THE LIBRARY OF THE
AT CHAPEL HILL
THE COLLECTION OF
FOR USE ONLY IN
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION
MINE AND MILLS,
ESTIMATES FOR THE USE OF THE
NORTH CAROLIM GOLD AMALGAMATING CO.
[Chartered by the Worth Carolina Iiegislature, Jan. 30, 1874.]
General f. J. CRAM,
U. 8. CORPS OF EKQINEEKS (RETlttED) ACTINO AS COSC UTISI ENOI'^EKR.
TOOBTHBU WITH THE
PRINTER, 705 JAYN
Map entitled Plan sketch of the
N.C. Gold Amalgamating Company's
gold mine and gold extracting
mills, etc., at Gold Hill, Rowan
Co., N.C. shelved separately as
Digitized by the Internet Archive
List of Opficees 5
I. Charter of the Company 7
• II. Localit_y of the Gold Hill Mine, and Character of its Sur-
roundings .......... 7
III. Description of the Mine (with a Plan of the Company's Pro-
perty at Gold Hill, Rowan Co., N. C.) 8
IV. Character and Quantity of the Ore the Gold Hill Mine affords 10
V. Brief History of the Former Workings of the Mine. Chilian
Process of Extracting the Gold. Product obtained. Amount
YI. The Crosby Process for Extracting not only the Free Gold, ^
but likewise the Gold and Silver with it, which are tena-
ciously held combined in the Sulphuret ores ; also for Ex-
tracting the Copper contained in them 14
VII. Experimental Results of Working the Crosby Mill on a Large
Scale in Virginia . .17
VIII. Operations of Mr. Howes and the Associate Owners concern-
ing the Mill, subsequent to the foregoing Experiments . . 17
IX. Operations from the time of Discovering Ifr. Howes' inability
to fulfil his Agreements to the time of President Hulme's
Sudden Death 19 —
X. Action after Mr. Hulme's Funeral, to the 1st July . . 20
XI. Elements or Data by which to Estimate the Profits to be ex-
pected from working the Crosby Process at this Mine . . 23
XII. Assays of the Gold Hill Ores 24
XIII. Probable Profits to the Company from the Mine and Crosby
XIV. Policy of Working the Mine 28
XV. Schedule and Cash Valuation of the Company's Property at
Gold Hill " . 31
XVI. Valuation of the Mine Exclusive of the Value of the Pro-
perty Sclieduled in XV 31
A. Charter 33
B. Testimony as to the Value of the Gold Hill Mines . . .36
C. Balance Sheet 36
OFFICERS OF THE CORPORATION.
LLOYD P. SMITH.
Vice-President and Consulting Engineer.
Bvt.-Maj.-Gkn'l THOS. JKFFERSON CRAM,
U. S. Corps Engineers, U. S. Army (retired.)
Secretary and Treasurer.
WILLIAM F. MITCHELL.
B. ARTHUR MITCHELL, Esq.
Counsel of the Company in Salisbury, North Carolina.
WILLIAM H. BAILEY, Esq.
General Manager of Mines and Mills.
Prof. AUGUSTINE B. CROSBY.
Lloyd P. Smith,
Gen'l T. J. Ckam,
Joseph G. Mitchell,
B. A. Mitchell,
A. B. Crosby,
Dr. J. D. Mitchell
Barton H. .Jenks,
E E P O R T .
I. Charter of the Company.
This is highly favorable, authorizing the Company to
issue and increase from time to time its capital stock to the
extent of §2,500,000 ; to erect mills with ample machinery
for working ores, to extract therefrom the precious and
other metals by any process ; to purchase and own mines,
and exercise all operations for mining the ores ; also to issue
mortgages upon its property, and coupon bonds or other
evidences of indebtedness for the purposes of raising funds
for carrying on its legitimate operations : and one condition
of the charter is that the stockholders shall not be held respon-
sible beyond tbe assets of the corporation, thereby not holding
them individually liable.
II. Locality of the Gold Hill Mine, and Description
OF ITS Surroundings.
This celebrated valuable mine is situated in Eowan County,
North Carolina, fourteen miles southeasterly from the town
of Salisbury. Railroads are continuous from Philadelphia
and other cities to Salisbury ; but thence to the mine travel
is by the county road. The time for reaching the mine
from Philadelphia is twenty-six hours.
The real estate upon which this mine is situated contains
about 800 acres of land, a large portion of which is good
for farming. On this tract a town called Gold Hill has
sprung up, containing a population of about 1000, all more
or less dependent upon the operations of the mine.
This mining property is surrounded by an old well-settled
farming country furnishing all the necessaries of life in great
abundance and cheap in prices ; and possessing a very
healthy, mild, and salubrious climate all the year round.
The large timber tracts in the vicinity of the mine furnish
an ample supply of cheap lumber and fuel. The Company lias
contracted for its yearly consumption of fuel for its steam
engines to the amount of 12,000 cords, delivered and piled
in its mill yards, at the prices of $1.25, $1.50, and $1.75
per cord, according to the quality.
Common labor, and mechanical and raining labor, ranges
from $1 to $2, $2.50, and $3 per day, according to the skill
and aptitude of the men.
III. Description of the Mine.
Mr. Emmons, as State Geologist of North Carolina, in
1856, made a survey topographical map with sections of
this mine. His report of it teems with valuable practical
information concerning its productions.
Professor Genth, geologist, has since examined and re-
ported upon its ores, the process of treating them for the
extraction of the gold in use in 1871, and the product of the
More recently, several mining experts of ability and ex-
tended experience have explored the mine, and pronounced
the highest opinion upon its value.
As Consulting Engineer of the Company I made an ex-
tended visit to the mine last March, for the purpose of
testing the Crosby Process for the treatment of the ores,
examining the machinery and capacity of the mine in its
then condition for production and future development ; also
for forming a probable estimate of the amount of immediate
capital required to improve the mine and construct the ne-
cessary mills for producing \ large amount of gold and
This mine has three veins, differing somewhat in extent
running nearly in parallel directions N. 48° W., and sepa-
rated by about 250 feet, and designated as follows. (See
accompanying sketch which contains the portions of the
The " West Vein" (about one mile in extent) containing
the "Earnhardt Shaft" 250 feet deep; the "South Shaft"
450 feet deep ; the " Centre Shaft" 600 feet deep ; and the
" Randolph Shaft" 750 feet deep.
The " East Vein" (about three-quarters of a mile in extent)
containing the " Barnhart Shaft" 350 feet deep; the "Old
Shaft" and the " Lounder & Co. Shaft" of less depth, though
not exactly measured.
The " Middle Vein" (three-quarters of a mile in extent)
containing two or more shafts, formerly worked, since aban-
doned, of considerable depth. The main street or highway
passing through the town follows along this vein. At the
eastern end of this vein are the "old fields," where small veins
of very rich ore have been found.
The extents above given to the several veins are all con-'
fined to the Company's property. But the extent of vein
upon which shafts have been sunk does not exceed 900 feet
on either vein ; leaving a large extent of vein, some 4000
feet yet unpenetrated with deep shafts and drifts. There is
no reason why these unpenetrated parts shall not yield as
much or even more than the parts of the veins which have
been mined. But there is no necessity for sinking new
shafts to find the rich ore. The Company has only to sink
the Randolph and Barnhart Shafts 100 feet deeper, extend
the present drifts from these shafts, and also new drifts at
a level of 50 feet below these, to meet with very rich ore, to
any required amount.
The existing shafts are sunk vertically, in diameter 8 to
10 feet for some, and from 14 to 16 feet for others, in rectan-
gular shape of horizontal section, and lateral drifts or gal-
leries are run at various depths from the shafts into the ore
veins. The thickness of the veins varies from 6 inches up
to 4 feet, and even to 7 feet in some places. The walls of
the veins are mostly " talcose-slate" rock. Pumping is re-
quired to keep the shafts clear of water, and drilling and
blasting are necessary to sink the shafts, also to loosen the
ore, which is lifted up by proper machinery to the ground
surface, whence it is carted oft' to the mill for extracting the
Besides the mills, buildings, and roofings, whims, and
shafts seen on the sketch, there are other dwellings, and a
large amount of valuable machinery, tools, and other movable
property on the Company's property which are of use to the
There is a peculiar feature greatly enhancing the value
of this mine, and this is the fact patent to all mining en-
gineers who have examined it, that the veins of the ore are
continuous, and confined between walls so perfectly defined,
that there is a striking resemblance to a coal or iron mine
in that the gold ore does not exist in pockets, which are so
liable to be soon exhausted after great expense of labor to
reach them, as is so often the case in many western aurife-
The Gold Hill Mine is apparently what may be called the
chimney, or summit of the gold bearing ridge or upheaval
of 30 to 40 miles in extent in that part of North Carolina,
and which is rich in sulphurets.
IV. Character and Quantity of the Ore the Gold
Hill Mine affords.
Its gold bearing veins consist of quartz, talcose-slate, and
sulphurets of copper and iron, with the gold, and sometimes
a small percentage of silver mixed in, in particles so fine,
generally, as not to be apparent to the naked eye. In the
ore there is contained a certain quantity of gold that is re-
garded as free, not tenanciously held in the sulphurets, and
which is easy to extract; while in the sulphurets there is
held a much larger proportion of the gold that is far more
difficult to extract from the ore. As the shafts are sunk
deeper, less of the former kind is met with and more of
the latter is fouud. Again, in the veins ores of different
yields of gold are encountered, denqininated " poor," "good,"
"rich," according to the relative quantity of the precious
metals they contain to the ton of 2000 lbs. of ore. Profit-
able working, however, is not exclusively confined to the
"good" or "rich;" the "poor" may be advantageously
worked, depending upon the cost of mining and expense of
extracting the gold.
From evidence given to me by several of the former
owners, and workers of this mine, men of experience and
ability, with whom I have had free personal intercourse,
several of whom I am happy to say have made large fortunes
from their working, and good management of this deposit
of wealth ; from information derived from official surveys,
and reports of geologists; from conversations with min-
ing experts, and engineers who have examined it, and from
my own personal observation and study of the mine on the
ground, it is most conclusively shown, and in my opinion
proven beyond the possibility of doubt, that its ores are yet
abundant in free gold, and, I may say, immense in that con-
tained in the sulphurets — showing no signs of failure; but
as the shafts are sunk deeper and drifts extended from levels,
the quality of the latter will be found to increase and they
V. Brief History ofthe Former Workings of the Mine.
Chilian Process of Extracting the Gold. Product
obtained. Amount lost.
This mine has been worked spasmodically, I may say, in
various periods from 1842 to 'the present time — 32 years;
the pure gold ore having been treated mostly by the process
known as the Chilian. During the war all gold operations
were interrupted, and books and records destroyed, and the
sulphuret ore was treated for obtaining sulphur for the Con-
federate army's use.
In 1870-71, Mr. Amos Howes resumed operations and
has worked the mine to the 1st of June, 1874, about three
The Howes Mill house is seen represented as No. 5 on
the sketch, containing " Chilian Stones" — the requisite
"Jaw crushers," "drags," " rockers," steam engines, pumps,
In the thirty-two years the mine has been worked, I am
satisfied, and so is Mr. Crosby, the Company's General Man-
ager of the mine and mills — that $5,000,000 worth of free
gold, in the ore has been produced, but at what profit, in
the whole ^^er ton of the ore, it is impossible to state, not
knowing the total number of tons used, nor the expense of
mining, nor the expense of extracting the gold by the Chi-
lian process for the whole period of that product.
Mr. Crosby estimates the cost of producing this $5,000,000
at $2,250,000 ; leaving a net of $2,750,000 to the producers.
In Mr. Emmons' report, already referred to, I find it
stated, " in the years of 1854-56, for a period of nineteen
consecutive months, during which all that was worked was
" poor" ore from the Earnhardt Shaft, " west vein," the
product, as shown from the books of the company, was
$136,636.76, and the expenses were $76,429.00, leaving a net
profit (for nineteen months) of $60,207.76." But as the
report does not state the number of tons of all the ore used,
I cannot give the net profit per ton ; still we perceive that
the handsome net of $3168.83 per month average for that
period, was realized from the ore denominated " poor."
In Mr. Howes' three years period of working, he claims
to have produced $200,000, using up 8400 tons of ore, re-
alizing an average of $23.81 per ton. And he claims to
have saved by his Chilian Mill process, 33 per cent, of all
the gold in the ore used. He has not sunk the shafts an
inch, nor extended the drifts of any consequence, but worked
what was left in the mine by the miners.
Embraced in this product there was a special result which
I adduce to show the appropriateness of the terms " poor,"
" good," and " rich," as applied to the ores in different parts
of the same vein. Out of the Barnliardt shaft 75 tons were
used, from which he realized $15,000 in free gold — a yield
of $200 per ton.
More of the special products I will not present, though
there are plenty of them, for it is far safer for our company
to use results in our calculations of average yields for long
periods of working than to frame hopes upon an expecta-
tion of always finding "rich" or even "good" ores in the
veins. It is safer to take the " poor" with the " good" and
Here I bring prominently to notice the great defects in-
separable from the Chilian process at this important mine, in-
asmuch as it realizes little or nothing, but from the free gold in
the ore, leaving that which is combined tenaciously, whether
chemically or mechanically, in the sulphurets unrealized.
Professor Genth, after careful examination, reports in
1871, that "down to that year only 20 per cent, of the gold
in the ore treated was obtained by the Chilian or other pro-
cesses used from the beginning ; leaving 80 per cent, lost on
account of the imperfect process of the extractions of the
Applying Genth's ratios of per cent., or of the realized
and unrealized, prior to 1871, to Crosby's estimate of the
total amount of gold produced from the mine, it is easy to
see there must have been in all the ore worked by all parties,
$24,600,000 worth, and as $5,000,000 have been saved,
$19,600,000 of gold in the ore must have been unrealized, or
The inability by the processes used to subdue the sul-
phurets, and the non-prevention, in the extraction of the
free gold, of the attenuated particles escaping before amal-
gamating, are the chief causes of the enormous loss.
On a careful analysis of data given me by Mr. Howes
himself I find the cost for milling by the Chilian process
in his mill, has averaged $13.64 per ton of ore worked. He
told me his mill, running continually with three Chilian
stones with the requisite crushers, drags, rockers, etc., 18
hours (the day's work), treated seven tons per day.
He gave as the running cost of raising the ore to the sur-
face and transportation to the mill, $7 per ton.
In going back of Mr. Howes' operations, and even in-
cluding his own, it is probably impossible for any one to
ascertain more accurately than Mr. Crosby has estimated
what the whole amount realized from the mine has cost
under managements good, bad, and indifferent. The high
price, which is increasing, and the inevitable loss of mercury
floating oS" in the process of amalgamating and carrying
with it much of the free gold, in minute particles, are heavy
drawbacks upon the profits of this Chilian process.
Tailings or scoria, from former workings, have been
accumulating since 1842, and, notwithstanding the dissipa-
tion, there is a large quantity in the immediate vicinity of
the mine still left, which, having gone through the crushing
and pulverizing operations of the Chilian mill, and having
been subjected so long to the influence of the atmosphere,
are in a favorable condition to be worked over by any pro-
cess that can extract gold and silver from sulphurets.
These, I find, extend for miles down the ravines, where
they have been washed by the freshets. These tailings, in
my opinion, possess value.
VI. The Crosby Process for Extracting not only
THE Free Gold, but likewise the Gold and Silver
WITH IT, WHICH ARE TENACIOUSLY HELD COMBINED IN
THE SULPHUKET OrES ; ALSO FOR EXTRACTING THE
Copper contained in them.
After recognizing the enormous loss of gold at the Gold
Hill Mine, to say nothing of the vast amounts lost from like
causes at other mines in our country, we shall be able to
appreciate the ingenious eftbrts that have been exerted in
the struggle to overcome these obstinate sulphuret ores.
Of all who have entered the arena for this important pur-
pose, Mr. Crosby, after years of patient study, labor, and
large expenditure of money, regulated by a highly scientific
and practical mind, seems to be the only one who has suc-
cessfully accomplished the desideratum of extracting the
most valuable of the metals from sulphuret ores upon a
scale large enough to meet the demands of the gold and
silver and copper mining wants of our extended country.
And there is no doubt in my mind that ere long this valua-
ble practical process will be introduced in foreign countries
wherever the sulphuret ores exist.
Brief Description of the Crosby Process.
The ore is thrown by hand into a crusher, which
reduces the lumps to the size of a hickory nut and smaller;
thence passing into a pulverizing machine it is reduced to
the size that would go through a mesh of 8 or 10 to the
inch ; thence passing into a heated cylinder which revolves,
carrying the ore around with it, the ore becomes roasted
and all the sulphur utterly burnt out, the fumes and delete-
rious gases escaping through a funnel-shaped chimney into
the upper air, and thus keeping the atmosphere in the mill
healthy for the operatives.
After the ore is sufficiently roasted to completely de-
sulphurize it, it immediately passes through a cooling
trough or tube, laid in cold water, and thence into a
burr m.ill, where between the upper and nether stones it
is ground to powder. In this state the ore is elevated into
leaching tubs, into which water is now also admitted, and
the leaching of the ore is continued six hours; then the
water is drawn off into appropriate vessels in which the
copper is precipitated by iron, and saved. After this, the
ore pulp, which is in a condition of paste freed from copper,
passes into wooden amalgamating tanks, into which the
mercury is let, and the mass is stirred for six hours. This
stirring is done by a belt from the shaft whirling the arms
of the stirrer within the tanks with a properly regulated
velocity. After sufficient stirring, the mass of combined
ore pulp and mercury is diluted with water to the brim of
the tanks, and after six hours drawing off, the amalgam of
gold (holding with it the silver, if any be in the ore) is
found in a close strainer box at the bottom of the amalga-
mating machine, and the free mercury which is left is forced,
by a most ingenious contrivance, back without loss into the
tank to unite with another batch of ore paste which imme-
diately comes in to be amalgamated.
It is evident from this description, I think, that in this
process neither the attenuated particles of gold nor the mer-
cury can escape during the amalgamation, as it all goes on
in close confinement. If not evident from the description,
one has only to examine the machine to be convinced not
only of this fact, but also that all must be saved that is of
any value in gold or silver contained in the ore pulp after
entering the amalgamating tanks. The copper is precipi-
tated and saved without being allowed to enter the amalga-
mating tanks. One might think, that during the roasting,
gold may escape up the chimney in free attenuated parti-
cles, or in combination with gas from the sulphur; and
that there may be an escape of very fine particles of gold
during the grinding. But I understand Mr. Crosby — in
the arrangement and mechanism of his machinery — has
successfully provided for preventing these contingencies, so
as to experience very little, if any, loss of gold or mercury
during the whole action of the mill. The whole process,
from the time when the raw ore enters the crusher to the
time when the amalgam is taken from the strainer box, is
by a continuous motion of the ore passing through the
several machines composing the mill, until reaching the
leaching tubs, with but very little labor in personal
The amalgamation completed, the amalgam is taken
from the strainer box to be retorted in the usual way to
separate the gold and silver from the mercury. The mint
separates the gold from the silver, and returns to the com-
pany the true value of each. The "gold buttons," so
called, coming from this miae are the purest, I am told, of
all received at the Philadelphia mint.
VII. Experimental Results of Working the Crosby
Mill on a Large Scale in Virginia.
Being impressed with the advantages of this new pro-
cess, an association of gentlemen engaged the inventor to
put up a mill, iu 1872, on the Old Dominion (undeveloped)
mine in Virginia, owned by some of the associates. Diffi-
cult sulphuret ores were there tried as the}' came from the
Virginia, as also from the North Carolina mines, especially
from the Yadkin Mine, whose ores are the most obstinate
sulphurets. Tons of the sulphurets and old tailings were
sent to the mill from the Gold Hill Mine, whose ores are
easier to crush. The results of these experiments are par-
ticularized, and duly recorded in my published pamphlet,
"Discussion," of January 1, 187i.
The results were, that the mill, as then constructed, with
all its newness, and consequent imperfections, saved to the
pocket 86 per cent, as the least, and 93 per cent, as the
mean or average of all the gold the assay showed the ore
and tailings to contain before treatment.
VIII. Operations of Mr. Howes and the Associate
Owners concerning the Mill, subsequent to the
Mr. Howes, after going to witness the working of the
Crosby Mill upon ores sent from his own mine, made over-
tures of so liberal a character as to induce the owners of the
mill to move it from Virginia to Gold Hill, and plant it on
his ground, to work the sulphuret ores from his mine of
average assay, as shown in former assays, of not less than
$20 per ton, and from that up to $10, as he represented they
The points of the contract were as follows : —
1. The contract to continue in full force for ten years.
2. He to furnisli the ore, not less than 20 tons per day, to
the mill, and to be paid therefor, out of the gross proceeds
of the milling, $7 per ton.
3. He to furnish all the fuel required for running the mill
at $2 per cord, delivered.
4. All the water required to be allowed gratis from the
surplus of that pumped from his shafts.
5. He to allow the mill out of the gross proceeds $3 per
ton for milling the ore.
6. After deducting $10 per ton from the gross proceeds,
to meet items 2 and 5, the remainder of the proceeds was to
be divided equally between Mr. Howes and the mill owners.
Eelying in good faith upon Mr. Howes' fulfilment of his
stipulations, 84 tons of steam machinery, shafting, and other
parts of the mill were moved late in the autumn of 1873,
and the mill re-erected, under the vigilant personal care of
Mr. Crosby (with such enlargements of house, and improve-
ments of parts, as the first construction had shown to be
desirable), on the spot of eight acres shown on the sketch
as No. 8.
In February the associate owners of the mill were organ-
ized into an incorporated company, under the charter cited
in Chapter I. of this Eeport, by the title of " The North
Carolina Gold Amalgamating Company."
At the meeting of stockholders for organization, John
Hulme, Esq., since deceased, of Philadelphia, was chosen
The mill was reported to be in successful operation about
the middle of March, but not yet to the capacity in machinery
requisite to treat 20 tons per day.
About the 23d of March last, the President, with a quorum
of the Board of Directors, including the Executive Committee
of the company, visited the new mill and the mine at Gold
The Crosby Mill was run for some days upon several tons
of ore in their presence, and proved conclusively that the
Crosby process is a perfect success — quite up to the capacity
and advantages the inventor claims for it.
The mill saved, and has cortinued to save, 86 to 95 per
cent, of the gold in the ore. Only a fraction of gold was
found in the tailing; there was little, if any, wastage or
flowering of quicksilver: the mill was a success. But the
Committee discovered very soon that unless money were
advanced by the company to Mr. Howes, be could not possi-
bly fulfil his agreement to furnish 20 tons of profitable ore
to the mill per day, nor even 3 tons. His continual call has
been for money, money, money, to repair his boilers, engines,
pumps, etc., so he could furnish the ore.
The company did advance its acceptances amounting to
$1500, for which he was to get out and pile up at the mill
200 to 250 tons, ready to be worked as soon as it could be
got ready to run. This ore was to be of extra assay, highly
profitable to mill. He delivered from 50 to 100 tons : but
when the time came to work it, none of it assayed, before
working, more than from $8 to $12 per ton, and most of it
was rejected as worthless.
It was also discovered that he could not furnish fuel, as
he agreed, to the Crosby Mill, without an advance of money.
IX. Operations from the time of Discovering Mr.
Howes' inability to fulfil his Agreements to the
TIME of President Hulme's Sudden Death.
Under the foregoing circumstances of Howes' non-compli-
ance, it was from prudential motives thought best not to put
in immediately the additional machinery requisite to enable
the Crosby Mill to treat 20 tons per day, until the company
could be certain of being furnished that amount to mill.
Nevertheless, the mill worked on upon a few tons of ore per
day, returning gold once or twice per week to the Treasurer,
in quantities sufficient to accumulate proof upon proof of
the great value of the process, and of the ability of a 20 ton
mill to return large profits, and the exceeding value of the
On the 30th of March Mr. Howes made, in writing, a pro-
position to Mr. Hulme for selling the mine to a joint stock
company (not the mill company), with a view of improving
its machinery, deepening the shafts, extending the drifts, so
as to furnish 120 tons of ore per day. The mill company
to erect additional mills to work this amount.
Mr. Hulme had, from his own personal examinations, be-
come so strongly impressed with the value of the Crosby
process as applied to the ores of this mine, also of the value
of the mine, that he fixed the capital stock of the proposed
mining company at $1,000,000, and was about organizing
the company, when he suddenly died on the 22d of April
X. Action after Mr. Hulme's Funeral, to the 1st
Another able gentleman and excellent financier, Dr. J. D.
Mitchell, of Wellsboro', Pa., who had carefully examined
into the matters of the process, and made the mine a subject
of study during a protracted visit at Gold Hill, in the last
winter, while the mill was being built, came forward with a
well-digested plan, diftering, however, from the Hulme
plan. It was this in substance : The North Carolina Gold
Amalgamating Company to increase its capital stock to
$1,000,000, purchase the mine, with all the property, real
and personal, connected with it, thus merging the Crosby
mill, and the mine and mining property all into one owner-
ship, which the said company could legally do under the
conditions expressed in its charter.
The purchase was made, terms of payment agreed upon,
and approved by the stockholders. The deed was duly ex-
ecuted by Mr. Howes and wife to the company. The pro-
perty was taken formal possession of by the company on
the first of June.
Dr Mitchell was elected financial agent to negotiate the
sale of $350,000 of stock, the company reserving in the
treasury $50,000 of the stock for working capital for im-
Dr. Mitchell was also elected president to fill Mr. ITulme's
place, and entered on his duties as such first of June.
n.e had previously arranged with certain capitalists at a
distance, with whom, on a personal interview, he was to
place sufficient of the stock in his possession, to realize
$150,000 in cash, as the company should need it, upon an
absolute sale of the stock.
He was to start on his mission 10th June, but was pros-
trated by a severe attack of illness. On the 24:th, finding
himself, as he thought, sufficiently recovered, he started, but
before reaching his destination he was again seized with
another attack, more severe than the first. He reached his
home, where he has since lain, neither able to talk nor
He dictated his resignation as president of the company
1st July, but not his fiscal agency. It is hoped by his phy-
sicians he may be able in a few weeks to resume his fiscal
Lloyd P. Smith was elected president of the company in
place of Dr. Mitchell, and accepted the appointment July
Since purchasing the mine activity has prevailed under
the company's General Manager there. Mr. Crosby expects
to have the new mill supplied with the requisites to treat
twenty tons per day, by the first of August next. The
crushing rollers and burr mills are nearly finished, and will
soon be shipped.
Two new boilers for the Randolph shaft are to be finished
in a few days ready for shipment.
Two more new boilers have been ordered for the Earn-
hardt shaft, but these will not be done till first of August.
A new pump has been put into the water shaft (No. 9 on
the sketch), and pipes laid to conduct good water that will
not injure the boilers; this pump to be worked by the en-
gine-power in the Kandolph shaft house.
The machinery at the Randolph and Earnhardt shafts has
been put in good order, so that, as soon as the new boilers
referred to can be put in, no more new machinery for the
present will be required at these shafts.
Since the purchase many old miners have returned to
the mine and gone to mining at their own expense for
i' tribute ore," which contains free gold. This ore can be
profitably worked in the old mill, and Mr. Crosby has agreed
to work this tribute ore for them on mutual good terms.
So while the new mill has been necessarily stopped to re-
ceive the two additional roasters and burr mills, the Chilian
mill sends to the treasurer weekly buttons of gold from the
The Earnhardt shaft is being sunk deeper, and the drifts
are to be extended, as soon as boilers can be placed to lower
the water, by extending the 700 feet level drift from the
Randolph shaft, 26 feet in one direction, and 20 feet in an-
other direction. Mr. Crosby expects to reach very rich
Mr. Crosby is utilizing all the property, of which there is
much at the mine, and has reduced very materially expenses
as compared with those of Mr. Howes, and will in a few
months produce greater results, no doubt.
XL Elements or Data by which to estimate the
Profits to he expected from working the Crosby
Process at this Mine.
1. The sulphuret ores containing the gold are easy to
pulverize and much easier to crush than quartz ores.
2. The cheapness of fuel, being from $1.25 to $1.75 per
cord, delivered and piled in the yard.
3. The cheapness of living and consequent low price of
labor, ranging from $1 for the best laborers, up to $3 for
the best mechanics.
4. The facility for a sufficient supply of good water that
will not corrode the boilers.
5. The proximity of the mine to all the principal com-
6. The smallness of the amount of capital yet necessary
to improve the mine hj deepening the Randolph and Earn-
hardt shafts, and extending the lower drifts, and opening
new drifts lower down than the present drifts to strike the
richer ores of the veins.
7. The general manager (A. B. Crosby) of the mine and
mills and his present assistant for work above ground (Mr.
Noble), both being large stockholders in the company, and
Mr. C. Crosby the mining engineer, for underground work,
are all intelligent, reliable, and of great experience in their
8. The cost of treating the ore by the 20-ton crushing
mill, including wear, tear, and repairs for keeping the mill
up to an efficient working condition, is $4.07 per ton. The
cost of a 50-ton mill is $2.57 per ton. The cost of mining,
raising, and delivering the ore, after the contemplated im-
provements are made, will average not exceeding $4 per
9. As before stated, the Crosby process saves 86 per
cent, as the least, and 98 per cent, as the average, of all the
gold, silver, and copper in the ore, as shown by the assay
before and after working it. It is capable of saving 99 per
cent., but to continue working beyond the attainment of 95
or 96 per cent, would be too much like splitting hairs.
10. The commodity produced has no fluctuation in value
in the market, being in this respect far superior to all other
commodities, for which the manufacturer has too often been
embarrassed by instability of price.
With the foregoing data any one can, by reference to the
assays of the Gold Hill ores reported in the next chapter,
compute for himself the probable profits to the mine and
mills by working a "20-ton" or a "50-ton" mill upon any
given number of tons of ore.
XII. Assays of the Gold Hill Ores.
This part of the report merits the close scrutiny of the
company. It is the average of the assays of parcels from
many different parts of the mine that determines the value
of the ore in general, rather than a few assays of particularly
selected specimens. Therefore, in the subjoined examples
of assays, a, b, c, d, it is to be understood they are the average
assays of as many different lots of ore.
a. From Earnhardt shaft ia 1850, 844 tons of ore
averagt d in assay $699 05 per ton
b. From Earnhardt shaft in 1856, 3800 tons aver-
aged (poor ore) $179 75 "
c. From Randolph shaft (rich ore), in 1872, 75
tons averaged $606 06 "
d. From the mine generally prior to 1872, 8325
tons averaged $ 67 33 "
Giving to each lot a, h, c, d, its own special weight in the
computation, I find that, for their aggregate of 13,044 tons,
the mean assay was $144.05 per ton.
After sinking the Eandolph and Earnhardt shaft each
from 50 to 100 feet belov.^ their present bottoms and drifting
about 150 feet from each at levels 50 feet below the lowest
present drifts in the mine, we have every reason to believe
we shall meet with a very large amount of sulphuret ores
certainly as rich on an average as the above mean of $144.05
per ton, and even richer in gold and copper.
Mr. Howes worked 8400 tons, principally leavings of
former miners and considered by them as refuse, without
sinking the shafts or extending the drifts, of which in free
gold, the average of assay was $72.15 per ton, without
counting the gold or copper tenaciously combined in the
Of 500 chemical analyses he has had made he informs me
as follows, viz. : —
The least average assay gave in gold and copper $57.50
The greatest average assay gave in gold and copper
$11,656.00 per ton.
The official United States assay, and the experimental
assay as determined by the Crosby Mill of the old tailings of
the former workings give their average or mean assay
$21.91 per ton.
From a recent return of the mill's working on these tail-
ings for several tons, the certificate from the United States
mint showed that there was realized over $22 per ton.
The average of that lot before working must have been more
than $23 per ton.
XIII. Probable Profits to the Company from the
Mine and Crosby Mills.
There will be no profit in working upon ore assaying as
low as $8.67 per ton by a " 20-ton" mill ; nor will there be
any profit from a "50-ton" mill working on ore assaying as
low as $7.06 per ton; but at these assays, the mills would
just pay expenses. But for assays higher than these, the
mills would return a certain net profit for the milling and
mining as long as the ore does not cost over $4 per ton de-
livered at the mills ; and the profit would be proportionally
greater as assays should be higher.
I submit the following expression of net profits working
by the Crosby Mills on ores of various average assays per
ton of ore for each mill at the Gold Hill Mine.
Average assay per
Net profit per ton by a
Net profit per ton by a
ton. of raw ore.
$1.50 loss per ton.
$0.00 per ton.
0.00 " "
1.50 profit per ton.
10.53 profit "
12.03 " "
29.83 " «
31.33 " "
29.13 " "
30.63 " "
144.05 (mean of a, h, c
d) 125.90 " "
177.93 " "
224.43 " "
225.93 " "
It is calculated
that the mills would work excluding
Sundays, 300 days
in the year.
The annual profits from working on
the ore of the foi e-
going assay would be as follows : —
Average assays per
Annual net profits by a
Annual net profits by a
ton of raw ore.
$900.00 loss per an.
$00.00 per an.
00.00 " "
2,250.00 profit per an.
6,318.00 profit "
18,045.00 " "
11,898.00 " "
31,995.00 " "
45,995.00 " "
144.05 mean (a, 6, c, d)
75,540.00 " "
106,758.00 " "
269,145.00 " "
134,658.00 " «
338,895.00 " "
There are two incidental sources of considerable profit
in working by the Crosby Process to which I will briefly
refer. The sulphur which is liberated in desulphurizing the
ore amounts to something like 350 lbs. to the ton of ore.
This can be easily utilized — converted into sulphuric acid by
a very simple attachment, giving large results of this article
Again. The final tailings, after the gold and copper are
extracted, I know, by actual examination, are a substance
already prepared, only requiring drying and barrelling, con-
stituting an excellent mineral paint, of superior color and
durability. From a 20-ton mill I estimate a net profit to
the mill of not less than twenty-five to fifty dollars per day
from utilizing this paint.
By examining the foregoing expressions of profit, it is
easy to see how perfectly Mr. A. B. Crosby, the general
manager, is justified in the following opinions, which I
quote from his letter to me.
" In answer to your request for an expression of my
"views of the Gold Hill Mine, I will briefly say that I
"think it has been and still is, and will be, with proper
" working, one of the very best in this country. I base
" this view upon its history and my own observations.
"It has produced, in the opinion of those who are well
" acquainted with the early working of it, and who had made
"fortunes themselves from it, at least five millions of dollars.
" The work done on the mine could be done now, or could
" then have been done with proper facilities and a proper
"system of mining, including all equipments, and the mill-
" ing of the ores for less than two millions — I think not to
"exceed one and one-half millions of dollars.
"The veins in this mine are true fissures, and have been
" worked in length about one thousand feet, and in depth
" from ninety to seven hundred and fifty feet, and are situ-
"ated in a belt many miles in length.
"Several experts, or persons acquainted with the mines
" of California, Colorado, Montana, Utah, Mexico, etc., have
"expressed decided opinions upon the Gold Hill Mine, cou-
" current with my own.
" As to the value of this mine, if based on the amount of
" net proceeds, with a proper working to its full capacity, it
"would be enormous. And it is well worth in dollars the
" whole amount of the capital stock of the company.
" The process and its cost, by which we intend to work
" the ores you are well acquainted with, so I will say nothing
" in regard to it.
" Yours, very respectfully,
(Signed) " A. B. CROSBY, Manager."
It is seen that the " 20-ton mill" alone working on the ore
of an average assay of the mean of a, b, c, d, would return
7J per cent, dividend upon all the capital stock at par
A " 20 ton mill" and a " 50-ton mill" together would return
26f per cent, on the capital stock at par.
And as the ore would run higher and higher in average
assay as the shafts are deepened, and drifts extended, and
mills for treating the ore multiplied, the returns or dividends
would be vastly enlarged upon the foregoing figures. For
example, one 20- and two 50-ton mills running on ore of the
mean assay would return 4:6 per cent, on the par value of
XIV. Policy of Working the Mine.
Enough has bow been said pointing to the true policy of
the Company in respect to managing their valuable proper-
ty, and the policy may be clearly indicated by following,
seriatim, the following estimates, A, B, C, of funds re-
quired : —
For pumping to clear llandolph shaft $2,000
For burr-mills and stones, and freight .... 1,500
For crushing-rollers and freight 800
For four new 30-horse boilers and freight .... 6,000
For fuel for July, August, and September .... 600
For services of employes July, August, September . . 2,100
For contingencies ........ 500
Of this, $10,500 will be required between 15th July and
1st October, and $3000 by the 15th October next. And
soon after the above articles in Estimate A are received at
Gold Hill, the 20-ton mill will be in operation, treating
20 tons per day, except for the reduction of the copper in
By the time — say 1st November next — the above Esti-
mate A shall have been expended, I think it quite likely
the mill will be sending in handsome returns — sufficient, at
all events, to carry on the pumping, the deepening of the
shafts, and extending the drifts.
Deepening both the Randolph and the Earnhardt shafts,
(100 feet each) $6,000
2 winches for " stoping" 1,875
300 feet drifting at $7 per foot 2,100
Temporary contingencies . . .... 300
Timber and labor for new cribbing to the deepened parts of
the shafts . . . . ' 1.000
Hoisting machine and gearing for three shafts . . . 3,000
5000 feet wire rope at 37 cts 1,8.50
Ladders for shafts 200
Platforms and roofings ....... 1,.500
Tramway from shafts to mills 1,400
8 iron cars for ore transportation at $150 .... 1.200
I think it would be advisable to make arrangements for
this (Estimate B) by providing funds to this amount by
about the 1st of* November next.
Hence, the amount of funds required for construction and
wages of employes will be as follows: —
Between 15th July end 1st October, 1874 .... ,$10,500
On the 14th October, 1874 3,000
On the 15th November, 1874 20,425
Further than this there will be no necessity for funds
outside the income of the mills to apply to the improve-
ment of the mine to a degree contemplated for furnishing
70, or even 120 tons of profitable ore, to be milled per day.
The Company should not fail, however, to provide funds in
accordance with the above estimates.
After the foregoing expenditures are made, and the re-
turns from the mill shall justify, the following expenditure
will undoubtedly be required, but no especial immediate
efforts need be made to raise the funds, though it is good
policy to keep this prospective expenditure in view in
arranging the finances of the Company: —
Estimate C. (prospective).
Copper apparatus for the 20-ton mill $ 6,000
Two 50-ton Crosby Mills, complete . . . . ' . 60,000
^Renewal of cribbing in upper parts of shafts . . . 4,500
Additional hoisting machinery 3,000
Renewal of platforms and repairs to roofs . . . . 1,500
Fifty new tenement buildings, for decently housing 250
employes, and repairing some old ones. For these
rent would be paid to the Company .... 10,750
Probability of new power-saving mine pumps being re-
Probability of more pure water than the present supply
being required ; my former estimate for these water-
Of course it is expected that the funds in this estimate C
will be realized out of the profits of the 20-ton mill as fast
as needed for the prospective outlays.
XV, Schedule and Cash Valuation of the Company's
Property at Gold Hill. •
1. One 20-ton Crosby Mill, with all its machinery complete $22,000
2. Patent right paid for the process of working all the ore
in the mine 15,000
3. Two new small tenement houses on this mill lot . . 200
4. Two good steam engines, one at the Randolph and one
at Earnhardt 2,500
5. Four new 30-horse boilers, two at each shaft . . . 6,000
6. Cornish pumps in good condition in the shafts . . 15,000
7. New pump in water shaft, pipes, and reservoir . . 900
8. Hoisting apparatus, wire rope, etc., at the shafts . . 3,000
9. One Chilian Mill, with crusher, stones, rockers, drags,
buddies, etc., complete . 16,000
10. Whims at the shafts 1,200
11. Platforms at the shafts 300
12. Roofings at the shafts $1,500
13. Mining and blacksmith tools, machine shop tools,
lathes, etc. etc., shops, etc 2,500
14. Mansion house, eight acre lot and all out-houses and
improvements thereon 5,000
15. 800 acres of surface of land exclusive of the ores under
the surface, $5 per acre 4,000
16. 300 acres of the Lentz place on which the e are 4000
cords of wood standing ....... 1,600
17. 20,000 tons of tailings, average assay of $21.91 per ton,
at SI per ton 20,000
Valuation exclusive of mine .$125,500
If we had all the money in hand for the purpose of the
improvements above enumerated, they could not be placed
upon the property for the sums above estimated.
XVI. Valuation of the Mine Exclusive of the Value
OF THE PkOPERTY SCHEDULED IN XV.
On the return of Mr. John Hulme from the property of
the Company last April, he expressed himself in the follow-
ing terras regarding its value: "That he considered the
Company's property worth at least $1,000,000; also that
were he to express half of what he believed and knew re-
garding the value of the mine, he would not be believed."
This opinion has the more weight inasmuch as Mr. Hulme
had formerly been engaged for three years in gold-mining
operations in North Carolina ; and, moreover, he was of a
cautious disposition, and careful to say nothing that could
not be relied on with confidence. He had agreed to provide
all the money necessary to develop the property when he
In making up my mind as to the value of this deposit of
auriferous sulphurets, to say nothing of free gold, I prefer
not to jump at conclusions and say the mine is or is not
worth one million of dollars. This is a large sum it is true,
but there are much larger sums in thousands of businesses
aud other property not so certain or safe from destruction
as this mine.
Suppose we improve the mine and add the two 50-ton
mills to the property by additional outlay of $136,675 ; the «
total of estimates A, B, C, we should then be in condition
not only to raise 120 tons of ore per day, but we should be
able to mill that amount.
I Again. Suppose we should get ore for the mills to work,
assaying only twenty dollars per ton, which is an extremely
low estimate and very far below what would be realized
from the mine ; nevertheless, upon this assay of ^20 to the
ton, as the ore delivered at the mills would cost the company
not to exceed $4 per ton, and the milling averaged to the
three mills, $2.65 per ton, it is easy to see that the net profit
of the mills would be $12.03 per ton, and the annual net
profits to the company would be . . . $430,200.00.
In the stated costs of mining and milling there is already
included 25 per cent, per annum on the capital invested in the ,
machinery, etc. for wear and tear, contingencies, etc. So we
have only to deduct, say ten per cent, per annum on the con-
templated outlay of said $136,675, which would be$13,667.50
from the above net profits, and we shall have a net annual
income from the property of $416,532.50. Suppo.se now we
allow $16,532.50 as salaries to the Company's officers, and
manager, etc., we shall have left $400,000. This is 10 per
cent, per annum on four millions of dollars clear. And how
much greater would be the valuation of the mine based, as
it should be, on ore assaying not less than $40 per ton?
I have thus shown how to make this mine worth not less
than four millions of dollars.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
To T. J. CEAM,
Lloyd P. Smith. Esq., OonsuUing Engineer.
Philadelphia, July 13, 1874,
An Act to Incorporate the North Carolina Gold Amal-
Sec. 1. The General Assembly of North Carolina
do enact : That T. J. Cram, B. Arthur Mitchell, Au-
gustine B. Crosby, Joseph Q. Mitchell, and Lloyd P.
Smitli, and their associates, successors, and assigns, or
any three of them, be, and they are hereby, created and
made a body politic and corporate, by the name, style,
and title of" The North Carolina Gold Amalffamatinoj chaner of
° the iN'ovth
Company," and by such name and title shall have Carolina
. , . „ , o ■■ • • Gold Ainal
continual succession for the purpose of working, mm- garaat.ag
ing, milling, jjurchasing, manufacturing, smelting,
, . , , ■ J. ,1 Business o
assaying, reducing, or otherwise treating ores, earths, tueCompa-
minerals, and metals, and for building, erecting, and
owning machinerj'' and fixtures for any of said pur-
poses, or for sale, barter, or exchange, aud for holding,
owning, leasing, mortgaging, or selling such real or
personal estate, as may be necessary in connection
with the other privileges herein granted, and to erect
houses, mills, and other buildings upon, and otherwise
improve any lands leased or held by them, and for
making, buying, and selling such matters and things
as appertain to their business, and shall be capable of
suing and being sued, impleading and being implead-
ed, and of having and using a common or corporate corporate
seal, and the same to alter aud change at pleasure, and
of granting and receiving in its corporate capacity
and name, property, real, personal, and mixed.
Capital. Sec. 2. The minimum capital stock shall be one
hundred thousand dollars, shall be divided into shares
of not less than one hundred dollars each, with power
to increase the capital stock from time to time by a
majority vote of the stockholders, to a sura not ex-
ceeding two millions and one half dollars.
Office of the
Sec. 3. The principal oflSce of the company shall be
at Gold Hill, Rowan Co., with such branch offices,
located wherever they may deem proper, as may be
necessary for the transaction of the business of the
company, and the affairs of the company shall be man-
aged by a board of directors, of such number as the
stockholders may select and choose, a quorum of whom
may be such number as the stockholders may name,
but for the purpose of organization, the corporators
herein named shall constitute the board of directors,
and shall hold oflSce until their successors are elected
and qualified. The otficers of the company shall be a
president, and such other officers as the board of di-
rectors shall name, and all offices, except president,
may be abolished or combined by a majority vote of
Sec. 4. The subscriptions to the capital stock of said
company shall and may be paid in such instalments, and
in such manner, and in such property, real or personal,
as a majority of the corporators herein named may
determine, but the stockholders of this companj^ shall
not be liable for any loss or damage, or responsibility
beyond the assets of the said company, and the said
company may make, alter, repeal, or amend such by-
laws or regulations, covering all points of organiza-
tion and business not herein specifically provided
for, as they may deem necessary and proper. Pro-
vided, the same are not inconsistent with the Consti-
tution of the United States, or of tl)is State, or the
provisions of this act.
Seo. 5. The said company may issue certificates of Certificate
stock in such form, and subject to such regula- "'^
tions, as thoy may from time to time prescribe, with
power also to issue bonds with coupons attached, or
other evidences of debts, borrow money, and buy and
sell patent-rights, and dispose of privileges, to work
under, and use said patents, or portions thereof, re-
serving royalties or payments under the same, in such
way and manner as they may prescribe and regulate,
and direct in what manner their contracts and obliga-
tions shall be made and executed, and generally to do
all other matters and things necessary to the prope)'
and successful transaction of the business for which
it is organized.
Seo. 6. This act shall be in full force and effect from Date of in-
and after the date of its ratification: in general assem- '^""'P'^'*'""'
bl}- read three times, and ratified this 30th day of
January, A.D. 1874.
(Signed) J. L. ROBINSON,
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
(Signed) C. H. BROGDEN,
President of the Senate.
New York, July lOtli, 1874.
Barton H. Jenks, Esq., Philadelphia.
Dear Sir: Tours of yesterday to hand. You are
mistaken in understanding me to say that I had been
on the Gold Hill Estate in North Carolina, but from
information and reports I have received at various
times from a number of disinterested persons far
more competent than mj'self to judge of its value, I
am thoroughly convinced that it is capable, with good
management, of yielding richer returns than any other
gold estate known to-day anywhere. In fact I have
never heard but one opinion expressed in regard to
this property, and that in support of the facts of its
immense value, and that only incompetent manage-
ment can stand in the way of its enormous gold pro-
Real Estate, $287,053 77
Patent Right, 120,000 00
Construotiou Acc't, 283,566 69
Reserve Stock, 400,000 00
Expenses, Gold Hill, 4,429 59
Bills Receivable, 7,905 02
Interest, 346 51
Expenses, 1,121 97
Cask, • 7,641 35
E. E. WILLIAM F. MITCHELL,
Pbii.adei.phia, July 15, 1S7*.
OFFICE OF TUB COMPACT,
y. E. Cornel' Third and Chestnut, Booms 7 <