautog, scup, haddock, &c. The young of nearly all 
the annelids also swim free in the water for a considerable time, and 
in this state are doubtless devoured in immense numbers by all sorts of 
young and small fishes. 

One of the largest and most common Annelids found under rocks, 
burrowing in the sand and gravel, is the Nereis virens, (Plate XI, figs. 
47-50.) It lives both at low-water mark and at a considerable distance 
farther up. It grows to the length of eighteen inches or more, and is 


also quite stout in its proportions. The color is dull greenish, or bluish 
green, more or less tinged with red, and the surface reflects bright iri- 
descent hues; the large lamellae or gills (fig. 50) along the sides are green- 
ish anteriorly, but farther back often become bright red, owing to the 
numerous blood-vessels that they contain. It is a very active and vora- 
cious worm, and has a large, retractile proboscis, armed with two strong, 
black, hook-like jaws at the end, and many smaller teeth on the sides, 
(figs. 48, 49.) It feeds on other worms and various kinds of marine 
animals. It captures its prey by suddenly thrusting out its proboscis 
and seizing hold with the two terminal jaws ; then withdrawing the 
proboscis, the food is torn and masticated at leisure, the proboscis, 
when withdrawn, acting somewhat like a gizzard. These large worms 
are dug out of their burrows and devoured eagerly by the tautog, scup, 
and other fishes. But at certain times, especially at night, they leave 
their own burrows and, coming to the surface, swim about like eels or 
snakes, in vast numbers, and at such times fall an easy prey to many 
kinds of fishes. This habit appears to be connected with the season of 
reproduction. They were observed thus swimming at the surface in the 
daytime, near Newport, in April, 1872, by Messrs. T. M. Prudden and T- 
H. Russell, and 1 have often observed them in the evening, later in the 
season. At Watch Hill, Rhode Island, April 12, 1 found great numbers 
of the males swimming in the pools among the rocks at low-water, and 
discharging their milt. This worm also occurs in many other situa- 
tions, and is abundant in most places along the sandy and muddy shores, 
both of the sounds and estuaries, burrowing near low-water mark. It 
occurs all along the coast from New York to the Arctic Ocean, and is 
also common on the northern coasts of Europe. 

With the last, in this region and southward, another similar species, 
but of smaller size, is usually met with in large numbers. This is the 
Nereis Umbata, (Plate XI, fig. 51, male.) It grows to the length of five 
or six inches, and can easily be distinguished by its slender, sharp, 
light amber-colored jaws, and by the lateral lamella, which are small 
anteriorly and narrow or ligulate posteriorly. Its color, when full 
grown, is usually dull brown, or smoky brown or bronze-color anteriorly, 
with oblique light lines on the sides, and often with a whitish border to 
each ring, which form narrow, pale bauds at the articulations ; pos- 
teriorly the body and lateral appendages are pale red, and the longitu- 
dinal dorsal blood-vessel is conspicuous. The male, of which the ante- 
rior part is represented in fig. 51, differs greatly from the female in 
the structure of the middle region of the body, which is brighter red in 
color, and has the side appendages more complicated and better adapted 
for swimming. The females agree with the males very well in the form 
and structure of the head and anterior part of the body, but the middle 
region does not become different from the anterior, as in the male. 
Both sexes are often dug out of their burrows, under stones or in the 
sand, but in such places there are few males in proportion to the fe- 


males. The males, however, sometimes occur swimming free at the 
surface in vast numbers. They swim with an undulating motion, and 
are quite conspicuous on account of the bright red color of the middle 
regiou of their bodies. Mr. S. I. Smith observed them swimming in 
this way, in the daytime, in August, at Fire Island, on the southern 
side of Long Island, where they occurred in incredible numbers and 
were eagerly pursued by the blue-fish, which at such times would not 
take bait. We often caught them in Vineyard Sound, in the evening, 
at the surface, with towiug-nets. These worms must, therefore, con- 
tribute largely to the food of many fishes. It is very common on our 
sandy shores as far south as South Carolina. A third species, Nereis 
pelagica, (Plate XI, figs. 52-55,) is abundant under stones farther north, 
but in this region is chiefly found on shelly bottoms, in the deeper wa- 
ters of the sounds. These three species of Nereis are called " clam- 
worms" by the fishermen. Two large species of worms belonging to 
the genus Rhynclwbolus (formerly Olycera) are often met with in bur- 
rows, in the mud beneath stones. These are pale reddish, deep flesh- 
colored, or dull purplish red, and rather smooth-looking worms, thick- 
est in the middle, and tapering to both ends. They have a large pro- 
boscis, armed at the ends with four black, hook-like jaws, and are re- 
markable for their rapid spiral gyrations. They belong more properly 
to the muddy and sandy shores, and will, therefore, be mentioned more 
particularly in another place. They are represented on Plate X, figs. 
43-46. Ophelia simplex occurs under stones at half-tide, and below. 

The Marphysa Leidyi (Plate XII, fig. 64) is a large and handsome 
worm, occasionally met with under stones at low- water mark, but is 
more common on shelly bottoms in shallow water off shore. It grows 
to the length of six inches or more, and its body is flattened, except 
toward the head, where it becomes much narrowed and nearly cylin- 
drical. It is yellowish or brownish red, and brilliantly iridescent. The 
brarichia3 are bright red, and commence at about the sixteenth segment j 
the first ones have only one or two branches, but farther back they be- 
come beautifully pectinated. There are six unequal caudal cirri, the 
lower lateral ones longest. It is furnished with powerful jaws, and is 
carnivorous in its habits. 

A small but very active worm, Podarke obscum V., (Plate XII, fig. 61,) 
is often found in large numbers beneath stones. These are dark brown 
or blackish in color, sometimes with lighter bands. They come out at 
night and swim at the surface in vast numbers. They are also often met 
with at the surface among eel-grass, in the daytime, in large numbers. 
A large and very singular worm, which burrows and constructs tubes 
in the mfld and gravel beneath stones, is the Cirratulus grandis V., 
(Plate XV, figs. 80, 81.) This is usually yellowish brown, dull orange, or 
ocher- colored, and is remarkable for the numerous long, flexible, reddish 
or orange cirri that arise all along the sides. Another very large and 
interesting worm, often associated with the last, both among and under 
3 V 


rocks, and on muddy shores, is the Amphitrite ornata, (Plate XVI, fig. 
82.) This worm constructs rather firm tubes out of the consolidated 
mud and sand in which it resides, casting cylinders of mud out of the 
orifice. It grows to be twelve to fifteen inches in length. Its color is 
flesh-color, reddish, and orange-brown to dark brown, and it has 
three pairs of large plumose or arborescent gills, which are blood- 
red. The tentacles are flesh-colored, very numerous, and capable 
of great extension, even to the length of eight or ten inches, and are kept 
in constant motion in gathering up the materials with which it con- 
structs its tube. Two species of worms, remarkable for their soft bodies 
filled with bright red blood, which is not contained in special blood- 
vessels, are also found under stones where there is mud in which they 
can burrow. The smaller of these is Polycirrus eximim, (Plate XVI, tig. 
85.) Its tentacles are very numerous, and are extended in every direc- 
tion by forcing the blood into them, which can be seen flowing along in 
the form of irregular drops, distending the tubular tentacles as it passes 
along. The second species is a much larger and undescribed species, 
remarkable for its very elongated body and for having very singular 
branching gills on the sides along the middle region ; the first and last 
of these gills are simple or merely forked, but those in the middle are 
divided into numerous brauches ; and in either case each branch is 
tipped by a cluster of seta3. In allusion to this remarkable feature I 
have called it Chcetobranchus sanguineus. Its tentacles are like those of 
the last species, but longer and more numerous; in full-grown specimens 
they can be extended twelve to fifteen inches or more. Its color is blood- 
red anteriorly, but more or less yellowish at the slender posterior part. 
It is very fragile and it is seldom that a large specimen can be ob- 
tained entire. It grows to be twelve to fifteen inches long. This, like 
the three species last mentioned, feeds upon the minute organisms 
contained in the mud, which it swallows in large quantities. Two 
species of Lumbriconereis are, also, frequently found burrowing in the 
mud and sand beneath stones, but they belong more properly to the 
muddy shores. They are long, slender, reddish, and brilliantly irides- 
cent worms, readily distinguished by having a smooth, blunt-conical 
head, without tentacles. They are carnivorous and have complicated 
jaws. The head and anterior part of the body of the larger species (L. 
opalina V.) is represented in Plate XIII, figs. 69, 70. The other (L.tenuis 
V.) is very slender, thread-like, nearly a foot long, and has no eyes. 

There are several kinds of highly organized annelids which may be 
found adhering to the under side of stones or concealing themselves in 
crevices. Among these are three species, which have the back covered 
with two rows of large scales. One of these, having twelve pairs of 
nearly smooth scales, is the Lepidonotm sublevis V., (Plate X, fig. 42 ;) 
the color is variable, but usually brown or grayish, with darker specks, 
thus imitating the color of the stones. Another more common species 
is the Lepidonotm squamatus, (Plate X, figs. 40, 41,) which also has 


twelve i>airs of scales, but tfiey arc rough, and covered with small 
rounded or hemispherical tubercles ; this is usually dark brown. The 
third speeies lias sixteen pairs of smooth scales, and belongs to another 
genus. This is HarmotJioe Imbricate ; it varies exceedingly in color, but 
is usually grayish or brownish, more or less specked, blotched, or striped 
with blackish ; sometimes there is a black stripe along the middle of 
the back ; sometimes the general color is dark reddish. These three 
species of scaly worms all have a large proboscis with four powerful 
jaws at the end, and a circle of papillae, as in figs. 40 and 41 ; they are 
carnivorous in their habits and rather sluggish in their movements. 
When disturbed they curl themselves up into a ball. They are very 
complicated in their appendages, and the spines and sefoe of these ap- 
pendages are very curious in structure, when examined with a micro- 
scope. Notwithstanding their numerous sharp spines they are often 
devoured by fishes, and they frequently also fall victims to their more 
powerful companions belonging to the Nereis tribe, and are sometimes 
destroyed even by the apparently inoffensive Nemerteans. Adhering to 
the under sides of the rocks and stones there are several kinds of tubes 
constructed by annelids. One of the most common and abundant kinds 
of these tube-dwelling worms is the Sabellaria vulf/aris V., (Plate XVII, 
figs. 88, 88tf.) This worm constructs firm and hard tubes out of fine sand 
and a cement secreted by special glands. These tubes are bent and 
twisted in various directions and are generally united together into 
masses or colonies, sometimes forming aggregations of considerable 
thickness and perhaps several inches or a foot across. The tubes of this 
worm are also common on the shells of oysters. Another very curious 
and beautiful worm, the Scionopsis palmata V., constructs much larger 
and coarser tubes out of bits of sea-weeds and shells, sand, small pebbles, 
and other similar materials ; these tubes are long and crooked and 
attached for their whole length to the under side of rocks. The worm 
that constructs them has some general resemblance to the AmpMtrite 
ornata, but is seldom more than three or four inches long and is usually 
darker colored, the color being generally reddish brown or dark brown, 
more or less speckled with white. There are only seventeen fascicles 
of setaB on each side. The gills are only three in number, viz : an odd 
median one, much larger than the others, placed just behind the tentacles ; 
and a pair of smaller ones, but similar in form and just back of the first ; 
all three gills have a stalk or peduncle, and branch toward the end in a 
palmate or digitate manner, each of the divisions again subdividing. 
The gills can be retracted beneath a sort of collar which arises just be- 
hind them 5 their color is greenish, specked with white. The gills of 
this worm are very elegant in form, and quite unlike those of any other 
known species, both in position and form. Therefore it is necessary to 
establish a new genus for this species. It has been found from Vineyard 
Sound to New Jersey ; both among eel-grass in shallow water, and under 
stones. The Nicolea simplex is a related species, with similar habits. 
4 v 


The crooked, round, calcareous tubes'made by Serpula dianthua V. ? 
are often to be found adhering to the under surfaces and sides of stones 
Dear low-water mark, and also in the pools in more exposed situations ; 
sometimes they are even aggregated together into masses. When dis- 
turbed the worm suddenly withdraws its beautiful wreath of gills into 
its tube and closes the aperture closely by means of a curious plug or 
operculurn. This is placed at the end of a rather long pedicle, and is 
funnel-shaped, the outside longitudinally striated and the edge bordered 
by about thirty sharp denticles ; from the middle of the upper side 
another smaller, short, funnel-shaped process arises, the edge of which 
is divided into twelve or thirteen, long, rather slender, rigid processes, 
which are usually a little curved inward at the top, but may be spread 
apart in a stellate form. A small, rudimentary, club-shaped operculurn 
exists on the other side. When these tubes are placed in sea- water and 
left undisturbed for a short time, the occupant will cautiously push out 
its operculuin and display its elegant wreath of branchia3, which varies 
much in color in different specimens, but often recalls the varied hues 
and forms of different kinds of pinks, (Diantkus.) The name which I have 
given to it alludes to this resemblance. Fine specimens of this Serpula 
may often be found, also, in the pools near low-water mark, attached to 
the upper surfaces or sides of rocks, and in such situation they display 
their charms to great advantage. The wreath of branchire is nearly 
circular, consisting of two symmetrical parts, each of which is made up 
of about eighteen pectinate branchi ; these are covered on their inner 
surfaces with slender filaments which extend nearly to the ends, but 
leave the tips naked. Young specimens have fewer branch ijic. In the 
more common varieties these branchia3 are purple at base, with narrow 
bands of light red or pale yellowish green ; above this they are trans- 
versely banded or annulated with purplish brown, alternating with yel- 
lowish green, or with purple and white ; the pinna3 usually correspond 
in color to the part from which they arise, but are sometimes all purple. 
In other specimens the branchiae are yellowish white, or greenish white, 
banded with brown. In one variety (citrina) they are bright lemon- 
yellow, or orange-colored, throughout. The operculum, in all the varie- 
ties, is usually brownish green above, with the sides purplish brown, 
lined with whitish near the edge, and with a greenish white band at the 
base; the pedicle is usually purplish, with two or more bands of white. 
The body is usually deep greenish yellow, with the back lemon -yellow ; 
the collar is broad with an undulated border, and is pale green, veined 
with darker green blood-vessels. This species is also often met with in 
dredging on shelly bottoms. 

The Potamilla oculifera (Plate XVII, fig. 86) is another beautiful 
annelid, related somewhat to the Serpula, but its tubes are tough and 
flexible ; they are constructed out of fine sand and other foreign matters, 
glued firmly together with the special secretions of the animal. These 
tubes are often found attached to the under sides of stones, but, passing 


around to the sides, open upward by a free extremity ; they also fre- 
quently oceur in sheltered nooks in the tide-pools. The worm, when 1111 
disturbed, puts out a beautiful wreath of branchiae somewhat resembling 
that of the JSerpula, but there is no operculum. The branchiae are alw;iy> 
beautifully colored, though the colors are quite variable. In one of the 
commonest styles of coloration, the branchiae are surrounded at base 
with reddish brown ; above this with a ring of white; next by a band 
of reddish brown ; then for the terminal half the color is yellowish gray, 
with indistinct blotches of brown ; on the outer sides of the branchiae 
there are one to three dark red eyes. There are ten or more branchiae 
in each half of the wreath, and they are longer on one side than on the 

Another related species, the Sabella microphthalma Y., also occasionally 
occurs in the pools and on the under sides of stones, constructing tubes 
very much like those of the last species. This is a much shorter and 
stouter worm, with the branchial wreath relatively much larger and 
nearly half as long as the body. The branchiae are pale yellowish, 
greenish, or flesh-color, with numerous transverse bands of darker green 
extending to the pinnae ; on the outer side of the branchiae there are 
numerous minute eye-like spots of dark brown, arranged in two rows on 
each. The body is usually dull olive-green. The Fdbritia Leidyi Y., is 
another member of this group of worms, but is of very minute size. It 
constructs delicate, flexible tubes, free toward the end, which usually 
stands upright. Its tubes may be found in the pools and on the under 
side of stones. The worm itself is very small, slender, and when un- 
disturbed protrudes a wreath, composed of six branchiae, to a considera- 
ble distance above the mouth of the tube. The branchiae have five 
to seven pinnae on each side, the lowest much the longest, so that when 
expanded they all reach nearly to one level. At the base of the bran- 
chiae there are two pulsating vesicles, alternating in their beats ; and 
just back of these there are two minute brown eye-specks ; two similar 
eyes exist at the posterior end. Eleven segments of the body bear fas- 
cicles of setae. Color yellowish white, the blood-vessels red. 

Two or more species of the minute but beautiful worms belonging to 
the genus JSpiroruis are found attached to the fronds of sea- weeds, to 
shells, stones, &c., especially in the pools. These are related to the 
Serpula, and like it form solid calcareous tubes, but these are always 
coiled up in a close spiral, and the coil is attached by one side. The 
little worms put out an elegant wreath of branchiae, and are furnished 
with an operculum. Another very interesting and beautifully colored 
worm, sometimes found under and among the stones, where there is 
mud, is the Cistenides Gouldii Y., (Plate XYII, figs. 87, 87a.) This 
constructs very remarkable, conical, free tubes, of grains of sand ar- 
ranged in a single layer, like miniature masonry, and bound together by 
a water-proof cement. This worm belongs more properly to the muddy 
and sandy shores and will be mentioned again. 


Under stones and decaying sea- weeds, near high-water mark, t\vo or 
more kinds of small slender worms are usually found in great numbers 
these differ widely from all those before mentioned, and are more nearly 
related to the common earth-worms of the garden. One of these is white, 
slender, and about an inch long, tapering to both ends. This is Halodil- 
lus Wtoralis V., apparently forming a new genus allied to Encliytrceus . 
Another is of about the same size, but rather longer and more slender, 
and light red in color. It has a moniliform intestine, with a red blood- 
vessel attached to it above and below. It belongs apparently to the 
genus Clitellio, (C. irroratus V.) 

In addition to all these setigerous Annelids which have been enu- 
merated, there are quite a number of worms to be found on the rocky 
shores which are destitute of all these external appendages, and have 
the surface of the body smooth and ciliated. There are two tribes of 
such worms : in one of them the body is much elongated, and either 
roundish, or flattened, and usually very changeable in form and cap- 
able of great extension and contraction. These are known as Nemer- 
teans ; most of them have a proboscis which they can dart out to a great 
length. In the other group, known as Planarians, the body is broad, 
short, and depressed, and often quite flat, and their internal structure 
is quite different. 

One of the largest of the Nemerteans, the Meckelia ingens, (Plate XIX, 
figs. 96, 96a,) is met with under stones where there is sand, but it be- 
longs properly to the sandy shores. It is an enormous, smooth, flat worm, 
yellowish, flesh-colored, or whitish, and sometimes grows to be ten or 
twelve feet long and over an inch wide. The Meckelia rosea also occurs 
occasionally in similar places. This is similar in form, but is smaller, less 
flattened, and decidedly red in color. It is often covered by adhering 
sand. Another species, belonging to the Nemerteans, is often found in 
great abundance under stones from mid-tide to near high-water mark. 
Many of them are often found coiled together in large clusters. This is 
the Nemertes socialis ; it is very slender or filiform, and often five or six 
inches long when extended. Its color is dark ash-brown or blackish, a 
little lighter beneath, and it has three or four eyes in a longitudinal 
group on each side of the head. Another larger species, apparently 
belonging to the genus Cerebratulus, but not sufficiently studied while 
living, is also abundant under stones. It is much stouter and is usually 
dark olive-green, brownish-green, or greenish-black in color, but a little 
lighter below and at the borders of the head. Several other small Ne- 
merteans occur under similar circumstances. In the pools, creeping over 
and among the algae and hydroids, a yellowish or light orange-colored 
species, one or two inches long, is often met with. This species secretes 
an unusual amount of mucus, which is, perhaps, connected with its 
climbing habits, and I have on this account named it Polinia glutinosa V., 
(Plate XIX, fig. 97.) It varies in the number of its eyes, according to 
its age, but they are always grouped in oblique clusters as in the figure. 


The color is sometimes* bright orange anteriorly, but lighter posteriorly, 
with a faint dusky or greenish line along the middle. 

Another species, closely resembling the last in form, color, and size, is 
quite common under stones, and especially in dead tubes of M-rpula, near 
low water mark. This is the Cosmocephala ochracea V.j (Plate XIX, figs. 
95, 95a ;) it has numerous eyes on the sides of the head, three or four 
on each side forming an anterior row parallel with the margin ; the 
others forming two parallel oblique groups, usually with two or three 
eyes in each, farther back. On the lower side of the head there is, on 
each side, an obliquely transverse groove. The color is usually dull yel- 
lowish-white or grayish ; the anterior part is often tinged with orange 
and the posterior with ash-gray ; there is generally a distinct paler me- 
dian line, most distinct anteriorly. It grows to be two or three inches 
long, when extended. 

Of the Plauariaus several species are also found creeping over the 
under side of stones and in the tide-pools. One of the most abundant 
is Procerodes frequens, which is a very small but lively species, found 
creeping on the under side of stones near high-water. It is usually 
about an eighth of an inch long, dark brown or blackish above and gray 
below, and it has two reuifortn eyes. The Monocelis agilis is still smaller, 
elliptical, with only one median eye ; its color is dark brown or blackish . 
By some writers this genus is placed among the Nemerteans. Two 
larger species of this group are also occasionally found on the under 
side of stones. One of these, the Planocera nebulosa, (Plate XIX, fig. 
100,) is usually about half an inch wide and three-fourths long, but may 
become nearly circular, or may extend into a long elliptical form. It is 
flat and thin, with flexuous edges. Its color is olive-green above, with 
a lighter median stripe behind, and yellowish green below. The tenta- 
cles on the back are whitish and retractile. 

The Stylochopsis Uttoralis V., (Plate XIX, fig. 99,) is also frequently 
found on the under side of stones. It is remakable for having a clus- 
ter of eyes on each tentacle, other clusters in front of them, and two or 
more rows of eye-spots around the margin, especially in front. Its color 
is variable, but usually greenish, greenish yellow, or brownish yellow, 
often reticulated with flesh-color ; there is generally a pale median streak 
posteriorly. The eggs were laid July 12th in large clusters, composed of 
many small white eggs closely crowded together, side by side, and at- 
tached to the surface of the glass jar in which they were kept. 

There are also representatives of the " round worms," or Nematodes, 
to be found beneath the stones and among the roots of algse, hydroids, 
&c. The commonest of these is, perhaps, the Pontonema marinum (Plate 
XVIII, fig. 94.) This is a small, very slender, smooth, white, round worm, 
tapering to both ends, and very active in its movements, constantly coil- 
ing itself into a spiral and again uncoiling itself. Its head is furnished 
with about six minute cirri ; in the male the tail is short, narrow, nearly 
straight, but one-sided, rapidly tapering, and subacute ; in the female 


the body is much longer, and the tail is long, slightly tapered, straight, 
and obtuse. The Pontonema vacillatum also occurs in similar places in 
abundance. In this species the male has a short, obtuse, incurved tail ; 
the female a straight, tapering, narrow, obtuse one. Both species are 
oviparous, and the female genital orifice is near the middle of the body. 
These worms are from a quarter to half an inch or more in length. 
Their complete history is not known ; they are closely allied to many of 
the parasitic worms, and it is possible that iu some stages of their de- 
velopment these are also parasites. 

Of the Eadiates there are also numerous species to be found on these 
rocky shores. 

Although the purple " sea-urchin/ 7 Arlacia punctulata, and the green 
" sea-urchin," Strongylocentrotus DrobacMensis, (Plate XXXV, fig. 268,) 
are sometimes met with, their occurrence is irregular and uncertain at 
low- water in this region. The former occurs in abundance on rocky 
and shelly bottoms in the sounds ; while the latter occurs chiefly on sim- 
ilar bottoms in the cold area, and at low-water on the outer rocky 
shores, and still more abundantly farther north. 

The green star-fish, Asterias arenicola, (Plate XXXV, fig. 269,) is- 
found in large numbers at low-water among the rocks at certain times, 
but at other times is seldom met with, though a few young specimens 
can almost always be found by careful search beneath the stones. The 
adults were very abundant on the shore at Parker's Point, in the latter 
part of June ; but by the middle of July very few could be found there. 
Their habit of coming up to the shore may be connected with their 
reproductive season. They are always abundant on shelly bottoms in 
the bays and sounds, especially where there are beds of muscles or 
oysters, upon which they feed. They often prove exceedingly destruc- 
tive of oysters planted in waters that are not too brackish for their com- 
fort. They manage to eat oysters that are far too large for them to 
swallow whole, by grasping the shell with their numerous adhesive feet, 
and then, after bending their five flexible rays around the shell so as 
partly to inclose it, they protrude the lobes and folds of their enormous 
saccular stomach from the distended mouth, and surrounding the 
oyster-shell more or less completely with the everted stomach they 
proceed to digest the contents at leisure, and when the meal is fin- 
ished they quietly withdraw the stomach and stow it away in its proper 
place. In this way a large " school " of star-fishes will, in a short timer 
destroy all the oysters on beds many acres in extent, unless their oper- 
ation be interfered with by the watchful owners. In one instance, 
within a few years, at Westport, Connecticut, they thus destroyed about 
2,000 bushels of oysters, occupying beds about 20 acres in extent, in a 
few weeks, during the absence of the proprietor. 

In order to stop their operations it is necessary to dredge over the 
eyster-grounds and destroy all the star-fishes thus brought up, by leav- 
ing them on shore above high-water mark ; for if simply torn in pieces 


and tlirown overboard, as is sometimes done, each ray has the power of 
reproducing all the lost parts, so that each fragment may, after a thin-, 
become a perfect star-fish. 

The color of this species is generally dark green or brownish given, 
with the inadreporic plate bright orange ; the males are more inclined 
to brown, and sometimes have a reddish tint. It is found all along the 
coast from Massachusetts Bay to Florida. 

The eggs of this species, like those of most other star-fishes, produce 
peculiar larva', entirely unlike the parents, and provided with vibrating 
cilia by means of which they swim about in the water, or at the surface, 
for a considerable time. The young star-fish develops within the larva 
and gradually absorbs the substance of the larva into its own organi- 

The development of this and our other common species has been very 
fully described and illustrated by Mr. A. Agassiz. 

Of the Hydroids many species occur in the pools, or attached to the 
lower sides of overhanging rocks, or of stones that have an open space 
beneath them, or growing upon the Fucus and other sea- weeds at low- 
water mark. The most abundant of all is the Sertularia pumila, (Plate 
XXXVII, fig. 279,) which grows in small tufts of delicate branches on 
the stems and fronds of all the larger sea-weeds, and on the sides and 
lower surfaces of stones. Another beautiful species, the Obelia commis- 
suralisj (Plate XXXVII, fig. 281,) occurs at low- water mark and in tide- 
pools, attached to stones and sea-weeds. It is very delicate and much 
branched, and sometimes grows five or six inches high, though usually 
smaller. At certain times it produces small medusa3 in its urn-shaped 
reproductive capsules 5 these are discharged and swim free for sometime, 
having sixteen tentacles when they become free. Several other spe- 
cies of this genus also occur attached to the sea-weeds at low-water. 
The most common of these is 0. diaplmna, which grows about an inch high, 
attached to the stems of Fucus. The Campamilaria flexuosa is another 
similar hydroid, remarkable for its large reproductive capsules, in which 
medusae are developed that never become free. This species occurs 
in the pools at low-water, on weeds and stones, and also on the lower 
sides of overhanging rocks or the timbers of wharves. It is much 
more abundant farther north, as at Eastport, Maine, where it grows in 
profusion OTI the timbers of the wharves, hanging down from their 
lower sides, collapsed and dripping, while the tide is low. The Pennaria 
tiarella (Plate XXXVII, figs. 277, 278) is a very conspicuous and beau- 
tiful species on account of its much-divided black branches and numer- 
ous bright red flower-like hydroids. It occurs occasionally in the pools, 
and just below low- water mark, attached to stones, corallines, &c., but is 
more common in somewhat deeper water on rocky and shelly bottoms. 
The " file- fish" feeds on this species, and probably on other allied 
hydroids, for its stomach was found full of the stems and branches, 
cut up in fine pieces. Its broad, sharp-edged jaws are admirably 


adapted for browsing oil hydroids, but yet tliis may not be its principal 
food, for our observations were very few on this fish, owing to its rarity. 
One of the most interesting of the hydroids, found in the rocky pools 
at low- water, or in other shaded places, is the Hybocodon prolifer, (Plate 
XXXVIII, tig. 282.) This is one of the largest and most beautiful of 
the tubularians, and is very conspicuous on account of its deep orange- 
red color. It is by no means common, and grows only in those pools 
where the water is pure and cool, or under the shade of overhanging 
rocks. It usually grows singly or in groups of two or three clustered 
together.. The delicate hydrarium of Bougamvillia superciliaris (Plate 
XXXVII, fig. 276) is also occasionally met with in the larger tide-pools 
near low- water mark, and the small, free medusa, which are produced 
by budding from the hydrarium, are frequently found swimming in the 
waters in spring. The Clava leptostyla is a beautiful and apparently 
soft and tender species, but it grows in clusters on the fronds of Fucus 
at low-water mark, on the most exposed shores, and withstands the 
most powerful surf, unharmed. The colonies are bright light red in 
color and consist of numerous hydroids arising from creeping stolon- 
like tubes, which interlace to form the base of the colony. Each of 
the hydroids consists of a cylindrical stem, slender at base and about 
a quarter of an inch high, at the end of which there is a thicker, club- 
shaped or fusiform " head," covered with about fifteen to thirty, long, 
slender tentacles, but the form both of the heads and tentacles is con- 
stantly changing, owing to their contractions. The small medusa-buds 
are grouped in clusters below the tentacles and do not become free. 
This species is also to be found in the pools and on the under sides of 
large stones close to low-water mark. 

The Hydmctmia polyclina is often met with covering the dead shells 
inhabited by the hermit-crabs, whether in the pools or in deeper water 
off shore, with a soft, velvet-like, reddish coating, which is made up of 
hundreds of hydroids united together by their bases into a rather firm, 
continuous layer, covered with conical points. This basal layer some- 
times not only entirely covers the shell, but extends out considerably 
beyond the borders of the aperture, so as to increase the capacity of 
the interior. This is no doubt a great gain to the crab, because he will not 
be so soon compelled to exchange his shell for a larger one. Each col- 
ony of these hydroids is either male or female ; the sexes diifer in depth 
of color, the male colonies being palest. But in each colony there are 
also many sterile individuals, who have to do the eating and digesting for 
the whole community, while the sexual individuals attend to the repro- 
duction of the race. Farther north, as at Kalian t, Massachusetts, this 
species often incrusts broad surfaces of the rocks in the pools, but I 
have not observed it growing in this way south of Cape Cod ; yet in one 
instance we dredged it growing on a rock. 

The Halecium gracile V. is frequently found growing in profusion on 
the under side of stones, in tide-pools, and attached to oysters, dead 


.shells, &e., in shallow waters, both of the sounds and estuaries. It 
forms rather dense, pale, Hexible tufts, three or four inches high, with 
very numerous slender branches. 

Of Polyps there are, several species belonging to the, actinians, or 
"sea-anemones," and one species of genuine coral, (Atttrangia,) but tin- 
latter is seldom found at low-water, though common in shallow water, 
ou rocky bottoms. The most common of the actinians is the "fringed 
sea- anemone," Metridium marginatum. This may almost always be 
found on the under sides of large stones that have sufficient space be- 
neath, in sheltered crevices near low-water mark, and adhering to the 
rocks along the borders of the larger tide-pools, where they are shaded 
and protected by the overhanging sea-weeds. In full expansion this 
species has a very graceful form. From the expanded base the body 
rises in the form of a tall, smooth column, sometimes cylindrical, some- 
times tapering slightly to the middle, and then enlarging to the sum- 
mit. Toward the top the column is surrounded by a circular thickened 
fold, above which the character of the surface suddenly changes, the 
skin becoming thinner and translucent, so that the internal radiating 
partitions are visible through it. This part expands upward and out- 
ward to the margin, which is folded into numerous deep undulations or 
frills, and everywhere covered with very numerous, fine, short, crowded 
tentacles. The tentacles also cover the upper side of the disk, half 
way to the mouth, but are larger and less crowded in proportion to the 
distance from the margin. The mouth is oval and the lips divided into 
numerous folds. The largest specimens are sometimes five or six inches 
high and three or four inches across the disk. The colors are extremely 
variable. Most frequently the sides of the body are yellowish brown 
or orange-brown, but it may be of any shade from white, flesh-color, 
pink, salmon, chestnut, orange, yellow, light brown, to dark umber- 
brown $ or it may be mottled and streaked with two or more of these colors. 
The upper part of the body and tentacles are translucent, and have 
lighter colors, generally either white, pink, flesh-color, or pale salmon ; 
the tentacles are also frequently banded with flake-white, and often 
have dark tips. This species, when much irritated, throws out from 
minute loop-holes along the sides large numbers of long, slender, white 
threads, which are covered with microscopic stinging-organs, powerful 
enough to defend them from the attacks of fishes and other enemies ; 
but they do not penetrate the human skin. 

Another species, the "white-armed anemone," Sagartia leucolena, 
(Plate XXXVIII, fig. 284,) is also common at low- water, especially on 
the under side of large stones, and sometimes nearly buried in sand 
and gravel. This is more elongated and slender than the last, and has 
a smaller, simple and plain disk, with the tentacles much longer and 
more slender, and crowded together near the margin ; the surface of 
the body is smooth and uniform, without any thickened fold. The 
color is usually pale salmon or flesh-color, and the skin is translucent, 


so as to sjiow the internal lamellae; the tentacles are paler and more 
translucent, and usually whitish, but sometimes pale salmon. The 
tentacles, in full expansion, are over an inch long. A second elongated 
species of Sagartia (S. modesta) occurs buried up to its tentacles in the 
gravel and sand among rocks. This species is quite rare, and has a 
much thicker and firmer skin, which is nearly opaque and dull yellow- 
ish in color ; the tentacles are shorter, with dark greenish markings at 
the base. 

iThe Halocampa producta (Plate XXXVIII, fig. 285) also occurs under 
the same circumstances with the last, though it may also be found 
on sandy shores, slightly attached to a shell or pebble, perhaps a foot 
beneath the surface, but in expansion it stretches its body so as to 
expand its tentacles at the surface, above its burrow, into which it 
quickly withdraws when disturbed. This species is remarkable for the 
great length and slenderness of its body in full extension ; for having 
only twenty tentacles, with swollen tips ; and for the rows of suckers 
along the sides, to which it fastens grains of sand, &c. It has no dis- 
tinct disk at the base, which is bulbous and adapted for burrowing 
Its color is whitish, flesh-color, or pale salmon, with the suckers whit- 
ish. The tentacles usually have darker brown tips, but sometimes the 
tips are flake-white. In full expansion the length of large specimens 
is about a foot, and the diameter about a third of an inch, but in con- 
traction the body becomes much shorter and more swollen. 

The Astrangia Dancu, which is the only true coral yet discovered on 
the coast of New England, is occasionally found on the under side of 
overhanging rocks, or in pools where it is seldom or never left dry. The 
coral forms incrusting patches, usually two or three inches across, and 
less than half an inch thick, composed of numerous crowded corallets, 
having stellate cells about an eighth of an inch in diameter. The liv- 
ing animals are white, and in expansion rise high above the cells and 
expand a circle of long, slender, minutely warted tentacles, which 
have enlarged tips. These coral-polyps, when expanded, resemble clus- 
ters of small, white sea-anemones, and like them they will seize their 
prey with their tentacles and transfer it to their mouths. They feed 
readily, in confinement, upon fragments of mollusca or Crustacea. 

Several species of sponges also occur in the rocky pools and on the 
under sides of stones. The most conspicuous one is a bright red spe- 
cies, which forms irregular crusts, and rises up in the middle into 
many small, irregular, lobe-like branches. Another species forms 
broad, thin incrustations, of a sulphur-yellow color, on the under side 
of stones. These species have not been identified. A small, urn- 
shaped or oval species, with a large aperture at the summit, sur- 
rounded by a circle of slender, projecting spicula, occurs in the pools, 
and is probably the same as the Grantia ciliata of Europe. 

In addition to the numerous species already enumerated, most of 
which belong to groups that are essentially marine animals, there are 


a few species of marine insects that are frequently met with under 
stones, or among the small green algo3. Among these a small lead-col- 
ored insect belonging to the family of " spring- tails," Anurida maritima, is 
the most abundant. With it a spider, Bdella, and several species of mites 
(Tromlndium) are often found. Several specimens of a "false scorpion, " 
Chernes oblongus, were also found by Mr. Smith near low-water mark 
under stones. In the pools and on the rocks, among the green conferva 
and other sea-weeds, the active green Iarva3 of a two-winged fly, Chiron- 
omus oceanicusj is often found in abundance. This larva we have detected 
in the stomach of the "torn-cod," mixed with small Crustacea. 

List of species inhabiting the roclcy shores of the sounds and lays. 

In the following list the species living in these situations are brought 
together systematically, whether mentioned in the preceding pages or 
not. The lists are not to be regarded as complete, but include most 
of the species ordinarily met with. The references are to the pages of 
this report, where remarks upon the species may be found : 




Chironomus oceanicus 331 

Anurida maritima 331 

Chernes oblongus 331 

Bdella marina 331 

Trombidium, several species 331 



Cancer irroratus 312 

Panopeus depressus 312 

P.Sayi .- 312 

P. Harrisii 313 

Carcinus granulatus 312 

Eupagurus pollicaris 313 

E. longicarpus 313 

Homarus Americanus 313 

Orchestia agilis 314 

Hyale littoralis 315 

Calliopius laeviusculus 315 

Gammarus ornatus 314 

G. annulatcis 314 

G. Marinus.. 314 

Moera levis ............. , . 

Melitanitida .............. 

Amphithoe maculata ...... . 

A. valida ...... ........... 

Caprella, sp ............... 

Spha3roma quadridentata . . 
Idotea irrorata ........... 

I. phosphorea . ............ 

Erichsonia filiformis ....... 

Epelys montosus .......... 

Jaera copiosa ........... ... 

Balanus balanoides ........ 

Numerous small Entomos- 







Annelids , (Cfhcetopods.] 


Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

L. sublevis 320 

Harmothoe imbricata 321 

Phyllodoce 349 

Eulalia 349 

Eumidia , . . , . 349 

Podarke obscura 319 

Nereis vireiis 317 

S". liinbata 318 

N. pelagica . . 319 

Marphysa Leidyi - - 319 

Lumbriconereis opaliua 320 

L. tennis , 320 

Bhynchobolus Americanus . . 319 

R. dibranckiatus 319 

Cirratulus grandis 319 

Cirrliinereis fragilis 

Ophelia simplex 

Sabellaria vulgaris 

Cisteuides Gouldii , 

Nicolea simplex , 

Arnphitrite ornata 

Scionopsis palmata 

Polycirrus eximius 

Chretobranchus sanguineus. 

Potamilla oculifera 

Sabella microphtlialma 

Fabricia Leidyi 

Serpula diantlius 

S. diantlius, var. citriua 

Spirorbis spirillum 



Halodrillus littoralis 


Clitellio irroratus 






Xemertes socialis 324 

Meckelia ingens 324 

M. rosea 324 


Cerebratulus (?) 324 

Cosmocepliala ocbracea 325 

Poliiiia glutiuosa 324 



Planocera nebulosa 325 

Stylochopsis littoralis 325 


Procerodes frequeus 325 

Monocelis agilis 325 



Pontonema marinuui 325 

Pontonema vacillatum . 326 


Gastropods, (Univalves.) 


Urosalpinx cinerea 306 

Purpura lapillus 306 

Enpleura caudata 371 

Fulgur carica 

Sycotypus canaliculatus 
Tritia trivittata . 




Astyris lunata 306 

Anacbis avara 306 

Odostomia producta - 307 

O. fusca 307 

O. bisuturalis 307 

O. trifida 307 

O. irnpressa , 307 

Eissoa aculeus 306 

Skenea planorbis 383 

Littorina palliata 305 

L. rudis 305 

Lacuna vincta . 305 


Bittium nigrum 305 

Cerithiopsis Greenii 383 

Triforis nigrocinctus : J05 

Crepidula fornicata .v>: J 

C. convexa : t r>:\ 

C. unguiformis 553 

Acinsea testudinalis 307 

Doris bifida 307 

Polycera Lessonii 400 

Doridella obscura 307 

^Eolis, undetermined. 

LamellibranchSj ( Bivalves.) 


Mya areuaria 309 

Saxicava arctica 309 

Kellia planulata 310 

Scapbarca transversa 309 

Argina pexata 309 


Mytilus edulis 307 

Modiola plicatula 307 

M. modiolus 309 

Anomia glabra 311 

Ostrsea Virginiana 310 


Molgula Maubatteusis 


Cyntbia partita 


Bryozoa, (or Polyzoa.) 


Crisia eburnea 311 

Tubulipora flabellaris 405 

Alcyonidium ramosum 404 

Alcyonidiuni birsutum 404 

A. bispidurn ., 312 

Vesicularia gracilis 389 

Vesicularia cuscuta 404 

V. dichotoma 404 

Bugula turrita 311 


B. flabellata 389 

Membranipora pilosa 406 

M. lineata 406 

Escharella variabilis 312 

Discopora coccinea(?) ... 424 

Lepralia, sp 420 

Oellepora ramulosa 312 

Pedicellina Americana. . 405 



Arbacia punctulata 326 

Asterias arenicola 





Obelia commissuralis 327 

O. pyriformis ....... 390 

O. diaphana - - - 327 

O. geniculata 407 

Clytia Johnston! 408 

Orthopyxis caliculata 408 

Platypyxis cylindrica 408 

Campanularia volubilis 408 

C. flexuosa 327 

Lafoea calcarata 408 

Halecium gracile 

Sertularia argentea 

S. pumila 

Bougainvillia superciliaris 

Margelis Carolinensis 

Clava leptostyla 

Pennaria tiarella 

Hybocodon prolifer 

Hydractinia polyolina 



Metridium marginatum 329 

Sagartia leucolena 329 

S. modesta 330 

Halocampa producta 
Astrangia Danse 







Grantia ciliata > 330 

Leucosolenia botryoides (?) . . 391 
Halichondria, sp 330 

Tedania, sp . 
Kenieria, sp 



These sandy shores vary considerably in character according to their 
situations and composition. In the more exposed positions the beaches 
of fine loose sand differ but little in character from those that prevail 
so extensively on the ocean shores, from Cape Cod to North Florida. 
In more sheltered situations there is generally more or less mud mixed 
with the sand, which often forms shores with a very gentle slope, run- 
ning down to broad flats, bare at low- water ; such flats of sandy mud 
are the favorite homes of large numbers of burrowing creatures ; but 
even on the exposed beaches of loose siliceous sand, which are completely 
torn up and remodeled by every storm, there are still to be found many 
kinds of animals perfectly adapted to such conditions, finding there 
their proper homes. In other cases there is more or less gravel and 
pebbles mixed with the sand, which, under some conditions of expos- 
ure, produce a firm and compact deposit, admirably adapted to the 
tastes and habits of certain tube dwelling and burrowing creatures. In 
other places, especially in sandy coves or other sheltered situations, the 
sandy flats are partly covered by tufts and patches of eel-grass, and 


there are many animals that find congenial resorts on such flats. Then 
there will sometimes be pools or rivuletsof sea-water on the s;mdy Hats. 
in which certain creatures often spend the short time while thus impi !> 
oned by the tide. 

The special localities where the sand-dwelling species of this region 
were chiefly studied, are the beaches on Naushon and adjacent islands; 
Nobska Beach and several other beaches near Wood's Hole; the exten- 
sive sand-beach between Falmouth and Waquoit ; the beach at Menem- 
shu Bight, on Martha's Vineyard ; several beaches on the shores of 
Buzzard's Bay ; the beaches at South End, Savin Kock, and other local- 
ities near New Haven ; the beaches on Great South Bay, Long Island ; 
the beaches at the mouth of Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, &c., be- 
sides the outer beaches at various other points. 

Along the upper part of the sand-beaches there is generally an almost 
continuous belt of dead sea- weeds, broken shells, fragments of crabs, 
lobsters, and various other debris cast up by the waves. Although 
many of the dead shells, &c., which occur in this way, belong really to 
the sandy shores near low-water, others have come, perhaps, from deeper 
water and other kinds of bottom. Therefore, although such rubbish- 
heaps may afford good collecting grounds for those who frequent the 
shores after storms, it would be useless to enumerate the species that 
more or less frequently occur in them. Beneath such masses of decay- 
ing materials many insects and Crustacea occur, together with certain 
genuine worms. Part of these are truly marine forms, and are never 
found away from the sea-shores, but many, especially of the insects, are 
in no sense marine, being found anywhere in the interior where dec^y- 
ing matters abound. The two-winged flies (Diptera,) of many kinds, 
are especially abundant, and their larvce occur in immense numbers in 
the decaying sea-weed. Some of these flies are, however, true marine 
species, and live in the larval state in situations where they are sub- 
merged for a considerable time by the tide. I have often dug such 
larvae from the sand near low- water mark, and have also dredged them 
at the depth of four or five fathoms off shore. During unusually high 
' tides immense quantities of the fly-larvre will be carried away by the 
encroachment of the waters, and thus become food for fishes of many 
kinds, and especially for the young ones, which frequent the shallow waters 
along the shores. There are also many species of beetles (Goleoptera) 
which frequent these places, and several of them are genuine marine 
insects, living both in the larval and adult conditions in burrows be- 
tween tides. Among these are two or three species of Bledius, belong- 
ing to the Staphylinidce ; several tiger-beetles (Cicindela,) and represen- 
tatives of other families. The " tiger-beetles " are very active, carnivo- 
rous insects and frequent the dry sands just above high-watermark; 
when disturbed they rise quickly and fly away to the distance of sev- 
eral yards before alighting. They are so wary that it is difficult to catch 
them without a net. Most of the species reflect bright, metallic, bronzy or 


green colors, and many of them have the elytra more or less marked with 
white. Mr. S. I. Smith found the larva of our largest species (C. gene- 
rosa) at Fire Island, living in holes in the sand below high-water mark, 
associated with the species of Talorcliestia. 

Beneath the decaying sea- weeds on the sandy shores immense num- 
bers of the lively little crustacean, Orchestia agilis, (p. 314, Plate IV, 
fig. 14,) may always be found. Two other related species, of larger size 
and paler colors, but having the same habit of leaping, though not in 
such a high degree, occur among the weeds, or burrowing in the sand, 
or beneath drift-wood, &c., a little below high-water mark. In fact the 
sand is sometimes completely filled with their holes, of various sizes. 
Both these species are stout in form, and become about an inch long 
when mature. One of them, Talorcliestia longicornis, can be easily dis- 
tinguished by its very long antenna? ; the other, T. megalophtlialma, by its 
shorter antennae and very large eyes. Both these species are pale gray- 
ish, and imitate the color of the sand very perfectly. When driven 
from their burrows by unusuallyjhigh tides or storms they are capable 
of swimming actively in the water. They make dainty morsels for fishes 
and many shore birds, as well as for certain crabs, especially Ocypoda 

On sandy beaches near high-water mark, especially where the sand is 
rather compact and somewhat sheltered, one of the " fiddler-crabs," 
Gelasimus pugilator, is frequently found in great numbers, either run- 
ning actively about over the sand, or peering cautiously from their holes, 
which are often thickly scattered over considerable areas. These holes 
are mostly from half an inch to an inch in diameter, and a foot or more 
in depth, the upper part nearly perpendicular, becoming horizontal be- 
low, with a chamber at the end. Mr. Smith, by lying perfectly still for 
some time on the sand, succeeded in witnessing their mode of dig- 
ging. In doing this they drag up pellets of moist sand, which they 
carry under the three anterior ambulatory legs that are on the rear side, 
climbing out of their burrows by means of the legs of the side in front, 
aided by the posterior leg of the other side. After arriving at the 
mouth of their burrows and taking a cautious survey of the landscape, 
they run quickly to the distance^often of four or five feet from the bur- 
row before dropping their load, using the same legs as before and carry- 
ing the dirt in the same manner. They then take another careful sur- 
vey of the surroundings, run nimbly back to the hole, and after again 
turning their pedunculated eyes in every direction, suddenly disappear, 
soon to reappear with another load. They work in this way both in the 
night and in the brightest sunshine, whenever the tide is out and the 
weather is suitable. In coming out or going into their burrows either 
side may go in advance, but the male more commonly comes out with 
the large claw forward. According to Mr. Smith's observations this 
species is a vegetarian, feeding upon the minute alga3 which grow upon i 
the moist sand. 4 In feeding t the males use only the small claw with which 


they pick up the bits of alga* very daintily ; the females use, indifferently 
either of their small claws for this purpose. They always swallow more, 
or less sand with their food. Mr. Smith also saw these, crabs engaged 
in scraping up the surface of the sand where covered with their favorite 
nlga', which they formed into pellets and carried into their holes, in the 
same way that they bring sand out, doubtless storing it until needed 
for food, for he often found large quantities stored in the terminal 
chamber. Mr. T. M. Prudden has since ascertained that one of the other 
species of "fiddlers" on our shores (G. minax) is also a vegetarian and 
feeds upon similar algre, which grow on the muddy salt-marshes. 

The Ocypoda arenaria is a crab allied to the " fiddlers" and similar in 
some of its habits. It is a southern species, ranging as far as Brazil, 
and adult specimens have not yet been observed on the coast of New 
England, but Mr. Smith has observed the young in abundance at Fire 
Island, and we have the young from Block Island ; it occurs at Great 
Egg Harbor, New Jersey, of larger size, and therefore it may be looked for 
on the beaches of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. This crab lives on 
the beaches at, and even far above, high -water mark. It digs large holes 
like the fiddlers, often in the loose dry sand, back from the shore, yet 
when disturbed it will sometimes take to the water in order to escape, 
though it soon returns to the shore. In digging its holes, according to 
Mr. Smith's observations, it works in the same way as the u fiddler- 
crabs," except that it is quicker in its motions, and often, instead of car- 
rying the pellets of sand to a distance from the hole, it throws it away 
with a sudden and powerful jerk, scattering the sand in every direction, 
It is even more cautious in its movements, and is always on the alert, even 
the slightest movement on the part of one who is watching them is 
sure to send them all into their holes instantly. In color this species 
imitates the sand very perfectly, especially while young, when they 
are irregularly mottled and speckled with lighter and darker shades of 
gray. They also have the habit of crouching down closely upon or 
into the sand, when suddenly frightened, and aided by their colors will 
often thus escape observation. At other times they will trust to their 
speed and scamper over the sand with such swiftness that they are not 
easily captured. This crab is carnivorous m its habits and, according 
to Mr. Smith's observations, it lives largely upon the a beach-fleas" 
(Talorchestia) which inhabit the same localities. It will lie in wait and 
suddenly spring upon them, very much as a cat catches mice. It also 
feeds upon dead fishes and other animals that are thrown on the shore 
by the waves. 

Another inhabitant of the upper part of the sand-beaches, just below 
high-water mark, is the Scyphacella arenicola SMITH, which has, as yet, 
been found only on the coast of New Jersey, but probably occurs far- 
ther north. It is a small, sand-colored Isopod crustacean, which has no 
near relatives, so far as known, except in New Zealand. It burrows in 
the sand, making a little conical mound around the mouth of the holes. 
5 V 


The only Annelid observed high up on the sand-beaches is the slen- 
der, white Halodrillus littoralis, referred to on page 324, which lives 
under the decaying sea- weeds in great numbers. 

On the lower parts of the sand beaches, toward low-water mark, and 
especially on the broad flats, which are barely uncovered by the lowest 
tides, a much larger number of species occurs. 

Among the Crustacea of these sandy shores we frequently find the 
common Cancer irroratus, (p. 312,) which is very cosmopolitan in its 
habits. Occasionally we meet with a specimen of Carcmus granulatus, 
bat this is not its favorite abode ; bat the u lady -crab " or " sand-crab," 
Platyonlclms ocellatus, (Plate I, fig. 4,) is perfectly at home among the 
loose sands at low-water mark, even on the most exposed beaches. This 
species is also abundant on sandy-bottoms off shore, and as it is furnished 
with swimming organs on its posterior legs, it can swim rapidly in the 
water and was taken at the surface in Vineyard Sound in several in- 
stances, and some of the specimens thus taken were of fall size. When 
living at low-water mark on the sand-beaches it generally buries itself 
up toitse3'es and antennas in the sand, watching for prey, or on the look- 
oat for enemies. If disturbed it quickly glides backward and down- 
ward into the sand and disappears instantly. This power of quickly 
burrowing deeply into the sand it possesses in common with all the 
other marine animals, of every class, which inhabit the exposed beaches 
of loose sand, for upon this habit their very existence depends during 
storms. By burying themselves sufficiently deep they are beyond the 
reach of the breakers. The means of effecting this rapid burrowing are 
very diverse in the different classes. Thus one of the fishes (Ophidinm 
marginatum), which lives in these places, has a long acute tail and by 
its peculiar undulatory motions can instantly bury itself tail-first in the 
sand. Others have acute heads and go in head-first. 

The "lady-crab" is predacious in its habits, feeding upon various 
smaller creatures, but like most of the crabs it is also fond of dead 
fishes or any other dead animals. In some localities they are so abun- 
dant that a dead fish or shark will in a short time be completely covered 
with them, but if a person should approach they will all suddenly slip off 
backwards and quickly disappear in every direction beneath the sand ; 
after a short time, if everything be quiet, immense numbers of eyes 
and antennae will be gradually and cautiously protruded from beneath 
the sand, and after their owners have satisfied themselves that all is 
well, the army of crabs will soon appear above the sand again and con- 
tinue their operations. The color of this crab is quite bright and does 
not imitate the sand, probably owing to its mode of concealment. 
The ground-color is white, but the back is covered with annular spots 
formed by specks of red and purple. It is devoured in great numbers 
by many of the larger fishes. 

Another curious burrowing creature, living under the same circum- 
stances as the last, is the Hippa talpoida, (Pate II, fig. 5.) But this 


species burrows like a mole, head-first, instead of bad; ward. II can 
also swim quite actively and is sometimes found swimming about in the, 
pools left on the flats at low- water. It is occasionally dug out of the sand 
at low-water mark, aud is often thrown up by the waves, on sand- 
beaches, but it seems to live in shallow water on sandy bottoms in 
great numbers, for in seining on one of the sand-beaches near Wood's 
Hole for small fishes, a large quantity of this species was taken. Its 
color is yellowish white, tinged with purple on the back. It is one of 
the favorite articles of food of many fishes. Mr. Smith found the 
young abundant at Fire Island, near high-water, burrowing in the sand. 
This species is still more abundant farther south. 

The curious long-legged " spider-crab,' 7 Libinia canaliculata^ is fre- 
quently met with at or just below low- water mark on sandy shores, but 
its proper home is on muddy bottoms. 

Creeping, or rapidly running, over the bottom in shallow water, or in 
the tide-pools on the flats, the smaller " hermit-crab," Eupagurus longi- 
carpus, (p. 313,) may almost always be observed ensconced in some dead 
univalve shell, most commonly that of Ilyanassa obsoleta. This species 
is still more abundant among eel-grass, and on muddy shores. 

The common " sand-shrimp," Crangon vulgaris, (Plate III, fig. 10,) 
always occurs in great numbers on the sandy flats and in the tide-pools 
and rivulets, as well as on the sandy bottoms in deeper water off shore. 
This species is more or less specked irregularly with gray, and imi- 
tates the color of the sand rery closely. When resting quietly on the 
bottom, or when it buries itself partially and sometimes almost entirely, 
except the eyes aud long slender antenna, it cannot easily be distin- 
guished by its enemies, and, therefore, gains great protection by its 
colors. When left by the tide it buries itself to a considerable depth in 
moist sand. It needs all its powers of concealment, however, for it is 
eagerly hunted and captured by nearly all the larger fishes which fre- 
quent the same waters, and it constitutes the principal food of many of 
them, such as the weak-fish, king-fish, white perch, blue-fish, flounders, 
striped bass, &c. Fortunately it is a very prolific species and is abun- 
dant along the entire coast, from North Carolina to Labrador, wherever 
sandy shores occur. The young swim free fora considerable time after 
hatching, and were taken at the surface in the evening, in large num- 
bers. The common prawn, Palwmonetes vulgaris, (Plate II, fig. 9,) 
often occurs, associated with the Crangon, but it is much more abundant 
among the eel-grass, and especially in the estuaries where it has its 
proper home. As this is one of the most abundant species and of 
great importance as an article of fish-food, it will be mentioned again, 
with more details, in connection with the fauna of the estuaries. 

Several species of smaller Crustacea also burrow in the sand at low- 
water mark. One of the most remarkable of these is an Amphipod, the 
Lepidactylis dytiscus, which by its external form reminds one of Hippa, 
with which it agrees in habits, for it burrows in the sand like a mole. 


It is also occasionally found under stones in sandy places. Its color is 
pale yellowish white. The Unciola irrorata (Plate IV, fig. 19) often 
lives in tubes in the sand in abundance, but is by no means confined to 
such localities, for it occurs on all kinds of bottoms and at all depths 
down to at least 430 fathoms (off St. George's Bank,) and is abundant 
all along the coast, from New Jersey to Labrador. It is particularly 
abundant on shelly and rocky bottoms, and although it habitually lives 
in tubes, it does not always construct its own tube, but is ready and 
willing to take possession of any empty worm-tube into which it can 
get, and having once taken possession it seems to be perfectly at home, 
for it remains near the end of the tube protruding its stout claw-like 
antenna3, and looking out for its prey, in the most independent manner. 
It will also frequently leave its tube and swim actively about for a time, 
and then return to its former tube, or hunt up a new one. It seems, 
however, to be capable of constructing a tube for itself, when it can- 
not find suitable ones ready-made. Its color is somewhat variable, but 
it is generally irregularly specked with red and flake-white, and the 
antennae are banded with red. It contributes very largely to the food 
of many fishes, such as scup, pollock, striped bass, &c. 

On the moist sand-flats curious crooked trails made by the Idotea 
cceca (Plate V, fig. 22) may generally be seen. This little Isopod bur- 
rows like a mole just beneath the surface of the sand, raising it up into 
a little ridge as it goes along, and making a little mound at the end of 
the burrow, where the creature can usually be found. This species is 
whitish, irregularly specked with dark gray, so as to imitate the color 
of the sand very perfectly. It is also capable of swimming quite rapidly. 
The Idotea Tuftsii is another allied species, having the same habits and 
living in similar places, but it is much more rare in this region. It has 
also been dredged on sandy bottoms off shore. It is a smaller species 
and darker colored, with dark brown markings. The Idotea irrorata 
(p. 31t>, Plate Y, fig. 23) also occurs on sandy shores wherever there is 
eel-grass, among which it loves to dwell. 

The well known " horseshoe-crab " or " king-crab, 77 Limulus Poly- 
phemus, is also an inhabitant of sandy shores, just below low-water mark, 
but it is more abundant on muddy bottoms and in estuaries, where it 
burrows just beneath the surface and feeds upon various small animals. 
At the breeding season, however, it comes up on the sandy shores to 
deposit the eggs, near high-water mark. According to the statements 
of Kev. S. Lockwood, (in American Naturalist, vol. iv, p. 257,) the 
spawning is done at the time of high tides, during May, June, and July ; 
they come up in pairs, the males, which are smallest, riding on the 
backs of the females and holding themselves in that position by the 
short feet, provided with nippers, which are peculiar to the males. The 
female excavates a depression in the sand and deposits the eggs in it, 
and the male casts the milt over them, when they again return to 
deeper water, leaving the eggs to be buried by the action of the waves. 


In aquaria, under favorable circumstances, the eggs hatch in about six 
weeks, but in their natural conditions they probably hatch sooner than 
tin's; under unfavorable conditions the hatching may be delayed for a 
whole year. The eggs are very numerous. In addition to the intci < ->t 
ing observations of Mr. Lockwood, Dr. A. S. Packard has since given 
more detailed accounts of the development of the embryos and young of 
Limulns in the proceedings of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, 1870, p. 247, and in the Memoirs of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, vol. ii, p. 155, 1872. 

Annelids are quite numerous on the sandy shores where the condi- 
tions are favorable. It is evident that these soft-bodied creatures would 
be quickly destroyed by the force of the waves and the agitation of the 
sand, were they not provided with suitable means for protecting them- 
selves. This is effected mainly in two ways : the sand-dwelling species 
either have the power of burrowing deeply into the sand with great 
rapidity, or else they construct long durable tubes, which descend deeply 
into the sand and afford a safe retreat. Many of the active burrowing 
species also construct tubes, but they usually have but little coherence 
and are not very permanent, nor do they appear to be much relied on 
by the owners. There is, however, great diversity both in the structure 
and composition of the tubes of different species, and in the modes by 
which the rapid burrowing is effected. 

The large green Nereis (N. virens, p. 317) is found on the sandy 
shores in places that are somewhat sheltered, ^especially if there be an 
admixture of mud or gravel with the sand to give it firmness and 
solidity. This species burrows deeply beneath the surface and lines 
the interior of its large irregular burrows with an abundant mucus-like 
secretion, which gives smoothness and some coherency to the walls, 
but does not form a solid tube. With this, and in greater numbers, the 
smaller species, Nereis limbata, (p. 318,) is also found, and its habits 
appear to be essentially the same. Both this and the preceding can 
burrow rapidly, but much less so than some other worms, and conse- 
quently they are not well adapted to live on exposed beaches of moving 
sands, but prefer coves and harbors. The two large species of Rlujn- 
chobolus are much better adapted for rapid burrowing. Their heads 
are very small and acute, and destitute of all appendages, except four 
minute tentacles at the end ; the body is long, smooth, and tapers 
gradually to both ends, and the muscular system is very powerful, and 
so arranged as to enable these worms to coil themselves up into the shape 
of an open spiral, like a corkscrew, and then to rapidly rotate them- 
selves on the axis of the spiral. When the sharp head is inserted into 
the loose mud or sand and the body is thus rotated, it penetrates with 
great rapidity and disappears almost instantly. Both these species are 
found on sandy as well as on muddy shores and flats near low-water 
mark, and also in deeper water. The one usually most abundant is R. 
j (Plate X, figs. 43, 44 j) this is readily distinguished by hv- 


ing a simple gill both on the upper and lower sides of the lateral append- 
ages. The other, R. Americanus, (Plate X, figs. 45, 46,) has gills that 
are more or less branched on the upper side of the appendages, as shown 
in fig. 46, but none on the lower side; the appendages are also longer, 
especially posteriorly, and differently shaped. The proboscis is remarka- 
bly long and large, and when fully protruded it shows four large, black, 
sharp, fang-like jaws or hooks. Both these worms are destitute of true 
blood-vessels, such as most of the allied worms possess, but have the 
general cavity of the body filled, between the various organs, with 
bright red blood, which shows through the skin, giving a more or less 
red or purple color to the whole body and proboscis. 

The two species of Lumbrlconereis already referred to (p. 320,) occur in 
similar localities, and are usually associated with the two preceding spe- 
cies, but they are less rapid burrowers and require for their safety lo- 
calities where the sand is compact and mixed more or less with mud, 
or where it is somewhat sheltered from the force of the waves. In 
sandy coves, and especially on the flats of sandy mud, close to low- 
water mark, the smaller species, L. tennis , is generally very abundant, 
penetrating the sand, beneath the surface, in every direction. It is 
often a foot or more in length when extended, and not much larger than 
coarse thread or small twine, and bright red in color. When the sand 
in these localities is turned up with a spade, their drawn-out, red, thread- 
like bodies can usually be seen in large numbers, but they are so fragile 
that it is difficult to obtain an entire specimen. The head is obtusely 
conical, a little flattened, smooth, pale red, and iridescent, without eyes. 
The other species, L. opalina V., (Plate XIII, fig. 69,) is much larger, grow- 
ing to the length of eighteen inches or more, and about .10 to .12 of an 
inch in diameter. Its color is dark bronze, or reddish brown, or pale 
red, the surface reflecting the most brilliant opal-like colors. It is 
easily distinguished from the L. tennis by its four eyes in a row across 
the back part of the head. Both these species, when removed from 
their burrows, coil themselves in a long spiral. They burrow readily 
and deeply, but not so rapidly as many other worms, and do not seem, 
to have permanent tubes. Another worm, found in similar places and 
readily mistaken for L. tennis on account of its long, slender, almost 
thread-like body and red color, is the Notomastus filiformis V. ; but 
in this species the head is very acute, the lateral appendages and 
setae are very different, and the color is paler red, with bands or rings 
of bright red. This species has, moreover, a -smooth, subglobular pro- 
boscis, without jaws, while the former has a powerful set of compli- 
cated jaws, without a distinct proboscis, and they are widely different in 
internal anatomy. The latter feeds upon the organic matter contained 
in the mud that it swallows, while the species of Lnmlriconereis are 
carnivorous, feeding upon other worms, &c. A second and much larger 
species of Notomastns occurs in similar places, though apparently pre- 
ferring a greater proportion of mud. This species, N. luridus V., grows 


to be about ten inches long and .10 in diameter. Its color is a dark 
purplish or lurid brown, specked with white, and sometimes inclined 
to red. Its head is very acute, and it has a smooth, swollen, dark 
blood-red proboscis. It is a rapid burrower, penetrating deeply into 
the fine mud and sand. The Maldane elongata V. is another worm allied 
to the last, and usually associated with it, but this species constructs 
rather iirnl, round tubes out of the line sand and mud, which are very 
long and descend deeply into the soil, and are often .20 to .25 of an inch 
in diameter. This worm is six or eight inches long, with a round body 
of nearly uniform diameter, which looks as if obliquely truncated at 
both ends, but the obliquely-placed upper surface of the head is bor- 
dered by a slight ridge or fold on each side and behind. The color 
is dark umber-brown, or reddish brown, the swollen part of each ring 
often lighter grayish or yellowish brown, but usually bright red, owing 
to the blood-vessels showing through. The intestine is large and filled 
with sand. Another worm, belonging to the same family with the last 
and, like it, constructing long, round tubes of agglutinated sand, is the 
Clymenella torquata, (Plate XIV, tigs. 71, 72, 73,) but this species often 
lives where the sand is more free from mud, or even in nearly pure, sili- 
ceous sand, and sometimes considerably above low-water mark, though 
it is also found in deep water. It generally constructs its long and 
nearly straight tubes very neatly, of flue white sand, without ruud. 
It loves, however, to dwell in sheltered spots, in coves, or in the lee 
of rocks and ledges, and is also partial to those spots on the sandy 
shores where eel-grass grows, building its tubes among the roots. It is a 
rather handsomely colored species, being usually pale red, with bright 
red bands around the swollen parts of the rings, but it is sometimes 
brownish red or dull brown. It can always be recognized by the pecu- 
liar collar on the fifth ring, and by the peculiar funnel-shaped caudal 
appendage, surrounded by small papillae, and preceded by three seg- 
ments or rings that are destitute of seta3. 

The large and singular worm, Antliostoma robwtum V., (Plate XIV 
fig. 76,) lives like the last, with which it often occurs, in nearly pure 
sand, where it is somewhat sheltered from, the violence of the waves, 
but is also fond of places where there is more or less gravel mixed with 
the sand. It sometimes occurs some distance above low-water mark, 
and constructs a large, thick, somewhat firm tube by consolidating and 
cementing the sand around its burrow. These tubes descend nearly 
perpendicularly to a great depth, and can usually be distinguished by 
a slightly elevated mouud of dirt around the opening, which is usually 
different in color from the surrounding sand ; and sometimes there are 
recently-ejected cylindrical masses of such earth on the summit of the 
little hillocks. The worm itself, when full grown, is fifteen inches or 
more in length, and nearly half an inch in diameter. The head is very 
acute and the front part of the body is firm and muscular, with very 
small lateral appendages, and fascicles of seta3 in four rows j but back 


of the twenty-fourth body-segment an appendage develops below the 
lower fascicles of seta3, and farther back becomes broad, foliaceous, and 
divided into several lobes; back of the twenty-eighth segment the 
branchiae appear in a row on each side of the back, and soon become 
long and ligulate; at the same time other ligulate appendages develop 
from the upper lateral appendages, which become dorsal, and these, 
with the gills, form four rows of processes along the back, 'outside of 
which are the elongated set3 and other appendages. The posterior 
part of the body is more slender and much more delicate than the an- 
terior part, and so fragile that an entire specimen can rarely be obtained? 
and those that are obtained, when in confinement very soon detach 
fragment after fragment, until only the anterior part is left. In their 
natural habitations they would undoubtedly be able to reproduce their 
lost parts, like many other annelids. The color of this worm is ocher- 
yellow, tinged with orange, or dark orange ; there are usually two rows 
of dark-brown spots along the back ; the branchiae are blood-red ; and 
posteriorly there is a brownish red median dorsal line. The proboscis 
is very singular, for it is divided into several long, flat, digitate pro- 
cesses, separate nearly to the base, and somewhat enlarged at the end. 

Another species of this genus, of smaller size, A. fragile Y., often oc- 
curs in the sandy flats in great numbers, its small holes sometimes com- 
pletely filling the sand over considerable areas and extending nearly 
up to half- tide mark. This species grows to the length of four inches 
or more, with a diameter of about .10. Its head is even more acute 
than in the last species, with a very slender, translucent apex. The 
body has the same form, but is more slender. The processes above and 
below the fascicles of setae begin to appear at the fourteenth segment, 
and the setae begin to be decidedly elongated at the fifteenth. The 
dorsal branchiae begin on the sixteenth segment, and become long and 
ligulate at the twentieth. The color is yellowish orange to orange-brown ; 
the dorsal surface, posteriorly, and the branchiae are red. The body 
posteriorly is very slender and extremely fragile. The last or caudal 
segment is smooth, oblong, with two long filiform cirri at the end. The 
proboscis is large and broad, consisting of numerous, often convoluted, 
lobes or folds, united by a thinner membrane or broad web. 

The Aricia ornata Y. is another related species, living in similar 
places with the last and having similar habits. The head is acute in 
this species, but the dorsal branchiae and lateral appendages com- 
mence much nearer the head, and the side appendages are developed 
into crest-like, transverse series of papillae, which cover the lateral and 
ventral surfaces of the body anteriorly. 

Two species of Spio also occur in similar situations inhabiting small 
round tubes or holes made in the sand near low-water, often occuriug 
in great numbers in certain spots. They prefer localities that are not 
exposed to the full force of the storms. One of these, 8. setosa Y. (Plate 
XIY, fig. 77,) is remarkable for the length of the setse in the dorsal 


bundles; the two large tentacles (of which only one is drawn ii; the 
figure) are usually folded backward between the red dorsal', 
which form a row along the back on each side. The other, *S'. mhnsfa 
Y., is a stouter species, which has much shorter seta) in the dorsal fasci- 
cles; the middle lobe of the head is ernarginate in front and the lateral 
lobes are convex. Both species have four small eyes on the top of the 
head, those of the posterior pair nearest together. In similar places, 
and often associated with the two preceding species, another allied 
worm often occurs in great abundance, completely filling the sand, in. 
its chosen abodes, with its round vertical holes, and throwing out cylin- 
ders of mud. It is so gregarious that in certain spots hundreds may be 
found within a square foot, but yet a few yards away, on the same kind 
of ground, none whatever may be found. This is Scolecolepis viridis 
Y. This species, like tyie two preceeding, has a pair of large tentacles 
on the back part of the head, which are usually recurved over the back 
between the rows of ligulate branchiae, and four e3 T es on the top of the 
head ; the central lobe of the head is slightly bilobed in front, the lateral 
ones convex; the branchiae are long, slender, ligulate, meeting over the 
back, and exist only on about one hundred segments, or on about the 
anterior third part of the body. The body is rather slender, depressed, 
and about three inches long when full grown. The color is usually dark 
green, or olive-green, but sometimes light green, or tinged with reddish 
anteriorly; the branchiaB are bright red; the large tentacles are light 
green, usually with a row of black dots, and often crossed by narrow 
flake-white lines or rings. This species has been found abundantly on 
Naushon Island, and other localities in that region; at New Haven ; and 
at Seiner's Point and Beesley's Point, New Jersey. With the last species 
at Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, another more slender species of the 
same genus occurred, Scolecolepis tennis Y. This was three or four 
inches long and very slender; the body was pale green; the tentacles 
longer and more slender than in the last, whitish, with a red central 
line ; the branchia3 red, often tinged with green, shorter than in the last. 
The head is relatively broad, with the central lobe rounded in front. 
The branchias are confined to the anterior part of the body. The seta3 
in the upper fascicles are much longer than in the last species, those of 
the three anterior segments longer than the others and forming fan- 
shaped fascicles, directed upward and somewhat forward. 

Another singular Annelid, belonging to the same tribe and having 
nearly the same habits, is represented in Plate XIY, fig. 78, this has 
been found by Mr. A. Agassiz burrowing in sandy mud at about half- 
tide, both at Naushon Island and at Nahant, Massachusetts, and he has 
also described its development and metamorphoses, but I have not met 
with the adult myself in this region, although the young were frequently 
taken in the towing-nets in the evening. Mr. Agassiz regards it as 
perhaps identical with Polydora ciliatum of Europe. It occurred in 
large colonies, closely crowded together, building upright tubes in the 


inud. The presence of a large group of peculiar stout setae on each side 
of the fifth segment will distinguish this from all the preceding species. 
The young of this, like those of most of the annelids, swim free at the 
surface for some time, and are often taken in great numbers in the 
to wing-nets. 

The Ferine ajilis V., is still another representative of the group to 
which the last five species belong, and like them it has two long and 
large tentacles on its head, but it is a far more active and hardy species 
than any of them, and much better adapted for rapid burrowing. It 
accordingly lives on exposed beaches even where the sand is loose, and 
can also maintain itself on the exposed sandy beaches of the outer ocean- 
shores, exposed to the full force of the surf, its extremely quick burrow- 
ing affording it the means of protecting itself against the action of the 
sea. It lives in small round holes near low-water mark ; unlike the 
related species, already mentioned, it has a very sharp conical head. 
The two large tentacles are about half an inch long, and originate close 
together on the upper side of the back of the head, and are usually re- 
curved over the back when the worm is swimming in the water, as it is 
capable of doing, but when it is wriggling about on the sand they are 
twisted about in all directions and variously coiled ; and when in their 
holes the tentacles are protruded from the opening. The eyes are four, 
small, black, placed close together in front of the base of the teutacles. 
The upper lobe of the lateral appendages is large and foliaceous and 
connected with the branchiae along the anterior part of the body, bub 
partially free farther back. The body is two or three inches long and 
rather slender ; the color is reddish or brownish anteriorly, greenish 
white on the sides, except on the anterior third ; the branchhe, 
which extend the whole length of the body, are light red ; tentacles 
greenish white. 

One of the largest and most beautiful Annelids of this region is 
the Diopatra cuprea, (Plate XIII, figs. 67 and 68.) This species grows 
to be more than a foot long, with the body depressed and often nearly 
half an inch broad. It constructs a very curious permanent tube in 
which it dwells very securely. The part of these tubes beneath the 
surface of the sand is composed of a tough parchment-like material, 
and often descends obliquely to the depth of two or three feet or more; 
the upper end of the tube projects two or three inches from the surface 
of the sand or mud, and is thickly covered with bits of eel-grass and 
sea-weeds, fragments of shells, and other similar things, all of which are 
firmly attached to the tube, but project externally in all directions, giv- 
ing this part of the tube a very rough and ragged appearance exter- 
nally, but it is very smooth within, and often it has an opening half an 
inch in diameter, or large enough so that the worm can turn around, 
end for end, inside of it. When undisturbed the occupant thrusts its 
head and the anterior part of the body out of the tube to the distance 
of several inches in search of food, or materials to add to its tube, ex- 


posing the curious bright red gills, which are shaped something like 
miniature lii 1 trees. The central stem is long and tapering, with a Mood- 
vessel winding spirally up to its summit, and another winding in the 
opposite direction down to its base; the basal part is naked, but above 
this slender branches are given off, forming spirals all along the stem 
and gradually decreasing in length to the tip; each of the branches con- 
tains two slender blood-vessels. These branchiae commence at the fifth 
segment and do not extend to the end of the body, the last ones being 
much smaller, with few branches. The first four setigerous segments 
have an acute, conical, papilliforni ventral cirrus at the base of the lateral 
appendages; ou the fifth and following segments these become low, 
broad, rounded, whitish tubercles, with longitudinal wrinkles or grooves, 
and with a dark spot in the middle ; these appear to contain the glands 
which secrete the cement used in constructing the lining of the tube, for 
when attaching any additional object attheend, after adjusting it in the de- 
sired position the worm constantly rubs this part of the lower surface back- 
ward and forward over the edge of the tube and the object to be cemented 
to it, until a perfect adherence is effected, and a smooth coating of firm 
mucus is deposited, and this operation is repeated for every piece added 
to the tube. It is very interesting to watch these worms, when in con- 
finement in an aquarium, while engaged in constructing their tubes. 
By placing bits of bright colored shells, tinsel, cloth, or even pieces 
of bright colored feathers, near the tubes, they can be induced to use 
them, and thus some very curious looking tubes will be produced; 
but they evidently prefer the more rough and homely materials to which 
they are accustomed, when they can be had. The iridescent, opaline 
colors of this species are usually very brilliant and beautiful, especially on 
the back, head, and bases of the antennae. The general color of the body 
is reddish brown, or deep brown, thickly specked with gray; the an- 
tennae are paler brown; the lateral appendages yellowish brown, finely 
specked with white and dark brown ; the gills usually blood-red, but 
varying from light red to dark brown. There are two, small, black eyes 
between the bases of the odd median and upper lateral antennae. This 
species is often quite abundant on the sand-flats near low-water mark, 
especially where there is more or less mud mixed with the sand, but it 
is still more abundant in the shallow or moderately deep waters off 
shore, on muddy and shelly bottoms. It is difficult, however, to obtain 
entire specimens with the dredge, for it usually merely cuts off the up- 
per end of the tube, while the occupant retreats below; occasionally 
the head of the worm is cut off in this way. On the shore, also, it is 
not easy to obtain entire specimens unless the tubes be cautiously ap- 
proached and the retreat of the worm prevented by a sudden and deep 
thrust of the spade below it, so as to cut off the tube. This species is 
carnivorous and has a very powerful set of black jaws, which are une- 
qual on the two sides of the mouth, (fig. G8.) 
The Marphi/m Lc'ulyi (p. 319, Plate XII, tig. 61) is allied to the pre- 


ceding 1 species, and has somewhat similar habits, but does not construct 
such perfjct tubes. It is occasionally dug out of the sand at low- water 
but is much more coirmon in ("ceper water. 

The Staurocephalm pallidm V. is a 1 so an inhabitant of these sandy 
shores, burrowing in the sand at low-water. It is a slender species, 
about two inches long and one-tenth Iroad. It is peculiar in having 
four long, slender antennae or s on the front of the head, ar- 
ranged in a cross-like manner, to which the generic name alludes. 
There are also four, small, dark red eyes on the upper side of the head. 
Tiie coior i pale yellowish, the red blood- vessels showing through an- 
teriorly. This worm is allied to the two preceding, and to Lumbri- 
conereis, and like them it is predacious in its habits and has a very 
complicated set of jaws, consisting of numerous sharp, fang-like pieces 
of various shapes, arranged in several rows on both sides. 

The Sthenelais picta V. is another curious Annelid, which is some- 
times found burrowing in the sand at low-watermark, but it also occurs 
on shelly and muddy bottoms in deep water. It has a long, slender 
body, six inches or more in length, and the back is covered with two 
rows of thin, smooth scales, which are very numerous. The head is 
usually brownish, with a whitish spot on each side; there is generally 
a dark brown band along the back ; the scales are translucent, and 
vary in their color-markings, but more commonly there is a border of 
dark brown or blackish along the inner edge, which is usually con- 
nected with a similar border along the anterior edge, or with an ante- 
rior angular spot, and often with a dark border along the posterior 
edge, leaving more or less of the central part of each scale white and 
tran sin cent. 

The Nephthys picta (Plate XII, fig. 57) is also sometimes found bur- 
rowing iii sandy mud at low-water mark, hut it is much more frequent 
in the deeper waters of the sounds. It can be distinguished at once 
from all the other species of Nephthys found in this region by its greater 
slenderness, and by having the body whitish and variously marked or 
mottled on the back, toward the head, with dark brown ; it sometimes 
has a dark brown median dorsal-line. The shape of the head and posi- 
tion of the tentacles are also peculiar. 

In sheltered situations, where there is some mud with the sand, the 
Cirratulus grandis V., (p. 319, Plate XV, figs. 80, 81,) is often met with 
burrowing beneath the surface. In similar places, and also in nearly 
pure, compact sand, and in sand mixed with gravel, the large tubes of 
Amphitrite ornata (p. 320, Plate XVI, fig. 82) are often to be seen ; 
these show a round opening, a quarter of an inch or more in diameter, 
surrounded by a slightly raised mound of sand, often different in color 
from that of the surface, and sometimes there are cylinders of such 
sand around the opening. These tubes are scarcely to be distinguished 
from those of Anthostoma robwtum, described above, and are found ill 


similar places. But the worms are very unlike in appearance and 

Several species of slender, greenish worms, belonging to the gen- 
era, Phyllodoce, Eumidia, Eulalia, and Eteone, are occasionally dug out of 
the sand. In all these the head is well-developed and provided with 
four antenna at the end, and in the three last with an odd median 
one on its upper side, and they all have two well-developed eyes, 
and oval or lanceolate, leaf-like branchiae along the sides of the back. 
They are very active species, and most of them belong properly to 
the shelly and rocky bottoms in deeper water, where they are often 
very abundant. In sheltered coves, where there is mud with the sand, 
Cistenides Gouldii V., (p. 323, Plate XVII, figs. 87, 87a,) often occurs, 
but it is more partial to the muddy shores. On various dead shells, as 
well as on certain living ones, and on the back of Limulus, &c., the 
masses of hard, sandy tubes, built and occupied by the Sabellaria vul- 
garis V., (p. 321, Plate XVII, figs. 88, 88a,) often occur. 

Of the Nemerteans the largest and most conspicuous is the Meckelia 
ingens (p. 324, Plate XIX, figs. 96, 96a.) This species lives in the 
clear sand, near low-water mark, as well as in places that are more or 
less muddy, and notwithstanding its softness and fragility, by its means 
of burrowing rapidly, it can maintain itself even on exposed shores, 
where the sands are loose and constantly moved by the waves. The 
young, several inches or even a foot in length, are quite common, but 
the full-grown ones are only occasionally met with. The largest that I 
have found were at least 15 feet long, when extended, and over an inch 
broad, being quite flat; but they co ild contract to two or three feet in 
length, and then became nearly cylindrical and about three-quarters 
of an inch in diameter; the body was largest anteriorly, tapering very 
gradually to the posterior end, which was flat and thin, terminated by 
a central, small, slender, acute, contractile process one-quarter of an 
inch or less in length. The proboscis of the largest one, when pro- 
truded, was fifteen inches long, and about one-fifth of an inch in diame- 
ter where thickest. This proboscis, which is forcibly protruded from a 
terminal opening in the head, appears to be an organ of locomotion, at 
least to a certain extent, for when it penetrates the loose sand in any 
direction it makes an opening into which the head can be thrust, and 
then, by enlarging the opening, it can easily penetrate. But the pro- 
boscis is probably used, also, as an instrument for exploring the sand 
in various directions, either in search of food or to test its hardness or 
fitness for burrowing, thus economizing time and labor. At any rate, 
the ways in which this remarkable instrument is used by these worms, 
when kept in confinement with sand, suggest both these uses. But 
the proboscis is by no means the principal organ of locomotion, for the 
head itself is used for this purpose, urged forward by the uudulatory 
movements of the muscular body, and aided by the constantly chang- 
ing bulbous expansions, both of the head and body, which both crowd 


the sand aside, making tbe burrow larger, and furnish points of resist- 
ance toward which the parts behind can be drawn, or against which 
the head and anterior parts can push in continuing the burrow. 
Tbe head, moreover, is extremely changeable in form, at one time 
being spear-shaped, with a pointed tip and thin edges, and con- 
stricted at the neck; in the next minute broadly rounded; then 
perhaps truncate or even deeply emarginate at the end ; then gradually 
losing its distinctness and blending its outlines continuously with 
those of the body; or perhaps shrinking down to a small oval form, 
not more than one-third as wide as the body just back of it. All these 
and many other changes can often be witnessed within a very few min- 
utes, and are so effected as greatly to aid the creature in burrowing 
This worm can also leave the bottom and swim rapidly in the water, 
the body being usually kept up edgewise and impelled forward by the 
undulations of the body, which thus become horizontal. When swim- 
ming in this way the motion reminds one of the swimming of a snake 
or an eel. In addition to the terminal pore, for the proboscis, there 
is a deep lateral slit or fossa on each side of the head, and *t large ven- 
tral orifice beneath. Tlie latter is very changeable in form, changing 
from elliptical, long oval, oblong, or hour glass-shape, to circular in rapid 
succession. There are no eyes. Along each side of the greater part or 
the length of the body, the voluminous, transversely-banded lateral 
organs can be imperfectly distinguished through the translucent integ- 
ument, as well as the median cavity, in which a dark pulsating tube can 
sometimes be seen. The lateral organs commence at about the anterior 
fourth in small specimens, but in the larger ones relatively nearer the 
head, for in the largest they originate only six or eight inches back of 
it. The portion in front of the lateral organs is thicker and more cy- 
lindrical than the rest of the body. 

The color of the largest specimens is generally light red or flesh-color, 
with the lateral edges and central band translucent grayish white, the 
lateral organs showing through as dull yellowish transverse branches, 
with diverticula between them ; head yellowish. But one large speci- 
men was dull brownish yellow ; others are yellowish white, with the 
lateral organs deep chestnut-brown, crossed by white lines. The small 
specimens are generally paler, usually pale flesh-color or yellowish 
white and often milk-white. Some of the diversity in color may be 
due to sexual differences. This species has also been dredged on sandy 
and shelly bottoms in six to eight fathoms in the sounds. 

Dr. Leidy has also described another similar species, from Great Egg 
Harbor, under the name of Meckelia lactea, which I have not been able 
to distinguish, unless it be what I have regarded as the light-colored 
young of M. ingens ; the white color seems to have been the principal 
character by which it was distinguished from the latter. 

The Meckelia rosea is, however, a very distinct species, but it lives in 
similar places and is often associated with the M. ingens. It has very si in- 


ilar habits, but docs not grow to a very large size. The largest specimens 
observed are only six or eight incites long, and about a fifth of an inch 
broad. The body is also more cylindrical, the flattened part being rel- 
atively thicker and narrower, and not thin at the odge.s : in contraction 
it becomes nearly cylindrical. The lateral fossre of the head are long and 
deep; the ventral opening is relatively much smaller than in M. ingens 
and usually round. The proboscis is very long, slender ; color, light 
purplish red or rose-color. The integument is rather firm and secretes 
a tenacious mucus to which a thin coating of sand often adheres when 
the worms are taken from their burrows. This species seems to con- 
struct an imperfect tube by slightly cementing the sand with its mucus. 
All these species of Meclcelia when caught and when kept in confine- 
ment generally break off portions from the posterior part of the body, 
one after another, until nothing but the head and a lot of short segments 
remain. Under favorable conditions they would doubtless be able to 
restore the lost parts, for other Nemerteans, having the same habit, are 
known to do so, and in some cases even the small fragments from the 
central parts have been known to again become entire worms. Various 
fishes feed upon these Meckelice, and it is probable that the habit of dis- 
membering, or rather disarticulating themselves, may serve an impor- 
tant purpose, by enabling them to escape, in part at least, when seized 
by fishes or crabs, for if even half the body should be lost the remaining 
half would be much better than nothing, for it could soon restore either 
a head or a tail. 

Another Nemertean, which lives in sand at low water, is the Tetra- 
stemma arenicola V., (Plate XIX, fig. 98.) This is slender, subcylindrical, 
and four or five inches long when extended. The head is versatile in 
form, usually lanceolate or subcouical, and has four eyes on the upper 
side. There is a deep fossa on each side of the head. The veutra 
opening, which is behind the lateral fossa3, is small, triangular. The 
color is deep flesh-color or light purplish. 

The Balanoglossus aurantiacus is a very remarkable worm, related to 
the Nemerteans, which lives in the clear, siliceous sand near low-water 
mark. It is gregarious in its habits and occurs abundantly in certain 
spots, although not to be found in other similar places near by. It 
makes tubes or holes in the sand, twelve or fourteen inches deep, and 
lined with a thick and smooth layer of mucus. It throws out of the orifice 
peculiar elliptical coils of sand, by which the nature of the occupant 
may be known. This species was found by our party on the shore of 
Naushon Island, but Mr. A. Agassiz has found it abundantly at New- 
port, and on the beach just beyond Nobska Light, and also at Beverly, 
Massachusetts. Dr. Packard informs me that he has collected it at 
Beaufort, North Carolina, and I have received specimens found at Fort 
M aeon, from Dr. Yarrow. The specimens first discovered were found at 
Charleston, South Carolina, by Dr. William Stimpson, twenty years ago, 
but they were only briefly and imperfectly described by Mr. Girard, at 


tbat time, under the name of Stimpsonia aurantiaca. Mr. A. Agassiz 
has recently described and illustrated this worm, very fully, under the 
new name, B. KowalevsM, in the Memoirs of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, vol. ix, p. 421, and he has also given an account of 
its remarkable development and metamorphoses, proving that the larva 
is a free-swimming form, long known as Tomana, and generally sup- 
posed to be the larva of a star-fish. This worm, when full grown, attains 
a length of six inches or more and a diameter of about a quarter of an 
inch. The body is elongated, tapering gradually, with a long, slender 
posterior portion. The body is somewhat flattened dorsally throughout 
most of its length. At the anterior end it is furnished with a broad 
thickened collar, in which large numbers of mucus-secreting glands are 
situated ; the anterior border of the collar is undulated, and from within 
the concavity, on the dorsal side arises a large muscular proboscis, which 
has a distinct peduncle, or narrower basal stem, above which it swells 
out into a somewhat flattened, long, pyriform, or elongated and sub- 
conical form, the shape constantly changing during life. The proboscis 
is somewhat wrinkled longitudinally, and more strongly horizontally, 
being furnished with muscles running in both these directions, and its 
surface contains mucus-secreting glands. According to Mr. Agassiz 
the cavity of the proboscis is not connected with the alimentary canal, 
but opens externally by a pore at the end, and by a narrow slit on the 
ventral side near the base, in advance of the mouth. The mouth is 
large and situated at the base of the proboscis on the ventral side. For 
some distance along each side of the back, behind the collar, is a row 
of complex gills; these are remarkable on account of their structure 
and position; they are formed from diverticula of the oesophagus and 
finally communicate with a row of external orifices situated along each 
side of the median dorsal-vessel. The gills are supported by a system 
of solid supports, constituting a sort of internal skeleton; the base of 
the proboscis is also connected with a firm internal frame- work. The 
color of this species is somewhat variable ; in young specimens the body 
was brownish yellow with lighter mottliugs, the collar red, and the pro- 
boscis white ; in large specimens the proboscis is pale reddish yellow, 
the collar darker colored, the body purplish or brownish, the sides mot- 
tled with greenish and whitish, owing to the lateral organs or liver 
showing through. The proboscis of this worm, according to the obser- 
vations of Mr. Agassiz, is the principal organ of locomotion, but the 
collar also aids in the movements. The proboscis appears to be used 
much as certain bivalve mollusks, such as Solen, Petricola, c., use their 
foot in burrowing ; the end being contracted to a point, is thrust for- 
ward into the sand ; water being then forced into it, by the muscles far- 
ther back, the end expands into a bulb, enlarging the hole and giving a 
point of resistance toward which the rest of the body can be drawn ; 
the front part of the proboscis being again contracted and the water 


expelled, the point can be again thrust forward and the movements 

Two species of Sipunculoid worms are also found living in the wind 
at low-water. The largest and most common of these is the Phascolos- 
<))<( GmiMii, (Plate XVIII, fig. 93.) This species grows to the length of 
a foot or more, and is often nearly half an inch in diameter, though 
more commonly about a quarter of an inch. The body is round and 
constantly changing in size and shape, owing to its contractions and 
expansions ; the surface is smoothish, but longitudinally lined with mus- 
cular fibers anteriorly, and transversely wrinkled posteriorly. The in- 
tegument is firm and parchment-like. The mouth is surrounded by 
numerous short tentacles, which are partially connected together by a 
thin web, and crowded together in several circles. The color is yellow- 
ish white, grayish white, or yellowish brown. It burrows deeply in the 
sand and gravel, using its body for this purpose very much as the 
Balanoglossus, just described, uses its proboscis. 

Another much smaller species of the same genus occurs in sand at 
low- water, and has similar habits, but it appears to be rather uncom- 
mon and has not been satisfactorily identified. 

Comparatively few species of Mollusks naturally inhabit sandy shores, 
though the shells of many species may be found on the beaches. On 
the more exposed beaches of loose siliceous sand none but those which 
have the power of burrowing quickly and deeply beneath the surface 
can exist. We find, however, that quite a number of our species, both 
of gastropods and bivalves, possess this power in a high degree and do 
habitually live on the exposed beaches of loose sand. 

Among the Gastropods one of the largest and most conspicuous is 
the Lunatia heros, (Plate XXIII, figs. 133-136.) This species occurs all 
along o-ur coast, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Gape Hatteras or be- 
yond, wherever sandy shores and pure waters are to be found, and it 
even seems to prefer the outer ocean beaches, where the waves break with 
full force, for it is abundant and of very large size on the outer beaches 
of the coast of New Jersey. When in motion (Fig. 134) the white soft 
parts are protruded from the shell to a remarkable extent and spread out 
broadly on all sides, so as to nearly conceal the shell $ the foot is large, flat, 
and broadly expanded, with thin edges, and by means of it the animal 
is able to burrow, like a mole, beneath the surface of the sand, both for 
protection and in search of the bivalve shells upon which it preys. The 
foot when well expanded is concave below and lubricated by a very 
abundant secretion of mucus, and therefore, when extended beneath the 
surface of the moist sand, it acts like a great sucker, holding the animal 
in place pretty firmly by the atmospheric pressure, thus serving as a 
sort of anchor in the sand. But nevertheless large numbers of these 
mollusks are uncovered, overturned, and thrown high up on the beaches 
by the storms, especially in winter and early spring. This species, like 
many others of its tribe, drills round holes through the sides of various 
6 v 


bivalve shells by means of the small flinty teeth on its lingual ribbon, 
which acts like a rasp, and having thus made an opening it inserts its 
proboscis and sucks out the contents. All sorts of burrowing bivalves 
in this way fall victims to this and the following species, nor do they 
confine themselves to bivalves, for they will also drill any unfortunate 
gastropods that they may happen to meet, not even sparing their own 

A variety of this species (var. trieeriata, Plate XXIII, figs. 135, 136) 
has three revolving rows of chestnut or purplish spots, and has been 
regarded by most writers as a distinct species, and sometimes as the 
young ; but both the plain and spotted shells occur of all sizes, from the 
the youngest to the oldest, and they are nearly always found together. 
In some cases, however, a shell that has the spots well defined until 
half grown, afterwards loses its spots and becomes perfectly plain, show- 
ing that the difference is only a variation in the color, but each style 
varies considerably in form. 

Another allied shell, growing nearly as large and generally much 
more abundant, except on the outer beaches, is the Neverita dvpUcata , 
(Plate XXIII, fig. 130.) This species has the same habits as the pre- 
ceding and in this region they are often found together ; but this is a 
more southern species, extending to the Gulf of Mexico and even to 
Texas, but it is not very common north of Cape Cod and does not 
extend to the eastern coast of Maine and Bay of Fuiidy. 

The curious egg-cases of this, and the last species are often met with 
on the sandy and muddy flats at low-water. They consist of a broad, 
thin ribbon of sand, coiled up into a circle and shaped something like a 
saucer, but without a bottom ; the ribbon is composed of innumerable 
little cells, each containing one or more eggs and surrounded with 
grains of fine sand cemented together by mucus. The cells can easily 
be seen by holding one of these ribbons up to the light and looking 
through it. The peculiar form of these egg-masses is due to the fact 
that they are molded into shape by being pressed against the body of the, 
shell when they are being extruded, and while they are still soft and 
gelatinous ; they thus take the form and spiral curvature of that part 
of the shell, and when laid in the sand the fine grains at once adhere 
to and become imbedded in the tenacious mucus, which soon hardens. 

The Tritia trivittata (Plate XXI, fig. 112) is also frequently found on 
sandy shores and flats. When left by the tide it creeps along the sur- 
face of the sand, leaving long crooked trails, and sometimes burrows be- 
neath the surface, and when burrowing it moves with the aperture down- 
ward and the spire pointing obliquely upward, but when at rest in its 
burrow it reverses its position and rests with the spire downward and 
the aperture toward the surface. 

The Ilyanassa olsoleta (Plate XXI, fig. 113) is also generally to be 
found in considerable numbers creeping over the flats, and making trails 



and burrows like the last, but this species has its proper lining on the 
muddy shores and in estuaries, and will, therefore, be mentioned a^ain. 

At certain times, especially in the spring, multitudes of the young 
shells o!' nntium. n'xjnim (p. 305, Plate XXIV, fig. 154) are found, 
creeping on the surface of the moist sand in sheltered places, at low- 
water, and generally associated with large numbers of the Astyris lunata, 
(p. 30({, Plate XXII, fig. 110.) But this is not the proper habitat of 
either of these species; the reason of this habit is not obvious, unless 
they may have been accidentally transported to such places. They may 
be found, however, on the eel-grass growing on sandy shores. The 
Lacuna vincta (p. 305, Plate XXIV, fig. 139) also frequently occurs on 
eel-gruss and sea-weeds in such places. 

The Crepidula fornicata (Plate XXIII, figs. 129, 129$) and C. ungui- 
formis (Plate XXIII, fig. 127) occur on shells inhabited by the hermit 
crabs as well as on the living shells of oysters, Pecten, Limulus, &c ; and 
the smaller and darker species, C. convexa, (Plate XXIII, fig. 128) occurs 
both on the eel-grass, and on the shells of Ilyanassa obsoleta, especially 
when occupied by the small hermit-crabs. Occasionally specimens 
of Fidgur carica (Plate XXII, fig. 124) and of Sycotypus canalicu- 
latus are found crawling on sandy flats or in the tide pools,' espec- 
ially during the spawning season, but they do not ordinarily live in 
such situations, but in deeper water and on harder bottoms off shore. 
The curious egg-cases of these two species are almost always to be found 
thrown up by the waves on sandy beaches. They consist of a series of 
disk-shaped, subcircular, or reuiforin, yellowish capsules, parchment- 
like in texture, united by one edge to a stout stem of the same kind of 
material, often a foot and a half or two feet in length. The largest 
capsules, about an inch in diameter, are in the middle, the size decreas- 
ing toward each end. On the outer border is a small circular or oval 
spot, of thinner material, which the young ones break through when 
they are ready to leave the capsules, each of which, when perfect, con- 
tains twenty to thirty, or more, eggs or young shells, according to the 

Dr. Elliott Coues, who has observed F. carica forming its cases at 
Fort Macou, North Carolina, states that the females bury themselves a 
few inches below the surface of the sand on the flats that are uncovered 
at low-water, and remain stationary during the process. The string of 
capsules is gradually thrust upward, as fast as formed, and finally pro- 
trudes from the surface of the sand, and when completed lies exposed 
on its surface. The string begins as a simple shred, two or three inches 
long, without well-formed cases ; the first cases are small and imper- 
fect in shape, but they rapidly increase in size and soon become perfect, 
the largest being in the middle ; the series ends more abruptly than it 
begun, with a few smaller and less perfect capsules. The number of 
capsules varies considerably, but there are usually seventy-five to 
one hundred or more. At Fort Macoii Dr. Coues observed this species 


spawning in May, but at New Haven they spawn as early as March and 
April. It is probable that the period of spawning extends over several 
months. Mr. Sanderson Smith thinks that they also spawn in autumn, 
on Long Island. It is not known how long a time each female requires 
for the formation of her string of capsules. There are two forms of these 
capsules, about equally abundant in this region. In one the sides of 
the capsules are nearly smooth, but the edge is thick or truncate along 
most of the circumference, and crossed by numerous sharp transverse 
ridges or partitions, dividing it into facets. Dr. Coues states that these 
belong to F. carica. An examination of the young shells, ready to leave 
the capsules, confirms this. The other kind has larger and thinner cap- 
sules, with a thin, sharp outer edge, while the sides have radiating 
ridges or raised lines. Sometimes the sides are unlike, one being smooth 
and more or less concave, the other convex and crossed by ten or twelve 
radiating, elevated ridges, extending to the edge. This kiud was attrib- 
uted to F. carica by Dr. G. H. Perkins, and formerly by Mr. Sanderson 
Smith, but a more careful examination of the young shells, within the 
capsules, shows that they belong to S. canaliculata. 

Among the sand-dwelling bivalve shells we find quite a number of 
species that burrow rapidly and deeply, some of them living in perma- 
nent holes or perpendicular burrows, into which they can quickly de- 
scend for safety, and others burrowing in the sand in all directions, 
without permanent holes. 

The " razor-shell," Ensatella Americana, (Plate XXVI, fig. 182, and 
Plate XXXII, fig. 245,) is a common inhabitant of sand-flats and sand- 
bars, where the water is pure, generally living near low-water mark or 
below, but sometimes found considerably above low-water mark, as on 
the sand-bar at Savin Eock. This curious mollusk constructs a deep, 
nearly round, somewhat permanent burrow, which descends nearly per- 
pendicularly into the sand to the depth of two or three feet. These 
holes can generally be recognized, by their large size and somewhat 
elliptical form, when the tide is out. Sometimes they are very abundant 
in certain spots and not found elsewhere in the neighborhood. They 
sometimes come to the top of the burrow, when left by the tide, and pro- 
ject an inch or two of the end of the shell above the surface of the sand ; 
at such times, if cautiously approached, many can easily be secured by 
pulling them out with a sudden jerk, but if the sand be jarred the whole 
colony will usually take the alarm and instantly disappear. When thus 
warned it is generally useless to attempt to dig them out, for they quickly 
descend beyond the reach of the spade. They will often hold themselves 
so firmly in their holes by means of the expanded end of the long mus- 
cular foot, that the body may be drawn entirely out of the shell before 
they will let go. When not visible at the orifice they can often be se- 
cured by cutting off their retreat with a sudden oblique thrust of the 
spade below them. They are obliged to come up to the upper part of 
the burrow on account of the shortness of their siphons, or breathing- 


tubes, which can be protruded only about an inch in specimens of the 
ordinary size, and as they depend upon one of these to bring them both 
food and oxygen, and on the other (dorsal) one to carry off the waste 
water and excretions, it is essential for their happiness that the orifices 
of these tubes should be at or near the opening of the burrow most of 
the time. In this respect the common fc< long clam," Mya arenaria, (fig. 
179,) and many others that have very long and extensile tubes have a 
great advantage. But the "razor-shell" makes up for this disadvan- 
tage by its much greater activity. Its foot, or locomotive organ, (see 
fig. 182,) is long and very muscular and projects directly forward from 
the anterior end of the shell ; at the end it is obliquely beveled and 
pointed, and it is capable of being expanded at the end into a large bulb, 
or even into a broad disk, when it wishes to hold itself firmly and se- 
curely in its burrow. In excavating its burrows it contracts the end of 
the foot to a point and then thrusts it beneath the surface of the sand ; 
then, by forcing water into the terminal portion, it expands it into a 
swollen, bulbous form, and thus crowds the sand aside and enlarges the 
burrow ; then, by using the bulb as a hold-fast, the shell can be drawn 
forward by the contraction of the foot ; the latter is then contracted into 
a pointed form and the same operations are repeated. The burrow thus 
started soon becomes deep enough so that the shell will maintain an up- 
right position, when the work becomes much easier and the burrow 
rapidly increases in depth. The " razor-shell," like all other bivalves, 
depends upon the minute infusoria and other organic particles, animal 
and vegetable, brought in by the current of water that supplies the gills 
with oxygen. It is preyed upon by several fishes that seem to be able 
to root it out of the sand, or perhaps seize it when at the surface. In 
this region its principal enemies are the tautog and skates. The latter 
appear to eat only the foot, for in their stomachs there are sometimes 
many specimens of this organ, but no shells or other parts. 

The common u long clam, ?? Mya arenaria, (p. 309, Plate XXVI, fig. 
179,) is also found on sandy shores from low-water nearly up to high- 
water mark, but it prefers localities where there is more or less gravel 
or mud with the sand, so as to render it compact, and it has a decided 
preference for sheltered localities, and especially abounds on the shores 
of estuaries where there is a mixture of sand, mud, and gravel. It will, 
therefore, be more particularly mentioned among the estuary species. 
Yet it is often found even on the outer ocean- beaches, in favorable lo- 
calities, but not in the loose sands. It lives in permanent burrows, and 
on account of its extremely long siphon-tubes, which can be stretched 
out to the length of a foot or more, it is always buried at a considerable 
depth beneath the sand. The specimens of this shell that live on the 
outer sandy beaches are much thinner, whiter, and more regular in form 
than those found in the estuaries ; they are often quite delicate in text- 
ure, and covered, even when full grown, with a thin, yellowish epidermis, 
and look so unlike the homely, rough, and mud-colored specimens usually 


sold in the markets, that they might readily be mistaken for another 

The " sea-clam " or " surf-clam," Mactra soiidissima, (Plate XXVIII, 
fig. 202,) is a large species which belongs properly to the sandy shores, and 
is seldom found elsewhere. It is common both in the sounds and on the 
outer ocean-beaches, but is not very often found above low- water of or- 
dinary tides unless thrown up by the waves. Its proper home is on 
sandy bottoms in shallow water, just beyond low-water mark and down 
to the depth of four or five fathoms. It occurs all along our coast, 
wherever there are sandy shores, from North Carolina to Labrador. Its 
shells are extremely abundant and of very large size on the outer sand- 
beaches of New Jersey and the southern side of Long Island. This 
species grows very large, some of the shells being more than six inches 
long and four or five broad ; and there is great variation in the form of 
the shell, some being oval, others more oblong or elliptical, and others 
nearly triangular; some are very swollen, others quite compressed ; but 
all the intermediate grades occur. The siphon-tubes are quite short and 
the creature does not usually burrow very deeply, nor does it seem to 
construct any permanent burrows. But it has a very large muscular, 
compressed foot, with which it can quickly burrow beneath the surface 
of the sand. Nevertheless large numbers are always thrown on the 
beaches by violent storms, and once there they are very soon devoured 
by crows, gulls, and other large birds that frequent the shores. This 
species is not very largely used as food, and is seldom seen in our mar- 
kets ; partly because it cannot usually be so easily obtained in large 
quantities as the common " long clam" and "round clam," and partly 
because it is generally inferior to those species as an article of food, for 
the meat is usually tougher, especially in the largest specimens. But 
moderate-sized and young "surf-clams" are by no means ill-flavored or 
tough, and are quite equal in quality to any of the other clams, either 
" long" or "round," that are ordinarily sold in the markets. 

The Siliqua costata, (Plate XXXII, fig. 244,) Lyonsia hyalina, (Plate 
XXVII, fig. 194,) and Lcevicardium Mortoni, (Plate XXIX, fig. 208,) are 
usually to be found on sandy shores and beaches, often in considerable 
numbers, but they do not naturally live above low-water mark, and, 
when found higher up, have probably been carried there by the action 
of the waves. Their proper homes are on sandy bottoms, in shallow 
water off shore. They are all rapidly burrowing species, and can live, 
for a time at least, in the loose sand above low-water mark. 

The Angulus tener (Plate XXVI, fig. 180, animal, and Plate XXX, fig. 
223, shell) is a species that is partial to sandy bottoms and sandy 
shores, though it is also often found in soft mud. It frequently occurs 
living at low-water mark, but is more abundant in deeper water. It is 
a rapid burrower, and has remarkably long, slender, white siphons, 
which are entirely separate, from the base, and very flexible. On account 
of the length of these tubes it can remain buried to a considerable 


depth beneath the surface of the sand, merely projecting the tubes up- 
ward to the surface. It is, nevertheless, like other bivalves, often rooted 
out of its burrows and devoured by many fishes, especially, in this re- 
gion, by the "scup" and flounders. This species is found all along the 
coast, from the Uulf of Saint Lawrence to South Carolina. 

The Macoma fusca (Plate XXX, fig. 222) is a related species, also 
furnished with similar, very long, slender, separate tubes, and is, therefore, 
able to live deeply buried beneath the surface. This species is much more 
abundant than the preceding, between tides, but it most abounds on 
shores that are more or less muddy, and in estuaries. But when living on 
the sandy shores, and where the water is pure, it becomes much smoother 
and more delicate, and is often of a beautiful pink-color and much 
larger than the specimen figured. When living in the muddy estuaries 
it generally has a rough or eroded surface, more or less irregular form, 
and a dull white or muddy color, often stained with black, resembling 
in color the Mya arenaria, with which it is sometimes associated. It is 
dug up and eaten by the tautog and other fishes. 

The pretty little Tottenia gemma (Plate XXX, fig. 220) is a species 
peculiar to sandy shores, both above and below low water mark ; and 
it often occurs in immense numbers on the sandy flats laid bare by the 
tides, buried just beneath the surface of the sand. Owing to its small 
size it is, however, liable to be overlooked, unless particularly sought 
for. It is an active species and burrows quickly. It is peculiar in be- 
ing viviparous, as was first observed by Mr. G. H. Perkins, who found, 
in January, from thirty to thirty-six, well- formed young shells, of nearly 
uniform size, in each of the old ones. This shell has a lustrous, con- 
centrically grooved surface ; the color is yellowish white or rosy, with 
the beaks and posterior end usually purple or amethyst-color. It occurs 
all along the coast from Labrador to South Carolina. The common 
u round clam" or " quahog-clarn," Venus mercenaries (Plate XXVI, fig. 
184, animal,) is also common on sandy shores, living chiefly on the 
sandy and muddy flats, just beyond low-water mark, but is often found 
on the portion laid bare at low- water of spring-tides. It also inhabits 
the estuaries, where it most abounds. It burrows a short distance be- 
low the surface, but is often found crawling at the surface, with the shell 
partly exposed. It has short siphon-tubes, united from the base to 
near the ends, and a large, muscular foot, with a broad, thin edge, by 
means of which it can easily burrow beneath the sand when necessary. 
The lobes of the mantle are separate all around the front and ventral 
edge of the shell, and their edges are thin, white, and folded into deli- 
cate frills, some of which, near the siphon-tubes, are elongated and 
more prominent. Owing to the broad opening in the mantle, the foot 
can be protruded from any part of the ventral side, and has an ex- 
tensive sweep, forward and backward. The foot and mantle edges 
are white ; the tubes are yellowish or brownish orange toward the end, 


more or less mottled and streaked with dark brown, and sometimes with 
opaque white. 

This species is taken in large quantities for food, and may almost al- 
ways be seen of various sizes in our markets. The small or moderate- 
sized ones are generally preferred to the full-grown clams. Most of 
those sold come from the muddy estuaries, in shallow water, and are 
fished up chiefly by means of long tongs and rakes, such as are often used 
for obtaining oysters. Sometimes they are dredged, and occasionally 
they can be obtained by hand at or just below low-water mark. These 
estuary specimens usually have rough, thick, dull-white, or mud-stained 
shells, but those from the sandy shores outside have thinner and more 
delicate shells, often with high, thin ribs, especially when young ; and 
in some varieties the shell is handsomely marked with angular or zig- 
zag lines or streaks of red or brown, (var. notata.) These varieties 
often appear so different from the ordinary estuary shells that many 
writers have described them as distinct species, but intermediate styles 
also occur. This species is very abundant along the coast from Cape 
Cod to Florida 5 north of Cape Cod it is comparatively rare and local- 
It does not occur on the coast of Maine or in the Bay of Fundy, except 
in a few special localities, in small, sheltered bays, where the water is 
shallow and warm, as at Quahog Bay, near Portland ; but in the south- 
ern parts of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, as about Prince Edward's 
Island and the opposite coast of Nova Scotia, where the water is shal- 
low and much warmer than on the coast of Maine, this species again 
occurs in some abundance, associated, in the same waters, with the 
oyster and many other southern species that are also absent from the 
northern coasts of New England, and constituting a genuine southern 
colony, surrounded on all sides, both north and south, by the boreal 

The curious and delicate shell called Solenomya velum (Plate XXIX, 
fig. 210) is occasionally found burrowing in the pure, fine, siliceous sand 
near low- water mark, about two inches below the surface, but its proper 
home is in shallow water, beyond low-water mark, and it is, perhaps 
most abundant where there is mud mixed with sand, and it also lives 
in soft mud. Its shell is glossy and of a beautiful brown color, and is 
very thin, flexible, and almost parchment-like in texture, especially at 
the edges. It is a very active species, and has a very curious foot, 
which is protruded from the front end of the shell, and can be used in 
burrowing, very much as the " razor-shell," described above, uses its foot; 
but the Solenomya makes use of its foot in another way, for it can swim 
quite rapidly through the water, leaving the bottom entirely, by means 
of the same organ. The foot can be expanded into a concave disk or 
umbrella-like form at the end, and, by suddenly protruding the foot 
and expanding it at the same time, a backward motion is obtained by 
the reaction against the water ; or, by suddenly withdrawing the foot 
and allowing it to remain expanded during most of the stroke, a for- 


ward motion is obtained. It is a singular sight to see this shell swim 
swiftly many times around a vessel of water, at the surface, until, 
finally, becoming exhausted by its violent exertions, it sinks to the 
bottom for rest. 

The common "scollop," Pecten irradians, (Plate XXXII, fig. 243,) is 
also frequently found living on sandy shores and flats, or in the pools, 
but it belongs more properly to the sheltered waters of the ponds and 
estuaries, where it lives among the eel-grass. It will, therefore, be 
mentioned again in that connection. 

The " common muscle," Mytilm edulis, (p. 307,) is frequently found in 
large patches on sandy flats, fastened together by the threads of 
by ssii s. Some of the most beautifully colored varieties, (fig. 234,) with 
radiating bands of blue and yellow, are often found in such places, but 
the species is much more abundant and larger in other situations, 
especially in the shallow and sheltered waters of the bays, where there 
is more or less mud. 

Ascidians are almost entirely wanting on the sandy shores, but Mol- 
gula Manhattensis (p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 250) is sometimes found 
even on sandy shores, attached to eel-grass. 

Of Bryozoa only two species are usually met with, and even these do 
not have their true stations on the sandy shores. The delicate and 
gracefully branched Bugula turrita (p. 311, Plate XXXIY, figs. 258, 
259) is occasionally found growing attached to the eel-grass, which 
often grows in the sandy tide-pools, or at extreme low-water. It also 
occurs in great abundance among the masses of sea-weeds thrown up 
by the waves on the sandy beaches. Such specimens are often large 
and luxuriant, in some cases being more than a foot in length ; these 
are derived from the bottom in deeper water, off shore. 

The Escliarella variabilis (p. 312, Plate XXXIII, fig. 256) is often found 
encrusting dead shells of various kinds, especially such as are inhab- 
ited by the larger "hermit-crabs." It is also cast up in abundance, on 
some beaches, from deeper water. 

The Radiates are not numerous on sandy shores, yet several interest- 
ing species may be found. Among the Echinoderms we find four 
species of holothurians, one sea-urchin, one star-fish, and one ophiuran. 

The most common holothuriau is the Leptosynapta Girardii, (Plate 
XXXV, figs. 265, 266.) This is a long, slender, very delicate and fragile 
species, which burrows deeply in the sand or gravel near low-water 
mark. The holes are round and go down almost perpendicularly; 
they are usually not more than a quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
creature is not quick in its motions, and can usually be found in the 
upper part of its burrow when the tide is out. The skin is thin and 
qnite translucent, so that the white muscular bands that run lengthwise 
|&- the body, on the inside, can be easily seen, as well as the large intes- 
tine, which is always quite full of sand and gives a dark appearance to 
the body. The tentacles are almost always in motion, and are used in 


burrowing as well as for other purposes. The skin is filled with minute 
perforated oval plates, to each of which there is attached, by the shank, 
a beautiful little anchor, (fig. 266,) quite invisible to the naked eye. 
The flukes of these anchors project from the skin and give it a rough 
feeling when touched ; they afford the means of adhesion to various 
foreign substances, having a rough surface, and are doubtless useful to 
them when going up and down in the burrows. When kept in confine- 
ment this species will generally soon commence to constrict its body, at 
various points, by powerful muscular contractions, which often go so 
far as to break the body in two, and after a few hours there will usually 
be nothing left but a mass of fragments. 

Another related species, L. roseola V., also occurs in similar places 
and has nearly the same habits, but this species is of a light rosy color, 
caused by numerous minute round or oval specks of light red pigment 
scattered through the skin. The anchors are similar but much more 
slender, with the shank much longer in proportion. The perforated 
plates are also much smaller in proportion to the length of the anchors. 

The Caudina arenata is much more rare in this region. It lives at 
extreme low-water mark, or just below, buried in the sand. Its skin is 
thicker and firmer than that of the preceding species, and its body is 
shorter and stouter, while the posterior part narrows to a long slender 
caudal portion. Its skin is filled with immense numbers of small, round, 
wheel-like plates, with an uneven or undulated border, perforated near 
the rim with ten to twelve roundish openings, and usually having 
four quadrant-shaped openings in the middle; or they may be regarded 
as having a large round opening in the middle, divided by cross-bars 
into four parts. This species appears to be rare in this region, and was 
met with only by Professor H. E. Webster, at Wood's Hole, but it is 
quite abundant in some parts of Massachusetts Bay, as at Chelsea 
Beach and some of the islands in Boston Harbor. These and all other 
holothurians are devoured by fishes. 

The Thyone Briarem is a large purple species, often four or five inches 
long and one inch or more in diameter. It is thickly covered over its 
whole surface with prominent papilla, by which it may easily be distin- 
guished from any other found in this region. It is more common in 
the shallow waters off shore, on shelly bottoms. 

The " sand-dollar," Ecliinaraclmius parma, (Plate XXXV, fig. 267,) 
is the only sea-urchin that is commonly met with on sandy shores in 
this region, and this is not often found living on the shore, except at 
extreme low water of spring-tides, when it may sometimes be found 
on flats or bars of fine siliceous sand in great numbers, buried just 
beneath the surface, or even partially exposed. It creeps along beneath 
the sand with a slow gliding motion, by means of the myriads of minute 
extensile suckers with which it is furnished. It is far more abundant 
on sandy bottoms at various depths off shore. It has a very wide range, 
for it is found all the way from New Jersey to Labrador, and also on 


the North Pacific coast ; and in depth it ranges from low-water ni;irk to 
430 fathoms, off Saint (Jeorge's Bank, where it was dredged by Messrs. 
Smith and Ilnrger. When living 'its color is usually a rich purplish 
brown, but it soon turns green when taken from the water. It gives a 
dark given or blackish color to alcohol, which stains very injuriously 
any other specimens put in with it. The fishermen on the coast of 
Elaine and New Brunswick sometimes prepare an indelible marking-ink 
from these "sand-dollars," by rubbing off the spines and skin and, 
after pulverizing, making the mass into a thin paste with water. A 
number of fishes have been found to swallow this unpromising creature 
for food, and the flounders consume large numbers of them. 

The common green star-fish, Asterias arenicola, (p. 326, Plate XXXV, 
fig. 269,) is sometimes met with on sandy shores, but is much less abun- 
dant than on rocky shores. The curious " brittle star-fish,' 7 Opliiura 
olivacea, is sometimes found among the eel-grass on sandy shores, espe- 
cially in tide-pools, in sheltered localities. It may be recognized by its 
nearly circular, disk-like body, about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, 
with five round, rather slender, tapering, stiff-looking arms, about three 
inches long. The color is bright green, much like that of the eel-grass 
among which it lives. When at home in the water it moves about over 
the sand quite rapidly by means of its arms. When taken from the 
water it does not usually break itself up into numerous fragments, 
as readily as most of its related species do. It is rather southern in its 
distribution, and Vineyard Sound is perhaps its northern limit. It 
extends southward at least to North Carolina. 

Of acalephs there are no species known to me that properly belong- 
to the sandy shores, but Hydractinia polyclina (p. 328) is often found 
on the shells carried about by the hermit-crabs, in such situations, and 
there are species of Obelia and other hydroids that sometimes grow on 
the eel-grass in the tide-pools, but they are much more frequent in other 

Among the Polyps we find several species proper to sandy shores and 
specially adapted to this mode of life. One of the most interesting of 
these is the Halocampa producta, (p. 330, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 285,) 
which has already been described. This often occurs in the sand at 
low- water mark, and makes round holes about a foot deep, which can 
sometimes be recognized by small cracks radiating from the hole when 
the tide leaves them uncovered. 

The Sagartia modesla (p. 330) is also found buried in the sand at low- 
water, especially where there is also some gravel with the sand. The 
Sagartia leucolena (p. 329, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 284) is sometimes found 
in similar situations, but belongs properly to the rocky shores. 

The Paractis rapiformis is a species that is still little known. It lives 
buried deeply in the sand at and below low-water mark. It appears to 
be common on the coast of ^orth Carolina, at Fort Macon, where it is 
often thrown up by storms, and it has also been found at Great Egg Har- 


bor and near New Haven light. The body is three or four inches long 
when extended, and an inch or more in diameter, and is very changeable 
in form. The surface is nearly smooth, slightly sulcated lengthwise, 
and the color is usually pink, or pale flesh-color, translucent. The 
tentacles are numerous, short, tapering, pale greenish olive, with a dark 
baud around the base, connected with a dark line radiating from the 
mouth. Toward the upper part of the body the surface is somewhat 
wrinkled and is capable of attaching grains of sand to itself. When 
thrown up by the waves it contracts into a globular or pyriforni shape 
and " somewhat resembles a boiled onion or turnip." 

List of the species ordinarily inhabiting the sandy shores. 




Muscidae, (larvae) 335 

Cicindela geiierosa (larva) . . 336 

C. dorsalis 335 

C. hirticollis 335 

C. albobirta.. 535 


Geopinus incrassatus 335 

Phytosus littoralis 335 

Bledius cordatus 335 

B. pallipennis 335 

Heterocera undatus . 335 



Ocypoda area aria 337 

Gelasimus pugilator 336 

Cancer irroratus 338 

Oarcinus granulatus 312 

Platyonichus ocellatus 338 

Libinia canaliculata 339 

Hippa talpoida 338 

Eupagurus pollicaris 313 

E. longicarpus ... 339 

Crangon vulgaris 339 

Palsemonetes vulgaris 339 

Orchestia agilis 

Talorchestia longicornis 

T. inegalophthalma 

Lepidactylis dytiscus . . 

Unciola irrorata 

Idotea irrorata 

I. ca3ca 

I. Tuftsii 

Scyphacella arenicola . . . 
Limulus Polyphemus. . . 

Annelids, ( Clicetopods. ) 


Sthenelais picta 343 

Nephthys picta 348 

Eteone, sp 349 

Nereis virens 341 

N. limbata , 341 

Cirratulus grandis 343 

Scolecolepis viridis 345 

S. tenuis 345 

Polydora ciliatum 

Diopatra cuprea 

Marphysa Leidyi 

Lumbriconereis opaliua 

L. tenuis 

Staurocephalus pallidus 

Ehynchobolus Americanus 
E. dibranchiatus. . 





Spio robusta 345 

S. setosa 344 

Nerine agilis 346 

Aricia ornata. 344 

Anthostoma robustum 343 

A. fragile 344 

Maldane elongata 343 


Clymenella torquata 343 

Notomastus luridus 342 

N. filiformis 342 

Sabellaria vulgar is 349 

Oistenides Gouldii 349 

Aniphitrite ornata 348 



Halodrillus littoralis . 338 

Clitellio irroratus 




Meckelia lactea 350 

M. in gens 349 

M. rosea . 350 


Cosmocephala ochracea 325 

Tetrastemma arenicola 351 

Balanoglossus aurantiacus. 351 


Pbascolosoma Gouldii . 353 


Phascolosoma, sp. 





Fulgur carica 355 

Sycotypus canaliculatus 355 

Astyris lunata 306 

Ilyanassa obsoleta 354 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Lunatia heros 353 

L. heros, var. triseriata 354 


Neverita duplicata 354 

Crepidula foruicata 355 

C. convexa 355 

C. unguiformis 355 

Bittium nigrnm... 355 

Lacuna vincta 




Ensatella Americana 356 

Siliqua costata 358 

Mya arenaria 357 

Lyonsia hyalina 358 

Mactra solidissima 358 

Macorna fusca . .. 359 

Angulus tener 358 


Venus mercenaria 359 

Tottenia gemma 359 

Lsevicardium Mortoni 358 

Soleuomya velum 360 

Mytilus edulis 361 

Pecten irradians 361 


Bryozoa and Ascidians. 

Molgula Manhattensis 361 

Bugnla turrita 361 

Escharella variabilis 361 




Thy one Briareus 362 

Caudina arenata 362 

Leptosyiiapta Girardii 361 

L. roseola 362 


Echinaracbnius paruia 362 

Asterias areuicola 363 

Opliiura olivacea 363 



Halocampa producta 363 

Sagartia modesta 363 


Sagartia leucolena 363 

Paractis rapiformis 363 


The muddy shores in this region grade almost insensibly into the sandy 
shores; and shores that are entirely of mud, without any admixture of fine 
sand, rarely occur except in the estuaries and lagoons. Therefore we 
find, as might have been anticipated, that it is difficult to draw a very 
definite line between the animals living upon the sandy shores and those 
living upon the muddy shores and flats. Many of the species seem, also, 
to be equally at home, whether living in mud or sand, and many others 
prefer a mixture, although capable of living in either. But if we were 
to compare the animals living in pure sand with those living in clear 
mud, the two lists would be quite different, although a considerable 
number would be common to both lists. Moreover, the eel-grass grows 
in considerable quantities both upon sandy and muddy shores, in cer- 
tain localities, and a large number of species which inhabit the eel-grass 
will, therefore, be found in both lists. 

In discussing the species found on sandy shores, in the preceding 
pages, references have constantly been made to other stations inhabited 
by many of the species, and especially in the case of those that are com- 
mon to the sandy and muddy shores. Therefore it will not be necessary 
to repeat the facts in this connection, but the species will be enumerated 
in the list at the end of this section. 

A considerable number of species have their place in this list chiefly 
because they occur on beds of oysters planted on muddy shores, at and 
just below low-water mark. Without these artificial stations some of 
them would hardly be found on such shores, or at least but rarely. It 
is evident that the shells of oysters, when in large quantities, supply, to 


a certain extent, conditions similar to those of rocky shores, and conse- 
quently it is natural that certain rocky-shore species should he found in 
such situations. Only the more common and most important of these 
have been introduced into the- list, however, for to include all the SJM 
to be found among oysters would uselessly extend the catalogue. 

Among* the Crustacea we find a considerable number of species which 
have their proper homes on the muddy shores. Of the true crabs there 
are at least eleven species that constantly occur in these situations, but 
several of them, viz., Cancer irroratus, (p. 312,) Panopeus deprcssus, (p. 
312,) P. Sayi, (p. 312,) and Carcinus granulatus, (p. 312,) are found in 
greater numbers elsewhere, and depend largely upon the oyster-beds for 
their safety on these shores. The Carcinus granulatus, however, often 
resorts to the holes and cavernous places under the peaty banks of the 
shores, or along the small ditches and streams cutting through the peaty 
marshes near the shore. The marsh "fiddler-crab,' 7 Gelasimus pugnax, 
is usually very abundant in the peaty banks and along the ditches and 
streams at and just above high-water mark, where it excavates great 
numbers of deep holes, often completely riddling the soil. This species 
is, however, more at home along the borders of the estuaries and 
lagoons and will be described more fully in that connection, as well as 
the Sesarma reticulate^ which often occurs with it in both situations. 

The " oyster-crab," Pinnotheres ostreum, (Plate 1, fig. 2, male,) is found 
wherever oysters occur. The female lives, at least when mature, within 
the shell of the oyster, in the gill cavity, and is well known to most con- 
sumers of oysters. The males (fig. 2) are seldom seen, and rarely, if ever, 
occur in the oyster. We found them, on several occasions, swimming 
actively at the surface of the water in the middle of Vineyard Sound. 
They are quite unlike the females in appearance, being smaller, with a 
, firmer shell, and they differ widely in color, for the carapax is dark brown 
above, with a central dorsal stripe and two conspicuous spots of whitish, 
as indicated in the figure ; the lower side and legs are whitish. The 
female has the carapax thin and translucent, whitish, tinged with pink. 
The Pinnixa cylindrica (Plate I, fig. 1) is a related species which is 
occasionally met with on muddy shores. It lives in the tubes of certain 
large Annelids in company with the rightful owner. The specimens 
hitherto met with in this region were either found free, or dug out of 
the mud, and it is uncertain with what \vorm they associate, though it 
is most likely to be the Nereis virens, but on the coast of South Carolina 
it lives, according to Dr.' Stirnpsou, in the tubes of Arenicola crhtata 
STIMPSON. It has been found in the stomach of the ocellated flounder. 
The common edible-crab or " blue-crab, 77 Callinectes liastatus, is a com- 
mon inhabitant of muddy shores, especially in sheltered coves and bays. 
It is a very active species and can swim rapidly ; it is therefore often 
seen swimming at or near the surface. The full-grown individuals gen- 
erally keep away from the shores, in shallow water, frequenting muddy 
bottoms, especially among the eel-grass, and are also found in large 


numbers in the somewhat brackish waters of estuaries and the mouths 
of rivers. The young specimens of all sizes, up to two or three inches 
in breadth, are, however, very frequent along the muddy shores, hid- 
ing in the grass and weeds or under the peaty banks at high- water, and 
retreating as the tide goes down; when disturbed they swim away 
quickly into deeper water. They also have the habit of pushing them- 
selves backward into and beneath the mud for concealment. They are 
predacious in their habits, feeding upon small fishes and various other 
animal food. They are very pugnacious and have remarkable strength 
in their claws, which they use with great dexterity. When they have 
recently shed their shells they are caught in great numbers for the 
markets, and these " soft -shelled crabs" are much esteemed by many. 
Those with hard shells are also sold in our markets, but are not valued 
so highly. This crab can easily be distingushed from all the other 
species found in this region by the sharp spine on each side of the 

The common " spider-crab," Libinia canaliculata, (p. 339,) is very com- 
mon on muddy shores and flats. It hides beneath the surface of the 
mud and decaying weeds or among the eel-grass, and is very sluggish 
in its motions. Its whole surface is covered with hairs which entangle 
particles of mud and dirt of various kinds ; and sometimes hydroids, 
algae, and even barnacles grow upon its shell, contributing to its more 
ready concealment. The males are much larger than the females, and 
have long and stout claws. They often spread a foot or more across the 
extended legs. The females have much smaller and shorter legs and 
comparatively weak claws. 

Another similar species, Libinia dubia, is also found on muddy shores 
and has nearly the same habits. It has a much longer rostrum, more 
deeply divided at the end. 

The two common species of u hermit-crabs" are both found on muddy 
shores, especially among eel-grass, but the larger one, Eupacjuriis polli- 
caris, (p. 313,). is comparatively rare. The small one, E. longicarpits, (p. 
313,) is very common and usually occupies the dead shells of llyanassa 
obsoleta, though many may be found in other species of shells. 

The Gebiaaffinis (Plate II, fig. 7) isa crustacean somewhat resembling a 
young lobster three or four inches in length. It lives on muddy shores 
and digs deep burrows near low- water mark, in the tenacious mud or clay, 
especially where there are decaying sea- weeds 'buried beneath the sur- 
face. The burrows are roundish, half an inch to an inch in diameter, 
very smooth within, and go down obliquely for the distance of one or 
two feet, and then run off laterally or downward, in almost any direc- 
tion, to the depth of two or three feet, and are usually quite crooked 
and winding. We have found them most abundant on the shore of 
Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, near Beesley's Point, but they also 
occur at New Haven and Wood's Hole, &c. This species is quite active ; 
it swims rapidly and jumps back energetically. It is eagerly devoured 


by such fishes as are able to capture it. When living tin- colors are 
quite elegant. Along the back there is a broad band of mottled, red- 
dish brown, which is contracted on the next to the last segment; each 
side of i\\\* band the mottlings are fewer, and the surface somewhat 
liairy. The last segment and the appendages of the preceding one are 
thickly specked with reddish brown ; their edges are fringed with gray 
hairs. The Calianassa tithnjMoni SMITH, (Plate II, fig. 8, large claw,) is 
also a burrowing species, but its habits are at present little known, owing 
to its rarity. It has been found in the stomach of fishes, and is proba- 
bly more common farther south. 

The ftquiUa empum is a very interesting creature, whose habits are 
still imperfectly known. It is often thrown on the beaches by the 
waves, and probably it usually burrows in the mud below low-water 
mark, but in certain localities it has been found burrowing at or near 
low-water mark of spring-tides, forming large, irregular holes. The very 
curious, free-swimming young (Plate VIII, fig. 36) were often taken in 
the towing-nets. Large specimens are eight or ten inches long and about 
two broad. The body is not so stout built as that of the lobster, and the 
carapax or shell is much smaller and softer, while the abdomen is much 
larger and longer in proportion. The legs and all the other organs are 
quite unlike those of the lobster, and the last joint of the great claw, in- 
stead of forming a pair of pincers with the next, is armed with a row 
of six sharp, curved spines, which shut into corresponding sockets, 
arranged in a groove in the next joint, which also bears smaller spines. 
By means of this singular organ they can hold their prey securely, and 
can give a severe wound to the human hand, if handled incautiously. It 
also uses the stout caudal appendages, which are armed with spines, very 
effectively. The colors of this species are quite vivid, considering its 
mud-dwelling habits. The body is usually pale green or yellowish green, 
each segment bordered posteriorly with darker green and edged with 
bright yellow; the tail is tinged with rose and mottled with yellow and 
blackish ; the outer caudal lainelhe have the base and spines tvhite, the 
last joint yellow, margined with black; the inner ones are black, pale 
at base; the eyes are bright emerald-green; the inner autenme are 
dark, with a yellow band at the base of each joint : and the flagellum 
is anuulated with black and white. 

The common shrimp, Cran-gon vulyaris, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10,) is 
frequent on muddy shores, where it has a darker color than when liv- 
ing on sandy shores. The common prawn, Palcvmonetes rulyaris, (p. 339, 
Plate II, fig. 9,) is also common in such situations, especially where 
there is eel-grass, among w 7 hich it finds its favorite resorts, but it is 
still more abundant in the estuaries. Another shrimp, the Virbius zos- 
tericola SMITH, also occurs among the eel-grass, in similar places. Jt is 
usually greenish in color. 

Two other species of shrimp-like Crustacea, belonging to the genus 
Myais, are also found on muddy shores, especially among eel-grass. 
7 V ' 


The Mysls stenolepis SMITH, (Plate III, fig. 12, female,) is often very 
abundant in such situations. The small young ones have been taken in 
May, and the half-grown ones later in the season. In the early spring 
the adult females, with eggs, occur in great numbers among the eel- 
grass, in estuaries and ponds. Mr. Yiual K. Edwards caught a large 
number in a small pond at Wood's Hole, April 1. No males were found 
at this time with the females; the only adult males observed were taken 
in autumn. Possibly the males do not survive the winter. The adult 
females have not been observed in summer, and they probably die after 
hatching their young in the spring. The whole body is translucent ; 
each segment of the body has a stellate black spot ; and there is more 
or less blackish pigment on the caudal lamella 1 , telsou, antennal scales, 
and inner flagellum and peduncle of the autennulre. This species con- 
tributes largely to the food of many fishes. The other species, M. Amer- 
icana SMITH, also lives among eel-grass, as well as in deeper water off 
shore among algre. This has been found in large numbers in the stom- 
achs of the shad and the spotted flounder. 

Of Amphipods there are comparatively i'r\v species. The Um-lola 
irrorata (p. 340, Plate IV, fig. 19) is pretty common here, as elsewhere. 
The Amphithoe valida SMITH (p. 315,) is often met with among eel-grass. 
Another species, A. compta SMITH, also occurs in the same places. 
It differs from the preceding in many characters, but may easily be dis- 
tinguished by its red eyes. A third species of the genus, A. lotnjimana 
SMITH, is also found among eel-grass. It has black eyes. The C'<*n- 
phium cylindricum and Gammarns mucroimtiut occur among eel-grass and 
alga?, often in great numbers. 

Of Isopods there are several species. The Idotc<i irromla (p. .'Jl(>, 
Plate V, fig. 23) is common wherever eel-grass is found. The Erielwo- 
nici attemiata HARGER, (Plate VI, fig. 27,) is also found clinging to 
eel-grass in muddy situations. The Epelys trilolus (Plate VI, fig. 28) 
is found creeping about over the bottom or among and beneath the 
decaying*vegetable matter and mud usually to be found in sheltered sit- 
uations. It is usually so covered up with adhering dirt as readily to 
escape observation. The Epelys montosus also occurs in similar situa- 

Whenever lumber or drift-wood has been left for some time on the 
muddy shores it is found to be more or less eaten by the Limnoria lig- 
norum, (Plate VI, fig. 25.) This small isopod gnaws its galleries in the 
wood to a depth of about half an inch from the surface, and after a 
time these galleries become so numerous that the superficial layer will 
be completely honey-combed, and it will then scale off and another layer 
will be attacked. This little creature often does great damage to the 
piles of wharves and other kinds of submerged wood-work in this re- 
gion, and will be mentioned again in discussing the animals inhabiting 
piles, &c. 

The "horse-shoe crab," Limulm Polypliemm, (p. 340,) is also common. 


on muddy shows, buiTowin" 1 beneath the surface, aX or just Ix-lov, low- 
water mark. 

Many of the Annelids found on muddy shores occur also on sandy 
shores, especially where there is a mixture of mud with the sand, and 
consequently they have been mentioned in the preceding pages. 
Among these are Nereis virens (p. 317, Plate XI, figs. 47-50) and N. 
limbata, (p. 318, Plate XI, fig. 51,) both of which are common on muddy 
shores ; also Diopatra cuprea, (p. 320, Plate XIII, figs. 07 and 68 ;) Lum. 
briconereis opalina, (p. 342, Plate XIII, figs. 09, 70;) L. tennis, (p. 342;) 
Maldane dongata, (p. 343;) Notomastus Inridns, (p. 342;) Notomastus fili- 
formis, (p. 342;) Cirratnlm grandis, (p. 319, Plate XV, figs. 80, 81;) Cis. 
'icnides Gouldii, (p. 323, Plate XVII, figs. 87, 87;) all of which are 
found both in mud and sand, but prefer, perhaps, a mixture of the two. 
Rhynchobolus Amcricanm (p. 342, Plate X, figs. 45, 40) and R. dibran- 
chiatus (p. 341, Plate X, figs. 43, 44) are also found in mud, though per- 
haps more common in fine sand, or sandy mud. 

The " blood-drop," Poly cirrus eximius, (p. 320, Plate XVI, fig. 85) is 
however, a species that belongs properly to muddy localities, and it de- 
lights in the softest and stickiest mud of the shores, near low- water 
mark. The larger blood-drop, GJicctobranchus sanguineus, (p. 320,) is also 
found in similar situations, and the soft mud, filled with decaying veg- 
etable matter, seems to be its most congenial home. 

Of Mollusks there are comparatively few species that are peculiar to 
muddy shores, but there are many that live almost equally well in such 
localities and on shores or bottoms of other kinds. 

Among the Gastropods, the proper mud-dwelling species are few. 
The Ilyanassa obsoleta (p. 354, Plate XXI, fig. 113) is the most abund- 
ant, for it occurs everywhere over the mud-flats in great numbers, and y 
in cold weather, often crowds in large numbers into the pools left on 
the flats. The Nassa vibex (Plate XXI, fig. 114) has nearly the same 
habits, but. is comparatively rare. It is more frequently found among 
the eel-grass, and is more common farther south. 

The Eupleura caudata (Plate XXI, fig. 117) is usually found rather 
sparingly in this region, but in one locality, at Waquoit, it occurred in 
considerable numbers in the small streams and ditches in the muddy 
marshes near the shore. It occurs occasionally at low-water, but is 
more often met with on muddy and shelly bottoms in the shallow water 
of the bays and sounds, and is much more common farther south. The 
Crepidula convcxa (p. 355, Plate XXIII, fig, 128) is very common on 
the shells of Ilyanassa obsoleta, especially when they are inhabited by 
" hermit-crabs." It is also frequently found on the eel-grass, where, in 
August, it often deposits its bright yellow eggs inclosed in small, gela- 
tinous masses, which are grouped in clusters. 

The Sulla solitaria, (Plate XXY, fig. 101) is a species restricted to 
muddy shores and bottoms, in sheltered situations, and is found also in 
muddy ponds and estuaries. The color of the animal of this species is 


quite peculiar, and when it is fully extended it has a Singular appear- 
ance. The general color is usually orange-brown, and it is thickly 
speckled with darker brown. This shell is devoured in large numbers 
by the flounders, and doubtless by other fishes. 

A number of species which habitually live clinging to eel-grass are 
to be found in the localities where this plant nourishes, either in the 
pools or at low-water mark, but they are not peculiar to or character- 
istic of muddy shores. Among these the most common are ANtyrix 
lunata, (p. 306;) Bittium nigrum, (p. 305;) Triforis nigrocinvtuSj (p. 305:) 
and Lacuna vincta. (p. 305.) The Littorinn Irrorata is occasionally 
found in sheltered situations, but this region is north of its true range. 
and such specimens as are found may have been introduced from far- 
ther south with oysters. It is very abundant on the southern coast. 
The Urosalptnx cinerea (p. 30G) occurs wherever there are beds of oys- 
ters, upon which it feeds. 

Most of the bivalve shells to be found on muddy shores have already 
been enumerated as living also on the sheltered sandy shores, and the 
majority of them nourish equally on both kinds of shores, and on those 
of a mixed or intermediate character. Among these are Mya arenaria, 
(p. 309;) Macoma fusca, (p. 358;) Angulux tenet', (p. .'558;) Vcnns mcrce- 
naria, (p. 359;) Argina pc.i'ata, (p. ;><M) :) Mytilus edulis, (p. 307;) Pectm 
irradianS) (p. 361.) There are, however, other species that are almost 
peculiar to muddy shores, and are highly characteristic of them. The 
Pliolas truncata (Plate XXVII, fig. 200) excavates deep holes in depos- 
its of tenacious clay at all elevations between tides, and is still more 
frequently found living in holes in the borders of peat-bogs, or marsh 
deposits, which have been encroached upon by the sea. In such places 
they sometimes occur nearly up to the ordinary high-water mark. 
Their holes are round and nearly perpendicular, and increase in size 
from the orifice downward. They vary in depth according to the size 
of the shell; the deeper ones are often a foot or a foot and a half in 
depth and often an inch in diameter. The shell remains near the bot- 
tom and stretches out its long siphon tubes, w r hich are united together 
quite to the end, until the tips reach the external orifice of the burrow 
These tubes are generally yellowish white except at the end, where they 
are blackish or brownish ; the orifices and papilla 1 are also variously 
marked with purplish brown or dark brown. The dark coloration of 
the end of the siphon tubes is doubtless for purposes of protection from 
predacious fishes, crabs, &c. Its foot is short and stout, obliquely trun- 
cated, and bevelled at the end. The Petricola plwladiformis (Plate 
XXVII, fig. 199) is generally associated with the preceding species and 
is more abundant. Its habits are nearly the same, but it does not make 
its burrows so deep ; it is more active in its motions, and can easily 
climb up to the upper part of its hole by means of its long, thin, white 
foot, which is tongue-shaped and very extensible and flexible. The 
siphon-tubes are long and slender, tapering, and united for about a 


quarter of their length, beyond which they are separate and divergent. 
They are yellowish white, more or less spotted, especially toward the, 
end, with orange, brownish, or blackish, which, in large specimens, forms 
streaks near the ends or even becomes continent, making the tips very 
dark colored. The branchial orifice is surrounded by a circle of numer- 
ous bipinnate papilhe, which usually alternate with smaller and more 
simple ones ; the papilla' of the dorsal tube are similar, but more simple- 

The Tafjelus gibbw (Plate XXVI, fig. 181, animal; Plate XXX, fig. 
1*17, shell) is another inhabitant of muddy shores, which burrows deeply 
into the mud. This species is confined, on the shores, chiefly to the zone 
near low- water mark, but probably lives also in shallow water beyond 
the reach of the tides. In this species the foot is large and muscular, 
thick, tongue-shaped, and has a very wide range of motion, for the man- 
tle is open along the whole length of the ventral edge of the shell. The 
tubes are separate, from the base, and are round, white, and capable of 
very great extension, for a specimen of ordinary size, kept in confine- 
ment, extended the tubes to the length of nine inches. These tubes 
are translucent, and at the end have small rounded lobes around the 
aperture^ each lobe being furnished at its base, inside, with a small, 
orange, eye-like spot, which is probably an imperfect visual organ, and 
with two others on the inside lower down. The branchial tube has six 
of these lobes and ocelli ; the dorsal one has eight. On each tube 
there is a row of small, white, slender, obtuse papilla?, corresponding 
to each terminal lobe, and running along the whole length of the tubes. 
The color of the animal is white throughout. This bivalve makes deep 
burrows in the tenacious mud, each of which has two orifices, not far 
apart, for the two tubes. By this peculiarity their burrows may be 
at once recognized, whenever seen. 

The Mulinia lateralis (Plate XXVI, fig. 185, B, animal) is occasionally 
found living at extreme low-water mark, on muddy flats, but its true 
home is on the soft muddy bottoms in shallow water, where t is often 
excessively abundant. In this species the foot is relatively large and 
muscular, more or less pointed at the end, and capable of assuming 
many different forms and positions ; it has a wide sweep in its motions 
and can be thrust far ward or backward. The siphon-tubes are united 
nearly to the end, but the separation is indicated by a groove between 
them for nearly half the length. The branchial tube is the largest, and 
its orifice is surrounded by a circle of twelve to twenty-four, slender, 
elongated, simple papilhe, each of which usually has a small, black, eye- 
like spot at its base ; a little below this terminal circle there is another, 
composed of smaller, very short, blunt papilla?. The dorsal tube also has 
a subterminal circle of similar papilla?, above which the tip forms a re- 
tractile cone, with the small, simple orifice at the tip. The animal is 
yellowish white, the tubes generally pale yellow. This species burrows 
just beneath the surface of the mud, and it is eaten" in large numbers by 
the scup and other fishes. 


The Cumingia tellinoides (Plate XXX, fig. 221) and Kellia planulata 
(Plate XXX, fig. 22G) are sometimes found living in the mud at low- 
water, but are rare in such situations. They are more common at the 
depth of a few fathoms on muddy and shelly bottoms. 

The ribbed muscle, Modiola plicaMa, (p. 307, Plate XXXI, lig. 238, 
is very abundant near and even above high-water mark, along the 
muddy borders of the marshes and banks and among the roots of grass- 
The Modiola hamatus is occasionally met with, especially on oyster- 
beds, adhering to the shells, where it is sometimes very abundant. It 
has probably been introduced with the oysters, from the South, where 
it is common. It somewhat resembles the preceding species, but it is 
shorter, broader, with strong radiating ribs, many of which are forked. 
Its color is yellow or yellowish brown. 

The common " scollop, 77 Pecten irmdi<intt, (p. 3G1, Plate XXXII, fig. 
243.) occurs among the eel-grass on muddy shores in great abundance, 
in many localities, especially in sheltered places. The young shells may 
be found during the whole summer, but the adult specimens come up to 
the shallow waters and shores in great numbers in the autumn. This 
species is very active and can rise from the bottom and swim ^through 
the water with great rapidity by opening and energetically closing its 
valves, thus expelling the water from the gill-cavity, the reaction send- 
ing the shell backward. It often remains up among the leaves of the 
eel-grass, resting upon them, where they are matted together, but if 
alarmed the creature suddenly swims away in the manner described, and 
takes to the bottom. It is very watchful and quickly perceives its 
enemies. The thickened outer edge of the mantle, both above and 
below, is fringed with rows of numerous tapering papilla 1 or tentacles, 
the inner ones largest, and among the bases of these there is a row of 
very bright silvery or bluish eyes, thirty to forty or more to each valve 
the number increasing with the size of the shell ; a short distance within 
the outer fringe of tentacles there is a raised yellow or orange ridge, 
which bears another series of smaller papilla 1 , and the space between 
these and the outer ones is radiately striated. The central muscle which 
closes the valves of this shell is large and powerful. This is the portion 
which is sold in our markets in large quantities, and is highly esteemed 
by many as an article of food. Its decided sweetish taste is, however, 
objectionable to some persons. To some, also, it proves actually injuri- 
ous, sometimes producing nausea and even worse symptoms. After 
storms this shell is sometimes found thrown upon the beaches in immense 

The oyster, Ostrcva Virginiana, (p. 310,) is often planted upon the 
muddy shores at and below low- water mark, in many parts of Long Island 
Sound and elsewhere, but for this purpose the muddy estuaries are pre- 
ferred, where the water is more brackish and the bottom less disturbed 
by the storms. The mud, however, should not be too deep, and ought 
to have a solid substratum, a few inches beneath. 


The Aseidians are generally uncommon on muddy shores, but wherever 
the eel-grass nourishes, and especially in sheltered situations, the M olgula 
MnltttoiNiN (p. -'HI, Plate XXXIII, fig. 250) is usually to be found ad 
heriiig to it. Tbe Hotn/Ilm Gouldii (Plate XXXIII, figs. L'52, iTiij) is also 
frequently found growing upon the eel-grass in such situations, as well* 
as upon the piles of wharves, bottoms of boats, &c. This species was 
found in great profusion upon the eel-grass in Little Harbor, at Wood's 
Hole, and in Waquoit Pond. In both these localities the water is nearly 
pure and but slightly, if at all, brackish. But it has also been found by 
Professor D. C. Eaton on the piles at Brooklyn, New York, where the 
water is more brackish. This species when young forms thin, soft, circu- 
lar or oval incrustations covered with stellate clusters of the minute ani- 
mals, (fig. 253,) which are imbedded in it ; each of these has a small 
circular orifice toward the outer end, opening into the gill cavity, and 
another orifice opening into a larger cavity in the center of the cluster, 
which is common to all those in the cluster ; and it has a central exter- 
nal orifice, through which the waste water from the gills, the fa?ces, 
and the eggs are discharged. These young colonies begin to appear in 
June and grow very rapidly, new individuals being formed by buds that 
originate from the first ones in rapid succession, so that in two or three 
weeks the small colonies will increase from a quarter of an inch in 
breadth up to three or four inches, if they be situated on a flat sur- 
face and have room to spread. If upon the stem or leaf of the eel- 
grass they will extend entirely around it, and perhaps several inches 
along its length, if not opposed by other colonies. At the same time the 
crusts increase very much in thickness. Thus by the end of the summer, 
the eel-grass, algae, stems of hydroids, &c., often become completely 
covered up by the luxuriant growth of this curious compound animal. 
The colors of this species are extremely variable and often very elegant, 
and it is seldom that two colonies can be found with precisely the same 
pattern of color. Growing upon the same leaf of eel-grass, many dif- 
ferent colonies may often be found, each showing a different arrange- 
ment of the colors. 

In one of the most common varieties the general color of the common 
tissue between the stellate clusters is dull olive-green, thickly specked 
with small flake-white spots, which are formed by the enlarged terminal 
portion of stolon-like processes, which bud out from the perfect individu- 
als composing the clusters, and are arranged somewhat in circles around 
the clusters ; the lower portion of these stolons is usually yellow or 
orange, and the outer part deep purple, tipped with flake-white. The 
individual animals, or zooids, composing the stellate clusters, are deep 
purple, with the branchial orifice yellowish white, surrounded by a circle 
of orange 5 a short flake-white longitudinal line runs along the middle of 
the upper side, interrupted by the branchial opening, but this line is 
often represented only by two white spots ; other 'flake-white spots are 
usually irregularly scattered over the outer end. 


In another variety the deep purple zooids have a circle of Hake-white 
around the branchial orifice, a short white bar or spot beyond it on the 
outer end, a white spot on the middle between the orifices, and another 
white spot on the inner end near the anal orifice ; the stolons colored as 
in the preceding. 

In another common variety (var. Mcolor) the colors are similar except 
that the outer half of each zooid is almost entirely covered with flake- 
white, sometimes tinged with orange, while the proximal half is deep pur- 
ple. Another has the purple zooids spotted and blotched with flake- 
white over the whole surface ; souietimes the specks are so fine and 
numerous as to give a uniform silvery or frosted appearance, (var. farl- 

One peculiar variety (annulata) has a small circle of white around the 
the branchial opening, surrounded by another large circle of flake-white, 
which incloses nearly the outer half of the zooid. The variety airox has 
the zooids covered to a considerable extent with flake-white, so arranged 
on each as to present the appearance of a skull ; the two eyes being 
formed by deep purple spots. 

The variety variegata is pale yellowish olive or orange-brown; the 
zooids have a white ring around the branchial orifice, inclosed by a brown 
ring, which is often interrupted ; and the latter is surrounded more or 
less completely by flake-white, there is usually also a median bar of 
flake- white ; the inner portion is deep purple, more or less mottled with 
white, and there is a white spot at the inner end. In the variety albida 
nearly the whole upper surface of the zooids is flake- white. 

In another very beautiful and distinct variety (var. stella) the common 
tissue is translucent, pale olive, with white-tipped stolons; the zooids 
are brown or purple, marked on the upper side with two parallel longi- 
tudinal bars of flake- white, which are separated by a narrow dark line, 
all of which radiate from the center of the cluster, thus producing the 
appearance of a many-rayed star, with the rays alternately white and 
dark ; the white bars are sometimes interrupted near the inner ends, 
and small specks of flake-white are sometimes scattered over the outer 
end. In this form there are often ten to fifteen zooids in each cluster, 
and they appear longer and less swollen than in the other varieties, ow- 
ing, perhaps, to the optical effect of the radiating lines. This is the most 
distinctly marked variety that was observed, and was at first thought to 
be a distinct species. 

The Eadiates are not abundant on muddy shores. The Thyone 
Briareus (p. 362) is sometimes found on such shores, in sheltered situ- 
ations, among eel-grass. The common star-fish, Asterias arenicola, (p. 320, 
Plate XXXV, fig. 269,) is often altogether too abundant on muddy shores, 
on the oyster-beds, where it commits great havoc. 

The Hijdmctinia polyclina (p. 328) is often found on the shells occupied 
by "hermit-crabs." Several species of Obelia grow upon the ee^grass, 
where the water is sufficiently clear. The Halecium gratile V. (p. 328,) 


is frequently found attached to the shells of oysters, and to other solid 

List of species commwdy found on the muddy shores of the lays and 




(ielasiinus pugnax 367 

Sesarma reticulata 367 

Piunixa cylindrica 367 

Pinnotheres ostreum 367 

Cancer irroratus 367 

Panopeus depressus 367 

P. Sayi 367 

Callinectes hastatus 367 

Carcinus granulatus 367 

Libinia canaliculata 368 

L. dubia 368 

Eupagurus longicarpns .... 368 

E. pollicaris 368 

Callianassa Stiinpsoni 369 

Gebia affinis 368 

Virbius zostericola 369 

Crangon vulgaris 369 

Pahemonetes vulgaris 369 

Annelids j 


Nereis virens 371 

N. limbata 371 

Diopatra cuprea 371 

Lumbriconereis opalina 371 

L. tennis 371 

Maldane elougata 371 

Xotomastus luridus 371 

K filiforrais.. 371 


Mysis stenolepis 370 

M. Americana 370 

Squilla empusa 369 

Gammarus mucronatus 370 

Amphithoe valida 370 

A. compta 370 

A. longimana 370 

Uuciola irrorata 370 

Corophium cylindricum 370 

Idotea irrorata 370 

Erichsonia attenuata 370 

Epelys trilobus 370 

E. inontosus 370 

Limnoria lignorum 370 

Limulus Polyphemus 370 

Numerous small Entoinos- 
traca, of many genera. 

I . 



Cistenides Gouldii 371 

Amphitrite ornata 320 

Ehynchobolus Americauus. 371 

E. dibranchiatus 371 

Cirratulus grandis 371 

Polycirrus eximius 371 

ChaetobrancbuS sanguineus. 371 



Page. ' 

Ilyanassa obsoleta . 371 

Kassa vibex 371 

Euplenra caudata 371 

Urosalpinx cinerea 372 

Astyris lunata 372 

Crepidula convexa 371 


Littorina irrorata 372 

Lacuna vincta 372 

Bittium nigruin 372 

Triforis nigrociuctus '"- 

Bulla solitaria . 371 




Pholas truncata 372 

Tagelus gibbus 373 

Mya arenaria 372 

Mulinia lateralis 373 

Macoina fusca 372 

Cumiugia tellinoides 374 

Angulus tener 372 

Petricola pholadiformis 372 

Yenus merceuaria 


Kellia plauulata ........... 374 

Argina pexata ............ ' 372 

Mytilus edulis ............. 372 

Modiola plicatula .......... 374 

M. haraatus ............... 374 

Pecten irradians .......... 374 

Ostriva Yirginiana ........ .">74 

Molula MaDliattensis 



375 Botryllus Gouldii 



37 "> 

ThyoneBriareus. . ..... 376 Asterias arenicola 


Hydractinia polyclina 


Halecinin firracile 





In these situations a large number of species may be found, but tbe 
majority of them are not peculiar to such stations. There are, however, 
quite a number of species that are nearly always found under these cir- 
cumstances, and others are directly dependent for their very existence 
upon submerged wood. Some of these, like the Teredo, for example, are 
of so great importance, owing to the injuries which they do to valuable 
property, that it seems desirable to make a special division for the 
animals ordinarily found in connection with wood-work of various kinds, 
whether injurious or not. 

On the piles of wharves and bridges various kinds of sea-weeds often 
grow in abundance, each species having a particular zone to which it is 
limited 5 but as these plants require light, they are found almost exclu- 
sively upon the outer rows of piles and timber, and are most abundant on 
the outer side of the piles and on the southern exposures, where they get 
the most sunlight. These algsB afford congenial homes to a considerable 
number of animals, most of which occur also among alga? on the rocky 
shores and in tide-pools. Beneath the wharves, where the piles are con- 


stantly shaded, very lew alga-, and those only of the smallest and sim- 
plest kinds, such as Ocillatoria' and Diatoms, are to be found. But in 
these shaded situations many animals, such as Tubularians and other 
Ilydroids, some Ascidians, Uryozoa, &c., delight to dwell. Many of 
these adherent animals also live in abundance on the outermost piles of 
the wharves, at or just below low-water mark, where they are more or 
less exposed to the sunlight. 

The animals that are found among or attached to the seaweeds 
growing on the piles are, for the most part, identical with those that 
are to be found in similar situations among the alga? on rocks and in 
rocky tide-pools. 

Among those that are nearly or quite peculiar to submerged wood-work 
are several species of u ship-worms,' 7 (Teredo of several species, and the 
Xylotrya finibriata,) which are bivalve mollusks; the wood-eating Lim- 
noria; several species of barnacles, which belong to the Crustacea ; 
some of the tubularians, and other hydroids, &c. 

Of the salt-water Insects two species have been observed on the piles 
of wharves. One of these is a small, slender, green larva, with a dark, 
firm, head, and sharp jaws. It is the larva of a- small, two-winged fly, 
probably identical with the Chironomus oceanicus of Packard. 

On the piles of a wharf at Menemsha, Dr. Edward Palmer found, in 
October, a very interesting insect-larva. It lived in a stout tube com- 
posed of grains of sand firmly cemented together, and attached by its 
Avhole length to the piles; the single specimen is broken at both ends. 
The tube is flattened, and consists of a central, subcylindrical, tapering 
portion, or proper tube, which is covered on all sides with a single layer 
of small grains of sand, neatly arranged $ along each side of this, and 
partly covering its upper surface, and to fill the angle between it and 
the surface to which it was attached, larger grains of sand are cemented. 
The preserved portion of the tube is about three-quarters of an inch 
long and nearly one-quarter wide, at the larger end, but not more than 
half as wide at the small end. The larva is about a third of an inch 
long, rather stout, and has a pair of long, sharp, curved jaws, and three 
pairs of rather long, hairy legs. It belongs to the Phryganidae, among 
the Neuroptera, and somewhat resembles some of the well-known larva* 
of the caddis-flies, common in fresh water, which make tubes or cases 
of various kinds. Dr. Hagen, who has examined this specimen, refers 
it to the genus Molanna, of which three North American species are 
known, but only in the adult state. All the larva? of this genus, known 
in Europe, live in fresh water, and no other species of the Phrygauida' 
has been observed in sea-water, although some live in water that is 
slightly brackish. 

Of Crustacea the most important species is the Limnoria Ugnorunt, 
(p. 370, Plate VI, fig. 25.) This little creature is grayish in color, and 
covered with minute hairs. It has the habit of eating burrows for 
itself into solid wood to the depth of about half an inch. These bur- 


rows are nearly round, and of all sizes up to about a sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, and they go into the wood at all angles and are 
usually more or less crooked. They are often so numerous as to reduce 
the wood to mere series of thin partitions between the holes. In this 
state the wood rapidly decays, or is washed away by the waves, and 
every new surface exposed is immediately attacked, so that layer after 
layer is rapidly removed, and the timber thus wastes away and is en- 
tirely destroyed in a few years. It destroys soft woods more rapidly 
than hard ones, but all kinds are attacked except teak. It works 
chiefly in the softer parts of the wood, between the hard, annual lay- 
ers, and avoids the knots and lines of hard fiber connected with them, 
as well as rusted portions around nails that have been driven in, and, 
consequently, as the timbers waste away under its attacks, these 
harder portions stand out in bold relief. Where abundant it will 
destroy soft timber at the rate of half an inch or more every year, thus 
diminishing the effective diameter of piles about an inch annually. 
Generally, however, the amount is probably not more than half this, but 
even at that rate, the largest timbers will soon be destroyed, especially 
when, as often happens, the Teredos are aiding in this Avork of destruction. 
It lives in a pretty narrow zone, extending a short distance above 
and below low- water mark. It occurs all along our shores, from Long 
Island Sound to Nova Scotia. In the Bay of Fuudy it often does 
great damage to the timbers and other wood-work used in constructing 
the brush fish-weirs, as well as to the wharves, &c. At Wood's Hole it 
was formerly found to be very destructive to the piles of the wharves. 
The piles of the new Government wharves have been protected by 
broad bands of tin-plate, covering the zone which it chiefly affects. 
North of Cape Cod, where the tides are much greater, this zone is 
broader, and this remedy is not so easily applied. It does great dam- 
age, also, to ship-timber floating in the docks, and great losses are 
sometimes caused in this way. Complaints of such ravages in the 
navy-yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, have been made, and they 
also occur at the Charlestown navy-yard, and in the piles of the wharves 
at Boston. Probably the wharves and other submerged wood-work in 
all our sea-ports, from New York northward, are more or less injured 
by this creature, and, if it could be accurately estimated, the damage 
would be found surprisingly great. 

Unlike the Teredo, this creature is a vegetarian, and eats the wood 
which it exeavates, so that its boring operations provide it with both 
food and shelter. The burrows are made by means of its stout mandi- 
bles or jaws. It is capable of swimming quite rapidly, and can leap 
backward suddenly by means of its tail. It can creep both forward 
and backward. Its legs are short and better adapted for moving up 
and down in its burrow than elsewhere, and its body is rounded, with 
parallel sides, and well adapted to its mode of life. When disturbed 
it will roll itself into a ball. The female carries seven to nine eggs or 
young in the incubatory pouch at one time. 


The destructive habits of tin's species were first brought prominently 
to notice, in isil, by the celebrated llobert Stephenson, who found it 
rapidly destroying the wood-work at the Bell Rock light-house, erected 
by him on the coast of Scotland. Since that time it has been investi- 
gated and its ravages have been described by numerous Knropcjin 
writers. It is very destructive on the coasts of Great Britain, where it 
is known as the " gribble." 

The remedies used to check its ravages are chiefly copper or other 
metallic sheathing 5 driving broad-headed iron nails, close together, 
into the part of the piles subject to their attacks $ and applying coal- 
tar, creosote, or verdigris-paint,. once a year or oftener. 

Another singular crustacean, common on the piles at Wood's Hole, 
is the Tana Is Jilum. This is a very slender, whitish species, almost 
thread-like in form, but has the first pair of legs much thickened, with 
very peculiar, stout claws, ovate in form ; the rest of the anterior legs 
are very slender. The antenna? are short and thick, the inner ones di- 
rected forward 5 the outer ones more slender, and curved outward and 
backward. This species lives among the adhering ascidiaus and hy- 
droids on the piles, and has also been found in deeper water, in the Bay 
of Fundy. Its habits are little known, but some of the allied species 
have been accused of boring in wood. 

Two species of barnacles are very common on the piles of the 
wharves. The common barnacle of the rocky shores, Balanus lalanoides, 
(p. 305,) is also common on the piles of wharves and bridges, between 
tides, and also on the bottoms of vessels, &c. It never grows very 
large, although it may become so crowded together as to form a contin- 
uous crust. It is easily distinguished from the other species by its 
membranous base, which never forms a solid plate, like that of the 
other species. The "ivory-barnacle," Balanus eburneus, is also common 
on all kinds of submerged wood-work, whether fixed or floating. It 
is usually abundant on the piles and timbers of wharves, buoys, oyster- 
stakes, bottoms of vessels, &c. It is chiefly found below low-water 
mark if on fixed objects, and is even more common in the brackish 
waters of estuaries than in the purer waters outside, and it is capable 
of living even in pure fresh water, for Professor Jeffreys Wyman has 
sent me specimens collected, by himself, about sixty-five miles up the Saint 
John's Kiver, in Florida, where the water is not at all brackish. This 
species is sometimes found adhering to the carapax of crabs, the 
shell of Limulm, and various niollusks. It is easily distinguished from 
most species on account of its low, broad form and its smooth white 
exterior. It has a shelly base. The B. crenatus, common on shells and 
stones in deep water, also occurs on vessels. Other species are often 
found on the bottoms of vessels that have come from warmer latitudes. 
Some of them are of large size. One of the most frequent of these is 
Balan -s- tintinabulwn, 

Several species of " goose-barnacles," Lepas, are frequently found 


alive on the bottoms of vessels, and especially such as have recently 
arrived from the West Indies and other foreign countries. Tln-sc 
resemble, in general appearance. L. fascicularis, (Plate VII, fig. 33,) 
which is a common indigenous species, usually found adhering to floating 
sea-weeds and other small objects in earl}' summer, in large numbers. 
It is doubtful whether any of those found on the bottoms of vessels 
can be regarded as true natives of this region. The most common of 
them is L. anatifera; the valves of its shell are bordered with orange. 
The other common species are L. anserifera and L. pectinata. Species 
of the curious genus, Conchoderma, also occur on the bottoms of vessels. 

Among the Crustacea that commonly occur among the ascidians, 
hydroids, and algae on the piles of wharves, are Panopeus Sayi, (p. 312,) 
P. depressus, (p. 312, Plate I, fig. 3,) Gammarus ornatus, (p. 314, Plate IV T 
fig. 15,) Amphithoe compta S., (p. 370,) Corophium cyUndricum^ (p. 370,) 
Melita mUda, (p. 314,) Caprclla, sp., (p. 31(3,) and various small Eutoinos- 
traca. Jcera copiosa (p. 315) often occurs abundantly near high- wa tin- 
mark, on old piles and timber, living in the crevices and cracks, or 
under loosened bark. 

Of Annelids very few if any species occur that are peculiar to these sit- 
uations. The Potamilla oculifera (p. 322, Plate XVII, fig. 80) is quite 
common on the piles of wharves where the water is pure. P. micropli- 
thahnaV. (p. 323) also occurs under the same circumstances, and also on 
the piles in harbors, where the water is brackish. 

The Leprcca rubra V. was found living in tubes among the ascidians 
on the piles of the wharves. This is a Terebelloid worm, somewhat 
resembling the Amphitrite ornata, (Plate XVI, fig. 82,) bwt is much 
smaller, and there are fascicles of setrc on all the segments. There are 
three pairs of arborescently divided branchia*, which are pedunculated, 
the last pair being quite small. The body is bright red, the tentacles 
pale flesh-color. 

The Nicolea simplex V. (p. 321,) was also found with the last in large 
numbers, but mostly of small size. Both males and females of Nereis lim- 
bata (p. 318, Plate XI, fig. 51, male) were often found among the barnacles 
and ascidians on the piles of the wharves at Wood's Hole, but the males 
were the most abundant, while the reverse was the case with those dug- 
out of the sand and gravel on the shores. 

Numerous other Annelids were occasionally met with among the ascid- 
ians and algre. Among these were Polycirrus eximius, (p. 320, Plate 
XVI, fig. 85;) Podarke obscura V., (p. 319, Plate XII, fig. 61;) a Pliyl- 
lodoce, &c. Two Nemerteans were also common; one of these was an 
olive-green species, with alight dorsal stripe, belonging probably to the 
genus Cerebratulus, but it was not carefully studied ; the second was 
Polinia glutinosa, (p. 324, Plate XIX, fig 97.) 

Of Gastropod mollusks quite a number of species occur on the piles 
of wharves, and some of them in great abundance, especially the smaller 
kinds which live among the hydroids and conferva?. The most abun- 


dant species is generally the.l.sVym lunata, (p. 306, Plate XXI, fig. 1 10,; 
which generally occurs among the small alga- and especially on the 
Tubularians, in countless numbers; Anachis avara (p. .'{(HI, Plate XXI. 
tig. 109) is often found in considerable number; Bittium nigrum (p. .">or>, 
Plate XXIV, fig. 154) and Triforis nigrocinctus (p. 305, Plate XXIV, fig, 
152) are usually common and the former often is very abundant ; Cerith- 
iopxis Green ii (Plate XXIV, fig. 153) sometimes occurs, but is rare; llya- 
nu*m obsoleta (p. 354, Plate XXI, fig. 113) and Tritia trivittata (p. 354, 
Plate XXI, fig. 112) are common, especially the former; Urosalpinx 
cinerea (p. 306, Plate XXI, tig. 11G) is generally to be found at or below 
low- water mark on the piles and buoys; Bela plicata (Plate XXI, fig. 
107) is sometimes met with, but is not common ; Odostomia Msuturalis 
{p. 307, Plate XXIV, fig. 14G) and other species of the genus are often 
found near low-water mark on the piles, especially where they are 
somewhat decayed. Littorina palliata (p. 305, Plate XXIV, fig. 138) 
and L. rudis (p. 305, Plate XXlV, fig. 137) nearly always occur near 
high-water mark, on the piles, where there are algre. In the harbors, 
where the water is brackish, and less frequently in the purer waters r 
the Alexia myosotis (Plate XXV, fig. 168) may be found 011 timbers and 
piles near high-watermark, and sometimes, also, Skenea planorbis, (Plate 
XXIV, fig. 142,) Littorijfella minuta, (Plate XXlV, fig. 140,) and Eissoa 
aculeus, (p. 306, Plate XXIV, fig. 141.) Among and feeding upon the 
Tubularians growing on the piles at and just below low-water mark, the 
beautiful JEolidia pilata (Plate XXV, fig. 174) may often be found, espe- 
cially in the harbors where the water is more or less brackish. 

Another related species, apparently the Cavolina gymnota, was found 
by Professor Todd, on an old wreck in the Wood's Hole passage, but it 
differs in several points from any form that has been described. The 
branchia? were arranged in six transverse simple rows, on each side, 
those of the second and third longest ; in the anterior rows there were 
four to six branchiae, the lower ones much, shorter than the upper ones. 
In life the branchias were dark green or blackish. 

Several other Gastropods are occasionally met with in these situa- 
tions, but the species above named are about all that ordinarily occur. 

Among the Lamellibranchs, or " bivalve-shells," we find the Teredo 
tribe, nearly all of which are peculiar to submerged wood-work, either 
fixed or floating, and most of them are capable of doing great damage, 
both to ships and to the timber and piles of wharves and bridges, or 
other similar structures. Although popularly known as the u ship- 
worm," these creatures are not at all related to the worms, but are true 
mollusks, quite nearly allied, in many respects, to the common "long- 
clam" (Mya) and to the Pholas. Like those shells the Teredo excavates 
its holes or burrows merely for its own protection, and not for food; but 
the Teredo selects wood in which to form its holes, and when these have 
been excavated it lines them with a tube of shelly material. The holes 
are very small at the surface of the wood, wh.ere they were formed by 


the young Teredos but they gradually grow larger as they go deeper and 
deeper into the wood, until they sometimes become ten inches or more 
in length and a quarter of an inch in diameter, but the size is generally 
not more than half these dimensions. The holes penetrate the wood 
at first perpendicularly or obliquely, but if they enter the side of the 
timbers or planks across the grain, the burrows generally turn horizon- 
tally in the direction of the grain a short distance beneath the surface, 
unless prevented by some obstruction, or by the presence of other 
Teredo tubes, for they never cross the tubes of their companions or 
interfere with each other in any way, and there is always a thin layer 
or partition of wood left between the adjacent tubes. It is, however, 
not necessary that they should follow the grain of the wood, for they 
can and do penetrate it in every direction, and sometimes not more 
than half the tubes run in the direction of the grain, and they are often 
very crooked or even tortuous. They rapidly form their burrows in all 
kinds of our native woods, from the softest pine to the hardest oak, and 
although they usually turn aside and go around hard knots, they are 
also able to penetrate through even the hardest knots in oak and other 
hard woods. The Teredos grow very rapidly, apparently attaining 
maturity in one season, and therefore, when abundant, they may 
greatly damage or completely destroy small timber in the course of four 
or five mouths, and even the largest piles may be destroyed by them in 
the course of two or three years. 

The most abundant species in this region is the Teredo narfiUft (cuts 
land 2; Plate XXVI, fig. 183, animal; Plate XX VII, fig. ISO. shell.) 


Fig. 1. Posterior or outer end of a living Teredo naralia. removed from its burrow ; 
c, the muscular collar by which it adheres to the shelly lining of its burrow ; p, the 
shelly pallets" which close the aperture when the animal withdraws ; /, the two 
retractile siphon-tubes which project from the hole when the animal is active. 

Fig. 2. Anterior end and shell of the same ; , the front part of the shell : f. the 
foot or boring organ. 

This is the same species that has attracted so much attention in 
Europe, during nearly two centuries, on account of the great damage that 
it has done, especially on the coast of Holland. Nevertheless no full 
description of the animal of this species has yet been published, nor 
any satisfactory figures of the soft parts. 

When removed from its tube (see Plate XXVI, fig. 183) the animal is 


found to have a very long, slender, smooth, soft, whitish body, tapering 
somewhat toward the outer or posterior end, (fig. 1,) which has a mnscu 
lar, circularly wrinkled collar, (c,) by which the animal is, when living, 
attached to the inside of the shelly lining of its tube. To the inside of 
this collar two shelly ptotes, known as the " pallets," (p,) are attached 
by their slender basal prolongations ; their outer portions are broad and 
flat, and more or less emargiuate or two-horued at the end. These are 
so connected with the muscles that when the animal withdraws its tubes 
into its hole the free ends of these pallets are made to fold together and 
close the opening, thus serving as an operculum to protect the soft tubes 
against enemies of all kinds. Between the bases of the pallets arise 
the siphonal tubes, (,) which are soft and retractile, united together for 
half their length or more, but separate and divergent beyond ; they are 
nearly equal, but the ventral or branchial tube is perhaps a little 
larger than the other, and is fringed with a few small papillae at the 
end ; the tubes are white or yellowish, sometimes specked with reddish- 
brown. At the anterior end of the body and farthest from the external 
opening of the hole, is seen the small, but elegantly sculptured, white 
bivalve shell, (cut 2, * ; and Plate XXVI, fig. 183, *.) The shell covers the 
mouth and palpi, liver, foot, and other important organs. The foot (/) 
is a short, stout, muscular organ, broadly truncate or rounded at the end, 
and appears to be the organ by means of which the excavation of the bur- 
row is effected. The shell is covered by a delicate epidermis, and prob- 
ably does not assist in rasping off' the wood, as many have supposed. 
The gills are long and narrow, inclosed mostly in the naked part of the 
body, and are reddish brown in color. The Teredos obtain their micro- 
scopic food in the same manner as other bivalve mollusks, viz., by 
means of a current of water constantly drawn into the branchial tube by 
the action of vibrating cilia within ; the infusoria and other minute or- 
ganisms are thus carried along to the mouth at the other end, while the 
gills are supplied with oxygen by the same current ; the return current 
passing out of the dorsal tube removes the waste water from the 
gills, together with the faeces and excretions of the animal, and also the 
particles of wood which have been removed by the excavating process. 
As the animal grows larger the burrows are deepened, the lining of 
shelly matter increases in length and thickness, the shell itself and the 
pallets increase in size, and the terminal tubes grow longer. But as the 
orifices of the terminal tubes must necessarily be kept at the external 
opening of the burrow, the muscular collar at the base of the tubes con- 
stantly recedes from the entrance, and with it the pallets ; at the same 
time imbricated layers of shelly matter are usually deposited in the 
upper end of the shelly tube, which are supposed to aid the pallets in 
closing the aperture when the tubes are withdrawn. When the animal 
has completed its growth, or when it has encountered the tubes of its 
companions and cannot pass them, or when it approaches the exterior 
of a thin piece of wood and cannot turn aside, it forms a rounded or 


cup-shaped layer of shelly matter, continuous with the lining of the 
tubes, and closing up the burrow in front of its shell ; sometimes it 
retreats and forms a second partition of the same kind. 

This species produces its young in May and probably through the 
greater part or all of the summer. The eggs are exceedingly numerous, 
probably amounting to millions, and they are retained in the gill-cavity, 
where they are fertilized and undergo the first stages of their development. 
The embryos pass through several curious phases during their growth. 
In one of the early stages they are covered with fine vibrating cilia, by 
means of which they can swim like ciliated infusoria ; later they lose 
these cilia and develop a rudimentary bivalve shell, which is at first 
heart-shaped, and the mantle begins to appear and larger retractile 
cilia develop upon its edge, which serve as organs for swimming ; but 
at this period the shell is large enough to cover the whole body when 
contracted. In this stage they swim actively about in the water ; later 
the cilia become larger, a long, narrow, ligulate foot is developed, by 
means of which they can creep about and attach themselves temporarily 
to solid objects ; the shells become rounder, a pair of eyes and organs 
of hearing are developed ; after this the little animal begins to elongate, 
the locomotive cilia are lost, the eyes disappear, and the mature form is 
gradually assumed. These young Teredos, when they finally locate upon 
the surface of wood-work and begin to make their burrows, are not 
larger than the head of a pin, and consequently their holes are at first 
very minute, but owing to their rapid growth the holes quickly become 
larger and deeper. 

This species is very abundant along the southern coast of NewEngland, 
from New York to Cape Cod, wherever submerged wood-work, sunken 
wrecks, timber buoys, or floating pieces of drift- wood occur. It also infests 
the bottoms of vessels not protected by sheathing. It is not confined to 
pure sea- water, but occurs in the piles and timbers of our wharves in har- 
bors that are quite brackish. I have found it abundant in the piles of Long 
Wharf in New Haven Harbor, where the water is not only quite brack- 
ish, but also muddy and contaminated with sewerage and other impuri- 
ties. At Wood's Hole it was found to be very abundant in the cedar 
buoys that had been taken up from various localities and placed on the 
wharves to dry and be cleaned. Captain B. J. Edwards informed me that 
formerly, when the buoys were not taken up, they would not usually last 
more than two years, owing chiefly to the attacks of this Teredo, but 
under the present system there are two sets of buoys, which are alter- 
nately taken up and put down every six months. After a set has been 
taken up and allowed to dry thoroughly they are scraped to remove the 
barnncles, &c., and then receive a thorough coat of verdigris paint, 
each time, before they are put down. With this treatment they will 
last ten or twelve years, but they are more or less perforated and in- 
jured every year, until finally they become worthless. Inasmuch as the 
Teredos produce their young all through the summer, and they develop 


to a very largo size in one season, it is evident that the best time to 
take tip the buoys would be in midsummer, before the early crop of 
young have grown large, and leaving too little time for the later crop 
to become large, in the buoys thus put down, before winter, when most 
of them would probably be killed by the cold weather. In this way 
the damage might be materially diminished, if not inconsistent with 
the other duties of the officers of the vessels employed in this service. 
There are, as yet, no means of estimating the extent of the damage 
done to our wharves, shipping, &c.,by this and the various other species 
of Teredo found on our coast, but judging from their abundance along 
the whole coast, it is much greater than is generally supposed. 

The Teredo navalis is also abundant on the coast of Europe, from the 
Mediterranean and Black Seas to Christiania, and the coasts of Great 
Britain. Its habits have been quite thoroughly investigated by several 
Dutch naturalists, owing to the great damage that it has done on their 
coast, at times even threatening a general inundation of the country by 
destroying the wood-w r ork of the dikes. This Teredo occupies a zone 
of considerable breadth, for it often lives considerably above low- water 
mark and extends several feet below it, even to the depth of fourteen 
feet, according to some writers. 

The best remedies in common use to resist or prevent its attacks are 
copper-sheathing, used chiefly on vessels ; broad-headed nails, closely 
driven, used for piles and timbers; creosote and coal-tar, frequently applied. 
The various poisonous substances that have been applied to timber for 
this purpose, however useful they may be in other respects, have little 
or no effect on the Teredo, for it does not depend upon the wood for its 
food, and even protects its body externally with a layer of shell, lining 
its holes. The only remedies that are likely to succeed are those calcu- 
lated to prevent the lodgment and entrance of the young ones beneath 
the surface. Even creosote, thoroughly applied under pressure at the 
rate of 10 pounds per square foot, has been found insufficient to prevent 
their attacks, for piles thus, treated at Christiania were found by Mr. 
Jeffreys to be filled with the Teredo within two years after they were put 

Several other species of Teredo also occur on this coast. The Teredo 
megotara (Plate XXVII, fig. 188) has been found in floating pine wood at 
Newport, Rhode Island, and in cedar buoys, &c., at New Bedford, 
Massachusetts; as well as in Massachusetts Bay, at Provincetown and 
other places ; it is also found as far south as South Carolina at least. 
This species sometimes grows to a large size, forming tubes at least 
eighteen inches long. It sometimes occurs, also, in the piles of wharves 
in this region. The Teredo Thomsoni (Plate XXVII, fig. J87) has been 
found in great numbers in the marine railway and also in cedar buoys 
at New Bedford. It has also been found at Proviucetowu in a wlialing- 
ship that had cruised in the West Indies. 

The Xylotrya fimbriata (Plate XXVII, fig. 189) is very similar to the 


common Teredo, except that it has long, oar-shaped pallets, with slender 
stalks j the blade is flattened on the inside and convex externally, and 
consists of ten to twelve, or more, funnel-shaped segments which set 
one into another ; their margins project at the sides, making the edges 
of the blade appear serrated. This species appears to be indigenous 
on this coast. It has been found living in a sunken wreck in Long 
Island Sound, near New Haven, and I have also taken it from the oak 
timbers of a vessel, the Peterhoff, employed in the blockading service, 
during the late war, on the coast of the Southern States. It grows to a 
rather large size, often forming holes a foot or more in length and a 
quarter of an inch in diameter, though usually smaller. The pallets are 
sometimes half an inch long. 

Among the kinds of bivalve shells that do not bore in wood, there are 
but few species that commonly inhabit piles of wharves. The most fre- 
quent of these is the common muscle, MytiluN whiUn, (p. 307, Plate XXXI, 
fig. 234,) which sometimes adheres in large clusters. The common oyster, 
Ostrcea Virginiana, (p. 310,) often attaches itself to the piles, but in such 
situations seldom survives the winter. 

Ascidians often occur in large quantities attached to the piles, at and 
just below low- water mark, and also on the under side of floating timber. 
They often completely cover large surfaces and spread over the barna- 
cles, hydroids, and algae, which have previously located. They grow 
very rapidly, attaining their full size during a few weeks in midsummer. 

The most abundant species are usually Molgula Manhattensis (p. 311, 
Plate XXXIII, fig. 250) and Cynthia partita, (p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 
246.) At Wood's Hole, on the piles of the Government wharf, in August 
and September, thePerophoraviryHis V. was exceedingly abundant, creep- 
ing over and covering up the other ascidiaus as well as the barnacles, 
hydroids, and algre. This is a compound or " social" Ascidian, in which 
stolon like tubular processes come out from the basal portion of the first 
individuals and run in every direction over the surfaces of objects to 
which they are attached, producing buds at intervals, which rapidly 
develop into little Ascidians like the old ones, and give out other 
stolons in their turn ; thus they will very soon cover large surfaces, 
though each individual Ascidian is quite small. The body is com- 
pressed, broad oval, or more or less rounded in outline, with a terminal 
branchial, and lateral anal orifice, both slightly raised on short and 
broad tubes. The body is attached to the stolons by a short narrow 
pedicle, and is usually not more than an eighth of an inch high. The 
color is bright green or yellowish green, and the integument is soft and 

On the piles of the same wharf, and associated with the last, was 
another compound Ascidian, Amarcecium constellatum ; this forms solid 
gelatinous masses, with a smooth, convex surface, usually less than an 
inch in diameter and about half an inch high, but often larger. The 
zooids, or individual animals, are quite small, long, and slender, and en- 


tirely imbedded in the gelatinous mass that unites them together. They 
are arranged in circular, oval, or stellate groups, with a common cloacal 
orifice in the center of each cluster. The masses are usually pale oran <,- 
red, varying to yellowish and pale flesh-color. The stomach of e;icli in- 
dividual is bright orange-red ; the branchial sac is flesh-color, pale yel- 
low, or orange ; the tubes and upper part of the mantle bright orange or 

The Botryllus Gouldii (p. 375, Plate XXXIII, figs. 252, 253) also fre- 
quently occurs on the piles of the wharves, creeping over the stems of 
Tubularians, the surfaces of other ascidians, fronds of algae, or on the 
surface of the wood itself. It also frequently forms broad, soft incrusta- 
tions on the bottoms of boats, floating timber, &c. 

The Bryozoa are also usually quite abundant on the piles and timbers 
of wharves, &c. 

The Bugula turrita (p. 311, Plate XXXIV, figs. 258, 259) is one of the 
most common as well as one of the most elegant of these. It occurs at- 
tached to the adhering sea-weeds, &c., forming delicate white plumes. 

The Escliarella variaUlis (p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 256) usually forms 
firm, coral-like incrustations, but when attached to hyllroids and sea- 
weeds it spreads out into foliaceous or lichen-like, rigid, calcareous 
fronds, which are dull red while living. 

On the piles at Wood's Hole the Bugula fldbellata was also very abun- 
dant. This forms elegant circular or fan-shaped fronds, consisting of 
numerous repeatedly forked, flat, and rather narrow. branches, on which 
the cells are arranged in about three longitudinal rows. This species, 
like others of the genus, bears very singular structures, known as avicu- 
laria, which, under the microscope, have the form and appearance of the 
stout, hooked beaks of certain birds, such as the hawk, owl, parrot, 
&c. These beaks are attached by flexible stems, and are provided in- 
ternally with powerful muscles by means of which they are constantly 
opened and closed, and can bite with considerable force. In this 
species these are attached to the sides of the cells, along the edges 
of the branches. Their office seems to be to defend the colony against 
small parasites, and dirt of all kinds, which, unless thus removed, would 
soon cover up the cells and destroy the animals. In addition to these, 
various less conspicuous species often occur in abundance, especially 
Vesicularia gracilis ; V. dichotoma V. / and V. cuscuta. 

Of Eadiata there are but few species in such localities, with the excep- 
tion of the Hydroids, which are usually very abundant. 

The green star-fish, Asterias arenieola, (p. 326, Plate XXXV, fig. 269,) 
may occasionally occur adhering to the piles just below low- water mark, 
but it does not have this habit to such an extent as does the A. vulgaris, 
north of Cape Cod, for the latter is almost always to be seen in abun- 
dance on the piles of the wharves of the northern seaports, as at Port- 
land, Eastport, &c., and less abundantly at Boston. 

One of the most beautiful, as well as one of the most abundant, of 


the Hydroids that occur on the piles of wharves, and on the under side 
of floating timber, is the Parypha crocea, (Plate XXXVI, fig. 274.) 
This species grows in great luxuriance upon the piles, especially in 
those harbors where the water is somewhat brackish. It forms large 
clusters of branching stems, often six inches or more in height, each of 
which is surmounted by a beautiful, flower-like, drooping head of a pink 
or bright red color. These heads are often broken off, or even volun- 
tarily cast off, when the animals are unhealthy, but new ones are soon 
reproduced, and, therefore, this does not seem to be a very serious acci- 
dent, though certainly a very inconvenient one, for the mouth, stomach, 
tentacles, and most other organs are all lost when these "heads" 
drop off. This species does not produce free-swimming medusa 1 , but 
the buds, corresponding to those that develop into free medusa) in many 
other cases, in this remain attached to the heads in drooping clusters, 
looking like loose clusters of light red grapes, in miniature. 

The buds produced by the hydroid-heads of one colony are either all 
males or females, and, while attached to the hydroid-heads, eggs or 
spermules are developed within them ; the eggs are fertilized and de- 
velop into young hydroids, which, when finally expelled, are provided 
with a circle of slender tentacles, and need only to attach themselves 
to some solid substance by the basal eud of the body to become fixed, 
tubularian hydroids, similar to the old ones in many respects, though 
still very small and simple in structure. These young tubularians swim 
and crawl about for a time, and after attaching themselves they rap- 
idly grow larger and produce stolons from the base, from which buds 
arise that develop into forms like the first one ; other buds are pro- 
duced from the sides of the stems 3 which also become like the others, 
and in this way the large clusters of tubularians are rapidly formed. 

Several species of Campaimlariaus are also to be found attached to 
the piles and timbers of wharves and bridges. At Wood's Hole the 
most abundant species was Obclia pyriformis, which grew in great pro- 
fusion on the piles just below low-water mark. It is a delicate and much 
branched species, with elongated, pear-shaped, reproductive capsules, 
and is beautifully phosphorescent. On the hull of an old wreck in 
Wood's Hole passage, where the tide flows with great force, the Olelia 
flabellata was found in abundance, though it does not appear to have 
been noticed on this side of the Atlantic before. It has very elongated, 
slender, simple, but crooked stems, with numerous, alternate, short, 
forking, fan-shaped branches ; these generally fork close to their origin^ 
the divisions diverging in opposite directions. The hydroid calicles 
(hydrothecae) are small, cup-shaped, or broad bell-shaped, with a smooth 
rim, and they are borne on slender pedicles that are of various lengths, 
but mostly short and composed of only four to six rings. The repro- 
ductive capsules (gonothecai) are urn-shaped, with a short, narrow neck ; 
they are borne on short pedicles, of few rings, arising from the axils of 
the branches. Some of the specimens were eight or ten inches long. 


On the piles of Long Wharf, at New Haven, the Obelia gelatinosa of 
Europe was found growing in great luxuriance in September. The 
water at this locality was quite brackish, but it will probably be found, 
also, in pure sea-water, for on the coast of Europe it is common both 
in brackish and pure ocean-water. It is probable that this species has 
not been observed before on our coast, for although the name occurs 
in several local lists, these refer, according to Mr. A. Agassi/, to other 
species, and he does not include the present species in his Catalogue of 
North American Acalepha3. It is a large species, growing to the length 
of ten or twelve inches, and branches widely and very profusely. It 
differs from most of our other species in having a thick, compound 
stem, composed of many united tubes. The smaller branches are, how- 
ever, profusely divided, and the branchlets are simple, very slender, 
white, and translucent, their delicacy contrasting strongly with the 
stout, dark-colored stems. The larger branches mostly arise in pairs, 
close together, but immediately diverge ; the small branches and branch- 
lets are alternate. The hydrotheca3 are very small, deeply bell-shaped, 
the rim divided into ten or twelve teeth, which are squarish in form, 
and slightly emarginate at the end ; their pedicles vary in length, and 
are often rather long and slender, especially the terminal ones. The 
gonothecre are elongated, urn-shaped, with a narrow, short, tubular 
neck. I also found this species in April, growing on oysters, at Great 
Egg Harbor, New Jersey. 

Several other species of Obelia occur in similar situations, together 
with various related genera. . 

The Sertularia pumila, (p. 327, Plate XXXVII, fig. 279) often oc- 
curs attached to the Fucus and other sea-weeds growing on the piles. 

The Halecium gracile V., (p. 328,) often grows on the piles in great 
abundance, especially where the water is somewhat brackish, and it 
sometimes also occurs in great profusion on floating drift-wood. 

Of Actinians the most frequent species is the Sagartia leucolena, 
(p. 329, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 284,) which can almost always be found 
among the adhering barnacles and ascidians ; not unfrequently it at- 
taches itself within a dead barnacle, and, in fact, seems quite partial to 
such a location. 

The Metridlum marginatum (p. 329) also frequently occurs on the 
piles, but is much less frequent, and generally of smaller size than it 
is farther north, as about Boston and on the coast of Maine. 

Several sponges occur frequently on the piles of the wharves, but 
they have not been well determined. Among them the Grantia ciliata, 
or a closely allied species, is very common, and also another of the same 
grqup, which is tubular and branched, (Leucosolenia botryoides !). 

The common, red branching sponge (p. 330) is frequent, and also 
a slender branching species of Chalina, near C. oculata. Two or more 
species of Tedania, forming irregular, massive, pale-yellow sponges of a 
brittle texture, are common. 



List of species commonly found on piles and timbers of wharves and bridges 
on buoys, bottoms of vessels^ and other submerged wood-work. 




Ckironomus oceanicus 379 Molanna, sp 





Panopeus Sayi 382 

P. depressus 382 

Hyale littoralis 315 

Gammarus oruatus 382 

Melita nitida 382 

Ampkitkoe compta 382 

Corophium cylindricurn 382 

Caprella, sp 316 

Limnoria lignorum 379 

Idotea irrorata 31(5 

I. pkospkorea 316 


Jsera copiosa 382 

Tanais filuin 381 

Balaiius eburneus 381 

B. crenatus 381 

B. balanoides 381 

B. tintinabulum 381 

Lepas an serif era 382 

L. anatifera 382 

L. pectinata 382 

Coiichoderrna virgata 382 

C. aurita. 382 



Lepidonotus squarnatus 320 

Harmotkoe imbricata 321 

Eulalia, sp 349 

Eumidia, sp 349 

Podarke obscura 382 

Autoly tus cornutus 397 

Nereis liinbata 382 

Sabellaria vulgaris 321 


Nicolea simplex 382 

Lepnea rubra 382 

Poly cirrus eximius 382 

Potamilla oculifera 382 

Sabella micropthalma 382 

Euckone, sp 416 

Serpula diantkus 322 

Spirorbis spirillum 323 



Polinia glutinosa 382 

Nemertes socialis 324 

Cerebratulus, (?) sp 






Bela plicata 383 

Urosalpinx cinerea 383 

Tritia trivittata 383 

Ilyanassa obsoleta 383 


Astyris lunata 383 

Anackis avara 383 

Littorinella minuta 383 

Eissoa aculeus.. 383 







Littorimi palliata 383 

Odostomia fusca. 

O. trifida 

O. bisutnralis. . 



Bittium Digram 383 

Triforis nigrocinctus. . 
Cerithiopsis terebralis . 

0. Greenii , 

^Eolidia pilata 

Cavolina gymnota (?) 
Alexia myosotis . 



Teredo navalis.. 383 

T. Thomson! 


T. megotara 387 

Mytilus edulis 

Anomia glabra. .. 
Ostraea Yirginiana 



Xylotrya fimbriata 387 



Cynthia partita 388 

Molgula Manhattensis 388 

Perophora viridis 388 

Botryllus Gouldii 

AmaroBcium constellatum 



Crisia eburnea 

Yesicularia, dichotonia 

P age. 


Y. gracilis 389 

Y. cuscuta.. 389 

Bugula turrita 

B. flabellata 

Escharella variabilis . . 
Membranipora pilosa. 




Asterias arenicola 




Obelia gelatinosa 391 

O. flabellata..., 
O. cornmisuralis 



O. pyriformis 390 

O. genicnlata 407 

Cam panul aria flexuosa. 

Haleciurn gracile 

Sertularia pumila 

Penuaria tiarella 

Parypha crocea. ....... 

Sargatia leucolena 


Page. 1 
391 1 Metridium marginatuin 




Porifera, (Sponges.) 


Grantia ciliata (?) 391 

Leucosolenia botry oides (?) . . 391 
Chalina, sp 391 


Halichondria, sp 330 

Kenieria, sp 330 

Tedania, sp 391 



In this region the proportion of rocky bottom is relatively quite 
small, and mostly to be found only in quite shallow water. Therefore the 
animal life is very similar to that of the rocky shores and tide-pools, 
near low- water mark. 

In Vineyard Sound and vicinity the rocky bottoms examined were 
chiefly at the following localities, as indicated on the accompanying 
chart, viz.: 1st. An area south of Parker's Point and occupying a part 
of the bottom of the passage between Parker's Point and Nonainesset 
Island, on both sides of the channel, and extending somewhat south of 
a line drawn from Nobska Point to the southeastern end of Nonames- 
set Island. The dredgiugs made in this area are, 9, , 6, c, d ; 2, a, I; 
3, a, J)j c ; 4, a, 1) ; 5, c, d, e ; 8, a, I ; 18, a, 1. 2d. An area south 
and southwest of Nobska Point ; dredgings, 21, fc, e ; 22, a ; and 
others not recorded were made on this patch. 3d. In the Wood's Hole 
passage, between the north end of Nonamesset Island and the opposite 
shores, there are numerous rocky patches, and the tides flow with great 
force ; dredgings, 14, a, 6, c, d, e, /, g ; 16, a, I ; 17, c, d, e ; 15, a, b ; 
and many others were made on this bottom. 4th. A small area between 
Uncatena Island and Long Neck 5 dredgiugs, 11, e, /, and 71, c, were 
on this patch. 5th. A small area, south of the Wepecket Islands, where 
the dredging, 73, d, was made. 6th. A region of rocks and sand off 
West Chop, north of Martha's Vineyard ; in the dredgings made here, 
37, c, d, e, some very fine hydroids and ascidians were obtained. 7th. 
In Quick's Hole, the passage between Nashaweua and Pasque Islands, 
a rocky bottom, with abundant ascidians, hydroids, and sponges, was 
found, where dredgings 77, a and c, were made. 

In addition to these localities numerous dredgiugs were made on 
rocky bottoms off Gay Head and Devil's Bridge, and also between 
Martha's Vineyard and No Man's Land, but these properly belong to the 
cold outer region. 

In the vicinity of New Haven, rocky bottoms, generally of small 
extent, are found off the light-house, and off South End and Branford 
Point, also among the Thimble Islands. All these localities have 
been examined by me in numerous dredging excursions made during 
the past eight years. Nevertheless the fauna of the rocky bottoms of 


this region is probably more imperfectly known than that of other kinds 
of bottom. This is mainly owing to the difficulties encountered in 
dredging upon rough rocks. 

Eocky bottoms are very favorable for many kinds of Crustacea, both 
for those that swim free and conceal themselves among the sea- weeds 
that grow on rocks in shallow water, and for those that take refuge be- 
neath the rocks. Consequently rocky bottoms are the favorite feeding- 
grounds for certain kinds of fish, especially tautog, striped bass, black 
bass, cunuers, &c., in this region. . 

The common crab, Cancer irroratus, (p. 312,) Panopeus Sayi, (p. 312,) 
P. depressus, (p. 312,) the larger hermit-crab, Eupagurus pollicaris, (p. 
313,) and the smaller hermit, E. longicarpus, (p. 313,) are common species 
on the rocky bottoms. A small species of spider-crab, Pelia mutica, oc- 
casionally occurs. The Cancer borealis has hitherto been a rare species, 
and little is known concerning its habits or distribution ; it appears to 
frequent rocky bottoms chiefly, but most of the specimens obtained in 
this region were found thrown up by the waves on the shores of Cutty- 
hunk Island, No Man's Land, and near Gay Head. 

The lobster, Homarus Americanus, frequents rocky bottoms, concealing 
itself under and among the rocks while watching for its prey, but it is 
much less abundant in this region than on the coast of Maine and in the 
Bay of Fuiidy, and does not usually grow to so large a size as in the 
northern waters. It also occurs on the sandy and gravelly bottoms of 
Vineyard Sound, where most of those sent to the markets from this re- 
gion are obtained. The young, free-swimming larva? of the lobster, in 
the stages represented in Plate IX, figs. 38, 39, were often taken at the 
surface in great abundance, during June and July, in the to wing-nets . 
The young lobsters were also found swimming actively at the surface 
b^Mr. S. I. Smith, even after they had acquired the true lobster-like 
form and structure, and were nearly three-quarters of an inch long. In 
this stage they swim and act much like shrimp. While young, there- 
fore, the lobster must be devoured in immense numbers by many kinds 
of fishes, and even when of considerable size they are still preyed upon 
by the tautog and black bass, and especially by sharks, skates, and rays, 
and doubtless by other fishes. We found the lobsters very abundant 
off Meuemsha on a sandy and weedy bottom in shallow water. At this 
place over one hundred were taken at a single haul, by the trawl. The 
lobsters caught for the market are nearly all caught in " lobster-pots," 
baited with refuse fish of various kinds. 

In addition to the common shrimp, Crangon vulgaris, (p. 339, Plate 
III, fig. 10,) another quite different species (Hippolyte pusiola) was often 
met with on the rocky bottoms. This is a smaller species, about an inch 
long, of a pale gray, salmon, or flesh-color, often specked with red ; 
there is usually a white stripe along the middle of the back, and some- 
times transverse bands of red or white ; the antennae are auuulated 
with flesh-color and light red, and the legs are sometimes specked with 



brown, and often annulated with brown, or with gray and white. It 
differs from all the other American species in having a short, acute ros- 
trum, scarcely projecting beyond the eyes, with three or four sharp teeth 
on its upper edge and none below. In form and general appearance it 
somewhat resembles the Virbius represented in Plate III, fig. 11, but is 
stouter and quite different in color. It is a northern species, extending 
to Greenland and Northern Europe, and is more common on the coast 
of Maine, where it is usually associated with several other larger species 
of the same genus, all of which are remarkable for their brilliant colors, 
the various shades of red usually predominating. Their bright colors 
are no doubt directly connected with their habit of living among the 
bright red alg3, so abundant in the shallow waters on rocky bottoms. 

A beautiful little shrimp-like Crustacean, Mysis Americana SMITH, 
sometimes occurs in immense numbers among the algae growing on the 
rocks just below low-water mark, especially in spring. This is an im- 
portant species, as it is one of the principal kinds of food for the shad 
and other fishes. The full grown specimens are only about an inch long. 
It is almost transparent, whitish, with conspicuous black eyes ; there is 
a row of more or less conspicuous, dark stellate spots along the body, both 
above and below, and similar specks often occur on the tail ; a spot of 
dark brown or blackish often occurs on each side of the carapax. The 
intestine shows through as a greenish or brownish line. 

Another small, shrimp-like species belonging to an interesting new 
genus, the Heteromysis formosa SMITH, often occurred in small colonies, 
sometimes hid away in the dead shell of some large bivalve or gastro- 
pod. The females of this species are of a beautiful light rose color, but 
the males have the pale color and translucency common to most of the 
species of Mysis. 

Numerous Amphipods also occur, most of which are also found iii 
the pools or under stones at low water, and have, consequently, been 
mentioned on former pages. One of the most curious Amphipods 
was a small species, found living among the large compound ascidians, 
which is probably Cerapus tiibularls SAY. This species constructs 
a little, slender, free tube, which it inhabits and carries about 
upon its back when it travels, very much as the larvae of caddis-flies, 
common in fresh waters, carry about their tubes. One species of bar- 
nacle, the Balanus crenatus, was abundant, often completely covering 
small stones and shells. This has not been met with, as yet, at low- 
water, although it occurs on the bottoms of vessels. 

Of Annelids a large number inhabit rocky bottoms, but as most of 
them live beneath the rocks, or in tubes attached to rocks and stones, 
it is difficult to obtain an accurate knowledge of them. Many of the 
species seem, however, to be found also in pools and beneath the stones 
on rocky shores, and have already been mentioned. 

Perhaps the most characteristic Annelids of rocky bottoms are the 
scaly worms, of which three species are common in this region, viz. : 


sqiiamatus, (p. 320, Plate X, figs. 40, 41;) L. mblevisV., 
(p. 320, Plate X, fig. 42?) and Harmothoe imbricata, all of whidi cling 
close to the rough surfaces of the stones, or hide away in the cracks and 
crevices, or conceal themselves in the interstices between the aseidians, 
barnacles, roots of algas, or in the cavities of sponges, &c. Several 
long, slender, and active species, belonging to the genera Phyllodoce, Eu- 
hilia, En mid ia, and Eteone, are of frequent occurrence ; most of them are 
bright green or yellowish green in color, and all have small, leaf-like 
brand) i;e along the sides. 

The Nereis pelagica (p. 319, Plate XI, figs. 52-55) is very common, 
living beneath the stones, and especially in the interstices between the 
lobes of a large, sand-covered, compound ascidian, Amarcecium pelluci- 
dum, in company with the species of Phyllodoce, &c., just named. This 
species of Nereis is remarkable for its brilliant iridescence. It is a 
northern species, extending to the Arctic Ocean and northern coast of- 
Europe. It is very abundant on the coast of Maine, under stones 
at low-water mark. 

Associated with the preceding species among the sandy compound 
ascidians, occurring both on rocky and gravelly bottoms, were large 
numbers of the Liimbriconereis opalina, (p. 320, Plate XIII, figs. 69, 
70,) conspicuous on account of the brilliant iridescent colors. Several 
other Annelids also occurred among these ascidians. The Cirrinereis 
fragilis, which is a small and delicate species, furnished with con- 
spicuous eyes, and related to the large Cirratulus, occurs beneath the 
stones. The singular Naraganseta coralii occurs burrowing in the coral, 
Astrangia Dance, and in this respect is similar in its habits to the allied 
genus Dodecacerea, which excavates its galleries in the solid shells of 
Cyprina Islandica, Pecten tenuicostatus, &c., in the Bay of Fundy. The 
Sabellaria vulgaris, (p. 321, Plate XVII, figs. 88, 8Sa ;) Nicolea simplex, 
(p. 321 ;) Sdonopsis palmata, (p. 321;) Potamilla oculifera, (p. 322,) Plate 
XVII, fig. 86 ;) Sabella microphthalma, (p. 323 ;) Serpula diantlms, (p 322 ;) 
and Fabricia Leidyi, (p. 323,) all occur in tubes attached to the rocks 
and stones. 

A species of Spirorbis, which forms a small, white, calcareous shell, 
coiled up in an open spiral, is commonly attached to the algae and hydroids. 
The Autolytus cornutus (Plate XIII, tigs. 65, 66) constructs cylindrical 
tubes, which are attached to sea- weeds and the branches of hydroids. 
This is a small flesh-colored species, with conspicuous brown eyes ; the 
ends of the body are often tinged with green, and the dark, greenish 
intestine shows through as a median line. The males and females 
are widely different in appearance and structure, and there are also 
asexual individuals (fig. 65) very different from both. The asexual ones 
construct the tubes referred to, but do not remain in them constantly, 
for they are also often taken swimming at the surface. The males and 
females are also taken at the surface, especially in the evening, but they 
also occur creeping over and among the hydroids. This worm is partic- 


ularly interesting on account of its remarkable mode of reproduction, 
for, like several other marine annelids, it presents the phenomena of al- 
ternate generation. Its history has been well given by Mr. A. Agassiz.* 
The very numerous eggs of the female (fig. 66, e) are at first contained in 
the general cavity of the body, between the intestine and the outer wall, 
along the whole length of the body ; afterwards they pass into a pouch 
on the lower side of the body, extending from the twelfth to about the 
twenty-sixth segment ; in the pouch they hatch into young worms, and 
soon after the sac bursts and they escape into the water. The females 
apparently die after discharging the young. The eggs do not develop 
into males and females, but into the asexual or neuter individuals, (fig. 
65,) which differ widely from the others in form and in the eyes and other 
appendages of the head, as well as in the internal anatomy and lateral 
appendages. After these neuter individuals become nearly full-grown, 
having forty to forty-five segments, a median dorsal swelling arises 
at about the thirteenth or fourteenth segment, most commonly on the 
thirteenth, and soon after two others arise from the sides of the same 
segment and develop rapidly; these swellings finally become the three 
front tentacles of a new head, (a, a, a, fig. 65 ;) soon a pair of eyes appears 
on the upper side of the segment, than a pair of tentacular cirri ; then 
the second pair of eyes ; then other appendages of the head, until finally 
a complete head is formed, having the structure belonging to the head of 
a male or female, as the case may be. As the new head, with its append- 
ages, becomes more completely organized, the segments posterior to it, 
which are to become the body of the new individual, become more highly 
developed, and the lateral appendages more complicated, those back of 
the fifth in the male, or the sixth in the female, acquire dorsal fascicles 
of long setae, and the dorsal cirris becomes longer 5 at the same time 
some additional segments are developed ; and the ova in the female, or 
spermatazoa in the male, are formed. Finally the new sexual individ- 
ual, thus formed out of the posterior segments of the original neuter, 
breaks its connection and swims off by itself, and becomes a perfectly 
developed male or female. The head of the female is represented in 
fig. 66 ; a male individual is represented as developing from an asexual 
individual in fig. 65. The male can be easily distinguished from the 
female by the pair of large antennae, which are forked in the male, but 
simple in the female. Farther details concerning this curious mode of 
reproduction may be found in the memoir of Mr. Agassiz, together with 
numerous excellent illustrations, in addition to those here copied. 

Associated with the preceding species a few specimens were found 
which probably belong to another species of Autolytus. These were quite 
slender, light-red in color, with paler annulations, but only the asexual 
individuals were observed. Another species of larger size also occurs 
among the hydroids, near New Haven, which belongs to Autolytus or 

* On Alternate Generation in Annelids, and the Embryology of Autolytus cornutns; 
Boston Journal of Natural History, Vol. VII, p. 384, 1863. 


some closely allied genus, but of tins only the asexual form lias occurred, 
and it has not yet been carefully studied. This becomes nearly an inch 
long and quite slender. The body is white, with about fifty annulations 
of bright purplish red between the segments, but sometimes a red ring 
is absent, leaving wider white bands ; the lateral appendages are simple, 
and each has a dot of red on the anterior side; the head is orange, with 
four dark red eyes. 

Of Mollusks there are but few species among the higher groups which 
do not also occur on the rocky shores at low-water, but of the As- 
cidians and Bryozoa we find numerous additional species. The Gas- 
tropods are represented by the large Fulgur carica (p. 355, Plate XXII, 
fig. 124) and Sycotypus canaliculatus, (p. 355 ;) also by the " drill," Urosal- 
2)i)u- cinerea, (p. 306, Plate XXI, fig. 116,) which is usually abundant in 
shallow water ; Astyris lunata (p. 106, Plate XXI, fig. 110) is abundant on 
the hydroids and alga3 ; A. zonalis, (Plate XXI, fig. Ill,) which is an allied 
species, of larger size and with plainer colors, is sometimes met with, but 
is rare in this region. It takes its name from two narrow spiral zones of 
white that usually surround the whorls. The Crucibulum striatum 
(Plate XVIII, figs. 125, 126) is often met with clinging firmly to the rocks 
and stones. 

The Leptocliiton apiculatus (Plate XXY, fig. 167) is one of the most 
characteristic and common species on rocky and gravelly bottoms ; 
this also adheres firmly to the stones and dead shells, and its grayish or 
dirty whitish shell, often more or less stained, blends its color with 
that of its surroundings in a way that might deceive the fishes them- 
selves. The back is covered with a series of movable plates, so that 
when removed the animal can curl itself into a ball, like a " pill-bug," 
(Oniscuz,) or like an armadillo, a habit that it shares in common with 
the scaly annelids, Lepidonotus and Harmothoe, which live in the same 
places with it. The flexibility of the shell also enables the chitons to 
adapt themselves more closely to the uneven surfaces of the rocks than 
they otherwise could. More rarely the Leptocliiton ruber (Plate XXV, 
fig. 166) is met with, though farther north, as in the Bay of Fundy, this 
is a very common species, while the apiculatus is quite unknown there, 
being decidedly southern in its range. The ruber is, as its name implies, 
a red species, and its colors are usually bright and beautifully varied 
with lighter and darker. Its bright color would seem at first a fatal gift, 
calculated to attract the attention of passing fishes, which are always 
fond of such food, but when we examine its habits more closely w 7 e find 
that it lives almost exclusively on and among rocks that are iucrusted 
by the curious stony algge, known as " nullipores," (Litliotliamnion poly- 
morphum,) which are red in color, but of various shades, and often com- 
pletely cover the rocks with irregular red incrustations, over large areas 
in shallow water, especially on the coasts farther north, so that this 
shell and a larger species, (C. marmoreus,) usually associated with it, 
are admirably adapted by their colors for living and concealing them- 


selves on such bottoms, while many other species, frequenting' the same 
localities, have a similar coloration, though belonging to very different 
groups. As examples we may mention the beautifully variegated star- 
fish, Opliiopliolis aculeata, (Plate XXXV, fig. 270,) rare in this region, but 
very abundant in the Bay of Fundy ; Crangon boreas, common on the 
same bottoms in the Bay of Fundy ; several species of shrimp belonging 
to the genera Hippolyte, Pandalus, &c. The bright red colors of all these 
animals would certainly be very fatal to them were there no red algse 
among which they could conceal themselves and thus escape, to a con- 
siderable extent, from the voracious fishes, which are nearly always 
ready to pounce upon them whenever they expose themselves. One or 
two handsome species of ^Eolis (similar to fig. 174) were taken, but for 
lack of opportunity they were not identified while living, and these soft 
and delicate creatures cannot be preserved in alcohol so as to be identi- 
fied afterwards with certainty. The handsome little Doto coronata 
(Plate XXV, fig. 170) occurs occasionally on the hydroids, upon the 
animals of which it feeds. This species is generally less than half an 
inch in length. The body is pale yellowish, or salmon -color, or rosy, 
specked with pink, light red, or dark red, which often forms a median 
dorsal line toward the head j the curious papillose branchiae along the 
back are pale orange, the lateral and terminal papill3 being tipped with 
bright purplish red, dark red, or carmine, with a ring of flake-white 
below the tip 5 the head and tentacles are pale and translucent. The 
eggs are laid upon the hydroids, in long, flattened, and convoluted gelati- 
nous strings, at various times during the early summer. 

Another curious and beautifully colored naked mollusk, the Polycera 
Lessonii, also occurs occasionally on rocky bottoms, among hydroids and 
bryozoa. In this species the body is pale flesh-color, or sometimes pale 
orange, and thickly covered with bright, deep green specks, giving the 
whole surface a green color ; along the back is a median line of tuber- 
cles or papilla, and there are two other rows on each side, which extend 
as far as the gills or a little beyond ; all these tubercles are tipped with 
bright sulphur-yellow, except that the last ones of the lateral rows, 
posterior to the gills, are usually tipped with flake- white, but these have 
two or three irregular, lateral lobes, which are tipped with yellow; 
other smaller, yellow tubercles are scattered over the back, sides, head, 
and tail ; the tentacles are also bright yellow, but sometimes specked 
with green and yellow, with yellow tips. The gills are three in number, 
in a cluster on the middle line of the back, posteriorly ; each one is 
bipinuate and delicately plumose ; they are colored similar to the back, 
generally more or less specked with bright yellow, and often with flake- 
white ; the tips are usually bright yellow. 

Another small but singular species, which also occurs among the hy- 
droids, as well as among dead shells, is the Doridella obscura, (Plate 
XXV, fig. 173;) in this the colors are not conspicuous, but seem rather 
intended for its concealment. The back is sometimes light, yellowish 


brown, linely mottled \\itli white, and specked with darker brown; 
dorsal tentacles white and retractile ; lower surface white or light yel- 
lowish, a threc-lobed yellowish or browuish internal organ showing 
through in the middle of the foot. Other specimens are very dark- 
brown or almost black above, finely mottled with whitish. The ante- 
rior angles of the head are prolonged into tentacle-like organs or palpi. 
The gills are situated beneath, in the groove between the edge of the 
foot and the mantle, on the left side, and near the posterior end of the 
foot ; they consist of a tuft of slender filaments. 

Of Lamellibrauchs certain species occur on rocky bottoms, which 
attach themselves firmly to the rocks, either, by the side of one valve, 
like the oyster, Ostrcca Virginianaj (p. 310,) and the Anomia glabra, 
(p. 311, Plate XXXII, figs. 241, 242;) or by threads of byssus, which 
they spin and use as cables for anchoring themselves, like the common 
muscle, Nytilm ediilis, (p. 307, Plate XXXI, fig. 234,) the "horse- 
muscle," Modiola modiolus, (p. 309, Plate XXXI, fig. 237,) the Argina 
pexata, (Plate XXX, fig. 227,) and Scapharca transverse^ (Plate XXX, 
fig. 228,) all of which are common in this region ; but certain other 
species occur, which burrow beneath the stones, like the Saxicava arc- 
tica (p. 309, Plate XXVII, fig. 192) and My a arenaria (p. 463, Plate 
XXVI, fig. 179,) and several other less common species. 

The Ascidians are usually very abundant on the rocks and stones at 
all depths. The Cynthia partita (p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 246,) is very 
common, often forming large, rough clusters, much overgrown with hy- 
droids, bryozoa, and algae. The specimens mostly belong to the erect 
variety, and in form are quite unlike the one figured. The body is 
more or less cylindrical, oblong, or urn-shaped, about twice as high as 
broad 'when expanded, and with a wide base; the branchial orifice is 
largest, and situated at the summit of a broad, terminal tube, swollen 
at base ; the anal orifice is smaller, on a short lateral or subterminal 
tube. Both orifices are usually squarish, and open widely^ but, when 
fully expanded, they sometimes become nearly circular; they are often 
surrounded at the edge with a narrow circle of red, and each tube has 
eight longitudinal stripes of white, narrowing downward to a point at 
the base of the tubes, and alternating with purplish brown ones, which 
are usually specked with flake-white. The exterior of the test is more 
or less rough and wrinkled, and generally yellowish or rusty, often 
tinged with deep purplish brown on the upper parts or throughout. 
The tubes are usually roughened by small, wart-like papillae. Unprom- 
ising as this species looks, it is devoured by the tautog. The Molgula 
Manhattensis (p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 250) is generally associated 
with the former. The Perophora viridis (p. 388) is often very abundant, 
creeping over and covering up the two preceding, as well as other as- 
cidians, algje, hydroids, &c. The most conspicuous species, however, 
are the massive compound ascidiaus, which sometimes completely cover 
the bottom. One of the most abundant of these is the Amarwc'nun pel- 
9 v 


lucidum, which forms large, hemispherical or irregular masses, often six 
or eight inches, or even more, in diameter, with the surface more or 
less completely covered by adhering sand. These masses consist of a 
large number of lobes or basal branches, which come out from a com- 
mon base as elongated, stolon-like processes, and enlarge upward to the 
end, which is obtusely rounded, and variable in size, but usually from 
a quarter to half an inch, while the length may be from one to six 
inches ; these lobes often coalesce, more or less completely, at the upper 
surface, which is sometimes naked and smooth, translucent, and of a 
gelatinous appearance. Each of these lobes contains a central cloacal 
orifice, around which a colony of minute ascidians, or zooids, are 
grouped, in a manner analogous to the arrangement in Botryllus, already 
described, (p. 389,) but in the present case the zooids are very loug and 
slender j the lower end of each, containing the ovaries, with the heart 
at its extremity, extends down toward the base of the lobe in which they 
are contained to various distances, varying according to the age and 
state of development of each zooid, but the full-grown ones are often 
nearly an inch long. Each zooid has its own branchial orifice opening at 
the surface, as in Botryllus, while all the anal tubes discharge the refuse 
water, faeces, and eggs into the common cloacal ducts. 

The Amarcecium stellatum is another related species, which is nearly 
as abundant as the last, and likewise grows to a very large size. It 
forms large, smooth, irregular plates, or crest-like lobes and masses, 
which are attached by one edge to the stones and gravel. These plates 
are sometimes one to two feet long, six inches high, and about an inch 
thick, and, owing to their smooth surface and whitish color, look some- 
thing like great slices of salt-pork, and in fact it is often called " sea- 
pork" by the fishermen. Other specimens will be four or five inches 
high, and only one or two inches broad at the base, and perhaps half 
an inch in thickness, and the summit often divides into broad, flat, 
blunt lobes ; various other shapes also occur, some of them very irreg- 
ular. The larger specimens of this species are generally of a pale-blu- 
ish or sea-green color by reflected light when first taken from the water, 
but pale salmon or flesh-color by transmitted light. The zooids are 
much elongated and arranged in more or less regular circular groups 
over the whole surface, with a small cloacal orifice in the center of each 
circle. If kept in water, when they grow sickly the zooids will be 
forced partially or wholly out of their cavities by the contraction of 
the tissues around them a peculiarity seen also in other species of this 
genus. These zooids have the branchial tube prominently six-lobed, 
and of a bright orange-color, this color also extending over the upper 
or outer end of the body, between the tubes, and more or less over the 
branchial sac, which is pale yellow or whitish below. The stomach is 
longitudinally sulcated, with bright orange-red ribs or glands ; intes- 
tine bright orange or yellow. 

This species is devoured by sharks, skates, and the tautog, although 


it would seem ditlicult tor them to digest it, or get much nutriment t'rom 
it. The supply is certainly abundant. 

A third species of this genus, and much more beautiful than either 
of the preceding, is also common on rocky bottoms. This is the Ama- 
ro'dum amxtcUiitnin V. (p. 388,) which has already been described as 
occurring on the piles of the wharves. In deeper water, attached to 
rocks, it grows to a larger size, forming thick, hemispherical or cake- 
shaped masses or crusts, sometimes becoming somewhat mushroom-like 
by the upper parts growing out beyond the central attached portion, 
which then becomes a short and broad peduncle. It can be easily 
distinguished from the last on account of its brighter colors, the general 
color inclining to orange, and by the more irregular and complicated 
clusters of zooids. It is less abundant than either of the two preceding. 

Two other species of compound Ascidians are also abundant in this 
region, as well as farther north. These belong to the genus Leptoclinum ; 
they form thin, irregular, often broad, white, or salmon-colored incrus- 
tations over the surfaces of the rocks, shells, and other ascidians ; these 
crusts are of a firm, coriaceous or gritty texture, and have a finely 
grauulous surface. Under the microscope they are seen to be filled 
with small, nearly globular particles of carbonate of lime, from which 
points project in every direction. The zooids are very minute and 
are scattered over the surface in large and scarcely distinct groups, 
which have, however, a common cloacal orifice in the middle, but the 
several cloacal tubes or channels leading to each central orifice are 
long, with many crooked branches, reminding one of miniature rivers, 
and the zooids are arranged along these ducts and their branches. 
One of these species, the Leptoclinum albidum, is easily distinguished 
by its chalky white color ; the other, L. lutecium, is buft' or salmon- 
color. It is possible that the last may even prove to be only a colored 
variety of the former, but the very numerous specimens that I have 
collected and examined, in the living state, both in the Bay of Fundy 
and Vineyard Sound, do no not warrant their union. In these locali- 
ties both forms are about equally common, but near New Haven the 
L. lutecium has not yet been met with, though the other is not uncom- 

The Bryozoa are very abundant on rocky bottoms at all depths. 
Some of these incrust the rocks directly, like the Escliarella variabilis, 
(p. 312, Plate XXXIII, fig. 256 5) Alcyonidiwm Mrsutum ; Escliaripora punc- 
tata, &c. ; but even these seem to prefer other locations, and by far the 
greater number occur attached to alga3, hydroids, ascidians, and dead 
shells. A large part of the species occur also in rocky pools at low- 
water mark, or attached to the Fuel and other sea-weeds between tides, 
or to the under sides of stones laid bare by low tides, and have, con- 
sequently, been previously mentioned. Others which have not yet been 
detected on the shore will doubtless be found there by more thorough 


The Alcyonidlum ramosum (Plate XXXIV, fig. 257) is one of the most 
conspicuous species, and is often very abundant, attached to rocks in 
shallow water. In such situations we have often found arborescently 
branched specimens, twelve to fifteen inches high, with smooth, cylin- 
drical branches about a third of an inch in diameter. 

The Alcyonidium hispidum (p. 312) does riot appear to have been 
recorded as from our coast, by previous writers, but it is one of our most 
common species, and may almost always be found incrusting the stems 
of Fucus at low-water mark, as well as the under surfaces of rocks ; below 
low-water mark it is less abundant, generally incrusting Pliylloplwra, 
and other stout, palmate alga?. It is easily distinguished by the slender, 
acute, reddish spines, of horn-like texture, which surround each of the 
cells. It forms soft crusts of moderate thickness, gradually extending 
over the surface of the sea-weeds to which it becomes attached. 

The A. Mrsutum has also been hitherto overlooked on our coast, but 
is common, living under the same circumstances as the last, and some- 
times associated with it, both above and below low-water mark. I have 
found it in the greatest abundance in some of the large, rocky tide-pools 
on the outermost of the Thimble Islands, east of New Haven. It was 
there growing chiefly upon Pliyllopliora inembranifolia, in some cases en- 
tirely covering and concealing the plant, from the base of the stem to the 
tips of the fronds. It also often grows on the u Irish moss,' 7 Chondrus 
crispus, on rocky bottoms in shallow water. It forms rather thin, soft 
crusts, which have small, soft papilla scattered over the surface ; from 
the summit of each of these papillaea zooid protrudes, when they ex- 
pand, and displays an elegant little wreath of tentacles, much as in 
A. ramosum, (see fig. 257.) The A. parasiticum is also a species hitherto 
neglected on our coasts. It forms thin crusts on algre and hydroids, 
which generally become coated with a layer of fine sand or dirt. I 
have not observed it at low-water, but have found it at the depth of a 
few fathoms on rocky bottoms in Vineyard Sound. 

The Vesicularia dichotoma V. is a very common species, both on 
rocky shores, in pools and on the under side of stones ; and in shallow 
water on rocky and shelly bottoms. It is also capable of living in 
brackish water, and is frequent on the oyster-beds. It usually forms 
csespitose clusters of many crowded, slender, white stems, each of 
which is repeatedly forked, branching in a somewhat arborescent man- 
ner. There is a little crowded cluster of small, dark-colored, oval or 
pear-shaped cells just below each fork, the cells being sessile and 
arranged in two somewhat spiral rows in each cluster. It generally 
grows about an inch high, but sometimes two or three inches. When 
expanded each of the zooids protrudes from its cell-like body a delicate 
wreath of eight slender tentacles. 

The Vesicularia cuscuta is a delicate, creeping species, which resem- 
bles, in miniature, the u dodder- plant," (Cuscuta,} and creeps over other 
bryozoa and hydroids, very much as the dodder creeps over other 


plants. The stem is very delicate, filiform, jointed, and at intervals 
gives off two very slender, opposite branches, which diverge at right 
angles, and in their turn branch at intervals in the same way. The 
cells are small and oval or elliptical, mostly arranged in clusters at or 
near the branchings of the stems, but some are often scattered on 
the branches ; they are attached by a narrow base. It occurs both at 
low- water in pools and in shallow water among rocks. The V. armata 
is also a creeping species, but the cells are terminated by four conical 
prominences, each of which bears a slender spine when perfect. This 
also occurs both between tides and in shallow water, on hydroids and 

With these species of Vesicular ia, and often attached to them and 
creeping over them, as well as on other kinds of bryozoa, hydroids, 
and alga3, a very curious little species often occurs, in which the cells 
are small, campanulate, and raised on slender pedicels, which rise 
from slender, white, creeping stems. This is the Pedicellina Americana. 
The zooids, when expanded, display a wreath of twelve or more tenta- 
cles ; in contraction and when young they are often clavate. 

The^Etea anyuinea has not been recorded as from our coast, but is very 
common on rocky and shelly bottoms, creeping over various hydroids, 
alg;e, asciclians, broyozoa, &c. ; it also frequently occurs on floating eel- 
grass and algre, in company with many hydroids. It consists of delicate, 
white, creeping, calcareous stolons, from which arise elongated, slen- 
der, clavate, white, rigid, erect cells, with the aperture at the end ; the 
narrower, pedicel-like portion of the cell is surrounded by fine, circu- 
lar, punctate strire. 

The Eucrate clielata is also a slender, creeping species, and has some- 
what similar habits, but is much less common, and has been met with 
only in the deeper parts of Vineyard Sound on ascidians and hydroids. 
in this species each cell arises from the back of the preceding one, near 
the end, and bends upward and forward obliquely, the cell expanding 
from a narrow, pedicel-like, basal portion to a more or less oval upper 
part, with the aperture oblique and subterminal. This, also, is a new 
addition to the fauna of our coast, although, like the last, long well 
known on the coast of Europe. 

The Diastopora patina grows attached to algie and eel-grass; it forms 
little circular disks, with tubular cells arising from the upper surface, 
those in the middle being longest. 

The Tubulipora flabellaris frequently occurs attached to various kinds 
of slender-branched alga3, such as Ahnfeltia plicata, c. It forms small, 
blunt-lobed, coral-like masses, composed of long, crooked, tubular cells, 
united by a porous mass at base. Toward the borders of the lobes the 
cells are crowded and polygonal. In the central parts they are more 
cylindrical and form groups or radiating rows. Associated with the 
preceding on the algse, Crisia eburnea, (p. 311 ;) Mollia liyalina, (Plate 
XXXIV, fig. 2G4;) Cellepora ramulosa, (p. 312 ;) and other species oc- 



cur. The Membranipora pilvsa (Plate XXXIV, figs. 262, 263) is frequent 
on rocky bottoms, growing chiefly upon Pliyllopliora and other al^;-. 
It may be known by the oval cells, bordered by erect, bristle-like pro- 
cesses, of which the one at the proximal end of the cell is much longer 
than the rest. 

Another species, M. lineata^ is also common, incrtistiug rocks and 
shells in broad, thin, radiating patches. In this the cells are oblong? 
crowded, and separated only by the linear margins. In the most com. 
mon variety there are eight or ten slender spinules on each side of the 
cells, which bend over so as to meet or interlock across the open cells. 
The cells are much smaller as well as narrower than those of the pre- 
ceding species. 

Of Echinoderms only a few species occur in this region, on rocky bot- 
toms, which causes this fauna to contrast very strongly with that of the 
rocky bottoms farther north, as in the Bay of Fundy or on the coast of 
Maine, where numerous other fine species of star-fishes and several addi- 
tional Holothurians are common. The common green sea-urchin, Stron- 
gylocentrotus Drobachiemis, (Plate XXXV, fig. 268,) so very abundant 
farther north, and especially in the Bay of Fundy, where it occurs in 
abundance at low-water mark, and on rocky bottoms at all depths 
down to 110 fathoms, and off St. George's Bank even down to 450 fath- 
oms, is comparatively rare in this region and chiefly confined to the 
outside colder waters, as off Gay Head and No Man's Land, where it 
was quite common. But a few specimens were dredged at several local- 
ities in Vineyard Sound. The largest occured on the rocky bottoms oft' 
West Chop, and off Menemsha. It has been found occasionally in Long 
Island Sound, as off New Haven and Stratford, Connecticut, but is 
there quite rare and small. It feeds partly on diatoms and other small 
alga?, &c., which it cuts from the rocks with the sharp points of its 
teeth, but it is also fond of dead fishes, which are soon devoured, bones 
and all, by it in the Bay of Fuudy. In return it is swallowed whole in 
large quantities by the wolf-fish and by other large fishes. The purple 
sea-urchin, Arbacia punctulata, is much more abundant in Vineyard 
Sound and similar waters, in this region. This is a southern species 
which is here near its northern limit. It is easily distinguished by its 
rather stout, unusually long, purple spines ; by its ambulacra! pores in 
two simple rows $ by the upper surface of the shell being partly desti- 
tute of spines ; and by the anal region, at the summit of the shell, which 
is formed of only four rather large plates. It occurred of large size, 
associated with the preceding species, off West Chop and Holmes's 
Hole ; it was quite abundant in the passage at Wood's Hole, especially 
on shelly and gravelly bottoms north of Naushawena Island, and it was 
met with at many other localities. 

The common green star-fish, Aster ias arenicola, (p. 326, Plate XXXV, 
fig. 269,) is very common on all the rocky bottoms in this region. A 
smaller and more beautiful northern star-fish was occasionally met with 


in Wood's Iloic passage and several other localities on, rocky or grav- 
elly bottoms. This was the (.'rihrclla sanguinolenta ; it is much more com- 
mon north of ("ape Cod, and is abundant in the Bay of Fiindy and north- 
ward to Civenhuid ; it is also found on the northern coasts of Kurope. 
It has not been found much south of Vineyard Sound on this coast. 
It can easily be distinguished by its five round, tapering rays, covered 
with small spinules, and by having only two rows of locomotive suckers 
in the grooves on the under side of the rays, instead of four rows, as in 
the common star-fishes belonging to the genus Asterias. Its color is 
quite variable. It is often orange, or purple, or rose-color, or cream- 
color, and sometimes mottled with red and purple, &c. Unlike the pre- 
ceding, and most other species of our star-fishes, this does not have free- 
swimming young. Its eggs are deposited around the niouth, and re- 
tained by the mother until they develop into little star-fishes capable of 
taking care of themselves. 

The Hydroids are very numerous on rocky bottoms. A few species, 
like Hydractinia polydina (p. 328) and the Thamnocnida tenella, attach 
themselves directly to the rocks, but the greater number adhere to as- 
cidians, alga3, or to other hydroids. Many of the species are also to be 
found on the rocky shores in tide-pools, and have already been mentioned. 
Among those not yet detected at low water is a delicate species of Pin- 
mular-ia, with slender, alternately pinnate branches, which was found 
growing upon rocks in company with Hydractinia. The Tliamnocnida 
tenella is a Tubularian which grows in clusters, two or three inches high, 
consisting of long, slender, somewhat branched stems, which are more or 
less crooked, and usually irregularly and distantly annulated, with beau- 
tiful pink heads at the top. The general appearance is like that of the 
Paryplia, (Plate XXX VI, fig. 274.) The Obelia dichotoma was found grow- 
ing upon ascidiaus (Cynthia partita, &c.) in 8 or 10 fathoms, among rocks. 
It is a well-known European species, but has not hitherto been established 
as an inhabitant of our coast. It has dark, horn-colored, slender stems, 
with pretty long and rather erect, slender, alternate branches, which 
branch again in the same way. The hydroid cells are deeply campauu- 
late, with the margin slightly sinuous or scolloped, the slight notches 
corresponding with faint angular ridges which run down on the upper 
parts of the cells, giving the upper half a slightly polygonal form. In 
this respect this species closely resembles the Obelia commisuraUs. The 
reproducsive capsules are elongated, urn-shaped, with a narrow, raised, 
sub-conical neck. 

The Obelia (jeniculata is often very abundant on the fronds of La-mi- 
naria and other algre having flat fronds. Its creeping tubular stolons 
often thickly cover the surface with a complete net-work; from these 
the erect stems rise to the height of about an inch. This species may 
be known by the prominent geniculation at the origin of the hydroid 
pedicels. The Obelia fmiformis has a similar mode of growth, but is 


much less common. Its hydroid cells are comparatively small and their 
pedicels very short. 

Several very delicate and beautiful creeping hydroids, belonging to 
the Campanularians, also occur attached to larger hydroids, and the 
alga3. Among these are Clytia Johnston^ having comparatively large, bell- 
shaped cups, with a notched rim, each borne on a long, slender, generally 
simple pedicel, ringed at each end, and arising from the creeping stems. 
The reproductive capsules are urn-shaped and anuulated. The C. inter- 
media is quite similar in its growth, but has smaller and deeper cups, with 
smaller notches around the rim. The OrthopyxiscaUculata grows in the 
same manner ; it has beautiful little bell-shaped or cup-shaped cells, 
with an even rim, each borne on a long, slender, annulated pedicel with 
one of the rings, just below the cup, very prominent. Its reproductive 
capsules are large, oblong, smooth, and obtuse at the end. The Platy- 
pyxis cylindrica has small, very deep , somewhat cylindrical cups, with 
the rim divided into sharp teeth or notches; each one is borne on a small, 
slender pedicel, generally less than an eighth of an inch high, feebly 
annulated at each end. The reproductive capsules are elongated, com- 
pressed, flaring slightly at the end. The Campanularia volubilis, is also 
a very small, but elegant species; it has deep cylindrical cups, which have 
a regularly scolloped rim, the scollops being small and evenly rounded. 
The pedicels are very slender, and are annulated spirally throughout 
their whole length, so as to appear as if twisted ; just below the cup 
there is one prominent rounded aunulation, or bead, the whole resem- 
bling in miniature the stem of certain w T ine-glasses and glass vases. 
The reproductive capsules are vase- shaped, attached by short pedicels, 
and have the neck elongated and gradual! j* narrowed to the end, 
which flares slightly. 

The Lafoe'a calcarata is also a small creeping hydroid, belonging to 
another family. It has curved tubular cells. It nearly always grows on 
ftertularia cornlcina, which is a small species, resembling 8. pumila, 
(Plate XXXVII, fig. 279.) The Sertularia argentea (Plate XXXVII, fig. 
280) is a large, profusely branched species, often growing to the length 
of a foot or more. It is very abundant in this region. S. cupressina is 
closely related, but much less common. The Hydrattmania falcata is 
also a large species very common on these bottoms. It can be easily 
distinguished by the spiral arrangement of its branches and the unilateral 
arrangement of its jug-shaped cells along the branches. 

The JEudendrium ramosum and E. dispar are not uncommon on rocky 
bottoms, and are both beautiful species, somewhat resembling the 
Pennaria, (Plate XXXVII, fig. 277.) 

The species of Polyps are the same as those found on rocky shores 
at low-water mark. The coT&l^Astrangia Dance, (p. 329,) is much more 
common than on the shores, and grows larger, some of the specimens 
becoming four or five inches across, and rising np in the middle into 


lobes or irregular branches, sometimes nearly two inches high, making 
very elegant specimens. 

Numerous sponges also occur, but they have not yet been carefully 
studied. One of the most abundant is a species of Chalina, which grows 
up in clusters of slender, soft, smooth branches, five or six inches 
high, and from a quarter to half an inch in diameter, of a pale 
yellowish or buff-color while living. It makes very delicate, white, and 
beautiful specimens when the animal matter has been thoroughly washed 
out and the sponge dried in the sun, which can be best done by hang- 
ing them up in a reversed position, owing to the flexibility of the branches 
when wet. This species is closely related to the Chalina oculata, which 
also occurs in this region, in the outside cold waters, as off Gay Head, 
and is abundant farther north and on the coast of Europe ; but the pre- 
sent species is much more delicate, with more slender and rounder- 
branches, and it seems to be a southern form, for it is common all along 
our coast as far, at least, as North Carolina. 

The common, irregularly branched, red sponge is found in abundance, 
and also several light yellow, irregular, soft, massive species of Tedania, 
and the firm, massive, sulphur-yellow Cliona sulphured. 

List of species ordinarily found on the rocky bottoms of the bays and 




Page. ; Page. 

Chiron omuti halophilus 415 I Pallene, sp 421 


Page. Page. 

Cancer irroratus 395 j Mosra levis 315 

C. borealis 395 j Autonoe, sp 415 

Panopeus depressus 395 | Arnphithoe maculata 315 

P.Sayi 395 

Pelia mutica 395 

Eupagurus pollicaris , 395 

E. longicarpus 395 

Homarus Atnericanus 395 

Crangon vulgaris 395 

Hippolyte pusiola 395 

Mysis Americana 396 

Heteromysis forrnosa 396 

Lepidactylis dytiscus 339 

A. longimana 370 

Unciola irrorata 340 

Cerapus tubularis (?) 396 

Caprella geometrica 316 

Caprella, sp 316 

Idotea phosphorea 316 

Erichsonia filiforinis 316 

Balanus crenatus 396 

Numerous small Eutomos- 




Lepidonotus squamatus 397 

L. sublevis 397 

Harmothoe imbricata ....... 397 

Phyllodoce, sp 397 

Eulalia, sp 397 

Eumidia, sp 397 

Autolytus cornutus 397 

Autoly tus, sp , 398 

Nereis pelagica 397 

Podarke obscura 319 

MarpLysa Leidyi 319 

Lumbriconereis opaliua 397 

Ophelia simplex 

Cirrhinereis fragilis . . . 

Sa bell aria vulgaris 

Mcolea simplex 

Scionopsis palmata. . . 

Polycirras eximius 

Potamilla oculifera 

Sabella microplithalma 

Fabricia Leidyi 

Serpula diantbus 

Spirorbis, sp 




JV' -IHI rteanx. 

Cosinocephala ochracea 325 

Polinia glutinosa 324 

Cerebratulus? sp. 





Fulgur carica 399 

Sycotypus canaliculatus 399 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Urosalpinx cinerea 399 

Astyris lunata 399 

A. zonalis 399 

Anachis avara 306 

Lacuna viiicta 305 

Bittium Digram 305 

Ceritliiopsis Greeuii 383 

C. Emersonii 417 

Triforis iiigrocinctus. . . 
Crucibuluin striatum . . . 

Crepidula fornicata 

C. unguiformis 

Leptochiton apiculatus 

L. ruber 

Doto coronata 

Polycera Lessonii 

^olis, sp 

Doridella obscura . 




Mya arenaria 401 

Saxicava arctica 401 

Argina pexata 401 

Scapharca transversa 401 

Mytilus edulis 

Modiola modiolus. . 
Anomia glabra . . . . 
Ostrava Virginiana 





Cynthia partita 401 

Molgula Manhattan sis 401 

Perophora viridis 401 

Loptoclinum albidnm 403 

L. lutecium 

Amaroecium stellattim 

A. constellatum 

A. pellucidnm 





Page. | 

Alcyonidium ramosum 404 

A. liispidum 404 < 

A. parasiticntn 404 

A. hirsntnm 404 

Vesicularia gracilis 389 

V. dichotoma 404 

V. cuscuta 404 

V. armata 405 

Tubulipora flabellaris 405 

Diastopora patina 405 

(Jrisia eburnea . 405 

Eucratea chelata . . . . . 

,33 tea anguinea 

Bngula turrita 

B. flabellata 

Membranipora pilosa . 

M. lineata 

Escharipora punctata . 
Escharella variabilis . . 

Mollia hyalina 

Cellepora ramulosa 

Pedicellina Americana 




Arbacia punctulata, 
bachiensis . . 




Asterias arenicola , 

Cribrella sanguinolenta 



Oampanularia flexuosa 327 

C. volubilis 408 

Platypyxis cylindrica 408 

Orthopyxis caliculata 408 

Clytia Johnstoni 408 

C. intermedia 408 

Obelia fusiformis 407 

O. geniculata 407 

O. dichotoma 407 

O. commisuralis 327 

Lafoea calcarata 408 

Plumularia, sp 407 * 

Sertularia cornicina 

S. argentea 

S. cupressina 

Hydrallinania falcata 

Halecium gracile 

Bongainvillia superciliaris 

Eudendrium ramosum 

E. dispar 

Pennaria tiarella - 

Thamnocnida tenella 

Hydractinia polyclina 





Metridium marginatum 329 


Astrangia Dana', 408 

Sagartia leucolena 329 




Grantia ciliata 330 

Cliona sulphurea 409 

Tedania . 409 


Chaliua oculata 409 

Chalina, slender species 409 

Several other sponges. . 409 

Sponge, red species 409 


Numerous species 421 



Bottoms composed of gravel or pebbles, often with small stones, and 

generally with a considerable proportion of dead and usually broken shells, 

were of frequent occurence in Vineyard Sound, arid a few such localities 

were found in Buzzard's Bay. Similar bottoms of small extent have 

also been examined in Long Island Sound, near New Haven. These 

bottoms are generally the most productive and agreeable for the 

dredger, for they are the favorite abodes of large numbers of animals 

of all classes, and the contents of the dredge are often so clean that 

they require little if any washing in the sieves. They vary much, 

however, in character, some of them consisting mostly of gravel, with 

pebbles and perhaps small scattered boulders ; others consist largely 

of broken shells, especially those of Mactra solidissima and Crepidula 

fornicata, mixed with more or less gravel, sand, and mud. Others 

are so completely overgrown with the various large compound asci- 

dians described above, that they might well be called u ascidian 

bottoms." In many places, however, there are patches of mud or sand, 

scattered here and there over a bottom which is mostly of gravel and 

shells, so that the dredge will often bring up more or less mud or sand, 

with some of the animals peculiar to such patches, mixed with those 

peculiar to the gravelly bottoms, thus augmenting the number and 

variety of animals. In other cases more or less mud and sand may be 

mixed with the gravel throughout, or the bottom may be in process of 

changing from mud or sand to gravel, or the contrary, owing to frequent 

changes in the directions of the currents, produced chiefly by the action 

of storms upon the shoals and bars of sand. Hence it is often difficult to 


distinguish with certainty the animals properly inhabiting the gravelly 
and shelly bottoms from those that pertain to the muddy and sandy 
bottoms, but for our present purposes it is not necessary to make a very 
sharp distinction between the different lists, for many species arc com- 
mon to all, and the areas of the different kinds of bottom are generally 
small in this region, and evidently may change their character from 
time to time. 

After a single storm the character of the bottom, in some localities, 
was found to be greatly altered over wide areas, sometimes several miles 
in extent, at depths of two to ten fathoms, and the animal life at the bot- 
tom was always found to have changed very quickly, when the physical 
character of the bottom had been modified. The most frequent cause 
of change was the accumulation of immense quantities of dead sea- 
weeds and eel-grass over bottoms that, a few days before, had been per- 
fectly free from it. Such accumulations must either kill the majority of 
the animals inhabiting gravelly, sandy, or rocky bottoms, or else cause 
them to migrate. In all probability the majority of them perish, at 
such times, beneath the accumulations. In other cases one or two 
storms sufficed to change gravelly and shelly bottoms to sandy ones, 
causing, undoubtedly, great destruction of life and a great change in its 
character over particular areas. These changes in the character of the 
deposits accumulating on the bottom, attended with extermination of 
life and changes in its character in particular localities, illustrate on a 
small scale similar phenomena that have constantly occurred on a 
grander scale in the history of the past life of the globe, during all the 
geological ages, from the first commencement of life. Practically it was 
found quite difficult to find, in this region, large areas of gravelly and 
shelly bottoms, without some admixture with mud or sand, and it very 
seldom happened that a continuous series of dredgings could be 
made on such bottoms without encountering patches of mud and sand. 
Therefore the accompanying list of species undoubtedly contains many 
that belong rather to muddy or sandy bottoms than to those now 
under discussion, for species have not been excluded unless well known ? 
from many observations, to be peculiar, or nearly so, to mud or sand 
and rarely met with on true hard bottoms. 

The following are the principal localities where this kind of bottom 
was explored in Vineyard Sound and vicinity, but those belonging to 
the outside cold area are not included : 

First. An extensive area extending from off* Nobska Point eastward, 
nearly parallel with the shore, with some interruptions of sandy bot- 
tom, as far as Suconesset Shoal, mostly in three to eight fathoms of 
water; on this bottom were the dredgings of line 6, a, 6, c, rf, e,f; 21, 
a, &, c, d; 22, , 6, c, d; 23, , &, e,f; 25, 6, c, d; 26, a, 6, c, rf, e; 34, 
a, &, c, d, e,f; 35, a, fr, c, <7, e. 

Second. Another similar region nearly parallel with the southeastern 
shores of Naushon and Nonamesset Island and extending out into mid 


channel ; dredgings on line 5, , b ; 7, ft, c, d ; 8, c, d, e, f, g ; 42, a, 
ft; 43, a, I, c, d, e, were made on the shallower portion of this ground, 
mostly in three to eight fathoms; 38, , ft, c ; 39, , ft; 40, a, 6, c, d; 
41, & ; 44, a, ft, c, d, e ; 46, c, were made in the deeper parts of the chan- 
nel, in eight to fifteen fathoms. 

Third. Several areas, in the deeper waters of the sound, north and 
northeast of Holme's Hole, and doubtless continuous with the last area; 
dredgings, at line 28, a, ft, c, d, e,f; 29, a, ft, c ; 31, a, ft, c, d, 6 ; 32? 
, ft, c ; 33, a, ft, c, tf, were made on these bottoms. 

Fourth. A narrow strip of clean gravelly bottom, swept by the strong 
currents passing around West Chop, and situated between the " Middle 
Ground". Shoals and Martha's Vineyard, and extending around to East 
<l/hop, with an interruption of rocky bottom just opposite West Chop ; 
dredgings on line 37, a, ft, c, rf, g, h ; 47, , and 48, a, ft, c, d, were made 
on this area. 

Fifth. In the channel, at the entrance to Great Harbor, off Nonaniesset 
Island, and partially extending into the harbor, there is more or less 
gravelly and shelly bottom, frequently alternating with rocks and 
often composed chiefly of dead shells, (mainly Crejpidula fornicata.) 
This place is swept by the powerful tidal currents running through 
Wood's Hole Passage; dredgings at line 3, d, e; 5, e.f,g; 13, a, b; 
18, a, ft, c, d ; 19, a ; 20, a, ft, and many others not indicated on the chart, 
were made here. 

Sixth. Another area at the other end of Wood's Hole Passage, north 
of Hadley Harbor, and extending out into Buzzard's Bay a short dis- 
tance ; some parts of this region had a smooth hard bottom of fine 
gravel and sand, or coarse sand ; in other places it was more or less 
stony : dredgings on line 10, e, /; 11, a, ft, c, d, e, g ; 12, ft, c ; 70, a, 
^, c, d ; 71, a, ft, were on these gravelly bottoms. 

Seventh. A shallow region off Cataurnet Harbor, in Buzzard's Bay ; 
the bottom here was hard gravel and shells, much overgrown with alga3 ; 
dredgings at line 65, a, ft, and others not indicated, were made here. 

Eighth. At Quick's Hole, in the channel between Nashawena and 
Pasque Islands, good gravelly bottom was found; di edgings at line 
45, a, ft; 76, a, ft, c; 77, c, tf, e,/, were on this area. 

Similar bottoms of small extent were also met with in other places. 
There are also gravelly bottoms in the southwestern part of Vineyard 
Sound, near its mouth, as off Menemsha, but as these are inhabited by 
the more northern species of animals, they will be grouped with those of 
the outside waters. 

The animals of gravelly and shelly bottoms may be burrowing or tube- 
dwelling species, like many annelids, amphipods, bivalve-shells, &c.; 
they may be species that adhere directly to the shells and pebbles, like cer- 
tain hydroids, bryozoa, bivalve-shells, and the numerous ascidians ; the 
latter are quite as numerous here as upon the rocky bottoms, and for the 
most part of ihe same species; they may be species that hide among 


the shells and pebbles or between the ascidians, &c., like many of the 
larger annelids, some of the (-nibs, and other Crustacea, &c.; they may 
be species that live among or attached to the hydroids, bryozoa, ascid- 
ians, and alga- which grow upon the shells and pebbles ; such are many 
of the small Crustacea, some annelids, many small gastropod shells, and 
most of the more delicate bryozoa and hydroids; or they may be larger 
kinds that creep or swim about over the bottom, in search of food, such 
as the lobster, the larger crabs, hermit-crabs, large gastropod mollusks, 
star-fishes, sea-urchins, holothurians, &c. Owing to the great abundance 
of animal life on bottoms of this character they are the favorite feeding- 
grounds of many kinds of fishes, such as the tautog, scup, black 
bass, haddock, and cod, together with many others that are less valua- 
ble. Most of the "banks" and " fishing- grounds' 7 resorted to by the 
line fishermen have either gravelly and shelly or else rocky bottoms, 
and those banks most frequented by fishes are almost always found to 
be rich dredging-grounds. The gravelly banks in this region are, in 
winter and spring, fishing-grounds for cod and haddock, but these fishes 
retreat to colder waters in the summer. 

Among the Crustacea. the most abundant and important species are 
the lobster, Homarus Americanus, (p. 395,) the common shrimp, Cran- 
gon vulgaris, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10,) the common rock-crab, Cancer 
irroratus, (p. 312,) Panopeus Sayi, (p. 312,) P. depressus, (p. 312, Plate 
I, fig. 3,) the larger hermit-crab, Eupagurus pollicaris, (p. 313,) the 
smaller hermit-crab, U. longicarpus (p. 313,) the Heteromysis formosa, 
(p. 398,) Mt/sis Americana, (p. 396,) Utiicola irrorata, (p. 340, Plate IV 
fig. 19,) Amphithoe maculata, (p. 315, Plate IV. fig. 16,) Corophium cyl- 
indricum, (p. 370,) which lives among the hydroids, and a species of 
Autonoe, which lives in the crevices among the lobes of the sandy 
ascidians (Amarcecmm pellucidum) in large numbers. The barnacle, Bal. 
anus crenatus, (p. 396,) is very abundant. 

One of the most interesting of the Crustacea met with was the Het- 
erocrypta granulata, which occurred off Falmouth and near Sucouesset 
light-ship. This is one of the triangular crabs in which, the carapax is 
smooth 5 the chelipeds are long and triangular. It is a southern 
species, occurring on the Florida coast, and is new to our fauna. 

Another triangular crab, the Pelia mutica, also occurs on these bot- 
toms, but this has a rough carapax, and resembles a small specimen of 
the common spider-crabs, Libinia. 

Clinging to and creeping over the hydroids and ascidiaus a singular 
long-legged Pycnogonid is often met with on shelly bottoms. This is the 
Phoxichilidium maxillare, (Plate VII, fig. 35.) It is most frequently 
deep purple in color, but gray and brown specimens are often met with. 

The larvae of a fly, Chironomus halophilw, was dredged in five fathoms. 

The Annelids are quite numerous, and iie majority of them are the 
same as those found on the rocky bottoms, for the same species inhabit 
the interstices of the massive aseidians, found equally on both kinds of 


bottom, and the same tube-dwelling species can attach themselves to 
stones and shells just as well as to rocks. Most of the additional species 
are burrowing kinds, and some of them probably inhabited patches of 
mud or sand. Among the more interesting species are Nephthys bucera, 
(Plate XII, fig. 58 ;) Anthostoma acutum Y., a new species ; Scolecolepis 
cirrata, new to the American coast ; Scalibregma brevicauda Y., a very 
interesting new species ; Cirratulus tennis Y., a new species ; Ampha- 
rete setosa Y., also a new species ; Serpula dianthus Y., (p. 322.) Several 
rare or undescribed species were also met with that have not yet been 
fully identified. Among these were a peculiar species of Nereis ; a large 
Anthostoma; a young Polydora ; an apparently undescribed species of 
ftamytlia ; a species of Euclwne, perhaps identical with E. elegans Y. ; 
the calcareous tubes of a small worm, perhaps a Verm-ilia, which have 
two carina on the upper side. 

Two species of Sipunculoids occurred, one of which is probably un- 
described. The other is the Phascolosoma ca'mentarium, (Plate XYIII, 
fig. 92,) a species very common on all the northern coasts of New Eng- 
land in deep water. This worm takes possession of a dead shell of some 
small Gastropod, like the hermit-crabs, but as the aperture is always 
too large for the passage of its body, it fills up the space around it with 
a very hard and durable cement, composed of mud and sand united to- 
gether by a secretion from the animal, leaving only a small, round open- 
ing, through which the worm can extend the anterior part of its body to 
the distance of one or two inches, and into which it can entirely with- 
draw at will. It thus lives permanently in its borrowed shell, dragging it 
about wherever it wishes to~go, by the powerful contractions of its body, 
which can be extended in all directions and is very changeable in form. 
When fully extended the forward or retractile part is long and slender, 
and furnished close to the end with a circle of small, slender tentacles, 
which surround the mouth ; there is a band of minute spinules just 
back of the tentacles; the anal -orifice is at the base of the retractile 
part ; the region posterior to this has a firmer and more granulous skin, 
and is furnished toward the posterior end with a broad band of scat- 
tered, blackish, acute, recurved spinules, more or less triangular in 
form, which evidently aid it in retaining its position in the shell. As it 
grows too large for its habitation, instead of changing it for a larger 
shell, as the hermit-crabs do, it gradually extends its tube outward be- 
yond the aperture by adding new materials to it. Some of the fishes 
often suddenly cut short this labor by swallowing the worm, shell and all. 

In July the common squids, LoligoPealii, (Plate XX, figs. 102-105,) were 
taken in considerable numbers by means of the trawl, on gravelly and 
shelly bottoms off Fal month, and with them large quantities of the eggs 
contained in large bunches or groups of long, gelatinous capsules. 
They were apparently spawning at that time. 

Although the Gastropod mollusks are seldom very numerous at any 
particular spot on these bottoms, yet a pretty large number of species 


occur, mid they lire quite generally diffused. Many of them have 
already been enumerated as occurring on rocky bottoms. The Fulym- 
car tea, (p. .'55, Plate XX, fig. 124,) and the Sycotypus canaliculatm, (p. 
355,) are found chiefly on these bottoms, and are often very abundant. 
Over a barrel of living specimens were obtained on a single excursion. 
The 'Lunatia heron, (p. 354, Plate XXIII, figs. 133-136,) though generally 
found on the sandy bottoms, also occurred in great numbers and of 
very large size on some of the gravelly bottoms. The pretty little 
Natica pus-ilia (Plate XXIII, fig. 132) is often common on these bottoms ; 
it is usually delicately painted with brown. 

The Crepidula fornicata (p. 355, Plate XXIII, figs. 129, 129) was one 
of the most abundant species, often occurring adhering to each other in 
great clusters, the lowest ones in the group adhering in turn to dead 
bivalve shells, pebbles, shells of living Fulgur and Sycotypus, and still 
more frequently to these shells when dead and occupied by the larger 
hermit-crabs, (Eupagurus pollicaris.) The dead shells of this Crepidula 
were often found in great accumulations, covering considerable areas 
of bottom, and with but little admixture, either with other shells or with 
sand and gravel. 

The Crepidula unguiformis, (p. 355, Plate XXIII, fig. 127,) though very 
common, did not occur in such great quantities. Crucibulum striatum 
(p. 399, Plate XXIII, figs. 125, 126) is also common, adhering to vari- 
ous dead shells. 

The Vermetus radicula (Plate XXIV, fig. 157) is a very curious shell, 
looking, when full grown, very much like the tube of an Annelid, such 
as Serpula or Protula, but the inhabitant is a genuine Gastropod, and 
has a thin, spiral, horny operculum, for closing the aperture when it 
withdraws. When young this shell often forms a very regular, closely 
coiled, spiral shell, looking like that of a Turritella, and sometimes does 
not become irregular until the spire is more than an inch long, but sooner 
or later it goes off on a tangent and becomes irregular and crooked. 
Sometimes several of these shells interlock irregularly and thus form 
large clusters. 

The curious and minute Caecum pulcliellum (Plate XX1Y, fig. 158) is 
occasionally met with in considerable numbers, though very liable to be 
overlooked owing to its very small size. Ccecum costatum V. is of less 
frequent occurrence, and easily distinguished by the prominent ridges 
or ribs that run lengthwise of the shell. 

Wherever algaB occur in abundance on these bottoms, the Bittium 
nigrum (p. 305, XXIV, fig. 154) is found in immense numbers, and it is 
generally associated with Lacuna vincta (p. 305, Plate XXIV, fig. 139) 
and with a few specimens of Triforis nigrocmctus, (p. 305, Plate XXIV, 
fig. 152,) Cerithiopsis Greenii, (Plate XXIV, fig. 153,) Astyris lunata, 
(Plate XXI, fig. 110,) Anachis avara, (Plate XXI, fig. 109,) &c. On the 
shelly bottoms CeritMopsis terebralis and C. Emersonii ofter occur, but 
they are not usually common. On similar bottoms, sometimes adhering to 
10 v 


Pecten and other shells, we often met with the various species of Odos- 
tomia, among which 0. seminuda (Plate XXIV, fig. 148,) was much the 
most common ; but 0. producta, (Plate XXIV, fig. 143,) 0. impressa, 
(Plate XXIV, fig. 147,) and 0. trijida, (Plate XXIV, fig. 145,) occurred 
in shallow water; and also Turbonilla elegans, (Plate XXIV, fig. 155,) 
which is a very handsome, glossy, brown shell ; and T. interrupt^ which is 
a similar shell, but more slender, with less convex whorls. The Eulima 
oleacea (Plate XXIV, fig. 149) is a very elegant, white, polished, and 
shining shell, and generally rare, but in two instances we found several 
of them adhering to the skin of the large Holothurian, Thyone Briareus, 
upon which it seemed to live as a quasi parasite or " commensal." 

On shelly and muddy bottoms we occasionally found Scalaria lineata, 
(Plate XXI, fig. 123,) and 8. multistriata, (Plate XXI, fig. 122,) both of 
which are rare and elegant shells. The Pleurotoma Mcarinatum (Plate 
XXI, fig. 106) occurred rarely. 

The bivalve shells are also quite numerous on these bottoms. Among 
them the Mactra solidissima (p. 358, Plate XXVIII, fig. 203) is most 
conspicuous on account of its great size and frequent occurrence ; its 
dead shells were often very abundantly scattered over the bottom, and 
were generally incrusted with numerous bryozoa and hydroids. The 
Gouldia mactracea (Plate XXIX, figs. 206, 207) was quite common in many 
localities in a living state, while the dead shells were generally diffused. 
Among the other species that are common or abundant are Scapharca 
transversa^ (Plate XXX, fig. 228,) Clidiophora trilineata, (Plate XXVII, 
fig. 193,) Nucula proximo,, (Plate XXX, fig. 230,) Mytilus edulis, (Plate 
XXXI, fig. 234,) Modiola modiolus, (Plate XXXI, fig. 237,) Crenellci 
glandula, (Plate XXXI, fig. 233,) Pecten irradians, (Plate XXXII, fig. 
243,) Anomia glabra, (Plate XXXII, figs. 241, 242.) The Modiolaria 
nigra (Plate XXXI, fig. 236) occurred only in few localities in the deep 
water of the middle of the Sound, associated with the common muscle. 
The Cumingia tellinoides (Plate XXX, fig. 221) was found living occa- 
sionally, but its dead shells were quite common. The same is true of 
Corbula contract^ (Plate XXVII, fig. 191,) which was perhaps a little more 
commonly found living than the last. The Cyclas dentata (Plate XXIX) 
'fig. 211,) is a handsomely sculptured, pure white shell, which we met 
with only a few times in the living state, though dead valves often oc- 
curred. The same remarks will apply to Coclodesma Leanum, (Plate 
XXVII, fig. 198,) of which the shells were much more common. The 
Kellia planulata (p. 310,) and Montacuta elevata also occasionally occur 
-on shelly bottoms, but were seldom obtained alive. The Cyclocardia 
lorealis (Plate XXIX, fig. 216) and C. Novanglm (Plate XXIX, tig. 215) 
were quite common in the deeper waters. 

The Gastranella tumida V., (Plate XXVII, fig. 190) is a small and 
rare shell, recently discovered, and has, as yet, been found only on a 
shelly bottom among hydroids, near New Haven, in 4 or 5 fathoms. 
The Angulus modestatus V. (Plate XXX, fig. 224) is a species recently 


described from specimens dredged by us in Vineyard Sound. It is often 
handsomely banded with light red and pale yellow. It is still a rare 
species, but has been dredged also near New Haven. 

The Ascidians, with the exception of one or two additional species 
seldom met with, are the same as those of the rocky bottoms, and they 
often occur in immense quantities, especially the massive sandy ones, 
Amarcecmm pellucidum, (p. 401,) and the " sea-pork," A. stellatum, (p. 
402,) which together often almost entirely cover the bottom over areas 
many acres in extent. They furnish excellent hiding-places in the open- 
ings and crevices between their lobes for numerous Crustacea and Anne- 
lids, many of which can be easily secured by putting the masses of 
these ascidians into buckets of water and leaving them until the water 
begins to get stale, when they will come out of their retreats in large 
numbers and seek the surface or edges of the water for oxygen. Or 
they may be pulled apart directly and the various creatures secured at 

The Molgula arenata (Plate XXXIII, fig. 251) is a nearly globular, 
but often somewhat flattened species, which covers itself over with closely 
adherent grains of sand or gravel. It is most common on sandy bottoms 
but is found also on gravelly ones. 

The Ciona tenella is an elongated, erect species, attached at base to 
rocks, dead shells, &c. It is remarkable for the transparency, whiteness, 
and softness of its integument, and for the bright orange ocelli around 
its orifices. It is rare in this region, but very common in the Bay of 

The Bryozoa are very abundant, especially on the shelly bottoms. 
Some of them grow on alga3, hydroids, ascidiaus, &c. ; and many 
form incrustations on the dead shells and pebbles. The two most 
abundant and- prominent species are Bugula turrita (p. 311, Plate 
XXXIV, figs. 258, 259) and Escharella variabilis, (p. 312, Plate XXXEII, 
fig. 256.) The former grows attached to the various sea-weeds in great 
quantities, forming delicate white plumes, often six inches to a foot in 
length. The latter mostly forms calcareous incrustations over the sur- 
faces of dead shells and pebbles, thin at first, but eventually becoming 
thickened by the formation of layer over layer, until the crust rn&y be- 
come half an inch to an inch in thickness, with a tabulated and vesicu- 
lar structure in the interior. The masses thus formed often closely 
resemble genuine corals, especially some of the ancient fossil forms, 
and they often occur in great quantities. When living the color is dull 
red, but when recently dried they have a yellowish green color, which 
easily bleaches out, however, by exposure to the sun and air. Vesicu- 
laria diclwtoma, (p. 404,) Alcyonidium ramosum, (p. 404, Plate XXXIV, 
fig. 257,) and Crisia eburnea (p. 311, Plate XXXIV, figs. 260, 261) are 
usually abundant. Most of the remaining species have also been men- 
tioned in the previous pages as inhabitants of rocky bottoms, or else 
among the shore species. 

Among the species not previously mentioned are Cellepora scabra, 


which forms branching, coral-like masses on the slender red algai ; a 
species of Lepralia, found with the last, and also on shells, which is allied 
to L. Pallasiana of Europe 5 Mollia liyalina, which forms circular disks, 
with irregular, more or less oblique cells; and Membranipora tennis, 
which is common on the pebbles, often covering their whole surface with 
a delicate lace-like incrustation, made up of very small, crowded, oval 
or oblong cells, which have the inner part of the front partly closed over, 
but with an irregular, mostly three-lobed aperture toward the outer end? 
which is bordered by small, irregular spinules. 

The Vesicularia fusca was also found in a few instances, in deep water. 
It had not been previously known on the American coast. Good speci- 
mens of the Cdberea Elllsii were also dredged in the deeper parts of Vine- 
yard Sound, attached to ascidians. 

Of Echinoderms the number of species is not large. The common 
green star-fish, Asterias arenicola (Plate XXXV, fig. 269) is very com- 
mon; the Cribrella sangulnolenta, (p. 407,) is comparatively rare ; and 
the green sea-urchin, 8. Drobachiensis, (p. 406,) is quite infrequent. 
The purple sea-urchin, Arbacia punrtulttta, (p. 326,) is, however, quite 
common in many localities. The largest and finest specimens were 
taken off Holmes' Hole, but it was quite abundant, though of moder- 
ate size, in Great Harbor and Wood's Hole passage. The Thyone Bria- 
reus (p. 362) is not uncommon in shallow water, especially among weeds ; 
it has already been mentioned, (p. 418,) as carrying Eulima oleacea 
attached to its skin. 

Another Holothurian, the Pentamera pulchella, seems to be quite com- 
mon, judging by the numerous specimens thrown on Kobska beach by 
the storms, and preserved for us by Mr. Vinal N. Edwards, during the 
past winter, but it was dredged only in one locality, off Holmes' Hole, 
by Messrs. T. M. Prudden and T. H. Russell. It is a southern species, 
not previously known north of the Carolina coasts. It is easily distin- 
guished from the preceding species by its light color, and by having 
the locomotive-suckers arranged in five broad and very distinct longi- 
tudinal bands, with naked spaces between them. 

A very delicate little Ophiurian, the AinplnplioUs elegans, was occa- 
sionally met with on the shelly bottoms. This is a northern species, 
much more common in the Bay of Fuudy, where it is found from low- 
water mark to 80 fathoms, and it is found also on the northern coasts 
of Europe. It has a nearly circular disk, covered with smooth scales, 
regularly arranged, and each of the scales, on the sides of the slender 
rays, bears three short, blunt spines. Its color is usually light gray or 
whitish, frequently more or less marked with dark gray or brown. 

The Hydroids are numerous on these bottoms, and mostly of the same 
species that have been mentioned as occuring on rocky bottoms. 

The Polyps are few and essentially the same as those on the rocky 
bottoms. The only additional species was a small, slender, undescribed 


species of Edwardsia, E. lineata V., living in the interstices among 
ascidians and the tubes of Sabella and Potamilla. 

Sponges also occur in considerable numbers. Among them the most 
conspicuous is the Cliona sulphured, a bright sulphur-yellow species, grow- 
ing into hemispherical or irregular, massive forms, of firm texture, the 
surface covered with scattered, low, wart-like, soft prominences, about 
an eighth of an inch in diameter, which contract when the sponge is 
dried, leaving shallow pits. The sponge commences as a boring species, 
on various dead shells, and as it grows it penetrates the shells in every 
direction, forming irregular holes and galleries, which continue to grow 
larger as more and more of the substance of the shell is absorbed, until 
the shells are reduced to a completely honey-combed, brittle mass, or a 
mere skeleton ; finally the sponge begins to protrude from the surface, 
and grows up into mammilliform masses, or small, rounded crusts, 
which continue to grow and spread in every direction, until finally they 
may form masses six or eight inches in diameter, with the base spread- 
ing over and enveloping various dead shells, pebbles, and the coral, 
Astrangia Dance, though it often happens that living specimens of the 
latter grow upon the sponge. Owing to the remarkable boring habits 
of this and other allied sponges, they are very important in the econ- 
omy of the sea, for they are the principal agents in the disintegration 
and decay of the shells that accumulate over the bottoms, thus per- 
forming the same function in the sea that fungi and insects perform on 
the laud the removal of dead organisms that otherwise would accu- 
mulate in vast quantities. In this work they are aided, in most regions, 
either by certain boring Annelids, (Dodecacerea, &c.,) or by various bor- 
ing inollusks, (LithodomuSj Pholas, Gastrochcena, &c.,) but the greater 
part of this work seems to be effected by the sponges. 

Numerous species of Foraminifera were obtained on these and also on 
the rocky bottoms, but they have not yet been studied. The most com- 
mon kind occurs attached by one side to dead shells, alga3, &c. It con- 
sists of several chambers arranged in a spiral manner, and to the naked 
eye resembles a minute depressed spiral shell. 

List of species inhabiting gravelly and shelly bottoms of the bays and 




Page. | Page. 

Chironomus halophilus 415 Muscidse, larva 335 


Phoxichilidium maxillare. 415 


Pallene,sp 409 




Cancer irroratus 415 

Panopeus depressus 415 

P. Sayi 415 

Pelia rnutica 415 

Heterocrypta granulata 415 

Eupagurus pollicaris 41 5 

E. lougicarpus 415 

Honiarus Americanus 415 

Crangori vulgaris 415 

Hippolyte pusiola 395 

Mysis Americana 415 

Heteroinysis fonnosa 415 


Lepiclactylis dytiscus 339 

Mcera levis 315 

Autouoe, sp 415 

Amphitboe inaculata 415 

Unciola irrorata 415 

Corophium cylindricum 415 

Caprella, sp 316 

Idotea phospborea 316 

Erichsonia filiforniis 316 

Epelys trilobus 370 

Balanus crenatus 415 

Numerous Eutomostraca. 



Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

L.sublevis --. 320 

Harmothoe imbricata 321 

Sthenelais picta 348 

Nephthy s picta 348 

N. bucera 416 

Phyllodoce, sp 349 

Eulalia, sp 349 

Eulalia, sp . 349 

Euinidia, sp 349 

Eteone, sp 349 

Autolytus cornutus 397 

A., sp., banded 398 

Nereis pelagica 319 

N. limbata 318 

Nereis, sp . . ., 416 

Diopatra cuprea 346 

Marphysa Leidyi 319 

Lumbriconereis opalina 320 

L. tenuis 320 

Authostoma acutum 416 

Authostoma, sp 416 

Scolecolepis cirrata . . ... 416 


Polydora, sp 416 

Scalibregma brevicauda 416 

Cirratulus tenuis 416 

C. grandis 319 

Cirrhinereis fragilis 397 

Naraganseta coralii 397 

Dodecacerea, sp 397 

Clymenella torquata 343 

Sabellaria vulgaris 349 

Cistenides Gouldii 349 

Ampharete setosa 416 

Sainytha, sp 416 

Amphitrite ornata 320 

Nicolea simplex 321 

Poly cirrus eximius 320 

Potamilla oculifera 322 

Sabella microphthalma 323 

Euehone, sp 416 

Fabricia Leidyi 323 

Serpula dianthus 416 

Vermilia, sp 416 

Spirorbis spirillum 323 

Phascolosoma csemeutarium 416 


Phascolosoma, sp. 




Meckelia ingens 324 

Polinia glutiuosa 324 

Cosinocephala ochracea 




Loligo Pealii, eggs and adults 



Pleurotoma bicarinatum . . . 418 

Bela plicata 383 

Fulgur carica 417 

Sycotypus canaliculatus 417 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Eupleura caudata 371 

Urosalpinx cinerea 306 

Astyris lunata 417 

A. zonalis 399 

Auackis avara 417 

Oclostoinia producta . , 417 

O. fusca 307 

O. trifida 417 

O. seminuda 417 

O. impressa 417 

O. bisuturalis 307 

Turbonilla interrupta.. . . 418 

T. elegans 418 

Eulinia oleacea 418 

Lacuna yincta 417 

Bittium nigrum 

Triforis nigrociuctus. . . 
Cerithiopsis Greenii . . . 

C. terebralis 

C. Emersonii 

Yermetus radicula 

Ca3cum pulchellum 

C. costatum 

Crucibulum striatum . . 

Crepidula fornicata 

C. unguiforniis 

0. convexa 

Natica pusilla 

Lunatia heros 

Scalaria lineata 

S. multistriata 

Leptoclriton apiculatus . 
Polycera Lessonii ...... 

Doto coronata 

Doridella obscura. . 





Saxicava arctica 309 

Mya areuaria, (young) 309 

Corbula contracta 418 

Clidiophora triliueata 418 

Lyonsia hyalina 358 

Cochlodesma Leanuin 418 

Mactra solidissinia 418 

Mulinia lateralis 373 

Cumingia tellinoides 418 

Angulus tener 358 


A. rnodestus 418 

Gastranella turaida 418 

Cardium pinnulatura 435 

Cyclas dentata 418 

Kellia planulata 418 

Montacuta elevata 418 

Gouldia mactracea 418 

Astarte castanea 432 

Cyclocardia borealis 418 

C. Novanglia3 418 



Nucula proxima 418 

Argina pexata 309 

Scapharca transversa 418 

Mytilus edulis 418 

Modiola modiolus 418 

Modiolarla nigra.. 
Crenella glandula . 
Pecten irradians . . 

Anomia glabra 

Ostrrea Yirginiana 



Ciona tenella 419 

Cynthia partita 311 

Molgnla Maiihatteiisis 311 

M. arenata 419 

Perophora viridis . . 388 

Leptoclinum albidum. 

L. luteolum 

Amarcecium stellatum 

A. pellucidura . 

A. constellatuin . 



Alcyonidium ramosum 419 

A. hirsutum 404 

A. parasiticuin 404 

Vesicularia dichotoma... . 419 

V. cuscuta '. 404 

V. gracilis 389 

Y. armata 405 

Y. ( Avenella) fusca 420 

Tubulipora flabellaris 405 

Crisia eburnea 419 

^Etea anguinea 405 

Eucratea chelata 405 

Caberea Ellisii... 420 

Bugula turrita 

B. flabellata 

Membrauipora pilosa... 

M. tenuis 

M. lineata 

Escliarella variabilis 
Escbaripora punctata (?) 

Lepralia, sp 

Mollia hyalina 

Discopora coccinea (?) 
Cellepora ramulosa 

C. scabra 

Pedicellina Americana . . 







Pentamera pulchella 420 

Thy one Briareus 420 

Strongylocentrotus Droba- 

chiensis 420 


Arbacia punctulata 420 

Asterias arenicola 420 

Cribrella sanguinolenta 420 

Amphipholis elegans 420 



Campanularia volubilis 408 

Platypyxis cylindrica 408 

Orthopyxis caliculata 408 


Cly tia Johnston! 408 

Obelia fusiform is 40 7 

O. geniculata 407 



O. diehotoma 407 

O. coinmissuralis 327 

Lafoea calcarata 408 

Sertularia argentea 408 

S. cupressina 408 

Hydrallinania falcata 408 


Halecium gracile 328 

Eudendrium dispar 408 

Pennaria tiarella 327 

Thamnocnida tenella 407 

Hydractinia polyclina 328 


Sagartia modesta 

Metridium marginatum . . . 



Edwardsia lineata 421 

Astrangia Dan86 421 



Grantia ciliata 330 

Chalina, sp 409 

C. oculata . 409 


Cliona sulphurea 421 

Halichondria, sp 330 

Tedania, sp 409 


Numerous species 



The sandy bottoms in Vineyard Sound are chiefly found in shallow 
water, either along the shores or on the banks and shoals. In Buzzard's 
Bay they were met with only in few places, near the shore, and have no 
great extent. To the eastward of Vineyard Sound, throughout the 
greater* part of Nantucket Sound, Muskeget Channel, and the waters 
south and southeast of Nantucket and Cape Cod, the bottom is gener- 
ally sandy, sometimes passing into gravelly and shelly. 

The true sandy bottoms are not favorable to many kinds of animals, 
and where the sands are constantly changing, as on most of the shoals 
in this region, the bottom is sometimes almost barren of life, though 
certain burrowing species may occur. 

The following are some of the special localities where dredgings were 
made on sandy bottoms : In Buzzard's Bay, at line 11, d, e,f; 64, a, b ; 
66, a, 1) ; 67, a, b ; 68, a, b ; 71, a, &, d ; 73, a, &, c, e, f. In Vineyard 
Sound, at line 14, g, h; 25, a, b ; 27, a, b; 30, a, b; 37, /*, i; 43, a, &; 
46, c, d ; 47, d, e ; 48, a, b. A large portion of the species occurring on 
these bottoms have been mentioned before either as inhabitants of the 
sandy shores at low water, or as living upon gravelly and shelly bot- 
toms. With the exception of a few species living attached to scattered 
shells or stones, nearly all the species are such as are adapted to bur- 


rowing beneath the surface of the sand, though many of them may also 
occur creeping on its surface. 

The most abundant and characteristic species of Crustacea are the lob- 
ster, Homarus Americanus, (p. 313,) the common shrimp, Crangon vul- 
garis, (p. 339, Plate III. fig. 10,) the "lady-crab," Platyonichus ocellatus, 
(p. 338, Plate I, fig. 4,) the larger hermit-crab, Eupagurus pollicaris, (p. 
313,) the smaller hermit-crab, Eupagurus longicarpus, (p. 313,) Anthura 
brunnea, Conilera concharum, Unciola irrorata, (p. 340, Plate IV, fig. 19.) 

Of Annelids a considerable number of burrowing species occur, and 
also a few tube-dwelling species, which attach their tubes to dead shells ; 
among these last are Sabellaria vulgaris (p. 321, Plate XVII, figs. 88, 88a,) 
and Serpula dianthus, (p. 322.) 

The Gastropods are not numerous, and but few are peculiar to sandy 
bottoms; the majority found have their proper homes on shelly or 
muddy bottoms and live in much smaller numbers in sandy places; 
others enumerated in the following list inhabit the patches of eel-grass 
and alga3 that are often scattered over the sandy bottoms in shallow 
water. A few species, however, have their proper homes on the sandy 
bottoms. Among the most important of these are Lunatia lieros, (p. 353, 
Plate XXIII, figs. 133-136,) Neverita duplicata, (p. 354, Plate XXIII, fig. 
130,) Natica pusilla, (p. 354, Plate XXIII, fig. 132,) Cylichna oryza, 
(Plate XXV, fig. 164,) Utriculus canaliculatus, (Plate XXV, fig. 160.) 

'The bivalve shells are more numerous, and most of them are species 
that burrow beneath the surface. The most common and characteristic 
species are Ensatella Americana, (p. 356, Plate XXVI, fig. 182, and 
Plate XXXII, fig. 245,) Siliqua costata, (p. 358, Plate XXXII, fig. 244,) 
Mactra solidizsima, (p. 358, Plate XXVIII, fig. 202,) Angulus tener, (p. 
358, Plate XXVI, fig. 180, and Plate XXX, 223, shell ;) Tottenia gemma, 
(p. 359, Plate XXX, fig. 220,) Lyonsia hyalina, (p. 358, Plate XXVII, fig^ 
194.) In certain localities, where eel-grass grows, the scollop, Pecten 
irradians, (p. 361, Plate XXXII, fig. 243,) occurs in considerable, abun- 
dance. The common muscle, Mytilus edulis, (Plate XXI, fig. 234,) occa- 
sionally occurs in patches or beds. Lcevicardium Mortoni (p. 358, Plate 
XXIX, fig. 208) is sometimes abundant in sheltered localities. The 
Ceronia arctata appears to be abundant in some places, as it is some- 
times thrown on the sandy beaches in large numbers, but it was seldom 
dredged. The Thracia Conradi lives on sandy bottoms, buried six 
inches or more beneath the surface, but is seldom obtained alive. The 
dead shells were occasionally dredged in Vineyard Sound. 

Very few Ascidians occur. The most frequent one is Molgula arenata, 
(p. 419, Plate XXXIII, fig. 251,) which lives free in the sand and covers 
itself with a coating of closely adherent grains of sand. Another species, 
M.pellucida, is occasionally met with 5 this also lives-free in the sand, but 
does not attach the sand to itself. It has a clean translucent integu- 
ment, a round body, and two tubes which are large and swollen at their 


bases. Where eel-grass or algie afford opportunities for its attachment, 
the M. Manhattemis (p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 250) generally occurs. 

The Bryozoa are not numerous, unless where dead shells are scattered 
over the sand for their attachment, when many of the same species that 
inhabit shelly bottoms may occur. The only species that are frequent 
on the true sandy bottoms are Bugula turrita, (Plate XXXIV, figs. 258, 
259,) which occurs attached to eel-grass, &c., and Eschar ella variabilis, 
(p. 311, Plate XXXIII, fig. 256,) which iucrusts dead shells or other solid 
objects ; with the last, Membranipora lineata, (p. 406,) and several other 
species may sometimes be found. 

Several species of Echinoderms inhabit the sandy bottoms. The most 
abundant one is the " sand-dollar/ 7 Echinarachnius parma, (p. 362, Plate 
XXXV, fig. 267,) which occurs in immense numbers on nearly all sandy 
bottoms, except on the most exposed shoals. Another related species, 
Melitta testudinaria, was dredged two or three times in Vineyard Sound, 
but the specimens were dead and broken. It is a very abundant species 
south of Cape Hatteras, and may be distinguished by having five large 
oblong perforations near the edge. 

At least three species of Holothurians live upon the sandy bottoms. 
The most common one is the Thy one Briar eus, (p. 362,) conspicuous on 
account of its large size and dark purplish-brown color, as well as for the 
numerous long papillae that cover its body. It was found on a sandy bot- 
tom off Waquoit, with the Eulima oleacea (Plate XXIV, fig. 149) adher- 
ing to its surface, just as they occurred together on shelly bottoms, (see p. 
418.) The Pentamerapulchella, (p. 420,) also inhabits sandy bottoms, in 
shallow water. During the past winter Mr. Vinal N. Edwards collected 
numerous specimens of this and the preceding species on Nobsca beach, 
after storms. They doubtless live in the sand, in shallow water, a short 
distance off the beach. In similar situations the Caudina arenata, (p. 362,) 
occasionally occurs, but it is apparently rare in this region. It has a thick, 
yellowish white, harsh skin, without suckers, and its body tapers off into 
a slender caudal portion. The common star-fish, Asterias arenicola, 
(p. 326, Plate XXXV, fig. 269,) is not uncommon on sandy bottoms, though 
more abundant in rocky and shelly localities. The Ophiura olivacea 
(p. 363) lives among the patches of eel-grass in shallow water on the 
sandy bottoms, and travels over the surface of the sand quite rapidly 
by means of its slender, flexible rays. 

Of Hydroids very few species ordinarily inhabit sandy bottoms, and 
the only one that is usually met with is Hydractinia polyclina, (p. 328,) 
which lives on the shells occupied by hermit-crabs. Others occasionally 
grow on the eel-grass or on dead shells. 

The Cliona sulphurea, (p. 421,) is the only large sponge that is com- 
monly met with on sandy bottoms, but another bright yellow siliceous 
sponge, forming smooth, firm, crest-like lobes and plates, occurred on 
Edgartown beach. 


List of species inhabiting the sandy bottoms of the lays and sounds. 



Cancer irroratus 312 

Carcinus granulatus 312 

Platyonichus ocellatus 436 

Hippa talpoida 338 

Eupagurus polliearis 426 

E. longicarpus 426 

Homarus Americanus 426 

Crangon vulgaris 426 


Lepidactylis dytiscus 339 

Unciola irrorata 426 

Idoteacaeca 340 

Epelys trilobus 370 

Conilera concharum 426 

Anthura brunnea 426 

Limulus Polyphemus 340 



Sthenelais picta 348 

Nephthys picta 348 

Eteooe, sp 349 

Keresis pelagica 319 

Lumbriconereis opalina 320 

Ehynchobolus dibrancliiatus 341 

E. Americanus 342 

Anthostoma robustum . . 343 


A. acutinn 416 

Scolecolepis cirrata 416 

Polydora, sp 416 

Clyinenella torquata. . . .. 343 

Sabellaria vulgaris 426 

Cistenides Gouldii 323 

Amphitrite ornata 320 

Serpula dianthus 426 



Meckelia mgens 349 

M. rosea 

Phascolosoma Gouldii.. 353 

P. csementarium 






Fulgur carica 355 

Sycotypus canaliculatus 355 

Eupleura caudaM 371 

Urosalpinx cinerea 306 

Tritia trivittata 354 

llyanassa obsoleta 354 

Anacbis avara 306 

Astyris lunata 306 


Odostornia seminuda 417 

Turbonilla interrupta 418 

Bittium nigruni 305 

Triforis nigrocinctus 305 

Cerithiopsis Greenii 417 

C. terebralis 417 

0. Emersonii 417 

Caecum pulchellum 417 



C. costatum 417 

Crepidula fornicata 355 

C. convexa 355 

C. iiDguiformis 355 

Natica pusilla 426 


Lunatia heros 426 

Itfeverita duplicata 426 

Cylichria oryza 426 

Utriculus caualiculatus.. 426 



Ensatella Americana . . 426 

Siliqna costata 426 

Mya areuaria 357 

Corbula contracta 418 

Clidiopbora trilineata 418 

Lyonsia liyalina 426 

Tbracia Conradi 426 

Periploma papyracea 435 

Cocblodesma Leanuin 418 

Mactra solidissima 426 

Mulinia lateralis .. 373 

Ceronia arctata 426 

Macoina fusca. . 359 


Tellina tenta . . 432 

Augulus modestus 418 

A. tener 426 

Venus mercenaria 359 

Tottenia gemma 426 

Lsevicardiuin Mortoni 426 

Cyclas dentata 418 

Solenomya velum 360 

Gouldia mactracea 418 

Astarte castanea 432 

Myti lus edulis 426 

Pecten irradians 426 

Anomia glabra 311 



Molgula arenata 426 

M. Manbattensis. . 427 

Molgula pellucida 



Bugula turrita 427 

Membranipora lineata 427 

Escbarella variabilis. 





Tbyone Briareus 427 

Pentamera pulchella 427 

Caudiua arenata 427 

Ecbiuaracbuius parma 427 

Melitta testudinaria 
Asterias arenicola . . 
Opbiura olivacea 


Obelia diapbana 


Hydractiuia polycliua 






Paractis rapiformis ..:...., 363 



Cliona sulphurea 427 


Massive siliceous sponge 427 



Several species 421 


The muddy bottoms are inhabited by a considerable number of 
species, which find their true homes in such localities. Most of these 
are either burrowing or tube-dwelling kinds. A few creep or swim 
about over the surface or conceal themselves in the superficial layer of 
mud and vegetable debris. 

The character of the mud itself is quite various, and the different 
kinds are often inhabited by different groups of animals. The mud may 
be very thick, heavy, and tenacious, consisting chiefly of clay ; such 
mud is usually inhabited by few species of animals. It may consist of 
finely comminuted sand, mixed with more or less clay; such bottoms are 
more favorable to animal life. In other places it consists partly of one 
of the preceding kinds intimately mixed with large quantities of decay- 
ing vegetable debris, derived chiefly from eel-grass and alg;e; such mud, 
unless too fetid, is often full of animal life. In some cases, especially 
in well- sheltered localities, where the water is tolerably pure, the mud 
may contain large quantities of living and dead microscopic organisms, 
both animal and vegetable, and these may even constitute more than 
one-half of the bulk of the mud, which, in such cases, is peculiarly soft 
and flocculent; such mud is extremely favorable to many kinds of ani- 
mals that feed on the microscopic organisms, especially the bivalve 
shells, Holothurians, and many Annelids, and the " menhaden " among 
fishes. The last variety of bottom, when it has a substratum of sand 
or gravel a few inches below the surface, is the most favorable kind for 
oysters, which grow very rapidly and become very fat in such places. 

In Vineyard Sound and Nantucket Sound muddy bottoms are not 
common, and are mostly of small extent, situated in coves, harbors, or 
in places where the tides form eddies around projecting points of laud, 
or in the lee of shoals. 

In Buzzard's Bay the bottom is muddy over the greater part of its 
area, except a region of sandy and shelly bottom in the central part. 

In Long Island Sound the bottom is generally muddy throughout its 


length and breadth, though small areas of rocks, gravel, and sand occur 
at various places. 

The special localities, indicated on the chart, where dredgings were 
made on muddy bettoms, not including the outside dn-dgiiigs, are as 
follows : In Buzzard's Bay, at line 67, b ; 68, a, &, c : 74, , b ; 75, a, &, 
c, <?, e, /; in Hartley Harbor, at 10, a, &, c, d ; in Great Harbor, at 17, 
&, c; 19, b ; in JRobinson's Hole, at 78, a, &, c ; in Vineyard Sound, at 
47, &, c. Numerous other dredgings were made on muddy bottoms in 
this region that are not indicated on the chart. 

In Long Island Sound numerous dredgings have been made by the 
writer, with Mr. S. I. Smith and others, during eight years. These ex- 
tend from a few miles west of the entrance of New Haven Harbor to 
the Thimble Islands and Faulkner's Island on the east ; and from the Con- 
necticut shore nearly across the sound. The greater part of these dredg- 
ings were on muddy bottoms, and generally in 3 to 8 fathoms of water. 

The following are some of the most common and important of the 
Crustacea living on these mudd}^ bottoms : the spider crab, Libinia can- 
aliculata, (p. 368,) L. dubia, (p. 368,) Panopeus depressus, (p. 312, Plate 
I, fig. 3,) P. Sayi, (p. 312,) the " blue-crab," Callinectes hastatus, (p. 367,) 
Mysis Americana, (p. 396,) Ptilocheirus pinguis, (p. 431,) Unciola irro- 
rata, (p. 340, Plate IV, fig. 19,) Limulus Polyphemus, (p. 340.) Numer- 
ous tube-dwelling Amphipods, including several species of Ampelisca 
and genera belonging to the Lysianassince occur, some of them in great 
numbers, and also additional species of crabs and shrimps. All these 
are of special importance, because they furnish great quantities of food 
for the fishes frequenting muddy bottoms. 

Of Annelids numerous burrowing and tube-dwelling kinds are to be 
found, some of them in great abundance. One of the most abundant 
and conspicuous species is Nephthys ingens, (Plate XII, figs. 59, 60.) This 
worm burrows in mud of all kinds, even in that which is so filled with 
decaying vegetable debris as to be very fetid. It grows to the length 
of more than six inches, with a diameter of a quarter of an inch or more, 
though most of the specimens are about half this size. The body is 
whitish, with a red median blood-vessel, but the lateral appendages are 
,dark and the setae nearly black. It is very active, and wriggles about 
energetically by undulating its body laterally, to the right and left ; this 
motion enables it to burrow quickly, or to swim quite rapidly. When 
captured it is very apt to break off the posterior part of its body, 
but can reproduce it. 

The Diopatra cuprea (p. 346, Plate XIII, figs. 67, 68) is often abun- 
dant where the mud is somewhat firm ; the dredge often brings up large 
quantities of the projecting ends of its large tubes, but the occupant 
usually escapes by retreating below the surface. The two species of 
Ehynchobolus are also quite common, but R. dibranchiatus (p. 341, Plate 
X, figs. 43, 44) is generally the most abundant. The curious 7'wmw 
earned V. is seldom met with, and, like Brada setosa V., appears to be rare 


in this region. The Trophonia affinis (Plate XIV, fig. 75) is more com- 
mon, though found chiefly in the deeper waters, and more frequently in 
the cold waters outside, as off Cutty hunk Island and off Block Island. 
Ampliarete setosa V. has been found only in Long Island Sound, near 
New Haven. The Melinna cristata is a northern and European species ; 
it was found in the deeper part of Vineyard Sound, inhabiting flexible 
tubes covered with fine mud. Euchone elegans V. (Plate XVI, fig. 84) was 
found in the deeper parts of Yineyard Sound, living in small tubes of 
mud ; it was much more abundant in the deeper waters outside. The 
MecJcelia ingens (p. 349, Plate XIX, figs. 96, 96a) occasionally occurs on 
muddy bottoms, though more common on sandy ones. 

Of Gastropod mollusks a comparatively small number of species oc- 
cur that are characteristic of these bottoms. There are several species 
that occur on eel-grass, when it grows on the muddy bottoms, which are 
not included in the following list. They have been mentioned when 
speaking of the fauna of muddy and sandy shores. 

Among the species of special interest were Mangilia cerina, which is 
a rare and little-known species ; Bela plicata (p. 383, Plate. XXI, fig. 
107) ; Turbonilla elegans, (p. 418, Plate XXIY, fig. 155), which was re- 
cently described from specimens obtained in Yiueyard Sound by us ; 
T. interrupta-, (p. 418 ;) two species of Scalaria, (p. 418 ;) Cylichna oryza, 
(Plate XXY, fig. 164;) Amplmphyra pdluchU, (Plate XXY, fig. 162;) 
and Utriculus canaliculatus, (Plate XXY, fig. 160). 

The bivalve shells are much more numerous and are mostly burrowing 
kinds. Among the most abundant are Mulinia lateralis, (p. 373, Plate 
XXYI, fig. 184 B,) which occurs in immense quantities, especially in soft 
sticky mud ; Clidiophora trilineata, (Plate XXVII, tig. 193 ;) Tellina tenta 
(Plate XXX, fig. 225,) which is often very abundant in softniud, in shel- 
tered places, as in Hadley Harbor ; Callista convexa, (Plate XXX, fig. 
219 ;) Nuculaproxima, (Plate XXX, fig. 230 ;) Yoldia limatula, (Plate XXX, 
232 ;) Astarte castanea, (Plate XXIX, fig. 204 ;) and Mytilus edulis, (p. 307.) 

The last-named shell, which is the common muscle, occurs in patches, 
" beds," or "banks," often of great extent. One of these muscle-beds, in 
which the animals were living, was found extending quite across the 
mouth of Cuttyhunk Harbor, at line 75, /, on the chart ; another at 
Quick's Hole, at line 76, c, and 45, a, b ; others at 77, d, e,f; 46, 6, c, d. 
In several instances large beds of dead muscles were found, with few 
living ones, and in all these cases there were on them large numbers of 
star-fishes, either Asterias arenicola, in case of those in Yineyard Sound ; 
or Asterias vulgaris on those in the deeper and colder waters near the 
entrance of the Sound and off Gay Head; and sometimes both kinds, at 
intermediate localities. These star-fishes had no doubt devoured the 
muscles. Among the localities of this kind are, 47, a, &, c, d; 53, &, c ; 
56, 6, c, d ; 55, a, 6, c ; 63, a, & ; 58, d ; 54, 6. As this species of muscle 
grows to full size, under favorable circumstances, in one year, it is prob- 
able that these muscle-beds vary greatly in size and position in different 


years. They afford habitations for various kinds of animals that belong 
properly on shelly or stony bottoms, such as Arbacia punctulata (p. 326,) 
Cribrclln sanguinolenta, (p. 407,) and various shells, ascidians, hydroids, 
4&c. The Modiolaria nigra (Plate XXXI, fig. 23G) was found in small 
numbers, but of good size, associated with the common muscle, in the 
deeper part of Vineyard Sound. 

The oyster does not usually occur on true muddy bottoms in this 
region, unless placed there by human agency, but unless attacked by 
the star-fishes or other enemies they will flourish well in such localities. 
Beds of oysters on muddy bottoms always afford 'lodgment for large 
numbers of animals that belong properly to the shelly and rocky bot- 
toms ; these have mostly been omitted from the following list. 

Among the shells of peculiar interest that live in the mud are the 
species of Pholas. The largest and finest species, P. costata, has been 
found living in New Bedford Harbor, according to Dr. Gould. It lived 
buried in the mud two or three feet below the surface, and the speci- 
mens were dug out by the harbor-dredging machines. This is a south- 
ern species, found quite commonly on the coasts of South Carolina and 
Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico. With the last, P. truncata (p. 372, 
Plate XXVII, fig. 200) was also obtained, but this is quite common in mud 
and peat-banks, above low-water mark. Of both the preceding species 
we dredged dead shells at Wood's Hole and in Great Harbor, and with 
them we found fragments of another, Zirphcca crispata, which is a 
northern and European species. It is seldom that living adult speci- 
mens of such deep-burrowing shells can be obtained by the ordinary 
dredge, and they are rarely thrown up by the waves. 

Ascidians are not often found on the muddy bottoms, and most of 
those that do occur adhere to the shells of oysters, muscles, &c., or to 
eel-grass. Hydroids and Bryozoa are likewise nearly wanting on true 
muddy bottoms, though a few may occur on the eel-grass and oysters. 

Of Echinoderms there are but few species. The Thyone Briareus 
(p. 362) sometimes occurs where there is growing eel-grass. The common 
star-fish, Asterias arenicola, (p. 326,) has been mentioned above as in- 
habiting muscle-beds and oyster-beds. The Amphipholis abdita V. is a 
singular Ophiuran, with a small body and very long, slender, flexible, 
greenish arms, having three spines on each side arm-plate. The arms 
are sometimes six inches long. The creature buries itself deeply beneath 
the surface of the soft mud, and projects one or more of the long arms 
partially above the surface of the mud. On this account it is seldom 
dredged entire ; the projecting arms are usually cut off by the dredge, 
and the animal escapes ; and as it has the power of restoring lost arms, 
this is only a temporary inconvenience. The same thing probably hap- 
pens when a voracious fish seizes one of the arms. 
11 V 

List of species inhabiting muddy bottoms of the lays and sound*. 




Pinnotheres ostreum 367 

P. maculatus 459 

Cancer irroratus 312 

Panopeus depresses 431 

P. Sayi 431 

Carcinus granulatus 312 

Callinectes hastatus 431 

Libinia canaliculata 431 

L. dubia 431 

Eupagurus pollicaris 313 

E. lougicarpus 313 

Callianassa Stimpsoni 369 

Crangon vulgaris 339 

Mysis Americana .< 431 

Squilla enipusa 

Lysianassinae, several spe- 

Phoxns Kroyeri 

Melita nitida 

Ampelisca, two species 

Ptilocheirus pinguis 

Amphithoe compta . . . , 

Coropkium cylindricuui .... 

Unciola irrorata 

Epelys trilobus 

E. montosus 

Linmlus Polyphemus 

Numerous Entomostraca. . 


Nephthys ingens 

Phyllodoce, sp 

Eulalia, sp 

Nereis pelagica 

Diopatra cuprea 

Marphysa Leidyi 

Lumbriconereis opalina 

Khynchobolus Americanus . 
K. dibranchiatus . 











Travisia carnca 

Trophonia affiiiis 

Brada setosa 

Cistenides Gouldii 

Ampharete setosa 

Melinna cristata 

Polycirrus eximius ....,.., 
Chaetobranchus san,guineus. 

Euchone elegans 

Meckelia ingens 432 

Cerebratulus, sp , 324 



Cosinocephala ochracea. .. 

Phascolosoma caementarium 

Pontonema marinuin 



P. vacillatum 











Mangilia cerina - 432 

Bela plicata. 432 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Ilyanassa obsoleta 354 

Enpleura caudata 371 

Odostomia seminuda 417 

O. fusca 307 

Turbouilla interrupta 432 

T. eleo-ans . 432 

Crepidula fornicata 

C. con vexa 

C. unguiformis 

Scalaria lineata 

S. multistriata 

Utriculus canalicnlatus 
Bulla solitaria ..*.,... 
Amphispbyra pellucida 
Cvlicbna orvza . 




Pbolas costata 433 

P. truncata 433 

My a arenaria 309 

Clidiophora trilineata 432 

Lyonsia Lyalina 358 

Periploma papyracea 429 

Mull nia later alls 432 

Tagelus gibbus 373 

T. divisus , 

Curuingia tellinoides 418 

Macoma fusca 359 

Angulus teuer 358 

Tellina tenta 432 

Callista con vexa 432 

Venus merceDaria 359 

Petricola pkoladiformis 372 

Cardium pinnulatum 

Kellia planulata 

Montacuta elevata. . . 

Solenornya velum 

Astarte castanea 

Cyclocardia borealis. 

0. Novanglise 

ETucula proxima 

Yoldia limatula 

Argina pexata 

Mytilus edulis 

Modiolaria nigra 

Crenella glandula . . . 

Anomia glabra 

Ostniea Virgiuiana. . . 


Molffula Manbatteusis . 311 

Cynthia partita 






Thyone Briareus 433 

Asterias arenicoltO, . . 433 

Arnpkipkolis abdita 



Under this head I have included all the animals found swimming free, 
whether in the bays and sounds, or in the colder region outside. Nor 
Lave I, in this case, attempted to separate those of the estuaries and 
other brackish waters, although such a distinction might be useful had 
we sufficient data to make it even tolerably complete. But hitherto 
very little surface-collecting has been done in waters that are really 
brackish ; and, moreover, since every tide must bring in myriads of free- 
swimming creatures with the waters from outside, it will always be diffi- 
cult to distinguish between those that are thus transported and those 
that properly belong to the brackish waters. A distinction between the 
free-swimming animals of the bays or sounds and those of the open 
coast has not been made, partly on account of the constant intermixture 
of the waters and their inhabitants by the tides, and partly because the 
observations that were made do not indicate any marked difference in 
the life or in the average temperature of the surface waters, though the 
waters of the shallow bays become more highly heated by the direct 
heat of the sun in summer. The waters of the open coast are evidently 
more or less warmed by the Gulf Stream, and in fact numerous species 
of animals that properly belong to the fauna of the Gulf Stream are 
constantly brought into Vineyard and Nan tucket Sounds by the cur- 
rents, showing conclusively that a portion of the Gulf Stream water 
must also take the same course. 

In Vineyard Sound, during August and the first part of September, 
the temperature of the surface water in the middle of the day was gen- 
erally from 68 to 71 Fahrenheit ; September 9, off Tarpaulin Cove, 
the surface temperature was 66; off to the west of Gay Head, in mid- 
channel, it was 67 Fahrenheit; but farther out, off No Man's Land, on 
the same day, it was 62, (bottom, in 18 fathoms, 62;) a short distance 
west of No Man's Land it was 63, (bottom, in 11 fathoms, 59;) about 
sixteen miles off Newport, at the 29-fathom locality, it was G2 on Sep- 
tember 14, (at the bottom 59;) off Cuttyhuuk, in 25 fathoms, it was 
64 at the surface on September 13, (bottom 62.) According to the 
record made by Captain B. J. Edwards, during the past winter, from 
observations taken at 9 a. m. every morning, at the end of the Govern- 
ment wharf at Wood's Hole, (where the temperature must be nearly 
identical with that of Vineyard Sound,) the average temperature of the 
surface water was 31 Fahrenheit, from December 27 to February 28. 
The average temperature for that hour during January was 31.42; 
the lowest was 29 on January 29, with the wind N. W. ; the highest 
was 38 on January 17, with the wind S. W.; on the 18th, 19th, and 
22d it was 35. The average for February was 30.75 ; the coldest was 
9, on February 24 and 25 ; the highest 33, on February 8, 17, and 
19. The temperature at the bottom (at the depth of nine feet) was 
also taken, but rarely differed more than one degree from that of the 


surface, being sometimes a little lower and sometimes higher tlian that 
of tlie surface, but generally the same. The higher temperature-; 
usually occurred with, or following, southerly or southeasterly winds, 
(from the direction of the Gulf Stream,) while the lowest ones gener- 
ally accompanied or followed northerly winds. The tides must ob- ' 
viously also have some effect in modifying the temperature. 

It must not be inferred from the preceding remarks that a distinct or 
constant current flows into these waters from the region of the Gulf 
Stream, for the facts do not warrant such a belief, nor is there any dif- 
ficulty in explaining the phenomena in another way. All that is neces- 
sary to account for the higher temperatures of this region, and the fre- 
quent occurrence of Gulf Stream animals, is to suppose that when 
southerly or southeasterly winds blow continuously for a considerable 
time they cause a superficial flow or drift of warmer water from the 
Gulf Stream region toward these shores, w r hich may also be aided by 
the tides; such a surface-drift will gradually lose its distinctness as 
it approaches the coast and mingles more and more with the cooler 
waters beneath, but the animals borne along by it will still serve to 
show its direction and origin, even after its temperature becomes iden- 
tical with that of the adjacent waters. Such surface currents would 
necessarily be intermittent in character and variable in direction and 
extent, as well as in duration and temperature. They would also be 
more frequent in summer than in winter, according with the prevalent 
direction of the winds. So far as known to me all the facts are in 
harmony with this view. Accordingly the waters of Vineyard Sound 
are quite cold in winter, and only occasionally receive a little heat from 
the Gulf Stream region, and that, probably, largely through the medium 
of the air itself; but in summer these waters are very warm, for they 
not only receive frequent accessions of warm water from the Gulf 
Stream, but they are also favorably situated to be rapidly warmed by 
the direct heat of the sun. 

The fauna of the surface in this region is very rich and varied, es- 
pecially in summer. In winter, life is also abundant in the surface 
waters, but very different in character from that found in summer. 
Had collections been made in spring and autumn, still other groups of 
animals would doubtless have been found. Our knowledge of the surface 
animals of Vineyard Sound, in winter, is wholly based on a series of surface- 
dredgings made by Mr. Vinal 1ST. Edwards in January, February, and 
March of the past winter. A separate list of the species contained in 
these collections, so far as identified, has been prepared to follow 
the general list. The most noticeable feature of the winter collections 
is the entire absence of the larval forms of crabs, shrimps, lobsters, 
star-fishes, sea-urchins, annelids, &c., which so abound in the same 
waters in summer. On the other hand there is a great abundance of 
Entomostraca, Sagitta, several northern Amphipods, species of Mysis, 
&c., together with eggs and young of certain fishes. 


In the general list of surface species only those that have been ac- 
tually observed are introduced, but it must be remembered that the 
greater part of the Crustacea, annelids, mollusks, and echinoderms are 
well known to have free-swimming young, or larval forms, and that the 
list might easily be doubled by the introduction of such species, on 
theoretical grounds 5 but, by omitting them, the list serves to indicate 
how much yet remains to be done in this direction. There are large 
numbers of common species of which neither the young nor the eggs 
are known, and there are many others of which the eggs, or young, or 
both, are known, but the time required for the hatching of the eggs and 
the development of the young is not known. The dates given in the 
lists refer only to the time of actual capture of the species, and it must 
not be inferred that at other seasons of the year any of the species so 
designated are not to be found ; for, doubtless, many of those that swim 
free when adult may be found all the year round. And possibly 
some species may breed during every month of the year. But the 
breeding season of most species is probably of short duration, and 
therefore the Iarva3 and young may occur only at particular seasons. 

Mr. A. Agassiz has made a very large collection of the surface ani- 
mals in Vineyard Sound, Buzzard's Bay, and off Newport, and to his 
labors we owe the knowledge of a large proportion of the jelly-fishes. 
He has also described the larvaB and young of several Annelids and 
Nemerteans, and has described and beautifully illustrated the larvae 
and young of the common star-fishes, (Asterias.) and the green sea- 
urchin, (Strongylocentrotus Drobachiensis.) The Salpa Cabotti (Plate 
XXXIII, figs. 254, 255) was also well described and illustrated by him 5 
and also other species, but a large part of the collection has not yet 
been elaborated. 

Our surface collections were made both in the day and evening, 
at various hours, chiefly by means of to wing-nets and hand-nets. The 
evening or night hours are generally more productive than the day-time 
in this kind of collecting, but we were unable, owing to lack of time 
and superabundance of other specimens, to do as much night-collecting 
as we desired. 

Among the Crustacea there are a considerable number of species that 
swim at the surface when adult, and others till nearly half-grown, but 
the majority are free-swimmers only when quite young, or even only 
when in the zoea and megalops stages, through which they seem, from 
Mr. S. I. Smith's observations on several of our species, to pass in a 
short time. The males of the common oyster-crab, Pinnotheres ostreum, 
(p. 3G7, Plate I, fig. 2,) were often caught in the day-time swimming at 
the surface in the middle of Vineyard Sound. The lady-crab, Platyon- 
ichus ocellatus, (p. 333,) of full size, was also occasionally caught swim- 
ming actively at the surface. The " blue-crab," or common edible 
crab, Callinectes hastatus, is well known to be an active swimmer, when 
adult, but most of those seen at the surface were young. The larva 1 


of Cancer irroratux, (p. 312, Plate VIII, figs. 37, 37a,) and of Platy- 
onichuK in the xoi : a and mcgalops stages, were taken in vast numbers, 
especially in bright sunshine, together with similar larvaj of many 
other species. The larva* and young of the lobster (Plate IX, figs. 38, 
39) were also abundant in mid-summer. The numerous specimens ob- 
tained have enabled Mr. S. I. Smith to describe the interesting meta- 
morphoses of our lobster, which were entirely unknown before. The 
young swim actively at the surface, like a shrimp, until more than half 
an inch long. The larvae and young of the various species of shrimps 
are also abundant. The curious larvae of 8quilla empusa (Plate VIII, 
fig. 36) were often met with. 

Several species of Amphipods are also common at the surface. The 
most abundant were Calliopius Iccviusculus, of which Mr. V. N. Edwards 
also took numerous large specimens in February and March ; Gammarus 
natatory which was usually common, and occurred in immense numbers 
August 10 and on several other occasions ; and a Hyperia, which infests 
several species of large jelly-fishes, and also swims free at will. The 
Phronima is a related genus, but is very remarkable for its extreme 
transparency, which renders it almost invisible in water. Idotea irro- 
rata (p. 316, Plate V, fig. 23) and I. robustay Plate V, fig. 24) were 
very common among masses of floating eel-grass and sea-weeds, and 
the latter was also very often found swimming entirely free. 

A species of Sapphirina (Plate VII, fig. 33) was found in great num- 
bers among Salpce, off Gay Head, on several occasions, early in Septem- 
ber. This is one of the most brilliant creatures inhabiting the sea. It 
reflects the most gorgeous colors, blue, red, purple, and green, like fire- 
opal, although when seen in some positions, by transmitted light, it 
is colorless and almost transparent. Under the microscope, when 
living, it is a splendid object, whether seen by transmitted or reflected 
light, the colors constantly changing, as it is turned in different posi- 
tions. When seen beneath the surface of the sea, in large numbers, 
the appearance is very singular, for each one as it turns in the right po- 
sition reflects a bright gleam of light, of some brilliant color, and then 
immediately becomes- invisible, and these scintillations come from dif- 
ferent directions and various depths, many of them being much farther 
beneath the surface than any less brilliant object could be seen. In 
some cases one or more were found in the branchial cavity of Salpw, 
but whether this is normal or accidental was not determined. 

The species of Argulus are parasitic on the exterior of fishes, but we 
found at least three species swimming free at the surface. It is, there- 
fore, probable that they are able to leave their hosts for a time, and 
thus to migrate from one fish to another. The species of Caligus are also 
parasites on fishes, to which they firmly adhere, but the half-grown 
young of one species was taken at the surface in the to wing-nets. 

Numerous species of Annelids, in the larval and young stages, were 
taken at the surface, but many of them have not yet been identified, 


for owing to the great changes they undergo, this is often impossible, 
unless the specimens can be raised, or at least connected with the 
adults by a large series of specimens. For a few this has been done. 
Several species also swim at the surface in the adult state, especially in 
the evening. With some this seems to be a habit peculiar to the 
breeding season, and sometimes only the males are met with. 

Among the species most frequently taken in the adult state at the 
surface, are Nereis virens, (Plate XI, figs. 47-50,) chiefly males ; Nereis 
Unibata, (Plate XI, fig. 51,) mostly males, which occurred both in the 
evening and day-time ; Nectonereis megalops, (Plate XII, figs. 62, 63,) 
Which was quite common in the evening; Autolytm cornutm, (Plate 
XIII, figs. 65, 66,) the males, females, and asexual forms; Podarke 
obscurq, (Plate XII, fig. 61,) which was extremely abundant in the eve- 
ning; and several other species. The Sagitta elegans was taken at 
Wood's Hole, July 1, and oft Gay Head, among Satyw, September 8- 
It is a very small and delicate species, and so transparent as to be 
nearly invisible in water. A larger and stouter species of Sagitta was 
taken in large numbers at Wood's Hole, by Mr. V. N. Edwards, January 
30, Febuary 10, and February 27, and at Savin Rock, near New Haven, 
May 5. This species has a longer caudal portion, with a small terminal 
fin ; some of the specimens were nearly an inch long and many con- 
tained in the cavity of the body, posteriorly, a parasitic nematode 
worm, about half as long as the body. This parasite is round, not 
very slender; the head has three prominent angles; tail with a small, 
acute, terminal rnucro. 

Many of the Mollusca swim free by means of vibrating cilia, for a 
short time in the larval stages of growth, but as such larvae are very 
minute and the period often quite short, these young are not often taken 
in the nets. 

The Cephalopods of this region are all free-swimming species, from 
the time when they leave the eggs through life, though they may rest 
upon the bottom when depositing their spawn. Numerous specimens 
of the " squid," Loligo Pealii, (Plate XX, figs. 102-104, embryos and 
young,) were thus taken by the trawl in July,* together with large 
clusters of their eggs. Later in the season the free-swimming young of 
this species, from a quarter of an inch to an inch in length, (fig. 105,) 
were often taken at the surface and were also found in the stomach of 
the red jelly-fish, Cyanea arctica, in considerable numbers. The adults 
were frequently taken during the whole summer in the pounds. Some 
of these were over a foot in length, but most of them were not more 
than five or six inches long. The color when living is very changeable, 
owing to the alternate contractions of the color- vesicles or spots, but 
the spots of different colors are much crowded, especially on the back, 
and the red and brown predominate, so as to give a general reddish or 
purplish brown color, and this is usually the color of preserved speci- 
mens. The clusters of gelatinous egg-capsules of this species were 


found in great abundance off Falmouth, on a shelly and weedy bottom, 
as already mentioned, (p. 410 ;) and near New Haven light-house 1 
clusters, apparently of the same species, were found by Professor Todd, 
earlier in the season, (June 19.) Some of these masses were six or eight 
inches in diameter, consisting of hundreds of capsules, like fig. IOL', 
each of which is usually three or four inches long and contains numer- 
ous eggs. These last contained embryos in different stages of devel- 
opment, two of which are represented in Plate XX, tigs. 103, 104. Even 
at this early period some of the pigment vesicles are already developed 
in the mantle and arms, and during life, if examined under the micro- 
scope, these orange and purple vesicles may be seen to rapidl3 T contract 
and expand and change colors, as in the adult, only the phenomena may 
be more clearly seen, owing to the greater transparency of the skin in 
the embryos, They are, therefore, beautiful objects to observe under 
the microscope. At this stage of development the eyes were brown. 
In these embryos the yolk is finally absorbed through the mouth, which 
corresponds, therefore, in this respect, to an u umbilicus." The more 
advanced of these embryos (fig. 103) were capable of swimming about, 
when removed from the eggs, by means of the jets of water from the 

Another species, Loligo pallida V., (Plate XX, figs. 101, lOla,) occurs 
abundantly, in autumn, in the western part of Long Island Sound, 
from whence Eobert Beuner, esq., has sent me numerous speci- 
mens. This is a pale, translucent, gelatinous-looking species, with much 
fewer spots than usual, even on the back, and is nearly white beneath- 
It is a stout species, commonly five or six inches long, exclusive of the 
arms, but grows considerably larger than that. It is often taken in the 
seines in large numbers with menhaden, upon which it probably feeds. 
These squids are eagerly devoured, even when full grown, by many of 
the larger fishes, such as blue-fish, black-bass, striped-bass, &c. When 
young they are preyed upon by a still larger variety of fishes, as well 
as by the jelly-fishes, &c. 

Another species of " squid," Ommastreplies illecebrosa, has beenrecorded 
from Greenport, Long Island, by Mr. Sanderson Smith, but I have not met 
with it myself, south of Cape Cod. It is common in Massachusetts Bay 
and very abundant in the Bay of Fundy. Messrs. S. I. Smith and Oscar 
Harger observed it at Proviucetown, Massachusetts, among the wharves, 
in large numbers, July 28, engaged in capturing and devouring the 
young mackerel, which were swimming about in " schools," and at that 
time were about four or five inches long. In attacking the mackerel they 
would suddenly dart backward among the fish with the velocity of an 
arrow, and as suddenly turn obliquely to the right or left and seize a fish, 
which was almost instantly killed by a bite in the back of the neck with 
the sharp beaks. The bite was always made in the same place, cut- 
ting out a triangular piece of flesh, and was deep enough to penetrate 
to the spinal cord. The attacks were not always successful, and were 


sometimes repeated a dozen times before one of these active and wary 
fishes could be caught. Sometimes after making several unsuccessful 
attempts one of the squids would suddenly drop to the bottom, and, 
resting upon the sand, would change its color to that of the sand so 
perfectly as to be almost invisible. In this way it would wait until the 
fishes came back, and when they were swimming close to or over the 
ambuscade, the squid, by a sudden dart, would be pretty sure to secure 
a fish. Ordinarily when swimming they were thickly spotted with 
red and brown, but when darting among the mackerel they appeared 
translucent and pale. The mackerel, however, seemed to have learned 
that the shallow water is the safest for them and would hug the shore as 
closely as possible, so that in pursuing them many of the squids became 
stranded and perished by hundreds, for when they once touch the shore 
they begin to pump water from their siphons with great energy, and this 
usually forces them farther and farther up the beach. At such times 
they often discharge their ink in large quantities. The attacks* on 
the young mackerel were observed mostly at or near high-water, for 
at other times the mackerel were seldom seen, though the squids were 
seen swimming about at all hours ; and these attacks were observed 
both in the day and evening. But it is probable, from various observa- 
tions, that this and the other species of squids are partially nocturnal 
in their habits, or at least are more active in the night than in the day. 
Those that are caught in the pounds and weirs mostly enter in the 
night, and evidently when swimming along the shores in ' schools." 
They are often found in the morning stranded on the beaches in im- 
mense numbers, especially when there is a full moon, and it is thought 
by many of the fishermen that this is because, like many other noc- 
turnal animals, they have the habit of turning toward and gazing at a 
bright light, and since they swim backwards they get ashore on the 
beaches opposite the position of the moon. This habit is also some- 
times taken advantage of by the fishermen who capture them for bait 
for cod-fish ; they go out in dark nights with torches in their boats and 
by advancing slowly toward a beach drive them ashore. They are also 
sometimes taken on lines, adhering to the bait used for fishes. 

The specimens observed catching young mackerel were mostly eight 
or ten inches long, and some of them were still larger. The length of 
time required for these squids to become full grown is unknown, as well 
as the duration of their lives, but as several distinct sizes were taken in 
the pounds, and those of each school were of about the same size, it is 
probable that they are several years in attaining their full size, A 
specimen, recently caught at Eastport, Maine, was pale bluish white, 
with green, blue, and yellow iridescence on the sides and lower surface; 
the whole body was more or less thickly covered with small, unequal, circu- 
lar, orange-brown and dark brown spots, having crenulate margins ; these 
spots are continually changing in size from mere points, when they are 
nearly black, to spots 0.04 to 0.06 of an inch in diameter, when they are 


pah> orange-brown, becoming lighter colored as they expand. On tin'; 
lower side the spots are more scattered, but the intervals are generally 
less than the diameter of the spots. Oil the upper side the spots are 
much crowded and lie in different planes, with the edges often over- 
lapping, and thus increasing the variety of the tints. Along the middle 
of the back the ground-color is pale flesh-color, with a median dorsal 
band, along which the spots are tinged with green, in fine specks. Above 
each eye there is a broad lunate spot of light purplish red, with smaller 
brown spots. The upper surface of the head is deeply colored by the 
brown spots, which are here larger, darker, and more crowded than else- 
where, and situated in several strata. The arms and fins are colored 
like the body, except that the spots appear to be smaller. The suckers 
are pure white. The eyes are dark blue-black, surrounded by an irides- 
cent border, and in this genus the eyes are provided with distinct lids. 
In this respect, Ommastrephes differs from LoUgo, for in the species of the 
latter genus, the integument is continued directly over the eye, the part 
covering the eye being transparent. 

Most of the higher Gastropods inclose their eggs in capsules, which 
they attach to stones, algae, or shells, and within these the eggs hatch 
and the young have a well formed shell before they eat their way out of 
the capsules, and when free they crawl about by means of the " foot," 
like the adult. But in the lower orders of Gastropods most of the young, 
when first hatched, are furnished with vibrating cilia and swim free, by 
this means, for a short time. These Iarva3 are very different from the 
adults, and in case of the naked mollusks (Nudibranchs) the Iarva3 are 
furnished with a beautiful, little, glossy, spiral shell, which they after- 
wards lose. 

The Pteropods swim free in all stages. The young and adults swim by 
means of two wing-like appendages, developed on each side of the neck, 
which may be compared to the anterior lateral lobes of the foot, seen in 
^Eolis, (fig. 174,) and many other Gastropods, if we suppose these to 
become enormously enlarged, while the rest of the foot remains in a rudi- 
mentary or undeveloped condition, often serving merely for the attach- 
ment of the operculuni. 

The Styliola vitrea (Plate XXY, fig. 178) was taken in the day-time 
at the surface, September 8, among Salpce, off Gay Head. Its shell 
is a thin, white, transparent, glassy cone, about a third of an inch long? 
and slightly curved toward the tip. The animal is also white. The 
Spirialis Gouldii has a delicate, white, transparent, spiral shell, when 
adult having seven whorls, which turn to the left. The shell is marked 
by very fine revolving lines, visible only under the microscope. This 
species is seldom met with at the surface in the day-time, but is often 
'abundant in the early evening. According to the observations of Mr. 
A. Agassiz, in confinement they rarely left the bottom of the jars dur- 
ing the day, merely rising a few inches and then falling again to the 
bottom. After dark they became very active, swimming actively near 


the surface of the water. " Daring the day they often remain sus- 
pended for hours in the water simply by spreading their wing-like ap- 
pendages, and then suddenly drop to the bottom on folding them." Mr. 
Agassiz captured the specimens upon which his observations were made, 
at Nahant, Massachusetts, during the summer of 1869, and judging 
from the figures in Binney's Gould they were probably specimens, not 
quite adult, of this species. He has also taken adult specimens at 
Newport. Mr. S. I. Smith captured full grown specimens in the edge 
of the Gulf Stream, off St. George's Bank, and we have specimens taken 
from the stomach of mackerel, caught twenty miles south of No Man's 

The Cavolina tidentata (Plate XXV, fig. 177) is a beautiful and curious 
species, with a singularly shaped, amber-colored, translucent shell, much 
larger than that of either of the preceding species. We did not observe 
it living in these waters, but the shells were twice dredged off Martha's 
Vineyard, and one of them was perfectly fresh and glossy, as if just 
dead. It is a southern species which comes north in the Gulf Stream, 
but it had not been found previously on the coast of New England. 
Another Gulf Stream species, the Diner in IrityiHom, is occasionally 
found at Nautucket, according to Dr. Stimpson, but whether it has been 
observed there alive is uncertain; eight or nine other species were taken 
in the Gulf Stream, off St. George's Bank, by Messrs. Smith and Har- 
ger in 1872, all of which may, perhaps, occasionally occur about Martha's 
Vinejard and Nantucket. 

Another very interesting and beautiful Pteropod, the Clione papilio- 
nacea, was taken in considerable numbers at Watch Hill, Rhode Island, 
April 13, by Professor D. C. Eaton and myself. They were swim- 
ming at midday near the surface, associated with Pleurobrachia rhodo- 
dactyla, and appeared to be common at that time. Mr. Vinal N. 
Edwards obtained two specimens in Vineyard Sound, April 30. 
This differs from those named above, in being destitute of a shell, as 
well as in many other characters. The body is stout, somewhat fusi- 
form, tapering gradually to the pointed posterior end ; in the largest 
specimens the length was about 1.5 inches. The head is rounded, with 
two small conical processes in front, on the upper side. Six tentacle- 
like organs, or " arms," bearing minute suckers, can be protruded. The 
wings or fins are large and broad oval in outline. 

The body and wings are pale, transparent bluish, with opalescent 
hues ; the mouth and parts around it, the " arms," and part of the 
head, and some of the internal organs, are tinged with orange; the 
posterior part of the body is bright reddish orange, for nearly half an 
inch. Some of the internal organs are orange-brown and olive-brown, 
and show through the transparent integuments as dark patches. This 
species has seldom been observed on our coast. Dekay, in 1843, men- 
tioned its occurrence in a single instance, off New York. In 1869, it 
was taken in considerable numbers at Portland, Maine, by Mr. C. B. 


Fuller. It may, nevertheless, occur annually in winter, and yet be sd 
dom observed ; for very few naturalists go out to collect marine anim;iU 
in winter and early spring. 

The bivalve shells mostly produce minute young, or lurvsr, which are 
at first provided with vibrating cilia and swim free for several days, as 
is well known to be the case with the oysters, clams, muscles, Teredo, &c. 
But a few species, like the Tottenia gemma, (p. 359,) produce well devel- 
oped young, furnished at birth with a well formed shell. 

The common fixed Ascidians, both simple and compound, mostly pro- 
duce eggs that hatch into tadpole-shaped young, which swim about for 
a short time by the uudulatory motions of the tail, but finally become 
fixed by the head-end, and losing, or rather absorbing, the tail-portion, 
rapidly develop into the ordinary forms of the ascidians. This pro- 
cess, although often very rapid, is a very interesting and complicated one 
In Molgula Manhattemis there is, according to the observations of Dr. 
Theodore A. Tellkampf, an alternation of generations. He states that 
the minute yellow ova were discharged July 18, invested in a viscid 
yellowish substance, which become attached to the exterior of many 
specimens. In a few days the " viscid substance" had changed its ap. 
pearance and became contractile; the ova became larger, round, and of 
different sizes; " after two or three days the largest protruded some- 
what above the surface of the common envelope, and presented a circular 
or oval aggregation, like that of the Mammaria found a year ago f on 
the llth day, the round ova had increased in size, with a central round 
or oval orifice through which the motion of the cilise of the branchial 
meshes were visible. " The orifice had approached on the 1st of August 
more or less to one apex; in some specimens, which were now oval, it 
was terminal." In this stage he names it Mammaria Manhattensis, 
regarding the Mammaria as a " nurse ;" within each of the Mammarice, at 
the end opposite the branchial orifice, there was seen a mass of cells, 
which ultimately developed into a tadpole-shaped larva, similar to that of 
other ascidians. He observes that the Mammarice increase after the 
discharge of the larva), and that gemmation takes place within the 
cpmmon envelope.* These observations, if correct, are very interesting 
and important, but they need farther confirmation. The development 
of the larvae from the Mammarice into Molgula was not traced; neither 
did he witness the actual discharge of the ova, which produced the 
Mammaria!, from the Molgula. They may possibly have no relation with 
one another. 

Several kinds of Ascidians, however, swim free in the water during 
their entire life. The most common Ascidian of this kind is the Salpa 
Cabotti, (Plate XXXIII, figs. 254, 255.) This, like the other species, 
. exists under two different forms ; or, in other words, it is one of those an- 
imals having alternations of generations. The sexual individuals (fig. 
255) are united together into long chains by processes (c) from the sides 

* Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, Vol. 10, p. 83, 1672. 


of the branchial sac ; these chains are often a foot or even a foot and a 
half long, and contain two rows of individuals, which are united to- 
gether in such a way that they stand obliquely to the axis of the chain, 
the branchial openings being all on the upper side of the chain as it 
floats in the water, while the posterior openings are all on the lower side 
of the chain, close to the edge. Each individual is connected both with 
its mate on the right or left side, and to those immediately in front and 
behind on the same side. The succeeding individuals in the chain over- 
lap considerably. The chains do not appear to break up spontaneously, 
but when broken apart by accident the individuals are capable of living 
separately for several days. The chains, when entire, swim about quite 
rapidly by means of the streams of water passing out of all the cloacal 
orifices in one direction. The individuals composing the chains, when 
full grown, are about three quarters of an inch long. They are transparent 
and white, or pale rose, often with the edges of the mantle and the 
nucleus bright Prussian blue, and with delicate reticulations of the 
same blue over the surface of the mantle. Each of the individuals in 
the chains is hermaphrodite, and each produces a single egg, which de- 
velops into an embryo before it is discharged, and finally when it grows 
to maturity produces an asexual individual, which is always solitary, 
(Plate XXXIII, fig. 254.) These are larger than those in the chains 
and are quite different in form, but the color is the same. These when 
mature produce, by a budding process in their interior, a series of mi- 
nute individuals united together along a tube into a small chain, (s, lig. 
254,) which may be seen coiled up around the nucleus. The chain con- 
sists of three sections, those individuals in the section first formed being 
largest and nearly equal in size ; those in the next much smaller ; while 
new ones are just forming at the other end; as the chain grows longer, 
and the component individuals larger, it projects more and more, and 
finally the end protrudes from an opening in the tunic, and the little 
chain becomes detached and is discharged into the sea. These chains 
consist of twenty to thirty pairs of individual zooids. This operation is 
frequently repeated during the summer, and these chains of all sizes, 
from those just liberated up to the full-grown ones, may be taken at the 
same time. They appear to grow very rapidly. Thus by autumn these 
Salpw became exceedingly abundant, at times completely filling the 
water for miles in every direction, from the surface to the depth of sev- 
eral fathoms, and are so crowded that a bucket of water dipped up at 
random will often contain several quarts of Salpce. They were found in 
wonderful abundance on September 8, off Gay Head and throughout 
the outer part of Vineyard Sound, and on several other occasions were 
nearly as abundant. 

Two species of Appendicularia and a species of Dollolum were also 
found in these waters by Mr. A. Agassiz, but we did not observe them. 
These are also free-swimming Ascidians, related to Salpa, but very dif- 
ferent in form. 


Among the Echinoderms there are no species that swim at the surface 
when adult, but most of them produce eggs which hatch into very re- 
markablo larva 1 , entirely unlike their parents in form and structure, and 
these swim free in the water, often for a considerable period, by im-ans 
of vibrating cilia. 

The young star-fish or sea-urchin develops gradually within the body 
of the larva, on the water-tubes, and as it grows larger it gradually ab- 
sorbs the substance of the larva into its own body. The development of 
the larvae of Aster iasvulgaris (A.pallida AG.) and A. areniwla (A. 'beryl- 
inns AG.) has been described by Mr. A. Agassiz, from the time pre- 
vious to hatching from the eggs till they become young star-fishes, with 
the essential characters of the adults. He has also described the young 
of the common green sea-urchin (under the name of Toxopneustes Dro- 
T)acliiemis) in the same way. The Cribrella saguinolenta, (p. 407,) like 
several other star-fishes, does not have free swimming Iarva3, but retains 
and protects the eggs by holding them by means of the suckers around 
the mouth, curving the body around them at the same time. In this 
position the eggs hatch and pass through a metamorphosis different 
from that of Asterias, though somewhat analogous to it. The develop- 
ment of this species was described by Professor M. Sars many years ago. 
Some of the Ophiurans are viviparous, among them the Amphipholis 
eleyans (p. 418) found in this region, but others have free-swimming 
larvae, and pass through a metamorphosis similar to that of Aster-ias, 
though the larvae are quite different. Some of the Holothurians are also 
viviparous, while others have free-swimming larvae., but the young of 
most of the species of this region are still unknown. 

The Acalephs all swim free in one stage or another of their existence. 
Some of the Hy droids, like JSertularia and allied genera, are only free-swim- 
mers while in the early embryonic stages, when they are covered by vi- 
brating cilia ; but they soon become fixed and ever after remain attached 
in one place. Others, like the species of Obel-ia, swim free in the em- 
bryonic state, and then develop into attached hydroids, which by bud- 
ding may produce large branching colonies of similar hydroids, but 
ultimately they produce another kind of buds, which are developed 
within capsules or gonothecoe. These soon become elegant, little, circu- 
lar, and disk-shaped jelly-fishes, which are then discharged and swim, 
free in the water ; they soon grow larger, acquire more tentacles, and 
ovaries or spermaries develop along the radiating tubes, the eggs are 
formed, discharged, and fertilized, and each egg may develop into a 
ciliated embryo, which in its turn may become attached and start a new 
hydroid colony. Thus among these animals we find an alternation of 
generations, complicated by different modes of budding. 

In the case of the large red jelly-fish, Cyanea arctica, and the com- 
mon whitish jelly-fish, Aurelia flavidula, (Plate XXXVI, fig. 271,) the 
history is somewhat different. These jelly-fishes produce immense num- 
bers of minute eggs, which are discharged into the water and develop 


into minute, -oblong, ciliated larvse; these soon become attached by one 
end and grow up into broad-disked young, like hydroids with long, 
slender tentacles ; each of these after a time sends out stolon-like tubes 
from the base, and from these tubes buds are developed, each of which 
grows up into a a scyphostoma/' or hydroid-form, like the first one ; all 
these eventually become much elongated, then circular constrictions begin 
to form along the body, which grow deeper and deeper until they sepa- 
rate the body into a series of concave segments, which are held together 
by a pedicle in the middle of each, their borders at the same time be. 
coming divided into eight lobes, or four bilobed ones ; in the mean time 
the long tentacles around the upper end or original disk of the " scyph- 
ostorna" gradually grow shorter and are finally entirely absorbed; then 
the first or upper disk breaks off, and finally all the rest, one after 
another, until a mere stump is left at the base ; after becoming detached 
each of the disks swims about in the water, and gradually develops its 
mouth, stomach, tentacles, and other organs, and, turning right side up 
and rapidly growing larger, eventually becomes a large and complicated 
jelly-fish, like its grandparents or great-grandparents that produced 
the egg from which the original " scyphostoma " was developed. The 
stump of the hydroid produces another set of tentacles, even before the 
separation of all the segments, and grows up again iuto the elongated 
or " strobila" form, and again undergoes the same process of transverse 
division, thus producing successive crops of jelly-fishes. In these cases 
there are alternations of generations, accompanied both by budding and 
fissiparity. The young of this species in the "epbyra" stage were found 
April 17, and at several other times during April, in abundance, by 
Mr. Vinal ET. Edwards. These were less than a quarter of an inch in 
diameter, and must have become free only 'a short time before. On 
April 30 he took young specimens from half an inch to about an inch 
in diameter. The young of various sizes, up to nearly three inches in 
diameter, were common at New Haven MM.V ">. All these young speci- 
mens were taken in the day-time. 

In some jelly-fishes buds may even be produced upon the proboscis of 
the adult jelly-fish, which develop directly into free jelly-fishes, like the 
parent. This is the case with the Dysmorphosa fulgurans, found in these 
waters, and with Lizzia grata, found farther north. 

On the other hand there are many jelly-fishes that do not have a 
hydroid state, nor bud, no? pass through any marked metamorphosis. 
This is the case with our Pleurobrachia rhododactyla, Idyia roseola, and 
other Ctenophora3. In these the young, even before hatching, become 
perfect little jelly-fishes, and swim round and round within the egg by 
means of the miniature paddles or flappers along their sides. The young 
are, nevertheless, very different from the adults in form and structure. 

It will be apparent, from the preceding remarks, that a complete 
list of free-swimming animals would necessarily include all the Aca- 
lephs of the region, but, as this would uselessly swell the list, only 

[449] iNvi;irn-;r>K'.\Ti: ANIMALS OF VINKYARD SOUND, ETC. ir>r> 

those that have been actually taken at the surface will he here included. 
Quite a number of the species were not observed by us, but have been 
recorded by Mr. A. Agassiz, but in some cases be has given neither the 
time nor date of capture. 

A fine large specimen of the beautiful jelly-fish, Tima formosa, has 
been sent to me by Mr. V. N. Edwards, who captured it at Wood's 
Hole, April 30. He states that the same species was very abundant in 
February, 1872. It has not been previously recorded as found south of 
Cape Cod. The specimen received differs from the description given 
by Mr. A. Agassiz, in having thirty-six tentacles instead of thirty-two. 

Among the most common of the larger species in summer were Mnem- 
iopsis Lciilyi, which occurred in abundance at nearly all hours of the 
day and evening, and was very phosphorescent at night; Cyanea arc- 
tica, which ocurred chiefly in the day-time, and was here seldom more 
than a foot in diameter; Aurelia flavidula, (Plate XXXVI, fig. 271,) 
which was not unfrequently seen in the day-time ; Dactylometra quinque- 
cirra, (Plate XXXVI, fig. 272,) which was quite common both by night 
and day in August and September; and Zyyodactyla Grcenlandiea, (Plate 
XXX VII, fig. 275,) which was common in July, both in the day and 
evening, but was seldom seen later in the season. 

The two species last named, and also the Cyanea arctica, were fre- 
quently found to be accompanied by several small fishes, of different 
sizes up to three inches long, which proved to be young "butter-fishes,' 
Poronotus triacanthus. These fishes swim beneath the broad disk of 
these jelly-fishes, surrounded on all sides by the numerous tentacles, 
which probably serve as a protection from larger fishes that are their 
enemies, for the tentacles of the jelly-fishes are capable of severely sting- 
ing the mouths of most fishes, evidently causing them great pain. As 
many as ten or twelve of these fishes were often found under a single jelly- 
fish, and in one case twenty-three were found under a Cyanea about ten 
inches in diameter. They do not appear to suffer at all from contact with 
the stinging-organs of the tentacles, arid are, perhaps, protected from them 
by the thick coating of tenacious mucus which constantly covers the skin, 
and gives them their common English name. Mr. A. Agassiz states* 
that he constantly observed a " Clupeoid" fish under the Dactylometra 
in this region, which had essentially the same habits, according to his 
account, as the species observed by us, though, if a Clupeoid, it must 
have been a very different fish. 

He says, however, that the fishes observed by him were occasionally 
devoured by the jelly-fish : a It is strange that the fish should go there 
for shelter, for every once in a while one of them pays the penalty by 
being swallowed, without this disturbing the others in the least ; they 
in their turn find food in the lobes of the actinostome, and even eat the 
folds themselves, until their turn comes to be used as food. I have 
seen in this way three fishes eaten during the course of as many days. 

* Catalogue of North American Acalepha 1 , p. 49. 
12 V 


The specimens measured about an inch in length." The fishes found 
by us were from a quarter of an inch to three inches long, and we 
never saw them swallowed, and never found them in the stomachs of 
any among the several dozen jelly-fishes, of the different kinds that we 
found accompanied by the fishes, although we found young squids and 
other kinds of marine animals in a half-digested condition. It is pos- 
sible that the observation of Mr. Agassiz was made on them when 
kept in confinement, and that the fishes devoured were not in a perfectly 
healthy and natural condition, so as to resist the stings of the nettl- 
ing organs. But if his fish belonged to a family different from ours, the 
difference may be peculiar to the respective fishes. Yet our observa- 
tions afford only negative evidence, and it may be that this is one of 
the peculiarities of this remarkable companionship ; though, if so, \ve 
should suppose that the race of Poronotus would soon become extinct, 
for we never observed the young under any other circumstances. The 
adult fishes of this species, when five or six inches long, were often taken 
in the pounds in considerable numbers. 

Among the mouth-folds and lobes of the ovaries, beneath the disk of 
Cyanea, we very often found large numbers of living specimens of a 
delicate little jelly-fish, nearly globular in form, the Margelis Carolinen- 
sis, which we also frequently took in the towing-nets in the evening. 

In the winter season the Mnemiopsis Leidyi is often abundant in Long 
Island Sound, and I have also observed it in New York harbor in Feb- 
ruary, in large numbers. At Wood's Hole Mr. V. N. Edwards found 
the PkurobracMa rhododactyla, both young and nearly full-grown, very 
abundant in February and March; at Watch Hill, April 13,1 found 
both adult specimens and young ones not more than an eighth of an 
inch in diameter. It probably occurs through the entire year, for we 
frequently met with it in mid-summer in Vineyard Sound. Mr. S. I. 
Smith also found it very abundant at Fire Island, on the south side of 
Long Island, in September. 

In July and August we obtained several large and perfect specimens 
of the curious " Portuguese man-of-war," Physalia Arethusa. This species 
occurs as far west as Watch Hill, Ehode Island, where it was observed 
by Professor D. 0. Eaton. The boatmen at that place state that it is 
frequent there in summer. The float of this species was generally deep, 
rich crimson or purple, and the hydroids beneath it were commonly 
bright blue in the specimens observed by us. The float or air-bag is, 
however, sometimes blue and sometimes rose-color. 

According to Professor Agassiz, (Contributions, vol. IV, p. 335,) the 
floating bag in windy weather always presents the same side to the 
wind, and it is upon the windward side that the bunches of very long 
locomotive hydroids of the lower surface are situated, and these at such 
times are stretched out to an enormous length, and thus act aa anchors 
to retard the motion by friction in passing through the water. The 
smaller locomotive hydroids, the feeding hydroids, and the reproductive 
hydroids, are on the lee side. 


This species is editable of stinging the hands very severely if (hey he 
brought into contact with the hydroids attached to the lower surlaee <>!' 
the Hoating air-bai' 1 . 

The Idijia roseola, so abundant on the coast of New England north of 
Cape(N>d. was only occasionally met with, and in small numbers, while the 
Holintt (data, wliich is one of the most abundant species on the northern 
coast of New England, was not seen at all. The Aurelia flavidiil<t is 
less common than north of Cape Cod, but was found in abundance in 
Buzzard's Bay, in May, by V. N. Edwards. 

Many of the Polyps has^e free- swimming, ciliated embryos, but others, 
like many of the sea-anemones, are viviparous, discharging the yonii ( u 
ones through the mouth. These young are of different sizes, and fur- 
nished with a small but variable number of tentacles, but in most 
other respects they are similar to their parents. Mr. A. Agassiz has, 
however, recently ascertained that the young of a species of Edwardx'nt 
swims free in the water for a considerable period, or until it develops at 
least sixteen tentacles. In this condition it has been described as a dif- 
ferent genus and species, (Arachnactis brachiolata A. AG-.) Whether the 
other species of this genus all have free-swimming young is still uncer- 
tain ; if so, these young must differ considerably among themselves, for 
Eflicarflsia farinacea V., of this coast, has but twelve tentacles when 
adult, and E. eleyans V. has but sixteen, while others have as many as 
forty-eight tentacles, when full grown. Among the Protozoa there are 
great numbers of free-swimming forms included among those commonly 
known as Ciliated Infusoria, but those of our coast have been studied 
but little. The germs of sponges also swim free in the water, by means 
of cilia, Species of Polycystina would probably be found, if carefully 
sought for, but we have not yet met with any of them. 

List of species taken at the surface of the water on the southern coast of 

New England. 

In this list no attempt has been made to enumerate the numerous 
species of free Copepod Crustacea, which are very abundant, but have 
not been carefully studied. 



Pinnotheres ostreum, males and young, (438.) 

Cancer irroratus, in the zoea and megalops stages ; June, July, (438.) 

Platyonichus ocellatus, young and adult; megalops; June, July, (438.) 

Callinectes hastatus, young, (438.) 

Many other species of Brachyura in the zoea and megalops stages. 

Hippa talpoida, young, 5 or O mm in length; early in September, (339.) 

Eupagurus, several species in the larval stages ; July to September. 

(lebia at'Hnis, young, 4 mm long; early in September. 

Ilomarus Americanus, larv.e and young; July, (395.) 

Crangon vnlgaris, larva* and young ; June and July. 


Virbius zostericola, larvae and young ; July to September. 

Palsemonetes vulgaris, larvae and young ; July to September. 

Larval forms and young of other species of Macroura. 

Squilla empusa, larvae in different stages ; August, (439.) 

Mysis Americana, young and adult; April, May, (396.) 

Heteromysis formosa, young and adult. 

Thysanopoda, sp. Vineyard Sound ; April 30, (Y. K. Edwards.) 

Cumacea, several species. 

Lysianassinae, several species, young and adult. 

Urothoe, sp. 

Monoculodes, sp. 

Calliopius laBviusculus, adult and young; summer and winter, (439.) 

Pontogeneia inermis, full grown ; winter. 

Gaminarus uatator, adult and young ; summer and winter, (439.) 

Mcera levis. 

Ampelisca, sp., young. 

Amphithoe maculata, young. 

A. longimana, young even 5 or 6 mm long. 

Hyperia, species ; summer, (439.) 

Phronima, sp. ; September 8, (439.) 

Idotea irrorata, (439.) 

I. robusta, (439.) 

I. phosphorea. 

Ericlisouia filiformis. 

Epelys trilobus. 

Tanais filum. 

Sapphirina, sp. ; September, (439.) 

Free Copepods of many genera and numerous species. 

Argulus laticauda; August, (439.) 

A. latus; July. 

A. megalops ; September 8. 

Caligus rapax ; September 8, (439.) 

Balanus balanoides, larvae; April, May, June, (304.) 

Lepas fascicularis ; June and July, in Vineyard Sound, (382.) 

Limulus Polyphemus, young, (340.) 


Phyllodoee, sp., adult ; July 3 ; evening. 
Phyllodoce, sp., young ; evening. 
Eulalia, sp., young; September 3; evening. 
Eulalia, sp., young; evening. 
Euinidia, sp., young; Septembers; evening. 
Eteone, sp., young ; evening. 

Autolytus coruutus, male, female, and asexual forms; July 29 to Au- 
gust 18; evening. Watch Hill ; April 13, asexual form, (440.) 
Autolytus, sp., asexual individuals, (398.) 


Gattiola, sp., young ; September 3; evening. 

Syllis (?), sp., young; September 3; evening. 

Ehynchobolus Amerioamis, young ; September 3; evening. 

Nereis virens, adult males; April ; day-time, (440.) 

N. limlmta, adult males filled with milt, September 3, evening; Sep- 
tember 5, at Fire Island, day. Females, September 3, (few ;) young, 
common, August, September, evening, (440.) 

N. pelagica, young ; August, September; evening. 

Nectonereis megalops ; July 3, 11 ; September 3, 8 ; evening, (440.) 

Podarke obscura, adult ; June 26 to August ; evening, (440.) 

Spio setosa, young ; evening. 

Scolecolepis viridis, young ; evening. 

Polydora ciliatum, young ; September 3 ; evening. 

Nicolea simplex, young ; August, September ; evening. 

Amphitrite ornata, young ; evening. 

Leprsea rubra, young ; evening. 

Poly cirrus eximius, young ; August, September ; evening. 

Spirorbis, sp., young ; evening. 

Tomopteris, sp., young ; evening. 

Sagitta elegans, adult ; July 1, September 8 ; day- time, (440.) 

Sagitta, sp., adult and young ; January 30 to May 5 ; day, (440.) 

Balanogiossus aurantiacus ; larvae in the " tomaria n state, (351.) 

Meckelia ingens ; specimens tip to ten inches long ; evening, (349.) 

Pontouema marinum, adult ; February ; day-time. 

Several other small Kematodes with the last. 

Slender round worm, up to six inches long; June 29, July 13 ; evening. 

Young of many other worms ; undetermined. 



Ommastrephes illecebrosa, adult ; July, August, (441.) 

Loligo Pealii ; June to September; young, July, August, (440.) 

L. pallida, adult ; October, November, (441.) 


Clione papilionacea, adult; April 13, April 30, (444.) 
Styliola vitrea, adult ; September 8 ; day-time, (443.) 
Spirialis Gouldii, adult ; August; evening, (443.) 
Diacria trispinosa, (444.) 
Cavoliua tridentata, (444.) 


Teredo navalis, larvaB ; May, June, (386.) 
Mytilus edulis, larvae ; April, (308.) 
Ostmea Virginiana, Iarva3 ; June, July, (310.) 
Larvae of many other species, undetermined. 



Salpa Cabotti, adults and young ; August and September, (445.) 
Doliolum, sp. ; summer, (A. AGASSIZ,) (446.) 

Appendicularia, sp. ? (like A. furcata j) summer, (A. AG-ASSIZ,) (446.) 
Appeudicularia, sp., (like A. longicauda ;) summer, (A. AGASSIZ.) 
Larvae of fixed Ascidians, (445.) 



Strongylocentrotus Drobachiensis, larvae, (447.) 
Asterias arenicola, larvae ; evening, (447.) 
A. vulgaris, larvae ; evening, (447.) 


Mnemiopsis Leidyi ; February, July to September ; day-time, (449.) 

Lesueuria hyboptera, adult ; September; day-time. 

Pleurobracbia rbododactyla, adult and young; January to May, 
July to September; day-time and evening, (448.) 

Idyia roseola, adult ; September ; day-time, (451.) 

Oyanea arctica, adult; August, September; day-time. Young in the 
"ephyra" stages; April; young of all sizes up to four inches across; 
May, (449.) 

Aurelia flavidula ; August, September ; day-time, young ; May, (449.) 

Dactylometra quinquecirra, adult and young; July to September; 
day and evening, (449.) 

Trachyuema digitale, young ; Wood's Hole, July 1 ; day-time. 

Tiaropsis diademata; Wood's Hole; April 17, (V. K Edwards.) 

Oceania languida, medusae; June to September; day-time. 

Eucheilota ventricularis, young medusas ; evening. 

E. duodecimals, medusa; July. 

Obelia, several species, medusas; evening chiefly, (447.) 

Eheginatodes tennis, medusas ; September ; evening. 

Zygodactyla Grcenlandica, medusas; June to September; day and 
evening, (449.) 

^quorea albida. medusas ; September ; evening. 

Tirna formosa, adult; February, 1872; April 30, 1873, (449.) 

Eutima limpida, medusas; September; evening. 

Lafoe'a calcarata, medusas ; September ; evening. 

Nemopsis Bachei, medusas ; June to September ; evening. 

Bougaiuvillia superciliaris, medusas, April, May, June : evening. 

Margelis Carolineusis, medusas ; August and September, chiefly in the 
evening, (450.) 

Dysmorphosa fulgurans, medusas ; evening, (448.) 

Modeeria, sp., medusas. 

Turritopsis nutricula, medusas; July to September; evening. 


Stomotoca apical a, modus;!-. 
Willia ornata, young* medusae ; last of September. 
Dipurnea conira, medusa'; July; evening. 
Gemmaria gemmosa, medusae; evening. 
Pennaria tiarella, medusae ; August, September. 
Ectopleura ockracea, medusae ; September. 
Nanomia cara, August, September; evening. 
Physalia Arethusa, July to September; day, (450.) 
Velella rnutica, August ; day. 


Edwardsia, sp., larvae in the " Arachnactis " stage; September; 
evening, (451.) 


Numerous kinds of ciliated infusoria, (451.) 
List of species taken at the surface in winter, December to March. 


Crangon vulgaris, young. 

Mysis Americana. 

Anonyx, (?,) sp. 

Calliopius heviusculus, (439.) 

Pontogeneia iuermis. 

Gammarus natator. 

Mouoculodes, sp. 

Several species and genera of Copepods, very abundant. 

Larvae of Balanus, December 21, January 7 and 8. 

Annelids, &c. 

Nereis virens, adult males. 
Sagitta, sp., adult, abundant, (440.) 
Pontonema marinurn, adult. 
Other Neinatodes, undetermined. 


Pleurobrachia rhododactyla, young and adult, abundant, (450.) 
Mnemiopsis Leidyi, adult, abundant, (450.) 
Cyanea arctica, young ; March. 
Tima formosa, adult, (449.) 


Large numbers of fishes were examined, both internally and externally, 
for parasites, and a large collection of such parasites was made. The in- 


ternal parasites were collected mainly by Dr. Edward Palmer, and will 
be of great interest when carefully studied and described. As yet, noth- 
ing more than a casual examination of them has been made. These 
internal parasites were found in nearly all kinds of fishes, chiefly in the 
stomach and intestines, but also very frequently in the flesh, or among 
the abdominal viscera, or in the air-bladder, or even in the eyes, &c. 
The internal parasites were mostly worms, but these belong to four very 
distinct orders. 

1st. The " round-worms," Nematodes. 

These are related to the round- worms so frequent in the intestines of 
children, and also to the notorious Trichina of man and the hog. One 
or more species are found in the intestine and stomach of nearly every 
kind of fish, and frequently, also, in the liver, peritoneum, eyes, and 
various other organs. One species, two or three inches long, is very fre- 
quently found coiled up spirally in the flesh of the cod. Another large 
species is frequently found in the flesh of the torn-cod, or frost-fish. 
Although these are not dangerous to man, they are very disagreeable 
when found in fish intended for food. 

A species belonging to this group is very frequently found in the body- 
cavity of one of our species of Sagitta (see page 440). 

2cl. The flat- worms or " flukes," Trematotlc*. 

These are short, more or less broad, depressed worms, which are pro- 
vided with one, two, or more suckers, for adhering firmly to the mem- 
branes. They pass through very remarkable transformations, as do 
most of the other parasitic worms. Species belonging to this group are 
common in the stomach, ossophagus, and intestine, and also encysted or 
in follicles in the mouth, liver, peritoneum, and various other parts of 
the body. 

3d. The thorn-headed worms, Acanthocephala. 

These have an elongated roundish body, with a proboscis at the an- 
terior end, covered with hooks, or recurved spines. The proboscis and 
front end of the body can be withdrawn and thrust out at pleasure. 
Such worms are very common in the stomachs and intestines of fishes, 
and are, perhaps, the worst parasites that torment them. The young of 
these worms also occur quite frequently, encysted in the liver, peri- 
toneum, throat, mouth, and other organs. 

4th. The " tape- worms," or Cestodes. 

These are long flat worms, divided into many distinct segments, and 
are very frequently found in the intestines of most fishes. There are 
numerous species of them, ranging in size from less than an inch to 
many feet in length. 

Although parasitic worms are found in nearly all kinds of fishes, they 
are most frequent and in the greatest variety in the large and very vor- 
acious kinds, such as sharks, rays, the angler or goose-fish, salmon, blue 
fish, cod, haddock, &c. 

Nor are other marine animals free from these internal parasites. Cer- 


tain species have been found in Crustacea, others in mollusks, &c. Mr. 
A. Agassiz has briefly described, but not named, a remarkable worm 
that lie found very common in the jelly-fish, Mnemiopsis Leii/yi, and tin- 
young of this or a different species was observed by me in the. same Ara- 
leph. It appeared to be a .species of Scolex. It was pah- purph*, with 
light yellowish orange stripes. I have previously mentioned a round 
worm (Ascaris f) which frequently occurs in winter in one of our species 
of Sagitta. 

Most of the species that, in the adult state, inhabit fishes, live while 
young, or in the larval stages, in smaller fishes, or in other animals, 
upon which the larger fishes feed, and from which they thus derive their 

Besides the parasitic worms there are also many internal parasites that 
belong to the Protozoa. 

The external parasites of fishes are also numerous. They are chiefly 
Crustacea and leeches. 

Among the Crustacea there are a few species of Amphipods that are 
parasitic. One of these, Lapliystius sturionis, lives upon the gills of 
fishes and upon the surface of the body. It was found on the gills of 
the u goose-fish," (Lopliius,) in Vineyard Sound, and on the back of 
skates at Eastport. It is remarkable in having large claws developed 
on the third and fourth pairs of legs, those of the first and second be- 
ing small. Its color is light red. 

Certain Isopod Crustacea, belonging to the genus Livoneca (Plate VI 
fig. 29) and allied genera, live in the mouths and on the gills of fishes? 
clinging firmly to the membrane of the roof of the mouth, or other 
parts, by means of their strong sharp claws. These are generally 
un symmetrical inform. The species of the genus Bopyrus live on the 
gills, under the carapax of shrimp and other Crustacea, producing large 
tumors. A species is common on species of Hippolyte in the Bay of 
Fundy : and a species has been found in this region. The genus Cepon 
is allied to the last, and our species occurs under the carapax of the 
" fiddler-crabs " in this region. 

Among the Entomostraca the number of parasitic species is still 
greater, but most of these live on the external surface and gills of fishes, 
though some of them occur also in the mouth. The species of Panda- 
rus and allied genera adhere firmly to the skin, and are provided with a 
proboscis. They are very common on sharks, but occur also on other 
fishes. A Icniciaru( t e VII, fig. 31) and Nogagus Latreillii (Plate 
VII, fig. 32) were both found on " Atwood's shark," the " man-eater" of 
this region, associated also with Nogagus tenax. The species of "Noga- 
<7?f.s''' are merely the males of other genera, for no one has yet deter- 
mined both males and females of the various species. The young of 
one species, Caligus rapax, were found swimming free at the surface. 

The species of Argulus and allied genera are less strictly parasitic, or 
rather they adhere less closely, and apparently leave the fishes at pleas- 


ure and migrate from one to another. Three species belonging to this 
group were taken at the surface with the towing-nets. The Lerneans 
are remarkable creatures. The females are generally very curious in 
form and very much larger than the more active and less abnormal males, 
and they are very low in structure, the reproductive system being enor- 
mously developed at the expense of nearly all the other organs. They 
live upon the exterior and gills of fishes, with the head deeply buried 
in the flesh, and subsist by sucking the blood of their victims. The 
Lernceonema radiatum (Plate VII, fig. 30) is very common on the men- 
haden, and is also found on the alewives. 

There are many kinds of parasitic leeches. One of the most remark- 
able is the Branchiobdella Ravenelii, (Plate XVIII, fig. 89.) This genus 
is peculiar in having broad, foliaceous, lobed or scolloped gills along 
the sides of the body. The large species figured was found several times 
on the large " sting-rays," several of them usually occurring together, 
on a large spot which had become sore and much inflamed by their re- 
peated bites. It is a very active species. 

The Cystobranchus vividus is a much smaller and quite slender leech, 
which has small, papilliform, whitish gills that alternately contract and 
expand along the sides of the body, each surrounded by a semicircular 
white spot. The colors are brownish or purplish, with three rows of 
small white spots on the back. This species is frequent on the common 
minnow, (Fundulus pisculentm,) in autumn and winter, and lives both 
in brackish water and fresh water. With the last, on the minnows, is 
found another slender leech, destitute of gills ; this is the Ichthyobdclht 
Funduli. It has, like the last, four ocelli. The color is pale green with 
darker green and brown specks, often with whitish transverse bands 
anteriorly, and a white ring behind the head, at the constriction j some- 
times there is a narrow pale dorsal line. 

A long, slender, sub-cylindrical leech, the PontoMella rapaxV., (Plate 
XVIII, fig. 91,) is quite common on the upper side of the " summer- 
flounder," (Chccnopsetta ocellaris.) It is a very active species, dark olive 
or brown in color, with a row of square or oblong whitish spots along 
each side ; the suckers are pale greenish white. The young are reddish 
brown, without spots. 

A species of PontoMella was found adhering to Mysis Americana, 
near New Haven, May 5, in three instances, but whether this be its nor- 
mal habit is uncertain. 

The Malacobdella obesa V. (Plate XVIII, fig. 90) is a large, stout, 
yellowish white leech, often two inches long, which is quite common in 
the branchial cavity of the "long clam," ( My a arenaria.) 

The Malacobdella mercenaria V. is another similar species, but smaller 
and more slender, which lives in the same way in the " round claui" 
(Venus mercenaria.) 

The Myzobdella. lugubris is a small leech, which lives on the " edible 
crab" (Callinectes hastatm,) adhering to the soft membranes between 
the joints and at the base of the legs. 


List of external parasites observed on fishes and other marine animal x <>f 
Southern Neiv England. 

In the following list I have included all the determined species ob- 
served in these waters, whether living in the sounds, or in tlm outer 
waters, or in the brackish waters of the estuaries, for most of those par- 
asitic species are capable of living in as diverse conditions as do the ani- 
mals which they infest, and most of the fishes pass from time to time into 
each of the divisions named, though some, like the cod, are chiefly found 
in the colder outer waters, and even there only in winter. 

The list is undoubtedly very incomplete for it is based chiefly on col- 
lections made during two seasons, and mainly in the summer months. 
In addition to the true parasites I have, for greater convenience, in- 
cluded in the list some that merely live on or with other animals, 
either for the sake of shelter, or to feed upon their excretions, or to 
share their food. Some of these would be properly classed as " commen- 
sals.' 7 



Pinnotheres ostreum, (p. 367,) in oysters. 

P. maculatus, in Mytilus edulis. 

Laphystius sturionis, on goose-fish and skate, (457.) 

Hyperia, species, on jelly-fishes, (439.) 

Nerocila munda, on file-fish. 

Conilera concharum. 

Livoneca ovalis, on blue-fish, (457.) 

Cepoii distortus, in branchial cavity of Gelasiinus, (457.) 

Ergasilus labraces, on striped-bass. 

Argulus catostomi, on the sucker, (Catostomus.) 

A. laticauda, (457.) 

A. latus. 

A. inegalops. 

A. alosse, on " alewives." 

Caligus curtus, on cod-fish. 

C. rapax, on sting-ray, (Trygon hastata.) 

Lepeoph their us, sp., on sting-ray. 

Lepeophtheirus, sp., on flounder, (Chsenopsetta ocellaris.) 

Echthrogalus coleoptratus, on mackerel- shark, (Lauinapunctata.) 

E. denticulatus, on Atwood's shark, (Carcharodon Atwoodi.) 

Paudarus Cranchii, (?) on dusky shark, (Platypodon obscurus.) 

Pandarus, sp., on Atwood's shark, (Carcharodou Atwoodi.) 

Kogagus Latreillii, on Atwood's shark, (457.) 

N. tenax, on Atwood's shark, (457.) 

Pandarus sinuatus, on the " dog-fish," (Mustelus cauis.) 

Cecrops Latreillii, on Othagoriscus mola. 


Antliosouia crassurn, on mackerel-shark. 

Lerna3a branchialis, oil cod-fish. 

Penella plumosa, on Diodon pilosus and Ehombus, sp. 

Anchorella uncinata, on cod-fish. 

Lernaeonema radiatum, on menhaden, (458.) 

Lerna3onenia 7 sp., on a species of Carangus. 

Corouula diadema, on whales. 


Branchiobdella Eavenelii, on sting-rays ; August, September, (458.) 
Cystobranchus vividus, on minnows ; October to December 18, (458.) 
Ichthyobdella Eunduli, on minnows ; with last, (458.) 
Ichthyobdella, sp., dredged off New London, April. 
Pontobdella rapax, on flounders, (458.) 
Malacobdella obesa, in long clams, (458.) 
M. merceuaria, in round clams, (458.) 
Myzobdella lugubris, on the edible crab, (458.) 
Bdelloura Candida, on gills of Limulus. 



Stylifer Stimpsonii, on the green sea-urchin. 
Eulima oleacea, on Thyone Briareus, (418.) 


The region about Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's Bay, like that of the 
entire southern coast of New England and the coast farther south, is 
characterized by large numbers of ponds, lagoons, and estuaries, having 
a more or less interrupted communication with the sea. These are 
usually quite shallow, though often of great extent. The bottom is 
generally muddy, with occasional patches of sand, but at the surface 
usually consists largely of decaying vegetable and animal debris mixed 
with mud. 

The " eel-grass" (Zostera marina) grows in the shallower waters in 
great quantities, sometimes in small scattered patches, at other times 
covering large areas. Some of these ponds and estuaries receive con- 
siderable, though variable, quantities of fresh water from streams flow- 
ing into them, while others receive but little, except the surface drain- 
age of the land immediately around them ; but in most of them the 
fresh water is in sufficient quantities to give a " brackish" character to 
the waters. Owing to the narrow and often shallow channels by which 
the ponds communicate with the open waters, the tide is usually irreg- 
ular, and its rise and fall often much less than outside, so that the wa- 
ters have little tidal motion. The shallowness of the water and the abuu- 


dant eel-grass also impede the motion caused by Hie wind, so tliatthesr 
bodies of water are comparatively quiet under ordinary cireumstan< -es. 
The same causes allow (lie water to become highly heated during the, 
summer. It is evident that the heat and quietness of the waters are 
unfavorable for the rapid absorbtioii of oxygen from the air, while by 
the rapid decay of the dead materials of the bottom large quantities of 
carbonic acid and other gases must be evolved, which would in some 
cases soon render the water fatal to all animal life, were it not for the 
presence of the eel-grass, Ulva, and other plants that flourish in such 
waters, which, while absorbing the excess of carbonic acid, also help 
to give the requisite amount of oxygen to the water. During storms 
the mud of the bottom is quickly disturbed, causing the escape of nox- 
ious gases, and rendering the water turbid, while the eel-grass is torn 
up in large quantities, thus adding to the decaying materials of the bot- 
tom and shores. Moreover, in case of rain-storms or spring- freshets, the 
sudden addition of large volumes of fresh water often causes great 
changes in the density and character of the water, sufficient to kill spe- 
cies not adapted to such varying and peculiar conditions. 

We accordingly find that although animal life is usually very abun- 
dant, the number of species that habitually live and prosper in these im- 
pure and decidedly brackish waters is comparatively small. But such 
as do occur are usually found in great quantities, and are remarkable 
for their hardiness and ability to live under widely varying conditions. 
Many of them are strictly southern species, which do not extend much 
farther north ; but there are some, like the long clam, muscle, &c., which 
extend even to the Arctic Ocean and the coasts of Europe. 

Many of the estuaries and harbors, and some of the ponds, have a 
much freer communication with the sea, and then the water is less 
brackish and generally less impure in other respects, and the number 
of species of animals becomes much greater. In other cases the water 
is so little brackish that the fauna is nearly identical with that of the 
outer bays. A few of these species are almost restricted to the brack- 
ish waters, but by far the greater number are able to live in pure sea- 
water, and are accordingly also found in the bays and sounds. There 
are various degrees of preference shown by the different species; some 
are very abundant in the brackish waters and very seldom found out- 
side ; some evidently prefer the estuaries but are also abundant in the 
sounds ; some flourish equally well in both situations ; many are com- 
mon in the estuaries but much more abundant in the pure waters of the 
sounds ; and a large number which are occasionally found in the brackish 
waters, especially where but little freshened, liave their proper homes in 
the pure waters outside. 

Most of our food-fishes frequent the ponds and estuaries, either for 
the sake of food or for the purpose of spawning, and many spend the 
earlier part of their lives entirely in such waters. It is apparent, there- 
fore, that among the few species of invertebrate animals living in the 
brackish waters, there are some that are of great importance as food for 


fishes. It is true that many of the larger fishes frequent the estuaries 
to prey upon smaller ones, some of which are extremely abundant in 
these waters. But the small fishes, like minnows, as well as the young 
of the larger ones, feed chiefly upon the small Crustacea, worms, and 
shells that live in the waters that they inhabit. Therefore the entire 
value of the estuaries as feeding-grounds for the larger fishes depends 
directly upon those species of Crustacea, &c., that naturally live in 
brackish water. 

In discussing the fauna of the estuaries I have found it most conven- 
ient to group the species under the following divisions : 1. Those of sandy 
shores and bottoms. 2. Those of muddy shores and bottoms. 3. Those 
inhabiting oyster-beds. 4. Those inhabiting the eel-grass. 5. Those 
attached to rocks, piles of wharves, floating timber, buoys, &c. 

The lists could be greatly extended by including all the species to be 
found near the mouths of estuaries, or in those harbors and ponds that 
are scarcely brackish, for in these localities the fauna is nearly identi- 
cal with that of the bays and sounds, and the lists already given on 
previous pages will also apply very well to such places. 

As a general rule only those species that are abundant, or at least 
frequent, in waters distinctly brackish, have been included in the lists. 



Sandy shores and bottoms are generally less common and less exten- 
sive than muddy ones, and occur chiefly toward the mouths of estuaries, 
or on the more exposed borders of the larger ponds and harbors, where 
the wave-action is greatest. 

When such bottoms are covered with eel-grass, as often happens, the 
animals are quite numerous, but when destitute of vegetation the spe- 
cies of animals are but few, and mostly of the kinds that burrow. But 
when there is a mixture of mud with the sand the variety is much 

Near high-water mark, colonies of the " sand-fiddler, 7 ' Gelasimus pu- 
gilator, (p. 336,) often occur, as on the sandy beaches outside. In the 
same situations the beach-fleas, Talorchestia longicornis and T. megal- 
ophtlialma (p. 336,) also occur, burrowing in the sand ; while the Orches- 
tia agilis SMITH is abundant under the vegetable debris at high-water 

Several species of salt-water insects also occur, burrowing in the 
sandy beaches at and below high-water mark. Among these are sev- 
eral beetles, which live in such situations, both in the larval and adult 
conditions. The Bledius cordatus is one of the most abundant of these. 
This is a small, dark-colored, " rover-beetle," with very short elytra. 
It makes small, perpendicular holes in the sand near high-water mark, 
throwing up a little mound of sand around the burrows. A larger spe- 
cies, Bledius pallipennis, occurs lower down, at about half- tide mark 
and makes similar burrows, but they are larger and deeper. This spe- 


cies is yellowish brown in color. The larva of a fly belonging to the Moa- 

cid;e, and growing to the length of three- quarters of an inch, occur- 
beneath the sand at low-water mark, and was also dredged off-shore in 
three or lour fathoms of water. 

In the shallow waters and on the flats the common shrimp, Cranf/<ni 
rnlyai'is, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10,) is always to be found in abundance 
where the water is not too much freshened by the rivers. The prawn, 
J'ultnnonetes vulgaris, (p. 339, Plate II, fig. 9,) is also frequent on the sandy 
bottoms, though more abundant among the eel-grass, and this species 
extends Car up the estuaries into the mouths of rivers, where the water 
is but little salt. 

The most abundant Annelids are Nereis virens, (Plate XI, figs. 47-50,) 
3T. limbata, (Plate XI, fig. 51,) Rhynchobolus dibranchiatus, (Plate X, figs 
43, 44,) B. Americanus, (Plate X, figs. 45, 46,) and Scolecolepis viridis V., 
(p. 345,) all of which burrow in the sand at low-water mark in the same 
way as on the shores of the sounds. 

Under vegetable debris and stones, at high-water mark, the Halo- 
drillus littoraUs (p. 324) and Clitellio irroratus (p. 324) occur in abun- 
dance. The Lumbriculus tenuis burrows among the roots of grass at 
high- water mark. 

The most abundant Gastropod shells are llyanassa obsoleta, (Plate 
XXI, fig. 13,) Tritia trivittata, (Plate XXI, fig. 112,) Blttium nigrum, 
(Plate XXIY, fig. 154,) Astyris lunata, (Plate XXI, fig. 110,) which occur 
on the flats and on the bottom in shallow water, but all are more com- 
mon among eel-grass. The Melampus bidentatus (Plate XXV, figs. 169, 
169a) is very abundant among the grass and weeds at and just above 
high-water mark. It contributes largely to the food of the minnows 
and other small fishes, as well as to that of many aquatic birds. The 
Crcpidula convexa (Plate XXIII, fig. 128}is frequent on the dead shells 
occupied by the small hermit-crab, Eupagurus l-ongicarpus, (p. 313,) 
which is abundant, running over the bottom in shallow water. 

The most abundant bivalves are the long clam, Mya arenaria, (Plate 
XXVI, fig. 179,) and Macomafwca, (Plate XXX, fig. 222.) These both 
occur burrowing in the sand between tides, and both occur far up the 
estuaries, where the water is very brackish, but they are most abun- 
dant where there is a mixture of sand and mud. In the estuaries the 
long clam is extremely abundant all along the coast from New Jersey 
to the Arctic Ocean, as well as on all the northern coa sts of Europe 
It also occurs south of Cape Hatteras, as at Beaufort, North Carolina, 
but in greatly diminished numbers. North of New York it is very ex- 
tensively used as an article of food. North of Cape Cod it is the com- 
mon "clam " of the fishermen ; and north of Boston it almost entirely 
displaces, in the markets, the u round-clam, 77 or " quahog," Venus mer- 
<r)i'iri, which is the common clam at New York and farther south. 
Along the southern coast of New England both species are abundant, 
and both are sold in large quantities in the markets. South of New 


York tbe long clam is but little sought as an article of food, except for local 
use. Ou the coast of New Jersey it is often called the " niauinose clam," 
from the Indian name (frequently corrupted to u nanny-nose.") It is 
also sometimes called the " soft-shelled clam," in distinction from the 
" quahog," which is called " hard-shelled." The " long clams" of certain 
localities on Long Island Sound, as, for instance, those from Guilford, 
Connecticut, are of very excellent quality, and are very highly esteemed. 

The Guilford clams are assorted into regular sizes, and are bought from 
the fishermen on the spot by the hundred. Those of large size bring 
about $3 per hundred ; these are retailed in the market at New Haven 
for 60 cents per dozen. Smaller sizes bring 48 cents and 36 cents per 
dozen. During unusually low tides in winter clams of extraordinary size 
are obtained at Guilford, below the zone ordinarily uncovered by the 
tide; these often weigh a pound or more, and sell for about $1.25 per 
dozen ; occasionally the weight is as much as a pound and a half, and the 
shells become six or eight inches in length. 

The ordinary long clams of small and moderate sizes bring 95 cents, 
$1.25, and $2 per bushel at wholesale; these retail in our markets at 
50 cents to 75 cents per peck, the smallest sizes being cheapest, while 
the reverse is the case with the round clams. 

In New Haven the long clams are chiefly sold in winter, being " out 
of season" in summer, when the round clams supply the markets. But 
in New York the long clams are sold during the whole year. 

Large quantities of these clams are also collected on the northern 
coasts of New England and put up for bait, to be used in the cod-fishery 
at the banks of Newfoundland. 

The total amount collected and used annually is probably not less 
than 1,000,000 bushels. 

List of species inhabiting sandy shores and bottoms of estuaries. 



Page. | Page. 

Larvae of fly, (Muscidae) 463 | Bledius cordatus 462 

Ephydra, sp., larvge 466 j B. pallipennis 462 

Cicindela, larvge 335 

Bembidium constrictuin ... I 
B. contractum . . 

Heterocera uudatus 335 

Phaleria testacea 

Anurida maritiina. . 331 

Phytosus littoralis 335 



Gelasimus pugilator 462 

Cancer irroratus 312 

Carcinus granulatus 312 

Eupagurus lougicarpus 463 

Pala3nionetes vulgaris 463 

Crangou vulgaris 463 

Orchestia agilis 462 

Talorchestia longicornis 462 

T. megalophthalma 462 

Epelys trilobus 370 

Limulus Polyphemus 340 



Nereis vireus 

N. limbata 

Khyuchobolus Americanus. 

E. dibranchia-tus 

Spio robustus 


Scolecolepis viridis. 463 

S. tennis.. 345 


( /lymenella torquata : i:> 

Cistenides Gouldii :;L'.; 

Sabellaria vulgaris .Ji'l 

Lumbriculns tenuis 463 

Clitellio irroratus 463 

Halodrillus littoralis . . . 463 

Meckelia ingeus 


Page, j 

349 j Meckelia rosea 




Page. I 

Ilyauassa obsoleta 463 j 

Tritia trivittata 463 ' 

Eupleura caudata 371 

Astyris lunata 463 


Odostomia trifida 307 

Bittium uigrum 463 

Crepidula couvexa 463 

Melampus bidentatus 463 



My a arenaria 463 

Macoma fusca 463 

Angulus tener 358 

Tottenia gemma 359 

Venus mercenaria. . 463 

LaBvicardium Morton! . 358 

Solenomya velam 


My tilus edulis 307 

Modiola plicatula 307 

Pecten irradians 




The bottoms of the sheltered estuaries, ponds, and harbors, are almost 
invariably muddy, throughout the greater part of their extent, from low- 
water mark to their greatest depths, or, in other words, wherever the 
waves do not act with considerable force. The shores between tides are 
also muddy in the more protected localities, where the waves do not 
have sufficient power to remove the fine sediments. The upper and nar- 
rower parts of nearly all the estuaries in this region are, on this account, 
muddy, for the rapidity of the tide is seldom sufficient to entirely re- 
move the fine sediments brought down by the streams. 

A large part of the muddy bottoms is generally covered in summer by 
extensive patches of eel-grass. Over other portions large beds of oys- 
13 v 


ters are always planted, thus greatly modifying the natural conditions 
of such localities and introducing a large number of species not prop- 
erly belonging to the true muddy bottoms. 

The shores of the muddy estuaries and ponds, or lagoons, are usually 
low, flat, and bordered by more or less extensive salt-marshes, with the 
surface generally just above high-water mark of ordinary tides, but lia- 
ble to inundation by unusually high tides. These marshes are always 
traversed by winding and sluggish tidal streams of brackish water and 
by smaller ditches, and the surface is often diversified by small pools or 
ponds of impure brackish water, in which there is generally a deep de- 
posit of soft, slimy mud and decaying organic matter, which often be- 
comes putrid, and exhales fetid gases. All such waters, whether in the 
ditches or pools, and however filthy they may be, are inhabited by cer- 
tain kinds of invertebrate animals, and they are also frequented by mul- 
titudes of minnows and other small fishes, which undoubtedly find 
abundant food in such places. 

In these brackish pools and ditches we find certain beetles, both in the 
adult and larval stages. Among these the most conspicuous is Uydro- 
philus quadristriatiis HORN., a large, black species, which appears to be 
common. The larva of the salt-marsh mosquito (Cuter, sp..) also lives in 
such situations, and the adults in August, September, and October, so 
swarm in these marshes as to render it extremely unpleasant to go on 
or near them. The larvre of an Epliydra also occurs, and many other 
insects will doubtless be found in these places when carefully sought for. 

One Amphipod, the Gammarus mucronatus, commonly lives in the most 
brackish pools and among the grass on the marshes. The prawn, l\tl(v- 
monetes vulgaris, (Plate II, fig. 9,) is also very abundant in these pools 
and ditches, even where the water is but little salt, and also occurs in 
immense numbers on the muddy bottoms and among the eel-grass of the 
estuaries. In the pools there are also myriads of small Entoinostraca 
of many kinds, upon which the prawn and other species feed, while the 
Entomostraca find an abundance of ciliated Infusoria and other micro- 
scopic animals for food. 

We find several species of crabs burrowing in muddy banks along the 
shores of the estuaries, as well as along banks of the streams and ditches 
in the salt-marshes. The most abundant of these is the marsh fiddler- 
crab, Oelasimus pugnax, which is often so abundant that the banks are 
completely honey-combed and undermined by them. These holes are of 
various sizes up to about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and de- 
scend more or less perpendicularly r often to the depth of two feet or 
more. Occasionally in summer these crabs will leave their holes and 
scatter over the surface of the marshes, which at such times seem to be 
perfectly alive with them, but when disturbed they will scamper away 
in every direction and speedily retreat to their holes, but occasionally, 
at least, they do not find their own, for sometimes the rightful owner 
will be seen forcibly ejecting several intruders. It is probable that at 


such times of general retreat each one gets into the first liolr, Unit he 
can liiul. Associated with this "fiddler" another related crab, the Se- 
sarma reticulata, is occasionally found in considerable numbers. This 
is a stout-looking, reddish brown crab, with a squarish carapax ; its large 
claws are stout and nearly equal in both sexes, instead of being very 
unequal, as in the male "fiddlers. 7 ' It lives in holes like the "fiddlers,' 7 
but its holes are usually much larger, often an inch or an inch and a half 
in diameter. It is much less active than the "fiddlers," but can pinch 
very powerfully with its large claws, which are always promptly used 
when an opportunity occurs. 

The Carcinus granulatus (p. 312) of large size may often be found con- 
cealed in the cavities under the banks undermined by the. two preceding 
species, along the ditches and streams in the salt-marshes. On the 
marshes farther up the estuaries, and along the mouths of rivers and 
brooks, and extending up even to places where the water is quite fresh, 
another and much larger species of "fiddler-crab" occurs, often in abun- 
dance ; this is the Gelasimus minax. It can be easily distinguished by 
its much larger size and by having a patch of red at the joints of the 
legs. Its habits have been carefully studied by Mr. T. M. Prudden of 
New Haven, but his interesting account of them has not yet been pub- 
lished. He has also investigated its anatomy. According to Mr. Prud- 
den this species, like G. pugilator, (see p. 336,) is a vegetarian. He often 
saw it engaged in scraping up and eating a minute green algoid plant, 
which covers the surface of the mud. The male uses its small claw ex- 
clusively in obtaining its food and conveying it to the mouth. The 
female uses either of her small ones indifferently. In enlarging its bur- 
rows Mr. Prudden observed that these crabs scraped off the mud from 
the inside of the burrow by means of the claws of the ambulatory legs, 
and having formed the mud into a pellet, pushed it up out of the hole 
by means of the elbow-like joint at the base of the great claw, when 
this is folded down. He also ascertained that this crab often constructs 
a regular oven-like arch of mud over the mouth of its burrow. This 
arch-way is horizontal, and large and long enough to contain the crab, 
who quietly sits in this curious door- way on the lookout for his enemies 
of all kinds. 

This species can live out of water and without food for many days. 
It can also live in perfectly fresh water. One large male was kept in 
my laboratory in a glass jar containing nothing but a little siliceous sand, 
moistened with pure fresh water, for over six months. During this 
whole period he seemed to be constantly in motion, walking round and 
round the jar and trying to climb out. He was never observed to rest 
or appear tired, and after months of confinement and starvation was 
just as pugnacious as ever. 

Although some of the colonies of this species live nearly or quite up 
to fresh water, others are found farther down on the marshes, where the 
water is quite brackish, and thus there is a middle ground where this 


and G. pugnax occur together. This was found by Mr. Prudden to be 
the case, both on the marshes bordering West Eiver and on those of 
Mill Eiver near New Haven. They are abundant along both these 
streams. The holes made by this species are much larger than those of 
G. pugnax. Some of them are an inch and a half to two inches in 

The "blue crab" or common edible crab, CalUnectes liastatm, (p. 3G7 r ) 
frequents the brackish streams and estuaries, where it is often taken in 
large quantities for the markets. These are usually brought to market 
early in May, but the "soft- shelled" ones, which are more highly es- 
teemed, are taken later. These soft-shelled individuals are merely those 
that have recently shed their old shells, while the new shell has not had 
time to harden. The period of shedding seems to be irregular and long 
continued, for soft-shelled crabs are taken nearly all summer. The young 
and half-grown specimens of this crab may often be found in consider- 
able numbers hiding in the holes and hollows beneath the banks during 
the flood-tide. When disturbed, they swim away quietly into deeper 
water. These small crabs are devoured by many of the larger fishes. 
During flood-tide the large crabs swim up the streams like many fishes, 
and retreat again with the ebb. They feed largely on fishes, and often 
do much damage by eating fishes caught in set-nets, frequently making 
large holes in the nets at the same time. 

The "mud-crabs," Panopeus Sayi (p. 312) and P. depressus, (Plate I, 
fig. 3,) are very common in all the muddy estuaries and harbors. P. 
Harrisii also occurs in similar places ; it is far less common, and appar- 
ently usually lives higher up toward high-water mark, under stones, &c. 7 
but it has been found on the salt-marshes at the mouth of Charles Eiver, 
according to Dr. A. A. Gould. 

The OrcJiestia palustrls SMITH, is found on the salt-marshes, where it 
occurs under drift-wood, vegetable debris, &c., extending its range 
nearly or quite up to fresh water, and at times living in places that are 
almost dry, above high- water mark. 

The Squilla empusa (p. 369) burrows in muddy shores and bottoms at 
or below low- water mark. 

The Gebia affinis (p. 368, Plate II, fig. 7) also lives in similar places in 
deep burrows, as described on a previous page. 

The " horseshoe-crab," Limulus Polyphemus (p. 340,) is also a com- 
mon inhabitant of muddy bottoms, in estuaries, where it grows to great 

The most common Annelids are partly the same as those given 
above for the sandy shores. The Nereis virens is generally very abun- 
dant ; the two species of EhyncJiobolus are common ; and also Lumbri- 
conereis opalina, (Plate XIII, figs. 69, 70;) Cirratulus grandis, (Plate XV, 
figs. 80,81;) Polycirrus eximius, (p. 320, Plate XVI, fig. 85;) Clmto- 
branchus sanguineus, (p. 320 ;) and several other less conspicuous species. 

Among the Gastropods by far the most abundant species is the llya- 


nassa obsolete^ (p. 354, Plate XXI, fig. 113,) which creeps over the 
and in iid cly bottoms in countless multitudes, sometimes almost covering 
the entire surface. When left by the tide, on the flats, especially in cold 
weather, they will creep into the small pools and depressions of the sur- 
face, where they often huddle together in great crowds, sometimes form- 
ing many layers, one above another. This is probably the most abundant. 
shell, of any considerable size, on the coast of the United States. It 
occurs abundantly from the Gulf of Mexico to Massachusetts Bay. It is 
essentially a scavenger, and owing to its vast numbers its services in 
that line must be of great value. It occurs far up the estuaries, where 
the water is decidedly brackish, but flourishes equally well on the outer 

The Littorinella mmuta (Plate XXIY, fig. 140) also occurs in vast 
numbers on the mud-flats, and in the pools and ditches of the salt- 
inarshes, but it is a small and inconspicuous species. It is, however, not 
overlooked by the small fishes and various aquatic birds, for they feed 
largely upon it. 

TbeMelampu* bidentatus (Plate XXY, figs. 169, 169a) is also extremely 
abundant on the muddy salt-marshes, creeping over the general surface, 
or in the shallow pools and ditches, and among the grass, creeping up 
the stalks. In shallow water, where not too brackish, the Bulla solitaria 
(Plate XXV, fig. 161) is sometimes found in considerable numbers, 
creeping over soft, muddy bottoms. It is a favorite article of food with 
the flounders. 

Among the Lainellibranchs, one of the most common species is the 
Modiola plicatula, (Plate XXXI, fig. 258,) which occurs everywhere on 
the muddy banks at and above high- water mark, and also over the salt- 
marshes, along the borders of ditches and streams, and wherever there 
is sufficient moisture, partially imbedding its shell in the mud or among 
the roots of grass, and anchoring itself by means of a stout byssus. 
The long clam, Mya arenaria, (p. 463) and the Macoma fusca, (Plate 
XXX, fig. 222) are almost everywhere abundant on the shores between 

The " round clam," Venus merienaria, (p. 359, Plate XXYI, fig. 184,) 
occurs on the muddy bottoms in shallow water, often in great abundance, 
especially where the mud is somewhat firm, or where there is an admix- 
ture of sand, and the water is not very much freshened. This clam is usually 
taken in such places by means of long-handled tongs, and sometimes 
with the dredge. It is especially abundant in the estuaries and harbors 
opening into Long Island Sound. The quantity of this clam taken 
annually for food is enormous, but it is impossible, at present, to get re- 
liable statistics, either for this or the long clam, for they are mostly taken 
and sold, a few bushels at a time, by individual fishermen, and the 
traffic is diffused along the whole coast, from Florida to Boston ; but 
it is probable that more than 1,500,000 bushels are annually consumed. 


In the New Haven markets the round clams retail at $2 to $3 per bushel 
for the small ones, and $1 to $2 per bushel for the large ones. 

The common muscle, Mytilus edulis, (p. 307, Plate XXXT, fig. 234,) is 
also extremely abundant on the muddy bottoms, forming immense beds 
in many places. It is taken in vast quantities for fertilizing the land, 
but is seldom used as food on our coast, although it is used extensively 
in some parts of Europe. 

The muddy bottoms of the estuaries, ponds, and harbors, especially 
when composed largely of organic matter in a living state, afford the 
best localities for "planting" oysters, and they are extensively utilized 
for this purpose. The oysters thus planted are mostly brought from 
farther south, but young "natives" are also transplanted on a large 
scale in some localities. 

It is, however, very certain that the oysters did not originally grow 
on muddy bottoms, for the young cannot maintain themselves during 
early life unless attached to some solid substance. 

Therefore, where large oyster-beds have been planted, the bottom 
should no longer be classed as "muddy," but rather as a " shelly bot- 
tom," for a large number of animals, in addition to those of true muddy 
bottoms, live among or attached to the oysters. 

Along the peaty and clayey banks, especially where undermined by 
the waves, even nearly up to high-water mark, the Pctrlcola plioladi- 
formis (p. 372, Plate XXYI, fig. 199,) and Pholas truncata, (Plate XXVII, 
fig. 200,) are often found in their deep burrows in considerable numbers. 
The Tagelus gibla (Plate XXVI, fig. 181, and Plate XXX, fig. 217,) 
burrows at and below low-water mark on the muddy and argillaceous 
shores of the estuaries, as well as on the shores of the bays. On muddy 
bottoms, toward the outer parts of the estuaries and harbors, the 
Mulinia later alls (Plate XXVI, fig. 184, B) often occurs in great abun- 
dance. And in similar places, even where the bottom consists largely of 
decaying vegetable matter, the Tellina tenta (Plate XXX, fig. 225) and 
Solenomya velum (Plate XXIX, fig. 210) are sometimes found in consid- 
erable numbers. The Callista convexa (Plate XXX, fig. 219) also occurs 
in similar places. 

The Ascidians, Bryozoa, and Eadiata are almost entirely wanting on 
the muddy shores and bottoms of estuaries, unless in localities where 
eel-grass or oyster-beds afford them suitable stations ; but such localities 
will be discussed farther on. 

List of species inhabiting the muddy shores and bottoms of brackish waters. 




Cicindela marginata 335 

Hydrophilus quadristriatus 466 


Culex, sp 466 

Ephydra, sp 466 



Gelasimus pugiiax. 

G. minax . - 

Si'sanmi reticulata 

Panopeus Sayi 

P. depressus 

P. Ilarrisii , . . 

Callinectes liastatus ...... 

Carcinus granulatus 

Libiuia canaliculata 

Enpagurus longicarpus. . - 

Gebia affinis 

Crangon vulgaris 

Pala5monetes vulgaris 

Mysis stenolepis * 

Squill a empusa 



468 | 
468 ; 
468 ! 
407 1 
368 I 
339 | 
466 j 

Qrohestia agilis 

O. palustris 

Gaminarus rnucronatus,. . 

Melita nitida 

Ampelisca, sp 

Ampbitboe valida 

A. compta 

Coropbium cylindricum. . 
Spbreroma quadridentata 

Idotea irrorata 

Epelys trilobus 

E. montosus 

JaBra copiosa 

Limnoria lignorum 

Liinulus Polyphemus 


Nepbtbys ingens 

Podarke obscura 

Eteone, sp 

Nereis virens 

Marpbysa Leiclyi 

Lumbriconereis opalina 

Ebyncbobolus Americanus . 

Nemertes socialis 

K. dibrancbiatus 

Cirratulus grandis. . . 
Notornastus filiformis 
Cistenides Gouldii . . 




324 | Cosmocepbala ocbracea... 

Polycirrus eximius 

Cbretobrancbus sangnineus. 

Pontoneina marinum 


P. vacillatum 




Ilyauassa obsoleta 468 

Nassa vibex 371 

Eupleura caudata 371 

Urosalpinx cinerea ........ 306 

Astyris lunata , 306 

Bittium nigrum 305 

Littorina rudis 305 

L. palliata 305 

Littorina irrorata 

Littorinella minuta - . . 

Crepidula convexa 

C. fornicata 

0. unguiformis 

Bulla solitaria 

Melampus bideiitatus 

.".1 I 









Pholas truncata 470 

P. costata , . . . 433 

Mya arenaria 469 

Macoma fusca 469 

Tellina tenta 470 

Angulustener 358 

Tagelus gibba 470 

Petricola pholadiformis 470 

Callista convexa 470 

Mulinia lateralis 470 

.Solenomya velum 470 

Nucula proxima 432 

Argina pexata 309 

Modiola plicatula 469 

M. hamatus 374 

Mytilus edulis 470 

Venus mercenaria 469 Ostraea Virgininna 310 


Although the oyster-beds are generally planted on bottoms that were 
originally muddy, when covered wholly or partially with living oysters or 
with dead oyster- shells, such bottoms may properly be regarded as "shelly 
bottoms" analogous to the natural shelly bottoms of the outer waters. 
The shells of the oysters afford suitable attachment for various shells, 
bryozoa, ascidians, hydroids, sponges, &c., which could not otherwise 
maintain their existence on muddy bottoms, while other kinds of ani- 
mals, such as crab s, annelids, &c., find shelter beneath the shells or in 
their interstices. Some species have apparently been introduced from, 
farther south with the oysters ; among these are Modiola liamatm and 
Panopeus Herbstii, neither of which is positively known to be fully nat- 
uralized on our shores. 

In planting the oysters they are more or less uniformly scattered over, 
the bottom, from somewhat above low-water mark to the depth of ten 
or twelve feet. The oysters thus planted are brought mostly from the 
waters of Virginia and Maryland in spring. During the summer they 
usually increase greatly in size, and often become very fat and improve in 
flavor. They are taken up in the fall, for if left exposed to the freezing 
weather of our winters, at least all those in very shallow water would be 
killed. They often double in bulk during the summer. Besides the im- 
mense quantities of oysters thus brought from farther south to be " plant- 
ed" in our waters, large quantities of young " natives" are also collected 
from the localities where they naturally breed, and are planted on muddy 
bottoms in the brackish waters, where they grow very rapidly, usually 
attaining a size suitable for the market in two or three years. 

These " native oysters," although of the same species as those brought 
from the south, are more hardy, and will live through the winter if cov- 
ered by a depth of water sufficient to prevent them from freezing. The 
young oysters that attach themselves to stones, ledges, &c., between 
tides, often in great abundance, nearly all perish by freezing during the 
winter. They mostly become an inch to an inch and a half in diameter 
during the first summer. The period of spawning lasts for some time, 


but most of it si-cms to be done in INIny, June, and July. Tin- young, 
after swimming about for a short time, attach themselves to any suitable 
hard object, such as rocks, shells, timber, brush, &c. On our coast very 
few attempts have been made to raise the young oysters by artificial 
means, because the young oysters, of a size suitable to plant, can gen- 
erally be bought at a price less than the actual cost of raising them. 
The time will doubtless come, however, when this will no longer be the 
case, and then the methods so successfully employed on the coast of 
France may be resorted to with great advantage. 

The young oysters must find some solid substance- to which they can 
attach themselves, before losing their locomotive organs, otherwise they 
will fall to the bottom and perish in the mud. It is evident, therefore, 
that although the oysters planted on muddy bottoms of the right kind 
-will grow most rapidly, owing to the great abundance of their micro- 
scopic food in the mud and turbid water; yet such localities are unfa- 
vorable for breeding- grounds, because theyoung,or "spat," will find no 
suitable objects to w;hich they can attach themselves,unless, by chance, 
to the shells of the old oysters. Therefore, if it be desired to have the 
oysters in such localities produce the-young ones necessary to maintain 
the bed permanently, it will be necessary to place hard objects on the 
bottom, to which they may adhere. Stones, broken bricks, &c., may be 
used for this purpose, but nothing is better than old oyster- shells, and 
they are generally cheaper than anything else. 

On the coast of France bundles of twigs or fagots, prepared tiles, 
and other objects have been used to catch the young, and they are al- 
lowed to remain on such objects until they become large enough to be 
removed and planted elsewhere. 

It is obvious that the best breeding-grounds are on hard bottoms, 
where there are large quantities of dead shells, pebbles, &c., to which 
the young will be sure to adhere. But such bottoms are not the best 
localities for the rapid growth and fattening of the oysters. Therefore 
it is always found profitable to transplant the young oysters, when large 
enough, from, hard bottoms to the muddy bottoms of the estuaries,where 
their natural food most abounds. 

All muddy bottoms are not equally adapted for this purpose. The great 
differences to be found in the muddy bottoms of various localities have 
already been mentioned on a previous page. (See p. 430.) Those bottoms 
that are composed mainly of tenacious clay are unsuitable, both because 
the oysters become imbedded too deeply in the clay, and because such 
mud contains but little organic matter. Those that consist of clay or 
sand mixed with decaying vegetable matter, and have a black, putrid 
layer just beneath the surface are also unsuitable and should be avoided. 
Those that consist of very deep, soft, pasty mud, though the mud itself 
may be of good quality, are apt to allow the oysters to sink too deeply 
beneath the surface and thus become smothered in the mud. 

The most suitable localities are those sheltered places where there is 
a firm substratum of sand or gravel, overlaid with a few inches of soft, 


floceulent mud, consisting largely of living microscopic animals and 
plants, Infusoria, Diatoms, &c. Such localities are to be found in most 
of our shallow estuaries, harbors, and brackish ponds, and on such 
grounds the oysters grow and become fat with surprising rapidity. 

The character of such bottoms is very liable to be changed by storms, 
especially in winter, either by the removal of the organic mud to 
some other part of the bottom or shore, or by the washing in of silt or 
clay in quantities sufficient to cover the bottom and destroy the living 
organisms. Thus it happens that a locality may be an excellent oys- 
ter-ground one year and comparatively worthless the next, or a poor 
locality may in the next year become a good one. And on this account 
the great reputation that the oysters of a particular locality often ac- 
quire in a favorable year may not belong to them in subsequent years, 
for the quality of the oysters changes with the character of the food and 
bottom where they grow. I have already mentioned several of the more 
important enemies of the oysters on former pages. (See pp. 306, 320.) 
The star-fishes, which are among the most destructive of these, do not 
flourish in brackish waters, and this is, therefore, a great advantage. 

The quantity of oysters taken from our waters is far greater than is 
generally supposed by those not familiar with this important business. 
The best statistics are necessarily very incomplete, but they are sufficient 
to show the almost incredible magnitude of this industry, which is, 
moreover, rapidly increasing as the facilities for transporting the oysters 
to all parts of the country, even to the Pacific coast, are multiplied. 

According to the official report of Hunter Davidson, commissioner, 
upon the oyster-fisheries, &c., of Maryland, January, 1872,* the quantity 
of oysters taken in Maryland waters in the year 1869-'70 was 11,233,475 
bushels, which, at an average value of 35 cents per bushel, would amount 
to $4,031,716. To catch and convey these to market 8,070 men were em- 
ployed on the water ; 7,190,400 bushels were taken by 642 vessels (ton- 
nage 14,436) engaged in dredging, and employing 4,060 hands. The 
balance, 2,043,075 bushels, were taken by 1,647 boats or " canoes," using 
tongs and rakes, and employing 3,410 hands. 

In 1870-71, 597 vessels, (tonnage 13,425,) engaged in dredging, and 
employing 3,775 hands, took 6,686,400 bushels ; and 1,649 " canoes " 
took, with tongs, 2,261,403 bushels, employing 3,507 hands ; making the 
total amount for the year, 10,947,803 bushels, valued at $3,831,731. 
Many of these oysters were sold at $1 to $1.50 per bushel, while 
others were sold for less than twenty-five cents, but it is probable that 
the estimated average value (thirty-five cents) is considerably below the 
actual value. 

The quantity taken in the waters of Virginia is probably quite as 
large as that from Maryland. 

Large quantities are also taken along the coast of New Jersey, Long 

* Report on the Oyster-Fisheries, Potomac River Shad and Herring Fisheries, and 
the Water-fowl of Maryland, to his excellency the governor and other commissioners 
of the State oyster-police force, January, 1872. 


Island, and Connecticut. It is, therefore, probable that the total amount 
taken on the coast north of Cape Hatteras is not less than :iO,000,(WO 
bushels annually, having a value of more than $20,000,000. In making 
this estimate we should allow for the great increase in bulk and \;ilu<-, 
of many of the Maryland and Virginia oysters that are transplanted to 
northern waters, and allowed to grow befcre using. The average value 
of the northern oysters, both native and transplanted, is probably more 
than seventy-five cents per bushel. It is, therefore, probable that the 
above estimate is considerably too low. 

The great oyster-markets of the country are Baltimore and New York. 
In Baltimore immense quantities of oysters are put up in kegs and 
cans to supply the distant parts of our own country and also to ship 
to nearly all foreign countries. In 1867 it was estimated that more 
than 10,000 persons were employed in this branch of the business. 
There were then thirty packing-houses, employing 4,500 openers. In ad- 
dition to the packing business great quantities of oysters are sold at Bal- 
timore and sent away in the shell. The total quantity sold at Baltimore 
exceeded 7,000,000 bushels, of which about 5,000,000 bushels came from 
Maryland waters, and the balance from Virginia. Of these over 
1,000,000 bushels were sent to New York, 700,000 to Fair Haven, Con- 
necticut, where an extensive packing business is carried on, 450,000 
to Philadelphia, 350,000 to Boston. 

The oyster trade of New York, several years ago, was estimated at 
over $8,000,000, employing 2,500 vessels, and it has greatly increased 
since that estimate was made. 

Among the most common shells that are found attached to oysters 
are Crepidula fornicata (Plate XXIII, figs. 129, 129a) and C.unguiformis, 
(Plate XXIII, fig. 127.) They both occur together on the upper as well 
as the under valves, and in all cases retain their ordinary characters, 
except that the latter is more regular in form, and usually has the 
upper surface slightly convex, instead of being much distorted and 
with a concave upper surface, as the larger specimens that live on 
the inside of dead univalves usually are. Its color, when living on the 
oysters, is always white, while the C. fornicata is always more or less 
marked with brown. 

The common muscle, Mytllus edulis, (p. 307) frequently occurs attached 
to oysters, and when it accumulates on the oyster-beds in large quan- 
tities it is very injurious. The Modiola liamatus (p. 374) is -a very pe- 
culiar-looking muscle, having a broad, often hatchet-shaped, distorted 
shell, covered with prominent radiating ribs, many of which are forked. 
Its color is yellowish or brownish. It somewhat resembles Modiola pliea- 
tula, but is broader and has coarser ribs. This muscle is sometimes 
found in New Haven Harbor, living on the oyster-beds in considerable 
numbers, and of full size, attached to the oysters, either singly or in 
clusters, by the byssal threads. It has been observed only in the sum- 
mer and fall and it may not have survived the winters, for it is possible 


tbat all the individuals may have been brought from the south, iii the 
spring, when quite small, attached to the oysters. It may be, however, 
that it has really become naturalized on our shores. It is very common 
in the Gulf of Mexico, and on other parts of the southern coast. The 
Anomia glabm (p. 311, Plate XXII, ^figs. 241, 242, 242a) is also very 
commonly found adhering to "Oysters. 

The hard sandy tubes of Sabellaria vulgaris (p. 321, Plate XVII, figs 
88, 88a) and the calcareous tubes of /Serpula dianthus (p. 322) are very fre- 
quent upon oyster-shells, and occasionally those of Potamilla oculifera, 
(p 322, Plate XVII, fig. 86,) Scionopsis palmata, (p. 321,) and other species 
are met with. Many other Annelids are to be found burrowing or hiding 
beneath the oysters. The common green star-fish, Aster las arenicola, (p. 
326, Plate XXXV, fig. 269,) occasionally occurs on the oyster-beds near 
the mouths of estuaries, but is seldom sufficiently abundant in the 
brackish waters to do serious damage to the oyster-beds. 

In the brackish waters the " drill," Urosalpinx cinerea, (p. 300, Plate 
XXI, fig. 116,) is the worst enemy of the oyster, and is sometimes so 
numerous as to do very serious damage. 

Several species of Hydroids grow adhering to oysters. The most 
abundant of these, in brackish water, is usually Halechim gracile V., 
(p. 328,) but two or three species of Obelia and some other forms occur. 

Of Bryozoa, one of the most common species is the Escliarella variab- 
ilis, (p. 312, Plate XXXIII, fig. 256,) which forms calcareous incrusta- 
tions. The Bugula turrita, (p. 311, Plate XXXIV, figs 258, 259,) and 
Vesicularia dichotoma V. (p. 404) are also common. The Alcyonidhnn 
hirsutum, (p. 404,) which forms soft fleshy crusts over the surface of 
the shells, is quite frequently seen. 

The common red sponge (p. 330) is often abundant on the oyster-beds 
where the water is not much freshened. 

List of species inhabiting oyster-beds in brackish icaters. 



Chironomus oceauicus 379 



E. longicarpus 313 

Grangon vulgaris 339 

Mysis Americana 370 

Melita nitida 314 

Ampelisca, sp 431 

Unciola irrorata 340 

Oorophium cylindricum 370 

Epelys trilobus 370 

Pinnotheres ostreum 367 

Cancer irroratus 312 

Panopeus Herbstii 472 

P. Sayi 312 

P. depressus 312 

Carciims granulatus 312 

Libinia canaliculata 368 

Eupagurus pollicaris 313 




Lepidoiiotus squarnatus 320 

L. sublevis 320 

Phyllodoce, sp 349 

Eulalia, sp 349 

Eteone, sp 349 

Podarke obscura 319 

Nereis virens 317 

K limbata 318 

Marphysa Leidyi 319 

Luinbriconereis opalina 320 

Bhynchobolus Americanus. 319 

R. dibranchiatus . . 319 

Cirratulus grandis 

Sabellaria vulgaris 

Cistenides Gouldii 

Nicolea simplex 

Scionopsis palmata 

Polycirrus eximius 

Chaetobranclms sanguineus. 

Potamilla oculifera 

Sabella microphthalma 

Fabricia Leidyi 

Serpula dianthus ., 

Spirorbis, sp 




Nemerteans and Planarians. 


Nemertes socialis 324 

Cosmocephala ochracea 325 

Polinia glutinosa 324 


Monocelis agilis 325 

Procerodes frequens 325 


Pontonema marinum . . 325 

P. vacillatum 





Urosalpinx cinerea 476 

Fulgur carica 355 

Sycotypns canaliculatus. .. 355 

Ilyanassa obsoleta 354 

Astyris lunata 306 

Eissoa aculeus 306 

Littorinella minuta 469 

Bittium nigrum 305 


Odostomia fasca 307 

O. trifida 307 

O.bisuturalis 307 

Crepidula fornicata 475 

C. unguiformis , 475 

C. eonvexa 355 

Doridella obscura. . 307 



Venus mercenaria 469 

Argina pexata 309 

Scapharca transversa 309 

My tilus edulis 475 


Modiola liamatus 475 

Pecten irradians 361 

Anoniia glabra 476 

Ostrrea Virginiana 472 




Cynthia partita 


Molffiila Manhattensis 311 


Page. \ Page. 

Bugula turrita 476 | Vesicularia dichotoma . . . 

Escharella variabilis 476 Alcyonidiuin hirsutum . . 476 

Membranipora lineata 406 | Pedicellina Americana . . . 


Ecliinoderms. . 


Asterias areuicola 



Obelia gelatinosa 391 

O. diaphana 327 


Halecium gracile 476 

Sertularia argentea 408 

O. pyriformis 


Metridium marginatum 329 


Sagartia leucolena. .... 329 




Tedania, species 330 . 

Eed branching sponge 476 

Halichondria, sp , 330 


A large portion of the shallow parts of nearly all the harbors, estu- 
aries, and ponds is occupied by a dense growth of eel-grass, Zostera 
marina, in summer. This plant flourishes both on sandy and muddy 
bottoms. During the fall and winter it is mostly torn up and drifted 
away by storms, but in the spring a new crop starts up and grows very 
rapidly, the narrow, ribbon-like leaves often becoming six feet or more 
in length during the summer. 

These tracts of eel-grass are the favorite resorts of a considerable 
number of animals, which seek these places either for food or conceal- 
ment and shelter, or for both combined. Other species, including certain 
hydroids, bryozoa, and ascidians, grow attached to the leaves of the 


Many small lishes fivqui'iit the patches of eel-grass, and find there 
abundance of food and unusual safety from their enemies. 

Among the most common Crustacea found among the eel .urass an- 
the edible crab, Callmectes hastatus, (p. 307 ;) Panopcus Sayi, (p. 312 ;) 
P. thyrcssus, (Plate I, fig. 3 ;) Eupagurus longicarpus, (p. 313 ;) the prawn, 
Paln'monetes vulgaris. (p. 360, Plate II, fig. 9 ;) the common shrimp, Cran- 
gon rul(/<irix, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10 ;) the green shrimp, Vir Uus zos teri- 
cola, (p. 3C9, Plate III, fig. 11;) Mysis stenolepis, (p. 370, Plate III, fig. 12;) 
M. Americana, (p. 370;) Idotea irrorata, (p. 31G, Plate V, fig. 23;) Melita 
nitida, (p. 314.) The common prawn (Plate II, fig. 9) has its true home 
among the eel-grass, and here it occurs in countless numbers. Its trans- 
lucent body, marked with irregular, ill-defined, dark blotches and spots, 
admirably adapts it for concealment among the discolored and dead 
leaves of the plant, at or near the bottom. 

Where the eel-grass grows on sandy bottoms the common shrimp is 
scarcely less abundant. The VirMus is often abundant, associated with 
the common prawn, and having similar habits. All these shrimps and 
prawns are eagerly devoured by the fishes. The Idotea irrorata is gen- 
erally very abundant, and clings firmly to the leaves of the eel-grass 
lengthwise. Its body is generally curiously and variously colored with 
green and brown, &c., and these colors are often so arranged as to imi- 
tate very perfectly the colors of the eel-grass when partially dead or 
discolored. Sometimes the right or left half of the body will be bright 
green, while the opposite half will be dark brown. In other cases there 
will be a dorsal bright green stripe, while the sides will be darji brown, 
just like one of the leaves of the eel-grass that is discolored at the 
edges, but green in the middle. More commonly these colors are ir- 
regularly disposed in blotches. 

The Ericlisoma attenuata HARGEE, is a remarkably slender species^ 
which also lives clinging to the eel-grass. Its colors are green and 
brown, and quite variable. 

Several species of Amphipods are also abundant among the eel-grass. 
One of the most common of these is the Gammarus mucronatus, (p. 466,) 
which is easily distinguished by the dorsal teeth on the abdominal seg- 
ments. Microdeutopus minax SMITH, is a very small species, which 
sometimes occurs in great abundance in the small brackish ponds. It 
is remarkable for its relatively large and very broad hands, armed 
beneath with three prominent teeth. The hands are nearly as large as 
the entire body. 

, Among tbe Mollusks several interesting species occur. The Ilyanassa 
obsolete, (p. 371, Plate XXI, fig. 113;) Bittium nigrum, (p.305, Plate XXIV, 
fig. 154;) and Astyris lunate, (p. 306, Plate XXI, fig. 110,) are generally 
the most abundant species. The Nassa vibex (p. 371, Plate XXI, fig. 114) 
is met with occasionally, living on and about the roots of eel-grass, but 
it is an uncommon shell in our waters, though quite abundant on the 
southern coasts. The Crepidula convexa (p. 371, Plate XXIII, fig. 128) 


may be found, both adhering to the leaves of eel-grass and attached to 
shells occupied by the smaller hermit-crabs. 

The curious little naked mollusk, Elysiella catulus, (Plate XXV, fig. 
171,) is often quite common on the leaves of eel-grass in our harbors. 
It also has the power of floating with the bottom of the foot at the 
surface of the water. Its small size and bright green color, like that 
of the growing leaves of the Zostera, cause it to be easily overlooked. 

The related species, Elysia chlorotica, (Plate XXV, fig. 172,) appears 
to have similar habits, but is much less common. Its color is also 
green. The pretty Doto coronata (p. 400, Plate XXV, fig. 170) also 
occasionally occurs on the leaves of eel-grass. 

A green Planarian is frequent on the eel-grass, and also a bright red 

List of species inhabiting the eel-grass in brackish water*. 



Chironomus oceanicus, 




Panopeus depressus 479 

P. Sayi 479 

Callinectes hastatus 479 

Carcinus grauulatus 312 

Libinia canaliculata 3C8 

L. dubia 368 

Eupagurus longicarpus 479 

Crangon vulgaris 479 

Virbius zostericola 479 

Palaemonetes vulgaris 479 

Mysis stenolepis 479 

M.Americana 479 

Gaminarus mucronatus.. 479 


Melita nitida 479 

Microdeutopus minax 479 

Amphithoe valida 315 

A. longimana...' 370 

A. compta 370 

Oorophium cyliudricum 370 

Caprella geometrica 382 

Idotea irrorata 479 

Erichsonia attenuata 479 

Epelys trilobus 370 

Balanus ebumeus 381 

Limulus 'Polyphemus 340 



Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

Podarke obscura 319 

Autolyfcis cornutus 397 

Nereis limbata 318 


Nicolea simplex 
Scionopsis palmata 
Polycinus eximius 
Spirorbis, sp 

Nemerteans and Planarians. 


Polinia glutinosa 324 

Cerebratulus, sp 324 

Planarian, (red sp.) 
Planarian, (dark green sp.) 






Illyanassa obsolota 470 

>'assa vilu'K 479 

Astyris lunata 479 

Anadiis avara 300 

l.ittium nigTum 479 

Tritbris nigrocmctus 305 

Littorinella minuta Mil* 

< Yopidula couvexa . ... 17!> 

Doto coronata 480 

Elysia chlorotica 480 

Elysiella catulus 480 



Argiua pexata 309 

Mytilus edulis . . ........ 470 


Pecten irradians 361 

Ostraea Yirgiiiiana 472 


Molgula Mauhattensis 311 

Botryllus Gouldii 




Bugula turrita 311 

Vesicularia dichotoma . . . 404 


Escharella variabilis 312 

Membranipora, lineata 406 




Obelia diapbaua 327 

Obelia, sp 476 

Hydractinia polyclina 


Sagartia leucolena 





The piles of wharves in brackish harbors are often inhabited by an 
abundance of animal life. The same species are mostly to be found also 
on piles of wharves in the purer waters of the sounds, and many of tln-m 
have, therefore, already been mentioned in a previous place, (p. 378.) 
There are some of these species, however, that appear to flourish best 
in waters that are decidedly brackish. 

Among the most conspicuous of these is the beautiful Tubularian 
14 v 


Parypha crocea, (p. 390, Plate, XXXVI, fig. 274,) which grows in large 
tufts, several inches in height, and often covers large surfaces of the piles 
and timbers at and just below low- water mark. Associated with this the 
Obctia (jelatinosa (p. 301) often occurs in large quantities. This is a 
large and very beautiful species, having a large dark colored stem, com- 
posed of numerous united tubes, but the terminal branches are white 
and delicate, and the cells have an elegant bell-shaped form, with a 
toothed margin. It grows to the length of a foot or more. This species 
occurs on the piles of Long Wharf, in New Haven Harbor, in great 
abundance, associated with the preceding ; at this place the water is not 
only quite brackish, but is very impure, on account of sewerage, &c. 

Other species of Obelia also occur in similar places. ^TkeBalanus ebur- 
nens is a very abundant barnacle in brackish waters, growing upon piles, 
timbers, oyster-stakes, and every other kind of fixed wood- work, and 
also upon the bottoms of vessels and floating timber. As already re- 
marked (p. 381) it is capable of living even in fresh water. The Bala- 
nus balanoides also occurs where the water is less brackish. The piles 
and timbers of the wharves are often badly damaged by the perfora- 
tions of Teredo navalis (p. 384, Plate XXVI, fig. 183) even where the 
water is very brackish.* 

The Limnoria lignorum (p. 379) also attacks wood-work in waters that 
are somewhat brackish. 

Lists of species inhabiting piles of wharves, floating timbers, <*<?., in brack- 
ish waters. 




Chironomus oceanicus.. 331 

Anurida maritime. 



Pauopeus depressus 312 

Microdeutopus minax 479 

Amphithoe compta 370 

Corophium cylindricum 370 

Caprella, sp 316 


Jrera copiosa 315 

Idotea irrorata 316 

Limnoria lignorum 482 

Balanus balauoides . 482 

B. eburneus.. 482 

Since the account of the Teredo navalis, on page 384, has been in type, I have learned 
some additional facts in regard to it from Mr. V. N. Edwards. The statement that the 
buoys are taken up every six months does not apply to the spar-buoys, which are 
taken up only once a year, in April and May. Mr. Edwards states that the Teredos 
would destroy an unpainted spar-buoy in one year, but when painted with verdigris 
they will only work where the paint becomes rubbed off. They grow to full size in 
one year. They first attack buoys or piles just below the water's edge, but eventually 
will destroy the entire submerged part of the spar-buoys. He thinks that some of 
them live through the winter. 




Nereis limlmta 318 

Autolytus cornutus. 397 

Sabellaria vnlgaris 321 

Nicolea simplex 321 

Polycirrus eximius 320 

Potamilla oculifera :;I'L' 

Sabella microphthalma :;L':> 

Fabricia Leidyi 

Serpula diauthus 

Spirorbis, sp 323 


Monocelis anilis 

Poliuia glutinpsa 


Nemertea socialis 


Pontonema marinum 


P. vacillaturn 






Bela plicata 383 

Ilyanassa obsoleta 468 

Tritia tri vittata 354 

Urosalpinx cinerea. .... 306 

Astyris Innata 306 

Anachis avara 306 

llissoa aculeus 306 

Skenea planofbis 383 

Littorina rudis . 305 


L, palliata 305 

Odostoinia bisuturalis ,.. = .. 307 

Bittiiira nigrum 305 

Ceritbiopsis Greenii 383 

Triforis nigrocinctus 305 

Alexia myosotis 383 

Mel am pus bidentatus 469 

pilata 383 



Teredo navalis 482 

Argina pexata 309 

Mytilus edulis 307 


Modiola plicatula 307 

Anomia glabra 311 

Ostrsea Virginiana 310 



Molgula Ma nli at ten sis 311 

Cynthia partita 311 

Botryllus Gouldii 




Vesicularia dichotoma 389 

Escharella variabilis. . 31.2 

Bugnla turrita 

Pedicellina Americana 





Page. I I'M-'-. 

Obelia gelatinosa 482 Halecium gracile.. 

O. pyriformis 390 Parypha crocea 482 

O. diapbana 327 




Sagartia leucolena 329 Metriditim margioatnm 329 


All along this coast, from Cape Coil to Stonington, Connecticut, there 
is a belt or current of cold water which impinges directly against the 
outer islands and the open coast, especially where there are points of 
land projecting outward toward the deeper waters. This is especially 
noticeable at Gay Head, on Martha's Vineyard, No Man's Land, Cutty- 
hunk Island, Montauk Point, Block Island, Point Judith, and Watch 
Hill. This cold water is undoubtedly derived from the Arctic current, 
which passes slowly southward in deep water off our coast, but whether 
an actual current, distinguishable from the tidal currents, exists in the 
waters of moderate depth along the coast is still uncertain. The tidal 
currents apparently have the effect of bringing the cold water of the 
outside regions up into the shallower localities along the shores, and it 
is probable that the presence of the cold water in moderate depths is 
clue to the joint action of the tides and the slow-moving Arctic current, 
which impinges more or less against and upon the slope of the sub- 
merged eastern border of the continent. But the position, extent, and 
temperature of this cold water along our shores varies greatly, accord- 
ing to the direction of the tidal currents and the surface currents 
caused by the wind. We have shown, on a former page, that at times 
these local winds and tidal currents are able even to bring Gulf Stream 
water and its characteristic animals directly upon this coast, even as far 
westward as Watch Hill, Ehode Island, where the Physalia is often cast 
ashore in slimmer. At such times the cold current must necessarily be 
wholly displaced, or disguised by intermixture with the warmer waters. 
When the tide is flowing from Long Island Sound, Vineyard Sound, or 
other large bodies of warm water, the cold waters will also be displaced 
and the temperature raised even at the distance of twenty or thirty miles 
from the shore in summer. In winter there is comparatively little 
effect from the Gulf Stream, owing to the prevalence of northerly winds, 
and there is also far less effect from the warm waters of the shallow 
bays and sounds carried by the tides. Therefore the full effect of the 
northern current is felt only in winter, and it doubtless adds to the cold 
proper to the season and land climate. 

In winter and early spring we accordingly find numerous species ot 
northern animals and algae which disappear partially or wholly in many 


of these localities in summer. In. April, May, and June, the cod and 
haddock resort in large numbers to the banks and roof's oft' Stoning! on, 
AYateli Hill, No Man's Land, and other similar places, but arc quite, 
unknown there later in the summer. 

In consequence of the varying temperatures of the currents which 
alternately pass over certain of these localities, there is a very peculiar 
admixture of northern and southern species, side by side. This is par- 
ticularly the case on the reefs between Watch Hill and Fisher's Island, 
where the southern Astmnyia Danw is associated with the northern 
Alcyoniii-m carneum, Cribrella sanguinolenta, and many other northern 

The temperature of the bottom-water during the last of August and 
first of September was found to vary from 57 F. to 63, in sixteen to 
twenty-nine fathoms off Martha's Vineyard and Buzzard's Bay, (see 
chart.) The surface temperatures were at the same time 62 to Gl, and 
occasionally as high as 67, when affected by warmer currents. 


The principal localities under this head at which we have made col- 
lections are No Man's Land, Cuttyhunk Island, Gay Head, and Watch 
Hill, Ehode Island. Dr. J. E. Leidy has published a partial list of the 
species found at Point Judith,* and we have more or less information 
concerning the fauna of several other similar localities. In all these 
places the assemblage of animals is nearly the same, and in general not 
very different from what we find on the rocky shores of the sounds and 
bays, (see p. 303.) A large part of the species of these shores have, 
therefore, already been mentioned in connection with the fauna of the 
bays and sounds. 

There are, however, many species that are characteristic of the latter, 
which are found but rarely, or not at all, on the colder and more ex- 
posed outer shores ; and these are characterized by the abundance of 
some northern species which are rare or wanting on the inner shores, or 
which occur there only in winter. 

Among the most abundant species of shells are Purpura lap ill m, (p. 
306, Plate XXI, figs. 118, 119 ;) Littorina pallia ta, (p. 305, Plate XXIV, 
fig. 138 ;) L.ruclis, (p. 305, Plate XXIV, fig. 137;) Acmcca testudinaUts, 
(p. 307, Plate XXI Y, figs. 158, 159;) and Lacuna vincta, (p. 305, Plate 
XXIY, fig. 139,) all of which occur adhering to the rocks or alga', even 
in the most exposed situations. These are all hardy northern species, 
which extend their range to Greenland or beyond, and although all of 
them are to be found, more or less frequently, on the inner shores, they 
are there less abundant and generally of smaller size. The Littorina 
pcdUata is extremely abundant on the Fucus^ud individuals were found 
at Watch Hill, copulating, April 12. The Lacuna vincta breeds still 

* Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, *^d series, vol. iii, 


earlier in the season, for its eggs were found attached to algse and eel- 
grass at the date named. The eggs of this species are small, yellowish 
white, imbedded in a gelatinous mass, having an annular form, but 
showing a break or suture on one side. These annular egg-masses are 
attached by one side to the surfaces of flat algse or eel-grass in large 
numbers ; they are from .12 to .20 of an inch in diameter. 

The JEolis papillosa was found at Watch Hill, under stones, April 
12, and with it were long, much convoluted, gelatinous cords, tilled with 
minute pale red or salmon-colored eggs, which probably belong to this 
species, which is a northern one, and has not hitherto been recorded as 
from south of Cape Cod. It is very abundant in the Bay of Fundy, and 
similar egg-clusters are found there under rocks during the entire sum- 

Among arid between the stones the northern purple star-fish, Aster -las 
vulgaris (p. 432) is often found at low- water, and also the green sea- 
urchin, Strongylocentrotus Drobachiensis (p. 40C, Plate XXXY, fig. 208) 
during the spring tides. 

The Balanus balanoides (p. 305) is quite as abundant on the most ex- 
posed rocks as elsewhere. The minute bivalve young of this species 
were found just attaching themselves to the lower surfaces of rocks in 
immense numbers at Watch Hill on the 12th of April. 

Beneath the stones the rock-crab, Cancer irroratus, (p. 312,) is very 
common, and occasionally the much rarer Cancer borealix is found dead 
on these shores. It wa.s thus found at Gay Head and Xo Man's Laud, 
but it is doubtful whether it lives above low-water mark. In the 
tower part of the fucus zone the large (fammarus orualu* (p. 314, Plate 

IV, fig. 15) is always to be found in great abundance under stones, and 
in the upper half of the fucus zone the smaller species, Gammarut an- 
nulatas (p. 314) and Gammarus marinus often occur in great numbers, 
associated with Jcera copiosa (p. 315) and Idotca irrorata (p. 31G, Plate 

V, fig. 23.) The Gammarus marinus occurs higher up than either of 
the other species, and is sometimes abundant even near high-water 
mark, where the soil beneath the stones is barely moist at low water. 
The AmpMthoe maculata (p. 315, Plate IV, fig. 16) is also a common 
species under stones ; and both green and reddish brown varieties 

Another species of AmpUthoe, of smaller si^e, was found swimming 
free in the rocky pools at Watch Hill, April 12. In this the general color 
was red, or brownish red; the body was transversely banded with pale 
flesh-color or whitish, alternating with bands of dark red or brown, which 
are made up of minute crowded specks; the antenna are anuulated with 
pale red, and are thickly specked, on the bands and at the base, with 
darker red. The Hyale Uttoralis (p. 315) is a small but very active Am- 
phipod, which is often abundant near high-water mark on the rocky 
shores, clinging to the Fucus and other algae, or swimming in the tide- 
pools. It is capable of leaping actively like the beach-fleas, (Ordiestia 


ilit,) which it somewhat resembles in form. The color is very 
it is often bright yellowish greeu, but frequently dark green, brownish 
green, or brown. 

The Nereis virens (p. 317, PI. XI, figs. 47-49) is very abundant in bur- 
rows beneath the rocks. The males of this species, six to ten inches or 
more in length, and of a dark green color, were found at Watch Hill, 
April 12, in great numbers, swimming about in the pools of water among 
the rocks, with an undulatory motion, and discharging their milt in large 
quantities. Various other Annelids burrow or build tubes beneath the 
stones. A.planaria and Leptoplana folium creep over their lower sur- 

Attached to the stems of Fmus at low-water, several Hydroids may 
usually be found, but the Sertularia pumila (p.. 327, PI. XXXVII, tig. 
279) is by far the most abundant. The Obelia geniculata is also very 
common, attached to Laminaria and other alg3. Various Bryozoa occur 
attached to stones and to Fucus and other alga?. The Alcyonidium 
hispidum (p. 312) is one of the most abundant species, and usually in- 
vests the stems and fronds of Fucus vesiculosus, but also often covers 
broad surfaces of the rocks. The A. hirsutum is often associated with 
the preceding species on the rocks; it forms broad, thin, soft crusts, cov- 
ered with small soft prominences, but is without the spines or bristles 
seen in the latter. The Zooids are also much smaller. 

The Farrella familiar is is a singular and delicate species, which occurs 
both on the under side of rocks and on alga3. The body is small, fusi- 
form, attached by a long and very slender, flexible pedicel. When it 
surrounds the stems of small algne, the whitish pedicels project outward 
in all directions, and thus produce the appearance of a delicate chenille- 
cord. This is a nor them and European species. It was also dredged on 
Saint George's bank in 1872. 

List of species found on the outer roclcy shores. 




Cancer irroratus 486 

Cancer borealis 486 

Pauopeus depressus 312 

Panopeus Sayi $12 

Homarus Arnericanus. 492 

Orchestia agilis 315 

Hyale littoralis 486 

Calliopius Iseviusculus 315 

Gamin a-rus ornatus 486 

(jam mar us aunulatus. . 486 


Gammarus marinus 486 

Amphithoe maculata 4*6 

Arnphithoe, sp 4S6 

Caprella, sp 316 

Jrera copiosa . , I >( 

Idotea irrorata 486 

I. phosphorea ... : ^ { > 

Erichsonia filiformis " 1 6 

Balanus balauoides 486 




Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

Harinothoe imbricata , 321 

Phyllodoce cantenula 494 

Eteone robusta 349 

Autoly tus cornutus 397 

Nereis virens 487 

N". pelagica = . 319 

Ophelia simplex 319 

Cirrliinereis fragilis ... 

Clymenella torquata 

Polycirrus eximius 

Sabellaria vulgaris 

Potamilla oculifera 

Fabricia Leiclyi , 

Serpula diauthus 

Spirorbis, sp 


Page. ! 

Planaria, species 487 i R emeries socialis. 

Leptoplana folium 487 \ Kemertes, sp 

Procerodes frequens 325 | Mouocelis agilis. . 


Pontoneina marinum 


Pontoneina vacillatuin 










Buccinum undaium 494 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Urosalpiux cinerea 306 

Purpura lapillus 485 

Astyris lunata 306 

Litiorina palliata 485 

L. rudis 485 

Lacuna vincta . 485 

L. neritoidea 

Bittium nigrum 

Acmaea testudinalis 

Doris bifida 

Polycera Lessonii 

Dendronotus arboresceDS. 

^Eolis papillosa 

Tergipes despectus 



Saxicava arctica 309 

Mya arenaria 309 

Kellia plaimlata 310 

My til us edulis . . . 
Modiola modiolus. 



Cynthia partita 311 

Molgula Manhattensis 311 

Amarceciuni pellucidum 






Alcyonidiuin liirsutum 487 

A. hispidum 487 

Yesicularia gracilis 380 

Y. cuscuta 404 

Y. fusca 420 

Farrella familiaris 487 

Tubulipora fkibellaris 405 

Crisia eburnea.. ... 311 


Bngula flabellata. , ,",ll 

Mnnbranipora pilosa 406 

M. lineata /KM; 

Escharella variabilis 312 

Discopora coccinea .... 333 

Lepralia, sp 420 

Cellepora ramulosa 312 

Pedicelliha Americana.. 405 




Strougylocentrotus Drobachi- 
eusis . . 49G 

Asterias vulgaris , 496 

Cribrella sanguinolenta. . 407 



Obelia pyriformis 390 

O. geniculata 487 

O. flabellata 390 

O. diaphana 327 

Campanularia flexuosa 327 


Sertularia pumila 487 

S. argentea 408 

Perm aria tiarella 327 

Olava leptostyla 328 

Hydractinia polyclina 228 





Metridium marginatuin 329 Sagartia leucolena 329 


Owing to the force of the waves the sand and gravel of the exposed 
shores are kept in constant motion in stormy weather, and are often dis- 
turbed to a considerable depth, especially in winter. Therefore the con- 
ditions are very unfavorable for the existence of animal life. The fauna 
of such shores is, accordingly, very meager, as compared with that of 
the more sheltered sandy shores of the bays and sounds. 

It often happens that one may examine these sandy beaches fora mile 
or more at low-water without finding more than half a dozen species of 
animals that actually live on them, though many may be found thrown 
up by the waves from below low- water mark. 

In coves or other localities that are somewhat sheltered, the number of 
species is greater, and most of them are identical with those found on 
the sandy shores of the sounds. 

Toward high-water mark the Talorcliestia longlcornis (p. 33G) and T. 


megalophthalma (p. 336) are everywhere cominou, burrowing in the sand. 
The Cancer irroratus (p. 338) and Platyonichus ocellatus (p. 338) are rather 
common at and just below low- water mark. The Hippa talpoida (p. 338, 
Plate II, fig. 5) is occasionally found, and the young sometimes occur 
in large numbers, burrowing in the sand at low-water mark. The com- 
mon shrimp, Crangon vulyaris, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10,) is usually abund- 
ant where there are sheltered sandy flats. 

The Annelids are less numerous than on the sandy shores of the 
sounds, but such as do occur are mostly of the same species. One of 
the most interesting is the Nerine agilis, (p. 346,) whicli is very remark- 
able for the rapidity with which it burrows in the sand. 

The Mollusks are few in number. One of the most abundant of the 
Gastropods is the Lunatia heros, (p. 353, Plate XXIII, figs. 133-136,) 
which burrows jusfc beneath the surface of the sand, at and below low- 
water mark. The Neverita duplicata (p. 354, Plate XXIII, fig. 130) is 
also occasionally found, but is much less abundant than in the bays. 

Of Lamellibranchs there are but few species that can maintain them- 
selves in such situations. Among these the " long clam," Mya arcnaria, 
(p. 463,) the " razor-shell," Ematella Americana^ (p. 356,) and the "surf- 
clam," Mactra solidissima, (p. 358,) are the most common. 

Very few, if any, Radiates are to be found on the exposed sandy shores, 
unless thrown up by the waves from deeper water. In places that are 
somewhat protected from the violence of the surf, the Leptoxiinapta Gi- 
rardii (p. 361, Plate XXXV, figs. 265, 266) is often found burrowing in 
the sand at low- water mark. Sometimes, in similar places, the " sand- 
dollar," Echinarachnius parma, (p. 362, Plate XXXY, fig. 267,) is found 
in large numbers at extreme low-water mark. 

There are no Hydroids and Polyps that properly inhabit such shores. 

List of species inhabiting the sandy shores of the open coast. 




Ocypoda arenaria, (young). . . 337 

Cancer irroratus 490 

Cancer borealis 486 

Platyonichus ocellatus 490 

Hippa talpoida 490 

Eupagums pollicaris 313 


Crangon vulgaris 490 

Orchestia agilis : 336 

Talorchestia longicornis 489 

T. megalophthalina 489 

Unciola irrorata 340 

Idotea ca3ca . . 340 


Page. I Page. 

Nereis virens 317 | Scolecolepis viridis ;.I45 

. limbata 318 

Rhynchobolus Ainericanus . . 342 
Nerine agilis 490 

Clymenella torquata 

Amphitrite ornata :!20 

Polycirrus eximius 320 






Sycotypus canaliculatus 399 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Crepidula fornicata 355 

C. unguiformis . . 354 

Lunatia heros 490 

Neverita duplicata 490 



Ensatella Americana 490 

Siliqua costata 426 

Mya arenaria 490 

Mactra solidissinia.. 490 




Leptosynapta Girardii 490 

Echinaraclinius parma 490 


The fauna of the rocky bottoms in these outer waters is rich and in- 
teresting, and decidedly northern in character, though there is usually 
an admixture with southern species. 

The principal localities where dredgings were made on this kind of 
ground are : First, off' Gay Head and DeviPs Bridge, at localities marked 
on the chart, 53, a, &, c, d; 55,- ft, &, c; 56, a, b. c, d ; 57, a, &, c, d ; 58, 
a, &, c; 59, a, Z>, c; 60, a, fc, c; 61, a, &, c; 62, a, ft, c; 63, a, & ; 83, a, &, c. 
Second, between Gay Head and No Man's Land, and to the westward of 
the latter island, at localities 82, a, & ; 84, a, &, c,d; at these localities cod 
are caught in the spring. Third, on and about th rocky reef extending 
from Watch Hill, Ehode Island, to Fisher's Island, and forming, in part, 
the physical boundary of the eastern end of Long Island Sound ; this 
is also a locality where cod and haddock are caught in spring. The 
dredgings at this place were made by Professor D. C. Eaton, Mr. C. A. 
Burr, and myself, April 13, 1873. Fourth, a locality off' Cuttyhunk Island, 
where dredgings were made, April, 1872, by Mr. T. M. Prudden, Mr. T. 
H. Russell, and others. 

The four localities named are characterized by a similar fauna, 
but each one yielded some species not found in the others, though 
more numerous dredgings might have revealed them. The reef off 
Watch Hill is of peculiar interest on account of the singular blending 
of the northern and southern fauna) at that place, as mentioned above. 
It seems to be nearly at the extreme western range of many northern 
species, though some of them may occur sparingly in certain favorable 
localities still farther westward, in Long Island Sound itself. Many 
northern algoj were also collected there by Professor Eaton, in abuiul- 


ance, and some of them have not been found farther westward, and others 
but rarely. Among these were Ptilota eleyans and Dclesseria sinuosa, both 
of which were abundant on the reef in four or five fathoms, associated 
with large quantities of Phyllophora Brodicei % and P. mem bra mfoUa ; 
Eutliora cristata and Litliotliamnion polymorplium also occurred. The 
" dulse," . Rhodymenia palmata., Laminaria diyitata, L. saccharina, and 
L. longicrura, all of which are decidedly northern species, were large and 

A similar assemblage of alg?e was also found on the rocks, in shallow 
water, off Gay Head, though some of the species just named were not 
found there. 

Among the Crustacea of these localities, the most important is the 
lobster, Homarus Americanus, (p. 395,) which finds its proper habitat in 
such places. It is very abundant off Gay Head, and among the reefs 
and rocks off Watch Hill and Stonington, Connecticut, It also occurs 
plentifully in similar localities off New London, Connecticut, and still 
farther west in Long Island Sound. At all these and many other locali- 
ties large quantities are caught for the markets. They are nearly all 
taken in " lobster pots" baited with refuse fish, &c. 

The lobster fishing begins in this region in the latter part of March or 
early in April, according to the season. By the middle of April they 
are usually taken in large quantities and shipped alive to New York, 
New Haven, and other cities. The extent of this trade is enormous 
even in this region, while north of Cape Cod, along the whole northern 
coast of New England, and on the shores of Nova Scotia, the lobster is 
taken in still larger quantities. At present we have no reliable data for 
estimating the number annually caught, but it probably amounts to 
several millions. 

In winter the supply comes from the northern coasts of Massachusetts 
and Maine, where they may be taken in moderately deep water at all 
seasons. According to Captain N. E. At wood* they do not come into 
shallow water at Provincetown until June and remain there until Oc- 
tober, when they disappear again. He also states that those that visit 
that locality are nearly all females ; "they appear to come near the shore 
for the purpose of depositing their young, after which they pass away 
and others in turn take their places, as is indicated by the change that 
is constantly taking place, for when the fishermen are catching great 
quantities of large, good hard-shell lobsters, and they are unusually 
abundant, perhaps the next day there will be a new kind, smaller and 
not of so good quality, the former ones having passed away and others 
come to take their places." " In Boston the number of lobsters sold 
annually cannot be much short of a million. The male lobster is pre- 
ferred and is the most salable, as this city has always been supplied 
from the northern shore of Massachusetts and coast of Maine, where the 

* Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History, vol. x, p. 11, 1866. 


males are most plentiful. It is a great advantage i<> the fishermen that 
the people prefer males. In New York it is very diffi -rent, in this par- 
ticular, that city being supplied from Cape Cod after .June, and the 
female lobster thus considered much the best. I have sold many lob- 
sters in New York, and males sell at only about half price; the male is 
much poorer than the female in meat." Captain Atwood states, in the 
same place, that northward and eastward of Plymouth, .Massachusetts, 
u three-quarters at least are males at all seasons of the year." Among 
those that I have examined from New London, Waterford, and Stouing- 
ton, Connecticut, in our markets, I have not noticed any marked in- 
equality in the number of the sexes. Mr. Smith examined the lobsters in 
the market at Provincetown on two occasions in August and September, 
without finding any decided differences in the number of males and 
females. He also repeatedly examined those in the fish-markets at 
Eastport, Maine, in summer, with the same result. It is possible there- 
fore, that the fishermen do not correctly distinguish the sexes, when the 
females are without eggs, and that an erroneous opinion has thus be- 
come current among them. 

There is a great difference in the breeding season on different parts of 
the coast. The lobsters from New London and Stonington often lay 
their eggs as early as the last of April or first of May ; while at Halifax, 
Mr. Smith found fern ales with recently laid eggs in September. At East- 
port, Maine, the females carry their eggs in inid-su mmer. In the male the 
genital orifices are in the bases of the last pair of legs ; in the female 
they are at the bases of the middle pair. This will always serve to dis~ 
tiuguish the sexes, but they also differ in the structure of the abdomi- 
nal appendages. 

The rock-crab, Cancer irroratus, (p. 312,) is very common on these bot- 
toms, and C. borealis (p. 395) also inhabits them, judging from the large 
dead specimens found on the adjacent beaches, but we only dredged a few 
small living specimens. One of these was taken on the reef between 
Watch Hill and Fishers Island, in 4 or 5 fathoms, among alga?. It is 
more convex, and much more hairy than the preceding species, and the 
teeth along the sides of the carapax are quite different. 

A large and handsomely colored shrimp, Pandalus annulicornis (Plate 
II, fig. 6,) often occurs in the deeper waters, outside, but is far more 
common farther north, as in the Bay of Fundy. The common shrimp, 
Crangon vulgar is, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10,) is common, especially 
where there are spots of sand among the rocks. The little bright colored 
shrimp, Hippolyte pusiola, (p. 395,) is frequently met with among the red 
alga3. The Unciola irrorata, (p. 340, Plate IV, fig. 19,) and Amphithoe 
maculata, (p. 315, Plate IV, fig. 1C,) together with several other Amphi- 
pods, are common, especially among the red alga?, and some of them are 
handsomely marked with red and other bright colors. 

Among these are Podocerus fucicola , which is a small species and quite 
variable in color ; some of those from the reef at Watch Hill had a 


transverse dorsal band of red or orange on each segment, and similar 
ones on the epimera, and were minutely specked with dark brown ; the 
antennse and legs were annulated with white and light red or orange. 
Another species of Podocerus was still more abundant among the red 
alga3 j in this the males and females differ greatly in size, form, and color. 
The females are much smaller and stouter than the males ; their colors 
were generally red and white, in strong contrast,though some were pur- 
plish and more like the males in color ; most of the females have the 
head and few anterior segments dark red ; then a band of white ; then 
three or four bands of dark red, on the middle of the body, which are 
often confluent into a large dorsal spot of red or brown these are fol- 
io wed by a broad white band or spot 5 the abdominal rings are alternately 
banded with red and white; part of the epimera are red. The antennae 
and legs are more or less aunulated and spotted with red. The eyes are 
black. In the male the color is generally reddish or purplish brown, 
but irregularly specked with darker brown, and with the intervals 
between the segments pale red. 

Species of Caprella occur in considerable numbers, clinging, in gro- 
tesque attitudes, upon the delicate algre and hydroids. The Idotoa 
irrorata, (p. 316, Plate Y, fig. 23,) is also very common, living among the 
algae, and Erich&onia filiformis (p. 316, Plate VI, fig. 26,) is often associ- 
ated with it. 

The Annelids living upon such bottoms are difficult to obtain, since 
they mostly burrow beneath the stones or live in tubes attached to the 
rocks. The few species obtained are, with few exceptions, not different 
from those found in the sounds, on similar bottoms. The Autolytus cor- 
nutus, (p. 397, Plate XIII, figs. 65, 66,) and another species of the same 
genus were found in abundance, living in tubes attached to the fronds 
of Laminar-la among hydroids, (Obelia gcniculata.) On the same fronds 
were long, crooked tubes, formed of grains of sand and small bits of 
shells, belonging to Nicolea simplex, (p. 397.) 

Burrowing in the corals of Astmngia Dame we found, on the reef off 
Watch Hill,the singular Annelid named Naraganseta coralii by Dr. Leidy, 
who obtained his specimens at Point Judith. The specimens found by 
us were mostly very dark greenish brown or black, but some had dark, 
orange- colored branchiae The Lepidonotits angmtus, Pliyllodoce gracilifs, 
P. catenula, and Eumidia Americana are new and interesting species. 
Nereis fucata occurs rarely. 

Of Gastropods many species already enumerated as inhabitants of 
the rocky shores occur also on the rocky bottoms in abundance, but there 
are a number of additional species. One of the largest is the " whelk," 
Buccinum undatum, (Plate XXI, fig. 121.) This is a decidedly northern 
and arctic shell, found also on all the northern coasts of Europe, though 
several authors believe that the American and European shells are dis- 
tinct species. 

One of the most interesting of the northern shells that occur here is 


the Leptodnton rubcr, (p. 399, Plate XXV, fig. 1GG.) This adheres to 
rocks and stones that are incrusted by the red millipore JjithothnmnioH 
polymorphum, with which its red color, of various shades, agrees very 
closely. It is a, tar more abundant sliell in the P>ay of Fmidy, where 
it also lives among the same millipore. Among the other less common 
northern species, met with on these bottoms, are Rissoa exarata ; Lacuna 
neritoidea ; and Astyris rosacea. 

Several very interesting species of naked mollusks (Nudibranchs) occur 
on these bottoms, creeping over algae and hydroids, and feeding upon 
the latter. One of the most conspicuous of these is the Dendronotus 
arborescens, which is a northern form, and had not been found south of 
Cape Cod until this spring, when we dredged it on the reef off Watch 
Hill, in four or five fathoms. It can be easily distinguished by the two 
rows of large arboresceutly-branched gills along the back ; by the 
branched lobes of the tentacle-sheaths and the arborescently divided 
branch on their outer side, near the base ; and by the very narrow and 
almost linear foot, which is adapted for creeping over hydroids. 

The Oncliyfloris pallida was dredged by Messrs. Prudden and Eussell, 
off Cutty hunk Island, in April, 1872. It has not been previously re- 
corded from south of Cape Cod, but it is common in the Bay of Fundy. 
It can easily be recognized by its pale yellow color, and the long, blunt- 
conical papillae that cover its back. 

The jEolispapilloaa and Teryipes despectus were both found at Watch 
Hill this spring, April 13, and are new additions to the fauna of south- 
ern Xew England. The former was found, with its eggs, among the 
roots of Lanunaria; the latter was abundant in four or five fathoms, 
creeping over Obelia yeniculata, which was abundant on the fronds of 
Laminaria. Its eggs, inclosed in small masses of gelatinous matter 
were attached to the Obelia in large numbers. The Doto coronata, 
(Plate XXY, fig. 170,) was associated with the Teryipes on the Obelia. 
An undetermined species of ^Eolis, with bright red branchiae, was 
dredged off Gay Head, on a rocky bottom. 

The Lamellibrauchs are not of much interest, and scarcely any are 
peculiar to this kind of bottom. The Modiola modiolus (p. 309, Plate 
XXXI, fig. 237) is one of the most common and characteristic species. 
The northern scaly or spiny Anomia aculeata (Plate XXXII, figs. 239, 
240) is common ; it adneres to rocks, shells, and the roots and stems 
of large algae. 

Among the Ascidiaus there are several northern species, not before 
found so far south. The Cynthia carnea (Plate XXXIII, figs. 247, 248) was 
found off Gay Head in ten fathoms. The young specimens were numer- 
ous on the stones and shells. In contraction they are low and flat, with 
a thin margin; the color is light red, or flesh-color. With this a few 
young specimens of Cynthia echinata were found. These are peculiar in 
being covered by stellate spines. The color of the young specimens is 
pink, the apertures rose-red. The Molgula paj)illosa also occurred spar- 


ingly with the last two species. This is also a northern species, common 
in the Bay of Fundy. Among the compound Ascidians the only species 
found here that did not occur also in Vineyard Sound was Amaneclnm 
pallidum, a small species, which forms small rounded or tnrbinated 
whitish masses, of a firm gelatinous appearance, but with fine grains of 
sand imbedded in the substance. It is a common species in the Bay of 

The Bryozoa are represented by numerous species, some of which 
are very abundant. The Meinbranipora pilosa (Plate XXXIY, figs. 262, 
263) is one of the most abundant. It incrusts, and often entirely 
covers, the fronds of various algre, especially of Phyllopliora Brodiwi, P. 
membranifolla, Rhodymenia palmata, Delesseria sinuosa, &c. On the 
reel off Watch Hill it was particularly abundant on these and other 
algae, shells, &c. It is easily distinguished by the single long spine at 
the proximal end of the cell, and by the shorter ones along the sides. 
With the preceding, Crisia elitrnea, (p. 311, Plate XXXIY, figs. 260, 261;) 
Tubulipora flabellaris ; Cdlepora ramulosa, (p. 312;) and u species of 
Discopora, allied to D. coccinea, were very abundant, adhering to the 
more slender red algre. A species of Lepralia, of a reddish color, and 
forming both incrusting and lichen-like corals, was common. In this the 
apertures of the cells are large, operculated, broadest proximally, and 
each one has a short, stout, conical spine at its proximal border, which 
is scarcely visible except in a profile view. 

The Bugula Murrayana^ which forms clusters of broad, thin, flexible 
fronds nearly two inches high, was dredged several times. It is very 
common in the Bay of Fundy. An incrusting species of Aleyonitlium, 
perhaps identical with A. gelatinosum of Europe, occurred on the red 
algre. A species of Cellularia, allied to A. ternata, was also obtained. 

The Echinoderms are represented by the common green sea-urchin, 
Strongylocentrotun Drobachiemis, (p. -106, Plate XXXY, fig. 26S,) which 
is common off Gay Head, and as far as off New London, though far less 
abundant than in the Bay of Fundy ; by the common red or purple 
star-fish, Asterias vulgar is, (p. 407,) which was abundant off Gay Head 
and on the reef off Watch Hill ; Cribrella sanguinolenta, (p. 407,) which is 
not uncommon as far west as the Watch Hill reef, and off New London ; 
and by the Ophiopholis aculeata, (Plate XXXY, fig. 270,)which was only 
once met with off Gay Head, but of which we dredged several specimens 
on the reef off Watch Hill. The last-named species is extremely 
abundant in the Bay of Fuudy and northward, from low-water to the 
depth of more than one hundred fathoms. 

The Hydroids are very numerous on the rocky and stony bottoms, 
attached to alga?, stones, shells, ascidians, &c. One of the most abun- 
dant is Obelia geniculata, (p. 407,) which grows on the fronds of Lamina- 
ria, Rliodymenia, and other algre ; it often nearly covers one or both sides 
of the broad fronds of Laminaria, for the distance of two or three feet, 
the creeping stems forming an intricate net- work from which the upright 


stems arise in great abundance to the height of an inch or more. This 
species was particularly abundant on the reef oft' Watch Hill, and those 
obtained on the 13th of April were loaded with the reproductive cap- 
sules, (gonothecse.) 

At the same place we obtained luxuriant specimens of 0. flabellata, 
(p. 390,) some of which were eight or ten inches long and profusely 
branched ; these also bore reproductive capsules at the same date. 

The curious Antennularia antennina was dredged off Gay Head in 
eight fathoms, where a number of large and fine specimens were ob- 
tained. This species had not been previously recorded from America, 
but it is not uncommon in the Bay of Fundy. 

The Alcyonoid Polyps are represented by the northern Alcyonium 
carneum, (Plate XXXVIII, fig. i'S3,) which we dredged off Gay Head, 
off Cuttyhunk, and on the reef at Watch Hill. This species grows up 
into lobed or arborescently branched forms, with the delicate, translu- 
cent polyps mostly clustered toward the ends of the branches. The 
general color is translucent, pale yellow, or salmon, sometimes more or 
less tinged with orange or red. Among the Actinoids there is a species 
of Edwardsia, (E. lineata V.,) which is as yet undescribed. It occurred 
in considerable numbers crowded into the openings and interstices be- 
tween ascidians, worm-tubes, &c. It is peculiar in having no distinct 
naked basal portion, at least in the numerous specimens hitherto seen, 
for in all cases the rough epidermis extended entirely over the base. 
The tentacles are long, slender, thirty or more, and each usually has a 
flake-white line down the center. The disk is usually marked with radi- 
ating white lines. This species was dredged off Gay Head and also on 
the reef off Watch Hill. 

The Sponges are numerous on the outer rocky bottoms, and belong 
to about a dozen species, "most of which are still undetermined 5 but 
they are nearly all northern forms, common in the Bay of Fundy. 

One of the most common is the Chalina oculata, which forms thick, 
upright, more or less flattened stalks, which, as they grow larger, fork 
and divide into more or less numerous, and often digitate branches, 
which vary greatly in form and thickness ; scattered over the surface 
are round orifices, about a tenth of an inch in diameter. The color is 
dull orange-red, when living, but the color disappears when the animal 
matter is removed, leaving the sponge white. The texture is open and quite 
delicate. Another very curious species, (Polymastia f) when young, forms 
yellowish white incrustations over stones and shells; later, it rises at sev- 
eral points into long, slender, round, tapering, finger-like prolongations, 
which do not branch, but are often so grouped as to give a digitate 
appearance to the whole. This was dredged off Gay Head in 18 to 20 
fathoms, and is also common in the Bay of Fundy. One of the most 
abundant species of this region forms very irregularly shaped, uneven, 
pale yellow masses, attached to the stems and fronds of Phyllophora and 
other small algra, and often, as it grows larger, spreading over and 
15 v 


entirely covering and destroying the algae. The large openings (oscula) 
are irregularly scattered over the surface and quite unequal in size, 
varying from less than .05 to .10 of an inch or more in diameter. The 
texture is rather close when dried, showing a finely reticulated texture 
at the surface. This appears to belong to the genus Tedanla. Another 
species, apparently of the same genus, occurs with the last, and has the 
same habits, but its color is pale bun , or yellowish white, and its text- 
ure is much firmer and more compact. Another species, occurring with 
the last two on the Pliyllopliora, at Watch Hill, forms small, irregular, 
deep yellow masses, of a soft and somewhat gelatinous consistency. 
Foraminifera of several species are abundant, attached to the fronds 
of the red algae, to the rough integument of Ascidians, to stones, shells, 
worm-tubes, &c., but they have not yet been identified. 

List of species inhabiting the stony and rocky bottoms on the open coast. 




Cancer irroratus 493 

C. borealis 493 

Libinia canaliculata 339 

Eupagurus longicarpus 313 

E. Bernhardus 501 

Homarus Americanus 492 

Crangon vulgaris 493 

Hippolyte pusiola 493 

Pandalus annulicoruis 493 

Lysianassinse, (one species) . . 431 
Pontogeneia inermis 452 


Mcera levis 315 

Amphithoe maculata 493 

Unciola irrorata 493 

Cerapus rubricornis 505 

Podocerus fucicola 493 

Podocerus, species 494 

Caprella, species 494 

Idotea irrorata 494 

I. phosphorea 316 

Erichsonia filiformis 494 

Balanus crenatus . . 396 



Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

L. Augustus 494 

Harmothoe imbricata 321 

Phyllodoce gracilis 494 

P. catenula , 494 

Eumidia Americana 3 494 

Autolytus cornutus 494 

Autolytus, species 494 

Nereis pelagica 319 

N. fucata 494 

Lumbriconereis fragilis 501 


Clyrnenella torquata 343 

Naraganseta coralii 494 

Sabellaria vulgaris 321 

Polycirrus eximius 320 

Nicolea simplex 494 

Potamilla oculifera 322 

Sabella microphthalina ...... 323 

Spirorbis spirillum 323 

S. porrecta ? 504 

Serpula dianthus . . . . 322 

Nemerteans and Planarians. 

iNemertes, species 505 

Leptoplana folium . . 


. 487 





Urosalpinx cinerea 306 

Buccinuin undatum 494 

Tritia trivittata 354 

Astyris lunata 300 

A. zonalis . . 399 

A. rosacea 495 

Anacbis avara 306 

Lacuna vincta 305 

L. neritoidea 495 

Bissoa exarata 495 

Cerithiopsis tercbralis 417 

Bittium nigruni 305 

Oueibulum striatum 417 

Crepidula fornicata 355 

O. unguiformis 355 

Lunatia heros 426 

Leptochiton apiculatus 399 

L. ruber 495 

Oncliydoris pallida 495 

Polycera Lessonii 400 

Dendronotus arborescens 495 

Tergipes despectus 495 

yEolis papillosa 495 

Doto coronata . 495 



Saxicava arctica 309 

Mya arenaria 472 

Kellia planulata 310 

Argina pexata 309 

Scapharca transversa 309 



Mytilus edulis 307 

Modiola inodiolus 495 

Modiolaria nigra 433 

Anoinia aculeata. . . 495 


Cynthia partita 311 

C. carnea 495 

C. echinata 495 

Molgula Manhatteusis 311 

M. papillosa 495 

Perophora viridis 388 


Amarcecium pellucidum 401 

A. pallidum .-- 496 

A. constellatum 388 

Leptoclinum albidum 408 

L. luteolum . . .403 


Crisia eburnea 496 

Tubulipora flabellaris 496 

Alcyonidium hirsutuni . . 404 

A. parasiticum 404 

A. gelatinosum (?) 496 

Vesicularia cuscuta 404 

Y. gracilis . . . , 389 

Y. fusca 420 

Farrella familiaris 487 

^Etea anguina 405 

Eucratea chelata 405 

Cellularia, species 496 


Caberea Ellisii 420 

Bugula turrita 311 

B. Murrayana 496 

Meinbranipora pilosa . . ; 496 

M. lineata 406 

M. tennis 420 

Escharella variabilis 312 

Lepralia, (species) 496 

Discopora coccinea (f ) 496 

Mollia byalina 420 

Cellepora ramulosa 496 

C. scabra.. 419 




Page, j Pag. 

Strongylocentrbtus Drobachi- A. arenicola . . 326 

ensis 496 I Cribrella sanguinolenta 496 

Asterias vulgaris 496 | Ophiopholis aculeata 496 



Clytia Johnstoni 408 

0. intermedia - 408 

Orthopyxis caliculata 408 

Platypyxis cylindrica ... 408 

Campanulari a volubilis ...... 408 

0. flexuosa 327 

Obelia geniculata 496 

O. dichotoma 407 

O. flabellata 497 

O. diaphana 327 


Serial aria argeiitea 408 

S. cupressina 408 

Hyd rail mania falcata 408 

Plumularia, species 407 

Antennularia autennina 497 

Eudendrium ramosum 408 

E. dispar 408 

Pennaria tiarella 327 

Thamnocnidia tenella 407 

Hydractinia polycliua 328 


Alcyoniuin carueum 497 

Meiridium marginatum 329 


Edwardsia lineata 497 

Astrangia Daure 408 




Chaliaa oculata 497 

Tedania, two species 498 

Eenieria, species 330 

Oliona sulphurea 421 


Polymastia(t) 497 

Grantia ciliata 330 

Leucosolenia botryoides (?) . . 391 



The bottom off the southern shores of Nantucket and Martha's Vine 
yard is sandy or gravelly over large areas, from low-water mark down 
to 25 fathoms or more. Tracts of similar bottom occur off Outtyhunk 
Island and farther west. In many of these places, especially in the 
shallower waters, near shore, the material of the bottom is nearly pure 
siliceous sand, varying in fineness from coarse gravel to the finest sand, 
and as these sands are generally loose and moved by the storm-waves, 
in shallow water, their inhabitants are but few. In deeper water, at 
depths of 20 to 25 fathoms or more, the material is usually a very fine 
sand, often firmly compacted, and not infrequently mixed with more or 
less fine mud. Such localities are favorable for a much greater variety 


of animals, and especially for many burrowing annelids, Crustacea, and 
bivalve shells. Bottoms of this character pass by insensible gradations 
into the true muddy bottoms, so that it is very difficult to make any 
sharp distinction between them, or between the animals that inhabit 
them. Several localities at which we dredged were quite intermediate 
in character, so that it is difficult to decide in which division they should 
be put. Yet there is a very wide difference between the animals of the 
pure sandy and of the soft muddy bottoms. Most of the localities where 
the bottom was of this mixed or intermediate character, and of very fine 
material, have been classed with the muddy bottoms, because the ani- 
mals inhabiting them agree more closely with those of the true muddy 
bottoms than with those of the genuine sandy ones. But in each case 
I shall endeavor to give an idea of the fauna of typical localities of 
pure sand, of true mud, of muddy sand, and of sandy mud, so that the 
more general lists given under the sandy and muddy bottoms, respect- 
ively, need not cause confusion. 

The special localities where dredgings were made on sandy bottoms 
a*re as follows : line 80, a, 16J fathoms, siliceous sand ; &, 18J fathoms, 
siliceous sand ; 81, a, ft, 16 J fathoms, sand ; 85, a, 6, 15 J fathoms, sili- 
ceous sand and gravel ; 86, a, &, 25 fathoms, sand and gravel, with some 
mud and small stones ; off Watch Hill, 6 to 8 fathoms, loose siliceous 
sand, with some stones. Besides these a few other dredgings were made 
on similar bottoms, but not recorded. 

Among the Crustacea that are characteristic of the true sandy bot- 
toms are Platyonichus ocellatus, (p. 388, Plate I, fig. 4,) which is, how- 
ever, more common in the sounds ; Eupagurus Bernhardus, a decidedly 
northern hermit crab; Crangon vulgaris, (p. 339, Plate III, fig. 10;) 
Ptilocheirus pinguis ; Idotea Tuftsii. Where the bottom is of loose 
siliceous sand, the common Unciola irrorata (p. 340, Plate IY, fig. 19) 
frequently occurs, usually associated with but few others, except a 
species of Anonyx, or some closely allied genus, which seems to live 
exclusively on such bottoms. This last species is rather stout, pale 
grayish or yellowish white, usually tinged with purple on the back The 
posterior portion is more decidedly purple, together with the caudal 
appendages and some of the last epimera. This was dredged off Watch 

Several interesting species occurred on the bottoms of fine compact 
mud and sand, in 20-29 fathoms. Among these were Phoxus Kroyeri, 
which is a northern species; Siphoncecetes cuspidatw SMITH, an undes- 
cribed species ; ByUis serrata SMITH, another very interesting new 
species ; undetermined species of Ampelisca, &c. 

Few Annelids are peculiar to true sandy bottoms. Among those of 
most interest are Sthenelais picta Y., (p. 348;) Lumbriconereis fragilh, a 
northern and European species ; Anthostoma acutum Y. ; and Scolecolepis 
cirrata. The last is a northern species found in the Bay of Fundy and 
north to the Arctic Ocean, and also on the northern coasts of Europe. 


The color is chocolate-brown, with bright red, ligulate, dorsal bram-hia- 
on the anterior third of the body. The two large tentacles exceed in 
length three times the breadth of the body; they arc often < -oiled up. and 
are greenish in color. This worm is three or four inches long. 

A large purple Mcckelut (M. lurida V.) was dredged in two local! : 

Among theMollusks there are but few species that are character 
of these bottoms, and probably none that are peculiar to them, un 
some of the Ascidians should prove to be so. The Molgula arenata (p. 
426, Plate XXXIII, fig. 251) is often common even on loose silk. 
sand and gravel, with which it form ing over its body. The 

Molgula producta was dredged in some numbers on a bottom of fine 
sand, with some mud. The integument is thin, translucent, closely 
covered with a layei of fine sand ; the tubes are transparent, whitish or 
flesh-color, sometimes pink at theeiids; anal tube with four, and branchial 
with six, flake-white, longitudinal stripes, and often with a circle of flake- 
white spots at the base outside, and other spots within. The anal ori- 
fice is square, but the branchial is either subcircular or squarish, in 
expansion, and destitute of distinct lobes or papilla:, in this respect dif- 
fering from all the other species of the genus. The branchial tube is 
generally a little the longest, and both of them are somewhat tapcivd. 
with a swollen base. 

TlieGlanduhi urtnimla is another nearly globular Ascidian, which 1 
like the two preceding, free in the sand, and covers itself with a closely- 
adherent coating of sand. This species grows to be about half an inch 
in diameter, and can easily be distinguished from the last by its much 
smaller tubes, both of which have small square orifices, and by its thicker 
and firmer integument, in which the sand appears to be somewhat im- 
bedded. At the base there are some slender fibers for anchoring it more 
securely in the sand. This was dredged by Mr. Truddeu, off Cuttyhunk 
Island, in 187i'. Mr>xi-s. Smith and Ilarger dredged it in great abun- 
dance last year on St. George's Bank, on a bottom of clear siliceous sand. 
in 28 fathoms. Dr. Dawsou has also dredged it in Murray Bay. in the 
St. Lawrence River. It is, therefore, a decidedly northern spei 

Another species of Glandula also occurred on the true sandy bottoms. 
The specimens of this were all small, mostly less than a fifth of aft inch 
in diameter, and the integument was densely covered by rather coarse 
and very firmly adherent grains of sand, in several layers; the sand 
completely concealed the tubes from view in all the specimens observed, 
and it was not sufficiently studied while living to afford an accurate 

The Bryozoa and Hydroids that are found on the sandy bottoms 
mostly attached to dead shells and small stones that are scattered over 
the surface. 

Of Echiuodernis several species occur on the hard bottoms of tine, 
compact sand, or sandy mud, but most of these are more at home on 
rocky bottoms. 


On the bottoms of loose siliceous sand the EcUinarachnius parma (p. 
3G2, Plate XXXV, fig. 1*67) is often very abundant. Several hundred are 
sometimes obtained at a single cast of the dredge. At locality 81, b, 
off the south coast of Martha's Vineyard, in 21 fathoms, on a bottom of 
clear siliceous sand, Dr. A. S. Packard dredged a fine specimen of a 
rare and little known Holothurian, the Stereoderma unisemita. This has 
not been found before, so far as known to me, since the two original" 
specimens were described twenty years ago. One of those was from the 
Banks of ^Newfoundland, and the other was supposed to have been from 
off Massachusetts Bay. As both the original specimens appear to have 
been lost or destroyed, this rediscovery was of considerable interest. 
This specimen was about three inches long, and half an inch in diam- 
eter, fusiform, tapering to each end; the body and suckers were pale 
flesh-color, and the integument is filled with a great abundance of small 
calcareous plates. 

Most of the Polyps and Sponges that occur on these sandy bot- 
toms are attached to the scattering dead shells and small stones or 
pebbles, and belong properly on the rocky and stony bottoms. One 
large and fine sponge seems, however, to be peculiar to tbe sandy 
bottoms. This is a firm, siliceous sponge, with a very compact and fine 
texture. It is quite irregular in shape, but often grows in the form of 
elongated, compressed masses, attached by one edge ; these masses are 
often six inches or more in length and one or two in thickness, and 
perhaps two or three high. Some of the largest specimens consist of 
two or three such crest-like plates or lobes attached together at base. 
When living the color is bright sulphur-yellow or lemon-yellow, and the 
surface is nearly smooth. One fine living specimen, of large size, was 
dredged by Dr. Packard off the southern shore of Martha's Vineyard, at 
locality 80, &, on a bottom of clear siliceous sand. Numerous specimens 
were also found thrown on Edgar town beach. These were mostly 
bleached out white and more or less worn. This species has not yet 
been identified. I have specimens of it from the coast of Virginia. 

A very curious organism, of which the nature is still uncertain, but 
which was supposed, at the time it was taken, to belong to the sandy 
Foraminifera, was often extremely abundant in the clear siliceous sand. 
They were nearly circular, somewhat flattened or biscuit-shaped, and 
entirely covered by adherent grains of sand, except that there were 
several dark-colored, hook-like processes projecting from the circumfer- 
eace. The size was generally less than a fifth of an inch in diameter, 
and more frequently not more than .12 to .15 of an inch. When dried they 
became very friable, and the sand fell asunder at a slight touch, 
so that they then appeared like mere lumps of sand, but they retain 
their firmness when preserved in alcohol. They were often so abundant 
in the fine sand that when a dredge-full was washed through a moder- 
ately fine sieve several hundreds or thousands would sometimes remain 
in the sieve. 


List of species inhabiting sandy and gravelly bottoms. 

In the following list I have included nearly all the species that 
ordinarily occurred on those bottoms in which sand predominated, even 
though some of them are more strictly muddy-bottom species. Others 
belong more properly on rocky, stony, or shelly bottoms, but are intro- 
duced here because they occur attached to the scattered shells and stones 
that are always liable to be met with on sandy bottoms. 

In order to designate those species that are more strictly character- 
istic of the clear sandy bottoms, I have prefixed to them a dagger, 
(thus : t.) To show the character of the fauna on the bottoms of mixed 
or intermediate character, I have selected a single locality, 86, Z>, south- 
west of Cuttyhunk Island and opposite the mouth of Buzzard's Bay, 
where the depth was twenty-five fathoms, and the bottom consisted of 
fine sand mixed with some mud and gravel, with a few small scattered 
stones, and have prefixed an asterisk (thus : *) to such species as occurred 
at that particular locality, though most of them occurred also at other 


tCancer irroratus 

C. borealis 

Panopeus depressus 

tPlatyonichus ocellatus 

Hyas coarctatus 

tEupagurus pollicaris 

tE. Bernhardus 

tHomarus Americanus . . . I . 

*Pandalus annulicornis 

t*Crangou vulgaris 

*Diastylis quadrispinosa,and 
other species of Oumacea. 













*Phoxus Kroyeri 

* Ampelisca, sp 

Byblis serrata 

Mcera levis 

*tUnciola irrorata 

*Ptilocheirus pinguis 

t Anonyx (?), sp 

*Siphono3cetes cuspidatus. . 

tldotea Tuftsii 

Epelys montosus 



Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

*Harmothoe iinbricata 321 

tSthenelais picta 501 

*Nephthys ingens 431 

Phyllodoce catenula 494 

Nereis plagica 397 

*Ninoe nigripes 508 

tLumbriconeris fragilis 501 

*Rhynchobolus dibranchia- 

tus 341 

tAnthostoma acutum . 501 

t*Scolecolepis cirrata 

*Arnpharete gracilis 

t*Clymenella torquata 

*Mcomache dispar 

* Aminochares, sp 

*Trophonia affinis 

*Ainrnotrypane fimbriata 

*Cistenides Gouldii 

*Potamilla oculifera 

*Euchone elegans 

*Spirorbis porrecta? . . . . 




\cmcrtcnnx and Plananans. 


*Meckelia lurida . 502 

*Leptoplana folium l ST 

Remqrtes, (?) red sp *.. . 408 



*Phascolosoma c;rniont;irium 416 



Page. Page. 

*Neptunea pygmaea 508 Crepidula fornicata. . , 805 

Buccinum un datum 494 C. unguiformis 355 

Astyris lunata 306 fLunatia heros 426 

Anachis avara 306 Eissoa exarata 495 

t*Tritia trivittata 354 *Margarita obscura 508 

*Crucibuluin stria turn 417 


Page. Page. 

fMya arenaria, (young) 472 f Astarte castanea 432 

t*Eusatella Americana 356 t A. quadrans ... - 509 

tSiliqua costata 358 *A. imdata 508 

Corbula contracta 418 f*Cyclocardia borealis 418 

Clidiophora trilineata 432 t*C. Novanglia3 418 

*Lyonsia hyalina 358 * Yoldia sapotilla 509 

*Periploma papyracea 509 *Nucula proxima 432 

Cochlodesma Leanum 418 Scapharca transversa 309 

t Angulus tener 358 *Modiolaria corrugata 509 

*0umingia tellinoides 418 Pecten tenuicostatus 509 

*Callista convexa 432 Anomia aculeata 495 

*Cardium pinnulaturn 423 


Page. Page. 

*Cynthia partita 311 tGlandula arenicola 502 

tMolgula arenata 502 tGlandula, sp 502 

t*M. producta 502 j * Amaroecium pallid am 496 

*M. Manhattensis 311 I 


Page. , Page. 

! Crisia eburnea 311 Bugula Murrayana 496 

*0aberea Ellisii 420 *Cellepora ramulosa 312 





fStereoderma uniseinita 503 

f*Echinarachnius parina 503 

Strongylocentrotus Drobach- 
iensis 406 


Asterias vulgaris 496 

*Cribrella sanguiuolenta. . . 407 
Ophiopholis acnleata 496 



*Platypyxis cylindrica 408 

*Clytia Johnston! 408 

Eudendrium rainosum 408 


* Phi malaria, sp 407 

Hydractinia polyclina. .... 328 

Edwardsia lineata. . 497 


Alcyoniuin carneiun 497 




Chalina oculata 497 tMassi ve siliceous sponge . . 503 

Polymastia (?) 497 | 


Within the depths to which our dredgiugs extended, very few true 
muddy bottoms occur. The deposits of mud on the open coast usually 
begin to occur only at the depths of twenty -five to thirty fathoms, and 
even at these depths there is a considerable admixture with fine siliceous 
sand. The central and deeper portion of the depression in line with the 
axis of Vineyard Sound is, however, occupied oft to the west of Gay 
Head and No Man's Land by a deposit of fine, soft, sticky mud, filled 
with the tubes of Annelids and Ainphipods, (Ampelisca, &c.) Dredgiugs 
were made on this bottom at localities 85, c, in 18 fathoms ; d, 19 fathoms ; 
e, 11 fathoms. On September 9, the temperature at 85, c, was 58 Fah- 
renheit at the bottom, and 62 at the surface ; at d, it was 57 at the 
bottom an.d 62 at the surface 5 at e, it was 59 at the bottom and 63 at 
the surface. This muddy bottom abounded in Annelids, small Crustacea, 
and bivalve shells. 

In several other localities, where the bottom was a mixture of mud 
and fine sand, the mud seemed to predominate and to determine the 
character of the life, so that such localities have been classed with the 
muddy bottoms, though the fauna differed considerably from that of the 
soft muddy bottom* referred to above. In the following list, however, I 
have specially designated the species found in the typical localities of 
each kind. 


The principal localities where we dredged on the bottoms of fine sandy 
mud are as follows: 80, c, south of Martha's Vineyard, in 21 fathoms ; 
84, fc, southwest of Gay Head, in 16 fathoms; 87, a, &, about liltn-n 
miles east of Block Island, in 29 fathoms. At the last locality the tem- 
perature, on September 14, was 62 F. at the surface, and 59 at the 

Among the Crustacea none was more abundant on the soft, muddy 
bottoms than a small species of Ampelisca, which inhabits soft, flabby 
tubes, covered with fine mud. When taken out of the water these tubes 
are always collapsed and flat, and they were so abundant in the mud 
that it was almost impossible to wash it through the sieves, because 
they soon became completely clogged up with the tubes. When a quan- 
tity of the mud was left in a bucket of water these Crustacea would 
come out of the tubes and rise to the surface in large numbers. This 
species is generally quite pale, or nearly white. Its body is much com- 

Another variety, or perhaps a distinct species, found with the last, is 
pale flesh-color, with a row of bright red spots along the middle of the 
back 5 the antennae were specked with red ; eyes bright red 5 epimera 
reticulated with red lines; and the legs and caudal appendages are 
more or less marked with red. 

The Unciola irrorata, (p. 340,) Ptilocheirus pinguis, and other Am- 
phipods, were associated with the preceding species. 

The Diastylis quadrispinosa (Plate III, fig. 13) was very abundant on 
the soft muddy bottoms, together with other species of Cumacea, not 
yet identified. It is pale flesh-color, with a reddish purple patch at the 
posterior part of the carapax, and two small spots of pink. 

The Annelids were very numerous, both on the soft muddy bottoms 
and in the sandy mud. One of the most conspicuous species is the 
Aplirodita aculeata^ which was common in the soft mud. This is a large, 
stout Annelid, the largest specimen obtained measuring about 3 inches 
in length, and about half as much in breadth. It is remarkable for the 
exceedingly numerous and long setse of many kinds, which cover its sides 
and back, except along a narrow dorsal space ; some of these seta3 are 
stout, and nearly an inch long, with sharp points, and barbed near the 
end, and they curve over the back much like the quills of a porcupine, 
and are liable to inflict painful wounds, if the creatures are carelessly 
handled. These setae usually reflect bright, iridescent colors. 

Several other northern European species, found also in the Bay of 
Fundy and at Saint George's Banks, were also met with. Among these 
were Lwnbriconereis fragilis, Scolecolepis cirrata, Melinna cristata, 
Terebellides Stroemi, and several more common species. 

The Nephthys ingens (p. 431, Plate XII, figs. 59-60) is a very abundant 
species on these bottoms and grows to a large size. 

The curious Sternaspis fossor (Plate XIV, fig. 74) is quite common ; 
and the Trophonia affinis (Plate XIV, fig. 75) was dredged several times. 


Many other species were also common, or even abundant, in the various 
localities, and quite a number proved to be undescribed, and therefore 
their descriptions will be found in the systematic catalogue accompany- 
ing this report. Among these were Lycidice Americana, Ninoe nigripw, 
Anthostoma, sp., Acutum, Ammotrypane fimbriata, Travisia carnea, 
Eone gracilis, Brada setosa, Nicomaclie dispar, Rhodine attenuata, a 
species of Ammochares, Ampharete gracilis, Euchone elegans, and a 
species of Nematoncreis. 

Several species of Nemerteans also occur on these bottoms. The largest 
and most interesting is a large species of Meckella, (M. lurida, V.) This 
grows to the length of 8 or 10 inches, and .25 broad ; its color is deep 
chocolate- brown, with paler margins. It generally breaks up into numerous 
fragments when caught. Another species, belonging, perhaps, to the 
genus Cerebratulus, but not sufficiently studied while living, was 2 or 3 
inches long in extension, and .05 to .08 of an inch broad. Its color was 
dark olive-green, darkest anteriorly, the head with a white margin. 
The lateral fossae of the head were long and deep ; the eyes incon 
spicuous, perhaps wanting; proboscis emitted from a terminal pore ; the 
ventral orifice, or mouth, placed well forward. Both this and the pre- 
ceding were found at the 29-fathom locality, in sandy mud, but the 
former also occurred in soft mud, in 19 fathoms. 

One of the most abundant Gastropods is Neptunea pygmwa, (Plate 
XXI, fig. 115,) which is a rather northern shell, very common in the 
Bay of Fundy. The specimens from this region are, however, quite as 
large as any that I have seen from farther north. The small disk-shaped 
egg-capsules of this shell were found in great abundance early in Sep- 
tember attached to various bivalve shells, as well as to the shells of the 
Neptunea itself. 

Buccinum undatum, (Plate XXI, Fig. 121;) Bela liarpularia, (Plate 
XXI, fig. WS ;) Lunatia immaculata, (Plate XXIII, fig. 131;) Margarita 
obscura, (Plate XXIV, fig. 156;) Astyris rosacea ; and Cylichna alba, 
(Plate XXV, fig. 163,) are all northern shells, which were met with in 
small numbers on the muddy bottoms. 

The Lamellibranchs were quite abundant. One of the most con- 
spicuous is the northern Cyprina Islandica, (Plate XXVIII, fig. 201,) 
which was quite common at several localities, especially in soft mud. 
Many of the shells from the deeper dredgings in this region are north- 
Fig. 3. ern and even arctic species, several of which have been 
supposed not to occur south of Cape Cod. Among 
these northern forms are Macoma proxima, of which 
we dredged a few small specimens ; Cyclocardia borealis 
and C. Novanglice (p. 418,) both of which were common ; 
Astarte undata, (Plate XXIX, fig. 203,) which was 
dredged in considerable abundance at several localities. 
A large proportion of the shells of this species, 
obtained here, were quite different in appearance from the varieties 
that occur in such abundance in the Bay of Fundy. The latter, 


although quite variable in form and sculpture, are generally compressed ; 
those from this region are mostly rather swollen, and often decidedly 
obese. These correspond with the type-specimen of A. lutea PERKINS, 
from New Haven, (fig. 3,) which I have been able, through the kindness 
of Dr. Perkins, to compare directly with our specimens. This form is, 
perhaps, sufficiently well marked to be designated a sa variety, (lutea,) 
but many specimens intermediate between this and the ordinary forms 
occurred. This variety resembles the European A. sulcata more closely 
than do any of the other varieties of our species, but in the character 
of the hinge, lunule, beaks, and sculpture, it differs decidedly from any 
European specimens that I have seen. The Astarte quadrans (Plate 
XXIX, fig. 205) was rarely met with. Good-sized specimens of the 
large scollop, Pecten tenuicostatus, were dredged off Gay Head on hard 
bottoms, and also on the muddy bottom, in 29 fathoms, and in several 
other localities. The northern Anomia aculeata (Plate XXXII, figs. 
239, 240) occurred adhering to dead shells. The Modiolaria corrugata 
(Plate XXXI, fig. 235) was dredged several times in the deepest local- 
ities, but M. Icevigala, recorded by Mr. Sanderson Smith, was not met 
with by us ; nor Leda tenuisulcata, which has been found off Newport, 
Khode Island. The Nucula, delpliinodonta (Plate XXX, fig. 229) was 
common on soft muddy bottoms. The Lucina filosa (Plate XXIX, fig. 
212) appeared to be not uncommon on similar bottoms, but most of the 
specimens obtained were less than an inch in diameter. Small speci- 
mens of Periploma papyracea, (Plate XXVII, fig. 197) were frequently 
dredged. The specimens of Thracia truncatn (Plate XXVII, fig. 195) 
were few and small. The Cryptodon obesus V., (Plate XXIX, fig. 214,) 
was first discovered in this region, but all the specimens were of large 
size and dead, though mostly quite fresh. I have since seen smaller 
specimens from Labrador, &c. C. Gouldil (Plate xxix, fig. 213,) is more 
common. Yoldia sapotilla (Plate XXX, fig. 231) was generally abundant, 
especially in the soft mud, but Y. obesa was only met with once, and 
in small numbers, in 29 fathoms ; Y. thraci-formis we did not meet with, 
but Dr. Simpson records it from off Long Island. 

Of Ascidians very few species occur. The most abundant is Eugyra 
pilulariSj (Plate XXXIII, fig. 249,) which, in contraction, looks like a 
round ball of mud, for it completely covers itself with a thick coating 
of fine sand or mud, which is held in place partly by delicate fibrous 
processes from the integument, those from the base being longer, and 
serving to anchor the little creature in the sand by attaching a con- 
siderable quantity of sand to themselves. When the sand is removed, 
the integument is found to be thin and quite translucent, the tubes, 
when extended, are long and transparent, close together, and inclosed 
by a naked band which surrounds the base of both. It is also very 

Figure 3. Original figure of Astarte lutea, natural size. From the Proceedings of 
tbe Boston Society of Natural History. 


common in the Bay of Fundy, c. The Nolgula producta (p. 502) also 
occurred on the sandy mud at the 29-fathorn locality. 

The Echinoderms appear to "be very scarce on these bottoms. The 
only one of special interest was the Molpadia oolitica, a small, round, 
rather slender species, about an inch and a half long, of a uniform flesh- 
color. Of this only one specimen was dredged, at the 29-fathom locality, 
fifteen miles east of iso Man's Land, by Dr. Packard. It had not been 
observed alive before, the only specimens previously known having 
been taken from the stomachs of fishes. 

The most interesting Hydroid that lives on the muddy bottoms is 
Corymorpha pendula, (Plate XXXVI, fig. 273.) This is a very beautiful 
species, which grows singly, with the bulb-like base of the stem inserted 
into the mud. 

Two interesting species of Polyps were found on the muddy bottoms. 
One of these, the Edicardsia farinacea, occurred only on the soft muddy 
bottom off Gay Head, in 19 fathoms. It is a cylindrical species, about 
an inch long, and .10 or .12 of an inch in diameter, remarkable for having 
only 12 tentacles, which are equal, unusually short, thick, and blunt. 
The coating of mud in the middle region is thin and easily removed. 

The single specimen obtained here had only 10 tentacles, but in other 
respects it agrees essentially with those found on similar bottoms at 
several localities in the Bay of Fuudy, all of which had 12 tentacles. 
The body is whitish or flesh-color, the naked portion below the tentacles ; 
in the specimen from off Gay Head, was striped with 10 longitudinal 
lines or bands of brown, corresponding with the tentacles; these 
bands were varied with flake-white specks and mottlings, the spots of 
white becoming more distinct near the tentacles; these bands were 
alternately lighter and darker. Tentacles translucent at tip, tranversely 
barred on the inside, with about five brown bauds and spots, the lower 
ones often V-shaped or W-shaped, and some of them extend around 
to the outside of the tentacles ; alternating with these brown bands were 
bars and spots of yellow and of white. The disk was pale yellow, varied 
with small brown spots, mostly forming radiating rows from the mouth 
to the bases of the tentacles, and there were two spots of brown between 
the bases of adjacent tentacles ; mouth with ten lobes, which were also 
brown, with a fine light line extending from between them to the in- 
tervals between the tentacles. The specimens from the Bay of Fundy 
vary considerably in color, but the above is one of the more frequent 
styles of coloration. 

The EpizoantJms Americanus (Plate XXXVIII, figs. 286, 287) is a very 
singular species, which either lives attached to stones, as in the deeper 
parts of the Bay of Fundy and off Saint George's Bank, in 430 fathoms, 
or else it attaches itself to univalve shells, inhabited by hermit-crabs. 
All those obtained in this region had the latter habit, and were from the 
29-fathom place, fifteen miles east of Block Island, on sandy mud. 
After one original young polyp has found lodgment and attached itself to 
the shell, its base begins to expand over the surface of the shell, and from 


this basal membrane buds arise, which soon grow larger and become 
like the parent polyp, while the basal membrane continues to extend 
itself and new buds to develop, until the whole shell becomes incrusted 
by the membrane, inside and out, while a number of beautiful polyps 
arise from the upper side of the shell, and turn their mouths in different 
directions. The number of the polyps in these colonies varies, accord- 
ing to the size of the shell, from three to ten or more. Finally, by some 
chemical process, the polyps, or rather their basal membranes, dissolve 
the shell entirely, and apparently absorb it into themselves. And yet 
the membranes retain the spiral form of the shell very perfectly, and the 
hermit crab eventually actually lives inside the membranes of the polyps, 
which continue to grow and even to enlarge the chamber for the use of 
the crab, so that it need not change its habitation for a larger one as it 
grows older. When fully expanded these polyps are about an inch high, 
and are capable of changing their form considerably, but they are gen- 
erally more or less cylindrical, or else hour-glass shaped. There are 38 
or more tentacles, in full grown ones, and they are subequal, long, 
slender, acute, arranged in two close circles, and usually held in a 
recurved position, (as in fig. 287,) with those of the outer circle more 
recurved than those of the inner ones ; corresponding with the bases of 
the alternate tentacles there is an outer circle of triangular points or 
lobes, covered externally, like the rest of the exterior of the body, with 
adherent and imbedded grains of fine sand. The mouth is bilabiate, 
often somewhat raised on a conical protrusion of the disk, the lips many- 
lobed, or plicate. The integument of the body when fully expanded is 
translucent, pale flesh-color, or salmon color ; disk and tentacles salmon- 
color, or pale orange, sometimes white, the lips and inside of the mouth 
brighter orange. 

List of species inhabiting bottoms composed of soft mud and sandy mud off 

the outer coast. 

In the following list those species fhat were found on the soft, sticky 
mud, in 11 to 19 fathoms, off Gay Head, are designated by the sign J, pre- 
fixed to their names. Those that occurred at 87, a, ft, in 29 fathoms, 
fine sandy mud, fifteen miles east of Block Island, are designated by an 
asterisk prefixed. 




* t Ampelisca, sp 507 

* Byblis serrata 501 

* | Ptilocheirus pinguis 507 

* J Unciola irrorata 507 

* Siphonoeeetes cuspidatns. 501 

f Epelys montosus 370 

E. trilobus 370 

Anthura brachiata 573 

| Libinia canaliculata 339 

Eupagurus lougicarpus 313 

* Pandalus annulicornis ..... 493 

Hippolyte pusiola , 395 

Craugon vulgaris 339 

* i Diastylis quadrispinosa . . 507 
Phoxus Kroyeri 501 

* Mcera levis . . 315 




* f Aphrodita aculeata 507 

* Harmothoe iinbricata 321 

Lepidonotus squamatus 320 

* | Nephthys ingens 507 

JS". bucera 416 

JEumidia, sp 397 

Phyllodoce, sp 397 

* Nereis pelagica 397 

J Lycidice Americana 508 

* | Lumbriconereis fragilis 507 

* Nematouereis, sp 508 

* Niiioe nigripes 508 

| Eone gracilis 508 

f Antliostoma acntum 508 

Anthostoma, sp 508 

* Scolecolepis cirrata 507 

| Ammotrypane fimbriata. .. 508 


| Travisia carnea 508 

Brada setosa 508 

* | Trophonia affinis 507 

J Sternaspis fossor 507 

* Cirrhinereis fragilis 397 

* | Clyraenella torquata 343 

* Ammochares, sp 508 

* Nicomache dispar 508 

Khodine attenuata 508 

Cistenides Gouldii 323 

* Ampharete gracilis 508 

Melinna cristata 507 

* Terebellides Stroemi 507 

| Polycirrus eximius . . 320 

Potamilla oculifera 322 

* | Euchone elegans 508 

* Spirorbis, sp 397 

Nemerteans and Planar ians. 


* f Meckelia lurida 508 

Cerebratulus, (?) green sp . . 508 


* Polinia glutinosa 324 

* Leptoplana folium 487 


Phascolosoraa caementarium ... .......... fc ................. 416 




Bela harpularia 508 

t Buccinum undatum 508 

* t Neptunea pygmsea 508 

* Tritia trivittata 354 

Astyris lunata. . ., 306 

* Astyris rosacea 508 

* Crucibulum striatum. . 399 

Oepidula unguiformis 

C. fornicata 355 

*Lunatia heros, var. trise- 

riata 354 

* L. immaculata 508 

* Margarita obscura 508 

* Cylichna alba 508 



Ensatella Americana 356 

* Siliqua costata . . . ; 358 

contracta 418 


* | Clidiopkora trilineata 432 

* | Lyonsia hyalina 358 

* { Periploma papyracea 509 



* Thracia truncata 509 

Angulus tener 358 

* Macoma proxima < 508 

Cumingia tellinoides 418 

* | Callista cbnvexa .... 432 

* t Cyprina Islaudica 508 

* j Gardium pinrmlatum 423 

* J Lucina filosa 509 

* Cryptodon Gouldii 509 

4|C. obesus 509 

* 'I Astarte castanea 432 

J A. quadrans . - 509 

* t A.undata 508 

* Cyclocardia borealis 508 

* 0* Novanglise 508 

* | Xucula proxima 432 


* { K. delphinodonta nou 

| Yoldia lirnatula 432 

* | Y. sapotilla 509 

Y. thraciformis 509 

* Y. obesa 509 

Leda tenuisulcata .")()!> 

Argina pexata 309 

Scapharca trans versa 309 

Mytilus edulis . 307 

* | Modiolaria nigra 433 

M. corrugata . , 509 

M. Ia3vigata 509 

* f Crenella glandula 418 

* f Pecten tenuicostatus .... 509 

* Anomia aculeata . . 509 


*t Kugyra pilularis. 
* Molgula producta, 

* Caberea Ellisii 



Cynthia partita 


Bugula Murrayana 





* Molpadia oolitica 

Strongylocentrotus Droba- 
chiensis . 


f Asterias vulgaris 

J Cribrella sanguinolenta . 

* Cly tia Johnston! 

* Eudeiidriuin ramostiin 





* Coryrnorpha pendula 

| Bdwardsia farinacea 
16 v 


* Epizoanthus Americanus, 






In the following lists I have brought together the principal results of 
the various recorded examinations of stomachs of fishes in this region, 
up to the present time, whether done in connection with the United 
States Fish Commission or independently. The special dates and local- 
ities are given in each case. 

The observations from June to September, 1871, were made in con- 
nection with the work of the commission. Those from May to July, 
1872, are based on collections made at Wood's Hole by Mr. Vinal N. 
Edwards, for Professor Baird. Those at Great Egg Harbor, New Jer- 
sey, April, 1871, were made by Mr. S. I. Smith and the writer while on 
an independent visit to that place.* The observations made at East- 
port, Maine, in 1872, are not included in this report. 

The names of the fishes used in this list are those adopted by Profes- 
sor Baird, and agree, for the most part, with those used by Professor 
Theodore Gill in his Catalogue of the Fishes of the Eastern Coast of 
North America. 

STRIPED BASS; BOCK-FISH, OR "ROCK;" (Roccus lineatus.) 

At Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, April, 1871, several specimens, 
freshly caught in seines, with menhaden, &c., contained Crangon vul- 
garis (shrimp) in large quantities. 

A specimen caught at Wood's Hole, July 22, 1872, contained a large 
mass of u sea-cabbage," Viva latissima, and the remains of a small 

Specimens taken at Wood's Hole, August, 1871, contained crabs, Can- 
cer irroratus ; and lobsters, Homarus Americanm. 

WHITE PERCH ; (Morone Americana.) 

Numerous specimens caught with the preceding at Great Egg Har- 
bor, New Jersey, contained Crangon vulgar is. 

BLACK BASS; SEA-BASS; (Centropristis fuscus.) 

Specimens caught in Vineyard Sound, June 10, contained the common 
crab, Cancer irroratus ; the mud-crab, Panopeus Sayi; three species of 

Another caught May 25 contained a squid, Loligo pallida. 

SCUP; PORGEE; (Stenotomus argyrops.) 

Forty young specimens, one year old, taken at Wood's Hole in August, 
contained large numbers of Amphipod Crustacea, among which were 
Unciolairrorata, Ampelisca, sp., &c. ; several small mud-crabs, Panopeus 
depressm; Idotea irrorata; Nereis virens, and numerous other Annelids of 
several species, too much digested for identification. 

* The results of the observations made at Great Egg Harbor were published by the 
writer in the American Naturalist, vol. v, p. 397 1871. 


Other specimens, opened at various times, show that this lish is very 
general feeder, eating all kinds of small Crustacea, Annelids, bivalve 
and univalve mollusks, &c. 

TAUTOG ; BLACK FISH ; (Tautoga onitis.} 

Specimens caught at Wood's Hole, May 23, contained the common 
rock-crab, Cancer irroratus ; hermit-crabs, Eupagurus longicarpus ; shells, 
Tritia trivittata, all crushed. 

Others caught May 26 contained Eupagurm pollicaris ; E. longicar- 
pus; the barnacle, Balanus crenatus ; the squid, Loligo Pealii; Tritia 
trivittata. Others taken May 29 had Cancer irroratus ; mud-crabs, 
Panopeus depresses ; lady-crabs, Platyoniclms ocellatus ; shells, Tritia 
trivittata, Crepidula fornicata, Argina pexata, and the scollop, Pecten 
irradians ; barnacles, Balanus crenatus, all well broken up. 

Another taken May 31 contained Platyoniclms ocellatus ; Tritia trivit- 

Others taken June 3 contained the mud-crab, Panopeus depressus; tri- 
angular crab, Pelia mutica; Crepidula unguiformis ; Triforis nigrocinctus ; 
the common muscle, Nytilus edulis ; and the "horse-muscle,'' Modiola 

Another, on June 10, contained the common rock-crab, Cancer irrora- 
tus ; mud-crab, Panopeus Sayi ; Nuculaproxima ; several ascidians, Cyn- 
thia partita and Leptoclinum albidum. 

Two caught July 8 and 15 contained small lobsters, Homarus Ameri- 
canus; Crepidula fornicata ; Bittium nigrum; abryozoau, Crisia eburnea ; 
sand-dollars, Echinaraclinius parma. 

A specimen caught in August contained long-clams, Nya arenaria ; 
muscles, Mytilus edulis ; Petricola plioladiformis. 

WEAK-FISH; SQUETEAOUE; (Cynoscion regalis.) 

Several caught in seines at Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, April, 1871, 
with menhaden, &c., contained large quantities of shrimp, Crangon vul- 
garis, unmixed with other food. 

Specimens taken at Wood's Hole, in July, often contained sand-crabs, 
Platyoniclms ocellatus ; and very frequently squids, Loligo Pealii. 

KiNGr-FiSH; (Menticirrus nebulosus.) 

Four specimens taken in seines at Great Egg Harbor, April, 1871, con- 
tained only shrimp, Crangon vulgaris. 

Others taken at Wood's Hole, May 29, were filled with Crangon vul- 

Specimens taken in July contained rock-crabs, Cancer irroratus ; 
squids, Loligo Pealii. 

EuDDER-FiSH 5 (Palinurichtliys perciformis.) 

A specimen caught at Wood's Hole, in August, contained a small 
Sqiiilla empusa; and young squids, Loligo Pealii. 


MACKEREL ; (Scomber verncClis.) 

Specimens taken July 18, twenty miles south of Xo Mans Land, con- 
tained shrimps, Thysanopoda, sp. ; larval crabs in the zoea and megalops 
stages of development ; young of hermit-crabs ; young of lady-crabs, 
Platyoniclius ocellatus ; young of two undetermined Macroura; numer- 
ous small Copepod Crustacea ; numerous shells of a Pteropod, Kpirialis 

SMALL TUNNY; (Orcynus thminina.) 

One specimen caught at Wood's Hole, in August, contained eleven 
squids, Loligo Pealii. 

BONITO ; (Sarda pelamys.) 

Specimens taken at Wood's Hole, in August, contained an abundance 
of shrimp, Crangon vulgar is. 

BLUE-FISH $ HORSE-MACKEREL ; (Pomatomus saltatrix.) 

Specimens caught at Wood's Hole, in August, frequently contained 
squids, Loligo Pealii ; also various fishes. 

Off Fire Island, Long Island, August, 1870, Mr. S. I. Smith saw blue- 
fishes feeding eagerly on the free-swimming males (heteronereis) of Nereis 
liiribata, (p. 318,) which was then very abundant. 

SEA-EOBIN ; (Prionotus Carolinus.) 

A specimen caught at Wood's Hole, May 27, contained shrimp, Cran- 
gon vulgar is ; and a small flounder. 

Another caught May 29 contained Amphipod Crustacea, Anonyx (."), 
sp. ; and Crangon vulgaris. 

Specimens dredged in Vineyard Sound, in August, contained mud- 
crabs, Panopeus Sayi ; rock-crabs, Cancer irroratus ; and several small 

ToAD-FiSH; (Eatraclms tau.) 

Several specimens examined at Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, April, 
1871, contained young edible crabs, Callinectes liastatus of various sizes 
up to those with the carapax two inches broad ; shrimp, Crangon vul. 
garis ; prawn, Palccmonetes vulgaris ; llyanassa obsolcta / various fishes, 
especially the pipe-fish, Syngnathus Pecldanus ; and the anchovy, Engrau- 
lis vittatus. 

A specimen caught at Wood's Hole, in July, contained the common 
rock-crab, Cancer irroratus. 

GOOSE-FISH ; ANGLER ; (LopUus Americanus.) 

A specimen caught in Vineyard Sound, in June, contained crabs, 
Cancer irroratus; and squids, Loligo Pealii. 

COD ; ( Gadus morrlma, var.} 

The cod-fishes devour a great variety of Crustacea, Annelids, Mol- 
lusks, star-fishes, &c. They swallow large bivalve shells, and after 
digesting the contents spit out the shells, which are often almost uniii- 


juretl. They are also very fond of shrimps, and of crabs, which they 
frequently swallow whole, even when of large si/e. The brittle star- 
fishes (Opldurans) are also much relished by them. I have taken large 
masses of the Oithiojiholis aculeata from their stomachs on the coasts of 
Maine and Labrador ; and in some cases the stomach would be distended 
with this one kind, unmixed with any other food. 

In this region I have not been able to make any new observations on 
the food of the cod. This deficiency is partially supplied, however, by 
the observations made by me on the coast of Maine, &c., coupled with 
the very numerous observations made at Stoniugton, Connecticut, 
many years ago, by Mr. J. H. Trumbull, who examined large numbers of 
the stomachs of cod and haddock, caught within a few miles of that 
place, for the sake of the rare shells that they contained. This collec- 
tion of shells, thus made, was put into the hands of the Rev. J. H. Lins- 
ley, who incorporated the results into his " Catalogue of the Shells of 
Connecticut,' 7 which was published after his death, and in a somewhat 
unfinished state, in the American Journal of Science, Series I, vol. 
xlviii, p. 271, 1845. In that list a large number of species are particularly 
mentioned as from the stomachs of cod and haddock, at Stonington, all 
of which were collected by Mr. Trumbull, as he has informed me, from 
fishes caught on the fishing-grounds near by, on the reefs off Watch 
Hill, &c. Many other northern shells, recorded by Mr. Linsley as from 
Stouington, but without particulars, were doubtless also taken from 
the fish-stomachs by Mr. Trumbull. There was no record made of the 
Crustacea, &c., found by him at the same time. 

The following list includes the species mentioned by Mr. Linsley as 
from the cod. For greater convenience the original names given by him 
are added in parentheses, when differing from those used in this report: 

List of molluskSj &c., obtained by Mr. J. H. Trunibull, from cod-fish cauglit 
near Stonington, Connecticut. 


Sipho Islandicus (!), young, (Fusus corneus.) 
Ptychatractus ligatus, (Fasciolaria ligata.) 
Turbonilla interrupta, (Turritella interrupta.) 
Turritella erosa. 

Rissoa exarata, (!), (Cingula arenaria.) 
Lunatia immaculata, (Natica immaculata.) 
Amphisphyra pellucida, (Bulla debilis.) 
Chiton marmorens, (!), (Chiton fulminatus.) 


Martesia cuneiformis, (Pholas cuneiformis.) 
Periploma papyracea, (Anatina papyracea.) 
Thracia truncata. 


Tagelus divisus, (Solecurtus fragilis.) 

Sernele equalis, (?), (Aniphidesma sequalis.) 

Ceronia arctata, (Mesodesma arctata.) 

Montacuta elevata, (Montacuta bidentata.) 

Callista convexa, young, (Cytherea morrhuana.) 

Cardium pinnulatum. 

Cyprina Islandica. 

Gouldia mactracea, (Astarte mactracea.) 

Yoldia sapotilla, (Nucula sapotilla.) 

Y. lirnatula, (N. limatula.) 

Nucula proxirua. 

"N. tenuis. 

Modiolaria nigra, (Modiola nexa.) 

Crenella glandula, (M. glandula.) 

Pecten tenuicostatus, young, (Pecten fuscus.) 


Echinarachnius parma. 
HADDOCK ; (Melanogrammus ceglifinus.) 

The haddock is not much unlike the cod in the character of its food. 
It is, perhaps, still more omnivorous, or, at least, it generally contains a 
greater variety of species of shells. &c. ; many of the shells that it 
habitually feeds upon are burrowing species, and it probably roots 
them out of the mud and sand. 

A complete list of the animals devoured by the haddock would 
doubtless include nearly all the species belonging to this fauna. We have 
had few opportunities for making observations on the food of the haddock 
south of Cape Cod, but have examined many from farther north. 

A specimen taken at Wood's Hole, November 6, 1872, contained a 
large quantity of Gammarus natator, and a few specimens of Cranyon 
vulgaris. Another from Nantucket contained the same species. 

The following species of shells were mentioned by Mr. Linsley, in 
his catalogue, as from the haddock : 

List of mollusks obtained from stpmachs of haddock, at Stonington, Con- 
necticut, by Mr. J. H. Trumbull. 

Neptunea pygmsea, (Fusus Trumbulli.) 

Astyris zonalis, (Buccinum zonale.) 

Bulbus flavus, (?), (Natica flava.) 

Margarita obscura, 

Action puncto-striata, (Tornatella puncto-striata.) 

Cylichna alba, (Bulla triticea.) 

Serripes Groenlaudicus, (?), (Cardium Grcenlandicurn.) 

The above list doubtless contains only a small portion of the species 
collected by Mr. Trumbull, but they are all, that are specially recorded. 


As an illustration of the character and diversity of the haddock's food, 
I add a list of the species taken from the stomach of a single specimen, 
from the Boston market, and doubtless caught in Massachusetts Bay, 
September, 1871. 

Natica clausa. 
Margarita Grrenlaudica. 



Leda tenuisulcata. 
Nucula proxima. 
N. teuuis. 
Crenella glandula. 


Psolus phantapus. 
Lophothuria Fabrieii. 

In addition to these there were fragments of shrimp, probably Panda- 
lus annulicoriiis. and numerous Annelids, too much digested for identi- 

TOM-COD ; FROST-FISH ; (Microgadus tom-codus.) 

Several specimens from New Haven Harbor, January 30, contained 
numerous Amphipods, among which were Mcera levis ; Gammarus, sp. ; 
Ampelisca, sp. ; an undetermined Macrouran; numerous Entomostraca; 
the larva of Chironomus oceanicus. 

A lot taken in a small pond at Wood's Hole, in March, by Mr. Yinal 
N. Edwards, contained the common shrimp, Crangon vulgar is ; large 
numbers of the green shrimp, Virbius zostericola; the prawn, Palwmo- 
netes vulgaris ; large quantities of Amphipods, especially of Gammarus 
annulatus, G. natator, Calliopius Iceviuscula, and Microdeutopus minax ; 
and smaller numbers of Gammarus ornatus and G. mucronatus. 

Another lot of twelve, taken in April at the same place, contained 
most of the above, and in addition several other Amphipods, viz : Mcera 
levis, Pontogeneia inermis, Ptiloclieirus pinguis, and Caprella ; also Nereis 
virenSj and various small fishes. 

Several specimens taken in the seines, at Great Egg Harbor, New 
Jersey, in April, contained large quantities of shrimp, Crangon vulgaris 
and Mi/sis Americana ; one contained a full-grown Gebia affinis. 

One caught at Wood's Hole, June G, contained twenty-six specimens 
of Yoldia limatula; and numerous shells of Nucula proxima, Angvlus 
tener, and Tritia trivittata; and Amphipod Crustacea belonging to the 
genus Ampelisca. 


Specimens caught afc Wood's Hole, in July, contained rock-crabs, 
Cancer irroratus; Pinnixa cylindrica ; Crangon vulgaris ; squids, Lollgo 
Pealii; Angulus tener ; Nucula proxima ; and many "sand-dollars," Eelii- 
narachnius parma. 

WINTER FLOUNDER ; (Pseudopleuronectes Americanus.) 

A specimen caught at Wood's Hole, in August, contained large num- 
bers of Bulla solitaria. 

SPOTTED FLOUNDER ; (Lopliopsetta maculata.) 

Numerous specimens caught in seines at Great Egg Harbor, April, 
1871, contained large quantities of shrimp, especially Mysis Americana 
and Crangon vulgaris; the prawn, Palamonetes vulgaris ; numerous Am- 
phipods, Gammarus mucronatus ; one contained a Gebia affinis. 

MINNOW ; (Fundulus pisculentus.) 

Specimens caught in July, at Wood's Hole, contained large numbers 
of Melampus bidentatus, unmixed with other food. 

SEA-HERRING; (Clupea elongata.) 

Specimens taken in Vineyard Sound, May 20, contained several 
shrimp, Crangon vulgaris, about 1.5 inches long; Mysis Americana, and 
large numbers of an Amphipod, Gammarus natator ; also small fishes. 

SHAD ; (Alosa tyrannus.) 

Several specimens taken in the seines, at Great Egg Harbor, April, 

1871, contained finely-divided fragments of numerous Crustacea, among 
which were shrimp, Mysis Americana. 

Several from the mouth of the Connecticut River, May, 1872, contained 
fragments of small Crustacea, (Mysis, &c.) 

HICKORY SHAD ; (Pomolobus mediocris.) 
Several specimens taken in the seines at Great Egg Harbor, April, 

1872, contained large quantities of fragmentary Crustacea; one con- 
tained recognizable fragments of shrimp, Crangon vulgaris. 

MENHADEN ; (Brevoortia menhaden.) 

A large number of specimens freshly caught in seines at Great Egg 
Harbor, April, 1871, were examined, and all were found to have their 
stomachs filled with large quantities of dark mud. They undoubtedly 
swallow this mud for the sake of the microscopic animal and vegetable 
organisms that it contains. Their complicated and capacious digestive 
apparatus seems well adapted for this crude and bulky food. 

EiLE-Fisii; (Ceratacanthus aurantiacus.) 

A specimen taken at Wood's Hole, in August, contained a quantity of 
the finely-divided stems and branches of a Hydroid, Pennaria tiarella. 

DUSKY SHARK ; (Eulamia obscura.) 

Several specimens caught at Wood's Hole, in July and August, con- 
tained lobsters, Homarus Americanus ; rock-crabs, Cancer irroratus. 


BLUE SHARK ; (ilnUania Mllhcrti.} 

A large specimen caught at Wood's Hole, in August, contained a 
quantity of small bivalve-shells, Yoldia sapotilla. 

TIGER- SHARK ; (Galeroccrdo tigrina.) 

Specimens caught at Wood's Hole, in August, contained large univalve 
shells, Buccinum undatum and Lunatia lieros. 

DoG-Fisn 5 (Mustelus canis.) 

Several specimens caught at Wood's Hole, in August, contained lob- 
sters, Homarus Americanus; spider-crabs, Libinia canaliculata ; rock- 
crabs, Cancer irroratus. 

SAND-SiiARK; (Eugomphodus littoralis.) 

Many specimens taken at Wood's Hole, in July and August, contained 
lobsters, Homarus Americanus, in abundance ; Cancer irroratus ; and 
squids, Loligo Pealii. 

COMMON SKATE ; "SUMMER SKATE;" (Raia diaphana.) 

A specimen taken at Wood's Hole, May 14, contained rock-crabs, 
Cancer irroratus; a young skate; a long slender fish, (Ammodytesf.) 
Another, caught in July, contained Cancer irroratus. 

PEAKED-NOSE SKATE; (Raia lav is f.) 

Specimens caught in Vineyard Sound, May 14, contained numerous 
shrimps, Crangon vulgar is; several Conileraconcharum; several Annelids? 
among them Nephthys ingens ; Meckelia ingens ; two specimens of Phasco- 
losoma Gouldii; razor-shells, Unsatella Americana^ (the " foot' 7 only, of 
many specimens ;) a small fish, Ctenolabrm burgall Specimens taken at 
Menemsha, in Juty, contained large numbers of crabs, Cancer irroratus ; 
and of lobsters, Homarus Americanus. 

STING--BAY; (Trygon centroura.) 

Specimens caught at Wood's Hole, in July and August, contained 
large numbers of crabs, Cancer irroratus ; squids, Loligo Pealii; clams, 
Mya arenaria ; Lunatia lieros. 

LONG-TAILED STING-KAY; (Myliobatis Freminvillei.) 

Specimens taken in Vineyard Sound, in July, contained an abundance 
of lobsters, Homarus Americanus; crabs, Cancer irroratus ; also clams, 
Mya arenaria ; and Lunatia lieros. 


A specimen taken at Wood's Hole, in July, contained a lobster, Homa- 
rus Americanus. 


A specimen caught at Wood's Hole, July 1, contained hermit-crabs, 
Eupagurus pollicaris. 



Most of the larger crustaceans of oar coast, whatever may be their 
habits when adult, are, in the early stages of their existence after hatch- 
ing from the eggs, essentially free- swimming animals, living a large part 
of the time near the surface of the water. In this stage they are con- 
stantly exposed to the attacks of other predaceous animals, and, as they 
occur in vast numbers, afford food for many valuable fishes. They are 
most abundant at the surface in calm, clear weather, and they especially 
resort, like the young of many other marine animals, to spots and streaks 
of smooth water where the tidal currents meet. 

Very little has yet been written upon the forms or habits of the young 
crustaceans of our own coast ; but, in connection with the investigations 
carried on in Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's Bay, a great amount of 
material for such work was collected. This material has not yet 
been fully studied, and only a sketch of some of the more important re- 
sults is presented in this report. During the few weeks in June and 
July, in which I was myself at Wood's Hole, the time was so fully occu- 
pied in collecting, that very little time was left for studying the animals 
while alive; hence most of the observations which follow, except occa- 
sionally those on color, have been subsequently made from specimens 
preserved in alcohol. While at Wood's Hole, I was much assisted in 
obtaining these young animals by every one then associated there in the 
work of the commission; and I would especially acknowledge such 
assistance from Dr. W. G. Farlow, Mr. Y. N. Edwards, and Capt. John 
B. Smith. After I left, the collecting was kept up as before, and many 
valuable notes were made by Professors Verrill and J. E. Todd. 

Special attention was given to the early stages of the lobster, as per- 
haps the most important crustacean found on our coast, and I have gone 
more fully into the account of its early history than that of any other 
species. As this will serve as an example to illustrate the development 
of most of the other Macrourans, it is presented first. 

Numerous specimens of the free-swimming young of the lobster, in 
different stages of growth, were obtained in Vineyard Sound during 
July, but it was too late for any observations upon the young within the 
egg. This deficiency was partially supplied by a few observations at 
New Haven in 1872. Eggs taken May 2, from lobsters captured at New 
London, Connecticut, had embryos well advanced, as represented in fig. 
4. In this stage the eggs are slightly elongated spheroids, about 2.1 mm 
in the longer diameter, and 1.9 mm in the shorter. One side is rendered 
very opaque dark green by the uuabsorbed yolk mass, while the other 
shows the eyes as two large black spots, and the red pigment spots on 
the edge of the carapax, bases of the legs, &c., as irregular lines of 
pink markings. 

In a side view of the embryo, the lower edge of the carapax (&, figure) 


is clearly defined and extends in a gentle curve from the, middle of the 
eye to the posterior border of the embryo. This margin of the cara- 
pax is marked with dendritic spots y\<, t 4.* 

of red pigment. The whole dorsal 
portion, fully one-half the embryo, 
is still occupied by the unabsorbed 
portion of the yolk, (a, a,) of which 
the lower margin, represented in the 
figure by a dotted line, extends from, 
close above the eye in a curve near- 
ly parallel with the lower margin 
of thecarapax, but with a sharp in- 
dentation a little way behind the 
eye. The eyes (c) are large, nearly 
round, not entirely separated from 
the surrounding tissues, and with a 
central portion of black pigment. 
The anteunulae (d) are simple, sack- 
like appendages, arising from just beneath the eyes, with the terminal 
portion turned backward and marked with several large dendritic spots 
of red pigment. The antennae (e) are but little larger than the anten- 
nnlae and are sack-like and without articulations, but the scale and 
flagellum are separated and bent backward, the scale being represented 
by the large and somewhat expanded lobe, and the flagellum by a 
shorter and slender lobe which arises from near the base of the scale. 
The mandibles, both pairs of maxillae, and the first and second pairs of 
inaxillipeds are not sufficiently developed to be seen without removing the 
antennae and the edge of the carapax, and are only represented by several 
small lobes, of which the anterior, apparently representing the mandi- 
bles, are distinctly defined, while those that follow are much smaller, 
indistinct, and confused. The first and second maxillipeds are each re- 
presented by a small lobe divided at the extremity. The external max- 
illipeds (/) are well developed and almost exactly like the posterior 
cephalothoracic legs. Both the branches are simple and sack-like, the 
main branch, or endognathus,t much larger and slightly longer than the 
outer branch, or exognathus, which is quite slender. The five pairs of 

* Embryo, some time before Latching, removed from the external envelope and 
shown in a side view enlarged twenty diameters ; a, a, dark-green yolk mass still 
unabsorbed; />, lateral margin of the carapax marked with many dendritic spots of red 
pigment ; c, eye ; d, antennula ; e, antenna ; /, external maxilliped ; g, great cheliped 
which forms the big claw of the adult j /?, outer swimming branch or exopodus of the 
same ; i, the four ambulatory legs with their exopodal branches ; k, intestine ; /, heart : 
m. bilobed tail seen edgewise. [Drawn by S. I. Smith.] 

t To prevent confusion, the terms here used are those proposed by Milne Edwards to 
designate the different branches of the cephalothoracic appendages: endopod*8 y for the 
main branch of a leg ; exopodus, for the accessory branch, (a in fig. D, Plate IX :) rpipo- 
ditx, tor the rlabelliform appendage, (&;) and endognatlms, exognathus, and epignathus, for 
the corresponding branches of the mouth organs. 


cephalothoracic legs (g, A, i) are all similar and of about the same size, 
except the main branch of the first pair, (#,) which is much larger than 
that of the others, but is still sack like and entirely without articula- 
tions. The outer or exopodal branches of all the legs are slender, wholly 
unarticulated, sack-like processes, while the inner or main (endopodal) 
branches of the four posterior pairs are similar, but much stouter and 
slightly longer processes arising from the same bases. The bases of all 
the legs are marked with dendritic spots of red pigment like those upon 
the lower margin of the carapax. 

The abdomen (m) is curved round beneath the cephalothorax, the 
extremity extending between and considerably in front of the eyes. 
The segments are scarcely distinguishable. The extremity, as seen from, 
beneath the embryo, is slightly expanded into a somewhat oval form, 
and very deeply divided by a narrow sinus, rounded at the extremity. 
The lobes into which the tail is thus divided are narrow, and somewhat 
approach each other toward the extremities, where they are each armed 
along the inner edge with six small obtuse teeth. 

The heart (I) is readily seen, while the embryo is alive, by its regular 
pulsations. It appears as a slight enlargement in the dorsal vessel, 
just under the posterior portion of the carapax. The intestine (k) is 
distinctly visible in the anterior portion of the abdomen as a well denned, 
transparent tube, in which float little granular masses. This material 
within the intestine is constantly oscillating back and forth as long as the 
embryo is alive. 

The subsequent development of the embryo within the egg was not 
observed. The following observations on the young larva?, after they 
have left the eggs, have all been made upon specimens obtained in Vine- 
yard Sound, or the adjacent waters, during July. These specimens were 
mostly taken at the surface in the day-time, either with the towing or 
hand net. They represent three quite different stages in the true larval 
condition, besides a later stage approaching closely the adult. The 
exact age of the larvad of the first stage was not ascertained, but was 
probably only a few days, and they had, most likely, molted not more 
than once. Between the third stage, here described, and the last, there 
is probably an intermediate form wanting. 

First stage. In this stage, (Plate IX, Figs. A, B, C, D,) the young are 
free-swimming Schizopods about a third of an inch (7.8 to S.0 mm ) in 
length, without abdominal appendages, and with six pairs of pediform 
cephalothoracic appendages, each with the exopodus developed into 
a powerful swimming organ. The general appearance is represented 
in the figures. The eyes are bright blue ; the anterior portion and the 
lower margin of the carapax and the bases of the legs are speckled with 
orange; the lower margin, the whole of the penultimate, and the basal 
portion of the ultimate segment of the abdomen, are brilliant reddish 

The antennula3 (Fig. C.) are short and sack-like, with a single articu- 


lation at the base, and three seta 1 at the lip. The antenn;e have, large 
well developed scales, furnished along the inner margin with long 
plumose hairs, but the llagellum is sliorter than the scale, not divided 
into segments, and has three plumose seta3 at tip. The mandibles are 
unlike on the two sides ; the inferior edges are armed with acute teeth, 
except at the posterior angle, where there is a small molar area ; the palpi 
are very small, with the three segments just indicated. The exogna thus 
in both pairs of maxilla) is composed of only one article, and is furnished 
witU several seta3 at tip. In the first maxillipeds the exogna thus is an 
unarticulated process, furnished with short plumose hairs on the outer 
side. The second maxillipeds have the principal branch cylindrical, 
not flattened and appressed to the inner rnouth organs as in the adult; 
the exoguathus is short, and as yet scarcely flabelliform ; and the epig. 
nathus is a simple process, with not even the rudiment of a branchia. 
The external maxillipeds are pediform, the endognathus as long as and 
much resembling the endopodi of the posterior legs, while the exog- 
nathus is like the exopodi of all the legs, being half as long as the en- 
dognathus, and the terminal portion furnished along the edges with long 
plumose hairs. The epignathus and the branchiae are very rudimentary, 
represented by minute sack-like processes. The anterior cephalothoracic 
legs, (Fig. D,) which in the adult develop into the big claws, are exactly 
alike, and no longer than the external maxillipeds. The pediform branch 
is, however, somewhat stouter than in the other legs, and subcheliform. 
The legs of the second and third pairs are similar to the first, but not 
as stout. The legs of the fourth and fifth pairs are still more slender, 
and styliform at the extremity, as in the adult. 

The exopodal branches of all the legs and of the external maxillipeds 
are quite similar, and differ very little in size. In life, while the animal is 
poised at rest in the water, they are carried horizontally, as represented in 
Figure 7?, or are curved up over the carapax, sometimes so as almost to 
cover it. The blood circulates rapidly in these appendages, and they 
undoubtedly serve, to a certain extent, as respiratory organs, as well as 
for locomotion. By careful examination, small processes were found 
representing the normal number of branchiae to each leg.* These rudi- 
mentary branchias, however, differ somewhat in different specimens, 
being very small, and scarcely distinguishable, in what appear to be 
younger individuals, from the rudimentary epipodi, while in pthers, ap- 
parently older, they are further developed, being larger, more cellular in 
structure than the epipodi, and even showing an approach to crenulation 
in the margins, as shown in Figure D. 

The abdomen is slender, the second to the fifth segments each armed 
with a large dorsal spine, curved backward, and with the lateral angles 

* The number of branchiae, or branchial pyramids, in the American lobster is twenty 
on each side ; a single small one upon the second maxilliped, three well developed ones 
upon the external maxilliped, three upon the first cephalothoracic leg, four each upon 
the second, third, and fourth, and one upon the fifth. 


produced into long spines, and the sixth segment with two dorsal spines. 
The proportional size and the outline of the last segment are shown in 
Figure B ; its posterior -margin is armed with a long and stout central 
spine, and each side with fourteen or fifteen plumose spines or seta3, which 
are articulated to the margin. 

In this stage the young were first taken July 1, when they were seen 
swimming rapidly about at the surface of the water among great num- 
bers of zoeae, megalops, and copeopods. Their motions and habits re- 
call at once the species of Mysis and Thysanopoda, but their motions 
are not quite as rapid and are more irregular. Their bright colors ren- 
der them conspicuous objects, and they must be readily seen and cap- 
tured by fishes. They were frequently taken at the surface in different 
parts of Vineyard Sound from July 1 to 7, and several were taken off 
Newport, Ehode Island, as late as July 15, and they would very likely 
be found also in June, judging from the stage of development to which 
the embryos had advanced early in May in Long Island Sound. Besides 
the specimens taken in the open water of the Sound, a great number 
were obtained July 6, from the well of a lobster-smack, where they were 
swimming in great abundance near the surface of the water, having un- 
doubtedly been recently hatched from the eggs carried by the female 
lobsters confined in the well. Some of these specimens lived in vessels 
of fresh sea-water for two days, but all efforts to keep them alive long 
enough to observe their molting failed. They appeared, while thus in 
confinement, to feed principally upon very minute animals of different 
kinds, but were several times seen to devour small zoeae, and occasionally 
when much crowded, so that some of them became exhausted, they fed 
upon each other, the stronger ones eating the weaker. 

Second stage. In the next stage the young lobsters have increased 
somewhat in size, and the abdominal legs of the second to the fifth seg- 
ments have appeared. The rostrum is much broader, and there are 
several teeth along the edges. The basal segments of the antennula& 
have become defined, and the secondary flagellum has appeared, but is 
not subdivided into segments. The antennae and mouth organs have 
undergone but slight changes. The first cephalothoracic legs are propor- 
tionally larger and stouter than in the first stage, and have become truly 
cheliform. The succeeding legs have changed little. The epidodi of all 
the legs and of the external maxillipeds have increased in size, and the 
branchial processes are distinctly lobed along the edges, and have be- 
gun to assume the form of true branchiae. The segments of the abdomen 
have the same number of spines, but they are relatively somewhat 
smaller, and the last segment is relatively smaller and broader at base. 
The appendages of the second to the fifth segments differ considerably 
in size in different specimens, but are nearly as long as the segments 
themselves ; their terminal lamellae, however, are represented only by 
simple sack-like appendages, without sign of segmentation, or clothing 
of hairs or setae. The penultimate segment is still without appendages. 

[.vj7] INVKKTI:I',KATI-; ANIMALS OF vi\r:YAm> sorxn, I;TC. -i:\:\ 

Specimens in this stage were taken only twice, July 1 and 15. Thcy 
hiivc the same habits and general appearance as in the, first stag, but 
are readily distinguished by the possession of rudimentary abdominal 
legs. In color they are almost exactly the same, only the orange-colored 
markings are perhaps a little less intense. 

Third stage. In the third stage (Plate IX, figs. E, F, &,) the lar\ ; 
are about half an inch (12 to 13 mm ) in length, and the integument is of a 
much firmer consistency than in the earlier stages. The antennula3 are 
still rudimentary, and considerably shorter than the rostrum, although 
the secondary flagellum has increased in length, and begins to show 
division into numerous segments. The antenna} retain the most marked 
feature of the early stages the large size of the scale but the flagellum 
is much longer than the scale, and begins to show division into segments. 
The mandibles, maxillae, and first and second maxillipeds have changed 
very little, although in the second maxillipeds the extremity of the ex- 
ognathus begins to assume a flagelliform character, and the branchiais 
represented by a small process upon the side of the epignathus. The 
external maxillipeds have begun to lose their pediform character. The 
anterior legs have increased enormously in size, and those of the second 
and third pairs have become truly chelate, while the swimming exopo- 
dal branches of all the legs, as well as of the external maxillipeds, are 
relatively much smaller and more unimportant. The epipodi (fig. G) 
are furnished with hairs along the edges, and begin to assume the char- 
acters of these appendages in the adult. The branchia3 (fig. G) have 
developed rapidty, and have a single series of well-marked lobes along 
each side. The abdomen still has the spines characteristic of the ear- 
lier stages, though all of them are much reduced in size. The appen- 
dages of the second to the fifth segments have become conspicuous, their 
lamella have more than doubled in length, and the margins of the ter- 
minal half are furnished with very short ciliated setae. The appendages 
of the penultimate segment (fig. F) are well developed, although quite 
different from those in the adult. The outer lamella wants wholly the 
transverse articulation near its extremity, and both are margined, ex- 
cept the outer edge of the outer lamella, with long plumose hairs. The 
last segment is relatively smaller and more quadrangular in outline, 
and the spines of the posterior margin are much smaller. 

The only specimens procured in this stage were taken July 8 and 15. 
In color they were less brilliant than in the earlier stages, the orange 
markings being duller and whole animal slightly tinged with greenish 

In the next stage observed, the animal, about three-fifths of an inch 
(14 to 17 nim ) long, has lost all its schizopodal characters, and has assumed 
the more important features of the adult lobster. It still retains, how- 
ever, the free-swimming habit of the true larval forms, and was fre- 
quently taken at the surface, both in the towing and hand net. Although 
resembling the adult in many features, it differs so much that, were it 


an adult form, it would undoubtedly be regarded as a distinct genus. 
The rostrum is bifid at tip, and armed with three or four teeth on each side 
toward the base, and in some specimens with a minute additional spine* 
on one or both sides, close to the tip. The flagella of the autennulre ex- 
tend scarcely beyond the tip of the rostrum. The antennal scale is very 
much reduced in size, but is still conspicuous and furnished with long 
plumose hairs along the inner margin, while the flagellum is as long as 
the carapax. The palpi of the mandibles have assumed the adult 
character, but the mandibles themselves hare not acquired the massive 
molar character which they have in the older animal. The other mouth- 
organs have nearly the adult form. The anterior legs, although quite 
large, are still slender and just alike on the two sides, while all the 
cephalothoracic legs retain a distinct process in place of the swimming 
exopodi of the larva. The lateral angles of the second to the fifth abdomi- 
nal segments are prolonged downward into long spiniform teeth, the ap- 
pendages of these segments are proportionately much longer than in the 
adult, and the margins of their terminal lamella are furnished with very 
long plumose hairs. The lamelLne of the appendages of the penultimate 
segment are oval, and margined with long plumose hairs. The terminal 
segment is nearly quadrangular, as wide at the extremity as at the 
base, the posterior margin arcuate, but not extending beyond the promi- 
nent lateral angles, and furnished with hairs like those on the margins 
of the lamella of the appendages of the penultimate segment. 

In color they resemble closely the adult, but the green color of the 
back is lighter, and the yellowish markings upon the claws and body 
are proportionately larger. 

In this stage, the young lobsters swim very rapidly by means of the 
abdominal legs, and dart backward, when disturbed, with the caudal 
appendages, frequently jumping out of the water in this way like shrimp, 
which their movements in the water much resemble. They appear 
to be truly surface animals, as in the earlier stages, and were often seen 
swimming about among other surface animals. They were frequently 
taken from the 8th to the 28th of July, and very likely occur much 

From the dates at which the different forms were taken, it is probable 
that they pass through all the stages here described in the course of a 
single season. How late the young, after reaching the lobster-like 
form, retain their free-swimming habit was not ascertained. 

The young of the different kinds of shrimp, Crangonvulgaris, Palccmo- 
netes vulgaris, and VirMus zostericola, when hatched from the egg, are free- 
swimming animals, similar in their habits to the young of the lobster. 
In structure, however, they are quite unlike the larva? of the lobster, and 
approach more the zoea stages of the crabs, which are described farther 
on. When they first leave the egg, they are without the five pairs of 
cephalothoracic legs, the abdomen is without appendages, and much as 
it is in the first stage of the young lobster, while the maxillipeds are 


developed iuto long locomotive appendages, somewhat like the external 
maxillipeds of the first stage of the young lobster. While yet in the free- 
swimming condition the cephalothoracic legs are developed, the maxilli- 
peds assume the adult form, and the abdominal limbs appear. The 
young of these shrimp are very much smaller than the young of the 
lobster, but they remain for a considerable time in this immature state, 
and were very frequently taken at the surface in the towing-net. 

The young of Crangon vulgar is are hatched in the neighborhood of 
Vineyard Sound, in May and June, and arrive at the adult form before 
they are more than 4 or 5 mm long. Specimens of this size were taken at 
Wood's Hole, at the surface, on the evening of July 3. Later in the 
season much larger specimens were frequently taken at the surface 
both in the evening and day-time. 

The young of Palwmonetes vulgar is did not appear till near the middle 
of July. Soon after hatching, the young are 3 mm long. The cephalo- 
thorax is short and broad with a slender spiniforin rostrum in front, an 
enormous compound eye eack side at the anterior margin, and a small 
simple eye in the middle of the carapax. The antennulee are quite rudi- 
mentary, being short and thick appendages projecting a little way in 
front of the head ; the peduncle bears at its extremity a very short ob- 
tuse segment representing the prim ary flagellum, and inside, at the base of 
this, a much longer plumose seta. The antenna are slightly longer, 
than the antennulse ; the short peduncle bears a stout appendage, corre- 
sponding to the antennal scale, the terminal portion of which is articu- 
lated and furnished with long plumose setae, and on the inside at the base 
of the scale, a slender process corresponding to the flagellum, and ter- 
minated by a long plumose seta. The first and second pairs of maxillae 
are well formed and approach those of the adult. The three pairs of 
maxillipeds are all developed into powerful locomotive appendages ; the 
inner branches, or endognathi, being slender pediform appendages ter- 
minated by long spines, while the outer branches, or epignathi, are long 
swimming appendages like the swimming branches of the legs of the 
young lobsters in the first stage. Both branches of the first maxillipeds 
are considerably shorter than those of the following pairs, but otherwise 
like them, and the inner branch of the second pair is somewhat shorter 
than that of the third, but its outer branch is about as long as that 
of the third pair. The five pairs of cephalothoracic legs are wanting 
or only represented by a cluster of minute sack-like processes just behind 
the outer maxillipeds. The abdomen is long and slender, wholly with- 
out appendages beneath, and the last segment is expanded into a short 
and very broad caudal lamina, the posterior margin of which is truncate 
with the lateral angles rounded; these angles each bear three, and the 
posterior margin itself eight more stout plumose seta3, the seta3 of the 
posterior margin being longer than those upon the angles, and separated 
by broader spaces in which the margin is armed with numerous very 
small setae. They arrive at the adult form before they are more than 5 mm 
17 V 


long, and they were often taken at the surface until 8 to 12 rora in length, 
the larger ones being taken in the first part of September. 

The young of Virbius zostericola appear at about the same time as 
those of Palcemenetes, or a very little later, and pass through quite simi- 
lar changes. The young attain the adult form when not more than 
in length, and were frequently taken at the surface, both in the day- 
time and the evening, until they were L0 mm long, those 8 to 10 IIim long 
being common in late August and early September. 

The larval forms of several other Macrourans were taken at different 
times, but none of these were abundant, and 1 have not been able to 
connect them with the adult forms of any of the common species of the 
New England coast. 

The young of Gebia affinis, only 4 mm long, but with nearly the form of 
the adult, was taken at the surface on the evening of September 3. 
The young of Callianassa Stin^soni, about 4 ram long and with nearly all 
the adult characters, was also taken at the surface early in September. 

The hermit-crabs (species of Eupayums) when first hatched have much 
resemblance to the young of shrimp at the same period, and have simi- 
lar habits. The young of one of the species, after it has passed through 
the earlier stages, and when it is about 3 mm long, and has all the 
cephalothoracic appendages similar to those of the adult, has still a 
symmetrical abdomen, like that of a shrimp, with long swimming-legs 
upon the second, third, fourth, and fifth segments, and broad laminated 
appendages upon the penultimate segment. Young, in this and the 
earlier stages, were common at the surface in Vineyard Sound during 
the last of August and the first of September. 

Hippa talpoida probably passes through a metamorphosis similar to 
that of the hermit-crabs. The young attain nearly the adult form before 
they are more than 5 or 6 mm long, and specimens of this size were 
taken at the surface in Vineyard Sound on the evening of September 3. 
I have also found, early in September, the young a little larger 
upon the outer shores of Fire Island Beach, where they were left 
in large numbers by a high tide, and soon buried themselves in the 

All, or at least nearly all, the species of Brachyura living on the coast 
of New England pass through very complete and remarkable meta- 
morphoses. The most distinct stages through which they pass were 
long ago described as two groups of crustaceans, far removed from the 
adult forms of which they were the young. The names zoea and im u. 
alops, originally applied to these groups, are conveniently retained for 
the two best marked stages in the development of the crabs. 

The young of the common crab, (Cancer irroratus,} in the earlier or 
zoea stage, when first hatched from the egg, are somewhat like the form 
figured on Plate VIII, (fig. 37, the latest stage of the zoea of Can<-cr 
irroratus, just before it changes to the megalops,) but the spines upon 
the carapax are all much longer in proportion, and there are no signs of 


the abdominal legs or of any of the future legs <f tin- iiM---.ii.ip> ami 

crab. In this stage they are very small, much smaller than in t, 

figured. After they have increased \ ery much in si/..-, and have molted 
probably several times, they appear as in the figure just referred to. 
The terminal segment of the abdomen, seen only in a side-view in the 

6, is very broad and divided nearly to the base by a broa 
each side the mar-ins project in long, spinitbrm, diverging processes, at 
the base of which the margin of the sinus is armed with six toei-ht 
spines on each side. When alive they are translucent, with deposits 
of dark pigment forming spots at the articulations of the abdomen and 
a few upon the cephalothorax and its appendages. In this stage they 
were taken at the surface in Vineyard Sound, in immense numbers, from 
June LM to late in August. They were most abundant in the early part 
of July, and appeared in the greatest numbers on calm, sunny days. 

Several zoi'-a of this stage were observed to change directly to the 
megalops form, (Plate VIII, fig. 38.) Shortly before the change took 
place they were nor quite as active as previously, but still continued to 
swim about until they appeared to be sei/ed by violent convulsions, and 
after a moment began to wriggle rapidly out of the old xoea skin, and 
at once appeared in the full megalops form. The new integument seems 
to stiffen at once, for in a very few moments after freeing itself from the 
old skin the new megalops was swimming about as actively as the oldest 

In this megalops stage the* animal begins to resemble the adult. 
The five pairs of cephalothoracic legs are much like those of the adult, 
and the mouth-organs have assumed nearly their final form. The eyes, 
however, are still enormous in size, the cam pax is elongated and h 
slender rostrum and a long spine projecting from the cardiac region far 
over the posterior border, and the abdomen is carried extended, and is 
furnished with powerful swimming-legs as in the Macroura. In color 
and habits they are quite similar to the later stage of the zoi : a> from 
which they came; their motions appear, however, to be more re-alar 
and not so rapid, although they swim with great facility. In this meg- 
alops the dactyli of the posterior cephalothoracic Jegs are styliform. and 
. ach furnished at the tip with three peculiar seta- of different lengths 
and with strongly curved extremities, the longest one simple and about as 
long as the dactylus itself, while the one next in length is armed along 
the inner side of the curved extremity with what appear to be minute 
teeth, and the shortest one is again simple. 

According to the observations made at Wood's Mole, the youn. 

er in-nt'tifus remain in the megalops stage only a very >imrt time, 
and at the first molt change to a form very near that of the adult. 
Notwithstanding this, they occurred in vast numbers, and were taken in 
the (owing-nets in greater quantities even than in the /. < . Their 

time of occurrence seemed nearly simultaneous with that of the / 
and the two forms were almost always associated. The exact time any 


particular individual remained in this stage was observed only a few 
times. One full-grown zoea (like the specimen figured) obtained June 
23, and placed in a vessel by itself, changed to a rnegalops between 9 
and 11J a. m. of June 24, and did not molt again till the forenoon of 
June 27, when it became a young crab of the form described farther on. 
Of two other zoese obtained at the same time, and placed together in a 
dish, one changed to a megalops between 9 and llj a. m. of June 24, 
the other during the following night; these both changed to crabs dur- 
ing the night of June 26 and 27. 

The following memorandum on a large number of the same lot of both 
stages of the young, kept together in a vessel of fresh sea-water, also 
indicates the rapidity of these changes. In the columns " zoea " and 
" megalops " the total number of individuals in each of these stages is 
given ; under u crabs " the number which had appeared since the last 
observation, and under "dead" the number which had died since the 
last observation: 

Time of observation. 





June 23 7pm 




June 24 5 a m 





June 24 9 a. m 





June 24, 11 a. m. 





June 24, 7 p. m. . . . ... . ... 





June 25, 6 a. in. . .. .. 





June 26, 6 a. m 




June 27, 6 a. m 



June 27, 2^ p. m. 



June 27, 7 p. m 




June 28, 7 a. m 



June 28, 4 p. m 




June 29, 7 a. m 



In the two or three instances in which the change from the megalops 
to the young crab was actually observed, the megalops sank to the bot- 
tom of the dish and remained quiet for some time before the molting 
took place. The muscular movements seemed to be much less violent 
than in the molting at the close of the zoea stage, and the little crab 
worked himself out of the megalops skin quite slowly. For a short time 
after their appearance the young crabs were soft and inactive, but the 
integument very soon stiffened, and in the course of two or three hours 
they acquired all the pugnacity of the adult. They swam about with 
ease and were constantly attacking each other and their companions in 
the earlier stages. Many of the deaths recorded in the above memo- 
randum were due to them, and on this account they were removed from 
the vessel at each observation. In this early stage the young crabs are 


quite different from the adult. The carapax is about 3 rnin long and 
slightly less in breadth. The front is much more promim-nt than in 
the adult, but still has the same number of lobes and the same general 
form. The antero-lateral margin is much more longitudinal than in the 
adult, and is armed with the five normal teeth, which are long and 
acute, and four very much smaller secondary teeth alternating with 
the normal ones. The antenna3 and ambulatory legs are proportionally 
longer than in the adult. The young crabs in this stage were once or 
twice taken in the towing-net, but they were not common at the surface, 
although a large number were found, with a few in the megalops stage, 
among hydroids upon a floating barrel in Vineyard Sound, July 7. 

The young of Platyonichus ocellatus in the zoe'a and megalops stages 
were frequently taken in the towing-net from the last of June till August, 
but they were much less abundant than the young of Cancer irroratus. 
On June 29, however, they occurred in great numbers. Twenty-two 
out of forty of those in the zoea state changed to the megalops during 
the first twenty-four hours, and in the same time ten out of fifty in the 
megalops stage changed to the adult form, so that they probably do not 
remain in the megalops state longer than the young of Cancer irroratus. 
They apparently do not molt during the megalops stage. 

The megalops of the Platyonichus is about the size of that of Cancer 
irroratus, and resembles it much in general appearance, but the carapax 
is much broader in proportion, the rostrum is a little longer, and there 
is a marked prominence at the anterior margin of the orbit, representing 
the lateral tooth of the front of the adult, and a similar prominence, rep- 
resenting the stout postorbital tooth, at the posterior angle of the orbit. 
The spine upon the cardiac region is rather more slender than in the 
megalops of the Cancer. The chelipeds are more elongated, and much 
like those of the adult Platyonichus, except that they want the stout 
spines of the latter. The dactyli of the posterior legs already approach 
in form those of the adult, being expanded into narrow oval plates a 
fourth as broad as long. The tips of each of these dactyli are furnished 
with four peculiar sctce of different lengths and with strongly curved ex- 
tremities, the longest and two shortest of which are simple, while next 
to the longest one is furnished along the inner side of the curved extrem- 
ity with little, closely set, sack-like appendages. 

Another megalops, belonging apparently to some swimming-crab, was 
several times taken in the towing-net, in Vineyard Sound, from August 
11 to September 3, and was also taken by Mr. Harger and myself, east 
of George's Bank, latitude 41 25' north, longitude 03 55' east, Septem- 
ber 14. It would fall in the genus Cyllene of Dana, and is closely allied 
to his Cyllene furciger (Crust. U. S. Expl. Expd., p. 494, Plate XXXI, 
fig. 8) from the Sooloo Sea. In one specimen the carapax, including 
the rostrum, is 2.0 mm long, excluding rostrum, 1.6 mm , breadth, l.l mm . The 
front is quite narrow between the bases of the ocular peduncles, and 
has a long and slender rostrum. There are no prominences either side 


of the orbit and no dorsal spine upon the carapax. The fourth segment 
of the sternum is armed each side, just within the bases of the legs, with 
a long and broad spine projecting backward and slightly outward, as in 
Cyllene fur tiger. The chelipeds and ambulatory legs are long and slender, 
and the dactyli of the posterior pair of legs are expanded and lamellar, 
as in the megalops of Platyonichus. The abdomen is about as long as 
the carapax excluding the rostrum, and the fifth segment is armed with 
a stout spine each side of the postero-lateral angles. 

A very large megalops, quite different in structure from those already 
mentioned, is occasionally found thrown upon outer beaches on the 
southern coast of New England and Long Island, but is apparently much 
more common upon the coast of the Southern States. This is undoubt- 
edly the young of Ocypoda arcnaria, and was long ago described by Say 
(Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 157, 1817) as Monolcim 
inermis, and it is partially figured by Dana, (Crust. U. S. Expl. Exp., 
Plate XXXI, fig. C.) The carapax is very convex above, broader behind, 
and has no dorsal spine. The front is deflexed sharply downward and 
a little backward, and the extremity is tricuspidate, the median tooth 
being long and narrowly triangular, while the lateral teeth are small 
and obtuse. The sides are high and impressed so as to receive the three 
anterior pairs of ambulatory legs. The third pair of ambulatory legs 
are closely appressed along the upper edge of the carapax and extend 
forward over the eyes ; their dactyli being curved down over the eyes 
and along each side of the front. The posterior legs are small and 
weak, and each is folded up and lies in a groove on the latero-posterior 
surface of the carapax. The external niaxillipeds have almost exactly 
the same structure as in the adult Ocypoda, and, as in the adult Ocypoda, 
there is a tuft of peculiar hairs between the bases of the second and 
third ambulatory legs. I have specimens of this megalops from Block 
Island, and have myself collected it, late in August, at Fire Island 
Beach, Long Island. In the largest specimen from the last locality the 
carapax is 6.4 lum long and 5.6 mm broad. 

A large number of young specimens of the Ocypoda. collected at Fire 
Island Beach, indicate plainly that they had only recently changed from 
this megalops. The smallest of these specimens, in which the carapax 
is 5.6 to 6,0 mm long and 6.1 to 6.5 mm broad, differ from the adult so 
much that they might very easily be mistaken for a different species. 
The carapax is very slightly broader than long, and very convex above. 
The front is broad, not narrowed between the bases of the ocular 
peduncles, and triangular at the extremity. The margin of the orbit is 
not transverse but inclines obliquely backward. The ambulatory legs 
are nearly naked, and those of the posterior pair are proportionately 
much smaller than in the adult. 

The adult Ocypoda is terrestrial in its habits, living in deep holes 
above high-water mark on sandy beaches, but the young in the zoe'a 
state are undoubtedly deposited in the water, where they lead a free- 


swimming existence like true pelagic animals, until they become full- 
grown in the megalops state. Say mentions tliat his specimens W6T6 
found cast upon the beach by the refluent tide and "appeared desirous 
to protect themselves by burrowing in the sand, in order to wait the 
return of the tide," but they were more likely awaiting the final change 
to the terrestrial state. The tufts of peculiar hairs between the bases 
of the second and third ambulatory legs, and, in the adult, connected 
with the respiration, are present in the full-grown megalops, and are 
undoubtedly provided to fit the animal for its terrestrial existence as 
soon as it is thrown upon the shore. The young in the magalops stage 
occur on the shore of Long Island, in August, and perhaps earlier. At 
Fire Island Beach in 1870 no specimens of Ocypoda were discovered till 
the last of August, and those first found were the smallest ones obtained ; 
by the middle of September, however, they were common on the outer 
beach, and many of them were twice as large as those first obtained. 
Although careful search was made along the beach for several miles, 
not a specimen of the adult or half-grown crab could be found; every 
individual there had evidently landed, and developed during the season. 
Probably all those living the year before had perished during the win- 
ter, and it is possible that this species never survives long enough to 
atjain its full growth, so far north. 

A small megalops, taken in the towing-nets in considerable numbers 
at Wood's Hole on the evening of September 3, resembles in several 
characters the megalops of Ocypoda, and is probably the young of one 
of the species of Gelasimus. The carapax is 1.0 mm long and 0.7 
broad. The front is narrowly triangular, deflexed. perpendicularly, 
somewhat excavated between the eyes, and terminates in a long, slen- 
der, and acute tip. The sides are high and impressed for the reception 
of the three anterior ambulatory legs as in the megalops of Ocypoda, 
although in the alcoholic specimens examined the legs are not closed 
against the sides. The posterior ambulatory legs are small, and lodged 
in grooves on the surface of the carapax, much as in the megalops of 
Ocypoda. The external maxillipeds are very much like those of the 
megalops of Ocypoda. 

A peculiar megalops, belonging apparently to some Grapsoid group 
of crabs, was several times taken in the towing-net in Vineyard Sound 
from August 5 to September 3, on the latter date in the evening. In 
these the carapax is 1.2 to 1.3 mm in length and 0.9 to 1.0 mm in 
breadth. The front is broad, concave above between the eyes ; the 
middle portion projects obliquely downward and terminates in a short, 
obtuse rostrum ; while the lateral angles project forward into a promi- 
nent tooth above each eye, so that, when seen from above, the frontal 
margin appears transverse and trideutate, the teeth beftig separated by 
considerable spaces. There are no dorsal spines or tubercles upon the 
carapax. The sides are high, and are apparently impressed for the 
reception of the anterior ambulatory legs. The posterior ambulatory 


legs are subequal with the others and have styliform dactyli. The 
ischial and raeral segments of the external maxillipeds are short and 

Another inegalops, of which several specimens were taken in the 
towing-net, in Vineyard Sound, August 5, has a remarkable, elongated 
and tuberculated carapax. The carapax, including the rostrum, is 
1.3 mm long and 0.84 mm broad, is armed above with several large 
tubercles, and the posterior margin is arcuate and armed with a median 
tubercular prominence. The front is somewhat excavated above and 
expanded each side in front of the eyes, the anterior margin being trans- 
verse, as seen from above, with a short and spiniforni rostrum curved 
obliquely downward. The chelipeds have slender hands and the am- 
bulatory legs are long and slender, the posterior pair being subequal 
with the others, and all having the dactyli styliform. The abdominal 
legs are very long. 

Several other forms of zoe'a and inegalops were taken in Vineyard 
Sound and vicinity, but, as they were not traced to the adult forms and 
were none of them very abundant, they are not here described. 

Squilla empusa passes through a remarkable metamorphosis, but none 
of the earliest stages were observed. Specimens in one of the later 
larval stages (Plate VIII, tig. 36) were taken at the surface in Vine- 
yard Sound, August 11. These are nearly 6 mm long. The carapax is 
proportionally much larger than in the adult, covering completely the 
whole cephalothorax, has a long slender rostrum projecting far in front 
of the eyes, and the lateral angles projecting backward in two slender 
processes as long as the rostrum. There is also on each side, just behind 
the eye, a small tooth on the margin of the carapax, and another similar 
one on the posterior margin just beneath each of the posterior processes. 
The eyes are very large and almost spherical. The antennulre are short, 
projecting scarcely beyond the eyes, and biramous, one of the flagella 
being short and uusegmented, the other longer and composed of three 
segments. The antennae are still without flagella, and the scale is 
quite small. The first pair of legs (the appendages corresponding to 
the first pair of maxillipeds in the Macroura, &c.) are well developed, 
long, and slender, like those of the adult. The great claws are propor- 
tionally larger than in the adult, and have very much the same structure. 
Of the six succeeding pairs of cephalothoraeic legs, only the three ante- 
rior, subcheliform ones are as yet developed, and these are quite srnall y 
those of the third pair being smaller than the others, and projecting but 
slightly beyond the carapax ; the three posterior, styliform legs are en- 
tirely wanting, or represented only by slight sack-like protuberances. 
The abdomen is not quite as long as the cephalothorax, including the ros- 
trum and posterior processes, and the five anterior segments are subequal 
in length, smoothly rounded above, and furnished with well developed 
swimming-legs, much like those of many inacrouranas. The sixth seg- 
ment is much shorter than the others, and has rudimentary appendages 


scarcely longer than the segment itself. In these appendages the spini- 
forni process from the base is long and simple, not biramous, as in the 
adult, and the lamella) are small, much shorter than this process, and 
the outer one has no articulated terminal portion. The terinhuil 
meiit is as long as the four preceding segments, about as broad as long, 
the lateral margins slightly convex in outline, and each armed with two 
sharp teeth, while the posterior margin is concave in outline, with the 
lateral angles projecting into sharp teeth, between which the edge is 
armed with about twenty small arid equal slender spines. 


In the following catalogue nearly all the marine invertebrates which 
are known to inhabit the coast between Cape Cod and New York are in- 
cluded, except those belonging to certain groups which have not yet 
been studied by any one, sufficiently for their identification. Such are 
chiefly minute or microscopic species, belonging to the Entomostraca, 
Foraminifera, Ciliated Infusoria, &c., together with the intestinal worms 
)f fishes and other animals. Our sponges, also, have hitherto received 
rery little attention, and it has not yet been possible to identify but a 

lall number of the species. It is not to be supposed, however, that 
list is complete in any group, for every season in the past has served 
greatly increase the number of species in almost every class and 
>rder, and this will doubtless be the case for many years to come. But 
no attempt has hitherto been made to enumerate the marine aui- 

lals of this region, excepting the shells and radiates, it is hoped that 
this catalogue will prove useful, both to show what is already known 

mcerning this fauna, and to serve as a basis for future work in the 

ime direction. 

In some instances species that have not actually been found on the 

irt of the coast mentioned, but which occur on the shores of Long 
[sland and New Jersey, under such circumstances as to render it pretty 

jrtain that they will also be found farther north, have been included in 
the catalogue, but the special localities have always been given in such 


In order not to make the list too long, only those synonyms are given 

rhich are really necessary to make apparent the origin of the names, 
md to refer the student to some of the best descriptions and figures in 
the works that are generally most accessible, and in which more com- 
plete synonymy may be found. 

For the same reason, in describing the new species, the descriptions 
have been made as brief as seemed consistent with the purpose in view, 
viz: to enable students and others who may not be experienced natu- 


ralists to identify the species that they may meet with. To this end, 
the portions of the descriptions relating to strictly microscopic parts 
have frequently been omitted, when more obvious characters, sufficient 
to distinguish the species, could be found. 

Inferences to the plates at the end of this volume have been inserted, 
and also to the pages in the first part of the report where brief descrip- 
tions, remarks on the habits, or other information may be found. 

The catalogue of the Crustacea was prepared by Mr. S. I. Smith and 
Mr. Oscar Harger. The rest of the catalogue is by Professor A. E. Yer- 
rill, with the exception of the descriptions of the insects, which have 
been furnished by Dr. A. S. Packard and Dr. G. H. Horn ; the Pycno- 
gonids, which have been determined by Mr. S. I. Smith ; and a few 
of the Bryozoa, which were identified by Professor A. Hyatt, who also 
furnished most of the figures of the species belonging to that class. 

Hitherto there has been no attempt to enumerate the marine inverte- 
brates of the entire southern coast of New England. Several partial 
lists have been published, however, and these have been of considera- 
ble use in the preparation of the following catalogue. 

In the Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts, by Dr. A. A. 
Gould, 1841, numerous localities for shells on the southern coast of 
Massachusetts are mentioned. 

A catalogue of the shells of Connecticut, by James II. Linsley, was 
published, in the American Journal of Science, vol. 48, 1845. In " Shells 
of New England, 7 ' 1851, Dr. William Stimpson gave much accurate in- 
formation concerning the distribution of our Mollusca. In 1869 Dr. 
G. H. Perkins published a very useful catalogue, in the Proceedings of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. xiii, p. 109, entitled " Mol- 
luscan Fauna of New Haven." 

The " Report on the Mollusca of Long Island, New York, and of its 
Dependencies,'' by Sanderson Smith and Temple Prime, in the Annals 
of the Lyceum of Natural History, vol. ix, p. 377, 1870, also contains 
much useful information. 

A paper by Dr. Joseph Leidy, entitled " Contributions toward a 
Knowledge ef the Marine Invertebrate Fauna of the Coasts of Rhode 
Island and New Jersey," in the Journal of the Philadelphia Academy, 
vol. iii, 1855, although very incomplete, contains the only published 
lists of the Annelids and Crustacea of this region. In his "Catalogue 
of North American Acalephre," 1865, Mr. A. Agassiz has enumerated 
all the species discovered on this coast up to that time. Other papers 
will also be referred to in the synonymy. 

[539 1 INVKirrKP.KATi: ANIMALS OF VINEYARD SOl'M), F/I'C. '1 \ f> 



The insects included in the following catalogue have mostly been .de- 
termined by A. S. Packard, jr., M. D., and by George H. Horn, M. D., 
LO have also kindly furnished descriptions of the new species. Our 
tanks are also due to Dr. H. A. Hagen, who has identified some of the 
icies. The Pycnogonids have been determined by Mr. S. I. Smith. 


iONOMUS HALOPIIILUS Packard, sp. nov. (p 415.) 
Full-grown larvae were dredged in 10 fathoms in Vineyard Sound, 
jveral miles from land, among compound Ascidiaus, (A. E. V.;) and 
iveral young larvre were dredged in 8 to 10 fathoms in Wood's 
[ole Passage, September 10, (A. S. P.) 

"This is a true Chironomus, the body being long and slender, with 
usual respiratory filaments at the end of the body. Head red as 
lal, chitinous; autenure slender, ending in two unequal spines; eyes 
?k, forming conspicuous dots ; mandibles acute, three-toothed. 
Froai lower side of antepenultimate segment arise two pairs of long 
leshy filaments, twice as long as the diameter of body, not containing 
tracheae, so far as I can see; and from the end of penultimate segment a 
dorsal minute tubercle, forming a cylindrical papilla, giving rise to eight 
respiratory hairs about as long as the segment is thick; anal legs long 
and slender, with a crown of about twelve spines. Two prothoracic 
feet, as usual. In one larva the semi-pupa was forming ; length, ll mm , 
(.45 inch.) 

This species belongs in the same section of the genus with Chirono- 
musplumosus, figured by Keaurner, (vol. iv, PI. 14, figs. 11 and 12; and 
vol. v.)' 7 A. S. P. 

CHIRONOMUS OCEANICUS Packard, (p. 331.) 

Proceedings of the Essex Institute, vol. vi, p. 42, figs. 1-4, 1869. 

Specimens apparently belonging to this species have been obtained 
near New Haven, at low-water mark, among confervas It occurs at Sa- 
lem. Massachusetts; Casco Bay; and the Bay of Fundy, from low- water 
mark to 20 fathoms. 

CULEX, species undetermined, (p. 4G6.) 

A species of mosquito is excessively abundant on the salt-marshes in 
autumn, and the larvae inhabit the brackish waters of the ditches and 


MUSCIDJE. Larvae of an undetermined fly. (p. 415.) 

This larva was found living beneath the surface of the sand, at low- 
water mark, on the shore of Great Egg Harbor, at Beesley's Point, New 
Jersey, April 28, 1871. (A. E. V.) The same larva, or an allied spe- 
cies, was found May 5, under stones below high- water mark. " Specimens 
were brought to me from New Jersey, and kept living in sea-water for 
some time. The following description is from the living specimens : 
Body white, long, slender, cylindrical, tapering gradually from the pen til- 
penultimate segment toward the head ; thirteen segments, counting the 
head as one. Segments smooth, thickened at the hinder edge, the su- 
tures being distinct; tegument very thin and transparent, allowing the 
viscera to be easily distinguished. The terminal segment of the body is 
conical; seen from beneath it is nearly a fourth longer than broad, the 
end subacute and deeply cleft by a furrow which diminishes in size and 
depth to beyond the middle of the segment, where it fades out. This 
conical extension is flattened vertically above ; from the middle of the 
same ring project the supra-anal, conical, fleshy tubercles, one-fourth the 
length of the entire ring, which give rise to two main trachea3 running 
to the head, and which separate and close together at the will of the 
animal. When extended the prothoracic ring is considerably longer 
than the others. Head one-third as large as prothorax, and a little 
more than half as wide. Length, 9 Ilim . 

I cannot detect any spiracles on either of the thoracic rings. The 
trachea are not nearly so regular as in the larva? of the Anthomyia ce- 
parum, with living specimens of which I placed it side by side ; head 
much the same, showing it may be of this family. Minute antennae 
present ; no traces of them in Anthomyia, and their presence throws 
a doubt whether it be a muscid." A. S. P. 

ERISTALIS, species undetermined. 

One large-sized larva was found in Vineyard Sound among alga3 in 
April, by Mr. Yiual N. Edwards. 

EPHYDRA, species undetermined, (p. 4GG.) 

Packard, Proceedings Essex Institute, vol. vi, p. 50. 

Shores of Narragansett Bay, pupariuin found under sea- weeds by 
Dr. T. d'Orexrnieul. According to Dr. Packard, " scarcely distinguish- 
able from E. halophila Packard, which lives in salt brine at the salt- 
works in Gallatin County, Illinois." 


A number of species of tiger-beetles (Cicindela) are common on the 
sandy shores and beaches just above high- water mark, and some of 
them are seldom found away from the sea-shore, while others are also 
found far inland. The larvaB of some of these, and perhaps of all, live 
below high, water, but this has not yet been observed in the case of several 

* The Coleoptera were mostly determined by Dr. George H. Horn. 


in the following list, which includes those most characteristic of tin 

CICINDELA GENEROSA Dejeau. (p. 336.) 

Species Gc'ue'ral des Cole'opteres, vol. v, p. 231, (teate Lee.;) Gould. Boston 
Journal Nat. Hist., vol. i, p. 42. PL 3, fig. 2. 

Adult common on sandy beaches at high-water mark ; larvae burrow- 
ing in sand below high-water mark, in company with the species of 


Journal Academy Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 20 j Gould, op. cit.,p. 47. 

Martha's Vineyard, on the sandy beaches. 
CICINDELA MARGIN AT A Fabricius. (p. 470.) 

Systema Eleutheratorum, vol. i, p. 241 ; Gould, op. cit., p. 48. 

Barren spots in salt marshes that are occasionally covered by the 

CICINDELA REP AND A Dejean. (p. 364.) 

Spdcies Ge"n. des Coleopteres, vol. i, p. 74. 

With the last, and on sandy beaches at Martha's Vineyard, &c. 

Trans. Ainer. Phil. Society, new series, vol. i, p. 411, PI. 13, fig. 2. 

With last, also at a distance from the coast. 


Spec. Ge"ii. des Cole'op., vol. i, p. 73 ; Gould, op. cit., p. 51. 

Sandy beaches near the salt water; appears both in spring and au- 


Species G6n. des Cole"operes, vol. iv, p. 21. 

Several specimens were found on the outer beach of Great Egg Har- 
bor, New Jersey, burrowing in sand between tides. This species is not 
confined to the coast, but occurs even west of the Mississippi in sandy 
places, (Horn.) 


Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., N. Y., vol. iv, p. 362. 

Between tides at Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey. 
B. CONTRACTUM Say. (p. 464.) 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., vol. ii, p. 85. 

Between tides at Great Egg Harbor. This and the preceding occur 
also along the margins of streams emptying into the ocean. (Horn.) 


Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc., 1871, p. 331. 

Iii brackish pools, near Beesley's Point, New Jersey, associated with 
Palcumonetes vulgar-is and other brackish-water species. 


" Elongate oval, more attenuate in front, black, with slight olivaceous 
tinge 5 surface densely, finely, and equally punctured. Head with a 
sigmoid row of coarse punctures on each side, meeting at the vertex. 
Antennae and palpi testaceous. Thorax with a small fovea on each*side, 
near the anterior margin, behind and within the eyes, and an angulate 
row of punctures on each side near the middle, and a few coarse punc- 
tures very irregularly disposed. Elytra with four strire of moderate 
punctures, the first two sutural and extending nearly from base to apex, 
inclosing at base a short scutellar row ; the outer two rows subhunieral, 
obliterated at base, extending nearly to apex, and becoming confused, 
extending toward the inner rows. Body beneath black, opaque, and 
pubescent, abdomen with a row of brownish patches at the sides of 
each segment. Legs pale testaceous, femora at base and tarsi black. 
Length, .38 inch; (9.5 mm .) 

Eesembles lateralis in form, but more narrowed in front than behind. 
The elytra are evenly punctured, and the body along the median line 
moderately convex. It differs from all our species by the four distinct 
strire of punctures on each elytron. The outer two correspond in posi- 
tion with the eighth and ninth, and traces of a third, fourth, and fifth 
are visible at base.' 7 Horn. 


Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc., 1869, p. 250. 

Great Egg Harbor, between tides. 

This and the next occur also inland. (Horn.) 

P. PERPLEXUS, Leconte. 

Proc. Philad. Acacl. Nat. Sci., 1855, p. 371. 
Great Egg Harbor, between tides. 


Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc., 1871, p. 331. 

"Head brownish testaceous, moderately shining, sparsely clothed with 
yellowish hairs, front feebly concave ; parts of mouth and antennae tes- 
taceous, the latter darker at tip. Thorax paler than the head, as broad 
as long, disk depressed, sides strongly rounded in front, behind the 
middle sinuate; base truncate, feebly emarginate at middle, and but 
slightly broader than half the width of thorax at middle ; surface 
sparsely punctured and pubescent. Elytra pale testaceous, sparsely 
punctured and pubescent, short, sides strongly divergent behind ; body 
apterous. Abdomen elongate oval, broader behind the middle, piceous r 
shining, and very sparsely pubescent. Legs pale testaceous. Last 
segment of abdomen $ slightly prolonged at middle and sinuate on each 
side. Length, .08 inch, (2 mm .) 

The male resembles in its several characters P. Balticus Kraatz. of 
Europe, but the median prolongation of the last abdominal segment is 
broader. The penultimate segment is subcarinate along the median 
line behind. The mandibles in the present species are much more exsert 
than in the species from California. 


This is an interesting addition to oar insect fauna. Its occurrence 
has been looked for on the ground of the occurrence of a species on the, 
Pacific Coast, for, as a rule, (rapidly losing its exceptions,) any genus 
represented in Europe and on the Pacific Coast will have a represents 
tion in the Atlantic faunal region." Horn. 

This species was found burrowing in sand, between tides, at Beesley's 
Point, New Jersey. 

BLEDIUS CORDATUS (Say.) (p. 462.) 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., vol. iv, p. 461. 

This small species occurred in considerable abundance near Beesley 7 & 
Point. It forms its small burrows in the loose sand at and just below 
high-water mark, in company with Talorchestia longicornis. ftcyphacella 
arenicola SMITH, &c. It throws up a small heap of sand around the 
opening of its burrows, which are much smaller than those of the 
following species. 

" This species is somewhat variable in the form of the ely tral dark 
spot. The elytra are pale testaceous or nearly white in color, and nor- 
mally with a cordate space of brownish color, and with the apex in front. 
This spot may become a narrow median fusiform space, or be divided 
so that the suture is pale ; the spot frequently becomes larger by the 
apex of the cordate spot, extending to the sen tell am and along the basal 
margin." Horn. 


Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., PLilad., vol. iii, p. 155. 

Shores of Great Egg Harbor, near Beesley's Point, common, burrow- 
ing perpendicularly in moist sand considerably below high-water mark. 
The holes are round, with a small heap of sand around the orifice. This 
species is also found far inland. (Horn.) 

HETEROCERUS UNDATUS Melsheimer. (p. 464.) 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philacl., vol. ii, p. 98. 

Beesley's Point, burrowing in sand, between tides. This species 
occurs also on the margins of inland streams. (Horn.) 


Long's Expedition, vol. ii, p. 280. 

Somer's Point, on the shore of Great Egg Harbor, between tides. 


MOLANNA, species undetermined, (p. 379.) 

This larva was found in a firm, straight, flattened, tapering tube, 
made of grains of sand, and attached to the piles of a wharf, below 
high-water mark, at Menemsha Bight, on Martha's Vineyard, October, 
1871, by Dr. Edward Palmer. 


ANURIDA MARITIMA (Guerin.) (p. 331.) 

This Podurid is very abundant on the under surfaces of large stones 
from high-water mark to about half tide, New Haven, Wood's Hole, 
Nantucket ; also on the coasts of Europe and Greenland. (Fabricius.) 


CHERNES OBLONOUS Say. (p. 331.) 

Hagen, Record of American Entomology for 1868, p. 51. 

Under stones near low-water mark, at Wood's Hole, (S. I. S.,) several 
specimens were found together. This species is recorded from Florida 
and Georgia. I am not aware that it has been observed below high- 
water mark before. These specimens were identified by Dr. Hagen. 

TROMBIDIUM, species, (p. 331.) 

Several species of mites belonging to this or allied genera are found 
beneath stones near high-water mark, or even running over thefiici and 
rocks near low-water mark, but it is uncertain whether they become 
submerged by the rising tide or rise on its surface. 

BDELLA MARINA Packard, sp. nov. (p. 331.) 
Savin Rock, near New Haven, under stones between tides. 
" Elongated pyriforin, of the usual form of the genus, the body being 
thickest at the insertion of the third pair of legs. Body with a few scat- 
tered hairs, especially toward the end. Palpi twice as long as labium, 
hairy toward the tip, four-jointed, basal joint not so long as second, 
third, and fourth conjointly; second a third shorter than third. Mandi- 
bles very acutely conical, projecting one-fourth their length beyond the 
beak, with about four hairs on the outer side ; tips very slender acute, 
corneous. Legs rather hairy; fourth pair but little longer than the 
others. Claws consisting of two portions, the basal much compressed, 
subovate, with about six hairs on the under edge, and carrying a stout 
curved claw. Beak half as long as the body is wide. Length 2.5 mm . 

"It differs from Say's Bdella oblonga (' from Georgia, under bark of 
trees,' &c.) in its pyriform shape, the shorter first joint of the palpi, 
and much shorter beak." A. S. P. 


PHOXICHILIDIUM MAXILLARE Stimpson. Plate VII, fig. 35. (p. 415.) 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 37, 1853. 

Common in Vineyard Sound and the Bay of Fundy. 
PALLENE, species, (p. 421.) 

A small species, perhaps young, found upon piles of the wharf at 
Wood's Hole, and- dredged in Vineyard Sound, in 14 fathoms, off Tar- 
paulin Cove on Ascidians, and off Holmes's Hole on Hydroids ; also off 
Watch Hill, Ehode Island, and New Haven. 



The following catalogue of the Crustacea has been prepared by Mr. S. 
I. Smith, excepting the portion relating to the Isopoda, which lias been 
written by Mr. O. Ilarger.* The list is by no means complete, even for 
the higher groups which are treated, and no attempt has been made to 
enumerate the Ostracoids and free-swimming Copepods. Among the 
Amphipods, the difficult group of Lysianassinse has not been studied, 
as the species require careful comparison with those of our northern, 
coast and of Europe. The same is true of the species of Ampclisca, and 
partially of some other genera. In several cases species are omitted 
which are as yet only represented in our collections by imperfect, young, 
or too few specimens. The catalogue is intended, however, to include 
ivery species which has been mentioned, on good authority, in any pub- 
lished work as inhabiting the southern coast of New England. 


rELAsmus MiNAX Leconte. (p. 467.) 

Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. vii, 1855, p. 403; Smith, Trans. 
Conn. Acad., vol. ii, p. 128, PI. 2, fig. 4, PI. 4, fig. 1, 1870. 

Southern coast of New England to Florida. This species, the largest 
of our "fiddler-crabs," lives upon salt marshes, usually farther from the 
sea than the others, and frequently where the water is most of the time 
nearly fresh. 

GELASIMUS PUGNAX Smith, (p. 466.) 

Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. ii, p v 131, PI. 2, fig. 1, PI. 4, fig. 2. G. vocans, var. A, 
De Kay, Nat. Hist, of New York, p. 14, PI. 6, fig. 10, 1844, (not Cancer vocans 
Linnc.) G. pugilator Leconte, loc. cit., p. 403, (not of Bosc.) 

From Cape Cod to Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the West Indies. 
It makes its burrows only upon salt marshes, but is often seen in great 
companies wandering out upon muddy or sandy flats, or even upon the 
beaches of the bays and sounds. 

GELASIMUS PUGILATOR Latreille. (p. 336.) 

Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Hist. uat., 2e ddit., tome xii, p. 520, 1817 ; Smith, Trans. 
Conn. Acad., vol. ii, p. 136, PL 4, fig. 7, 1870. Ocijpode pityilator Bosc, Hist. nat. 
des Crust., tome i, p. 167, 1820. Gelasimus vocans DeKay, op. cit., p. 14, PL 6, 

fig. 9. 

Cape Cod to Florida, upon muddy and sandy flats and beaches. 
OCYPODA AHENAKIA Say. (pp. 337, 534.) 

Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 69, 1817 ; Edwards, Hist. nat. 
des Crust., tome ii, p. 44, PL 19, figs. 13, 14. 

This species, which is common upon the sandy beaches from New Jer- 
sey southward, and which I have found uponJFire Island Beach, Long 

* The description of Scyphacella arcnicola and the reference of Idotea triloba to Eptly* 
are taken from Mr. Smith's unpublished manuscript, and his name, therefore, appears 
as authority in these cases. 
18 v 



Island, will very likely be found rarely upon the beaches at Xantucket, 
and on the southern part of Cape Cod. It lives in deep burrows, above 
the reach of tides, upon sandy beaches. It is readily distinguished from 
the "fiddlers" by the nearly equal claws or hands, which are alike in 
both sexes, and by its color, which is almost exactly like the sand upon 
which it lives. It is carnivorous and very active, running with great 
rapidity when pursued. 

The synonymy of this species is in much confusion, and I have not 
attempted to rectify it here, although there are apparently several 
names which antedate that of Say. The Brazilian species, usually 
called rhombea appears to be identical with ours, and if it is really the 
rjiomlea of Fabricius, his name should undoubtedly be retained. 


Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., I'hilad.-Iphiu, vol. i, pp. 73, 76, PL 4, fig. 6, 181? : p. 44',>, 
1818; Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. ii, p. !.">;. 

From Long Island Sound to Florida, usually upon salt marshes and 
associated with Gelasimux puynax. 

PINNIXA CYLINDRICA Say. Plate I. tig. 1. (p. 3G7.) 

Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 452, 1818. 

Vineyard Sound and Long Island Sound to South Carolina. 
PINNOTHERES OSTREUM Say. Plate I, fig. 2, male. (p. 307.) 

LOG. cit, p. 67, PI. 4, fig. 5, 1817 ; DeKay, op. cit, p. 12, PI. 7, fig. 16. 

Massachusetts to South Carolina. 

Loc. cit. p. 450, 1818. 

It lives in Mytilus edulis on the New England coast, and is found from 
Cape Cod to South Carolina. 

CANCER IRRORATUS Say. (pp. 312, 530.) 

Loc. cit., p. 59, PL 4, fig. 2, 1817 ; Stimpson, Anuals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York 
vol. vii, p. 50, 1859. Platycarcinus irroratus Edwards, Hist. nat. des Crust., torn 
i, p. 414, 1834 ; DeKay, op. cit., PI. 2, fig. 2. Cancer Sayi Gould, Report on th 
Invertebrata of Massachusetts, 1st edit., p. 323, 1841. Platycarcinus Sayi DeKaj 
op. cit., p. 7. Cancer borealis Packard, Memoirs Boston Nat. Hist. Soc., vol. 
p. 303, 1867. 

Labrador to South Carolina. 
CANCER BOREALIS Stimpson. (pp. 480, 403.) 

Loc. cit., p. 50, 1859. Cancer irroratus Gould, op. cit., p. :W2. 

Xova Scotia to Vineyard Sound and No Man's Land. It very likel} 
occurs both north and south of these limits, as it seems to be rare 01 
local, and is often, perhaps, confounded with the far more common C 
irroratus, although it is a perfectly distinct species. 


I'AN<H'I;IS MKIMISTM F.d wards. (p. 17'J.) 

Op. ril.. \nl. i. I"::. !-:'.!: Sinilli. lYocccdin-s lloslon Soc. N.-il. HUt., TOl, 

Island Sound to Ira/il,'hnf not common iiortli of N,-\\ ,ln 
It is readily distinguished IVoni t he lollou in-' species, by the t nhercle on 
tin- snbhepatic region, just- belou tin- first lobe ol' the anlero lateral 
border of the r;inip;i\ ; hy the postorbilal tooth hrin^ separated from the 
second tooth of the ant ero-Iat eral ni:ir-in l>\ :i rounded sinus; ;m<l by 
tile d;iet\ Ins of tlie l:ir-vi- cheliped h;i \ in;^ :i si out t oot li near tin- b 

Di-;ri;i-;ssrs Smith. Mate I, li--. ;;. (p. ;J1L\) 

l.oc. ril., ,,. 263, l<>'.>. 

IM-OIII C;i|c Cod to Klorida, and often carried with ossteis miicli 
farther north. It is, perhaps, native in Mass;iclinset Is Hay. 

I''irs SAY i Smith, (p. .'ill'.) 

Loc. <-it,, p. 884, i 

Associated wit.h the last,;ind luiviii^ 1 MIC same range. H is easily dis- 
tinguished from the lasl species by its narrower, more con\e\, and 
swollen carapax, and by tlie more project intf and arcuate front. Thci 
terminal segment of the abdomen of the male is also (|iiite different in 
the two species; in /'. >SVn// it is broader than the preceding segment, 
about, two-thirds as lon^ as broad, the ed<;-es slightly concaxe, and the 
tip abruptly triangular, While in /'. f/r/ it, is nan-oner than the 
proved i n .; segment, about, t liree foni't hs as loni;- as broad, the edges con- 
vex, and the tip broadly rounded. 

rs IlARRISII S!iinison. (p. :il3,) 

L.M-. cil., ).. 55, !-''.'. riliiiinniH ll(tni'~ii (imild, <p. cil., p. i'.-.'C, 

Massachusetts I'.ay to Honda. 

<JI:AM'I,ATUS (Say, sp.) (p. .'ill-'.) 

<'<ntr iiniHiiliilitN S:i\ , lor. cil., p. (', I , |~I7. Cnrniinx nnnnin (luiilil. op. ril., p. 
IWI ; Di-K:i\ , op. cit, p. >', I'l. .">, lis. ."., ;. ( .') Cm-rimix iiiinniN I. each, |-:l\\ 

Cape Cod to New Jersey, and perhaps much farther south. Our 

species may, very likely, be the same as the din-uius nuntN of Knrope, 
bill its not extending north on our own coast throws some donbt upon 
this until there has been a eare.fid comparison of specimens from the 
t\\o sides of th<- Atlantic. 

OCELLATUS Latreille. I Mate I, fltf. 4. (pp. 338, f>: 

i;ncy<'lop< die incl liodi(|iic-, I ....... \\i, p. I.Y_'; l>cK:iy,o)t. cil., p.!', I'l. I, li^'l- ''' 

. r >, Hr. 7. t'niitri- nt-i-llaluH llcrlsl, Ki:il.lx-n nnd Kr.-lis.-, l'.:ind in. i (. llrli, 
p. HI, I'l. !<>, l\ K . 1. 17'iM. rv,-l,,nn* I.SI-IHH Say, loc. Olt., p. 08, I'l. I''K- 4 > 


< 1 a|ie Cod to Florida. 


CALLINECTES HASTATUS Ordway. (pp. 367, 468.) 

Boston Journal Nat. Hist., vol. vii, p. 568, 1863. Lupa hastata Say, loc. cit., p. 
65, 1817. Lupa diacantha DeKay, op. cit., p. 10, PI. 3, fig. 3. 

Cape Cod to Florida, and occasionally in Massachusetts Bay. 


Loc. cit., p. 77, PI. 4, fig. 1, 1817; DeKay, op. cit., p. 2, PI. 4, fig. 4; Streets, 
Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 1870, p. 105, 1871. 

Found as far north as Casco Bay, on the coast of Maine, and common 
from Massachusetts Bay southward, at least as far as Florida. 

LIBINIA DUBIA Edwards, (p. 368.) 

Op. cit., tome i, p. 300, PI. 14 bis, fig. 2, 1834 ; Streets, loc. cit., p. 104. 

Cape Cod to Florida. 
PELIA MUTICA Stimpsou. (p. 415) 

Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York, vol. vii, p. 177, 1860. Piaa mtilica Gibbes, 
Proceedings Ainer. Association Adv. Sci., 3d meeting, p. 171, 1850. 

Vineyard Sound to Florida. 
HYAS COARCTATUS Leach, (p. 504.) 

Trans. Linn. Soc., Loudou, vol. xi, p. 329, 1815. Regne animal de Cuvicr, 3 me 
dit., PI. 32, fig. 3. Lisaa fissirostra Say, loc. cit., p. 70, 1817. 

Leidy mentions this species as having been found on the coast of New 
Jersey, and Say mentions it from the coast of Long Island, but it seems 
to be rare south of Cape Cod. It lives in deep water from Cape Cod 
northward, and on the European coast, and is frequently found in the 
stomachs of the cod-fish. 


Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York, vol. x, p. 102, 1871. Cryptopodia granulata 
Gibbes, loc. cit., p. 173; and Proceedings Elliott Soc., Charleston, vol. i, p. 35, 
wood cut. 

This species, dredged several times in Vineyard Sound, was before 
known only from North Carolina to Florida and the West Indies. 

HIPPA TALPOIDA Say. Plate II, fig. 5. (pp. 338, 530.) 

Loc. cit., p. 160, 1817. 

Cape Cod to Florida. 


Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York, vol. vii, p. 92, 1859. Pagurus polUcari* 
Say, loc. cit,, p. 162, 1817; Gould, op. cit., p. 329; DeKay, op. cit., p. 19, PL 8, 
fig. 21. 

Massachusetts to Florida. 
EUPAGURUS BERNHARDUS Stimpsou. (p. 501.) 

Loc. cit., p. 89, 1859. Pagurus Bernhardus (Linne" sp.,) Fabricius, Entomolagia 
systematica, vol. ii, p. 469, 1793; Gould, op. cit., p. 329; DeKay, op. cit., p. 20. 


Vineyard Sound, &c., iu deep water, more abundant north of 
Cod, and extending to Northern Europe on one side, and to Puget 
Sound on the other. 


Loc. cit., p. 89, 1859 ; and Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 1858, p. 237, 
1859. Payurus pulescem Kroyer, Naturh. Tidsskrift, Bind ii, p. 251, 1838. 

This species has been taken in deep water off the coast of New Jer- 
sey, and will, doubtless, be found off Long Island and Vineyard Sounds. 
It extends northward to Greenland and Northern Europe. 

KrpAGURUS LONGICARPUS Stimpson. (p. 330.) 

Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 1858, p. 237, 1859. Pagu-rus longicar- 
pns Say, loc. cit., p. 163, 1817 ; Gould, op. cit., p. 330 ; DeKay, op. cit., p. 20, 
PL 8, fig. 22. 

Massachusetts Bay to South Carolina. 

GEBIA AFFINIS Say. Plate II, fig. 7. (pp. 3G7, 530.) 

Loc. cit., p. 195, 1817. 
Long Island Sound to South Carolina. 

CALLIANASSA STOIPSONI Smith, sp. nov. Plate II, fig. 8. (p. 360.) 

Carapax smooth and shining. Greater cheliped (fig. 8) about three 
times as long as the carapax ; carpus and hand convex on both sides ; 
carpus sometimes considerably longer, sometimes not at all longer than 
broad ; both fingers of the same length, and about as long as the basal 
portion of the dactylus ; the prehensile edge of the dactylus without 
a strong tooth or tubercle at base. Smaller cheliped about half as long 
as the greater; carpus and hand about equal in length; fingers equal, 
slender, as long as the basal portion of the propodus. Abdomen smooth 
and shining above, gradually increasing in breadth to the fifth segment ; 
second segment longest, much longer than broad ; third and fifth equal 
in length ; fourth shorter, and sixth a little longer than third or fifth ; 
telson much broader than long, shorter than the fourth segment. 

Length of a large specimen, 61 mm ; length of carapax, 15; length of 
larger cheliped, 44. 

In the character of the chelipeds this species seems to be closely allied 
to C. longimana Stimpson^ from Puget Sound. 

Our species ranges from the coast of the Southern States north to 
Long Island Sound. 

HOMARUS AMERICANUS Edwards, (pp. 305, 402, 522.) 

Hist. uat. des. Crust., tome ii, p. 334, 1837. Astacns marina* Say, loc. cit. , p. 165, 
1817, (not of Fabricius.) 

New Jersey to Labrador. 


CRANGON VULGARIS Fabricius. Plate III, fig. 10. (pp. 339, 52!).) 

Supplementum Entomologi* system., p. 410, 1793. Crangon septemspinosus Say, 
loc. cit., p. 246, 1818. 

North Carolina to Labrador and Europe. In depth it extends from 
low water to 60 or 70 fathoms, and probably much deeper. 

HIPPOLYTE PUSIOLA Kroyer. (p. 395.) 

Monografisk Fremstlling Hippol., p. 319, PI. 3, figs. 69-73, 1842. 
Vineyard Sound and northward to Greenland and Europe. 

YIRBIUS ZOSTERICOLA Smith, sp. nov. Plate III, fig. 11. (p. 369.) 

Female : Short and stout. Rostrum about as long as the carapax, 
and reaching nearly, or quite, to the tip of the autennal scale ; the upper 
edge nearly straight and unarmed, except by two, or rarely three, teeth 
at the base ; under edge with three (sometimes two or four) teeth on the 
anterior half. Carapax smooth and armed with a stout (supra-orbital) 
spine on each side at the base of the rostrum and above and a little 
behind the base of the ocular peduncle, a small (antennal) spine on the 
anterior margin beneath the ocular peduncle, and a stout (hepatic) spine 
behind the base of the antennae. Inner flagellum of the auteuuula ex- 
tending very slightly beyond the tip of the antenual scale ; outer flagel- 
lum considerably shorter. Abdomen geniculated at the third segment ; 
the posterior margin of the third segment prominent above, but not 

The males differ from the females in being smaller, much more slen- 
der, and in having the rostrum narrower vertically. 

The color in life is very variable. Most frequently the entire animal 
is bright green, sometimes pale, or even translucent, tinged with green. 
Others were translucent, specked with reddish brown, and with a broad 
median band of dark brown extending the whole length of the body. 

Length of female, 20-26 mm ; male 15-20. 

It is at once distinguished from V. pleuracanthus Stimpsou, to which, 
in many characters, it is closely allied, by its very much longer rostrum. 

Among eel-grass about Vineyard Sound, and probably common at 
other points on the coast. 

VirUus pleuracanthus Stimpson, (Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New 
York, vol. x, p. 127, 1871,) abundant upon the coast of New Jersey, will 
very likely be found farther north. In habit it is similar to the spe- 
cies just described. 

PANDALTJS ANNULICORNIS Leach. Plate II, fig. 6. (p. 493.) 

Malacostraca Podophthalmata Britannise, PI. 40, 1815. 

Deep water in Vineyard Sound, off Newport, &c. 
North of Cape Cod it is common, and extends to Greenland and Eu- 
rope. In depth it extends down to 430 fathoms at least. 

PAL;EMONETES vuLGAPvis Stimpson. Plate II, tig. 9. (pp. 479, 529.) 

Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York, vol. x, p. 129, 1871. Palwmon ndgaris Say, jj 

Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 224, 1818. 
Massachusetts to South Carolina. 



Edwards, Hist. nat. des Crust., tome ii, p. 414 ; Gibbes, loc. cit, p. 11)-: ; stirnp- 
son, Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist., New York, vol. x, p. 132. 

According to Stimpson, this species has been found in the, Croton 
Eiver at Sing Sing, New York, by Professor Baird. It will therefore be 
very likely to occur in the rivers of Southern New England. It is com- 
mon on the coast of the Southern States, and extends to Brazil. 


SQUILIA EMPUSA Say. (pp. 369, 536.) 

Loc. cit.. p. 250, 1818 ; Dekay, op. cit., p. 32, PI. 13, fig. 54 ; Gibbes, Proceed in^s 

Amer. Assoc., 3d meeting, p. 199. 
Florida to Cape Cod. 
The young of this species is figured on Plate VIII, fig. 36. 


MYSIS STENOLEPIS Smith, sp. nov. Plate III, fig. 12. (p. 370.) 

Male : Anterior margin of the carapax produced into a very short, 
broad, and obtusely rounded rostrum, and each side at the inferior angle 
into a prominent, acutely triangular tooth, between which and the base 
of the ocular peduncle there is a broad and deeply rounded sinus. Pe- 
duncle of the antennula about a third as long as the carapax along the 
dorsal line ; the sexual appendage slender, tapering, nearly as long as 
tlie peduncle ; inner flagellum half as long as the outer. Anteimal scale 
rather longer than the carapax along the dorsal line, narrow, about ten 
times as long as broad, tapering to a slender and acute point, both edges 
ciliated and nearly straight; flagellum about as long as the rest of *the 
animal. Abdomen somewhat geniculated between the first and second 
segments ; sixth segment about twice as long as the fifth. Appendages 
of the fourth segment reaching nearly to the distal extremity of the 
sixth segment ; inner ramus slender, slightly longer than the base ; outer 
ramtis naked, composed of six segments ; the first, third, and fourth sub- 
equal in length, and together equaling about three-fourths of the entire 
length; the second, fifth, and sixth subequal ; penultimate segment armed 
with a stout spine on the outside at the distal extremity, and the last 
segment terminated by a similar spine. Inner lamella of the appen- 
dages of the sixth segment extending slightly beyond the telson, narrow 
and tapering to an obtuse tip ; outer lamella narrow, linear, about seven 
times as long as broad, nearly a third longer than the inner, both edges 
ciliated and nearly straight, and the tip narrow and somewhat truncated. 
Telson considerably longer than the sixth segment, tapering slightly, 
the sides nearly straight, and each armed with about twenty-four spines ; 
the extremity cleft by a deep sinus rounded at bottom, and its margins 
convex posteriorly and armed with very numerous slender spines. 

Length of a male from tip of rostrum to extremity of telson, 23.2 mm : 
length of carapax along the dorsal line, 6.5 j length of antennal scale, 
0.7 ; length of telson, 3.8. Length of female, 30 mm . 


The females differ but little from the males except in the usual sexual 
characters. The figure, (Plate III, fig. 12,) made from a small female 
specimen, does not properly represent the anterior margin of the cara- 

In life the young females are semi-translucent, a spot on each ocular 
peduncle, the peduncles and inner flagella of the autennulo3, the 
antennal scale, the telson and caudal lamellae more or less blackish 
from deposits of black pigment, while each segment of the abdomen is 
marked with a rudely stellate spot of black. 

Large males of this species were found in the autumn among eel- 
grass, at New Haven, Connecticut, and the young abundantly in the 
same situation in May. Young females were collected in abundance 
during June and July, among the eel-grass in the shallow bays and 
coves about Vineyard Sound, while adult females, with the marsupial 
pouches filled with young, were collected, at Wood's Hole, in abun- 
dance, April 1, by Mr. V. N. Edwards. 

MYSIS AMERICANA. . Smith, sp. nov. (p. 396.) 

Anterior margin distinctly rostrated, but only slightly projecting 5 
evenly rounded, the inferior angle projecting into a sharp tooth. An- 
tennulaB, in the male, with the densely ciliated sexual appendage similar 
to that in M. vulgaris of Europe ; the outer flagellum nearly as long as 
the body, the inner slightly shorter. Autennal scale about three-fourths 
as long as the carapax, about nine times as long as broad, tapering 
regularly from the base to a very long and acute tip; both margins 
ciliated. Appendages of the fourth segment of the abdomen in the 
male similar to those in M. vulgaris. The outer ramus is slender an<J 
naked, and its pair of terminal stylets are equal in length, slender, curved 
toward the tip. and the distal half armed with numerous short setas 
the ultimate segment of the ramus itself is little more than half as long as 
the stylets, the penultimate segment four or five times as long as the 
terminal. Inner lamella of the appendages of the sixth segment about 
as long as the telson, narrow, slightly broadened at the base, and taper- 
ing to a slender but obtuse point; outer lamella once and a half as long 
as the inner, and eight times as long as broad, slightly tapering, the ex 
tremity subtruncate, Telson triangular, broadened at base, the lateral 
margins slightly convex posteriorly, and armed with stout spines alter- 
nating with intervals of several smaller ones; the tip very narrow, 
truncate, armed with a stout spine each side, and two small ones filling 
the space between their bases. Length 10 to 12 imn . 

This species was found, in April, at Beesley's Point, New Jersey, in 
pools, upon salt-marshes, and at the same locality the stomachs of the 
spotted flounder were found filled with them. Professor D. C. Eaton 
found it in great abundance among sea- weeds, &c., just below low- water 
mark, at New Haven, Connecticut, May 5, 1873. It was also taken in 
the dredge, in 4 to 6 fathoms, at New Haven, Connecticut, and in 25 


fathoms off Vineyard Sound, and has been found in the stomachs of the 
shad, mackerel, &c. 

HETEROMYSIS FORMOSA Smith, gen. et sp. nov. (p. ;596.) 

Body rather short and stout. Carapax broad behind and tapering 
anteriorly ; the anterior margin produced into an obtusely triangular 
rostrum. Ocular peduncles short and thickened nearly to the base. 
Peduncle of the antenuula stout, extending to the tip of the antennal 
scale j the terminal segment in the male wanting the usual elongated 
sexual process, but having in its place a very dense tuft of long hairs ; 
inner flagellum nearly as long as the carapax; outer flagellum stout at 
base and more than twice as long as the inner. Antennal scale about 
three and a half times as long as broad, not quite reaching to the ex- 
tremity of the. peduncle of the autennula, ovate, obtuse at the tip, ex- 
ternal margin without a spine and ciliated like the inner ; peduncle 
elongated, penultimate segment considerably longer than the ultimate; 
iiagelluin nearly as long as the entire body. Mandibles, maxilla?, first 
and second maxillipeds, as in Mysis. The first pair of legs (second pair 
of gnathopoda) differ remarkably from those in all the described genera 
of Mysidre. The whole leg is stouter than in the succeeding pairs, and 
the terminal portion, corresponding to the multiarticulate portion of the 
inner branch (endopodus) in Mysis, &c., consists of only three segments 
including the terminal claw; the first of these segments is stout, slightly 
shorter than the preceding (rneral) segment, and armed with stout 
spines along the distal portion of the inner margin ; the second seg- 
ment is very short, not longer than broad, and closely articulated to the 
preceding segment so as to admit of very little motion ; the ultimate 
article is a long, slightly curved claw, freely articulated to the preceding 
segment. In the five posterior pairs of legs the terminal portion of the 
inner branch is multiarticulate as in Mysis, in the first composed of five 
segments, besides a stout terminal claw like that in the preceding pair, 
and in the four remaining pairs of six segments and a slender terminal 
claw. The exopodal branches of all the legs are well developed. 

Abdomen a little more than twice as long as the carapax, the sixth 
segment a little longer than the fifth. The appendages of the first five 
segments alike in both sexes ; short, rudimentary, and like the same appen- 
dages in the female Mysis. Inner lamella of the sixth segment projecting 
very slightly beyond the extremity of the telson, broad, ovate; outer 
lamella only a little longer than the inner, about two-sevenths as long: 
as broad, inner margin quite convex, outer very slightly, tip rounded. 
Telson short, broad at base, and narrowed rapidly toward the extremity, 
the width at base about two-thirds the length, at the extremity only a 
third as wide as at base ; the lateral margins each armed with twelve 
to fourteen spines, which increase in size distally, and a very long ter- 
minal spine; the posterior margins cleft by a sinus deeper than broad,, 
and armed with numerous small spines. 


In life the males are semitranslucent and nearly colorless, while in the 
females the antenuulaB, the flagella of the antennae, the ocular pedun- 
cles, the thorax with the marsupial pouch, and the articulations of the 
caudal appendages are beautiful rose color. 

Length of a male, 6.0 mm ; carapax along the dorsal line, 1.8 ; anteuual 
scale. 0.70; telson, 0.90. Length of a female, 8.5 mm ; carapax, 2.5; an- 
tennal scale, 0.88 ; telsou, 1.16. 

The absence of the sexual appendages from the autennulre of the male, 
the peculiar structure of the anterior legs, and the similarity of the 
abdominal appendages in the two sexes, at once separate the genus 
Heteromysis from all known allied genera. 

THYSANOPODA, species. (452.) 

A great number of small specimens were taken from the stomach of 
mackerel caught twenty miles off No Man's Land, July 18, 1871. 

Several were also caught swimming at the surface in Vineyard Sound, 
April 30, 1873, by V. N. Edwards. 

A single specimen of a species apparently the same as this was taken 
at New Haven, Connecticut, May 5, 1873, by Professor D. C. Eaton. 

DIASTYLIS QUADRISPINOSA, G. O. Sars. Plate III, fig. 13. (p. 507.) 

Ofversight af Kougl. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1871, Stockholm, p. 7-J. 

Dredged in 23 fathoms of Martha's Vineyard and in 29 fathoms of 
Buzzard's Bay. It is also found in the Bay of Fuiidy. Sars's specimens 
were dredged by the Josephine expedition in 18 fathoms off Skinuecock 
Bay, Long Island, and in 30 to 35 fathoms, latitude 39 54' north, lon- 
gitude 73 15' west, off the coast of New Jersey. 

Our specimens agree well with Sars's description, except that the sec- 
ond segment of the inner rainus of the lateral caudal appendages has 
but three, or rarely four, spines upon the inner margin, while in Sars's 
specimens there were five. 


Loc. cit., p. 71. 

With the last species, in 18 fathoms, off Skinnecock Bay, according to 


Loc. cit., p. 7\ 

Bare in 30 to 35 fathoms, off the coast of New Jersey, with the 
first species, (Sars.) 

Loc. cit., p. 79. 

Not infrequent in 18 fathoms, off Skinnecock Bay, (Sars.) 


Loc. cit., p. 80. 

Karo in 30 to 35 fathoms, with the other species mentioned, off the 
coast of New Jersey, (Sars.) 


ORCHESTIA AGILIS Smith, sp. nov. Plate IY, fig. 14. (p. 314.) 

Male : Antennula not quite reaching the distal extremity of . h<- 
penultimate segment of the antenna; second and third segments of 
the peduncle about equal in length, and each slightly longer than tin- 
first ; flagellum about as long as the two last segments of the peduncle. 
Antenna less than half as long as the body; segments of the peduncle 
stout and swollen, the ultimate longer than the penultimate; flagellum 
stout, compressed vertically, much shorter than the peduncle, composed 
of twelve to fifteen segments. Propodus in the second pair of legs 
short and thickened laterally, the palmary margin with a small promi- 
nence on the outer edge of the posterior angle, behind which the tip of 
the dactylns closes, and along the inner edge, inside the dactylus, with 
a thin ridge, which is broken by a small notch near the posterior angle, 
so that the margin when viewed laterally shows a broad lobe next the 
base of the dactylus and two small, rounded lobes next the posterior 
angle, the tip of the dactylus resting between the small lobes ; dactylus 
slender, curved so as to fit closely the palmary margin, and furnished 
with very minute setae along the prehensile margin. Posterior thoracic 
legs slightly longer than the preceding; carpus in full-grown specimens 
short, much swollen, and thickened so as to be nearly cylindrical. 

Female : Carpus and hand in the second pair of legs unarmed ; pro- 
podus short, slightly spatulate in outline, with a pair of minute setae at 
the base of the dactylus, which is very short, not reaching the extremity 
of the propodus. 

Length : male, 10-15 mm ; female, 10-14. 

Bay of Fundy to New Jersey. 

ORCHESTIA PALUSTRIS Smith, sp. nov. (p. 468.) 

Male : Antennulse reaching slightly beyond the distal extremity of 
the penultimate segment of the peduncle of the antenna?. Antenna? 
less than half as long as the body ; peduncle slender ; flagellum slen- 
der, longer than the peduncle, composed of eighteen to twenty-six seg- 
ments. Propodus in the second pair of legs nearly oval in outline, the 
palmary margin spinous, regularly curved to the posterior angle, which 
projects on the outer edge in a slight, rounded prominence, within which 
the tip of the dactylus closes ; dactylus slender, curved so as to nearly 
fit the palmary margin, and furnished with minute sette along the pre- 
hensile margin. Posterior thoracic legs slightly longer than the pre- 
ceding ; carpus and propodus both long and slender. 

The female differs from the male as in the last species. 

Length, male, 15-22 mm ; female, 12-lS 11 "". 

Cape Cod to New Jersey, and very likely farther north and south. 



TaUtrus longicornis Say, loc. cit., p, 384, 1818. Orcliestia longlcornls Edwards, 
His. Hat. des. Crust., tome iii, p. 18, 1840; De Kay, op. cit., p. 36, PI. 7, fig. 19. 

Cape Cod to New Jersey, and probably farther south. 

Orchestia megaloplifhalma Bate, Catalogue Ainphip. Crust., British Museum, p. 22, 

Cape Cod to New Jersey, and probably farther south. 

TaUtrus quadrifidus, De Kay, (op. cit., p. 36, PI. 14, fig. 27,) may be 
based on the female of one of the preceding species, but it so is badly 
described and figured as to be indeterminable. 

HYALE LITTORALIS Smith, (p. 315.) 

Allorchestes Uttoralis Stimpson. Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 49., 1M. ;>, 
fig. 36, 1853; Bate, Catalogue Ainpliip. Crust,, British Museum, p. 48, PI. 8, fig. 
2, 1862. 

This species was found at New Haven, Connecticut., by Professor 
Verrill, May 5, 1873, and is one of the inhabitants of rocky shores, piles 
of wharves, &c. I have found it at Provincetown, Massachusetts, and 
it is abundant in the Bay of Fuudy. It is undoubtedly abundant on the 
whole New England coast, but its station upon the shore is so high up 
on the beach that it is likely to be overlooked. 

LYSIANASSA, species, (p. 431.) 

A species of this genus, as restricted by Boeck, was several times 
dredged in Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's Bay. 

Several other species of Lysianassincc were taken in Vineyard Sound 
and the neighboring region, but they have not yet been sufficiently 
studied to be enumerated. The species of this group are much less 
common and the individuals smaller on the coast of Southern New Eng- 
and than they are upon the coast of Maine and farther north. 


Loc. cit., p. 380, 1818. 

Georgia to Cape Cod. 
PHOXUS KROYERI Stimpsou. (p. 501.) 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manau, p. 53, 1853. 

Rare in Vineyard Sound and usually in deep water. Common in the 
Bay of Fundy. 

UROTHOE, species, (p. 452.) 

A species with long, slender antennae and very large black eyes, 
and apparently belonging to this genus, was taken in great numbers at 
the surface at Wood's Hole, on the evening of July 3, and on one or 
two other occasions. In life it was whitish, slightly tinged with orange- 

MONOCULODES, species, (p. 452.) 

A single specimen taken at the surface in Vineyard Sound, December 
21, by Mr. V. N. Edwards. 



Nat. Tnlsskrift, vol. iv, ]>. 157, IH-iy. DanriHiacompreaaa I5:iti-, I.Vport Urit. ,\ 
1855, p. 58; Catalogue Auipliip. Crust, Brit. Mus., p, 108, PL 17, fig. 7; U:il- 
and Westwood, Brit. Sessilc-cyt-d Crust, vol. i, p. 184, wood cut. 

A parasitic aruphipod, apparently quite identical with this species of 
Europe, was found in the mouth of a goose-fish (Lopliim Americanus) 
taken in Vineyard Sound. A species, apparently the same, was also 
taken from the back of a skate (Raia lewis) in the Bay of Fundy the 
past summer. It is readily distinguished by its broad depressed form, 
and by having the third to fifth pairs of legs very stout and their distal 
segments forming powerful talon-like claws, while the first and second 
pairs are small and slender. 


Crust. Ampbipoda borealia et arctica, p. 117, 1870. Ampkithoe' la'vinscula Kroyer 
Gronlands Amfipoder, p. 53, PI. 3. fig. 13, 1838. Calliope loevimcula Bate, Cata- 
logue Ampbip. Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 148, PI. 28, fig. 2, 1862 ; Bate and Westwood, 
op. cit., vol. i, p. 156, wood cut. 

Vineyard Sound and northward to Greenland, Northern Europe, and 


Op. cit., p. 114, 1870. Amphilhoe inermis and crenulata, Kroyer, Gronlands Am- 
fipoder, pp. 47, 50, PI. 3, figs. 11, 12, 1838. Iphimedia vulgaris Stimpson, 
Marine Invertebrata of Grand Mauan, p. 53, 1853. Atylus inermis, crenulaius, 
and vulgaris Bate, Catalogue Amphip. Crust. Brit. Mus., pp. 138, 139, 142, PI. 27, 
figs. 5, 6, 1862. Atylus vulgaris Packard, Memoirs Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 
i, p. 298, 1867. (Not Atylus (Paramphitoe) inermis Packard, loc. cit., p. 298, PL 
8, fig. 3.) 

Taken at the surface in Vineyard Sound, in March, by Mr. V. N. Ed- 
wards. It is abundant, in company with Calliopius Icevimculus, about 
the Bay of Fundy in pools left by the tide, and ranges north to Labra- 
dor and Greenland. 

GAMMARUS ORNATUS Edwards. Plate IV, fig. 15. (p. 314.) 

Annales des Sci. nat., tome xx, 1830, p. 367, PI. 10, figs. 1-10 ; Hist. uat. des 
Crust., tome iii, p. 47; Bate, op. cit., p. 212, PI. 37, fig. 8. Gammarus locusto 
Gould, op. cit,, p. 334. Gammarus pulex Stimpson, Marine Invert. Grand Manan , 
p. 55. 

New Jersey to Greenland. 

GAMMARUS ANNULATUS Smith, sp. uov. (p. ;JU.) 

Anterior margin of the head produced each side beneath the an ten - 
nulae into a truncated lobe, which extends farther forward than in G. 
ornatus ; eyes scarcely reiriform, less elongated than in G. ornatw, and 
their lower margins not reaching, by considerable, the anterior border 
of the truncated lobe. Antennae longer than the antennuku ; the ulti- 
mate segment of the peduncle longer than the penultimate ; the flagol- 
lum much more slender, the segments more elongated and with lower 
hairs, than in G. ornatus. Hands of the first pair of legs more elongated 
than in G. ornatus, and the palmary margins very oblique. Propodus in 


the second pair very narrow and elongated, subcylindrical, slightly 
flattened on the inner side, the palmary margin longitudinal, and scarcely 
distinct from the posterior margin. Fourth segment of the abdomen 
with a median fascicle of two large and two small spines, but no lateral 
fascicles. Fifth and sixth segments with both median and lateral 
fascicles of spines. 

Color in life grayish white, the posterior margins of the segments 
bordered with brown, giving the body an aunulated appearance. 

Length, 12-lS mm . 

New Haven. Connecticut, and East-port, Maine, and doubtless abundant 
at other points on the coast. 

This species closely resembles the fresh- water G. fasc'tatus, but is 
distinguished from it by the proportions of the segments of the pedun- 
cles of the antennoe, and by wanting the lateral fascicles of spines upon 
the fourth segment of the abdomen. 

GAM3IARUS NATATOR Smith, Sp. HOV. (p. 439.) 

Male: Eyes large, enlongated, but only slightly reniform. Anten- 
nula sjiort and stout, about three-sevenths as long as thabody; flagellum 
but little longer than the peduncle ; secondary flagellum nearly half as 
long as the primary. Antenna considerably longer than the antennula; 
penultimate segment of the peduncle reaching to the extremity of the 
peduncle of the antennula ; ultimate segment of the peduncle longer 
than the penultimate; flagellum about two-thirds as long as the pedun- 
cle. Both antennulre and antennae are furnished with very long hairs, 
of which many on the antennulre are plumose. First, second, and third 
epimera margined on the inferior edges with long cilia. First pair of 
legs more slender than the second ; propodus oval, twice as long as 
broad, palmary margin continuous with the inferior, with a very narrow 
lamellar edge, a stout obtuse spine in the middle, and two smaller ones 
at the inferior angle ; dactylus strongly curved. In the second pair the 
propodus is more than half as broad as long, and somewhat rectangular 
in outline, except that the palmary margin is slightly oblique 5 the pal- 
mary margin has a narrow lamellar edge, with a slight emargination in 
the middle, from which a stout obtuse spine arises, and at the inferior 
angle there are two or three smaller spines, as in the first pair. The 
inferior edges of the carpi and propodi of both pairs of legs are thickly 
clothed with long hairs. Natatory [legs reaching to the tips of the 
telson. Second and third segments of the abdomen with the sides 
produced backward, and the postero-iuferior angle acute. Fourth 
segment with only a median fascicle of spines; fifth and sixth 
segments with median and lateral fascicles. Kami of the posterior 
caudal stylets lanceolate, five or six times as long as broad, the outer 
extending beyond the inner by the]length of its terminal article, which 
is very slender, almost spiniform, the edges of both rami clothed with 
long plumose hairs. Each division of the telson nearly three times as 
long as broad. 


Iii the female the hands of the first and second pairs of legs are 
smaller and slenderer, and the propodi somewhat oval and nearly alike 
in both pairs; otherwise the females do not differ from the males, except 
that the raini of the posterior caudal stylets are, perhaps, ;i very little 
shorter and broader in proportion. 

Length, lO-ll'""". 

Vineyard Sound, in vast numbers at the surface of the water, usually 
among floating sea- weeds and eel-grass. Also from stomach of mackerel, 
May 20. 

GAMMAUUS MARINUS Leach, (p. 48(3.) 

Trans. Linnean Soc., London, vol. xi, p. 359, 1815; Bate, Catalogue Arnphip. 
Crust., Brit. Mus., p. 215, PI. 38, fig. 4 ; Bate and Westwood, Brit. Sessile-eyed 
Crust., vol. i, p. 370, wood-cut. 

A species which I cannot distinguish, by the published figures and 
descriptions, from this common species of Europe, was not uncommon,, 
associated with Amphithoe maculata, under stones at the Wepecket 
Islands, Gull Island, Cuttyhunk Island, and at other places on Vine- 
yard Sound and Buzzard's Bay. It has also been found at Watch Hill, 
Rhode Island, and at New Haven, Connecticut, by Professor Verrill. 
It is at once distinguished from all the other species of our coast by its 
slender form, slender antennae, by having the sides of the second and 
third segments of the abdomen narrow and not produced or acute at the 
postero-inferior angle, and by having the outer rami of the posterior 
caudal stylets four or five times as long as the inner. 


Loc. cit., p, 376, 1818; De Kay, op. cit., p. 37. Gammaracanthus mucronatus Bate, 
op. cit., p. 203. 

Readily distinguished from the other species of the coast by having 
the posterior margin of each of the anterior segments of the abdomen 
produced into a slender, spiuiforin, dorsal tooth. In life, it is translu- 
cent, tinged with green, or yellowish green, minutely specked with brown 
or black; these black or brown markings and the green color being fre- 
quently so arranged as to give the antenna? and legs a banded appear- 
ance. Our species cannot be referred to Bate's genus Gammaracanthits, 
for the dorsal margin is not distinctly carinated, and the third, fourth r 
and fifth segments of the abdomen are furnished with fascicles of spines. 

Usually in brackish water, North Carolina to Cape Cod, and, accord- 
ing to Say, from Florida also. 

MCERA LEVIS Smith, sp. nov. (p. 315.) 

Eyes nearly round; black in alcoholic specimens. Antennula two- 
thirds as long as the body ; first and second segments of the peduncle 
equal in length, third about two-thirds as long as the second ; flagellum 
about as long as the peduncle. Antenna about as long as the peduncle 
of the antemmla ; ultimate and penultimate segments equal in length, 
antepenultimate very short ; fiagellnin much shorterthan the peduncle* 
Legs of the first pair small ; carpus as broad as the propodus, but little 


longer than broad, the posterior margin straight and furnished with fas- 
cicles of stout hairs ; palmary margin nearly transverse, slightly arcuate, 
and armed with short setae-; dactylus slender and fitting closely the pal- 
mary margin. Legs of the second pair larger; carpus short, as broad 
as the base of the propodus, the posterior angle thickly clothed with 
stout hairs; propodus in the male stout, broadest distally, the palmary 
margin expanded toward the inferior angle and excavated on the inner 
side to receive the long and strongly curved dactylus ; in the female, 
elongated, slightly narrowed distally, the posterior margin continuous 
and nearly parallel with the palmary, and furnished with fascicles of 
stout hairs. Fifth pair of legs but little longer than the third or fourth ; 
sixth and seventh much longer than the fifth, subequal, stout, their 
meral and carpal segments considerably expanded, especially in the male. 
Ultimate caudal stylets projecting a little beyond the preceding pairs : 
rami short, broad, and with spinous tips ; the outer ranms slightly longer 
and broader than the inner, and its outer margin armed with a very few- 
fascicles of spinules. Telson reaching to the bases of the rami of the 
posterior caudal stylets, nearly as broad as long, and cleft two-thirds of 
the way to the base. 

Length, 5-7 inm . 

New Jersey, Long Island Sound, Vineyard Sound. 

MELITA NITIDA Smith, sp. uov. (p. 314.) 

Eyes small, round, black. Autenuula about two-thirds as long as 
the body; first segment of the peduncle slightly shorter than the second, 
which is nearly twice as long as the last ; flagellum longer than the pe- 
duncle. Antenna shorter than the antennula, but the peduncle consid- 
erably longer than the peduncle of the antennula, the penultimate seg- 
ment being scarcely shorter than the penultimate segment of the aii- 
tennula, while the ultimate segment is subequal with it. First pair of 
legs with the carpus longer and broader than the propodus; propodus 
oblong, slightly curved ; dactylus very small but stout, curved, and at- 
tached in a notch in the middle of the extremity of the propodus, not 
closing upon the extremity of the propodus but projecting inward- 
Second pair of legs stout; carpus short, triangular; propodus some, 
what oval, the palmary margin oblique, arcuate, continuous with the 
posterior margin, and armed with a series of minute spines and with 
numerous stiff hairs, the clothing of hairs continuing round upon the 
posterior margin to the carpus; dactylus curved, tip resting within the 
palmary margin. Third pair of legs slightly longer than the fourth. 
Three posterior pairs slender, the fifth somewhat shorter than the sixth 
and seventh, which are subequal, and have the anterior margins of the 
bases armed with small spines and the posterior margins minutely ser- 
rate. STone of the dorsal margins of the segments of the abdomen ser- 
rate or emarginate, but the margin of the fifth segment armed with 
several slender spines on each side near the median line of the dorsum. 
Penultimate caudal stylets not quite reaching the tip of the preceding 


pair. The ultimate pair very long and armed with fasddos of spim-s 
along' the margins. Divisions of the telson slender, spinous at tlir tips- 

In life dark greenish slate-color, changing in alcohol to dark slate. 

Length, 7-i) inni . 

New Jersey to Cape Cod. 

AM PKLISCA. Plate IV, tig. 17. (pp. 431, 507.) 

The species of this genus found upon our coast have not yet been 
carefully studied. At least two species were taken in Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzard's Bay. The genus is readily recognized, but the species 
are difficult to distinguish. 

BYBLTS SERRATA Smith, sp. nov. (p. 501.) 

Female : Dorsurn rounded above, with no trace of a longitudinal carina 
upon the abdomen ; third segment of the abdomen broadly rounded at 
the postero-lateral angle. Antennula about as long as the peduncle of 
the antenna ; fourth segment of the peduncle of the antenna longer than 
the fifth. Inferior margins of the epimera of the first and second pairs of 
legs serrate, with slender and acute teeth alternating with the marginal 
cilia ; carpus in the first pair scarcely if any longer than the propadus 
carpus in the second pair very much longer than the propodus. In the 
third and fourth pairs of legs the dactylus as longas the propodus. Basal 
segment in the seventh pair of legs expanding distally, the posterior 
margin nearly straight, the anterior and inferior margins evenly arcuated, 
and reaching as far as the distal end of the carpus; carpus about as long- 
as the ischium and merus together, a little less than twice as long as 
broad, and armed with long spines upon the anterior and distal margins, 
but the posterior margin wholly unarmed ; propodus almost as long as 
the carpus, and nearly four times as long as broad, anterior margin un- 
armed, the posterior armed upon the outside with two transverse rows 
of three or four spines, decreasing in size as they recede from the mar- 
gin, the distal end with a spine each side the slender dactylus. Kami 
of the first pair of caudal stylets equal, as long as the base; outer rami 
of the second pair shorter than the inner; rami of the posterior pair 
equal, longer than the bases, reaching to the tips of tke rami of the first 
pair. Telson as long as the breadth at base, cleft rather more than half 
its length, the lateral margins arcuate, and rapidly converging toward 
the evenly rounded extremity. 

Alcoholic specimens are pale yellowish, the epimera, bases of the pos- 
terior legs, and the sides of the abdomen specked and mottled with 
numerous points of dark pigment crowded irregularly together. 

Length, 10-12 nnn . 

Deep water off Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's Bay. 

PTILOCHEIRUS PINGUIS Stimpson. (p. 431.) 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 56, 1853. Protowedia pingus Bate T 
Catalogue Amphip. Crust, Brit. Mus., p. 170, PI. 31, fig. 2, 1862. 

Common on the whole coast of New England uptn muddy bottoms 
10 T 


and north to Labrador. In depth it extends down to 150 fathoms, 
and probably much farther. 

MICRODEUTOPUS MiNAX Smith, sp. nov. (p. 479.) 

Antennula about two-thirds as long as the body ; first segment of the 
peduncle stout, about as long as the head ; second segment a little 
longer and much more slender; third segment nearly half as long as the 
first; flagellum slender, about a third longer than the peduncle; second- 
ary flagellurn very small, consisting usually of but one segment. An- 
tenna about two-thirds as long as the antemmla; ultimate and penul- 
timate segments of the peduncle, equal in length, and each fully twice as- 
long as the antepenultimate; flagellum scarcely as long as the last seg- 
ment of the peduncle. Hands of the first pair of legs in the male greatly 
developed; carpus very large, scarcely longer than the breadth in the 
middle ; superior margin strongly arcuate, the inferior angle produced 
into a stout process opposed to the propodus, and the inferior margin 
arcuate and armed distally with two teeth, a large and prominent one at 
the base of the terminal process, the other small, obtuse, or even obso- 
lete; propodus not more than half as long as the carpus, much longer 
than broad, the inferior margin with two broad obtuse teeth ; dactylus- 
stout, a little shorter than the propodus. Legs of the second pair with 
the basal segment broad and squamiform; carpus elongated; propodus. 
as long as the carpus and as broad as its distal portion, rectangular. 
about two and a half times as long as broad; dactylus short and hooked 
at the tip. In the female the hands of the first pair of legs are only 
moderately developed; carpus broad; propodus scarcely as broad as 
the carpus, rectangular, the palmary margin somewhat oblique, and the 
inferior margin armed with a spine at the obtusely rounded inferior 
angle. In the second pair the basal segment is not expanded but narrow : 
the carpus and propodus much as in the male, except that they are 
clothed with numerous long, plumose hairs. The bases of the first and 
second pairs of caudal stylets are armed with a long, slender, spiniform 
process, arising from the distal end just below the bases of the ramL 
The outer rami of the posterior stylets are a little longer than the inner. 
All the stylets extend to the same point. 

Length, about 4 mm . 

Long Island Sound and Vineyard Sound. 

Another species of Microdeutopus was collected in Vineyard Sound, 
but it was not abundant. 

AUTONOE, species, (p. 415.) 

A species belonging apparently in this genus, as defined by Boeck. 
was common in Vineyard Sound, living in tubes in masses of a compound 
Ascidian (Amouroucium pellucidum Verrill) in 3 to 8 fathoms. It is C or 
7 lnm in length, and in life the antennulre and antenna) are obscurely 
banded and specked with pink; the body above, except upon the fifth, 
segment and the posterior part of the abdomen, is almost black, the 


color extending down upon the epimera, while the legs and caudal ap- 
pendages are senii-transluceut. The eyes are large and black. 

AMIIIITIIOK MACULATA Stimpson. Plate IV, fig. 1C. (p. :;ir,.j 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manau, p. r>:?, 1853. 
Vineyard Sound to the Bay of Fundy and Labrador. 

A:\iriUTiiOK VALIDA Smith, sp. nov. (p. 315.) 

Male: Eyes round, black in alcoholic specimens. Antennula', and 
antenna 1 snbeqnal in length. Peduncle of the antennula extending 
scarcely beyond the distal extremity of penultimate segment of the 
peduncle of the antenna ; the second segment but little longer than the 
first; ultimate segment short and slender. Ultimate and penultimate 
segments of the peduncle of the antenna subequal in length. First 
pair of legs short, compressed ; carpus as broad as the propodus ; pro- 
podus broad, oval in outline, the posterior and palmary margins forming 
a continuous, nearly semicircular curve; dactylus fitting closely the pal- 
mary margin. Second pair of legs very large; carpus small; propodus 
oblong, broadest at the distal extremity, very large and thickened, the 
outer surface convex, the inner flattened, palmary margin transverse, 
with a broad, low, median tooth, and a rounded prominence at the in- 
ferior angle, within which the tip of the very stout and strongly curved 
dactylus closes. 

The female differs in having the hands of the first pair of legs slightly 
more elongated, and those of the second pair smaller than in the male, 
and the palmary margin slightly oblique. 

Color in life, bright green. 

Length, 10-13"" 11 . 

]S>,w Jersey and Long Island Sound. 

AMPHITHOE LONGIMANA Smith, sp. nov. (p. 370.) 

Male : Eyes round, and, in specimens preserved in alcohol, black. 
Autennula slender and as long as the body; second segment of the 
peduncle a little longer than the first; third segment about half as 
long as the second; flagellum about twice as long as the peduncle. An- 
tenna considerably stouter and slightly shorter than the antennula, the 
peduncle about twice as long as the flagellum ; third segment of the 
peduncle a little more than half as long as the first segment of the pe- 
duncle of the antennula ; fourth segment nearly three times as long as 
the third; fifth considerably longer than the fourth; flagellum a little 
longer, or sometimes only as long, as the fifth segment of the peduncle. 
Hands of the first and second pairs of legs stout and much elongated. 
Carpus in the first pair nearly as long as the first segment of the pedun- 
cle of the antennula, narrow; propodus much more than twice as long 
as broad, as wide and long as the carpus, of the same width throughout, 
slightly curved, and the very short palmary margin transverse ; dacty- 
lus stout, very little curved, more than half as long as the propodus, 
and projecting far beyond its inferior edge; the posterior margins of 


both propodus and carpus densely clothed with long, stiff hairs. Carpus 
in the second pair of legs short, with an angular prominence upon the 
posterior side ; propodus as long as in the first pair, and much broader, 
the palmary margin oblique, projecting at the inferior angle, just inside 
of which there is a deep sinus in the margin. Posterior edges of the 
bases of the sixth and seventh pairs of legs unarmed. 

In the female the antenna are shorter and not quite as stout, and the 
hands of the first and second pairs of legs are very much shorter, 
smaller, and much less hairy ; in the first pair the carpus and propodus 
are very much shorter and proportionally broader, and the palmary 
margin of the propodus more oblique ; in the second pair the propodus 
is short and somewhat oval, with a slight prominence at the inferior 
angle of the palmary margin. 

Length, 6-9 mm . 

New Jersey; Great South Bay, Long Island ; Vineyard Sound. Com- 
mon among eel-grass in sheltered situations. The young, even 5 or 0""" 
long, were taken at the surface in Vineyard Sound several times. 

AMPHITHOE COMPTA Smith, sp. nov. (p. ;>70.) 

Eyes small, round, red in life, but fading in alcohol to whitish. An- 
tennula slender, as long as the body; first segment of the peduncle as 
long as the head ; second slightly longer than the first ; last a third as 
long as the second ; flagelluin very slender, nearly three times as long 
as the peduncle. There is a rudimentary secondary flagellum, not 
longer than the first two segments of the primary flagellurn and very 
slender. Antenna a little shorter than the antennula ; the peduncle 
very little shorter than that of the antennula; last two segments about 
equal in length, the penultimate reaching as far as the same segments 
of the antennula; flagelluin about as long as the peduncle. First and 
second pairs of legs, in the male, about equal in size, as long as the head 
and thorax together, and clothed on both margins with long, plumose 
hairs. Carpus in the first pair longer than, and as broad as, the pro- 
podus, the distal extremity truncate and right-angled at the inferior mar- 
gin ; the propodus much longer than broad, the palmary margin oblique, 
very nearly straight, and armed at the inferior angle upon the inner side 
with a stout spine. Carpus in the second pair narrower than in the first, 
the distal extremity obliquely rounded at the inferior angle ; propodus 
as long as the carpus and no broader, the palmary margin less oblique 
than in the first pair, without any spine, and the inferior angle slightly 
projecting; dactylus, strongly curved and closing by the margin of the 
propodus. In the female the legs of the first and second pairs are nearly 
alike in form, very much smaller and weaker than in the male, and only 
sparsely clothed with mostly simple hairs, except upon the inferior margin 
of the carpus in the second pair. In both pairs the carpus is about as lonj 
and broad as the propodus ; the propodus is short, narrowed toward the 
carpus, the palmary margin oblique, convex in outline, with the infe- 
rior angle rounded and armed with a stout spine on the inside. Second 


and tliinl segments of the. abdomen produced into a slight angular 
prominence at the postero-inferior angle. The posterior edges of the, 
bases of the sixth and seventh pairs of legs not serrated but armed with 
two to four small spines. 'First and second pairs of caudal stylets ex- 
tending scarcely beyond the posterior pair. In the first pair there is a 
long, slender spine projecting from the distal extremity of the base be- 
neath the. rami. 

Length of largest specimen examined, 13 imn . 

North Carolina to Cape Cod. Common among eel-grass. Taken at 
surface in Vineyard Sound. % 

PODOCERUS FUCIG'OLA* Smith, (p. 493.) 

Cerapm fucicola Stimpson, Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 48, PI. 3, 
fig. 34, 1853. 

This species was dredged by Professor Verrill, in 4 to 5 fathoms, off 
Watch Hill, Rhode Island, in April, 1873. It is common in the Bay of 

PODOCERUS, species, (p. 494.) 

Another species of the same genus was taken in abundance with the 
last. It is a large and dark-colored species. 

CERAPUS RUBRICORNIS Stimpson. Plate IV, fig. 18. 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Mauan, p. 46, PI. 3, fig. 33, 1853; Bate, Catalogue 
Auiphip. Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 256, PI. 45, fig. 4. 

Not common south of Cape Cod, but very abundant in the Bay of 
Fuudy and north to the coast of Labrador. In depth it extends dow r n 
to 100 fathoms at least. 

CERAPUS MINAX Smith, sp. nov. 

Aiitenuulft) and antenna) about equal in length, rather more than half 
as long as the body. Second pair of legs greatly developed in the male, 
the hand nearly half as long as the body 5 carpus elongated, narrow, 
nearly three times as long as the breadth in the middle, the posterior 
angle projecting into a broad process about as long as the dactylus, and 
armed on the inside with a tooth nearly as stout as the distal part of 
the process itself, but projecting only about half as far ; propodus about 
half as long as the carpus, twice as long as broad ; dactylus consider- 
ably shorter than the propodus, the tip in most of the larger specimens 
furnished with a pencil of long hairs. In the female the hand in the 
second pair of legs is small ; the carpus produced into a long process on 
the inferior edge of the propodus to the palmary margin 5 propodus 
short, broad, somewhat oval, the palmary margin arcuate and armed 
with several short spines on the portion next the carpal process. 

Length, about 4 1 " 1 ". 

Long Island Sound, Vineyard Sound. 

.'CKRAPUS TUBULARIS Say. (p. 396.) 

Loc. cit., p. 49, PI. 4, fig. 7-11, 1817. 
Several specimens of a small amphipod, dredged, June 27, in Vineyard 


Sound, among masses of a large compound Ascidiau, (Amourouchun jwl- 
lucidum,) in eight to ten fathoms, oft' Nobska Point, are probably this 
species, but unfortunately females only were obtained, while Say de- 
scribes and figures the male alone. In our specimens, the autennum 1 
and antennas are spotted with very dark purplish-brown, the anterior 
part of the body almost black, the middle and posterior portions spotted 
with black, or very dark purplish brown. They are between 4 and ~> mi " 
long and inhabit unattached tubes as described by Say. The tubes are 
regularly cylindrical, quite thin and delicate, black, about 5 mm long, and 
0.4 mm in diameter, and are carried ^)out by the animal very much as the 
larvre of some of the PhryganeidaB carry about their tubes in fresh water. 
In the structure of the caudal appendages, our specimens are quite differ- 
ent from the species usually referred to Cerapus, but I have not thought 
best to make any changes in nomenclature until the discovery of the 
male shall make it certain whether our specimens belong to the species 
described by Say. 


Podocerus ci/Undricus, Say loc. cit., p. 387, 1818, (not of Bate, Catalogue Ainphip. 
Crust. Brit. Mus., p. 256.) 

New Jersey to Vineyard Sound. Very abundant among weeds and 
hydroids about piles of wharves, and almost everywhere in shallow 

Length, about 4 mm . 
SIPHONCECETES CUSPID ATUS Smith, sp. nov. (p. 501.) 

Male: Head produced into a long, slender, acute rostrum, and each 
side between the antenuula and antenna into a long lobe rounded at 
the end where the eye is situated, and contracted toward tlie base. 
Antennula reaching about to the middle of the fourth segment of the 
peduncle of the antenna; segments of the peduncle equal in length ; 
flagellant scarcely longer than a segment of the peduncle, and composed 
usually of five segments. Antenna a little longer than the body ; third 
segment of the peduncle a little longer than any segment of the peduncle 
of the attennula; fourth segment nearly twice as long as the third ; last 
segment nearly one-half longer than the third; flagellum a little shorter 
than the last segment of the peduncle. Legs much like Kroyer's fig- 
ures of 8. typicusj those of the first pair with the carpus twice as long 
as broad ; propodus slightly narrower and a little longer than the car- 
pus, the posterior edge furnished with long hairs and several stout spines. 
Legs of the second pair much stouter. Posterior caudal stylets with 
the terminal process fully as long as the rarnus itself, the rarnus as broad 
as long, the extremity obtusely rounded and furnished with very long- 
hairs. Telson broader than long, transversely elliptical. 

In the female the antenna? and second pair of legs are more slender 
than in the male. 

In alcoholic specimens the anteunulse are marked with narrow bands 
of black or dark brown upon each segment of the flagellum and at 


both ends of the second .'ind third segments of tlie, peduncle, iind the 
mtenini- are obscurely banded and tinned with a lighter color. 
Length, about (>""". 

It inhabits tubes constructed of grains of sand. 
In deep water off Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's I Jay. 

UNCIOLA IRRORATA Say. Plate IV, fig. 19. (p. 340.) 

Loc. cit., p. 389, 1818 ; StLmpson, Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 45. 

This species grows to a much larger size than described by Say, being 
frequently 15 llim in length. 

New Jersey to the Bay of Fundy, and probably much farther north, 
and from low water to more than 400 fathoms in depth. 

UYPERIA, species, (p. 439.) 

A large species of Hijperia , was several times found upon the large 
red jelly-fish (Cyanea) in Vineyard Sound. The same species is com- 
mon in the Bay of Fundy, but has not been identified with certainty. 

Another species of Hyperia was taken at the surface, in company 
-with Salpa, in Vineyard Sound, early in September. 

PIIRONIMA, species, (p. 439.) 

A species of this peculiar genus was taken at the surface, in company 
with Salpa, off Gay Head, early in September. It is closely allied to 
the P. Atlantica of Gueriu. According to Professor Verrill's notes it 
is, in life, translucent, scarcely tinged with yellowish white, and nearly 
invisible in the water ; the eyes red. 

Another form allied to the last was taken with it, and is possibly the 
male of the same species, but differs from it, and from the characters 
usually assigned to the genus, in possessing well-developed antennulre. 
In life, according to Professor Verrill, it was translucent whitish, the 
body spotted with dark brown, and the eyes blackish. 

THY-ROPUS, species. 

A single specimen of a species of this genus was taken with the Phro- 
n'nua and Salpa, off Gay Head, early in September. 

CAPRELLA GEOMETRIC A Say. Plate V, fig. 20. (p. 480.) 

Loc. cit., p. 390, 1818; Bate, Catalogue Amphip. Crust. British Mns.. p. 357, PI. 
56, fig. 8. 

North Carolina to Vineyard Sound, especially among eel-grass ; very 
abundant in Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, April, 1871. 

OAPRELLA, species, (p. 316.) 

A larger species of Caprella, which is common in the Bay of Fundy, 
was frequently dredged in Vineyard Sound. 

SCYPHAOELLA Smith, gen. nov. 

Near Scyphax, Dana.* Antenna composed of eight distinct segments, 

* U. S. Exploring Expedition, Crust., p. 734, PI. 4ri, fig. 5. 


with a geniculation at the articulation of the fourth with the fifth, seg- 
ment ; terminal portion, corresponding to the flagellum, composed of 
three closely articulated segments, besides a minute apical one; mandi- 
bles slender, without palpi; exposed portion of the maxillipeds formed 
of only two segments; the basal one with a narrow, elongated portion, 
which is abruptly narrowed at the articulation of the terminal segment, 
and sends a slender process beneath it to the middle of its inner margin ; 
the terminal segment much narrower than the basal, and tapering 
toward the extremity; legs subequal, the posterior not shorter than 
the others ; terminal segment of the abdomen produced between the 
posterior caudal appendages, which are short and essentially as in the 
allied genera. 

This genus differs from Scyphax most notably in the form of the max- 
illipeds, which in Scyphax have the terminal segment broad and serrately 
lobed, while in our genus it is elongated, tapering, and has entire mar- 
gins. In Scypkax, also, the posterior pair of thoracic legs are much 
smaller than the others, and weak ; the last segme'nt of the abdomen is 
truncated at the apex, and the articulations between the segments of 
the terminal portion of the antenna) are much more complete than in our 
species. The general form and appearance of the genera are the same,, 
and the known species agree remarkably in habits, the Scyphax, accord- 
ing to Dana, occurring on the beach of Pa rua Harbor, New Zealand, 
and found in the sand by turning it over for the depth of a few inches. 

SCYPHACELLA ARENIGOLA Smith, Sp. 11OV. ([). 337.) 

Body elliptical ; abdomen not abruptly narrower than the thorax ; the 
whole dorsal surface, except the extremity of the abdomen, covered with 
small, depressed tubercles, which give rise to minute spinules; eyes 
prominent, round ; antenna a little longer than the breadth of the body ;. 
first and second segments short, equal; third, fourth, and fifth succes- 
sively longer, the fifth being rather longer than the terminal portion, 
which is more slender than the fifth segment, tapers regularly to the 
tip, and is composed of three successively much shorter segments, and 
a very short, somewhat spiniform, but obtuse, terminal one ; all the seg- 
ments, except the minute terminal one, scatteringly beset with spinules j 
legs beset with small spines ; the ischial, meral, carpal, and propodal 
segments subequal; terminal process of the last segment of the abdo- 
men narrow, triangular, with the apex slightly rounded, and the dorsal 
surface a little concave; posterior caudal appendages much shorter than 
the abdomen; rami slightly unequal, the outer stout, spinulose, the inner 
a little shorter and much more slender. 

Color, in life, nearly white, with chalky white spots and scattered, 
blackish dots arranged irregularly. Eyes black. 

Length, 3-4 mm . 

Found at Somers's and Beesley's Points, on Great Egg Harbor, New 
Jersey, in April, 1871, burrowing in the sand of the beaches, just above 


ordinary high-water mark, in company with several species of 

n'uhv, and will very likely be found on Long Island and the southern <-o;i> ( 

of Ne\v England. 


Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 429, 1818. 

Under rubbish below high-water mark, Connecticut and Xew Jersey. 
SPII^EROMA QUADRIDENTATA Say. Plate Y, fig. 21. (p. 315.) 

Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. i, p. 400, 1818. 

Massachusetts to Florida. 
IDOTEA C^ECA Say. Plate Y, fig. 22. (p. 340.) 

Loc. cit., p. 424, 1818. Gould, luvertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 337, 1841. 

Massachusetts to Florida. 
IDOTEA TUFTSII Stirnpson. (p. 340.) 

Marine luvertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 39, 1853. 

Bay of Fundy and off New London, Connecticut. 
IDOTEA IRRORATA Edwards. Plate Y, fig. 23. (p. 31G.) 

Hist. nat. des Crust., vol. iii, p. 132, 1840. Stenosoma irrorata Say, loc. cit., p. 423, 
1818; Gould, Invertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 338, 1841. 

Bay of Fundy to Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey. 
IDOTEA ROBUSTA Kroyer. Plate Y, fig. 24. (p. 439.) 

Naturhist. Tidssk., 2d R., Bind ii, p. 108, 1846 ; Stimpson, Proceedings Acad. 

Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 1862, p. 133. 
South shore of Long Island to the Arctic Ocean. A pelagic species. 

IDOTEA PHOSPHOREA Harger, sp. nov. (p. 316.) 

Kesembling I. irrorata in size and shape, but easily distinguished 
from that species by the pointed abdomen. 

Antennas less than half the length of the body, antennulre attaining 
the end of the third segment of the antennae. Front slightly excavated 
with the lateral angles salient. Head about twice as broad as long, 
turgid, and usually with a pair of tubercles on the vertex. Eyes placed 
a little before the middle of the lateral margin, hemispherical, black. 
First segment of thorax produced laterally around the back part of the 
head nearly to the eyes, showing no epimeral sutures. Second segment 
much longer on the median line, but shorter at the sides than the first ; 
the epiinera occupy the anterior two-thirds of the lateral margin. Third 
segment slightly longer than the second; the epirnera occupying still 
more of the lateral margin. Fourth segment of about the same length 
as third ; the epimera occupying nearly or quite all the lateral margin. 
The remaining three thoracic segments gradually decrease in size; the 
epimera occupy the whole lateral margin and increase in size poste- 
riorly. The first two abdominal segments are distinct and acute at the 
sides. The third is similar to these at the sides, but is only separated 


from the last by an incision reacting about half way to the median line, 
Last segment entire, ovate behind, and cuspidate. The style on the 
second pair of branchial plates in the male is slender, surpasses the 
laminae, and reaches the middle of the terminal cilia ; it is obliquely 
truncated at the end. 

Many of the specimens, especially the smaller ones, are furnished 
with a row of prominent tubercles along the back, and sometimes with 
lateral rows. 

Length, 10-25 > m ; breadth, 3-7.5 mm . 

Long Island Sound to Bay of Fuudy. 

ERICHSONIA FILIFORMIS Harger. Plate VI, fig. 20. (p. 310.) 

Stenosoma filiformis Say, loc. cit., p. 424, 1818. 

Small, slender, and nearly linear in outline. Antemmlse not quite 
attaining the fourth segment of the antciiiur, which are six-jointed, and 
more than half as long as the body, with the first segment short, second 
and third increasing in length, last three segments about equal; head 
elevated between the eyes, where it is surmounted by a bilid tubercle ; 
first and second thoracic segments with a lateral salient angle behind 
the evident angulated epimera; third and fourth segments with their 
lateral borders emarginate, and the epimera concealed or rarely visible 
from above at the emargination ; last three thoracic segments angulated 
in front of the epimera, which are also angular. This arrangement, 
especially in the smaller specimens, gives the appearance of fourteen 
serrations on each side of the thorax. There is a row of tubercles 
along the median line. Abdominal segments consolidated into a 
single piece, which is furnished with a divergent tooth on each side 
near the base, and is expanded and obtusely triangular at the apex. 
The style on the second pair of branchial plates in the male is strong 
and curved, surpasses the cilia, and is acute and sharply serrate near 
the end. 

Length, 5-9 1 

Vineyard Sound to Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey. 

ERICHSONIA ATTENUATA Harger, sp. nov. Plate VI, fig. 27. (p. 370.) 

Body smooth, narrowly linear in outline. Antennulre slightly sur- 
passing the second segment of the antenna?, which are more than half 
the length of the body, and have the last segment longest. Head exca- 
vated in front; eyes small, black, prominent; first thoracic segment 
short; second, third, and fourth segments about equal in length, twice 
as long as the first; third segment broadest, last three segments gradu- 
ally decreasing in length. Epimera visible from above only in the last 
two or three segments, but the sutures are evident, except in the first 
segment, and their position moves gradually from the anterior portion 
of the segment in the second to the posterior in the seventh segment. 
Abdominal segments consolidated into a single piece, which is slightly 
dilated laterally near the base, and obtusely triangular at the tip. The 



style on the second pair of branchial plates in the male is straight, 
slightly surpasses the cilia, and is acute at the end. 

The color in life is usually uniform dark green, AOin 6 timefl with an 
obscure dorsal stripe of a lighter color. 

Length, 15""". 

Abundant among eel-grass at Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, and 
also found at New Haven, Connecticut. i 

EPELYS TRILOBUS Smith. Plate VI, fig. 28. (p. 370.) 

Idotca triloba Say, loc. cit., p. 425, 1818. 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey to Vineyard Sound. 
EPELYS MONTOSUS Harger. (p. 370.) 

Idotea montosa Stimpson, Marine Invert., Grand Man an, p. 40, 1853. 
Bay of Fundy to Long Island Sound. 

COPIOSA Stimpson. (p. 315.) 

Loc. cit., p. 40, PI. 3, fig-. 29, 1853. J. nivalis Packard, Memoirs Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. i, 296, (non Kroyer.) 

Long Island Sound to Labrador. 
LniNORiA LIGNORUM White. Plate VI, fig. 25. (p. 379.) 

Pop. Hist. Brit. Crust., p. 227, PL 12, fig. 5. Cymothoa lignorum Rathke, Skrivt. 
af Naturli. Selsk., vol. 101, t. 3, f. 14, 1799, (teste Bate and West wood.) Lim- 
noria terebrans Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc., London, vol. xi, p. 371, 1815. Gould, 
Invertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 388, 1841. 

Great Egg Harbor, ~New Jersey, to the Bay of Fundy and Europe. 

NEROCILA MUNDA Harger, sp. nov. (p. 459.) 

Elongated, oval, smooth, and polished. Antenna? and antennula? nearly 
equal in length, about as long as the head. Head flattened, about one- 
third broader than long, slightly narrowing anteriorly, produced and 
broadly rounded in front, subequally trilobed behind, the middle lobe 
largest. Eyes black, consisting of an irregularly rounded patch of 
rather indistinct ocelli visible both above and below. First thoracic 
segment longer than the others, excavated in front for the three lobes 
of the head; epimeral sutures of this segment indistinct, but the 
posterior lateral angles of the segment are somewhat produced and 
broadly rounded. The next three segments have this angle produced 
so as to become a small tooth in the fourth thoracic segment; in the last 
three segments it is much produced, becoming a long acute tooth in the 
seventh. The epimera of the second segment are rounded behind ; the 
remaining epimera are slightly angular behind, becoming more acute 
posteriorly ; those of the second, third, and fourth segments extend 
backward about as far as the segment to which they belong, but in the 
last three segments the produced angles of the segments surpass the 
epimera, so that the angle of the sixth segment nearly attains the end 
of the seventh epimeron. 


The abdomen is composed of six segments, the first five short and 
about equal in length ; the sixth equal in length to the other five, trun- 
cate in front and rounded behind. The spines beneath the abdomen, or 
"abdominal epimera," are acute, the second a little more slender than the 
first, and extending not quite to the posterior angle of the fourth ab- 
dominal segment. The internal plate of the caudal stylets is oval and 
obliquely truncate, shorter than the external, which is narrow, ovate, 
acute behind, extending about half its length beyond the tip of the ab- 
domen and longer than the preceding segment of the stylet. Claws of 
the anterior feet strongly hooked, those of the posterior feet feebly so. 

Color, in alcohol, iSrown, with two narrow dorsal bands of lighter 

Length, 15 mm ; breadth, 7 mm . 

This species is allied to N. bivittata, but differs from that species as 
figured by Milne Edwards, (Atlas du Eegne animal de Cuvier, Crust., 
Plate 66, fig. 5,) in the shortness of three posterior epimera, the 
regularly rounded terminal segment of the abdomen, and the shape of 
the caudal stylets. 

A single specimen was obtained on the dorsal fin of Ceratacanthits au- 

CONILERA CONCHARUM Harger. (p. 450.) 

^Ega concltarum Stimpson, Marine Invert. Grand Manan, p. 42, 1853. 

Vineyard Sound ; Charleston, South Carolina. 
LIVONEOA OVALIS Harger. Plate VI, fig. 29. (p. 457.) 

Cymothoa ovalis Say loc. cit., p. 1594, 1818. 

These animals are usually distorted, and not, as represented in the 
figure, symmetrical on the two sides. 
The specimen figured was taken from a blue-fish near the gill. 

ANTHURA BRUNNEA Harger, sp. nov. (p. 426.) 

Nearly uniform in size throughout, but slightly T narrower anteriorly. 
Antennulre and antenna nearly equal in length, scarcely longer than the 
head. Front projecting between and each side of the bases of the anten- 
nulse into prominent angles. Eyes small and situated in the sides of the 
lateral prominences. Thoracic segments smooth and shining above ; the 
third with a slight semicircular depression on the middle of the anterior 
margin. This depression is still more strongly marked on the three fol- 
lowing segments. First segment slightly longer and narrower than the 
others ; second to fifth about equal ; sixth and seventh considerably 
shorter ; the seventh about three-fourths the length of the sixth; all 
the segments carmated below. Dorsal surface of the basal portion of 
the abdomen similar to the posterior segment of the thorax, showing 
no indication of segments. Terminal portion flat, smooth, and narrowly 
ovate at tip. Appendages of the penultimate segment lamelliform, 
similar in form to the terminal plate but not quite equaling it. First 
pair of feet short and thickened. All the feet slightly hairy. 


In lifewhitisli mottled witli dull, purplish brown above. Eyes black. 
retaining 1 their color in alcohol. Length, 14-15""". 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, and Vineyard Sound. 

ANTIIURA BRACHIATA Stimpson. (p. 511.) 

Marino Iiivortebrata of Grand Manan, p. 43, 1853. 

This species is greatly constricted at the articulations of the second 
thoracic segment, and by that character is easily distinguished from 
A. brunnea. 

Bay of Fundy to Vineyard Sound. 

TANAIS FILUM Stimpson. (p. 381.) 

Marino Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 43, 1853. 

Bay of Fundy to Vineyard Sound. 
GEPON DISTORTUS Leidy. (p. 557.) 

Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. iii, p. 149, PI. 11, figs. 26-32, 1855. 

Branchial cavity of Gelasimus pugilator, Atlantic City, New Jersey. 

The Ostracoda and the minute Copeopoda of our coast have not yet 
been sufficiently studied by any one for us to attempt to enumerate even 
the more common species. 


SAPPHIRINA, species. Plate VII, fig. 33. (p. 439.) 

A beautiful species of this remarkable genus was taken off Gay Head, 
Martha's Vineyard, September 2 and 8. 



Amer. Jour. Sci., 2d series, vol. xlviii, p. 248, 1869 ; Proceedings Amer. Assoc. Adv. 
Sci., vol. xviii, p. 235, tigs. 1 and 2, 1870. 

In tubs of concentrated sea-water at New Haven, Connecticut; Charles- 
town, Massachusetts ; and in salt-vats at Falmouth, Massachusetts. 


ERGASILUS LABRACES Kroyer. (p. 459.) 

Nat. Tidsskrift, 1863-'64, p. 303, PI. 11, fig. 2, (teste Zoological Record for 

According to Kroyer, found upon the striped bass (Roccus lineatus) 
from Baltimore, and liable, therefore, to occur on the coast of New 

ARGULUS CATOSTOMI Dana and Herrick. (p. 459.) 

Amer. Jour. Sci., 1st series, vol. xxx, p. 383, 183C, and vol. xxxi, p. 297, plate, 


Parasitic on the "sucker" (Catostonms) in Mill Eiver, near New 
Haven, Connecticut. 


ARGULUS LATICAUDA Smith, sp. nov. (p. 452,) 

Carapax orbicular, longer than broad; antero-lateral margin with a 
deep sinus from which a deep sulcus extends to the center of the cara- 
pax; sinus of the posterior margin about twice as deep as broad, 
extending a little less than a third of the length of the carapax. Eyes 
large. Body scarcely projecting beyond the posterior margin of the 
carapax. Tail orbicular, slightly longer than broad, its posterior sinus 
narrow, extending scarcely a fourth the length. Antennula 1 and antenna 
much as in A. Catostomi, to which the species bears considerable resem- 
blance. The squamiform appendage upon the base of the prehensile 
legs expands into a broad posterior margin, which is divided into three 
broad, closely approximated lobes, of which the extremities are broad, 
truncated, and slightly and irregularly excavated; the terminal portion 
of the leg is much as in A. Catostomi, the ultimate segment longer than 
the penultimate and armed at the tip with two claws. Natatory legs 
short, the anterior ones not projecting beyond the carapax. 

In alcoholic specimens most of the carapax is opaque and black with 
a thick deposit of pigment. 

Length of entire animal, in the largest specimen, 5 111111 ; length of 
carapax, 3.7; breadth of carapax, 3.2; length of tail, 1.3; breadth of 
tail, 1.1. 

Found among algae in Vineyard Sound. 

A small specimen taken at surface early in September had the opaque 
portions of the carapax dark brown in life, and in alcohol it retains 
about the same color. 

ARGULUS LATUS Smith, sp! nov. (p. 452.) 

Carapax large, orbicular, broader than long; the antero-lateral border 
' with a broad shallow sinus; the sinus of the posterior margin not 
deeper than broad, its depth scarcely more than a fifth of the length of 
the carapax. Body projecting considerably beyond the posterior margin 
of the carapax. Tail a third as long as the carapax, about two-thirds 
as broad as long, the lateral margins slightly curved and nearly parallel, 
the sinus very broad and extending more than a third of the whole 
length. Disks of the sucking legs about a fourth as wide as the carapax. 
Squamiform appendage upon the base of the prehensile legs with a pap- 
pilose area upon the expanded distal portion, the posterior margin 
without teeth or lobes, but the outer margin of the expanded portion 
armed with numerous very small teeth ; ultimate segment longer than the 
penultimate, and apparently without any hooks at the tip. Natatory 
legs all long, even the anterior projecting beyond the sides of the 

Color of alcoholic specimens yellowish white. 

Length, 3.0 mm ; length of carapax, 2.2; breadth of carapax, 2.5 ; length 
of tail, 0,7; breadth of tail, 0.45. 

Taken at the surface, in Vineyard Sound, July 1. 


AiK(JALors Smith, sp. nov. (p. 452.) 

Carapax subelliptical, longer than broad; the antero-lateral margin 
with 11 deep sinus; the posterior lobes of the carapax, each side, of the 
shallow and narrow sinus, broady rounded. Eyes very large, their 
diameter n tenth as great as the breadth of the earn pax. liody pro- 
jecting much beyond the posterior margin of thecarapax. Tail some- 
what ovate, about two-thirds as broad as long, the sinus only a small 
notch, extending not more than a tenth of the length. Natatory legs very 
long, all projecting beyond thecarapax. Squamiforin appendages upon 
the bases of the prehensile legs, with a pappilose area upon the expanded 
portion, and the posterior margin armed with three rather slender 
teeth, separated by broad spaces; the terminal segment of the leg 
armed with two small hooks. 

Color of alcoholic specimens, yellowish white. 

Length, !>.2 mi " ; length of carapax, 1.3; breatlth of carapax, 1.0 ; length 
of tail, 0.7; breadth of tail, 0.47. 

Vineyard Sound, taken at the surface, July 8. 

ARG-ULUS ALOS^; Gould, (p. 459.) 

Invertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 340, 1841. 

Parasitic upon the alewife in Massachusetts Bay, according to Gould. 
OALIGUS CURTUS Miiller. (p. 459.) 

Eutomostraca.p. 130, PI. 21, figs. 1,2, 1785 ; Kroyer, Nat. Tidsskrift, vol. i, p. 619> 
PL 6, tig. 2, 1837. Caligua Miilleri Leach, Encycl. Brit., Suppl., vol. i, p. 405, 
PL 20, figs. 1-8, 1816, (teste Baird et al.;) Baird, British Eutouiostraca, p. 271, 
PL 32, figs. 4, 5. Caligits American us Pickering and Dana, Araer. Jonr. Sci., 
vol. xxxiv, p. 225, PL 3-5, 1838 ; Dana, U. S. Expl. Expd., Crust., PL 93. 

Abundant upon the cod-fish of our coast and of Europe. It is prob- 
ably the Caligus pise in us of Gould and other American writers. 

CALIGUS RAP AX Edwards, (p. 457.) 

Hist. nat. des Crust., tome iii, p. 453, PL 38, fig. 9-12, 1840 ; Baird, op. cit.,p. 270, 
pi. 32, figs. 2, 3; Steeustrup and Liitken, Bidrag til Knndskab om det aabne 
Havs Suyltekrebse og Leruseer, p. 359, PL 2, fig. 4, 1861. 

Vineyard Sound, on the stingray, (Trygon centroura,} and small speci- 
mens, both male and female, taken at the surface at Wood's Hole, Sep- 
tember 3, in the evening. These specimens from the surface, according 
to Professor VerrilPs notes, were light flesh color, thickly speckled with 
minute brown spots, the eyes bright red. 

LEPEOPHTHEIRUS, species, (p. 459.) 

A species with a long tail, and somewhat like the L. graciUn, (Van 
Beuadeu sp.,) was found upon the stingray (Trygon centroum) taken in 
Vineyard Sound. 

LEPEOPIITHEIRUS, species, (p. 459.) 

A species with a very short tail, arid approaching Heller's genus Anu- 
retes. South shore of Long Island, upon a flounder, (Cluvnopxctta ocel- 


The Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer, is found upon the salmon of the 
northern coast of New England. 

ECPITHROGALEUS COLEOPTRATUS Steenstrup and Liitken. (p. 459.) 

Op. cit., 380. Dinematura coleoptrata Guerin, Icnographie du Regne auimal, Crust. 
PL 35, fig. 6. Dinemoura alta Baird, British Entomostraca, p. '285, PI. 33, tigs. 

Vineyard Sound, September 19, from the back fin of the mackerel- 
shark, (Lamna punctata.) It has been found upon the English coast and 
off the Azores. 


Carapax broader than long, with a very slight median emargination 
in the outline of the front. Posterior portion of the body scarcely longer 
and not quite as wide as the carapax. Dorsal plates, or elytra, covering 
much more than half the 'genital segment, their inner and posterior 
margins armed with a regular series of small teeth. The posterior lobes of 
the genital segment somewhat triangular and each terminated by a stout 
spine. Dorsal plate of the tail elongated, obtusely rounded at the ex- 
tremity, and exposed from above by the very broad sinus in the genital 
segment. The tail itself broad, somewhat rectangular, but narrowed dis- 
tally and not projecting behind the dorsal plate ; the terminal lamellae 
nearly as long as the tail, narrow, linear, nearly three times as long as 
broad, and armed at the tip with several set;i i . 

Length, 9 mm ; breadth of carapax, 5.1 ; length of elytra along the inner 
margin, 2.5. 

Vineyard Sound, on Atwood's shark, (Carcharias Aticoodi.) 

?PANDARUS CRANCHII Leach, (p. 459.) 

Diet, des Sci. nat.,tome xiv, p. 535, 1819, (teste Ed wards et al.;) Edwards, Rr>gne 
animal de Cuvier, 3 Iue 6d., Crust., PI. 78, fig. 2 ; Steenstrup and Liitken, op. 
cit., PI. 11, fig. 22. 

A number of specimens of a Pandarm, taken from a dusky shark 
(Eulamia obscura) on the south side of Long Island in 1870, differ only 
very slightly from the figures and descriptions of P. Cranchii quoted 

PANDARTJS, species. Plate VII, fig. 31. (p. 457.) 

Vineyard Sound, on Atwood's shark, (Carcharias Atwoodi.) It is, per- 
haps, only a variety of the last species, but differs considerably from it, 
wanting almost wholly the series of spines upon the posterior margin 
of the carapax, having the caudal appendages shorter and obtuse, besides 
some slight differences in the natatory legs. 

NOGAGUS LATREILLII Leach. Plate VII, fig. 32. (p. 457.) 

Diet. des. Sci. nat., tome xiv, p. 536, 1819, (teste Edwards et al. ;) Regne auimal 
de Cuvier, Crust., PI. 79, fig. 3 ; Hist. nat. des Crust., tome iii, p. 459 ; Steeu- 
strup and Liitken, op. cit., p. 384, PI. 9, fig. 18. 

Vineyard Sound, in company with the last species, on Atwood's shark. 
All the species of Nogagus are males of the allied genera, Pandarus, 


ij c., and are only provisionally retained in ;i ,s-p;i 
group, until it can be determined to which of these genera the difiV-n-nt 
species really belong. This species is probably a Pandarus, and very 
likely the male of the last species. 

Our specimens differ slightly from the figures given by Steonstnip and 
Liitkeu, the dentiform prominences on the sides of the genital segment in 
our specimens being much smaller than represented in their figures, the 
segments of the tail somewhat shorter and broader, and the terminal 
lameHte also shorter and broader, while in other respects they agree well. 
Steenstrup and Llitken's specimens were taken from sharks caught in 
latitude 31 north, longitude 76 west, (in the Gulf Stream, off the South 
Carolina coast,) and in latitude 40 south, longitude 31 west, while 
Leach's came from latitude 1 south, longitude 4 east. 

NOGAGUS TENAX Steenstrup and Lutken. (p. 457.) 

Op. cit., pp. 384, 388, PI. 10, fig. 20, 1861. 

Vineyard Sound, with the last species, upon Atwood's shark. It has 
nearly as extended a range as the last species. 

It is very different from the last species, having the branches of the 
posterior pair of natatory legs each composed of a single segment, and 
the tail also composed of a single segment, which is broader than long, 
and has the short, truncate caudal lamellne attached to its obliquely 
truncated posterior angles. Length, 4.5 ram . 

This species probably belongs to a different genus from the last, and 
is perhaps the male of Eehthrogaleus denticulatus, with which it was asso- 
ciated. Both species of Nogagus, the Pandarus and Eehthrogaleus denticu- 
latus, were, however, all found on the same specimen of the shark, so 
that the association of males and females in one or two instances is not 
very good proof of their identity. 


Loc. cit., p. 436 7 1818. 

This species is apparently, as far as can be judged from Say's descrip- 
tion, allied to P. Mcolor Leach, a European species, which is probably 
not congeneric with the species which we have previously mentioned. 

CEOROPS LATREILLII Leach, (p. 459.) 

Encyl. Brit., Suppl., vol. i, p. 405, PI. 20, 1818, (teste Edwards et al. ;) Edwards, 
Hist. nat. des Crust., tome iii, p. 475; Baird, op. cit., p. 293, PL 34, figs. 1, 2. 
According to Gould, (op. cit., p. 341 ? ) this species has been found upon 
the sun-fish (Orthagoriscus mola) taken on the coast of Massachusetts. 

ANTHOSOMA CRASSUM Steenstrup and Lutken. (p. 460.) 

Op. cit., p. 367, PL 12, fig. 24, 1861. Caligus cmssus Abildgaard, (teste Steeu- 
strup and Lutken,) Naturh. Selsk. Skr., Bind iii, p. 49, pi. 5, [1794 ?] (teste 
Kroyer.) Antliosoma Smithii Leach, Eucycl. Brit., Suppl., vol. i, p. 406, PL 20, 
1816, (teste Edwards et al. ;) Kroyer, Nat. Tidsskrift, vol. i, p. 295, PL 2, tig. 
2, 1836 ; Edwards, Hist. nat. des Crust., tome iii, 493, PL 39, fig. 5 j Regne ani- 
mal de Cuvier, Crust., PL 79, fig. 3 ; Baird, op. cit., p. 299, PL 33, fig. !>. 
According to Gould, (op. cit., p. 341,) Anthosoma Smithii has been 
20 v 


found upon the mackerel- shark (Lamna punctata) taken on the coast of 

LERN^EA BRANCHIALIS Liune. (p. 460.) 

Systema Naturae; Edwards, Hist. iiat. des Crust., tome iii, p. 528; Steenstrup 

and Liitken, op. cit., p. 403, PI. 13, fig. 28. 

Found attached to the gills of the cod in the Bay of Fundy, and, 
undoubtedly, extends as far south as that fish. It is common in North- 
ern Europe. 

PENEKUA PLUMOSA DeKay. (p. 400.) 

Op. cit., p. 60, 1844. 

Found, according to DeKay, upon Diodoii pilosus, and a species of 

ANCHORELLA UNCINATA Nordmaun. (p. 400.) 

Mikrographiscke Beitrage, Heft ii, p. 102, PI. 8, figs. 8-12, PI. 10, figs. 1-5, 1832; 
Band, op. cit., p. 337, PI. 35, fig. 9. La ixnt iiticinaia Miiller, Zoologia Daiiica, 
vol. i, PI. 33, fig. 2, 1788, (teste Nordmanu el al. ;) Van Benaden, Poissons des 
c6tes de Belgique, Mc'moires Acad. Royule Belgique, tome xxxiii, PI. 2, fig. 7, 

Found upon cod-fish taken at Xew London, Connecticut. It is a com- 
mon European species. 

LERNEONEMA RADIATA Stp. and Ltk. Plate VII, fig. 30. (p. 458.) 

Op. cit., p. 400, 1861. Lcnu'octra radltila Lcseur, Journal Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila- 
delphia, vol. iii, p. 288, PI. 11. lig. 1, 1*24. 

At Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, and in Vineyard Sound and Buz- 
zard's Bay, very common upon the menhaden, (Brevooriia Menhaden.) 

LERNEONEMA ?, species, (p. 4CO.) 

A species belonging to this, or a closely-allied genus, was found upon 
a species of Carangus taken in Vineyard Sound. 

According to Gould, (op. cit., p. 341,) Pencil a filosa Cuvier, (Guerin, 
op. cit., Zoophytes, PI. 9. fig. 3; Edwards, Hist. nat. des Crust., tome 
iii, p. 525,) has been found upon Orthayitriscus mola, and might, there- 
fore, occasionally occur south of Cape Cod. The same author also men- 
tions (p. 341) Chondracanthus cornutns Cuvier, (Xortfrnann, op. cit., p. 
Ill, PI. 9, figs. 5-10; Edwards, Hist. nat. des Crust., tome iii, p. 500, PL 
40, figs. 18-22,) and Branchiella Thynnl Cuvier. (Edwards, op. cit,, tome 
iii, p. 512 5 Steenstrup and Liitkeu, op. cit., p. 420, PI. 15, fig. 30,) as 
occurring upon the coast of Massachusetts. 


BALANUS AMPHITRITE Darwin, (p. 381.) 

Monograph of the Cirripedia, pp. 240, 614, PL 5, fig. 2, 1854. 

Found upon the bottoms of ships, but probably does not live long 
after arriving upon our coast. It is found in all the tropical and warmer 
temperate seas. 

Balanus tlntinnabiilum Linue, (Darwin, op. cit., pp. 194, 611, PL 1, 2, 


fig. 1,) occurs with the last species, but has not been noticed living. It 
has about the same range as the B. ainpliitritc. 

BALANUS EBURNEUS Gould, (p. 381.) 

Op. cit., p. 15, PI. 1, fig. 6, 1841, Darwin, op. cit., pp. 248, 614, J'l. fi, fig. 4. 

From Massachusetts Bay to Florida and the West Indies. It sometimes 
occurs in brackish or even fresh water. Professor J. Wyman found U, 
living about 50 miles up the St. John's Kiver, Florida, where the water 
was fresh enough to drink, and the specimens lived well when trans- 
ferred to a vessel of perfectly fresh water. 


Op. cit., pp. 250, 614, PI. 6, fig. 1. 

Darwin gives this species as occurring in England, Nova Scotia, United 
States. West Indies, and South America, so that it undoubtedly occurs 
upon the coast of New England. 

BALANUS CRENATUS Bruguiere. (p. 381.) 

Encyclop. Method., 1798, (teste Darwin ;) Darwin, op. cit., pp.261, 615, PI. 6, fig. 6. 
Balaams rugosus Gould, op. cit., p. 16, PI. 1, fig. 10. 

Dredged abundantly in Vineyard Sound. It ranges from the arctic 
regions of the Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope and the West Indies. 

BALANUS BALANOIDES Stimpson. (p. 305.) 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 39, 1853 ; Darwin, op. cit., pp. 267, 615 
PI. 7, fig. 2. Lepas balanoides Linne", Sy sterna Naturae, 1767, (teste Darwin.) 
Balanus ovularis and elongatus Gould, op. cit., pp. 17, 18, PI. 1, figs. 7, 8. 

Extremely abundant between tides. It inhabits the whole North 

CORONULA DIADEMA De Blaiuville. (p. 460.) 

Diet, des Sci. nat., 1824, (teste, Darwin ;) Gould, op. cit., p. 12; Darwin, op. cit., 
pp. 417, 623, PI. 15, fig. 3, PI. 16, figs. 1, 2, 7. Lepas diadema Linne, Systema 
Nature, 1767, (teste Darwin.) 

Attached to whales taken on the coast, both north and south of Cape 
Cod. It is found throughout the whole North Atlantic. 

LEPAS FASCICULARIS Ellis and Solander. Plate VII, fig. 34. (p. 382.) 

Zoophytes, 1786, (teste Darwin ;) Darwin, op. cit., p. 92, PL 1, fig. 6. 

Found in vast numbers in Vineyard Sound, in June and July, and 
frequently taken in the Bay of Fundy in August. 

LEPAS PECTINATA Spengler. (p. 382.) 

Darwin, op. cit., p. 85, PL 1, fig. 3. Anatifa dentata Gould, op. cit., p. 21, PL 1, fig. 


Attached to ships' bottoms, but probably does not live long after 
arriving on our coast. It lives throughout the warmer parts of the 


LEPAS ANATIFERA Linne. (p. 382.) 

Systema Naturae, 1767, (teste Darwin ;) Darwin, op. cit., p. 73, PI. 1, fig. 1. 

Occurs in the same way as the last species. It is common to the 
Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Mediterranean. 

LEPAS ANSERIFERA Linne. (p. 382.) 

Systema Nature, 1767, (teste Darwin ;) Darwin, op. cit., p. 81, PI. 1, fig. 4. Anallfa 
striata Gould, op. cit., p. 20. 

This species probably occurs in the same way as the last. It has the 
same range. 

CONCHODERMA AURITA Olfers. (p. 392.) 

Darwin, op. cit., p. 141, PI. 3, fig. 4. Lcpas aurita Linu<5, Systema Xatunc, 1767, 
(teste Darwin.) Olion Cnrieri Gould, op. cit., p. 23. 

On ships' bottoms, &c. It ranges through all the seas. 
CONCHODERMA VIRGATA Olfers. (p. 392.) 

Darwin, op. cit., p. 146, PI. 3, fig. 2. Lepas virgata Spongier, 1730, (teste D.irwiu. ) 
Cineras rittata Gould, op. cit.. p. 'J'J. 

Occurs in the same way, and lias the same range as the last species. 

LIMTJLUS POLYPHEMUS Latreille. (p. 340.) 

Hist, des Crust., (teste Edwards,) Hi>t. nat. des Crust., tonic iii, p. 549; Say, loc. 
cit., p. 433; Gould, op. cit., p. 339; Packard, Memoirs Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. ii, p. 155, PI. 3-5, 1872, (on the development ;) A. Milne Edwards, Annales 
desSci. nat., r> scr., tome xvii, nos. 1 et2, Dec., 1872, PI. 5-16, (on tin- anatomy.) 
Monociilus Polyphemus'Lini'it', Systema Xatur.-r ; roll/ pit emu 8 occidentals Lamark, 
Hist, des Anim. sans vert.; De Kay, op. cit., p. 55, PI. 11, fig. 50. Limnlns 
austraUs Say, loc. cit., p. 436. Xiphosnra Polyphemus White, List of Crust, in 
Britisli Mus., p. 121, 1847. 

Casco Bay, on the coast of Maine, to Florida. 




Systema Naturce, ed. xii, vol. i, p. 1084, 1767; Malmgren, Ofvers. af Koug. Yet.- 
Akad. Forhandlingar, 1865, p. 52; Johnston, Catalogue of British Non-Par- 
asitical Worms, p. 101, PI. 9, 1865; Quatrefages, Histoire naturelle des An- 
ne!6s, vol. i, p. 191, 1865. 

Off Gay Head in 15 to 19 fathoms, mud; Bay of Fuudy, 10 to 106 
fathoms, mud; St. George's Bank, 50 fathoms; northward to Labra- 
dor. Northern coasts of Europe to Great Britain and Mediterranean. 

LEPIDONOTUS SQUAMATUS Leach. Plate X, figs. 40, 41. (p. 320.) 

Aplu'odila ^({uamaia Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. (;(;.">; <<!. xii, p. 1084. 
8flKrt//a-S:ivigny, Syst. Annel., 20 (t. Quatr.) ; Quatr., op. cit., p. -Jl -'. . I/>///Y>- 
difa punctata Mull., Zool. Dan. Prod., p. 218 (t. Malingren). Lf]>'nl,- 
miuamatua Malmgren, op. cit., p. 5G; Johnston, op. cit., p. 101), PI. 7, fig. 1. 
Lepidonotc armadillo Leidy, Marino Invert, of Rhode Island and New Jei 
p. 1C, PI. 11, fig. 54. Polynoe dasypus Quatr., op. cit., vol. i, p. 226. 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey; New Haven; Watch Hill, Rhode 
Island; Vineyard Sound, &c. Yery common north of Cape Cod to 
Labrador and Iceland ; northern coasts of Europe ; Great Britain ; 

In the Bay of Fuudy it occurs abundantly from above low-water 
mark to the depth of 80 fathoms. 

LEPIDONOTUS SUBLEVIS Yerrill, sp. nov. Plate X, tig. 42. (p. 320.) 

Body oblong, somewhat narrowed toward each end, entirely covered 
by twelve pairs of large scales, or " elytra,' 7 which, with the exception 
of the first and last pairs, are broad oval, evenly rounded posteriorly, the 
outer lateral edge with a fine fringe 5 the posterior margin smooth. Their 
surface is iridescent and nearly smooth throughout, and destitute of 
tubercles, but has minute rounded granules, aud appears punctate 
under a lens. The scales of the last pair are elongated, with the inner 
edge curved inward, but without a distinct emargination, such as is 
seen in the preceding species. Setre numerous, slender but stiff, 
amber-yellow. Scales usually reddish or greenish brown, finely specked 
with dark brown. Length up to 30 mm ; breadth, 8 mm . 

This species is easily distinguished from the last by its nearly smooth 
scales, the form of the last pair, and the lighter-colored and more 
slender setae. 
Savin Rock, near New Haven ; Vineyard Sound. 

LEPIDONOTUS AUGUSTUS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 494.) 

Body elongated, narrow, of nearly uniform width throughout, convex 
above. Twelve pairs of elytra, which are only slightly imbricated and 
hardly cover the back completely, there being often a narrow naked 
dorsal space, but when the elytra are closely appressed the back is 
nearly covered. The elytra are rather small, regularly oval, except those 
of the terminal pairs; outer edge irregularly fringed ; surface covered 
with small, slightly prominent, roundish granules. Posterior elytra 
with a deep emargination on the inner margin. Head larger and rela- 
tively broader than in L. squamatus, convex, with well-rounded sides, 
eyes larger and farther apart. Antenna rather short. Set;u shorter 
than in either of the preceding species, of nearly uniform length, rather 
rigid, light amber-colored, forming short dense fascicles. Color varia- 
ble; in one specimen the scales were yellowish gray and brownish, 
varied with dark specks, and with a central subcircular or somewhat 
crescent-shaped white spot, surrounded by a circle of dark brown specks, 


which form an irregular dark spot on the inner border of the pale central 

Keefs off Watch Hill, Ehode Island, in 4 or 5 fathoms, among rocks 
and algae. 

HARMOTHOE IMBRICATA Malmgren. (p. 321.) 

Nordiska Hafs-Annulater, op. cit., p. 67, 1865, PI. 9, fig. 8, A-E. Aplirodita imbri- 
cata Linn., Syst. Nat., ed. xii, p. 1084, 1767. Aplirodita cirrata Miiller, Prodi" 
Zool. Dan., No. 2644 (t. Malmgren); Fabricius, Fauna Grcunlaudica, p. 308, PI. 
1, fig. 70. Lepidonote cirrata (Ersted, Gron. Ann. Dorsib., 1843, p. 14, PI. l,figs. 
1, 5, 6, 11, 14, 15; Stimpsou, Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 36, 1853. Polyiwe 
cirrata Sars, Arch. fiir. Naturg., vol. xi, 1845, p. 11, PI. 1, figs. 12-21 (embry- 

New Haven ; Watch Hill, Ehode Island ; Vineyard Sound ; Massa- 
chusetts Bay ; Bay of Fundy and northward to Greenland ; Iceland ; 
and Spitsbergen . Northern coasts of Europe; Scotland. In the Bay 
of Fundy it is common from above low-water mark to 60 fathoms ; in 
Yineyard Sound, from low-water mark to 15 fathoms ; 25 fathoms off 
Buzzard's Bay. 

STHENELAIS PICTA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 348.) 

(!) Sigalion Mathilda Leidy, Marine Invert. Fauna of the Coasts of Rhode Island 
and New Jersey, p. 16, PL 11, f. 53, from Journal Philadelphia Acad., series ii, 
vol. iii, 1855 (non And. and Edw.) (?) Sihcnelais Leidyi Quatr., op. cit., vol. i, 
p. 278 (no description). 

Body depressed, much elongated, nearly uniform in breadth through- 
out; back' con vex; ventral surface flat. The whole dorsal surface is 
closely covered by the imbricated scales, of which there are more than 
150 pairs. These, with the exception of the anterior and posterior pairs, 
are broadly lunate, with a deep emargination in the center of the ante- 
rior edge ; the posterior and lateral margins are broadly rounded ; the 
outer lateral edge is laciuiately fringed; the posterior edge is smooth; 
the whole surface o'f the anterior scales is covered with minute, slightly 
elevated granules ; farther back, the exposed portion of the surface of 
the scales is smooth, and the microscopic granules are restricted to the 
anterior and inner portions. The scales of the anterior pair are oval, and 
have their entire outer and anterior margins minutely but irregularly 

The head is small, rounded, contracted behind the posterior eyes and 
in front of the anterior ones ; the eyes are near together, in a quadran- 
gle ; those in the anterior pair are a little farther apart, and lateral. 
The head is prolonged anteriorly into a narrow elliptical or oval portion, 
which forms the base of the median antennae ; close to and below each 
of the anterior eyes a prominent, membranous, ciliated process arises. 
The feet of the first pair, which are directed forward, are elongated, and 
bear a pair of slender, elongated, dorsal cirri, which are nearly as long 
as the antennae; a much shorter, slender cirrus from the lower lobe, with 
a small, thin, membraneous process below ; and a large fascicle of long, 


Blender set, as loing as the medi;in anlrmiir. Tin- palpi aiv sh-ndi-r, 
longer than tlie antenn;e ; lateral feel prominent, projrrlin;., Ix-yond the 
scales; set;e light yellow. 

Color variable, generally light gray, with a dark brown median <i< 
band, each scale often bordered on the posterior and inner ed.ucs \\illi 
brown, which is connected with a blackish angular spot near the ante- 
rior margin, the rest of the scale being transparent and whitish ; head 
dark brown, with a red central spot and a round whitish spot on each 
side. Length up to 150 mm ; breadth usually about 4 mm . 

Vineyard Sound, low-water mark to 14 fathoms; off Martha's Vine- 
yard, 21 fathoms, sand; off New Haven, 4 to 5 fathoms, shelly. Great 
Egg Harbor (Leidy). 

This species differs considerably in the form of the head, antennae, 
&c., from the figure given by Leidy. His description is insufficient to 
determine whether he observed the same species. 

NEPHTIIYS INGENS Stimpson. Plate XII, figs. 59, 60. (p. 431.) 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Mauan, p. 33, in Smithsonian Contributions, 1853. 

Long Island Sound, off New Haven, 3 to 8 fathoms, mud, common ; 
off Block Island, in 29 fathoms; Bay of Fundy, 10 to 60 fathoms. 

This species is readily distinguished by the form, of the head and 
position of the small antennae; by the large median dorsal papilla on the 
proboscis, and the smaller ventral one; by the very prominent and widely 
separated rami of the posterior feet ; and the dark color of the setae. 
It grows to the length of 130 mm or more. 

NEPHTHYS PICTA Ehlers. Plate XII, fig. 57. (p. 348.) 

Die Borstenwiirmer, vol. i, p. 632, PI. 23, figs. 9, 35, 1868. 

Vineyard Sound, low-water mark to 8 fathoms, muddy and shelly. 
Nahant; Charleston (Ehlers). 

KEPHTHYS BUCERA Ehlers. Plate XII, fig. 58. (p. 416.) 

Die Borstenwiirmer, vol. i, p. 617, PI. 23, fig. 8. 

Vineyard Sound, 8 to 10 fathoms, shelly ; Watch Hill, Rhode Island, 
4 to 5 fathoms, among rocks and saud. Massachusetts Bay (Ehlers). 

This species is remarkable both for the form of the head and the 
length of the setas, which often exceed the diameter of the body. 


Beit rage zur Fauna Norwegens, p. 170, 1843 ; Malmgren, op. cit., p. 104, PI. 
12, figs. 17, A-C, 1865; Quatrefages, op. cit., p. 429 (Nephtya) ; Ehlers, 
Borstenwiirmer, vol. i, p. 629, PI. 23, fig. 36, 1858. Nereis ciliata Muller, Zoolog. 
Dauica, vol. iii, p. 17, PI. 89, figs. 1-4 (t. Ehlers). Nephthys borcalis (Ersted, 
Anuulat. Danicor. consp., p. 32, 1843 (t. Malmgreu). 

Ehlers gives Edgartown as a locality for this species. It is a northern 
form, found at Iceland, Greenland, Spitzbergen, and along the northern 
coasts of Europe and Great Britain. Stimpson records it from the 


Bay of Fundy, in 40 fathoms, mud. It was dredged near St. George's 
Bank in 85, 110, and 150 fathoms, mud, by Dr. A. S. Packard, on the 

EUMIDIA AMERICANA Yen-ill, sp. nov. (p. 494.) 

Body long and slender. Head triangular, subcordate, broad and 
slightly emargiuate posteriori}', the sides rapidly converging, the front 
end narrow and rounded, with four slender antenna?, which are as long 
as the head ; odd median antenna long and slender, tapering, as long as 
or longer than the head. Eyes moderately large, round, convex, near 
the posterior margin of the head. Tentacular cirri long and slender ; 
crowded. Proboscis elongated, subclavate, enlarging to the end, which 
is surrounded by about fourteen triangular papilla? ; the basal two-thirds 
covered with small, slender, prominent papilla 1 , which are not crowded, 
but arranged in longitudinal rows ; this part of the proboscis is, in the 
preserved specimens, longitudinally ridged and transversely wrinkled $ 
the terminal third is nearly smooth, but usually minutely granulous. 
The lateral lamella?, or brauchiie, are ovate-lanceolate, leaf-like, with 
curved tips ; posteriorly they are larger and more acute. Length up to 
50 mm 5 breadth, 1.5 nini . 

Vineyard Sound, 8 to 12 fathoms, among compound ascidians. 

EUMIDIA VIVID A Verrill, sp. nov. 

Head relatively a little longer than in the preceding species, with the 
sides more convex, and the front rounded; antennae long and slender. 
Eyes brownish, very large, about twice as large as in the preceding 
species. Proboscis long, slender, clavate, nearly smooth, but with a 
few minute, distant papillae ; the terminal orifice surrounded by about 
eighteen very small papilliforni deuticulations. Branchiae of the ante- 
rior segments long and narrow lanceolate ; of the middle segments 
ovate. Length up to 45 uim ; breadth, 1.5 mm . 

Vineyard Sound, 8 to 12 fathoms, among ascidians. 

EUMIDIA PAPILLOSA Verrill, sp. nov. 

Head short, rounded, convex, emarginate posteriorly, the sides 
convex; antennae not very slender; median odd one stout, tapering, 
acute, as long as the head. Eyes large; brown. Tentacular cirri 
rather stout, those of the two posterior pairs more than twice as long as 
the others. Proboscis long, clavate, densely covered with short, 
rounded papilla?., and with a circle of minute papilla? at the orifice. 

Length up to 40 mm ; breadth, 2 inm . 

Vineyard Sound, 6 to 10 fathoms, among compound ascidians. 

EULALIA PISTACIA Verrill, sp. nov. 
Body moderately slender, depressed. 

Head convex, shorter than 

broad ; in preserved specimens, sides well rounded, posterior margin 
slightly emarginate; median odd antenna small, slender, considerably 


shorter than the head. Eyes large, brown. Tentacular cirri modcr 
ately long; the four posterior ones considerably longer than the others. 
Branchiae narrow lanceolate anteriorly; ovate and leaf-like on the middle 
segments; longer and lanceolate posteriorly. Proboscis long, more or 
less clavate, smooth, but often showing longitudinal striations, and 
sometimes with a few very minute scattered papillae toward the end ; 
the orifice surrounded by a circle of numerous minute papilla. Color 
bright yellowish green (epidote-green or pistachio-green), often with 
obscure darker markings posteriorly, and at the base of the append- 
ages. Length up to 40 rmu ; breadth, 1.5 mm . 

Vineyard Sound, G to 12 fathoms, among compound ascidians ; off New 
Haven, 4 to 5 fathoms, among hydroids. 

EULALIA GRANULOSA Verrill, sp. nov. 

Body not very slender, considerably stouter than in the preceding- 
species, and less tapering anteriorly. Head short cordate, decidedly 
emarginate behind, broader than long; sides prominently rounded; 
front small, rounded. Antenre short; odd one slender, originating 
between the eyes, more than half the length of the head. Eyes large, 
round, convex, dark brown. Proboscis long, clavate, thickly covered 
throughout with round, scarcely prominent, crowded, rather large 
granules, each of which has a dark central spot ; orifice surrounded by 
a circle of small papilla. Tentacular cirri slender, acute, the two poste- 
rior pairs long, reaching the eighth segment. Lateral appendages 
large and prominent for the genus. Branchire of upper ramus rather 
large, ovate, leaf-like anteriorly; larger and obliquely ovate, with 
acuminate tips, farther back ; branchiae of lower ramus similar in form 
and nearly as large. Color bright grass-green. Length 55 mm , or more; 
breadth, 2 mm ; length of proboscis, 6 mm . 

Off New Haven, 4 to 5 fathoms, among hydroids. 

EULALIA ANNULATA Verrill, sp. nov. 

Body moderately slender, convex, tapering to both ends. Head 
longer than broad, somewhat oblong, truncate behind, the sides but 
little convex, narrowing but little to the obtusely rounded front. Pro- 
boscis covered with small prominent papilla?. Eyes two, large, dark 
brown or blackish, rather near together. Odd median antenna slender, 
more than half as long as the head, placed far in advance of the eyes; 
frontal antennae rather large, about the same in length, but much 
stouter than the median one, with slender tips. Tentacular cirri very 
unequal, the two upper pairs much longer than the others, not very 
slender, reaching to the seventh or eighth segment in preserved speci- 
mens; the two lower pairs not more than one-third as long. Dorsal 
branchiaB narrow and acute throughout ; the anterior ones are narrow 
lanceolate, with subacute tips; those farther back become still more 
elongated, narrow lanceolate, or almost linear lanceolate, with acuminate 


tips, and in length equHl to half the diameter of the body ; posteriorly 
they become somewhat wider, with acute, curved tips. Caudal cirri 
small, narrow lanceolate, about as long as the posterior lateral lamella?, 
or branchiae. Color of preserved specimens pale greenish or bluish 
gray, with narrow aunulations of golden brown, and iridescent. Length 
50 mm , or more ; breadth about 1.25 mni . 

Vineyard Sound, 4 to 12 fathoms, among ascidians. 

EULALIA GRACILIS Verrill, sp. nov. 

Body very long and slender, with the segments deeply incised ; pos- 
terior segments elongated. Head small, elongated, truncate behind ; 
posterior angles not prominent, oblong, tapering but little toward the 
front, which is obtusely rounded ; sides not swollen. Eyes of moderate 
size, brown, situated close to the posterior margin of the head. The 
four frontal .antennae are more than half as large as the head, rather 
stout, tapering, and the head is slightly constricted behind them ; odd 
median one, small, slender, inconspicuous, about one-third thelengthof 
the head, placed considerably in advance of the eyes. Tentacular cirri 
rather stout, the two upper ones longest, rather more than twice as long 
as the head ; the posterior pair, when extended backward, reaches the 
fifth setigerous segment in preserved specimens ; the two lower ones 
are considerably stouter and smaller, nearly equal, and are somewhat 
longer than the head in alcoholic specimens. Branchiae of the anterior 
segments short, oval, obtuse at the tip ; posteriorly larger, elongated 
oval, leaf-like. Color light greenish brown or olive, with a row of dark 
brown spots along each side of the dorsal surface of the body. 

Length up to C5 mm ; breadth about l mm . 

Vineyard Sound, 6 to 14 fathoms, among ascidiaus and hydroids. 

This species is very active in its motions. In general appearance it 
resembles certain species of Phyllodoce, for which it might easily be 
mistaken, owing to the small size and translucency of the odd median 
antenna, which is not easily observed, especially with living specimens. 
The position of the tentacular cirri is, however, sufficient to distinguish 
the genus from Phyllodoce and Eumidla. The form of the head is quite 
peculiar, but somewhat resembles that of Phyllodoce gracllis, and also 
the preceding species. 

One specimen of the Eulalia graciUs was found in which fissiparity 
was apparently about to take place. In this, one of the segments was 
larger than the rest, and had developed a distinct pair of eyes. The 
specimen unfortunately died before the separation took place. 

PHYLLODOCE GRACILIS Verrill, sp. uov. PL XI, fig. 56. (p. 491.) 

(?) Phyllodoce maculata A. Agassiz, Annals Lyceum New York, vol. viii, p. 333, 
fig. 53, 1866 (non Miiller, nee (Ersted). 

Body very long and slender. Head longer than broad, decidedly 
cordate behind, with the posterior angles well rounded ; the sides swell- 


ing out opposite the eyes, then narrowing to near the antenn:i-, where 
there is a slight constriction, ami expanding slightly at the end, which 
is obtusely rounded. Eyes very large, brown, wide apart, and sub-lateral, 
connected by a curved band of brown specks; anteniue rather large and 
long, about one-third as long as the head. Tentacular cirri large, t lie two 
posterior much the longest, reaching to about the eighth setigerous seg- 
ment. Branchiae of anterior segments broad oval or sub-circular, rounded 
at the end ; posterior ones larger, broad oval, narrowed to the end. Pro- 
boscis with a large, swollen, basal portion, on which are twelve longi- 
tudinal rows of large, prominent, obtuse papilla?, about seven in each 
row ; and a terminal smooth portion, which is somewhat longer, and 
about as broad at the end as the basal portion, but considerably narrower 
at its commencement; the orifice is surrounded by a circle of large, 
rounded papillae. Color greenish, with a median dorsal row of dark 
brown spots, and another less conspicuous row along each side of the 
back, at the base of the lateral appendages. 

Length up to 75 mni ; breadth, 1 to 1.25 mm . 

Watch Hill, Ehode Island, in 4 or 5 fathoms, rocky bottom. 

The figure (56) copied from one of those given by Mr. Agassiz does 
not agree perfectly with the specimens described, but probably represents 
the same species. The head, as figured, is more oblong and the eyes 
nearer together than in my specimens; the tentacular cirri are less 
crowded. The anterior ones, in the preserved specimens at least, appear 
to arise from beneath the base of the head. Some of these differences 
may be due to the different states of extension and contraction ; for the 
species in this family are all quite changeable in form during life, and 
usually contract very much in alcohol. 

PHYLLODOCE CATENULA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 494.) 

Head somewhat longer than broad, slightly cordate posteriorly, with 
the posterior angles well rounded, and the sides full and convex ; front 
broadly rounded, and with a slight emargination in the middle. Eyes 
large, dark brown, placed on the dorsal surface of the head; antennae 
rather long, slender. Tentacular cirri long and slender, the two posterior 
much longer than the others. Branchiae of anterior segments broad 
ovate, with rounded tips ; farther back larger and longer, ovate, leaf-like, 
with acuminate tips. Proboscis with twelve rows of papillae on the 
basal portion, which are prominent, somewhat elongated, obtuse, seven 
or eight in the lateral rows, those in each row close together. Color of 
body and branchiae pale green, with a median dorsal row of dark brown 
spots, one to each segment; and two lateral rows, in which there is a 
spot at the base of each " foot ;" head pale, or greenish white. 

Length up to 75 mni ; breadth about 1.5 mm . 

Watch Hill, Rhode Island, in 4 to 6 fathoms, among rocks and alga', 
and in tide-pools; Wood's Hole, at surface, evening, July 3. Very 
common in the Bay of Fundy, from low-water to 50 fathoms. 


This species is closely allied to P. pulchella Malmgreu, from Northern 
Europe, but differs somewhat in the form of the head, which is shorter 
and rounder in the latter ; the branchiae also differ in form. It is a very 
active species, and secretes a large quantity of mucus. 

ETEONE ROBUST A Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 488.) 

Body large, stout, depressed, broadest in the middle, tapering gradu- 
ally to each end. Head small, about as long as wide, convex, with a me- 
dian depression j the sides rounded 5 front obtusely rounded. The four 
frontal antennae are very small, short, obtuse, less than half the diameter 
of the head. Eyes very small, black. Tentacles very small and short? 
tapering, their length about one-half the diameter of the head, the two 
pairs about equal. Branchiae small, sessile, anteriorly very small, oval, 
obtuse ; in the middle region rounded, sub-oval. Color dark green, with 
the anterior portion somewhat paler, and with light green transverse 
bands between the segments; lateral appendages pale green. 

Length, 125 mm ; breadth in middle, 5 11 " 11 ; length of head, O.G inm . 

Watch Hill, Rhode Island, under stones, between tides, April 12, 1873. 

ETEONE LIMICOLA Yerrill, sp. nov. (p. 349.) 

Body very long and slender, tapering gradually to both ends; depressed, 
and with deeply incised, elongated segments posteriorly} less depressed 
and with shorter and less distinct segments anteriorly. Head small, 
about as broad as long, the posterior angles well rounded, the sides with 
a slight constriction in advance of the eyes, narrowing rapidly ; front 
narrow, convex ; antennae slender, about half the length of the head. 
Eyes minute, inconspicuous. Tentacular cirri about equal to the length 
of the head. Lateral appendages small on the anterior segments, becom- 
ing much more prominent farther back; anterior branchiae very small, 
ovate, sessile; those farther back much larger, and narrow ovate. 
Color, when living, light green throughout. 

Length about S0 mm ; breadth, including appendages, 1.5" mi . 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, in mud at low-water. 

ETEONE SETOSA Verrill, sp. nov. 

Body long and slender, resembling the preceding in form, but some- 
what less slender. Head shorter and broader, the posterior angles 
prominently rounded; two slight notches or emarginations on the 
posterior margin, the middle portion extending farther back than the 
lateral; sides rapidly tapering; front narrow. Antennae less than half 
the length of the head. Eyes small, but quite distinct. Tentacular 
cirri scarcely as long as the head. Lateral appendages a little promi- 
nent on the anterior segments, but much less so than farther back ; setae 
numerous. The branchiae are small, sessile, and inconspicuous anteriorly; 
larger and ovate farther back. 

Length up to 75 mm ; breadth about 2 mm . 

Vineyard Sound, 6 to 12 fathoms, among ascidians. 


ETEONE, species undetermined. 

A small arid slender species was dredged off Gay Head, in 1!) fathoms, 
soft mud. 

Another very peculiar species of Eteone was obtained at Great I 
Harbor, !N"ew Jersey. In this the head is depressed and elongated, 
tapering, with short antennae The anterior part of the body is round 
and with the lateral appendages very small, closely appressed, and not 
at all prominent, giving to this part of the body a smooth appearance; 
on this part of the body the branchia3 are very small, lunate, sessile, 
closely appressed; farther back they become much larger, and rounded 
or ovate, while the setigerous lobe becomes prominent, and the set a- 
much longer and more numerous. 

PODARKE OBSCURA Yerrill, sp. nov. PI. XII, fig. Cl. (p. 319.) 

Body convex above, flat below, with the segments deeply incised at 
the sides, moderately slender in full extension, but capable of great con- 
traction, tapering gradually to the caudal extremity, and less toward the 
head. Head small, broader than long, emarginate in front, sides forming 
rounded angles; posterior margin nearly straight. Antenna? five, sub- 
equal, the outer pair articulated upon a short, thick basal segment; the 
odd median one is somewhat shorter, articulated upon a small basal 
segment, which arises in front of the anterior pair of eyes. Tentacular 
cirri long, slender, six on each side, two arising from each of the first 
three anuulations, on each side; those on the middle are longest, those 
on the first shortest. Eyes four, small, red; those on each side close 
together, but those of the anterior pair are farthest apart. Proboscis 
with a large, swollen basal portion, and a smaller cylindrical terminal 
portion, the surface nearly smooth. Lateral appendages, or "feet," 
elongated, biramous. The upper branch is short, conical, bearing 
at its extremity a long, slender dorsal cirrus, nearly as long as the 
breadth of the body, or even exceeding it, and having a short basal 
' joint; the seta? of the upper ramus are very few and small. The lower 
branch is much larger and longer, thick at base, tapering somewhat to 
the obtuse end, from which a small, terminal, obtuse, papilliform process 
arises; the short, acute, ventral cirrus arises from about the terminal 
third, and is less than half as long as the dorsal cirrus ; the seta3 are 
numerous and long, forming a broad, fan-shaped fascicle, in which the 
middle setre are considerably longer than the upper and lower ones, and 
in length about equal to the setigerous lobe ; these setre are all compound, 
the middle ones having a very long, slender, acute terminal joint, and 
the shorter ones beneath having a much shorter terminal joint. Last 
segment small, rounded, bearing two long, slender anal cirri, much longer 
than the dorsal cirri. Color variable, most commonly very dark brown 
or blackish ; sometimes dark brown with transverse bands of light flesh- 
color between the segments, and two intermediate transverse whitish 
lines on each segment. 


Length up to 40 mm when extended 5 breadth, including setae, 3 mm . 

Wood's Hole, among eel-grass and at the surface, very abundant, 
especially at night, in July and August ; also under stones, between 

AUTOLYTUS CORNUTUS A. Agassiz. PL XIII, figs. 65, G6. (p. 397.) 
Journal Boston Society of Natural History, vol. vii, p. 392, Plates 9-11, 1863. 
Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey; New Haven; Watch Hill; Vineyard 
Sound ; Massachusetts Bay ; Eastport, Maine. Low-water mark to 15 

AUTOLYTUS, species undetermined, (p. 398.) 
Off New Haven, 4 to 6 fathoms, shelly, among hydroids. 

AUTOLYTUS, species undetermined. 

Females, filled with eggs, of a large species of this genus were taken 
at the surface of Vineyard Sound, April 30, by Mr. V. N. Edwards. 
These were about 40 m in length, as preserved in alcohol, and rather 
stout, tapering to each end. The head is small, short, rounded in front. 
The eyes are small, and the two pairs are near together. The odd 
median antenna is more than twice as long as the breadth of the head; 
the lateral ones are about half as long : the first six setigerous segments 
have short set*; the following ones have a fascicle of long, slender ones, 
equal to the breadth of the body. 

SYLLIS, species undetermined, (p. 453.) 

A single specimen from Vineyard Sound. Tbe body is about 12 Tlim 
long; the antennre are not very long; the palpi short; the dorsal cirri 
are rather long, and, like the antenna', regularly beaded ; the ventral 
cirri are small, tapering; the seta 1 are numerous, rather short. 

GATTIOLA, species undetermined, (p. 453.) 

Young specimens were taken several times in Vineyard Sound, at the . 
surface. Adult specimens of a fine species of this genus were dredged 
in the Bay of Eundy in 1872, in 80 fathoms. 

NEREIS VIRENS Sars. PI. XI, figs. 47-50. (p. 317.) 

Beskrivelser og lakttagelser, etc., p. 58, PL 10, fig. 27, a, b, c, 1835 (t. Maluign>n). 
Nereis grandis Stirnpson, Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 34, fig. 24, l~ 
Nereis Yankiana Quatrefages, Hist, des Anneles, i, p. 553, PI. 17, figs. ?. ^ 
1865; Alitta virens Malmgren, op. cit., p. 183; Aunulata polychwta, p. 56, PI. 
3, figs. 19, A-E, 1867. 

New Haven, at low water; Watch Hill ; Vineyard Sound ; Massachu- 
setts Bay; Eastport, Maine; northward to Labrador. Northern coasts 
of Europe to Great Britain. 

NEREIS LIMBATA Ehlers. PI. XI, fig. 51. (p. 318.) 

Die Borstenwiirmer, vol. i. p. 567, 1868. 

Charleston, South Carolina, to Massachusetts Bay; half-tide mark to 
4 to 6 fathoms in Long Island Sound. 


NERELS PELAGICA Linn. PI. XI, figs. 52-55. (p. 319.) 

Svstema nature, ed. x, p. 654 ; ed. xii, p. 1086; Malmgren, Annnlata poly. 
]>. 47, I'l. 5, tigs. :;r>, A-D. 1W57; Ehlm-H, op. cit., p. 511, I'l. 20, ii.<. 1 ]-:jo, 1868. 
HeUroncmn <jrandifolia Malmgren, Nordiska Hafs-Annulater, p. 108, PI. 11, 
15, 1(5, 15, B', C ; Ann. polychxta, p. CO, PI. 5, figs. 31, A-D; Ucteronereis a, 
(Erstcd, Gro'iiland's Annul, dorsibr., p. 27, PI. 4, figs. 50*, 51, 60, PI. 5, fi^s. 
70*, male (t. Ehlers) ; Heteroncreis assimUiv (Ersted, op. cit., p. 28, PI. 4, 
54, 61, PI. 5, fig. 72, female (t. Elilers). 

Off New Haven ; Watch Hill; Vineyard Sound ; northward to Labra- 
dor. Greenland ; Iceland ; Spitsbergen ; northern coasts of Europe to 
Great Britain. In the Bay of Fundy from low-water mark to 106 
fathoms, common. 

NEREIS FUG ATA Aud. and Edwards, (p. 404.) 

Histoire nat. litt. de la France, vol. ii, p. 188 (teste Malmgreu) ; Lycoris fucala 
Savigny, Syst. des Anndlides, p. 31, 1820 (t. Ehlers) ; Descr. de PE"gypte, e"d. 
2, xxi, p. 357 (t. Malmgren) ; Ncreilepas fucata Malmgren, Anuulata polycha-ta, 
]>. 53, PI. 3, figs. 18-18 E; Johnston, Catalogue, p. 158, fig. 30, 1865. Hetero- 
ncreis glaucopis Malmgren, Nordiska Hafs-Annulater, Ofvers. af Kongl. Vet. 
Akad. Forh., 1865, p. 181, PI. 11, figs. 16, 16 A; Annulata polycha-ta, p. 60, PI. 
4, figs. 26, 27, 1867. Nereis fucata Ehlers, Borstemviirmer, vol. i, p. 546, PL 21, 
figs. 41-44. 

A specimen was dredged at Watch Hill, Rhode Island, in 4 to 6 fath- 
oms, among rocks and algae, which agrees well with Malmgren's descrip- 
tion and figure of Heteronereis glaucopis. Ehlers regards the latter as 
the heterouereis-form of N. fucata. 

NEREIS, species undetermined. 

Head sub-conical ; antennae small, slender ; palpi small, shorter, and 
thicker; two upper pairs of tentacular cirri moderately elongated, sub- 
equal, lower ones very small. Posterior eyes elongated and on the upper 
side of the head; anterior pair small, lateral. Feet terminated by four 
small papillae; dorsal and ventral cirri small, slender. 

The only specimen observed is preserved in alcohol ; it is a female 
filled with eggs. Vineyard Sound, G to 8 fathoms. 

NECTONEREIS Verrill, genus nov. 

Head prominent, depressed, oval, rounded in front, bearing two pairs 
of large eyes on the upper and lateral surfaces, and a pair of small 
antennae beneath; palpi small or rudimentary. Tentacular cirri four on 
each side, as in Nereis. Proboscis small, similar to that of Nereis, but 
more simple; furnished with a pair of terminal hooks ; with two anterior 
clusters of denticles on the upper side, and with five small clusters be- 
low, in a ring extending nearly half-way around it. Anterior part of 
body fusiform, consisting of about fourteen segments, on which the feet 
are divided. into small, rounded lobes, with small ventral cirri; and with 
long dorsal cirri, those on the first seven segments swollen and gibbous 
toward the end, with a small acute terminal portion. Posterior part of 


the body composed of numerous short segments, on which the feet are 
furnished with lamelliforrn appendages. 

This remarkable annelid bears some resemblance, in the structure of 
the body and " feet,' 7 to Heteronereis, and there is probably another form 
to which it bears the same relation that Reteronereis bears to Nereis ; but 
the structure of the head is very unlike that of any known genus, and, 
indeed, would not allow it to be placed in the family of Nereidcc without 
modifying the family-characters. There are are no large palpi, corre- 
sponding to those of Nereis, and nothing to represent them, unless two 
small lobes close to the mouth be considered rudimentary palpi. 

KEOTONEREIS MEGALOPS Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XII, figs. 62, G3. (p. 


Body slender, consisting of two parts; the anterior portion, contain- 
ing fourteen setigerous segments, is broadest in the middle, tapering 
both ways, and separated from the posterior portion by a distinct con- 
striction ; the posterior portion is much longer and more slender, taper- 
ing gradually to the end, and consists of very numerous short segments, 
which are furnished with complex lateral appendages, with thin lamella? 
and compound bladed seta). Head broad oval, somewhat convex, and 
very smooth above ; the lateral margins a little convex ; the front 
obtusely rounded. Eyes very large, convex ; the anterior ones largest, 
lateral and partially dorsal, oval ; in contact with the posterior ones, 
which are somewhat smaller and more dorsal. T\vo small decurved 
antenna?, with swollen bases, are on the ventral side of the head ; two 
small, rounded processes in front of the mouth. Tentacular cirri 
slender, the upper pair much the longest; the rather short lower pair 
arising near the mouth; the two intermediate pairs arise behind and 
close to the anterior eyes ; all are slightly aunulated. The "feet " on the 
first seven segments have a large dorsal cirrus, increasing in length 
from the first to the seventh, narrow at base, swollen and gibbous 
toward the end, with a slender, oblique, terminal portion ; on the seven 
following segments the dorsal cirri are smaller, slender, tapering; 
the ventral cirri are small, with swollen bases on the first five seg- 
ments, slender and tapering on the rest ; the intermediate lobes of the 
feet are small and rounded, but more elongated on the first five seg- 
ments. Seta? of different forms, many of them with a slender, often 
curved, acute terminal piece. 

The lateral appendages of the posterior region have, on the upper 
rainus, a long, slender dorsal cirrus, strongly creuulate-lobed on the 
lower side; a small, rounded lamelliform process above its base; and a 
long, lanceolate process arising just below it, and in length equaling 
the cirrus ; an ovate setigerous lobe, bearing a broad fan-shaped fascicle 
of compound setae, extending about to the end of the dorsal cirrus ; 
and a lower ovate-lanceolate lamelliform process, with the base expanded 
and extending backward, the tip reaching to about the outer third of 


the cirrus; a. single strong blade spino snp]>orts tli<> sctigerous loin-. 
The lower minus has a rounded sctigerous lobe, and a large bwadly- 
ronnded laraellifbrtft process, nearly as long as the longest one of the 
npper ramus and mtiol) broader; the setigerous lobe bears a broad fan- 
shaped fascicle of compound setre, similar to those of the up])er ramus, 
but a little shorter, and a single black basal spine; the ventral cirrus 
is slender, and there is a broad, rounded ventral lamella at its base. 
The setae are rather stout, with a broad, thin, blade-like, terminal piece, 
which is generally lanceolate, with a rounded point, and often some- 
what curved, but more commonly straight. A few setae have a slender 
acute terminal piece. Anal segment with numerous small slender papil- 
liform processes on each side, forming a circle. 

Length up to 35 mm ; breadth about 2.5 mm . 

Vineyard Sound, swimming actively at the surface, both in the even- 
ing and in the brightest sunshine, in the middle of the day ; July 3 to 
August 11. 

DIOPATRA CUPREA Claparede. Plate XIII, figs. 67, 08. (p. 346.) 

Annelides clidtopodes du golfe de Naples, in Memoires de la Soci6t6 de Physiques 
et d'Hist. Nat. de Geneve, vol. xix, p. 432, 1888. Nereis cuprea Bosc, Hist. nat. 
des Vers, vol. i, p. 143 (t. Claparede). 

Charleston, South Carolina, to Long Island Sound and Vineyard 

MARPHYSA LETDYI Quatrefages. Plate XII, fig. 64. (p. 319.) 

Histoire nat. des Annel6s, vol. i, p. 337, 1865 (M. Leidii}. Eunice sanguined 
Leidy, Mar. Inv. Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 15, 1855 (non 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to Long Island Sound and Vineyard 
Sound. Low-water mark to 10 fathoms. 

LYCIDICE AMERICANA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body depressed, slender, narrowed toward each end; segments well- 
marked. Head much depressed, oblong, narrowed somewhat toward 
the front, which is truncate and somewhat emarginate in the middle ; 
lower side bilobed, the lobes well rounded. The two eyes are lateral, 
just outside the bases of the lateral antennae. The three antennae are 
subequal, nearly as long as the diameter of the head; the odd median 
one is apparently a little longer than the lateral, and placed slightly 
farther back. The dorsal cirri are long and slender, exceeding the 
diameter of the body in living specimens; they have a small lobe near 
the base. Anal cirri four ; the two lower exceeding the diameter of the 
body; the two upper ones less than half as long. Color light red, with 
a bright red dorsal vessel and dark brown intestines, showing through in 
the middle ; eyes dark red. 

Length, while living, about 40 rara ; greatest diameter, 1.5 min . 

Off Gay Head, in 19 fathoms, soft mud. 
21 v 


NEMATONEREIS, species un deter mined, (p. 508.) 

A species, apparently belonging to this genus, was dredged in 29 
fathoms, east of Block Island. The specimens have been lost or mis- 
laid. In life the head was small, rounded, with one median dorsal 
antenna, about as long as the diameter of the head. Eyes two, small 
but conspicuous, dark brown. Dorsal cirri slender. 


Conspec. Arm. Dan., p. 15, figs. 1, 2, 1843 (t. Malragren). Lnmbricus frcKjili* 
Miiller, Prod. Zool. Dan., p. 216; Zool. Dan., vol. i, p. 22, PI. 22, figs. 1-3, 1788, 
(t. Malmgren). Lnmbrinereis fragills Malmgren, Annulata polycLupta, p. 63, 
PI. 14, figs. 83-83, D. 

Mouth of Vineyard Sound and deeper waters outside ; northward to 
Nova Scotia and Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Northern coasts of Europe. 
From low-water mark, in the Bay of Fundy, to 430 fathoms, off Saint 
George's Bank. 

LUMBRICONEREIS OPALiNA Yerrill, sp. nov. Plate XIII, figs. 69, 70. (p. 

Lumbriconereis sirtcndifla Leidy., op. cit., p. 15 (non Blaiuvillc). 

Body cylindrical, much elongated, largest in the middle, tapering 
gradually toward the head, which is comparatively small; segments 
well marked. Head conoidal, obtuse, changing much in form during 
life; in extension considerably longer than broad, and more acute than 
in the figure. Eyes four, in a transverse row, the two middle ones 
larger and a little in advance of the others. The lateral appendages, or 
4 ' feet," consist of a short, obtusely-rounded basal papilla, which bears 
the seta3 ; from the posterior and ventral end of this a prominent elon- 
gated lobe arises, which is somewhot curved and obtuse. These appen- 
dages are longer in the middle of the body than anteriorly. Setre five to 
nine in each fascicle, and of several forms ; one or two in each fascicle 
usually have a long, slender, flexible capillary point. Color reddish or 
brownish, with brilliant iridescence. 

Length up to 400 mm ; diameter in middle, 3 mm . 

New Haven to Vineyard Sound ; low-water mark to 14 fathoms. 

LUMBRICONEREIS TENTHS Yerrill, sp. nov. (p. 342.) 

Body very long, slender, filiform, of nearly uniform diameter through- 
out, capable of great extension ; segments very numerous, well marked. 
Head a little narrower than buccal segment, depressed, obtusely pointed 
or rounded in front, without eyes. In the first to ninth pairs the late- 
ral appendages have about six slender lanceolate seta3j those of the ninth 
pair have two slender spatulate sets&, with about six or seven lanceolate 
ones ; at the sixteenth pair they begin to have recurved spatulate seta3, 
with two or three hook-like denticles at the end, while two or three 
lanceolate ones remain; posterior to the twenty-third or twenty-fourth 
pair only one of the long, slender, acute set3 remains, accompanied by 


two or three of the spatulato hooks; the hitter are about In It' as long MS 
the former, slender toward the base, but gradually beeoming broader 
toward the end, which is twice as broad, obtusely rounded, and 
curved back from about the middle ; the hooks are nearly terminal on 
one side, the thin margin projecting beyond them. The basal lobe of 
the "feet" is very small; the posterior lobe is small but prominent. 
Color light red to dark red, somewhat iridescent. 

Length up to 350'; diameter, 0.05 mm to l mm . 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to New Haven and Vineyard Sound. 

NINOE NIORIPES Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body elongated, slender, broadest a short distance behind the head, 
at the middle of the branchiferous segments. Head depressed, elongated, 
conical, blunt at end, about twice as long as broad. The branchiae are 
represented on the first two setigerous segments by a short, flattened 
lobe, arising from the outer and posterior face of the setigerous lobe. 
On the two following segments the lobe is divided into two or three 
parts; on the fifth there are usually three, more elongated, round, and 
more slender branchiae, which increase in number and length on the suc- 
ceeding segments until there are five, six, or more long, slender branchial 
filaments, which arise from the posterior face of the setigerous lobe, and 
diverge, forming a somewhat fan-shaped or digitate group; about the 
twenty-fourth segment the number rapidly diminishes, and after the 
twenty-seventh or twenty-eighth there remains but one small branchial 
process. The setigerous lobe is prominent, obtuse, turned forward. The 
seta? are numerous on the branchial segments, and rather long, of various 
shapes, but mostly bent, with an acute lanceolate point ; posteriorly they 
are shorter and fewer, and mostly slender, margined seta3, with hooks at 
the spatulate end. Body flesh-color ; the seta3 dark, often blackish ; 
branchiaB bright red. 

Length of broken specimens, 20 mm ; breadth anteriorly, 2 mm . 

Vineyard Sound and Buzzard's Bay, and waters outside ; in 8 to 29 
fathoms, mud. 

STAUROCEPHALTJS PALLIDUS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 348.) 

Body rather slender, convex above, flattened below, largest in the 
middle, tapering slightly toward each end, composed of about seventy seg- 
ments. Head small, depressed, rounded in front; antenna four, slen- 
der, longer than the breadth of body, the two upper ones longer and more 
slender than the lower ones, strongly anriulated or beaded; lower ones 
stouter, smooth, tapering. Eyes four, dark red; the posterior pair very 
small, placed between the bases of the upper antenna^ the anterior pair 
farther apart, placed between the bases of the upper and lower antennae. 
Anal cirri four, the upper pair slender and about twice as long as the lower 
ones. Dorsal cirri elongated, slender, more than twice as long as the 
setigerous lobe, absent on the first setigerous segment, very small en the 


second, but well developed on the third. Setae rather long and slender. 
Color pale yellow, with red blood-vessels showing through anteriorly. 

Length, 50 mm 5 breadth, 2 mm . This species moves like a Nenis. 

Near New Haven light-house, in sand, at low-water mark. 

EHYNCHOBOLUS AMERICANTJS Verrill. Plate X, figs. 45, 46. (p. 342.) 

Glycera Americana Leicly, op. cit., p. 15, PI. 11, figs. 49,50, 1855; Ehlers, Borstcn- 
wlirmer, vol. i, p. 668, PI. 23, figs. 43-46, 1868. 

Charleston, South Carolina, to Long Island Sound and Vineyard 
Sound. Low-water mark to 10 fathoms. 

I follow Claparede in adopting Rhynchobolus for those species of the 
old genus Glycera which have the proboscis armed at the end with four 
hooks or faugs. 

EHYNCHOBOLUS DIBRANCHIATUS Verrill. Plate X, figs. 43, 44. (p. 

Glycera dilrancJtiata Ehlers, op. cit., pp. 670-702, PI. 24, figs. 10-28, 1868. 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to Long Island Sound ; Vineyard 
Sound ; and Massachusetts Bay. Low-water mark to 8 fathoms. 
Ehlers has given a very full anatomical description of this species. 

EONE GRACILIS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body very slender, terete; surface iridescent. Head elongated, acutely 
conical, composed of eight distinct, rounded annulations, the basal one 
with a pair of minute reddish eyes ; antennae four, slender. Feet prom- 
inent, elongated, more than equal to half the diameter of the body ; they 
are uniramous on about thirty-two segments of the anterior part of the 
body, and bilobed, with a small obtuse dorsal cirrus; the upper lobe 
is prominent, more elongated than the lower one, both cylindrical,obtnsely 
pointed; setae compound, in two small fascicles, long, the free part ex- 
ceeding the entire length of the foot. On the posterior half of the body 
there is a small, slightly elevated, mammilliform upper ratnus, above 
the base of the lower ramus, and entirely separate from it, containing 
two or more small, acute, dark seta3, which project but slightly ; the 
lower ramus is deeply bilobed, the lobes elongated, round, the upper 
one longest, the lower one acute; on the posterior side of the base of the 
upper lobe there is a minute, rounded setigerous lobe, and at the junc- 
tion of the two lobes, on the posterior face, there is another small setig- 
erous lobe ; the seta3 are long and slender, acute, many of them curved, 
arranged in small fascicles. 

Length, 20 mm ; diameter less than l mm . 

Off Gay Head, 19 fathoms, in soft mud. 

ARICIA ORNATA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 344.) 

Body rather stout, composed of numerous very short segments, much 
depressed and flattened anteriorly, strongly convex beneath in the mid- 
dle region, flattened above throughout; breadth nearly the same 


through a large, pint of the- length, narrowed slightly and gradually 
toward the posterior cud, and abruptly narrowed anteriorly close to the 
head, which is very small, short, conical, and acute at the tip. On the 
anterior thirty-two setigerous segments the feet consist of a small upper 
ramus, having a small, tapering dorsal cirrus arid a minute set igerous 
lobe, bearing a small fascicle of slender and short seta*,, and a lower ra- 
mus, separated by a narrow space, and consisting of a small upper 
papilla, and a long transverse row of minute, rounded papillae, which 
surmount a narrow, somewhat elevated, crest-like ridge; the first twelve 
or thirteen segments having shorter rows, so as to leave abroad, naked 
ventral space, but those farther back having rows of papillae that nearly 
meet beneath, and thus entirety covering the sides and ventral surface 
for a short distance; these crest-like ridges bear close rows of minute, 
hooked setae. The branchia3 commence on the upper surface of the fifth 
setigerous segment, in the form of elongated papillae, which become 
more elongated and narrow ligulate farther back. Posterior to the 
thirty-second segment the papilliform crests of the lower ramus disap- 
pear, and the lower ramus consists of an elongated papilliform, and finally 
cirriform, upper process, with a minute setigerous lobe at its base, 
bearing fine inconspicuous setas ; and an elongated membranous basal 
portion, decurrent down on the lateral surface of the segment; the up- 
per ramus is connected at the base by a membranous web with the lower 
one, and consists of an elongated dorsal cirrus, similar in size and shape 
to the branchia, and a very small setigerous lobe, bearing a small fas- 
cicle of fine setae. The branchiae are connected by a slight web-like 
basal ridge with the dorsal cirri. Thus there are three parallel rows of 
cirriform or slender ligulate processes along each side of the back, leav- 
ing a broad, central, naked space all along the back. 

Length up to 60 mm or more; breadth, 4 unn . 

Savin Bock, burrowing in sand at low-water mark, May, 1872. 

ANTIIOSTOMA ROBUSTUM Yerrill, sp. uov. Plate XIV, fig. 76. (p. 343.) 
Body large, long, stout, thickest and rounded, or but slightly depressed, 
anteriorly; tapering rapidly to the head; posterior portion very long, 
narrowing gradually to the posterior end, flatter or concave above, well 
rounded below, higher than wide, with three rows of long, erect, ligu- 
late, or narrow lanceolate processes along each side of the back, the four 
inner rows largest ; and a pair of foliaceous processes on the sides of 
each segment. Head short, conical, acute. Proboscis large, broad, di- 
vided into about eighteen long, narrow, digitate, and sulcated lobes, with 
convoluted margins, broadest at the end, and free for a large part of 
their length, but united at the base by a membranous web; or it might be 
described as divided into a lower, two lateral, and two upper main lobes, 
each of which is again divided into three or four digitations. During 
life these are all continually changing in form and length, and generally 
only a few of the processes are protruded at one time. Branchiae com- 


meuce on the twenty-sixth setigerous segment as minute papillae; on 
the twenty-eighth they become prominent and acute-conical ; farther 
back they become long, lanceolate, thin, foliaceous, as long as the diame- 
ter of the body. 

On the twenty-three anterior setigerous segments the " feet" are rep- 
resented by two short, dense, fan-shaped fascicles of setae on each side- 
On the twenty-fourth, segment a small papilliform lobe, or ventral cirrus, 
appears below the lower ramus, which rapidly becomes larger on the 
succeeding segments, becoming quite conspicuous on the twenty-ninth 
segment; at about the twenty-eighth it becomes broader, and divided 
into three small lobes, the lowest broadest and thinnest, and a bilobed 
setigerous lobe is developed. At the thirtieth the ventral lobe becomes 
broader, somewhat foliaceous, with a rounded outline; farther back 
this becomes still larger and more foliaceous, with a broadly-rounded 
flexuous outer border, and the upper branch of the setigerous lobe be- 
comes an elongated ligulate process, directed upward, and similar in 
form to the branchiae, though smaller and more slender, but the lower 
branch remains small and rounded; a small fascicle of long, slender 
setae arises from between them. On the twenty-seventh segment an 
upper cirrus appears on both the upper and lower rami, in the form of 
a small papilla, which becomes somewhat elongated and tapering at the 
twenty-ninth ; that of the lower ramus continues small throughout, and 
much shorter than the setigerous or ventral lobes, but that of the upper 
ramus becomes rapidly larger, longer, and more ligulate, corresponding 
nearly with the branchiae in size, form, and rate of increase. On the 
middle and posterior regions the upper ramus consists of this long, 
thin, lanceolate cirrus and a fascicle of long, slender setae, arising from 
the anterior face of its base, and in length considerably exceeding the 
cirrus; the setae are pale yellow. Those of the upper ramus are short 
anteriorly, and become decidedly longer at the twenty-eighth segment, 
and on the thirty-second and subsequent segments they form a long, 
divergent, fan-shaped fascicle; color, when living, ocher-yellow, orange- 
yellow, to yellowish brown, generally brighter yellow posteriorly. Usu- 
ally there are two rows of brown spots along the back, and posteriorly 
there is a dorsal red or reddish brown line ; branchiae blood-red. 

Length of large specimens up to 375 mm or more; breadth, 10 mm ; ordi- 
nary specimens are about 300 mm long and 7 mm broad. Owing to the 
facility with which it breaks up when disturbed, it is difficult to obtain 
entire specimens of large size. 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey; New Haven; Wood's Hole; in sand, 
at low-water. 

ANTHOSTOMA FRAGILE Verrill, sp. uov. (p. 344.) 

Body long and slender, composed of very numerous segments, very 
fragile, and prone to divide spontaneously when disturbed; thickest 
and sub-cylindrical anteriorly, tapering rapidly to the head; posterior part 


very long and slender, tapering gradually, flattened dorsally. Head 
distinctly annulated, elongated conical, very acute, with the tip slender 
and translucent; proboscis short and broad, not extending i'ar beyond 
the tip of the head, with six or more broad, convoluted, changeable 
lobes, which are united at the base by a broad membranous expansion. 
The dorsal branchiae first appear on the sixteenth setigerous segment 
as small papillae; they become well developed and long ligulate at about 
the twentieth, increasing somewhat in length on the segments farth'-r 
back. On the first thirteen segments behind the buccal the "feet" are 
represented by a very small, slightly-elevated lobe, above and below, 
each bearing a dense fascicle, that of the lower ram us widest, but the 
length of the setre about equal in both. On the fourteenth segment a 
small tubercle appears on both rami ; on the sixteenth these become 
elongated and somewhat cirriform, and the setas become considerably 
longer on the fifteenth segment. At about the seventeenth segment the 
lower ramus becomes distinctly tri-lobed, and at the twentieth four- 
lobed, with the setigerous lobe bifid, and the two lower lateral lobes 
conical, acute, and swollen at the base ; while the upper ramus is long 
and ligulate, like the branchia3, and the seta3 are long arid slender, the 
lower fascicle smallest. Farther back the lobes of the lower ramus be- 
come still more developed, but keep their acute conical form, and the 
upper ramus and setae continue to elongate until, on the posterior part 
of the body, they exceed in length the diameter of the body. Anal seg- 
ment oblong, sub-cylindrical, smooth, with two long filiform cirri on the 
upper side; color, when living, brownish orange, dull yellow, ocher, 
light reddish, or flesh-color, with a red median dorsal line, and some- 
times with the dorsal surface tinged with red posteriorly: a narrow, 
light ventral line, bordered with reddish. Sometimes the upper surface 
is maculate with fine polygonal, whitish spots, due, perhaps, to ova 
contained within the body; there are sometimes two obscure brownish 
spots on the upper side of the head. 

Length up to 125 rara ; diameter, 3 mm . 

Great Egg Harbor, Xew Jersey ; New Haven; Watch Hill; Wood's 
Hole ; in sand, between tides, and gregarious. 

ANTHOSTOMA ACUTUM Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 501.) 

Body long and quite slender, tapering most toward the head, and 
very gradually posteriorly. Head very acutely pointed, with two 
rather indistinct reddish spots above, resembling imperfect ocelli. The 
branchiae commence at the eleventh setigerous segment as small dorsal 
papillae, and become prominent on the thirteenth ; on the succeeding 
segments they become long and ligulate. Anteriorly the feet are rep- 
resented by an upper ramus, consisting of a very small tuft of set;e, 
with a very small papilliform lobe above it, and a lower ramus, consist- 
ing of a small prominent papilla, with a fascicle of slender seta 1 , much 
larger than the upper one. On the fourteenth and succeeding segments 


the dorsal cirrus of the upper ramus becomes longer, more slender, and 
ligulate. On the fifteenth segment a small, short, rounded ventral cirrus 
appears on the lower ramus, and farther back it becomes larger and more 
prominent, and the setigerous lobe becomes bilobed. Anal segment 
rounded, obtuse ; cirri long and slender. Color light red. 

Length up to 40 mm ; diameter, 2.5 im V 

Off Gay Head, 19 fathoms, soft inud; also from the deeper parts of 
Vineyard Sound. 

ANTHOSTOMA, species undetermined, (p. 508.) 

Another species, not well studied, was dredged in the deeper waters 
off Gay Head and Buzzard's Bay. It differs from all the preceding in 
having eighteen anterior segments without brauchia3. 

NERINE AGILIS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 346.) 

Body long and rather slender, anteriorly flattened, posteriorly more 
rounded. Head long conical, with a slender acute tip ; mouth a trans- 
verse fissure beneath ; eyes four, placed in front of the bases of the 
two large antenna, small, black, the anterior ones a little farther apart ; 
antenna long, slender, with thickened bases, placed on the dorsal 
surface of the head, with their bases contiguous. 

The branchiae are slender, ligulate, and exist on all the segments 
except the first. On the first segment the "feet" are represented on 
each side by two small rounded lobes, bearing very small setw, and 
placed just below the bases of the antenna;; on the succeeding twenty 
segments the lower ramus consists of a larger, somewhat semicircular 
lobe, bearing a broad cluster of slender, acute seta?, and separate from 
the upper ramus, which consists of a thin foliaceous process joined to 
the branchial cirrus, but with a free terminal portion, and bearing a 
broad, comb-like cluster of long acute setae, nearly as long as the bran- 
chiae, and much longer than those of the ventral ramus. On the 
twenty-first setigerous segment a small papilliform ventral cirrus ap- 
pears on the lower ramus, and farther back it becomes more prominent 
and separate from the setigerous lobe. In the middle and posterior 
region the free portion of the cirriform lobe of the upper ramus is longer. 

Color reddish or brownish green anteriorly, light green on the sides; 
branchiae bright red. Length up to 60 mm ; breadth, 2 mm ; length of 
antenna?, 12 mm . 

Great Egg Harbor, NQW Jersey, on the outer beacli, burrowing in 
sand, at low-water mark. 

SCOLECOLEPIS VIRIDIS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 345.) 

Body long, slender, depressed; both the upper and lower surfaces 
flattened, of nearly uniform breadth throughout most of the length, 
abruptly narrowed at each end, and somewhat tapering and more 
rounded posteriorly. Head with the central plate longer than broad, 


forming an acute angle behind, anteriorly suddenly expanding into a 
wide transverse frontal lobe, broadly rounded in front, with a slight 
eniargination in the middle, the lateral angles prominent and slightly 
anrirulate or recurved. Eyes four, distant, the two pairs nearly parallel. 
Proboscis small, smooth, rounded. Antennae slender, t \viee as long as 
the breadth of the body. The branchiae are slender and ligulate an- 
teriorly, and meet over the middle of the back; but farther back they 
gradually decrease in length, and disappear at about the anterior third. 
The tipper ramus of the feet consists of a broad, thin, foliaceous upper 
ramus, rounded outwardly, connected, for most of its length, with the 
branchia, the upper end a little prominent ; and a broad cluster of seta}, 
consisting of a small upper fascicle of slender acicalae, scarcely as long 
as the branchia, and a comb-like group of shorter and somewhat stouter 
bent and acute setae. The lower ramus consists of a small, thin, rounded 
process, bearing a transverse row of acute bent setae, and a ventral tuft 
of longer and more slender ones. Posteriorly the slender setae in the 
dorsal and ventral tufts are considerably longer ; and several stouter, 
recurved, two-hooked, uncinate setae appear in the transverse rows of 
acute setae, both in the upper and lower rami. Anal segment short, 
truncate or suburceolate, somewhat bilobed ; the margin of the orifice 
crenulated with small rounded lobes, and with four small conical papillae 
on the upper side. Color olive-green or bright green, darker posteriorly ; 
branchiae bright red; antennae light green, with a row of black specks, 

Length up to 100 mm : breadth, 3 mm . 

Great Egg Harbor; New Haven; Watch Hill; Wood's Hole; burrow- 
ing in sand, at low- water. 

SCOLECOLEPIS TENUIS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 345.) 

Body very long and slender, depressed, especially anteriorly, gradually 
tapering' posteriorly. Head short and broad, slightly three-lobed in 
front, the central lobe broadly rounded, the lateral ones also rounded, 
somewhat smaller. Antennae long and slender. The branchia3 are small, 
ligulate, and exist only on the anterior segments. The .setae of the dor- 
sal fascicle are long and slender ; but those of the first three segments 
are longer than the others, forming large fan-shaped fascicles directed 
upward and forward; those of the first segment longest, about twice as 
long as the breadth of the head. Farther back the setae of the upper 
ramus become shorter, the upper ones slender, capillary, the lower ones 
stouter, somewhat bent, mostly acute, some uncinate. Those of the 
lower ramus are shorter, setiform, forming large fascicles anteriorly. 
Farther back the upper ones are partly stouter, somewhat bent, and 
acute, and partly uncinate, while a small ventral fascicle of slender ones 
still remains. Posteriorly the setigerous lobes of the feet become very 
small. Color light green ; brauchia3 red, tinged with green ; antennae 
whitish, with a red central line. 

Length, 80 mm ; breadth, 1.25 1 '" 11 . 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey; burrowing in sand, at low- water. 


SCOLECOLEPIS CIRRATA Malmgren. (p. 501.) 

Annnlata polychaeta, p. 91, PI. 9, figs. 54 A-54 D. Nerine cirrata Sars, Nyt. Mag., 
vol. vi, p. 207 (teste Malmgren). 

This is a larger and stouter species than either of the preceding. 
The front of the head is broadly rounded, with prominent, rounded, 
lateral angles ; the foliaceous lateral appendages are larger and much 

Off Block Island, in 29 fathoms, and in the deepest parts of Vine- 
yard Sound, near the mouth; off Saint George's Bank, in 110 and 150 
fathoms. Northern coasts of Europe; Spitzbergen; Greenland. In 20- 
250 fathoms. (Malmgren). 

SPIO SETOSA Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XIV, fig. 77. (p. 344.) 

Nerine coniocepliala f A. Agassiz, Annals Lyceum of Nat. Hist, of New York, vol. 
viii, p. 333, PI. x, figs. 39-45, 1866, (new Johnston.) 

Body long, moderately slender, flattened dorsally, convex below, 
obtuse anteriorly, slightly tapered toward the posterior end. Head with 
a prominent median lobe, which is sub-truncate and a little turned up 
at the front end, with the corners a little prominent and rounded ; lateral 
lobes shorter than the median; on the posterior part of the vertex 
there is a small median, conical prominence. Eyes four, on the vertex, 
the posterior pair nearest together; antennae long. Branchiae moder- 
ately long, slender, ligulate, largest on the anterior segments. On the 
first three or four segments the upper ram us of the feet has a slender 
dorsal cirrus, which disappears farther back. The setae of the upper 
ramus are long, acute, and form a broad fascicle, in which the upper 
ones are much longer and more slender, divergent; the lower stouter 
and more or less bent; they are longest on the first four or five 
segments, the upper ones considerably exceeding the branchiae. The 
lower ramus is small and but slightly elevated; on the anterior 
segments it bears a small fascicle of short, acute, bent setae, much 
shorter than those of the upper ramus, and closely crowded together 
in two or more rows, with a small ventral tuft of longer and more 
slender setae; farther back the acute bent setae begin to be replaced 
by uncinate setae, which, at about the tenth segment, form a complete 
transverse row, parallel with a row of slightly longer, pointed set;e, 
while the small ventral tuft of longer acute setae still remains, and all 
the setae in the broad fascicle of the upper ramus are acute and much 
longer. In the middle region of the body, the uncini of the lower 
ramus form a close row, containing fifteen to twenty; they are strongly 
recurved near the end and margined. 

Length up to 80 mm ; diameter about 2.5 mm . 

New Haven: Wood's Hole; and Naushou Island; in sand, at low- 

This species appears to be the same as the one studied by Mr. Agassiz, 
though it differs slightly from his figures, one of which I have copied. 


Sno ROBUST A Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 34~>.) 

Body stout, broadest anteriorly, tapering posteriorly, but little de- 
pressed except anteriorly, very convex beneath, flattened ;il><>\<-. 1 1 end 
broad, somewhat angular; the median lobe truncated ;ind slightly nnar- 
ginate in front ; lateral lobes a little shorter, wide, obtuse in front, 
slightly an gula ted laterally ; a small median, conical elevation on the 
posterior part of the head. Antennae long, rather stout. Branchiae 
long, narrow, tapering. Upper ram us of the feet with a small, obtuse 
setigerous lobe, bearing a small fascicle of short setae, considerably 
shorter than the branchiae, even on the anterior segments, and a foli- 
aceous process arising behind the setigerous lobe, broadly rounded on 
its thin outer edge ; the upper end free and obtusely pointed ; farther 
back the setae are shorter and the foliaceous process smaller and less 
prominent. The lower ramus on the anterior segments has 1 a small, 
prominent, semicircular foliaceous process and a small, dense fascicle of 
short setae, crowded in several transverse rows ; on the eighth and sub- 
sequent segments the foliaceous processes become larger and wider, and 
the setae more numerous, crowded, and partly unciuate ; still farther 
back the setae are nearly all uncinate, except a very small ventral tuft 
of slender ones, and form long, double, transverse rows, projecting but 
little beyond the surface. Color greenish. 

Length, 50 mm , or more; breadth, 3 mm to 3.5 mm . 

Wood's Hole and Naushon Island; in sand, at low-water mark. 

POLYDORA CILIATUM Claparede(?). Plate XIY, fig. 78. (p. 345.) 

A. Agassiz, On the Young Stages of a Few Annelids, in Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist, 
of New York, vol. viii, pp. 323-330, figs. 26-38, 1866 (embryology). 

Naushou Island and Massachusetts Bay; in muddy sand, at about half- 
tide (A. Agassiz). 

The adults of this species were not found by us. The young were 
frequently taken in the towing-nets. 

A young Poly dor a^ belonging perhaps to a different species, was 
dredged off New Haven, in 4 to 6 fathoms, shelly bottom. It was about 
12 mm long. The color was pale yellow, with small black spots along 
the sides between the fascicles of seta? ; a red dorsal vessel ; antenna 

OPHELIA SIMPLEX Leidy. (p. 319.) 

Marine Invert. Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 16, 1855. 

Body short, smooth, iridescent, well rounded above, flat below ; 
usually found coiled up, so that the extremities meet, or nearly so, and 
resembling in general form the larvae of certain beetles and flies. Head 
very acute conical ; the buccal segment suddenly enlarges ; mouth be- 
neath, with thick evertile lips, the lower one generally protruded as a 
large rounded lobe. Posterior end terminated by about ten unequal, 
round, blunt, fleshy, simple papilhe, of which the two ventral ones 


are considerably longest. The setae commence opposite the mouth and 
extend to the posterior end ; they form two fan-shaped fascicles on each 
side of each segment, closely approximate at their origin, but strongly 
divergent, the upper ones directed upward, the lower ones downward ; 
the setse are very long and slender on the middle segments, those of the 
upper fascicles longest, and exceeding half the diameter of the body ; 
anteriorly they are considerably shorter ; they are somewhat expanded 
toward the base, but have long and very sleuder tips. Dorsal cirri 
rather long and stout, transparent and wrinkled, blunt at tip, thickened 
at base; in length nearly equaling a third of the diameter of the body. 
Color yellowish white, tinged with brownish on the sides. 

Length, 8 mm to 10 mm ; diameter, 1.5 mm . 

Savin Kock, at half-tide. Point Judith, Ehode Island, below low- 
water mark (Leidy). 

T?he specimen above described was found under stones at Savin 
Kock, near New Haven, May 5. Its body was completely filled, from 
one end to the other, with comparatively large yellowish white eggs, 
which show through the transparent integument of the dorsal side very 

TRAVISIA CARNEA Yerill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body with twenty-four setigerous segments, oblong or fusiform, very 
changeable, round, usually tapering abruptly to each end. Head small, 
conical, acute; posterior end terminated by a small, bluntly rounded, 
or slightly clavate papilla; seta3 small and slender. Brauchije short, 
slender, commencing on the third setigerous segment and ceasing at 
the twentieth ; longest about one-fourth as long as the diameter of the 
body. Segments of middle region tri-annulated. Color light red or 
deep flesh-color ; branchia3 bright red. 

Length, in extension, about 25 mm ; 3 imn to 4 mm in diameter. It can 
contract to 12 mm or less in length. 

Off Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard, in 19 fathoms, soft mud. 

AMMOTRYPANE FIMBRIATA Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XV, fig. 79. 
(p. 508.) 

Body elongated, slender, smooth, thickest in advance of the middle, 
tapering gradually to both ends, convex, and well rounded above ; 
lower surface with a median sulcus and rounded margins, separated 
from the upper surface by a deep groove. Head very acute. Eyes 
two, small, black. Proboscis small, sub-globular, smooth. Branchiae 
long and slender. Caudal appendage spoon-shaped, deeply concave, 
transversely striated ; the outer margin fringed with a row of sma-11, 
slender papilla^ a pair of slender cirriform processes, about half its 
length, arises at its ventral base, and a longer single median one is 
generally concealed in its cavity. Seta3 of the anterior segments long 
and slender, more than half the diameter of the body, shorter farther 
back. Color, when living, purplish flesh-color, shining and iridescent 


OH the- dorsal surface; a row of elongated dark spots on each side be- 
tween the fascicles of seta-: the seta- dark gray. 

Length, 75"" n ; diameter, ,'V 1 " 11 . 

Off Bn//ard's Hay, in 1*5 fathoms, mud; Bay of Fnndy, 10 to 1)0 
fathoms, mud; nt?ar Saint George's Bank, 110 and 150 fathoms, mud. 

SCALIBREGrMA BREVICAUDA Verrill, Sp. I10V. (p. 41G.) 

Body rather short, with a narrow, tapering anterior portion ; a swollen 
middle region ; and a narrow, tapering caudal portion; lower surface 
with a very narrow, smooth median area, divided transversely into a 
scries of small rounded prominences by slight depressions. Head small, 
transverse, truncate or slightly concave in front, the angles produced 
and prominent. On the anterior region four segments bear short, tufted 
branchiae, close to the base of the upper fascicles of seta?, which are 
rather long and slender; each of these segments also has a dorsal 
transverse row of rather large and conspicuous blackish grannies on its 
posterior margin, and also a black spot on the sides below the branchia*. 
The surface of all the anterior segments is regularly and rather finely 
granulous, the granules in transverse rows. The middle region, com- 
posed of about ten segments, is thicker, and sometimes much swollen, 
and the feet are represented only by small fascicles of slender setae. 
Tlie-xCaudal region is less than one-half the entire length in preserved 
specimens, and is rather slender and tapering, composed of about sixteen 
segments; the rami of the feet consist of a prominent, obtuse papilla, 
both above and below, with a blackish spot at the end, and bearing a 
fascicle of slender setre, in length rather exceeding half the diameter of 
this part of the body. Color, when living, dark brownish red, tinged 
with yellow at both ends. 

Length, 32 lum ; diameter, 2,5 mra . 

Off New Haven, 4 to 6 fathoms, shelly bottom. 

TROPHONIA AFFINIS Verrill. PI. XIV, fig. 75. (p. 507.) 

'Siphon ostomum affine Leidy, op. cit., p. 16 (148), 1855. 

Body rather slender and elongated for the genus ; skin irregularly 
rugose, granulous, anteriorly covered with small papillae. The eight 
branchiae are cylindrical, thick, blunt, unequal; two tentacles stouter 
than the branchias, sulcate beneath. On the four anterior segments the 
upper and lower fascicles of setas are much elongated and directed for- 
ward. On the fifth and following segments those in the upper fascicles 
are capillary, divergent, six to ten in each fascicle ; in the lower fascicles 
there are about three stout, slightly curved, acute, deep yellow set;e. 
On the third and fourth segments the setre of the upper fascicles are 
longer and larger than those in the lower ones ; posteriorly the lower 
seta? become longer, stouter, and more curved at the tip, the lowest one 
becoming hook- like. 

Length, 60 mm ; diameter. 3.5 mra . 


Off Block Island, 29 fathoms; off Buzzard's Bay, 25 fathoms, mud. 
Great Egg Harbor (Leidy). 

BRADA SETOSA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body short, oblong, sub-cj T liadrical, flattened below, tapering a little 
toward both ends, which are obtuse; composed of seventeen setigerous 
segments. Skin covered with small, prominent, acute papillae. Upper 
fascicles of setae long, slender, light colored; lower fascicles larger, com- 
posed of stouter, long r dark colored setae, surrounded at base by small 
cirriform appendages. Ventral cirrus small. 

Length of preserved specimen, 10 mm ; diameter, 2.5 mm . 

Off Gay Head, 8 to 10 fathoms, among muscles, &c. 

STERNASPIS FOSSOR Stimpson, Plate XLV, fig. 74. (p. 507.) 

Marine Invertebrata of Grand Man an, p. 29, fig. 19, 1853. 

Off Gay Head, 19 fathoms, soft mud; common in the Bay of Fundy 
in 10 to 90 fathoms, mud; near Saint George's Bank, 110 fathoms, 
sandy mud ; Casco Bay, 20 fathoms. 

CIRRATULUS GRANDIS Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XV, figs. 80, 81. (p. 319). 
Body large and stout, anteriorly subcylindrical, somewhat flattened 
and tapering slightly posteriorly, and rather abruptly tapered anteriorly. 
Head small, acute, with obscure brownish spots above, but apparently 
without distinct ocelli. Posterior end obtuse, the orifice surrounded by 
a thickened, slightly crenulated border. Posterior to the mouth there 
are about seven rather indistinct annuli (perhaps four bianimhitod 
segments) destitute of appendages ; the two next segments bear two 
fascicles of small seta3 on each side, and two crowded dorsal clusters of 
long slender branchial cirri ; these clusters nearly meet on the dorsal 
line, leaving only a narrow naked space, and contain a large number of 
cirri, usually of various lengths, closely crowded together. Farther 
back the " feet" consist of small and slightly prominent upper and lower 
rami, connected by a slightly raised, transverse ridge ; each ram us bears 
a small fascicle of short, slender, acute setaB, in a transverse row ; and 
a few stouter curved spin ale*, which project but little from the surface ; 
posteriorly the spinules are more numerous and the slender seta? fewer 
and a little longer, but they are scarcely equal to one-tenth of the diam- 
eter of the body. Along nearly the whole length of the body long 
slender branchial cirri arise from above most of the upper rami, but 
many of these are generally broken off in preserved specimens. In 
alcohol the lower surface of the body is generally flat or concave ; the 
" feet" occupy an elevated lateral ridge, often separated from both the 
ventral and dorsal surface by a deep groove ; and the dorsal surface is 
moderately convex. The annulations are short, very numerous, and 
distinct. Color, when living, dull yellow, yellowish green, yellowish 
orange, greenish orange to orange-brown, darkest anteriorly, and often 


iridescent beneath; sides often with dark brown specks; anterior 
branchial cirri usually bright orange, with a red central line; lateral ones 
darker yellow or orange, generally with a central line of bright red, due 
to the blood-vessels showing' through. 

Length up to 150 IIlm ; diameter, f> mm to 7 inm j length of branchial cirri, 
GO 11 " 11 to 100""". 

New Haven to Vineyard Sound; low- water to G fathoms, in sand and 
gravel; common. 

CIRRATULUS TENTHS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 416.) 

Body slender, elongated, strongly annulated. Head conical, de- 
pressed, acute. The lirst four rings behind the mouth are longer than 
the rest, and destitute of appendages. The branchiae and seta3 com- 
mence at the fifth segment ; the branchiae form a cluster on each side, 
and are long and filiform ; farther back and on the middle region there 
is usually a pair of branchial cirri on each segment, but posteriorly they 
become distant and irregular. Seta3 long and slender in each ramus, the 
upper ones exceeding in length the diameter of the body on the anterior 
and middle regions, but becoming much shorter posteriorly. In alcohol 
the integument is iridescent. No eyes were detected. 

Length, 40 mm ; diameter, 1.25 mm . 

Vineyard Sound, 6 to 12 fathoms, among compound ascidiaus ; 23 
fathoms off Martha's Vineyard. 

CIRRHINEREIS FRAGiLis Quatrefages. (p. 397.) 

Histoire naturelle des Anueles, vol. i, p. 464. Cirrhatuliis fragiUs Leidy, op. cit., 
p. 147 (15), Plate 11, figs. 39-43, 1855. 

Point Judith, Ehode Island, under stones at low water (Leidy). 
Specimens, apparently of this species, were dredged in Vineyard Sound. 


Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 12 (144), PI. 
11, figs. 46-48, 1855; Quatrefages, op. cit., vol. i, p. 468. 

New Haven ; Watch Hill $ Point Judith ; in Astrangia Dance. 

Our largest specimen had ten pairs of cirri $ the first three pairs orig- 
inate from one segment, the lowest being stouter and lighter colored 
than the rest. 

DODECACEREA, species undetermined, (p. 422.) 

A species, belonging apparently to this genus, was dredged off New 
Haven Harbor, in shallow water, but the specimens are too young for 
accurate determination. 

CLYMENELLA Verrill, gen. nov. 

Body elongated, composed of about twenty-two segments exclusive of 
the cephalic and anal segments. All the segments, except the buccal 
and three anteanal, setigerous; they bear fascicles of slender seta3 above 


and series of hooks below. The anterior margin of the fourth setiger- 
ous segment is prolonged into a thin membranous collar. Proboscis 
swollen, longitudinally ribbed. Head with a prominent convex median 
plate, and with a raised border on each side and behind, the lateral and 
posterior lobes separated by notches. Anal segment funnel-shaped, the 
edge surrounded by papilla. 

CLYMENELLA TORQUATA Yerrill. Plate XIV, figs. 71-73. (p. 343). 

Clymene torqnatus Leidy, op. cit., p. 14 (146), 1855. 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey; New Haven; Vineyard Sound; Bay 
of Fundy ; Saint George's Bank, &c. Low- water to 60 fathoms. 

NICOMACHE DISPAR Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 512.) 

Body elongated, with eighteen setigerous segments. Head elongated, 
sub-conical, with a small central plate, and a depressed point in front, 
and with low, narrow, lateral and posterior marginal lobes, separated by 
slight notches ; on the anterior part of each lateral border there is a 
cluster of small, reddish brown, ocelli-like specks. Buccal lobe coal- 
escent with the cephalic above. Proboscis swollen and plicate. The first 
two setigerous segments have small fascicles of slender, short setre above, 
and a single uucinate seta or hook below on each side. The third seg- 
ment has much longer setae in the upper fascicles and two hooks in the 
lower ones. The fourth has still longer, slender setre in the upper fasci- 
cles, and about eight hooks in each of the lower ones. In the following 
segments the hooks become much more numerous. There is one short, 
biannulated, anteanal segment, destitute of setre. Anal segment subur- 
ceolate, as long as broad, cylindrical toward its border, which is fur- 
nished on the ventral side with one long, slender cirrus, often as long 
as the diameter of the anal segment, and two short lateral ones ; the 
rest of the border has a few, mostly very small, distant, unequal, obtuse 
papilla3 or denticulations. The anal orifice is situated at the summit of 
a small cone, which rises from the bottom of the funnel. The last setig- 
erous segment is longer than the anteanal, and a little longer than any 
of the ten that precede it, which are all short and subequal, broader than 
long, those toward the posterior end deeply incised at the intervals be- 
tween them. The three anterior setigerous segments are shorter than 
broad ; the fourth is twice as long ; the fifth is three times as long ; the 
sixth is five times as long. The color, when living, was light red, trans- 
lucent, with conspicuous bright red blood-vessels, and with a bright red 
band at about the anterior third. The largest specimen obtained was 
50 mm long and 2.5 mm in diameter after preservation in alcohol. In this 
specimen the anal segment is long, funnel-shaped, flaring but little toward 
the margin, and with four or five slight transverse annulations. The 
buccal segment has two transverse reddish lines on each side. 

Off Buzzard's Bay in 25 fathoms; fifteen miles east of Block Island 
in 29 fathoms, sandy mud. It forms rough tubes of sand, which are not 
very firm. 


MALDANE ELONGATA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 343.) 

Body large and much elongated, cylindrical, obliquely truncated at 
both ends ; with nineteen setigerous segments, those of the middle region 
elongated 5 head depressed, with its dorsal surface very oblique; median 
lobe low, convex, obtusely rounded in front ; lateral marginal lobes, or 
folds, low, rounded, thickened, separated by a shallow emargination 
from the posterior transverse fold, which is also thickened, little elevated, 
.and divided into two parts by a slight sulcus ; from the notch between 
the lateral and posterior lobes of the head, a lateral oblique sulcus 
curves downward and backward, and joins the first of the two trans- 
verse sulci, which are strongly marked on the ventral side of the buccal 
segment. Anterior setigerous segments strongly biannulated ; the first 
two are short, the length about equal to the diameter ; the next two 
are considerably longer ; and those farther back become very much 
elongated; the last setigerous segment is short. The segments are 
considerably swollen where the seta3 arise, especially in the middle 
region. The upper seta3 are long and slender, mostly about half the 
diameter of the body, and form rather large fascicles on most of the 
segments. The last segment is obliquely truncated, its posterior border 
surrounding the base of the large anal process, which is obliquely placed, 
foliaceous, obovate, with the posterior edge broadly rounded, the upper 
surface concave, and the margin entire. Color dark umber-brown 3 or 
reddish brown, iridescent ; the swollen parts of the rings are lighter 
yellowish brown, or grayish brown, the dark red blood-vessels often 
showing through ; near the bases of the setae there are usually small 
dark colored specks ; head and buccal lobe thickly specked with dark 
brown or blackish. 

Length of largest specimens, 300 mm ; diameter, 4 mm to 5 mm ; more fre- 
quently about half this size. 

Savin Rock, near Xew Haven ; in sandy mud at low- water mark, form- 
ing thick tubes composed of fine mud. 

EHODINE ATTENUATA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body slender, elongated, with the segments strongly marked, and the 
first setigerous segment very long. Head elongated, depressed, ob- 
tusely rounded in front; median lobe, or ridge, broad and but little 
elevated, except near the front of the head, where it becomes suddenly 
narrowed, more convex, with well marked fovese on each side ; lateral 
lobes rudimentary, scarcely apparent ; on the posterior part of the head 
there is a prominent transverse elevation. Buccal lobe confluent with 
the cephalic. First setigerous segment swollen anteriorly and about 
as broad as the head at its anterior end where the setie arise, but nar- 
rowed and gradually attenuated backward, its total length being about 
eight times its diameter ; second and third setigerous segments about 
equal, nearly twice as long as broad, swollen in the middle, the front 
margin of each prolonged into a sheath-like collar; the three next 


segments are short and rounded, about as long as broad, much narrowed 
at each end, and swollen in the middle ; next two about twice as long as 
broad; succeeding segments more elongated. Anal segment wanting 
in the specimens examined. 

Length about 50 mm ; diameter about l mm . 

Off Gay Head, 6 to 8 fathoms; fifteen miles east of Block Island, in 
29 fathoms, sandy mud. 

The Clymene urceolata Leidy, from Great Egg Harbor, will probably 
be found on the New England coast, but we have not met with it. It 
is peculiar in having an urceolate anal segment, with a smooth margin. 

AMMOCHARES, species undetermined, (p. 508.) 

A species which constructs slender, flexible tubes, covered with grains 
of sand, regularly and curiously attached by one end in an imbricated 
manner, was dredged fifteen miles east of Block Island, in 29 fathoms 
sandy mud, and in 23 fathoms off Martha's Vineyard. The worm is 
very slender, flesh-color, with a red dorsal vessel, and two small, red., 
ocelli-like spots. 

NOTOMASTUS LURIDUS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 342.) 

Body long and rather large, composed of numerous segments, nearly 
cylindrical when living, and tapering but little, except close to the 
ends. In preserved specimens the anterior region, including about ten 
segments, is often a little swollen and slightly larger than the rest of 
the body; at other times it is even more slender than the posterior 
region. Head small, acute. Proboscis short and broad, swollen; in 
full expansion nearly twice the diameter of the body, nearly smooth, 
dark blood-red. The segments of the anterior region are longer than 
broad, in extension nearly twice as long, biannulated, and each of the 
annuli is again annul ated with several transverse, more or less irregu- 
lar sulci or furrows ; ten of these segments bear fascicles of slender 
seta3 both above and below, the fascicles on the first two setigerous 
segments being very small, and containing few setae. The segments 
following the tenth setigerous one have a small transverse row of 
slender uncinate setae above, and a longer lateral transverse row of 
the same kind of setae on each side; the "feet," or setigerous lobes ? 
are but little prominent, the upper ones being dorsal and much smaller 
than the lateral ones. The surface of the body is transversely wrinkled,, 
and covered with minute, irregular reticulations, giving it a slightly 
granulous appearance. Color, when living, dark purplish brown, with 
a bluish iridescence anteriorly, and a darker median dorsal line pos- 
teriorly; minute, white, raised spots, or slight papillae, are scattered 
over the surface. 

Length, 150 mm or more; diameter, 2 mm . 

Savin Eock, near New Haven; in muddy sand, at low-water mark. 


NOTOMASTUS FILIFORMIS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 342.) 

Body very long and slender, filiform, composed of very numerous 
short segments. Head very changeable in form, usually long, conical. 
and very acutely pointed. Proboscis smooth, obovate, or trumpet- 
shaped, when extended, and bright red. In the anterior region there 
are eleven setigerous segments, which bear small fascicles of slender 
setae in both rami, those in the first five longer and acutely pointed ; 
these segments are short, biannulate; the lower fascicles of setse are. 
largest and fan-shaped. In the middle region the segments are about 
as long as broad. Color, pale red to bright red, often mottled with 
whitish, and more or less yellowish posteriorly. 

Length, 100 nim ; diameter, l mm . 

Great Egg Harbor, low-water to one fathom, in sandy mud; New 
Haven; Watch Hill; Vineyard Sound. 

SABELLARIA VULGARIS Yerrill, sp. nov. Plate XVII, figs. 88, 88, 

(p. 321.) 

Body rather stout, thickest anteriorly, tapering backward to the base 
of the long, slender caudal appendage. Two slender, red, oral tentacles 
arise near the mouth, between the bases of the operculigerous lobes, 
and, when extended, reach beyond the bases of the opercula. A. single 
median lanceolate process also arises between the operculigerous lobes. 
A deep emargination exists on the ventral side, back of the mouth; on 
each side of this the front margin of the segment is prolonged into a 
tridentate lobe, the teeth or lobes being unequal, the inner ones largest, 
the middle ones more slender and acute, the outer one smallest and 
shortest; beyond these, toward the sides, there is another small acute 
process; two conical processes also project forward from the lateral 
margins, and also a fascicle of setae. The ciliated prehensile cirri, or 
tentacles, are long and slender when extended, and reach considerably 
beyond the opercula. The seta3 composing the opercula are golden yel- 
low; the outer circle white at base. A row of small conical papillae 
surrounds the bases of the opercula. BranchiaB long, lanceolate, acute, 
longer than the diameter of the body. Color of body yellowish flesh- 
color, or pale reddish, often with two rows of brown spots along the 
ventral surface; operculigerous lobes whitish or grayish, specked with 
blackish; branchire reddish or yellowish, with a red central line, often 
with a greenish tinge, or red centered with green ; tentacles pale flesh- 
color, sometimes purplish; opercula blackish or grayish on the anterior 
surface, golden yellow on the sides, white at base ; caudal process pale 
red or flesh-color. 

Length about 25 mm , exclusive of caudal process: 2 Ilim to 2.5 mm in diam- 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to New Haven and Vineyard Sound ; 
low-water to ten fathoms ; very common. Eggs are laid in May and 


CISTENIDES GOULDII Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XVII, figs. 87, 87a. (p. 


Pectinaria Belgica Gould, Invertebrata of Massachusetts, Isted., p. 7, Plate 1, fig. 
1 (tube), 1841 (not of European writers). Pectinaria auricoma Leidy, op. cit.? 
p. 14 (146), 1855 (not of European writers). 

Body rather stout, little curved. Head with the dorsal surface 
obliquely truncated, its posterior marginal fold with a smooth border. 
Antennae long, tapering, acute; frontal membrane or veil semicircular, 
its edge divided into rather long, slender, acute papilla, about twenty- 
eight in number. Cephalic seta3 in two broad groups, each containing 
about fifteen light golden setae, which are somewhat curved upward, 
with long, slender, very acute tips, those in the middle of each group much 
the longest. Tentacles stout, obtuse, flattened, and folded up so as to 
form a groove beneath. Color light red or flesh-color, handsomely mot- 
tled with dark red and blue. 

Length up to 40 mm ,' diameter, 7 mm . 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Cape Cod ; low-water to 10 

This species can easily be distinguished from C. granulatus, which is 
common in the Bay of Fuiidy, by the cephalic seta3 or spines, which are 
fewer, much stouter, obtuse, and darker colored in the latter. 

AMPHARETE GRACILIS Malmgren. Plate XVI, fig. 83. (p. 508). 

Nordiska Hafs-Annulater, Ofvers. af kongl. vet. Akad. Forh., 1865, p. 365, Plate 
26, figs. 75-75D. 

Body flesh-colored, greenish posteriorly, with a conspicuous red median 
vessel ; branchiae light sea-green. 

Length, 25 mm to 35 mm ; diameter, 2.5 mm to 3 mm ; length of branchiae, 
6 mm to 9 mm . 

Off Gay Head, 10 fathoms j off Martha's Vineyard, 23 fathoms 5 east 
of Block Island in 29 fathoms ; Bay of Fuudy, 10 to 90 fathoms ; north, 
ern coasts of Europe, Bahusia, at Koster Island, in 130 fathoms. Our 
specimens differ slightly from the description and figures of Dr. Malm- 
gren, especially in usually having but twelve uncigerous segments in 
the posterior region, instead of thirteen, found by him in the European 
specimens. This may be due to difference of age or sex. There are, 
however, thirteen in one of our specimens. 

AMPHARETE SETOSA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 416.) 

Body rather thick anteriorly, tapering rapidly backward. Cephalic 
lobe acute, with a much shorter, small, lateral lobe on each side. Bran- 
chia3 eight, transversely wrinkled, rather short ; in preserved specimens 
about equal to the breadth of the body. Palmulae, or cephalic fascicles 
of setae, short and broad, rounded, fan-shaped, the setae being nearly 
equa! 3 the ventral ones a little longer than the lateral. Fourteen seg- 
ments bear small fascicles of long setae, supported by prominent lobes 
at the base. The posterior region consists of about ten uncigerous seg- 


ments. Anal segments small, with two long slender cirri. Color of 
body translucent, light yellowish green ; the anterior part of the body 
tinged with bright blood-red, due to the circulating fluid, showing 
through the integument ; branchiae greenish, with a central series of 
white spots ; setae of the palmulae, deep yellow. 

Length about 20 mm ; diameter, 2.5 mm to 3 mm . 

Off New Haven, low-water mark to 6 fathoms, shelly. It makes rough 
tubes about an inch long, covered with coarse sand and mud. 

AMAGE PUSILLA Verrill, sp. nov. 

Body rather slender. Head obtusely rounded in front ; the middle 
lobe small, and but little larger than the lateral. Eight slender 
branchiae, about twice as long as the diameter of the body, arranged in 
a crowded group ; two farther back than the rest ; and with no apparent 
naked median space. Twelve of the setigerous segments bear long 
fascicles of slender seta3. No " palmulae," or cephalic setae. Tentacles 
numerous and slender. Two small, slender anal cirri. 

Length, 12 mm ; diameter, 1.5 mm . 

Off New Haven, 5 to 6 fathoms ; shelly bottom. 

MELINNA CRISTATA Malmgren. (p. 432.) 

Nordiska Hafs-Annulater, loc. cit., p. 371, Plate 20, figs. 50-50n. SabelMes 
cristata Sara, Fauna littoralis Norvegise, vol. ii, pp. 19, 24, PI. 2, figs. 1-7, 1856. 

Mouth of Vineyard Sound, on muddy bottoms, in the deepest water; 
Bay of Fundy, on muddy bottoms, in 10 to 90 fathoms ; near Saint 
George's Bank, in 110 and 150 fathoms, mud. Off the Scandinavian 
coast in 40 to 200 fathoms; Greenland ; Spitzbergen. 

The tube is soft, flexible, slender, and covered with fine mud. 


Beskriv. og lakttag., p. 48, Plate 13, figs. 31, a-d (testo Malmgren) ; Malmgren, 
Nordiska Hafs-Annulater, loc. cit., p. 396, Plate 4S-43D, 1865. 

East of Block Island, in 29 fathoms, sandy mud ; Bay of Fundy, 
10 to 90 fathoms, muddy ; near Saint George's Bank, 85 to 150 fathoms. 
Greenland, 10 to 250 fathoms ; Iceland ; Spitzbergen ; northern coasts 
of Europe $ Adriatic Sea. 

AMPHITRITE ORNATA Verrill. PI. XVI, fig. 82. (p. 320). 

Terebella ornata Leidy, Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and New 
Jersey, loc. cit., p. 14 (146), Plate 11, figs. 44, 45 (setae), 1855. 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to New Haven and Vineyard Sound ; 
common in sand and gravel at low-water mark. 

NICOLEA SIMPLEX Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 321.) 

Body elongated, swollen anteriorly, especially above, attenuated 
posteriorly. Head with a rather large, well rounded, or nearly circu- 
lar frontal membrane, which has a smooth margin ; mouth with a small 


posterior fold. Tentacles very numerous, crowded, long, and slender. 
Branchiae four, rather small ; those of the anterior pair somewhat the 
larger ; those of both pairs are repeatedly dichotoraously divided from 
close to the base. The divisions are short and not very numerous, and 
diverge at a wide angle. Fifteen segments bear small fascicles of slender 
setae, commencing at the next behind the last branchiferous segment. 
The third and fourth setigerous segments of the male bear small, slender 
lateral cirri. Ventral shields about thirteen ; the first six transversely 
oblong, and nearly equal in width ; the last seven narrowing rapidly 
to the last, which is acutely triangular. Color, when living, light red, 
or flesh-color. 

Length, 35 mm ; diameter, 3 1UIU to 4 mni . 

New Haven to Vineyard Sound, from low- water to 6 fathoms; off 
Watch Hill, 4 to 6 fathoms, in tubes composed of bits of shells and grains 
of sand, attached to Laminar-ice. 

SCIONOPSIS Verrill, gen. iiov. 

Body composed of numerous segments, of which 17, following the 
third, bear fascicles of slender setae, and the following ones have only 
small uncigerous lobes ; second and third segments bear branchiae, 
and have their anterior margins prolonged into membranous, collar-like 
expansions; that of the second forming broad, lateral lobes behind the 
tentacles ; that of the third forming behind the branchiae a dorsal col- 
lar or sheath, beneath which they can be retracted. Branchiae typically 
four. Those of the first pair usually larger, but generally one or more 
are absent, and frequently the anterior ones are smallest, or those of the 
same pair may be unequal, owing probably to the facility with which 
they may break off and be reproduced ; they are palmately branched 
and supported on elongated pedicels. Tentacles numerous and crowded. 

This genus is allied more closely to Pista than to any other yet de- 
scribed, but differs in the structure of the branchiae and character of 
the collar formed by the third segment. 

SCIONOPSIS PALMATA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 321.) 

Body elongated ; rather slender ; thickened but not distinctly swollen 
anteriorly, tapering gradually to the posterior end. The setigerous feet 
commence at the fourth segment, or next behind the branchial collar, 
and are all quite prominent, the first three or four being a little smaller 
than the rest ; the setae are rather long. The uncigerous feet commence 
on the second setigerous segment. Behind the last setigerous segment 
the uncigerous feet are smaller, somewhat prominent, and extend to the 
anal segment. Ventral shields about 20 ; the most anterior ones are trans- 
versely oblong ; the succeeding ones squarish, gradually tapering to the 
last, which are very narrow. Anal segment tapering ; its orifice with 
a crenulated margin. Branchice large, with numerous palmate divisions 


arising from the summit of the stout and rather long pedicels.* There 
rare usually five or more main divisions in good-sized specimens , these 
spread outward from one point, are recurved at the ends, and ilex nous 
and bipinnately branched, the lower pinna} being longest each time, 
and the ultimate divisions very numerous, fine, slender, and acute. 
The branchiae of the posterior pair, in normal specimens, are consider- 
ably s'maller, with the divisions less numerous, and the ramuli longer 
and more delicate. The pedicels of the anterior branchiae are about as 
:iong as the diameter of the body, and are very contractile, as well as the 
branches, so that the gills can be contracted into a small compass and 
withdrawn under the dorsal collar, beneath which the pedicels arise. 
This branchial collar is formed by the prolongation of the margin of the 
-third segment; on each side "of the median line above, it is divided into 
two narrow, lanceolate processes directed for ward ; exterior to these there 
are two other wider and usually less prominent angles or lobes ; laterally, 
the collar is prominent, with a broadly rounded, thin margin, which 
forms another angle on each side beneath; on the ventral side its edge 
recedes and is but little raised. The tentacular collar, formed by the 
second segment, expands into a broad, rounded, prominent lobe on each 
side; and on the ventral surface becomes narrower, though still promi- 
nent, and recedes in a broad, rounded sinus behind the posterior lobe 
of the mouth. The cephalic segment is bordered by a rather broad 
frontal membrane, emarginate above, and broadly rounded laterally. 
Tentacles very numerous, long, and slender. Color, light red, brownish 
red to dark reddish brown ; the annulations often darker ; the upper 
surface is usually more or less specked with flake- white ; along each 
side, below, there is usually a row of squarish spots, brighter red than 
the rest of the body, each pair connected by a narrow, transverse line 
of red between the ventral shields, which are dull yellowish red; the 
segments along the sides are often bordered with red ; branchiaa usually 
green, specked on the outer sides of the branches with flake- white, and 
with internal blood-red vessels, showing distinctly in all the divisions ; 
the pedicel is usually bright red; tentacles, flesh -color. 
Length up to 70 mm ; diameter, 3 mm . 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Vineyard Sound ; low- water 
mark to one fathom. 

LEPR^EA RUBRA Yerrill, sp. nov. (p. 382.) 

Body elongated, somewhat swollen anteriorly, rapidly tapering to the 
very long, slender, posterior portion. All the segments posterior to the 
branchia3 bear small fascicles of slender setaa, as well as uncini ; pos- 
terior to the twenty-fifth setigerous segment the uncigerous feet become 

* In mentioning this species, on page 321, it was stated that it has but three gills , 
and, in fact, this is the most frequent number. Among the numerous examples exam- 
ined, I have only recently found a specimen with both pairs of gills in their normal 


much narrower and more prominent; anteriorly they are very broad. 
Ventral plates rather broad anteriorly, those posterior to the seventh 
or eighth suddenly narrowed. Branchiae in three pairs, small, finely 
arborescently divided, the divisions numerous ; posterior pair consider- 
ably smaller than the others. Cephalic lobe with a somewhat prolonged 
frontal border, broadly rounded in front, with an entire margin. ^Color 
bright red ; tentacles flesh- color. 

Length, 50 ram or more ; diameter, 2.5 mm to 3 mm . 

Vineyard Sound ; Wood's Hole on piles of wharves just below low- 
water mark. 

POLYCIRRUS EXIMIUS Verrill. Plate XVI, fig. 85. (p. 320). 

Torquea eximia Leuly, op. cit, p. 14 (14G), Plate 11, figs. 51, 52 (setae), 1855. 

In this species there are twenty-five setigerous segments, bearing 
small fascicles of long, slender setre ; about seventy posterior segments 
bear uncini only ; anteriorly the uncini commence on the eighth setig- 
erous segment. There are nine ventral shields, divided by a median 
ventral sulcus. The frontal lobe of the head is large, elongated oval 
or elliptical. The posterior lobe of the mouth is large, rounded. Body 
and tentacles bright blood-red ; the body is often more or less yellowish 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Vineyard Sound ; low- water 
to 10 fathoms. 

A species of this genus was also dredged in 19 fathoms off Gay 
Head, but its identity with the above is uncertain. Another species, 
remarkable for its brilliant blue phosphorescence, is common in the - 
Bay of Fundy. The P. eximius does not appear to be phosphorescent. 

CH^ETOBRANCHUS Verrill, genus nov. 

Allied to Polycirrus and, like the latter, destitute of blood-vessels.. 
Body much elongated, composed of very numerous segments, nearly 
all of which bear fascicles of setae. Segments of the middle region bear 
simple, or more or less branched, branchial cirri, each of their divisions 
tipped with slender setce; these cirri are wanting on the anterior and 
posterior segments, the first and last ones being smaller and more simple 
than the rest. The cephalic segment expands into a broad, tentacular 
or frontal lobe, which is rounded or emarginate anteriorly, and often 
more or less scolloped laterally. Tentacles crowded, very numerous, 
long and slender in extension, capable of being distended by the blood, 
as in Polycirrus, &c. 

CH^ETOBRANCHUS SANGUINEUS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 320.) 

Body greatly elongated, much attenuated posteriorly, more or less 
swollen anteriorly, but narrowed toward the head, the thickest portion 
being usually between the tenth and fifteenth segments. The branchial 
cirri commence at about the ninth segment, those of the first pair being 
short, simple cirri; those on the next segment are once forked ; those on- 


the next have three or four^brauches ; farther back they divide dichotom- 
ously above the base into numerous branches, all of which are support <-<l 
upon a short basal pedicel, which may be a little elongated in expansion, 
the total length of the branchiae being then greater than th<, diameter of 
the body ; the branches are clustered, slender, delicate, and elongated, 
and each one is terminated by a small fascicle of slender, sharp, serrate 
setae two to four or more in a group, so that the entire appendage may 
be regarded as a very remarkable enlargement and modification of the 
setigerous lobes of the "feet." 

On the segments anterior to the ninth the setigerous lobes of the feet 
are short, conical, swollen at base, and bear a small fascicle t>f seta3 ; the 
ventral surface of the anterior segment is somewhat raised, and divided by 
a series of sulci or wrinkles into several lobes or crenulations, which are 
somewhat prominent and papilliform at the posterior margin of each 
segment, and have a granulous surface. There is a distinct median ven- 
tral sulcus. Between the adjacent branchial cirri anteriorly there are y 
on each side, four or more thickened, somewhat raised, squarish organs, 
with a granulous and apparently glandular structure ; farther back these 
are reduced to two, then to one, and finally disappear on the segments 
of the posterior region, which is very long, slender, attenuated, composed 
of very numerous short segments, with only rudimentary appendages j 
after the branchial cirri become reduced to simple processes they still con- 
tinue, on about forty segments, gradually decreasing in length and size : 
beyond this small setre still exist on the segments, till near the end of the 
body. Anal segment small and simple, the orifice with slightly crenu- 
lated margins. Frontal membrane large and broad, versatile in form, 
often with a deep emargination in front, each lateral lobe divided into 
two or three subordinate lobes, or unequal scollops, the edges undulated ; 
at other times the front edge and sides are broadly rounded and entire. 
The mouth is furnished with a large elongated ovate lobe, which is 
rounded, free, and prominent posteriorly. Tentacles very long, much 
crowded, and very numerous; in extension usually as long as the body. 
Color of body, anteriorly, deep blood-red ; posteriorly, more or less mot- 
tled or centered with yellow, owing to the internal organs showing 
through the integument; tentacles and branchial cirri bright blood-red. 

Length up to 350 mm ; diameter 5 mm to 7 mm or more anteriorly ; length 
of tentacles, in extension, 400 mm or more. 

Great Egg Harbor to -New Haven and Vineyard Sound; common at 
low-water mark, in mud. 

POTAMILLA OCULIFERA Yerrill. Plate XVII, fig. 86. (p. 322). 

Sabella ocullfera Leidy, op. cit., p. 13 (145), Plate 11, figs. 55-61, 1855. 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven ; Vineyard Sound, low- water mark 
to 25 fathoms, off Buzzard's Bay. In the Bay of Fundy from low- water 
mark to 60 fathoms. 

Closely related to P. reniformis of Northern Europe, and possibly iden- 
tical with it. 


SABELLA MIOROPHTHALMA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 323.) 

Body rather short and stout, narrowed slightly anteriorly, tapering rap- 
idly close to the posterior end, composed of about sixty segment, de- 
pressed, moderately convex above, flat below, especially when preserved 
in alcohol ; anterior region composed of eight setigerous segments, hav- 
ing moderately long fascicles of setae ; posterior region composed of about 
fifty short segments, bearing very small fascicles of setae ; anal segment 
small, simple, with two very small ocelli-like spots ; ventral shields of 
the anterior segments short, transversely narrow, oblong ; median sulcus 
Tery distinct in the posterior region, dividing the ventral shields into 
two nearly rectangular parts, which are broader than long. Branchiae 
numerous and long, often half as long as the body, connected by a 
slight web close to the base; the stalks smooth, with numerous minute 
ocelli, in two irregular rows; pinnre numerous, long and slender; tips 
of the branchiae without pinnae. Collar broadly interrupted above, flar- 
ing and reflexed at the sides, with rounded upper angles, erect and sin- 
uous at the latero-ventral margins, reflexed below, forming two short, 
rounded lobes, separated by a narrow but deep central sinus, within 
which there is a short bilobed organ. Tentacles thin, lanceolate, acute, 
in preserved specimens not so long as the diameter of the body. The 
anterior segment is divided by a deep dorsal sulcus, which is not con- 
spicuous on the succeeding segments. Color of body greenish yellow, 
dull olive-green, or greenish brown ; branchiae pale yellowish, greenish, 
or flesh-color, often with numerous transverse bauds of lighter and 
darker green, which extend to the pinnae, and sometimes blotched with 
brown; collar translucent, specked with flake- white; ocelli dark red- 
dish brown. Specimens, apparently belonging to this species, were taken 
from wood bored by Teredo, near New Haven. These had the body 
olive- green, specked with flake- white anteriorly, on the ventral side, 
especially on the first two segments ; branchia3 mottled with greenish 
brown and white and specked with flake- white ; ocelli brown, numerous. 

Length, 30 mm ; diameter, 2.5 mm to 3 mm . Preserved specimens are 
-about 20 mm long, 2.5 mm broad. 

New Haven to Vineyard Sound ; low- water mark to 5 fathoms. 

EUCHONE ELEGANS Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XVI, fig. 84. (p. 432). 

Body rounded, slender, gradually tapered backward; the anterior 
region, which forms about one-half of the entire length, consists 
of eight setigerous segments; these are biannulated and divided by 
a dorsal, longitudinal sulcus, and by a lateral sulcus on each side be- 
low the uncigerous lobes. The middle region consists of thirteen 
shorter biannulated segments, which bear small fascicles of setae on the 
lower rami ; these are divided by a ventral sulcus, and also by the 
lateral ones. The caudal region consists of about ten very short seg- 
ments ; all of which, except the last, bear small fascicles of setae. These 
-segments are margined by a rather broad membrane, wider and rounded 


anteriorly, narrowing to the end. Collar broad, with a nearly even 
margin, often somewhat sinuous at the sides, divided above and below, 
the lobes rounded at the angles. The collar is a little broader below 
than above. Branchiae long, slender, recurved in expansion, connected 
by a broad and very thin membrane, continued as thin borders of the 
branchiae to their tips, which are destitute of pinnae for some distance. 
Body pale flesh-color, with a darker median line, reddish anteriorly, 
darker greenish or brownish, posteriorly; branchiae pale yellowish or 
greenish, each with a flake-white spot near the base outside. Other 
specimens were greenish gray, with green branchiae. Some were flesh, 
color, with a bright-red dorsal vessel ; the branchiae flesh-color, without 
the white spots at the base. 

Length, in extension, about 20 mm ; diameter of body, 1.5 mm . 

Deep water off the mouth of Vineyard Sound ; off Martha's Vineyard, 
in 21 and 23 fathoms ; off Block Island, in 29 fathoms, sandy mud, 
abundant. Cosco Bay, 7 to 20 fathoms. 

This species makes slender tubes, covered with fine sand. 

FABRICIA LEIDYI Verrill, sp. nov; (p. 323.) 

Body very small and slender, tapering a little to both ends, in exten- 
sion considerably exsert from the slender tube ; eleven segments bear 
fascicles of setae; the segments are about as long as broad, slightly con- 
stricted at the articulations, with the anterior margin a little promi- 
nent; anal segment small, tapered to a blunt point, bearing two small, 
dark ocelli. Branchiae six, subequal, forming three symmetrical pairs, each 
one with five to seven slender pinnae on each side ; the basal pinnae are 
about, as long as the main stem, the others successively shorter, so that 
all reach to about the same level. Tentacles short, thick, bluntly rounded 
at the end, strongly ciliated. At the base of the branchiae, on each side, 
is a red, pulsating vesicle, the pulsations alternating in the two; just 
back of these, on the first segment, are two brown ocelli; a little farther 
back, and near together, on the dorsal side, are two auditory vesicles, 
^ach with a round central corpuscle. The fourth and eleven succeeding 
segments bear small fascicles of acute, bent setae, about as long as half 
the diameter of the body ; on the middle segment there are about four 
or five setae in a fascicle ; on the ninth, three ; on the tenth, two ; on the 
eleventh, one or two, in the specimens examined. Intestine rather 
wide, but narrowed at the eighth setigerous segment, and after that 
slender, bordered by a red blood-vessel on each side. In the fourth 
setigerous segment there are three globular granulated organs, color, 
yellowish white, tinged with red by the circulating fluid. 

Length about 3 mm ; diameter about 0.25 mm ; expanse of b ranch ia?, 
0.8 mm . The specimens measured may be immature. 

New Haven to Vineyard Sound, common at and below low- water 
mark ; Cisco Bay. 


SERPULA DIANTHUS Yerrill, sp. nov. (p. 322.) 

Body elongated, gradually attenuated to the posterior end ; the pos- 
terior region considerably flattened ; dorsal surface covered with 
minute papillae and having a finely pubescent appearance under a lens. 
Collar broad and long, in living specimens sometimes one-third as long 
as the body; the posterior portion free dorsally, and in expansion about as 
long as the attached portion, extending backward and gradually narrow, 
ing to the end; the margins thin and undulated ; the anterior border is di- 
vided into a broad revolute dorsal lobe, with an undulated margin, and 
two narrower lateral lobes, which are broadly re volute laterally, with the 
margin rounded and nearly even. Seven segments bear rather large 
fascicles of long, acute setae. The first fascicle is remote from the next, 
and directed downward and forward, with the setre longer than in the 
others; the six folio wing fascicles are broad, and are directed downward 
and backward. The uncinate setae form long transverse rows anteriorly, 
but toward the posterior end they form short rows. Operculum funnel- 
shaped, longitudinally striated externally, with a long, slender pedicel ; 
the upper surface is concave, with about thirty small, acute denticles 
around the. margin; an inner circle of about twelve long, slender 
papillae, incurved at tips and united at base, arises from the upper 
surface of the operculum. On the left side is a small rudimentary oper- 
culum, club-shaped at the end, with a short pedicel. Branchiae are long 
rather slender, united close to tbe base, about eighteen on each side, in 
mature specimens, those toward the ventral border considerably longer, 
than the upper ones ; tips naked for a short distance, slender, and acute ; 
pinn?e very numerous, slender. Colors quite variable, especially those 
of the branchi; the branchiae are frequently purplish brown, trans- 
versely banded with flake-white, alternating with yellowish green, the 
pinn* usually having the same color as the portion from which they 
arise ; on the exterior of the branchiae the purple bands are often divided 
by a narrow longitudinal line of whitish ; operculum brownish green 
on the outer surface, purplish on the sides, with white longitudinal lines 
toward the margin, greenish white at base ; pedicel purplish, banded 
with white ; collar pale translucent greenish, veined with darker green ; 
body deep greenish yellow, the dorsal surface light yellow. Many other 
styles of coloration occur, some of which are described on page 322. 

Length up to 75 mni ; diameter about 3 mm . 

Great 'Egg Harbor to New Haven and Cape Cod ; low- water mark to 
8 fathoms. 

The tubes are long, variously crooked, and often contorted, sometimes 
solitary, frequently aggregated into masses four or five inches in diame- 
ter. They are nearly cylindrical, with irregular lines of growth, and 
sometimes with faint carinations. 

SERPULA DIANTHUS, var. CITRINA Verrill. (p. 322.) 
I have applied this name to a very marked color- variety, in which the 


branchiae are lemon-yellow or orange-yellow, without bands, but usually 
with a reddish central line 5 the operculuiii is usually yellow j collar and 
base of branchiae bright yellow ; body light yellow. 
Found with the preceding, and often in the same cluster of tubes. 

VERMILIA (?), species undetermined, (p. 41G.) 

The species thus indicated forms slender, more or less crooked, angu- 
lar tubes, with two distinct cariuations on the upper surface ; they are 
about half an inch long, attached firmly by one side along their whole 
length. The branchiae form a wreath, with about six on each side ; pinnae 
long and slender ; two or more of the branchiae bear pink, sack-like 
appendages. The branchiae are reddish brown, annulated with narrow 
bands of white. 

Diameter of tubes, about 1.25 mm ; of expanded branchiae, 4 mm . The 
specimens have been lost, and no observations were recorded concerning 
the operculum, so that the genus is still uncertain. 

Long Island Sound, off New Haven, in 4 to 6 fathoms, on shells. 


Rec. des mdm. de mollusques, 1800. Serptila spirorbis Linn6, Systema Naturae , 
ed. xii, p. 1265. (?) Spirorbis spirillum Gould, In vertebra ta of Mass., ed. i, p. 8 
1841 ; A. Agassiz, Annals Lyceum Nat. History of New York, vol. viii, p. 
318, Plate 7, figs. 20-25 (embryology), 1866 (not of Linns' and other European 

New Haven to Cape Cod, the Bay of Fundy, and northward j abun- 
dant on Fucus, Chondrus crispus, and other algae, at low-water mark. 

Whether this, our most common species, be identical with the Euro- 
pean species known by this name is still uncertain. 

The animals of the various species of SpirorMs are still very imper- 
fectly known, and many species have been described from the tubes 
alone. Accurate descriptions or figures of the animals are necessary 
before the species can be determined satisfactorily. 

This species has nine branchiae, five on one side and four on the other 
with, the operculum. The branchiae are large and broad with long pinnae, 
the basal ones shorter, the distal ones increasing in length to near the 
end, so that each branchial plume is somewhat obovate in outline; the 
tips are naked only for a short distance. The -branchial wreath, in full 
expansion , is about as broad as the entire shell. The operculum is oblique 
and one-sided, and supported on a long clavate pedicel, which is trans- 
versely wrinkled, and expands gradually into the operculum at the end, 
the enlargement being chiefly on one side j the outer surface is roughly 
granulous and usually covered with adhering dirt. The collar is broad, 
and has three fascicles of setae on each side. The branchiae are pale 
greenish white, centered with brighter green, due to the circulating fluid. 

This is the species mentioned in the early part of this report (p. 332) 
under the name of S. spirillum. The true spirillum of Linue as a trans- 
lucent tube, and is found in deeper water, on hydroids, &c. 



Edinburgh Encyclop., vol. vii, p. 68; Johnston, Catalogue of British Non-Parasiti- 
cal Worms, p. 349 ; Malmgreu, Annulata polyclireta, p. 123. Serpula lucida Mon- 
tagu, Test. Brit., p. 506 (t. Johnston). Serpula porrecta Fabricius, Fauna Groen- 
landica, p. 378 (non Miiller). SpirorMa sinistrorsa Montagu, op. cit., p. 504; 
Gould, Invertebrata of Massachusetts, ed. i, p. 9, Plate 1, fig. 4, 1841. 

Deeper parts of Vineyard Sound, near tlie mouth, in 10 to 12 fathoms, on 
hydroids and bryozoa; off Gay Head, 10 fathoms ; off Buzzard's Bay, in 
25 fathoms, on Caberea Ellisii ; off Block Island, in 29 fathoms, on Cabe- 
rea; Casco Bay, 6 to 20 fathoms, on algrc, &c. ; Bay of Fundy, 10 to 80 
fathoms, on hydroids; Saint George's Bank, 30 to 60 fathoms. Green- 
land ; northern coasts of Europe. 

This species forms small, translucent, glossy, reversed spiral tubes? 
coiled in an elevated spire, the last whorls usually turned up, or even 
erect and free. 

There are six branchiae, which are large and broad, with long, slender 
pinna3, which do not decrease in length till near the end ; the naked tips 
are short and acute. The operculum is sub-circular, somewhat obliquely 
attached to the slender pedicel, which is about half as long as the ex- 
tended brauchiaB, and enlarges rather suddenly close to the operculum ; 
the outer surface of the operculum appears nearly flat, and is covered 
with adherent dirt. The collar is broad, with undulated and revolute 
edges. The three fascicles of setre are long and slender. Ocelli two, 
conspicuous. The animal, in expansion, is usually much exsert from 
the tube. Anterior part of the body bright red ; branchiad pale green- 
ish ; their bases and posterior part of the body bright epidote-green. 

It is the species catalogued as 8. porrecta (?) on pages 498 and 504. 


CLITELLIO IERORATA Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 324.) 

Body very slender, the largest about GO 111111 long, 0.75 111 " 1 in diameter, dis- 
tinctly aunulated. Head conical, a little elongated, subacute ; setre 
commencing on the first segment ; those on the anterior segments in 
fascicles of two or three, very short, small, in length not one-third the 
diameter of the body, more or less curved like an italic /, obtusely 
pointed at the end; some of them are but slightly bent at the tip, others 
are strongly hooked ; farther back there are three or four setre in the 
fascicles, and they are somewhat longer, and two or more in many of 
the fascicles are forked, the others simple, spinous, more or less curved, 
in the upper fascicles posteriorly, and sometimes throughout the whole 
length, there are two or three much longer, very slender, hair-like, flexi- 
ble bristles, but these are often absent from most of the segments, 
perhaps accidentally. The intestine is voluminous, slightly con- 
stricted at the articulations ; two bright red blood-vessels, distinctly 
visible through the integuments, run along the intestine, one above- 
and one below, following its flexures, without contractile lacunae. 


New Haven to Wood's Hole and Casco Bay, under stones in the 
upper part of the fucus-zone, and nearly up to high-water mark. 

The above description was made from living specimens taken at Savin 
Rock, near New Haven. 

Some of the specimens obtained at Wood's Hole appear to differ some- 
what from this description, but the differences may be chiefly due ta 
their being taken in the breeding season. In these the anterior fasci- 
cles consist of two short setre, Which are slightly curved in the form of 
an italic/, and are subacute, notjbifid at tips. At the ninth to twelfth seti- 
gerous segments a thickening occurs, forming a clitellus ; on the ninth 
segment the sette are replaced by a small mammiform, bilobed organ ; 
on the tenth there is a pair of prominent obtuse papilla, swollen at 
base. On the posterior segments only two setae were observed in each 
of the four fascicles, but they were longer, more slender, and more 
curved at the tip than the anterior ones. In each of the segments 
slender crecal tubes, forming about two loops on each side, were no- 
ticed. Length, about 35 lum . 


Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 16 (14?), Plate 
11, fig. 64, 1855. 

Point Judith, Rhode Island, abundant about the roots of grasses on 
the shore of a sound (Leidy). We did not obtain this species. 

HALODRILLUS Yerrill, genus nov. 

Body long and slender. Blood white or colorless. Setse small, acute, 
in four fan-shaped fascicles on each segment. The alimentary canal 
consists of a pyriform pharynx, followed by a portiQu from which sev- 
eral (five to seven) rounded or pyriform ca3cal lobes, of different sizes, 
arise on each side and project forward and outward j these are followed 
by a large two-lobed portion, beyond which the intestine is constricted 
then thickened and convoluted, and covered with polygonal, greenish, 
glandular cells, which become fewer farther back, where the intestine 
becomes a long, narrow, convoluted tube. In the anterior part of the 
body, around the stomach and csecal lobes, there are numerous convo- 
lutions of slender tubes. The blood-vessels running along the intes- 
tine contain a colorless fluid. 

HALODRILLUS LITTORALIS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 324.) 

Body round, slender, moderately long, tapering to both ends, but 
thickest toward the anterior end, tapering more gradually posteriorly. 
Head small, conical, moderately acute, or obtuse, according to the state 
of contraction $ mouth a transverse, slightly sinuous slit beneath. The 
seta3 commence with four fascicles on the first segment behind thebuc- 
cal ; the setae are slightly curved, forming rounded, fan-shaped fascicles 
of four to six setae, the middle setre being longer than the upper and 
lower ones 5 posteriorly the setae are less numerous. Caudal segment 


tapered, obtuse, or slightly emarginate at the end, with a simple orifice. 
The blood contains minute, oblong corpuscles. Color milk-white. 
Length, 25 mm to 40 rara 5 diameter, 0.5 rara to l mm . 

New Haven 5 Wood's Hole; Casco Bay, Maine; very common under 
dead sea- weeds and stones near high- water mark. 


American Journal of Science, vol. xxxv, p. 36, 1863. 

In this species, according to Minor, there are three pairs of ventral 
fascicles of setse before the dorsal ones commence ; the pharynx extends 
to the fourth pair of ventral fascicles, from which a narrow resophagus 
extends to a little back of the sixth pair ; here a gradual enlargement 
of the alimentary canal occurs, ending abruptly just back of the eighth 
in a narrow, twisted tube, and this gradually enlarges at the ninth ven- 
tral fascicle into a moderate sized alimentary canal. No eyes. Length, 
about 10 mm . 

New Haven, near high-water mark (Minor). 


Comparatively few leeches have hitherto been met with in this region. 
Many additional species, parasitic on fishes, undoubtedly remain to be 

BRANCHIOBDELLA BAVENELII Diesiug. Plate XVIII, fig. 89. (p. 458.) 

Sitzungsberichte der kais. Akad. der Wissenschaften, Wien, xxxiii, p. 482, 1859. 
Phyllobranchus Eavenelii Girard, Proceedings of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science for 1850, vol. iv, p. 124, 1851. (?) BranclieUion 
Orbiniensis Qugtrefages, Annals des sci. natur., se'r. 3, vol. xviii, pp. 279-325, 
Plate 6, figs. 1-13, PI. 7-8, 1852 (anatomy). 

In describing this species Mr. Girard mistook the anterior for the 
posterior end, and described the large posterior sucker, or acetabulum, 
as the head. The color is dark brown, purplish, or dark violaceous, 
specked with white. 

Vineyard Sound, on a stingray (Myliobatis Freminvillei), in several 
instances; a number usually occurred together. Charleston, South 
Carolina, on a " skate," species unknown (Girard). Atlantic Ocean, on 
a torpedo (Quatrefages). 


American Journal of Science and Arts, ser. 3, vol. iii, p. 126, fig. 1, 1872. 

New Haven, on the minnow (Fundulus pisculentus), both in fresh and 
brackish water ; November and December. 


American Journal of Science and Arts, loc. cit., p. 126. 

New Haven, on Fundulus pisculentus, with the last. 


PoNTOBDELLA KAi'AX Verrill, sp. iiov. Plate, XVIII, fig. !M. (p. 

Body, iii extension, long and slender, rounded, thickest behind the 
middle, attenuated anteriorly. Aeetabalmn nearly circular, not imirli 
wider than the body. Head small, obliquely truncated, rounded. Color 
dark olive, with a row of square or oblong white spots along <-;i<-!i side ; 
head and acetabulum whitish, tinged with green. The young an- red- 
dish brown. 

Length, 30'"'" to 40""" ; diameter, 1.5 nim to 2 min . 

Vineyard Sound, on the ocellated flounder, (Chccnapsetta ocellarit). 

PONTOBDELLA, species undetermined, (p. 458.) 

Body slender, cylindrical, strongly annulated ; the largest seen was 
about 12 mm long and 0.75 mm in diameter when extended. Head obliquely 
campanulate, attached by a narrow pedicel-like neck. Acetabulum 
oblique, round, only a little wider than the body. Color pale greenish, 
or greenish white, with scattered microscopic specks of blackish. Xo 
distinct ocelli, but there are several dark stellate pigment-spots on 
the head, similar to those on the body. Perhaps all the specimens 
are immature. 

Savin Eock, Xew Haven, on Mysis Americanus, below low-water 


Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v, p. 243, 
1851 ; Diesing, op. cit., p. 489. 

Parasitic on the edible crab (Callinectes liastatus), attached about the 
bases of the legs. We have not obtained this species on the coast of 
Xew England, but it may be expected to occur here.* 

MALACOBDELLA OBESA Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XVIII, fig. 90. (p. 458.) 

Body stout, broad, thick, convex above, flat below, broadest near the 
posterior end, narrowing somewhat anteriorly ; the front broadly rounded, 
with a median vertical slit, in which the mouth is situated. Acetabu- 
lum large, rounded, about as broad as the body. Intestine convoluted 
posteriorly, visible througthe integument. Between the intestine and 
lateral margins, especially posteriorly, the skin is covered with small 
stellate spots, looking like openings, within and around which are large 
numbers of small round bodies, like ova. Color yellowish white. 
Length, 30 Ilim to 40 mm ; breadth, 12" mi to 15""". 

Salem, Massachusetts; Long Island Sound; parasitic in the branchial 
cavity of the long clam (My a arcnarla). 

MALACOBDELLA MERCENARIA Verrill, sp. uov. (p. 458.) 

AlalacoMdlaf/rossa'Leidy, Proceedings Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
vol. v, p. 209 (noti Blaiuville). 

Body, in extension, elongated, oblong, with nearly parallel sides, or 
tnpering slightly anteriorly; anterior end broad, obtusely rounded, 
*23 v 


emarginate in the center, but not deeply lissured. In contraction the 
body is broader posteriorly. Dorsal surface a little convex; lower .side 
side flat. Acetabulum round, rather small, about half the diameter 
of the body in the contracted state, but nearly as broad when the body 
is fully extended. The intestine shows through the integument dis- 
tinctly ; it is slender, and makes about seven turns or folds. Color 
pale yellow, with minute white specks beneath and on the upper sur- 
face anteriorly, giving it a hoary appearance ; middle of the dorsal 
surface irregularly marked with flake-white ; laterally reticulated with 
fine white lines. 

Length in extension, 2,j !U1 "; breadth, 4 m! " j in partial contraction, 
IS 11 "" long; 5 imn to C"' m wide. 

New Haven, parasitic in the branchial cavity of the round clam ( Venus 
mercenaria), October, 1871. Philadelphia, in the same clam (Leidy). 


TOMOPTERIS, species undetermined, (p. 45;S.) 

Young specimens of a species of this genus were taken in the even- 
ing in Vineyard Sound. They are too immature for accurate identifica- 

A large and fine species of Tomopterix was taken by Mr. S. I. Smith, 
in East-port harbor, in July, 1872. This was about 40""" in length. An 
excellent drawing of it was made by Mr. Emerton from the living 
specimens. It is, perhaps, the adult state of the Vineyard Sound 

SAGITTA ELEGANS Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 440.) 

Body slender, thickest in the middle, tapering slightly toward both 
ends. Head somewhat broader than the neck, and about equal to the 
body where thickest, slightly oblong, a little longer than broad, obtuse, 
rounded in front or sub-truncate, sometimes with a slightly prominent 
small central lobe or papilla ; the anterior part of the head rises into a 
crest-like median lobe considerably higher than the posterior part; 
ocelli two, minute, widely separated, on the posterior half of the head j 
the anterior lateral borders of the head are slightly crenulated. The 
fascicles of setfe or spiuules on the sides of the head each contain about 
eight setae, which are considerably curved, with acute tips, and reach 
as far as the anterior border of the head. Caudal fin ovate; its poste- 
rior edge broadly rounded. The posterior lateral fins commence just 
in advance of the ovaries, and extend back considerably beyond them ^ 
so as to leave a naked space somewhat less than their length between 
their posterior ends and the caudal fin ; on this naked part, just in ad- 
vance of the caudal fin, are two small, low, lateral papilla} connected 
with the male organs; two other smaller papillae are situated at about 
the posterior third of the lateral fins. The median lateral fins are about 
equal in length to the posterior ones, and separated from them by a 


naked space less llian their own length ; the distance from the anterior 
end of the middle fins to the anterior border of the head is e<jiial t> 
twice the length of the. fins; the, length of the latter is about one sixth 
of the entire length of the body. The color is translucent whitish, 
nearly diaphanous. 

Length, about 1C" 11 "; diameter, about 0.9""". 

Wood's Hole and Vineyard Sound, at surface, July 1 j off Gay Head, 
among Satycv, September 8, in the day-time. 

SAGITTA, species undetermined, (p. 440.) 

A much larger and stouter species than the preceding was taken in 
abundance by Mr. Vinal N. Edwards, in Vineyard Sound; at various 
dates, from January to May. 

Its length is generally 25 mm to 30 mm . I have not seen it living. 


PHASCOLOSOMA CLEMENT ARIUM. Verrill Plate XVIII, fig. 02. (p. 41G.) 

Sipunculus ccementarius Quatrefages, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 628, 1865. Phascolosoma 
Bernhardus Pourtales, Proceedings American Association for Advancement of 
Science for 1851, p. 41, 1852. Sipimculus Bernliardm Stimpsou, Invertebrata of 
Gj-and Manau, p. 28 (non Forbes.) 

Deeper parts of Vineyard Sound, 10 to 15 fathoms ; off Block Island, 
29 fathoms; Bay of Fuudy, 2 to 90 fathoms, abundant; near Saint 
George's Bank, 45 to 430 fathoms. 

PHASCOLOSOMA, species undetermined, (p. 353.) 

A species similar to the last in size and form, with a thick integu- 
ment, thickly covered throughout with small rounded papillae or granules, 
but without the dark chitinous hooks seen on the posterior part of the 

Vineyard Sound. 

PHASCOLOSOMA GOULDII Diesing. Plate XVIII, fig. 93. (p. 353.) 

Revision der Rhyngodeen, op. cit., p. 764, 1859. Sipunculus Gouldii Pourtalrs. 
Proceedings of American Association for the Advancement of Science for 
1851, vol. v, p. 40, 1852 ; Keferstein, Zeits'chrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 
vol. xv, p. 434, Plate 33, fig. 32, 1865, and vol. xvii, p. 54, 1867. 

New Haven to Massachusetts Bay, at Chelsea Beach ; common in 
sand and gravel at low-water mark. 





Stimpsonia aurantiaca Girard, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciriirts <>t Phila- 

delphia, vol. vi, p. 367, 1854. Balanoglossns Koimln^m A. Agassi/. Memoirs 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. ix, p. 421, Plates 1-3, 1 .-?::. 

Fort Macon, North Carolina, to Naushon Island. Charleston, South 


Carolina (Girard). Newport, Bhode Island, to Beverly, Massachusetts 
(A. Agassiz). In sand between tides. 

A reexarnination of living specimens of the southern form will be 

necessary before their identity with the northern one can be positively 

established. I am unable to separate them with preserved specimens. 

See page 351 ; also American Journal of Science, ser. 3, vol. v, p. 235.) 

SOCIALIS Leidy. (p. 324.) 

Marine Invert. Fauna of Rhode Island and Ne\v Jersey, p. 11 (143), 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Vineyard Sound. Very com- 
mon under stones, between tides. 


Sitzungsberichte der kais. Akatl. der Wissenschaften, vol. xlv, p. 305, 1862. I'ltt- 
naria riridis Mitller, Zool.Dan. Prodromus,2G84, 1776 (t. Fab.) ; Fabricius, Fauna 
Grcenlandica, p. 324, 1780. Xoto.^>cnnit.s i-iridi* Diosing, Syst. Helminth, vol. i, 
p. 280, 1850. Nemcrtes olivacea Johnston, Mag. of Zoology and Botany, vol. i, 
p. 536, PI. 18, tig. 1. Borldisia o/m/mt Johnston, Catalogue British Non-para- 
sitical Worms, p. 21, PI. 2 b , fig. 1, IH;.~>. .\,-i,t, //<* obscura Desor, Boston Journal 
of Natural History, vol. vi, pp. 1 to 12, Plates 1 and 2, 1848. 1'olin ohm-urn 
Girard in Stimpson's Marine Invertebrata of Grand Manan, p. 28, 18,53. 

Body very changeable in form ; in full extension long and slender, 
sub-terete, tapering toward both ends, the length being sometimes 150 mm 
to 200 mm , while the diameter is 2 lnm to 3 lnm ; in contraction the body 
becomes much shorter and stouter, more or less flattened, and obtuse ajb 
the ends, large specimens often being only 30 mm or 4U lum long and 4 lum to 
5 mm broad. The head is flattened, more or less bluntly rounded, and is 
furnished with a row of small dark ocelli on each side, which vary in 
number and size according to the age, the large specimens often having 
six or eight on each side, while the small ones have but three or four, and 
the very young ones have only a single pair. The lateral fossae of the 
head are long and deep, in the form of slits, and extend well forward to 
near the terminal pore. The latter in some states of contraction appears 
like a slight vertical slit or notch, but at other times appears circular; the 
proboscis is long, slender toward the base, clavate toward the end, the 
terminal portion transversely wrinkled. The ventral opening or mouth 
is situated opposite to or a little behind the posterior ends of the lateral 
fossae ; it is ordinarily small and elliptical, with a distinct lighter colored 
border, but is capable of great dilation when the creature is engaged in 
swallowing some annelid nearly as large as itself. 

In alcoholic specimens the body is usually thickened and rounded 
anteriorly, more slender and somewhat flattened farther back, often acute 
at the posterior end; head obtusely rounded or sub-truncate, with a 
small terminal pore and two lateral fossae, which are short and extend 
forward very near to the terminal pore; ventral opening or mouth 
small and round, situated slightly behind the posterior ends of the lat- 
eral fossae : ocelli not apparent. The color, when living, is very variable, 


most, commonly dark olive-green or blackish green above, and somewhat 
lighter below, the head margined with lighter frequently the color is 
dark liver-brown or reddish brown, and the, baek is usually crossed bv 
faint pale lines, placed ut unequal distances. 

Uii/xard's Hay and Vineyard Sound, under stones, between tides, and 
in 1 to fathoms, rocky bottoms, very common; Casco Bay and Hay of 
Fundy ; and northward to Labrador and Greenland. Also on the north- 
er:! coasts of Europe to Great Britain. Abundant under stones between 
tides, and in shallow water. 

The specimens referred to on page 324 as probably belonging to Cere- 
S) were most likely identical with this species. 

(?) species undetermined (a), (p. 498.) 

Body elongated, moderately stout ; head not distinct from the body. 
Color uniform bright brownish red. 

Length, 2o mm . 

Off Watch Hill, lihode Island, among rocks, in 4 to 6 fathoms. A 
species, apparently the same, also occurred in 25 fathoms off Buzzard's 

This was red with two dark red spots anteriorly. [No ocelli were 

XEMERTES, (?), species undetermined (&). 

Body slender, sub-terete ; head not distinct from body. Ocelli incon- 
spicuous, apparently about three in a row on each side of front of head. 
Color of head and body, above, brownish red, with a whitish ring around 
the neck, which recedes in the middle, above. 

Length, 8 mi . 

Off Watch Hill, with the preceding. 

This is, perhaps, a species of Cosmocepliala. 

XEMERTES, species undetermined (<?). 

. Body slender ; head not separated by a constriction. Ocelli very 
numerous, arranged in a long cluster on each side of the head. Color 
uniform olive-green above and below. 

Length, 35 mm ; breadth, 1.3 mm to 2 mm . 

New Haven Harbor, on the piles of a wharf, in brackish water. 

TETRASTEXMA ARENICOLA Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XIX, fig. 98. (p. 

Body sub-terete, long, slender, slightly depressed, of nearly uniform. 
width ; the head is very versatile, usually sub-conical or lanceolate, 
flattened, occasionally becoming partially distinct from the body by a 
slight constriction at the neck. Ocelli four, those in the anterior pair 
nearer together. The lateral foss3 are long and deep slits on the sides 
of the head ; month or ventral pore small, often sub-triangular, situated 
just back of the posterior ends of the lateral fossre. Body deep ilesh- 
color or pale purplish. Length, about 100 nim , in extension. 


Savin Bock, near New Haven, in sand at low-water mark. 
This species is, perhaps, not a true Tetrastemma. It is here only pro- 
visionally referred to that genus. 

MECKELIA IN GENS Leidy. Plate XIX, figs. 96, 9G. (p. 349.) 

Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 11 (143), 1^55. (?) 
Meckelia Pocohontas Girard, Proceedings of Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, vol. vi, p. 366, 1854. 

Fort Macon, North Carolina ; Great Egg Harbor to Xew Haven and 
Vineyard Sound. Low-water mark to 8 fathoms. Charleston, South 
Carolina (Girard). 

MECKELIA LACTEA Leidy. (p. 350.) 

Proceedings of Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v, p. 213, 1851. 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Vineyard Sound. Low-water 
mark to 10 fathoms. Perhaps the young of the preceding species. 

MECKELIA ROSEA Leidy. (p. 350.) 

Proceedings Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v, p. 244, 1 .*.">!. 

Great Egg Harbor to Xew Haven and Vineyard Sound. Common in 
sand at low-water mark. 

MECKELIA LURID A Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 508.) 

Body long, large, stout, much depressed throughout, and thin poste- 
riorly, somewhat thickened anteriorly. Head changeable in form, often 
acute ; lateral fossae long. Ventral opening large, elongated. Proboscis 
long, slender, emitted from a terminal pore. In some specimens there was 
a slender, acute, caudal papilla. Color deep chocolate- brown, with lighter 
margins. Length, 150 mm to 250 m ; breadth up to 10 imn or more. 

Off Gay Head, 19 fathoms, soft mud; off Buzzard's Bay, 25 fathoms; 
off Block Island, 29 fathoms, sandy mud ; Casco Bay, 10 to 68 fathoms. 

CEREBRATULUS (?), species undetermined (a), (p. 508.) 

This is a dark olive-green species, with paler margins, the anterior, 
part darkest. 

Off Block Island, in 29 fathoms; off Gay Head, in 19 fathoms, soft- 

COSMOCEPHALA OCHRACEA Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XIX, figs. 95, 95<r. 
(p. 325.) 

Body elongated, moderately slender, somewhat flattened but thick, 
and with, the margins rounded, obtuse at both ends or subacute poste- 
riorly ; broadest and often swollen anteriorly ; gradually and slightly 
tapering posteriorly; the integument is translucent and the internal 
median organs show quite distinctly; lateral organs voluminous, ex- 
tending the whole length of the body along each side, and showing 
through as dull yellowish white mottlings. Head continuous with the 

n;:;i ] ixvi-:i:THr>KATK ANIMALS OF VL\I;YAIM> sorxn, ETC, 

body, obtuse; a slight groove, usually appearing as a whitish line on 
each side, runs obliquely across the ventral and lateral surface of tin- 
head, diverging from the mouth and curving somewhat, lorward a! tin- 
sides; terminal pore small and inconspicuous; mouth, or ventral pore, 
small. Ocelli numerous, arranged as in the figure, but varying some- 
what in number. (See p. 325.) Color dull yellowish, or yellowish white, 
often tinged with, deeper yellow or orange anteriorly, with the median 
line lighter ; a reddish internal organ shows through as an elongated 
red spot between the posterior ocelli. 

Length, 50 lnm to 70 mm ; breadth, 2.5 mm to 3 nim . 

New Haven to Vineyard Sound ; under stones, between tides. 

POLINA GLUTINOSA Yerrill, sp. nov. Plate XIX, fig. 97. (p. 324.) 

Body rather slender and elongated in extension, usually broadest in 
the middle and tapering to both ends, but quite versatile in form ; head 
not distinct, usually obtuse ; posterior end narrower, usually obtuse or 
slightly emarginate ; integument soft, secreting a large quantity of mu- 
cus ; the lateral organs extend to the head. Ocelli numerous, variable 
in number, usually eight or ten on each side, arranged in three pairs of 
short, oblique, divergent rows, two to four in each ; terminal pore of the 
head moderately large ; no lateral fossaa could be detected. There ap- 
pears to be a terminal opening at the posterior end. Color dull yellow 
or pale orange yellow, sometimes brighter orange, especially anteriorly; 
posteriorly usually lighter, with a faintly marked dusky or greenish 
median line. 

Length, 25 imn to 30 mm in extension ; breadth, 1.3 ram to 2 rani . 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Vineyard Sound; low- water 
mark to G fathoms. 

MONOCELIS AGILIS Leidy. (p. 325.) 

Marine Invert. Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 11 (143), 1855. 
Monops (?) agilis Diesing, Sitzungsberichto der kais, Akad. der Wissenschaf- 
ten, vol. xly* p. 232, 1882 (non Monops agilis Schultze, sp.) 

New Haven; Point Judith, Kb ode Island, at low-water, creeping on 
Mytilus cdulis (Leidy). 


Op. cit. p. 208. Acmostomum creniilatum Schmarda, Neue wirbell. Th., vol. i, 
p. 1, 3, PI. I, fig. 2 (t. Diesing). 

Hoboken, New Jersey, in brackish water (Schmarda). 


Body very long and slender, almost filiform, slightly flattened, with 
rounded sides ; the flat sides are longitudinally striated, the narrower 
rounded sides are marked with numerous short, distinct, separate, trans- 
verse lines or depressions, corresponding to opaque internal organs. Jn 
one of the smaller specimens one end is acute conical, terminated by a 


slender incurved point; the other end is obtusely rounded, depressed 
and translucent at the end, apparently with a transverse orifice beneath. 
The largest specimen, and one of the smaller, has one end correspond- 
ing in form to that last described ; the other is rounded, a little enlarged, 
subtruncate, apparently with a terminal orifice. A yellowish internal 
organ, with transverse divisions, runs along each side internally. In life 
the color wag grayish white, with four very slender doable longitudinal 
lines of dark slate-color. 

Length of largest specimens, in alcohol, S0 !nm ; diameter, 0.7' 11 " 1 ; small- 
est ones, 40 mm ; diameter, 0.5 inm . 

AYood's Hole, swimming very actively at the surface in the evening, 
June 29 and July 13, 1871. 

This species was taken by Mr. S. I. Smith, who recorded the color. I 
did not observe it myself in the living state. The above description 
was made from preserved specimens. Its characters cannot all be made 
out satisfactorily with alcoholic specimens, and its generic and family 
affinities are uncertain. In general appearance, when living and moving, 
it resembles Gordlun and Rliamplwyordiux. 


STYLOCIIOPSIS LITTORALIS Verrill, sp. uov. Plate XIX, tig. 99. (p. 3i'.j.) 
Body flat with thin margins, very changeable in form, broad oval, 
elliptical or oblong, rounded or sub-truncate at the ends, often with the 
margins undulated. The tentacles are small, round, obtuse, translu- 
cent, each containing an elongated group of about ten or twelve minute 
black ocelli on the anterior surface. The tentacles are situated at about 
the anterior fourth of the body, and are separated by about one-fourth 
of its breadth. Dorsal ocelli about eight, forming four groups of two 
each, in advance of the tentacles; marginal ocelli numerous, small, 
black, most conspicuous beneath, and most numerous on the anterior 
portion, arranged in two or more irregular rows near the margin, ex- 
tending back to the middle of the sides or beyond. Color pale greenish 
or brownish yellow, veined or reticulated with lighter, and with a light 
median stripe posteriorly; beneath flesh-color, with a median elongated 
light spot, narrowest in the middle, due to internal organs. 
Length, 8 mm ; breadth, about 6 mm . 
New Haven to Vineyard Sound ; under stones, between tides. 

PLANOCERA NEBULOSA Girard. Plate XIX, fig. 100. (p. 325.) 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1H53, vol. 
vi, p. 367, 1854. 

Savin Bock nearXew Haven, under stones at low-water. Charleston, 
S. C. (Girard). 

LEPTOPLANA FOLIUM Verrill, sp. uov. (p. 487.) 

Body very flat, with the margin thin and undulated ; outline versatile, 
usually cordate or leaf-like, broadest and emarginate posteriorly, the 


posterior borders well rounded, and the side. a little convex, narrowing 
loan obtuse point at the Anterior end; sometimes oblong or elliptical, 
and but little narrowed anteriorly; the posterior emarginut ion is usually 
very distinct, often deep, and sometimes in contraction has a small pro- 
jecting angular point in the middle, but at times the emargination nearly 
disappears. Ocelli in four groups, near the anterior end; the two posterior 
clusters arc 1 smaller than the anterior and wider apart; the anterior 
clusters are very near the others, and close together, almost blending 
on the median line, and are composed of numerous very minute crowded 
ocelli, less distinct than those of the other clusters. Color pale yel- 
lowish flesh-color, veined with dentritic lines of darker flesh color, or 
with whitish ; an indistinct pale reddish spot behind the anterior 
ocelli; an interrupted longitudinal whitish stripe in the middle, due to 
the internal organs, and a small median whitish stripe posteriorly. 

Length, 20" im to 25 inin ; breadth, 10 nim to 15 mm . 

Off Watch Hill, 4 to 6 fathoms, among rocks and algae; off Block 
Island, in 29 fathoms; off Blizzard's Bay, in 25 fathoms. 

PLANARIA GRISEA Yerrill, sp. nov. (p. 487.) 

Body elongated and usually oblong in extension, often long oval or 
somewhat elliptical, obtusely pointed or rounded posteriorly ; head sub- 
truncate in front, often a little prominent in the middle ; the angles 
are somewhat prominent, but riot elongated. Ocelli two, black, each sur- 
rounded by a reniform, white spot. Color yellowish green or grayish. 
with a central whitish stripe in the middle of the back, surrounded 
by darker; head margined with whitish. 

Length, in extension, I2 mm ; breadth, 3 !mn . 

Watch Hill, Khode Island, under stones, between tides. 


Proceedings Boston Soc. Natural History, vol. iii, p. 251, 1351; Stimpsou, op. 
cit., p. 6, 1857. PlaHttria frcquens Leidy, Marine Invert. Fauna of Rhode Island 
and New Jersey, p. 11, 1655. Procerodes freqnens Stimpsou, on. cit., p. 6 ; this 
Report, p. 325. 

New Haven to Casco Bay. Point Judith (Leidy). Manchester, Mas- 
sachusetts (Girard). Abundant under stones, between tides. 

FoviA AYARRENii Girdrcl. (p. 480.) 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. iv, p. 211, 1859; 
Stimpsou, Prodromus, p. 6, 1857. Vortex irarrenii Girard, op. cit., vol. iii, pp. 
264 and 363, 1851 ; Diesing, op. cit., vol. xiv, p. 229, 1862. 

A small, narrow, oblong, red Planarian, apparently belonging to this 
species, was collected at Wood's Hole, among eel-grass, and also in 
Casco Bay. Chelsea, Massachusetts (Girard). 


BDELLOURA CANDIDA Girard. (p. 460.) 

Proceedings Boston Society Natural History, vol. iv, p. 211,1852. Vortex can- 
dida Girard, op. cit., vol. iii, p. 264, (for 1850), 1851. lidcUoura jMiro*iitca Leidy, 
Proceedings Academy Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1851, vol. v, p. 242. 
1852; Stiinpson, Prodroiuus, p. 6, 1857. 

Great E<ror Harbor: New Haven : Massachusetts Bay. Parasitic on 

rt o " " / * 

the gills of the "horseshoe-crab" (Limulus Polyphemus). 

Proceedings Acad. Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v, p. 212, l-.vj : 
Stiinpson, Prodromus, p. 6, 1857. 

Great Egg Harbor, on Viva latissima (Leidy). 

PONTONEMA MAROUM Leidy. Plate XVII I, fig. 94. (p. 325.) 

Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and Xc\v Jersey, p. 12 (144), 1 .-:,:. 

Great Egg Harbor to New Haven and Vineyard Sound; very abund- 
ant from above low-water mark to 10 fathoms. 


Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Rhode Island and New Jersey, p. 12 (144). Is .">.">. 

Great Egg Harbor' to Vineyard Sound, with the preceding. 

Various other small, free Nematodes are frequently met with, but 
they have not been carefully examined. 

Numerous species are also parasitic in the stomach, intestine, muscles 
and other organs of fishes, Crustacea, worms, S:c. (See page 456.) 

.11 O I. L U S C A . 



LoJigo illecebrosa Lesueur, Journal Acad. Natural Sciences. Philadelphia, vol. ii, 
p. 95, Plate 10, 1321 ; Gould, Invertebrata of Massachusetts, ed. i, p. 318. 
1841 ; Dekay, Natural History of New York, Mollusca, p. 4, 1S43. Ommastrephet 
8(tgittatii8 Biuuey,* in Gould's Invertebrata of Mass., ed. ii, p. 510, 1870, but 
not Plate 25, fig. 339 (non Lamarck, sp.) 

A large specimen, taken at Eastport, Maine, was ten inches long, ex- 
clusive of the arms. When preserved in alcohol the caudal-fin was 
rather more than one-third of the length of the head and body together : 
its width was equal to about three-fourths of its length. The colors of 
this specimen were described on page 442. A small specimen from 
Newport, E. I., agrees in color and most other respects with the larger 
specimens, but differs somewhat in the proportions, especially of the 
caudal fin, probably owing to its immaturity. This specimen, in alcohol, 

* Biuney's. Plate xxvi, Figs. 341-344, erroneously referred to Lnl'xjo^ paro. appar- 
ently represents this species. 


is Si""" long, exclusive of the arms; the body is 7L"" 1 " long, 1."")""" IIP 
the caudal lin is IT)""" long and ;jJ 1MI " broad. 

A fresh specimen, caught in Casc,o I Jay, had the following propor- 
tions : Length of liead and body, not including (lie arms, L'Ul""" ; length 
of caudal fin, 8<>"" u ; breadth of fin, DO" 11 "; .diameter of bod 
length of upper arms, 80 m111 j of second pair, 100""" ; of third pair, 1<" 
of extensile arms, 182 1 " 111 ; of the ventral pair, 90""". 

Greenport, Long Island, (Sanderson Smith) ; Newport, Rhode Island ; 
Pro vince town, Massachusetts ; Casoo Bay ; Mount Desert, Maine; Bay 
of Fuudy. 

Ommastrephes Barlt-amll (Lesueur, sp.) is found, in the Gulf Stream off 
our coasts, and may sometimes occur accidentally on our shores. It is 
a more slender and elongated species than the preceding, with a rela- 
tively shorter caudal iin. It is also darker colored. The figure given 
by Binney in the last edition of Gould's Invertebrata of Massachusetts 
(Plate 25, fig. 310) does not represent this species. 

LOLIGO PEALII Lesueur. Plate XX, figs. 102-105. (p. 440.) 

Journal Acad. Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, vol. ii, p. 92, PI. 8, 1821; Dekay, 
Natural History of New York, Mollusca, p. 4, PI. 33, fig. 354 (copied from 
Lesneur) ; Binuey, in Gould's Invertebrata of Mass., ed. ii, p. 514 (PL 
25, fig. 340,) probably represents this species, certainly not 0. Bartramii.) 

South Carolina to Massachusetts Bay. Very common in Long Island 
Sound and Vineyard Sound. 

The young, from an inch to two inches in length, were taken from the 
middle of July to the last of August in great numbers, at the surface, 
in Vineyard Sound, by Mr. Vinal X. Edwards. 


Natural History of New York, Molhisca, p. 3, PI. I, fig. 1, 1343; Binney, in 
Gould's Invertebrata of Mass., ed. ii, p. 513. 

This is probably identical with the preceding species. The slight 
differences noticed are probably sexual, but as I have not. been able to 
fully satisfy myself in regard to this, I have not thought it proper to 
unite them at this time. 

Long Island Sound. 

LOLIG-O PALLIDA Verrill, sp. nov. Plate XX, figs. 101, lOla. (p. 441.) 
Body stout, tapering rapidly backward. Anterior border of mantle 
with a prominent, obtusely rounded, median dorsal lobe, from which the 
margin recedes on each side; on the lower side the margin is concave 
in the middle, with a projecting angle on each side. Caudal fin hirge. 
about as broad as long, more than half as long as the body. Siphon 
large and stout 5 upper pair of arms considerably smaller and shorter 
than the others, slender at tips, margined along the inner dorsal ridge 
with a thin membrane. Second pair of arms stouter and longer, triqiie- 
tral, slightly margined on the outer angle. Third pair much stouter and 
considerably longer, with a membranous fold along the middle oi 


outer surface, which expands into a thin membrane toward the end. 
Tentacular arms long and slender, in extension longer than the body, 
the portion that bears suckers forming about one-third the whole 
length ; in the female the larger suckers on the middle of this portion 
are not so large as the largest on the other arms, and are arranged in 
about four rows; those near the tips of the arms are very small and 
crowded. In the male the principal suckers of the tentacular arms are 
very much larger than in the female, and considerably exceed those of 
the other arms ; they form two alternating rows along the middle of the 
arm, and external to them there is a row of smaller suckers on each side, 
alternating with them; the suckers toward the tips are very numerous, 
small, and crowded ; outside of the suckers, on each side, there is a mar- 
ginal membrane with a scolloped edge; another membranous fold runs 
along the outer surface and expands into a broad membrane near the 
end; the arms of the ventral pair are intermediate in length between 
those of the second and third pairs. Ground-color of body, head, arms, 
and fins pale, translucent, yellowish white ; entire ventral surface pale, 
with small, distant, brownish circular spots, which are nearly obsolete on 
the siphon and arms; the upper surface is covered with pale brown, 
unequal, circular spots which are not crowded, having spaces of whitish 
between them ; the spots are more sparse on the head and arms, but 
somewhat clustered above the eyes. The general appearance of the 
animal when fresh is unusually pale and gelatinous. The "pen" is 
broad, quill-shaped, translucent, and amber-colored. A medinm-si/ed 
male specimen preserved in alcohol measures 145 lnm from the base of the 
dorsal arms to the posterior end of the body ; length of body, 120 111111 ; 
length of caudal fin, 70 mm ; breadth of fin, 75 min ; length of first pair of 
arms, 42 mm ; of second pair, 50 mm ; of third, GO"" 11 ; of tentacular arms, 
150 mm ; of ventral pair, 53""". 
Long Island Sound. 

The Spinila Pcronii Lamarck, (Spirula fragilis in Binney's Gould, p. 
516, fig. 755), is occasionally cast up, on the outer beaches of Nan tucket, 
but it probably does not occur alive in our waters. 



BELA HARPULARIA Adams. Plate XXI, fig. 108. (p. 508.) 

H. and A. Adams, Genera of Recent Mollusca, vol. i, p. 92, 1858 ; Gould's Invertc- 
brata of Mass., ed. ii, p. 352, fig. 191. Fiisus Itarpularius Conthony, Boston 
Journal Natural History, vol. ii, p. 106, PI. 1, fig. 10, 1838; Gould's Iiiverte- 
brata of Mass., ed. i, p. 291, fig. 191, 1841. Mangdia harpularia Stimpson, Shells 
of New England, page 48, 1851. 

Massachusetts Bay to Labrador and Greenland. Off Gay Head, 10 
to 19 fathoms ; in the Bay of Fuudy frequent in from 1 to 80 fathoms. 
Fossil in the Post-Pliocene u Leda-clays" of Labrador (Packard); and 
Canada (Dawson). 

[<;::: ) INVERT KI-, RATH ANIMALS OF VINKYAIJD 80UNi^ I-:TC. ,'5-1,'j 


II. and A, Adams, Genera of Recen I Mollusca, vol. 1, p. 92, 1868; (Jonid, I* 

of Mass., <<!. ii, p. I'..")."), iig. (W5. /<W* jilrurnliinturiux ( 'out IIOIIN -, l',<fon .loimiiil 
*of Natural History, vol. ii,p. 107, Plato 1, fig. U, 1H:W. 7'M*/ //// (Jmild, Ii, 
df MaSS., ed. i, p. 190, flg. 192 (non Montagu). Hmvinitni. i>i/niiniil>il< Sti.",i- 
A.Dan.iii,p.29i,fig.22 (t. Loven), Defrancla I'dhir, ( r.c.-k) Molln-, l-j-j (t. 
Loven). M<t</elia pnjam'uhdi* Stimpson, Shells of New Kngliind, p. l:. 

Off the coast of Long Island, in 46 fathoms (Stimpson). Massachu- 
setts Bay to Labrador ; in Casco Bay and tbe Bay of Fundy not uncom- 
mon in 18 to 60 fathoms. Greenland (Moller). Fimnark (Lovcn). 
Fossil in the Post-Pliocene deposits of Canada, Labrador, Great Britain, 
and Scandinavia. 

The identification of this species with the Buccinum pyramid-ale Striim, 
is somewhat uncertain ; if correct, the latter name has priority. 

BELA PLICATA Adams. Plate XXI, fig. 107. (p. 383.) 

H. and A. Adams, Genera of Recent Mollusca, vol. i, p. 92, 1858. J'lciiroloina pll- 
cata C. B. Adams, Boston Journal of Natural History, vol. iii, p. 318, Plate 3, 
fig. 6; Gould, Invert, of Mass., ed. i, p. 282, fig. 187; ed. ii, p. 350, fig. 612. 
Plcurotoma plicosa C. B. Adams, Contributions to Coucbology, vol. i, p. 54, 1850 ; 
Jay, Catalogue, ed. iv, p. 327. Plenroioma Irnnnea Perkins, Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. History, vol. xiii, p. 121, 1869. 

Xear New Haven, rare. Huutington and Greenport, Long Island 
(Sanderson Smith). New York (Dekay). Dartmouth, Massachusetts, 
and New Bedford Harbor, in mud, (C. B. Adams). Beaufort, N. C. (Dr. 
E. Coues). Indian Pass, Florida (E. Jewett). 


Verrill, American Journal of Science, vol. iii, p. 210, 187'2. Pleurotoma cerinitm 
Kurtz and Stimpson, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
vol. iv, p. 115, 1851 ; Stimpson, Shells of New England, p. 49, PI. 2, fig. 2, 1851. 

Shell elongated, fusiform, rather acute at apex, composed of about 
seven whorls; apical whorls smooth, the others angulated in the middle 
and decidedly flattened just below the suture ; suture distinct, but 
shallow, undulated ; the body whorl has about eleven prominent, longi- 
tudinal, sub-aciite plications or ribs, separated by wide, concave inter- 
spaces. The ribs are most prominent at the angulation above the middle 
of the lower whorl, and do not extend on the flattened sub-sutural band. 
The whole surface is covered by fine, raised, revolving lines, often 
alternately larger and smaller, separated by wider stria3, and crossed by 
fine, distinct lines of growth, rendering them slightly nodulous. The 
revolving lines are most distinct on the sub-sutural band, and are often 
nearly obsolete over the summits of the ribs. Outer lip acute, with a 
decided angle at about the posterior fourth, where it recedes to form a 
decided, rounded notch, at and just above the angle; middle portion 
nearly straight, gradually curving and receding toward the anterior end; 
canal short, straight, and somewhat contracted. Color whitish, or 
slightly yellow ; inner surface light wax-yellow.. Length, G.5 nira ; breadth, 
O f aperture, 3 ml ". 


Vineyard Sound, 3 to 10 fathoms; near New Haven. Xew Bedford, 
Mass., and Charleston, S. C. (Stimpson). Staten Island ; Greenport 
and Huntington, Long Island, low water to 3 fathoms, (S. Jmith). 
Beaufort, N. C. (Coues). Fossil in the Post-Pliocene of South Carolina. 
PLEUROTOMA BICARINATUM Conthouy. Plate XXf, fig. 100. (p. 418.) 

Boston Journal of Natural History, vol. ii, p. 104, Plate 1, fig. 11, 1838; Gould, 
Invert, of Mass., ed. i, p. 231, fig. 186 ; ed. ii, p. 349, iig. 6 IX iriuiyella bicariimta 
Stiinpson, Shells of New England, p. 49. Defrancia bicariuala 11. and A. Adams> 
Genera .of Mollusca, vol. i, p. 95. 

Stoningtou, Conn. (Linsley). Vineyard Sound, 6 to 12 fathoms, rare; 
Massachusetts Bay; Bay of Fundy. This is a rare and imperfectly 
known species. I have never had opportunities to examine the living 

The generic relations of this and the two preceding shells are still 
BUCCINUM ITNDATUM Liiine. Plate XXI, fig. 121. (p. 401.) 

System a Nature, eel. xii, p. 1204. Gould, Invertebrate of MassachusHls, cd. i, 
1 1.305; ed. ii, p. :><;il, tig. (!31. liiiccinuiu iinditlatum Mo'ller, in Kroyer's Tids- 
skrit't, vol. iv, p. 84, 1842 (t. Stinipsou). Stimpsou, Review of the Northern 
Buccinnrns, in Canadian Naturalist, October, ls(;r>. /Incnnuni Lalradorcnse 
Reeve, Couch. Icon., vol. iii, Buc. i. 5, 1846 (t. Stimpsou). 

Mouth of Vineyard Sound and off Gay Head, G to 19 fathoms. Off 
New Jersey, north latitude 40, west longitude 73, in 32 fathoms, 
sandy bottom, (Captain Gedney). 

Near Stoningtou, Conn. (Linsley) ; Mdntauk Point, Long Island, 
and Little Gull Island (S. Smith). Not common south of Cape Cod, 
except on the outer islands and in deep water ; common in Massachu- 
setts Bay; and very abundant on the coast of Maine, and northward to 
Greenland. On the European coast it occurs from Iceland and the 
North Cape to France, and from low water to 650 fathoms. In the Bay 
of Fundy it is abundant from above low-water mark to 100 fathoms. 

As a fossil it is common in the Post-Pliocene deposits of Maine, Can- 
ada, Labrador, and Great Britain. Mr. Desor obtained it from the Post- 
Pliocene formation of Nantucket Island. 

The ordinary American specimens from shallow water differ consider- 
ably in form from the typical European specimens, but the species is 
quite variable on both coasts, and I have examined large specimens 
from Saint George's Bank and La Have Bank, dredged by Mr. S. I. 
Smith, which differ very little from the common European form, and it 
is easy to form series connecting these with our common shore speci- 
mens. I am, therefore, unable to agree with Dr. Stimpson, who con- 
sidered our shell distinct from the European, and adopted the name 
undulatum for it. 

Fusus corneus Say, Amer. Couch., iii, Plate 29, 1831 (MOM Liuue", Pennant, etc.). 
Fusus Islandicus Goulcl, Invert, of Mass., ed. i, p. 284; ed. ii, p. 371, fig. i!:',^ 
(non Chemnitz, Gmelin, etc.). Fusus curt us Jeffreys, British Couchology, vol. 
iv, p. 336, 1867. 


Massachusetts Hay to Labrador. Casr,o j'.ay, (J to ,~,o fallioins; com- 
mon in the P;iy of Fnndy from low-water mark to 80 fathoms. Kinsley 
reports it, as /'\cnnn'Hn, from fish-stomachs at StoningtoD, Connecticut, 
Jn the Yale Museum are dead shells of this species, which have ; 
occupied by .Hup<ifinri, found on Fire Island lieach,on the south side of 
Long Island, by Mr. H. 1. Smith. It probably inhabits the deep water 
oil' Block Island. 

The dentition of this species is decidedly bnccinoid. The central 
plates are transversely oblong, deeply concave above, with the lateral 
angles produced 5 below armed with three small, nearly equal, short teeth, 
the central one largest, beyond which, on each side, it is concave, the outer 
angles being a little prominent. The lateral plates are large, with an 
outer, very strong, curved tooth, and two much smaller, slightly curved 
ones near the inner end, the innermost being slightly the largest. 

The dentition agrees very closely with that of N. cuitiqua, the type 
both of the genus 'Neptunea, Bolton, 179S, and Chrysodomus, Swainsou, 
1840, but it is very different from that of Sipho Berniciensis (S. Island- 
icus Trosch.), which Troschel refers to the Faciolaridce. The latter is 
evidently the type of a genus (Sipho) very distinct from Neptunea; but 
among the European species, gracilis, propiiiqua, buccinata, and the true 
Islandica (as described by Jeffreys) are closely related to curta, and be- 
long to the genus Neptunea, in the family Buccinida3. 

XEPTUNEA (Xeptunella) PYGM^EA. Plate XXI, fig. 115. (p. 508.) 

Fnsns IslandicuSj var. pycjmmis, Gould, Invert, of Mass., ed. i, p. 284, fig. 199, 
1841. Tritonium pygmwnm Stimpson, Shells of New England, p. 46, 1851. 
FttSHS Tnimlullii Linsley, Amer. Journal Science, ser. i, vol. xlviii, p. 28, fig. 
1, 2, 1845 (non Gould, 1818). Fastis pygmce