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Full text of "The Representation of the people act, 1918 : with explanatory notes"

THE 

REPRESENTATION 



OF 



THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918 



WITH 

EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



BY 

SIR HUGH FRASER, LL.D., 

A BENCHER OF THE INNER TEMPLE ; 
AUTHOR OF " THE LAW OP PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS AND ELECTION PETITIONS." 



LONDON : 

SWEET AND MAXWELL, LIMITED, 
3, CHANCERY LANE, W.C. 2. 

1918. 



PREFACE. 



IN this book the whole of the Representation 
of the People Act, 1918, is set out verbatim. 
The provisions of the sections are fully dealt 
with in the explanatory Notes which follow them. 
The various parts of the sections commented on 
and explained in the Notes are printed in promi- 
nent type so that the reader may have no 
difficulty in finding in the Note to a particular 
section that part of the section in regard to which 
he wishes for guidance. 

In some of the more important sections, par- 
ticularly in Part I., which deals with " Fran- 
chises," it has been thought more convenient 
and helpful to the reader to deal with the 
subject in the form of propositions which state 
shortly the requirements of the section dealt 
with. Questions of difficulty will undoubtedly 
arise as to the interpretation of the language of 
some of the sections, and it has been thought 
advisable and indeed necessary to refer to the 
decisions of the Courts as to the meaning of 

a (2) 

414967 



IV PREFACE. 

similar language in former statutes relating to 
the franchise, although such statutes are now 
repealed. 

It has been thought useful to deal in some 
detail with the method and costs of elections and 
with corrupt and illegal practices, all of which 
subjects are to a greater or less extent affected 
by the present Act. 

Appended to the Registration Rules will be 
found footnotes where it was thought that such 
footnotes would be useful, and in writing the 
Notes to the sections of the Act the Author has 
endeavoured to keep in view the duties and 
difficulties of the registration officer. 

In the Introduction will be found a short 
survey of the progressive reforms in Parlia- 
mentary representation introduced by and since 
the Reform Act, 1832, together with a summary 
of the far-reaching changes introduced by the 
present Act. 

The Appendices contain, in addition to the 
County Court Rules, Supreme Court Rules, and 
Statutes bearing on the subject, the Orders in 
Council made under the Act, and Directions of 
the Local Government Board to registration 
officers, so far as such Orders and Directions 
were available up to the time of going to press, 
and it has been thought desirable, as a matter 



PREFACE. V 

of historical interest, to include the Report of 
the Speaker's Conference. 

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to my 
learned friend, Mr. ALEXANDER P. FAOHIRI, 
Barrister-at-Law, for most valuable assistance in 
the preparation of the work and for many useful 
suggestions. I have also to thank Mr. H. F. 
OLDMAN for his kindness in reading through the 
proofs as they were passing through the press, 
and for giving rne the benefit of his wide practical 
experience of the subjects dealt with in this book, 
and particularly of registration. 

H. F. 

1, BRICK COURT, TEMPLE, E.G. 
4th July, 1918. 



( vii ) 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

TABLE OF OASES xi 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xix 

INTRODUCTION . xxiii 



PAET I. 

FRANCHISES. 
SECTION 

1. Parliamentary franchises (men) 1 

2. University franchise (men) 37 

3. Local Government franchise (men) 40 

4. Franchises (women) 63 

5. Special provisions for persons serving on war' service. .. 76 

6. Qualifying period 94 

7 . Supplemental provisions as to residence and occupation . 98 

8. Eight of person registered to vote 100 

9. Provisions as to disqualifications 112 

10. Provision as to qualification of councillor 123 



PAET II. 

EEGISTRATION. 

11. Spring and autumn registers 125 

12. Eegistration officers and areas 130 

13. Eegistration duties ._ 133 

14. Appeals 134 

15. Expenses of registration 139 

16. Special provisions with respect to urban districts and 
London 145 

17. Special provision as to registration of freemen, &c.... 147 

18. Compensation to existing officers 148 

19. Eegister for university constituencies 153 



CONTENTS. 



PART III. 

METHOD AND COSTS OF ELECTIONS. 
SECTION PAGE 

20. Proportional representation in certain university con- 
stituencies, and certain other constituencies, if scheme 

for selection is approved .......................................... 155 

21. Polls to be held on one day at a general election, &c.... 161 

22. Penalty for voting at a general election in more con- 
stituencies than allowed ............................................. 164 

23. Voting by absent voters .......................................... 172 

24. Voting by persons in the employment of returning 
officers ...................................................................... 203 

25. Eight to the use of elementary schools ..................... 204 

26. Deposit by candidates at parliamentary elections ...... 207 

27. Forfeiture of deposit in certain cases ..................... 208 

28. Returning officers ...................................................... 211 

29. Payment of returning officers' expenses by Treasury... 214 

30. Discharge of returning officers' duties by an acting 
returning officer ........................................ . ............... , 217 

31. Division of constituency into polling districts, and ap- 
pointment of polling places ....................................... 220 

32. Place of election ...................................................... 223 

33. Scale of election expenses ....................................... 223 

34. Expenses incurred by unauthorised persons ............ 269 

35. Certain Acts to have permanent effect ..................... 278 

36. Conduct of elections for university constituencies ...... 279 



PART IV. 

REDISTRIBUTION OF SEATS. 
37. Redistribution of seats .. 282 



PART V. 
GENERAL. 

38. Punishment of offences committed outside the United 
Kingdom 283 

39. Re-arrangement of polling districts to suit new con- 
stituencies 303 

40. Regulations to be laid before Parliament 304 

41. Interpretation 305 



CONTENTS. IX 
PART V. continued. 

SECTION PAGE 

42. Adaptation of Acts 308 

43. Application to Scotland 309 

44. Application to Ireland 326 

45. Application of Act to the Isles of Scilly 335 

46. Commencement of Act and first register 336 

47. Repeal and short title 337 



SCHEDULES. 

."First Schedule Registration Rules 339 

Second Schedule Modifications of the Ballot Act, 1872 

(First Schedule) 357 

Third Schedule Provisions as to Voting by Proxy 359 

Eourth Schedule Provisions to be substituted for Part IV. 
of the Eirst Schedule to the Corrupt Practices Act, 
1883, and for paragraph (3) of Part V. of the same 

Schedule 363 

Fifth Schedule Part I. Provisions as to University Elec- 
tions other than Scottish University Elections 364 

Part II. Provisions as to Scottish University 

Elections 373 

Sixth ScheduleAdaptation of Acts 386 

Seventh Schedule Returning Officers for Scottish Con- 
stituencies situated in more than one SherifEdom 391 

Eighth Schedule Enactments Repealed 391 

Ninth Schedule Redistribution of Seats . 403 



Appendix I. Orders in Council, Directions of Local 

Government Board, &c 555 

Appendix II. County Court Rules and Eules of the 

Supreme Court 636 

Appendix III. Statutes 672 

Appendix IV. Draft Rules as to Proportional Representa- 
tion 718 

Appendix V. Report of the Speaker's Conference 737 

Appendix VI. (Supplementary to Appendix I.) Additional 

Orders in Council 747 



INDEX. 



XI 



TABLE OF CASES. 



ief facts of the case are set out on the pages in the text 
which in this table are in heavy type,'] 



PAGE 

Adams v. Ford (1885), 16 Q. B. D. 239; 55 L. J. Q. B. 13; 

49 J. P. 711; 53 L. T. 666; 34 W. E. 64; Colt. 403... 54 
Aitchison v. Lothian (1890), 18 Ct. of Sess. Oases (4tli 

Series), 337 55 

Allan v. Liverpool: Inman v. Kirkdale (1874), L. E. 9 Q. B. 

180; 43 L. J. M. 0. 69; 30 L. T. 93; 22 W. E. 330... 58 
Allchurch v. Hendon Union, (1891) 2 Q. B. 436; 61 L. J. 

M. 0. 27, 65, 450; 40 W. E. 86 21, 51 

Anekeiill v. Baylis (1882), 10 Q. B. D. 577; 52 L. J. Q. B. 

HJ4; 48 L. T. 342; 31 W. E. 233; Colt. 289; S. 0., 

sub nom. Ancketill v. Roberts, 46 J. P. 791 58 



Banbury (1797), Heywood, 318 , 5 

Barlow v. Smith (1892), Fox & S. 293 11 

Barnett v. Hickmott, (1895) 1 Q. B. 691; 64 L. J. Q. B. 

407; 72 L. T. 236; 43 W. E. 284; Eox & S. 412 52 

Barrow-in-Furness (1886), 4 0. & H. 76 238, 241, 263 

Beal v. Ford (1877), 3 C. P. D. 73; 42 J. P. 119; 47 L. J. 

0. P. 56; 37 L. T. 408; 26 W. E. 146; 2 Hop. & C, 

374 12 

Beal v. Town Clerk of Exeter (1887), 20 Q. B. D. 300; 57 

L. J. Q. B. 128; 58 L. T. 407; 36 W. E. 507; Scott 

Fox, 31 15 

Beauchamp (Earl of) v. Overseers of Madresfield (1872), 

L. E. 8 0. P. 245; 37 J. P. 39; 42 L. J. C. P. 32; 

27 L. T. 606; 21 W. E. 124; 2 Hop. & C. 41 5,42,68 

Bedford (1833), 0. & E. 98 5 

Bedfordshire (1785), Burgess's Case, 2 Lud. E. C. 567 ... 5 
Berwick-on-Tweed (1880), 3 O. & H. 219 197 



Xll TABLE OF CASES. 

PAGB 

Bond v. Overseers of St. George's, Hanover Square (1870), 
L. E. 6 0. P. 312; 35 J. P. 88; 40 L. J. C. P. 47; 23 
L. T. 494; 19 W. E. 101; Hop. & 0. 427 14 

Boon v. Howard (1874), L. E. 9 0. P. 277; 38 J. P. 678; 
43 L. J. C. P. 115; 30 L. T. 382; 22 W. E. 535; 2 
Hop. & C. 208 21, 50 

Bowden v. Besley (1888), 21 Q. B. D. 309; 59 L. T. 219; 57 

L. J. Q. B. 473; 36 W. E. 889; 52 J. P. 536 266 

Bridgwater (1803), 1 Peck, 108 : 5 

Bristol (Marquis of) v. Beck (1907), 96 L. T. 55; 71 J. P. 

99; 23 T. L. E. 224 5 

British Industry Life Assurance Co. v. Ward (1856), 17 

C. B. 644 138 

Buckrose (1.886), 4 O. & H. 110 191, 193 

Burgoyne v. Collins, 8 Q. B. D. 450; 51 L. J. Q. B. 335; 30 

W. E. 923; 46 J. P. 390 266 

Campbell v. Morris (1895), 23 Ct. of Sess. Gas. (4th Series) 

118 52 

Cawley v. Furnell (1851), 12 C. B. 291; 20 L. J. 0. P. 

197; 15 Jur. 908 138 

Chorlton v. Lings (1868), L. E. 4 0. P. 374; 32 J. P. 824; 

38 L. J. C. P. 25; 19 L. T. 534; 17 W. E. 284; 1 

Hop. &C. 1 68 

Oirencester (1893), 4 O. & H. 196 187, 195 

Clutterbuck v. Taylor, (1896) 1 Q. B. 395; 60 J. P. 278; 65 

L. J. Q. B/314; 74 L. T. 177; 44 W. E. 531; 12 

T. L. E. 235; 1 Smith Eeg. 59, 61 53 

Oockermouth (1901), 5 0. & H. 156 262, 274 

Cox v. Davies, (1898) 2 Q. B. 202; 67 L. J. Q. B. 95; 14 

T. L. E. 427 266 

Cook v. Humber (1861), 11 C. B. (N. S.) 40; 31 L. J. 0. P. 

73; 5 L. T. 838; 10 W. E. 427; 8 Jur. (N. S.) 698; 

K. & G. 413 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 

37, 46, 49, 51, 59 
Cook v. Butler (1872), L. E. 8 C. P. 256; 37 J. P. 133; 

42 L. J. C. P. 25; 27 L. T. 548; 21 W. E. 73; 2 

Hop. & C. 22 30 

Gory v. Bristow (1877), 2 App. Gas. 27; 46 L. J. M. 0. 

273; 36 L. T. 595; 25 W. E. 283 58 

Cuthbertson v. Parsons (1852), 12 0. B. 304; 21 L. J. C. P. 

165; 16 Jur. 360 138 



TABLE OF CASES. Xlll 

PAGE 

Daniel v. Coulsting (1845), 7 M. & G. 122; 14 L. J. C. P. 

70; 8 Sco. N. E. 949; 9 Jur. 258; 1 Lut. E. 0. 230; 

Bar. & Arn. 380 2 

Dodds v. South Shields Union, (1895) 2 Q. B. 133; 64 L. J. 

Q. B. 508; 72 L. T. 645; 59 J. P. 452; 43 W. E. 572; 

14E. 422 31 

Donoghue v. Brook (1887), 57 L, J. Q. B. 122; 58 L. T. 

411; Scott Fox, 100 56 

Douglas v. Smith, (1907) 1 K. B. 126; 23 T. L. E. 612 ... 59 
Dover v. Prosser, (1904) 1 K. B. 84; 68 J. B. 37; 73 L.J. 

K. B. 13; 89 L, T. 724; 52 W. E. 140; 1 Smith Eeg. 

313 55 

Downing v. Luckett (1847), 5 0. B. 40; 17 L. J. C. P. 

31; 10 L. T. (0. S.) 264; 11 Jur. 993; 2 Lut. E. C. 

33 2T 

Duffy v. Chambers (1889), L, E. Ir. 100 56 

% 

Bast Dorset (1910), 6 O. & H. 39 242, 249, 273, 27T 

Elgin & Nairn (1895), 5 0. & H. 13 234, 243, 244, 248 

Exeter (1911), 6 O. & H. 232 186, 194, 198 

Falconer v. Dunlop (1890), W. N. (1897) 124; 18 Ct. of 

Sess. Oas. (4th Series) 342 14 

Furguson v. Black (1889), 26 L. E. Ir. 100 56 

Finsbury (1892), 4 O. & H. 176 239 

Ford v. Barnes (1885), 16 Q. B. D. 257; 55 L. J. Q. B. 

25; Colt. 397 56 

Ford v. Drew (1879), 5 0. P. D. 59; 44 J. P. 58; 49 L. J. 

0. P. 172; 41 L, T. 478; 28 W. E. 137; 1 Colt. 1 15 

Ford v. Hart (1873), L. E. 9 0. P. 273; 38 J. P. 216; 
43 L, J. C. P. 24; 29 L. T. 685; 22 W. E. 159; 2 
Hop. & 0. 167 15 

Ford v. Pye (1873), L. E. 9 0. P. 269; 38 J. P. 136; 43 
L. J. 0. P. 21; 29 L. T. 684; 22 W. E. 159; 2 
Hop. & 0. 157 15 

Gledhill v. Orowther (1889), 23 Q. B. D. 136; 58 L. J. 

Q. B. 327; 60 L. T. 866; 53 J. P. 677 267 

Great Northern Eailway Co. v, "Eimel (1856), 18 0. B. 

575 138 

Great Yarmouth (1906), 5 0. & H. 193 249, 253, 254, 273 



XIV TABLE OF CASKS. 

PAGE 

Haggerston (1893), 5 O. & H. 72 250 

Harford v. Linskey, (1899) 1 Q. B. 852; 58 L. J. Q. B. 

599; 80 L. T. 417; 63 J. P. 263; 15 T. L. E. 306 269 

Harmon v. Park (1881), 7 Q. B. D. 769; 50 L. J. Q. B. 

725; 45 L. T. 174; 45 J. P. 174 266 

Harris v. Amery (1865), L. B, 1 0. P. 148; 35 L. J. 0. P. 

89; 13 L. T. (N. S.) 504; 14 W. E. 199; 12 Jur. 

(N. S.) 165; Hop. & Ph. 294 35, 57 

Haswell v. Stewart (1874), 1 Ct, of Sess. Oas. 925, 231 ... 190 
Hayward v. Scott (1879), 5 C. P. D. 231; 44 J. P. 122; 

49 L. J. 0. P. 167; 28 W. E. 988; 1 Oolt. 76 4 

Heath v. Haynes (1857), 3 0. P. (N. S.) 389; 27 L. J. 

C. P. 50; 30 L. T. (0. S.) 134; 6 W. E. 52; 4 Jur. 

(N. S.) 664; K. & Gk 99 47 

Henrette v. Booth (1863), 15 0. B. (N. S.) 500; 28 J. P. 

120; 33 L. J. 0, P. 61; 9 L. T. 392; 12 W. E. 173; 

9 Jur. (N. S.) 1293; Hop. & Ph. 23 ...17, 18, 22, 49, 51 
Holland v. Chambers, Devine's Case, (1894) 2 I. E. 442... 28, 46 
Holland v. Chambers, John Doherty's Case, (1894) 2 I. E. 

285 47 

Howes v. Turner (1876), 1 0. P. D. 670; 45 L. J. 0. P. 

550; 35 L, T. 58 269 

Inman v. Kirkdale (1874), L. E. Q. B. 180; 43 L. J. 

M. C. 69; 30 L. T. 93; 22 W. E. 330 58 

Ipswich (1886), 4 0. & H. 74 241 

Isaacson v. Durant (1886), 17 Q. B. D. 54; 55 L. J. Q. B. 

331; 54 L. T. 684; 34 W. E. 527 5 

.Jones v. Pritchard (1868), L. E. 4 C. P. 414; 33 J. P. 
118; 38 L. J. C. P. 67; 19 L. T. 563; 17 W. E. 175; 
1 Hop. & C. 91 57 

Keith v. Twentieth Century Club (1904), 90 L. T. 775 ... 58 

Kennington (1886), 4 0. & H. 93 258 

Kontr. Fittall (No. 1), (1906) 1 K. B. 60; 69 J. P. 428; 
75 L. J. K. B. 310; 94 L. T. 76; 54 W. E. 225; 1 
Smith Eog. 417 54, 58.. 59, 70 

Lancaster (1896), 5 O. & H. 45 247 

Law Exporting Council, Re (1888), 22 Q. B. D. 291 ... 35 



TABLE OF CASES. XV 

PAGE 

Lichfield (1895), 5 O. & H. 28 236, 246, 259 

Londonderry (1886), 4 0. & H. 96 4 

M'Quade v. Charlton, (1904) 2 I. E. 383 53 

Mackay v. McGhiire, (1891) 1 Q. B. 250; 55 J. P. 214; 60 

L. J. Q. B. 24; 64 L. T. 83; 39 W. B. 109; 7 

T. L. R. 55; Fox, 201 48 

Maidstone (1906), 5 O. & H. 200 273 

Middlesex (1804), Seaman's Case, 2 Peck. 118 5 

Mersey Docks v. Liverpool (1873), L. R. 9 Q. B. 84; 

43 L, J. M. 0. 33; 29 L. T. 454; 22 W. B. 184 31 

Monks v. Dykes (1839), 4 M. & W. 567 59 

Monks v. Jackson (1876), 1 0. P. D. 683; 46 L. J. 0. P. 

162; 35 L. T. 95 266, 269 

Morish v. Harris (1865), L. B. 1 0. P. 155; 14 W. B. 

479; 12 Jur. (N. S.) 627; S. 0., sub nom. Norris v. 

Harris, 35 L. J. 0. P. 101; 13 L. T. 762; Hop. & 

Ph. 305 27 

Naif v. Mutter (1862), 31 L. J. 0. P. 359 11 

Norwich (1886), 4 0. & H. 85 249, 252 

Oakhampton (1791), 1 Eraser, 162 5 

Pembroke (1901), 5 0. & H. 144 106, 107 

Penryn (1869), 1 0. & H. 132 257 

Phillips v. Goff (1886), 17 Q. B. D. 814; 55 L. J. Q. B. 

512; 50 J. P. 614 187 

Piercy v. Maclean (1870), L. B. 5 0. P. 252; 34 J. P. 

311; 39 L. J. 0. P. 115; 22 T. L. B. 213; 18 W. B. 

732; 1 Hop. & 0. 371 27 

Pontardawe Rural District Council Election Petition, 

(1907) 2 K. B. 313; 76 L. J. K. B. 702; 71 J. P. 371; 

23 T. L. B. 538; 5 L. G. B. 1060 197 

Pontefract (1895), Day's Election Oases, 129 237 

Powell v, Boraston (1865), 18 C. B. (N. S.) 175; 29 J. P. 

550; 34 L. J. C. P. 73; 11 L. T. 734; 13 W. B. 465; 

11 Jur. (N. S.) 160; Hop. & Ph. 179 48 

Powell v. Fanner (1865), 18 C. B. (N. S.) 71; 29 J. P. 

536; 34 L. J. 0. P. 71; 11 L. T. 736; 13 W. B. 467; 

11 Jur. (N. S.) 162; Hop. & Ph. 172 27 



XVI TABLE OF CASES. 

PAGE 

Powell v. Guest (1865), 11 C. B. (N. S.) 72; 29 J. P. 

424; 34 L. J. C. P. 69; 11 L. T. 599; 13 W. E. 274; 

10 Jur. (N. S.) 1238; Hop. & Ph. 149 13, 15 

Pritchard v. Mayor of Bangor (1888), 13 A. C. 241; 57 

L. J. Q. B. 313; 58 L, T. 502; 52 J. P. 564; 37 W. E. 

103 (H. L.) 269 

Eeg. v. Exeter (Mayor of), Dipstale's Case (1868), 

L. E. 4 Q. B. 114; 33 J. P. 39; 19 L. T. 432 11,12 

Eeg. v. Exeter (Mayor of), Wescombe's Case (1868), 

L. E. 4 Q. B. 110; 19 L, T. 397 11, 12 

Eeg. v. School Board for London (1886), 17 Q. B. D. 740... 33 
Eeg. v. St. Pancras (Assessment Committee) (1877), 2 

Q. B. D. 581; 46 L. J. M. 0. 243; 37 L. T. 126; 25 

W. E. 827 26 

Eeg. v, Southampton Docks (1851), 17 Q. B. 83; 20 L. J. 

M. 0. 155 32 

Eendlesham (Lord) v. Haward (1873), L. E. 9 C. P. 252; 

43 L. J. C. P. 33; 22 W. E. 157; 2 Hop. & C. 175; 

S.C., sub nom. Eendlesham (Lord) v. Tabor, 29 L. T. 

679 5 

Eex v. The Inhabitants of St. Nicholas (1833), 5 B. & Ad. 

226 25 

Eochester (1892), 4 0. & H. 158 259, 272, 277 

Eochester (1892), Day's Election Oases, 102 -. 24O 

Eogers v. Harvey (1858), 5 C. B. N. S. 3; 28 L. J. C. P. 

17; 32 L. T. (O. S.) 106; 7 W. E. 17; 5 Jur. (N. S.) 

199; K. & G. 169 47 

St. George's (1895), 5 O. & H. 114 255 

Smith v. Anderson (1880), 15 C. D. 247; 50 L, J. Ch. 

39; 43 L. T. 329; 29 W. E. 21 34, 36 

Spittal v. Brook (1887), 18 Q. B. D. 426; 56 L. J. Q. B. 

48; 35 W. E. 520; Scott Pox, 22 56 

Stepney (Borough) (1892), Day's Election Cases, 119 240, 

257, 261 

Stepney Division (1886), 4 O. & H. 33 188, 189, 192, 193, 

195, 238, 263 
Stowe v. Joliffe (1874), L. E. 9 C. P. 734; 43 L. J. C. P. 

265; 30 L. T. 795; 22 W. E. 911 4, 5, 104 

Strachan v. Binnie (1888), 15 Ct. of Sess. Cas. 308 28, 46 

Stribling v. Halse (1885), 16 Q. B. D. 246; 55 L. J. Q. B. 

15; 54 L. T. 568; Colt. 409 53 



TABLE OF CASES. XVII 

PAGE 

Tanner i>. Carter (1885), 16 Q. B. D. 231; 55 L. J. Q. B. 

27; 53 I/. T. 663; 34WJE. 41; Oolt. 435 13 

Taylor v. Oaldwell (1863), 3^ B. & S. 826 58 

Taylor v. Overseers of St. Mary Abbotts, Kensington (1870), 

L. E. 6 C. P. 309; 35 J. P. 39; 40 L, J. C. P. 45; 

23 L. T. 493; 19 W. E. 100; 1 Hop. & C. 421 14 

Thompson t>. Ward (1871), L. E. 6 0. P. 327; 35 J. P. 582; 

40 L. J. C. P. 169; 24 L. T. 679; 1 Hop. & C. 530 ...50, 51 

Walsall (1892), 4 O. & H. 125 246, 248 

Watkins v. Milton, &c. Overseers (1868), L. E. 3 Q. B. 

356; 37 L. J. M. C. 73; 18 L. T. 601; 16 W. E. 1059... 58 
Watson v. Cotton (1847), 5 C. B. 51; 17 L. J. C. P. 68; 11 

Jur. 1106; 2 Lut. E. 0. 53 27 

West Bromwich (1911), 6 O. & H. 256 198, 199, 2OO 

Whithorn v. Thomas (1844), 14 L. J. C. P. 38; 7 M. & G. 

1; 8 Sco. N. E, 783; 8 Jur. 1008; 1 Lut. E. C. 125; 

Bar. & Arn. 259 11, 12, 16 

Wigtown (1874), 2 O. & H. 215 183, 185, 188, 191, 195, 198 

Woodward v. Sarsons (1875), L. E. 10 0. P. 733; 44 L. J. 

0. P. 293; 32 L. T. 867 184, 185, 187, 189, 

190, 191, 193, 198 

Worcester (1880), 3 O. & H. 184 7, 8 

Wright v. Stavert (1859), 2 E. & E. 121; 29 L. J. Q. B. 

161; 6 Jur. (N. S.) 867; 8 W. E. 413 58, 59 



F. 



( xix ) 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



A. & E. Adolphus and Ellis. 

A. C Law Reports, Appeal Cases. 

B. & Ad Barnewall & Adolphus. 

B. Aid Barnewall and Alderson's Reports 

Bench). 

B. & Arn Barren and Arnold. 

B. & Aust Barron and Austen. 

B. & B Broderip and Bingham. 

B. & C Barnewall & Cresswell. 

B. & P Bosanquet and Puller. 

B. & S Best and Smith. 

Beav Beavan. 

Bing Bingham. 

Bing. N. C Bingham (New Cases). 

. & I. P Corrupt and Illegal Practices. 

C. A Court of Appeal. 

C. C County Court. 

C. J Chief Justice. 

C. B Common Bench Reports. 

<3. B. (N: 8.) Common Bench Reports, New Series. 

C. & D Corbett and Daniell. 

C. M. & R Crompton, Meeson, and Roseoe. 

C. & P Carrington & Payne. 

0. & B Cockburn and Rowe's Election Cases, 1833. 

C. P. D The Law Reports, Common Pleas Division. 

Clerk, El Clerk on Elections and Election Committees 

Ct. of Sess Court of Session Cases. 

Dalton Dalton's Office of Sheriff (2nd ed.), 1700. 

Day's E. C Day's Election Cases. 

Dougl Douglas. 

E. Ac B Ellis and Blackburn. 

Ex. D The Law Reports, Exchequer Division. 

Falc. & F Falconer and Fitzherbert. 

Fras Fraser. 

Olanv Glauville. 

h 2 



XX LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



Hansard ' Parliamentary Debates. 

Hop. & C ........... Hop wood and Coltman's Registration 

H. L ............... House of Lords. 

H. L. C ........... Clarke's House of Lords Cases. 

Heyw. Bo ........... Hey wood on Borough Elections, 1797. 

Heyw. Co ........... Heywood on County Elections (2nd ed.), 1812 . 

Hob ............... Hobart's Reports, temp. Elizabeth and James I. 

Hawk. P. C ......... Hawkins' Pleas of the Crown. 

Ir. C. L. R ......... Irish Common Law Reports. 

Ir. L. R. (N. S.) .... Irish Law Reports, New Series. 

J ................... Justice. 

J. P ............... Justice of the Peace. 

Journ ............... Journals of the House of Commons. 

Judg ............... Judgments of the Election Judges, reported 

and printed by order of House of Commons. 

See Parliamentary Elections Act, 1868, s. 24. 

Jur ................. Jurist Reports, 183754. 

K. B ............... King's Bench. 

K. B. D ........... The Law Reports, King's Bench Division. 

K. & G ............. Keane and Grant. 

K. & O ............. Knapp and Ombler's Election Cases, 18345. 

L. & S ............. Lacey & Smith. 

L. JJ ............... Lords Justices. 

L. J., Ch ........... Law Journal Reports, Chancery. 

L. J., C. P. . . ^ ..... Law Journal Reports, Common Pleas. 

L. J., M. C ......... Law Journal Reports, Magistrates' Cases. 

L. J., K. B ......... Law Journal Reports, King's Bench. 

L. J., Q. B ......... Law Journal Reports, Queen's Bench. 

L. R., C. P ......... The Law Reports, Common Pleas. 

L. R. , Ex. , ........ The Law Reports, Exchequer. 

L. R., H. L ......... The Law Reports, House of Lords. 

L. R., Q. B ......... The Law Reports, Queen's Bench. 

L. R., K. B ......... The Law Reports, King's Bench. 

L. T ............... Law Times. 

L. T. Jo ..... , ..... Law Times Journal. 

Lev ..... , ......... Levinz. 

Lud. .............. Luder's Election Cases, 1784 7. 

M. & S ............. Maule & Selwyn. 

M. & W ........... Meeson and Welsby. 

Male .............. Male on Elections. 

May's Parl. Pract. . . May's Parliamentary Practice. 

M. C. A ........... The Municipal Corporations Act, 1882. 

Min ............... Minutes of Evidence taken by shorthand 

writers before Election Committees, but not 

printed. 

Mod ............... Modern (King's Bench) Reports, 16691732. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. XXI 

O. & H O'Malley and Hardeastle'a Reports of Election 

Petitions. 

Orme Orme on Elections. 

P. P Parliamentary Papers. 

P. & K Perry and Knapp's Election Cases. 

P., R., & D Power, Rodwell, and Dew's Election Cases. 

Peck Peckwell's Election Cases. 

Phill Phillips' Election Cases. 

Plowd Plowden. 

Print. Min Minutes of Evidence taken by shorthand writers 

before Election Committees, and printed by 
order of the House of Commons. 

Q. B Queen's Bench Reports. 

Q. B. D The Law Reports, Queen Bench Division. 

R Rettie's Court of Session Cases. 

R. S. C Rules of the Supi'eme Court. 

Roe Roe on Elections. 

8. C Same Case. 

Sch Schedule. 

Sim Simeon on Elections, 1789. 

Steph. Law of El. ... Stephens' Law of Elections, 1840. 

Str Strange. 

T. R Term Reports. 

T. L. R Times Law Reports. 

Ves Vesey. 

Ves., jun Vesey junior. 

W. N Law Reports, Weekly Notes. 

W. R Weekly Reporter. 

W. & Br Wolferstan and Bristowe's Election Cases. 

W.&D Wolferstan and Dew's Election Cases. 

Whitelocke Whitelocke on the King's Writ for choosing 

members to serve in Parliament, sometimes 
called Whitelocke on Government, 1766. 

Wight Wight on Scotch Parliaments and Elections. 



( xxiii ) 



INTRODUCTION. 



THIS Act, which consists of forty-seven sections 
and nine Schedules, is the third Reform Act since 
the passing of the Reform Act, 1832, the other 
Acts being those of 1867 and 1884. 

The present Act is much more comprehensive, 
and introduces greater changes than any of its 
predecessors. It deals with the Parliamentary 
and local government franchise, registration, 
method and costs of election, and redistribution. 

In order to realise how large a measure of 
enfranchisement is given by the present Act as 
compared with former Acts, the following facts 
may be pointed out. Before 1832 there were less 
than 500,000 parliamentary electors, and the 
Reform Act of 1832 only added 500,000 more, 
so that the total number of electors in 1832 was 
less than 1,000,000 out of a population of about 
24,000,000. The Reform Act of 1867 added 
about 1,500,000 electors, making a total of 
2,500,000 electors out of a population as it then 
was of about 30,000,000. The Act of 1884 added 
some 3,000,000 electors, making a total of 



X XIV INTRODUCTION. 

o,500,000 on the register out of a population 
which was then 34,000,000. According to the 
Home Office Return for 1915, the electorate was 
8,357,000 out of a population of 43,500,000. 
Under the present Act at least 3,000,000 men and 
6,000,000 women will, it is estimated, be added 
to the register as parliamentary electors. 

From a historical point of view the present Act 
owes its origin to the fact that it was universally 
recognised that the electors of members to serve 
in the future Parliament which would have to 
deal with questions of reconstruction after the 
War, must include those who had fought for 
their country in the War. An attempt was 
made to attain this object by a separate Bill, 
but it was found impracticable to introduce 
changes of this kind without dealing generally 
with the subject of the franchise. His Majesty's 
Government accordingly invited the Speaker of 
the House of Commons to select a number of 
members of the House of Commons, representa- 
tive of all shades of opinion, to draft recommenda- 
tions which might form the basis of a Bill dealing 
with the whole subject of the representation of 
the people. In pursuance of this request the 
Speaker held a Conference which issued a Report* 
containing various recommendations, the great 
majority of which were unanimous. Although, 

* For this Report, see Appendix V., pp. 737746, infra. 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

in consequence of the Amendments which were 
adopted in the course of its passage through Par- 
liament, the present Act differs in several points 
from the recommendations contained in the 
Report of the Speaker's Conference, it is in 
substance based upon it. 

The most sweeping change which the Act 
introduces is the admission of women to the 
Parliamentary franchise, whilst the difficult ques- 
tion of the enfranchisement of soldiers, sailors, 
and others serving in connection with the War, 
is solved by giving them the franchise for the 
'Constituency in which but for their service in 
connection with the War they would have been 
entitled to vote, or, as an alternative, for the 
constituency (if any) in which they happen to 
have an actual qualification. 

The present Act sweeps away all the qualifi- 
cations for the franchise which previously existed; 
it repeals no less than fifty statutes and modifies 
fifty-seven others. 

Under the previously existing law there were 
seven alternative qualifications for the Parlia- 
mentary franchise : 

(1) The household qualification, by far the 
most important, which dated, as regards 
boroughs, from 1867, and as regards 
counties from 1884; 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

(2) the qualification in respect of occupation 

of land or tenements of the value 
of !()/.; 

(3) the 50/. rental qualification as modified by 

the Act of 1884; this qualification was 
rapidly dying out ; 

(4) the lodgers' qualification ; 

(5) the service qualification ; 

(6) the ownership voters' qualification. It is 

worth noting, as a matter of historical 
interest, that amongst these voters was 
the 40*. freeholder, who survived three 
Reform Acts and who dated back to the 
reign of Henry VI. ; 

(7) the university qualification. 

In place of these seven franchises, the present 
Act substitutes, as regards men, three alternative 
qualifications only : 

(1) the residence qualification; which in- 

cludes the householders, the lodgers, 
and the service voters, and also many 
residents who were not in any existing 
class of voters. There is no require- 
ment for tne qualifying premises under 
this head to be of any minimum yearly 
value, nor for rating or payment of 
rates ; 

(2) the business premises qualification, which 



INTKODUCilON. XXV11 

involves the occupation for the purposes 
of business, trade, or profession, of land 
or premises of the annual value of not 
less than 10/. ; 

('|) the university qualification, which is en- 
larged by the inclusion of ail those who 
have taken degrees (other than honorary 
degrees) at a university. 

Not only are the franchises different to those 
previously in existence, but the period of qualifi- 
cation has been shortened from one year to six 
months ; there being two qualifying periods during 
the year -one ending on loth January, the other 
on loth July. 

During these six months, electors must have 
been resident, or occupying land or premises, 
either in the constituency or in any constituency 
in the same Parliamentary borough or county or 
in a contiguous borough or county, so that it will 
be 'seen that successive occupation in a largely 
extended form will be permitted. 

As regards the Parliamentary franchise for 

women, the Act confers this only on women who 

have attained the age of 30. In constituencies 

other than university constituencies there are two 

alternative qualifications which are as follows : 

(1) the woman must be entitled to be registered 

as a local government elector in respect 

of the occupation of a dwelling-house 



XXV 111 INTRODUCTION. 

(irrespective of value) or of land or pre- 
mises (other than a dwelling-house) of a 
yearly value of not leas than 5/. ; or 
(2) she must be the wife of a man who is 

entitled to be so registered. 
The university franchise is conferred on all 
women of the requisite age who have obtained a 
degree, or, at Oxford or Cambridge, have passed 
the final examination and kept the necessary 
residence. 

As was pointed out above, it is estimated that 
the women's franchise will add to the register 
of parliamentary electors at least 6,000,000 voters, 
of whom about 5,000,000 will come on the 
register by virtue of their husbands' qualification. 
As regards the local government franchise, 
under the previously existing law the qualification 
to vote for county and borough councils outside 
London was substantially a pure occupation fran- 
chise, and differed from the qualification for 
London county and borough councils and for 
district and parish councils, where there was not 
only the occupation qualification but also the 
qualification of owners and lodgers. Under the 
present Act there is a uniform occupation fran- 
chise for all local government electors, including 
in the term u occupation " lodgers in a room or 
rooms let to them in an unfurnished state. The 
local government franchise is conferred on women 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

at the same age (21) and on equal terms with men, 
with the addition that a woman may be registered 
and vote by virtue of her husband's qualification 
in respect of premises in which they both reside 
if she has attained the age of thirty years. 

It is estimated that the present Act will add 
about 5,000,000 women to the register of local 
government electors. 

Turning to the subject of registration, the Act 
adopts a course which has often been recom- 
mended, viz., a system of official registration, and 
throws upon the appointed officers the obligation 
of making up the registers (of which there are two 
in every year) and keeping them complete. The 
office of revising barrister is abolished, and the 
consideration of claims and objections is entrusted 
to the registration officer himself with the right of 
an appeal from his decision to the County Court t 
and from the County Court, on questions of law 
alone, to the Court of Appeal. 

With regard to methods of election, the much 
discussed principle of Proportional Representation 
together with that of the alternative vote, both of 
which the Speaker's Conference recommended, 
did not find much favour with the House of Com- 
mons. The alternative vote has been entirely 
rejected and Proportional Representation has been 
retained only as regards university constituencies. 

An important innovation is made by the pro- 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

visions allowing, in certain cases, votes to be 
given by post by absent voters, and also voting 
by proxy. 

At a General Election polls are all to be taken 
on one day, and plural voting has been further 
greatly curtailed since no elector may under any 
circumstances give more than two votes at such 
an election. 

The returning officers' expenses are to be paid 
by the State. A candidate is to make a deposit 
which shall be returned to him if he has polled 
not less than one-eighth of the votes. 

The scale of election expenses is reduced, and 
certain expenditure by unauthorised persons is 
prohibited. 

The present Act carries out a great scheme of 
Redistribution. Following the recommendation 
of the Speaker's Conference it has been sought to 
make each vote command as far as possible an 
equal share of representation in the House of 
Commons. The standard unit of population 
represented by one member of the House of 
Commons has been taken at 70,000, although 
boroughs with not less than 50,000 inhabitants 
keep their separate representation. 

Forty-four boroughs have lost their separate 
representation, including ancient boroughs such 
as Canterbury, Windsor, Chester, Durham, Win- 
chester, Shrewsbury and Lichfield, but the 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

representation of the boroughs as a whole is 
increased by thirty-six members. On the other 
hand the counties lose five members whilst the 
universities gain six. Ireland is not included in 
the Redistribution Scheme under the present Act, 
but Redistribution there is dealt with by the 
Redistribution of Seats (Ireland) Act, 1918. 
The effect of the two Acts is to increase the 
membership of the House of Commons by thirty - 
fleven members ; thirty-one of these representing 
English, two Scottish, two Welsh, and two Irish 
constituencies. The total number of members 
of the House of Commons will in future Parlia- 
ments be 707. 



N.B. In the Notes to the Sections, when the actual 
words of the sections commented on are quoted 
for the first time, they are printed in heavy type. 



ADDEND U M. 



REGISTRATION DATES. 

SINCE going to press the following Order dated 10th July, 1918 
(R. P. 39), altering certain registration dates (see pp. 128 129, 
748, 749, 750, 752) in connection with the first register under the 
Act has been made by the Local Government Board: 

"Whereas by sub-section (3) of Section 46 of the Representa- 
tion of the People Act, 1918 (herein-after referred to as 'the Act'), 
it is provided that if any difficulty arises as to the preparation of 
the First Register to be prepared under the Act (herein-after 
referred to as 'the First Register'), We, the Local Government 
Board, may by Order do any mattsr or thing which appears- to Us 
necessary for the proper preparation of the First Register; 

And whereas by virtue of an Order in Council dated the 4th 
day of June, 1918 (a), and made under the powers conferred by the 
Act the documents mentioned in Schedule A to this Order are, as 
respects the First Register, to be kept published in England and 
Wales until the dates specified in the second column of that 
Schedule and in connection with the First Register the registra- 
tion dates referred to in Schedule B to this Order are the dates 
specified in the second column of that Schedule; 

And whereas difficulties have arisen in connection with the 
preparation of the First Register, and it appears to Us necessary 
for the proper preparation of the First Register that the above- 
mentioned dates should be altered: 

Now therefore, in pursuance of Our powers in that behalf, We, 
by this Our Order, Direct as follows: 

ARTICLE I. The dates specified in the third column of 
Schedules A and B to this Order shall be respectively substituted 
for the dates specified in the second column of those schedules, 
and the above cited Order in Council shall be read and have effect 
accordingly. 

ARTICLE II. This Order may be cited as the First Register 
(Alteration of Dates) Order, 1918." 

(a) See Order in Council dated June 4th, 1918, rule 1, p. 748, First 
Schedule, p. 750, also rule 6 and Fifth Schedule, set out on pp. 128129, 
and on pp. 749, 752. 



ADDENDUM. 



SCHEDULE A. 
PUBLICATION OF DOCUMENTS. 



Nature of Document. 



Date specified in 
Order in Council . 



Electors Lists (First Schedule, Rule 6) . . . 
Notice as to mode of making claims and 

objections (First Schedule, Rule 6). 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Lists (Fir.st 

Schedule, Rule 8). 

List of Claimants (First Schedule, Rule 11). 
List of persons to whose registration notice 

of objection has been given (First 

Schedule, Rule 14). 



18th July. 
1st August. 

18th July. 

1st August. 
1st August. 



Subs, ituted Date. 



26th July. 
9th August. 

26th July. 

9th August. 
9th August. 



SCHEDULE B. 
REGISTEATION DATES. 



Subject-matter. 


Date specified in 
Order in Council. 


Substituted Date. 


Last day for objections to electors lists .... 
Last day for claims . 


10th July. 
17th July. 


18th July. 
25th July. 


Last day for claims as absent voters 


31st July. 


8th August. 


Publication of list of objections to electors 
lists. 
Publication of list of claimants 


19th July. 
25th July. 


27th July. 
2nd August. 


Last day for objections to claimants 
Pu-blication of list of objections to claimants 
(as soon as practicable after). 


31st July. 
31st July. 


8th August. 
8th August. 



In consequence of the alteration of some of the dates referred to 
in Schedule B above, the following County Court Rule, amending 
paragraph 3 of Rule 9 of the County Court (Registration Appeals) 
Rules, 1918 (set out on p. 640), has been made: 

" The words ' the ninth and the twenty-eighth days of September ' 
shall be substituted for the words ' the second and the twenty-first 
days tff September ' in paragraph 3 of Rule 9 of the County Court 
(Registration Appeals) Rules, 1918." 



REPRESENTATION OF 
ACT, 1918. 

(8 GEO. V. c. 64.) 



An Act to amend the Law with respect to 
Parliamentary and Local Government Fran- 
chises, and the Registration of Parliamentary 
and Local Government Electors, and the 
Conduct of elections, and to provide for the 
Redistribution of Seals at Parliamentary 
Elections, and for other purposes connected 
therewith. 

BE it enacted by the King's most Excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and 
Commons, in this present Parliament assem- 
bled, and by the authority of the same, as 
follows : 

PART I. 

[Sections 1 10.] 

FRANCHISES. 

1. (1) A man shall be entitled to be sect, i. 
registered as a parliamentary elector for a 
constituency (other than a university con- 
stituency) 1 if he is of full age 2 and not subject 
to any legal incapacity 3 and 

(a) has the requisite residence qualifica- 
tion 4 ; or 

1 See p. 3, footnote (), infra. '* See p. 4, infra. 

3 See pp. 48, infra. 4 See pp. 924, infra. 

F 1 






OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

requisite business premises 
qualification. 5 

(2) A man, in order to have the requisite 
residence qualification or business premises 
qualification for a constituency 

(a) must on the last day of the qualifying 

period be residing in premises in 
the constituency, 6 or occupying 
business premises in the constitu- 
ency, 7 as the case may be ; and 

(b) must during the whole of the quali- 

fying period have resided in pre- 
mises, 8 or occupied business pre- 
mises, 9 as the case may be, in the 
constituency, or in another con- 
stituency within the same parlia- 
mentary borough 10 or parliamentary 
county, 11 or within a parliamentary 
borough or parliamentary county 
contiguous to that borough or 
county, or separated from that 
borough or county by water, not 
exceeding at the nearest point six 
miles in breadth, measured in the 
case of tidal water from low-water 
mark. 

* See pp. 2437, infra. ami Ninth Sched., pp. 404481, 
8 See pp. 9 16, infra. infra. 

7 See pp. 2437, infra. u See sect. 37 (2), p. 282, infra, 

* See pp. 924, infra. and Ninth Sched., pp. 482554, 

8 See pp. 2437, infra-. infra. 
10 See sect. 37 (1), p. 282, infra, 



SECTION 1. 

For the purposes of this subsection the sect. i. 
administrative county of London shall be 
treated as a parliamentary borough. 

(3) The expression "business premises" 
in this section means land or other premises 
of the yearly value of not less than ten 
pounds occupied for the purpose of the busi- 
ness, profession, or trade of the person to be 
registered. 12 

NOTE. Sect. 1 set out above states the con- 
ditions which must be fulfilled in order to entitle 
a male person to be registered as a parliamentary 
elector for a constituency (other than a uni- 
versity constituency) (). 

These conditions are : 

(1) He must be of full age ; 

(2) He must not be subject to any legal in- 

capacity ; 

(3) He must have (a) the requisite residence quali- 

fication or (b) the requisite business pre- 
mises qualification. 

12 See pp. 2837, infra. 



(a) As to registration for parliamentary purposes, see Part II. 
Registration, sects. 11 19 of the Act, pp. 125155, infra. The 
words parliamentary elector for a constituency (other than a 
university constituency) in sect. 1 (1) mean a person who is 
entitled to vote at an election of a member of the House of Commons 
for any constituency other than a university constituency, i.e., for 
any county, borough, or combination of places returning a member 
to serve in Parliament, and, where a county or borough is divided 
for the purpose of parliamentary elections, a division of the county 
or borough so divided. See sect. 41 (1), p. 305, infra. 

1 (2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. i. (1) He must be of full age, -Full ago is by the 
Common Law the age of 21 years, and such age 
is attained on the da}' preceding the 21st anni- 
versary of a person's birth (b). By sect. 41 (7) 
of the Act(tf) "for the purposes of registration a 
person's age shall be taken to be that person's age 
on the last day of the qualifying period " (d\ i.e. 
on January 15th or on July 15th according to 
which of the two registers he is placed upon(<e). 
If the 21st anniversary of the birth of the person 
to be registered is January 16th or July 16th he 
will have attained full age for the purpose of being- 
registered on the Spring or Autumn register (/), 
irrespective of the hour of his birth (g). 

(2) He must not be subject to any legal incapa- 
city. It should be noted that a legal incapacity 
is quite distinct from an absence of the qualifica- 
tions required by this Act to enable a person to 
be registered or to vote at an election. Legal 
incapacity in the above sense is some quality 
inherent in a person or for the time being irre- 
movable in such person, which, either at Common 
Law or by Statute, deprives him of the status of 
a parliamentary elector (A). 

(6) I Co. Lit. 78; Bro. Abr. ''Age." 

(c) Set out at p. 307, infra. 

(d) As to the qualifying period, see sect. 6, p. 94, infra. 

(e) See sect. 11, p. 125, infra. As to jbhe dates applicable to the 
first register, see pp. 128, 129, infra. 

(/) See p. 126, infra. As to the dates applicable to the first 
register, see pp. 128, 129, infra. 

(g) 1 bl. Com. 463 ; Anon. (1700), Ld. Eaym. 480, 1096. 

(A) See the observations of Lord Coleridge, C.J., in Stowe v. 
Jolliffe (1874), L. E, 9 C. P. at p. 750; see also Hay ward v. Seott 
(1879), 5 C. P. 1). 231 ; and the observations of O'Brien, J., in Lon- 
donderry (1886), 4 0. & H. at pp. 100, 101. 



LEGAL INCAPACITIES. 

The following are legally incapacitated from 
being registered under this section: (1) A peer 
of the United Kingdom (e), or of Scotland, or of 
Ireland not actually elected and serving for a 
constituency in Great Britain (&); (2) a person 
holding any one of certain offices (I) ; (3) an 
infant (wt); (4) an alien (w); (5) an idiot (o) ; 

(6) a lunatic who is not in a lucid interval (/?); 

(7) an imbecile who is not compos mentis (q) ; (8) a 
person convicted of treason or felony and sentenced 
to death or penal servitude or imprisonment, either 
with hard labour or exceeding twelve months, unless 
he has suffered such other punishment as by eompe- 

(t) Com. Dig. tit. Parl. D. 10; Beauchamp (Earl] v. Madrtsjield 
(1872), L. E. 8 C. P. 245 ; Bristol (Marquis] v. Seek (1907), 96 L. T. 
55; 71 J. P. 99; 23 T. L. E. 224. 

(k) 39 & 40 Geo. 3, c. 67, art. 4 ; Banlury (1797), Heywood, 318 ; 
Droitwich (1834), K. & 0. 65 ; Lord JRendlesham v. Haward (1873), 
L. E. 9 C. P. 252. 

(I] Under this head conie :(!) A Scots sheriff, a sheriff substi- 
tute, a sheriff clerk, a deputy .sheriff clerk for the shire within 
which the election is being held (2 & 3 Will. 4, c. 65, s. 36; 
see also sect. 43 (6) of the present Act, p. 317, infra] ; (2) various 
officers connected with the constabulary and police in Ireland (6 & 
1 Will, 4, c. 13, s. 18 (Irish Constabulary) ; 6 & 7 Will. 4, c. 29, 
s. 19 (Dublin Metropolitan Magistrates and Police), The dis- 
qualifications formerly attaching to the police in Great Britain 
were abolished by the Police Disabilities Eemoval Act, 1887. 

(i) 7 & 8 Will. 3, c. 25, s. 7 ; Stowe v. Jolli/e (1874), L. E, 9 G. P. 
743, 758. A naval or military voter within sect. 5 (4) of the present 
Act is qualified at nineteen. See pp. 80 82, infra. 

(//) Middlesex (1804), 2 Peck, 118; Bedford (1832), C. & E, 98; 
Isaacson v. Duntnt (1886), 17 Q, B. D. 54 ; 33 & 34 Viet. c. 14, s. 2. 
As to naturalisation, see the British Nationality and Status of Aliens 
Act, 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. o, c. 17). . 

(o) Bedfordshire (1785), 2 Lud. 567. 

(p) Heywood, 260. 

(q) Briil</eivtt)'(l8QS] t 1 Peck, 108; OaMmpton(}~9l), 1 Fraser, 
162. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 1. tent authority mav be substituted for the same or 
received a free pardon, or in the case of penal 
servitude or imprisonment has suffered the punish- 
ment to which he has been sentenced (r) ; (9) a 
person convicted on indictment within the pre- 
ceding seven years of a corrupt practice at a 
parliamentary election (s) or convicted within the 
preceding seven years of a corrupt practice at a 
municipal election (t)] (10) a person found guilty 
on summary conviction within the preceding five 
years of an illegal practice at a parliamentary 
election within the county or borough in which 
he is seeking to be registered (u) ; (11) a person 
who, as a candidate, election agent or sub-agent, has 
within the preceding five years been convicted of 
an illegal employment, payment, or hiring, at a 
parliamentary election within the county or 
borough in which he is seeking to be registered (#); 
(12) a person convicted within the preceding 
five years of an illegal practice at a municipal 
election within the borough in which he is 
seeking to be registered (y] or convicted within 
the preceding five years of an illegal employment, 
payment, or hiring as candidate at the said muni- 
cipal election (#); (13) a person who has within the 
preceding seven years been convicted of a corrupt 

(r} Forfeiture Act, 1870, s. 2. This has no application to Scot- 
land, ib. s. 33. 

(s] Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 6 (3). See p. 275, infra. 

(t) Municipal Elections (Corrupt Practices) Act, 1884, s. 2(2); 
Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 6 (3). 

(u) Ibid. s. 10. See p. 299, infra. 

(x] Ibid. s. 21 (2); s. 25 (2) ; s. 10. See p. 302, infra. 

(y) Municipal Elections (Corrupt Practices) Act, 1884, a. 7. 

(z) Ibid. s*. 7. 17 (2). 



LKOAL INCAPACITIES. 

practice, or within the preceding five years of an Seot. i . 
illegal practice, at the election of a member of a 
local board, of a member of Improvement Com- 
missioners, or of a poor law guardian (a); (14) a 
person who has been convicted, within the pre- 
ceding six years, of a corrupt offence at the 
election of a member of a school board which 
has been held within the preceding six years (b) ; 
(15) a person who has been twice convicted under 
the Public Bodies Corrupt Practices Act, 1889, 
8. 2 ; (16) a person who is reported by an election 
court or Election Commissioners to have been 
guilty of any corrupt or illegal practice at an 
election, whether he obtains a certificate of in- 
demnity or not, in like manner and for the same 
period (c) as if he had at the date of such election 
been convicted of the offence of which he is re- 
ported to have been guilty (d) ; ( 17) a conscientious 
objector who is incapacitated during the war and 
for five years thereafter by sect. 9 (2) of the 
present Act(e). 

It should be noticed that persons subject to 
the above-mentioned incapacities are prohibited 
both from being registered and from voting (/). 

(a) Municipal Elections (Corrupt Practices) Act, 1884, as. 2, 36, 
Sched. 1. 

(6) 33 & 34 Viet. c. 75, s. 91. 

(c) As to the period during which this incapacity applies, see, 
with regard to corrupt practice, heading (9), and with regard to 
illegal practice, heading (10), on p. 6, supra. 

(d) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 38 (5). 

(e) See sect. 9 (2), pp. 112114, and pp. 117121, infra. 

(/) See the observations of Lush, J., in Worcester (1880), 3 0. & 
H. at p. 186; and also the Ballot Act, 1872, s. 7, set out at p. 667, 
668, j'/'/m, and sect. 9 (3) of the present Act, pp. 114, 115, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, i By sect. 13 (1) of the present Act " it shall be the 
duty of the registration officer (/)... to place 
or cause to be placed 011 the register . . . the 
names of those entitled to vote as parliamentary 
electors ... in his registration area." The re- 
gistration officer should therefore not place on 
the register the name of any person who is subject 
to any of the above incapacities. But if he 
should do so, the register is conclusive of such 
person's right to give his vote at the poll, and the 
returning officer cannot refuse to allow him to 
vote. Such a vote would, however, be struck 
off on a scrutiny (g). In the words of Lush, J., 
in Worcester (h), " the battle of qualification shall 
be fought either beforehand in the registration 
court (i), or after the election upon a scrutiny (g], 
but nothing shall take place at the polling-booth 
but a reference to the register to ascertain whether 
the person who presents himself i$ the person upon 
that register or not." 

(3) He must have (a) the requisite residence 
qualification or (b) the requisite business pre- 
mises qualification. 

(a) The requisite residence qualification. In 
order to have this qualification a man (i) must 
on the last day of the qualifying period (A) 
be residing in premises in the constituency (/), 

(/) As to the registration officer, see pp. 130 132, infra. 

(g) As to a scrutiny, see the Author's " Law of Parliamentary 
Elections and Election Petitions," 2nd ed., pp. 210B 215. 

(7i) (1880), 3 O. & H. at p. 11. 

(i) The office of revising barrister is abolished by the present Act, 
but his duties are now undertaken by the registration officer. 

(/) See pp. 9, 10, infra. 

(1) See pp. 1116, infra. 



RESIDENCE QUALIFICATION. 

and (ii) must during the whole of the quali- sect. i. 
fying period have resided in premises in the 
constituency, or in another constituency within 
the same parliamentary borough (m) or parlia- 
mentary county, or within a parliamentary 
borough or parliamentary county () contiguous 
to that borough or county, or separated from that 
borough or county by water not exceeding at 
the nearest point six miles in breadth measured 
in the case of tidal water from low- water mark. 
For this purpose the administrative county of 
London is to be treated as a parliamentary 
borough (0). 

Under sect. 11 (p) of the present Act two 
registers of electors are to be prepared in every 
year, of which one, the Spring register, is to be 
made for the qualifying period ending on Jan- 
uary 15th, and the other, the Autumn register, 
is to be made for the qualifying period ending 
on July loth. The qualifying period is a period 
of six months ending either on January 15th or 
July 15th, including in each case the fifteenth 
day (q\ so that the last day of the qualifying 
period is in the one case January 15th, and in 
the other July loth (r). 

When an elector moves into a constituency 
within thirty days of the last day of the quali- 

(wi) See pp. 1124, infra. 

(n) Ibid. 

(o) See sect. 1 (2), (b), set out on p. o, supra. See also pp. 23, 
24, injra. 

(p) See pp. 125, 126, infra.' 

(?) Sect. 6, p. 94, infra. 

(r} As to the dates applicable to the first register, see pp. 12S, 
129, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. i. lying period, he is not entitled to be registered 
by reason of a residence qualification unless he 
fulfils the conditions ef sect. 7 (3), which is as 
follows: "Notwithstanding anything in this 
Act, a man shall not be entitled to be registered 
as a parliamentary elector for a constituency in 
respect of a residence qualification though he 
may have been residing in premises in the con- 
stituency on the last day of the qualifying period, 
if he commenced to reside in the constituency 
within thirty days before the end of the qualifying 
period, and ceased to reside within thirty days 
after the time when he so commenced to reside." 

The object of the sub-section just quoted is to 
provide against what are known as i i swallow 
voters/' by imposing a condition which i 
intended to ensure that the residence on the last 
day of the qualifying period shall be bond fide. 
In order to come within the sub-section, it is only 
necessary for the person to be registered to reside 
in a constituency for thirty consecutive days, one 
of which is the last day of the qualifying period ; 
e.g., such person may begin to reside on July 14th 
and cease to reside on August 13th, or he may 
begin to reside on June 10th and cease to reside 
on July 16th. 

It would appear that the requisite residence 
during thirty consecutive days would not neces- 
sarily be broken by reason of the person to be 
registered moving from one set of promises to 
another in immediate succession during the thirty 
days. 

The meaning of the words residing in premises 



RESIDENCE QUALIFICATION. x 

in sect. 1 (2) (a) and resided in premises in sect. Sect - * 
1 (2) (b) raise questions of some difficulty. 

It is abundantly clear from the language of 
sect. 7 (2) of the present Act that the expression 
" residence" and cognate expressions are to be 
interpreted according to general principles (r). 

"The word 'residence' has a variety of 
meanings according to the Statute in which it 
is used " (s). It will therefore only be useful to 
consider here the interpretation which the word 
has received in previous Statutes dealing with 
the franchise. 

The question of residence is a question of 
fact(Y). There are two kinds of residence, actual 
residence and constructive residence. 

As to actual residence. In Barlow v. Smith (),. 
Lord Coleridge, C.J., referred to " the old and 
universal definition of residence" as " the place 
where a man's home is and where he sleeps." 
In the same case (v) the learned Chief Justice 
cited Whithorn v. Thomas (w\ and Reg. v. Mayor of 
Exeter, DipstaWs Case(x), and said: " We have 
therefore the authority of three judges that in 
this section (s. 27 of the Reform Act, 1832) 
' residence ' implies home, the place where a man 
lives. . . . For centuries past it has always been 

(r) See sect. 7 (2), p. 99, infra. 

(t) Per Erie, C.J., in Naif and another v. Mutter (1862), 31 L. J. 
0. P. at p. 359. 

(t} Reg. v. Mayor of Exeter, WcscomVs Case (1868), L. R. 4 Q. B. 
110; ibid., Dipstale's Case, 114. 

(u) (1892), Fox & Smith's Registration Cases, at pp. 297, 298. 

(v) Ibid, at p. 299. 

(;) (1844), 7M. &Gr. 1. 

(x) (1868), L. R. 4Q. B. 114. 



11 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. i. held that where a man sleeps and has his home is 
the place where he resides." 

a There is no strict or definite rule for ascer- 
taining what is inhabitance or residence. The 
words have nearly the same meaning. Sleeping 
once or twice in a place would not constitute 
inhabitance. There is no precise line to be 
drawn. It is always, if the inhabiting is bond 
fide, a question of more or less. The question is 
whether there has been such a degree of in- 
habitance as to be in substance and in common 
sense a residence. When a person has a country 
and a town house, it is a mere question of fact, 
whether he has two residences, or only one rosi- 
dence. When ... a man leaves one residence 
to go elsewhere to transact real business, whether 
he has two residences depends on quantity and 
amount. It is a pure question of fact " (y). 

' i The fact that a person sleeps in a place is 
generally a very important ingredient in de- 
ciding whether he inhabits it, but it is not con- 
clusive" (2). 

It has been held that if a person actually re- 
sides in a constituency, such residence is sufficient, 
even if he be a trespasser (a). 

As to constructive residence. u In order to 
constitute residence, a party must possess, at the 
least, a sleeping apartment, but an uninterrupted 
abiding at such dwelling is not requisite. Ab- 



(y) Per Blackburn, J., in Reg. v. Mayor of Exeter, 
Case (1868), L. E. 2 Q. B. at p. 113. 
(z) Ibid, in DipstalJs Case, at pp. 115, 116. 
(a) Seal v. Ford (1877), 47 L. J. C. P. 56. 



CONSTRUCTIVE RESIDENCE. 

sence, no matter how long, if there be the liberty Sect. l. 
of returning at any time (), and no abandonment 
of the intention to return whenever it may suit 
the party's pleasure or convenience so to do, will 
not prevent a constructive legal residence. But 
if he has debarred himself of the liberty of re- 
turning to such dwelling, by letting it (c) for a 
period however short, or has abandoned his in- 
tention of returning, he cannot any longer be 
said to have even a legal residence there "(</). 

In Whithorn v. Thomas (0), where the question 
was whether the claimant had resided for six 
calendar months in a borough so as to qualify 
him as an elector for such borough under sect. 27 
of the Reform Act, 1832, Tindal, C.J., in con- 
trasting the two kinds of residence, said(/"): 
61 The mere payment of rent would not be equi- 
valent to a residence. The residence required 
by the Statute (^) must mean an actual occupa- 
tion (A), for some part of the time specified, by 
the party himself (actual residence), or an occu- 
pation (h) by his family or servants (constructive 
residence)." 

(fe) See as to this T<mner v. Varter (1885), 16 U. B. D. 231 
(university students). 

(c) But, see as to the exception expressly allowed in the present 
Act, pp. 16 23, infra. 

(d) Elliott on Registration, 2nd ed. p. 204, quoted with approval 
by Erie, C.J., in Powell v. (hiest (1864), 34 L. J. C. P. at p. 70. 

.() (1844), 7M. &Gr. 1. 

(/) Ibid, at p. 8. 

(g) Reform Act, 1832. 

(h) The word " occupation " is obviously used here in a colloquial 
sense, and not in the strict legal meaning discussed on pp. 25 27, 
infra . 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

*ect. i in the same case, Erie, J., said(/): "I think 
that in the Reform Act the intention of the 
legislature was, that a party who obtained a vote 
by residing in a borough should have some local 
interest there referring to the ordinary meaning 
of the word residence, as conveying the idea of 
home. . . . The fact of sleeping at a place, 
indeed, by no means constitutes a residence 
though, on the other hand, it may not be neces- 
sary for the purpose of constituting a residence 
in any place to sleep there at all. If a man's 
family are living in a borough, and he is absent 
for six months, but with the intention of re- 
turning, he will still be considered as residing 
there/' 

Where a person has a house or rooms to which 
he is entitled to go, even a considerable absence 
will not break the residence for the purpose of 
qualification (g). It is submitted, for example, 
that a munition worker who leaves a constituency 
in which he has his house for a part or even the 
whole of the qualifying period, in order to work 
elsewhere, will not lose the residence qualification 
in the constituency provided that he retains his 
place of abode in such constituency and his right 
and intention to return there. 

" A legal inability to reside caused by the 
voter's own act and not by misfortune would 



(/) Reform Act, 1832, at p. 10. 

(g] Fakoiitr v. Duulup (1890), W. N. (1897) 12-4 ; see also Taylor 
y. 8t. Mary Ablott Overseers (1870), L. B. o 0. P. 309; Bond v. 
St. George, Hanover Square, Overseers, ibid. 312. 






MEANING OF RESIDENCE. 

break the residence " (h). Thus, imprisonment Sect, l. 
following upon a conviction of a criminal offence, 
for a substantial part of the qualifying period, 
was held to have prevented the voter from having 
obtained the residence qualification in his own 
home under sect. 27 of the Reform Act, 1832. 

The same principle applies where the voter, 
being a civilian, has voluntarily incapacitated 
himself from residing in the constituency, e.g. 
where a clerk is bound under articles to a solicitor 
not to leave his place of employment outside the 
constituency without the solicitor's permission ('). 
As to the position of sailors and soldiers and other 
persons engaged in service of a naval or military 
character, see pp. 76 90, infra. 

From what has been said above, it is clear that a 
person can obtain the residence qualification with- 
out having any estate in the premises in which he 
resides. Thus, a son living in his father's house 
may thereby obtain the residence qualification. 

It should be noticed that by sect. 41 (5) of the 
present Act: "A person who is an inmate or 
patient in any prison, lunatic asylum, workhouse, 
poorhouse, or any other similar institution shall 
not by reason thereof be treated as resident 
therein for any purpose of this Act." 

The fact that the object of the residence is to 

(/*) Per Byles, J., in Pa well v. Guest (18(54), 34 L. J. C. P. at 
p. 71. See also Ford v. Pye (1873), 9 0. P. 269 ; Ford v. Hart, i/>i<L 
273; Beal v. Town Ckrk of Kxeter (1887), 20 Q. B. D. 300. 

(i) Ford v. Drew (1879), 5 0. P. I). 59. It should be noticed 
that the present Act repeals the Electoral Disabilities Removal Act, 
1891 (54 & 55 Viet. c. 11), which provided that non-residence caused 
by absence on duty, not exceeding four months at any one time, 
should not disqualify. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. i. obtain a vote is in itself no objection, but will be 
taken into account in determining whether there 
is a real bond fide residence (k\ 

By sect. 7 (2) of the present Act " residence 
in a house . . . shall not be deemed to be inter- 
rupted for the purposes of this Act by reason only 
of permission being given by letting or otherwise 
for the occupation of the house as a furnished 
house by some other person for a part of the 
qualifying period not exceeding four months in 
the whole, or by reason only of notice to quit 
being served and possession being demanded by 
the landlord of the house." 

The meaning of the word " house" in this sub- 
section is not free from doubt. It is submitted, 
however, that the word " house" here is used in 
the meaning in which it has been interpreted by 
the Courts in construing the word in sect. 27 of 
the Reform Act, 1832, which, like the present 
Act, contains no definition or reference to the 
meaning of the word. In that section the fol- 
lowing words are used: "Every male person 
. . . who shall occupy ... as owner or tenant 
any house . . . shall if duly registered ... be 
entitled to vote . . ." 

In Cook v. Humber(l), Erie, C.J., in delivering the 
considered judgment of the Court of Common Pleas 
(Erie, C.J., Williams, Keating and Byles, JJ.), 
said : " Cases may be put where he (the claimant) 
would, as tenant or occupier, be qualified, although 
the key should be withheld; for if that which is one 

() Whitlic-rn v. Thomas (1844), 7 M. & Or. 3. 
(0 (1862), 31 L. J. C. P. at p. 76. 



MEANING OF " HOUSE." 17 

house in one sense, being under one roof, be Sect. i. 
divided by the structure into several flats, consti- 
tuting several houses in another sense, has one 
outer door to the street, of which a porter has the 
key and the sole control for the security of the 
tenants, each flat is a sufficient tenement, and 
the qualification is gained, though the tenant 
have no key to the outer door ; and it is the same 
though the porter resides on one of the flats, and 
is owner of all the rooms under the roof. Again, 
if the occupier is tenant, it seems to us imma- 
terial to inquire whether he has an uncontrolled 
access to the house. If, for instance, a house is 
let to A., without any access, except across the 
yard of B., and B. neither gives nor refuses leave 
to A. to pass over the yard, the mere liability to 
interruption of the access would not prevent his 
being qualified. And again, it seems immaterial 
to inquire whether the tenant of a house has 
exclusive possession, that is, possession free from 
servitudes or rights of entry reserved to the 
landlord : such servitudes and rights of entry 
affect the value of the tenement, but not the 
sufficiency in kind." 

In Henrette v. Booth (m) the facts were as fol- 
lows : The claimant was tenant of the whole of 
the upper floor of a building; his holding con- 
sisted of two rooms, opening on to the common 
staircase. The staircase was approached from 
the street by a passage at the end of which, next 
to the street, was a door, which could be closed, 



F. 



(m) (1863), 33 L. J. C. P. at p. 61. 



18 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. i. but had no lock or fastening of any kind. The 
other floors were occupied by other tenants in a 
similar way. The claimant had exclusive control 
of the door leading to his own two rooms, which 
were completely severed from the rest of the 
building. In delivering judgment, Erie, C.J., 
said(w): "I am of opinion that . . . the voter 
is entitled to the franchise. I think he was the 
tenant of a house within the meaning of the 2 & 
3 Will. 4, c. 45 (nn\ s. 27 as explained in the case 
of Cook v. ff timber (o). He occupied the whole of 
the upper floor, and the part of the building 
which was occupied by him communicated with 
the landing on the staircase by one outer door, 
over which he had exclusive control. It is also 
stated in the case that there are other floors 
occupied by other tenants, and that all the tenants 
have access to their respective holdings from the 
street through a doorway at the entrance of a 
passage which leads to the common staircase of 
the building. In this doorway there is a door 
which has no lock or fastening of any kind. 
That, I think, makes the voter the tenant of a 
house within the meaning of the statute. We 
have felt great difficulty in coming to a definite 
idea of what is a house within the meaning of 
the statute, when once it is assumed that there 
may be several houses under one roof; but we 
have felt bound to hold, notwithstanding, that 
there may be such houses, and we must, there- 



() (1863), 33 L. J. C. P. at pp. 62, 63. 

(mi) Keforni Act, 1832. 

(o) (1862), 31 L. J. 0. P. 73. 



MEANING OF " HOUSE." 19 

fore, lay down rules for deciding what is a house Sect - * 
and what is not, as clearly as we can. One 
matter that the Court has considered with re- 
ference to this subject is, that there would be 
great complication, if a building, which had been 
so constructed in other respects with reference to 
its internal arrangements, as that it should be 
considered as divided into several houses for the 
purpose of the franchise, should, merely because 
an outer door was added, be considered to be one 
house only. And in Cook v. Number (p) we en- 
deavoured to point out this, and also that the 
question, whether the subject of occupation was 
a separate house, did not depend solely on the 
presence or absence of the landlord, or on the 
circumstance whether the tenant had or had not 
a key of the outer door. ... I think that the 
facts of the present case show as complete an 
analogy between this claim and that for chambers 
in the Inns of Courts, or any of the other recog- 
nized cases of separate holdings, which -constitute 
several house>s with a common staircase under one 
roof, as there possibly can be. . . ." 

In the same case, Williams, J., said (q) : 
"I am of the same opinion. We are bound to 
abide by the opinion which we expressed in Cook 
v. Number (r), that part of a building may confer 
the franchise if there be an entirely independent 

(p) (1862), 31 L. J. C. P. 73. 

(g) (1863), 33 L. J. C. P. at p, 63. 

(r) (1862), 31 L. J. 0. P. 73. 

2(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, i. occupation of it, and it be actually severed from 
the rest of the building, so as to form, in fact, a 
separate house. It is impossible to deny that 
there is difficulty in saying precisely in what a 
separate house consists. It is admitted, however, 
that if a building be divided into what are com- 
monly called chambers, these are actually severed. 
Nor does it seem to me that it would necessarily 
be otherwise, if there was a door which separated 
all the chambers from the street, and which might 
be closed if the inmates were so minded. . . ." 

Keating, J. ? said (s) : " The cases necessarily 
run very close to each other. But looking to the 
facts as found in this case, I come to the conclu- 
sion, without difficulty, that this voter was the 
tenant of a house within the meaning of the 
statute, as explained in Cook v. Humber. There 
was no other door between him and the street 
except that leading on to the staircase ; for the 
mere flap without a fastening cannot be considered 
as a door for the purpose which we are now 
considering." 

It appears from the above judgments that 
structural severance is necessary in order that 
premises should be a " house" within the meaning 
of sect. 27 of the Eeform Act, 1832, and by 
analogy within the meaning of sect. 7 (2) of the 
present Act. 

The applicability of this view of the meaning 
of the word " house" to the present Act is 
strengthened by the fact that elsewhere in sect. 1 

() (1863), 33 L. J. C. P. at p. 63. 



MEANING OF " HOUSE." 21 

the word " premises" is used to describe the Sect. i. 
subject of residence and occupation, so that if 
the Legislature had intended that the provision 
now under discussion should apply to all kinds 
of premises in which a man resides, the word 
"premises" would have been used instead of the 
word " house." 

It may be well to point out that the word 
" dwelling-house," which occurs in sect. 3 of the 
Representation of the People Act, 1867, was 
defined by sect. 61 of that Act, and that the 
word "house" was defined in sect. 5 (t) of the 
Parliamentary and Municipal Registration Act, 
1878, and sect. 31 (a) of the Municipal Corpora- 
tions Act, 1882. 

The interpretation placed by the Courts on the 
words " dwelling-house " and "house" in the 
Acts just mentioned depended largely on the 
express words of the definitions in those Acts, 
and it is therefore submitted that the cases (u) in 
which the words in question in those Acts were 
interpreted throw no light upon the meaning of 
the word "house" in the present Act. These 
definitions expressly include in the meaning given 
to the words "house" and "dwelling-house" 
premises other than those included in the word 
"house" as interpreted in the judgments in Cook 

(i) Repealed by the present Act, s. 47 (1), and Eighth Schedule. 
See p. 397, infra. For this definition, see p. 50, infra. 

(u) Thompson v. Ward, Ellis v. Burch (1871), L. B. 6 C. P. 327 ; 
Boon v. Howard (1874), L. E. 9 C. P. 277; Allchurch v. Hendon 
Union, (1891) 2 Q. B. 436 (C. A.). 



22 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. i. v. Humber (v) and Henrettev. Booth (%}, but it is 
submitted that these judgments supply the true 
test of the meaning of the word " house " in the 
present Act by reason of the fact that the judges 
were there construing the word in an Act which 
like the present contained no definition of 
" house." It should also be noticed that 
sect. 41 (8) of the present Act follows the Act of 
1867 in expressly including in the meaning of 
the word " dwelling-house " " any part of a house 
where that part is occupied separately as a dwell- 
ing-house." The fact that the Acts referred to 
above contained definitions of the words " house " 
and " dwelling-house " and that the present Act- 
deals expressly with the meaning of the word 
" dwelling-house " whilst leaving the word 
" house " undefined, is a strong argument against 
the applicability of these definitions to the word 
" house" in the present Act, and in favour of the 
meaning given to the word in the judgments 
mentioned above. 

There would appear to be no necessity for the 
four months referred to in sect. 7 (2), set out on 
p. 16, supra, to be four consecutive months. It 
should also be observed that the period of letting 
may be more than four months in the whole 
without disfranchising the elector, provided that 
such period is in two and not one qualifying 
period. 

Further, not only is the residence of a lessor 

(v] (1862), 31 L. J. C. P. 73. 
(x) (1863), 33 L. J. C. P. 61. 



SUCCESSIVE RESIDENCE. 23 

deemed to be unbroken during the time his house Sect. l. 
is let, but it is clear that the tenant may also 
obtain the benefit of his residence towards his 
qualification for the franchise during such time 
as he resides in the house of which he is tenant. 

The provision in sect. 7 (2) set out on p. 16, 
supra, in so far as it deals with notice to quit, is 
unnecessary in the case of residence. 

As to the meaning of the word premises in 
relation to the residence qualification, the Act 
contains no definition, and indeed the words in 
premises in sect. 1 (2) (a) appear to be surplusage. 
Provided that a man resides in the constituency, 
it is immaterial what is the nature or value of the 
premises in which he resides. 

It should also be remembered in this connection 
that a man may during the course of a qualifying 
period move in immediate succession from one set 
of premises to another in the constituency (y\ 
or a neighbouring constituency as described in 
sect. 2 (b), without losing his qualification, pro- 
vided that he does not cease to reside. 

This materially extends the meaning of what 
was formerly known, in relation to the occupation 
franchise, as " successive occupation." Thus, 
bearing in mind that the administrative county 
of London is, for the purposes of sect. 1 (2), to be 
treated as a parliamentary borough, a man may 
move his residence in London freely during the 
qualifying period in any constituency in London. 

(*/) As to the meaning of the word "constituency," see p. 3, 

footnote (), supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, i. He may also move, e.g., into any constituency 
within the parliamentary counties of Essex or 
Kent, as such parliamentary counties at some 
point touch the boundaries of the administrative 
county of London. 

As to the manner in which a t i naval or military 
voter " can obtain the residence qualification, see 
sect. 5, pp. 7679, and pp. 8690, 9193, 
infra. 

(b) The requisite business premises qualifica- 
tion. In order to have this qualification a man 
(i) must on the last day of the qualifying 
period be occupying business premises in the 
constituency (, and (ii) must during the whole 
of the qualifying period have occupied 
business premises in the constituency or in 
another constituency within the same parlia- 
mentary borough or parliamentary county or 
within a parliamentary borough or parlia- 
mentary county contiguous to that borough or 
county or separated from that borough or county 
by water, not exceeding at the nearest point six 
miles in breadth measured in the case of tidal 
water from low-water mark. For this purpose 
the administrative county of London shall be 
treated as a parliamentary borough (2). 

As to the meaning of the words on the last 
day of the qualifying period, see pp. 9, 10, 
supra. 

(y] As to the meaning of the word "constituency," see p. 3, 
footnote (it), supra. 

(z) See sect. 1 (2), (b), set out on p. 2, supra. 



MEANING OF OCCUPATION. 

It should be noticed that in the case of the Sect. i. 
business premises qualification the requirements 
of sect. 1 (2) (a) are satisfied by occupation on 
the last day of the qualifying period, even in the 
case of successive occupation, without any addi- 
tional period such as is required in the case of 
the residence qualification (a). 

In the case of the business premises qualifica- 
tion, as in that of the residence qualification, 
there is no necessity for the land or premises 
occupied to be the same during the whole of the 
qualifying period, provided such land or premises 
are occupied in immediate succession and are 
within the requisite limits (aa). 

The meaning of the words occupying in sect. 
1 (2) (a) and occupied in sect. 1 (2) (b), like the 
meaning of " residence," raises difficulties. 

In Cook v. Humber(b), Erie, C.J., in considering 
the meaning of occupation in relation to sect. 27 
of the Reform Act, 1832, defined " occupation " 
as " actual exercise of the rights of the owner 
in possession during the requisite time." 

This is apparently the only judicial definition 
of the word u occupation " in relation to the par- 
liamentary franchise. Although it may perhaps 
be doubted (<?) whether any useful purpose is 
served by referring to judgments which deal 
with the meaning of the word in relation to a 

(a) See pp. 10, 11, supra. 

(aa) See sect. 1 (2) (b), pp. 2, 3, supra. See also pp. 2224. 
(fc) (1862), 31 L. J. C. P. at p. 75. 

(c) See the observations of Denman, C.J., in Rex v. Inhabitants 
of St. Nicholas (ISM], 5 B. & Ad. at p. 226 ; see also p. 11, supra. 



26 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

. subject-matter other than that of the franchise, 
the observations made by Lush, J., in Reg. v. 
St. Pancras Assessment Committee (d) appear to be 
so wide as to be worth quoting in connection 
with the question now under consideration. 
" Occupation includes possession as its primary 
element, but it also includes something more. 
Legal possession (e.g. the possession of the owner 
of a vacant house) does not of itself constitute an 
occupation." 

The cases decided under sect. 27 of the Reform 
Act, 1832 (e\ as to the meaning of occupation of 
any warehouse, counting-house, shop, or other 
similar building, may be usefully referred to as 
throwing light on the meaning of the words 
" occupying" and " occupied " in sect. 1 (2) 
and (3) of the present Act. Under that section 
it was decided that the occupation required need 
not be actual occupation by the elector himself, 
but might be constructive. Thus it was held 
that there was occupation by the voter of a 
warehouse, being part of a house, where his 
goods were kept in the warehouse, although 
no one lived in the house (/), of a counting- 
house (part of a house) where he used it by 
himself or his clerks for the purposes of his 
business during the day, although such counting- 

((/) (1877), 2 Q. B. D. at p. 588. 

(?) It is submitted that the words occupying business premises 
will, generally speaking, have much the *ame effect as the words 
" shall occupy as owner or tenant any . . . warehouse or counting- 
house, shop or other building." 

(/) Daniel v. Coidsting (1845), 7 M. & Gr. 122. 



MEANING OF OCCUPATION. 27 

house might be locked up and left without anyone Sect. 1. 
in it at night (g), of a shed on a wharf used by a 
wharfinger for keeping in it his barrows, shovels 
and baskets (h), of a shed used by a market 
gardener for storing potatoes (*'), of a stone build- 
ing on a piece of land, the building in which he 
kept guano and other manure used for the pur- 
poses of the land (/). 

Having regard to the definitions and cases re- 
ferred to above, it would appear that in order 
that there should be occupation within the mean- 
ing of section 1 of the present Act two conditions 
must be fulfilled: (1) There must be the exercise 
of the rights of ownership by the person to be 
registered, whether such person is or is not the 
owner, and (2) there must be actual user for the - 
purpose of the business, profession or trade of 
such person. 

It should be noticed that by sect. 7 (2) " . . . 
the occupation of a house shall not be deemed to 
be interrupted for the purposes of this Act by 
reason only of permission being given by letting 
or otherwise for the occupation of the house as a 
furnished house by some other person for part of 
the qualifying period not exceeding four months 
in the whole, or by reason only of notice to quit 
being served and possession being demanded by 
the landlord of the house ; . . ." This sub-section 

(<j) Downing v. Luckett (1847), 17 1,. J. C. P. 31 ; Piercy v. 
Maclean (1870), L. E. 5 C. P. 252. 

(h] Watson v. Cotton (1847), 17 L. J. C. P. 68. 
(*) Poiveli v. Farmer (1865), 34 L. J. C. P. 71. 
(/) Morish v. Harris (1865), L. E, 1 C. P. 155. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

8ect - i- applies, as will be observed, only to the occupation 
" of a " house "(*). 

The case of a house which is used " for the 
purpose of the business, profession or trade of the 
person to be registered " being let furnished will 
no doubt arise rarely. The provision as to notice 
to quit is inserted to meet the cases in which it 
was held (/), under sect. 5 of the Representation 
of the People Act, 1884, that a notice to quit 
coupled with a demand of possession by the land- 
lord broke the occupation. 

The expression business premises is defined 
in sect. 1 (3) as land or other premises of the 
yearly value of not less than ten pounds occu- 
pied for the purpose of the business, profession 
or trade of the person to be registered. 

The words land or other premises include any 
piece of land and any kind of structure, erec- 
tion or building of whatever nature or any part 
thereof provided they are occupied (m) for the 
purpose of the business, profession or trade of 
the person to be registered. 

As to the words of the yearly value of not 
less than ten pounds, it is provided by sect. 
41 (9) of the present Act that " the yearly value 
of land or premises shall be taken to be the gross 
estimated rental or in the metropolis the gross 

(&) As to the meaning of " house " (within which some " business 
premises" will and some will not come), see pp. 16 22, supra. 

(1} Strachan v. Binnie (1888), 15 Ct. of Sess. Gas. 308; Holland 
v. Chambers, .Devine's Case, (1894) 2 Ir. E. 442. 

(m) See pp. 25 27, supra. 



MEANING OF YEARLY VALUE. : 

value where those premises are separately assessed Sect. i. 
to rates, and in any other case shall be deemed 
to be the amount which would in the opinion of 
the registration officer be the gross estimated 
rental or gross value as the case requires if they 
were separately assessed." 

The expression " gross estimated rental" is 
defined by sect. 15 of the Union Assessment 
Committee Act, 1862, as " the rent at which the 
hereditament might reasonably be expected to 
let from year to year free of all usual tenant's 
rates and taxes and tithe commutation rent- 
charge, if any." 

The gross estimated rental forms a step in the 
ascertainment of the rateable value, which is an 
estimate " of the rent at which the (premises) 
might reasonably be expected to let from year to 
year free of all usual tenant's rates and taxes and 
tithe commutation rentcharge if any and deduct- 
ing therefrom the probable average annual cost 
of the repairs insurance and other expenses if 
any necessary to maintain them in a state to 
command such rent " (n). 

As to the words * { or in the metropolis the gross 
value," it should be noticed that in the Valuation 
(Metropolis) Act, 1869, which governs rating in 
the metropolis (0), "gross value" is substituted . 
for the expression " gross estimated rental ' f which 

(n} Parochial Assessments Act, 1836, 8. 1. The definition of 
rateable value in the metropolis is substantially the same. See 
sect. 4 of the Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869. 

(o) As to the meaning jof "metropolis," see sects. 3, 4 of the 
Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869 (32 & 33 Viet. c. 67). 



30 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, i. appears in the Union Assessment Committee Act, 
1862, s. 15, but the meaning of these two ex- 
pressions as defined in the two Acts is the same. 
The gross estimated rental of all premises outside 
the metropolis that are separately assessed to 
rates appear in the valuation lists (r), and in the 
case of the metropolis the gross value of all pre- 
mises that are separately assessed appears in the 
valuation lists relating to the metropolis (*). 

In Cook v. Butler (t) it was held, that the 
words " rateable value of 121. or upwards" in 
sect. 6 (2) of the Representation of the People 
Act, 1867, meant real rateable value and not 
necessarily the rateable value which appears in 
the rate-book. It is, however, submitted that 
in view of the words used in sect. 41 (9) of the 
present Act quoted above (w), and the distinction 
drawn between premises which are separately 
assessed and those which are not, and the refe- 
rence to the opinion of the registration officer in 
the latter case only, the gross estimated rental 
and gross value, as the case may be, appearing 
in the valuation list is, under the present Act, 
conclusive as to the yearly value of premises 
which are separately assessed to rates. 

Where premises are not separately assessed to 



(r) Union Assessment Committee Act, 1862, ss. 14, 27, and 
Schedule. 

(s) Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869, ss. 14, 51, and Second 
Schedule. 

(<) (1872), 8 C. P. 256. 

() See pp. 28, 29, supra. 



MEANING OF YEARLY VALUE. 31 

rates it becomes, by sect. 41. (9) quoted above (#), Sect. i. 
the duty of the registration officer to form an 
opinion as to what would be the gross estimated 
rental (or gross value) if the premises were sepa- 
rately assessed. In forming his opinion it is 
submitted that the registration officer must be 
governed by the law applicable to overseers or 
assistant overseers in estimating the gross esti- 
mated rental (and gross value). 

The principles upon which the rateable value, 
in the ascertainment of which the gross estimated 
rental (or gross value) is, as was pointed out above, 
a step, were stated as follows by the Court of 
Queen's Bench (Blackburn, Quain and Archi- 
bald, JJ.), in Mersey Docks v. Liverpool (w\ in a 
considered judgment which, as Lord Esher, M.R., 
said(#), " is and has always been held to be the 
foundation of all the subsequent decisions upon 
this matter'' : 

"Where the hereditaments, or hereditaments 
of a similar kind, are in practice actually let at a 
rent, the amount of which is ascertained by what 
has been called ' the higgling of the market, 5 
the application of this definition (y) is easy and 
simple. 

" Where the hereditaments are not in practice 
let, the problem becomes more difficult. The 
facts and circumstances, which would be taken 

(v) See pp. 28, 29, supra, 
(w) (1873), L. R. 9 Q. B. at pp. 96, 97. 
(x] Dodds v. South Shields Union, (1895) 2 Q. B. at p. 136. 
(y} I.e., the definition of rateable value in the Parochial Assess- 
ment Act, 1836, s. 1, which is set out on p. 29, supra. 



32 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, i. i n to consideration by those who in the case of a 
real tenancy do 'in the higgling- of the market fix 
the rent, are to be taken into consideration, and 
on a view of all those the net annual value of the 
occupation is to be determined ; and in many 
cases the amount that is made by the trade carried 
on by the occupier's occupation, less an allowance 
for the profits which the tenant might elsewhere 
make by his trade, is an important element in 
the evidence of the annual value. In such a 
case as Reg. v. Southampton Docks (2) they were 
properly allowed ; but it is not always so. 

" If the hereditaments are such as to afford 
peculiar facilities for carrying on any kind of 
business, that facility does, beyond all question, 
enhance the value of the occupation ; but though 
the profits which may be reasonably expected to 
arise from such a business no doubt form an 
element in estimating the enhanced value of the 
occupation of the premises, the actual profits 
made do not form any element, except in so far 
as they afford evidence of what might be rea- 
sonably expected to be made from the occupation 
of premises affording facility for carrying on such 
a business. For instance, to explain our mean- 
ing, there can be no doubt that the annual rent 
of a shop in Cheapside is higher than the annual 
rent of a similar shop in a back street ; and that 
the reason why tenants give a higher rent is 
because of the superior facility for carrying on 
business there. But the rent and the rateable 

(z) 17 Q. B. 83; 20 L. J. M. C. 155. 



MEANING OF YEARLY VALUE. 33 

value of the shop are quite independent of the Sect. i. 
amount of the shopkeeper's actual gains. The 
rateable value is the same whether the tenant is 
a flourishing trader or is carrying on business at 
a loss. So, no doubt, in fixing the rent of cham- 
bers in one of the Inns of Court, the facility for 
carrying on the legal profession in them is an 
element, and an important one, but the actual 
income of the tenant is not. The chambers 
command no more rent when let to the Attorney- 
General than they would do if let to a young 
barrister just called who does not as yet pay his 
expenses." 

In R. v. School Board for London (a\ Lord 
Esher, M.R., said: " The real question is how 
the value is to be ascertained. The inquiry is not 
as to what rent is paid by the actual occupier. 
The mode of finding out the value is laid down in 
the Act(#), and it is to ascertain the rent which a 
tenant (not the tenant) taking one year with 
another might reasonably be expected to pay; 
it is also implied that where the owner occupies, 
he is to be considered as if he were a tenant. 
The directions given by the Act are equivalent 
to saying that one must look at all possible 
tenants." 

As to the meaning of " yearly value" in Scot- 
land, see sect. 43 (2), p. 310, infra, and in Ireland 
sect. 43 (12), p. 335, infra. 

(a] (1886), 17 Q. B. D. at 740; see also the observations of 
Bowen and Fry, L. JJ., at p. 741. 

(6) Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 1869, s. 4. 

F. '6 



34 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

_sect.jL. The words occupied for the purpose of the 
business, profession or trade of the person to be 
registered require consideration. 

In the language of Jessel, M.R., in Smith v. 
Anderson (c) : " Business itself is a word of large 
and indefinite import. I have before me the last 
edition of Johnson's Dictionary, edited by Dr. 
Latham, and there the first meaning given of it 
is { employment, transaction of affairs ' ; the 
second, i an affair ' ; the third, ' subject of busi- 
ness, affair, or object which engages the care.' 
Then there are some other meanings, and the 
sixth is, ' something to be transacted.' The 
seventh is, ' something required to be done.' 
Then taking the last edition of the Imperial 
Dictionary, which is a very good dictionary, we 
find it a little more definite, but with a remark 
which is worth reading : ' Business, employment ; 
that which occupies the time and attention and 
labour of men for the purpose of profit or im- 
provement.' That is to say, anything which 
occupies the time and attention and labour of a 
man for the purpose of profit is business. It is a 
word of extensive use and indefinite signification. 
Then, * Business is a particular occupation, as 
agriculture, trade, mechanics, art, or profession, 
. . . .' Therefore the Legislature could not well 
have used a larger word." 

In the above case the learned Master of the 
R,olls was construing the meaning of the word 
' business " in sect. 4 of the Companies Act, 1862, 
which refers to u business that has for its object 

(c) (1880), 15 Oh. D. at p. 258. 



MEANING OF " TRADE. ' 36 

the acquisition of gain." It seems clear that in Sect. i. 
the present Act the word " business " is applicable 
to cases where there is no profit or gain. In 
Re Law Reporting Council ($), where the question 
was whether the Council of Law Reporting were 
entitled to exemption from duty as being a body 
" established for any trade or business" within 
the meaning of sect. 11 (5) of the Customs and 
Inland Revenue Act, 1885, it was held that the 
Council were entitled to exemption although they 
did not make a profit to their own benefit. Not- 
withstanding this, it was held (e) that the Council 
were in fact carrying on a business. 

As to the meaning of the word " trade," "it is 
unnecessary to refer to authorities to show that 
the word ' business ' has a more extensive 
meaning than the word * trade.' It has never 
been doubted that farming was a business, though 
it could not properly be called a ( trade,' since the 
latter has the technical meaning of buying and 
selling "(/). Further, as in the case of business, 
it is not essential to the carrying on of a trade 
that the persons engaged in it should make or 
desire to make profit by it " (y). 

In considering whether a person is or is not 
carrying on a business or trade, the question of 

(d) (1888), 22 Q. B. D. 291. 

(e) See the observations of Lord Coleridge, C.J., ibid, at pp. 293, 
294. 

(/) Per Willes, J., in Harris v. Amery (1865), 35 L. J. C. P. at 
p. 92. 

((/) Per Lord Coleridge, C.J., in Rt Law Reporting Council (IS8S), 
22 Q. B. D. at p. 293. 

3(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

continuity may be of importance. To quote one 
of the illustrations given by Jessel, M.R., in 
Smith v. Anderson (h\ u a man occasionally buys 
and sells land, as many landowners do, and 
nobody would say he was a land-jobber or dealer 
in land, but if a man made it his particular 
business to buy and sell land .... he would be 
designated as a land-jobber or dealer in land." 

The construction which the Courts will put 
upon the words occupied for the purpose of the 
business, profession or trade of the person to be 
registered is not free from doubt. It will be a 
question in each case (1) whether the person 
to be registered is occupying (i) the premises 
and (2) whether the business, profession or trade 
of the person to be registered is his business, pro- 
fession or trade. It is submitted that there may 
be cases where an employer only is, though 
absent, entitled to be registered, arid in view of 
the fact that there are no words in sect. 1 of the 
present Act limiting the occupation to that of 
owner or tenant, as was the case in former Fran- 
chise Acts, there may also possibly be some cases 
where the employee only is entitled to be regis- 
tered, and where both employer, though absent, 
and employee are entitled to be registered. 

It must be remembered, of course, that it is 
only where the employee is in a position of 
authority that he can possibly fulfil the require- 



(h) (1880), 15 Ch. D. at p. 260. 
(t) See pp. 25 28, supra. 






JOINT OCCUPIERS. 

merits of " occupation," viz. "the actual exercise Sect. i. 
of the rights of the owner in possession " (#). 

Sect. 7(1) provides that "where land or pre- 
mises are in the joint occupation of two or 
more persons, each of the joint occupiers shall 
for the purposes of this Part of this Act be treated 
as occupying the premises subject as follows : 
(a) In the case of the occupation of business 
premises the aggregate yearly value of 
the premises must for the purpose of the 
parliamentary franchise be not less than 
the amount produced by multiplying 
ten pounds by the number of the joint 
occupiers : and 

(c) Not more than two joint occupiers shall be 
entitled to be registered in respect of 
the same land or premises unless they 
are bona fide engaged as partners carry- 
ing on their profession, trade, or business 
on the land or premises. 

As to the manner in which a " naval or military 
voter " can obtain the business premises qualifica- 
tion, see sect. 5, pp. 76 79, and pp. 86 90, 
9091, infra. 

2. A man shall be entitled to be regis- University 
tered as a parliamentary elector lor a uni- (). 
versity constituency 1 if lie is of full age 2 and 

1 See p. 38, infra. 2 See p. 4, supra. 

(k] See the observations of Erie, C.J., in Cook v. Humber, quoted 
at p. 25, supra, and also p. 27, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect, a. not subject lo any legal incapacity, 3 and has 
received a degree (other than an honorary 
degree) at any university forming, or forming 
part of, the constituency, or in the case of 
the Scottish universities is qualified under 
section twenty-seven of the Representation 
of the People (Scotland) Act, 1868, 4 or in the 
case of the University of Dublin has either 
received a degree (other than an honorary 
degree) or has obtained a scholarship or 
fellowship in the University, whether before 
or after the passing of this Act. 

NOTE. This section, similarly to sect. 1, is 
applicable to male persons only. 

Registered as a parliamentary elector for a 
university constituency. As to registration for 
university constituencies, see sect. 19, pp. 153, 
154, infra. 

The words " parliamentary elector for a univer- 
sity constituency" in the above section mean a 
person who is entitled to vote at an election of a 
member of the House of Commons for a con- 
stituency consisting of a university or a combina- 
tion of universities. See sect. 41 (1), p. 305, infra. 

Full age. See p. 4, supra. 

Not subject to any legal incapacity. See 
pp. 4 8, supra. 

Has received a degree (other than an 
honorary degree) at any university forming, 
or forming part of, the constituency. - - By 

3 See pp. 48, supra. 4 See p. 39, infra. 



UNIVERSITY FRANCHISE (MEN). 

sect. 2 of the Act the receipt of any degree Sect. 2. 
except an honorary degree at any one of certain 
universities entitles a man who is of full age and 
not subject to any legal incapacity to the vote in 
a university constituency in England, Wales or 
Ireland. Thus, a Bachelor of Arts of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, who prior to this Act had no 
vote in virtue of his degree, is now in the same 
position in regard to the franchise as a Doctor of 
Divinity or a Master of Arts of that university. 

The universities in England and Wales which 
form a constituency or part of a constituency 
are mentioned in the Ninth Schedule, Part III., 
p. 554, infra. 

In the case of the Scottish Universities 
is qualified under section twenty-seven of 
the Representation of the People (Scotland) 
Act, 1868. Sect. 27 of the Representation 
of the People (Scotland) Act, 1868, enacts 
that " the Chancellor, the Members of the ' 
University Court, and the professors for the 
time being of each of the Universities of Scot- 
land, and also every person whose name is . 
for the time being on the register .... of the 
General Council of such University shall if .... 
of full age, and not subject to any legal incapacity, 
be entitled to vote in the election of a member to 
serve in any future Parliament for such Uni- 
versity. . . ." 

There is only one Scottish university constitu- 
ency, formed by the universities of St. Andrews, 
Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh. 



40 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 2. As to u naval or military voters," see sect. 5, 
" pp. 7679, and pp. 86, 87, 90, infra. 

Local 3. A man shall be entitled to be regis- 

gOTernmeiit 

franchise tered as a local government elector for a 

(men). 

local government electoral area 1 if he is of 
full age 2 and not subject to any legal inca- 
pacity, 8 and 

(a) is on the last day of the qualifying 

period occupying as owner or 
tenant, 4 any land or premises in 
that area 5 ; and 

(b) has, during the whole of the qualifying 

period, so occupied any land or 
premises in that area, or, if that 
area is not an administrative county 
or a county borough, in any admini- 
strative county or county borough 
in which the area is wholly or partly 
situate 6 : 
Provided that 

(i) for the purposes of this section a 
man who himself inhabits any 
dwelling-house 7 by virtue of any 
office, service, or employment, 
shall if the dwelling-house is 

1 See p. 41, footnote (??), infra. 6 See p. 60, infra. 

2 See p. 4, supra. See pp. 61, 62, infra. 

3 See p. 42, infra. 7 See pp. 49 54, infra. 

4 See pp. 4360, infra. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT FRANCHISE (MEN). 4 I 

not inhabited by the person Sect - 3 - 
in whose service he is in such 
office, service, or employment, be 
deemed to occupy the dwelling- 
house as a tenant 8 ; and 
(ii) for the purposes of this section the 
word tenant shall include a 
person who occupies a room or 
rooms as a lodger only where 
such room or rooms are let to 
him in an unfurnished state. 9 

NOTE. Section 3 states the conditions which 
must be fulfilled in order to entitle a male person 
to be registered (I) as a local government 
elector (m) for a local government electoral 
area (n). 

These conditions are : 

(1) He must be of full age. 

(2) He must not be subject to any legal in- 

capacity. 

b See pp. 4956, infra. 9 See pp. 5760, infra. 



(1} As to registration for local government purposes, see Part II. , 
Registration, sects. 11 19 of the Act, pp. 125155, infra. 

(m) The words local government elector in sect. 3 mean a 
male person who is entitled to vote at an election for any county 
council, municipal borough council, metropolitan borough council, 
district council, board of guardians, parish council or other similar 
body. See sect. 41 (2), pp. 305, 306, infra. 

(n) The words local government electoral area mean the area 
for which any of the bodies mentioned in note (m) above are elected. 
See sect. 41 (2), pp. 305, 306, infra. 



42 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 3. (3) He must on the last day of the qualifying 

period be occupying as owner or tenant 
any land or premises in the local govern- 
ment electoral area. 

(4) He must during the whole of the qualifying 
period have occupied as owner or tenant 
any land or premises in the local govern- 
ment area, or if that area is not an 
administrative county or a county borough 
in an administrative county or county 
borough in which the area is wholly or 
partly situate. 

(1) He must be of full age. As to this see 
p. 4, supra. 

(2) He must not be subject to any legal 
incapacity. The nature of the incapacity is the 
same here as in the case of a parliamentary elector 
(see pp. 4, 7 8, supra], i.e., it is some quality 
inherent in a person or for the time being irre- 
movable in such person which either at common 
law or by statute deprives him of the status of an 
elector. The persons who are legally incapaci- 
tated from being registered under this section as 
local government electors are the same as those 
mentioned on pages 5, 6, 7, supra, with the excep- 
tion of peers (0). 

(3) He must on the last day of the qualifying 
period be occupying as owner or tenant any 

(o) The constitutional reasons which prevent peers from voting 
at an election of a member of the House of Commons are not ap- 
plicable to local government elections. See Beancliamp (Earl} v. 
Madresfidd (1872), L. R. 8 C. P. 250, 251. 



MEANING OF OCCUPATION IN SECT. 3. 

land or premises in the local government electoral Sect. s. 
area. As to the words " on the last day of the 
qualifying period," see pp. 9, 10, supra. If a 
man moves into a local government area within 
thirty days of the last day of the qualifying 
period, he must fulfil the conditions of sect. 
7 (4), which is as follows: " Notwithstanding 
anything in this Act, a person shall not be en- 
titled to be registered as a local government 
elector for a local government electoral area 
though that person may have been occupying 
land or premises in the area on the last day of 
the qualifying period, if that person commenced 
to occupy the land or premises within thirty days 
before the end of the qualifying period, and ceased 
to occupy the land or premises within thirty days 
after the commencement of the occupation." 

It will be observed that this provision is similar 
to sect. 7 (3), which was dealt with on pp. 10, 11, 
supra, except that under the words " occupy the 
land or premises " here used a change of premises 
during the thirty days would not be permissible, 
as it is under the words "reside in the con- 
stituency" in sect. 7 (3) (p). 

be occupying as owner or tenant. The word 
"occupying" in this section is used in two dif- 
ferent senses : first in its strict legal meaning in 
connection with the words " as owner or tenant," 
the latter word being used in its usual legal sig- 
nification (q) ; secondly in a looser sense when 

(p] See p. 10, supra, 
(q) See p. 47, infra. 



44 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 3 - used in* connection with the special meaning ex- 
pressly given to the word " tenant " by proviso (ii) 
in sect. 3. As to the meaning of occupation in 
the first of the above senses, see pp. 25 '^7, 
supra. The word u occupying " in this sense has 
the same meaning in sect. 3 as in sect. 1, subject 
to the following qualification. 

The words "as owner or tenant " do not occur 
in the definition in sect. 1 of the business pre- 
mises qualification for the parliamentary fran- 
chise, which is based on occupation. The person 
to be registered as a local government elector 
by the qualification under consideration must 
" occupy " in the same sense as the parliamentary 
elector registered in respect of the business pre- 
mises qualification (r), with the addition that 
unlike such parliamentary elector he must be the 
owner or tenant of the land or premises. 

In practice this addition will not in the great 
majority of cases make any difference between 
the " occupation " required for a parliamentary 
elector registered in respect of the business pre- 
mises qualification and the u occupation " required 
under sect. 3 for a local government elector, as 
the former will usually be the owner or tenant of 
the land or premises, the subject-matter of the 
occupation ; but there will probably be particular 
instances where such is not the case. As in the 
case of occupation under sect. 1, so here the 
occupation may be actual or constructive ; in 

(r) See pp. 25 27, supra. 



MEANING OF OCCUPATION IN SECT. 3. 

particular it would seem that a soldier or other Sect. 
person serving in connection with the war who 
is absent during a part or even the whole of the 
qualifying period will nevertheless be entitled to 
be registered as a local government elector if he 
is the owner or tenant of premises in which he 
leaves his wife or his family live during his 
absence (s). 

. Sect. 7 (2) of the present Act lays down that 
" ... the occupation of a house shall not be 
deemed to be interrupted for the purposes of this 
Act by reason only of permission being given by 
letting or otherwise for the occupation of the 
house as a furnished house by some other person 
for a part of the qualifying period not exceeding 
four months in the whole, or by reason only of 
notice to quit being served and possession being 
demanded by the landlord of the house . . ." 

It should be noticed that this provision only 
applies to a " house." As to the meaning of the 
word "house" in this provision, see pp. 16 22, 
supra. 

A man would be entitled to be registered under 
sect. 3 notwithstanding that his house is in the 
occupation of a tenant (with all the usual rights) 
to whom he has let it furnished, provided the 
period for which he has let his house is not more 
than four months (not necessarily consecutive) in the 
whole during the qualifying period. Sect. 7 (2), 
therefore, extends the meaning of the word 
" occupying" in sect. 3 in an important respect, 

(s) Whitelaw v. M'Goivan (1905), 8 F. 332. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 3. as, where a man lias let his house he does not 
fulfil the conditions laid down by Erie, C.J., in 
defining occupation as u the actual exercise of the 
rights of the owner in possession " (y}. 

The observations made on pp. 22, 23, supra, with 
regard to sect. 7 (2) in relation to residence are 
equally applicable here with such modifications as 
are obviously necessary by reason of the franchise 
now dealt with being based on occupation instead 
of residence. 

The effect of the provision in sect. 7 (2) set out 
above as to notice to quit is to prevent the dis- 
franchisement of tenants, which under sect. 5 of 
the Representation of the People Act, 1884, was 
held(0) to have taken place by reason of their 
landlords having served them with a notice to 
quit and a demand of possession. 

The word owner in sect. 3 means a person who 
has a freehold estate whether legal or equitable 
in the land or premises in question as opposed to 
a person having any less estate. 

Tenant here means a person who whilst not 
an " owner " has some estate, however small 
either legal or equitable, in the subject-matter of 
the occupation, and also by proviso (ii) in sect. 3, 
a lodger who occupies a room or rooms which are 
let to him unfurnished (a). It is best to keep 

(y) Cook v. Number (1862), 31 L. J. 0. P. at p. 75, and see p. 25, 
supra. 

(z) Strachan v. Binnie (1888), 15 Ct. of Sess. Cas. 308 ; Holland 
v. Chambers (Devine's Case], (1894) 2 Ir. R. 442. 

(a) As to this, see pp. 57 59, infra. 






MEANING OF TENANT. 47 

these two meanings of " tenant " in this section Sect. 3. 
distinct. 

Dealing first with the meaning of the word 
i 'tenant" in the first of the above meanings, it 
may be useful to refer to some of the cases 
decided under sect. 27 of the Reform Act, 1832, 
and sect. 5 of the Representation of the People 
Act, 1884, where difficult questions arose as to 
what constituted a tenant, as these cases would, 
no doubt, be held applicable in determining the 
meaning of the word " tenant" in sect. 3 of the 
present Act. 

It was decided under the Act of 1884 that 
tenants at will (b) were entitled to be regis- 
tered. 

In Holland v. Chambers (John Doherty's Case) (c), 
it was held that when the sole next of kin of the 
deceased tenant of a house who died intestate, 
resided in the house and paid the rent, his occu- 
pation was that of a tenant, notwithstanding that 
he had never taken out letters of administration. 

In Heath v. Haynes(d) the claimant occupied 
rooms in a hospital as a member of the corpo- 
ration of " The Master and Brethren of the 
Hospital of Robert, Earl of Leicester." The pro- 
perty belonged to the charity and was managed 
by the members of the corporation, each being 
allotted a set of rooms over which he had exclu- 
sive control. It was held that the claimant did 
not occupy either as owner or tenant. 

(6) Rogers v. Harvey (1858), 28 L. J. C. P. 17. 

(c) (1894) 2 I. E. 285. 

(d] (1857), 27 L. J. C. P. 50. 



REPKESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 3. In Powell v. .Boraston(e) it was decided, that 
where a man built and occupied a shed on the 
land of a farmer (who was tenant of the land 
and allowed such building and occupation without 
his landlord's permission), the farmer was not the 
owner or tenant of the shed. 

It should also be noticed that under the Bank- 
ruptcy Act, 1883, all the property of a person 
who is adjudicated bankrupt vests in the trustee 
in bankruptcy, and therefore the bankrupt would 
not be entitled to be registered as owner or tenant 
(in the meaning now being discussed (/) ) under 
sect. 3 of this Act. There is, however, an exception 
in the case where a bankrupt, who occupies pre- 
mises as tenant, continues to occupy them after 
his adjudication and pays the rent. In that case, 
provided the official receiver or trustee in bank- 
ruptcy has done nothing by payment of rent or 
otherwise in relation to the tenancy, the bankrupt 
may be occupying as tenant at will or by estoppel 
from the date of his adjudication (g}. 

By section 3, proviso (i) " f or the purposes 
of this section a man who himself inhabits any 
dwelling-house by virtue of any office, service, 
or employment, shall if the dwelling-house is 
not inhabited by the person in whose* service 
he is in such office, service, or employment, be 
deemed to occupy the dwelling-house as a 
tenant." 

(e) (1865), 34 L. J. C. P. To'. 

(/) See p. 47, supra. 

(g) Mackay v. McGuire, (1891) 1 Q. B. 250. 






MEANING OF "DWELLING-HOUSE." 




The object of this proviso, which deals with Sect. 3. 
what has been hitherto known in connection with 
the parliamentary franchise as the " service fran- 
chise," is intended to remove the inference of 
law that a servant who is under an obligation to 
inhabit premises for the performance of his duties 
does not occupy as tenant. 

The following points should be noticed in 
connection with this proviso : 

(1) To come within the proviso the premises 
inhabited must be a dwelling-house. By sect. 
41 (8) of the present Act "the expression < dwel- 
ling-house ' includes any part of a house, where 
that part is occupied separately as a dwelling- 
house." The meaning of the expression "dwel- 
ling-house" in proviso (i) of sect. 3, as explained 
by sect. 41 (8), is not free from doubt. Sect. 3 
of the Representation of the People Act, 1867, 
contained the words " dwelling-house," which by 
sect. 61 of the same Act was to be read as in- 
cluding "'any part of a house occupied as a 
separate dwelling and separately rated to the 
relief of the poor." By sect. 59 of the same Act, 
that Act and the Reform Act, 1832, were to be 
read together as one Act. It was accordingly 
argued that the decisions in Cook v. Humber(h) 
and Henrette v. Booth (i) under sect. 27 of the 
Reform Act, 1832, as to the meaning of the word 
"house" were applicable in interpreting the 
expression " dwelling-house " in the Act of 1867. 

(A) (1862), 31 L. J. 0. P. at p. 76. 

() (1863), 33 L. J. 0. P. at pp. 62, 63. 



50 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 3. In the cases of Thompson v. Ward, Ellis v. Burch ( i) 
and Boon v. Howard (j) the Court was equally 
divided as to whether it was necessary that there 
should be structural severance in order to con- 
stitute a " dwelling-house " within the meaning 
of the Act of 1867. Subsequently to these de- 
cisions the point was settled by the express words 
of sect. 5 of the Parliamentary and Municipal 
Registration Act, 1878, which made it clear that 
structural severance was not necessary. By that 
section it was, inter alia, provided that u in and 
for the purposes of the Representation of the 
People Act, 1867, the term { dwelling-house ' 
shall include any part of a house where that 
part is separately occupied as a dwelling," and 
that " for the purposes of any of the Acts referred 
to in this section (i.e., amongst others the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act, 1867) where an 
occupier is entitled to the sole and exclusive use 
of any part of a house that part shall not be 
deemed to be occupied otherwise than separately 
by reason only that the occupier is entitled to 
the joint use of some other part." 

It is submitted that in view of the difference 
in language between sect. 41 (8) of the present 
Act and sect. 61 (&) of the Representation of the 
People Act, 1867, and the fact that the latter 
Act and the Reform Act, 1832, were to be read 
together, it would not bo held that the expression 
11 dwelling-house " in the present Act bears the 

(t) (1871), L. E. 6C. P. 327. 
(/) (1874), L. E. 9 C. 277. 

(k) Seep. 49, supra. 



MEANING OF " DWELLING-HOUSE." 51 

meaning given to the word " house " in Cook v. Sect. 3. 
Humber(l) and Henrette v. Booth (m). Further, 
in view of the close similarity between the lan- 
guage of the first part of sect. 5 of the Parlia- 
mentary and Municipal Registration Act, 1878, 
quoted above (w), and that of sect. 41 (8) of the 
present Act, and the fact that the latter part of 
sect. 5 of the former Act was in effect declaratory 
of the law for the purpose of settling the doubts 
raised by the disagreement of the learned judges 
in the cases (o) under the Act of 1867, it is pro- 
bable that the expression " dwelling-house " in 
the present Act would be held to have the mean- 
ing given to it by sect. 5 of the Parliamentary 
and Municipal Registration Act, 1878, and there- 
fore, that where an occupier is entitled to the 
sole and exclusive use of any part of a house, 
that part shall not be deemed to be occupied 
otherwise than separately by reason only that 
the occupier is entitled to the joint use of some 
other part. In other words, structural severance 
is not necessary to constitute a " dwelling-house " 
under the present Act (p). 

If the above view of the meaning of " dwelling- 
house " in sect. 3 of the present Act is correct, it 
will be useful to refer to some of the cases decided 
under sect. 3 of the Representation of the People 

(0 (1862), 31 L. J. C. P. at p. 76. 
(m) (1863), 33 L. J. 0. P. at pp. 62, 63. 
(w) See p. 50, supra. 

(o) See Thompson v. Ward, Ell-is v. Burch and Boon v. Howard, 
vupra, 

(p) See Allchurch v. Hendon Union, (1891) 2 Q. B. 436. 
4 (2) 



52 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 3. Act, 1884 (which first conferred the service fran- 
chise), as to the meaning of the expression 
" dwelling-house," which was the same in that 
Act as in the Act of 1878 (p). 

In Campbell v. Morris (q), a coachman had the 
exclusive use and control of a room over a stable 
furnished as a bedroom, in which he kept his 
clothes and dressed, but he took his meals in the 
mansion-house occupied by his master, and slept 
there as caretaker. He claimed to be enrolled as 
a voter by reason that he inhabited the room over 
the stable as a dwelling-house by virtue of service 
within the meaning of sect. 3 of the Representa- 
tion of the People Act, 1884. It was held that 
he was not entitled to the franchise, because the 
dwelling-house which he inhabited was not the 
room over the stables, but the mansion-house, 
which was inhabited by the person under whom 
he served. 

In Barnett v. Hickmott (?'), a policeman had the 
exclusive occupation, by virtue of his service, of 
a cubicle in a dormitory at a police barrack. 
The cubicle was separated from the rest of the 
dormitory, which contained a number of similar 
cubicles, by a partition seven feet high, but there 
was a space of five feet between the top of the 
partition and the ceiling. The policeman kept 
the key of his cubicle, and was entitled to lock it 
up at any time. It was held that the cubicle was 
not "part of a house separately occupied as a 

4- ( p) See p. 50, supra. 

(q} (1895), 23 Ct. of Sess. Gas. (4th Series) 118. 
(r) (1895) 1 Q. B. 691. 



MEANING OF " DWELLING-HOUSE." 58 

dwelling" within the meaning of sect. 5 of the Sect. 8. 
Parliamentary and Municipal Registration Act, 
1878, and that the policeman was not entitled to 
the franchise in respect of it. 

In Clutterbuck v. Taylor (s) the facts were similar. 
All the cubicles had a gas-light in common. A 
lavatory and mess-room were provided for the 
policemen who occupied these cubicles in another 
part of the police station. The policemen occu- 
pying the cubicles were subject to the control 
of a superior officer, who had power to impose 
restrictions upon their use of the cubicles incon- 
sistent with the rights which a person ordinarily 
exercises in respect of his own dwelling. It was 
held by Lord Esher, M.R., and Lopes, L. J., Rigby, 
L.J., dissenting, that the cubicle was not part of 
a house separately occupied as a dwelling within 
the meaning of sect. 5 of the Parliamentary and 
Municipal Registration Act, 1878. 

In M'Quade v. Charlton(t\ the claimant was, 
with other men, in the employment of a company 
which carried on an extensive drapery business 
in Belfast. Under his contract he was to be paid 
a yearly salary, to be boarded by the company, 
and to have a bedroom so long as he remained in 
their service, the service being determinable by 

() (1896) 1 Q. B. 395. 

(*) (1904) 2 I. K. 383. It is thought unnecessary to discuss the 
decision in Stribling v. I false (1885), 16 Q. B. 1). 246, which is now 
generally recognised as being erroneous. In Barnett v. Hickmott 
and Clutterbtick v. Taylor, supra, the Court refused to extend the 
principle of that decision ; and in M'Quade v. Charlton, supra, the 
Irish Court of Appeal, consisting of the Chief Justice and three 
Lords Justices, declined to follow it. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, s. notice. There was a bolt inside the bedroom to 
fasten the door, but the claimant had not the key. 
The manager could change an employee from one 
bedroom to another, if necessary. There were 
rules, understood in the house, regulating the 
occupation of bedrooms, which were as follows : 
(1) the claimant could not leave his business in the 
shop to go to his bedroom without permission ; 
on Saturday the bedrooms were closed up to 
2 p.m. for cleaning. It was also understood that 
an employee must not be in his bedroom between 
1 1 a.m. and 1 p.m. on Sunday. It was held that 
the claimant was not entitled to the franchise. 

On the other hand, in Adams v. Ford(r\ it was 
held that the appellant, who was in the employ- 
ment of poor law guardians, and as part of his 
salary was allowed to have the exclusive occupation 
of a sitting-room and bedroom in the main building 
of the workhouse, occupied a " dwelling-house " 
within the meaning of sect. 3 of the Representa- 
tion of the People Act, 1884. Further, it is clear 
from the case of Kent v. Fittall (s) (decided under 
sect. 3 (2) of the Act of 1867) that it is possible 
for one room to be a " dwelling-house " within 
sect. 5 (*) of the Act of 1878. 

(2) In order to come within this proviso it 
must be shown that the person in question is 
a man who himself inhabits . , , by virtue of 
any office service or employment. 

(/) (1885), 16 Q. B. I). 239. 
() (1906) 1 K. B. 60 (C. A.}. 
() Set out at p. 50, aupra. 



FRANCHISE OF SERVANT. > 

in Dover v. Prosser (11), Alverstone, C.J., in Sect - 3 * 
dealing with the meaning of similar words in 
sect. 3 of the Representation of the People Act, 
1884, said : " The governing test in cases of this 
sort is whether or not the occupier of the pre- 
mises in respect of which the claim is made is 
required to occupy them either by the express 
terms of his employment or by the nature of his 
duties. If he is merely permitted but not obliged 
to occupy the premises so long as he performs 
certain duties that is not an occupation by virtue 
of any office service or employment." 

(3) It is a condition required by proviso (i) that 
the dwelling-house is not inhabited by the person 
in whose service he is in such office service or 
employment. 

The words of proviso (i), although similar to, 
are not identical with, the words of sect. 3 of the 
Representation of the People Act, 1884. The 
corresponding words in sect. 3 of the latter Act 
are "the dwelling-house is not inhabited by any 
person under whom such man serves in such office 
service or employment." The words used in 
proviso (i) set out above remove the difficulties 
which arose under sect. 3 of the Act of 1884 in 
determining in certain cases whether a dwelling- 
house was inhabited by any person " under 
whom " the person claiming to be registered 
served. The words " a person in whose service 

(a) (1904) 1 K. B. at p. 85 ; see also the cases referred to in this 
case, also Aitchi*on v. Lothian (1890), 18 Ct. of Sess. Gas. (4th 
Series) 337. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. s. ne is " used in proviso (i) can refer only to the 
immediate employer of the person claiming to be 
registered. 

It should be noticed that absence on military 
service would debar a man from obtaining the 
local government franchise under sect. 3, pro- 
viso (i) of the present Act, notwithstanding that 
his family resided in the dwelling-house during 
his absence. 

Thus, in the case of Spittall v. Brook (v), 
decided under the Representation of the People 
Act, 1884, s. 3 (the language of which, as pointed 
out above, was similar to that of proviso (i) now 
under discussion), it was held that a non-commis- 
sioned officer, who resided with his family in bar- 
racks, but during twenty-seven days of the quali- 
fying year was compulsorily absent from the 
constituency, was not entitled to be registered 
as a parliamentary elector, notwithstanding that 
his rooms were occupied during his absence by 
his furniture and his family. 

Sect. 7 (1) of the present Act provides that: 
" Where land or premises are in the joint occu-* 
pation of two or more persons, each of the joint 
occupiers shall, for the purposes of this Part (x) 
of this Act, be treated as occupying the premises, 
subject as follows: . . . (c) Not more than two 
joint occupiers shall be entitled to be registered 



(v} (1886), 18 Q. B. D. 426. See also Ford v. Barnes (1885), 
16 Q. B. D. 254; Donoghue v. Brook (1887), 57 L. J. Q. B. 122; 
Duffy v. Chambers, Ferguson v. Black (1889), 26 L. R. Ir. 100. 

(aj) I.e., Parti., sects. 110. 



LODGERS. -57 

in respect of the same land or premises, unless sect. 8. 
they are bona fide engaged as partners carrying 
on their profession, trade or business on the land 
or premises." 

The meaning of the words " joint occupation " 
in sect. 7(1) presents no difficulties, but it must be 
remembered that each of the joint owners or 
tenants in order to be entitled to be registered 
must fulfil the conditions of " occupation," which 
are dealt with on pp. 43 45 and 25 27, supra, 
and further, not more than two persons can be 
registered as joint occupiers unless they fulfil the 
condition mentioned in sect. 7 (1) set out above. 
As, however, there may be constructive occu- 
pation (y\ the occupation of one of several joint 
owners or tenants on his own behalf and on 
behalf of the other joint owners or tenants would 
entitle all of them to be placed upon the re- 
gister^). This, however, is not so if the occu- 
pation of the joint occupier or occupiers on behalf 
of the others is based on an illegal contract, 
as. for instance, a partnership of more than 20 
persons (a). 

As to the second meaning (b) given by sect. 3 
to the word u tenant," i.e., the meaning given by 
proviso (ii) in that section, such proviso states 
that the word tenant (in sect. 3) shall include 
a person who occupies a room or rooms as a 



{#) See pp. 44, 45, and p. 26, 

(z) Jones v. Pritchard (1891), 1 Pox & Smith, 259. 

(a) Harris v. Amery (1865), 35 L. J. C. P. 89. 

(?>) As to the first meaning, SPG pp. 43, 44, and 25 27, 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

lodger only where such room or rooms are let 
td him in an unfurnished state. Accord- 
ingly, a lodger who occupies a room or room& 
in the local government electoral area let to him 
in an unfurnished state is to be deemed a tenant 
and is entitled to be registered as a local govern- 
ment elector for such area. 

The chief difference between a tenant and a 
lodger is that the latter is entitled to live in his 
lodgings by reason of a purely personal contract 
between himself and his landlord, and has no 
estate, legal or equitable, in the -premises in which 
he lodges (c). If the landlord retains a general 
control and dominion over the premises, including 
the part inhabited by the person in question, that 
person is a lodger (d). On the other hand, a 
tenant has some estate or interest carved out of 
the estate or interest of his landlord (e). He 
has exclusive possession (in the legal sense) of the 
premises (/), and, if wrongfully dispossessed, can 
recover possession by law, whereas if the personal 
contract between a lodger and his landlord is 
broken, and the lodger turned out, his only 
remedy at law is in damages (g). The occupier 
does not necessarily cease to be a tenant merely 

(c) See AucketiU v. Jlaylis (1882), 10 Q. B. D. at p. 587. 

(d) Watkins v. Milton, &c. Overseers (1868), L. E. 3 Q. B. at 
pp. 356, 357 ; Allan v. Liverpool, Intnan v. KirlcdaU (1874), L. E. 
9 Q. B. at pp. 191, 192; Cory v. Dristow (1877), 2 App. Gas. at 
p. 276; Kent v. Fittall, (1906) 1 K. B. 60 (C. A.). 

(e) Keith v. Twentieth Century Club (1904), 90 L. T. 775. 
(/) Taylor v. Caldwell (1863), 3 B. & S. 826, 832. 

(.'/) Wright v. Stavert (1859), 2 E. & E. 721. 



" OCCUPATION " BY LODGER. 59 

because the landlord resides on the premises and Sect - 8 
retains control of the passages and staircases and 
other parts used in common (h). 

It should be noticed that the meaning of the 
word " occupy ing" when used of a lodger must 
of necessity bear a different meaning from that 
which it bears in sect. 1 of the Act(/) and in 
sect. 3 when used of an owner or tenant (/). A 
lodger does not (since his occupation depends, as 
pointed out above, merely on a personal contract 
with his landlord) fulfil the conditions of occupa- 
tion in the strict sense of the word, i.e. " the actual 
exercise of the rights of the owner in posses- 
sion " (&) ; e.g. a lodger has no legal remedy against 
a person who merely enters his lodging and dis- 
turbs his privacy (/), nor can a lodger eject a 
trespasser with impunity (m). Moreover, the land- 
lord maintains under the contract between him 
and his lodger a general right of control over 
the lodging. In what sense, then, is the word 
" occupying " used in connection with a lodger? 
In this connection the word bears its untech- 
nical meaning and denotes the exercise by the 
lodger of his rights under his contract with his 
landlord. Its meaning resembles that of " re- 
sidence " (n), the residence, of course, being in 

(A) Kent v. Fittall, supra; but see Douglaa v. Smith, (1907) 
1 K. B. 126 ; (1907) 2 K. B. 568 (C. A.). 
(*') See pp. 2527, supra. 
(/) See pp. 4345, supra, 

(k) Cook v. Number (1862), 31 L. J. C. P. at p. 75. 
(/) Wright T. Stavert (1859), 2 E. & E. 721. 
(i) Monk$ v. Dyke* (1839), 4 M. & W. 567. 
(n) See pp. 11 15, mpr<t. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 8. the lodgings. As " occupation" in this connection 
approximates closely to " residence," it follows 
that the physical presence of the lodger in his 
lodgings is not always necessary, as there may 
be a constructive occupation (o) of the lodgings, 
provided, of course, that the contract between the 
lodger and the landlord continues. 

Sect. 7 (1) applies equally to occupation by 
lodgers, which may therefore be joint, as in the 
case of occupation by an owner or tenant (p). 
Although no doubt the case will seldom arise of 
joint lodgers " carrying on their profession trade 
or business " in the room or rooms let to them 
unfurnished, if such a case should arise the pro- 
visions of sect. 7 (1) (c) will apply (q). 

It should be noted that sect. 7 (2) (r) has no 
application to a person occupying as a lodger. 

Any land or premises in the local government 
electoral area. 

The words " any land or premises " are very 
wide, and will include any piece of land or any 
kind of structure or building of whatsoever kind, 
or any part thereof, provided it is capable of 
being " occupied " (s) within the meaning of 
sect. 3. 

It may be pointed out that where the require- 
ment for occupation for thirty consecutive days, 
including the last day of the qualifying period, is 

(o) See pp. 13 15, supra. 

(p) See pp. 56, 57, tupra. 

(q) Ibid. 

(r] See pp. 45, 46. 

($) See pp. 25-27, 4345, inprv. 



SUCCESSIVE OCCUPATION. HI 

applicable (i), there is nothing to prevent the con- Sect. 3. 
ditions laid down in sect. 3 (a) from being fulfilled 
by occupation during such thirty consecutive 
days (t) partly as owner and partly as tenant, 
though this would, of course, be a very rare case. 

(4. ) He must during the whole of the qualifying 
period have occupied as owner or tenant any land 
or premises in the local government electoral area, or 
if that area is not an administrative county or 
a county borough, in any administrative county 
or county borough in which the area is wholly 
or partly situate. 

He must during the whole of the qualifying 
period. The qualifying period (u) is a period of 
six months ending either on January 15th or July 
15th, including in each case the fifteenth day, 
and corresponds to the two registers of electors, 
the Spring and Autumn Registers (x). 

As to the qualifying period in the case of a 
" naval or military voter," see pp. 96, 97, infra. 

Have occupied as oiuner or tenant. See pp. 43 
60, supra. 

Land or premises in the local government electoral 
area. As to the meaning of " land or premises," 
see p. 60, supra. The land or premises occupied as 
owner or tenant, or the room or rooms occupied 
as a lodger, need not be the same throughout the 
qualifying period, although they must be within 
the limits mentioned in (4) above (y). Thus, a 

(t) See p. 43, supra. 

(w) See sect. 6, p. 94, infra. 

(x} See pp. 95, 96, infra. 

(y} See p. 41, footnote (/<), 8>'}>m. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 3. man who moves from premises outside a municipal 
borough to premises within the borough will not 
lose his local government vote provided that both 
sets of premises are ^within one administrative 
county. If, however, the subject-matter of the 
occupation changes during the qualifying period, 
no interval of time must elapse between the 
cessation of occupation in one place and the 
beginning of occupation in another, as the occu- 
pation must be " during the whole of the quali- 
fying period. " On the other hand it should be 
remembered that the physical presence of the 
occupier is not necessary (#), so that, taking the 
case of a tenant as an illustration, the lease of 
the tenant of a flat might end during the course 
of the qualifying period, and the tenant might, 
just before the expiration of the lease, become 
tenant of a flat in the local government electoral 
area, but before beginning to live in the other flat 
he might go away for a month's holiday. In such 
a case the " occupation " would be unbroken. 

'There is nothing in sect. 3 to prevent the 
registration as a local government elector of a 
man, part of whose qualification during a single 
qualifying period was obtained by virtue of his 
occupation as a lodger in rooms let to him un- 
furnished, and part by virtue of his occupation as 
owner or tenant (properly so called) of land or 
premises. 

If that area is not an administrative county 
or a county borough, in any administrative 

(2) See pp. 44, 45, supra. 



WOMEN'S FRANCHISES. 

Bounty or county borough in which the area Sect, a 
is wholly or partly situate. See observations 
under preceding heading, Land or premises in 

the local government electoral area. 

In England " an administrative county" means 
the area for which a county council is elected in 
pursuance of the Local Government Act, 1888, 
but does not include a county borough (a), and 
the only county boroughs are thdse mentioned in 
the 3rd schedule to the same Act(#). 

In Ireland the expression " administrative 
county " has a meaning similar to that which 
it has in England (<?). 

Sect. 3 of the present Act, set out on pp. 40, 
41, above, has no application to Scotland, but by 
sect. 43 (3) (d\ the provisions contained in that 
sub-section apply to Scotland in lieu of the provi- 
sions of sect. 3. 



4. (1) A woman shall be entitled to be F 

( women) 

registered as a parliamentary elector for a 
constituency (other than a university con- 
stituency) 1 if she 

(a) has attained the age of thirty years 2 ; 

and 

(b) is not subject to any legal incapacity 3 ; 

and 

1 See p. 31, footnote (), u//m. 2 See p. 67, infra. 

'' See pp. 67, 68, infra. 



(a) Local Government Act. 1888, s. 100. 

(b) Ibid. s. 31. 

(c) Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, s. 1. 
((?) Set out at pp. 310313, infra. 



t>4 KEPKE8ENTAT10N OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 4. (c) is entitled to be registered us a local 
government elector in respect of 
the occupation in that constitu- 
ency of land or premises (not being 
a dwelling-house) of a yearly value 
of not less than five pounds or of 
a dwelling-house, or is the wife 
of a husband entitled to be so 
registered. 4 

(2) A woman shall be entitled to be regis- 
tered as a parliamentary elector for a uni- 
versity constituency 5 if she has attained the 
age of thirty years 6 and either would be 
entitled to be so registered if she were a 
man, or has been admitted to and passed the 
final examination, and kept under the con- 
ditions required of women by the university 
the period of residence, necessary for a man 
to obtain a degree at any university forming, 
or forming part of, a university constituency 
which did not at the time the examination 
was passed admit women to degrees. 7 

(3) A woman shall be entitled to be regis- 
tered as a local government elector for any 
local government electoral area s 

(a) where she would be entitled to be so 
registered if she were a man 9 ; and 

4 See pp. 68 72, infra. 8 See p. 41, footnotes (m) and 

3 See p. 38, supra. (w). supra. 

6 See pp. 67 and 75, infra. See pp. 73, 74, infr.a. 

'' See p. 73, i-nfw. 



WOMEN'S PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE. 65 

(b) where she is the wife of a man who is sect. 4. 
entitled to be so registered in re- 
spect of premises in which they 
both reside, and she has attained 
the age of thirty years and is not 
subject to any legal incapacity. 10 

For the purpose of this provision, 
a naval or military voter who is 
registered in respect of a residence 
qualification which he would have 
had but for his service, shall be 
deemed to be resident in accor- 
dance with the qualification. 11 

NOTE. Sect. 4 lays down the conditions which 
must be fulfilled in order to entitle a woman to 
be registered as a parliamentary elector and as a 
local government elector. These conditions as 
regards the right to registration as a parlia- 
mentary elector are : 

I. In the case of a constituency other than a Pariiamen- 

., ... , x tary franchise 

university constituency (e) (women) in 

(I) She must have attained the age of thirty years, other than 



(2) She must not be subject to any legal incapacity, 

(3) She must (a) be entitled to be registered as a eucies ' 
local government elector in respect of the occupation in 
that constituency (i) of land or premises (not being a 

10 See up. 75, 76, infra. u See p. 76, infra. 



(e) As to meaning of "constituency other than a university 
constituency," see footnote (a) on p. 3, supra. 

F. 5 



tib 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Parliamen- 
tary franchise 
(women) in 
university 
constitu- 



Sect. 4. dwelling-house) of a yearly value of not less than five 
pounds or (ii) of a dwelling -house, or (b) be the wife 
of a husband entitled to be so registered. 

II. In the case of a university constituency (/) 

(1) She must have attained the age of thirty years. 

(2) She must (a) fulfil the conditions which if she 
were a man would entitle her to be registered as a 
parliamentary elector for a university constituency or 
(b) have been admitted to and passed the final exami- 
nation, and kept under the conditions required of 
women by the university the period of residence, neces- 
sary for a man to obtain a degree at any university 
forming, or forming part of, a university constituency 
which did not at the time the examination was passed 
admit women to degrees. 

There are two alternative sets of conditions 
one or other of which must be fulfilled in order 
to entitle a woman to be registered as a local 
government elector for a local government elec- 
toral area. These sets of conditions are : 

A. 

(1) She must be of full age (twenty -one years). 

(2) She must not be subject to any legal incapacity. 

(3) She must on the last day of the qualifying period 
be occupying as owner or tenant -any land or premises 
in the local government electoral area. 

(4) She must during the whole of the qualifying 
period have occupied as owner or tenant any land or 
premises in the local government electoral area, or if 
that area is not an administrative county or a county 
borough, in any administrative county or county borough 
in which the area is wholly or partly situate. 

(/) As to "university constituency," see p. 38, 



Local 

government 

franchise 

(women). 



LEGAL INCAPACITIES (WOMEN). 67 

Or B. Sect. 4. 

(1) She must have attained the age of thirty years. 

(2) She must not be subject to any legal incapacity. 

(3) She must be the wife of a man who is entitled 
to be registered as a local government elector in respect 
of premises in which they both reside. 

I. In the case of a constituency other than a Parliamen- 

tary franchise 
university constituency (women) in 

constituencies 



(1) She must have attained the age of thirty ot 

* university 

years. See p. 4, supra. The remarks there 
made apply equally here, with the exception that 
the age of thirty years must be substituted for 
that of twenty one years or " full age." 

(2) She must not be subject to any legal in- 
capacity. See pp. 4 8, supra. With the excep- 
tions mentioned below, the incapacities attaching 
to men would no doubt apply equally to women, 
but it must be remembered that certain offices 
which deprive a man of the status of a parlia- 
mentary elector have not as yet been open to or 
held by women. 

Dealing with the list of persons who are legally 
incapacitated, which is set out on pp. 5 7, supra, 
as to the first head, sect. 9 (5) of the present Act 
expressly declares that a peeress in her own right 
is not under any legal incapacity which prevents 
her from being registered or voting, and although 
there is no express provision to that effect, it is 
clear that a peeress by marriage would not be 
subject to any incapacity, as the constitutional 
reasons for which peers are excluded from the 

5(2) 



68 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sbot. 4. parliamentary franchise have no application to 
women (y). 

As to the second head (h) in such list, viz., 
" a person holding any one of certain offices," 
women are not eligible for these offices, so that 
this incapacity does not apply to them. 

As to head (3), viz., " an infant," it is clear that 
a woman under the age of thirty is legally inca- 
pacitated with respect to the parliamentary fran- 
chise as though she were an infant of the other sex. 

As to the persons included under heads (4) to 
(8)(/), (viz., an alien, an idiot, a lunatic who is 
not at the time of voting in a lucid interval, an 
imbecile who is not at the time of voting eompos 
mentis, a person convicted of treason or felony 
and sentenced, unless he has suffered his punish- 
ment T received a free pardon), the incapacities 
referre to would apply equally to women as to 
men. The same is true of all the remaining 
classes of persons mentioned under heads (9) to 
(16) on pp. 6, 7, supra. 

As to head (IT), conscientious objectors, who 
come within the provisions of sect. 9 (2) of the 
present Act, this class of persons can never include 
a woman, and it is expressly provided by sect. 9 (2) 
that any incapacity attaching to such conscientious 
objector shall not affect the rights of his wife. 

(3) She must (a) be entitled to be registered as a 
local government elector in respect of the occu- 
pation in that constituency (i) of land or pre- 

(g) See Chorlton v. Linys (1868), L. R. 6 C. P. 374 ; Btanchmnp 
(Earl] v. Madresfield (1872), L. R. 8 C. P. 24d. 
(h] See p. 5, supra. 
(t) See pp. 5, 6, 8iq.>ra. 



WOMEN'S PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE. 

mises (not being a dwelling-house) of a yearly Sect. 4. 
value of not less than five pounds, or (ii) of a 
dwelling-house, or (b) be the wife of a husband 
who is entitled to be so registered. 

It will be noticed that there is a material 
difference, besides that of age, between the quali- 
fications which confer the parliamentary franchise 
(in constituencies other than university constitu- 
encies) on a woman and those which confer it on 
a man. Those qualifications in the case of a 
man depend on residence or on the occupation 
of business premises (A), and are distinct from 
the local government franchise (I). In order to 
entitle a woman to the parliamentary franchise, 
she must be (1) qualified as a local government 
elector in respect of the occupation of a particular 
kind of premises, or (2) the wife of a man so 
qualified. 

The occupation here required is the same as 
that required in the case of a man by sect. 3, i.e. it 
must be occupation as owner or tenant or by virtue 
of an office service or employment or as a lodger 
in a room or rooms let unfurnished. As to what 
constitutes such occupation, see pp. 43 60, supra. 

In applying what is said on pp. 56, 57, 59, supra, 
with regard to joint occupation to the women's 
franchise now under consideration, it is important 
to notice the provisions of sect. 7 (1) (b), which are 
as follows: "In the case of the occupation of 
land or premises (not being a dwelling-house) the 
aggregate yearly value thereof must for the pur- 

(A-) See sect. 1, pp. 1 3, supra. 
(1} See sect. 3, pp. 40, 41, supra. 



70 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 4. pose of the parliamentary franchise of women be 
not less than the amount produced by multiplying* 
five pounds by the number of joint occupiers." 

Further, the provisions of sect. 7(1) (c), dealt 
with on pp. 56, 57, 59, supra, are of course equally 
applicable here. 

The particular kind of premises must be either 
(1) land or premises which are not a dwelling- 
house (such land or premises being of a yearly 
value of not less than 5/.), or (2) a dwelling- 
house such particular kind of premises being in 
the constituency for which the woman is to be 
registered. The premises other than land just 
referred to under (1) can be any building or 
structure of whatsoever kind, or any part thereof, 
so long as it is capable of being occupied and is 
of the yearly value of 5/. As to the meaning of 
''dwelling-house," see pp. 49 54, supra. 

It is submitted, although it is a difficult point, that 
the expression " dwelling-house " in sect. 4 (1) (c) 
does not include lodgings. As was pointed out 
on p. 49, supra, by sect. 41 (8) " the expression 
1 dwelling-house ' includes any part of a house 
where that part is occupied separately as a dwell- 
ing-house," but a lodger does not, in the legal 
sense, occupy his lodgings (m). It would therefore 
appear, however unsatisfactory such a conclusion 
may be to many persons, that in order to qualify 
under sect. 4 ( 1 ) (c), a woman who is a lodger must 
have lodgings of the yearly value of not less than 5/. 

(m) See Kettt v. Fittall, (1906) 1 K. B. 60 (C. A.), and pp. 25, 26, 
57 59, supra. 



WOMEN'S PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE. 71 

AH to the 'meaning of "yearly value," see Sect. 4. 
pp. 28 33, supra. 

As to the alternative qualification mentioned 
under 3 (b) on pp. 68, 69, in order to obtain this 
qualification, the husband of the woman to be 
registered must be qualified in the same way as a 
woman must be under 3 (a) on p, 68, i.e.. as a local 
government elector in respect of the occupation 
in the constituency of land or premises (not being 
a dwelling-house) of a yearly value of not less 
than five pounds or of a dwelling-house. 

As to the qualifying period applicable to the 
husband where he is a "naval or military voter," 
see pp. 96, 97, infra. 

It may be pointed out that it will not in every 
case be necessary for the husband himself to be 
in actual occupation of the premises in order that 
his wife should obtain the local government fran- 
chise, provided that he fulfils the conditions of 
constructive occupation (). 

It is also clear, from the express words of the 
section, that for the wife to be qualified, it is not 
necessary for the husband to be in fact registered, 
it is sufficient if he is entitled to be registered. 

The meaning of the words in that constituency 
in sect. 4 (1) (c) raises a question of some difficulty. 
One of the requirements of the parliamentary 
franchise for women under sect. 4 (1) is that she 
must be " entitled to be registered as a local 
government elector in respect of the occupation 
in that constituency of land or premises . . . ." 
By sect. 4 (3), she "shall be entitled to be regis- 

(//) See pp. 44, 45, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 4. tered as a local government elector for any local 
government electoral area 

(a) where she would be entitled to be so regis- 

tered if she were a man ; . . . ." 
By sect. 3 " a man shall be entitled to be 
registered as a local government elector for a 
local government electoral area if he . . . . 

(b) has, during the whole of the qualifying 

period, so occupied (i.e., as owner or 
tenant) any land or premises in that 
area, or if that area is not an adminis- 
trative county or a county borough in 
any administrative county or county 
borough in which the area is wholly or 
partly situate : . . ." 

The question therefore arises whether the words 
u in that constituency " in sect. 4 (1) (c) limit the 
area within which the land or premises which 
qualify a woman for the parliamentary franchise 
must be, to the constituency for which she is to 
be registered, or whether the wider area described 
in the words quoted above from sect. 3 is to be 
taken as being referred to by implication in 
sect. 4 (1) (c) as the area within which the quali- 
fying land or premises may be. 

Although it would seem probable that the Legis- 
lature intended that the first of these interpreta- 
tions should be given to the sections in question, 
it is submitted that sect. 4(1) (c) should be con- 
strued according to the plain meaning of its express 
words, and that therefore the qualifying land or 
premises must be situated in the constituency for 
which the woman is seeking to be registered. 



WOMEN'S LOCAL GOVERNMENT FRANCHISE. 
As to the manner in which a woman who is a Sect. 4. 



"naval or military voter" can obtain the parlia- 
mentary franchise, see pp. 93, 94, infra. 

II. In the case of a university constituency 

(1) She must have attained the age of thirty 
years. See p. 67, supra. The remarks there 
made apply equally here, except that the age of 
thirty years must be substituted for that of 
twenty-one years or " f ull age." 

(2) She must (a) fulfil the conditions which if she 
were a man would entitle her to be registered as 
a parliamentary elector for a university con- 
stituency or (b) have been admitted to and 
passed the final examination, and kept under the 
conditions required of women by the university 
the period of residence, necessary for a man to 
obtain a degree at any university forming, or 
forming part of, a university constituency which 
did not at the time the examination was passed 
admit women to degrees. 

As to (a) above, see s. 2 and pp. 38, 39, supra. 
As to (b) above, the only universities where women 
are not admitted to degrees are Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

As was pointed out on p. 66, supra, there Local 

r . . government 

are two alternative sets of conditions there re- franchise 
ferred to under the headings A and B, one or 
other of which sets of conditions must be fulfilled 
in order to entitle a woman to be registered as a 
local government elector for a local government 
electoral area. 

(1) She must be of full age. See p. 4, supra. 
*rhe local government franchise is given to women 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 4. at the same age as to men, viz. at twenty-one 
years, and not at thirty, as in the case of the 
parliamentary franchise for women. 

(2) She must not be subject to any legal inca- 
pacity. See pp. 67, 68, supra. 

The nature of the incapacity is the same here 
as in the case of a parliamentary elector (p). and 
what is said on pp. 67, 68, supra, as to the legal in- 
capacities of female parliamentary electors applies 
equally here, except that no question arises in 
regard to the position of peeresses, as peers are 
tinder no incapacity in respect of the local govern- 
ment franchise (q). 

(3) She must on the last day of the qualify ing 
period be occupying as owner or tenant any land or 
premises in the local government electoral area. See 
pp. 42 61, supra, where everything that is said 
with regard to the local government franchise for 
men applies to women. 

(4) She must during the ivhole of the qualifying 

period have occupied as owner or tenant any land or 

premises in the local government electoral area, or if 

that area is not an administrative county or a county 

borough, in any administrative county or county borough 

in whicJi the area is wholly or partly situate. See 

pp. 61 63, supra. Everything there said applies 

here. It must be remembered that as in the case 

of a man, so in the case of a woman who is a 



(l>) See pp. 45, 7 8, supra, 
(q) See p. 42, footnote (o), sxj.ru. 



WOMEN^S LOCAL GOVERNMENT FRANCHISE. 75 

" naval or military voter," the qualifying period Sect. 4. 
is one month instead of six months (r). 

The set of conditions under A above give the 
effect of sect. 4 (3) (a). 

B.- 

(1) She must have attained the age of thirty 
years. As to this, see p. 67, supra. 

It should be noticed that the necessary age 
here is thirty years, as in the case of the parlia- 
mentary franchise for women, in contradistinc- 
tion to the alternative local government franchise 
under heading A above, in which case the neces- 
sary age is twenty-one years. 

(2) She must not be subject to any legal inca- 
pacity. See p. 74, supra. 

(3) She must be the wife of a man who is 
entitled to be registered as a local government 
elector in respect of premises in which they 
both reside. This qualification enfranchises for 
local government purposes all married women 
who live with their husbands in premises in re- 
spect of which the husband is entitled to be 
registered as a local government elector. 

As to the conditions which must be fulfilled in 
order to entitle a man to be so registered, see 
pp. 41, 42 et seq., supra. 

The words " premises in which they both re- 
side " do not necessitate a " joint occupation " 
within the meaning of sect. 3 on the part of 
the husband and wife. All that is required is 
that the}^ should both " reside" in the premises. 

(r) See sect. 6, p. 94, and pp. 96, 97, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 4. As to the meaning of the word "reside," see 
pp. 11 16, supra. 

The following words at the end of sect. 4 
should be noticed : 

For the purpose of this provision, a naval or 
military voter who is registered in respect of a 
residence qualification which he would have 
had but for his service, shall be deemed to be 
resident in accordance with the qualification. 

Thus, a man serving in India in connection 
with the War who but for such service would be 
residing with his wife will for the purpose of her 
enfranchisement be deemed to be residing in the 
premises where his wife is residing. 

As to the meaning of the words "a naval or 
military voter," see pp. 79 85, infra. As to the 
qualification referred to, see pp. 86 88, infra. 

5. (1) A person to whom this section 
applies (in this Act referred to as " a naval 
or military voter ") l shall be entitled to be 
registered as a parliamentary elector for any 
constituency for which he would have had 
the necessary qualification but for the service 
which brings him within the provisions of 
this section. 2 

The right to be registered in pursuance of 
the foregoing provision shall be in addition 
to any other right to be registered, 3 but a 

1 See pp. 7985, infra. * See pp. 8295, infra. 
3 See pp. 90, 91, 94, infra 




NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTEUs. 

naval or military voter shall not be entitled sect. 5. 
to be registered for a constituency in respect 
of an actual residence qualification in the 
constituency except on making a claim for 
the purpose accompanied by a declaration in 
the prescribed form that he has taken rea- 
sonable steps to prevent his being registered 
under the foregoing provision for any other 
constituency. 4 

(2) The statement of any person, made in 
the prescribed form and verified in the pre- 
scribed manner, that he would have had the 
necessary qualification in any constituency 
but for the service which brings him within 
the provisions of this section, shall for all 
purposes of this section be sufficient if there 
is no evidence to the contrary. 

(3) This section applies to any person who 
is of the age required under this Act in the 
case of that person 6 and is not subject to any 
legal incapacity, 7 and who 

(i) is serving on full pay as a member of 

any of the naval, military or air 

forces of the Crown 8 ; or 
(ii) is abroad or afloat in connection with 

any war in which His Majesty is 

engaged, 9 and is 

4 See pp. 9193, infra. 1 See p. 82, infra. 

8 See pp. 82, 83, infra. 
r ' See pp. 8082, infra. 9 See pp. S3, 84, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THK PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. s. (a) in service of a naval or mili- 

tary character for which payment 
is made out of moneys provided 
by Parliament, or (where the person 
serving was at the commencement 
of his service resident in the United 
Kingdom) out of the public funds 
of any part of His Majesty's Do- 
minions, or in service as a merchant 
seaman, pilot, or fisherman, includ- 
ing the master of a merchant ship 
or fishing boat and an apprentice 
on such ship or boat 10 ; or 

(b) serving in any work of the 
British Red Cross Society, or the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem in 
England, or any other body with a 
similar object ; or 

(c) serving in any other work 
recognised by the Admiralty, Army 
Council, or Air Council, as work of 
national importance in connection 
with the war. 11 

(4) A male naval or military voter who 
has served or hereafter serves in or in con- 
nection with the present war shall, notwith- 
standing anything in this or any other Act, 

10 See pp. 83, 84, Infra. n See pp. 84, 85, infra. 



NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS. 

be entitled to be registered as a parliamen- __sect. s. 
tary elector if that voter at the commence- 
ment of service had attained, or during 
service attains, the age of nineteen years, 
and is otherwise qualified. 12 

NOTE. This section relates only to the parlia- 
mentary franchise, and applies only to a person 
who comes within the provisions of sub-sect. (3) 
above. Such person is referred to in this Act as 
a naval or military voter. In order that a per- 
son should come within this description, the fol- 
lowing conditions must be fulfilled : 

(1) If such person is a man, he must be of full 
age, or, subject to certain requirements ( t\ younger ; 
if such person is a woman (&), she must have attained 
the age of thirty years. 

(2) Such person must not be subject to any 
legal incapacity. 

(3) Suck person must be (i) serving on full pay as 
a member of any of the naval, military or air forces 
of the Crown ; or (ii) abroad or afloat in connection 
with any war in which His Majesty is engaged, and 

12 See pp. 8082, infra. 



{i} See pp. 80 82, infra. 

(u] It would appear that sect. 5 is not confined to men in its 
application. The word "person" includes both men and women, 
an* the use of the word "male" in sub-section (4) indicates that 
the use of the expression "naval or military voter " is not confined 
to men. Moreover, the provisions of sub-sect. (3) (ii) ( b) show beyond 
doubt that a woman can be a naval or military voter. See also 
Interpretation Act, 1889, s. 1 (1). 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 5. (a) in service of a naval or military character for 
which payment is made out of moneys provided by 
Parliament^ or {where the person serving tvas at the 
commencement of his service resident in the United 
Kingdom] out of the public funds of any part of His 
Majesty's Dominions, or in service as a merchant 
seam<m, pilot or fisherman, including the master of a 
merchant ship or fishing boat, and an apprentice on 
such ship or boat ; or (b) serving in any work of the 
British Red Cross Society or the Order of St. Jolm 
of Jerusalem in England, or any other body with a 
similar object ; or (c) serving in any other work 
recognised by the Admiralty, Army Council or Air 
Council as work of national importance in connection 
with the war. 

( 1) If such person is a man he must be of full age 
or subject to certain requirements may be younger ; if 
such person is a woman she must have attained the age of 
thirty years. 

Sect. 5 (3) states that this section (sect. 5) 
applies to any person who is of the age re- 
quired under this Act in the case of that person* 
The age required under this Act is in the case of 
a man. subject to the exception contained in sect* 
5 (4), full age or twenty-one years, and in the 
case of a woman as regards the parliamentary 
franchise (to which the above section alone relates) 
thirty years. As to the meaning of ' k full age," 
see p. 4, supra. As to the meaning of " thirty 
years," see p. 67, supra. 

Sect. 5 (4) is as follows : A male naval or 
military voter who has served or hereafter 



NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS QUALIFIED AT NINETEEN. 81 

serves in or in connection with the present war sect. 6 
shall, notwithstanding anything in this or any 
other Act, be entitled to be registered as a par- 
liamentary elector if that voter at the com- 
mencement of service had attained, or during 
service attains, the age of nineteen years, and 
is otherwise qualified. 

This sub-section applies to any male person 
who falls within sect. 5 (3) (i) or (ii) above and 
" has served or hereafter serves in or in connec- 
tion with the present war." 

The words, and is otherwise qualified, at the 
end of the sub-section refer, of course, to the 
qualifications for the franchise required by 
sect. 5(1) (y). 

As to when a man will be held to have attained 
the age of nineteen years, see p. 4, supra. 

It seems clear that, notwithstanding the lan- 
guage used in sect. 5 (4) set out above, as in the 
case of full age, so here the age of nineteen years 
must be attained not later than the last day of 
the qualifying period (2), i.e., on January 15th or 
July loth as the case may be. 

The effect of sub-sect. (4) is to enfranchise all 
soldiers and sailors and other men who come 
within sect. 5 (3)(i) and (ii), provided they have 
served in connection with the war, at the age of 
nineteen, subject, of course, to their having the 
requisite qualifications (y). 

It must further be noticed that it is only while 

(y) As to these qualifications, see pp. 85, 86, 86 93. 
(2) See p. 4, supra, 

F. 6 



82 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 5. he is actually serving that a person comes within 
the description of a naval or military voter, and 
that therefore if a man is discharged from or 
otherwise terminates the service which consti- 
tutes him a naval or military voter before he has 
attained the age of twenty-one, he is legally in- 
capacitated (e) from being registered or voting 
during the interval between such discharge or ter- 
mination and the time when he attains such age. 

(2) Such person must not be subject to any legal 
incapacity. See pp. 2 8, 67, 68, supra. 

(3) Such person must be (i) serving on full pay 
as a member of any of the naval, military or air 
forces of the Crown. Anyone coming within this 
description need not be abroad or afloat in order 
to qualify for the vote under this sub-section. 

It is believed that women are not officially re- 
cognised by the Admiralty, Army Council or Air 
Council as members of the naval, military or air 
forces of the Crown, but Forms (6) and (7) in 
Part V. of the Schedule to the Order in Council 
dated March 4th, 1918, set out on pp. 573, 574, 
infra, are headed " Women serving with the Mili- 
tary Forces" and " Women serving with the Air 
Force" respectively. Form (8) (a), on the other 
hand, is headed " Women serving abroad or afloat 
in connection with the war." In view of the fact 
that by sect. 5 (3) (i) it is only a person " serving 
on full pay as a member of any of the naval, 
military or air forces of the Crown " who obtains 
the franchise as a naval or military voter without 

() See pp. 4 8, supra. 
(a) Set out on p. 574, infra. 



NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS. 83 

being abroad or afloat, it would appear probable Sect. 6. 
that women, e.g. members of the Women's Army 
Auxiliary Corps, or women serving with the Army 
Service Corps or Royal Air Force would fulfil 
the requirements of (3) (i) above. 

The service required under (3) (i) above is in 
no way dependent on the existence of the present 
or any other war. 

Or (ii) abroad or afloat in connection with 
any war in which His Majesty is engaged and 
is (a) in service of a naval or military character 
for which payment is made out of moneys pro- 
vided by Parliament or (where the person ser- 
ving was at the commencement of his service 
resident in the United Kingdom) out of the public 
funds of any part of His Majesty's Dominions, 
or in service as a merchant seaman, pilot or 
fisherman including the master of a merchant 
ship or fishing 1 boat and an apprentice on such 
ship or boat or (b) serving in any work of the 
British Red Cross Society or the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem in England or any other body 
with a similar object or (c) serving in any other 
work recognised by the Admiralty, Army Coun- 
cil, or Air Council as work of national importance 
in connection with the war. 

Abroad. This means outside the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Afloat. By sect. 41 (10) (b) of the present Act 
this word " shall be interpreted in accordance 

(b) Set out at p. 308, infra. 

6(2) 



4 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 5. with rules (e) made for the 'purpose by the 
Admiralty." 

In connection with any war in which His 
Majesty is engaged. The service required by 
sect. 5 (3) (ii) is not limited to the present war, 
but may be in connection with any future war. 
The word " war" here would, it is submitted, be 
interpreted as including only a state of hostilities 
between his Majesty 011 the one side and an inde- 
pendent sovereign State on the other. 

In service of a naval or military character for 
which payment is made out of moneys provided 
by Parliament, or (where the person serving was 
at the commencement of his service resident in 
the United Kingdom) out of the public funds of 
any part of His Majesty's Dominions. These 
words are wide and would apparently include 
persons who, being paid out of public moneys, 
are not in direct naval or military service, for 
instance, mine-sweepers and men engaged on 
labour or railway work connected with military 
operations. They would also, no doubt, include 
many women engaged in transport, clerical, and 
other work, directly connected with hostilities, as, 
for example, members of the Women's Army 
Auxiliary Corps. As to the meaning of the word 
resident, see pp. 11 16, supra. 

As to head (3) (ii) (c) above, this category of 
persons includes persons, abroad or afloat, serving 
in any work recognised by the Admiralty, Army 
Council, or Air Council as work of national im- 
portance in connection with the war, and, like 

(c) For these rules, see p. 628, infra. 



QUALIFICATIONS OF NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS. H5 

heads 3 (ii) (a) and (b), women as well as men. Sect. 5. 
The words, work recognised by the Admiralty, 
Army Council or Air Council, refer to the 
work mentioned on p. 635, infra. It should 
be noticed that the word war in the words 
in connection with the war at the end of (c) 
above, refers to the words in (ii), any war in 
which His Majesty is engaged, and therefore 
not to the present war only. 

Having dealt with the question who is a naval Qualifications 

. . 11*1 of naval and 

or military voter, it is now necessary to deal with military 
the qualifications which entitle a naval or military v 
voter (i.e., a person to whom sect. 5 applies) to be 
registered. 

These qualifications are as follows : 

A. A male naval or military voter shall be entitled 
to be registered as a parliamentary elector for any 
constituency 

(1) If he would) but for the service which brings 
him within the provisions of sect. 5, have had (a) the 
requisite residence qualification in the constituency : 
or (b) the requisite business premises qualification in 
the constituency ; or (c) in the case of a university 
constituency the requisite qualification for such uni- 
versity constituency ; or 

(2) If he has the requisite business premises quali- 
fication in the constituency ; or 

(3) If he has the requisite residence qualification in 
the constituency ', provided in this case that he makes 
a claim for the purpose, accompanied by a declaration 
in the prescribed form ; or 



86 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 5. (4) If in the case of a university constituency he 
has the requisite qualification for such constituency. 

B. A female naval or military voter shall 
be entitled to be registered as a parliamentary 
elector for any constituency 

(1) If she would but for the service which brings 
her within the provisions of sect. 5 (a) have been 
entitled to be registered as a local government elector 
in respect of the occupation in that constituency of land 
or premises (not being a dwelling-house] of a yearly 
value of not less than 5 or of a dwelling-house ; or 
(b) if, in the case of a university constituency, she 
would but for such service have had the requisite quali- 
fication for such university constituency ; or 

(2) If she is entitled to be registered as a local 
government elector in respect of the occupation in that 
constituency of land or premises (not being a dwelling- 
house) of a yearly value of not less than 5 or of a 
dwelling -house, or is the wife of a husband entitled t<> 
be so registered ; or 

(3) If in the case of a university constituency she 
has the requisite qualification in such constituency. 

As to A.: A male naval or military voter 



naval and shall be entitled to be registered as a parliamen- 
voters. tary elector for any constituency 

(1) If he would but for the service which 
brings him within the provisions of sect. 5 have 

had (a) the requisite residence qualification in the 
constituency, or (b) the requisite business premises 
qualification in the constituency, or (c) in the case 
of a university constituency the requisite qualifica- 
tion for such university constituency. It is clear 



QUALIFICATIONS OF NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS. 

that this is the meaning of the first sentence of Sect. 5. 
sect. 5(1). The words in that section, the neces- 
sary qualification, can only mean the requisite 
residence qualification or the requisite business 
qualification or the requisite university qualifi- 
cation. 

It should be remembered that in order to come 
within the description, " a naval or military 
voter," a person must have fulfilled the con- 
ditions of the franchise which relate to age and 
absence of legal incapacity (rf). 

The words, the service which brings him 
within the provisions of sect. 5, refer, of course, 
to the various kinds of service mentioned in 
sect. 5 (3)(0), by virtue of which a person becomes 
a " naval or military voter." 

As to the meaning of (a) the requisite residence 
qualification, see pp. 9 24, supra. As to the 
meaning of (b) the requisite business premises quali- 
fication, see pp. 4 37, supra. 

An important point must be observed with 
regard to the requisite residence and business 
premises qualifications in their application to 
naval and military voters. By the proviso in 
sect. 6 of the present Act, the qualifying period 
for a naval or military voter is one month, ending 
either on January 15th or July 15th, instead of 
the ordinary qualifying period of six months. In 
applying the observations as to the requisite resi- 
dence qualification on pp. 924, supra, and the 

(d) See pp. 79, 8082, supra, 

(e) See pp. 82 85, gupra. 



88 KKPRFSKNTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

jBect. 5. requisite business premises qualification on pp. 
24 37, supra, to naval and military voters, 
this difference in the qualifying period must be 
remembered. 

It is impossible to understand fully the effect of 
the qualification conferred by the first sentence in 
sect. 5 (1), and stated under A. (1) on p. 86, with- 
out referring shortly to the method and machinery 
of registration connected with it. By Rule 17 of 
the Registration Rules (/), it is the duty of the 
registration officer to place the names of all naval 
or military voters (subject to the two exceptions 
there mentioned(y) ) on the absent voters' list. 
By Rule 6 of the Registration Rules (h) it is 
the duty of the registration officer < ' to cause a 
house-to-house or other sufficient inquiry to be 
made ... of all persons appearing to be entitled 
to be registered as parliamentary . . . electors." 
In the course of this inquiry he will discover the 
existence of a number of men and women absent 
on various kinds of war service in his registration 
area, and it will be his duty to ascertain whether 
they are entitled to be registered on the absent 
voters' list as naval or military voters. 

By sect. 5 (2), the statement of any person, 
made in the prescribed form and verified in the 
prescribed manner, that he would have had the 
necessary qualification in any constituency but 
for the service which brings him within the 

(/) First Schedule to the present Act, pp. 345, 346, infra. See 
also sect. 13, pp. 133, 134, infra. 

(</) First Schedule, Rule 17 (a) and (b), pp. 345, 346, infra. 
(h) First Schedule, p. 341, infra. 



QUALIFICATIONS OF NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS. 89 

provisions of this section, shall for all purposes sect. 5. 
of this section be sufficient if there is no evi- 
dence to the contrary. 

If the registration officer receives such a state- 
ment from a naval or military voter in his regis- 
tration area and there is no evidence to the 
contrary (which in the great majority of cases 
there will not be), he need inquire no further as 
to that person's qualifications. In the absence 
of such a statement, however, it becomes the 
duty of the registration officer to ascertain 
whether the naval or military voter would have had 
the requisite residence qualification or the requisite 
business premises qualification but for the service 
which makes him or her a military voter. By 
Rule 18 of the Registration Rules (i) the Admi- 
ralty, Army Council and Air Council are to 
furnish to the registration officer such particulars 
concerning naval and military voters u as may be 
necessary for the purpose of their registration." 
Notwithstanding this assistance, however, inquiry 
as to whether or not a particular person is entitled 
to be registered will, as was pointed out in dealing 
with these qualifications under sect. I (/), fre- 
quently raise questions of great difficulty and 
complexity, which, it is evident, it will often be 
impossible for the registration officer to investigate 
adequately and to decide in the case of an absent 
person. It seems certain, therefore, that in gene- 
ral the qualification of naval and military voters 

(f) First Schedule, p. 346, infra. 
( /) See pp. 9 37, supra. 



90 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 5. under head (1) above will be ascertained in u 
rough and ready manner by the registration 
officer, and probably, in the case of the requisite 
residence qualification, merely by learning that 
the person to be registered lived in a particular 
house before undertaking his or her war service. 

If the registration officer once places the name 
of any naval or military voter on the register, the 
register will be conclusive evidence of that per- 
son's right to vote(/t:). It should, of course, be 
remembered, however, that on a scrutiny the 
election court would disallow the votes of persons 
under a legal incapacity (/). 

As to (<?), in the case of a university constituency 
the requisite qualification for such university con- 
stituency. This case will arise very rarely, as it 
is only where the naval or military voter has 
passed the necessary examinations and kept the 
necessary residence for a degree but has not yet 
been admitted to such degree that he could claim 
to be registered under this head (m). 

(2) If he has the requisite business premises qualifi- 
cation in the constituency. In sect. 5 (l)the following 
words appear : The right to be registered in 
pursuance of the foregoing provision (i.e., the 
first sentence in sect. 5(1)) shall be in addition 
to any other right to be registered. It follows, 
therefore, that, if notwithstanding his service 

() See pp. 102108, infra. 
(/) See pp. 48, 102108. 
(m] See pp. 38, 39, supra. 



ACTUAL RESIDENCE QUALN. OF NAV. AND MIL. VOTERS. 

within the meaning of sect. 5 (3) a naval or Sect. 5 
military voter has in fact the requisite business 
premises qualification (n) in a constituency, he is 
entitled to be registered in such constituency by 
reason of that qualification. 

In considering whether a naval or military 
voter has the requisite business premises qualifi- 
cation it is important to notice the modification 
in the length of the qualifying period required, 
which is dealt with on pp. 87, 88, 96, 97, supra. 

It should be observed that no claim is necessary 
in order to obtain registration under head (2). 

(3) If he has the requisite residence qualification in 
the constituency, provided in this case that he makes 
a claim for the purpose, accompanied by a 
declaration in the prescribed form. 

By sect. 5 (1) .... The right to be registered 
in pursuance of the foregoing provision (i.e., the 
provision contained in the first sentence in sect. 5 ) 
shall be in addition to any other right to be 
registered, but a naval or military voter shall not 
be entitled to be registered for a constituency in 
respect of an actual residence qualification in 
the constituency except on making a claim for 
the purpose accompanied by a declaration in 
the prescribed form that he has taken reasonable 
steps to prevent his being registered under the 
foregoing provision for any other constituency. 

Unlike the qualification noticed under (2) above, 
in order to be registered by virtue of an actual 

(n) See pp. 24 37, supra, and particularly the remarks on 
constructive occupation on pp. 26, 27, 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 6. residence qualification, a naval or military voter 
must make a claim accompanied by the declara- 
tion (n) referred to in that part of sect. 5(1) which 
is set out above. 

It is submitted that the words actual residence 
qualification which occur there are, subject to 
the difference in the length of the qualifying 
period pointed out on pp. 87, 88, supra, equivalent 
to the words " requisite residence qualification" (o) 
in sect. I of the Act, and that the word " actual " 
is used merely to distinguish this qualification 
from a residence qualification which a naval or 
military voter " would have had " " but for the 
service which brings him within the provisions 
of sect. 5" (/?). It could not, it is suggested, be 
held that the " residence" here required must be 
actual as opposed to constructive residence (q). 

The object of the requirement of the above 
provision is to prevent the registration of a 
naval or military voter in more than one con- 
stituency by virtue of a residence qualification. 
The case contemplated by the Act is, for example, 
that of a soldier whose home is in one constituency 
but who is quartered in another. If he desires 
to be registered for the constituency in which 
he is quartered by reason of his residence there, 
rather than for the constituency where his home 
is and where he would have resided but for his 

(//) For form of claim and declaration, see p. 569, -infra. 
\o] As to the meaning of these words, see pp. 9 - 24, supra, 
(p) See pp. 82 85, supra. 
(</) See pp. 11 15, supra. 



QUALIFICATIONS OF FEMALE NAV. AND MIL. VOTERS. * 

service, he must make the claim and declaration (r) Beet. 5 
required by sect. 5 (1). 

(4) If in the case of a university constituency he 
has the requisite qualification for such constituency. 
As to this, see pp. 38 39, supra. 

As to B. A female naval or military voter Qualifications 
shall be entitled to be registered as a parlia- 
mentary elector for any constituency 

(1) If she would but for the service which 
brings her within the provisions of sect. 5 (a) have 
been entitled to be registered as a local government 
elector in respect of the occupation in that constituency 
of land or premises (not being a dwelling-house) of a 
yearly value of not less than five pounds, or of a 
dwelling-house, or (b) if, in the case of a university 
constituency, she would but for such service have had 
the requisite qualification for such university con- 
stituency. 

See the general observations under A. (1) on 
pp. 86, 87, supra. As to the qualifications mentioned 
under (1 ) (a) above, see pp. 68 72, supra. As to 
the qualifications mentioned under (1) (b) above, 
see p. 73, supra. See also the observations as to 
registration on p. 88, supra, which apply equally 
here with the obvious modifications. 

It must be borne in mind that the qualifying 
period for naval or military voters is one month, 
instead of six months ; see pp. 96, 97, infra. 

(2) If she is entitled to be registered as a local 
government elector in respect of the occupation in that 
constituency of land or premises (not being a dwelling- 
house) of a yearly value of not less than five pounds, 

(r) See p. 569, infra. 



4 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 5. or of a dwelling-house, or is the wife of a husband 
entitled to be so registered. 

In view of the words in the second sentence of 
sect. 5 (1), the right to be registered in pur- 
suance of the foregoing provision shall be in 
addition to any other right to be registered, 
it is clear that a female naval or military voter 
is entitled to be registered by reason of a parlia- 
mentary qualification which she in fact has. 

As to the qualifications here referred to, see pp. 
67 72, supra. It must, of course, be remembered 
that the qualifying period for a naval or military 
voter is one month ; see pp. 96, 97, supra. 

(3) If in the case of a university constituency she 
has the requisite qualification for such constituency. 
See p. 73, supra. 

6 - " -'The qualifying period shall be a 
period of six months ending either on the 
fifteenth day of January, or the fifteenth 
day of July, including in each case the 
fifteenth day : l 

Provided that in the application of this 
section to a person who is a naval or 
military voter, or who has been serving as 
a member of the naval, military, or air 
forces of the Crown at any time during 
the said six months and has ceased so to 
serve, one month shall be substituted for six 
months as the qualifying period. 2 

NOTE. Sect. 6 defines the qualifying period, 

1 See pp. 95, 96, infra. 2 See pp. 96, 97, infra. 



ORDINARY QUALIFYING PERIOD. 96 

which is one of the elements of (1) the residence Sect. 6. 
qualification (r), (2) the business premises quali- 
fication (), (3) the local government franchise for 
men (), (4) the franchises for women (u), and 
(5) the franchise of naval and military voters (x). 

Sect. 6 in effect enacts that there shall be two 
kinds of qualifying periods ; the one of general 
application, which is called in this Note the 
ordinary qualifying period, the other applying only 
to a certain class of persons, namely, naval and 
military voters, or persons who have been and 
are no longer soldiers and sailors within the pro- 
viso to sect. 6, which is called in this Note the 
special qualifying period. 

( 1 ) The ordinary qualifying period. This is a 
period of six months ending either on the 15th 
day of January or the 15th day of July,* including 
in each case the fifteenth day, i.e., there are in 
each twelve months two qualifying periods, the 
one from 16th July to 15th January (both dates 
inclusive), the other from 16th January to loth 
July (both dates inclusive). As the law does not 
take notice of a part of a day(^), it would be 
sufficient in order to come within the words 
" during the whole of the qualifying period" 

(r) See pp. 9 24, supra. 

(s) See pp. 24 37, supra. 

(*) See pp. 4262, supra. 

(te) See pp. 65 76, supra. 

(x} See pp. 8594, supra. 

(y) 1 BI. Com. 463 ; Anon. (1700), Ld. Eaym. 480, 1096. 



* N.B. In connection with the first register under the Act the 
last day of the qualifying period is loth April, 1918 (Order in 
Council dated 4th June, 1918, rule 6, p. 749, and Fifth Schedule, 
p. 752). 



6 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 6. if the residence or occupation required began on 
any part, however late, of the first day of the 
period, and ended on any part, however early, 
of the last day of the period.* 

The Spring Register is made for the period 
ending on January 15th, and the Autumn Register 
is made for the period ending on July 15th (y). 
The ordinary qualifying period of six months is 
the one applicable to all persons claiming the 
franchise under sects. 1, 3, 4 (1), (3) and (5), 
subject to the exception mentioned in the proviso 
to sect. 6, and referred to below. 

(2) A special qualifying period. The effect of 
the proviso in sect. 6 is to create a special quali- 
fying period of one month, ending either on 
the fifteenth day of January or the ijfteenth day 
of July,* including in each case the fifteenth day, 
i. e., there are in each twelve months two such 
periods, the one from December 16th to January 
15th (both dates inclusive), the other from 
June 16th to July loth (both dates inclu- 
sive). What Avas said under ( 1 ), above, as to the 
sufficiency of part of a day applies equally 
here. This special qualifying period is. for a 
particular class of persons, treated as though 
it were the ordinary qualifying period. The 
persons to whom the special qualifying period 
is applicable are (a) a naval or military voter (z), 

(z) Sect. 11, p. 125 infra, and see footnote (*) below. 



* N.B. In connection with the first register under the Act the 
last day of the qualifying period is loth April, 1918 (Order in 
Council dated 4th June, 1918, rule 6, p. 749, and Fifth Schedule, 
p. 752). 



SPECIAL QUALIFYING PERIOD. 97 

and (b) any person claiming the franchise under Sect. 6. 
sects. 1, 3, 4 (1) and (3), who at any time during 
the ordinary qualifying period(#)has been serving 
as a member of the naval, military, or air forces 
of the Crown (#), arid has during the same quali- 
fying period ceased so to serve. E>9> a soldier 
is serving in the army on 17th July in any 
year and is invalided out of the army on the 
18th July ; then, provided he fulfils the other 
conditions (c) necessary to acquire the franchise, 
he need only reside in premises or occupy land 
or premises from December 16th to January 15th 
in order to be entitled to be registered for the 
qualifying period ending January 15th. 

The special qualifying period applies to local 
government electors as well as to parliamentary 
electors. It is clear that although sect. 5 deals 
only with the parliamentary franchise, a u naval 
or military voter " as defined by that section can 
be a local government elector. 

A curious point arises in connection with the 
special qualifying period with respect to the inter- 
pretation of sect. 7 (2) dealt with on pp. 16 23, 
27, 28, 45, 46, supra. Though doubtless contrary 
to the intention of those who framed the Act, it 
would appear that a person to whom the special 
qualifying period is applicable could not avail 
himself or herself of the provisions of sect. 7 (2), 
as the words therein, " for part of the qualifying 



v. 



(a) See p. 95, supra. 

(b) See pp. 82, 83, supra. 

(c) See pp. 3, 4, supra. 



^8 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 7. period not exceeding four months in the whole," 

cannot apply to the qualifying period of one month. 

It should be noticed that as regards Ireland 

the provisions of sect. 44 (11) (a), set out at p. 334, 

infra, are substituted for sect. 6. 

supplemental 7. (i) Where premises are in the ioint 

provisions &s ^ ' ** 

to residence occupation of two or more persons, each of 

and occu- A . i 11 / i / 

the joint occupiers shall, for the purposes of 
this Part (d) of this Act, be treated as occu- 
pying the premises, subject as follows : 

(a) In the case of the occupation of busi- 

ness premises the aggregate yearly 
value of the premises must for the 
purpose of the parliamentary fran- 
chise be not less than the amount 
produced by multiplying ten pounds 
by the number of the joint occu- 
piers ; and * 

(b) In the case of the occupation of land 

or premises (not being a dwelling- 
house) the aggregate yearly value 
thereof must for the purpose of the 
parliamentary franchise of women 
be not less than the amount pro- 
duced by multiplying five pounds 
by the number of joint occupiers ; 
and 

(c) Not more than two joint occupiers 

(d} I.e., Part I,, ss. 110. 



SUPPLEMENTAL PROVISIONS AS TO RESIDENCE, ETC. 9<J 

shall be entitled to be registered sect. 7. 
in respect of the same land or 
premises, unless they are bona fide 
engaged as partners carrying on 
their profession, trade or business 
011 the land or premises. 

(2) Residence in a house or the occupa- 
tion of a house shall not be deemed to be 
interrupted for the purposes of this Act by 
reason only of permission being given by 
letting or otherwise for the occupation of 
the house as a furnished house by some 
other person for part of the qualifying 
period not exceeding four months in the 
whole, or by reason only of notice to quit 
being served and possession being demanded 
by the landlord of the house ; but the ex- 
press enactment of this provision shall not 
affect in any way the general principles 
governing the interpretation of the expres- 
sion " residence " and cognate expressions. 

(3) Notwithstanding anything in this Act, 
a man shall not be entitled to be registered 
as a parliamentary elector for a constituency 
in respect of a residence qualification though 
he may have been residing in premises in the 
constituency on the last day of the qualifying 
period, if he commenced to reside in the 
constituency within thirty days before the 
end of the qualifying period, and ceased to 

T-ttj 



100 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 7. reside within thirty days after the time when 
he so commenced to reside. 

(4) Notwithstanding anything in this Act, 
a person shall not be entitled to be r<?gistered 
as a local government elector for a local 
government electoral area though that per- 
son may have been occupying land or pre- 
mises in the area on the last day of the 
qualifying period, if that person commenced 
to occupy the land or premises within thirty 
days before the end of the qualifying period, 
and ceased to occupy the land or premises 
within thirty days after the commencement 
of the occupation. 

NOTE. As to (1) (a), see pp. 2487, supra. 
As to (1) (b), see pp. 6971, supra. As to 
(l)(c), see pp. 2437 and pp. 4360, supra. AH 
to (2), as regards residence in a house, see pp. 
16 23, supra, and as regards the occupation of a 
house, see pp. 45, 46, supra. 

As to the provision at the end of (2), see 
p. 11, supra. As to (3), see pp. 10, 11, supra. 
As to (4), see p. 43, supra. 



8. (1) Every person registered as a 
parliamentary elector for any constituency 
shall, while so registered (and in the case of 
a woman notwithstanding sex or marriage), 
be entitled to vote at an election of a 
member to serve in Parliament for that 



RIGHT OF PERSON REGISTERED TO VO. \ 101 



constituency 1 ; but a man shall iu>tY<)ts at 
general election for more than one consti- 
tuency for which he is registered by virtue 
of a residence qualification or for more than 
one constituency for which he is registered 
by virtue of other qualifications of whatever 
kind, 2 and a woman shall not vote at a 
general election for more than one consti- 
tuency for which she is registered by virtue 
of her own or her husband's local govern- 
ment qualification, or for more than one 
constituency for which she is registered by 
virtue of any other qualification. 3 

(2) A person registered as a local govern- 
ment elector for any local government 
electoral area shall while so registered (and 
in the case of a woman notwithstanding sex 
or marriage) be entitled to vote at a local 
government election for that area, 4 but 
where, for the purposes of election, any such 
area is divided into more than one ward or 
electoral division, by whatever name called, a 
person shall not be entitled to vote for more 
than one such ward or electoral division. 5 

Notwithstanding anything in this provi- 
sion a person may be registered for more 
than one such ward or division of a local 
government electoral area (not being a 

1 See pp. 102108, infra. 3 Ibid. 
3 See pp. 108110, infra. 4 See p. 110, infra. 
5 See pp. 110111, infra. 



OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

-mimicip'ai' borough), and may vote in any 
such ward or division for which he is regis- 
tered at an election to^fill a casual vacancy. 6 
(3) A naval or military voter who is regis- 
tered in respect of a qualification which he 
would have had but for his service shall be 
deemed for the purpose of this section to be 
registered by virtue of that qualification. 7 

NOTE. Sect. 8 deals with the rights of persons, 
both male and female, registered as parliamentary 
or local government electors to vote. 

Sect. 8 (1) begins by stating the general prin- 
ciple that every person registered as a parlia- 
mentary elector for any constituency shall, while 
so registered (and in the case of a woman not- 
withstanding sex or marriage), be entitled to 
vote at an election of a member to serve in 
Parliament for that constituency (d), and then 
proceeds to limit the number of votes which a 
person may give. 

The principle that registration entitles a person 
to vote must be read in conjunction with and sub- 
ject to the qualifications contained in sect. 9 (3). 
Sect. 9 (3) is as follows : " A person shall not be 
entitled to be registered or to vote as a parliamen- 
tary or local government elector if he is not a 
British subject (c), and nothing contained in this 

fi See pp. Ill, 112, infra. " Seep. 112, infra. 



(d) As to the meaning of " constituency," see p. 3, footnote (a), 
tupra. 

() See pp. 121, 122, infra. 



RIGHT OF PERSON REGISTERED TO VOTE. 103 

Act shall, except as expressly provided therein, Sect 8. 
confer on any person who is subject to any legal 
incapacity to be registered or to vote either as 
a parliamentary or local government elector any 
right to be so registered or to vote." 

The sub-section just quoted has, as regards 
parliamentary electors, the same effect, except as 
to penalties, as the proviso in sect. 7 of the Ballot 
Act, 1872, which stands unrepealed by the present 
Act. That proviso is as follows: " Nothing in 
this section (sect. 7 of the Ballot Act, 1872) shall 
entitle any person to vote who is prohibited from 
voting by any statute, or by the common law of 
Parliament, or relieve such person from any penal- 
ties to which he may be liable for voting." The 
words " subject to any legal incapacity" in 
sect. 9 (3) of the present Act have the same effect 
as the words " prohibited ... by any statute or 
by the common law of Parliament " in sect. 7 of 
the Ballot Act, 1872. 

The position as regards voting of a person who 
is registered as a parliamentary elector is, there- 
fore, as follows, bearing in miud, however, the 
limitation of the number of votes which one 
person is entitled to give, which is dealt with 
on pp 108 110, infra. 

The register at an election is conclusive evi- 
dence ( /) of the right of any person to vote whose 
name appears therein, and no one is entitled to 
vote unless his name is on the register of electors 
for the time being in force. The register is also 
conclusive evidence (/) before any tribunal in- 

(/) See pp. 104, 105, 106, 107, infra. 



104 KEPKESEiNTATlON OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 8. quiring into any election except in the cases of 
voters to whom some personal disqualification 
attaches, /.., voters who are legally incapaci- 
tated^). The remarks of the learned judges in 
the cases hereinafter cited, which were decided 
under the Ballot Act, 1872, apply equally under 
the present Act. 

In Stowe v. Jolliffe(h), Lord Coleridge, C.J., 
said : 

"I think the true construction of these sec- 
tions (Y) . . . is to make the register conclusive 
not only on the returning officer, but also on any 
tribunal which has to inquire into elections, except 
in the case of persons ascertained by the proviso 
(at the end of sect. 7). These are ' persons pro- 
hibited from voting by any statute or by the 
common law of Parliament.' 

u I do not think that these words are pointed 
at any of the cases which my brother Mellor has 
referred to us. . . . Non-residence within the proper 
distance of the borough ; non -occupation; insuffi- 
cient qualification none of these things appear 
to satisfy the words of this proviso. It does not 
mean persons who from failure in the incidents 
or elements of the franchise could be successfully 
objected to on the revision of the register ; it 
means persons who from some inherent or for the 

(</) See pp. 48, supra. 

(A) (1874), L. E. 9 0. P. 750. 

(t) Sect. 7 of the Ballot Act, 1872, and sect. 79 of the Parlia- 
mentary Voters Registiation Act, 1843. The enacting part of 
sect. 79 (which was the only part of that section still in force at 
the time of the above decision) was to the same effect as sect. 7 of 
the Ballot Act. 



RIGHT OF PERSON RKGISTERKU TO VOTK. 

time irremovable quality in themselves have riot, Sect. 8. 
either by prohibition of statutes or at common 
law, the status of parliamentary electors (k). Such, 
for example, are peers, \vhether of the United 
Kingdom, orof Scotland, or of Ireland, . . . persons 
holding certain offices or employments the subjects 
of statutory prohibitions, and persons convicted of 
crimes which disqualify them from voting. I do 
not say that this list is exhaustive. It is enough 
to give examples of the cases in which I think the 
register would be still open." 

The register, therefore, will not be conclusive 
at the trial of an election petition in the case of 
the persons mentioned on pp. 5 7, supra, as 
being legally incapacitated, whether the disquali- 
fication occurs before or after registration. But 
in all these cases the returning officer cannot 
refuse to deliver a ballot paper if the person's 
name is on the register, though if he votes his 
name may be struck off on a scrutiny (I). 

In all cases, however, where the disqualification 
is not of a personal nature the register will be 
conclusive even at the trial. 

Thus non-residence (ni), non-occupation or in- 
sufficient qualification (w), or other non-personal 
disqualification will not disqualify if the name is 
in fact on the register. 



(ft) See pp. 4 8, supra. 

(I) See pp. 106, 107, Infnt. 

(m) Stoive v. Jollifft (1874), L. R. 9 (..'. P. 750. 

(n) Ibid. 



REPRESENTATION 7 OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

8 " It seems to me," said Channel!, J., in Pem- 

broke (q), " that the policy of the Legislature has 
from the time of the Reform Act of 1832 until 
the Ballot Act been to make it necessary to raise 
all questions as to rights to vote in the Registration 
Court (r), and to do this by preventing their being 
raised at any other time or in any other manner. 
. . . The 7th section of the Ballot Act, ... as 
interpreted and explained in Stowe v. Jollife, 
reads thus : * At an election a person shall not be 
entitled to vote unless his name is on the register, 
even although he ought to be on, and every person 
whose name is on the register shall be entitled to 
vote, even if it ought not to be on.' ' 

The presiding officer is in no way concerned 
with persons who are disqualified from voting 
either by the common law of Parliament or by 
statute. If these persons are on the register their 
votes must, if tendered, be accepted, though they 
will be struck off on petition. u Now, the obvious 
intention of the proviso at the end of sect. 7," 
said Lush, J., in Worcester (9), "is not in order 
that any objection of the kind mentioned in that 
proviso may be taken in the polling booth, but 
the legislature put in this proviso lest the enacting 
part should be held to restore or make absolute 
the qualification of a man who really has no 
qualification. . . . The battle of qualification shall 

(</) Per Channell, J., in Pembroke (1901), 5 O. & H. at p. 144. 

(r) Under the present Act the registration court is abolished, but 
the registration officer takes its place. See First Schedule, rules 
2026, pp. 347349, and rule 39, p. 353, infra. 

() (1880), 3 0. & H. at p. 186. 



RIGHT OF PERSON REGISTERED TO VOTE. 



lor 



be fought either beforehand in the Registration Sect. 6. 
Court, or after the election upon a scrutiny." 

u When you say that the register is conclusive, 
as has often been said, what you mean is this 
that it is conclusive that the people who are on it 
have the qualification which entitles them to be 
there. It may be that they are not to be entitled 
to vote by reason of the 7th section of the Ballot 
Act (t). . . . Until recent years there was no 
register, and the register was instituted, I think, 
for this purpose. There were ways of disputing 
who had a right to vote cumbersome and ex- 
pensive ways and the register was instituted as 
a simple method of finding out, by means of the 
Revising Barrister (w), who should be put on the 
register. People could claim to be put on, and 
people could object to others being put on, and 
the claims and objections could be investigated 
by the Revising Barrister. But in my judgment 
the intention of the Legislature . . . was this : to 
compile a list, which, except in special circum- 
stances which are provided for, should be conclu- 
sive as showing those people had passed a test as 
to whether they were to vote or not, and had been 
declared to have satisfied that test" (#). 

From what has been said above, it is clear the 
general principle laid down in sect. 8 of this Act 

(*) See p. 103. supra. 

(M) Under the present Act tho office of revising banister is 
abolished, but his place is taken by the registration officer. See 
footnote (r) on preceding page. 

(ac) Per Darling, J., in Pembroke (1901), 5 O. & H. at pp. 137, l:W. 



108 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 19 18. 

Sect. 8. is that a person who is registered has a right to 
vote, although in certain cases his vote may be 
invalid. But the second part of sect. 8(1) intro- 
duces a limitation on the number of votes which 
a man or woman, although registered as a parlia- 
mentary elector in several constituencies, may 
give. This limitation is as follows : 

A man shall not vote at a general election for 
more than one constituency for which he is 
registered by virtue of a residence qualification 
or for more than one constituency for which he 
is registered by virtue of other qualifications of 
whatever kind, and a woman shall not vote at a 
general election for more than one constituency 
for which she is registered by virtue of her own 
or her husband's local government qualification, 
or for more than one constituency for which she 
is registered by virtue of any other qualification. 

There is nothing in this Act to prevent a man 
or woman being registered as a parliamentary 
elector in several different constituencies in re- 
spect of land or premises in those constituencies 
provided he or she is qualified for registration in 
respect of such land or premises. By the latter 
part of sect. 8(1) just quoted, however, a man 
cannot, at a general election, have more than 
two votes notwithstanding that he is registered 
in more than two constituencies. He will have 
two votes if he is registered in one constituency 
by virtue of a residence qualification (j/), and in 
another constituency by virtue either of a busi- 

(//) Seo pp. 9 24, si>r. 



NUMBER OF VOTKS ALLOWED. 109 

ness premises qualification (z) or of a university Sect, a 
qualification (a), or as a freeman (b). 

It should be noticed, however, that if he is 
registered in more than one constituency by 
virtue of qualifications other than a residence 
qualification he will only have one vote ; e.g. a 
man may be registered in constituency X by 
virtue of a business premises qualification, and 
in the university constituencies Y and Z by 
virtue of a university qualification, yet he can 
only make use of one of these qualifications for 
the purpose of voting, as he would not come 
within the provisions of sect. 7 (2) relating to 
the double vote. As to the method by which it 
is secured that the provisions as to the limitation 
of votes shall be observed, see pp. 164 172, infra. 

Similarly, a woman cannot, at a general election, 
have more than two votes, notwithstanding that 
she is registered in more than two constituencies. 
She will have two votes if she is registered in one 
constituency (other than a university constituency) 
by virtue of her own or her husband's qualifica- 
tion (c), and in another, a university constituency, 
by virtue of a university qualification (d). 

A woman who is registered in more than one 
constituency (other than a university constituency) 
by virtue only of her own or her husband's quali- 
fication, will only have one vote, and the same 



(z) See pp. 2437, supra. 

(a) See pp. 3739, supra. 

(b) See pp. 147, 148, infra. 

(c) See pp. 6772, supra. 

(d) See pp. 72, 73, supra. 



1 10 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 8. applies to a woman registered in more than one 
university constituency by virtue of a university 
qualification. As to the way in which the limita- 
tion on the number of votes is safeguarded from 
infringement, see pp. 164 172, infra. 

It should be noticed that both in the case 
of men and women, this limitation imposed by 
sect. 8 (1) on the number of votes they may give 
applies, only to a general election. There is 
nothing to prevent a person registered in a con- 
stituency by virtue of any qualification from 
making use of his or her vote at a bye-election in 
the constituency, and also at a bye-election in any 
other constituency or constituencies in which he 
or she is registered by virtue of any qualification. 

Sect. 8 (2) like sect. 8 (1) begins by stating the 
general principle that a person registered as a 
local government elector for any local govern- 
ment electoral area shall while so registered 
(and in the case of a woman notwithstanding 
sex or marriage) be entitled to vote at a local 
government election for that area. This prin- 
ciple is subject to the same qualifications as were 
noticed on pp. 102 108, supra, in the case of 
parliamentary electors, and what was there said 
applies equally here. 

But similarly to sect. 8(1), sect. 8(2) intro- 
duces a limitation on the number of votes which 
a man or woman may give, by providing that 
where, for the purposes of election, any such 
area is divided into more than one ward or 
electoral division, by whatever name called, a 
person shall not he entitled to vote for more than 
one such ward or electoral division. 



NUMBER OF VOTES ALLOWED. Ill 

The word election here means (/) an election Sect. e. 
(other than an election to fill a casual vacancy) 
for any county council, municipal borough council, 
metropolitan borough council, district council, 
board of guardians, parish council, or any other 
body elected by persons on the local government 
register or on the register of parochial electors. 
At any such election, therefore, a local govern- 
ment elector, whether man or woman, may give 
one vote only for one ward or electoral division, 
and no more, 

Sect. 8 (2) further provides that : 

Notwithstanding anything in this provision 
a person may be registered for more than one 
such ward or division of a local government 
electoral area (not being a municipal borough), 
and may vote in any such ward or division for 
which he is registered at an election to fill a 
casual vacancy. 

The words " election to fill a casual vacancy" 
mean in relation to local government elections 
what " bye-election " means in relation to parlia- 
mentary election. 

If a person is registered in respect of more 
than one ward or division of a local government 
electoral area (not being a municipal borough), 
such person may at an election other than an 
election to fill a casual vacancy select the ward 
or division for which he wishes to vote. 

As will have been noticed, a person cannot be 
registered in more than one ward of a municipal 
borough (g). 

(/) See sect. 41 (2), pp. 305, 306, infra. 

(g) See that part of sect. 8 (2) which is set out on preceding page. 



112 KEPRESENTATTON OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 8. As regards Ireland, sect. 8 (2) must be read 
subject to the provisions of sect. 44 (14) (h). 

(3) A naval or military voter who is registered 
in respect of a qualification which he would have 
had but for his service shall be deemed for the 
purpose of this section to be registered by virtue 
of that qualification. 

As to u naval or military voter" and the quali- 
fication here referred to, see pp. 76 94, supra. 

Pro vision a* 9. (1) A person shall not be disqualified 

to di*qualifi- V . . , f , ? 

from being registered, or from voting as a 
parliamentary or local government elector 
by reason that he or some person for whose 
maintenance he is responsible has received 
poor relief or other alms. 1 

(2) Any person, being a conscientious 
objector to whom this subsection applies, 2 
shall be disqualified during the continuance 
of the war and a period of five years there- 
after 3 from being registered or voting as a 
parliamentary or local government elector, 
unless, before the expiration of one year 
after the termination of the war, he proves 
to the central tribunal as established for the 
purposes of the Military Service Act, 1916 4 : 

(a) that he has during the continuance 
of the war taken up and, so far as 

1 See pp. 116, 117, infra. 3 See pp. 117, 118, infra. 
* See p. 117, infra. 4 See pp. 118, 119, infra. 



(h) See p. 335, infra. 



DISQUALIFICATIONS. 1 1 3 

reasonably practicable, continued sect. 9. 
service which constitutes a person 
(other than a person serving on full 
pay as a member of any of the 
naval, military, or air forces of the 
Crown) a naval or military voter 
for the purposes of this Act 5 ; or 

(b) that having been exempted from 

military service on condition of 
doing work of national importance 
he has done such work in accord- 
ance with the decision and to the 
satisfaction of the appropriate tri- 
bunal or authority 6 ; or 

(c) that having obtained an absolute 

exemption from military service 

without any such condition, he 

has nevertheless (whether before 

or after the passing of this Act) 

been engaged in and, so far as 

reasonably practicable, continued 

some work of national importance ; 

and obtains a certificate from the central 

tribunal to that effect. 7 

This subsection shall apply to a conscien- 
tious objector who either 

(i) has been exempted from all military 
service (including non-combatant 



6 See pp. 119, 120, infra. 6 See p, 120, infra. 
7 See pp. 120, 121, infra. 



114 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 9. service) on the ground of conscien- 

tious objection 8 ; or 

(ii) haying been convicted by court 
martial of an offence against mili- 
tary law, and having represented 
that the offence was the result of 
conscientious objection to military 
service, has been awarded imprison- 
ment or detention. 9 

The central tribunal established under 
the Military Service Act, 1916, shall be 
continued for the purpose of this subsection 
for a period of a year after the termination 
of the present war. 10 

If a person disqualified under this sub- 
section would have been entitled to be 
registered as a parliamentary or local 
government elector but for that disquali- 
fication, the disqualification shall not extend 
so as to affect the right of the wife of that 
person to be registered or vote as a par- 
liamentary or local government elector, as 
the case may be. 11 

(3) A person shall not be entitled to be 
registered or to vote as a parliamentary 
or local government elector if he is not a 
British subject, and nothing contained in 

8 See p. 117, infra. 10 See p. 121, infra. 

9 See p. 117, infra. See p. 121, infra. 



DISQUALIFICATIONS. 

this Act shall, except as expressly provided Sect - 9 - 
therein, confer on any person who is subject 
to any legal incapacity to be registered or 
to vote either as a parliamentary or local 
government elector any right to be so regis- 
tered or to vote. 12 

(4) A person shall not be disqualified from 
voting at any election as a parliamentary or 
local government elector by reason that he 
is employed for payment by or on behalf of 
a candidate at such election, so long as the 
employment is legal. 13 

(5) Any incapacity of a peer to vote at 
an election arising from the status of a peer 
shall not extend to peeresses in their own 
right. 14 

NOTE. This section re-enacts certain existing 
disqualifications, imposes a new disqualification, 
and also removes certain previously existing dis- 
qualifications from being registered, and from 
voting, as a parliamentary or local government 
elector. 

The section falls under five heads. Sub-sect. (1) 
removes the existing disqualification arising from 
the receipt of poor relief or other alms in the 
case of parliamentary and local government 

12 See pp. 121, 122, infra. 13 Seep. 122, infra. 
14 See pp. 122, 123, infra. 

8(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 9. electors(^). Sub-sect (2) disqualifies conscientious 
objectors for a certain period and subject to 
certain conditions (i). Sub-sect. (3) re-affirms the 
disqualification arising from legal incapacity (&). 
Sub-sect. (4) removes the existing disqualification 
from voting of election agents, or other persons 
legally employed for payment by or on behalf of 
candidates (/). Sub-sect. (5) declares that peer- 
esses in their own right are not disqualified from 
voting (m). 

As to sub-sect. (1). A person shall not be dis- 
qualified from being registered or from voting as 
a parliamentary or local government elector by 
reason that he or some person for whose main- 
tenance he is responsible has received poor relief 
or other alms, 

As was pointed out above this sub-section re- 
moves the disqualification from being registered 
or from voting as a parliamentary or local govern- 
ment elector by reason of the receipt of poor relief 
or other alms, either by the elector or some other 
person for whose maintenance he is responsible. 
The only disqualification of this kind which 
exists under the present Act is that which arises 
in reference to the residence qualification by 
reason of sect. 41 (5), which provides that u a 
person who is an inmate or patient in any prison, 
lunatic asylum, workhouse, poorhouse, or any 
other similar institution shall not by reason 

(h] See pp. 116, 117, infra, 
(i) See pp. 119121, infra. 
(&) See pp. 121, 122 ; infra. 
(I) See p. 122, infra. 
(m) See pp. 122, 123, infra. 



CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS. 

thereof be treated as resident therein for any Sect. 9. 
purpose of this Act " (w). 

As to sub-section (2). Any person, being a 
conscientious objector to whom this subsection 
applies. In order to ascertain the meaning of 
these words it is necessary to consider the words 
in sub-section (2) beginning, This subsection shall 
apply to a conscientious objector who either 
(i) has been exempted from all military service 
(including non-combatant service) on the ground 
of conscientious objection; 

The expression "a conscientious objector" 
cannot include a woman, as the Military Service 
Act, 1916, only applies to men. The exemption 
referred to in the sub-section is granted under that 
Act by the tribunals constituted thereunder. 

or (ii) having been convicted by court-martial 
of an offence against military law and having 
represented that the offence was the result of 
conscientious objection to military service, has 
been awarded imprisonment or detention. 

These words would include any man who, 
whether he has claimed exemption or not on 
the ground of conscientious objection, has been 
engaged in military service, and on being con- 
victed by court-martial of an offence against 
military law, has represented that the offence was 
the result of conscientious objection, and has been 
awarded imprisonment or detention. 

Sub-section (2) enacts that a conscientious 
objector coming within the above description 

(n) See p. 15, supra. 



11 H REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 9. shall be disqualified during the continuance 
" of the war and a period of five years thereafter 
from being registered or voting as a parlia- 
mentary or local government elector. 

It is submitted that the effect of these words is 
to impose a legal incapacity to be registered or 
to vote as a parliamentary or local government 
elector on all persons coming within sect. 9 (2). 
As was pointed out above (0), the expression 
" legal incapacity " means " some inherent or 
for the time irremovable quality in" a person 
" which either by prohibition of statutes or at 
common law " deprives such person of the status 
of a parliamentary elector (p). It would seem 
clear that the disqualification imposed by sect, 
9 (2) is of this nature. Moreover, if this sub- 
section is not intended to impose a legal inca- 
pacity, the words "from voting" would be of 
no effect, since it is only where an elector is 
legally incapacitated that his vote can be struck 
off on a scrutiny, notwithstanding the fact that 
he is registered (q). 

unless, before the expiration of one year after 
the termination of the war, he proves to the 
central tribunal as established for the purposes 
of the Military Service Act, 1916 

By international law war is terminated by the 
conclusion of a treaty of peace or by simple 
cessation of hostilities (r). In the absence of 
some special provision either in an Act of Parlia- 

(o) See pp. 5, 104, 105, supra. 

(p) Stowe v. Jolliffe (1874), L. E. 9 C. P. 750. 

(?) See pp. 8, 103108, supra. 

(r} See " International Law," by W. E. Hall, 6th ed., p. 553. 



CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECIORS. 

ment or in the treaty of peace, it is submitted Sect. 9. 
that the termination of the war would not be held 
to date from the commencement of an armistice. 

the central tribunal established under the 
Military Service Act, 1916 

The central tribunal is the highest of the three 
tribunals established under the Military Service 
Act, 1916, and by sect. 2 (7) of that Act is 
constituted in accordance with the provisions of 
the Second Schedule to that Act. The present 
Act contains no provision as to the procedure to 
be adopted on an application to the central tri- 
bunal by any person who wishes to avail himself 
of the provisions of sect. 9 (2) (a), (b) and (c). 
By clause 5 of the Schedule to the Military Ser- 
vice Act, 1916, " His Majesty may by Order in 
Council make regulations with respect to the 
constitution, functions and procedure of the . . . 
central tribunal, and so far as provision is not 
made for procedure by those regulations, the 
procedure of the tribunal shall be such as may 
be determined by the tribunal." The application 
can be made at any time after the passing of the 
present Act and " before the expiration of one 
year after the termination of the war." 

(a) that he has during the continuance of the 
war taken up and so far as reasonably practi- 
cable continued service which constitutes a 
person (other than a person serving on full pay 
as a member of any of the naval, or military 
or air forces of the Crown) a naval or military 
voter for the purposes of this Act ; 

It should be noticed that although the applica- 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

tion to a central tribunal, referred to above, may 
be made at any time up to the expiration of one 
year after the end of the war, the service men- 
tioned in sect. 9 (2) (a) must have been taken up 
during the continuance of the war. 

See as to the " service which constitutes a 
person ... a naval or military voter," pp. 79 85, 
supra. 

(b) that having been exempted from military 
service on condition of doing work of national 
importance he has done such work in accordance 
with the decision and to the satisfaction of the 
appropriate tribunal or authority, 

This condition applies to those conscientious 
objectors who have not obtained a certificate of 
absolute exemption but have obtained under sect. 
2(3) of the Military Service Act, 1916, a cer- 
tificate "'conditional on the applicant being en- 
gaged in some work which in the opinion of the 
tribunal dealing with the case is of national 
importance." 

" The appropriate tribunal " here referred to 
is of course the particular tribunal which granted 
the conditional certificate, and the "'authority" 
means the authority in whose employment the 
work was done. The u satisfaction " required 
under sect. 9 (2) (a) of the present Act is either 
that of the " tribunal " or of the " authority." 

Sub-section (2) (c) of sect. 9, which deals with 
conscientious objectors who have been absolutely 
exempted, needs no comment. 

and obtains a certificate from the central 
tribunal to that effect. 



DISQUALIFICATIONS. 121 

The applicant must not only prove to the Sect. o. 
central tribunal the necessary facts in (a), (b) 
or (e), but must also obtain a certificate from the 
tribunal to that effect. This will, of course, 
afford the necessary and conclusive proof to the 
registration officer that the applicant is not dis- 
qualified as a conscientious objector. 

If a person disqualified under this subsection 
would have been entitled to be registered as a 
parliamentary or local government elector but 
for that disqualification, the disqualification shall 
not extend so as to affect the right of the wife of 
that person to be registered or vote as a parlia- 
liamentary or local government elector as the 
case may be. 

The effect of this provision is that when 
a woman would be entitled under sect. 4 (1) 
to be registered as a parliamentary elector, or 
under sect. 4 (3*) (b) as a local government 
elector, by reason of the fact that her husband 
would, but that he is disqualified under sect. 9 (2), 
have the necessary qualification to be registered 
as a local government elector under sects. 4 (1) (c) 
or 4 (3) (b) respectively, she shall not lose her 
right to be registered or to vote in consequence 
of her husband being so disqualified. 

As to sub-sect. (3) of sect. 9. The words if he is 
not a British subject would appear to be sur- 
plusage, as aliens are subject to a legal incapacity 
to be registered or to vote as parliamentary or 
local government electors (w). It could not be 

(it) See pp. 4, 5, supra. 



122 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 9. argued that these words impose an incapacity of 
' a different kind to the one already attaching to 
aliens, and that the effect of the words a person 
shall not be entitled ... to vote as a parlia- 
mentary or local government elector is to make 
it the duty of the returning officer to ascertain in 
the polling-booth whether the person seeking to 
vote is or is not a British subject, and in the latter 
case to refuse to allow him to vote. If this were 
the meaning of the words there would be a further 
question which the returning officer would be re- 
quired to put to the voter in addition to those 
already authorised (v) to be asked. The effect 
of this incapacity, like that of the other legal 
incapacities (#), is that the vote of the person who 
is subject to it can be struck off on a scrutiny. 

As to the remaining words of sub-section (3), 
see pp. 102 108, supra. 

As to sub-section (4). This removes the pre- 
viously existing disqualification from voting as a 
parliamentary elector attaching to an election- 
agent, sub-agent, polling- agent, clerk or mes- 
senger employed for payment by a candidate at 
a parliamentary election (y}. 

As to sub-section (5). This would appear to be 
merely declaratory, as the reasons for which it 
has been held that peers are legally incapable of 
exercising the parliamentary franchise do not 



(v) See pp. 167172, infra, 
(x) See pp. 8, 104108, supra. 
(y) See pp. 224226, infra. 



c 



QUALIFICATION FOR MEMBER OF LOCAL AUTHORITY. 

apply to peeresses (#), whether in their own right Sect. 9. 
or by marriage. There is, of course, nothing to 
prevent either peers or peeresses from voting at 
a local government election. 

10. A person shall, in addition to and Provision as 
without prejudice to any other qualifica- t 
tion, be qualified to be elected a member of 
the local government authority for any local 
government electoral area 1 if he is the owner 
of property held by freehold, copyhold, 
leasehold, or any other tenure 2 within the 
area of that authority. 

NOTE. The effect of this section is to enlarge 
the qualifications for membership of local 
government authorities. There is no limit 
of value in regard to the qualifying property, 
nor need the ownership have lasted for any 
particular period. The section also prevents 
the possible disqualification, by reason of the 
conditions of the local government or parlia- 
mentary franchise as laid down in the present 
Act, of any person from being elected a member 
of a local government authority, where such 
person would have been qualified for such election 
under the previously existing law ; e.g., by 
sect. 2 (b) of the Local Government Act, 1888, 
" a person shall be qualified to be an alderman or 

1 See p. 124, infra. 2 See p. 124, infra. 

(z) See p. 67, supra. 



124 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 10. councillor who, though not qualified in manner 
provided by the Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, 
as applied by this Act (i.e., Local Government 
Act, 1888) ... is registered as a parliamentary 
voter in respect of the ownership of property of 
whatsoever tenure situate in the county." Since 
the ownership qualification for the parliamentary 
franchise is abolished by the present Act, the case 
might arise where a person who would have been 
qualified under the above- quoted provision would, 
in the absence of sect. 10, set out above, not be so 
qualified under the present Act. 

the local government authority for any local 
government electoral area, 

The words u local government authority " 
mean a county council, municipal borough coun- 
cil, metropolitan borough council, district council, 
board of guardians, parish council, or any other 
body elected at the time of the passing of this 
Act by persons on the local government register 
or on the register of parochial electors (a) ; and 
the expression " local government electoral area" 
means the area for which any of the bodies just 
mentioned is elected (a). 

the owner of property held by freehold, copy- 
hold, leasehold, or any other tenure. 

The word "owner" is used here somewhat 
loosely, and not in the sense in which it is used 
in sect. 3 (b). 

(a) See sect. 41 (2), pp. 305, 306, infra. 
(6) See p. 46, supra. 



REGISTERS. 



PART II. 

REGISTRATION. 

[Sections 1119.] 

11. (1) Two registers of electors shall be spring and 
prepared in every year, of which one (in this 
Act referred to as the spring register) shall 
be made for the qualifying period ending on 
the fifteenth day of January, 1 and the other 
(in this Act referred to as the autumn 
register) shall be made for the qualifying 
period ending on the fifteenth day of July. 2 

(2) The spring register shall come into 
force on the commencement of the fifteenth 
day of April and remain in force until the 
fifteenth day of October, 3 and the autumn 
register shall come into force on the com- 
mencement of the fifteenth day of October 
and remain in force until the fifteenth day 
of April. 4 

(3) If for any reason the registration 
officer fails to compile a fresh spring or 
autumn register for his area or any part of 

1 See pp. 126, 127, infra. 3 See pp. 127, 128, infra. 

2 See pp. 126, 127, infra. * See pp. 127, 128, infra. 



126 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - n - his area, the register in force at the time 
when the fresh register should have come 
into force shall continue to operate as the 
register for the area or part of an area in 
respect of which default has been made. 5 

NOTE. Sect. 11 deals with the registers of 
electors, which it defines, and also provides for 
the contingency of a failure to compile a fresh 
register. 

As to sub-section (1). This provides that there 
shall be two -registers in every twelve months, 
viz. (a) the Spring register, on which are to be 
placed the names of the men and women who are 
entitled to be registered as parliamentary or local 
government electors by reason of their having 
fulfilled the conditions of the franchise during 
the qualifying period ending on January 15th, 
and (b) the Autumn register, on which are to be 
placed the names of the men and women who 
are entitled to be registered as parliamentary or 
local government electors by reason of their having 
fulfilled the conditions of the franchise during 
the qualifying period ending on July 15th. 

It is submitted that the above is the meaning of 
sect. 11 (1). The words in that sub-section (. . . 
the Spring register) shall be made for the quali- 
fying period ending on the fifteenth day of 
January and the corresponding words relating 
to the Autumn register can only mean that the 
Spring and Autumn registers respectively shall 

6 See pp. 128130, infra. 



REGISTERS. 127 

contain the names of the persons entitled to be Sect - 11 - 
registered by reason of their having fulfilled the 
conditions of the franchise during the qualifying 
periods ending January loth and July 15th re- 
spectively (c). 

As to the conditions of the franchise, see sec- 
tions 1, 3, 4, 5, supra. As to the qualifying 
period, see pp. 95 98, supra. 

As to sub-section (2). The Spring register is 
valid only from midnight, April 14th, until mid- 
night, October 14th, and the Autumn register 
from midnight, October 14th, until midnight, 
April 14th. As was noted above, the Spring 
register contains the names of the persons who 
are entitled to be registered by reason of their 
having fulfilled the conditions of the franchise 
during the qualifying period ending on January 
15th, and such persons accordingly only obtain 
the rights which registration confers (d) during 
the time when the Spring register is in force, 
viz. from April 15th to October 15th. Similarly, 
the Autumn register contains the names of the 
persons who are entitled to be registered by 
reason of their having fulfilled the conditions of 
the franchise during the qualifying period 
ending on July 15th, and accordingly such 
persons only obtain the rights which registration 
confers (e) during the time when the Autumn 
register is in force, viz. from October 15th to 

(c) But as to the first register, see pp. 128, 129, infra. 

(d) See pp. 102 108, supra. 

(e) See pp. 102108, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 11. April 15th. In other words, for a person to 
enjoy the rights which registration confers(/) 
during the whole twelve months, the name of 
such person must appear on both registers. 

As to sub-section (3). The word area here means 
" registration area." By sect. 12 (!)(#) " each 
parliamentary borough and each parliamentary 
county shall be a registration area." 

It should be noticed that by sect. 46 (2) it is 
provided that : 

u Notwithstanding anything in this Act, the 
first register to be prepared under this Act shall 
come into force on, and remain in force until, 
such date as His Majesty may fix by Order in 
Council, and His Majesty may by any such 
Order alter, in connection with the first register, 
any registration dates, including the dates go- 
verning the qualifying period, and direct that 
this Act shall have effect as so altered." 

By rule 6 of the Order in Council dated 
June 4th, 1918 (7), which substituted other dates 
for the dates specified in Orders in Council dated 
March 4th, 1918 (m) and March 22nd, 191 8 (), 
" in connection with the first register to be pre- 
pared under the Act the registration dates and 
the dates governing the qualifying period shall, 
.... be the dates specified in the third column 
of the Fifth Schedule to this Order." 



(/) See pp. 102108, supra. 

(k] See p. 130, supra. 

(?) See p. 749, infra. 

(m) See pp. 613 614, infra. 

(n) See pp. 626627, infra. 



DATES FOR FIRST REGISTER. 



The Schedule is as follows : 
REGISTRATION DATES. 



Sect. 11. 



Subject-matter. 


Date specified 
in Act. 


Substituted 
date. 


End of qualifying period .... 
Publication of lists 


15 Jan. July 
1 F e k % Aug. 


15 April 
29 June 


Last day for objections to elec- 
tors lists 


15 Feb. Aug. 


10 July 


Last day for claims 
Last day for claims as absent 
voters 


18 Feb. Aug. 
18 Feb. Aug. 


17 July 
31 July 


Date referred to in Bale 17 
(see p. 345, infra} 


18 Feb. Aug. 


17 Auer 


Publication of list of objec- 
tions to electors lists 


21 Feb. Aug. 


19 July 


Publication of list of claimants 
Last day for objections to 
claimants 


24 Feb. Aug. 
7 Mar. 4 Sept. 


25 July 
31 July 


Publication of list of objec- 
tions to claimants (as soon 
as practicable after) 


7 Mar 4 Sept. 


31 July 


Publication and coming into 
force of register . 


15 ADril Oct. 


1 Oct." 



In its application to Ireland sect. 11 must be Application 

-. , . , -,, . . to Ireland. 

read subject to the following provisions of sect. 



n 



" One register of electors only shall be made 
each year, and all provisions applicable to 
the autumn register shall apply as respects the 
yearly register (except that the yearly register 
shall remain in force until the fifteenth day of 
October in the next following year), and the pro- 
visions as to the preparation of two registers in 
each year and as to the spring register shall not 
apply." 

(o) See pp. 334, 335, infra. 



1'JO REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 11. It should be noticed that in Ireland there is 
only one qualifying period in each year, being 
a period of six months ending on July loth (ri). 



12. H) Each parliamentary borough and 

officers and > ' TUT 

area 8 . each parliamentary county shall be a regis- 

tration area, and there shall be a registra- 
tion officer for each registration area. 

(2) Where the registration area is a par- 
liamentary county and is coterminous with, 
or wholly contained in, one administrative 
county, the clerk of the county council, 
and where the registration area is a par- 
liamentary borough and is coterminous with, 
or wholly contained in, one municipal 
borough, the town clerk of the borough 
shall be the registration officer for the area. 

In any other case such clerk of the county 
council, or town clerk, shall be registration 
officer for the area as the Local Government 
Board may by Order direct, subject to any 
conditions which may be made by the Order 
as to the appointment of deputies for any 
part of the area. 

(3) Any of the duties and powers of the 
registration officer may be performed and 
exercised by any deputy for the time being 
approved by the Local Government Board, 

(w) See sect. 44 (11) (a), p. 334, infra. 



REGISTRATION OFFICERS AND AREAS. 18 

and the provisions of this Act shall apply to sect. 12. 
any such deputy so far as respects any duties 
or powers to be performed or exercised by 
him as it applies to the registration officer. 

(4) In the event of any vacancy in the 
office of any clerk of the county council or 
town clerk who is a registration officer, or 
in the event of his incapacity to act, any 
acts authorised or required to be done by or 
with respect to the registration officer may 
be done by or with respect to any person 
temporarily appointed in that behalf by the 
chairman of the county council or the 
mayor as the case may be. 

NOTE. Each parliamentary borough and each 
parliamentary county. A list of these in Eng- 
land and Wales is given in the Ninth Schedule to 
this Act. See pp. 404467, 482543, infra. 

Any of the duties and powers of the registra- 
tion officer. As to what these are, see sect. 13, 
pp. 133134, infra, and First Schedule, pp. 339- 
357, infra. 

This section does not apply to Scotland, but Application 

,*1 x . . to Scotland. 

by section 43, sub-section (8), the provisions of 
that sub-section are substituted for those of 
section 12. The provisions of section 43, sub- 
section (8), will be found set out on pp. 317 319, 
infra. 

9(2) 



H* REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 12. In its application to Ireland sect. 12 of the Act 



Applic 
to Ireli 



cation is, by reason of the provisions of sect. 44, sub- 



reland. 



sect. (2) (p) and part of sub-sect. (3) (q\ to be read 
subject to the following modifications :- 

u (2) The reference (in sect. 12 (3)) to the 
Local Government Board in relation to the ap- 
proval of a deputy for the execution of any of 
the powers and duties of a registration officer 
shall be construed as a reference to the Lord 
Lieutenant, and other references to that Board 
shall be construed as references to the Local 
Government Board for Ireland : 

" (3) (a) The clerk of the crown and peace for 
an administrative county, not being a county 
borough, shall be the registration officer for any 
parliamentary county which is coterminous with, 
or the whole or greater part of which is contained 
in, the administrative county and no part is con- 
tained in a county borough, and the clerk of the 
crown and peace for a county borough shall be 
the registration officer for any parliamentary 
borough which is coterminous with, or the whole 
or any part of which is contained in, the county 
borough (r) . . . ." 

Moreover, sect. 44 (3) (c) (*) is substituted for 
sub-sect. (4) of sect. 12. 



(p) See p. 327, infra, 
(q) See pp. 327, 328, infra. 

(r) For the proviso in this sub-section relating to Dublin and 
Belfast, see p. 144, infra. 
() See pp. 329, 330, infra. 



REGISTRATION DUTIES. 133 

13. (1) It shall be the duty of the regis- Seot - 18 - 
tration officer to compile the spring and d u e t f e ^ rfttion 
autumn register, and to place, or cause to be 
placed, on the register in accordance with 
the rules set out in the First Schedule to 
this Act the names of those entitled to vote 
as parliamentary electors or local govern- 
ment electors in his registration area, and to 
comply with any general or special direc- 
tions which may be given by the Local 
Government Board with respect to the 
arrangements to be made by the registra- 
tion officer for carrying out his duties as to 
registration. 

If a registration officer refuses, neglects or 
fails without reasonable cause to perform 
any of his duties in connection with regis- 
tration, he shall be liable on summary con- 
viction to a fine not exceeding one hundred 
pounds. 

(2) His Majesty may by Order in Council 
prescribe the forms to be used for registra- 
tion purposes and any fees to be taken in 
connection therewith, and alter the rules 
contained in the First Schedule to this Act 
for the purpose of carrying this Act into full 
effect, or for carrying into effect any Act for 
the time being in force amending or affect- 
ing this Act. 



134 REPKE8ENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect, is. Xhe rules contained in the First Schedule 
to this Act and any Order so made shall 
have effect as if enacted in this Act. 

NOTE. This section imposes upon the regis- 
tration officer the duty of ascertaining what per- 
sons in the area for which he is registration 
officer are entitled to be placed on the register 
as parliamentary and as local government electors 
and to place such names or cause them to be 
placed on the register. 

the rules set out in the First Schedule to this 
Act. For these rules, see pp. 339 357, infra. 

and to comply with any general or special 
directions which may be given by the Local 
Government Board. These directions are set 
out in Appendix I. See p. 555, infra. 

shall be liable on summary conviction to a 
fine not exceeding one hundred pounds. If a 

registration officer refuses, neglects or fails with- 
out reasonable cause to perform any of his duties 
in connection with registration, such refusal, ne- 
glect or failure does not constitute an indictable 
offence, but is punishable upon summary convic- 
tion and renders the registration officer liable to 
be prosecuted under the Summary Jurisdiction 
Acts. 

The Order in Council prescribing forms referred 
to in sub-section (2) above is set out at pp. 555 
578, infra, and that prescribing fees at pp. 747 
753, infra (see particularly rule 2, p. 748, and 
Second Schedule, p. 751). 






APPEALS. 135 

14. (1) An appeal shall lie to the county Sect - 14 - 
court, as defined by rules of court, from any 
decision of the registration officer on any 
claim or objection which has been considered 
by him under this Act, or the placing of or 
refusal to place any mark against any name 
on the register, and rules of court shall be 
made for the purpose of determining the 
procedure on any such appeals and for 
applying and adapting thereto any enact- 
ments relating to county courts and the 
procedure therein : 

Provided that an appeal shall not lie 
where tf claimant or objector has not availed 
himself of his opportunity, as provided in 
the First Schedule to this Act, of being 
heard by the registration officer on the 
claim or objection, or as to the placing of 
or refusing to place any such mark as 
aforesaid. 

(2) An appeal shall lie on any point of 
law from any decision of the county court 
on any such appeal from the registration 
officer in accordance with rules of the Su- 
preme Court to the Court of Appeal, but 
no appeal shall lie from the decision of the 
Court of Appeal. 

(3) The right of voting of any person 
whose name is for the time being on the 
register shall not be prejudiced by any 



136 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 14. appeal pending under this section, and any 
vote given in pursuance of that right shall 
be as good as if no such appeal were 
pending, and shall not be affected by the 
subsequent decision of the appeal. 

(4) Notice shall be sent to the registration 
officer in manner provided by rules of court 
of the decision of the county court or of the 
Court of Appeal on any appeal under this 
section, and the registration officer shall 
make such alterations in the electors lists or 
register as may be required to give effect to 
the decision. 

(5) On any appeal under this section the 
registration officer shall be deemed to be a 
party to the proceedings. 

(6) If the Lord Chancellor is satisfied on 
the representation of the judge of any 
county court that the judge is unable, owing 
to the necessity of dealing with appeals 
under this Act, to transact the business of 
the court with proper despatch, the Lord 
Chancellor may appoint a barrister of at 
least seven years' standing to act as assistant 
judge for such time as the Lord Chancellor 
may direct, and subject to any conditions 
which he may impose. . 

Any assistant judge so appointed shall 
have all the powers and privileges and may 
perform any of the duties of the judge, 



APPEALS. 137 

whether under this Act or otherwise, to sect. 14. 
whom he has been appointed assistant. 

An assistant judge shall be paid out of 
moneys provided by Parliament such re- 
muneration and travelling allowances as 
may be allowed by the Treasury. . 

In the application of this provision to a 
county court district the whole of which is 
within the Duchy of Lancaster, the Chan- 
cellor of the Duchy shall be substituted for 
the Lord Chancellor. 

NOTE. An appeal. Anyone who is entitled 
to make and has made a claim or objection can 
appeal to the county court from the decision of 
the registration officer, whether such decision be 
on a question of fact or a point of law, as to 
which see below. 

For the rules of court referred to in sub- 
sections (1), (2) and (4), see pp. 638 671, infra. 

on any claim or objection. See pp. 342 345, 
and Rule 25, pp. 3-1:8, 349, infra. 

any mark against any name on the register. 
See Rule 2, p. 340, infra, and pp. 342 345, 
577, infra. 

where a claimant or objector has not availed 
himself of his opportunity, as provided in the 
First Schedule to this Act, of being heard by the 
registration officer. See Rules 20, 21, p. 347, 
and Rule 39, p. 353, infra. 

An appeal shall lie on any point of law from 
any decision of the county court. It will be 
noticed that an appeal from the decision of the 



las 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 14. 



Application 
to Scotland. 



Application 
to Ireland. 



county court will only lie on a point of law. 
Where it is clear that the findings of fact by the 
registration officer are dependent on an erroneous 
view of the law (r), or where there is no evidence 
to support such findings, an appeal will lie (s). 

In Scotland the reference to the county court 
in the above section shall be construed as a re- 
ference to the sheriff court, and reference to the 
Supreme Court shall be construed as a reference 
to the Court of Session, and a reference to the 
Court of Appeal shall be construed as a reference 
to the Court of three judges of the Court of 
Session constituted by sect. 23 of the Repre- 
sentation of the People (Scotland) Act, 1868 (). 
Moreover, sect. 43 (9)(w) of the present Act enacts 
that ' ' the provisions regarding the appointment 
of an assistant judge (in sect. 14 above) shall riot 
apply " to Scotland. 

In its application to Ireland sect. 14 is subject 
to the provisions of sect. 44 (5) (#), which are as 
follows : 

" For the purposes of appeals from the regis- 
tration officer, . . . the powers and jurisdic- 
tion of the county court shall, unless and until 
the Lord Lieutenant otherwise direct, be exer- 



(r] Cawley v. Furncll (1851), 12 0. B. 291 ; Cuthbertson v. Purses 
(1852), 12 C. B. 304. 

(s] G. N. R. Co. v. llimel (1856), 18 0. B. 575; Brituli Industry 
Lift-. Ass. Co. v. Ward (1856), 17 C. B. 644. 

(0 See sect. 43 (1), (h), (f) and (g) of the present Act, pp. 309, 
310, infra. 

() See p. 319, infra. 

(x) See p. 331, infra. 



REGISTRATION EXPENSES. 

cised, as respects the parliamentary borough of Sect. 14. 
Dublin, by the persons who are at the time of 
the passing of this Act Dublin revising barris- 
ters, and as respects the parliamentary county of 
Dublin by the person who is at the time of the 
passing of this Act revising barrister for that 
county ; but while those powers are so exercised, 
the provisions of this Act as to county courts 
shall apply to those persons as they apply to 
county courts, with the necessary modifications, 
and in particular with the modification that assis- 
tant judges may be appointed to assist those 
persons if in the opinion of the Lord Chancellor 
such appointment is necessary in order to enable 
the appeals to be disposed of with proper dispatch. " 

15. (1) Any expenses properly incurred Expenses of 

, \ '. , . J . ^ ^ J f registration. 

by a registration officer in the performance 
of his duties in relation to registration, 
including all proper and reasonable charges 
for trouble, care and attention in the per- 
formance of those duties, and any costs 
incurred by him as party to an appeal (in 
this Act referred to as "registration ex- 
penses ") shall be paid by the council whose 
clerk the registration officer is, or by whom 
he is appointed, subject, in cases where the 
registration area is not coterminous with or 
wholly contained in the area of that council, 
to such contributions by the council of any 
other county or borough as the Local Go- 
vernment Board may direct. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Se <*- lft Any such expenses shall be paid in the 
case of the council of a county out of the 
county fund, and if the case requires as 
expenses for special county purposes, and in 
the case of a council of a borough out of the 
borough fund or borough rate, or, where 
there is no borough fund or borough rate, 
out of the fund or rate out of which the 
ordinary expenses of the council of the 
borough are paid. 

(2) The Treasury may frame a scale of 
registration expenses applicable to all or any 
class or classes of those expenses, and may 
alter the scale as and when they think fit. 

Any expenses incurred by the registration 
officer of a class to which the scale is applic- 
able shall be taken to be properly incurred 
if they do not exceed the maximum amount 
determined by or in accordance with the 
scale, and so far as they do exceed that 
amount shall be taken not to have been 
properly incurred unless the excess is 
specially sanctioned by the council and the 
Treasury either before or after the expenses 
have been incurred. 

If any question arises whether any ex- 
penses incurred by the registration officer of 
a class to which the scale is not applicable 
have been properly incurred or not, that 
question shall be referred to the Local 



KEGISTRATION EXPENSES. 141 

Government Board, and the decision of the seot ** 
Board on the question shall be final. 

(3) Any fees or other sum received by the 
registration officer in respect of his duties as 
such officer, other than sums paid to that 
officer in respect of his registration expenses, 
shall be accounted for by that officer and 
paid to the credit of the fund or rate out of 
which the expenses of that officer are paid. 

(4) There shall be paid out of moneys 
provided by Parliament to the council of 
any county or borough in aid of the fund or 
rate out of which any registration expenses 
are paid by the council, in accordance with 
this Act, one half of the amount so paid by 
the council. 

(5) On the request of the registration 
officer of any registration area for an ad- 
vance on account of registration expenses, 
the council whose clerk the registration 
officer is may, if they think fit, make such 
an advance to him of such amount and 
subject to such conditions as the council 
may approve. 

in the performance of his duties. As to what 
are the duties of the registration officer, see sect. 
13, pp. 133 134, supra, and First Schedule, pp. 
339357, infra. 

as party to an appeal. See sect. 14, pp. 135 
137, and 137138, supra. 



14$ REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect is registration area. See sect. 12 ( 1), p. 1 30, supra. 

For the scale of registration expenses men- 
tioned in sub-section (2), see pp. 610 612, infra. 

As to the words in sub-section (3) above, any 
fees or other sum received by the registration 
officer in respect of his duties as such officer, 
other than sums paid to that officer in respect of 
his registration expenses, the fees here referred 
to are those mentioned in Rules 28 and 33 of the 
Registration Rules (y\ and Rule 8 of the Third 
Schedule (z). For the amount of such fees, see 
Order in Council, June 4th, 1918, rule 2, p. 748, 
and Second Schedule, p. 751, infra. 

Application The first sub-section of sect. 15 does not apply 
to Scotland, and in lieu thereof the provisions of 
sect. 43 (II) (a) are applicable. These provisions 
are as follows : 

" Any expenses properly incurred by any re- 
gistration officer in the performance of his duties 
in relation to registration, including all proper 
and reasonable charges for trouble, care, and 
attention in the performance of those duties and 
any cost incurred by him as party to an appeal 
(in this Act referred to as ' registration expenses '), 
shall be paid by the council appointing the regis- 
tration officer. Provided that, where a burgh 
within the meaning of the Local Government 
(Scotland) Act, 1889, is not a separate registra- 
tion area, the council thereof shall pay to the 
council appointing the registration officer a con- 
tribution towards the registration expenses, and 

(/) See pp. 350, 351, infra. 

(z) See p. 360, infra. 

(a) See pp. 319, 320, infra. 



REGISTRATION EXPENSES. 143 

sub-section (4) of section sixty and section sixty- Sect. l. 
six of that Act shall apply, with the necessary 
modifications, to such contribution. The amount 
necessary to defray any registration expenses or 
any contribution thereto, as the case may be 
shall be assessed and levied in any one of the 
modes allowed by the Valuation Acts with re- 
spect to the costs and expenses of making up the 
valuation roll." 

In its application to Ireland, sect. 15 is subject Application 
to the modifications enacted by sect. 44 (3) (a) 
(b) (b) of the Act. Sect, 44 (3) (a) (b) is as 
follows : 

" (a) The clerk of the crown and peace for 
an administrative county, not being a county 
borough, shall be the registration officer for any 
parliamentary county which is coterminous with, 
or the whole or greater part of which is contained 
in, the administrative county, and for any parlia- 
mentary borough of which the whole or greater 
part is contained in the administrative county and 
no part is contained in a county borough, and the 
clerk of the crown and peace for a county borough 
shall be the registration officer for any parlia- 
mentary borough which is coterminous with, or 
the whole or any part of which is contained in, 
the county borough, and the council of that ad- 
ministrative county or county borough, as the 
case may be, shall be the council by which the 
registration expenses of that registration officer 
are to be paid, subject in cases where the parlia- 

(b) See pp. 327329, infra. 



144: BEPKE8ENTAT10N OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 15. mentary county or parliamentary borough is not 
coterminous with, or wholly contained in, the 
administrative county or county borough, as the 
case may be, to such contribution by the council 
of any other administrative county or county 
borough as the Local Government Board may 
direct : Provided that the registration expenses 
to be paid by a council shall not include any 
charges for trouble, care, and attention, in the 
performance of duties which are performed by 
the registration officer in person : Provided also 
that the persons who, at the passing of this Act, 
are town clerks for the county borough of Dublin 
and the county borough of Belfast, respectively, 
shall, so long as they hold their respective offices, 
be the registration officers for the parliamentary 
borough of Dublin and the parliamentary borough 
of Belfast, respectively, and that the last pre- 
ceding proviso shall not apply in their case. 



tt 



(b) The registration expenses shall be paid in 
the case of the council of a county borough, out of 
the rate or fund out of which the general expenses 
of the council are paid, or out of any other rate 
or fund which the Local Government Board may 
on the application of the council approve, and, in 
the case of a council of any other administrative 
county, out of the poor rate as a county at large 
charge, except in cases to which section twelve 
of the Parliamentary Registration (Ireland) Act, 
1885, applies." 

It will be noticed that the proviso in the above 
sub-section introduces a material difference in the 



PROVISIONS AS TO URBAN DISTRICTS AND LONDON. 145 

meaning of the words u expenses properly incurred Sect. is. 
by the registration officer " as compared with the 
meaning of these words in sect. 15 (1). 

" Local Government Board" throughout the 
sub-section just quoted means the Local G-overn- 
ment Board for Ireland (<?). 

As to the words " except in cases to which 
section twelve of the Parliamentary Registration 
(Ireland) Act, 1885, applies," that section enacts 
that the commissioners of the townships of Pem- 
broke and Blackrock shall make certain contribu- 
tions to the treasurer of the Corporation of Dublin 
in respect of the registration expenses incurred 
by the Corporation. 

The provisions of sect. 44 (6), set out on pp. 331, 
332, infra, should also be noticed. 

16. (1) Where an urban district is co- special F ro- 
terminous with a registration area which is 
a parliamentary borough or is wholly con- 



tained in such area, this Part of this Act 
shall apply to that district as it applies to a 
municipal borough, with the substitution of 
the clerk of the urban district council for 
the town clerk, of the urban district council 
for the council of the borough, of the general 
district rate for the borough fund or borough 
rate, and of the chairman of the council for 
the mayor. 

(2) Any reference to a municipal borough 

(c) See sect. 44 (2), p. 327, infra. 

F. 10 



146 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 16. i n this Part of this Act shall include a re- 
ference to a metropolitan borough and the 
City of London, with the substitution, as 
respects a metropolitan borough, of the clerk 
of the metropolitan borough council for the 
town clerk, and of the metropolitan borough 
council for the council of the municipal 
borough, and as respects the City of Lon- 
don, of the Secondary for the town clerk 
and of the common council for the council 
of the municipal borough. 

Any registration expenses of a metro- 
politan borough council shall be paid as 
general expenses of the council, and any 
expenses of the common council shall be 
paid out of the general rate. 

NOTE. registration area. This is defined in 
sect. 12 (1), p. 130, supra. 

The effect of sub-section (1) above is as fol- 
lows : The registration officer for the registration 
area contemplated by such sub-section is the clerk 
of the urban district council (d). 

The registration expenses of the registration 
officer shall be paid by the urban district council 
out of the general district rate (e). 

In the event of any vacancy in the office of 
any clerk of the urban district council who is 
registration officer, or in the event of his inca- 

(d) See sect. 12 (2), p. 130, supra. 

(e) See sect, 15 (1), pp. 139, 140, supra. 



REGISTRATION OF FREEMAN. 147 

pacity to act, any acts authorised or required to Sect. le. 
be done by or with respect to the registration 
officer may be done by or with respect to any 
person temporarily appointed in that behalf by 
the chairman of the council (/). 

Sect. 16 (1) does not apply to Ireland (g). 

As to sub-section (2), see sect. 12 (2), p. 130, 
supra. 

17. (1) A freeman of the City of London, special pro- 
being a liveryman of one of the several com- registration 
panies who is entitled to be registered as a &c. 
parliamentary elector in respect of a busi- 
ness premises qualification within the city, 
shall be entitled, if he thinks fit, to be 
entered in a separate list of liverymen in the 
register of parliamentary electors, and to 
record his vote for Parliament as a liVery- 
man. 

(2) The foregoing provision shall apply to 
the freemen of any borough if the council 
of the borough so resolve, and the expression 
"freemen" shall include any persons by what- 
ever name called enjoying in that borough 
rights similar to those enjoyed by freemen 
of the city of London in that city. 

NOTE. It will be observed that the right of a 
freeman of the City of London to be registered 
and to vote is limited to such freemen as are 

(/) See sect. 12 (4), p. 131, supra, 
(g) See sect. 44 (10), pp. 333, 334, infra. 
10(2) 



148 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 17. liverymen of one of the several companies and 
are entitled to be registered as parliamentary 
electors in respect of a business premises quali- 
fication (g) within the City. 

It is evident, therefore, that no freeman who 
is not entitled to be registered as a parliamentary 
elector in respect of a business premises qualifica- 
tion within the City is entitled to be registered 
or vote as a liveryman. The same observation 
is applicable to freemen of any borough under 
sect. 17 (2). 

The right to vote as a freeman is alternative to 
that of voting in respect of a business premises 
qualification. 



Compensa- 
tion to exist- 
ing officers. 



51 & 52 Viet, 
c. 41. 



18. Every person who is an assistant over- 
seer at the time of the passing of this Act, 
and who suffers any direct pecuniary loss in 
consequence of this Act, shall be entitled to 
have compensation paid to him as registra- 
tion expenses by the council responsible for 
the payment of registration expenses, and 
in determining such compensation 

(a) regard shall be had to the conditions 
and other circumstances required 
by sub-section (1) of section one 
hundred and twenty of the Local 
Government Act, 1888, in regard 
to cases of compensation under that 
section ; and 



(y] See pp. 2437, supra. 



COMPENSATION TO EXISTING OFFICERS. 

(b) the compensation shall not exceed the Sect - 18 - 

limit therein mentioned ; and 

(c) the expression in sub-section (1) of 

that section "The Acts and rules 
relating to Her Majesty's Civil Ser- 
vice " shall mean the Acts and rules 
relating to His Majesty's Civil Ser- 
vice which were in operation at the 
date of the passing of the Local 
Government Act, 1888 ; and 

(d) the provisions of sub -sections (2) to 

(7) of the same section shall apply 
with such modifications (includ- 
ing the substitution of the "Local 
Government Board " for the "Trea- 
sury ") as may be required, and 
including in sub-section (2) the 
substitution of the words " next 
before the thirtieth day of Sep- 
tember, nineteen hundred and four- 
teen " for the words " next before 
the passing of this Act." 
In this section the expression " assistant 
overseer " includes any person executing any 
of the duties of overseer, and receiving pay- 
ment therefor. 

NOTE. direct pecuniary loss. In interpret- 
ing these words, in view of the later language 
of this section, regard must be had to the con- 
ditions and other circumstances required by sub- 



150 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, is. section (1) of sect. 120 of the Local Government 
" Act, 1888. Sub-section (1) of sect. 120 of the 
last-mentioned Act, together with sub-sections (2) 
to (7) of sect. 120, which are referred to in sect. 
18 of the present Act in connection with the 
compensation payable under this section, are as 
follows : 

"(1) Every existing officer declared by this 
Act to be entitled to compensation, and every 
other existing officer, whether before mentioned 
in this Act or not, who by virtue of this Act, or 
anything done in pursuance of or in consequence 
of this Act, suffers any direct pecuniary loss by 
abolition of office or by diminution or loss of fees 
or salary, shall be entitled to have compensation 
paid to him for such pecuniary loss by the county 
council, to whom the powers of the authority, 
whose officer he was, are transferred under this 
Act, regard being had to the conditions on which 
his appointment was made, to the nature of his 
office or employment, to the duration of his ser- 
vice, to any additional emoluments which he 
acquires by virtue of this Act or of anything 
done in pursuance of or in consequence of this 
Act, and to the emoluments which he might have 
acquired if he had not refused to accept any office 
offered by any council or other body acting under 
this Act, and to all the other circumstances of the 
case, and the compensation shall not exceed the 
amount which, under the Acts and rules relating 
to Her Majesty's Civil Service (h), is paid to a 
person on abolition of office. 

(/O See p. 153, infra. 



COMPENSATION TO EXISTING OFFICERS. 1 

"(2) Every person who is entitled to compen- Sect. 18. 
sation, as above mentioned, shall deliver to the 
county council a claim under his hand setting 
forth the whole amount received and expended 
by him or his predecessors in office, in every year 
during the period of five years next before the 
passing of this Act, on account of the emoluments 
for which he claims compensation, distinguishing 
the offices in respect of which the same have been 
received, and accompanied by a statutory de- 
claration under the Statutory Declaration Act, 
1835, that the same is a true statement according 
to the best of his knowledge, information, and 
belief. 

" (3) Such statement shall be submitted to the 
county council, who shall forthwith take the same 
into consideration, and assess the just amount of 
compensation (if any), and shall forthwith inform 
the claimant of their decision. 

u (4) If a claimant is aggrieved by the refusal 
of the county council to grant any compensation, 
or by the amount of the compensation assessed, 
or if not less than one-third of the members of 
such council subscribe a protest against the amount 
of the compensation as being excessive, the claim- 
ant or any subscriber to such protest (as the case 
may be) may, within three months after the deci- 
sion of the council, appeal to the Treasury, who 
shall consider the case and determine whenever 
any compensation, and, if so, what amount ought 
to be granted to the claimant, and such determi- 
nation shall be final. 

"(5) Any claimant under this section, if so 



.REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 18. required by any member of the county council, 
shall attend at a meeting of the council and 
answer upon oath, which any justice present may 
administer, all questions asked by any member 
of the council touching the matters set forth in 
his claim, and shall further produce all books, 
papers, and documents in his possession or under 
his control relating to' such claim. 

"(6) The sum payable as compensation to any 
person in pursuance of this section shall com- 
mence to be payable at the date fixed by the 
council on granting compensation, or, in case of 
appeal, by the Treasury, and shall be a specialty 
debt due to him from the county council, and may 
be enforced accordingly in like manner as if the 
council had entered into a bond to pay the same. 

" (7) If a person receiving compensation in 
pursuance of this section is appointed to any office 
under the same or any other county council, or 
by virtue of this Act, or anything done in pur- 
suance of or in consequence of this Act, receives 
any increase of emoluments of the office held by 
him, he shall not, while receiving the emoluments 
of that office, receive any greater amount of his 
compensation, if any, than, with the emoluments 
of the said office, is equal to the emoluments for 
which compensation was granted to him, and if 
the emoluments of the office he holds are equal to 
or greater than the emoluments for which com- 
pensation was granted, his compensation shall be 
suspended while he holds such office." 

The words in sub-sect. (1) of sect. 120 set out 
above, " the Acts and rules relating to Her 



REGISTER FOR UNIVERSITY CONSTITUENCIES. 

Majesty's Civil Service," are, by sect. 18 (c) of the Sect, is. 
present Act, to be read as the Acts and rules 
relating to His Majesty's Civil Service which 
were in operation at the date of the passing 
of the Local Government Act, 1888. These 
Acts are the Superannuation Act, 1859, and the 
Superannuation Act, 1884. 

rules relating to His Majesty's Civil Service. 
It would seem that these words must refer to 
the practice of the Treasury (') in awarding com- 
pensation in cases of abolition of office, as there 
is no express power given by any statute for the 
making of such rules (i). x 

The words, u next before the passing of this 
Act," in sub-sect. (2) of sect. 120 of the Local 
Government Act, 1888, set out above are, by 
sect. 18 (d) of the present Act, to be read as " next 
before the 30th day of September, 1914," and 
the word " Treasury," which occurs in sub-sects. 
(4) and (6) of sect. 120, set out above, is to be 
read as " Local Government Board." 

As to the meaning of the expression " assistant 
overseer" in Ireland, see sect. 44 (?)(/). 

19. The foregoing pro visions of this Part (#) Register for 

. i T? i university 

oi this Act shall not apply to university con- constitu- 

enoies. 

stituencies, but the governing body of every 
university forming, or forming part of, a 
university constituency shall cause a register 

(t) As to this practice, and the principles governing the grant of 
compensation, see Encyclopaedia of Local Government Law, edited 
by Joshua Scholefield, vol. II. , pp. 304308, Butterworth & Co. , 1906. 

(j) See p. 332, infra. 

(k) i.e., Part II., ss. 1119. 



154 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect 19 to be kept in such form and made up, if 
desired, to such dates as they may direct, of 
persons entitled to vote in respect of a quali- 
fication at their university, and shall make 
the register available for the purpose of uni- 
versity elections for the constituency, and 
shall on the application of any person allow 
that person at all reasonable times to inspect 
and take extracts from the said register : 

Provided that the governing body may 
direct that a person who before the passing 
of this Act has received a degree, but was 
not entitled to vote in respect thereof, shall 
have no right to be registered unless he 
makes a claim for the purpose. 

The governing body of any such university 
may charge such fee as they think fit, not 
exceeding one pound, in respect of registra- 
tion to any person who receives a degree at 
their university after the passing of this Act, 
or who has received a degree before the pass- 
ing of this Act but was not entitled to vote 
in respect thereof. 

NOTE. University constituencies. A list of 
university constituencies in Great Britain is given 
in the Ninth Schedule, Part III. See p. 554, infra. 
persons entitled to vote in respect of a quali- 
fication at their university. See pp. 37 40, 
73 75, supra. 
"As to the last paragraph in the above section, 



PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION. 155 

it may be pointed out that no power is given to Sect. 19. 
the governing body of a university which does 
not admit women to degrees, i.e. Oxford or Cam- 
bridge, to charge any fee to women who have 
passed the final examination and kept the neces- 
sary residence and who thereby qualify for the 
franchise at such university (&). 

The last paragraph of this section does not 
apply to Scotland, but by sect. 43 (15) special 
provisions are substituted for it (/). 



PART III. 
METHOD AND COSTS OF ELECTIONS. 

[Sections 2036.] 
20. (1) At a contested election for a Proportional 



university constituency, 1 where there are two i 
or more members to be elected, any election 
of the full number of members shall be ac- 
cording to the principle of proportional 
representation, 2 each elector having one 
transferable vote 2 as defined by this Act. 

(2) (a) His Majesty may appoint Com- 
missioners to prepare as soon as may be after 
the passing of this Act a scheme under which 
as nearly as possible one hundred members 
shall be elected to the House of Commons 

1 See p. 157, infra. '- See pp. 158160, infra. 

(&) See sect. 4 (2), p. 64, supra. 
(/) See pp. 322, 323, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 20. at a general election on the principle of pro- 
portional representation for constituencies 
in Great Britain returning three or more 
members. 

(b) The number of members of the House 
of Commons as fixed under this Act shall 
not be increased by any such scheme. For 
the purpose of such scheme the Commis- 
sioners shall (after holding such local in- 
quiries as they may deem necessary) combine 
into single constituencies, returning not less 
than three nor more than seven members, 
such of the areas fixed as constituencies in 
the Ninth Schedule to this Act as they may 
select, but in selecting those areas they shall 
have regard to the advisability of applying 
the principle of proportional representation' 2 
both to town and country. 

(c) The scheme so prepared by the Com- 
missioners shall be laid before both Houses 
of Parliament, and if both Houses by reso- 
lution adopt the scheme, the scheme shall, 
with any modifications or additions which 
may be agreed to by both Houses, take effect 
as if it were enacted in this Act, and the 
constituencies fixed under the scheme shall 
be substituted, so far as necessary, for the con- 
stituencies fixed under the Ninth Schedule 
to this Act. 

2 See pp. 158160, infra. 



PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION. 157 

(d) In any such constituency any contested sect. 20. 
election of the full number of members shall 

be according to the principle of proportional 
representation, 2 each elector having one trans- 
ferable vote"' as defined by this Act. 

(e) His Majesty may by Order in Council 
make any adaptation of the provisions of 
this Act as to the machinery of registration 
or election which may appear to him to be 
necessary in consequence of the adoption of 
the scheme. 

(3) His Majesty may by Order in Council ss 
frame regulations prescribing the method of 
voting, and transferring and counting votes, 
at any election, according to the principle of 
the transferable vote 2 and for adapting the 
provisions of the Ballot Act, 1872, and any 
other Act relating to parliamentary elections 
thereto, and with respect to the duties of 
returning officers in connection therewith; 
and any such regulations shall have effect 
as if they were enacted in this Act. 

(4) Nothing contained in this Act shall, 
except as expressly provided therein, affect 
the method of conducting parliamentary 
elections in force at the time of the passing 
of this Act. 

NOTE. As to sub-section (1) university con- 

2 See pp. 158160, infra. 



158 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 20. stituency. A list of university constituencies, 
together with the number of members returned 
by each, is given in the Ninth Schedule, Part III., 
p. 554, infra. 

the principle of proportional representation. 
The object of proportional representation is to 
effect the representation of parties in proportion 
to their strength at the polls and to secure the 
adequate representation of minorities. Of the 
many existing systems devised to achieve this 
result that known as the transferable vote has 
been adopted in the present Act. 

The " transferable vote" is defined by sect. 
41 (6) as u a vote (a) capable of being given so 
as to indicate the voter's preference for the can- 
didates in order ; and (b) capable of being trans- 
ferred to the next choice when the vote is not 
required to give a prior .choice the necessary 
quota of votes, or when, owing to the deficiency 
in the number of the votes given for a prior 
choice, that choice is eliminated from the list of 
candidates." 

The transferable vote system is shortly ex- 
plained in the Report of the Royal Commission 
on Systems of Election (published in 1910) as 
follows : 

" Constituencies return several members. 

" The elector votes by placing the figure 1 
opposite the name of the candidate he likes best, 
and is invited to place the number 2 opposite the 
name of his second choice, the number 3 opposite 
his third choice, and so on, numbering as many 
candidates as he pleases. 



PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION. 159 

" The Returning Officer ascertains the result of Sect. 20. 
the election as follows : 

" (1} He counts each ballot paper as one vote 
to the candidate marked 1 thereon ; he 
also counts the total number of votes. 

41 (2) He ascertains the quota. The quota is 
the smallest number which will ensure 
the return of a candidate, whatever com- 
bination be made of the other votes 
given in the election. This figure will 
be obtained by dividing the votes cast 
by the number of seats to be filled plus 
one, and adding one to the result." 
For example, in a constituency with 100 
electors returning two members the quota 

will be + 1 = 34, a number which 

~\~ 1 

can only be obtained by two candidates. 

41 (3) He declares elected the candidates who 
have received the quota. 

*' (4) He transfers in strict proportions the 
surplus votes of those candidates who 
have received more than the quota, and 
credits them to the unelected candidates 
indicated by the figures 2, 3, and so on, 
as the next preferences of the electors 
whose votes are transferred. 

" (5) He declares elected those candidates who, 
after the transfer of surplus votes, have 
obtained the quota. 

" (6) He eliminates the candidates lowest on 
the poll one after another by transferring 
their votes in accordance with the wishes 



160 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 20. of their supporters to the candidates 

indicated as next preferences. This 
process is continued until the required 
number of candidates, having each ob- 
tained the quota, have been declared 
elected, or the number of candidates 
not eliminated is reduced to the number 
of seats still vacant, in which event the 
candidates not eliminated are declared 
elected." 

On pp. 718736, infra, will be found the " Draft 
Rules prescribing the method of voting and 
transferring and counting Votes at any election 
according to the principle of the Single Trans- 
ferable Vote." These Draft Rules were presented 
to Parliament in 1917 whilst the provisions of 
the present Act were under discussion in the 
House of Commons, and although they have no 
statutory force, they explain in detail the working 
of the system of the transferable vote. 

The Draft Rules were intended to apply only 
to constituencies other than university constitu- 
encies, so that in considering them in relation to 
sub-section (1) they will require modification. 
It is nevertheless thought that they may be use- 
fully referred to as explaining the application of 
the system of the transferable vote. 

As to sub-section (2). The scheme mentioned in 
sub-section (2) (a), (b) and (c), was in accordance 
with the provisions of sub-section (2) (c) laid 
before Parliament, but was, on May 13th, 1918, 
rejected by the House of Commons. With the 



POLLS TO BE ON ONE DAY AT GENERAL ELECTION. 161 

exception, therefore, of contested elections for Sect. 20. 
university constituencies, no elections will be 
held according to the principle of proportional 
representation. 

As to tub-section (3). The Order in Council 
there referred to has not, at the time of going to 
press, been made. 



21. (1) At a general election all polls Poiis to be 
shall be held on one day, and the day fixed day at n a n< 



for receiving nominations shall be the same n, & c . 
in all constituencies, and accordingly the 
First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, shall 
be modified as shown in Part I. of the Second 
Schedule to this Act. 

In the case of a bye-election, the poll 
shall take place on such day as the returning 
officer may appoint, not being less than four 
or more than eight clear days after the day 
fixed for nomination, and the First Schedule 
to the Ballot Act, 1872, shall be modified 
accordingly. 

(2) Official telegraphic information of 
the writ having been issued for a parliamen- 
tary election may be given in such cases and 
by such persons as may be directed by His 
Majesty in Council, and any steps for hold- 
ing an election which may be taken on or 
after the receipt of the writ may be taken 

F. 11 



162 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 21. on or after the receipt of an official telegraphic 
intimation of the writ having been issued. 

(3) The time appointed for the meeting 
of the Parliament may be any time not less 
than twenty clear days after the proclamation 

is & ic vict summoning the Parliament ; and the Meet- 
ing of Parliament Act, 1852, is hereby re- 
pealed. 

(4) Nothing in this section shall 

(a) affect the provisions of section one 

of the Ballot Act, 1872, relating 
to the commencement afresh of 
the proceedings with relation to 
the election on the death of a 
candidate, or apply to proceed- 
ings so commenced afresh ; or 

(b) apply to a university election. 

NOTE. the day fixed for receiving nomi- 
nations. As to this, see pp. 179, 180, infra. 

the First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, 
shall be modified as shown in Part I. of the 
Second Schedule to this Act. The First Sche- 
dule of the Ballot Act is set out on pp. 682 695, 
infra. Part I. of the Second Schedule to the 
present Act is as follows : 

" The following provisions shall be inserted in 
the First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, after 
Rules 2 and 14 respectively, that is to say: 

4 2A. In an election of members to serve in a 
new Parliament of the United King- 



POLLS TO BE ON ONE DAY AT GENERAL ELECTION. 163 

dom the day fixed by the returning Sect. ai. 
officer for the election [i.e., where 
the election is contested, the day of 
nomination (k) ] shall in all cases be 
the eighth day after the date of His 
Majesty's gracious Proclamation de- 
claring the calling of the Parliament.' 
' 14A. In an election of members to serve in a 
new Parliament of the United King- 
dom, the day appointed by the re- 
turning officer for the poll (/) shall in 
all cases be the ninth day after the 
day fixed for the election. J ' 

As to the second paragraph of sub-section (1) of 
sect. 2 1 set out above, the part of the First Schedule 
to the Ballot Act, 1872, which is modified by such 
second paragraph is Rule 14 (m) of Part I. of such 
Schedule, which deals with the day on which the 
poll shall take place. 

As to the words in tub-section (2), any steps for 
holding an election which may be taken on or 
after the receipt of the writ, see pp. 179, 180, 
infra, and Ballot Act, First Schedule, Rules 
1 13(). 

As to the words in sub-section (4), the provisions 
of section one of the Ballot Act, 1872, relating 
to the commencement afresh of the proceedings 
with relation to the election on the death of a 

(k} As to this, see p. 179, infra. 

(1} As to " the day appointed for the poll," see p. 179, infra, 
(m) Set out on p. 685, infra. 
(j Set out on pp. 682684, infra. 
11 (<!) 



164 

Sect. 21. 



Penalty for 
voting at a 
general elec- 
tion in more 
constitu- 
encies than 
allowed. 
46 & 47 Viet, 
c. 51. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

candidate, see pp. 672, 673, infra, where sect. 1 of 
the Ballot Act is set out. 

As to a university election, see pp. 279 
281, infra. 

22. (1) If any person at a general elec- 
tion votes for more constituencies than he is 
entitled to vote for in accordance with this 
Act, 1 or asks for a ballot or voting paper for 
the purpose of so voting, he shall be guilty 
of an illegal practice within the meaning of 
the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention 
Act, 1883 2 ; and the expression "illegal 
practice "' shall be construed accordingly : 
Provided that 

(a) the court before whom a person is 

convicted under this section may, if 
they think it just in the special 
circumstances of the case, mitigate 
or entirely remit any incapacity 
imposed by section ten of the Cor- 
rupt and Illegal Practices Preven- 
tion Act, 1883 3 ; and 

(b) the fact that any person has asked for 

a ballot paper in a constituency in 
circumstances which entitle him 
only to mark a tendered ballot paper 
in pursuance of Rule 27 of the First 

1 See p. 166, infra. * See p. 166, infra. 
3 See p. 166, infra. 



PENALTY FOR VOTING TOO OFTEN. 165 

Part of the First Schedule to the sect. 22. 
Ballot Act, 1872, 4 shall not, if he 
does not exercise that right, 5 pre- 
vent his voting or asking for a ballot 
or voting paper in another constitu- 
ency; and 

(c) the giving of a vote by a returning 
officer in pursuance of section two 
of the Ballot Act, 1872, 6 in the case 
of an equality of votes, or the ask- 
ing for a ballot paper for the purpose 
of so voting, shall not, for the pur- 
poses of this section, be deemed to 
be the giving of a vote as a parlia- 
mentary elector, or the asking for 
a ballot paper for the purpose of 
so voting. 

(2) The questions set out in Part II. of 
the Second Schedule to this Act may be 
asked of any voter at a poll at a general 
election in addition to those authorised 
already to be asked 7 ; and unless there is an 
answer given in the negative, that person 
(except as provided in that Schedule) shall 
not vote. 8 

NOTE. ,4s to the words in sub-section (1), if any 
person at a general election votes for more 
constituencies than he is entitled to vote for in 

4 See p. 166, infra. ' See pp. 167172, infra. 

5 See p. 166, infra. 8 See p. 172, infra. 

6 See p. 167, infra. 



166 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 2fl. accordance with this Act. As to the number 
of votes which a person is entitled to give at a 
general election, see pp. 108 110, supra. 

an illegal practice within the meaning of the 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 
1883. Under the last-mentioned Act the effect 
of the commission by any person of an illegal 
practice is that such person is, on summary con- 
viction, liable to a fine not exceeding 100/., and 
is incapable during a period of five years from 
the date of his conviction of being registered as 
a parliamentary or local government elector, or 
of voting at any parliamentary or local govern- 
ment election held for or within the county or 
borough in which the illegal practice was com- 
mitted (m). 

As to the words in sub-section (1) (a), any in- 
capacity imposed by section ten of the Corrupt 
and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883. 
The incapacity here referred to is that just 
mentioned. 

As to the words in sub-section (!) (b), circum- 
stances which entitle him only to mark a 
tendered ballot paper in pursuance of Rule 27 
of the First Part of the First Schedule to the 
Ballot Act, 1872. As to this, see Rule 27 set out 
on pp. 686, 687, infra. 

if he does not exercise that right i.e. if being 
entitled only to mark a tendered ballot paper he 
(or she) does not mark it or give it to the pre- 
siding officer. 

As to the words in sub-section (1) (c), the giving 

(m) Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883, SB. 10, 64. 



QUESTIONS AT POLL. 1< 

of a vote by a returning officer in pursuance Sect 22 
of section two of the Ballot Act, 1872. That " 
part of sect. 2 of the Ballot Act which deals 
with this matter is as follows : 

" Where an equality of votes is found to exist 
between any candidates at an election for a 
county or borough, and the addition of a vote 
would entitle any of such candidates to be de- 
clared elected, the returning officer, if a registered 
elector of such county or borough, may give such 
additional vote, but shall not in any other case 
be entitled to vote at an election for which he is 
returning officer." 

.4* to the words in sub-section (2), The questions 
set out in Part II. of the Second Schedule to 
this Act may be asked of any voter at a poll 
at a general election in addition to those already 
authorised to be asked. The following are the 
questions set out in Part II. of the Second 
Schedule (ri) to the present Act : 

" 1. In the case of a man voting in respect of 
a residence qualification 

Have you already voted at this general 
election in respect of a residence qualifica- 
tion? 

" 2. In the case of a man voting in respect of 
a qualification other than a residence qualifica- 
tion 

Have you already voted at this general 
election in respect of a qualification other 
than a residence qualification ? 

(n) See p. 358, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

22. " 3. In the case of a woman voting at an elec- 
tion other than a university election 

Have you already voted at this general 
election ? 

[NOTE. Unless the answer to the ques- 
tion is in the negative the woman shall 
not vote unless she satisfies the presiding 
officer that her previous vote was given at 
a university election.] " 

The questions " already authorised to be asked" 
are as follows : 

lt 1. Are you the same person whose name ap- 
pears as A. B. on the register of voters now in 
force for the county of [or for the 

riding, parts, or division of the county of 

], or for the city [or borough] of [as 

the case may be~\ ? 

" 2. Have you already voted, either here or else- 
where, at this election for the county of [or 
for the riding, parts, or division of 
the county of ], or for the city [or borough] 
of [as the case may le~\ ? " ( p). 

If any person wilfully makes a false answer to 
either of these last two questions he is guilty of a 
misdemeanour, and shall and may be indicted 
and punished accordingly (q) : and the returning 
officer or his deputy shall, if required on behalf 
of any candidate at the time of polling, administer 
an oath to any voter in the following form (q) : 
" You do swear [or affirm, as the case may be], 
That you are the same person whose name ap- 

(p) Parliamentary Voters Registration Act, 1843, e. 81. 
Ibid. 



QUESTIONS AT POLL. 169 

pears as A. B. on the register of voters now in Sect. 22 
force for the county of [or for the 

riding, parts, or division of the county 

of ~] or for the city or borough of [as 

the case may be], and that you have not before 
voted, either here or elsewhere, at the present 
election for the county of [or for the 

riding, parts or division of the county of 

] or for the city or borough of [_as 

the case may be]. So help you God." 

The present Act does not provide for any penalty 
in the case of a false answer to any of the ques- 
tions set out in Part II. of the Second Schedule 
to the present Act or for any oath to be ad- 
ministered by the returning officer, but any per- 
son who answered these questions falsely and 
proceeded to vote would come within sect. 22 (1) 
of the present Act and would therefore be guilty 
of an illegal practice. 

The meaning of the first of the above questions 
under the heading of questions " already authorised 
to be asked," and of the corresponding clause in 
the oath, is not whether the person tendering his 
vote is rightly named in the register as A. B., but 
whether he is the person whom the name A. B. 
was intended to designate there, so that George 
Jones, if entered in the register as John Jones, 
would be entitled to answer "Yes" to the ques- 
tion, whilst anyone else, though actually named 
John Jones, if he did so would be guilty of a 
misdemeanour (r). 

(r) R. v. Thwaites (1853), 1 E. & B. 704. See also First Schedule, 
Rule 41, p. 353, infra. 



170 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 28. Thus in New Sarum(s\ William Morris was 
entered on the register as John Morris. He 
stated at the poll that his name was William 
Morris, and the returning officer rejected his 
vote on the ground that his name was not on the 
register, but on appeal the Committee directed it 
to be added to the poll. 

The questions must be put precisely in the 
form prescribed and no vote can be rejected 
unless they have been so put(^). 

The answers must be positive and unequivocal. 
Therefore, if a voter, instead of answering u I 
am," or, "I have not," or words to the same 
effect, should say to the first question, " I think 
so," or, "I should say I am" ; or to the second 
question, " I don't think I have," or, u If I did I 
should not come here," or give any similarly 
evasive answer, the presiding officer (u) would be 
j ustified in refusing to give him a ballot paper (x). 

Where a voter to whom the questions, with or 
without the oath, are put, then declines to answer, 
but subsequently presents himself to vote and 
offers to answer the questions and take the oath 
if required, the better opinion seems to be that 
the presiding officer ought to repeat the questions, 
or administer the oath, with a view to allowing 
him to vote (y). 

() (1833), P. & K. 261 ; see also Oldham (1869), 1 O. & H. 152, 
153. 

(t) Canterbury (1835), K. & 0. 323, 326, 327. 

(u) See Ballot Act, 1872, First Schedule, Part I., Rule 21, p. 685, 
infra. 

(x) Monmouth, K. & 0. 414; Taunton, Faulk. & Fitzh. 503. 

(y) Gloucestershire (1777), Male on Elections, 113. 



QUESTIONS AT POLL. 171 

Although they relate only to the questions Sect. 22. 
" already authorised to be asked," it is submitted 
that the decisions just referred to as to the neces- 
sity for the questions being put precisely and for 
the answers to be positive, and as to the repetition 
of the questions at a later time when the voter in 
the first instance declines to answer, would be 
held to apply equally with respect to the ques- 
tions (z) set out in Part II. of the Second Schedule 
to the present Act. 

There is no duty laid on the presiding officer 
to put any of the questions set out above to every 
voter who presents himself in the polling-booth, 
but by sect. 81 of the Parliamentary Voters 
Registration Act, 1843, "the returning officer or 
his respective deputy shall, if required on behalf 
of any candidate, put to any voter at the time of 
his tendering his vote, and not afterwards," the 
questions set out above (2) under the head of ques- 
tions " already authorised to be asked " or either 
of them. It is clear from the language of sect. 
22 (2) of the present Act that this provision 
in sect. 81 of the Parliamentary Voters Registra- 
tion Act, 1843, is intended to apply to the 
additional questions set out in Part II. of the 
Second Schedule to the present Act. The putting 
of these questions is the only inquiry permitted 
at the time of polling as to the right of any 
person to vote(). 

and unless there is an answer given in the 
negative, that person (except as provided in 

(z) See pp. 167, 168, supra. 

(a) Parliamentary Voters Eegistration Act, 1843, s. 81. 



72 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 22. that Schedule) shall not vote. As to the neces- 
sity for the answer being positive and unequivocal, 
see the observations just made on p. 170, supra, 
under the preceding words of sect. 22 (2). The 
words u except as provided in that Schedule" 
refer to the Note to question 3, which is set out 
on p. 168, supra. 

Sect. 22 applies to university elections (b) with 
the modifications required by sect. 36 (3) (a) (c). 
But the provisions of sect. 22 (2) as to " the ques- 
tions authorised already to be asked" have no 
application to university elections, as those ques- 
tions relate only to county or borough elections (d). 
Further, by sect. 36 (1) the provisions contained 
in the Fifth Schedule to the present Act apply to 
university elections, and by such Schedule (e) the 
voting paper is to be in a specified form, which 
contains the declarations set out in Part II. of the 
Second Schedule (/), such declaration being equi- 
valent, in the case of university elections, to the 
questions set out in Part II. of the Second 
Schedule (/). 



(ft) See sect. 36 (2), p. 279, infra. 

(c) See pp. 279, 280, infra. 

(d) It is submitted that the words " city " or 4i borough " in the 
questions prescribed by the Parliamentary Voters Registration Act, 
1843 (set out at p. 168, supra}, do not include a university constitu- 
ency, as sect. 101 of that Act, which defines " city or borough" 
as "any city, borough, town corporate, cinque port, district or 
place . . . ," is repealed by the present Act. 

(e) See Fifth Schedule, Part I., cl. 11, set out at p. 366, infra, 
and form of voting paper set out at p. 372. infra ; as to Scottish 
universities, see Part II. of the same Schedule, cl. 17, set out at 
pp. 375, 376, infra, and form of voting paper set out at p. 383, infra. 

(/) See p, 358, infra. 



VOTING BY ABSENT VOTERS. 

23. (1) For the purpose of giving per- 
sons whose names are entered on the absent voting by 

absent voter*. 

voters list 1 an opportunity of voting at a par- 
liamentary election (other than a university 
election), the returning officer shall, where 
an election is contested, as soon as practi- 
cable after the adjournment of the election, 2 
send a ballot paper to each such person at 
the address recorded by the registration 
officer, 3 together with a declaration of iden- 
tity in the prescribed form. 4 

(2) The ballot paper marked by the absent 
voter 5 and accompanied by the declaration 
of identity 6 duly signed and authenticated 
shall, if it is received by the returning officer 
before the close of the poll, 7 be counted by 
him and treated for all purposes in the same 
manner as a ballot paper placed in the ballot 
box in the ordinary manner. 8 

(3) During the continuance of the present 
war and a period of twelve months there- 
after, for the purpose of allowing more time 
for the receipt of ballot papers from persons 
whose names are entered on the absent 
voters list, His Majesty may by Order in 
Council 9 direct that the counting of votes at 



1 See pp. 177, 178, infra. 7 See p. 182, infra. 

2 See pp. 178180, infra. 8 See pp. 182200, infra. 

3 See p. 180, infra. 9 This Order in Council has 

4 See p. 181, infra. not, at the date of going to 

5 See pp. 181, 182, infra. press, been made. 

6 See p. 181, infra. 



174 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect, 23. any elections to which the Order applies shall, 
instead of taking place as soon as practicable 
after the close of the poll, take place at such 
time (not exceeding eight days after the 
close of the poll) as may be fixed by the 
Order, and returning officers shall comply 
with any such direction ; and in any such 
case any vote received by the returning 
officer from an absent voter before the time 
at which the votes are to be counted shall 
be reckoned in the count. 

4 ) The following special provisions 10 shall 
apply for the purpose of enabling persons 
whose names are entered on the absent voters 
list to appoint voting proxies in certain 
cases : 

(a) His Majesty may by Order in Council 11 
direct that voting by proxy by naval 
or military voters shall be permitted 
in any area on land abroad men- 
tioned in the Order if it appears 
to him that ballot papers sent to 
that area by post cannot reasonably 
be returned before the votes are 
counted, and that the case cannot 
be met by an Order under this 
section postponing the counting of 
votes : 12 

10 See pp. 200202, infra. 

11 This Order in Council will be found on p. 753, infra. 

12 See pp. 200, 201, infra. 



VOTING BY ABSENT VOTERS. 175 

(b) A person whose name is entered on Sect> 88 

the absent voters list, if he satisfies 
the registration officer 

(i) that he is a naval or mili- 
tary voter and is serving, or about 
to serve, afloat or in any area on 
land abroad in which voting by 
proxy is permitted in pursuance 
of an Order in Council made 
under this section 13 ; or 

(ii) that he is a merchant sea- 
man, pilot, or fisherman (includ- 
ing the master of a merchant 
ship or fishing boat and an ap- 
prentice on such a ship or boat) 
and that there is a likelihood that 
he will be at the time of a par- 
liamentary election at sea or 
about to go to sea 13 ; 
shall be entitled, if he so desires, to 
appoint a proxy, and, having ap- 
pointed a proxy, to vote by proxy 
at a parliamentary election in ac- 
cordance with and subject to the 
provisions of this Act 14 : 

(c) No ballot paper shall be sent for the 

purpose of voting by post to a per- 
son who has appointed a proxy 
under this provision while the ap- 

13 See p. 201, infra. u See p. 202, infra. 



176 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

^ poiiitment is in force, or to any 

naval or military voter if the return- 
ing officer knows that he is serving 
in an area in which voting by proxy 
is permitted in pursuance of an 
Order in Council made under this 
section 15 : 

(d) The provisions set out in the Third 
Schedule to this Act shall have 
effect with respect to voting by 
proxy. 15 

(5) A person whose name is entered on 
the absent voters list shall not be entitled 
to vote except as an absent voter in pursu- 
ance of this section. 16 

(6) His Majesty may by Order in Council 17 
prescribe the forms to be used for the pur- 
poses of this section, and make regulations 
as to the mode in which proxy papers may 
be issued and cancelled and in which ballot 
papers are to be sent to the voter for the 
purpose of voting by post and as to the 
authentication of any marked ballot papers, 
and generally for the purpose of carrying 
this section into effect and for preserving 
the secrecy of voting in pursuance thereof. 18 

NOTE. This section provides for the method 

15 See p. 202, infra. 18 See pp. 202, 203, infra. 

17 This Order will be found 011 p. 754 et seq. 

18 See p. 203, infra. 



ABSENT VOTERS LIST. 177 

of voting by absent voters at parliamentary elec- Sect. 23. 
tions other than university elections (c). 

As to sufr-sectwn (1). By sect. 13 (1) of the 
present Act "it shall be the duty of the regis- 
tration officer ... to place or cause to be placed 
on the register in accordance with the rules set 
out in the First Schedule to this Act the names 
of those entitled to vote as parliamentary electors 
... in his registration area." 

The rules in the First Schedule bearing directly 
011 the provisions of sect. 23 (1) are rules 16 and 
17 (J), which are as follows : 

"16. Any person entitled to be registered as 
a parliamentary elector may, not later than the 
eighteenth day of February (e) where the claim is 
for the spring register (/), and the eighteenth day 
of August (e) where the claim is for the autumn 
register (g), claim to be placed on the absent 
voters list; and the registration officer, if satis- 
fied that there is a probability that the claimant, 
by reason of the nature of his occupation, service, 
or employment, may be debarred from voting 
at a poll at parliamentary elections held during 

(c] As to voting by absent voters at university elections other 
than Scottish university elections, see sect. 36 (1) and (3) (b), and 
Fifth Schedule, Part I., cl. 12; as to such voting at Scottish 
university elections, see sect. 36 (1) and (3) (b) and Fifth Schedule, 
Part II., cl. 1723. 

(d] See also rules 18 and 19 set out on p. 346, infra. 

(e] It is important to notice that as regards the first register to 
be prepared under the Act, 3 1st July is substitued for this date. 
See Order in Council, dated June 4th, 1918, rule 6, p. 749, and 
Fifth Schedule, p. 752, infra. 

(/) See pp. 125129, supra, 
(g] See pp. 125129, mpra. 

F. 12 



178 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. the time the register is in force, shall place the 
claimant (if registered) on the absent voters list. 

" 17. It shall be the duty of the registration 
officer, without any claim being made for the 
purpose, to place on the absent voters list any 
naval or military voter (0), unless 

(a) that person, not later than the eighteenth 

day of February (k) as respects the spring 
register, and the eighteenth day of Au- 
gust (k) as respects the autumn register, 
gives notice (I) to the registration officer 
that he does not desire to be placed upon 
that list ; or 

(b) that person is registered, in pursuance of a 

claim (m) for the purpose, for the con- 
stituency in which he has an actual 
residence qualification " (n). 

It will be seen from the above rules that the 
persons whose names are entered on the absent 
voters list will be (i) any person entitled to be 
registered as a parliamentary elector who claims 
to be placed on the absent voters list and whose 
claim the registration officer allows ; and (ii) any 
person who being a naval or military voter (0) 
does not fall within the exceptions mentioned in 
rule 17 (a) and (b). 

As to the words in sub-section (1), where an 

(k) As regards the first register, 17th August is substituted for 
this date. See p. 177, footnote (e), supra. 

(1} No form of notice is prescribed. 

(771) See p. 569, infra. 

(n) See pp. 9193, supr-i. 

(o) As to what constitutes a naval or military voter, see pp. 79 
85, supra. 



MEANING OF u DAY OF ELECTION." 179 

election is contested, as soon as practicable after sect. 23. 

the adjournment of the election. It is of course 

only where an election is contested that sect. 23 

is applicable ; but in order to render the meaning 

of this sub-section clear it is thought desirable to 

state shortly the duty of the returning officer 

with respect to the fixing of the day of election, 

and, if the election be contested, the day of 

taking the poll. 

The expression " day of election " in the Ballot 
Act, 1872, really means the day appointed for 
the nomination of candidates (p). In the event 
of there not being more candidates than there 
are vacancies, such candidates are on such day 
declared elected (q). If, on the other hand, there 
are more candidates than there are vacancies, 
i.e. if the election is contested, it is the duty of 
the returning officer to adjourn the election for 
the purpose of taking a poll (r). The day of 
election in its popular sense is therefore the day 
upon which the poll is taken (which in this Note 
is hereafter called the day of the poll), and not 
" the day of election " as used in the Ballot Act. 

The " day of election " in the sense which it 
bears in the Ballot Act (i.e., the day fixed for re- 
ceiving nominations) is now, at a general election, 
in all constituencies other than university constitu- 
encies, the eighth day after the date of the procla- 

(/>) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 1, and First Schedule, Part L, rr. 1, 2 ; 
and see sect. 21 (1) of the present Act (p. 161, supra], where what 
is called in the Ballot Act " day of election " is described as above. 

(q) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 1. 

(r) Ibid., and First Schedule, Part I., r. 9. 

12(2) 



180 . REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. mation declaring the calling of the new Parliament. 
The day of the poll is now, at a general election, 
the ninth day after the " day of election" (s). 

At a bye-election, the "day of election" is, in 
the case of an election for a county, such day as 
the returning officer may fix, not later than the 
ninth day after the day on which he receives the 
writ, and, in the case of an election for a borough, 
not later than the fourth day after the day on which 
he receives the writ (), and the day of the poll is 
such day as the returning officer may appoint, not 
being less than four or more than eight clear days 
after the day fixed as " the day of election " (u). 

It follows from what is said above that the 
period which elapses between the adjournment of 
the election and the day of the poll is, in the case 
of a general election, nine days, and, in the case 
of a bye-election, not less than four or more than 
eight days, The returning officer must send the 
ballot paper to the absent voter as soon as prac- 
ticable after the commencement of this period. 

As to the words in sect. 23 (1). send a ballot 
paper to each such person at the address re- 
corded by the registration officer, rule 19 of the 
Registration Rules provides that 

" The registration officer shall keep a record of 
any address which may be furnished to him by 
any person placed on the absent voters list, or by 
the Admiralty, Army Council, Air Council or 
Board of Trade, as the address which is to be for 

() See sect. 21, pp. 161 162, supra, and pp. 162 163. 
(*) Ballot Act, 1872, First Schedule, Part I., r. 2. 
(M) See sect. 21 (1), p. 161, supra, also Ballot Act, 1872, First 
Schedule, Part I., r. 14. 



REGISTRATION OF NAVAL AND MILITARY VOTERS. 

the time being the address of the voter for the Sect. 23. 
purpose of the provisions relating to voting by 
absent voters and, as soon as practicable, shall 
cause instructions to be sent to the voter as to 
the mode of voting under those provisions. 

" The record of addresses shall be open to in- 
spection under the same conditions that govern 
the register " (x). 

As to the words a declaration of identity in 
the prescribed form, the word " prescribed " 
means " prescribed by His Majesty by Order in 
Council " (y), but up to the time of going to press 
no form has been prescribed. 

In order to assist the registration officer in the 
registration of naval and military voters, rule 18 
of the Registration Rules provides that 

1 i The Admiralty, the Army Council, and the 
Air Council, either directly or through officers 
appointed by them, shall in the prescribed manner 
furnish to the registration officers in the several 
constituencies such information as to the names 
and addresses of Naval and Military voters (z) and 
such other particulars as may be necessary for the 
purpose of their registration and of their voting 
as such, and it shall be the duty of the Local 
Government Board to render any assistance that 
may be required by the Admiralty, the Army 
Council, and the Air Council in conveying such 
information to the registration officers : 

" Provided that the Admiralty, Army Council, 

() See Rule 27, p. 349, infra. 
(V) See sect. 41 (11), p. 308, infra. 
(z) See pp. 7985, supra. 



182 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. and Air Council shall not be required to supply 
any particulars which in their declared opinion 
would interfere with the proper conduct of the 



war." 



As to sub-sec lion (2). The ballot paper marked 
by the absent voter. This, of course, refers to a 
ballot paper (a) which has been sent to the 
absent voter in pursuance of the provisions of 
sect. 23(1). 

As to the declaration of identity, see p. 181, 
supra. 

if it is received by the returning officer 
before the close of the poll. By the First 
Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, Part I., rule 32, 
" the returning officer shall make arrangements for 
counting the votes in the presence of the agents 
of the candidates as soon as practicable after the 
close of the poll." 

It will be seen, therefore, that subject to the 
provisions of sub-sect. (3) the time allowed for an 
absent voter to receive his ballot paper and return 
it to the returning officer is very short (b). 

be counted by him and treated for all pur- 
poses in the same manner as a ballot paper 
placed in the ballot box in the ordinary manner. 
The procedure here referred to which the re- 
turning officer must adopt with regard to the 
counting of ballot papers is prescribed by the 
second paragraph of sect. 2 of the Ballot Act, 
1872, and rules 31 to 38 (c) of the First Schedule 

(a) See also pp. 182200, infra. 

(6) See Note on the meaning of the words ' ' as soon as practicable 
after the adjournment of the election " on pp. 179 180, supra. 
(c) Set out at pp. 687689, infra. 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 

to that Act. It will be seen that by rule 34 the Sect. 23 
returning officer must mix the absent voters' 
ballot papers with the other ballot papers before 
counting the votes. 

The only matter under these rules which appears 
to call for special consideration here is that dealt 
with by rule 36, which is as follows : 

" The returning officer shall endorse ' rejected' 
on any ballot paper which he may reject as invalid, 
and shall add to the endorsement 4 rejection ob- 
jected to,' if an objection be in fact made by any 
agent to his decision. The returning officer shall 
report to the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery the 
number of ballot papers rejected arid not counted 
by him under the several heads of, 

' 4 ( 1 ) Want of official mark ; 

Voting for more candidates than entitled 



. 
"(3) Writing or mark by which voter could be 

identified ; 

" (4) Unmarked or void for uncertainty ; 
and shall on request allow any agents of the can- 
didates, before such report is sent, to copy it." 

" The questions here raised," said Lord Neaves 
in Wig town (d\ "are important and delicate on 
this account in particular, viz., that while a certain 
form of exercising the franchise is pointed out in 
the statute on the subject, some deviations from 
the strict letter of the directions therein contained 
may be so trifling as to be immaterial, while 
others may be more serious, and thus may be 
fatal. The merits of each vote, therefore, may 

(>!} (1874), 2 0. & H. 220, 221. 



184 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. turn on questions of degree, which it is always 
difficult to distinguish, as the one class may run 
almost imperceptibly into the other. This is the 
old puzzle as to how many grains of corn make a 
heap, or at what stage a little tiling grows into a 
big one. 

" In this state of matters the important point 
is to look to the great objects and principles of 
the statute, and to take care that we do every- 
thing necessary to follow these out, and nothing 
that can defeat or endanger them. 

" The great object in view, I take it, in the 
Ballot Act is the double result of facility in the 
exercise of the franchise and perfect secrecy as 
to the vote of individual voters. This double 
purpose is by the Act sought to be accomplished 
by not allowing a vote to be given viva voce, as it 
used to be, nor in writing (properly speaking), in 
either of which cases secrecy would be impossible, 
or would be imperilled, for by writing, though 
not setting forth the writer's name, yet through 
the comparatio literarum the writer might be dis- 
covered. Nor would it have done, perhaps, to 
leave the voter to put any mark he pleased to show 
the candidate for whom he voted. A mark has 
been pointed out and represented in the statutory 
directions, that of a cross, thus, X- It is, I think, a 
mark well devised for the purpose, easy of execu- 
tion by men of the most moderate intelligence, 
and at the same time perfectly neutral in its 
character, so as to be practically incapable of 
betraying its authorship by its appearance. I 
think it is scarcely possible that a ballot paper 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 185 

strictly in terms of the statute should lead to the Sect. 23. 
voter's identification, one /man's cross being in 
general indistinguishable from another man's." 

It is important to notice, as was pointed out in 
the considered judgment of the Court in the case 
of Woodward v. Sarsons(d), that " the rules in the 
1st Schedule of the Ballot Act and the forms in 
the 2nd Schedule are directory enactments, as 
distinguished from the absolute enactments in the 
section in the body of the Act, and that, while 
the general rule is that an absolute enactment 
must be obeyed or fulfilled exactly, it is sufficient 
if a directory enactment be obeyed or fulfilled sub- 
stantially. The second section enacts, as to what 
the voter shall do, that ' the voter, having secretly 
marked his vote on the paper, and folded it up so 
as to conceal his vote, shall place it in an enclosed 
box.' This is all that is said in the body of the 
Act about what the voter shall do with the ballot 
paper. That which is absolute, therefore, is that 
the voter shall mark his paper secretly (e). How 
he shall mark it is in the directory part of the 
statute. . . . The result seems to be, as to writing 
or mark on the ballot paper, that if there be sub- 
stantially a want of any mark, or a mark which 
leaves it uncertain whether the voter intended to 

(d) (1875), L. E. 10 C. P. at pp. 746, 747, 748. 

(e) If this provision is infringed, the vote will be void, and a 
similarly strict compliance with all the other requirements of sect. 2 
is necessary. Thus a vote will be void if the ballot paper has no 
official mark on it (Wigtoivn (1874), 2 0. & H. 215) or if it is filled 
up in such a way as to lead to the identification of the voter. See 
sect. 2 of the Ballot Act, 1872, and Sched. 2, which is made part of 
such Act by sect. 28 : Woodivard v. Sarsons (1875), L. R. 10 C. P. 
747. 



180 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, aa. vote at all or for which candidate he intended ta 
vote, or if there be marks indicating that the voter- 
has voted for too many candidates, or a writing or 
a mark by which the voter can be identified, then 
the ballot paper is void, and is not to be counted ; 
or, to put the matter affirmatively, the paper must 
be marked so as to show that the voter intended 
to vote for someone, and so as to show for which 
of the candidates he intended to vote. It must 
not be marked so as to show that he intended to 
vote for more candidates than he is entitled to 
vote for, nor so as to leave it uncertain whether 
he intended to vote at all or for which candidate 
he intended to vote, nor so as to make it possible, 
by seeing the paper itself, or by reference to- 
other available facts, to identify the way in which 
he has voted (/). If these requirements are sub- 
stantially fulfilled, then there is no enactment and 
no rule of law by which a ballot paper can be 
treated as void, though the other directions in the 
statute are not strictly obeyed. If these require- 
ments are not substantially fulfilled the ballot 
paper is void, and should not be counted ; and 
if it is counted, it should be struck out on a 
scrutiny. The decision in each case is upon a 
point of fact, to be decided first by the returning 
officer, and afterwards by the election tribunal, 
on petition.' 7 

1 . Want of official mark. 

" It is quite sufficient if there is sucli evidence 
of the official mark, whether it is perforated 

(/) See also the observations of Ghannell, J., in Exeter (1911), 
6 O. & H. at p. 232. 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 



187 



through the paper, whether the ink is caused to Sect. vs. 
run through the paper so as to indicate the official 
mark, or whether the stamp is applied, but fails 
to make a perfect mark. In all such cases, if 
there be evidence that the presiding officer has 
intended to make, and has in fact made, what, 
fairly looked at, indicates that a recognisable 
official mark is upon the back of the ballot paper, 
votes marked upon such papers ought to be held 
good votes in the absence of any other substantial 
objection(^)." 

2. Voting for more candidates than entitled to. 

" If there be marks indicating that the voter 
has voted for too many candidates . . . then the 
ballot paper is void and is not to be counted. ... 
The paper must not be marked so as to show 
that he intended to vote for more candidates than 
he is entitled to vote for " (k). 

If it is so marked " the ballot paper is void and 
should not be counted ; arid if it is counted, it 
should be struck off on a scrutiny " (k}. 

3. Writing or mark />// which the voter could be 
identified. 

The fact that the marks are such as might 
lead to the identification of the voter is not 
sufficient to vitiate and render void the vote. The 
mark must be a mark by which the voter can 
(not might possibly) be identified. Whether the 
mark is such is a matter of fact. It is an in- 

(g) Per Hawkins, J., in C'irenccstrr (1893), 4 O. & H. at p. 196. 

(A) Per cnriam in Woodward v. Sarsons (1875), L. B. 10 0. P. 
at p. 748. See also Phillips v. f/o/(1886), 17 Q. B. D. 814. But 
see as to a university election held according to the principle of 
proportional representation, pp. 160 161, and 158 160, snpr. 



188 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

fi_??*_ sufficient objection that the marks referred to 
might possibly afford a clue to the identification 
of the voter" (i). 

4. Unmarked or void for uncertainty. The Courts 
appear to have placed a more rigid and technical 
interpretation on the language of the statute in 
the earlier than in the later cases. Thus in 
Wigtown (k) Lord Neaves said : 

" I think it essential to a good vote that the 
voter should make the cross thus pointed out, and 
that any mark materially different would be a 
deviation from what is prescribed, and a failure 
to fulfil the requirements of the statute. For 
anyone to put, instead of a cross, a circle or an 
oval, or any other geometrical or anomalous 
figure, would not be a compliance with the law, 
independently of the consideration that such a 
plain and wilful departure from what was intended 
would suggest strongly the suspicion that some 
sinister purpose was intended." 

Again, in Stepney Division (I) counsel objected 
to a vote on the ground that the voter had put a 
circle instead of a cross and that by this it might 
be identified; he cited Wigtotun(m}. Denman, J., 
said (n) : 

" The question here is whether a ballot paper 
is good in which the voter, instead of making a 
cross or a mark of the ordinary kind straight 

(i) See the observations of Hawkins, J., in Cirencester (1893), 
4 0. & H. at p. 198. 

(k) (1874), 2 O. & H. at pp. 220, 221. 

(I) (1886), 4 0. & H. at p. 37. 

(m) (1874), 2 0. &H. 215. 

(n) Stepney Division (1886), 4 O. & H. at pp. 37, 38. 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 189 

with his pen, deliberately makes a circle. If a Sect, as. 
man does that, he really must do it either with 
some sinister object, or it is so perversely and 
absurdly in deviation from the directions of the 
Ballot Act as to make it a case in which he ought 
really to be held to have thrown away his vote. 
If he does it with the sinister object of having 
his vote known, then he has forfeited his vote 
because he has violated the Ballot Act. If he does 
it purposely and one cannot understand a man 
supposing that a cross is a circle he has done it 
perversely, and done it in such a way as again to 
legitimately forfeit his vote. If he does it pur- 
posely, knowing that his vote may be thrown 
away, then he really has not indicated his inten- 
tion to vote for the candidate against whose name 
he has placed the mark ; so that in any case there 
is no good ground for holding that a circle is a 
cross within the meaning of the Ballot Act." 

The vote was struck off. 

The attention of the Court in this case does not 
appear to have been drawn to the important deci- 
sion of the Court of Common Pleas in Woodward 
v. Sarsons (0), but having regard to that case and 
to later decisions, it is respectfully submitted that 
the observations of Lord Neaves cited above do 
not correctly state the law, and that the decision 
of the Court in Stepney Division must now be 
regarded as overruled. 

In Woodward v. Sarsons ( p ) it was laid down 
that any mark which sufficiently indicates for 

(o) (1875), L. E. 10 C. P. 733. 
(p) Ibid, at p. 748. 



190 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. whom the vote is given, so long as it is not such 
as to enable the voter to be identified, is good. 
The following modes of marking were held good(y) 
in the absence of evidence of connivance or pre- 
arrangement : 

(a) Two or three crosses instead of one. 

(b) A straight vertical line instead of a cross. 

(c) A straight stroke in addition to a cross. 

(d) A letter P in addition to a cross. 

(e) An oblique line instead of a cross. 

(f ) A star instead of a cross. 

(g) A pencil line drawn through the name of 
one candidate and a cross opposite that of another. 

(h) A cross placed on the left instead of the 
right-hand side of the candidate's name. 

Some of these decisions are in conflict with 
some of the decisions of the majority of the 
judges in the Scottish Court of Session in Wig- 
town (r)j and in regard to this Lord Coleridge, C.J., 
in delivering the considered judgment of the Court 
in Woodward v. Sarsons (s) said : 

" We are aware that, in so applying the prin- 
ciples which we have deduced from the statute, 
we are acting apparently in opposition to some 
of the decisions in the Wigtown case(^) ; but there 
may have been evidence in that case which does 
not exist in the present case, and which made 
many of the marks there marks of identification, 
which the mere presence of such marks here does 

(q) (1875), L. E. 10 C. P. at p. 749. 
(r) (1874), 2 O. & H. 215. 
() (1875), L. E. 10 0. P. at p. 750. 

(t) (1874), 2 O. & II. 215, 227 ; 1 Court of Sess. Cases, 4th Series, 
925, 231 , sub wow. Haswett v. Stewart. 



RULES A8 TO BALLOT PAPERS. 191 

not do. If this was not so, we respectfully differ Sect. 83. 
from the strict view taken by the majority of the 
learned judges who decided that case, and adhere 
to the view of Lord Benholme given in that case." 

In 1876 a Select Committee of the House of 
Commons, appointed to inquire into the working 
of the Ballot Act, reported that in their opinion 
"no ballot paper should be rejected unless it 
appears clearly to the returning officer that the 
obligatory portion of the Act has not been com- 
plied with ; and that the marking of the ballot 
paper in a manner not in accordance with the 
* directions ' should not cause its rejection, unless 
it appears to the returning officer that such de- 
parture from the directions has been for the pur- 
pose of identification, or would necessarily afford 
an opportunity for such identification being 
effected, or unless the returning officer is unable 
to determine for whom the voter intended to 
vote." The Committee further suggested that 
the Home Office should forward to every return- 
ing officer the case and judgment in Woodward v. 
Sarsons (u). 

In the later case of BucJcrose (#), where a vote 
was objected to on the ground that the ballot 
paper had been marked with a circle instead of 
a cross, the vote was allowed. Pollock, B., 
said(y): 

"I should have myself no doubt about this 
case but for the remarks of my brother Den- 

() Par. Pap. 162 of 1876, p. iv. 
(a) (1886), 4 O. & H. 110. 
(y) Ibid, at p. 112. 



192 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. man (2), which one must take to have been en- 
tirely assented to by my brother Field, inasmuch 
as he did not dissent from them, but we have not 
before us the precise character of the circle in 
that case. It may have been something very 
accurate as a circle, and it may have indicated 
more education and mental power than is in- 
dicated by such figures as we find here, and 
therefore I cannot consider that that case is a 
binding authority upon us with reference to thi& 
particular ballot paper. So far as the Scotch 
authority goes it is not binding upon us. But 
now let us look at the plain intention which is 
indicated by the statute itself." After referring 
to the 2nd section of the Ballot Act, 1872, and 
the 2nd Schedule to that Act, the learned Baron 
continued: "It is in the schedule that for the 
first time you have an indication that it shall be 
by a cross. When you get to the form the same 
thing is indicated, and the only question is 
whether that cross, in the form of a cross sub- 
stantially, is essential to a good vote. It has 
been already held that if it be a cross with a 
mark across it like an X, or like a Winchester 
cross, and a good many figures of that kind, then 
it would be perfectly good. This is not a cross ; 
but is it such a departure from a cross as to in- 
dicate any intention on the part of the voter 
otherwise than to record his vote for the person 
whose name is opposite the bad cross ? I cannot 
myself think that that is so. For my part, I 
think this is a good vote." 

(z) In Stepney Division (1886), 4 0. & H. at pp. 37, 38. 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 

Smith, J., concurred, holding that the case Sect. 83. 
came within the principle of Woodward v. Sar- 
so?is (), and that the ballot paper was marked in 
such a way as to show that the voter intended to 
vote for the candidate opposite whose name he 
had placed the mark in question. 

In Buckrose(b) counsel objected to a vote on 
the ground that the only mark on the paper was 
a cross made upon the name of Mr. S., in such a 
way as to make it appear possible that he intended 
to strike the name out. The vote was disallowed. 

In the same case() a vote was objected to on 
the ground that the cross had been put, not 
opposite to either of the candidates' names, but in 
the right-hand top corner of the ballot paper above 
the line. The Court, following the opinion of 
Hawkins, J., in Berwick (c] and of the Court in 
Stepney Division (d\ held that the vote was void 

for uncertainty. 

* 

A vote was also objected to by counsel on the 
ground that the figure 33 had been written upon 
the back of the ballot paper. The Court, in the 
absence of any evidence showing that the voter 
could be identified by the writing, allowed the 
vote(fl?), following the decision of Field, J., in 
Stepney Division (e). 

In BucJcrose, the same case(d), a ballot paper 

(a) (1875), L. R. 10 0. P. 733. 
(6) (1886), 40. &H. at p. 112. 

(c) (1880), 3 O. & H. at p. 182. 

(d) (1886), 4 0. & H. at p. 111. 

(e) (1886), 4 0. & H. 40. 

F. 13 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, as. had been rejected by the returning officer which 
had been marked upon the back opposite the name 
of one of the candidates, and it was contended 
that, inasmuch as the mark could be seen through 
the paper without turning it over, it was a good 
vote. Pollock, B., said(<?) : " I have a very clear 
opinion that that will not do. If you take the 
whole context of the Act and read the direction, 
the voter is to place a cross on the right-hand side 
opposite the name of each candidate for whom he 
votes, and that together with the other provision 
with regard to the returning officer clearly indi- 
cates that it must be upon the face of the paper. 
We think that the vote was properly rejected on 
the ground that a cross upon the back is not a 
compliance with the Act." 

In the same case a ballot paper marked in the 
usual way on the face opposite the name of one 
candidate but with a cross on the back opposite 
the name of the other candidate was allowed for 
the former candidate (e). 

Where a ballot paper was marked with a cross 
on the left-hand side of the respondent's name, 
and with a straight line on the right-hand side of 
the petitioner's name, and the vote was objected 
to on the ground of uncertainty, Pollock, B., 
said (/) : "I think the cross in one case and the 
line in the other make it doubtful, and we must 
reject the vote." 

(e) C1886), 40. & H. at p. 111. 

(/) Hid. See also Exeter (1911), 6 0. & H. at p. 229. 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 195 

In Stepney Division (g), where the cross had Sect. 23. 
been put on the top of the voting paper opposite 
the words " Ballot paper," the vote was struck off 
on the ground of uncertainty. 

In the same case the Court was divided in 
opinion as to whether a name and a cross on the 
back of a ballot paper invalidated the vote (h). 

In Cirencester(i), Hawkins, J., thus explained 
the principles by which the Court would be guided 
in dealing with cases of this kind : 

" With regard to those votes as to which ob- 
jections have been raised to the mode in which 
they were marked by the voters, we have pro- 
ceeded upon what we think was the true intention 
of the Legislature in framing the Act of Parlia- 
ment. We have, first of all, asked ourselves 
whether the voter received his paper with the 
intention to vote. The mere fact that he has 
applied for and received a voting paper affords 
abundant evidence that such was his intention. 
Then we have looked at the face of the paper 
itself, with a view to see whether or not the voter 
has by any mark clearly indicated the person for 
whom he wished and intended to vote ; and if we 
have found such a mark we have upheld the vote, 
regardless of the very technical, and as we think 
unsubstantial, objections which have been allowed 
in some of the earlier cases to be found in the 

(g] (1886), 40. & H. 37. 

(h) The decision on this point in Wigtown (1874), 2 0. & H. 216, 
was, however, not mentioned to the Court, 
(t) (1893), 4 0. & H. at pp. 196, 197. 

13(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. reports of election cases, our view being that we 
ought to interpret the Ballot Act liberally, and, 
subject to other objections, to give effect to any 
mark on the face of the paper which in our 
opinion clearly indicated the intention of the 
voter, whether such mark were in the shape of a 
cross, or a straight line, or in any other form, and 
whether made with pen and ink, pencil, or even 
an indentation made on the paper, and whether 
on the right or the left hand of the candidate's 
name, or elsewhere within his compartment on 
the voting paper. Of course, every deviation 
from the course pointed out in the rule tends to 
create difficulties which may be avoided by a rigid 
observance of it. It is highly prudent therefore 
to adhere to it, though we do not think it essen- 
tial. . . . There were some marks and blotches of 
a very irregular character (on the voting paper), 
which might well be mistaken as indications of 
temporary unsteadiness in the voters, who by 
their unsteadiness imperil their votes. In such 
cases we have done our best to discover whether, 
although obscured by the blots, blurs, and other 
marks, there existed positive indications on the 
part of the voter of an intention to vote without 
a thought of leaving behind a trace to enable him 
to be identified. ... Of course, if it is upon the 
face of the ballot paper left in doubt whether the 
man intended to vote for one candidate or the 
other, the weight of the objection that the vote 
is uncertain is obvious, for the simple reason that 
one candidate has just as much right to claim 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 197 

the vote as the other, and so it ought not to be Sect. 23. 
counted for either, and the statute so enacts." 

"It has been held (&)," said Hawkins, J., in 
Berwick-upon- Tweed (1], "that it is not necessary 
that this mark should be made with the pencil 
provided in the compartment, or with a pencil 
at all. A mark made with ink or with a piece of 
burnt stick is just as good as a mark made with 
pencil, and I cannot see any reason why a mark 
made in any other way is not just as good." 

In the same case one of the ballot papers had 
been marked with a long cross, one part of which 
extended into the space opposite the name of the 
respondent, although the actual intersection of the 
cross was in the space opposite the petitioner's 
name. It was held that this was a good vote for 
the petitioner. "If," said Lopes, J. (m), "you 
strike out the upper part of the cross, that is, the 
part opposite the name of the respondent, you will 
still have a perfect cross opposite the petitioner's 
name. On the other hand, if you strike off what 
is opposite to the petitioner's name, you will have 
no cross at all." 

In Pontardawe Rural District Council Election 
Petition (n) certain doubtful ballot papers were 
reserved for the consideration of the Court, among 
whicli were three papers in which the marks made 
by the voters were outside the compartments or 

(A) In Wigtown (1874), 2 O. & H. 219. 

(I) (1880), 3 O. & H. at p. 180. 

(m) Ibid. 181. 

(n) (1907) 2 K. B. 313. 



198 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect, as. ruled spaces on the ballot papers. The marks, 
however, although outside the compartments, were 
placed directly opposite the names of certain of 
the candidates, so as to leave no doubt for whom 
the voters intended to vote. Ridley, J., said : 
" I think that as long as the mark is opposite the 
name of the candidate, so as to make it clear that 
the voter intended to vote for him, the vote is 
good. If the mark were above or below the name 
it would not be clear, and the paper would be void 
for uncertainty." 

Phillimore, J., said: " I agree. The effect of 
placing the mark outside the printed space may 
be to make it more difficult to decide for whom 
the vote was given. But here there is admittedly 
no difficulty in so deciding. A mark put directly 
opposite the name of a particular candidate is to 
my mind a good vote." 

Where the voter writes his own name instead of 
a cross, as directed, opposite the candidate's 
name (o), or where he writes any name (p) or 
initials (q), even though they are not those of the 
voter or candidate, the vote will be rejected on 
the ground that the voter could be identified by 
his handwriting. 

In West Bromwich (r) various ballot papers were 
considered on a scrutiny by Ridley and Bucknill, 

(o) Woodivard v. Sarsons (1874), L. E. 10 C. P. at pp. 737, 749. 
(j>) Ibid, at pp. 736, 749; Wigtown (1874), 2 0. & H. at pp. 216, 
217 ; Exeter (1911), 6 0. & H. at pp. 229231. 
(q) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 2. 
(r) (1911), 6 0. & H. at pp. 256, 257. 



RULES AS TO BALLOT PAPERS. 199 

JJ., and it may be useful to refer to the following Sect. 23. 
decisions of the Court : 

Crosses outside the proper vote-space, but well 
opposite the candidate's name, were allowed to 
him. 

A cross in the margin altogether underneath 
the candidate's name-space was disallowed to him ; 
but one in the right-hand margin altogether out- 
side that space and the proper vote-space, but 
partly parallel with them and partly beneath 
them, was allowed to him. 

A very faint cross in the candidate's name- 
space was allowed to the candidate (s). 

A cross immediately under the space for the 2 
in the number column (i.e. the candidate's number), 
wholly in the bottom margin, was disallowed to 
the candidate, but a cross slightly within that 
space was allowed to him. 

All crosses opposite the words " Ballot Paper," 
which were printed in the top margin, immediately 
over all the spaces where the crosses were wholly 
outside those spaces, were disallowed, but where 
part of the cross extended into the proper vote- 
space for the candidate it was allowed. 

A cross in the top margin, but extending 
slightly into the candidate's number-space (i.e. 1), 
was allowed to him. 

A confused mark in the proper vote -space for 
the candidate was allowed to the candidate (t). 

(s) See also Exeter (1911), 6 0. & H. at p. 228. 
(*) Ibid, at p. 229. 



200 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. A faint mark (not a cross) against the can- 
didate's name was allowed to him. 

A cross across the dividing line between the 
candidates' name-spaces, but mostly in the upper 
space, was allowed to the candidate whose name 
was in the upper space. 

A cross across the dividing line between the 
spaces in the number column, but mostly in the 
upper space (i.e. 1), was disallowed to the can- 
didate whose name was in the upper space. 

The whole of the paper and print relating to 
one candidate had been torn off and missing, but 
there was a cross in the proper vote-space for the 
other candidate disallowed. 

A cross on the left-hand margin opposite, but 
wholly outside of, the candidate's number-space 
was allowed to him. 

A cross on the right-hand margin opposite, but 
wholly outside of, the candidate's proper voting- 
space was allowed to him. 

The decision of the returning officer as to any 
question arising in respect of any ballot paper is 
final, subject to reversal on petition questioning 
the election or return (). 

As to sub-section (3) of sect. 23. If an Order in 
Council is issued under this sub-section, it will 
affect the provisions of sub-section (2), dealt with 
on p. 182, supra. 

As to sub-section (4). This sub-section deals with 
voting by proxy, which is the second of the two 
methods provided in sect. 23 by which absent 
voters can vote. 

(u) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 2. 



VOTING BY PROXY. 201 

Sub-section (4) (a) provides that His Majesty sect. 23 
may by Order in Council permit naval or military 
voters to vote by proxy when the locality abroad 
where they are performing their duties is so far 
distant from the United Kingdom or so incon- 
veniently situated that the method of voting 
provided by sect. 23 (1), (2), (3) is impracticable. 
By Order in Council, dated June 25th, 1918 (v), 
voting by proxy is permitted in all areas on land 
outside the British Islands except areas in France 
and Belgium. 

Sub-section (4) (b) states the conditions upon 
which an absent voter is entitled to exercise the 
right of voting by proxy. These conditions are 
that he must satisfy the registration officer that 
he comes within the provisions of sub-section 
(4) (b) (i) or (b) (ii). 

As to the meaning of the words a naval or 
military voter in (4) (b) (i), and his right to vote, 
see pp. 79 94, supra. 

As to the word afloat, by sect. 41 (10) this 
" shall be interpreted in accordance with the 
rules (a;) made for the purpose by the Admi- 
ralty." 

As to the words in any area on land abroad 
in which voting by proxy is permitted in pur- 
suance of an Order in Council made under this 
section, this of course refers to the areas men- 
tioned above, i.e., to all areas outside the British 
Islands except areas in France and Belgium. 

(v) Set out on p. 753, infra. 

(x) For these rules, see p. 628, infra. 



202 KEPKESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 23. The persons described in (4) (b) (ii) fall within 
one of the classes of " naval or military voters n 
within the meaning of sect. 5 (3) (ii) (a)(#). 

As to the meaning of the words to appoint a 
proxy, see the Third Schedule to the present Act, 
clauses 1, 3 and 4, p. 359, infra. 

As to the words to vote by proxy at a par- 
liamentary election in accordance with and 
subject to the provisions of this Act, see the 
Third Schedule to the present Act, clauses 5 
to 15, pp. 360362, infra. 

As to sub-section (4) (c), a returning officer shall 
not send a ballot paper for the purpose of voting 
by post under sect. 23 (1) to any person who has 
appointed a proxy while the appointment is in 
force, and it provides further that no such ballot 
paper shall be sent to any naval or military voter 
if the returning officer knows that he is serving 
in any area which comes within sect. 23 (4) (a), 
whether such naval or military voter has ap- 
pointed a proxy or not. 

As to sub-section (4) (d), the Third Schedule 
to this Act is set out on pp. 359 362, infra. 

As to sub-section (5). This sub-section provides 
that a person whose name is entered on the absent 
voters list shall not be entitled to vote except 
under sect. 23 (1), (2), (3), by sending a ballot 
paper to the returning officer, or under sect. 
23 (4) by proxy; in other words, a person on the 
absent voters list is not allowed to vote by placing 
the ballot paper in the ballot box in the ordinary 
manner. 

(y] Set out at pp. 77 78, and see pp. 79 85, supra. 



VOTING BY EMPLOYEES OF RETURNING OFFICERS. 

There appears to be nothing in the Act to pre Sect. 23 
vent a person being placed on the absent voters 
list in respect of his qualification in two or more 
constituencies (0). An absent voter registered in 
more than one constituency can exercise his or 
her right to vote in each such constituency pro- 
vided that the voter does not vote for more con- 
stituencies than he or she is entitled to vote for 
under sect, 8 (!)(). 

As to sub-section (6). An Order in Council 
prescribing forms and making regulations with 
regard to proxy papers will be found on pp. 
754757, i n f raf 



24. Where an elector for any constitu- voting by 

. . . persons in the 

eney (other than a university constituency) is employment 

i m i of returning 

employed by the returning officer for that officers. 
constituency for any purpose in connection 
with an election for that constituency, and 
the circumstances of that elector's employ- 
ment are, in the opinion of the returning 
officer, such as to prevent him from voting 
at the polling station at which the elector 
would otherwise be entitled to vote, the 
returning officer may authorise the elector, 
by a certificate given in the prescribed form, 
to vote at any other polling station in the 
constituency, and that polling station shall, 
for the purpose of Rule 18 of Part I. of the 



(z] See pp. 85 96, supra. 

(a] See pp. 100101, 108110, 



supru. 



204 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



sect 24. First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, be 
deemed to be the polling station allotted to 
that elector. 

NOTE. in the opinion of the returning officer. 

-It would appear that the opinion of the return- 
ing officer would be conclusive on the matter in 
question. 

at the polling station at which the elector 
would otherwise be entitled to vote. By Rule 1 5 
of the First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, 
u at every polling place the returning officer shall 
provide a sufficient number of polling stations for 
the accommodation of the electors entitled to vote 
at such polling place, and shall distribute the 
polling stations amongst those electors in such 
manner as he thinks most convenient " 

a certificate given in the prescribed form. 
By sect. 41 (11) * prescribed " means prescribed 
by His Majesty by Order in Council. At the 
date of going to press the form of certificate here 
mentioned has not been prescribed. 

that polling station shall for the purpose of 
Rule 18 of Part I. of the First Schedule to the 
Ballot Act, 1872, be deemed to be the polling 
station allotted to that elector. Rule 18 here 
referred to is as follows: " No person shall be 
admitted to vote at any polling station except 
the one allotted to him." 



Right to the 
use of 
elementary 
schools. 



25. (1) A candidate at a parliamentary 
election (other than a university election) 
shall be entitled, for the purpose of holding 



USE OF SCHOOLS FOR PUBLIC MEETINGS. 205 

a public meeting in furtherance of his can- Sect - 25 
didature, to the use at reasonable times be- 
tween the receipt of a writ for the election 
and the day of the poll, of a suitable room 
in any public elementary school situated 
within the constituency for which he is a 
candidate : 

Provided that this enactment shall not 
authorise the use of any room used as part 
of a private dwelling-house nor authorise 
any interference with the school hours of an 
elementary day or evening school. 

(2) A charge may be made to cover any 
actual and necessary expenses incurred by 
the local education authority, or by the 
managers of the school, in respect of the 
preparation of the room before the meeting 
for the purposes of the meeting, and after 
the meeting for school purposes, and for 
warming, lighting, and cleaning the room. 

(3) If by reason of the use of any room 
under this Act any damage is done to the 
school-house, or to the furniture, fittings, 
or apparatus, the damage shall be defrayed 
by the person by whom, or on whose behalf, 
the meeting is convened. 

NOTE. A candidate at a parliamentary elec- 
tion. It is submitted that although the context 
of these words in the above section is different 
to that of the similar words in sect. 34 (1) of 



206 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 25. the present Act, the meaning of these words is 
the same as that which they bear in the latter 
section (a). 

between the receipt of a writ for the election 
and the day of the poll. See pp. 179, 180, 
supra. 

As to sub-section (2), the charge referred to must 
be included in the candidate's election expenses. 
See below. 

As to the words in sub-section (3), the damage 
shall be defrayed by the person by whom, or 
on whose behalf, the meeting is convened, 
It is submitted that " the person ... on whose 
behalf . . . the meeting is convened," can only 
mean the candidate. Bysect. 34 (1): " A per- 
son other than the election agent of a candidate 
shall not incur any expenses on account of holding 
public meetings . . . for the purpose of promoting 
or procuring the election of any candidate at a 
parliamentary election unless he is authorised in 
writing to do so by such election agent " ; and 
by sect. 34 (3), " any expenses incurred on account 
of any such purpose as aforesaid and authorised 
by the election agent of the candidate shall be 
duly returned as part of the candidate's election 
expenses." It is submitted, however, that the 
"damage" mentioned in sect. 25 (3) does not 
come within sect. 34 (3), and need not be returned 
as part of the candidate's election expenses (#), as 
such damage does not fall under " expenses 
incurred on account of ... such purpose." 

(a) See pp. 269270, 272273, infra. 
($) See p. 264, infra. 



DEPOSIT BY CANDIDATES. 207 

As regards Scotland, the expression any public _Sect. 25. 
elementary school, in sect. 25 of the present 
Act, means " any school in receipt of a parlia- 
mentary grant " (c). 

Sect. 25 does not apply to Ireland (d[). 

26. (1) A candidate at a parliamentary Deposit by 
election, or someone on his behalf, shall parHamentary 
deposit, or cause to be deposited, with the 
returning officer, during the time appointed 
for the election, the sum of one hundred and 
fifty pounds, and, if he fails to do so, he 
shall be deemed to be withdrawn within the 
provisions of the Ballot Act, 1872. 

(2) The deposit may be made by the 
deposit of any legal tender or, with the 
consent of the returning officer, in any other 
manner. 

(3) If after the deposit is made the candi- 
date is withdrawn in pursuance of the pro- 
visions of the Ballot Act, 1872, the deposit 
shall be returned to the person by whom the 
deposit was made ; and if the candidate dies 
after the deposit is made, and before the 
poll is commenced, the deposit, if made by 
him, shall be returned to his legal personal 
representative, or, if not made by him, shall 
be returned to the person by whom the 
deposit was made. 

(c) Sect. 43 (10), p. 319, infra. 

(d) Sect. 44 (10), pp. 333334, infra. 



208 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 26. NOTE. As to the words in sub-section ( 1 ), during" 
the time appointed for the election. By rule 4 
of Part I. of the First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 
1872, u the time appointed for the election shall be 
such two hours between the hours of ten in the 
forenoon and three in the afternoon as may be 
appointed by the returning officer, and the re- 
turning officer shall attend during those two hours 
and for one hour after.' 7 The hours here referred 
to are hours of the day which is called in the 
Ballot Act "the day of election," i.e., the day 
fixed for receiving nominations (c). 

shall be deemed to be withdrawn within the 
provisions of the Ballot Act, 1872. The pro- 
visions here referred to are the following, con- 
tained in sect. 1 of the Ballot Act, 1872 : 

" A candidate may, during the time appointed 
for the election, but not afterwards, withdraw 
from his candidature by giving a notice to that 
effect, signed by him, to the returning officer: 
Provided that the proposer of a candidate nomi- 
nated in his absence out of the United Kingdom 
may withdraw such candidate by a written notice 
signed by him and delivered to the returning 
officer, together with a written declaration of 
such absence of the candidate." 

As to the words in sub-section (3), If after the 
deposit is made the candidate is withdrawn in 
pursuance of the provisions of the Ballot Act, 
1872. These provisions are those set out imme- 
diately above. 

(c) See Ballot Act, 1872, 8. 1, First Schedule, Part I., r. 2, and 
pp. 179180, supra. 



FORFEITURE OF CANDIDATE'S DEPOSIT. 209 

It should be observed that sect. 26 applies to a Sect - 2Q - 
university election ( d). 



27. (1) If a candidate who has made Forfeiture of 
the required deposit is not elected, and the certain easet, 
number of votes polled by him does not 
exceed, in the case of a constituency return- 
ing one or two members, one-eighth of the 
total number of votes polled, or in the case 
of a constituency returning more than two 
members one-eighth of the number of votes 
polled divided by the number of members to 
be elected, the amount deposited shall be 
forfeited to His Majesty ; but in any other 
case that amount shall be returned to the 
candidate, where the candidate is elected, as 
soon as he has taken the oath as a member, 
and, where the candidate is not elected, as 
soon as practicable after the result of the 
election is declared : 

Provided that where a candidate is nomi- 
nated at a general election in more than one 
constituency he shall in no case recover his 
deposit more than once, and in . such case 
the deposits shall be forfeited to His Majesty 
except such one as the Treasury direct to 
be returned to the candidate. 

(2) For the purposes of this section the 

(d} See sect. 36 (2), p. 279, infra. 
F. 14 



210 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 27 number of votes polled shall be deemed to 
be the number of ballot papers (other than 
spoilt ballot papers) counted ; and where the 
election is held under the system of the 
transferable vote the number of votes polled 
by a candidate shall be the number of votes 
polled by him as first preferences. 

NOTE. As to the words in sub-section (1), the 
required deposit. As to this, see the preceding 
section set out on p. 207, supra. 

the amount deposited shall be forfeited to His 
Majesty. It should be noticed that by sect. 
36 (3) (c) the deposit of a candidate for a uni- 
versity constituency when forfeited is to be re- 
tained by the university (e). 

As to the words in sub-section (2), the number 
of votes polled shall be deemed to be the number 
of ballot papers (other than spoilt ballot papers) 
counted. As to counting ballot papers, see pp. 
182 200, supra. As to spoilt ballot papers, see 
Ballot Act, 1872, First Schedule, rule 28, p. 687, 
infra. 

where the election is held under the system 
of the transferable vote the number of votes 
polled by a candidate shall be the number of 
votes polled by him as first preferences. The 
elections here referred to are contested elections 
for university constituencies where there are two 
or more members to be elected (/). 

() See p. 280, infra. 

(/) See sect. 20 (1), p. 155, and pp. 160161, supra. 



RETURNING OFFICERS. 211 

As to "the system of the transferable vote" Sect. 27. 
and "first preferences," see pp. 158 160, supra. 

28. The returning officer at a parlia- Returning 
mentary election (other than a university 
election) shall, notwithstanding anything in 
any other Act, be : 

(1) In the case of a parliamentary county 

which is coterminous with, or 
wholly contained in, one adminis- 
trative county, the sheriff; 

(2) In the case of a parliamentary borough 

which is coterminous with, or 
wholly contained in, a county of 
a city or town having a sheriff, the 
sheriff, and in the case of the City 
of London, the sheriffs ; 

(3) In the case of a parliamentary borough 

which is coterminous with, or 
wholly contained in, one municipal 
borough (not being a county of a 
city or town having a sheriff), or 
one metropolitan borough, or one 
urban district, the mayor or chair- 
man of the council, as the case 
requires; and 

(4) In any other case, such sheriff, mayor, 

or chairman, as may be designated 
for the purpose by the Local 
Government Board. 
14(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 28. NOTE. (other than a university election). 

As to the returning officer at a university election, 
see pp. 364, 373, infra. 

Returning By sect. 43 (13) (g] of the Act it is provided that 

Scotland! sect. 28, set out above, shall not apply to Scotland, 
and that in lieu thereof the following provisions 
shall apply : 

" The returning officer at parliamentary elec- 
tions (other than a university election) shall as 
heretofore be the sheriff of the sheriffdom within 
which the constituency is wholly situated or, 
where the constituency is situated in more than 
one sheriffdom, the sheriff specified in the Seventh 
Schedule to this Act " (h). 

Returning By sect. 44 (10) (i) of the Act, sect. 28, set out 
ireiand. m above, does not apply to Ireland. In Ireland, 
therefore, the law as to the persons who are to 
be returning officers remains the same after the 
passing of the present Act as it was before. 
Accordingly the following persons are to be return- 
ing officers in Ireland : 

In a county, county of a city, or county of a 
town, the sheriff for such county, county of a city, 
or county of a town is the returning officer. In 
a division of any such county, or county of city 
or town, which is a separate constituency (/), the 
sheriff of such county, county of a city or town 
is the returning officer. 

Where the sheriff is returning officer for more 

(g) Set out at pp. 321322, infra. 
(7i) See p. 391, -infra. 
(t) Set out at pp. 333334, infra. 
(/) 2 & 3 Will. 4, c. 45, s. 66. 



RETURNING OFFICERS IN IRELAND. 213 

than one county, as defined for the purposes of sct. 28. 
parliamentary elections i.e., in counties divided 
for the purpose of parliamentary representation 
he may, by writing under his hand, appoint a fit 
person to be his deputy for all or any of the 
purposes relating to an election in any such county, 
arid may, by himself or such deputy, exercise any 
powers and do any things which the returning 
officer is authorised or required to exercise or do 
in relation to such election (Jc). 

Where the sheriff of a county dies before the 
expiration of his year of office or before he is 
lawfully superseded, the under- sheriff by him 
appointed shall nevertheless continue in office, 
and shall, until another sheriff is appointed for 
the said county and has made the declaration of 
office, execute the office of sheriff, in the name 
of the deceased sheriff, and be answerable for the 
execution of the said office as the deceased sheriff 
would by law have been if living (I). 

Where the sheriff of a county of a city, or a 
county of a town, dies or becomes incapable of 
performing the duties of his office, the council of 
the said city or town shall forthwith appoint 
another fit person to execute the office (m). 

In municipal boroughs, other than cities and 
towns being counties of themselves, the mayor is 
the returning officer (ri). 

(k] Ballot Act, 1872, s. 8. 

(!) Sheriffs Act, 1887, 8. 25 (1). 

(,/?) Ibid. s. 36 (1). 

() 3 & 4 Viet. c. 108, s. 84. 




214 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 28. If, when a mayor is required to act as returning' 
officer, he is absent, or incapable of acting, or* 
there is no mayor, the council must forthwith 
choose an alderman to be returning officer (0). 

In boroughs in which there is no mayor and 
which are not counties of cities or towns, the 
returning officer is the sheriff of the county in 
which the whole or greatest part of the borough 
is situate (p\ 

Whenever from temporary vacancy or some 
other cause there is no person duly qualified to 
perform the duties of returning officer for . a 
borough, city, or town, the sheriff of the county 
in which such place is situate is charged with the 
execution of the writ, and must do all things 
incidental to the office of returning officer. He 
must not receive or execute any writ, however, 
unless there shall be no person legally qualified 
and competent to act as returning officer in such 
borough (q). 



Payment of 
returning 
officers' 
expenses by 
Treasury. " 



29. (1) The returning officer at a par- 
liamentary election (other than a university 
election) shall be entitled to his reasonable 
charges, not exceeding the sums specified in 
the scale of maximum charges framed under 
this section, in respect of services and ex- 
penses of the several kinds mentioned in the 

(o) 3 & 4 Viet. c. 108, s. 84. 

(p) 3 & 4 Viet. c. 108, s. 84 ; 22 Viet. c. 14, s. 1. 

(?) 25 & 26 Viet. c. 92, s. 3. 



PAYMENT OF RETURNING OFFICERS' EXPENSES. 415 

said scale which have been properly rendered sect. 29. 
or incurred by him for the purposes of or in 
connexion with the election. 

(2) The amount of any such charges shall 
be paid by the Treasury out of moneys pro- 
vided by Parliament on an account being 
submitted to the Treasury in accordance 
with regulations made under this section ; 
but the Treasury may, if they think fit, 
before payment apply to the court as defined 
by this section for the taxation of the account, 
and the court shall have jurisdiction to tax 
the account in such manner and at such time 
and place as the court thinks fit, and finally 
to determine the amount payable to the 
returning officer. 

On the request of the returning officer for 
an advance on account of his charges, the 
Treasury may, if they think fit, and on such 
terms as they think fit, make such an ad- 
vance. 

(3) Where an application is made for the 
taxation of a returning officer's account, the 
returning officer may apply to the court to 
examine any claim made by any person 
against him in respect of matters charged in 
the account ; and the court, after notice 
given to the claimant and after giving him 
an opportunity to be heard and to tender 



216 KEPKKSENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Of 

sect. 29. any evidence, may allow or disallow or re- 
duce the claim objected to, with or without 
costs ; and the determination of the court 
shall be final for all purposes and as against 
all persons. 

(4) The Treasury shall prescribe a scale 
of maximum charges for the purposes of this 
section and may revise the scale as and when 
they think fit, and may also make regula- 
tions as to the time when and manner and 
form in which accounts are to be rendered 
to them for the purpose of the payment of 
the charges. 

(5) The court for the purposes of this 
section shall be, as respects an election in 
the City of London, the Mayor's Court ; and 
elsewhere in England and in Ireland the 
county court having jurisdiction at the place 
of nomination for the election to which the 
proceedings relate ; and as regards Scotland 
" the court " shall mean the Auditor of the 
Court of Session. 

NOTE. As to the words in sub-section (1), The 
returning officer. As to who are to be returning 
officers in England, see the preceding section, 
pp. 211214, supra, and in Scotland and Ireland, 
pp. 212 214, supra. 

It should be observed that by sect. 30 the pro- 
visions of sect. 29 apply equally to the acting 
returning officer (r). 

(r) See pp. 217218, infra. 



ACTING RETURNING OFFICERS. 217 

(other than a university election). As to re- Sect. 29. 
turning officer at university elections, see pp. 364. 
373, infra. 

scale of maximum charges. This is the scale 
referred to in sect. 29 (4). This scale has not, up 
to the time of going to press, been prescribed. 

properly rendered or incurred by him. Ser- 
vices would be properly rendered and expenses 
properly incurred by a returning officer if they 
were rendered or incurred in the fulfilment or 
course of his duties as returning officer. 

As to the words in sub-section (2), regulations 
made under this section. By sect. 29 (4) the 
Treasury is empowered to make these regula- 
tions, which have not, however, up to the time of 
going to press, been issued. 

the Court as defined by this section. See 

sub-section (5) of this section. 

As to the words in sub-section (5), the place of 
nomination. As to this, see Ballot Act, 1872, 
First Schedule, rules 1 , 2, pp. 682683, infra, 
and sect. 32 of the present Act, pp. 222 223, 
infra. 



30. Except as herein provided the duties Discharge of 

. returning 

oi returning; omcer at parliamentary elec- officers' duties 

* by an acting 

tions (other than a university election) shall returning 
be discharged by the registration officer as 
acting returning officer, and the acting re- 
turning officer shall have all the powers, 



218 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 30 - duties, rights and liabilities of the returning 
officer under any enactments relating to 
parliamentary elections, and those enact- 
ments (including this Act) shall have effect 
accordingly and the acting returning officer 
shall have power to appoint deputies. 

This section shall not apply to any duties 
which the returning officer reserves to him- 
self and undertakes to perform in person. 

Any appointment of a deputy by the acting 
returning officer shall be subject to the ap- 
proval of the Local Government Board. 

A returning officer at a parliamentary 
election shall not, if all his duties are dis- 
charged by the acting returning officer, be 
disqualified by reason of being returning 
officer for being a candidate at the election. 

NOTE. Except as herein provided. These 
words refer to the second paragraph of this 
section, i.e. to the case where a returning officer 
reserves to himself and undertakes to perform in 
person the duties of returning officer. 

(other than a university election). As to the 
duties of returning officers at university elections, 
see pp. 364371, 373382, infra. 

the registration officer. See pp. 130 131, 
supra. 

This section shall not apply to any duties 
which the returning officer reserves to himself 



RETURNING AND ACTING RETURNING OFFICERS. 

and undertakes to perform in person. The effect sect. so 
of these words is to give the returning officer the 
right to reserve to himself and undertake to per- 
form in person all or some of the duties of a 
returning officer, and in the event of his exer- 
cising such right, the provisions of this section as 
to the discharge of the returning officer's duties 
by the acting returning officer have no applica- 
tion to the duties so reserved. 

A returning officer at a parliamentary elec- 
tion shall not, if all his duties are discharged 
by the acting returning officer, be disqualified 
by reason of being returning officer for being a 
candidate at the election. These words remove 
from a returning officer, all of whose duties are 
discharged by the acting returning officer, the 
disqualification which previous to the passing of 
this Act(w-) attached to a returning officer by 
reason of his office. These words therefore also 
remove the disqualification which formerly at- 
tached to a sheriff from being a candidate for 
the county or borough of which he was sheriff, 
since this disqualification was the consequence, 
not of his being sheriff, but returning officer (x\ 

Sect. 30 does not apply to Scotland, and in 
lieu thereof sect. 43 (13)Q/) makes special pro- 
vision as to Scotland. 



(u) Thetford, 9 Journal, 725 ; Wal-efidd, B. & Aust. 295. 

(JB) Rutland (1601), Dalton, 332; CoMs Case (1625), 2 White- 
locke, 357; R. v. Owens (1859), 2 E. & E. 91 ; Tralee, 28 L. R. 
Ir. 10. 

(y) See pp. 321322, infra. 



220 



Sect. 30. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Since sect. 30 does not apply to Scotland, the 
existing disqualification of returning officers from 
being candidates at parliamentary elections (2) is 
unaffected as regards Scotland. 

Sect. 30 set out above has no application to 
Ireland (a), and therefore, as in the case of Scot- 
land, the existing disqualification of returning 
officers from being candidates at parliamentary 
elections continues. See pp. 212 214, supra, as 
to returning officers and deputy returning officers 
in Ireland. 



Division of 31. ( 1) It shall be the duty of tKe council 

constituency . ' . 

into polling whose clerk is the registration officer for 

districts, and 

appointment any constituency or by whom the registra- 

of polling J . * . j 

places. tion omcer is appointed, as occasion requires, 
to divide the constituency into polling dis- 
tricts, and to appoint polling places for the 
polling districts, in such manner as to give 
to all electors in the constituency such rea- 
sonable facilities for voting as are practicable 
in the circumstances : 

Provided that, before dividing any con- 
stituency in the administrative county of 
London into polling districts, the authority 
therefor shall send a draft of any scheme for 
that purpose to the London County Council, 
and shall take into consideration any repre- 
sentations made to them by that Council. 

(z) Thttford, 9 Journal, 725 ; Wakefidd, B. & Aubt. 295. 
(a) Sect. 44 (10), pp. 333334, infra. 



POLLING DISTRICTS AND POLLING PLACES. 

(2) If a local authority, or not less than sect. 31. 
thirty electors, in a constituency make a 
representation to the Local Government 
Board that the polling districts or polling 
places do not meet the reasonable require- 
ments of the electors in the constituency, or 

any body of electors, the Local Government 
Board shall consider the representation, and 
may, if they think fit, direct the council 
whose duty it is to divide the constituency 
into polling districts to make such altera- 
tions as the Board think necessary in the 
circumstances, and if the council fail to 
make those alterations within a month after 
the direction is given may themselves make 
the alterations, and any alterations so made 
shall have effect as if they had been made 
by the council. 

In this provision the expression " local 
authority " means as respects any constitu- 
ency the council of any county, borough, 
urban or rural district, or parish wholly or 
partly situate in the constituency, or the 
parish meeting of any parish so situate where 
there is no parish council. 

(3) On the exercise of any powers given 
by this section the council by whom the 
powers are exercised shall send to the Local 
Government Board a report, and publish in 
the constituency a notice, showing the boun- 



222 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 31. daries of any polling districts or the situa- 
tion of any polling places constituted as a 
result of the exercise of the power. 

(4) An election shall not be questioned by 
reason of any non-compliance with the pro- 
visions of this section or any informality 
relative to polling districts or polling places. 

(5) This section shall not apply to uni- 
versity constituencies. 

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect any 
polling districts or polling places constituted 
before the passing of this Act until occasion 
arises for the exercise of the powers given 
by this section. 

NOTE. As to the words in sub-section (1), the 
council whose clerk is the registration officer 
for any constituency or by whom the registra- 
tion officer is appointed, see sect. 12 (2) and (4), 
pp. 130, 131, supra. 

In its application to Scotland, sect. 31 is subject 
to the provisions of sect. 43 (17), which is set out 
at p. 323, infra. 

In its application to Ireland, sect. 31 is to be 
read subject to the modifications enacted in sect. 
44 (9) (a), (b) and (c). See pp. 332333, infra. 

piace of 32. The place of election shall be fixed 

for each constituency (other than a univer- 
sity constituency) by the returning officer, 
and shall be 

(a) if the constituency is a parliamentary 



ELECTION EXPENSES. 223 

borough, or a division of a parlia- sect. 32. 
mentary borough, some place within 
the borough ; and 

(b) if the constituency is a parliamentary 
county, or a division of a parlia- 
mentary county, some place within 
the county or within a parliamen- 
tary borough adjoining the county. 

NOTE. This section does not apply to Scot- 
land, but by sect. 43 (16), set out at p. 323, infra, 
the provisions of that sub-section are substituted 
for sect. 32. Sect. 32 does not apply to Ire- 
land (a). 

, r ~ 

33. (1) The provisions set out in the scaieofeiec- 
Fourth Schedule to this Act shall be sub- i 
stituted for Part IV. and paragraph (3) of 
Part Y. of the First Schedule to the Corrupt 
and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883 
(which relate to the maximum scale of elec- 
tion expenses), and that Act shall have effect 
accordingly. 1 

(2) Any candidate at a parliamentary 
election 2 shall, subject to regulations of the 
Postmaster-General, 2 be entitled to send, free 

1 See pp. 224264, infra. 2 See p. 265, infra. 



(a) See sect. 44 (10), pp. 333334, infra. 



2'24 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 33. of any charge for postage, to each registered 
elector for the constituency, one postal com- 
munication containing matter relating to 
the election only, and not exceeding two 
ounces in weight : 

Provided that a candidate shall not be 
entitled to exercise the right of free postage 
conferred by this provision before he is duly 
nominated, 3 unless he has given such security 
as may be required by the Postmaster- 
General for the payment of postage in case 
he does not eventually become nominated. 

For the purpose of this provision candi- 
dates who are, under paragraph (4) of 
Part V. of the First Schedule to the Corrupt 
and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883, 4 
deemed to be joint candidates at an election 
shall be treated as a single candidate. 

NOTE. The First Schedule to the Corrupt and 
Illegal Practices Act, 1883, with the substitutions 
in Parts IV. and V. required by sub-sect. ( 1 ) 
above, is as follows (the provisions set out in the 
Fourth Schedule to this Act, which contain these 
substitutions, being printed in italics) : 

" PART I. PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOR 

PAYMENT. 

"(1.) One election agent and no more. 
" (2.) In counties one deputy election agent (in 

3 See pp. 265269, infra. 4 See pp. 229230, infra. 



PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOR PAYMENT. 

this Act referred to as a sub-agent) to act within Sect. 33. 
each polling district and no more. 

u (3.) One polling agent in each polling station 
and no more. 

" (4. ) In a borough one clerk and one messenger, 
or if the number of electors in the borough exceeds 
five hundred, a number of clerks and messengers 
not exceeding in number one clerk arid one mes- 
senger for every complete five hundred electors 
in the borough, and if there is a number of 
electors over and above any complete five hundred 
or complete five hundreds of electors, then one 
clerk and one messenger may be employed for 
such number, although not amounting to a com- 
plete five hundred. 

" (5.) In a county for the central committee room 
one clerk and one messenger, or if the number of 
electors in the county exceeds five thousand, then 
a number of clerks and messengers not exceeding 
in number one clerk and one messenger for every 
complete five thousand electors in the county ; 
and if there is a number of electors over and above 
any complete five thousand or complete five thou- 
sands of electors, then one clerk and one messenger 
may be employed for such number, although not 
amounting to a complete five thousand. 

" (6.) In a county a number of clerks and mes- 
sengers not exceeding in number one clerk and 
one messenger for each polling district in the 
county, or where the number of electors in a 
polling district exceeds five hundred one clerk 
and one messenger for every complete five hundred 
F. 15 



226 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. electors in the polling district, and if there is a 
number of electors over and above any complete 
five hundred or complete five hundreds of electors, 
then one clerk and one messenger maybe employed 
for such number, although not amounting to a 
complete five hundred : Provided always, that the 
number of clerks and messengers so allowed in 
any county may be employed in any polling 
district where their services may be required. 

* " (7.) Any such paid election agent, sub-agent, 
polling agent, clerk, and messenger may or may 
not be an elector, but may not vote.* 

f " (8.) In the case of the boroughs of East Ret- 
ford, Shoreham, Cricklade, Much Wenlock, and 
Aylesbury, the provisions of this part of this 
schedule shall apply as if such borough were a 
county, t 

"PART II. LEGAL EXPENSES IN ADDITION TO 
EXPENSES UNDER PART I. 

J " (1 .) Sums paid to the returning officer for his 
charges not exceeding the amount authorised by 
the Act 38 & 39 Viet. c. 84. { 

." (2.) The personal expenses of the candidate. 

"(3.) The expenses of printing, the expenses 

* This paragraph is repealed by sect. 9 (4) (p. 115, supra), 
sect. 47 (1) (p. 337, infra), and the Eighth Schedule (p. 398, infra) 
ofjjthe present Act. 

t By virtue of the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885, s. 2 and 
First Schedule, Part I., these boroughs have ceased to exist, and 
although that Act has been repealed by the present Act, these 
boroughs have not been granted separate representation under the 
redistribution effected by the present Act. 

| -$ This paragraph is repealed by the present Act. See sect. 47 (1 ), 
p. 337, and Eighth Schedule, p. 398, infra. 



ELECTION EXPENSES. 227 

of advertising, and the expenses of publishing, sect. 33. 
issuing, and distributing addresses and notices. 

"(4.) The expenses of stationery, messages, 
postage, and telegrams. 

" (5.) The expenses of holding public meetings. 

"(6.) In a borough the expenses of one com- 
mittee room, and if the number of electors in the 
borough exceeds five hundred then of a number 
of committee rooms not exceeding the number 
of one committee room for every complete five 
hundred electors in the borough, and if there is 
a number of electors over and above any com- 
plete five hundred or complete five hundreds of 
electors, then of one committee room for such 
number, although not amounting to a complete 
five hundred. 

"(7.) In a county the expenses of a central 
committee room, and in addition of a number of 
committee rooms not exceeding in number one 
committee room for each polling district in the 
county, and where the number of electors in a 
polling district exceeds five hundred one addi- 
tional committee room may be hired for every 
complete five hundred electors in such polling 
district over and above the first five hundred. 

* . 

" PART III. MAXIMUM FOR MISCELLANEOUS 
MATTERS. 

" Expenses in respect of miscellaneous matters 
other than those mentioned in. Part I. and Part II. 
of this schedule not exceeding in the whole the 
maximum amount of two hundred pounds, so 

15(2) 



228 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. nevertheless that such expenses are not incurred 
in respect of any matter or in any manner con- 
stituting an offence under this or any other Act, 
or in respect of any matter or thing, payment 
for which is expressly prohibited by this or any 
other Act. 

"PART IV. MAXIMUM SCALE. 
" The expenses mentioned above in Parts 1., II. , 
and III. of this schedule, other than personal expenses 
and the fee, if any, paid to the election agent (not 
exceeding in the case of a county election seventy-five 
pounds and in the case of a borough election (c) fifty 
pounds , without reckoning for the purposes of that 
limit any part of the fee which may have been included 
in the expenses first above mentioned) shall not exceed 
an amount equal 

in the case of a county election, to sevenpence for 

each elector on the register ; 

in the case of an election for a borough, to fivepence 
for each elector on the register (d). 

" PART V. GENERAL. 

* " (1.) In the case of the boroughs of East Ret- 
ford, Shoreham, Cricklade, Much Wenlock, and 
Aylesbury, the provisions 'of Parts II., III. 
and IV. of this schedule shall apply as if such 
borough were a county.* 

"(2.) For the purposes of this schedule the 

(c) The words "borough election" would appear to include an 
election for a university constituency. See p. 281, infra. 

(d] These words in italics are part of the Fourth Schedule to the 
present Act, set out at p. 363, infra. See sect. 33 (1), p. 223, supra. 

* See footnote (f ) on p. 226, supra. 




ELECTION EXPENSES. 

number of electors shall be taken according to Sect. 33. 
the enumeration of the electors in the register of 
electors. 

" (3.) Where there are two or more joint candidates 
at an election the maximum amount of expenses men- 
tioned in Parts III. and IV. of this schedule shall, 
for each of the joint candidates, be the amount pro- 
duced by multiplying a single candidates maximum 
by one-and-a-half and dividing the result by the number 
of joint candidates (f). 

"(4.) Where the same election agent is ap- 
pointed by or on behalf of two or more candidates 
at an election, or where two or more candidates, 
by themselves or any agent or agents, hire or use 
the same committee rooms for such election, or 
employ or use the services of the same sub-agents, 
clerks, messengers, or polling agents at such elec- 
tion, or publish a joint address or joint circular 
or notice at such election, those candidates shall 
be deemed for the purposes of this enactment to 
be joint candidates at such election. 
u Provided that 

u (a) The employment and use of the same 
committee room, sub-agent, clerk, 
messenger, or polling agent, if acci- 
dental or casual, or of a trivial and 
unimportant character, shall not be 
deemed of itself to constitute persons 
joint candidates. 

" (b) Nothing in this enactment shall prevent 
candidates from ceasing to be joint 
candidates. 

(/) See footnote (d) on preceding page. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. " (c) Where any excess of expenses above the 

maximum allowed for one of two or 
more joint candidates has arisen owing 
to his having ceased to be a joint 
candidate, or to his having become a 
joint candidate after having begun to 
conduct his election as a separate can- 
didate, and such ceasing or beginning 
was in good faith, and such excess is 
not more than under the circumstances 
is reasonable, and the total expenses 
of such candidate do not exceed the 
maximum amount allowed for a sepa- 
rate candidate, such excess shall be 
deemed to have arisen from a rea- 
sonable cause within the meaning of 
the enactments respecting the allow- 
. ance by the High Court or election 
court of an exception (/) from the pro- 
visions of this Act which would other- 
wise make an act an illegal practice, 
and the candidate and his election 
agent may be relieved accordingly 
from the consequences of having in- 
curred such excess of expenses." 

In order to understand the meaning and effect 
of sect. 33 of the present Act and the First 
Schedule to the Corrupt and Illegal Practices 
Act, 1883, as altered by such section, it is neces- 



(/) See sect. 23 of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act, 1883, 
under which the Court has power to except an expenditure in 
excess of the maximum from being an illegal practice. 



ELECTION EXPENSES. 231 

sary to notice sect. 8 of the Corrupt and Illegal sect. 33. 
Practices Act, 1883, which is as follows : 

"(1.) Subject to such exception (g) as may be 
allowed in pursuance of this Act, no sum shall be 
paid and no expense shall be incurred by a can- 
didate at an election or his election agent, whether 
before, during, or after an election, on account of 
or in respect of the conduct or management of 
such election, in excess of any maximum amount 
in that behalf specified in the First Schedule to 
this Act. 

"(2.) Any candidate or election agent who 
knowingly acts in contravention of this section 
shall be guilty of an illegal practice/' 

Sect. 33 of the present Act deals with the maxi- 
mum amount which a candidate is allowed to 
spend on election expenses by referring to the 
First Schedule to the Corrupt and Illegal Prac- 
tices Act, 1883, and incorporating in that Schedule 
certain new provisions in substitution for existing 
provisions therein. For the sake of completeness 
and clearness it may be useful to deal generally 
in the present Note with the subject-matter of 
that Schedule. 

The maximum amount which a candidate at a 
parliamentary election can legally spend must be 
calculated according to the scale set forth in 
Part IV. (as altered (h) by the present Act) of the 
First Schedule to the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, 
which is set out on p. 228 above. 

The expenses in respect of which this maximum 

(g] See sect. 23 of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Act, 1883. 
(//) See sect. 33 (1) of the present Act, p. 223, supra. 



232 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 38. amount can be legally incurred are those men- 
tioned in Parts I., II. and III.(^). excluding from 
such maximum amount personal expenses (A), the 
additional fee if any paid to the election agent (i \ 
and the expenses of conveying voters by sea in 
order to reach the polling place if such conveyance 
is necessary (/). 

It should be remembered that the amount not 
exceeding 200/. allowed under the heading of 
miscellaneous expenses in Part III. (k) of the First 
Schedule to the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, must 
be reckoned as part of the maximum amount cal- 
culated according to the scale in Part IV. (7). 

The personal expenses which are allowed to be 
excluded from the maximum amount are " per- 
sonal expenses incurred by him (the candidate) 
on account of or in connexion with or incidental 
to (the) election to an amount not exceeding one 
hundred pounds " (m). 

The additional fee, if any, paid to the election 
agent, apart from any fee included in the expenses 
mentioned in Parts I., II. and III. (g] of the First 
Schedule, must not exceed in the case of a county 
election 75/., and in the case of a borough election 
50/. (/). 

As to Part I. of the First Schedule to the Corrupt 
Practices Act, 1883 (set out at pp. 224226, 

(</) Set out on pp. 224 228, supra. 

(A) Part H. (2) and Part IV. of First Schedule to Corrupt Prac- 
tices Act, 1883, set out on pp. 226 and 228, supra. 
(t) Part IV., p. 228, supra. 
(V ) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 48. 
(k) Set out on pp. 227228, supra. 
(1} See Part IV. set out at p. 228, supra, 
(m) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 31 (1) ; see also ibid. s. 64. 



PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOR PAYMENT. 233 

supra), u Persons legally employed for payment" Sect. 33. 
In addition to the persons here referred to, a 
candidate may legally employ any person whose 
employment arises in consequence of the candi- 
date incurring any of the expenses authorised 
(1) under Part II. (> of the First Schedule to the 
Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, unless such employ- 
ment is otherwise prohibited, or (2) under sect. 48 
of that Act in the conveyance of voters by sea in 
the cases specified in such section. 

Where a county or borough is divided, each 
division is considered a separate constituency (0). 

If the candidate employs any person for 
payment other than those mentioned above, 
he is guilty of an illegal practice (j), and if 
elected his election will be void (q). Further, on 
summary conviction he is liable to a fine of 
100/. (r), and if reported guilty by an election 
court is incapable for seven years of being 
elected to or sitting in the House of Commons 
for the county or borough within which the illegal 
practice has been committed (q\ and in both 
cases (q) he is also incapable for five years of 
being registered as an elector, or voting at any 
parliamentary election, or election for a public 
office (s), held for or within the county or borough 

() Set out on pp. 226227, supra. 

() Sect. 37 (1) (2), and sect. 41 (l),pp. 282 and 305 respectively. 

(p) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 21 (2). 

(q) Ibid. 8. 11. 

(r] Ibid. 68. 10, 43 (4). 

(s) Ibid. s. 64. 



234 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. within which the illegal practice has been com- 
mitted. 

Where a person is primarily employed in one 
capacity he is not prohibited from doing work in 
another capacity, provided that the employment 
is not a device for evading the Corrupt Practices 
Act. Thus, in Elgin and Nairn (t) it was proved 
that M. had been appointed one of the respondent's 
polling agents, and had been paid seventeen guineas 
for his services. M. was acquainted with most of 
the voters in the district, and he admitted that 
both on the polling day and previous to it he had 
urged voters to vote. Counsel contended that M. 
was substantially a sub-agent, and that his appoint- 
ment was a breach of sect. 17 of the Act of 1883. 
The Court decided against this contention, and in 
giving judgment Lord McLaren said (u) : "The 
objection is, not that the total number of salaried 
agents authorised by the statute was exceeded, 
but that while, ex facie of the letters of appoint- 
ment, Mr. Gr. had no more agents of the various 
classes than the statute authorised, yet the per- 
sons were employed and paid nominally in one 
capacity, but with the intention, arid, I suppose, 
under contract, that they should render services 
in another capacity. Now, the enactment that is 
said to have been violated is sect. 17 of the Act 
of 1883, and that section prohibits the engage- 
ment or the employment for payment for any 
purpose or in any capacity, except for any pur- 

(0 (1895), 50. &H. 13, 14. 
() Ibid, at pp. 13, 14, 15. 



PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOK PAYMENT. 



235 



poses or capacities mentioned in the First and 
Second Schedules thereof ; the persons who may 
be employed as enumerated in the Schedule are 
an election agent, who has the supervision of the 
candidate's affairs generally, and then for each 
district there may be a sub-agent, a polling agent, 
a clerk, and a messenger. The duties of these 
officers are not very strictly defined. I do not 
think there is any definition of the duties of a 
sub-agent, but it sufficiently appears that he is a 
person through whom payments may be made at 
the request of the principal agent. In all other 
respects his agency seems to be perfectly general 
... a polling agent is a person who is to repre- 
sent a candidate in the polling booth to detect 
personation. . . . The general and leading pur- 
pose, I think, of sect. 17 is to keep down expen- 
diture by prohibiting the employment of a larger 
number of persons than are mentioned in the 
Schedule. It may very well be that the clause 
would also prohibit the employment for money 
of an agent to perform additional duties to those 
which are indicated by his name or by his descrip- 
tion ; but in order to invalidate an election because 
an agent has performed duties additional to those 
for which he is expressly engaged, it would be 
necessary, at least, that we should have a case 
very clearly proved ; and it is evident that it 
would always be extremely difficult to establish 
a case of that description of colourable employ- 
ment of a man in one capacity, in order that he 
might perform duties in another capacity . . . 



Sect. 33. 



236 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. as I read the Election Acts, the employe is in no 
way inhibited from using his personal exertions 
as an elector to influence the votes of other elec- 
tors ; nor, so far as I see, is there any restriction 
on the right of a paid agent or officer to render 
services to the candidate such as he may think 
fitting, except that he cannot be employed in the 
payment of election expenses unless he is the 
sub-agent." 

In Lichfield(x) Pollock, B., said : " It was fairly 
admitted by counsel that some of the persons who 
were employed as clerks had acted as canvassers. 
The question, therefore, is whether that was done 
honestly or was culpable. It is not because a 
man, who is employed to act as a clerk for only 
part of the day, or for some possibly trivial or 
small matters, such as the directing of envelopes, 
or what-not ; it is not because he occupies that 
time which is his own that he is to be robbed of 
the ordinary right of a citizen to go about and 
take an interest in an election where he cares for 
the politics involved, and to canvass. The ques- 
tion, therefore, in this case, as in others, is : Was 
there a canvassing either by the direct direction 
of the sitting member or his agent, or by their 
knowledge, in the sense that they not merely 
knew that there was canvassing done, in fact, 
. . . but that the canvassing was such that the 
fair assumption would be that it was illegal ? As 
to that I entirely agree with the judgment in the 
Elgin case(^)." 

(x) (1895), 5 0. & H. at pp. 28, 29. (//) Ibid. p. 13. 



PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOR PAYMENT. 

Where persons are bon& fide employed in a Sect 33. 
manner not forbidden by the law, e.g. to take out 
and deliver bills, this will not make them mes- 
sengers. On the other hand, if their employ- 
ment in regard to the bills is a mere device to 
evade the provisions of the Corrupt Practices Act 
as to the number of messengers who may be em- 
ployed, the employment would be illegal. The 
same observations apply to the employment of 
persons who are legally employed for any pur- 
pose, and who happen to be employed to do the 
copying work. This does not make them clerks 
unless the employment is colourable, and for the 
purpose of evading the Act. 

In the words of Cave, J., in Pontefract (#) : 
" The number of clerks, that is to say, the persons 
who attend upon the committee, is limited. The 
number of messengers who are supposed to go on 
messages from one committee room to another, 
or to fetch a particular individual who happens to 
be wanted, is also limited. On the other hand, 
mere clerical work has not in every case to be 
done by clerks ; but obviously, if they have other 
duties, you may employ persons who give them- 
selves out for doing clerical work to do it, and 
the mere fact that they are employed to do 
clerical work, writing addresses, cbpying out 
documents, or things of that kind, does not at 
all, in my judgment, necessarily make them clerks ; 
nor again, if other persons are employed to take 
out and deliver bills, does that make them, in my 

(z) (1893), Day's Election Cases, pp. 129, 130. 




238 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 33. 



Canvassing, 
handbills, 
addresses, 
and notices. 



judgment, messengers. In both these cases, no 
doubt, if there is only colourable employment of 
these people, if there is an intention of evading 
the Act, it would bring the offender at once 
within its provisions." 

In Stepney Division (a\ in the recriminatory 
case, it was proved that about twenty men were 
employed by the petitioner's agent to distribute 
on the polling day in the neighbourhood of the 
polling stations handbills, twelve inches long by 
eight inches broad, headed, " Stepney Election, 
Thursday, November 26. From 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
Facts worth remembering at the poll." Then 
followed six paragraphs containing certain state- 
ments about the qualifications of the petitioner to 
be elected, and concluding thus : " Mr. I. will be 
the winning candidate if his friends will poll 
early and mark their voting papers thus." Then 
followed a copy of the ballot paper with the 
respondent's name in very small letters, and the 
petitioner's name in very large letters, with a X 
after it. Denman, J., said that these bills would 
be most appropriately described as " canvassing 
handbills," but the judges were divided in opinion 
as to whether it was an illegal practice or expense 
to distribute bills of this kind. 

In B 'arrow-in- Fur ness (#), the respondent and his 
agent had incurred expense and employed people 
in distributing, posting, or printing documents, 
which included a letter written by a distinguished 



(a) (1886), 4 0. & H. 52. 
(fe) Ibid. 76. 



PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOR PAYMENT. 239 

statesman to an alderman of the borough and Sect - 33 - 
notices " Vote for Duncan" ; and the Court, having 
regard to other parts of the Corrupt Practices Act, 
1883, such as sect. 18, held that such expense 
was not illegal, and that such documents were 
" addresses and notices " under Part II. of the 
First Schedule. The Court intimated, however, 
that offensive pictures and statements might be 
illegal. 

In Finsbury(c) counsel for the petitioner ob- Billposters. 
jected to the votes of two persons as having been 
employed by the respondent as bill-posters. It 
appeared that the men carried on business as bill- 
posters, and contracted with the respondent to 
post bills on his behalf . Cave, J., said(J): "If 
the work is of a kind, which can be done for 
both parties it does not disqualify. These men 
were not engaged in an employment requiring 
personal service, and which, therefore, could not 
be rendered to both sides at the same time. They 
were bill-posters, and were not bound to go and 
post bills with their own hands. They might post 
them themselves if they liked, or might employ 
men, as they in fact did, to post them. It is all 
a question for the contractor how he will fulfil 
his contract, and he is not bound to abstain from 
posting the bills himself if he likes to do so." 
Vaughan Williams, J., said(: " ID 30 & 31 
Viet. c. 102, s. 11, the disqualifying words are 

(c) (1892), 4 0. & H. 176. 

(d) Ibid. 177. 
() Ibid. 



canvassers. 



240 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. i agent, canvasser, clerk, messenger, or other 
like employment.' That means an employment 
ejusdem generis, and I do not think these gentlemen 
were employed in any employment of that kind." 
Payment of The payment of canvassers is an illegal pay- 
ment, and if, under the guise of canvassing for 
registration, men are sent out by the candidate, 
his election agent, or sub-agent, to canvass for 
the election and are paid for such canvassing, this 
would be an illegal practice, which would con- 
sequently make the election void(/). 

In Rochester (g) Cave, J., said: u No less than 
300 persons of the lower class of voters have been 
employed going about with what purports to be a 
canvassing book, but which appears to have been 
employed for registration purposes. If they were 
all paid at 5s., as, admittedly, the man Knight 
was paid, if they did no more work than Knight 
did, I should have very little hesitation in coming 
to the conclusion that the whole of that employ- 
ment was collusive, and that that was a case of 
bribery on a very extensive scale. Fortunately 
for the respondent, that is not the way in which 
it was put before us in the particulars." 

No illegal act is committed, however, if there- 
is only that species of canvassing which is con- 
nected with registration, and not that kind of 
canvassing which attends upon an election (Ji). 

(/) Per Cave, J., in Stepney (Borough] (1892), Day's Election 
Cases, 119. See also p. 236, supra. 

(g) (1892), Day's Election Cases, 102103. 

(A) Per Cave, J., in Stepney (Borough] (1892), Day's Election 
Cases, 119. 



PERSONS LEGALLY EMPLOYED FOR PAYMENT. 

In Ipswich (i) it was held illegal to hire persons sect. 33. 
to keep order at meetings. On the other hand, Employment 

. i , i i i i f persons to 

there can be no objection to the employment keep order, 
of unpaid volunteers to put down disturbances, 
and where any serious disorder is apprehended it 
may be a wise proceeding to swear in such volun- 
teers as special constables " (). 

" If a man were so obnoxious to his fellows 
that they could not resist the desire to fall upon 
him and do him an injury whenever they met 
him, even if it were at a public meeting at which 
they would otherwise have behaved themselves 
in an orderly manner, he would not be guilty of 
an illegal practice if he were to pay men to 
protect him "(7). 

In Barrow-in-Furness(m} it was proved that at Payment may 

11,11- be in kind. 

a meeting summoned by the election agent ior 
the respondent, at which about 400 persons were 
present, it was agreed, with the sanction of the 
respondent and the election agent, to provide 
refreshments on the polling day, at the expense 
of the respondent, to 441 persons who were 
designated " workers," and who were to take an 
active part in the election on behalf of the respon- 
dent. Of the persons who partook of the re- 
freshment 226 were voters. The refreshments 
consisted of a pork pie, a sandwich, and a cup of 
coffee for each person, and were distributed in 
the various committee rooms. 

(i) (1886), 4 0. & H. 74. 
(k) Ibid, per Cave, J. 
(Z) Ibid. 72, 73. 
(m) Ibid. 78, 79. 
F. 16 



243 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sectjss. The Court held that there had been illegal 
payment within the meaning of sect. IT of the 
Corrupt Practices Act, and, as the employment 
was by the respondent and his election agent, 
that there had been an illegal practice, and the 
election was therefore declared void. 

As to Parts II. and III. (m) of the First Schedule 
to the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, and the general 
principles as to what constitute election expenses. As 
was indicated above (w), the First Schedule to the 
Corrupt arid Illegal Practices Act, 1883, must be 
read with sect. 8 (o) of that Act. In that section 
occur the words, " expenses incurred on account 
of or in respect of the conduct or management of 
such election." 

What, then, do these words include ? First, in 
order to understand their meaning, it is necessary 
to know when the election begins and when it 
ends. 

As to the question When does the election 
begin ? the Courts have consistently refused to 
lay down any definite rule on the point. Each 
case must be considered with reference to its par- 
ticular circumstances (p). The Court will take into 
consideration the whole of the facts, the nature, 
extent, and amount of the work done, and of the 
expenses incurred ; the question how far the 
operations of the candidate were continuous up 

(ni) Set out on pp. 226228, supra. 

(n) See pp. 230231, supra. 

(o) Set out at p. 231, supra. 

(p) See the observations of Lawrance, J., and Pickford, J., in 
East Dorset (1910), 6 0. & H. at pp. 39, 40, and pp. 49, 50, respec- 
tively. 



WHEN DOES THE ELECTION BEGIN ? 243 

to the election or were intermittent ; and, above Sect. 38. 
all, whether the evidence goes to show that every- 
thing has been done in good faith, or whether, 
on the other hand, it shows an attempt to evade 
the Corrupt Practices Act. 

"It is impossible to say that only those expenses 
are to be returned which are incurred after the 
writ is issued. The time which elapses in many 
cases between the issue of the writ and the date 
of the election (q) is too short to admit of the neces- 
sary preparations being made for conducting the . 
election, and it is absolutely essential that pre- 
parations of that kind should be begun and 
expenses should be incurred in anticipation of 
the issue of the writ. There is nothing in the 
Act which forbids expenses being incurred before 
the issue of the writ ; there is nothing in the Act 
which forbids the candidate to incur such expenses. 
The Act, no doubt, requires that they should be 
paid by the election agent, and so long as they 
are paid by the election agent it does not re- 
quire that they should in all cases be incurred 
by him" (r). 

" For some reason, good or bad," said Lord 
Kyllachy in Elgin and Nairn (s\ u the Legislature 
has confined the enactment to expenses which can 
be attributed to the i conduct and management of 
the election ' ; and these words, as it seems to me, 
at least suggest and contemplate an election, which 
is not in nubibus, but is reasonably imminent. . . . 

(q) See pp. 179 180, supra. v 

(r) Per Cave, J., in Rochester (1892), 5 0. & H. at p. 159. 
() (1895), 5 0. & H. at pp. 10, 12. 
16(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. Accordingly, while I think that the Act indicates 
plainly enough the kind of period which it con- 
templates, it contains nothing in the shape of 
hard-and-fast definition ; and, that being so, I 
apprehend the result is that it is left to us, as 
election judges, and it becomes our duty, to con- 
sider each case with respect to its own facts, and 
to say in each case whether or not special circum- 
stances exist requiring us to hold that the election 
began prior to what I may call the normal period. 
In considering that question I apprehend we are 
to have regard to the whole facts the nature of 
the work done, and of the expenses incurred ; the 
extent and amount of that work, and of those 
expenses ; the question how far the operations of 
the candidate were continuous up to the election 
or were intermittent, taking the shape merely of 
periodical visits to the constituency. Above all, 
we are, I apprehend, to have regard to this, 
whether we have before us evidence of any at- 
tempt to evade the Act evidence, for example, 
of profuse expenditure purposely antedated, so as 
to escape the Act ; or whether, on the other hand, 
everything appears to have been done in good 
faith, and in ordinary course, the pre-election 
operations and pre-election expenditure being on 
the whole fair and reasonable that is to say, fair 
and reasonable, having regard to the position of 
the candidate and the character of the con- 
stituency." 

In the same case, Lord McLaren said (r) : 
Conduct or management of such election ' 

(r) (1895), 5 0. & H. at pp. 5, 6. 



u i 



WHEN DOES THE ELECTION BEGIN ? 245 

means a definite election within the knowledge Sec *- 33.^ 
and contemplation of the parties who are engaged 
in conducting and managing it. ... Again, there 
may be a case of an unexpected death vacancy, 
where an election could not be in the thoughts of 
the people, until the vacancy occurred ; but there 
may be intermediate cases, and the late general 
election sufficiently illustrates my meaning the 
case where there is a vote in the House of Com- 
mons adverse to the Ministry, and where from the 
moment when that vote is announced everyone is 
looking forward to a dissolution of Parliament, 
with a view to determining whether the Govern- 
ment of the day is to continue to enjoy the 
confidence of the country. 1 should certainly 
hold that from that time the election had begun 
in the sense of the sections we are considering. 
I do not say that it may not be begun at an 
even earlier period. If, for example, a candidate, 
not proceeding upon any public and patent facts, 
but trusting to his own political sagacity and 
looking round the political horizon, thinks that 
an election is imminent, and proceeds to institute 
what is called a canvass of the constituency, which 
he continues without intermission down to the 
election, it may very well be that in such a case 
his own judgment as to when it is necessary to 
attend to his electoral interests shall be taken as 
fixing the commencement of that particular elec- 
tion. I think I have said enough to indicate that , 
in the view of the statute which I adopt, it is 
impossible to lay down any definite term or to 



246 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect.jss. deal with this otherwise than as a question of fact 
in which the general political history of the period 
and the conduct of the individual candidate are 
both to be taken into account." 

In a subsequent case, Pollock, B., said (5), after 
referring to this judgment: "I entirely agree 
with Lord McLaren when he said that what is 
meant by an election is a definite election within 
the knowledge and contemplation of the par- 
ties " 

"I think," said Hawkins, J., in Walsall(t), 
" the limit of time to which we ought to apply 
our minds is a period commencing from the time 
when it was first known that the respondent 
announced his intention to present himself as 
a candidate for election at the next ensuing 
election." 

" As soon as a candidate begins to hold meet- 
ings in the constituency to advance his candi- 
daturein other words, as soon as he begins to 
take measures to promote the election the elec- 
tion commences. ... I therefore hold," said 
Bruce, J., in Lichfield(u\ " that the expenses of 
that meeting, and the expenses incurred after 
that date to promote Mr. F.'s candidature, were 
election expenses, and that there was a neglect 
to comply with the requirements of the statute in 
not returning those expenses." 



(a) Lichfield (1895), 6 0. & H. at p. 35. 

(0 (1892), 4 O. &H. at p. 125; approved by Pollock, B., in 
Lichfield (1895), 5 0. & H. p. 36. 
(u) (1895), 5 O. & H. at pp. 37, 38. 



WHEN DOES THE ELECTION BEGIN ? 247 

In Lancaster (x), a year later, Pollock, B., said : Sect. 83. 

"I must say, with all who have gone before 
me, in giving judgment upon this point, the 
statute does not state when the election begins. 
It says many things as to the appointment of an 
agent and the incurring of election expenses, 
which might point, with the words ' or manage- 
ment of the election,' to this meaning that the 
election did not commence until there was an 
actual election, and an election agent actually 
appointed ; but the judges have not accepted that 
construction. The judges have very properly re- 
jected it, and they have said, i We can go behind 
that and start from an earlier date ? ; but still it 
is entirely a matter, I will not say of discretion, 
but of sound judgment, to say how far you may 
go back. . . . Now, I want to say one word about 
the case we had before us the other day at Lich- 
field, because we found there that the election 
had commenced at some period many weeks, at 
any rate, before the election itself. But we found 
that fact because a person who was an absolute 
stranger to the district, who lived at a distance, 
but who had a considerable command of money, 
commenced his connection with the district by 
sending forward an agent, by providing large 
inordinate sums of money to one or two political 
institutions and clubs, by running a newspaper, 
and more than one newspaper, at his own expense, 
and then, when that had been so for a certain 
time, coming himself and saying, i I am your 

(x) (1896), 5 0. & H. at pp. 45, 46. 



248 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. candidate.' I hold, and I should always hold, 
when a man puts himself in that position, although 
it may be some time before the election, that he 
cannot be heard to say that the election has not 
begun." 

In the same case (y) Bruce, J., laid down the 
law as follows : 

" No definition and no definite rule can be laid 
down as to the time when an election begins. 
The Legislature has not fixed any definite period, 
and I think it is not for the judges to attempt to 
lay down a general definition which the Legis- 
lature has carefully avoided doing. I conceive 
that Lord Kyllachy, in the late Scotch case, Elgin 
and Nairn (#), laid down the true rule when he 
said, * I apprehend that the result is that it is left 
to us as election judges, and it becomes our duty, 
to consider each case with respect to its own facts, 
and to say in each* case whether or not special cir- 
cumstances exist requiring us to hold that the 
election began prior to what I may call the 
normal period'; and so Lord McLaren says, i It 
is im possible to lay down any definite term or to 
deal with this otherwise than as a question of fact, 
in which the general political history of the period 
and the conduct of the individual candidate are 
both to be taken into account.' And so Haw- 
kins, J., in the Walsall case (a), ' The commence- 
ment of agency must be determined in each case 



(y) (1896), 5 0. & H. at pp. 60, 51. 
() (1895), 5 0. & H. at p. 12. 
(a) (1892), 4 O. & H. at p. 125. 



WHEN DOES THE ELECTION BEGIN ? 249 

by the particular circumstances of the case.' . . . Sect. 33. 
But the limit of time is not the only question to 
be considered. Even after a person has become 
a candidate, he is only liable to return expenses 
incurred in the conduct or management of the 
election. The question of the time of the com- 
mencement of the candidature is only one element 
to be considered." 

In East Dorset (b\ Pickford, J., when dealing 
with the question of election expenses, said : 
" That depends upon when did the election begin, 
and what was the nature of the expenses ? I 
have done my best ... to find some principle 
that could be laid down ; but I do not think it is 
possible to find one, and I find myself bound to 
say, as the other judges have said in many other 
cases, that we must look to the facts of the par- 
ticular case. When you once get beyond what 
was suggested by a learned judge (c), that you must 
look at the date of the issue of the writ and the 
appointment of the election agent when you 
once get past that (and that has been rejected 
over and over again) it must be a question of fact 
and degree in every case." 

" To my mind," said Cave, J., in Norwich(d\ 
41 there is a great distinction between the expenses 
of getting a candidate and the expense of pro- 
moting his election after you have got him. If 
the primary and direct and real object is to get a 
candidate, I think that the expenses incurred in 

(6) (1910), 60. & H at p. 49. 

(c) See the observations of Grantham, J., in Great Yarmouth 
(1906), 50. &H. at p. 193. 

(d) Norwich (1886), 4 0. & H. at p. 85. 



250 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 33. so doing are not within the Act, although indi- 
rectly they may promote the interests of the 
party. If the nominal object is to get a candi- 
date, but the real object is to promote the election 
of the individual candidate, then I should say it 
would be within the Act." 

In the same case, Denman, J., said (d) : " Ac- 
cording to my view, these expenses for the meet- 
ing were not really in substance expenses incurred 
in the conduct or management of that election ; 
they were expenses incurred in order to induce a 
particular person to become a candidate, and the 
two things are, in my judgment, totally distinct. 
I think, therefore, that, until the respondent had 
consented to become a candidate, the payment 
was not a payment on his behalf." 
Whether As to the question whether the expenses of 

expenses of . . , 

public meet- public meetings (e) and political lectures are elec- 
ticai lectures" tion expenses, and therefore ought to be included in 
tn ^ return, the judgment of the Court in Hagger- 
ston(f) showed that this is a question of fact which 
must always depend on the particular circum- 
stances of each case, If the meeting in question 
was called with the direct object of advancing 
the election of the candidate, and not merely for 
the purpose of advancing political principles, then 
the expenses of the meeting would be election 
expenses. 

(d) Norwich (1886), 4 O. & H. at p. 86. 

() By sect, 34 of the present Act (see pp. 269270, infra], 
expenses of public meetings for the purpose of promoting or pro- 
curing the election of a candidate must be authorised in writing by 
the election agent and returned as election expenses. 

(/) (1896), 5 0. & H. at p. 72. 



EXPENSES OF PUBLIC MEETINGS. 

In the case just mentioned (g) the election took Sect. S3 
place on July 17th, 1895. The respondent ad- 
mitted that he became a candidate on November 
17th, 1892. The legal maximum of expenses 
was 500, and the respondent returned an expen- 
diture of 319. Expenses had been incurred 
between 1892 and the date of the election by the 
Haggerston Unionist Council, of which the re- 
spondent was president, in organising meetings 
and lectures, the payment of officers, and pay- 
ments on account of illustrated almanacs con- 
taining matter in support of the respondent's 
candidature, pamphlets containing his speeches, 
pledge cards and portrait cards, &c. It was 
contended that these expenses were election ex- 
penses, and that they would make the respon- 
dent's election expenses above the legal maxi- 
mum. 

As to the expense in respect of the public 
meetings, Bruce, J.(A)> said : 

" Of course, public meetings cannot be held 
without expense, but in my opinion the expenses 
of such meetings are not election expenses, unless 
the meetings are in some way connected with the 
election of the candidate. A meeting that is 
called for general political purposes does not, I 
think, become an election meeting, merely because 
a candidate attends it, nor even because some 
allusions are made to his candidature. Every 
meeting of any kind that a candidate attends may 

(</) Ibid, at p. 69. 
(h] Ibid. 



252 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

33. have the effect of increasing his popularity and 
making him better known to the electors, but 
incidental matters of that kind do not alter the 
character as regards the expense of the meetings. 
In each case it must be a question of fact whether 
the main object of the meeting is to promote the 
election of the candidate. The lectures in 1893, 
about which we have heard so much, were, no 
doubt, of a political character, but they were 
lectures to advance political principles ; and I 
think it would be most mischievous to hold that 
the expenses of such lectures should be regarded 
as election expenses. If a candidate opens a 
bazaar, or lays a foundation stone, or takes the 
chair at a charity meeting, he may by so doing 
indirectly tend to promote his election, but the 
expenses attending such meetings, or the expenses 
of the candidate attending them, are not to be 
considered as election expenses. The line must 
be drawn between meetings called with the direct 
object of advancing the election of the candidate 
and meetings called for another object, from 
attendance at which the candidate only derives 
some indirect or remote advantage." 

In the same case(e') Wright, J., laid down the 
law as follows : 

" The giving of lectures for what has here been 
called the education of the constituency is not at 
all necessarily an expense on account of the elec- 
tion, or an election expense. We think it would 
be unduly confining the methods of political work 

(t) Norwich (1886), 4 O. & H. at p. 70. 



EXPENSES ON ACCOUNT OF PAMPHLETS, ETC. 253 

and political enlightenment in this country, if we Sect. 33. 
were to attempt to lay down any such general 
rule as that lectures, even though given with a 
view of advancing the prospects of a particular 
candidate, are necessarily election expenses ; we 
think that must depend upon the circumstances 
in each case." 

As regards the other matters in question, 
Wright, J., said(&):- 

" The illustrated almanacs containing the 
matters which they did in support of Mr. L. 
(the candidate) personally, the pamphlets con- 
taining his speeches, certainly the pledge . cards, 
and I think the portrait cards and to some extent 
the boards, were all matters which were expendi- 
ture on account of the election, and, in so far as 
they ought in law to have been held to be expen- 
diture made by Mr. L. (the candidate), ought to 
have been included in his return." 

In Great Yarmouth (1} Channell, J., said: 

" Now it seems to me that there are two classes 
of expenditure which a candidate almost invari- 
ably does incur, and which he begins to incur 
from the time, at any rate, when he is announced 
as a candidate. First of all there is a class of 
expenses incurred in promoting and disseminating 
the political opinions of the party to which he 
belongs, and in holding meetings for the purpose 
of delivering speeches upon this or that subject 
which the party politicians have taken up, or 

(&) Ibid. 

(1} (1906), 5 0. & H. at p. 189. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. which they take up in answer to what their 
opponents are taking up. Expenses must be in- 
curred in that way by an intending candidate, 
and a candidate who comes down and makes 
speeches in support of what are supposed to be 
the principles of his party is incurring expenses 
and incurring those expenses with reference to 
his future election, because he hopes if he can 
establish the principles of his party to be in a 
majority in the constituency, so that when he 
comes to be the actual candidate he will get 
elected, and so of course he is doing it with 
reference to his own position as candidate, and 
in reference to his own election. But in my 
opinion those expenses, if they can be identified 
as being in reference to the political views of his 
party, are not expenses ' in respect of the conduct 
and management of his election.' ' 

Expenses of In the case last cited Channell, J., after dealing 
oonstitu- g 3 with the class of expenses referred to in the passage 
quoted above, said(m): 

" Then there is another class of expenses which 
is much more doubtful but which always occurs, 
and that is this, the expenses which a candidate 
incurs for the purpose of making himself personally 
popular. There is an expression which is some- 
times used in these cases and one has to use the 
slang expressions in these cases and that is 
' nursing a constituency.' Now that class of 
expenses is not, I think, necessarily part of the 
conduct and management of an election. You 

(m) (1906), 5 0. & H. at p. 190. 



EXPENSES OF NURSING CONSTITUENCY. 

have to look carefully at each expense to see Sect. 33. 
whether it is identified with the particular election 
in prospect, but speaking generally, expenses of 
that character would not in my opinion come 
within i expenses in respect of the conduct and 
management of the election,' which have to be 
paid through the election agent, and which have 
to be kept within a definite maximum. At the 
same time it is obvious that the very things which 
are done for the purpose of what I referred to as 
1 nursing the constituency/ or for promoting the 
personal popularity of the candidate, would require 
very careful consideration as to whether or not 
they come within the corrupt practices, either of 
bribing or treating. Now it is in that light that 
we have to consider the matters charged here, 
and we commence with the various meetings, 
which were mostly, but not entirely, ward meet- 
ings. For the reasons I have already given I 
do not think that the expenses of those meetings 
would be expenses in the conduct and manage- 
ment of the election. They no doubt had a slight 
bearing upon it, for Mr. F. (the candidate) came 
to address the meetings upon political subjects, 
but so far as they were t political ' meetings they 
do not come within the section. So far as they 
were municipal meetings of course they do not 
do so either, therefore I do not think they were 
election expenses." 

In St. George's (n) a question arose as to whether Expenses of 

. . ... committee 

the expenses 01 using a certain room as a committee room. 

(?i) (1895), 5 0. & H. at p. 114. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 33. room should be included under the head of election 
expenses. It was proved that the petitioner had 
taken a house in the constituency. He had built 
at the further end of the yard a room which he 
had furnished as a club room, and which he had 
allowed the Radical Association to use as a club 
for its meetings, and during- the election it was 
used as a committee room. The petitioner paid 
all the expenses in connection with the room, and 
did not include any of them in his return of his 
election expenses. In giving judgment, Pollock, 
B., said (o) : 

" When an election is taking place there must 
be a committee room somewhere, and that com- 
mittee room must be hired unless the candidate 
carries it on in his own house, and there must be 
the expenses of the rent, coals, gas, cleaning, and 
so forth, and, but for this club room, they must 
have gone elsewhere ; it was found more con- 
venient to have this club room, but the people 
who inhabited it were the people who were 
workers for the election : therefore it seems to 
me that these were election expenses. The de- 
cision in this case is important, because it is just 
one of those little things that, until the law is 
known, may prove a source of difficulty in the 
minds of persons who are not acquainted with 
the law, and it is as well that they should know 
in the future that, unless they make a return of 
such expenses, they are guilty of a breach of the 
Act of Parliament.' 7 

(o) (1895), 50. &H. at p. 115. 



REGISTRATION EXPENSES. 257 

Willes, J., in dealing with the question of regis- Sect 33. 
tration expenses under the old statute (Corrupt Registration 
Practices Act, 1863, s. 4) in 1869 in Penryn(p), note?e&tioi e 
went no further than to say : " These are ex- e 
penses which could not, as 1 read the Act, probably 
come into a properly framed account, though I 
should not like to advise anyone to leave them 
out who was anxious to avoid the penalties of not 
accounting." 

In more recent years, however, the Court has 
held that such expenses may be lawfully paid. 
But if the candidate does expend money in this 
way, he should be careful to do it in such a way 
that it cannot be suggested against him that it 
was really a payment for the purpose of pro- 
moting his election. 

" It seems to me," said Vaughan Williams, J., 
in Stepney (q\ " that although registration ex- 
penses may lawfully be paid for by the candi- 
date, the candidate is doing a very imprudent 
and unwise thing, if he chooses to pay those 
expenses by way of a subscription to an associa- 
tion like this Stepney Conservative Association. 
It did not confine its operations to registration. 
. . . They concerned themselves with all sorts 
of matters other than registration." 

In the same case Cave, J., said(r): " Unless 
an election agent can make it quite clear that he 
has not been doing election work under the guise 
of registration work, he must not be surprised, 

(p) (1869), 1 O. &H. at p. 132. 
(q) (1892), Day's Election Cases, at p. 123. 
(r) Ibid, at p. 118. 
F. 17 



258 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 38. when his accounts are brought before the election 
court, if the judges take the view that he has 
been purposely muddling the two accounts up 
together, in order that he may escape from the 
fetters of the Act of Parliament.' 7 

Moneys paid In Kennington (s) it was proved that the re- 
spondent, who was accepted as a candidate for 
tne constituency about eight months before the 



a - n hii npub " e l ec ti n > paid almost all the expenses connected 
newspaper are with improving the registration of the borough 
expenses. in the interest of himself and his party, the 
amount being 145/. It was also proved that in 
August, three months before the election, the re- 
spondent started a newspaper called the South 
London Standard, which advocated his own poli- 
tical views. The paper was discontinued in 
January as it did not pay. The respondent paid 
500/. in respect of this paper, and it was argued 
on behalf of the petitioner that these sums of 
145/. and 500/. were in reality expenses incurred 
" in the conduct and management of the election." 
In giving judgment for the respondent, Field, J., 
said(^): " The legislature leaves to the different 
parties in the country to follow their own in- 
terests in ascertaining, and inducing a revising 
barrister (w) to say, who are and who are not 
qualified to vote, and I must confess that merely 

(s} (1886), 4 0. & H. at pp. 93, 94. 

(*) Ibid, at p. 94. 

(w) It is submitted that the principle here laid down as to expen- 
diture in improving the registration of the constituency would be 
held applicable under the present Act, substituting, of course, 
"a registration officer" for "a revising barrister." 



EXPENSES OF CONVERSAZIONE. 250 

because a person, who is a candidate, looks after Sect. 33. 
his interests to ascertain that no persons but those 
who are favourable to him are upon the register 
and are qualified to be upon the register, I am quite 
unable to come to the conclusion that that is an 
expense on account of the election, or on account 
of the conduct or management of the election. 
It is simply a question for me as a juryman to 
decide, and in this case I shall certainly come to 
that conclusion. The same observations apply to 
the South London Standard. I have no doubt what- 
ever that the respondent would not have published 
this paper at all, unless he had thought it would 
assist him. Whether he thought it would be a 
good speculation pecuniarily, I do not know, but 
the question is whether it is an expense of con- 
ducting or managing the election. It is not for 
me to say what difficulties might arise if we were 
to hold that. I have simply to decide whether 
the case falls within the language and spirit and 
intention of the Act, and I am very clearly of 
opinion that in neither of these cases was the 
respondent guilty of an illegal practice (#)." 

In Rochester (y) the respondent had paid for Ex penses 
certain expenses in connection with a conver- 
sazione given by the Constitutional Association 
of the borough, and the question for the Court 
was, inter alia, whether these expenses were elec- 
tion expenses^ and therefore expenses which ought 
to have been included in the return. The facts 

(x) (1886), 4 0. & H. 94, 95; referred to with approval by 
Pollock, B,, in Lichfidd (1895), 5 0. & H. 33, 34. 
(.y) (1892), 4 0. & H. 158. 

17(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. were as follows : In May, 1892, it was suggested 
to the respondent by the Constitutional Associa- 
tion that it would be desirable to give a conversa- 
zione. The respondent assented ; a conversazione 
was held on May 4th and 5th, refreshments were 
provided at a nominal price, arid the extra ex- 
penses were borne by the Association. The elec- 
tion took place two months later, on July 4th, 
1892, and none of these expenses were returned 
in the respondent's return of expenses. In the 
result the Court held the election void on the 
ground of corrupt treating and illegal practices 
by the respondent's agents: 

Cave, J., said (2): " With reference to the 
conversazione, looking at the time at which it was 
held, and that it was the obvious intention of those 
who took part in it to promote the return of the 
respondent, it seems to me that, if it had been 
innocent throughout, nevertheless it must neces- 
sarily have been returned as a portion of the 
election expenses of the candidate." 

Expense It is sometimes a difficult question to say 

i>y associa- whether expense incurred by an association or 
tion, & c . individual which undoubtedly is an assistance to 
the candidate is or is not an election expense. 
The test appears to be this : Was the expense in- 
curred by the association or individual an expense 
incurred for their own ends and their own pur- 
poses, or was it one of the ordinary expenses of 
the candidate ? In the former case it would not 
be, in the latter it would be, an election expense. 

CO (1892), 4 O. & H. at p. 159. 



EXPENSES INCURRED BY ASSOCIATION. 

This question arose in Stepney (a) in regard to Sect. 33. 
payments made by the Licensed Victuallers' As- 
sociation, and again in CocJcermouth (b) in regard 
to the expenses of a tea meeting given by the 
Liberal Unionist Association. In both cases 
the payments in question were held not to be 
election expenses. In the former Cave, J., 
said (a) : " With regard to the Licensed Victual- 
lers' Association, I see no ground at all for saying 
that those were election expenses. They appear 
to have been expenses incurred by them for their 
own purposes. No doubt they were desirous to 
assist Mr. Isaacson, whom they preferred as a 
candidate to Mr. Thompson, but it does not follow 
that because they were desirous of doing that, 
every expense that they chose to run into would 
become an election expense. They may have 
made themselves agents for Mr. Isaacson, so that 
any corrupt practice traced to them might unseat 
him ; I do not say that it would, because it has 
not been necessary for us to direct our attention 
specifically to that point ; but it does not follow 
that, because that is so, every expense that they 
resort to thereby becomes an election expense 
which must be paid by Mr. Isaacson. If that 
were so, the fate of a candidate would be very 
deplorable. He would have no control over per- 
sons who chose to say that they were acting in 
his interest and for his benefit, and would be 
compelled to pay every expense that they might 

(a) (1892), Day's Election Cases, at pp. 118, 119. 
(&) (1901), 5 0. & H. at p. 156. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. think fit to incur. No such liability exists, and I 
do not think the Licensed Victuallers' case was 
one in which it can be said that the expenses were 
expenses of conducting the election, and not ex- 
penses rather incurred by the association for their 
own ends, and for their own purposes, quite dis- 
tinct from Mr. Isaacson's election, although un- 
doubtedly his election was one of the things which 
they were anxious to secure." 

In Cocker mouth, Channell, J., said(c): 
" The difference between an act done in the 
conduct and management of the election and a 
thing done merely for the promotion of the success 
of a particular candidate seems to me to be this : 
if another person pays an expense and that ex- 
pense is one of the ordinary expenses of the 
candidate, so that the doing of that by the third 
person relieves the candidate from part of his 
election expenses, then the candidate must treat 
that assistance as given to him in respect of his 
election expenses, and must treat the expenses as 
part of his expenses ... if he, being merely a 
person interested for some reason, as a Liberal 
Unionist, or any other reason, in the success of a 
particular candidate, chooses to do things on his 
own account, which do not go to relieve the can- 
didate from any portion of his election expenses, 
that is not doing anything in reference to ' the 
conduct or management of the election.' . . ." 
Expenses of As to the expenses of printing and advertising, 
and of and the expenses of publishing, issuing and dis- 

addresses, &c. 

(c) (1901), 5O. &H. at p. 156. 



EXPENSES OF PUBLIC MEETINGS, ADVERTISEMENTS, ETC. 263 

tributing addresses and notices, referred to in sect. 33. 
Part II. (3) of the First Schedule to the Corrupt 
Practices Act, 1883 (d\ it was held in Barrow-in- 
Furness (e) that addresses and notices cover bills. 

In the case of the expenses last mentioned, as 
well as those of stationery, messages, postage and 
telegrams, and of holding meetings, referred to 
on p. 227, supra, it should be observed that by 
sect. 34 of the present Act : 

"(1) A person other than the election agent 
of a candidate shall not incur any expenses on 
account of holding public meetings or issuing 
advertisements, circulars or publications for the 
purpose of promoting or procuring the election 
of any candidate at a parliamentary election, 
unless he is authorised in writing to do so by 
such election agent, 

. u (2) If any person acts in contravention of 
this section, he shall be guilty of a corrupt prac- 
tice other than personation (/) within the mean- 
ing of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention 
Act, 1883, and the expression l corrupt practice 7 
shall be construed accordingly : % 

" Provided that the court before whom a person 
is convicted under this section may, if they think 
it just in the special circumstances of the case, 
mitigate or entirely remit any incapacity imposed 
by section six of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices 
Prevention Act, 1883. 

(d] See pp. 226227, supra. 

(e) (1886), 4 O. & II. 78 ; of. Stepney, ibid. 52, 54, 55, where the 
members of the Court differed on this question. 

(/) See pp. 274276, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

S^ " (3) Any expenses incurred on account of any 
such purpose as aforesaid and authorised by the 
election agent of the candidate shall be duly 
returned as part of the candidate's election 
expenses." 

As to the effect of these provisions, see pp. 270 
277, infra. 

Return of The election agent of every candidate must, 

expenses. within thirty-five days after the result of the 
election is declared, transmit to the returning 
officer a true return of election expenses (g). This 
return must be in the form contained in the 
Second Schedule to the Corrupt Practices Act, 
1883, or in a similar form(^), and must be accom- 
panied by a declaration made by the election 
agent before a justice of the peace in the form 
required by that Act (h). 

At the same time that the election agent trans- 
mits the return or within seven days afterwards, 
the candidate must transmit to the returning 
officer a declaration made by him before a 
justice of the peace verifying his election agent's 
return (*'). 

As to sub-sect. (2) of sect. 33. This sub-section 
is as follows : 

Any candidate at a parliamentary election 
shall, subject to regulations of the Postmaster- 
General, be entitled to send, free of any charge 



g} Corrupt Practices Act, 1SS3, 8. 33 (1). 
(h} Ibid. s. 33 (2). 
i) Ibid. s. 33 (4)- 



NOMINATION OF CANDIDATE. 265 

for postage, to each registered elector for the Sect 33 
constituency, one postal communication con- 
taining matter relating to the election only, and 
not exceeding two ounces in weight : 

Provided that a candidate shall not be entitled 
to exercise the right of free postage conferred by 
this provision before he is duly nominated, unless 
he has given such security as may be required 
by the Postmaster-General for the payment of 
postage in case he does not eventually become 
nominated. 

For the purpose of this provision candidates 
who are under paragraph (4) of Part V. of the 
First Schedule to the Corrupt and Illegal Prac- 
tices Prevention Act, 1883 (j) 9 deemed to be joint 
candidates at an election shall be treated as a 
single candidate. 

Any candidate at a parliamentary election. 
As to the meaning of these words, see pp. 272 
273, infra. 

subject to regulations of the Postmaster- 
General, These have not at the date of pub- 
lication been issued. 

before he is duly nominated. With regard 
to a candidate for election to serve in Parliament 
for a county or borough, the law as to nomination 
is as follows : 

He must be nominated in writing(^). The 
writing must be subscribed by two registered 
electors of such county or borough as proposer 
and seconder, and by eight other registered elec- 

(j) The paragraph here referred to is set out on pp. 229 230, 
supra. 

(A-) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 1. 



266 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. tors of the same county or borough as assenting 
to the nomination, and must be delivered during 
the time appointed for the election to the return- 
ing officer by the candidate himself, or his pro- 
poser or seconder (/). 

Each candidate must be nominated by a sepa- 
rate nomination paper, but the same electors or 
any of them may subscribe as many nomination 
papers as there are vacancies to be filled, but 110 
in ore (m). 

The nomination paper must be fully filled in 
before it is subscribed by anyone (n). 

Where there were four vacancies to be filled, 
and an elector subscribed four nomination papers, 
which were duly delivered to the returning officer, 
and then a fifth, which was also duly delivered to 
him, the court held that the first four nomination 
papers were valid, but that the fifth was not (o). 

Each candidate must be described in the nomi- 
nation paper in such manner as in the opinion of 
the returning officer is calculated sufficiently to 
identify such candidate ; the description must 
include his names, his abode, and his rank, pro- 
fession, or calling, and his surname must come 
first in the list of his names (p). No objection to 

(I) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 1. See also Monks v. Jackson (1876), 1 
C. P. D. 683, where it was held that a nomination paper delivered 
by a person who was not the candidate, nor his proposer, nor 
seconder, was void. 

(m) Ballot Act, 1872, Sched. 1, Part I., r. 5. 

() Htrmon v. Park (1881), 7 Q. B. D. 369 ; Cox v. Dairies, [1898] 
2 Q. B. 202. 

(o) Burgoyne v. Collins (1882), 8 Q. B. D. 450. 

(p) Ballot Act, 1872, Sched. 1, Part I., r. 6. There have been 
numerous decisions on the meaning of words similar to but not 
exactly the same as these in other Acts ; see Bowden v. Besley (1888), 



NOMINATION PAPERS. 267 

a nomination paper on the ground of the descrip- Sect. 33. 
tion of the candidate therein being insufficient, 
or not being in compliance with this rule, shall 
be allowed or deemed valid, unless such objection 
is made by the returning officer, or by some other 
person, at or immediately after the time of the 
delivery of the nomination paper (q). 

The returning officer must supply a form of 
nomination paper to any registered elector re- 
quiring the same during such two hours as the 
returning officer may fix, between the hours of 
ten in the morning and two in the afternoon on 
each day intervening between the day on which 
notice of the election was given and the day of 
election (r), and during the time appointed for the 
election (s) ; but provided that the nomination paper 
is in the form prescribed by the Ballot Act, 1872, 
it need not be a nomination paper supplied by the 
returning officer (t). 

The nomination papers must be delivered to 
the returning officer, at the place of election (u) 
during the time appointed for the election (s) ; and 
the candidate nominated by each nomination 
paper, and his proposer and seconder, and one 
other person selected by the candidate, and no 
person other than aforesaid shall, except for the 

21 Q, B. D. 309; GhdhiU v. Crowther (1889), 3 Q. B. D. 136 ; Marion 
v. Gorrilf, ibid. 139, and cases there cited. 

(q} Ballot Act, 1872, Sched. 1, Part I., r. 6. 

(r) As to the meaning of " day of election," see pp. 179 180, 
supra, 

(s} See Ballot Act, First Schedule, r. 4, p. 683, infra. 

(t} Ballot Act, 1872, Sched. 1, Part I., r. 7. 

() See sect. 32, pp. 222223, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 33. purpose of assisting the returning officer, be 
entitled to attend the proceedings during the time 
appointed for the election (t). 

The returning officer must on the nomination 
paper being delivered to him, forthwith publish 
notice of the name of the person nominated as a 
candidate, and of the names of his proposer and 
seconder, by placarding or causing to be placarded 
the names of the candidate and his proposer and 
seconder in a conspicuous position outside the 
building in which the room appointed for the 
election is situate (u). 

A person is not entitled to have his name in- 
serted in any ballot paper as a candidate unless 
he has been nominated in the manner above 
described, and every person whose nomination 
paper has been delivered to the returning officer 
during the time appointed for the election (v) is 
deemed to have been nominated in manner above 
described, unless objection be made to his nomi- 
nation paper by the returning officer, or some 
other person, before the expiration of the time 
appointed for the election (v) or within one hour 
afterwards (x). 

The returning officer decides on the validity of 
every objection made to a nomination paper, and 
his decision, if disallowing the objection, shall be 
final ; but, if allowing the same, is subject to 



(0 Ballot Act, 1872, Sched. 1, Part I., r. 8. 

() Ibid. r. 11. 

(y) See footnote (s), p. 267, supra. 

(x) Ballot Act, 1872, Sched. 1, r. 12. 



EXPENSES OF PUBLIC MEETINGS, ADVERTISEMENTS, ETC. 

reversal on petition questioning the election or sct. 33 
return (#). 

The returning officer's duty in this matter is 
limited to objections made to the nomination 
paper ; thus, he has no jurisdiction to entertain 
an objection that the nomination paper has not 
been delivered in time (2), and he has no power to 
deal with an objection to the qualification of the 
candidate (a). But if a nomination paper appears 
on the face of it to be an abuse of the right of 
nomination, e.g., if it purports to nominate a 
woman, the returning officer should reject it(b). 

When the returning officer has considered the 
objection to the nomination paper, and decided 
that such objection is invalid, the candidate is 
duly nominated, though he be disqualified and 
may be unseated on petition (<?). 

34. (1) A person other than the election 
agent 1 of a candidate shall not incur any 
expenses on account of holding public pel 
meetings or issuing advertisements, circulars 
or publications 1 for the purpose of promoting 
or procuring the election of any candidate 
at a parliamentary election, 2 unless he is 

1 See p. 271, infra. 2 See pp. 271274, infra. 

(y) Ibid. r. 13. 

(z) Howes v. Turner (1816), 1 0. P. D. 671 ; of. Monks v. Jackson, 
ibid. 683. 

(a] Pritchard v. Mayor of Bangor (1888), 13 A. C. 251, 257 
(H. L.). 

(I] Harford v. Lintkey, [1899] 1 Q. B. 862. 

(c) Pritchard v. Mayor of Bangor (1888), 13 A. C. 241 (H. L.). 



270 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

fleet. 84. authorised in writing to do so by such elec- 
tion agent. 

(2) If any person acts in contravention of 
this section, he shall be guilty of a corrupt 
practice other than personation within the 
meaning of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices 
Prevention Act, 1883, 3 and the expression 
"corrupt practice" shall be construed ac- 
cordingly : 

Provided that the court before whom a 
person is convicted under this section may, 
if they think it just in the special circum- 
stances of the case, mitigate or entirely 
remit any incapacity imposed by section six 
of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Preven- 
tion Act, 1883. 3 

(3) Any expenses incurred on account of 
any such purpose as aforesaid and authorised 
by the election agent of the candidate shall 
be duly returned as part of the candidate's 
election expenses. 4 

NOTE. The object of this section is to prevent 
expenses of the nature indicated in sub -sect. ( 1 ) 
being incurred other than as part of a candidate's 
election expenses. If any person other than 
the election agent incurs expenses of this kind, 
he must be duly authorised to do so by the 
election agent, and the expenses in question must 

3 See pp. 274276, infra. 4 See p. 276, infra. 



EXPENSES OF ADVERTISEMENTS, ETC. 271 

be duly returned (e) as part of the candidate's sect. 34. 
election expenses. 

Such authorisation can only be given in writing. 

the election agent. Every candidate must 
appoint an election agent, but may not appoint 
more than one. Such election agent must be 
named by or on behalf of the candidate on or 
before nomination day(/). The name and ad- 
dress of such agent must be declared in writing 
by a candidate or by some other person on his 
behalf to the retiirning officer on or before 
nomination day (/). A candidate can if he wishes 
appoint himself as his election agent (g). 

advertisements, circulars, or publications. 
In accordance with the ordinary rule as to con- 
struing the words of a statute, the word " publi- 
cations" must be construed ejusdem generis with 
the words u advertisements " and "circulars" 
in other words, in order that the publication 
should fall within the meaning of the section it 
must be an advertisement or circular or a publi- 
cation of the nature of an advertisement or 
circular. 

The question whether any particular publi- 
cation is within the meaning of the section would 
of course depend upon the circumstances of each 
case. 

for the purpose of promoting or procuring 
the election of any candidate at a parliamentary 
election. It is necessary to deal first with the 

(e) See p. 264, supra. 

(/) See pp. 179180, supra. 

(g) Corrupt Practices Act, 1884, s. 24. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 34. meaning of the words, candidate at a parlia- 
mentary election. 

The present Act does not contain a definition 
of the word " candidate." It is probable, how- 
ever, in view of the subject dealt with in this 
section, its close relation to the Corrupt and Illegal 
Practices Prevention Act, 1883, and the fact that 
that Act is expressly referred to in sub -sect. (2), 
that the word u candidate " would be construed 
in the same meaning as that expressly given to it 
in sect. 63 of the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, 
namely : " Any person elected to serve in Par- 
liament at such election, and any person who is 
nominated as a candidate at such election, or is 
declared by himself or by others to be a candidate, 
on or after the day of the issue of the writ for 
such election, or after the dissolution or vacancy 
in consequence of which such writ is issued." 

In Rochester (h) counsel submitted that under 
sect. 63 of the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, the 
respondent was not a " candidate" until after the 
dissolution and the issue of the writ, and that the 
expenses incurred by him before that time could 
not be included in the election expenses. 

In declining to accept this contention, Cave, J., 
said (?') : 

" When a man begins to incur expenses with 
regard to an election, there is nothing to prevent 
his appointing an election agent. In some cases 
canvassers are set to work, and committees are 
formed, long before the dissolution, or the issue 

(/O (1892), 4 0. & H. at p. 157. 
(0 Ibid. 



MEANING OF " CANDIDATE. 273 

of the writ. If those expenses are not to be Se ct. 34. 
returned as election expenses, the words of the 
Act as to the maximum amount of expenditure 
are set at nought." The law has been repeatedly 
laid down in similar terms by other judges (k\ and 
in Great Yarmouth (1) Channel!, J., said : " I quite 
adopt the view which has been put forward by other 
judges that the time when the election is sup- 
posed to commence ... certainly is not limited 
to the commencement of the active part of the 
election by the occurrence of a vacancy or by the 
issue of a writ." The same view of the law was 
expressed by Lawrance, J., in Maidstone (m) and 
Bodmin (). In each of the three last-mentioned 
cases, Grantham, J., differed (0), but in East 
Dorset (p), Lawrance and Pickford, JJ., stated 
that the law is correctly laid down in the nume- 
rous decisions to the contrary which are referred 

/ 

to above. 

The eases just referred to and the judgments 
cited on pp. 242 249 show that the fact of an 
election having begun presupposes the existence 
of a candidate at such election, so that a person 
may become a " candidate at a parliamentary 
election " and incur election expenses long before 
the dissolution and the issue of the writ. As to 
the words for the purpose of promoting or pro- 
curing the election, these are identical with the 

(&) See extracts from judgments cited, pp. 242 249, supra. 
(0 5 O. & H. 188. 
(m) Ibid. 209, 210. 
(n) Ibid. 228. 

(o) Ibid. 191193, 208, 209, 227, 228. 
(p) (1910), 6 O. & H. at pp. 39, 40, 49, 50. 
F. 18 



274 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 34. words in sect. 17 of the Corrupt Practices Act, 
1883, which have been held to have the same 
meaning as the words u on account of or in 
respect of the conduct or management of the 
election " (q). 

As to when expenses for public meetings, &c. 
are incurred " in the conduct or management of 
the election," see pp. 250254, 260262. 

From the cases cited on pp. 260 262, supra, it 
will be seen that there is nothing in theory to 
prevent persons who wish a particular candidate 
to be elected because they think him more in 
accordance with their own special views upon tem- 
perance or any other subject about which strong 
opinions are held, incurring certain expenses in 
support of his candidature (s) ; but in considering 
the effect of sect. 34 of the present Act it cannot 
be too strongly emphasized that in practice expen- 
diture on account of the matters there mentioned 
will in almost every case be expenses incurred 
"for the purpose of promoting or procuring the 
election " of a candidate. 

As to sub -sect. (2) a corrupt practice other 
than personation within the meaning of the 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 
1883. 

By sect. 6 (1) of that Act, " a person who com- 
mits any corrupt practice other than personation 
. . . shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and on 
conviction on indictment shall be liable to be 

(q) Ipswich, 31st March, 1886 (unreported). See also Ipswich 
(1886), 4 O. & H. at p. 74 ; 54 L. T. 619. 

() See the judgment of Channell, J., in Cocker mouth (1901), 5 O. 
& H. at p. 158. 



PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPT PRACTICE. 275 

imprisoned with or without hard labour for a Sect. 34. 
term not exceeding one year, or to be fined any 
sum not exceeding 200/." 

By sect. 6 (3) of the same Act, " a person who 
is convicted on indictment of any corrupt prac- 
tice shall, in addition to any punishment as above 
provided, be incapable during a period of seven 
years from the date of his conviction (a) of being 
registered as an elector or voting at any election 
in the United Kingdom, whether it be a parlia- 
mentary election or an election for any public 
office (t] within the meaning of the Corrupt Prac- 
tices Act, 1883; or (b) of holding any public (t) 
or judicial (u) office, and if he holds any such 
office the office shall be vacated." 

By sect. 6 (4) of the same Act, u any person 
so convicted of a corrupt practice shall be in- 
capable of being elected to and of sitting in the 
House of Commons during the term of seven 
years next after the date of his conviction, and if 
at that date he has been elected to the House of 
Commons his election shall be vacated from the 
time of such conviction." 

By sect. 43 (4) of the same Act, a person who 
is summarily convicted by an election court of 
any corrupt practice, which cannot occur unless 
such person declines to be tried by a jury, shall 
be subject to the same incapacities as if he had 

(t} As to the meaning of the expression "public office" in the 
sub-section just cited, see sect. 64 of the Corrupt Practices Act, 
1883. 

(n) The expression " judicial office " in such sub-section includes 
the office of justice of the peace. 

1.8(2) 



276 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 34. been convicted on indictment, and further, may 
be imprisoned with or without hard labour for a 
term not exceeding six months, or ordered to pay 
a fine not exceeding 200. 

any incapacity imposed by section six of the 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 
1883. These words, which occur in the proviso 
in sect. 34 (2) of the present Act, refer to the inca- 
pacities mentioned in sect. 6 (3), (4), of the Corrupt 
Practices Act, set out above. 

As to sub-section (3). any expenses incurred 
on account of any such purpose as aforesaid and 
authorised by the election agent of the candidate 
shall be duly returned as part of the candidate's 
election expenses. 

The purpose here mentioned is of course that 
of promoting or procuring the election of any 
candidate at a parliamentary election by holding 
public meetings or issuing advertisements, cir- 
culars, or publications. This subject is dealt with 
on pp. 271 274, supra. 

authorised by the election agent of the can- 
didate. Such authorisation must by sect. 34 (1) 
be in writing by the election agent (v). 

shall be duly returned as part of the candi- 
date's election expenses. As to this, see p. 264, 
supra. 

Practical It would seem, having regard to the provisions 

sect 34. of this section, that it will be more necessary 

even than it has been hitherto for a candidate to 

appoint an election agent immediately that he 

becomes a candidate. In the absence of his doing 



(v) See sect. 34 (1), pp. 269270, supra. 



PRACTICAL EFFECT OF SECT. 34. 277 

so he will be prohibited by this section from in- Sect. 34. 
curiing any of the expenses mentioned therein (w). 

It is probable that the effect of this section, as 
given above, will be used as an argument for 
interpreting the word " candidate" in the present 
Act in the narrow sense of " duly nominated can- 
didate " because of the hardship which, it will be 
urged, would result to persons who desire to 
stand for election and to the public from the 
broader interpretation of the word u candidate " 
in this section. It is submitted, however, that 
the meaning of the section is that given to it in 
this Note, and that the answer to such an argument 
is as was pointed out by Cave, J., in Rochester (x), 
and by Lawrence, J., in East Dorset (y\ that there 
is nothing to prevent a " candidate'' appointing 
an election agent as soon as he becomes a can- 
didate, no matter how long that may be before 
the day of nomination. 

It may be well to draw attention to the danger 
to which members of the public may be exposed 
if they are ignorant of, or neglect to observe, the 
provisions of sect. 34. Owing to the wide scope 
of the words "for the purpose of promoting or 
procuring the election of any candidate," it will 
be of the utmost importance for any person who 
intends to hold a public meeting, or to issue 
literature, of a political character to consider 
very carefully whether such meeting or literature 
is directly or indirectly for the " purpose" referred 
to, and, if so, to obtain the requisite authorisation. 

(to] Ibid., and pp. 271 274, supra, 
(x) (1892), 4 0. & H. at p. 157. 
(if) (1910), 6 0. & H. at p. 40. 



2T8 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

- as. 35. The following Acts, that is to say,- 



t C otat pet The Ballot Act, 1872 * ; 

manent effect. 

The Parliamentary Elections (Returning 

Officers) Act, 1875 2 ; 
The Parliamentary Elections Returning 

Officers Expenses (Scotland) Act, 

1878 3 ; 
The Parliamentary Elections and Cor- 

rupt Practices Act, 1880 4 ; 
The Corrupt and Illegal Practices Pre- 

vention Act, 1883 5 ; 
The Municipal Elections (Corrupt and 

Illegal Practices) Act, 1884 ; 
The Local Government (Elections) Act, 

1896 6 ; 

shall become permanent Acts, and any pro- 
vision in any Act in force at the date of the 
passing of this Act which limits the period 
for which any of those Acts are to remain in 
operation shall cease to have effect. 

NOTE. The Acts mentioned in this section, 
which are now made permanent, were originally 
passed as temporary measures only, but have been 
extended from year to year since the time when 
they would have originally expired. 



1 See Appendix III., p. 665, infra. 2 Ibid. p. 700, infra. 

8 lUd. p. 708, infra. * Ibid. p. 708, infra. 

9 Ibid. p. 710, infra. 6 Ibid. p. 717, infra-. 



UNIVEKSITY ELECTIONS. 279 

36. (1) The provisions contained in sect. 36 
Part I. of the Fifth Schedule to this Act conduct of 

elections for 

shall have effect with respect to elections Univ frsit 7 

constitu- 

for university constituencies other than the encies 
Scottish university constituency, and the 
provisions contained in Part II. of that 
Schedule shall have effect with respect to 
elections for the Scottish university consti- 
tuency, and his Majesty may, by Order in 
Council, make such regulations as appear 
necessary or desirable for giving full effect 
to those provisions and for the effective and 
proper conduct of those elections. 

Any such regulations may be made so as 
to be applicable generally to elections for 
university constituencies or specially to elec- 
tions for any particular university constitu- 
ency. 

(2) This Part of this Act shall, except as 
expressly provided, apply to university con- 
stituencies and university elections. 

(3) In the application of the provisions of 
this Act which are applicable to university 
constituencies and university elections to 
those constituencies and elections the follow- 
ing modifications shall have effect : 

(a) '* Voting paper " shall be substituted 
for "ballot paper," and for any 
reference to the Ballot Act, 1872, 
there shall be substituted a refer- 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

ence to the corresponding pro- 
vision of this Act, or regulations 
made thereunder in relation to uni- 
versity constituencies or university 
elections : 

(b) It shall not be necessary to prepare an 

absent voters list, but the right to 
vote by proxy may be exercised by 
any person who would be entitled 
to exercise such right if his name 
were entered on an absent voters 
list, so long as all other conditions 
enabling him to vote by proxy are 
fulfilled : 

(c) Where a candidate's deposit is forfeited 

the deposit shall be retained by the 
university. 

NOTE. As to sub-sect. (1). The provisions 
contained in Part I. of the Fifth Schedule to 
this Act. These provisions, with footnotes where 
necessary, are set out on pp. 364 372, infra. 

university constituencies other than the Scot- 
tish university constituency. - - Part III. of 
the Ninth Schedule to this Act, set out on 
p. 554, infm, contains a list of university 
constituencies in Great Britain, together with 
the number of members returnable by each 
constituency. 

the provisions contained in Part II. of that 
Schedule. These provisions are set out on 
pp. 373386, infra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS. 281 

such regulations as appear necessary or de- sect 36. 
sirable. These regulations have not, at the date 
of publication, been made. 

As to sub-section (2), This Part of this Act 
shall, except as expressly provided, apply to 
university constituencies and university elec- 
tions. Part III. of this Act consists of sections 
20 to 36. Of these sections those which apply to 
university constituencies and university elections 
are 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 33, 34, 35 and 36. 

In considering the application of sect. 33 to 
university elections, it would seem that the 
maximum scale of election expenses (set out on 
p. 228, supra) applies to university elections. 
The words " borough election" in Part IV. (x) of 
the First Schedule to the Corrupt Practices Act, 
1883, apparently include an election for a univer- 
sity constituency. In sect. 61 of the Representa- 
tion of the People Act, 1867 (which section is 
expressly left unrepealed by the present Act(^)), 
the term " borough " is defined as " any borough, 
city, place, or combination of places, not being a 
county as hereinbefore defined, returning a mem- 
ber or members to serve in Parliament." By 
sect. 65 (1) of the Act of 1883, the words "the 
Corrupt Practices Prevention Acts" wherever 
used in the Act of 1883 include sects. 11, 49 and 
50 of the Act of 1867. Further, the Act of 1883 
contains no definition of " borough," so that the 
word " borough " when used in the Act of 1883 

(.r) Both as Part IV. originally stood and as altered by the 
present Act. See sect. 33 (1), p. 223, supra, 
(y] See Sixth Schedule, p. 395, infra. 




REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

must, it is submitted, bear the meaning given to 
it by sect. 61 of the Act of 1867. 

As to sub-section (3) (a), the provisions] of 
this Act, in which the word ballot-paper, or a 
reference to the Ballot Act, 1872, occur, are 
sects. 22, 23, 27, set out on pp. 164165, 172- 
176, 208210, respectively. 

As to sub-section (3) (b), see sect. 23, pp. 172 
176, supra. 

As to sub-section (3) (c), see sect. 27, pp. 208 
210, supra. 



PART IV. 
REDISTRIBUTION OF SEATS. 

37. 37. (l) Each of the areas mentioned in 
the first column of the First Part of the 
Ninth Schedule to this Act shall be a parlia- 
mentary borough returning the number of 
members specified opposite thereto in the 
said Schedule, and where so provided in the 
Schedule shall be divided into the divisions 
specified therein, and each such division 
shall return one member. 

(2) Each of the areas mentioned in the 
first column of the Second Part of the 
Ninth Schedule to this Act shall be a 
parliamentary county returning the number 
of members specified opposite thereto in 
the said Schedule, and where so provided 



KEDISTKIBUTION OF SEATS. 

in the Schedule shall be divided into the Sect - 37 
divisions specified therein, and each such 
division shall return one member. 

(3) Each of the universities and combina- 
tions of universities mentioned in the Third 
Part of the Ninth Schedule to this Act 
shall be a constituency returning the 
number of members specified opposite 
thereto in the said Schedule. 

(4) The distribution of seats in Great 
Britain under this Part of this Act shall 
take the place of the distribution of seats 
existing at the time of the passing of this 
Act ; and all writs for parliamentary elec- 
tions and other documents consequent upon 
the writs or relating to parliamentary elec- 
tions or the registration of electors shall be 
framed and expressed in such manner and 
form as may be necessary for carrying into 
effect the provisions of this Act. 

NOTE. The First, Second and Third Parts of 
the Ninth Schedule to this Act are set out at 
pp. 404 481, pp. 482 554, and p. 554, infra, 
respectively. 

It should be noted that sect. 37 set out above 
has no application to Ireland (2). Redistribution 
in Ireland is dealt with by the Redistribution of 
Seats (Ireland) Act, 1918. 

(z) Sect. 44 (10), pp. 333334, infra. 



284 
Sect. 38. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Punishment 
of offences 
committed 
outside the 
United 
Kingdom. 



PART V. 

[Sections 3847.] 
GENERAL. 

38. Where any person commits out of 
the United Kingdom any act which if that 
act had been committed in the United 
Kingdom would haye rendered that person 
liable to prosecution and punishment under 
the Ballot Act, 1872, or the Corrupt and 
Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883 (as 
amended by any subsequent Act), or under 
this Act, that person shall be liable to be 
proceeded against and punished as though 
the act had been committed in the United 
Kingdom at any place where that person 
may for the time being be. 

For the purposes of any such prosecution 
any period prescribed as the period within 
which proceedings may be commenced shall 
be reckoned as from the date on which the 
person charged returned to the United 
Kingdom next after the commission of the 
offence. 

NOTE. It would appear that the main purpose 
of this section is to bring the absent voter within 
the operation of the Acts mentioned. 



OFFENCES UNDER BALLOT ACT, ETC. 

any act which if that act had been com- sect. 38 



mitted in the United Kingdom would have 
rendered that person liable to prosecution and 
punishment under the Ballot Act, 1872, or the 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 
1883 (as amended by any subsequent Act), or 
under this Act. 

On an examination of the offences which 
render a person liable to prosecution and punish- 
ment under the Acts mentioned in this section, it 
is clear that some of these offences cannot be 
committed out of the United Kingdom, and that 
in the case of some other of these offences it is 
improbable that they would be so committed. 

It is, however, thought that it will be useful to 
give a list (a) of the acts which render a person 
liable to prosecution and punishment under the 
statutes mentioned. 

These acts and the punishment for the same 
are dealt with under the following twelve heads 
(pp. 285302):- 

I. Offences in respect of nomination papers, ballot 
papers, and ballot boxes (b) . (1) Forging or fraudu- 
lently defacing or fraudulently destroying any 
nomination paper, or delivering to the returning 
officer any nomination paper knowing the same 
to be forged ; or 

(2) Forging, counterfeiting, or fraudulently 
defacing or fraudulently destroying any ballot 

(a) For a discussion as to those acts which have been dealt 
with in the election courts, see pp. 90 178 of the Author's 
" Parliamentary Elections and Election Petitions," 2nd ed. 

(6) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 3. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 38. paper or the official mark on any ballot paper ; 
or 

(3) Without due authority supplying any ballot 
paper to any person ; or 

(4) Fraudulently putting into any ballot box 
any paper other than the ballot paper which he is 
authorised by law to put in ; or 

(5) Fraudulently taking out of the polling station 
any ballot paper ; or 

(6) Without due authority destroying, taking, 
opening, or otherwise interfering with any ballot 
box or packet of ballot papers then in use for the 
purposes of the election (c). 

Any person committing any of the offences set 
out above shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and 
be liable, if he is a returning officer or an officer 
or clerk in attendance at a polling station, to 
imprisonment for any term not exceeding two 
years, with or without hard labour, and if he is 
any other person, to imprisonment for any term 
not exceeding six months, with or without hard 
labour (c). 

Any attempt to commit any of the offences set 
out above shall be punishable in the manner in 
which the offence itself is punishable (c). 

II. Infringement of secrecy. No officer, clerk, or 
agent in attendance at a polling station shall 
communicate, except for some purpose authorised 
by law, before the poll is closed, to any person 
any information as to the name or number on the 
register of voters of any elector who has or has 
not applied for a ballot paper or voted at that 

(c) Ballot Act, 1872, s. 3. 



PERSONATION. 287 

station, or as to the official mark, and no such Sect. 88. 
officer, clerk, or agent, or any person whosoever, 
shall interfere with or attempt to interfere with a 
voter when marking his vote, or otherwise attempt 
to obtain in the polling station information as to 
the candidate for whom any voter in such station 
is about to vote or has voted, or communicate at 
any time to any person any information obtained 
in a polling station as to the candidate for whom 
any voter in such station is about to vote or has 
voted, or as to the number on the back of the 
ballot paper given to any voter at such station (d). 
No officer, clerk, or agent in attendance at the 
ounting of the votes shall attempt to ascertain at 
such counting the number on the back of any 
ballot paper, or communicate any information 
obtained at such counting as to the candidate for 
whom any vote is given in any particular ballot 
paper. No person shall directly or indirectly 
induce any voter to display his ballot paper after 
he shall have marked the same, so as to make 
known to any person the name of the candidate 
for or against whom he has so marked his 
vote(d). 

Every person who infringes the secrecy of 
voting by committing any of the acts set out 
above shall be liable, on summary conviction 
before two justices of the peace, to imprisonment 
for any term not exceeding six months, with or 
without hard labour (d). 

III. Personation. Any person is guilty of the 
offence of personation who at an election for a 

(d) Ibid. s. 4. 



288 EEPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 38. county or borough or at a municipal election 
applies for a ballot paper in the name of some 
other person, whether that name be that of a 
person living or dead, or a fictitious person, or 
who having voted once at any such election ap- 
plies at the same election for a ballot paper in 
his own name(tf) . This offence and that of aiding, 
abetting, counselling, or procuring its commission 
are felonies, and any person convicted of either 
of these offences on indictment shall be punished 
by imprisonment for a term not exceeding two 
years together with hard labour (/). These 
offences are also corrupt practices within the 
meaning of the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883 (g). 

A person who is convicted on indictment of 
any corrupt practice shall, in addition to any 
punishment as above provided, be incapable 
during a period of seven years from the date of 
his conviction (a) of being registered as an elector 
or voting at any election in the United Kingdom, 
whether it be a parliamentary election or an elec- 
tion for any public office within the meaning of 
the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883 ; or (b) of holding 
any public or judicial office (h\ and if he holds 
any such office the office shall be vacated (/). 

Any person so convicted of a corrupt practice 
shall be incapable of being elected to and of 
sitting in the House of Commons during the 

(e) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 3 ; Ballot Act, 1872, s. 24. 
See also footnote (a) on p. 285, supra. 

(/) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 6 (2). 

(g] Ibid. s. 3. 

(h) As to the meaning of "public office" and ''judicial office," 
see sect. 64 of the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883. 

(i) Ibid. s. 6 (3). 



BRIBERY. 289 

term of seven years next after the date of his Sect - 38 - 
conviction, and if at that date he has been elected 
to the House of Commons his election shall be 
vacated from the time of such conviction (k). 

A person who is summarily convicted by an 
election court of any corrupt practice, which 
cannot occur unless such person declines to be 
tried by a jury, shall be subject to the same in- 
capacities as if he had been convicted on indict- 
ment, and further, may be imprisoned with or 
without hard labour for a term not exceeding six 
months, or ordered to pay a fine not exceeding 
200J. (I). 

Every person guilty of a corrupt practice at an 
election is prohibited from voting at such elec- 
tion, and if any such person votes, his vote shall 
be void (ni). 

IV. Bribery (ri). A person is guilty of bribery 
who : 

(1) Directly or indirectly by himself , or by any 
other person on his behalf, gives, lends, or agrees 
to give or lend, or offers, promises, or promises 
to procure or to endeavour to procure, any money 
or valuable consideration to or for any voter, or 
to or for any person on behalf of any voter, or 
to or for any other person, in order to induce any 
voter to vote or refrain from voting, or corruptly 
does any such act as aforesaid on account of such 

(k) Ibid. s. 6 (4). 

(0 Ibid. s. 43 (4). 

(m) Ibid. s. 36. 

(n) As to the punishment for bribery, see pp. 293, 294, infra. 

F. 19 



290 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 38. voter having voted or refrained from voting at 
any election (o) : 

(2} Directly or indirectly by himself, or by any 
other person on his behalf, gives or procures or 
agrees to give or procure, or offers or promises, 
or promises to procure or to endeavour to procure 
any office, place, or employment to or for any 
voter, or to or for any person on behalf of any 
voter, or to or for any other person, in order to 
induce such voter to vote or refrain from voting, 
or corruptly does any such act as aforesaid on 
account of any voter having voted or refrained 
from voting at any election (p) : 

(3) Directly or indirectly, by himself, or by 
any other person on his behalf, makes any such 
gift, loan, offer, promise, procurement, or agree- 
ment as aforesaid to or for any person, in order 
to induce such person to procure or endeavour to 
procure the return of any person to serve in 
Parliament, or the vote of any voter at any 
election (q) : 

(4) Upon or in consequence of any such gift, 
loan, offer, promise, procurement or agreement, 
procures or engages, promises or endeavours to 
procure, the return of any person to serve in 
Parliament, or the vote of any voter at any 
election (r) : 

(5) Advances or pays, or causes to be paid, 

(o) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 3; Corrupt Practices Preven- 
tion Act, 1854, s. 2. See also footnote (a) on p. 285, supra. 
(p}Ibid. 
(j) Ibid, 
(r) Ibid. 



TREATING. 291 

any money to or to the use of any other person Sect. 88. 
with the intent that such money or any part 
thereof shall be expended in bribery at any elec- 
tion, or knowingly pays or causes to be paid any 
money to any person in discharge or repayment 
of any money wholly or in part expended in 
bribery at any election ; but this has no applica- 
tion to any money paid or agreed to be paid for or 
on account of any legal expenses bond fide incurred 
at or concerning any election (s) : 

(6) Being a voter, before or during any elec- 
tion directly or indirectly by himself, or by any 
other person on his behalf, receives, agrees or 
contracts for any money, gift, loan, or valuable 
consideration, office, place or employment, for 
himself or for any other person, for voting or 
agreeing to vote, or for refraining or agreeing to 
refrain from voting at any election (t): 

(7) After any election, directly or indirectly 
by himself or by any other person on his behalf, 
receives any money or valuable consideration on 
account of any person having voted or refrained 
from voting, or having induced any other person 
to vote or refrain from voting at any election (u). 

V. Treating. Any person who corruptly by him- 
self or by any other person, either before, during, 
or after an election, directly or indirectly gives 
or provides, or pays wholly or in part the expense 
of giving or providing, any meat, drink, enter- 

() Ibid. 

(t) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 3; Corrupt Practices Pre- 
vention Act, 1854, s. 3. 
(M) Ibid. 

19(2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 38 tainment or provision to or for any person for 
the purpose of corruptly influencing that person 
or any other person to give or refrain from giving 
his vote at the election, or on account of such 
person or any other person having voted or re- 
frained from voting or being about to vote or 
refrain from voting at such election, shall be 
guilty of treating (x). 

And every elector who corruptly accepts or 
takes any such meat, drink, entertainment, or 
provision shall also be guilty of treating (x). 

VI. Undue influence. Every person is guilty of 
undue influence who, directly or indirectly, by 
himself or by any other person on his behalf, 
makes use of, or threatens to make use of, any 
force, violence, or restraint, or inflicts, or threat- 
ens to inflict, by himself or by any other person, 
any temporal or spiritual injury, damage, harm, 
or loss, upon or against any person in order 
to induce or compel such person to vote or refrain 
from voting, or on account of such person having 
voted or refrained from voting at any election, or 
who, by abduction, duress, or any fraudulent 
device or contrivance, impedes or prevents the 
free exercise of the franchise of any elector, or 
thereby compels, induces, or prevails upon any 
elector either to give or refrain from giving his 
vote at any election (y). 

VII. Making knowingly a false declaration respect- 

(x) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 1. See also footnote (a) on 
p. 285, supra. 

(y] Ibid. s. 2. See also footnote (a) on p. 285, supra. 



PUNISHMENT OF CORRUPT PRACTICES. 293 

ing election expenses (2). The only persons who can Sect. 88. 
commit this offence are a candidate and an elec- 
tion agent (a). 

VIII. Incurring expenses on account of public meet- 
ings or issuing advertisements, circulars, or publications 
by unauthorised persons. Any person other than an 
election agent who incurs any expenses on account 
of holding public meetings or issuing advertise- 
ments, circulars, or publications for the purpose 
of promoting or procuring the election of any 
candidate at a parliamentary election, unless he is 
authorised in writing to do so by such election 
agent, shall be guilty of a corrupt practice within 
the meaning of the Corrupt Practices Act, 



The offences of bribery (c), treating (c), undue 
influence (<?), making knowingly a false declara- 
tion respecting election expenses (t/), as well as 
that of incurring expenses on account of public 
meetings, &c. referred to above (0), are corrupt 
practices within the meaning of the Corrupt Prac- 
tices Act, 1883. 

A person who commits any of these corrupt 
practices shall be guilty of misdemeanour, and on 
conviction on indictment shall be liable to be 
imprisoned with or without hard labour for a term 
not exceeding one year, or to be fined any sum 
not exceeding 200/. (/). 

(z] Ibid. s. 33. See also footnote (a) on p. 285, supra. 

(a] Ibid. s. 33 (7). 

(6) See sect. 34 of the present Act and pp. 270 277, supra. 

(c) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 3. 

(d} Ibid. s. 33 (7), 

(e) Sect. 34 of the present Act, pp. 269 270, supra. 

(/) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 6 (1). 



294 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

s.^ Such person is also subject, on conviction, to 
the incapacities mentioned on pp. 275 276, supra. 
Further, any person committing the offence of 
making knowingly a false declaration respecting 
election expenses is guilty of a misdemeanour, 
and is liable on conviction thereof on indictment 
to imprisonment with or without hard labour for 
any term not exceeding two years or to a fine, 
or to both such imprisonment and fine(^). 

IX. Illegal practices (h). (1) Making or receiv- 
ing payment or making a contract for payment for 
the purpose of promoting or procuring the election 
of a candidate at any election (a) on account of 
the conveyance of the electors to or from the poll, 
whether for the hiring of horses or carriages, or 
for railway fares, or otherwise; or (b) to an 
elector on account of the use of any house, land, 
building, or premises, for the exhibition of any 
address, bill, or notice, or on account of the ex- 
hibition of any address, bill, or notice, unless it 
is the ordinary business of such elector as an 
advertising agent to exhibit for payment bills 
and advertisements, and such payment to or con- 
tract with such elector is made in the ordinary 
course of business ; or (c) on account of any com- 
mittee room in excess of the number allowed by 
the Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, Schedule !.('). 

(2) Payment of any sum or incurring any ex- 
pense by a candidate at an election or his election 

(g) Perjury Act, 1911, s. 5. 

(h) See footnote (a) on p. 285, supra, 

(*) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 7. See Pontefract (1893), 
Day's Election Cases, 6263, and pp. 142144 of the Author's 
Parliamentary Elections and Election Petitions, 2nd edition. 



ILLEGAL PRACTICES. 295 

agent, or sub-agent within his district, whether Sect 38. 
before, during, or after an election, on account 
of or in respect of the conduct or management of 
such election, in excess of the maximum specified 
in the Fourth Schedule to the present Act (k). 

(3) Voting at an election by any person who 
knows that he is prohibited by statute from 
voting, or inducing or procuring any person to 
vote at an election knowing that such person is 
prohibited by statute from voting (/). 

(4) Knowingly publishing, before or during an 
election, a false statement of the withdrawal of 
a candidate at such election, for the purpose of 
promoting or procuring the election of another 
candidate (m). 

(5) In the case of a candidate, his election 
agent, or sub-agent* within his district, printing, 
publishing or posting, or causing to be printed, 
published or posted, any bill, placard, or poster, 
having reference to an election, which fails to 
bear upon the face thereof the name and address 
of the printer and publisher (n). 

(6) In the case of a candidate at an election or 
any agent of his or any other person making any 
payment, advance, or deposit before, during, or 
after, an election, in respect of any expenses in- 
curred on account of or in respect of the conduct 
or management of such election otherwise than 

by or through the election agent acting in person, , 

(&) See sect. 33 of the present Act and sects. 8, 25, of the Corrupt 
Practices Act, 1883, and p. 228, supra. 

(/) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 9 (1), (3). 
(m) Ibifl. s. 9 (2), (3). 
(n) Ibid. as. 18, 25. 



296 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 88. or by a sub-agent within his district, and in the 
case of any person, payment of any money pro- 
vided by any person other than the candidate for 
any of the said expenses, whether as gift, loan, 
advance, or deposit, to any person other than the 
candidate or his election agent (o). This shall 
not, however, apply to (i) a tender of security 
to or payment by the returning officer ; or (ii) any 
sum disbursed by any person out of his own 
money for any small expense legally incurred by 
himself if such sum is not repaid to him ; or 
(iii) payment by the candidate of any personal 
expenses incurred by him on account of or in 
connection with or incidental to the election, to 
an amount not exceeding 100/. (/>); or (iv) the 
payment by any person if authorised in writing 
by the election agent of any necessary expenses 
for stationery, postage, telegrams, and other petty 
expenses, to a total amount not exceeding that 
named in the authority (q). 

(7) In the case of an election agent, or sub- 
agent within his district, payment (a) without a 
judgment or order of a competent Court, or leave 
of the High Court first obtained, of a claim 
against a candidate or his election agent in 
respect of any expenses incurred on account or 
in respect of the conduct or management of such 
election, which is not sent in to the election 
agent within fourteen days after the day on which 
the candidates returned are declared elected (r) ; 

(o) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, ss. 25, 28. 

(p] Ibid. s. 31 (1). 

(q) llid. B. 31 (3). 

(r) Ibid. s. 29(2), (3), (8), (9); s. 2fi. 



ILLEGAL PRACTICES. 297 

(b) without such leave, of any of the said expenses Sect. 38. 
after twenty-eight days after the day on which 
the candidates returned are declared elected (s). 

(8) In the case of a candidate or his election 
agent, failure, without authorised excuse, to com- 
ply with the requirements of sect. 33 of the Corrupt 
Practices Act, 1883, as to the return and declara- 
tion respecting election expenses (if). 

(9) Making or publishing a false statement of 
fact in relation to the personal character or con- 
duct of a candidate for the purpose of affecting 
his return, unless the person making or publishing 
such statement can show that he had reasonable 
grounds for believing and did believe the state- 
ment made by him to be true (u). 

(10) Any illegal payment, employment, or 
hiring by a candidate, his election agent, or sub- 
agent within his district, if personally guilty 
thereof (x). 

(11) Acting or inciting others to act at a 
political meeting in a disorderly manner for the 
purpose of preventing the transaction of the 
business for which the meeting was called to- 
gether, provided that such meeting is a lawful 
public meeting held in a parliamentary constitu- 

(s] Hid. B. 29 (4), (5) ; s. 25. If, however, the election court 
reports that such payment was made without the sanction or con- 
nivance of the candidate, his election will not be void nor will he 
be subject to any incapacity by reason of such payment : ibid. 
. 29 (6). 

(t) Ibid. s. 33 (6). As to the position of the sub-agent, see ibid. 
s. 25. 

(?t) Corrupt Practices Act, 1895, s. 1. 

(a?) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, ss. 21 (2), 25. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 38 - ency between the date of the issue (V) of a writ 
for the return of a member of Parliament for 
such constituency and the date at which a return 
to such writ is made (a). 

(12) Voting for more constituencies than the 
voter is entitled to vote for in accordance with the 
present Act, or asking for a ballot or voting paper 
for the purpose of so voting, provided that (a) the 
fact that any person has asked for a ballot paper 
in a constituency in circumstances which entitle 
him only to mark a tendered ballot paper in 
pursuance of Rule 27 of the First Part of the 
First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, shall not, 
if he does not exercise that right, prevent his 
voting or asking for a ballot or voting paper in 
another constituency (b) ; and (b) the giving of a 
vote by a returning officer in pursuance of sect. 2 
of the Ballot Act, 1872, in the case of an equality 
of votes, or the asking for a ballot paper for the 
purpose of so voting, shall not, for the purposes 
of this section, be deemed to be the giving of a 
vote as a parliamentary elector, or the asking for 
a ballot paper for the purpose of so voting (b). 

(13) In the case of a person who is for the 
time being entitled to vote by proxy in a con- 
stituency under the present Act, himself voting 
or attempting to vote at any parliamentary elec- 
tion in that constituency otherwise than by means 

(z) The writ is issued by the Speaker of the House of Commons 
and may sometimes not be received by the returning officer in 
the constituency until a day later. 

() Public Meeting Act, 1908, SB. 1, 2. 

(?>) See sect. 22 of the present Act and pp. 166 167, supra. 



PUNISHMENT OY ILLEGAL PRACTICES. 299 

of the proxy paper, while the proxy paper is in Sect. 38. 
force (<?). 

(14) Voting or attempting to vote as proxy on 
behalf of more than two absent voters at an elec- 
tion in any constituency unless such person is 
voting as the husband or wife, or the parent, 
brother, or sister of the absent voter (c). 

(15) Voting or attempting to vote at any elec- 
tion under the authority of a proxy paper when 
such person knows or has reasonable grounds for 
supposing that the proxy paper has been cancelled, 
or that the elector to whom or on whose behalf 
the proxy paper has been issued is dead or no 
longer entitled to vote at that election (c). 

A person guilty of an illegal practice may be 
prosecuted in the manner provided by the Sum- 
mary Jurisdiction Acts(^), and is on summary 
conviction liable to a fine not exceeding 100/.(r/), 
and is incapable, during a period of five years 
from the date of his conviction, of being regis- 
tered as an elector, or of voting at any election 
(whether it be a parliamentary election or an 
election for a public office (0), held for or within 
the county or borough in which the illegal prac- 
tice was committed (/). 

Further, he is prohibited from voting at such 
election, and if he votes his vote shall be void(^). 

(c) Clause (10) of the Third Schedule to the present Act, see 
pp. 361362, infra. 

(d) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 54 (1). 

(e) As to meaning of "public office," see sect. 63 of the Corrupt 
Practices Act, 1883. 

(/) Ibid. 8. 10. 
(g) Ibid. s. 36. 



300 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 88. X. Illegal payment (K). A person is guilty of 
illegal payment who 

( 1 ) Knowingly provides money for any pay- 
ment contrary to the provisions of the Corrupt 
Practices Act, 1883, or for any expenses incurred 
in excess of any maximum amount allowed by 
the said Act, or for replacing any money expended 
in any such payment or expenses, except where 
the same may previously have been allowed as an 
exception (i) : 

(2) Corruptly induces or procures any. other 
person to withdraw from being a candidate at an 
election in consideration of any payment or pro- 
mise of payment, or so withdraws in pursuance 
of such inducement or procure rnent(/r) : 

(3) Pays or receives payment or contracts for 
payment, before, during, or after an election, for 
the purpose of promoting or procuring the election 
of a candidate at any election, on account of bands 
of music, torches, flags, banners, cockades, ribbons 
or other marks of distinction (I). 

XL Illegal employment (m). A person is guilty 
of illegal employment who for the purpose of pro- 
moting or procuring the election of a candidate 
at any election engages or employs, or is for the 
said purpose engaged or employed by, any other 
person for payment or promise of payment for 
any purpose, or in any capacity whatever, except 
for any purposes or capacities mentioned in the 

(h) See footnote () on p. 285, supra. 

(i) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 13. See also sect. 33 (1) of the 
present Act, p. 223, supra. 

(A-) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 15. 

(Z) Ibid. s. 16. 

(m) See footnote (a) on p. 285, supra. 



ILLEGAL HIRING. 

first or second Parts of the First Schedule to the Sect - 88 



Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, or except so far as 
payment is authorised by the first or second Parts 
of the said Schedule or otherwise by the said 
Act (m). 

XII. Illegal hiring (ri). A person is guilty of 
illegal hiring who 

(1) Lets, lends, or employs, for the purpose of 
conveyance of electors to or from the poll, any 
public stage or hackney carriage, or any horse or 
other animal kept or used for drawing the same, 
or any carriage, horse, or other animal, which he 
keeps or uses for the purpose of letting out for 
hire, knowing that it is intended to be used for 
the purpose of the conveyance of electors to or 
from the poll (o) ; or 

(2) Hires, borrows, or uses, for the purpose of 
the conveyance of electors to or from the poll, any 
carriage, horse, or other animal, knowing that the 
owner thereof is prohibited from letting, lending, 
or employing it for that purpose (/>); or 

(3) Hires or uses as a committee room, for the 
purpose of promoting or procuring the election of 
a candidate at an election, or lets, knowing it was 
intended to use the same as a committee room, 
any premises or part of any premises, 

(a) On which the sale by wholesale or retail of 
any intoxicating Jiquor is authorised by 
a licence (whether the licence be for 
consumption on or off the premises) ; or 

(m] Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 17. 
(n) See footnote (a) on p. 285, supra. 
(o) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 14 (1). 
(p) Ibid. s. 14 (2). 



302 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect. 88. (b) Where any intoxicating liquor is sold, or is 
supplied to members of a club, society, 
or association, other than a permanent 
political club ; or 

(c) Whereon refreshment of any kind, whether 

food or drink, is ordinarily sold for con- 
sumption on the premises ; or 

(d) Of any public elementary school in receipt 

of an annual parliamentary grant ; 
but the provisions of (3) (a), (b), (c), (d), above, 
do not apply to any part of such premises 
which is ordinarily let for the purpose of chambers 
or offices, or the holding of public meetings or of 
arbitrations, if such part has a separate entrance 
and no direct communication with any part of the 
premises on which any intoxicating liquor or re- 
freshment is sold or supplied as aforesaid (q). 

A person guilty of an offence of illegal payment, 
employment, or hiring may be prosecuted in the 
manner provided by the Summary Jurisdiction 
Acts (r), and shall, on summary conviction, be 
liable to a fine not exceeding 100/. (s). 

A candidate, or an election agent of a candi- 
date, who is personally guilty of an offence of 
illegal payment, employment, or hiring, is guilty 
of an illegal practice, and is punishable accord- 
ingly (t). 

As to the words in the second paragraph of sect. 38, 
any period prescribed as the period within which 
proceedings may be commenced. A proceeding 

(q) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 20. 

(r) Ibid. s. 54 (1). 

() Ibid. B. 21 (1). 

(t) Ibid. e. 21 (2), and see p. 299, supra. 



RE-ARRANGEMENT OF POLLING DISTRICTS. 303 

against a person in respect of the offence of a Sect. 88. 
corrupt or illegal practice, or any other offence 
under the Corrupt Practices Prevention Acts, 
must be commenced within one year after the 
offence was committed, or if it was committed in 
reference to an election with respect to which an 
inquiry is held by election commissioners shall be 
commenced within one year after the offence was 
committed, or within three months after the 
report of such commissioners is made, whichever 
period last expires, so that it be commenced 
within two years after the offence was com- 
mitted (u). In the case of offences under the 
Ballot Act, 1872, dealt with under I. and II. on 
pp. 285 287, supra, there is no limit of time 
within which proceedings must be commenced. 

By sect. 38 of the present Act, this period 
shall be reckoned as from the date on which 
the person charged returned to the United King- 
dom next after the commission of the offence. 

39. The council having power to divide Re-arran ge - 
a constituency into polling districts shall, JSng 
not later than one month after the passing tomtit 
of this Act, take into consideration the 
division of the constituency into polling- 
districts, and make any re-arrangements of 
those districts and of polling places which 
it appears necessary to make as a conse- 
quence of alterations effected by this Act. 

NOTE. The council having power here re- 

(t*) Corrupt Practices Act, 1883, s. 51 (1). 



304 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Sect. 39. 



Regulations 
to be laid 
before 
Parliament. 



ferred to is the County Council. See Local 
Government Act, 1888, s. 3 (xii.). 

constituency. As to the meaning of this word, 
see sect. 41 (1), p. 305, infra. 

In the application of this section to Scotland, 
by sect. 43 (17) (p. 323, infra) the returning 
officer is substituted for the council. 

As to Ireland, see sect. 44 (9), pp. 332 333, 
infra. 

40. (1) All rules, regulations, or pro- 
visions made by Order in Council under 
this Act shall be laid before each House of 
Parliament forthwith ; and unless and until 
an address is presented to His Majesty by 
either House of Parliament within the next 
subsequent twenty-one days on which that 
House has sat next after any such rule, 
regulation, or provision is laid before it, 
praying that the rule, regulation, or pro- 
vision may be annulled, the rule, regulation, 
or provision shall have effect as if enacted 
in this Act. 

(2) Any Order in Council under this 
Act may be revoked or varied as occasion 
requires by any subsequent Order in Council. 

NOTE. The Orders in Council under this Act 
which have, up to the time of going to press, been 
made will be found in Appendices I. and VI., 
infra. 



INTERPRETATION. 305 

41. In this Act, unless the context other- sect. 41. 
wise requires, 

* tion. 

(1) The expression " constituency " means 

any county, borough, or combina- 
tion of places, or university or 
combination of universities, return- 
ing a member to serve in Parlia- 
ment ; and, where a county or 
borough is divided for the purpose 
of parliamentary elections, means 
a division of the county or borough 
so divided ; and elections for any 
such division shall be held in 'the 
same manner and subject to the 
same provisions as those for un- 
divided counties or boroughs (x) : 

(2) The expression "local government 

electoral area " means the area for 
which any county council, muni- 
cipal borough council, metropolitan 
borough council, district council, 
board of guardians, parish council, 
or any other body elected at the 
time of the passing of this Act by 
persons on the local government 
register or on the register of 
parochial electors is elected ; and 

(x) For a list of counties, boroughs, combinations of places, and 
universities and combinations of universities returning members to 
serve in Parliament, see the Ninth Schedule to the present Act, 
pp. 404554, infra. 

Y. 20 



306 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 41. the expression " local government 

election " means an election for any 
such council, board, or body (y) : 

(3) The expression " general election ' 

means an election of members to 
serve in a new Parliament of the 
United Kingdom : 

(4) The expression " university constitu- 

ency " means a constituency con- 
sisting of a university or a com- 
bination of universities ; and the 
expression " university election " 
means an election of a member 
or members of Parliament for a 
university constituency (s) : 

(5) A person who is an inmate or patient 

in any prison, lunatic asylum, 
workhouse, poorhouse, or any 
other similar institution shall not 
by reason thereof be treated as 
resident therein for any purpose 
of this Act (a) : 

(6) The expression " transferable vote " (b) 

means a vote 

(a) capable of being given so as 

(y) See sect. 3, pp. 40 41, s. 4 (3), pp. 6465, and s. 8 (2), 
pp. 101102, supra. 

(z) For a list of university constituencies, see the Ninth Schedule 
to the present Act, Part III., p. 554, infra. As to university 
elections, see s. 36, pp. 279 280, supra. 

(a) See p. 15, supra. 

(b] See sect. 20, pp. 155157, and pp. 158160, supra. 



INTERPRETATION. 307 

to indicate the voter's preference Sect - 41 - 
for the candidates in order ; and 

(b) capable of being transferred 
to the next choice when the vote 
is not required to give a prior 
choice the necessary quota of 
votes, or when, owing to the 
deficiency in the number of the 
votes given for a prior choice, that 
choice is eliminated from the list 
of candidates (c} : 

(7) For the purposes of registration a 

person's age shall be taken to be 
that person's age on the last day 
of the qualifying period (d) : 

(8) The expression " dwelling-house " in- 

cludes any part of a house where 
that part is occupied separately 
as a dwelling-house (e) : 

(9) The yearly value of land or premises 

shall be taken to be the gross 
estimated rental, or in the metro- 
polis the gross value, where those 
premises are separately assessed to 
rates, and in any other case shall 
be deemed to be the amount 
which would in the opinion of the 

(c) See sect. 20, pp. 155 157, and pp. 158160, supra, 
(d} See pp. 4 and 81, supra, 
(e) See pp. 49 55 and 70, supra. 
20 (2) 



308 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

^ ec ^3^ registration officer be the gross 

estimated rental or gross value, as 
the case requires if they were 
separately assessed (/) : 

(10) The expression " afloat " and ex- 

pressions relating to service afloat 
in connection with naval and mili- 
tary voters shall be interpreted in 
accordance with rules (g) made for 
the purpose by the Admiralty (h) : 

(11) The expression " prescribed " means 

prescribed by His Majesty by 
Order in Council. 

Adaptation 42. The parliamentary and the local 
government franchises enacted by this Act 
shall take the place of all parliamentary 
and, so far as respects local government 
elections within the meaning of this Act, of 
all local government franchises existing at 
the time of the passing of this Act ; and 
the provisions set out in the Sixth Schedule 
to this Act with respect to the adaptation 
of Acts shall have effect for the purpose of 
adapting the law to the provisions of this 
Act. 

NOTE. For the Sixth Schedule to this Act, see 
pp. 386 390, infra. 

(/) See pp. 28-33, 6869, 71, supra. 

(g) Set out on p. 628, infra. 

(h) See sect. 5 (3) (ii), pp. 7778, and pp. 8384, supra. 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 809 

43. This Act shall apply to Scotland, sect. 43. 
subject to the following modifications : to p scltiand 

(1) Unless the context otherwise re- 
quires 

(a) The word " borough" ex- 
cept as used in the expression 
"parliamentary borough" means 
" burgh " ; 

(b) The expression " local govern- 
ment electoral area" means the 
area for which any county council, 
town council, parish council, or 
school board, is elected, and " local 
government election " means an 
election for any such council or 
board ; 

(c) The expression " the Local 
Government Board " (except where 
otherwise expressly provided) 
means the Secretary for Scotland ; 

(d) The expression " Valuation 

Acts " means the Lands Valuation n&isvict. 
(Scotland) Act, 1854, and any Acts * 9L 
amending the same ; 

(e) The expression " governing 
body ' used in relation to a uni- 
versity means the university court ; 

( f ) A reference to the Supreme 
Court shall be construed as a 
reference to the Court of Session ; 



310 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 19 L8. 

Sect ' 43 - (g) A reference to the Court of 

Appeal shall be construed as a 
reference to the Court of three 
judges of the Court of Session 
constituted by the twenty-third 
section of the Representation of 
the People (Scotland) Act, 1868 ; 

(h) A reference to the county 
court shall be construed as a refer- 
ence to the sheriff court : 

(2) The yearly value of any subjects shall 

be taken to be the value appearing 
in the valuation roll where those 
subjects are separately valued in 
that roll, and in any other case 
shall be deemed to be the value 
which would in the opinion of 
the registration officer be entered 
therein if they were so valued (') : 

(3) The section () of this Act relating to 

local government franchise (men) 
shall not apply, and in lieu 
thereof * 

(a) A man who is of full age and 
not subject to any legal incapacity 
shall be entitled to be registered 
as a local government elector for a 
local government electoral area if 

(i) See sect. 1 (3), p. 3, sect. 4 (1) (c), p. 64, and sect. 7 (1) (b), 
p. 98, supra. 

(&) See sect. 3, pp. 40 41, supra. 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 311 

he is on the last day of the qualify- sect. 43. 
ing period and has been during the 
whole of that period 

(i) the owner of lands and heri- 
tages within the area of the yearly 
yalue of not less than ten pounds : 
Where such lands and heritages 
are in the joint ownership of two 
or more persons and the aggregate 
yearly value of the lands and 
heritages is not less than the 
amount produced by multiplying 
ten pounds by the number of the 
joint owners, each of the joint 
owners shall be treated as owning 
lands and heritages of the yearly 
value of not less than ten pounds ; 
or 

(ii) the occupier as tenant of 
lands and heritages within the 
area of the yearly value of not less 
than ten pounds : Where such 
lands and heritages are in the joint 
occupation as tenants of two or 
more persons, and the aggregate 
yearly value of the lands and 
heritages is not less than the 
amount produced by multiplying 
ten pounds by the number of the 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

43. joint occupiers, each of the joint 

occupiers shall be treated as oc- 
cupying lands and heritages of the 
yearly value of not less than ten 
pounds; or 

(iii) the inhabitant occupier as 
owner or tenant of a dwelling- 
house within the area ; or 

(iv) the occupier of lodgings 
within the area of the yearly value 
if let unfurnished of not less than 
ten pounds : Where such lodgings 
are in the joint-occupation of not 
more than two persons and the 
aggregate yearly- value as aforesaid 
of the lodgings is not less than 
twenty pounds, each of the joint 
lodgers shall be treated as occupy- 
ing lodgings of the yearly value of 
not less than ten pounds : or 

(vj the inhabitant occupier by 
virtue of any office, service, or em- 
ployment of a dwelling - house 
within the area which is not in- 
habited by the person in whose 
service he is in such office, service, 
or employment : 

(b) The ownership or occupation 
in immediate succession of different 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 313 

lands and heritages, dwelling- sect. 43. 
houses, or lodgings, as the case 
may be, in the same parliamentary 
county or in the same parliamentary 
borough shall have the like effect 
in qualifying a man to be regis- 
tered as a local government elector 
for a local government electoral 
area therein, respectively, as the 
continued ownership or occupation 
of the same lands and heritages, 
dwelling-houses, or lodgings within 
that area ; 

(c) In this section "owner" 
shall include heir of entail in 
possession, life-renter, and bene- 
ficiary entitled under any trust to 
the rents and profits of lands and 
heritages and shall not include the 
fiar of lands and heritages subject 
to a life-rent, nor tutor, curator, 
judicial factor, nor commissioner; 
4 * lands and heritages'' has the 
same meaning as in the Valuation 
Acts, and " dwelling-house " means 
any house or part of a house occu- 
pied as a separate dwelling : 
(4) Subsection (1) of the section (I) of this 

(?) See sect. 4, pp. 63 64, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 43 - Act relating to franchises (women) 

shall not apply, and in lieu 
thereof- 

(a) A woman who is not subject 
to any legal incapacity shall be 
entitled to be registered as a par- 
liamentary elector for a constitu- 
ency (other than a university 
constituency) if she has attained 
the age of thirty years, and if 
either she or her husband is on 
the last day of the qualifying 
period occupying as owner or 
tenant any land or premises in the 
constituency (hereinafter in this 
subsection called " the qualifying 
premises "), and has during the 
whole of the qualifying period so 
occupied any land or premises in 
the county or county of a city in 
which the qualifying premises are 
situated : 

(b) For the purposes of this sub- 
section 

(i) the word "tenant" shall 
include a person who inhabits by 
virtue of any office, service, or em- 
ployment any dwelling-house which 
is not inhabited by the person in 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 315 

whose service he or she is in such sect. 43. 
office, service, or employment : 

(ii) the word " tenant " shall 
include a person who occupies a 
room or rooms as a lodger only 
where such room or rooms are let 
to him or her in an unfurnished 
state : 

(iii) the expression "land or 
premises " means any land or pre- 
mises (other than a dwelling-house) 
of the yearly value of not less than 
five pounds or any dwelling-house : 

(iv) a woman, though she or her 
husband may have been occupying 
land or premises in the con- 
stituency on the last day of the 
qualifying period, shall not be en- 
titled to be so registered, if she or 
her husband, as the case may be, 
commenced to occupy the land 
or premises within thirty days 
before the end of the qualifying 
period and ceased to occupy them 
within thirty days after the com- 
mencement of such occupation ; 

(v) the word " county " means a 
county inclusive of all burghs 
therein except a county of a city, 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

8601:43 and the word "dwelling-house" 

means any house or part of a house 
occupied as a separate dwelling : 

(vi) where land or premises are 
in the joint occupation of two or 
more persons, each of the joint 
occupiers shall be treated as occupy- 
ing the same, provided that not 
more than two joint occupiers shall 
be so treated in respect of the 
same land or premises, unless they 
are bona fide engaged as partners, 
carrying on their profession, trade, 
or business on the land or premises, 
and provided further that in 
the case of land or premises 
(other than a dwelling - house) 
the aggregate yearly value thereof 
must be not less than the 
amount produced by multiplying 
five pounds by the number of joint 
occupiers : 

(c) A woman registered by virtue 
of this section shall be deemed to 
be registered by virtue of her own 
or her husband's local government 
qualification : 

(5) Subsection (1) of the section (/) of this 

(/) See sect. 7, pp. 9899, supra. 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 317 

Act relating to supplemental pro- sect. 43. 
visions as to residence and occupa- 
tion shall not apply except in so 
far as that subsection relates to the 
parliamentary franchise for men, 
and subsection (4) ( /) of the said sec- 
tion shall not apply (m) : 

(6) The section (n) of this Act relating to 

provisions as to disqualifications 
shall have effect as if the following 
provision were enacted therein : 

A person shall not be disqualified 
from being registered or from 
voting as a parliamentary or local 
government elector by reason that 
he is the town clerk or depute 
town clerk of any burgh or the 
assessor under the Valuation Acts 
in any burgh or county : 

(7) The section (0) of this Act relating to 

provision as to qualification of 
councillor shall not apply : 

(8) The section (p) of this Act relating to 

registration officers and areas shall 
not apply, and in lieu thereof 
Each burgh, the town council 

(0 Seep. 100. 

(w) See pp. 5657, s. 4, pp. 6365, 6970, and 74. 

(n) See sect. 9, pp. 112115, supra. 

(o) See sect. 10, p. 123, supra. 

(p} See sect. 12, pp. 130131, supra. 



318 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sect. 43. whereof was entitled under the 

law in force at the passing of this 
Act to appoint an assessor for the 
purpose of parliamentary registra- 
tion, and each county (exclusive of 
every such burgh), or, where any 
county is divided for the purpose 
of parliamentary elections, each 
part of the county (with the like 
exclusion) which lies within a 
separate parliamentary division, 
shall be a registration area ; and 
the assessor of the burgh or county 
under the Valuation Acts, or 
where there are two or more such 
assessors, one of them appointed 
for the purpose of parliamentary 
registration by the town or county 
council, as the case may be, shall 
be the registration officer of that 
area, and all other assessors (if any) 
in that area shall, for the purpose 
of the registration of parliamentary 
and local government electors, be 
subject to the instructions of the 
registration officer and shall be 
bound to act on such instructions : 
Provided that, from and after 
the date when the first register 
under this Act shall have been 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 310 

completed, an officer of Inland Sect - 43 - 
Revenue shall not be appointed or 
continue to act as assessor for 
any burgh or county under the 
Valuation Acts without the consent 
of the Treasury : 

(9) The provisions regarding the appoint- 

ment of an assistant judge in the 
section (q) of this Act relating to 
appeals shall not apply : 

(10) In the application of the section (r) 

of this Act relating to right to the 
use of elementary schools the ex- 
pression " any public elementary 
school " means "any school in 
receipt of a parliamentary grant " : 

(11) The first subsection of the section (s) 

of this Act relating to expenses of 
registration shall not apply, and in 
lieu thereof 

Any expenses properly incurred 
by any registration officer in the 
performance of his duties in 
relation to registration, including 
all proper and reasonable charges 
for trouble, care, and attention in 
the performance of those duties 

(q} See sect. 14 (6), pp. 136137, supra. 
(r) See sect. 25, pp. 204205, supra. 
() See sect. 15, pp. 139140, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 4 3. and any cost incurred by him as 

party to an appeal (in this Act 
referred to as " registration ex- 
penses "), shall be paid by the 
council appointing the registration 
officer : Provided that, where a 
burgh within the meaning of the 
Local Government (Scotland) Act, 
1889, is not a separate registration 
area, the council thereof shall pay 
to the council appointing the 
registration officer a contribution 
towards the registration expenses, 
and subsection (4) of section sixty 
and section sixty-six of that Act 
shall apply, with the necessary 
modifications, to such contribution. 
The amount necessary to defray 
any registration expenses or any 
contribution thereto, as the case 
may be, shall be assessed and levied 
in any one of the modes allowed 
by the Valuation Acts with respect 
to the costs and expenses of making 
up the valuation roll : 
(12) In subsection (5) of the section (t) of 
this Act relating to expenses of 
registration the expression "the 
" council whose clerk the registra- 

(t) See sect. 15 (5), p, 141, ivpra. 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 321 

"tion officer is " means "the sect. 43. 
" council appointing the registra- 
tion officer" : 

(13) The sections (w) of this Act relating to 
returning officers and to discharge 
of returning officers' duties by an 
acting returning officer shall not 
apply, and in lieu thereof : 

The returning officer at parlia- 
mentary elections (other than a 
university election) shall as hereto- 
fore be the sheriff of the sheriffdom 
within which the constituency is 
wholly situated or, where the con- 
stituency is situated in more than 
one sheriffdom, the sheriff specified 
in the Seventh Schedule (x) to this 
Act, and the power of appointing 
deputies conferred by section eight 
of the Ballot Act, 1872, on certain 
sheriffs shall be exerciseable by any 
sheriff who is returning officer for 
more than one constituency or 
who, by reason of sickness or un- 
avoidable absence, is incapacitated 
from performing any of the duties 
devolving upon him as returning 
officer, and in the event of no 

(u] See sects. 28 and 30, pp. 211 and 217 218, supra. 
(a?) Set out on p. 391, infra. 
F. 21 



322 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 43. such appointment being made by a 

sheriff so incapacitated or in the 
event of any vacancy in the office 
of sheriff at the time when any 
of such duties require to be per- 
formed, the sheriff substitute at 
the place at which the writ for 
the election is appointed to be 
received shall act as returning 
officer, and shall perform all the 
duties and have all the powers 
(including the power of appointing 
deputies) of such returning officer : 

(14) Notwithstanding the provisions of 

subsection ( 1 ) of the section (x) of 
this Act relating to polls to be held 
'on one day at a general election, 
etc., the poll at any general or 
bye -election for the constituency 
of Orkney and Zetland shall remain 
open for two consecutive days as 
heretofore : 

(15) The provisions of the last paragraph 

of the section (y) of this Act re- 
lating to register for university 
constituencies shall not apply, and 
the said section shall have effect 
as if regulation sixteen of section 

(x] See sect. 21, p. 161, supra. 

(y] See sect. 19, pp. 153 154, su,pr<t. 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 323 

two of the Universities Elections sect, as. 
Amendment (Scotland) Act, 1881, * 4 Vict - 
were enacted therein in lieu of the 
said paragraph : 

(16) The section (0) of this Act relating to 

place of election shall not apply, 
and in lieu thereof : 

In the case of parliamentary 
elections (other than an election for 
a university constituency), the place 
of election shall be a convenient 
room situated in such place as 
the Secretary for Scotland may by 
order from time to time determine : 

(17) In the application of the section (a) 

of this Act relating to division of 
constituency into polling districts 
and appointment of polling places, 
and of the section (b) of this Act 
relating to re-arrangement of 
polling districts to suit new con- 
stituencies, the returning officer 
shall be substituted for the council 
having a power or duty under those 
sections to divide a constituency 
into polling districts, and the Lord 

(z] See sect. 32, pp. 222223, supra. 
(a) See sect. 31, pp. 220222, supra. 
(6) See sect. 39, p. 303, supra. 

21(2) 






REPKESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 43 - Advocate shall be substituted for 

the Local Government Board : 

(18) Notwithstanding anything in this 
Act it shall not in the year 
nineteen hundred and nineteen and 
subsequent years be necessary- 
fa) As regards any burgh or any 
registration unit therein, if the 
town council of the burgh so 
resolve, to show or distingviish in 
any spring register the names of 
persons entitled to vote as local 
government electors ; or 

(b) As regards any county or 
any registration unit therein, .if 
the county council of the county 
so resolve, to show or distinguish 
in any register other than the 
autumn register in those years in 
which county council elections fall 
to be held the names of persons 
entitled to vote as local government 
electors : 

Provided that 

(i) a resolution under this sec- 
tion shall not have effect unless 
it is passed as respects the spring 
register in any year before the first 
day of January in that year, and as 



APPLICATION TO SCOTLAND. 325 

respects the autumn register in any sect. 43. 
year before the first day of July in 
that year ; 

(ii) for all the purposes of the 
registration of local government 
electors in any burgh or county or 
registration unit therein to which 
any such resolution applies, the 
last preceding local government 
register shall remain in force until 
a new local government register 
comes into force : 

In this subsection " burgh" has 
the same meaning as in the Town 
Councils (Scotland) Act, 1900, and es&eivict. 
" county " means a county exclusive 
of any such burgh : 

(19) Except as expressly provided in this 
Act- 
fa) Nothing in this Act shall 
take effect so as to deprive any 
royal or parliamentary burgh losing 
separate representation under this 
Act of any right privilege, or 
status, whether for purposes of 
local government or otherwise, 
hitherto enjoyed by such burgh as 
a royal or parliamentary burgh ; and 
(b) Nothing in this Act or in any 



326 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 43 - Act in force at the passing of this 

Act as read with this Act shall 
take effect so as to confer upon 
any police burgh acquiring separate 
representation under this Act any 
rights, privileges, or status, whether 
for purposes of local government or 
otherwise, not enjoyed by other 
police burghs. 

In this subsection the references 
to royal, parliamentary, or police 
burghs shall be deemed to include 
references to the magistrates, town 
councils, and officers thereof, 
respectively, and the expression 
" separate representation " shall be 
construed as meaning the right to 
return, or to contribute as a burgh 
to return, a member, or members 
to Parliament. 



Application 44. This Act shall apply to Ireland 
reiand. su kj ec t to the following modifications : 

(1) References to the Lord Chancellor 
shall be construed as references 
to the Lord Chancellor of Ireland. 
The Lord Chancellor shall not 
sit as a member of the Court of 
Appeal 011 the hearing of appeals (a) 
from the county court under this 
Act. 



(a) See sect. 14, pp. 135 137, supra. 



APPLICATION TO IRELAND. 

In any county in which the Sect - 44 - 
jurisdiction of the county court is 
exercised for the time being by 
two or more county court judges, 
the appeals from the registration 
officer shall be dealt with by such 
one of those judges or his assistant 
judge as may be directed by the 
Lord Chancellor, or shall be dis- 
tributed amongst those judges and 
their assistant judges according as 
may be so directed. 

For the purposes of this Act, 
county court rules, orders, and 
scales of fees, costs, and charges 
may be made under sections 
seventy-nine, eighty-three, and 
eighty-four of the County Officers 
and Courts (Ireland) Act, 1877 ; 40 & vict. 
but the provisions of those sections c 
as to the concurrence of, or certi- 
fication by, county court judges or 
the recorder shall not apply : 

(2) The reference (b) to the Local Govern- 
ment Board in relation to the 
approval of a deputy for the 
execution of any of the powers 
and duties of a registration officer 
shall be construed as a reference 
to the Lord Lieutenant, and other 
references to that Board shall be 

(/>) See sect. 12 (3), pp. 130131, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 44 - construed as references to the Local 

Government Board for Ireland : 
(3) (a) The clerk of the crown and peace 
for an administrative county, not 
being a county borough, shall be 
the registration officer for any 
parliamentary county which is 
coterminous with, or the whole or 
greater part of which is contained 
in, the administrative county, and 
for any parliamentary borough of 
which the whole or greater part is 
contained in the administrative 
county and no part is contained in 
a county borough, and the clerk 
of the crown and peace for a 
county borough shall be the regis- 
tration officer for any parliamentary 
borough which is coterminous with, 
or the whole or any part of 
which is contained in, the county 
borough (c) 9 and the council of that 
administrative county or county 
borough, as the case may be, 
shall be the council by which 
the registration expenses of that 
registration officer are to be paid, 
subject in cases where the parlia- 
mentary county or parliamentary 
borough is not coterminous with, 
or wholly contained in, the admin- 
istrative county or county borough, 

(c) See sect. 12 (2), p. 130, supra. 



APPLICATION TO IRELAND. 329 

as the case may be, to such con- Sect - 44 - 
tribution by the council of any 
other administrative couijty or 
county borough as the Local 
Government Board may direct (d) : 
Provided that the registration ex- 
penses to be paid by a council 
shall not include any charges for 
trouble, care, and attention, in 
the performance of duties which 
are performed by the registration 
officer in person : Provided also 
that the persons who, at the passing 
of this Act, are town clerks for the 
county borough of Dublin and the 
county borough of Belfast, respec- 
tively, shall, so long as they hold 
their respective offices, be the 
registration officers for the parlia- 
mentary borough of Dublin and 
the parliamentary borough of 
Belfast, respectively, and that the 
last preceding proviso shall not 
apply in their case. 

(b) The registration expenses (d) 
shall be paid in the case of the 
council of a county borough, out 
of the rate or fund out of which 
the general expenses of the council 
are paid, or out of any other rate 
or fund which the Local Govern- 
ment Board may on the applica- 

(d) See sect. 15, pp. 139141, supra. 



330 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 44 - tion of the council approve, and, 

in the case of a council of any 
other administrative county, out 
of the poor rate as a county at 
large charge, except in cases ta 
which section twelve of the Parlia- 
48 & 49 vict. mentary Registration (Ireland) Act, 

1885, applies (e) : 

(c) In the event of any vacancy 
in the office of registration officer 
or in the event of the registration 
officer's incapacity to act, the 
powers and duties of the registra- 
tion officer may be exercised and 
performed by any person tempo - 
rarily appointed in that behalf by 
the Lord Chancellor (/) : 

(d) The power of advancing 
sums to a registration officer on 
account of registration expenses 
shall be exerciseable by the council 
by which those expenses are to be 
paid (g) : 

(e) This section, in its applica- 
tion to the county of Tipperary, 
shall have effect as if each parlia- 
mentary division of the county 
were a separate parliamentary 
county, and as if the clerk of the 
crown and peace for the entire 



(e} See sect. 15, pp. 139 141, supra. 
(/) See sect. 12 (4), p. 131, supra. 
(0) See sect. 15 (5), p. 141, supra. 



APPLICATION TO IRELAND. 



331 



county were clerk of the crown Sect - 
and peace for the administrative 
counties of the North Riding and 
the South Riding respectively : 

(4) Where an administrative county is 

divided into ridings the Lord 
Lieutenant may, by order, divide 
the parliamentary county into a 
corresponding number of registra- 
tion areas, and make any adap- 
tations of this Act which may be 
necessary in consequence of the 
division, and the clerk of the 
crown and peace for any riding 
shall be registration officer (h) for 
such of those areas as may be 
directed by the Lord Lieutenant : 

(5) For the purposes of appeals from the 

registration officer, and also for 
the purpose of the revision of 
jurors' lists, the powers and juris- 
diction of the county court shall, 
unless and until the Lord Lieu- 
tenant otherwise direct, be exer- 
cised, as respects the parliamentary 
borough of Dublin, by the persons 
who are at the time of the 
passing of this Act Dublin revising 
barristers, and as respects the 
parliamentary county of Dublin by 
the person who is at the time of 
the passing of this Act revising 

(h) See sect, 12, pp. 130131, 8i>i>ra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ALT, 1918. 

Sect - 44 ; barrister for that county ; but 

while those powers are so exer- 
cised, the provisions of this Act 
as to county courts shall apply to 
those persons as they apply to 
county courts, with the necessary 
modifications, and in particular 
with the modification that assistant 
judges may be appointed to assist 
those persons if, in the opinion of 
the Lord Chancellor, such appoint- 
ment is necessary in order to 
enable the appeals to be disposed 
of with proper dispatch (t) : 

(6) The expenses of any printing required 

in connection with registration 
shall be treated as part of the 
expenses (k) of the registration 
officer under this Act, notwith- 
standing that the printing is ar- 
ranged for by the county council 
under section ninety-six of the 
6i & 62 vict. Local Government (Ireland) Act, 

1898: 

(7) The expression " assistant overseer " (/) 

means a town clerk, secretary of a 
county council, clerk of an urban 
district council, an existing clerk 
of the union, within the meaning 
of the Local Government (Ireland) 

(/) See sect. 14, pp. 135 137, supra, 
(k) See sect. 15, pp. 139 141, supra. 
(/) See sect. 18, pp. 148149, tuprtt. 



APPLICATION TO IRELAND. 333 

Act, 1898, and a collector of poor Sect - 44 - 
rate : 

(8) Notwithstanding the limit imposed in 

subsection (2) of section twenty- 
seven of the County Officers and 
Courts (Ireland) Act, 1877, the 
salaries of clerks of the crown and 
peace may be increased by orders 
made under that subsection to 
such extent as appears to the Lord 
Lieutenant and Council, with the 
concurrence of the Treasury, to be 
proper, haying regard to the addi- 
tional duties imposed on those 
officers by this Act(m) : Provided 
that the liability of a clerk of the 
crown and peace to account for 
sums other than registration ex- 
penses received by him as registra- 
tion officer shall not extend to any 
such increase of salary : 

(9) The provisions (n) with respect to the 

division of constituency into polling 
districts and appointment of polling 
places shall have effect with the 
following modifications : 

(a) A reference to the council by 
which the registration expenses of 
the registration officer for any 
constituency are to be paid shall 
be substituted for the reference to 



(m) See sect. 44 (3) (a), pp. 328329, supra. 
(n) See sect. 31, pp. 220222, supra. 



334 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect - 44 the council whose clerk the regis- 

tration officer for any constituency 
is, or by whom the registration 
officer is appointed (-n) : 

(b) The powers of a council 
under the said provisions shall be 
exercised in accordance with rules 
made by the Local Government 
Board, and any exercise of the 
powers shall be subject to con- 
firmation by that Board who may 
confirm the proposed division, ap- 
pointment or alteration either with 
or without modifications, or may 
withhold confirmation (n) : 

(c) The Board may cause a local 
inquiry to be held as respects any 
questions arising in connection 
with the said provisions, and article 
thirty-two of the schedule to the 
Local Government (Application of 
Enactments) Order, 1898, shall 
apply to any such inquiry (n) : 

(10) Part IV. of this Act (o), and the 
provisions with respect to an urban 
district which is coterminous with, 
or wholly contained in, a registra- 
tion area (p), or with respect to 
the persons who are to be return- 
ing officers (<y), or with respect to 

() See sect. 31, pp. 220222, supra. 

(o) See sect. 37, pp. 282283, supra. 

(p) See sect. 16 (1), p. 145, supra. 

(<?) See sect. 28, p. 211, and pp. 212214, supra. 



APPLICATION TO IRELAND. 3 

the discharge of returning officers' Sect - 44 - 
duties by an acting returning 
officer (/), or with respect to place 
of election (s), or with respect to 
the right to the use of elementary 
schools (t), shall not apply : 
11) (a) The qualifying period (u) shall 
be a period of six months ending 
on the fifteenth day of July and 
including that day : 

Provided that one month shall 
be substituted for six months in 
the application of this provision to 
a person who is a naval or military 
voter or who has been serving as a 
member of the naval, military, or 
air forces of the Crown at any time 
during the said six months and has 
ceased so to serve ; 

(b) One register (x) of electors 
only shall be made in each year, 
and all provisions (x) applicable to 
the autumn register shall apply as 
respects the yearly register (except 
that the yearly register shall remain 
in force until the fifteenth day of 
October in the next following year), 
and the provisions (#) as to the pre- 
paration of two registers in each 

(r) See sect. 30, pp. 217218, supra. 
(*) See sect. 32, pp. 222 223, supra. 
($) See sect. 25, pp. 204205, supra, 
(u) See sect. 6, p. 94, supra, 
(x) See sect. 11, pp. 125126, supra. 



336 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Sect i_ 44 year and as to the spring register 

shall not apply : 

(12) The yearly value (y) of premises shall 

be taken to be the rateable value 
where those premises are separately 
valued, and in any other case shall 
be deemed to be the amount which 
would, in the opinion of the regis- 
tration officer, be the rateable value 
if they were separately valued : 

(13) A person shall not be entitled to be 

registered or vote for a parlia- 
mentary county constituency in 
respect of a qualification in a par- 
liamentary borough constituency : 

(14) The following proviso shall be substi- 

tuted for the proviso at the end of 
subsection (2) of section eight (z) : 
" Nothing in this provision shall 
" prevent a person voting at an 
" election to fill a casual vacancy 
" in a borough council in any ward 
" for which he is registered/' 

Application 45. The provisions of this Act shall apply 
tlie to the Isles of Scilly as if those isles were 
an administrative county, and as if the 
council of those isles were a county council, 
and any expenses incurred by the council 



(y} See sect. 1 (3), p. 3, sect. 4 (1) (c), p. 64, and sect. 7 (1), 
(a), (b), p. 98, supra. 

() See pp. 101102, snpru. 



COMMENCEMENT OF ACT AND FIRST REGISTER. 337 

under this Act shall be paid as general Sect - 45 
expenses of the council. 

46. (1) This Act shall come into opera- Commence- 
tion on the passing thereof: Provided that Sfirft^ 
nothing in this Act shall affect- register - 

(a) any parliamentary register for the time 

being in force, or any parliamentary 
elections, or the constitution of the 
House of Commons, until Parlia- 
ment is first dissolved or ceases to 
have continuance after the first 
register to be prepared under this 
Act comes into force ; or 

(b) any local government register for the 

time being in force, or any local 
government elections, until the 
first register to be prepared under 
this Act comes into force. 

(2) Notwithstanding anything in this Act, 
the first register to be prepared under this 
Act shall come into force on, and remain in 
force until, such date as His Majesty may 
fix by Order in Council (a), and His Majesty 
may by any such Order alter, in connection 
with the first register, any registration 
dates (i), including the dates governing the 
qualifying period, and direct that this Act 
shall have effect as so altered. 

() See Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 6, p. 749, 
Fifth Schedule, p. 752, infra, and Order in Council of March 4th, 
1918, p. 613, infra. 

(ft) See Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 6, p. 749, and 
Fifth Schedule, p. 752, infra. 

r. 22 



338 



Sect. 46. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) If any difficulty arises as to the pre- 
paration of the first register or the holding 
of the first elections after the commence- 
ment of this Act, the Local Government 
Board may by order do any matter or thing 
which appears to them necessary for the 
proper preparation of the register or the 
proper holding of the elections. 

(4) This section shall apply to any new 
register to be prepared and to any elections 
held during the continuance of the present 
w r ar and a period of twelve months there- 
after, as it applies to the first register (b) to 
be prepared under this Act and to the first 
elections (c) held after the commencement 
of this Act, respectively. 



Repeal and 47 .-_ (1) The enactments mentioned in 

snort title. 1 TTIIOI -11 i 

the Ji/ighth Schedule to this Act are hereby 
repealed to the extent specified in the third 
column of that Schedule (d). 

(2) This Act may be cited as the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act, 1918. 

(b) See sect. 46 (2) and (3), above. 

(c) See sect. 46 (3), above. 

(d) See pp. 391 402, infra. 



REGISTRATION RULES. 339 

SCHEDULES. 
FIEST SCHEDULE. Sections 18> 

14 (1). 



REGISTRATION RULES (a). 
Form of Register. 

1 . The register shall be framed in separate parts (6) far Separate part 
each registration unit in the registration area. f register 

The registration unit shall be the parish where the gistration 
parish is wholly contained in one voting area, and where umt ' 
a parish is contained in more than one voting area, shall 
be each part of the parish contained in a separate voting 
area; and for the purposes of this rule the expression 
"voting area" means any polling district, electoral divi- 
sion, borough, county district other than a borough, and 
any ward of a borough, county district, or parish, and 
any other area for which a separate election at which the 
register is to be used is held. 

2. The register shall, as respects each registration unit, Separate 
contain the names of those who are entitled to vote as parliament 
parliamentary electors and of those who are entitled to taT 7 an<1 
vote as local government electors, but shall be framed so ment electors, 
as to show in separate divisions the names of those who are 

entitled to vote both as parliamentary and local govern- 
ment electors, the names of those who are entitled to vote 
as parliamentary electors but not as local government elec- 
tors, and the names of those who are entitled to vote as 
local government electors but not as parliamentary 
electors (c) . 

Where a person whose name is entered as a local 
government elector in any registration unit is not entitled 

() See sect, 13, set out on pp. 133134, and sect. 14 (1), p. 135, 
supra. 

(1} See Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 4, p. 748, infra, 
as to supplement to be added to part of register relating to polling 
'district. 

(c) See Form of Register, pp. 577 578, infra. 

22 (2) 



340 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Absent 
voters list. 



Register to 
be made up 
in street or 
alphabetical 
order. 



Effect of 

register. 



to vote in respect of that entry at the local government 
elections for all the local government electoral areas which 
comprise that unit, the registration officer shall place a 
mark against his name, with a note to signify that the 
person against whose name the mark is placed is not 
entitled to vote for the local government elections men- 
tioned in the note, and any such note shall be deemed to 
be part of the register (c). 

3. The registration officer shall prepare and add as a 
supplement to the register a separate list (d) for the whole 
registration area, or, where the area includes more than 
one constituency, for each constituency in the area, of 
persons entitled to vote as absent voters (e) (in this Act 
referred to as the absent voters list) without, however, 
removing the names of those voters from any other part of 
the register. Every such list shall be made up according 
to polling districts (/) . 

4. Where the registration unit is situated in a parlia- 
mentary borough, the names in the register shall be 
arranged in street order, unless the authority whose clerk 
the registration officer is or by whom he is appointed con- 
siders that, having regard to the general character of the 
area forming the registration unit, arrangement in street 
order is inapplicable; and where the registration unit is 
situated in a parliamentary county, the names in the 
register shall be arranged in alphabetical order, unless the 
said authority considers that, having regard to the general 
character of the area forming the registration unit, 
arrangement in street order is possible and convenient (g). 

5. The registers for the registration units making up 
any constituency, so far as they relate to parliamentary 

(c) As to the mark and note here referred to, see p. 577, infra. . 

(d) For arrangement of names in and form of absent voters list, 
see Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, par. 3, p. 748, infra and 
Third Schedule, p. 751, infra. 

(e) See sect. 23, pp. 173176, and pp. 177178, supra. 
(/) See sect. 31, pp. 220222, supra. 

(g) For Form of Register in street order and in alphabetical order 
see pp. 603604, infra. 



REGISTRATION RULES. 341 

electors, shall together form the register of parliamentary 
electors for that constituency, and the registers of the 
registration units making up any local government elec- 
toral area, so far as they relate to local government electors, 
shall together form the register of local government electors 
for that area. 

Duty of Registration Officer to prepare and publish Lists. 

6. It shall be the duty of the registration officer to cause Duty of 
a house to house or other sufficient inquiry to be made, and 



to prepare or cause to be prepared lists (in this Act referred pare electors' 
to as electors lists) for each registration unit within his 
registration area of all persons appearing to be entitled to 
be registered (g) <ajs parliamentary or local government 
electors in the spring and autumn register respectively, and 
to publish (h) those lists in the form in which the register 
is to be framed, as respects the lists for the spring 
register (f) on or before the first day of February (/), and 
as respects the lists for the autumn register (i) on or 
before the first day of August (;) . 

The registration officer shall at the same time publish (h) 
a notice specifying the mode in which, and the time within 
which, claims and objections are to be made under these 
rules. 

7. The registration officer, where he does not himself Duty of 
perform the duties of overseers, may require the overseers J r ^ rs 
of any parish which, or any part of which, forms a regis- electors lists 
tration unit within his registration area to make the neces- Sorm^aiou 
eary inquiries and to prepare the electors lists for that if required. 
unit (ft) and publish (I) the lists in the unit on his behalf, 

(</) See sect. 13, pp. 133 134, and p. 134, supra, also sects. 1, 3, 
4 and 5. 

(h} See rale 31, pp. 350 351, infra. As to the period during 
which, as regards the first register, these documents must be kept 
published, Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 1, p. 748, infra, 
and First Schedule, p. 750, infra. 

(t) See sect. 11, pp. 125 126, supra. 

(j) This date as regards the first register has been altered to 
29th June. See pp. 128 1"29, supra. 

(k) See rule 1, p. 339, supra. 

(/) See rule 31, pp. 350351, infra. 



342 



REPKESENTAT1ON OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Corrupt and 
illegal prac- 
tices list. 



and it shall be the duty of the overseers to furnish lists as so 
required, and also at any time, if required by the registra- 
tion officer, to furnish that officer with information respect- 
ing any persons resident or occupying land or premises in 
their parish, or the removal of any person from the parish. 

Any reasonable expenses incurred by the overseers in 
performing any duties required of them in pursuance of 
this rule (including reasonable remuneration where the 
duties are performed by an assistant overseer or other 
paid officer) shall be paid by the registration officer as 
part of his registration expenses (m). In this rule the ex- 
pression " overseers " includes any person for the time 
being executing any of the duties of overseers. 

8. The registration officer shall publish (w), together with 
the electors lists, the corrupt and illegal practices list (if 
any) made by him under section thirty-nine of the Corrupt 
and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883 (0), or made by 
or sent to him under section twenty -four of the Municipal 
Elections (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act, 1884. 



Claim to be 
exit to 
registration 
officer. 



Claims to be Registered. 

9. Any person who claims to be entitled to be regis- 
tered as a parliamentary or local government elector, and 
who is not entered, or who is entered in an incorrect place 
or manner or with incorrect particulars on the electors 
lists, may claim to be registered, or to be registered 
correctly, by sending (p) to the registration officer a claim 
in the prescribed form (q) not later than the eighteenth 

(m) See sect. 15, pp. 139141, supra, and scale of registration 
expenses set out at pp. 610612, infra. 

(??) See rule 31, pp. 350 351, infra. As to the period during 
which, in connection with the first register, the corrupt and illegal 
practices list must be kept published, see Order in Council of 
June 4th, 1918, rule 1, p. 748, infra, and First Schedule, p. 750, 
infra. 

(o) Set out at pp. 718 714, infra. 

(p) See rule 34, pp. 351352, infra. 

(q) For forms (1 to 9), see pp. 562569, infra. 



KEGISTKAT1ON KULES. 

day of February (r) where the claim is for the spaing 
register, and the eighteenth day of August (r) where the 
claim is for the autumn register. 

10. The form of claim (a) for a person making a claim Form of 
on his own behalf shall contain a declaration of the qualifi- 
cation of the claimant to be registered, including a declara- 
tion that the claimant has attained the required age, and 

is a British subject, and of the character in which the 
claimant desires to be registered, that is to say, either as a 
parliamentary elector, or as a local government elector, 
or as a local government elector who is not entitled to 
vote for all local government elections, and where the 
claimant claims in respect of a non -residential qualification 
a declaration of residence or, in case such person has no 
settled residence, an address to which communications may 
be sent. A note shall also be added to the form warning 
the claimant that any false declaration for the purpose 
of this provision will involve a penalty. 

Where a claim is made on behalf of a claimant by 
another person, the registration officer shall not enter the 
name of the claimant on the register, unless the matters 
required to be stated in the declaration under the fore- 
going provision are proved to his satisfaction. 

11. It shall be the duty of the registration officer to Publication 
publish (t) the lists of claimants, as respects the lists for claimants 
the spring register not later than the twenty-fourth day 

of February (w), and as respects the lists for the autumn 
register not later than the twenty-fourth day of August (u) . 

(r) As regards the first register under the Act, 1 7th July is sub- 
stituted for this date. See pp. 128 129, supra. 

(s) For forms (1 to 9), see pp. 562569, infra. 

(t] See rule 31, pp. 350351, infra. As to the period during 
which, in connection with the first register, the lists of claimants 
must be kept published, see Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, 
rule 1, p. 748, infra, and First Schedule, p. 750, infra. 

(u} As regards the first register under the Act, 25th July is sub- 
stituted for this date. See pp. 128 129, supra. 



344 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Notice of 
objections. 



Notice to 
persons 
affected by 
objection. 



Publication 
of objections 
to lists. 



Publication 
of objections 
to claims. 



'Objections. 

12. Any person whose name appears on the electors 
lists for a constituency or local government electoral area 
may object to the registration of any person whose name 
is included in the electors lists for the constituency or the 
local government electoral area, as the case may be, by 
sending notice of objection in the prescribed form (u) to 
the registration officer not later than the fifteenth day of 
February (x) in the case of the spring register and the 
fifteenth day of August (a?) in the case of the autumn 
register, and may object to the registration of any person 
whose name is included in the list of claimants by 
sending (y] notice of objection in the prescribed form (?) 
to the registration officer not later than the seventh day of 
March (2) in the case of the spring register and the fourth 
day of September (2) in the case of the autumn register. 

13. The registration officer shall, as soon as practicable 
after receiving any notice of objection, send (y) a copy of 
the notice to the person in respect of whose registration 
the notice of objection is given. 

14. It shall be the duty of the registration officer to 
publish (a) a list of the names of persons to whose registra- 
tion notice of objection has been given not later than the 
twenty-first day of February (?;) in the case of the spring 
register and not later than the twenty-first day of 
August (&) in the case of the autumn register. 

15. It shall be the duty of the registration officer to 
publish (a) a list of the names of persons included in the list 

(tt) For form, pee p. 570, infra. 

(x) As regards the first register under the Act, 10th July has 
been substituted for this date. See pp. 128129, supra. 

(y] See rule 34, pp. 351- 352, infra. 

(z) As regards the first register under the Act, 31st July has 
been substituted for this date. See pp. 128 129, supra. 

(a] See rule 31, pp. 350351, infra. As to the period during 
which, in connection with the first register, the list of names must 
be kept published, see Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 1, 
p. 748, infra, and First Schedule, p. 750, infra. 

(I)} As regards the first register under the Act, 19th July has been 
substituted for this date. See pp. 128 129, supra. 



REGISTRATION RULES. 345 

of claimants to whose registration notice of objection has 
been given as soon as practicable after the seventh day 
of March (c) in the case of the spring register and the 
fourth day of September (<?) in the case of the autumn 
register. 

Absent Voters List. 

16. Any person entitled to be registered as a parlia- Absent 
inentary elector (d) may, not later than the eighteenth day voter ^ llst - 
of February (e) where the claim is for the spring register, 

and the eighteenth day of August (e) where the claim is 
for the autumn register, claim (/) to be placed on the absent 
voters list (#); and the registration officer, if satisfied that 
there is a probability that the claimant, by reason of the 
nature of his occupation, service, or employment, may be 
debarred from voting at a poll at parliamentary elections 
held during the time the register is in force, shall place 
the claimant (if registered) on the absent voters list. 

17. It shall be the duty of the registration officer, Obligation to 
without any claim being made for the purpose, to place aMmmtar 

on the absent voters list (g) any naval or military voter (/&), voter on 
i absent voters 

unless list without 

(a) that person, not later than the eighteenth day of claim - 
February (i) as respects the spring register, and 
the eighteenth day of August () as respects the 

(c) As regards the first register under the Act, 31st July has 
been, substituted for this date. See pp. 128 129, supra. 

(d) See sect. 1, pp. 1 3, and sect. 4 (1), pp. 6364, supra. 

(e) As regards the first register under the Act, 31st July has been 
substituted for this date. See pp. 128 129, supra. 

(/) For form of claim, see p. 575, infra. As to the course to be 
adopted by the registration officer when he receives a naval or 
military voter's statement too late to include his name in the 
electors lists, see Order in Council of June 4th, 1818, rule 7, 
p. 749, infra. 

(g] For order of names in and form of absent voters list, see 
Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 3, p. 748, and Third 
Schedule, p. 751, infra. See also ibid., rule 9, p. 749, infra. 

(h) See sect. 5, pp. 76 79, supra. 

() As regards the first register under the Act, 17th August has 
been substituted for this date. See Order in Council of June 4th, 
1918, rule 6, p. 749, infra, and Fifth Schedule, p. 752, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, L918. 



Information 
to registra- 
tion officers 
by depart- 
ments. * 



Record of 
addresses to 
be kept. 



autumn register, gives notice (m) to the registra- 
tion officer that he does not desire to be placed 
upon that list; or 

(b) that person is registered, in pursuance of a claim (w) 
for the purpose, for the constituency in which 
he has an actual residence qualification. 

18. The Admiralty, the Army Council, and the Air 
Council, either directly or through officers appointed by 
them, shall in the prescribed manner furnish to the regis- 
tration officers in the several constituencies such informa- 
tion (0) as to the names and .addresses of Naval and Mili- 
tary voters and such other particulars as may be necessary 
for the purpose of their registration arid of their voting as 
such, and it shall be the duty of the Local Government 
Board to render any assistance that may be required by 
the Admiralty, the Army Council, and the Air Council 
in conveying such information to the registration officers : 

Provided that the Admiralty, Army Council, and Air 
Council shall not be required to supply any particulars 
which in their declared opinion would interfere with the 
proper conduct of the war. 

19. The registration officer shall keep a record of any 
address which may be furnished to him by any person 
placed on the absent voter's list, or by the Admiralty, 
Army Council, Air Council or Board of Trade, as the 
address which is to be for the time being the address 
of the voter for the purpose of the provisions relating to 
voting by absent voters (p) and, as soon as practicable, 
shall cause instructions to be sent to the voter as to the 
mode of voting under those provisions. 

The record of addresses shall be open to inspection 
under the same conditions (q) that govern the register. 

(m) No form of notice is prescribed. 

(//) For form of claim, see p. 569, infra. 

(o) As to the course to l>e adopted by the registration officer when 
he receives the information too late to* include the naval or military 
voter in the electors lists, see Order in Council of June 4th, 1918. 
rule 7, p. 749, infra. 

(p) See sect, 23, pp. 173170. siyira. 

(</) See rule 27, p. 349, infra. 



KEG1STKAT1ON KULE*. 347 

Preparation of the Register from the Lists. 

20. The registration officer shall, as soon as practi- 
cable, consider all objections of which notice has been 
given to him in accordance with these rules (r), and for that 
purpose shall give at least five clear days' notice to the 
objector and to the person in respect of whose registra- 
tion the notice of objection has been given, of the time 
and place at which the objection will be considered by him. 

21. The registration officer shall also consider all Considera- 
claims of which notice is given to him in accordance with 

these rules (s), and in respect of which no notice of objec- 
tion is given, and, if he considers that the claim may be 
allowed without further inquiry, shall give notice () to 
the claimant that his claim is allowed. 

If the registration officer is not satisfied that any such 
claim can be allowed without inquiry, he shall give at 
least five clear days' notice (t) to the claimant of the time 
and place at which the claim will be considered by him. 

22. If on the consideration of any claim or objection Supplemen- 
it appears to the registration officer that the claimant, or ^2^^^ 
person in respect of whose name objection is taken, is of claims and 
not entitled to be entered on the register in the character jet 

in which he claims to be registered, or in which he is 
entered on the list, but is entitled to be entered on the 
register in another character or in another place on the 
register, the registration officer may decide that the name 
of that person shall be so entered on the register. 

23 . The registration officer shall make such additions Correction of 
and corrections in the electors lists (including the absent llsts> 
voters list) as are required in order to carry out his 
decisions on any objection or claims, and shall also make 

any such corrections in those lists by way of the removal 
of duplicate entries (subject to any expression of choice 
by the person affected as to those entries), the expunging 

r) See rules 12 15, pp. 344 345, supru. 
s) See rules 911, pp. 342343, supra. 
t) See rule 34, pp. 351352, infra. 



348 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Voting iu 
different 
polling 
districts. 



Objections to 
correction*. 



of the names of persons who are dead or subject to any legal 
incapacity (g), or the placing of marks (r) or the correction 
of marks placed against the name of an elector, or other- 
wise as he thinks necessary in order to secure that no 
person is registered as a parliamentary elector in respect 
of more than one qualification in the same constituency, or 
as a local government elector in respect of more than one 
qualification 

(a) in the same borough for the purpose of borough 

council elections; or 

(b) in the same electoral division or ward for the pur- 

pose of county council, metropolitan borough 
council, and urban district council elections; or 

(c) in the same parish or ward of a parish for the 

purpose of rural district council, guardians, or 

parish elections; 

and otherwise to make those lists complete and accurate 
as a register. 

24. Any person whose name shall appear in the list 
of parliamentary voters of any registration unit in any 
county constituency or district of boroughs, and who 
resides outside the polling district (s) in which he is 
entitled to be registered, shall be at liberty to make his 
claim (t) before the registration officer to vote at any other 
polling place within the same constituency (u). 

Any such person shall be admitted to vote at such 
polling place accordingly. 

25 . Where the registration officer makes any correction 
in the lists (including the absent voters list) otherwise 
than in pursuance of a claim or objection, or for the pur- 
poses of correcting a clerical error, he shall give notice (x) 
to the person affected by the correction, and give that person 

((/) See pp. 47, 42, 6768, 74, 75 and 82, supra, 
(r) See rule 2, pp. 339340, supra. 
[si\ See sect. 31, pp. 220222, supra. 

(t} As to the time for making this claim and for form, see Order 
in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 5, p. 748, infra. 
(n) See ibid., rule 4, p. 748, infra. 
(r) See rulo 34, pp. 351352, Vn/w. 






REGISTRATION RULES. 

an opportunity of objecting to the correction, and, if 
necessary, of being heard with respect thereto. 

26 . The registration officer shall make' all the necessary Formation of 
corrections of the lists (including the absent voters list) 

and do everything necessary to form those lists into a 
register (with a separate letter and a separate series of 
numbers for each polling district (t/)) in time to allow the 
publication of the lists so corrected as a register as required 
by these rules (z) . 

Duty to publish and deliver Copies of the Register. 

27 . It shall be the duty of the registration officer to Publication of 
publish the spring register not later than the fifteenth day 

of April (#), and the autumn register not later than the 
fifteenth day of October (a) in each year, fay publishing (>) 
a notice that a copy of the register is open to inspection at 
his office, and that copies of the part of the register 
relating to any registration unit are open to inspection 
during business hours in the registration unit at the place 
mentioned in the notice. 

It shall be the duty of the registration officer to keep 
copies of the register for inspection in his office, and also 
to arrange for copies of the part of the register relating 
to any registration unit being kept for inspection in that 
unit either in the principal post office (if the Postmaster 
General gives authority for the purpose) or at some other 
convenient place to which the public have access to be 
arranged by him. 

It shall be the duty of the registration officer to transmit, 
a copy of the register, as soon as may be after it is pub- 
lished, to the Local Government Board. 

(y] See Form of Begister, p. 577, infra. 
(z) See rules 68, pp. 341342, supra. 

(a) As regards tlie first register under the Act, 1st October is 
substituted for this date. See pp. 128129, supra. 

(b) See rule 31, pp. 350 351, infra. As to the period during 
which the first register is to be kept published, see Order in Council 
of June 4th, 1918, rule 1, p. 748, infra, and First Schedule, p. 750, 
infra. 



350 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Delivery of 
copies of the 
register. 



28. It shall be the duty of the registration officer, on the 
application of any person during business hours and on 
payment of the prescribed fee (c), to furnish copies to the 
applicant of the register or of so much of the register as 
relates to any registration unit. 



Notice of 
appeal from 
registration 
officer. 



Appeals 
relating to 
the same 
point. 



Publication 
documents. 



Appeals from Registration Officer. 

29. A person desiring to appeal against the decision 
of a registration officer must give notice of appeal in the 
prescribed form (d) to the registration officer and to the 
opposite party, if any, when the decision is given or within 
five days thereafter, specifying the grounds of appeal. 

The registration officer shall forward any such notices 
to the county court in manner directed by rules of court (e) 
together, in each case, with a statement of the material 
facts which, in his opinion, have been established in the 
case, and of his decision upon the whole case and on any 
point which may be specified as a ground of appeal, and 
shall also furnish to the court any further information 
which the court may require and which he is able to 
furnish . 

30. Where it appears to the registration officer that 
any notices of appeal given to him are based on similar 
grounds, he shall inform (e) the county court of the fact 
for the purpose of enabling the county court (if the court 
thinks fit) to consolidate the appeals, or select a case as a 
test case. 

General. 

f 31. Where the registration officer by these rules is 
required to publish any document, and no specific pro- 
vision is made as to the mode of publication, he shall 
publish the document by making copies of the document 



(c) For the amount of this fee, see Order in Council of June 4th, 
1918, rule 2, p. 748, and Second Schedule, p. 751, infra. 

(d) For forms, see p. 575 576, infra. 
(c) See p. 639, infra. 



REGISTRATION RULES. 301 

available for inspection by the public in his office, and in 
the chief post office (if the Postmaster General gives 
authority for the purpose), or some other convenient place 
in the area forming the registration unit to which the 
document relates and, if he thinks fit, in any other manner 
which is, in his opinion, desirable for the purpose of 
bringing the contents of the document to the notice of those 
interested. 

Any document required to be published shall be kept 
published for the prescribed time(/). 

Any failure to publish a document in accordance with 
these rules shall not invalidate the document, but this 
provision shall not relieve the registration officer from any 
penalty (g) for such a failure. 

If any person without lawful authority destroys, muti- 
lates, defaces or removes any notice published by the regis- 
tration officer in connection with his registration duties, or 
any copies of a document which have been made available 
for inspection in pursuance of these rules, he shall be 
liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five 
pounds. 

32. The registration officer shall, without fee, on the Dutj of regie- 
application of any person, supply forms of claims and to supply 
notices of objections. forms. 

33. The registration officer shall, on the application of Supply of 
any person, allow that person to inspect, and take extracts claims, ob- 
from, or on payment of the prescribed fee (h), supply to that J ectlon8 > &c - 
person copies of, the electors lists for any registration unit 

in his area and any claim or notice of objection made 
under these rules. 

34. Any claim or notice of objection which is under Mode of 
these rules to be sent to the registration officer may be notices* &c. 
sent to him by post addressed to him at his office. 

(/) See Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 1, p. 748, infra, 
and First Schedule, p. 750, infra. 

(g) See sect. 13 (1), p. 133, supra. 

(h) For the amount of this fee, see Order in Council of June 4th, 
1918, rule 2, p. 748, and Second Schedule, p. 751, infra. 



852 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Information 
from house- 
holders. 



Access to 

national 

register. 



Declaration 
as to age and 
nationality. 



Any notice which is required to be sent by the regis- 
tration officer under these rules to any person shall be 
sufficiently sent if sent by post to the address of that 
person as given by him for the purpose, or as appealing 
on the lists, or if there is no such address, to his last known 
place of abode . 

35. The registration officer may require any house- 
holder or any person owning or occupying any land or 
premises within his area, or the agent or factor of such 
person, to give, in the prescribed form ($), any information 
in his possession which the registration officer may require 
for the purpose of his duties as registration officer; and if 
any person fails to give the required information, or gives 
false information, he shall be liable, on summary con- 
viction, to a fine not exceeding twenty pounds. Any 
notice requiring information under this rule may be sent 
by post. 

36. The registration officer shall, subject to such direc- 
tions (&) as the Local Government Board may give, have 
access to the national register compiled under the National 
Registration Act, 1915. 

37. The registration officer, before registering any 
person as an elector, may, if he thinks it necessary 

(a) require that person either to produce a certificate 

of birth or, if that is not practicable or con- 
venient, to make a statutory declaration that 
such person has attained the required age, and 

(b) require that person to produce a certificate of 

naturalisation or to make a statutory declaration 

that he is a British subject. 

Where a declaration is so required, any fee payable in 
connection therewith shall be paid by the registration 
officer as part of his registration expenses (?), and the 
declaration shall be exempt from stamp duty. 

(t) For forms (1 to 6), see pp. 556 561, infra. 

(k] See p. 580, infra. 

(/) See sect. 15, pp. 139141, supra. 



REGISTRATION RULES. 35 

The registration officer shall during business hours 
allow any person to inspect and take a copy of any such 
declaration . 

38. Where for the purpose of the provisions of this p werto 
Act any person requires a certificate of birth, that person JjJjJjjJJ^J^ f 
shall on presenting a written requisition in the prescribed birth at 
form (m) and containing the prescribed particulars, and on r 
payment of a fee of sixpence, be entitled to obtain a certi- 
fied copy of any entry of the birth of that person in the 

birth register under the hand of the registrar or the super- 
intendent registrar having the custody thereof, and form,- 
of requisition for the purpose shall on application b 
supplied without charge by every registrar of births and 
deaths and by every superintendent registrar. 

39. On the consideration of any claim or objection oj Hearing of 
other matter by the registration officer, any person ap- oty^tkms. 
pearing to the registration officer to be interested may 

appear and be heard either in person or by any other 
person, other than counsel, on his behalf. 

40 . The registration officer may at the request of any Power to 
person interested, or if he thinks fit without such request, 

on the consideration of any claim or objection or other oath, 
matter require that the evidence tendered by any person 
should be given on oath and may administer an oath for 
the purpose. 

41 . No misnomer or inaccurate description of any Provisions as 
person or place on any list or on the register or in any or^^uTate 
notice shall prejudice the operation of this Act or these description, 
rules as respects that person or place, provided that the 

person or place is so designated as to be commonly under- 
stood. 

42. In reckoning time for the purpose of these rules. Reckoning of 
Sunday, Christmas Day, Good Friday, and any bank tlme> 
holiday or day set apart as a public holiday, or day of 

(m) See p. 576, infra. 
F. 23 



354 REPKESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

public fast, or public thanksgiving shall be excluded; and 
where anything is required by these rules to be done on 
any day falls to be done on any such day, that thing 
may be done on the next day not being one of any such 
days . 

Application of Rules to Scotland and Ireland. 
Application 43. These rules shall apply to Scotland subject to the 

to Scotland. ... . >,, i 

following modifications, namely: 

The Secretary for Scotland shall be substituted for the 
Local Government Board: 

The provision for the transmission of a copy of the 
register to the Local Government Board shall not 
apply: 

Rule 2 shall apply as if after the words " in separate 
divisions" there were inserted the words "or other- 
wise to distinguish:" 

For the reference to section twenty-four of the Munici- 
pal Elections (Corrupt and Illegal Practices) Act, 
1884, there shall be substituted a reference to section 
twenty-nine of the Elections (Scotland) (Corrupt 
and Illegal Practices) Act, 1890. 

44. These rules shall apply to Ireland subject to the 
following modifications, namely: 

(1) References to the Local Government Board shall 

be construed as references to the Local Govern- 
ment Board for Ireland. 

(2) The district electoral division as constituted under 

the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, shall 
be the registration unit; but 

(a) where a district electoral division is 
divided into wards, each such ward shall be 
treated as a separate registration unit; and 

(b) where a district electoral division is 
situate partly in one parliamentary polling 
district, partly in another, or partly within and 



REGISTRATION RULES (IRELAND). 366 

partly without any town (within the meaning 
of the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898), 
or ward of a borough or town, each part shall 
be treated as a separate registration unit; 

and references to parishes or parts of parishes 

shall not apply. 

(3) References to the autumn register shall be construed 

as references to the yearly register, and refer- 
ences to the spring register shall not apply. 

(4) The expression " overseers " includes town clerks, 

secretaries of county councils, clerks of urban 
district councils, existing clerks of the union 
within the meaning of the Local Government 
(Ireland) Act, 1898, and collectors of poor rate. 

(5) The power of the registration officer in certain cases 

to require the overseers to perform duties in con- 
nection with registration under this Act shall be 
construed in all cases as an obligation upon him 
to require each person holding the office of over- 
seer to perform duties analogous to the duties 
which, but for the passing of this Act, would 
have been performed by that person by virtue 
of his office under the enactments relative to 
registration in force at the commencement of this 
Act, and it shall be the duty of every such person 
to comply with those requirements. 

In order to give full effect to the foregoing 
provision the clerk of the crown and peace for 
a county borough shall, as respects any parlia- 
mentary borough for which he is registration 
officer, appoint the town clerk of the county 
borough to act as his deputy for the purposes 
of Eules 9 to 15 and for the purpose of pub- 
lishing the lists and notices to be published under 
Rules 6 and 8 of this Schedule if the town clerk 
so desires, and any town clerk so appointed shall, 
23 (2) 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

for the purposes aforesaid, have the like powers 
and duties and be subject to the like liabilities 
as if he were registration officer. 

Any question which may arise as to what 
duties are analogous duties within the meaning 
of the provision aforesaid shall be determined by 
the Local Government Board, whose determina- 
tion shall be final. 

(6) The overseers shall be entitled to payment for ser- 

vices performed and expenses incurred by them 
in the execution of any duties under these rules. 
The payments shall be made at such times as 
may be fixed by order of the Local Government 
Board for Ireland under this Schedule, and any 
sum payable to an overseer under this provision 
shall be treated for the purposes of this Act as 
part of the registration expenses of the regis- 
tration officer on whose requisition the services 
were performed or the expenses were incurred. 

This provision shall apply to any superin- 
tendent registrar of births and deaths or clerk 
of the union who is not an existing clerk of 
the union, so far as respects lists or informa- 
tion supplied by him on the requisition of the 
registration officer in connection with deaths in 
like manner as it applies to overseers. 

(7) Th reference to the authority whose officer the 

registration officer is, or by whom he is ap- 
pointed, shall be construed as a reference to the 
.county borough council in the case of registration 
units in a county borough, and as a reference to 
the county council in the case of registration 
units in an administrative county, and the regis- 
ter for any registration unit in an administrative 
county shall be arranged alphabetically in town- 
land order if the county council consider that 
such arrangement is more convenient than 



SECOND SCHEDULE. 357 

arrangement in alphabetical order of names or 
in street order. 

(8) Rule 2 of this Schedule shall be construed as if the 

words " or otherwise to distinguish " were in- 
serted after the words " in separate divisions," 
and as if the direction as to placing marks 
against the names of local government electors 
were omitted. 

(9) For the direction to the registration officer in 

Eule 23 of this schedule to secure that no person 
is registered as a local government elector in 
respect of more than one qualification in the areas 
and for the purposes therein specified, there shall 
be substituted a direction to secure that no person 
is registered as a local government elector in 
respect of more than one qualification in the same 
district electoral division or ward. 



SECOND SCHEDULE. Section 21 (i)'. 

PART I. (). 

MODIFICATIONS OF THE BALLOT ACT, 1872 ( FIRST 
SCHEDULE). 

The following provisions shall be inserted in the First 
Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872, after Rules "2 and 14 
respectively (o), that is to say: 

" 2A. In an election of members to serve in a new Par- 
liament of the United Kingdom the day fixed 
by the returning officer for the election shall in 
all cases be the eighth day after the date of His 
Majesty's gracious Proclamation declaring the 
calling of the Parliament." 

(n) See sect. 21 (1), set out on p. 161, supra. 

(o) For Eules 2 and 14, see pp. 682683 and 685 respectively. 



358 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

"14A. In an election of members to serve in a new 
Parliament of the United Kingdom, the day 
appointed by the returning officer for the poll 
shall in all cases be the ninth day after the day 
fixed for the election." 

Section 22 (2). PART II. (p) . 

Questions. 

1 . In the case of a man voting in respect of a residence 
qualification 

Have you already voted at this general election in 
respect of a residence qualification? 

2. In the case of a man voting in respect of a qualifica- 
tion other than a residence qualification- 
Have you already voted at this general election in 

respect of a qualification other than a residence 
qualification ? 

3. In the case of a woman voting at an election other 
than a university election 

Have you already voted at this general election? 

[NOTE. Unless the answer to the question is in 
the negative the woman shall not vote unless she 
satisfies the presiding officer that her previous vote 
was given at a university election.] 

Declarations at University Election (q) . 
(Applicable only at a General Election.) 

(In the case of a man) " I have not voted at this 
general election in respect of any qualification other than 
a residence qualification." 

(In the case of a woman) " I have not voted at this 
general election for any other university constituency." 

(p) See sect. 22 (2), set out on p. 165, supra, and see also 
pp. 167 172, $upra. 
(q) See p. 172, supra. 



VOTING BY PROXY. 

THIRD SCHEDULE. Section 23 

PROVISIONS AS TO VOTING BY PROXY (r) . 

1 . A proxy must be appointed by means of a proxy 
paper issued to the elector, or to some person on behalf of 
the elector, or to the person appointed as proxy, by the 
registration officer of the constituency in which the elector 
is registered, on an application made or authorised by the 
elector in accordance with regulations (s) under this Act. 

2. After a proxy paper for any constituency has been 
issued in accordance with this Act, the elector shall, unless 
the proxy paper is cancelled in accordance with this Act, 

(a) be entitled to vote by proxy in that constituency; 

and 

(b) be prohibited from voting otherwise than by proxy 

in that constituency; 

until the time for which the proxy paper is in force has 
expired. 

3 . It shall be the duty of the registration officer, on any 
application for a proxy paper, to issue a proxy paper to 
the applicant, or to some person on his behalf, or to the 
person appointed as proxy, if he is satisfied that the appli- 
cant is registered on the parliamentary register of electors 
for the constituency in respect of which the application 
is made, and is, at the time of the application, entitled 
to appoint a proxy (t). 

4. A proxy paper shall remain in force only so long 
as the parliamentary register of electors which is in force 
at the time the proxy paper ie issued remains in force (u) : 

Provided that a proxy paper issued during the con- 
tinuance of the present war, or a period of twelve months 
thereafter, shall remain in force until the termination of 

(r) See sect. 23 (4) (d), set out on p. 176, supra, 
(s] For these regulations, see the Proxy Paper Order, 1918, 
p. 754 et seq. 

(0 See sect. 23 (4), pp. 174-?- 176, supra. 
(M) See sect. 11, set out on p. 125, supra. 



360 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

that period, so long as the elector continues to be regis- 
tered and the proxy paper is not cancelled. 

5 . A person shall not be appointed as proxy under this 
Act, unless the person appointed is the wife, husband, 
parent, brother, or sister of the elector, or is registered 
as a parliamentary elector for the constituency or one of 
the constituencies in which the elector is registered: 

Provided that the brother or sister shall not be capable 
of being appointed proxy unless of full age (w). 

6. An elector shall not appoint more than one person 
as proxy to vote on his behalf in the same constituency, 
and in any case not more than two persons (x). 

7 . A person shall not vote as proxy on behalf of more 
than two absent voters at an election in any constituency, 
unless that person is voting as the husband or wife, or 
the parent, brother, or sister of the absent voter. 

8. A registration officer shall keep a list of absent 
voters (y) entitled to vote by proxy in any constituency 
within his. area, and of the persons entitled to vote as 
proxies, and that list shall be open to inspection during 
business hours at some convenient place named by the 
registration officer in the constituency. 

A registration officer shall, on the application of any 
person, allow that person to take extracts from, or, on pay- 
ment of the prescribed fee (z), supply to that person copies 
of the list. 

9. The Ballot Act, 1872 (a), and any other Act regu- 
lating the holding of parliamentary elections (&), including 

() See p. 4, supra. 

(x) See sect. 8 (1), set out on pp. 100101, supra, 
(y) See First Schedule, Rules 16, 17, pp. 345346, supra. 
(z) For this fee, see Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, rule 2, 
p. 748, and Second Schedule, p. 751, infra. 

(a) See p. 672 tt seq. 

(b) This would include the Corrupt and Illegal Practices (Preven- 
tion) Acts, 1883 and 1895, and the present Act. 



VOTING BY PROXY. 

any provisions imposing penalties (c) in connection with 
voting at those elections, shall apply to persons voting 
as proxies in pursuance of this Act as they apply to voters, 
however described in those Acts, with such modifications 
as may be prescribed (d) for the purpose of adapting the 
provisions of those Acts to voting by proxy; and any pro- 
visions of those Acts imposing penalties for offences in 
connection with ballot papers or the official mark on a 
ballot paper may be applied by the regulations (e) to proxy 
papers and any official mark on a proxy paper. 
10. If any person 

(a) who is for the time being entitled to vote by 

proxy (/) in a constituency under this Act, 
himself votes or attempts to vote at any parlia- 
mentary election in that constituency other- 
wise than by means of the proxy paper, while 
the proxy paper is in force; or 

(b) votes or attempts to vote as proxy on behalf of 

more than two absent voters at an election 
in any constituency unless: that person is voting 
as the husband or wife, or the parent, brother, 
or sister of the absent voter; or 

(c) votes or attempts to vote at any election under 

the authority of a proxy paper when he knows 
or has reasonable grounds for supposing that 
the proxy paper has been cancelled, or that 
the elector to whom or on whose behalf the 
proxy paper has been issued is dead or no 
longer entitled to vote at that election ; 
that person shall be guilty of an illegal practice (g) within 

(c) See pp. 285286, 287292, heading (3) on pp. 294295, and 
heading (12) on p. 298, supra. 

(d) Up to the time of going to press no such modifications have 
been prescribed. 

(e) These regulations have not at the time of going to press been 
made. 

(/) See sect. 23 (4), set out on pp. 174176, supra, 
(g) See p. 299, supra. 



362 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

the meaning of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Preven- 
tion Act, 1883, and the expression " illegal practice " shall 
be construed accordingly: Provided that the court before 
whom a person is convicted under this provision may, if 
they think it just in the special circumstances of the case, 
mitigate or entirely remit any incapacity imposed by 
section ten of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention 
Act, 1883 (A). 

11. A ballot paper shall not be delivered to a person 
who claims to vote as proxy for the purpose of so voting 
unless he produces the proxy paper to the presiding officer 
at the polling station, and such questions may be asked of 
any person at a parliamentary election who claims to vote 
as proxy for any elector (in addition to those already 
authorised to be asked ()) as may be prescribed (fc). 

12. Stamp duty shall not be chargeable on any proxy 
paper under this Act. 

13. A proxy paper may be cancelled by an elector by 
giving notice to the registration officer in the prescribed 
form (Z). 

14. A notice cancelling a proxy paper shall not take 
effect as respects any election unless it is received by the 
registration officer before the day of nomination (ra) . 

15 . In the application of this schedule to Scotland the 
expression " the registration officer of the constituency in 
which the elector is registered " means " the registration 
officer of the registration area in which the elector is 
registered." 

(/) See p. 299, supra, 
(i) See pp. 167 172, supra. 

(k) At the time of going to press these questions have not been 
prescribed. 

(1} For this form, see p. 757, infra. 
(m) See pp. 179180, supra. 



MAXIMUM SCALE OF ELECTION EXPENSES. 



FOURTH SCHEDULE. Se<!tiou S3 (l) . 

PROVISIONS TO BE SUBSTITUTED FOR PART IV. OF THE 
FIRST SCHEDULE TO 46 & 47 VICT. c. 51, AND 

FOR PARAGRAPH (3) OF PART V. OF THE SAME* 

SCHEDULE (n) . 

Maximum Scale. 

The expenses mentioned above in Parts I., II., and 
III. of this schedule, other than personal expenses and the 
fee, if any, paid to the election agent (not exceeding in 
the case of a county election seventy-five pounds and of a 
borough election fifty pounds, without reckoning for the 
purposes of that limit any jpart of the fee which may have 
been included in the expenses first above mentioned) shall 
not exceed an amount equal 

in the case of a county election to sevenpence for each 

elector on the register; 
in the case of an election for a borough to fivepence for 

each elector on the register. 

Where there are two or more joint candidates at an 
election, the maximum amount of expenses mentioned in 
Parts III. and IV. of this schedule shall, for each of the 
joint candidates, be. the amount produced by multiplying 
a single candidate's maximum by one-and-a-half and 
dividing the result by the number of joint candidates. 

(n) See sect. 33 (1). set out on p. 223, sapra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Section 36(1). FIFTH SCHEDULE. 

PART I. PROVISIONS AS TO UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS OTHER 
THAN SCOTTISH UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (o) . 

E&twning Officer. 
I . The returning officer shall be 

(a) in the case of the Oxford, Cambridge, and London 

University constituencies respectively the Vioe- 
Chancellor of the university; 

(b) in the case of the Dublin University Constitu- 

ency, the Provost of Trinity College; 

(c) in the case of the combined English university 

constituency, the Vice-Chancellor, Principal, 
or Corresponding Officer of such university, 
being one of the combined universities as may 
be from time to time appointed by the Board 
of Education for that purpose; and 

(d) in the case of the constituency of the University 

of Wales, the Vice-Chancellor of the uni- 

versity; 

and the writ for any election of a member or members for 
Parliament for a university constituency shall be directed 
to the returning officer of that constituency . 

2. It shall be the duty of the returning officer to make 
all arrangements for the election, including arrangements 
for the nomination of candidates (p), and the poll (q) and 
counting of votes (r), and to certify the result of the elec- 
tion in pursuance of the writ. 

(o) See sect. 36 (1), set out on p. 279, supra. 
(p) See clauses 3 to 8, pp. 365366, infra. 
(9) See clauses 9 to 18, pp. 366368, infra. 
(r) See clauses 19 to 22, 24, pp. 368369, infra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS. 

Nomination. 

3 . The nomination shall take place on such day and at 
such time and place as may be fixed by the returning 
officer, being not less than four days and not more than 
twelve days after the receipt of the writ, and the returning 
officer shall give public notice (t) of the day, time, and 
place so fixed within two days after he receives the writ. 

4. The candidate must be nominated in writing by 
two electors as proposer and seconder and by eight other 
electors as assenting to the nomination, and his nomination 
must be delivered to the returning officer by some elector. 

5. If, at the expiration of the time fixed for nomina- 
tion, no more candidates are nominated than there are 
vacancies to be filled up, the returning officer shall declare 
the candidates who stand nominated to be elected and 
certify the result of the election accordingly. 

6. If, at the expiration of the time fixed for nomina- 
tion, more candidates stand nominated than there are 
vacancies to be filled up, the returning officer shall arrange 
for a poll to be taken . 

7. A candidate may be withdrawn in manner provided 
by regulations (u) made under this Act, and if, owing to 
the withdrawal of a candidate after nomination, a poll 
becomes unnecessary, the returning officer shall counter- 
mand the poll and declare any candidate elected whose 
nomination remains standing. 

8. If one of the candidates nominated dies after he has 
been nominated and before the commencement of the poll, 
the returning officer shall countermand the poll and other 
proceedings for the election and commence the same again 
as if the writ had been received by him on the day on 
which he is satisfied of the fact that the death took place. 

No fresh nomination shall be required in the case of a 

(5) See clause 31, p. 371, infra. 

(t} These regulations have not up to the time of going to press 
been made. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

candidate who stood nominated at the time the poll was 
countermanded. 

Poll. 

9. The poll shall remain open for five days, and shall 
take place on such days as may be fixed by the returning 
officer commencing not more than twelve and not less than 
three clear days after the day of nomination. 

10. The returning officer shall appoint such polling 
places as appear to him to allow reasonable facilities for 
voting, and may give special directions that certain electors 
shall be allotted to certain polling places. 

11. An elector may vote at a poll by the delivery of 
a voting paper (signed by the voter at any time subsequent 
to the nomination) in the form (v) appended to this part of 
this schedule or in a form to the same effect and accom- 
panied with a like declaration, or, unless the returning 
officer directs to the contrary, in person, and may so vote 
at any polling place if he has not been allotted to any 
polling place, or, if he has been so allotted, at any polling 
place to which he has been so allotted. 

The returning officer may give a special direction that 
votes shall not be given in person at the election, or that 
votes may be given in person on certain days of the poll 
only. 

12. A voting paper may be delivered at a polling place 
on behalf of the voter by an elector, or by being sent to the 
presiding officer (#) at the polling place by post, and any 
voting paper received by a presiding officer at a polling 
place at which the elector may vote before the close of the 
poll shall be counted, unless rejected as invalid (/). 

Voting papers may also be sent to the returning officer 
by post, and any voting papers so received by the return- 

(t)} Seep. 372, infra. 

(&) See clause 15, p. 367, infra. 

(y) See pp. 182200, supra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS. 36*7 

ing officer shall be sent by him to the proper presiding 
officer. 

13. The poll shall be open for such time between the 
hours of 8 a.m. in the morning and 8 p.m. in the evening, 
not being less than four hours, as the returning officer may 
direct, except that, if votes in person are received, but are 
not received on all the days of the poll, six hours shall be 
substituted for four as respects the days on which votes are 
so received as the minimum time under this provision. 

14. The returning officer skall give public notice (z) of 
the days and hours of poll and of the polling places ap- 
pointed, and of any special directions given by him as to 
the days or hours of poll, or the allotment of electors to 
certain polling places, or as to voting in person. 

15. The returning officer shall appoint a presiding 
officer for every polling place at which he does not act 
a,s a presiding officer himself and the presiding officer shall 
have general control over the arrangements for voting at 
the polling place and shall record the votes of electors 
voting in person and receive voting papers. 

16. Each candidate may appoint a person to be the 
candidate's representative at each polling place, and a can- 
didate's representative may object to any voting paper (a) 
received at the polling place or to the vote of any person (&) 
claiming to vote in person at that place, and the presiding 
officer shall submit any such objection to the returning 
officer for decision . 

17. The returning officer shall decide on the validity of 
any voting paper (a) to which objection is taken, or on the 
right of any person to vote (&) in person, if that right is 
questioned, and the decision of the returning officer, if 
the voting paper or the right to vote is allowed, shall be 
final, but, if the voting paper or the right to vote is dis- 

(z) See clause 31, p. 371, infra. 
(a) See pp. 182200, supra. 
(&) See pp. 167 172, supra. 



368 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

allowed, shall be subject to reversal on any proceeding 
questioning the election or return. 

18. The register kept in pursuance of this Act shall 
be conclusive as to the right of any person to vote at the 
poll; but this provision shall not entitle any person to vote 
if that person is subject to any legal incapacity (c). 

A person shall not be entitled to be placed on the register 
as a graduate until the university authorities are satisfied 
that the grant of the degree is complete (d). 

Counting of Votes. 

19. After the poll is closed all voting papers received 
at any polling place and a record of votes (if any) given 
by electors in person shall be placed in a proper receptacle 
and sealed up and delivered to the returning officer, and the 
returning officer shall, as soon as practicable after the 
receipt of the votes from all the polling places, count the 
votes and publish (e) the result. 

20. The voting papers counted, and the record of votes 
(if any) given by electors in person, and any papers which 
have been rejected as invalid (/) and a list of persons (if 
any) who have tendered their votes in person but who have 
not been allowed to vote (/), shall "be placed in separate 
packets, and shall be kept by the returning officer for a 
period of twelve months after the close of the poll. 

21 . The returning officer shall give notice to the candi- 

dates of the time and place for counting the votes, and 
shall permit any candidate and a representative authorised 

(c) See pp. 102107, supra. 

(d) It is clear that this provision in the latter part of clause 1& 
cannot render nugatory the right expressly given by sect. 4 (2) 
(see p. 64, supra) to women who have been admitted to and passed 
the final examination, but are not admitted by the university to a 
degree. 

(e) See clause 31, p. 371, infra. 
(/) See clause 16, p. 367, supra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS. , 369 

by the candidate for the purpose to be present at the 
count. 

No person other than the returning officer, his 
assistants and clerks, and the candidates and representa- 
tives so authorised shall be entitled to be present at the 
count except with the sanction of the returning officer. 

22. Where an equality of votes is found to exist between 
any candidates on a final count and the addition of a vote 
would entitle any of those candidates to be declared elected, 
the returning officer whether an elector or not may give 
a deciding vote, but the returning officer shall not be 
entitled to vote at the election in any other case. 

Speci-al Provisions for a Combined University 
Constituency (g) . 

23. In a combined university constituency the Vice- 
Chancellor, or the person performing the duties of a Vice- 
Chancellor, at each university forming the combination, 
shall, for the purpose of making arrangements for the 
poll and the holding of the poll, have at the university 
the powers and perform the duties of the returning 
officer (including the power and duty of deciding upon 
the validity of voting papers (h) and the right of a person 
to vote (i) . 

24. Arrangements may be made for counting votes at 
an election for a combined university constituency (0r) at 
each of the universities forming the combination, if the 
transferable vote (fc) is not used at that election, and for a 
record of the votes counted at each university being sent to 
the returning officer for the combined constituency in order 
that he may ascertain and declare the result of the election 

(g) See Ninth Schedule, Part III., p. 554, infra. 

(h] See pp. 182200, supra. 

(i) See pp. 102110, 167172, supra. 

(/.-) See sect, 20 (1), p. 155, and pp. 158160, supra. 

F. 24 



370 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



General. 

25. The returning officer shall appoint such deputies 
and clerks as he may think necessary for the proper holding 
of the election, and shall supply a form of voting paper (o) 
to any elector applying for such a form, and shall supply 
forms of nomination papers. 

The governing body of the University may designate 
an officer of the University to act temporarily as returning 
officer in the event of a vacancy in the office of returning 
officer or in the event of his incapacity to appoint a deputy . 

26. Any expenses reasonably incurred by the returning 
officer in connection with the arrangements for a uni- 
versity election and the conduct thereof shall be repaid to 
the returning officer by the University. 

In the case of a combined University constituency (p) 
any such expenses incurred by the Vice-Chancellor or corre- 
sponding officer of each University shall be paid by the 
University whose Vice-Chancellor or officer has incurred 
the expenses, and any other such expenses shall be paid 
in equal shares by the Universities forming the com- 
bination . 

In the case of a combined University constituency (p) 
any candidate's deposit which is forfeited (q) to the Uni- 
versity shall be retained by, or paid to, the University 
whose Vice-Chancellor or other officer is the returning 
officer of the combined constituency and applied by that 
University in the payment of the expenses which are under 
this provision to be paid in equal shares by the Universities 
forming the combination. 

27 . A voting paper shall be deemed to be a public docu- 
ment within the meaning of subsection (3) of section four 
of the Forgery Act, 1913, and section five of the Perjury 

(o) For form, see p. 372, infra. 

(p) See Ninth Schedule, Part III., p. 554, infra. 

(7) See sect. 27, pp. 208210, supra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS. 

Act, 1911, applies to any declaration or statement made 
in the voting paper. 

28. A voting paper shall not be liable to stamp duty. 

29. If any person, for the purpose of enabling an 
elector to vote at a university election, corruptly pays on 
his behalf any fees which the elector is required to pay 
in order to be registered or entitled to vote, he shall be 
guilty of an illegal practice (r) within the meaning of the 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883, and 
that Act shall apply accordingly. 

30. In reckoning time for the purpose of the provisions 
in this Schedule, Sunday, Christmas Day, Good Friday, 
and any day set apart as a bank or public holiday or day 
of public fast or public thanksgiving shall be excluded; 
and where anything is required by these provisions to be 
done on any day falls to be done on any such day that 
thing may be done on the next day not being one of any 
such days. 

31 . If regulations (5) are made under this Act as to the 
manner in which public notice is to be given under the 
provisions of this Schedule, public notice shall be given 
in manner directed under any such regulations for the 
time being in force, and if no such regulations are in force 
shall be given in such manner as the Returning Officer 
considers best fitted for giving notice to the persons 
concerned . 

32. An election shall not be declared invalid by reason 
of non-compliance with these provisions if it appears to 
the tribunal cognisant of the case that the election was con- 
ducted in accordance with the principle of these provisions 
and that the non-compliance with these provisions did not 
affect the result of the election. 

(r) See p. 166, supra. 

() No such regulations have been made up to the time of going 
to press. 

24 (2) 



372 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Farm of Voting Paper. 

I, A. B. (here give the elector's name in full, 

with his university degree and college, if any], give my 
vote as indicated below: 





Candidates. 


Order of Preference. 






A 








B 








C 








D 







I declare that I have signed no other voting paper and 
have not voted in person at this election for the university 
constituency of 
f I also declare 

(In the case of a man) that I have not voted at 
this general election in respect of any qualifi- 
cation other than a residence qualification ; 
(In the case of a woman) that I have not voted at 
this general election for any other university 
constituency (t) . 

Signed A. B. 
Address 

The day of 19 . 

I declare that this voting paper (the voting paper having 
been previously filled in), was signed in my presence by 
A. B. ? who is personally known to me, on the day 

of 19 . 

Signed O.D. 
Address 

* This form will require modification where the transferable vote 
is not used at the election. 

t This declaration is to be made only at a general election. 



(0 See Second Schedule, Part II., p. 358, supra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (.SCOTLAND). 

PART II. 

PROVISIONS AS TO SCOTTISH UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (w) . 
Returning Officer. 

1. The returning officer for the combined Scottish 
University constituency shall be the Vice-Chancellor of 
the University of Edinburgh, to whom the writ for any 
election of a member or members of Parliament for that 
constituency shall be directed. 

2. It shall be the duty of the returning officer to make 
all arrangements for the election, including arrangements 
for the nomination of candidates (v), and (where a poll is 
necessary) for the poll (x) and counting of votes (y\ and to 
certify the result of the election in pursuance of the 
writ. 

3. The returning officer shall give notice to the candi- 
dates of the days fixed for the poll and of the time and 
place for counting the votes, and any candidate and an 
agent appointed by any candidate for the purpose may 
be present at the poll and the count. 

No person other than the returning officer, his assistants 
and clerks, and the candidates and their agents shall be 
entitled to be present at the count except with the sanction 
of the returning officer. 

Nomination. 

4 . The nomination shall take place on such day and at 
such time and place as may be fixed by the returning 
officer, being not less than four days and not more than 
eight days after the receipt of the writ, and the returning 



(a) See sect. 36 (1), set out on p. 279, supra. 
(y) See clauses 4 to 9, infra. 
(x) See clauses 10 to 26, pp. 374380, infra. 
(y) See clauses 27, 28, p. 380, infra. 



374 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

officer shall give public notice (a) of the day, time, and 
place so fixed within three days after he receives the writ. 

5 . The candidate must be nominated in writing by two 
electors as proposer and seconder and by eight other electors 
as assenting to the nomination, and his nomination must 
be delivered to the returning officer by some elector. 

6. If, at the expiration of the time fixed for nomination, 
no more candidates are nominated than there are vacancies 
to be filled up, the returning officer shall declare the candi- 
dates who stand nominated to be elected and certify the 
result of the election accordingly. 

7. If, at the expiration of the time fixed for nomination, 
more candidates stand nominated than there are vacancies 
to be filled up, the returning officer shall arrange for a 
poll to be taken . 

8. A candidate may be withdrawn in manner provided 
by regulations (6) made under this Act, and if, owing to the 
withdrawal of a candidate after nomination, a poll becomes 
unnecessary, the returning officer shall countermand the 
poll and declare any candidate elected whose nomination 
remains standing. 

9 . If one of the candidates nominated dies after he has 
been nominated and before the commencement of the poll, 
the returning officer shall countermand the poll and other 
proceedings for the election and commence the same again 
as if the writ had been received by him on the day on which 
he is satisfied of the fact that the death took place. 

No fresh nomination shall be required in the case of a 
candidate who stood nominated at the time the poll was 
countermanded. 

Poll. 

10. The poll shall remain open for not less than four 
dayB nor more than six days, and shall take place on such 

(a) See clause 37, p. 382, infra. 

(6) These regulations have not been made up to the time of going 
to press. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (SCOTLAND). 375 

days as may be fixed by the returning officer, commencing 
not more than twenty and not less than twelve clear days 
after the day of nomination. 

11. The poll at each University shall be open at such 
place and for such time each day between the hours of 
8 a.m. and 8 p.m., not being less than four hours, as the 
Vice-Chancellor of the University may direct. 

12. The Vice-Chancellor of each University shall give 
public notice (c) of the days and hours of poll and of the 
polling place appointed. 

13. The Vice-Chancellor of each University shall at the 
University act as presiding officer and shall have general 
control over the arrangements for the conduct of the poll 
at such University. 

14. No person other than the Vice-Chancellor, the regis- 
trar, their assistants and clerks, and the candidates and 
their agents shall be entitled to be present at the poll except 
with the sanction of the Vice-Chancellor. 

15. The Vice-Chancellor of each University shall as 
regards the voting papers relating to such University 
decide on the validity of any voting paper (d) to which ob- 
jection is taken, or on the right of any person to vote (e), 
and the decision of the Vice-Chancellor, if the voting paper 
or the right to vote is allowed, shall be final, but, if the 
voting paper or the right to vote is disallowed, shall be 
subject to reversal on any proceeding questioning the 
election or return. 

16. The register kept in pursuance of this Act by the 
University Court shall be conclusive as to the right of any 
person to vote at the poll; but this provision shall not 
entitle any person to vote if that person is subject to any 
legal incapacity (/) . 

(c) See clause 37, p. 382, infra. 

(d) See pp. 182200, supra. 

(e) See pp. 102110, 167172, supra. 
(/) See pp. 48, 6768, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

17. Votes shall be given by means of voting papers, 
and no elector shall be allowed to vote in person, or in any 
other way than is herein provided. Each voting paper .shall 
be in the form (A) appended to this Schedule (#). Each 
voting paper shall have a number printed or written on 
the back thereof, and shall have attached a counterfoil 
with the same number printed or written on the face. 
Before a voting paper is issued to an elector as herein- 
after provided, it shall be marked with an official mark, 
either stamped or perforated, and the number of such 
elector, as stated on the register shall be marked on the 
counterfoil, and a mark shall be placed in the register 
or any copy thereof used for the purposes of the election 
against the number of the elector to denote that a voting 
paper has been issued to him. 

18. The registrar of each University, as soon as he con- 
veniently can after the day of nomination (A), and not later 
than eight clear days thereafter, shall issue through the 
post a voting paper, in the form (A) appended to this 
Schedule (#), to each elector to his address as entered on the 
register who shall appear from said address to be resident 
within the United Kingdom or the Channel Islands; and 
such voting paper (the Christian name, surname, desig- 
nation, and residence of the elector as appearing on the 
register having previously been filled in by the registrar, or 
some one having his authority), contained in an envelope 
marked on the outside as sent by the registrar of the Uni- 
versitj^, shall be accompanied by a letter of intimation in 
the form (B) appended to this schedule (), and by a 
stamped envelope addressed to the registrar, for the return 
of the said voting paper; and each elector, upon receipt of 
his voting paper, if he desires to vote in the election, shall 
record his vote thereon, and the place and date of signa- 

(0) For form, see pp. 383384, infra. 
(A) See clause 4, pp. 373374, supra. 
(0 For form, see p. 384, infra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (SCOTLAND). 377 

ture, and affix his subscription thereto, in the presence of 
one witness, who shall personally know the elector, and 
who shall attest the fact of such voting paper having been 
signed by the elector in his presence at the place therein 
mentioned, by signing his name at the foot thereof, and 
adding his designation and place of residence in the form 
or to the effect set forth in the form (A) appended to this 
schedule (&). 

19. Thereafter the voting paper so signed and attested 
as aforesaid, shall, if the elector desires to vote in the 
election, be returned through the post to the registrar of 
the University by whom it was issued, so as to reach him 
not later than the time specified in the said letter of inti- 
mation for the return of the voting paper. Each voting 
paper, when received back by the registrar, shall be kept 
by him unopened in a fireproof safe, or other place of 
safety, until the poll begins. 

20 . If an elector, before or after he has received a voting 
paper, shall intimate or cause to be intimated in writing 
to the registrar that he is incapacitated from blindness or 
other physical cause to vote in the manner prescribed by 
this Act, it shall be lawful for the registrar, on getting 
back the voting paper from the elector, if such has been 
issued, to issue to the elector so incapacitated a voting 
paper in the form or to the effect set forth in the form (C) 
appended to this schedule (7); and on said voting paper 
being received by the elector, it shall be competent for him 
to record his vote by the hand of a justice of the peace in 
the manner therein directed; and the said justice of peace 
shall certify and attest the fact of his having been re- 
quested and authorised by the elector to sign said voting 
paper for him, and of its having been so signed by him 
in the presence of the elector by signing an attestation in 
the form (C) aforesaid; and such voting paper, when 

(A-) For form, see pp. 383384, infra. 
(1} For form, see pp. 385386, infra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

received by the registrar, shall have the same effect and 
be similarly dealt with as a voting paper signed by an 
elector in the form (A) appended to this schedule (n) . 

21. An elector who has not received a voting paper 
sent by post as aforesaid to his address as appearing on 
the register, or who has before re-delivery thereof to the 
registrar, inadvertently spoilt his voting paper in such 
manner that it cannot be conveniently used as a voting 
paper, or who has lost his voting paper, may, on his 
transmitting to the registrar a declaration signed by him- 
self before a justice of the peace setting forth the fact of 
the non-receipt, the inadvertent spoiling, or the loss of 
the voting paper, require the registrar to send him a new 
voting paper in place of the one not received, or spoilt, 
or lost; and in case the voting paper has been spoilt, the 
spoilt voting paper shall be returned to the registrar, and 
when received by him shall be immediately cancelled, and 
in every case where a new voting paper is issued a mark 
shall be placed opposite the number of the elector's name 
on the register, to denote that a new voting paper has been 
issued in place of the one not received, or spoilt, or lost. 

22. An elector who does not appear from his address 
as entered on the register to be resident within the United 
Kingdom or the Channel Islands, may apply in writing 
to the registrar to send a voting paper to him to an address 
within the United Kingdom or the Channel Islands. 

23. The registrar, upon receiving an application in 
terms of either of the two preceding provisions hereof at 
any time before the day on which the poll begins, shall 
forthwith transmit a new voting paper, or a voting paper, 
as the case may be, to the address as appearing on the 
register, or to the address within the United Kingdom or 
Channel Islands as the case may be: Provided that the 
registrar shall open all letters coming addressed to him 

(n) For form, see pp. 383 fc84, infra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (SCOTLAND). 

from the Dead Letter Office after the date of his issuing 
the voting papers, in order to ascertain and make public 
the names and addresses of the electors whose voting papers 
have not reached them, which he shall do by exhibiting 
publicly at his office in the University as they reach him 
a list of the names and addresses of the electors whose 
letters have been returned to him from the Dead Letter 
Office, for the information of >all concerned . 

24. When the poll begins, the voting papers shall be 
opened and examined by the registrar in the presence of 
the Vice-Chancellor and any candidate or agent of a candi- 
date who may attend, and the voting papers found to be 
marked with the official mark and the number on the 
back as appearing on the counterfoil, and otherwise 
regular, shall be put apart until the end of the poll. Any 
voting paper which has not the official mark and the 
number on the back as appearing on the counterfoil, or 
which is in the opinion of the Vice-Chancellor otherwise 
invalid, shall not be counted as a vote in the election, but 
shall be sealed up in a paper apart, marked on the back 
thereof with the words " voting papers received but dis- 
allowed," and initialled by the Vice-Chancellor. 

25 . It shall be lawful for any candidate or the agent of 
any candidate who may be in attendance at the poll, to 
inspect any voting paper and to object to it on one or 
more of the following grounds: 

(1) That the elector named in the voting paper lias 

already voted at that election: 

(2) That the person giving a vote by the voting paper 

is not qualified to vote: 

(3) That the voting papor is forged or falsified: 

(4) That the voting paper is wanting in any of the 

essential conditions required by this Act: 

Provided, that in case the objection offered to any voting 
paper shall be that it is forged or falsified, such voting 
paper shall not on that ground alone be disallowed by the 



380 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Vice-Chancellor, but he shall write upon it, " objected to 
as forged," or, "objected to as falsified," together with 
the name of the person making such objection. 

26. No voting paper shall be counted which does not 
reach the registrar before ten of the clock on the morning 
of the day on which the poll closes. 

Counting of Votes. 

27. After the poll is closed all voting papers received 
at any polling place shall be placed in a proper receptacle 
and sealed up and delivered to the returning officer, and 
the returning officer shall, as soon as practicable after the 
receipt of the votes from all the polling places, count the 
votes and publish (o) the result. 

28 . Where an equality of votes is found to exist between 
any candidates on a final count and the addition of a vote 
would entitle any of those candidates to be declared elected, 
the returning officer may give a deciding vote, but the 
returning officer shall not be entitled to vote at the election 
in any other case. 

General. 

29. Arrangements may be made for counting votes at 
an election for the combined university constituency at 
each of the universities forming the combination, if the 
transferable vote (p) is not used at that election, and for a 
record of the votes counted at each University being sent 
to the returning officer for the combined constituency in 
order that ho may ascertain and declare the result of the 
election . 

30. The returning officer shall appoint such deputies 
and clerks as he may think necessary for the proper holding 
of the election, and shall supply forms of nomination 
papers. 

(o) See clause 37, p. 382, infra. 

(p] See sect. 20 (1), p. 155, and pp. 158160, supra. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (SCOTLAND). 381 

31. All voting papers received and counted at an elec- 
tion, and the counterfoils thereof, as well as any voting 
papers disallowed for informality, or on any other ground, 
and the counterfoils thereof, shall be filed, and, along with 
any copy of the register used for the purposes of said 
election, shall be kept by the returning officer for a period 
of twelve months after the closing of the poll. 

32. Any person falsely or fraudulently signing any 
voting paper in the name of any other person, either as 
a voter or as a witness, and every person signing, certi- 
fying, attesting, or transmitting as genuine any false or 
falsified voting paper, knowing the same to be false or 
falsified, or with fraudulent intent altering, defacing, 
destroying, withholding, or obstructing any voting paper, 
shall be guilty of a crime and offence, and shall be punish- 
able by fine or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 
one year. 

33. No such voting paper as herein-before mentioned 
shall be liable to any stamp duty. 

34. Any expenses reasonably incurred by the Vice- 
Chancellor of each University in connection with the 
arrangements for an election shall be repaid to him by 
that University: Provided that any expenses so incurred 
by the returning officer in connection with the nomination 
and the counting of votes shall be paid in equal shares by 
the four Universities forming the constituency. 

35. If any person, for the purpose of enabling any 
other person to vote at a university election, corruptly 
pays on his behalf any fees which such other person is 
required to pay in order to be registered or entitled to vote, 
he shall be guilty of an illegal pnactioe (q) within the 
meaning of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention 
Act, 1883, and that Act shall apply accordingly. 

36. In reckoning time for the purpose of the provi- 

(q) See p. 166, 



382 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

sions in this Schedule, Sunday, Christmas Day, and any 
day set apart as a bank or public holiday or public fast or 
public thanksgiving shall be, excluded; and where anything 
required by these provisions to be done on any day falls 
to be done on any such day it may be done on the next 
day not being one of any such days. 

37 . If regulations () are made under tliis Act as to the 
mariner in which public notice is to be given under the 
provisions of this Schedule, public notice shall be given 
in manner directed under any such regulations for the 
time being in force, and if no such regulations are in 
force shall be given in such manner as the returning officer 
or the Vice-Chancellor as the case may be, considers best 
fitted for giving notice to the persons concerned. 

38. An election shall not be declared invalid by reason 
of non-compliance with these provisions if it appears to 
the tribunal having jurisdiction that the election was con- 
ducted in accordance with the principle of these provisions 
and that the non-compliance with these provisions did 
not affect the result of the election. 

39. Where the Vice-Chancellor or registrar of any 
University is absent, or is incapacitated by illness for 
discharging any duty required of him by this Act, or if 
the office of Vice-Chancellor or of registrar shall be vacant, 
the duties by this Act imposed on the Vice-Chancellor or 
registrar respectively shall be discharged by a person ap- 
pointed for that purpose by the University Court of such 
University; and such person shall in that respect, but in 
no other, act for the time as and be deemed to be Vice- 
Chancellor or registrar of such University. 

() At the time of going to press no regulations have been issued. 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (SCOTLAND). 



383 



FORM A. 

UNIVERSITY OF (Name of University) VOTING PAPER. 
No. (number of elector as on the register). 

I, A. B. (here give the elector's name in full 

<md Ms designation), give my vote as indicated below: 





"Candidates. 


Order of Preference. 




A 
B 






C 




D 





* This form will require modification where the transferable vote 
is not used at the election. 

I declare that I have signed no other voting paper at 
this election for the combined university constituency of 
the University of St. Andrews, the University of Glasgow, 
the University of Aberdeen, and the University of 
Edinburgh. 

* I also declare (t) 

(In the case of a man) that I have not voted at 
this general election in respect of any qualifica- 
tion other than a residence qualification ; 
(In the case of a woman) that I have not voted at 
this general election for any other university 
constituency. 

Signed A. B. 
Address 
The day of 19 . 

(t) See Second Schedule, Part II., p. 358, supra. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

I declare that this voting paper (the vote having been 
previously recorded thereon), was signed in my presence 
by A. B. ? who is personally known to me, on the 
day of 19 . 

Signed C.D. 
Designation 
Address 

* This declaration is to be made only at a general election. 



FORM B. 

UNIVERSITY OF (Name of University) . 
No. (number of elector as on the register). 



Persons Nominated. 


Proposed by 


Seconded by 


A 


Name of Proposer 


Name of Seconder 


B 


Do. 


Do. 


C 


Do. 


Do. 


D 


Do. 


Do. 



SIR, 

I HAVE to intimate that the above-named persons 
have been nominated for the office of member of Parlia- 
ment. Along with this letter you will receive a voting 
paper, and, should you desire to vote at this election, I have 
to request that you will record your vote thereon and the 
place and date of your signing, and having signed your 
name thereto in presence of one witness, who will also 
sign his name as directed, you will return the voting paper 
by post to me at the University of , so as to reach 

me on or before 10 a.m. of (insert the day on which the 
poll finally closes). 

I am, &c. 

(Signed) G. H., Registrar. 
(Date.) 



UNIVERSITY ELECTIONS (SCOTLAND). 

FORM C. 
UNIVERSITY OF (Name of University) VOTING PAPER. 

INCAPACITATED ELECTOR. 
No. (number of elector as on register). 

I A. B. (here give the elector's name in full and his 
designation), give my vote as indicated below, and I have 
requested and authorise/I C. D., a justice of peace, to make 
the entries in this voting paper on my behalf and on my 
instructions, and to subscribe this voting paper and 
declaration (s) for me, as I am from (state the incapacity 
unable to write: 



385 





t Candidates. 


Order of Preference. 




A 




B 
C 






D 





t This form will require modification where the transferable vote 
is not used at the election. 

I declare that I have signed no other voting paper at 
this election for the combined university constituency of 
the University of St. Andrews, the University of Glasgow, 
the University of Aberdeen, and the University of 
Edinburgh. 

J I also declare (t) 

(In the case of a man) that I have not voted at this 
general election in respect of any qualification 
other than a residence qualification; 

(t) See Second Schedule, Part II., p. 358, supra. 
F. 25 



386 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(In the case of a woman) that I have not voted at 
this general election for any other university 
constituency . 

Signed A.B. 
Address 

The day of 19 . 

I, C. D., a justice of peace for , and residing at 

, hereby declare that A.B., hefore named, being 
personally known to me, did in my presence make the, 
declaration (s) before mentioned, and did duly request and 
authorise me to make the entries in this voting paper on 
his behalf and on his instructions, and to subscribe this 
voting paper for him, which I did on day of 

19 , in the presence of the said A.B. 

(Signed) C. D., a justice of peace for 
, and residing at 
J This declaration is to be made only at a general election. 



Section 42. SIXTH SCHEDULE. 

ADAPTATION OF ACTS (w) . 

1. A reference to parliamentary electors registered 
under this Act shall be substituted for any reference in 
any other Act to parliamentary electors, parliamentary 
voters, or persons entitled to vote at parliamentary elec- 
tions, by whatever name called. 

2. A reference to local government electors registered 
under this Act shall, so far as local government elections 
and the right to vote at any such elections are concerned, be 
substituted for any reference in any other Act to local 
government electors, county electors, burgesses, parochial 
electors, or other persons entitled to vote at a local govern- 
ment election, by whatever name called, and local govern- 

() See sect. 42, p. 308, supra. 



ADAPTATION OF ACTS. 38' 

ment electors so registered shall for all purposes, whether 
statutory or not, be in the same position as any such local 
government electors, county electors, burgesses, parochial 
electors, or persons. 

3. A reference to the register kept in pursuance of this 
Act shall, so far as it relates to parliamentary electors, be 
substituted for any reference in any Act to the parliamen- 
tary register of electors or to the parliamentary register 
or to the register of parliamentary electors or to the register 
of persons entitled to vote at a parliamentary election, by 
whatever name called, and, so far as it relates to the local 
government register, shall be substituted for the local 
government register of electors, the burgess roll, the county 
register, the register of parochial electors, and for the 
register of persons entitled to vote at a local government 
election, by whatever name called. 

4. The registration officer shall be substituted for the 
overseers in sections eleven and twelve of the Parliamen- 
tary and Municipal Registration Act, 1878, and in every 
other enactment dealing with the duties of the overseers 
in connection with the registration of electors; and in 
sections thirty-nine, sixty-eight and sixty -nine of the 
Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883, 
" registration officer" means the registration officer under 
this Act. 

5 . Subsection (4) of section forty of the Local Govern- 
ment Act, 1888, shall have effect as if the words "for the 
time being " were substituted for the words " at the passing 
of this Act"; and, in order to meet any difficulty (conse- 
quent on the change of boundaries under this provision) 
in filling casual vacancies by election in the London County 
Council, any such casual vacancy shall, until the first elec- 
tion of the whole number of councillors which takes place 
after the passing of this Act, be filled by means of the 
choice by the Council of a person to fill the vacancy, and 
the councillor so chosen shall hold office in such manner 

25 (2) 



388 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

and in all respects as if he had been elected to fill the 
vacancy. 

6. Sections eleven and thirteen and (so far as neces- 
sary) section twelve of the Parliamentary and Municipal 
Registration Act, 1878, shall be adapted so as to be appli- 
cable to parishes situated in any constituency or in any 
local government area, and for that purpose " con- 
stituency " shall be substituted in those sections for 
"parliamentary borough/' " local government area" for 
" municipal borough," and " registered as a local govern- 
ment elector" for "enrolled as a burgess." 

7. The Local Government Board may, by order, make 
such further adaptations in the provisions of any Act 
(including any local Act and any Act to confirm a Pro- 
visional Order and any scheme under the Municipal Cor- 
porations Act, 1882, as amended by any subsequent Act) 
as may seem to them necessary to make those provisions 
conform with the provisions of this Act; and any order so 
made shall operate as if enacted in this Act. 

As respects Scotland the Secretary for Scotland, and 
as respects Ireland the Local Government Board for 
Ireland, shall be substituted for the Local Government 
Board in this schedule. 

Special Adaptation of Acts for Scotland. 

8. The Eepresentation of the People (Scotland) Act, 
1832 (2 & 3 Will. 4,c.65) :- 

Section thirty-eight shall apply as if this Act were 
mentioned therein as well as the Act therein men- 
tioned . 

The Representation of the People (Scotland) Act, 1868 
(31 & 32 Viet. c. 48):- 

Section twenty-three shall apply as if appeals from 
the sheriff court under this Act were mentioned 
therein instead of the appeals therein mentioned . 



SPECIAL ADAPTATION OF ACTS FOR SCOTLAND. 389 

The Ballot Act, 1872 (35 & 36 Viet. c. 33):- 

In Rule 60 (x) of Part I. of the First Schedule, a 
reference to Division (4) of Part I. of the Ninth 
Schedule to this Act shall be substituted for the refer- 
ence to the Schedules in that Rule mentioned. 

The Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883 
(46 & 47 Viet. c. 51):- 

In section pixty-eight in the definition of 
" revising barrister/' for the word " sheriff " shall be 
substituted the words " registration officer." 

The Registration Amendment (Scotland) Act, 1885 (48 
&49 Viet. c. 16):- 

In section six, for the words " dwelling-house 
within the meaning of the Representation of the 
People Act, 1884," there shall be substituted the 
words, " house or part of a house occupied as a 
separate dwelling: Provided that no such en try shall 
render liable to be rated in respect of any such house 
or part of a house any person who occupies the same 
by virtue of any office, service, or employment." 

The Local Government (Scotland) Act, 1889 (52 & 53 
Viet. c. 50):- 

In section six, the words "in the Representation 
of the People Act, 1918," shall be substituted for the 
word " hereinafter." 

The Elections (Scotland) (Corrupt and Illegal Prac- 
tices) Act, 1890 (53 & 54 Viet. o. 55):- 

In section twenty -nine the words "registration 
officer " shall be substituted for " revising authority," 
and at the end of subsection (1) of the said section 
the following words shall be added, "and shall make 
out a list (which may be referred to as the corrupt 
and illegal practices list) containing the name and 

(x) Set out at p. 692, infra. 



390 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

description of every person whose name has been so 
omitted, and shall state in that list the offence of 
which each such person has been convicted or found 
guilty." 

The Town Councils (Scotland) Act, 1900 (63 & 64 
Viet. c. 49):- 

In subsection (1) of section twenty-three the words 
" registered as local government electors for the 
burgh in accordance with the provisions of the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act, 1918 " shall be substi- 
tuted for the words " entitled in respect of premises 
within the municipal boundary to vote in the election 
of a member of Parliament." 

Special Adaptation of Acts for Ireland, 

9. The Juries Act (Ireland), 1871 (34 & 35 Viet. 
o. 65):- 

In sections twelve and fourteen, a reference to the 
county court shall b substituted for a reference to 
the court at which the register of parliamentary voters 
is revised. 

The Parliamentary Registration (Ireland) Act, 1885 
(48 & 49 Viet. c. 17):- 

In section sixteen the registration officer shall be 
substituted for the clerk of the union; "fifteenth of 
July " shall be substituted for " first of July " and 
the word "male" shall be omitted. 



ENACTMENTS REPEALED. 



891 



SEVENTH SCHEDULE. 

RETURNING OFFICERS FOR SCOTTISH CONSTITUENCIES 
SITUATED IN *MORE THAN ONE SHERIFFDOM z . 



Section 43 

(13). 



Name of Parliamentary 
Borough or County. 



Montrose District of Burghs. 



Ayr and Bute 



Name of Division. 



Bute and Northern . 



Berwick and Haddington . . 
Caithness and Sutherland . . 



Inverness and Ross and | Western Isles 
Cromarty. 



Perth and Kinross 
Renfrew . 



Kinross and Western. 
Eastern . 



Returning Officer 

Sheriff of Forfar. 
Sheriff of Ayr. 

Sheriff of the Lothiaus 
and Peebles. 

Sheriff of Caithness, 
Orkney, and Zetland. 

Sheriff of Ross, Cro- 
marty, and Sutherland. 

Sheriff of Perth. 

Sheriff of Renfrew and 
Bute. 



Session and 
Chapter. 



8 Hen. 6, c. 7. 



10 Hen. 6, 
c. 2. 



EIGHTH SCHEDULE 
ENACTMENTS REPEALED (a) . 



Section 47. 



Title or Short Title. 



Electors of knights of the 
shires shall have 40a. a 
year freehold and be 
resident. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealfid. 



The Statute 8 Hen. 6, The whole Act so far as unre- 
c. 7, as to freehold quali- 
fication of electors of 
knights of the shires ; | 
such freeholds shall be j 
within the county. 

(z) See sect. 43 (13), pp. 321322, supra. 
(a) See sect. 47, p. 337, supra. 



392 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Session and 
Chapter. 


Title or Short Title. 


Extent of Repeal. 


7 & 8 Will. 3, 
c. 25. 


An Act for the further 
regulating elections of 
members to serve in 
Parliament, and for the 
preventing irregular 
proceedings of sheriffs 
and other officers in the 
electing and returning 
such members. 


Section six. 


10 Anne, 
* 31. 


The Elections (Fraudulent 
Conveyances) Act, 1711. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


13 Geo. 2, 
c. 20. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions (Fraudulent Con- 
veyances) Act, 1739. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


18 Geo. 2, 
c. 18. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1744. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


19 Geo. 2, 
c. 28. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1745. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


3 Geo. 3, 
c. 15. 


The Freemen (Admission) 
Act, 1763. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


20 Geo. 3, 
c. 17. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1780. 


Dhe whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


25 Geo. 3, 
c. 84. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1785. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


33 Geo. 3, 
c. 64. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1793. 


The whole Act. 


53 Geo. 3, 
c. 49. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1813. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


4 Geo. 4, 
c. 36. 


The Joint Tenancy (Ire- 
land) Act, 1833. 


The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 


4 Geo. 4, 
c. 55. 


The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions (Ireland) Act, 1823. 


Sections twenty-four, twenty-six, 
twenty-seven, and twenty- 
eight. 


2 & 3 Will. 4 
c. 45. 


The Representation of the 
People Act, 1832. 


The whole Act (except sections 
sixty-six, seventy, and seventy- 
six, and the definition of " re- 
turning officer " in section 
seventy-nine) ; the words " bar- 
rister, overseer," in section 
seventy-six wherever they occur. 



ENACTMENTS REPEALED. 



393 



Session and 
Chapter. 



2 & 3 Will. 4, 
c. 65. 



The Representation of the 
People (Scotland) Act, 
1832. 



"2 & 3 Will. 4, 
c. 88. 



,5 & 6 Will. 4 
c. 36. 

5 & 6 Will. 4 

c 78. 



3 & 4 Viet 
c. 108. 



Title or Short Title. 



The Representation of the 
People (Ireland) Act, 
1832. 

The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1835. 

The Representation of the 
People (Scotland) Act, 
1835. 

The Municipal Corpora- 
tions (Ireland) Act, 1840. 



5 & 6 Viet The University of Duhlin 
c. 74. Registration Act, 1842. 



7 Viet. 



c. 18. 



The Parliamentary Voters 
Registration Act, 1843. 



11 & 12 Viet, 
c. 90. 



12 & 13 Viet, 
c. 85. 



13 & 14 Viet 
c. 57. 



13 & 14 Viet, 
c. 68. 



The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Act, 1848. 



The Dublin Corporation 
Act, 1849. 



The Vestries Act, 1850 



The Parliamentary Elec. 
tions( Ireland) Act, 1850. 



Sections two to four, six to thir- 
teen ; section twenty-seven ; 
section twenty-eight; section 
thirty-five; section thirty-six, 
so far as relating to town clerks 
or deputy town clerks being 
entitled to vote; section thirty - 
seven; section forty; section 
forty-two, and the schedules so 
far as unrepealed. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed except sections eleven 
and twelve. 

Section seven. 



Sections three, four, nine, ten, 
and eleven. 



Sections six and eight to ten. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The whole Act so 
pealed. 



far as unre- 



The whole Act (except sections 
eighty-one, eighty-two, eighty- 
five to ninety, ninety -three, and 
ninety-seven, and the definition 
of "returning officer " in sec- 
tion one hundred and one), the 
word "overseer " in section 
ninety-seven. 



The whole Act. 



Sections two, three, five, 
seven, and ten to twelve. 



six-. 



Section seven from "to give the 
notices for claims "to for re- 
vising them, and," and the 
words "burgess lists and the". 

Sections six to nine and section 
nineteen. 



391 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACI, 1918. 



Session and 
Chapter. 



13 & 14 Viet, 



14 & 15 Viet, 
c. 14. 



The Representation of the 
People (Ireland) Act, 
I860. 



The Compound House- 
holders Act, 1851. 



14 & 15 Viet. The 
c. 57. 



16 & 17 Viet. The County Elections 
c. 28. (Scotland) Act, 1853. 

16 & 17 Viet. The Dublin Parliamentary 
c. 58. Revising Act, 1853. 

16 & 17 Viet. The Parliamentary Elec- 
c. 68. tions Act, 1853. 



17 & 18 Viet. 
c. 91. 

19 & 20 Viet, 
c. 58. 



20 & 21 Viet. 
c. 68. 



24 & 25 Viet. 
c. 53. 

24 & 25 Viet 
c. 60. 



24 & 25 Viet 
c. 83. 



27 & 28 Viet 
c. 22. 



Title or Short Title. 



Civil Bill Courts 
(Ireland) Act, 1851. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed (except sections eighty- 
eight to ninety-seven and sec- 
tions one hundred and three, 
one hundred and eight, and one 
hundred and eighteen). 



The whole Act. 



Section one hundred and sixty- 
one. 

Sections two, three, five, six, and 



The Lands Valuation 
(Scotland) Act, 1854. 

The Burgh Voters Regis- 
tration (Scotland) Act, 
1856. 

The Dublin Revising Bar- 
risters Act, 1857. 



The Representation of the 
People (Ireland) Act, 
1861. 

The County Voters Regis- 
tration (Scotland) Act, 
1861. 

The Regintration of County 
Voters (Ireland) Act, 
1864. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

In section one the words "for the 
Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge and" the words " to 
the Vice-Chancellora of the said 
Universities and" and the 
words "Vice- Chancellors and"; 
sections four and five. 

Section thirty-four. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed except sections two and 
five. 



The University Elections The whole Act so far as unre- 
Act, 1861. pealed. 



The whole Act. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 



ENACTMENTS REPEALED. 



395 



Session and 
Chapter. 



28 & 29 Viet, 
c. 36. 

29 & 30 Viet, 
c. 54. 

30 & 31 Viet, 
o. 102. 



Title or Short Title. 



The County Voters Regis- 
tration Act, 1865. 

["he Revising Barristers 
Act, 1866. 

The Representation of the 
People Act, 1867. 



31 & 32 Viet, 
c. 48. 



["he Representation of the 
People (Scotland) Act, 
1868. 



31 & 32 Viet, 
c. 49. 



31 & 32 Viet 
c. 58. 



31 & 32 Viet 
c. 65. 

31 & 32 Viet 
c. 112. 

32 & 33 Viet 
c. 41. 



33 & 34 Viet 
c. 11. 



The Representation of the 
People (Ireland) Act, 
1868. 



The Parliamentary Elec- 
tors Registration Act, 
1868. 



The Universities Elections 
Act, 1868. 



The Registration Amend- 
ment (Ireland) Act, 1868. 



The Poor Rate Assessment 
and Collection Act, 1869. 



The Dublin Collector 
Rates Act, 1870. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act (except sections 
one, two, seven, thirty-seven, 
forty-nine to fifty-two, fifty- 
seven, fifty-nine, and sixty-one, 
and Schedule H.); section 
fifty-nine from "and in con- 
struing" to the end of the 
section. 



Sections three to six, sections 
eight to fourteen, sections six- 
teen to twenty, sections twenty- 
two, twenty-four, twenty-six, 
thirty-seven to forty-two, 
forty-five, forty-seven to fifty, 
fifty-three, fifty-five, fifty-six, 
and in section fifty-nine the 
definition of ''premises," and 
Schedules A., B., O., D., and 

Sections three to seven, fourteen, 
sixteen, seventeen, and twenty- 
four. 

The whole Act (except sections 
one, two, three, and twenty- 
one). 

The whole Act. 



The whole Act so far as un re- 
pealed. 

Section seven so far as it relates 
to franchise and any disquali- 
fication which depends on fran- 
chise; section ten, and section 
nineteen so far as it relates to 
franchise and any disqualifica- 
tion which depends on fran- 
chise. 



of The whole Act. 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918, 



Session and 
Chapter. 



36 & 36 Viet. 



The Ballot Act, 1872 



36 & 37 
c. 2. 



Viet. The Polling Districts 
(Ireland) Act, 1873. 



36 & 37 Viet, 
c. 30. 

36 & 37 Viet. 

e. 70. 

37 & 38 Viet, 
c. 53. 

38 & 39 Viet. 

<. 77. 



38 x 39 Viet, 
e. 84. 



39 & 40 Viet 
c. 61. 



40 & 41 Viet 
e. 57. 



Title or Short Title. 



The Registration of Voters 
(Ireland) Act, 1873. 

The Revising Barristers 
Act, 1873. 

The Revising Barristers 
Act, 1874. 

The Supreme Court of 
Judicature Act, 1875. 



The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions (Returning Officers) 
Act, 1875. 



The Divided Parishes and 
Poor Law Amendmen 
Act, 1876. 

The Supreme Court of 
Judicature Act (Ireland), 

1877. 



Extent of Repeal. 



Section five; section eight from 
"all expenses" to "by law 
payable," and (except as re- 
spects Scotland and Ireland) 
from "where the sheriff" to 
the end of the section; sub- 
section (5) of section sixteen, 
sub-section (4) of section 
seventeen, sections eighteen and 
nineteen, section twenty-five 
from "or where" to " is proved 
on such trial to have voted at 
such election" and from "or so 
retained" to end of the section; 
section thirty-three from " and 
shall continue in force" to the 
end of the section; rules 3 and 
58 in the First Schedule. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act so far as un re- 
pealed. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

In section twenty-three, the 
words "or the distribution of 
revising barristers among the 
circuits," and from "and the 
senior judge" to " boroughs 
therein." 

Sections two to five, and section 
seven, and the Schedules, ex- 
cept so far as those sections 
and schedules apply to elections 
other than parliamentary elec- 
tions. 

Section fourteen. 



Sub-section (2) of section twenty- 
three from "including" to the 
end of the sub-section. 



ENACTMENTS REPEALED. 



Session and 
Chapter. 



41 & 42 Viet, 
c. 3. 



4 1 & 42 Viet. 
c. 5. 



41 & 42 Viet, 
c. 26. 



41 & 42 Viet. 
c. 41. 



41 & 42 Viet, 
c. 78. 

42 & 43 Viet, 
c. 10. 



42 & 43 Viet 
c. 71. 



43 & 44 Viet 
c. 6. 



44 & 45 Viet, 
c. 40. 



44 & 45 Viet 
c. 68. 

45 & 48 Viet 
c. 50. 



The House Occupiers Dis- 
qualification Removal 
Act, 1878. 

The House Occupiers Dis- 
qualification Removal 
(Scotland) Act, 1878. 

The Parliamentary and 
Municipal Registration 

Act, 1878. 



The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions Returning Officers' 
Expenses (Scotland) Act, 
1878. 

The Education (Scotland) 
Act, 1878. 

The Assessed Rates Act, 
1879. 



Title or Short Title. 



The Registry Courts (Ire- 
land) Amendment Act, 
1879. 

The House Occupiers in 
Counties Disqualifica- 
tion Removal (Scotland) 
Act, 1880. 

The Universities Elections 
Amendment (Scotland) 
Act, 1881. 

The Supreme Court of 
Judicature Act, 1881. 

The Municipal Corpora- 
tions Act, 1882. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The whole Act. 



The whole Act. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed (except sections one, 
two, eleven, twelve, thirteen 
and fourteen) . 

Section three and the Schedule. 



Section twenty-four. 



The whole Act so far as it relates 
to franchise and any disquali- 
fication which depends on 
franchise. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 



The whole Act. 



The whole Act. 



Section fourteen as far as respects 
appeals in registration matters. 

Section nine; in sub-section (2) 
of section eleven the words 
from "or (b) Being entitled" 
to "to be made," and the words 
"In either of those cases"; sec- 
tions thirty-two and thirty- 
three; sub-section (3) of sec- 
tion forty-two; section forty- 
four; paragraphs (1) to (7) of 
section forty-five; sections 
forty-six to forty -nine; in sub- 



398 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Session and 
Chapter. 



45 & 46 Viet 
c. 60 contd 



46 & 47 Viet, 
c. 51. 



47 & 48 Viet, 
c. 35. 



Title or Short Title. 



The Corrupt and Illegal 
Practices Prevention 
Act, 1883. 



The County of Dublin 
Jurors' and Voters' Re- 
vision Act, 1884. 



.Extent of Repeal. 



section (2) of section fifty-one 
the words "or vote in more 
than one ward " ; sections sixty- 
three, seventy-one, and seventy- 
six, sub -sections (1) and (3) of 
section two hundred and nine, 
section two hundred and forty- 
four, Part I. of the Third 
Schedule, in rule four of Part 
II. of the Third Schedule, the 
words "or entered in the sepa- 
rate non-resident list required 
by this Act to be made," Part 
IV. of the Third Schedule, rule 
one of Part II. of the Fifth 
Schedule so far as respects ex- 
penses incurred in relation to 
the enrolment of burgesses, and 
Forms C to G in Part II. of 
the Eight Schedule. 



Sub-section (2) of section thirty, 
two ; paragraph (c) of sub- 
section (1) of section thirty- 
three; sub-section (1) of sec- 
tion thirty-five from "and may 
charge " to the end of the sub- 
section; sub -section (3) of 
section thirty-nine ; section 
forty-seven; the definitions of 
" registration officer " in sec- 
tions sixty-four and sixty- 
eight ; sub -section (12) of 
section sixty-eight; sub-section 
(4) of section sixty-nine from 
"in the manner" to the end of 
the sub-section; sub-section (9) 
of section sixty-nine; para- 
graph (7) of Part I. of the 
First Schedule; paragraph (1) 
of Part II. of the First Sche- 
dule; in the "Form of Return 
of Election Expenses" in Part 
I. of the Second Schedule the 
first paragraph under the head- 
ing "Expenditure." 



Section two, so far as respects 
the appointment of revising 
barristers and the registration 
of voters. 



ENACTMENTS REPEALED. 



499 



Session and 
Chapter. 



47 & 48 Viet. 
c. 70. 



48 & 49 Viet. 
c. 3. 

48 & 49 Viet, 
c. 9. 

48 & 49 Viet, 
c. 15. 



48 & 49 Viet. 
c. 16. 



48 & 49 Viet. 
c. 17. 



48 & 49 Viet, 
c. 23. 



The Municipal Elections 
(Corrupt and Illegal 
Practices) Act, 1884. 

The Representation of the 
People Act, 1884. 

The Municipal Voters 
Relief Act, 1885. 

The Registration Act, 1885. 




48 & 49 Viet, 
c. 46. 



48 & 49 Viet, 
c. 62. 



49 & 50 Viet, 
c. 42. 



Title or Short Title. 



The Registration Amend- 
ment (Scotland) Act, 
1885. 



The Parliamentary Regis- 
tration (Ireland) Act, 
1885. 



The Redistribution of Seats 
Act, 1885. 



The Medical Relief Dis- 
qualification Removal 
Act, 1885. 

The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions (Returning Offi- 
cers) Act, 1885. 



The Revising Barristers 
Act, 1886. 



Extent of Repeal. 



Sub-section (3) of section thir- 
teen. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed (except sections sixteen, 
nineteen, and twenty) ; the de- 
finitions of "ownership voter," 
"fifty pounds rental voter," 
and "occupation voter" in sec- 
tion nineteen. 

Section three, except so far as it 
relates to the valuation roll, 
sections four and five, sections 
seven to ten, thirteen to fifteen, 
and section seventeen. 

Sections two to six, eight, nine, 
thirteen, fifteen, seventeen to 
thirty, and the Second Sche- 
dule. 



As respects England and Scotland 
the whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed, and as respects Ireland, 
sub-sections (3) and (4) of 
section eight, sections ten to 
twelve, sub-sections (3), (4), 
and (5) of section thirteen, 
sections fourteen, fifteen, eigh- 
teen, and twenty, and in section 
twenty-six the words from 
"with the following" to the 
end of the section. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed, except BO far as it 
applies to elections other than 
parliamentary elections. 

The whole Act. 



400 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Session and 
Chapter. 



49 & 50 Viet, 
c. 43. 

49 & 50 Viet, 
c. 57. 



^9 & 50 Viet, 
c. 58. 

50 & 51 Viet. 

c. 55. 



51 & 52 Viet, 
c. 10. 



51 & 52 Viet, 
c. 41. 



The Revising- Barristers 
(Ireland) Act, 1886. 

The Parliamentary Elec- 
tions (Returning Offi- 
cers) Act (1875) Amend- 
ment Act, 1886. 

The Returning Officers 
(Scotland) Act, 1886. 

The Sheriffs Act, 1887. 



The County Electors Act. 
1888. 



The Local Government 
Act, 1888. 



52 & 53 Viet, 
c. 50. 



53 & 54 Viet, 
c. 55. 



Title or Short Title. 



The Local Government 

(Scotland) Act, 1889. 



The Elections (Scotland) 
(Corrupt and Illegal 
Practices) Act, 1890. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The whole Act. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed, except so far as it 
applies to elections other than 
parliamentary elections. 

The whole Act. 



Sub-section (2) of section eigh- 
teen, so far as respects sheriffs' 
courts required for the purpose 
of elections. 

The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 



Paragraph (b) of sub-section (2) 
of section two from "or is re- 
gistered" to the end of the 
paragraph; paragraph (xii) of 
section three; sub-section (6) 
of section thirty-four; proviso 
twelve in section seventy-five; 
sections seventy -six and. 
seventy-seven ; in paragraph 
(6), of section eighty-three the 
words "registration of parlia- 
mentary voters or to the," the 
words "or to any registration 
matters," and the word "regis- 
tration" where it lastly occurs; 
in sub-section (2) of section 
ninety-two the word "occupa- 
tion" and the words "of mak- 
ing out and revising the lists 
of voters, of conducting any 
parliamentary election"; sub- 
section (3) of section ninety- 
two. 

S.ub-section (4) of section eight, 
and sections twenty-eight and 
twenty-nine. 

In section one the definition of 
"revising authority"; sub- 
section (3) of section seven- 
teen; sub-sections (7) and (8) 
of section twenty-nine. 



ENACTMENTS REPEALED. 



401 



Session and 
Chapter. 



Title or Short Title. 



Extent of Repeal. 



53 & 54 Viet, 
c. 58. 



54 & 55 Viet, 
c. 11. 

54 & 55 Viet, 
c. 18. 

54 & 55 Viet, 
c. 49. 

54 & 55 Viet, 
c. 68. 

56 & 57 Viet. 
c. 73. 

57 & 58 Viet, 
c. 58. 



The Parliamentary Regis 
tration Expenses (Ire- 
land) Act, 1890. 

The Electoral Disabilities 
Removal Act, 1891. 

The Registration of Elec- 
tors Act, 1891. 

The Returning Officers 
(Scotland) Act, 1891. 

The County Councils (Elec- 
tions) Act, 1891. 

The Local Government 
Act, 1894. 

The Local Government 
(Scotland) Act, 1894. 



59 & 60 Viet. 
c. 17. 

61 & 62 Viet. 
c. 2. 

61 & 62 Viet. 
c. 37. 



62 & 63 Viet. 
c. 14. 



63 & 64 Viet, 
c. 29. 

63 & 64 Viet 
c. 49. 



3 Edw. 
c. 34. 



7, 



The Glasgow Parliamen- 
tary Divisions Act, 1896. 

The Registration (Ireland) 
Act, 1898. 

The Local Government 
(Ireland) Act, 1898. 



The London Government 
Act, 1899. 



The London County Coun- 
cil Electors Qualification 
Act, 1900. 

The Town Councils (Scot- 
land) Act, 1900. 



The Town Councils (Scot- 
land) Act, 1903. 



The whole Act so far as unre- 
pealed. 

The whole Act. 
Phe whole Act. 

; j 

Section three and the Schedule. 
Section two. 



Sections forty-three and forty- 
four. 

Sub -section (1) of section ten 
from "provided that" to the 
end of the sub-section; sections 
eleven and twelve. 

The whole Act. 



The whole Act. 



Section ninety-eight except sub- 
section (8); section one hun- 
dred and nine from "The ex- 
pression ' revising- barrister ' ' 
to "1885." 

Sub-section (4) of section three; 
sub-section (1) of section four 
from " and shall be " to " elec- 
tors"; and sub-section (2) of 
section twenty-seven. 

The whole Act. 



Section twenty-three from the 
words "all persons who would 
have been entitled" to the end 
of the section; and sections 
twenty-four to thirty -two. 

Sections two and four. 



F. 



402 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



Session and 
Chapter. 



8 Edw. 7, 
c. 14. 



8 Edw. 7, 
c. 21. 

8 Edw. 7, 
c. 35. 



8 Edw. 7, 
c. 48. 

1 & 2 Geo. 6, 
c. 53. 



4 & 5 Geo. 5, 
c. 25. 



The Polling Arrangements The whole Act. 
(Parliamentary Bor- \ 
oughs) Act, 1908. 



Title or Short Title. 



Extent of Repeal. 



The Registration Act, 1908 



The Polling Districts and 
Registration of Voters 
(Ireland) Act, 1908. 

The Post Office Act, 1908. 



The House Letting and 
Rating (Scotland) Act, 
1911. 



The Electoral Disabilities 
(Naval and Military 
Service) Removal Act, 
1914. 



The whole Act. 



The whole Act. 



Section eighty. 



Section seven, proviso (3) from 
the words "Provided that for 
the purposes of any qualifica- 
tion or franchise " to end of 
that proviso; and section eight. 

The whole Act. 



REDISTRIBUTION. 403 



NINTH SCHEDULE. Sections 

20 (2), 37. 

REDISTRIBUTION OF SEATS (a). 

1. The names, contents, and boundaries of each par- 
liamentary borough and county and division thereof shall 
be as specified in this schedule . 

2 . The areas mentioned in the second and last columns (6) 
of this schedule shall be taken to be those areas as const!-* 
tuted on the first day of October nineteen hundred and 
seventeen: Provided that any misnomer or inaccurate de- 
scription of any of those areas in those columns shall not in 
any way prevent or abridge the operation of this Act with 
respect to the subject of the description if it is so desig- 
nated as to be commonly understood. 

3. The wards mentioned in this schedule are, in rela- 
tion to any borough in London, wards of the metropolitan 
borough; in relation to any municipal borough, wards of 
the municipal borough; and, in relation to any urban 
district, wards of the urban district. 

4. The expression "burgh," when used in this schedule, 
means a burgh as bounded for police purposes on the first 
day of October nineteen hundred and seventeen. 

5. If any doubt arises as to the constituency in which 
any parish, townland, ward, or other place, whether larger 
or smaller than a parish, townland, or ward, is intended by 
this schedule to be included, that doubt shall be determined 
by the Local Government Board, or in Scotland by the 
Secretary for Scotland. 

(a) See sect. 37, pp. 282 283, supra. 
(6) See note on next page. 



26 (2) 



404 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



[NOTE. To save space, this Schedule is arranged as appears hereunder,. instead 
of in columns as in the Act. The matter appearing under the heading Name of 
Parliamentary Borough represents the first column, under the heading Contents of 
Parliamentary Borough the second column, under the heading Total number of 
Members for Parliamentary Borough the third column, under the heading Names of 
Divisions of Parliamentary Borough the fourth column, and under the heading 
Contents or Boundaries of Divisions the fifth or last column.] 



PART I. 

PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 

(1) LONDON. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BATTERSEA. 

Contents of Parliamentary Boroitgh. 

Metropolitan borough of Battersea. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

Church, Latchmere, Nine Elms and Park Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Bolingbroke, Broomwood, St. John, Shaftesbury 
and Winstanley Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BERMONDSEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Bermondsey. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 405 

(1) LONDON continued. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

KOTHERHITHE. 

St. John, St. Olave and St. Thomas Wards, Wards 
numbers five and six, Bermondsey, and Wards 
numbers one, two and three, Rotherhithe. 
WEST BERMONDSEY. 

Wards numbers one, two, three and four, Ber- 
mondsey. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BETHNAL GREEN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Bethnal Green. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH EAST. 

North and East Wards. 
SOUTH WEST. 

South and West Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CAMBERWELL. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Camberwell. 

Total Wumber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

DULWICH. 

Alleyn, College, Hamlet, Ruskin and St. John's 
Wards. 



406 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. ; 

Coburg, Marlborough, North Peckham and St. 
George's Wards. 

NORTH WEST. 

Addington, Lyndhurst, St. Giles, Town Hall and 
West Wards. 

PECKHAM. 

Clifton, Goldsmith, Nunhead, The Eye, Rye Lane 
and St. Mary's Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CHELSEA. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 
Metropolitan borough of Chelsea . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Sorough. 

One. 

Thames of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CITY OF LONDON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

City of London. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 407 

(1) LONDON continued. % 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DEPTFOKD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Deptford. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

FINSBURY, 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Finsbury. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

FULHAM. 

Contents o-f Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Fulham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Baron's Court, Lillie, Sands End and Walhani 
Wards . 
WEST. 

Hurlingham, Margravine, Munster and Town 
Wards. 



408 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, l9l8. 

t (1) LONDON continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GREENWICH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Greenwich. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HACKNEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Hackney. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

Downs, Hackney and Kingsland Wards, and the 
part of West Hackney Ward which lies to the south 
and east of a line drawn along the middle of 
Shackle well Lane. 

NORTH. 

Stamford Hill Ward, the part of Clapton Park 
Ward which lies to the north of a line drawn along 
the middle of Glenarm Eoad to its junction with 
Glyn Road, thence along the middle of Glyn .Road 
to its junction with Redwald Road, thence along 
the middle of Redwald Road to its junction with 
Maclaren Street, thence straight to the middle of 
the nearest gate of the recreation grounds adjoin- 
ing the premises in Daubeney Road, thence straight 
to the borough boundary at a point fifty feet north 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 409 

(1) LONDON continued. 

of a boundary post situate at the junction of the 
Waterworks River with the River Lea at Lead 
Mill Point, and the part of West Hackney Ward 
which is not included in the Central Division. 
SOUTH. 

Homerton and South Hackney Wards, and the part 
of Clapton Park Ward which is not included in . 
the North Division . 

Name of Parliamentary Borough, 

HAMMERSMITH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Hammersmith. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

Numbers four, five, six and seven Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Numbers one, two and three Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HAMPSTEAD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Hampstead. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



410 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HOLBORN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough, 

Metropolitan borough of Holborn. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ISLINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Islington. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary ^Borough. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Canonbury, Highbury and Mildmay Wards. 
NORTH. 

Tollington, Tufnell and Upper Hollo way Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Barnsbury, St. Mary and St. Peter Wards. 
WEST. 

Lower Holloway and Thornhill Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

KENSINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Kensington. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 411 

(1 ) LONDON continued . 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions, 

NORTH. 

Golborne, Norland, Pembridge and St. Charles 

Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Brompton, Earl's Court, Holland, Queen's Gate 

and Redcliffe Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LAMBETH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Lambeth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough, 
Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BRIXTON. 

Stockwell Ward, the part of Brixton Ward which 
is not included in the Kennington Division, the 
part of Herne Hill Ward which lies to the north 
of a line running from Coldharbour Lane along the 
north side of the London, Brighton and South 
Coast Eailway to Denmark Hill, and the part of 
Tulse Hill Ward which lies to the north and west 
of a line running along the middle of Brixton Hill 
from Mill Lane to Water Lane, along the middle 
of Water Lane to Effra Eoad, and along the middle 
of Effra Road to Coldharbour Lane. 

KENNINGTON. 

Vauxhall Ward, the part of Brixton Ward which 
lies to the north of a line running from Clapham 
Road along the middle of Stockwell Park Road, 
Grove Road, Brixton Road, Mostyn Road, Aker- 



412 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

man Road and Lothian Road and across Camber- 
well New Road to Wyndham Road, and the part of 
Prince's Ward which is not included in the North 
Division . 

NORTH. 

Bishop's and Marsh Wards, and the part of Prince's 
Ward which lies to the north of a line running from 
Vauxhall Bridge along the middle of Upper Ken- 
nington Lane and Lower Kennington Lane to 
Newington Butts. 

NORWOOD. 

Norwood Ward, and the part of each of the Herne 
Hill and Tulse Hill Wards which is not included 
in the Brixton Division. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LEWISHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Lewisham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Blackheath, Church, Lewisham Park, Manor and 
South Wards, and the part of each of the Catford 
and the Lewisham Village Wards which lies to the 
east of the centre of the Mid-Kent Branch of the 
South-Eastern and Chatham Railway. 

WEST. 

Brockley, Forest Hill and Sydenham Wards, and 
the part of each of the Catford and the Lewisham 
Village Wards which is not included in the East 
Division. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

PADDINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Paddington. 

Total mimber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 



413 



Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. 



Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



NORTH. 



SOUTH. 



Harrow Eoad, Queen's Park and Maida Vale 
Wards, and the part of Church Ward which lies 
to the north and east of a line commencing on the 
ward boundary at the south side of the Weigh 
Bridge at the eastern end of Westbourne Terrace 
Eoad, and proceeding thence to and along the 
southern side of the Grand Junction Canal to the 
Harrow Eoad Bridge, thence along the middle of 
Harrow Eoad to the borough boundary in Edg- 
ware Eoad. 

Hyde Park, Lancaster Gate East, Lancaster Gate 
West and Westbourne Wards, and the part of 
Church Ward which is not included in the North 
Division . 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

POPLAE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Poplar. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 



414 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

Bow AND BROMLEY. 

Bow Central, Bow North, Bow South, Bow West, 
Bromley North East, Bromley North West and 
Bromley South West Wards. 

SOUTH POPLAR. 

Bromley Central, Bromley South East, Poplar 
Cubitt Town, Poplar East, Poplar Millwall, Pop- 
lar North West and Poplar West Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ST. MARYLEBONE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of St. Marylebone. 

Total number of Members- for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ST. PANCRAS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of St. Pancras. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

Wards numbers one and two, and the part of Ward 
number three which lies to the north and west of 
a line running along the middle of Camden Road 
from a point where that road is intersected by the 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 415 

(1) LONDON continued. 

eastern boundary of the metropolitan borough to 
the point where that road crosses the Regent's Canal 
and thence westward along the middle of that canal 
to the western boundary of Ward number three. 

SOUTH EAST. 

Wards numbers six and eight, and the part of Ward 
number three which is not included in the North 
Division , 

SOUTH WEST. 

Wards numbers four, five and seven. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SHOEEDITCH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Shoreditch. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SOUTH WARE . 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of South wark. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

St. Mary's, St. Paul's and Trinity Wards, and the 
part of the St. George's Ward which is not included 
in the North and South East Divisions. 



416 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

NORTH. 

Christchurch, St. Jude's, St. Michael's and St. 
Saviour Wards, and the part of the St. George's 
Ward which lies to the north of a line drawn from 
Tabard Street along^the middle of Wickham Place 
and of the covered stream which passes between 
the eastern end of Wickham Place and the borough 
boundary in Staple Street. 

SOUTH EAST. 

St. John's and St. Peter's Wards, and the part of 
St. George's Ward which lies to the south of a 
line drawn along the middle of New Kent Road 
and Tower Bridge Road. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

STEPNEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Stepney. 
Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

LlMEHOUSE. 

Limehouse North, Limehouse South, Mile End 
Old Town North East, Mile End Old Town South 
East and Ratcliffe Wards. 

MILE END. 

Mile End Old Town Centre, Mile End Old Town 
North, Mile End Old Town South, Mile End Old 
Town West and Whitechapel East Wards. 

WHITECHAPEL AND ST. GEORGE'S. 

Mile End New Town, St. George-in-the-East 
North, St. George-in-the-East South, Shadwell, 
Spitalfields East, Spitalfields West, Whitechapel 
Middle, Whitechapel South and Tower Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 417 

(1) LONDON continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

STOKE NEWINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Stoke JSTewington. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names >of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WANDS WORTH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Wandsworth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Five. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BALHAM AND TOOTING. 

Tooting Ward and the part of Balham Ward which 
in not included in the Clapham Division. 

CENTRAL. 

Fairfield and Springfield Wards. 

CLAPHAM. 

Clapham North and Clapham South Wards, and 
the part of Balham Ward which lies to the east 
and north of a line drawn from the point where the 
northern boundary of that ward crosses Balham 
Hill, along the middle of Balham Hill and Balham 
High Eoad to a point in that road opposite the 
middle of Ormeley Road, thence along the middle 
of Ormeley Road to a point opposite the middle of 
,that road in Cavendish Road, and thence in a 
F. 27 



418 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) LONDON continued. 

southerly direction along the middle of Cavendish 
Eoad to the middle of Emmanuel Road, thence 
along the middle of Emmanuel Road to the ward 
boundary near the western end of the last-named 
road. 

PUTNEY. 

Putney and Southfields Wards. 

STREATHAM. 

The Streatham Ward. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WESTMINSTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Westminster. 

Total member of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ABBEY. 

Covent Garden, Great Maiiborough, Pall Mall, 
Regent, St. Anne, St. John, St. Margaret, Strand, 
and Charing Cross Wards, except the part of 
Charing Cross Ward which is included in the St. 
George's Division. 

ST. GEORGE'S. 

Conduit, Grosvenor, Hamlet of Knightsbridge, 
Knightsbridge St. George's and Victoria Wards, 
and the part of Charing Cross Ward which lies to 
the south and west of a line drawn from the ward 
boundary at the centre of Wellington Arch, along 
the middle of Constitution Hill, thence along the 
middle of the road to the north and east of the 
Queen Victoria Memorial, thence along the middle 
of Spur Road to the boundary of St. Margaret 
Ward. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 419 



(1) 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WOOLWICH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Metropolitan borough of Woolwich . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Barrage, Central, Glyndon, St. Margaret's and St. 

Nicholas Wards. 
WEST. 

Dockyard, Eltham, Herbert, River, St. George's 

and St. Mary's Wards. 



(2) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING LONDON AND MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ACCRINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Accrington and urban districts of Church, 
Clayton -le-Moors, Oswaldtwistle and Rishton. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Ashton-under-Lyne and urban district of 

Hurst. 
27(2) 



420 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE con td 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BARNSLEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Barnsley and urban districts of Ardsley, 
Darton and Monk Bretton. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One, 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BARROW-IN-FURNESS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Barrow-in-Furness. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BATH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Bath. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 421 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BATLEY AND MORLEY, 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

' Municipal boroughs of Batley, Morley and Ossett. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BIRKENHEAD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Birkenhead. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Argyle, Bebington, Clifton, Egerton and Mersey 
Wards, together with the part of the borough which 
lies between the eastern boundary of Argyle, Mersey 
and Bebington Wards and the centre of the bed of 
the River Mersey. 

WEST. 

Claughton, Cleveland, Grange and Oxton Wards. 



422 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Birmingham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Twelve. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary "Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ASTON . 

Aston Ward and Lozells Ward (except those, parts 
which lie between the southern and south-eastern 
boundaries thereof and the line next hereinafter de- 
scribed) and the part of each of the All Saints and 
St. Mary's Wards which lies to the north of the said 
line. 

The line above referred to commences at the south- 
west corner of Lozells Ward in the middle of 
Hunter's Road, continues south along the middle of 
that road, the middle of Farm Street, Burbury 
Street, Gordon Street, Berners Street, Clifford 
Street, Guilclford Street, Paddington Street, Por- 
chester Street, Summer Lane, Asylum Road, High 
Street, Phillips Street, Aston Road North, White- 
house Street, Chester Street and Avenue Road to 
the middle of the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, 
thence in a north-easterly direction along the middle 
of the Canal to the point where the middle of the 
Canal intersects the boundary of Aston Ward. 

DERITEND. 

St. Bartholomew's and St. Martin's and Deritend 
Wards. 

DUDDESTON. 

Duddeston and Neehells Ward, St. Mary's Ward 
(except the part thereof included in the Aston Divi- 
sion), and so much of the portion of Aston Ward 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRECOW^. 
which is not included in the Aston Division as lies 
to the west of the London and North Western Rail- 
way. 

EDGE ASTON. 

Edgbaston, Harborne and Market Hall Wards. 

ERDIXGTON. 

Erdington North, Erdington South and Washwood 
Heath Wards, and the part of Aston Ward which 
is not included in the Aston and the Duddeston 
Divisions. 

HANDSWORTH. 

Handsworth, Sandwell and Soho Wards. 

KING'S NORTON. 

Northfield and Selly Oak Wards and the part of 
King's Norton Ward which is not included in the 
Moseley Division. 

LADYWOOD. 

Ladywood and Rotton Park Wards. 

MOSELEY. 

(a) Acocks Green and Sparkhill Wards; 

(b) The parts of Balsall Heath and Sparkbrook 
Wards which are not included in the Sparkbrook 
Division; 

(c) Moseley and King's Heath Ward (except the 
part thereof included in the Sparkbrook Division); 
and 

(d) The part of King's Norton Ward which lies 
to the north of Bells Lane and to the east and 
south-east of the middle of Monyhull Hall Road 
and Brandwood Road. 

SPARKBROOK. 

(a) Balsall Heath and Sparkbrook Wards (except 
the parts thereof which lie to the south and east of 
the line hereinafter described); and 

(b) The part of Moseley and King's Heath Ward 
which lies to the north of the last-mentioned line. 



424 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
The line referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) above 
is a line commencing at the point where the boun- 
dary between Balsall Heath, and Moseley and 
Bong's Hetath Wardss intersects the middle of Mose- 
ley Road, thence proceeding along the middle of 
that road to Brighton Road, along the middle of 
Brighton Road, Kingswood Road, Newport Road, 
Church Road, Woodstock Road, and Anderton Park 
Road to Stoney Lane, thence along the middle of 
Stoney Lane to the middle of Stratford Road, thence 
along the middle of that road, the middle of Wai- 
ford Road and Golden Hillock Road to the middle 
of the Birmingham and Warwick Canal, thence 
southerly along the middle of that canal to the 
middle of the Great Western Railway, thence along 
the middle of that railway to its intersection with 
the southern boundary of Sparkbrook Ward. 

WEST BIRMINGHAM. 

St. Paul's Ward, All Saints Ward (except the part 
thereof included in the Aston Division) and the part 
of Lozells Ward which is not included in the Aston 
Division. 

YARDLEY. 

Saltley, Small Heath and Yardley Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BLACKBURN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Blackburn. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 425 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BLACKPOOL. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Blackpool, urban districts of Bispham with 
Norbreck, Lytham and St. Anne's-on-the-Sea, and the part 
of the civil parish of Carleton which in pursuance of the 
Blackpool Improvement Act, 1917, becomes part of the 
county borough of Blackpool on 1st April, 1918. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BOLTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Bolton. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BOOTLE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Bootle. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



426 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BOURNEMOUTH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Bournemouth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BRADFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough c-f Bradford . 

'Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borotigh. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

East, Exchange, Manningham, North, South and 

West Wards. ' 
EAST. 

Bradford Moor, East Bowling, Tong and West 

Bowling Wards. 
NORTH. 

Allerton, Bolton, Eccloshill, Heaton, Idle and 

Thornton Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Great Horton, Lister Hills, Little Horton, North 

Bierley East and North Bierley West Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 427 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BRIGHTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Brighton and municipal borough of Hove. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BRISTOL. 

Contents of Parliamentary BorougJt. 

County borough of Bristol. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Five. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

Central East, Central West, Eedcliff, St. Augus- 
tine, St. James, St. Paul, and St. Philip and Jacob 
South Wards. 

EAST;. 

St. George East and St. George West Wards; the 
part of Easton Ward which is bounded on the 
north by a line commencing at the, junction of 
Stapleton Road with the road leading to the Staple- 
ton Road Railway Station and proceeding along the 
middle of the last-mentioned road to the backs of 
the houses in Berwick Road and Henrietta Street, 
thence along the said backs of houses to St. Mark's 
Avenue, along the middle of St. Mark's Avenue 
and Bellevue Road to the southern end thereof, 
thence in a straight line to the middle of King 
Street, along the middle of King Street and Chel- 



428 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



(2) ENGLANB, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
sea Park to the eastern boundary of the ward; and 
the part of Somerset Ward which is bounded on 
the west by a line commencing in the Biver Avon 
at the north-west corner of the Castle Rope Works 
and proceeding along the western boundary of those 
works and the eastern boundary of Redcliff Ceme- 
tery to Bath Road, thence along the middle of Bath 
Road to the north-east corner of the Roman Catho- 
lic Cemetery, thence along the eastern and southern 
boundaries of that cemetery, thence in a southerly 
direction along the western boundary of the en- 
closure which adjoins the east side of Arno's Vale 
Cemetery, thence in an easterly direction along the 
southern boundary of the last-mentioned enclosure 
for a distance of 200 feet, thence in a south-easterly 
direction in a straight line to the junction of Ken- 
sington Park Road and Lodway Road, and thence 
along the middle of Lodway Road to the city boun- 
dary in Talbot Road. 



NORTH. 



SOUTH. 



WEST. 



District, St. Philip and Jacob North, and Staple- 
ton Wards, and the part of Easton Ward which is 
not included in the East Division. 

Bedminster East, Beclminster West, and Southville 
Wards, and the part of Somerset Ward which is 
not included in the East Division. 

Clifton North, Clifton South, Horfield, Holland, 
St. Michael and Westbury on Trym Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Boroiigh. 

BROMLEY. 



Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Bromley and urban districts of Beckenham 

and Penge. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 429 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BURNLEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Burnley. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BURY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Bury and urban district of Tottington, 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CAMBRIDGE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borouch of Cambridge . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



430 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIR 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CARLISLE. 



.Contents of Parliamentary 

County borough of Carlisle. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Division*. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CHELTENHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Cheltenham and urban district of Charlton 

Kings. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Division* 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

COVENTRY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Coventry. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 431 

'2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CROYDON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Croydon. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

N mnes of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

North, South Norwood and Upper Norwood Wards, 
SOUTH. 

Central, East, South and West Wards. 

JVame of Parliamentary Borough. 

DARLINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 
County borough of Darlington. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DERBY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Derby. 



432 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contcl. 

Total member of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DEWSBUKY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Dewsbury. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DUDLEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Dudley and civil parish of Dudley Castle Hill, 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

EALING. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Baling . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 433 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

EAST HAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of East Ham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

Manor Park, Plashet East and Plashet West Wards . 
SOUTH. 

Beckton and North Woolwich, Central East and 

Central West Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ECCLES.' 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Eccles and urban district of Swinton and 

Pendlebury. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

EDMONTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Urban district of Edmonton. 
F. 28 



4-'*4 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

EXETER. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Exeter, including Exeter Castle Yard and 
Devon County Prison and Constabulary Barracks. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GATESHEAD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Gateshead. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GLOUCESTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Gloucester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 
One. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 435 



(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE ccmtd: 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GREAT YARMOUTH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Great Yarmouth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GRIMSBY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Grimsby and urban district of Cleethorpes. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HALIFAX. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Halifax. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

28-(2) 



436 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

THE HARTLEPOOLS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of West Hartlepool and municipal borough of 

Hartlepool. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HASTINGS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Hastings. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HORNSEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Hornsey. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. 'Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 437 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HUDDERSFIELD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Huddersfield. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

HYTHE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal boroughs of Hythe and Folkestone, the urban district 
of Cheriton and so much of the urban district of Sandgate as 
is not comprised in the municipal borough of Folkestone. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ILFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Urban district of Ilford. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



438 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

IPSWICH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Ipswich. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



. Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

KINGSTON-UPON-HULL . 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Kingston-upon-Hull. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

Beverley, East Central, My ton, Paragon, West 

Central and Whitefriars Wards. 
EAST. 

Alexandra, Drypool and Southcoates Wards. 
NORTH WEST. 

Albert, Botanic, Newland and Park Wards. 
SOUTH WEST. 

Coltman, North Newington and South Newington 

Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

KINGSTON-UPON-THAMES . 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and urban districts 
of Surbiton, and The Maidens and Coombe. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 439 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LEEDS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Leeds. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Six. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRA'L. 

Central, Mill Hill, South and West Wards; the 
part of Brunswick Ward which lies to the south of 
that part of the boundary of the ancient township 
of Leeds which lies between the ward boundaries 
in Buslingthorpe Lane and Chapeltown Road, the 
part of Headingley Ward which lies to the east and 
south of a line commencing at the ward boundary 
where the North Eastern Railway Company's Leeds 
Northern Line crosses the middle of the river Aire 
and drawn along the middle of that railway to the 
footbridge over the same at a point to the east of 
the bandstand in Buiiey Recreation Ground, thence 
in a straight line to the middle of the western end 
of Alexandra Road, thence along the middle of 
Alexandra Road to Hyde Park Road, thence in a 
southerly direction along the middle of Hyde Park 
Road to the ward boundary at the junction of that 
road with Woodsley Road; and the part of North 
West Ward which lies to the east and south of a 



440 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
line commencing at the ward boundary at the junc- 
tion of Hyde Park Road and the back road nearly 
opposite Hyde Park Terrace and drawn along the 
middle of the said back road to Woodhouse Lane, 
thence along the middle of Woodhouse Lane, St. 
Mark's Street, St. Mark's Road and New Camp 
Road to the ward boundary at the junction of the 
last-named road, Servia Road and Servia Terrace. 

NORTH. 

The parts of Brunswick, Headingley and North- 
West Wards which are not included in the Central 
Division, and the part of North Ward which is 
not included in the North-East Division. 

NORTH-EAST. 

Roundhay, Seacroft, Shadwell and Crossgates 
Ward; the part of North Ward which lies to the 
east and south of a line commencing at a point in 
the ward boundary in Harrogate Road opposite the 
western corner of the Old Church Grave Yard and 
drawn to and along the western, southern and eastern 
walls of that graveyard to ia point immediately oppo- 
site the south-eastern corner of the Old Church, 
thence proceeding in a straight line to the middle 
of the roadway at the head of the lake in Gledhow 
Park, thence along the middle of the Gledhow Beck 
to a point near Tan House Well where the beck 
is joined by a stream which passes near the western 
side of Allerton Grange, thence in a straight line 
to a point in the eastern boundary of North Ward 
where that boundary coming south from Oxley Hill 
changes direction eastward near Donisthorpe House; 
and the part of North-East Ward which is not in- 
cluded in the South-East Division. 

SOUTH. 

Holbeck and West Hunslet Wards, and the part of 
New Wortley Ward which lies to the south and east 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 441 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
of a line commencing at the ward boundary where 
the footpath leading from Gelderd Road to the 
Upper and Lower Wortley Cemetery crosses the 
Great Northern Railway Company's West Yorks 
Railway and drawn along the middle of that rail- 
way to the boundary between the New Wortley and 
Holbeck Wards north-east of Holbeck Railway 
Station. 

SOUTH-EAST. 

East and East Hunslet Wards and the part of 
North- East Ward which lies to the west of Ac- 
commodation Road from the ward boundary in Bur- 
mantofts Street to the ward boundary in York Road. 

WEST. 

Armley and Wortley and Bramley Wards, and the 
part of New Wortley Ward which is not included 
in the South Division. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LEICESTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Leicester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Belgrave, Latimer, Spinney Hill and West Hum- 

berston Wards. 
SOUTH. f 

Aylstone, Castle, Charnwood, De Montfort, Knigh- 

ton, Martin's and Wycliffe Wards. 
WEST. i 

Abbey, Newton, St. Margaret's, Westcotes and 

Wyggeston Wards. 



442 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LEIGH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Leigh and urban districts of Atherton and 
Tyldesley-with-Shakerley . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LEYTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Urban district of Ley ton. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Cann Hall, Grove Green, Harrow Green, Leyton- 

stone, and Wanstead Slip Wards. 
WEST. 

Central, Forest. Lea Bridge and Leyton Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LINCOLN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Lincoln and urban district of Bracebridge. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 443 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LIVERPOOL. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Liverpool. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Eleven. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST TOXTETH. 

Aigburth, Granby, Sefton Park East and Sefton 
Park West Wards. 

EDGE HILL. 

Edge Hill and Low Hill Wards, and the part of 
Kensington -Ward which lies to the south and west 
of a line drawn from the western boundary of the 
ward along the middle of the road called Kensing- 
ton to its junction with Holt Road, thence in a 
southerly direction along the middle of Holt Road 
to its junction with Edge Lane, and thence in an 
easterly direction along the middle of Edge Lane 
to the eastern boundary of the ward. 

EVERTON. 

Everton and Netherfield Wards. 
EXCHANGE. 

Abercromby, Castle Street, Exchange, Great 
George, St. Anne's and St. Peter's Wards, and the 
part of Vauxhall Ward which lies south of a line 
drawn from a point in the centre of the River 
Mersey to the south side of the Prince's Half-Tide 
Dock, thence in a southerly direction along the 
Liverpool Overhead Railway to the middle of Deni- 



444 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
son Street, thence along the middle of Denison 
Street to its junction with Great Howard Street, 
thence in a southerly direction along the middle of 
Great Howard Street and Old Hall Street to the 
junction of the latter with Old Leeds Street, thence 
along the middle of Old Leeds Street crossing the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway to a point in 
Pall Mall opposite the middle of Leeds Street, 
thence in an easterly direction along the middle of 
Leeds Street to its junction with Vauxhall Road, 
thence in a southerly direction along the middle of 
Vauxhall Road to its junction with Midghall Street, 
thence along the middle of Midghall Street to the 
ward boundary in Mary bone. 

FAIRFIELD. 

Fairfield and Old Swan Wards and the part of 
Kensington Ward which is not included in the Edge 
Hill Division. 

KIRKDALE. 

Kirkdale and St. Domingo Wards. 

SCOTLAND. 

North Scotland, Sandhills and South Scotland 
Wards, and the part of Vauxhall Ward which is 
not included in the Exchange Division . 

WALTON. 

Fazakerley, Walton and Warbreck Wards. 

WAVERTREE. 

Allerton Childwall and Little Woolton, Garston, 
Much Woolton, Wavertree and Wavertree West 
Wards. 

WEST DERBY. 

Anfield, Breckficld and West Derby Wards. 
WEST TOXTETH. 

Brunswick, Dingle and Prince's Park Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 445 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

MANCHESTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Manchester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Ten. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ARDWICK. 

Ardwick, New Cross and St. Mark's Wards. 
BLACKLEY. 

Blackley, Crumpsall and Moston Wards. 
CLAYTON. 

Beswick, Bradford and Newton Heath Wards. 
EXCHANGE. 

Cheetham, Collegiate Church, Exchange, Oxford, 

St. Ann's, St. Clement's and St. John's Wards, 

and the part of St. Michael's Ward which lies to 

the north-west of a line drawn along the middle of 

Rochdale Road. 
GORTON. 

Gorton North, Gorton South and Openshaw Wards. 
HULME. 

Medlock Street, Moss Side West and St. George's 

Wards. 
Moss SIDE. 

All Saints, Moss Side East and St. Luke's Wards. 
PLATTING. 

Colly-hurst, Harpurhey and Miles Platting Wards, 

and the part of St. Michael's Ward which is not 

included in the Exchange Division. 
BUSHOLMB. 

Levenshulme, Longsight and Rusholme Wards. 

WlTHINGTON . 

Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury and Withington 
Wards. 



446 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

MIDDLESBROUGH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borotigh. 

County borough of Middlesbrough . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Exchange, Grove Hill, Ormesby, St. Hilda's and 

Vulcan Wards. 
WEST. 

Acklam, Ayrsome, Cannon, Cleveland, Linthorpe 

and Newport Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

MORPETH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Morpeth, urban districts of Ashington, Bed- 
lingtonshire and Blyth, and civil parishes of Hepscott, Mor- 
peth Castle, Newminster and Tranwell. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Pa filamentary Borough. 

NELSON AND COLNE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal boroughs of Colne and Nelson, urban districts of Bar- 
rowford, Brierfield and Trawden, and the detached part of 
the civil parish of Foulridgo which is bounded on the north, 
west, and south by the municipal borough of Colne. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 447 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Barnes of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

NEWCASTLE-UNDEK-LYME. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme and urban districts 
of Audley and Wolstanton United. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

ya-mes of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of -Parliamentary Borough. 

NE WCASTLE-UPON-TYNE . 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Four. 

Barnes of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

All Saints, St. John's, St. Nicholas, Stephenson 

and Westgate Wards. 
EAST. 

Byker, St. Anthony's, St. Lawrence and Walker 

Wards. 
NORTH. 

Dene, Heaton, Jesmond, St. Andrew's and St. 

Thomas Wards. 



448 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
WEST. 

Armstrong, Arthur's Hill, Ben well, Elswiek and 
Fenham Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

NORTHAMPTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Northampton. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

NORWICH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Norwich. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name oj Parliamentary Borough. 

NOTTINGHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Nottingham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Four. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 449 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

Forest, Market, Robin Hood, St. Ann's and Sher- 
wood Wards. 

EAST. 

Byron, Manvers, Mapperley and St. Mary's Wards. 

SOUTH. 

Bridge, Castle, Meadows and Trent Wards. 

WEST. 

Broxtowe, St. Albans and Wollaton Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

OLDHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Oldham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliam&ntary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

OXFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Oxford. 
Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliam&ntary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



F. 



29 



450 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

PLYMOUTH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Plymouth. 
Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

DRAKE. 

Drake's, Mount Eclgcumbe, Mutley, Pennycross, St. 

Peter's, Stoke and Valletort Wards. 
DEVONPORT. 

Ford, Keyham, Molesworth, Nelson, St. Aubynand 

St. Budeaux Wards. 
SUTTON. 

Charles, Compton, Friary, Laira, St. Andrew's, 

Sutton and Vintry Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

PORTSMOUTH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Portsmouth. 
Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

Buckland, Fratton, Kingston, St. Mary and Town 
Hall Wards. 
NORTH. 

Charles Dickens, Mile End, North End and Port- 
sea Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 451 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

SOUTH. 

Havelook, Highland, St. Paul, St. Simon and St. 
Thomas Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

PRESTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 
County borough of Preston and urban district of Fulwood. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 



Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary 'Boroiwh. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

READING. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Reading. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

I Names of Divisioms of 

Parliamentary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

RICHMOND. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Richmond and urban districts of Barnes 

and Ham. 

29 (2) 



452 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd, 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



'Name of- Parliamentary Borough. 

ROCHDALE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Rochdale. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of * 

Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

ROCHESTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

Municipal boroughs of Chatham, Gillingham and Rochester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

GILLINGHAM. 

Municipal borough of Gillingham, St. Mary Ward 
of the borough of Chatham, and the part of the 
municipal borough of Rochester which is. not in- 
cluded in the Chatham Division. 

CHATHAM. 

Municipal borough of Rochester (except the part of 
St. Peter's Ward which lies to the north and east of 
a line drawn, in prolongation of that part of the 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 453 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
borough boundary which lias between St. Bartholo- 
mew's Chapel and Boundary Wharf, to the borough 
boundary in the Biver Medway), and Luton and St. 
John Wards of the municipal borough of Chatham. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

BOSSENDALE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal boroughs of Bacup, Haslingden and Bawtenstall. 

Total ^number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 
One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

EOTHEBHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Botherham, and urban districts of Greasbrough 

and Bawmarsh. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliam&ntary Borough. 

ST. HELEN'S. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of St. Helen's. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



454 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1984. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisidns of 
Parliamentary 'Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



i Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

SALFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary borough. 
County borough of Salford. 

Total number of Members 'for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisidns of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

Albert Park, Charlestown, Grosvenor, Kersal and 

St. Matthias Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Crescent, Islington, Ordsall, Eegent, Trafford, 

Trinity and Weaste Wards. 
WEST. 

Hope, St. Paul, St. Thomas and Seedley Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

SHEFFIELD. 

Contents of Parliamentary \Borough. 

County borough of Sheffield. 

Total ^number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Seven. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ATTERCLIFFE. 

Attercliffe and Daraall Wards. 
BRIGHTSIDE. 

Brightside and Burngreave Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 455 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

CENTRAL. 

St. Peter's and St. Philip's Wards, and the part 
of Broomhall Ward which lies to the east of a line 
drawn along the middle of Broomhall Street from 
the point where that street intersects the northern 
boundary of the ward to the point opposite the 
middle of Hanover Street, thence along the middle 
of Hanover Street to the southern boundary of the 
ward. 

ECCLESALL. 

Ecclesall and Sharrow Wards. 

HALLAM. 

Crookesmoor and Hallam Wards, and the part of 
Broomhall Ward which is not included in the Cen- 
tral Division. 

HlLLSBOROUGH. 

Hillsborough, Neepsend and Walkley Wards. 
PARK. 

Heeley and Park Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SMETHWICK. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Smethwick. 

Total number of Members 'for Parliamentary Thorough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SOUTHAMPTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary iBorough. 

County borough of Southampton, urban district of Itchen, and 
civil parish of Bitterne. 



456 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

> Total "number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

SOUTHEND-ON-SEA. 

Contents of Parliamentary \Borough. 

County borough of Southend-on-Sea. 

' Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. (Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SOUTHPOET. 

Contents of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

County borough of Southport. . 
Total plumber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Division*. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SOUTH SHIELDS. 

Contents of Parliamentary '\Borough. 

County borough of South Shields. 
Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 457 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

STOCKPOKT. 

Contents of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

County borough of Stockport. 
Total 'number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliame>ntary 'Borough. 

STOCKTON-ON-TEES. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal boroughs of Stockton-on-Tees and Thornaby-on-Tees. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



! Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

STOKE-ON-TEENT. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Stoke-on-Trent. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BURSLEM. 

Numbers one, two, three, four, five, six, seven and 
eight Wards. 



458 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

HANLEY. 

Numbers nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, four- 
teen, fifteen and sixteen Wards. 
STOKE. 

Numbers seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty, 
twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four, 
twenty-live and twenty-six Wards. 

' Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

SUNDERLAND. 

Contents of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

County borough of Sunderland and urban district of Southwick- 

on-Wear. 

Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



' Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

TOTTENHAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary ^Borough. 

Urban district of Tottenham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTH. 

Lower, Middle and West Green Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Harringay, High Cross and St. Ann's Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 459 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

TYNEMOUTH. 



of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Tynemouth. 

Total number of Members 'for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WAKEFIELD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Waken 1 eld. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

WALLASEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary 'Borough. 

County borough of Wallasey. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



460 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliam&ntary 'Borough. 

WALLSEND. 

C&ntents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Wallsend and urban districts of Gosforth, 
Longbenton and Weetslade. 

Total number of Members -for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliam&ntary Borough. 

WALSALL. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Walsall. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough, 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliam&ntary Borough. 

WALTHAMSTOW. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Urban district of Walthamstow. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 



Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Hale End, Hoe Street and .Wood Street Wards, 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 461 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 
WEST. 

Iligham Hill, High Street and St. James Street 
.Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WARRINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Warrington. 

Total number of Members 'for Parliamentary Borough. 
One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WEDNESBURY. 

'Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Wednesbury, and urban districts of Dar- 
laston and Tipton. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Division^ of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliam&ntary Borough. 

WEST BROMWICH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of West Bromwich 



462 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WEST HAM. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of West Ham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

PLAISTOW. 

Hudsons and Plaistow Wards, and the. part of 
Canning Town Ward which is not included in the 
Silvertown Division. 

SlLVERTOWN. 

Custom House and Silvertown, and Tidal Basin 
Wards, and the part of Canning Town Ward which 
lies to the south and east of a line drawn from the 
ward boundary in Hermit Eoad along the middle of 
Star Lane to the middle of the Woolwich Branch 
of the Great Eastern Eailway, thence southwards 
along the middle of that railway to the ward boun- 
dary in Barking Eoad. 

.STRATFORD. 

Broadway, Forest Gate, High Street and New Town 
Wards. 

UPTON. 

Park, Upton and West Ham Wards. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 463 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WIGAN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Wigan. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary BorougTi. 
One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 




Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WILLESDEN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Urban district of Willesden. 

Total (number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Brondesbury Park, Cricklewood, Kensal Rise, Mid 

Kilburn, North Kilburn and South Kilburn Wards. 
WEST. 

Church End, Harlesden*, Roundwood, Stonebridge 

and Willesden Green Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WIMBLEDON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal borough of Wimbledon, and urban district of Merton 

and Morden. 

'Total number of Members for Parliamentary 'Borough. 

One. 



464 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WOLVEBHAMPTON, 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Wolverhampton, and urban districts of Bil- 
ston, Coseley, Heath Town or Wednesfield Heath, Sedgley, 
Short Heath, Wednesfield and Willenhall. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BlLSTON. 

Urban districts of Bilston, Coseley and Sedgley. 

EAST. 

St. James's, St. Mary's, and St. Peter's Wards of 
the county borough of Wolverhampton, and urban 
districts of Heath Town or Wednesfield Heath, 
Short Heath, Wednesfield and Willenhall. 

WEST. 

Blakenhall, Deinstall, Graiseley, Merridale, Park, 
St. George's, St. John's, St. Mark's and St. Mat- 
thew's Wards of the county borough of Wolver- 
hampton . 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

WOBCESTEB,. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Worcester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 465 

(2) ENGLAND, excluding LONDON and MONMOUTHSHIRE contd. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

YORK. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of York (with York Castle). 

Total ^number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



(3) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CARDIFF. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Cardiff, and urban district of Penarth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 
Three. 

Names of Division^ of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

Canton, Cathays, Central and Riverside\Wards of 

county borough of Cardiff. 
EAST. 

Park, Roath and Splott Wards of county borough 

of Cardiff. 
SOUTH. 

Adamsdown, Grangetown and South Wards of 

county borough of Cardiff and urban district of 

Penarth . 
F. 30 



466 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

CAENAEVON DISTEICT OF BOEOUGHS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Municipal boroughs of Bangor, Carnarvon, Con way and Pwllheli, 
urban districts of Criccieth, Llandudno, Llanfairfechan and 
Penmaenmawr, and civil parish of Nevin. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

MEETHYE TYDFIL. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Merthyr Tydfil, and urban districts of Aber- 
dare and Mountain Ash. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Barnes of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ABERDARE. 

Urban districts of Aberdare and Mountain Ash. 
MERTHYR. 

County borough of Merthyr Tydfil. 

Name of Parliamentary Borouafh. 

NEWPOET. 

Co>ntents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Newport. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 467 



(3) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

RHONDDA. 

ff 0n$ent* of Parliamentary Borough. 

Urban district of Rhondda. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

Numbers seven, eight, nine and ten .Wards, and the 
part of number six Ward which is not included in 
the West Division. 

WEST. 

Numbers one, two, three, four and five Wards, and 
the part of number six Ward which lies to the west 
of the middle of the River Rhondda and is known as 
Tonypandy. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

SWANSEA. 

.Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County borough of Swansea. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EAST. 

East, Landore, Morriston and St. John's Wards. 
WEST. 

Alexandra, Bryn Melyn, Castle, Ffynone, St. 

Helen's and Victoria Wards. 
30 (2) 



468 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

ABERDEEN. 

C&ntents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County of the City of Aberdeen. 

Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Greyfriars, St. Andrew, St. Clement, St. Machar, 
Torry and Woodside Municipal Wards. 
SOUTH. 

Ferryhill, Rosemount, Rubislaw, Ruthrieston and 
St. Nicholas Municipal Wards. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

AYR DISTRICT OF BURGHS. 

.Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burghs of Ayr, Ardrossan, Irvine, Prestwick, Saltcoats, and 

Troon. 

Total tyumber of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Division^ of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DUMBARTON DISTRICT OF. BURGHS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burghs of Dumbarton and Clydebank. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 469 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Division's of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DUNDEE. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County of the City of Dundee. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Two. 

flames of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

DUNFERMLINE DISTRICT OF BURGHS. 

^ Tfontents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burghs of Dunfermline, Cowdenbeath, In verkei thing, and 
Lochgelly. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions 0f 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

EDINBURGH. 

'Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

County of the City of Edinburgh and Burgh of Mueselburgh. 



470 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members -for Parliamentary Borough. 

Five. 

'Names of Divisions |o/ 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

George Square, St. Giles' and St. Leonard's Muni- 
cipal Wards of Edinburgh. 

EAST. 

Burgh of Musselburgh and Canongate and Porto- 
bello Municipal Wards of Edinburgh. 

NORTH. 

Broughton, Calton, St. Andrew's and St. Stephen's 
Municipal Wards of Edinburgh. 

SOUTH. 

Merchiston, Morningside, and Newington Munici- 
pal Wards of Edinburgh. 

WEST. 

Dairy, Gorgie, Hay market and St. Bernard's Muni- 
cipal Wards of Edinburgh. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GLASGOW^. 

Contents of P'a-l'wnientary Borough. 

County of the City of Glasgow. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

Fifteen. 

Names of Divisions jo/ 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BRIDGETON. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the centre line of 
London Road, where the road is crossed by the Cale- 
donian Railway (Glasgow Lines), thence south- 
westward and southward along the centre line of 
the said railway to where it joins the Caledonian 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 471 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
Railway Branch Line from Dalmarnock to Ruther- 
glen, thence southward along the centre line of the 
said last-mentioned railway to a point on the muni- 
cipal boundary at the centre line of the River Clyde, 
thence south-westward and north-westward along 
the municipal boundary of the city to a point on the 
centre line of the River Clyde about 77 yards south- 
eastward from the centre of Rutherglen- Bridge, 
thence westward, northward and westward along the 
centre line of -the River Clyde to the centre of Albert 
Bridge, thence northward along the centre line of 
Saltmarket to the centre line of Gallowgate, thence 
eastward along the centre line of Gallowgate to the 
centre line of Abercromby Street, thence south- 
westward along the centre line of Abercromby Street 
to the centre line of Canning Street, thence eastward 
along the centre line of Canning Street and London 
Road to the point of commencement. 
CAMLACHIE . 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a line 
commencing at a point on the municipal boundary 
on the south-east side of Cumbernauld Road where 
that road is intersected by the east side of the Cale- 
donian Railway (Glasgow Lines), thence southward 
along the municipal boundary to a point about 299 
yards north-westward from the centre of Carntyne 
Road, where the municipal boundary intersects that 
road, thence north-westward to a point on the centre 
line of the said railway 380 yards south of the 
centre line of Cumbernauld Road, thence south- 
westward and southward along the centre line of 
the said railway to the centre line of London Road, 
thence westward along the centre line of London 
Road and Canning Street to the centre line of Aber- 
cromby Street, thence north-eastward along the 
centre line of Abercromby Street to the centre line 



472 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued). 
of Gallowgate, thence westward along the centre line 
of Gallowgate to the centre line of Sydney Street, 
thence northward along the centre line of Sydney 
Street to the centre line of Duke Street, thence 
eastward along the centre line of Duke Street to the 
centre line of Ark Lane, thence northward along 
the centre line of Ark Lane and Firpark Street 
to the centre line of Alexandra Parade, thence east- 
ward and north-eastward along the centre line of 
Alexandra Parade, and Curnbernauld Road to the 
east side of the Caledonian Railway (Glasgow 
Lines), thence southward to the point of commence- 
ment. 
CATHCART. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary at the centre of Kilmarnock Road, thence 
northward along the centre line of Kilmarnock Road 
to the centre line of the River Cart, thence south- 
eastward and eastward along the centre line of the 
River Cart to the centre line of Langside Road at 
Millbrae Bridge, thence north-eastward along the 
centre line of Langside Road, Millbrae Road and 
Langside Road, to the centre line of the main avenue 
in the Queen's Park near Victoria Infirmary, thence 
northward along the centre line of the said main 
avenue to the centre line of Queen's Drive, thence 
northward along the centre line of Victoria Road 
to the centre line of the Glasgow and South Western 
Railway about 46 yards north of the centre line of 
Butterbiggins Road, thence north-eastward along 
the centre line of the said Glasgow and South 
Western Railway to the centre line of the Cale- 
donian Railway Main Line from Glasgow to 
Rutherglen, thence south-eastward along the centre 
line of the said Caledonian Railway to the muni- 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 473 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
cipal boundary, thence south-westward and west- 
ward along the municipal boundary to the point of 
commencement. 
CENTRAL. 

That portion of the city whicli is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point at the intersection of the 
centre lines of Parliamentary Road and Castle 
Street, thence southward along the centre line of 
Castle Street to the centre line of Alexandra Parade, 
thence eastward along the centre line of Alexandra 
Parade to the centre line of Firpark Street, thence 
southward along the centre line of Firpark Street 
and Ark Lane to the centre line of Duke Street, 
thence westward along the centre line of Duke Street 
to the centre line of Sydney Street, thence south- 
ward along the centre line of Sj^dney Street to the 
centre line of Gallowgate, thence westward along 
the centre line of Gallowgate to the centre line of 
Saltmarket, thence southward along the centre line 
of Saltmarket and Albert Bridge to the centre line 
of the River Clyde, thence westward along the centre 
line of the River Clyde to a point in line with the 
centre line of McAlpine Street, thence northward 
along the centre line of McAlpine Street, Pitt 
Street and Scott Street to the centre line of New 
City Road, thence south-eastward along the centre 
line of New City Road and Cowcaddens to the centre 
line of Buchanan Street, thence southward along the 
centre line of Buchanan Street to the centre line of 
Parliamentary Road, thence north-eastward along 
the centre line of Parliamentary Road to the point 
of commencement. 

GORBALS. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary at the centre line of the River Clyde about 77 



474 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
yards east of the centre of Rutherglen Bridge, 
thence south-westward along the municipal boun- 
dary to the centre of the Caledonian Eailway Main 
Line from Glasgow to Rutherglen, thence north- 
westward along the centre line of the said Cale- 
donian Eailway to the centre line of the Glasgow 
and South Western Eailway, thence south-westward 
along the centre line of the said Glasgow and South 
Western Eailway to the centre line of Victoria Road, 
thence northward along the centre line of Victoria 
Eoad, Eglinton Street, Bridge Street and Glasgow 
Bridge to the centre line of the River Clyde, thence 
south-eastward along the centre line of the River 
Clyde to the point of commencement. 

Go VAN. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary at the centre of the River Clyde in line with 
the continuation of the centre line of Balmoral 
Street, thence eastward along tiie centre line of the 
River Clyde to a point in line with the continua- 
tion of the centre line of the portion of Govan 
Eoad to the west of Princes Dock, thence southward 
to and along the centre line of the said portion of 
Govan Road, Whitefield Eoad, Church Eoad and 
continuation thereof to the centre of the Glasgow 
and Paisley Joint Eailway, thence westward along 
the centre line of the said Glasgow and Paisley 
Joint Eailway to the municipal boundary, thence 
north-westward, northward, and eastward along the 
municipal boundary to the point of commencement. 

BILLHEAD. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point in the municipal boun- 
dary at its intersection with the centre line of the 
River Kelvin, thence south-eastward, southward and 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 475 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND con tinu ed. 
south-westward along the centre line of the River 
Kelvin to the centre line of the North British Rail- 
way (Stobcross Branch), thence north-westward 
along the centre of the said North British Railway 
to its intersection with the municipal boundary, 
thence north-eastward along the municipal boun- 
dary to the point of commencement. 

KELVINGROVE . 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point at the intersection of 
the centre line of New City Road and Scott Street, 
thence southward along the centre line of Scott 
Street, Pitt Street and McAlpine Street and con- 
tinuation thereof to the centre line of the River 
Clyde, thence westward along the centre line of the 
River Clyde to its intersection with the centre line 
of the River Kelvin, thence north-eastward along 
the centre line of the River Kelvin to the centre 
line of Great Western Road, thence south-eastward 
along the centre line of Great Western Road and 
New City Road to the point of commencement. 

MARYHILL. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary at the centre line of the North British Rail- 
way (Edinburgh and Glasgow Line) about 327 
yards north of the centre of Hawthorn Street, where 
the said North British Railway intersects that 
street, thence south-eastward and southward along 
the centre of the said North British Railway to the 
centre line of Keppochhill Road, thence south-west- 
ward and westward along the centre Hue of Kep- 
pochhill Road to the centre line of Saracen Street, 
thence south-westward along the centre line of Fossil 
Road to the centre line of the Forth and Clyde 
Canal, thence north-westward along the centreline 



476 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
of the Forth and Clyde Canal to a point in line 
with the centre line of Well Eoad, thence south- 
westward along the centre line of Well Eoad to 
the centre line of New City Eoad, thence westward 
along the centre line of Eaeberry Street and Carl- 
ton Gardens to the centre line of Belmont Street, 
thence south-westward along the centre line of Bel- 
mont Street to the centre line of the Elver Kelvin, 
thence north-westward along the centre line of the 
Eiver Kelvin to its intersection with the municipal 
boundary, thence north-eastward and south-east- 
ward along the municipal boundary to the point of 
commencement. 

PABTICK. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary at the centre line of the North British Eail- 
way (Stobcross Branch), thence south-eastward 
along the centre line of the said North British Eail- 
way to the centre line of the Eiver Kelvin, thence 
south-westward along the centre line of the Eiver 
Kelvin to the centre line of the Eiver Clyde, thence 
westward along the centre line of the Eiver Clyde, 
to the municipal boundary, thence northward and 
north-eastward along the municipal boundary to the 
point of commencement. 

POLLOK. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary at the centre line of the Glasgow and Paisley 
Joint Eailway, thence eastward along the centre 
line of the said Glasgow and Paisley Joint Eail- 
way and the Caledonian Eailway to the centre line 
of Shields Eoad, thence southward along the centre 
line of Shields Eoad to the centre line of the Glasgow 
and South Western Eailway (Paisley Canal Line), 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 477 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
thence eastward along the centre line of the said 
Glasgow and South Western Railway to the centre 
line of Eglinton Street, thence southward along the 
centre line of Eglinton Street and Victoria Road 
to the centre line of Queen's Drive, thence southward 
along the centre line of the main avenue in the 
Queen's Park to the centre line of Langside load, 
thence south-westward along the centre line of 
Langside Road to the centre line of Millbrae Road, 
thence south-westward along the centre line of Mill- 
brae Road and Langside Road to the centre line of 
the River Cart at Millbrae Bridge, thence westward 
and north-westward along the centre line of the 
River Cart to the centre line of Kilmarnock Road, 
thence southward along the centre line of Kilmar- 
nock Road to the municipal boundary, thence north- 
westward, south-westward, northward, westward 
and northward along the municipal boundary to 
the point of commencement. 
ST. ROLLOX. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point at the intersection of 
Springburn Road and Parliamentary Road, thence 
south-westward along the centre line of Parliamen- 
tary Road to the centre line of Buchanan Street, 
thence northward along the centre line of Buchanan 
- Street to the centre line of Cowcaddens, thence 
north-westward along the centre line of Cow- 
caddens, New City Road and Great Western Road 
to the centre line of the River Kelvin, thence north- 
ward along the centre line of the River Kelvin to 
the centre line of Belmont Street, thence north-east- 
ward along the centre line of Belmont Street to the 
centre line of Carlton Gardens, thence eastward 
along the centre line of Carlton Gardens and Rae- 
berry Street to the centre line of New City Road, 



478 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
thence north-eastward along the centre line of Well 
Eoad and continuation thereof to the centre line of 
the Forth and Clyde Canal, thence south-eastward 
along the centre line of the Forth and Clyde Canal 
to the centre line of Fossil Koad, thence north-east- 
ward along the centre line of Fossil Road to the 
centre line of Saracen Street, thence eastward and 

north-eastward along the centre line of Keppoch- 
hill Eoad to the centre of the North British Rail- 
way (Edinburgh and Glasgow Line), thence south- 
westward along the centre line of the said North 
British Eailway to the centre line of Fountainwell 
Koad, thence south-eastward along the centre line 
of Fountainwell Eoad to the centre line of Spring- 
burn Eoad, thence southward along the centre line 
of Springburn Eoad to the point of commencement. 

SHETTLESTON. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 
dary about 299 yards north-westward from the 
centre of Carntyne Eoad, at a point where the muni- 
cipal boundary intersects that road, thence east- 
ward, south-eastward and westward along the muni- 
cipal boundary to the centre of the Caledonian Eail- 
way Branch Line from Eutherglen to Dalmarnock, 
thence northward along the centre line of the said 
railway until it joins the Caledonian Eailway 
(Glasgow Lines), thence northward, north-east- 
ward, northward and north-eastward along the 
centre line of the last-mentioned railway to a point 
380 yards south of the centre line of Cumbernauld 
Eoad, thence south-eastward to the point of com- 
mencement. 

SPRINGBURN. 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the municipal boun- 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 479 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
dary on the south-east side of Curabernauld Road, 
where that road is intersected by the east side of 
the Caledonian Railway (Glasgow Lines), thence 
northward to the centre line of Cumbernauld Road, 
thence south-westward and westward along the 
centre line of Cumbernauld Road and Alexandra 
Parade to the centre line of Castle Street, thence 
northward along the centre line of Castle Street 
and Springburn Road to the centre line of Foun- 
tainwell Road, thence north-westward along the 
centre line of Fountainwell Road to the centre line 
of the North British Railway (Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow Line), thence northward along the centre line 
of the said North British Railway to a point on 
the municipal boundary about 327 j-ards north of 
the centre of Hawthorn Street, where the said North 
British Railway intersects that street, thence north- 
ward, eastward, southward, eastward, southward, 
westward, south-eastward and south-westward along 
the municipal boundary to the point of commence- 
ment. 
TRADESTON . 

That portion of the city which is bounded by a 
line commencing at a point on the centre of Glas- 
gow Bridge at the centre line of the River Clyde, 
thence southward along the centre line of Glasgow 
Bridge, Bridge Street and Eglinton Street to the 
centre line of the Glasgow and South Western Rail- 
way at Eglinton Street Station, thence westward 
along the centre line of the Glasgow and South 
Western Railway (Paisley Canal Line) to the centre 
line of Shields Road, thence northwards along the 
centre line of Shields Road to the centre line of the 
Caledonian Railway, thence westward along the 
centre line of the said Caledonian Railway and the 
Glasgow and Paisley Joint Railway to a point in 



480 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 
line with the centre line of Church Road, thence 
northward along the centre line of Church Road, 
Whiteh'eld Road, and the portion of Go van Road to 
the west of Princes Dock and continuation thereof 
to the centre line of the River Clyde, thence east- 
ward along the centre line of the River Clyde to 
the point of commencement. 

Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

GREENOCK. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burgh of Green ock. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions vf 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

KIRKCALDY DISTRICT OF BURGHS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burghs of Kirkcaldy, Buckhaven Methil and Innerleven, Burntis- 
land, Dysart and Kinghorn. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

LEITH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burgh of Leith. 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS. 481 

(4) BOROUGHS IN SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions pf 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

MONTROSE DISTRICT OP BURGHS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burghs of Montrose, Arbroath, Brechin, Forfar and Inverbervie, 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions -of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

PAISLEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burgh of Paisley. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions pf 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Borough. 

STIRLING AND FALKIRK DISTRICT OP BURGHS. 

Contents of Parliamentary Borough. 

Burghs of Stirling, Falkirk and Grangemouth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Borough. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Borough. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

F. 31 



482 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

PAKT II. 

PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 
(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

BEDFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Bedford. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BEDFORD. 

The rural districts of Bedford and Eaton Socon, 
the municipal borough of Bedford, and the urban 
district of Kempston. 

LUTON. 

The rural district of Luton, and the municipal 
boroughs of Dunstable and Luton. 

MID. 

The rural districts of Ampthill, Biggleswade, and 
Eaton Bray, and the urban districts of Ampthill, 
Biggleswade, and Leigh ton Buzzard. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

BERKS. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Berks. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ABINGDON. 

The rural districts of Abingdon, Wallingford, and 
Wantage, the part of the rural district of Bradfield 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 483 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

which consists of the civil parishes of Ashamp- 
stead, Basildon, Frilsham, Streatley, and Yatten- 
don, the part of the rural district of Faringdon 
which is within the administrative county of Berks, 
the municipal boroughs of Abingdon and Walling- 
ford, and the urban district of Wantage. 

NEW BURY. 

The rural districts of Hungerford and Newbury, 
the part of the rural district of Bradfield which is 
not included in the Abingdon Division, the part 
of the rural district of Wokingham which is not in- 
cluded in the Windsor Division, and the municipal 
boroughs of Newbury and Wokingham. 

WINDSOR. 

The rural districts of Cookham, Easthampstead, and 
Windsor, the part of the rural district of Woking- 
ham which consists of the civil parishes of Remen- 
ham, Ruscombe, Twyford, and Wargrave, and the 
municipal boroughs of Maidenhead and New 
Windsor. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

BUCKS. 



(Contents of Parliamentary 

The administrative county of Bucks. 

Total number of Members fo>r Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

AYLESBURY. 

The rural district of Amersham, the part of the 
rural district of Aylesbury which is not included 
in the Buckingham Division, the part of the rural 
district of Long Crendon which consists of the 
81 (2) 



484 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

civil parish of Towersey, the part of the rural dis- 
trict of Wycornbe which consists of the civil parishes 
of Bledlow, Bradenham, Ellesborough, Great and 
Little Hampden, Great and Little Kimble, Hor- 
senden, Hughenden, Ilmer, Monks Bisborough, 
Princes Bisborough, Radnage, Saunderton, and 
Wendover, the municipal borough of Aylesbury, 
and the urban districts of Beaconsfield and Ches- 
ham. 

BUCKINGHAM. 

The rural districts of Buckingham, Newport Pag- 
n'ell, Stratford and Wolverton, Wing, and Winslow, 
the part of the rural district of Aylesbury which 
consists of the civil parishes of Ashenden, Chears- 
ley, Grendon Underwood, Kingswood, Ludgershall, 
Woodham, and Wotton Underwood, the part of the 
rural district of Long Grendon which is not in- 
cluded in the Aylesbury Division, the municipal 
borough of Buckingham, and the urban districts of 
Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, and Linslade. 

WYCOMBE . 

The rural districts of Eton and Hambledon, the 
part of the rural district of Wycombe which is not 
included in the Aylesbury Division, the municipal 
borough of Chepping Wycombe, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Eton, Mario w, and Slough. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

CAMBRIDGE. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Cambridge, exclusive of the part 
thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of Cambridge. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
'Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 






PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 485 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

CHESTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Chester and the county borough of 

Chester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Nine. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ALTRINCHAM. 

The part of the rural district of Bucklow which is 
not included in the Knutsford Division, and the 
urban districts of Altrincham, Ashton-upon- 
Mersey, Bowdon, Cheadle and Gatley, Hale, Hand- 
forth, Lymm, and Sale. 

CITY OF CHESTER. 

The rural district of Chester, the county borough 
of Chester, and the urban district of Hoole. 

CRE\VE. 

The part of the rural district of Congleton which 
consists of the civil parishes of Arclid, Betchton, 
Church Lawton, Hassall, Moreton-cum-Alcumlow, 
Odd Rode, Smallwood, and Wheelock, the part of 
the rural district of Nantwich which consists of 
the civil parishes of Barthomley, Basford, Church 
Coppenhall, Chorlton, Crewe, Haslington, Hough, 
Rope, Shavington-cum-Gresty, Stapeley, Weston, 
Willaston, Wistaston, and Wybunbury, the muni- 
cipal borough of Crewe, and the urban districts of 
Alsager and Nantwich. 

EDDISBURY. 

The rural districts of Malpas and Tarvin, the part 
of the rural district of Nantwioh which is not in- 
cluded in the Crewe Division, the part of the rural 



486 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

district of Northwich which consists of the: civil 
parishes of Crowton, Cuddington, Darnhall, Dela- 
mere, Eddisbury, Little Budworth, Marton, Oak- 
mere, and Wimboldsley, the part of the rural dis- 
trict of Runcorn which consists of the civil parishes 
of Alvanley, Frodsham, Frodsham Lordship, 
Helsby, Kingsley, Kingswood, Mauley, Newton- 
by-iFrodshain, and Norley, and the urban district 
of Tarpoiiey. 

KNIITSFORD. 

The part of the rural district of Bucklow which 
consists of the civil parishes of Aston-by-Bud worth, 
Bexton, Marthall-cum-Warford, Mere, Mobberley, 
Ollerton, Peover Inferior, Peover Superior, Pick- 
mere, Plumley, Styal, Tabley Inferior, Tabley 
Superior, Tatton, and Toft; the part of the rural 
district of Congleton which is not included in the 
Crewe, Macclesfield, and Northwich Divisions; the 
part of the rural district of Macclesfield which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Adlington, Butley, 
Capesthorne, Chelford, Chorley, Fallibroome, Great 
Warford, Lower Withington, Marton, Mottram St. 
Andrew, Nether Alderley, Newton, Old Withing- 
ton, Over Alderley, Poynton-with-Worth, Prest- 
bury, Siddington, Snelson, Tytherington, Upton, 
and Woodford; the part of the rural district of 
Northwich which consists of the civil parishes of 
Allostock, Byley, Lach Dennis, Lostock Gralam, 
Nether Peover, Rudheath, Sproston, and Whatcroft, 
the part of the rural district of Runcorn which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Acton Grange, Antro- 
bus, Appleton, Crowley, Daresbury, Grappenhall, 
Hatton, Higher Whitley, Keckwick, Latchford 
Without, Lower Whitley, Moore, Newton by Dares- 
bury. Preston on the Hill, Seven Oaks, Stockton 
Heath, Stretton, Thelwall, Walton Inferior, and 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 487 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Walton Superior; and the urban districts of Alder- 
ley Edge, Bollington, Hazel Grove and Bramhall, 
Knutsford, and Wilmslow. 

MACCLESFIELD. 

The rural district of Disley, the part of the rural 
district of Congleton which consists of the civil 
parishes of Hulmo Walfield and Newbold Astbury, 
the part of the rural district of Macclesfield which 
is not included in the Knutsford Division, the muni- 
cipal boroughs of Congleton and Macclesfield, and 
the urban districts of Bredbury and Romiley, Bug- 
lawton, Compstall, Marple, and Yeardsley-cum- 
Whaley. 

NORTHWICH. 

The part of the rural district of Congleton which 
consists of the civil parishes of Bradwall, Elton, 
Moston, and Tetton, the part of the rural district 
of Northwich which is not included in the Edclis- 
bury and Knutsford Divisions, the part of the rural 
district of Euncorn which is not included in the 
Eddisbury and Knutsford Divisions, and the urban 
districts of Middlewich, Northwich, Runcorn, Sand- 
bach, and Winsford. 

STALYBRIDGE AND HYDE. 

The rural district of Tintwistlc, the municipal 
boroughs of Dukinfield, Hyde, and Stalybridge, and 
the urban districts of Hollingworth and Mottram 
in Longendale. 

WlRRAL. 

The rural district of Wirral, and the urban districts 
of Bromborough, Ellesmcre Port and Whitby 
Higher Bebington, Hoylake and West Kirby. 
Lower Bebington, and Xeston and Parkgate. 



488 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

CORNWALL. 

'Contents vf Parliamentary C aunty. 

The administrative county of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Pive. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or boundaries of Divisions. 

BODMIN. 

The rural districts of Liskeard and St. Germans, 
the part of the rural district of Bodmin which is 
not included in the Northern Division, the part of 
the rural district of St. Austell which consists of 
the civil parishes of St. Sampson and Tywardreath, 
the municipal boroughs of Bodmin, Fowey, Lis- 
keard, Lostwithiel, and Saltash, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Callington, Looe, and Torpoint. 

CAMBORNE. 

The rural district of Redruth, the part of the rural 
district of East Kerrier which consists of the civil 
parishes of Constantine, Mabe, and Perranarwor- 
thal, the part of the rural district of Helston which 
consists of the civil parishes of Crowan and Wen- 
dron, the part of the rural district of Truro which 
consists of the civil parishes of Kea, Kenwyn Rural, 
Perranzabuloe, St. Agnes, St. Allen, and Trega- 
vethan, the municipal borough of Helston, and the 
urban districts of Camborne, Hayle, Phillack, and 
Redruth. 

NORTHERN. 

The rural districts of Calstock, Camelford, Laun- 
ceston, St. Columb Major, and Stratton, the part 
of the rural district of Holsworthy which is within 
the administrative county of Cornwall, the part of 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 489 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

the rural district of Bodmin which consists of the 
civil parishes of Egloshayle, St. Endellion, St. 
Kew, St. Minver Highlands, and St. Minver Low- 
lands, the municipal borough of Launceston, and 
the urban districts of Newquay, Padstow, Strat- 
ton and Bude, and Wadebridge. 

PENRYN AND EALMOUTH. 

The part of the rural district of St. AusteH. which 
is not included in the Bodmin Division, the part of 
each of the rural districts of East Kerrier and Truro 
which is not included in the Camborne Division, 
the municipal boroughs of Ealmouth, Penryn, and 
Truro, and the urban district of St. Austell. 

ST. IVES. 

The rural district of West Penwith, the part of the 
rural district of Helston which is not included in the 
Camborne Division, the municipal boroughs of Pen- 
zance and St. Ives, the urban districts of Ludgvan, 
Madron, Paul, and St. Just, and the Seilly Isles. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

.CUMBERLAND.- 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 
The administrative county of Cumberland. 

Tlotal dumber bf Members for Parliamentary County. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Co.unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTHERN. 

The rural districts of Brampton, Carlisle, and Long- 
town, the part of the rural district of Wigton which 
is not included in the Workington Division, and 
the urban districts of Holme Cultram and Wigton. 



490 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

PENRITH AND COCKERMOUTH . 

The rural districts of Alston with Garrigill and 
Penrith, the part of the rural district of Cocker- 
mouth which is not included in the Working-ton 
Division, and the urhan districts of Cockermouth, 
Keswick, and Penrith. 

WHITEHAVEN. 

The rural district of Bootle, the part of the rural 
district of Whitehaven which is not included in the 
Workington Division, the municipal borough of 
Whitehaven, and the urban districts of Cleator 
Moor, Egremont, and Millom. 

WORKINGTON. 

The part of the rural district of Cockermouth which 
consists of the civil parishes of Broughton, Brough- 
ton Moor, Camerton, Crosscanonby, Dearham, 
Flimby, Great Clifton, Little Clifton, Oughterside 
and Allerby, Ribton, Seaton, Stainburn, Winscales, 
and Workington Rural, the part of the rural dis- 
trict of Whitehaven which consists of the civil 
parishes of Distington, Moresby, and Weddicar, the 
part of the rural district of Wigton which consists 
of the civil parishes of Allonby, Hay ton and Mealo, 
and West Newton, the municipal borough of Work- 
ington, and the urban districts of Aiiecdon and 
Frizington, Aspatria, Harrington, and Maryport. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

DERBY. 

. Contents of Parliamentary Comity. 

The administrative county of Derby. 

Total member of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Eight. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 491 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BELPER. 

The rural district of Belper, the part of the rural 
district of Kepton which 'is not included in the 
Southern and Western Divisions, and the urban 
districts of Alfreton, Belper, and Heage. 

CHESTERFIELD . 

The part of the rural district of Chesterfield which 
consists of the civil parishes of Barlow, Briming- 
ton, Calow, Hasland, Sutton-cum-Duckmanton, 
Tapton, Temple Normanton, and Wingerworth, the 
municipal borough of Chesterfield, and the urban 
districts of Brampton and Walton and Whitting- 
ton and Newbold. 

CLAY CROSS. 

The rural district of Blackwell, the part of the 
rural district of Chesterfield which is not included 
in the North Eastern and Chesterfield Divisions, 
and the urban district of Clay Cross. 

HIGH PEAK. 

The rural district of Chapel-en-le-Frith (except the 
two detached parts of the civil parish of Derwent 
which are bounded on the west by the civil parish 
of Hathersage), the rural districts of Glossop Dale 
and Hayfield, the portion of the rural district of 
Bakewell which consists of the two detached parts 
of the civil parish of Outseats which are bounded 
on three sides by the civil parish of Derwent, the 
municipal boroughs of Buxton and Glossop, and 
the urban district of New Mills. 

ILKESTON. 

The rural district which consists of the civil par- 
ishes of Codnor Park and Shipley, the municipal 
borough of Ilkeston, and the urban districts of 
Heanor and Ripley. 



492 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

NORTH EASTERN. 

The rural districts of Clowne and Norton, the part 
of the rural district of Chesterfield which consists 
of the civil parishes of Beighton, Coal Aston, Dron- 
field Woodhouse, Eckington, Holmesfield, Killa- 
marsh, Staveley, and tinstone, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Bolsover and Dronfield. 

SOUTHERN . 

The rural districts of Hartshorn and Seals and 
Shardlow, the part of the rural district of Bepton 
which consists of the civil parishes of Caldwell, 
Castle Gresley, Catton, Coton in the Elms, Drake- 
low, Linton, Lullington, Rosliston, and Walton- 
upon-Trent, and the urban districts of Alvaston 
and Boulton, Long Eaton, and Swadlincote District. 

WESTERN . 

The rural districts of Ashbourno and Sudbury, the 
rural district of Bakewell (except the two detached 
parts of the civil parish of Outseats which are 
bounded on three sides by the civil parish of Der- 
went), the part of the rural district of Bepton which 
consists of the civil parishes of Barton Blount, 
Church Broughton, Foston and Scropton, Hatton, 
Hilton, Hoon, Mars ton -on -Dove, Osleston and 
Thurvaston, and Sutton-on-the-Hill, the part of the 
rural district of Chapel-en-le-Frith which consists 
of the two detached parts of the civil parish of Der- 
went bounded on the west by the civil parish of 
Hathersage, and the urban districts of Ashbourne, 
Bakewell, Baslow and Bubnell, Bonsall, Matlock, 
Matlock Bath and Scarthin Nick, North Darley, 
South Darley, and Wirksworth. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 493 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE oontinued r . 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

DEVON. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Devon. 

Total 'number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Seven. 

Names of Divisions jpf 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BARN STAPLE. 

The rural districts of Barnstaple and Bideford (in- 
cluding Lundy Island), the municipal boroughs of 
Barnstaple and Bideford, and the urban districts 
of Ilfracombe, Lynton, and Northam. 

HOXITON . 

The rural districts of Axminster and Honiton, the 
part of the rural district of St. Thomas which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Aylesbeare, Bicton, 
Clyst Honiton, Clyst St. George, Clyst St. Mary, 
Colaton Raleigh, East Budleigh, Farringdon, 
Lympstone, Newton Poppleford, Otter ton, Rock- 
beare, Sowton, and Woodbury, the municipal 
borough of Honiton, and the urban districts of Ax- 
minster, Budleigh Salterton, Exmouth, Ottery St. 
Mary, Seaton, and Sidmouth. 

SOUTH MOLTON. 

The rural districts of Crediton, Okehampton, South 
Molton, and Torrington, the municipal boroughs of 
Great Torrington, Okehampton and South Molton, 
and the urban district of Crediton. 

TAVTSTOCK. 

The rural districts of Broadwoodwidger, Plymp- 
ton St. Mary, and Tavistock, the part of the rural 
district of Holsworthy which is within the adminis- 
trative county of Devon, and the urban districts of 
Holsworthy, Ivybridge, and Tavistock. 



494. REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

TlVERTON. 

The rural districts of Oulmstock and Tiverton, the 
part of the rural district of Newton Abbot which 
consists of the civil parish of West Dawlish, the 
part of the rural district of St. Thomas which is 
not included in the Honiton Division, the municipal 
borough of Tiverton, and the urban districts of 
Bampton and Dawlish. 

TORQUAY. 

The part of the rural district of Newton Abbot 
which consists of the civil parishes of Cockington 
and Stokeinteignhead, the part of the rural district 
of Totnes which consists of the civil parishes of 
Churston Ferrers, Kingswear, Marldon, and Stoke 
Gabriel, the municipal boroughs of Dartmouth and 
Torquay, and the urban districts of Brixham and 
Paignton. 

TOTNES. 

The rural district of Kingsbridge, the part of the 
rural district of Newton Abbott which is not in- 
cluded in the Tiverton and Torquay Divisions, the 
part of the rural district of Totnes which is not 
included in the Torquay Division, the municipal 
borough of Totnes, and the urban districts of Ash- 
burton, Buckfastleigh, Kingsbridge, Newton Abbot, 
Salcombe, and Teignmouth. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

DORSET. 



Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Dorset. 

Toil number of Members for Parliamentary County. 
Pour. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 495 



(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

es of Divisio 
\mentary Co. 

EASTERN. 



Names of Divisions .of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



The rural district of Poole, the part of the rural 
district of Wimborne and Cranborne which consists 
of the civil parishes of Aimer, Chalbury, Colehill, 
Corfe Mullen, Hampreston, Hinton Martell, Hinton 
Parva, Holt, More Critchel, Pamphill, Shapwick, 
Sturminster Marshall, West Parley, and Witchamp- 
ton, the municipal borough of Poole, and the urban 
district of Wimborne Minster. 

NORTHERN. 

The rural districts of Blandford, Shaftesbury, Sher- 
borne, and Sturminster, the part of the rural district 
of Wimborne and Cranborne which is not included 
in the Eastern Division, the municipal boroughs of 
Blandford Forum and Shaftesbury, and the urban 
district of Sherborne. 

SOUTHERN. 

The rural district of Wareham and Purbeck, the 
part of the rural district of Weymouth which is not 
included in the Western Division, the municipal 
boroughs of Wareham and Weymouth and Mel- 
combe Regis, and the urban districts of Portland 
and Swanage. 

WESTERN. 

The rural districts of Beaminster, Bridport, Cerne 
and Dorchester, the part of the rural district of 
Weymouth which consists of the civil parishes of 
Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and Portisham, and 
the municipal boroughs of Bridport, Dorchester, and 
Lyme Regis. 



496 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE -continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

DURHAM. 

'Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Durham exclusive of the parts 
thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary (Bounty. 

Eleven. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BARNARD CASTLE. 

The rural districts of Barnard Castle and Wear- 
dale, the part of the rural district of Auckland 
which consists of the civil parishes of Hamsteiiey 
and South Bedburn, the part of the rural district 
of Lanchester which is not included in the Consett 
and Spennymoor Divisions, and the urban districts 
of Barnard Castle and Stanhope. 

BISHOP AUCKLAND. 

The part of the rural district of Auckland which 
is not included in the Barnard Castle and Spenny- 
moor Divisions, and the urban districts of Bishop 
Auckland and Shildon. 

BLAYDON. 

The urban districts of Blaydon, Eyton, Tanfield, 
and Whickham . 

CHESTER-LE-STREET . 

The rural district of Chester-le-Street, and the 
urban district of Chester-le-Street. 

CONSETT. 

The part of the rural district of Lanchester which 
consists of the civil parishes of Craghead, Ebch es- 
ter, Healeyfield, Knitsley, and Medomsley, and the 
urban districts of Annfield Plain, Benfieldside, Con- 
sett, Leadgate, and Stanley. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 497 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

DURHAM. 

The rural district of Durham (except the civil 
parish of Brancepeth), the part of the rural district 
of Houghton-le-Spring which consists of the civil 
parishes of East Eainton, Great Eppleton, Little 
Eppleton, Moor House, Moorsley, and West Kain- 
ton, the municipal borough of Durham, and the 
urban district of Hetton. 

HOUGHTON-LE-SPRING . 

The rural districts of South Shields and Sunder- 
land, the part of the rural district of Houghton-le- 
Spring which is not included in the Durham Divi- 
sion, and the urban district of Houghton-le-Spring. 

J ARROW. 

The municipal borough of Jarrow, and the urban 
districts of Felling and Hebburn. 

SEAHAM . 

The rural district .of Easington, and the urban dis- 
trict of Seaham Harbour. 

SEDGEFIELD . 

The rural districts of Darlington, Hartlepool, 
Sedgefield, and Stockton. 

SPENNYMOOR. 

The part of the rural district of Auckland which 
consists of the civil parishes of Helmington Row, 
Hunwick and Helmington, and North Bedburn, the 
part of the rural district of Durham which con- 
sists of the civil parish of Brancepeth, the part of 
the rural district of Lanchester which consists of 
the civil parish of Hedleyhope, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Brandon and Byshottles, Crook, Spenn\ - 
moor, Tow Law, and Wellington. 

F. 32 



498 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

ESSEX. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Essex exclusive of the parts thereof 
comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 
Eight. 

Names of Divisiom of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CHELMSFORD. 

The rural districts of Chelmsford and Ongar, the 
part of the rural district of Billericay which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Hutton, Ingrave, 
Mountnessing, Shenfield, and South Weald, the 
municipal borough of Chelmsford, and the urban 
district of Brentwood. 

COLCHESTER. 

The rural district of Lexden and Winstree (except 
the detached part of the civil parish of Inworth 
which is wholly surrounded by the civil parishes 
of Great Braxted and Kelvedon), and the municipal 
borough of Colchester. 

EPPING. 

:The rural district of Epjnng, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Buckhurst Hill, Chingford, Epping, 
Loughton, Waltham Holy Cross, Wanstead, and 
.Woodford. 

HARWICH. 

The rural district of Tendring, the municipal 
borough of Harwich, and the urban districts of 
Brightlingsea, Clacton, Frinton-on-Sea, Walton- 
on-the-Naze, and Wivenhoe. 

MALDON. 

The rural district of Braintree (with the detached 
part of the civil parish of Inworth which is wholly 




PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 499 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

surrounded by the civil parishes of Great Braxted 
and Kelvedon), the rural district of Maldon, the 
municipal borough of Maldon, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Braintree, Burnham-on-Crouch, and 
Witham. 

BOMFORD. 

The rural district of Romford, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Barking Town and Romford. 

SAFFRON WALDEN. 

The rural districts of Belchamp, Bumpstead, Dun- 
mow, Halstead, Saffron Walden, and Stansted, the 
municipal borough of Saffron Walden, and the urban 
district of Halstead. 

SOUTH-EASTERN . 

The rural districts of Orsett and Rochf ord, the part 
of the rural district of Billericay which is not in- 
cluded in the Chelmsford Division, and the urban 
districts of Grays Thurrock, Shoeburyness, and 
Tilbury. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

GLOUCESTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary County, 

The administrative county of Gloucester exclusive of the parts 
thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of Cheltenham. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Co.unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ClRENCESTER AND TEWKESBURY. 

The rural districts of Campden, Cirencester, Mars- 
ton Sicca, Northleach, and Pebworth, the part of 
each of the rural districts of Faringdon, Stow-on- 



500 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

the-Wold, Tctbury, Tewkesbury, and Winchcomb 
which is within the administrative county of Glou- 
cester, the part of the rural district of Cheltenham 
which consists of the civil parishes of Prestbury, 
Swindon, and Uckington, the municipal borough 
of Tewkesbury, and the urban districts of Ciren- 
cester, Stow-on-the-Wold, and Tetbury. 

FOREST OF DEAN. 

The rural distri t of East Dean and united parishes, 
Lydney, Newent, and "West Dean, the part of the 
rural district of Gloucester which consists of the 
civil parishes of Ashleworth, Highnam Over and 
Linton, Lassington, and Maisemore, and the urban 
districts of Awre, Coleford, Newnham, and West- 
bury-on-Severn. 

STROUD. 

The rural districts of Dursley, Stroud, and 
Wheatenhurst, the part of the rural district of 
Cheltenham which is not included in the Ciren- 
cester and Tewkesbury Division, the part of the 
rural district of Gloucester which is not included 
in the Forest of Dean Division, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Nailsworth and Stroud. 

THORNBURY. 

The rural districts of Chipping Sodbury, Thorn- 
bury, and Warmley, and the urban district of 
Kingswood . 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

HANTS. 

Oontents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Southampton, exclusive of the parts 
thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of South- 
ampton . 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 501 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Six. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary Coynty. Contents &r Boundaries of Divisions. 

ALDERSHOT. 

The rural district of Hartley Wintney, and the 
urban districts of Aldershot, Farnborough, and 
Fleet. 

BASINGSTOKE . 

The rural districts of Andover, Basingstoke, Kings- 
clere, Stockbridge, and Whitchurch, and the muni- 
cipal boroughs of Andover and Basingstoke. 

FAREHAM. 

The rural districts of Fareham and Havant, and the 
urban districts of Fareham, Gosport and Alver- 
stoke, Havant, and Warblington. 

NEW FOREST AND CHRISTCHURCH. 

The rural districts of Christcliurcli, Fordingbridge, 
Lymington, New Forest, Ringwood, and Romsey, 
and the municipal boroughs of Christchurch, 
Lymington, and Romsey. 

PETERSFIELD . 

The rural districts of Alresford, Alton, Gathering- 
ton, Droxford, and Petersfield, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Alton and Petersfield. 

WINCHESTER. 

The rural districts of Hursley and Winchester, the 
rural district of South Stoneham (except the civil 
parish of Bittern c), the municipal borough of Win- 
chester, and the urban district of Eastleigh and 
Bishopstoke. 

Name of Parliamentary Oounty. 

HEREFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Hereford. 



502 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two, 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

HEREFOKD. 

The rural districts of Dore, Boss, and Whitchurch, 
the part of each of the rural districts of Hereford 
and Ledbuiy which is not included in the Leo- 
minster Division, the municipal borough of Here- 
ford, and the urban districts of Ledbury and Ross. 

LEOMINSTER. 

The rural districts of Bredwardine, Bromyard, 
Kington, Leominster, Weobley, and Wigmore, the 
part of the rural district of Hereford which consists 
of the civil parishes of Bartestree, Breinton, Burg- 
hill, Credenhill, Dinmore, Holmer, Kenchester, 
Lugwardine, Harden, Moreton-on-Lugg, Pipe and 
Lyde, Preston Wynne, Stretton Sugwas, Sutton, 
Wellington, Westhide, Weston Beggard, and With- 
ington, the part of the rural district of Ledbury 
which consists of the civil parishes of Ashperton, 
Bosbury, Canon Frome, Castle Prome, Coddington, 
Colwall, Egleton, Mathon Rural, Munsley, Pixley, 
Stretton Grandison, Tarrington, and Yarkhill, the 
municipal borough of Leominster, and the urban 
districts of Bromyard and Kington. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

HERTFORD, 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Hertford. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

Five. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 503 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

HEMEL HEMPSTED. 

The rural districts of Berkhampstead and Hemel 
Hempstead, the part of the rural district of St. 
Albans which consists of the civil parishes of Har- 
penden Rural, Redbourn, and Wheathampetead, the 
part of the rural district of Watford which consists 
of the civil parishes of Abbots Langley and Sarratt, 
the municipal borough of Hemel Hemps ted, and the 
urban districts of Great Berkhampstead, Harpen- 
den, and Tring. 

HERTFORD . 

The rural districts of Hadham and Ware, the part of 
the rural district of Hertford which is not included 
in the Hitchin Division, the municipal borough of 
Hertford, and the urban districts of Bishops Stort- 
ford, Cheshunt, Hoddesdon, Sawbridge worth, and 
Ware. 

HITCHIN. 

The rural districts of Ashwell, Buntingford, 
Hitchin, and Welwyn, the part of the rural district 
of Hertford which consists of the civil parishes of 
Aston, Bennington, Datchworth, Sacombe, Wai- 
kern, and Watton at Stone, and the urban districts 
of Baldock, Hitchin, Royston, and Stevenage. 

ST. ALBANS. 

The rural districts of Barnet and Hatfield, the part 

of the rural district of St. Albans which is not in- 

cluded in the Hemel Hempsted Division, the muni- 
cipal borough of St. Albans, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Barnet and East Barnet Valley. 

WATFORD. 

The part of the rural district of Watford which 
is not included in the Hemel Hempsted Division, 
and the urban districts of Bushey, Chorleywood, 
Rickmansworth, and Watford. 



504 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(.1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

HOLLAND WITH BOSTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary Comity. 

The administrative county of the Parts of Holland. 

Total number of Members fo'r Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



of Parliamentary County. 

HUNTINGDON. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 
The administrative county of Huntingdon. 

Total number O'f Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents w Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

ISLE OF ELY. 

\Oontents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of the Isle of Ely. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 505 

(1) ENGLAND,, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of the Isle of Wight. 

Total number of Members -for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names oj Divisions of 
Parliamentary Co,unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

KENT. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Kent (exclusive of the parts thereof 
comprised in parliamentary boroughs) and the county borough 
of Canterbury. 

Total number of Members f&r Parliamentary County. 

Eleven. 

Name* of Divisions of 
Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ASHFORD. 

The rural districts of Cranbrook, East Ashford, 
Romney Marsh, Tenterden, and West Ashford, the 
municipal boroughs of Lydd, New Romney, and 
Tenterden, and the urban district of Ashford. 

CANTERBURY. 

The rural districts of Bridge and Elham, the rural 
district of Blean (with the detached parts of the 
civil parishes of Dunkirk and Hernhill which are 
wholly surrounded by that rural district), the county 
borough of Canterbury, and the urban districts of 
Herne Bay and Whitstable. 



506 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued*. 

CHISLEHURST. 

The rural district of Bromley, the part of the rural 
district of Dartford which is not included in the 
Dartford Division, and the urban districts of 
Chislehurst and Foots Cray. 

DARTFORD . 

The part of the rural district of Dartford which 
consists of the civil parishes of Crayford, Stone, and 
Swanscombe, and the urban districts of Bexley, 
Dartford; and Erith. 

DOVER. 

The rural districts of Dover and Eastry, the muni- 
cipal boroughs of Deal and Dover, and the urban 
district of Walmer. 

PAVERSHAM. 

The rural districts of Milton and Sheppey, the 
rural . district of Faversham (except the detached 
parts of the civil parishes of Dunkirk and Hern- 
hill which are wholly surrounded by the rural dis- 
trict of Blean), the municipal boroughs of Faver- 
sham and Queenbo rough, and the urban districts 
of Milton Regis, Sheerness, and Sittingbotirne. 

GRAVESEND. 

The rural districts of Hoo and Strood, the muni- 
cipal borough of Gravesend, and the urban dis- 
trict of Northfleet. 

ISLE OF THANET. 

The rural district of the Isle of Thanet, the muni- 
cipal boroughs of Margate, Ramsgate, and Sand- 
wich, and the urban district of Broadstairs and St. 
Peters. 

MAIDSTONE. 

The rural districts of Hollingbourne and Maid- 
stone, and the municipal borough of Maidstone. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 507 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

SEVENOAKS. 

The rural districts of Mailing and Sevenoaks, and 
the urban districts of Sevenoaks and Wrotham. 

TONBRIDGE. 

The rural district of Tonbridge, the municipal 
borough of Tunbridge Wells, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Southborough and Tonbridge. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

PARTS OF KESTEVEN, AND RUTLAND. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of the Parts of Kesteven (exclusive of 
the part thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of 
Lincoln), and the administrative county of Rutland. 

Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary Ctotmty. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Cpiunty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

GRANTHAM. 

The rural districts of Branston, Claypole, and Slea- 
ford, the part of the rural district of Grantham 
which consists of the civil parishes of Ancaster, 
Barrowby, Belton, Carlton Scroop, Groat Goner by, 
Harrowby Without, Heydour, Honington, Hough- 
on-the-Hill, Londonthorpe, Manthorpe, Norman- 
ton, Welby, and the detached part of the civil parish 
of Spittlegato Without which is wholly surrounded 
by the municipal borough of Grantham , the muni- 
cipal borough of Grantham, and the urban districts 
of Ruskington and Sleaford. 

RUTLAND AND STAMFORD. 

The whole of the administrative county of Rutland, 
the rural districts of Bourne and Uffington, the part 
of the rural district of Grantham which is not in- 



508 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

^1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

eluded in the Grantham Division, the municipal 
borough of Stamford, and the urban district of 
Bourne. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

LANCASTER. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Lancaster exclusive of the parts 
thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Oo-unty. 

Eighteen . 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oo-unty . Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CHORLEY. 

The rural district of Chorley, the part of the rural 
district of Wigan which consists of the civil parishes 
of Haigh, Parbold, Worthington, and Wrighting- 
ton, the municipal borough of Chorley, and the 
urban districts of Adlington, Croston, Leyland, and 
Withnell. 

CLITHEROE. 

The rural district of Burnley (except the detached 
part of the civil parish of Foulridge which is in- 
cluded in the parliamentary borough of Nelson and 
Colne), the rural district of Clitheroe, the muni- 
cipal borough of Clitheroe, and the urban districts 
of Great Harwood and Padiham. 

DA R WEN. 

The rural district of Blackburn, the municipal 
borough of Darwen, and the urban district of 
Turton. 

PARN WORTH. 

The part of the rural district of Barton-upon 
Irwell which consists of the civil parish of Clifton, 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 009 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

the part of the rural district of Bury which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Ainsworth and Out- 
wood, and the urban districts of Famworth, Kears- 
ley, Little Hulton, Little Lever, and Worsley. 

FYLDE. 

The rural district of Fylde (except the part of the 
civil parish of Carleton which is included in the 
parliamentary borough of Blackpool), the rural dis- 
trict of Preston, and the urban districts of Fleet- 
wood, Kirkham, Longridge, Poulton-le- Fylde, 
Thornton, and Walton-le-Dale. 

HEYWOOD AND RADCLIFFE. 

The part of the rural district of Bury which is not 
included in the Famworth Division, the municipal 
borough of Hey wood, and the urban districts of 
Radcliffe, Harnsbottom, and Whitefield. 

INCE. 

The part of the rural district of Wigan which con- 
sists of the civil parish of Shevington, and the urban 
districts of Abram, Ashton-in-Makerfield, Billinge, 
Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell, .and Standish-with 
Langtree . 

LANCASTER. 

The rural district of Garstang, the part of the rural 
district of Lancaster which is not included in the 
Lonsdale Division, the municipal boroughs of Lan- 
caster and Morecambe, and the urban districts of 
Heysham and Preesall. 

LONSDALE . 

The rural districts of Lunesdale and Ulverston, the 
detached part pf the rural district of Lancaster which 
is situated north of the municipal boroughs of Lan- 
caster and Morecambe, and the urban districts of 
Carnforth, Dalton-in-Furness, Grange, and Ulver- 
ston. 



510 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

MlDDLETON AND PnESTWICH. 

The municipal borough of Middleton, and the urban 
districts of Chadderton and Prestwich. 

MOSSLEY. 

The rural district of Limehurst, the municipal 
borough of Mossley, and the urban districts of 
Audenshaw, Denton, Droylsden, Failsworth, and 

Lees. 

NEWTON. 

The rural district of Warrington, the rural district 
of Leigh (except the civil parish of Astley), and 
the urban districts of Golborne, Haydock, and 
Newton -in-Makerfield . 

ORMSKIRK. 

The rural districts of Sefton and West Lancashire, 
the part of the rural district of Wigan which con- 
sists of the civil parish of Dalton, and the urban 
districts of Eormby, Lathom-with-Burscough, 
Ormskirk, Rainford, Skelmersdale, and Upholland. 

ROYTON. 

The urban districts of Crompton, Littleborough, 
Milnrow, Norden, Royton, Wardle, and Whitworth. 

STRETFORD . 

The rural district of Barton -upon-Irwell (except 
the civil parish of Clifton), the part of the rural 
district of Leigh which consists of the civil parish 
of Astley, and the urban districts of Irlam, Stret- 
ford, and Urmston. 

WATERLOO. 

The urban districts of Great Crosby, Litherland, 
Little Crosby, and Waterloo-with-Seaforth. 

WESTHOUGHTON . 

The urban districts of Aspull, Blackrod. Hindley, 
Horwich, and Westhoughton. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 511 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

WIDNES. 

The rural district of Whiston, the municipal 
borough of Widnes, and the urban districts of 
Huytxm-with-Koby and Prescot. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

LEICESTEB. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Leicester. 

Total n\umber of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or 'Boundaries of Divisions. 

BOSWORTH. 

The rural districts of Hinckley and Market Bos- 
worth, the part of the rural district of Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch which consists of the civil parish of 
Bardon, and the urban districts of Coalville and 
Hinckley. 
HARBOROUGH. 

The rural districts of Blaby, Hallaton, Lutter- 
worth, and Market Harborough, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Market Harborough, Oadby, and Wigston 
Magna. 

LOUGHBO ROUGH . 

The rural districts of Castle Donington and Lough- 
borough, the part of the rural district of Ashby-de- 
la-Zouch which is not included in the Bosworth 
Division, the municipal borough of Loughborough, 
and the urban districts of Ashby-de-la-r-Zouch, 
Ashby Woulds, and Shepshed . 
MELTON. 

The rural districts of Barrow-upon-Soar, Belvoir, 
Billesdon, and Melton Mowbray, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Melton Mowbray, Quorndon, and Thur- 
maston . 



512 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Co\unty. 

PARTS OF LINDSEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary C&unty. 

The administrative county of the parts of Lindsey exclusive of the 
part thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of 
Grimsby. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County, Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BRIGG. 

The rural district of Glanford Brigg, and the urban 
districts of Barton-upon-Humber, Brigg, Brough- 
ton, Brumby and Frodingham, Roxby-cum-Risby, 
Scunthorpe, and Winterton. 
GAINSBOROUGH. 

The rural districts of Gainsborough, Isle of Ax- 
holme, and Welton, and the urban districts of 
Crowle and Gainsborough . 

HORNCASTLE . 

The rural districts of Horncastle, Sibsey, and 
Spilsby, and the urban districts of Alford, Horn- 
castle, Skegness, and Woodhall Spa. 

LOUTH. 

The rural districts of Caistor, Grimsby, and Louth, 
the municipal borough of Louth, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Mablethorpe and Market Rasen. 

Name of Parliamentary County, 

MIDDLESEX. 

Contents of Parliamentary C&unty. 

The administrative county of Middlesex exclusive of the parts 
thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. * 513 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Total vwimber of Members -for Parliamentary Oounty. 

Ten. 

Names k>f Division^ otf 

Parliamentary (?p\unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ACTON . 

The urban district of Acton. 

BRENTFORD AND CHISWICK. 

The urban districts of Brentford and Chiswick. 

ENFIELD . 

The rural district of South Mimms and the urban 
district of Enfield. 

FlNCHLEY. 

The urban districts of Finchley and Friern Barnet. 

HARROW. 

The urban districts of Greenf ord, Hanwell, Harrow- 
on-the-Hill, Wealdstone, and Wembley. 

HEN DON. 

The rural district of Hendon, and the urban districts 
of Hendon and Kingsbury. 

SPELTHORNE . 

The rural district of Staincs, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Feltham, Hampton, Hampton Wick, 
Staines, Sunbury-on-Thames, and Teddington. 

TWICKENHAM. 

The urban districts of Heston and Isleworth and 
Twickenham . 

UXBRIDGE. 

The rural district of Uxbridge, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Hayes, Ruislrp-Northwood, Southall- 
Norwood, Uxbridge, and Yiewsley. 

WOOD GREEN. 

The urban districts of Southgate and Wood Green. 

F. 33 







514 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

' (1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued'. 
Nfine of Parliamentary County. 

NOBFOLK. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Norfolk. 
Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

Five. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EASTERN. 

The rural districts of East and West Flegg, Loddon 
and Clavering, St. Faith's, Smallburgh, and Bio- 
field (including the area, wholly surrounded by the 
county borough of Norwich, in which stand the 
shire hall, county police station and other county 
buildings), and the urban district of North Wals- 
ham. 

KING'S LYNN. 

The rural districts of Docking, Freebridge Lynn, 
King's Lynn, and Marshland (except the civil 
parishes of Outwell and Upwell), the part of the 
rural district of Downham which consists of the civil 
parishes of Wiggenhall St. Germans, Wiggenhall 
St. Mary the Virgin, Wiggenhall St. Mary Mag- 
dalen, and Wiggenhall St. Peter, the municipal 
borough of King's Lynn, and the urban districts 
of New Hunstanton and Walsoken. 

NORTHERN. 

The rural districts of Aylsham, Erpingham, and 
Walsingham, and the urban districts of Cromer, 
Sheringham, and Wells. 

vSOTJTHERN. 

The rural districts of Depwade, Forehoe, Hcnstead, 
and Wayland, the part of the rural district of Thet- 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 515 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

ford which is not included in the South- Western 
Division, and the urban district of Diss. 
SOUTH-WESTERN . 

The rural districts of Mitford and Launditdi and 
S waff ham, the part of the rural district of Down- 
ham which is not included in the King's Lynn 
Division, the part of the rural district of Marshland 
which consists of the civil parishes of Outwell and 
Up well, the part of the rural district of Thetford 
which consists of the civil parishes of Cranwich, 
Feltwell. Feltwell Anchor, Hockwold-cum- Wilton, 
Lynford, Methwold, Mundford, Northwold, Santon, 
Weeting with Bromehill, and West Tofts, the muni- 
cipal borough of Thetford, and the urban districte 
of Downham Market, East Dereham, and Swaff- 
ham . 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

NORTHAMPTON, WITH THE SOKE OF PETER- 
BOEOUGH. 

Contents of Parliamentary Co\unty. 

The administrative counties of Northampton and the soke of 
Peterborough. 

Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Coymty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

DAVENTRY. 

The rural districts of Brackley, Crick, Daventry, 
Hardingstone, Middleton Cheney, Potterspury, and 
Towcester, the part of the rural district of North- 
ampton which is not included in the Kettering 
Division, and the municipal boroughs of Brackley 
and Daventry. 

33 (2) 



516 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

KETTERING. 

The rural districts of Brix worth, Kettering, and 
Oxendon, the part of the rural district of North-" 
amp ton which consists of the civil parishes of Great 
Billing, Little Billing, and Weston Favell, and the 
urban districts of Desborough, Kettering, and Both- 
well. 

PETERBOROUGH . 

The administrative county of the soke of Peter- 
borough, the rural districts of Easton-on-the-Hill 
and Gretton, the part of the rural district of Oundle 
which is within the administrative county of North- 
ampton, that part of the rural district of Thrapston 
which is within the administrative county of North- 
ampton and is not included in the Wellingborough 
Division, and the urban district of Oundle. 

WELLINGBOROUGH . 

The rural district of Wellingborough, the part of 
the rural district of Thrapston which consists of 
the civil parishes of Chelveston-cum-Caldecott, Har- 
grave, and Stanwick, the municipal borough of 
Higham Ferrers, and the urban districts of Fine- 
don, Irthlingborough, Eaunds, Rushden, and Wel- 
lingborough. 

; Name of Parliamentary O,o\unty. 

NOB THUMBEEL AND . 

(Contents 'of Parliamentary C<mnty. 

administrative county of Northumberland exclusive of the 
parts thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 517 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oownty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BERWICK-UPON-.TWEED . 

The rural districts of Alnwick, Belford, Glendale, 
Norham and Islandshires, and Eothbury, with the 
Fame Islands, the municipal borough of Berwick- 
upon- Tweed, and the urban districts of Alnwick, 
Amble, and Rothbury. 

HEXHAM. 

The rural districts of Bellingham, Haltwhistle, and 
Hexham, the part of the rural district of Castle 
Ward which consists of the civil parishes of Bitch- 
field, Black Heddon, Gapheaton, Cheeseburn 
Grange, East Matfen, Fenwick, Harlow Hill, 
Hawkwell, Heugh, Ingoe, Kearsley, Kirkheaton, 
Nesbitt, Ouston, Ryal, Wallridge, and West Mat- 
fen, and the urban districts of Hexham and 
Prudhoe. 

WANSBECK. 

The part of the rural district of Castle Ward which 
is not included in the Hexham Division, the rural 
district of Morpeth (except the civil parishes of 
Hepscott, Morpeth Castle, Newmineter, and Tran- 
well), the urban districts of Cramlington, Earsdon, 
Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, Newburn, Seaton Delaval, 
Seghill, and Whitley and Monkseaton, and the part 
of the administrative county of Northumberland 
consisting of the Moot Hall and precincts which 
is wholly surrounded by the county borough of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

NOTTINGHAM. 

(Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Nottingham. 



518 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Total 'mimber of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

Five. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oounty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BASSETLAW . 

The rural districts of Blyth and Cuckney, East 
Retford, and Misterton, the part of the rural dis- 
trict of Skegby which consists of the civil parish 
of Sookholrne, the municipal borough of East Ret- 
ford, and the urban districts of Warsop and 
Worksop. 

BROXTOWE. 

The part of the rural district of Basford which is 
not included in the Rushcliffe Division, and the 
urban districts of Arnold, Eastwood, Hucknall, and 
Kirkby-in-Ashfield . 

MANSFIELD. 

The part of the rural district of Skegby which is 
not. included in the Bassetlaw Division, the muni- 
cipal borough of Mansfield, and the urban districts 
of Huthwaite, Mansfield Woodhouse, and Sutton- 
in- Ash field . 

NEWARK. 

The rural districts of Bingham, Newark, and 
Southwell, and the municipal borough of Newark. 

RUSHCLIFFE . 

The rural districts of Leake and Stapleford, the 
rural district consisting of the civil parishes of 
Kingston-upon-Soar and Ratcliffe-upon-Soar, the 
part of the rural district of Basford which consists 
of the civil parishes of Awsworth, Barton-in-Fabis, 
Bilborough, Bradmore, Bunny, Burton Joyce, Clif- 
ton -with-Glapton, Colwick, Cossall, Gamston, 
Gedling, Gotham, Nuthall, Ruddington, South 
Wilford, Stoke Bardolph, Strelley, Thrumpton, 
Trowell, and Wollaton, and the urban districts of 
Beeston, Carlton, and West Bridgford. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 519 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary Coamty. 

OXFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary Co\unty. 

The administrative county of Oxford. 

Total nytmbpr of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary C&unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

B ANBURY. 

The rural districts of Banbury, Chipping Norton, 
Witney, and Woodstock, the municipal boroughs of 
Banbury, Chipping Norton, and Woodstock, and 
the urban district of Witney. 
HENLEY. 

The rural districts of Bicester, Crowmarsh, Cul- 
hain, Goring, Headington, Henley, and Thame, the 
municipal borough of Henley-on-Thames, and the 
urban districts of Bicester, Thame, and Wheatley. 

Name of Parliamentary Cfmnty. 

SALOP. 

Contents of Parliamentary Co\unty. 

The administrative county of Salop. 

Total watmber of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

Four. 

"Names of Divisions &f 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. . ; \ 

LlJDLOW. 

The rural districts of Bridgnorth, Burford, Church 
Stretton, Cleobury Mortimer, Clun, Ludlow, and 
Teme, the municipal boroughs of Bishop's Castle, 
Bridgnorth, and Ludlow, and the urban district of 
Church Stretton. 



520 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

OSWESTRY. 

The rural districts of Drayton, Ellesmere, Oswestry, 
Wem, and Whitchurch, the municipal borough of 
Oswestry, and the urban districts of Ellesmere, 
Market Drayton, Wem, and Whitchurch. 

SHREWSBURY. 

The rural districts of Atcham and Chirbury, and 
the municipal borough of Shrewsbury. 

THE WREKIN. 

The rural districts of Newport, Shifnal, and Wel- 
lington, the municipal borough of Wenlock, and the 
urban districts of Dawley, Newport, Oakengates, 
and Wellington. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

SOMERSET. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Somerset. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Six. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oo<unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BRIDGWATER. 

The rural districts of Bridgwater and Williton, the 
municipal borough of Bridgwater, and the urban 
districts of Burnham-on-Sea, Highbridge, Mine- 
head, and Watchet. 

FROME. 

The rural districts of Bath, Glutton, and Keyn- 
sham, the part of the rural district of Frome which 
is not included in the Wells Division, and the urban 
districts of Frome, Midsomer Norton, and Kad- 
stock. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 521 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

TAUNTON . 

The rural districts of Dulverton, Taunton, and 
Wellington, the municipal borough of Taunton, and 
the urban districts of Wellington and Wivelis- 
combe. 

WELLS. 

The rural districts of Shepton Mallet, Wells, and 
"Wincanton, the part of the rural district of Frome 
which consists of the civil parishes of Cloford, 
Marston Bigot, Nunney, Wanstrow, Whatley, and 
Witharn Friary, the municipal boroughs of Glas- 
tonbury and Wells, and the urban districts of Shep- 
tori Mallet and Street. 

WESTON-SUPER-MARE . 

The rural districts of Axbridge (with Steep Holme 
Island) and Long Ashton, and the urban districts 
of Clevedon, Portishead, and Weston-super-Mare. 

YKOVIL. 

The rural districts of Chard, Langport, and Yeovil, 
the municipal boroughs of Chard and Yeovil, and 
the urban districts of Crewkerne and Ilminster. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

STAFFORD. 

Contents of Parliamentary C&unty. 

The administrative county of Stafford (exclusive of the parts 
thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs) and the county 
borough of Burton-upon-Trent. 

Total n-umber of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Seven. 

yames of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BURTON. 

The rural districts of Tutbury and Uttoxeter, the 
part of the rural district of Stafford which consists 



522 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

of the detached part of the civil parish of Colwich 
which is surrounded by the civil parishes of Blith- 
field and Colton, the county borough of Burton- 
upon-Trent, and the urban district of Uttoxeter. 

CANNOCK. 

The rural district of Seisdon, the part of the rural 
district of Cannock which consists of the civil 
parishes of Bushbury, Choslyn Hay, Essington, 
Great Wyrley, and Hilton, the part of the rural 
district of Walsall which consists of the civil parish 
of Bentley, and the urban districts of Brownhills, 
Cannock, and Tettenhall. 

KlNGSWINFORD. 

:The rural district of Kingswinford, and the urban 
districts of Amblecote, Brierley Hill, Quarry Bank, 
and Kowley Regis. 
LEEK. 

The rural districts of Leek and Stoke-upon-Trent, 
and the urban districts of Biddulph, Kidsgrove, 
Leek, and Smallthorne. 

LlCHFIELD. 

The rural district of Lichfield, the part of the rural 
district of Tamworth which is within the adminis- 
trative county of Stafford, the part of the rural 
district of Walsall which is not included in the Can- 
nock Division, the municipal boroughs of Lichfield 
and Tamworth, and the urban districts of Perry 
Bar and Rugeley. 
STAFFORD . 

The rural district of Gnosall, the rural district con- 
sisting of the civil parishes of Blymhill and Weston- 
under-Lizard, the part of the rural district of 
Cannock which is not included in the Cannock Divi- 
sion, the rural district of Stafford (except the afore- 
said detached part of the civil parish of Colwich), 
and the municipal borough of Stafford. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 523 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

STONE . 

The rural districts of Blore Heath, Cheadle, May- 
field, Newcastle-under-Lyme, and Stone, and the 
urban district of Stone. 

Natne of Parliamentary County. 

EAST SUFFOLK. 

Contents of Parliamentary Co\itnty. 

The administrative county of East Suffolk. 

Toted n-iunber of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary C&amty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EYE. 

The rural districts of East Stow, Hartismere, and 
Hoxne, the part of the rural district of Blything 
which is not included in the Lowestoft Division, 
the part of the rural district of Plomesgate which 
is not included in the Woodbridge Division, the 
municipal borough of Eye, and the urban districts 
of Halesworth, Leiston-cum-Sizewell, Saxmund- 
harn, and Stowmarket. 

LOWESTOFT. 

The rural districts.of Mutf ord and Lothingland and 
Wangford, the part of the rural district of Blything. 
which consists of the civil parishes of Benacre, Cove- 
hithe, Easton Bavents, Frostenden, Henstead, Rey- 
don, South Cove, and Wrentham, the municipal 
boroughs of Beccles, Lowestoft, and Southwold, and 
the urban districts of Bungay and Oulton Broad. 

WOODBRIDGE. 

The rural districts of Bosrnere and Claydon, Sam- 
ford, and Woodbridge, the part of the rural district 
of Plomesgate which consists of the civil parishes 



524 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

of Blaxhall, Butley, Campsey Ash, Chillesford, 
Eyke, Gedgrave, Havergate Island, Iken, Or ford, 
Rendlesham, Sudbourne, Tunstall, Wantisden, and 
Wickham Market, the municipal borough of Alde- 
burgh, and the urban districts of Pelixstowe and 
Woodbridge. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

WEST SUFFOLK. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of West Suffolk. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oounty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BURY ST. EDMUNDS. 

The rural districts of Brandon, Mildenhall, and 
Thedwastre, the parts of the rural districts of Moul- 
ton and Thingoe which are not included in the 
Sudbury Division, the municipal borough of Bury 
St. Edmunds, and the urban district of Newmarket. 

SUDBURY. 

The rural districts of Clare, Cosford, and Melford, 
the part of the rural district of Moulton which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Lidgate and Ousden, 
the part of the rural district of Thingoe which 
consists of the civil parishes of Bradfield Combust, 
Bradfield St. Claire, Bradfield St. George, Brockley, 
Chedburgh, Chevington, Depden, Great Welne- 
tham, Hargrave, Hawstead, Little Welnetham, 
Rede, Stanningfield, and Whepstead, the municipal 
borough of Sudbury, and the urban districts of 
Glemsford, Hadleigh, and Haverhill. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 525 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

SURBEY. 

(Contents of Parliamentary Co\unty. 

The administrative county of Surrey exclusive of the parts thereof 
comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total n-.umber of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Seven . 

Names of Divisions o>f 

Parliamentary (bounty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CHERTSEY. 

The rural district of Chertsey, and the urban dis- 
tricts of Chertsey, East and West Molesey, Egham, 
Esher, and the Dittons, Walton-upon-Thames, and 
Weybridge. 

EASTERN. 

The rural district of Godstone and the urban dis- 
tricts of Caterham and Coulsdon and Purley. 

EPSOM. 

The rural district of Epsom, and the urban districts 
of Epsom, Leathern ead, and Sutton. 

EARN HAM. 

The rural district of Farnham, the part of the rural 
district of Guildford which consists of the civil 
parish of Pirbright, and the urban districts of Farn- 
ham, Frimley, Windlesham, and Woking. 

GUILDFOED. 

The rural district of Hambledon, the rural district 
of Guildford (except the civil parish of Pirbright), 
the municipal boroughs of Guildford and God- 
aiming, and the urban district of Haslemere. 

MITCHAM. 

The urban districts of Beddington and Wellington, 
Carshalton, and Mitcham. 



526 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

REIGATE. 

The rural districts of Dorking and Reigate, the 
municipal borough of Reigate, and the urban dis- 
trict of Dorking. 

Name of Parliamentary Co.unty. 

EAST SUSSEX. 

(Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of East Sussex (exclusive of the part 
thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of Brighton) 
and the county borough of Eastbourne. 

Total ^number of Members for Parliamentary (bounty. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EASTBOURNE. 

The rural district of Eastbourne, the part of the 
rural district of Hailsham which consists of the civil 
parishes of Arlington, Chalvington, Chiddingly, 
Hailsham, Hellingly, Laughton, and Ripe, and the 
county borough of Eastbourne. 

EAST GRINSTEAD. 

The rural districts of Cuckfield, East Grinstead, 
and Uckfield, and the urban districts of Burgess 
Hill, Cuckfield, East Grinstead, Hayward's Heath, 
and Uckfield. 

LEWES. 

The rural districts of Chailey, Newhaven, and 
Steyning East, the municipal borough of Lewes, 
and the urban districts of Newhaven, Portslade-by- 
Sea, and Seaford. 

RYE. 

The rural districts of Battle, Hastings, Rye, and 
Ticehurst, the part of the rural district of Hailsham * 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 527 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE con tinned. 

which is not included in the Eastbourne Division, 
the municipal boroughs of Bexhill and Rye, and 
the urban district of Battle. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

WEST SUSSEX. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of West Sussex. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CHICHESTER. 

The rural districts of East Preston, Midhurst, Pet- 
worth, Westbourne, and Westhampnett, the muni- 
cipal boroughs of Arundel and Chiehester, and the 
urban districts of Bognor and Littlehampton. 

HORSHAM AND WORTHING. 

The rural districts of Horsham, Steyning West, and 
Thakeham, the municipal borough of Worthing, 
and the urban districts of Horsham, Shoreham-by- 
Sea, and South wick. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

WARWICK. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Warwick. 

Total member of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Four. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NUN EATON. 

The rural districts of Atherstone, Coventry, Foles- 
hill, and Nuneaton, the municipal borough of Nun- 
eaton, and the urban district of Bulkington. 



528 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

EUGBY. 

The rural districts of Farnborough, Monks Kir by r 
Rugby, and Southam, the part of the rural district 
of Brailes which is not included in the Warwick and 
Leamington Division, the part of the rural district 
of Stratford-on-Avon which consists of the civil 
parishes of Charlcote, Combrook, Compton Verney, 
Eating ton, Kineton, Loxley, Moreton Morrell, 
Newbold Pacey, Wellesbourne Hastings, and 
Wellesbourne Mountford, and the urban district of 
Rugby. 

TAM WORTH. 

The rural districts of Meriden and Solihull, the part 
of the rural district of Tamworth which is within 
the administrative county of Warwick, and the 
municipal borough of Sutton Coldfleld. 

WARWICK AND LEAMINGTON. 

The rural districts of Alcester and Warwick, the 
part of the rural district of Brailes which consists 
of the civil parishes of Ilmington and Stretton-on- 
Fosse, the part of the rural district of Stratford-on- 
Avon which is not included in the Rugby Division, 
the municipal boroughs of Royal Leamington Spa, 
Stratford-on-Avon, and Warwick, and the urban 
district of Kenilworth. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

WESTMORLAND. 

Oontents 'of Parliamentary County. 
The administrative county of Westmorland. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary C&unty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 529 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

WILTS. 

C'ontents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Wilts. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Eive. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions.. 

CHIPPENHAM. 

The rural districts of Calne, Chippenham, and 
Malrnesbury, the rural district of Cricklade and 
Wootton Bassett (except the detached part of the 
civil parish of Lydiard Tregoze which is wholly 
surrounded by the civil parishes of Broad Hinton 
and Wroughton), the part of the rural district of 
Tetbury which is within the administrative county 
of Wilts, and the municipal boroughs of Calne, 
Chippenham, and Malrnesbury. 

DEVIZES. 

The rural districts of Devizes, Marlborough, Pew- 
sey, and Eamsbury, the part of the rural district 
of Highworth which consists of the civil parishes 
of Bishopstone, Chisledon, Liddington, Little 
Hinton, Wanborough, and Wroughton, the afore- 
said detached part of the civil parish of Lydiard 
Tregoze, and the municipal boroughs of Devizes 
and Marlborough. 

SALISBURY. 

The rural districts of Amesbury, Salisbury, Tis- 
bury, and Wilton, and the municipal boroughs of 
Salisbury and Wilton. 

SWINDON. 

The part of the rural district of Highworth which 
is not included in the Devizes Division, and the 
municipal borough of Swindon. 
F. 34 



530 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

WESTBURY. 

The rural districts of Bradford-on-Avon, Melks- 
ham, Mere, Warminster, and Westbury and Whor- 
wellsdown, and the urban districts of Bradford-on- 
Avon, Melksham, Trowbridge, Warminster, and 
Westbury. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

WORCESTER. 

C'ontents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Worcester. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Bounty. 

Pour. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BE WDLEY . 

The rural districts of Hartley, Rock, Tenbury, and 
Upton-upon-Severn, the part of the rural district 
of .Tewkesbury which consists of the civil parishes 
of Chaceley and Pendock, the rural district which 
consists of the civil parishes of Rcdmarley D'Abitot 
and Staunton, the municipal borough of Bewdley, 
and the urban districts of Malvern and Stourport. 
EVESHAM. 

The rural districts of Droitwich, Evesham, Pecken- 
ham, Pershore, and Shipston-on-Stour, the parts of 
the rural districts of Stow-on-the-Wold and Winch- 
comb which are within the administrative county 
of Worcester, the part of the rural district of 
Tewkesbury which consists of the civil parishes 
of Bredon, Bredon's Norton, Conderton, Overbury, 
and Teddington, and the municipal boroughs of 
Droitwich and Evesham. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 531 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

KIDDERMINSTER . 

The rural districts of Brornsgrove and Kidder- 
minster, the municipal borough of Kidderminster, 
and the urban districts of Bromsgrove, North 
Bromsgrove, and Eedditch. 

STOURBRIDGE. 

The rural district of Halcsoweu, the municipal 
borough of Stourbridge, and the urban districts of 
Lye and Wollescote and Oldbury. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

YORK, EAST RIDING. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of York, East Riding. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BUCK ROSE. 

The rural districts of Bridlington, Driffield, Norton, 
and Sherburn, the municipal borough of Bridling- 
ton, and the urban districts of Filey, Great Driffield, 
and Norton. 

HOLDERNESS. 

The rural districts of Patrington and Skirlaugh, 
the part of the rural district of Beverley which is 
not included in the Howdenshire Division, the part 
of the rural district of Sculcoates which consists 
of the civil parishes of Preston and Sutton, the 
municipal boroughs of Beverley and Hedon, and 
the urban districts of Cottingham, Hornsea. and 
Withernsea. 

34 (2) 



532 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(I) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

HOWDENSHIRE. 

The rural districts of Escrick, Howden, Pockling- 
ton, and Eiocall, the part of the rural district of 
Beverley which consists of the civil parishes of 
Brantingham, Ellerker, Elloughton-with-Brough, 
and South Cave, the part of the rural district of 
Sculcoates which is not included in the Holder- 
ness Division, and the urban districts of Hessle and 
Pocklington. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

YORK, NORTH RIDING. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of York, North Riding, exclusive of the 
part thereof comprised in the parliamentary borough of 
Stockton-on-Tees . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Pour. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary C'ounty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CLEVELAND. 

The rural district of Middlesbrough, the part of 
the rural district of Guisborough which is not in- 
cluded in the Scarborough and Whitby Division, 
and the urban districts of Eston, Guisborough, Hin- 
derwell, Loftus, Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, and 
Skelton and Brotton. 

RICHMOND. 

The rural districts of Aysgarth, Bedale, Croft, Ley- 
burn, Northallerton, Reeth, Richmond, Startforth, 
and Stokesley, the municipal borough of Richmond, 
and* the urban districts of Kirklington-cum-Ups- 
land, Masham, and Northallerton. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 533 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

SCARBOROUGH AND WHITBY. 

The rural districts of Scarborough and Whitby, the 
part of the rural district of Guisborough which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Commondale, Danby, 
and Westcrdale, the part of the rural district of 
Pickering which consists of the civil parishes of 
Allerston, Ebberston, Kingthorpe, Levisham, Lock- 
ton, Marishes, Newton, Thornton Dale, and .Wilton, 
the municipal borough of Scarborough, and the 
urban districts of Pickering, Scalby, and Whitby. 

THIRSK AND M ALTON. 

The rural districts of Easingwold, Flaxton, Helms- 
ley, Kirkby Moorside, Malton, Thirsk, and Wath, 
the part of the rural district of Pickering which is 
not included in the Scarborough and Whitby Divi- 
sion, and the urban district of Malton. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

YORK, WEST RIDING. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

.The administrative county of York, West Riding, exclusive of the 
parts thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Nineteen . 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BARKSTON ASH. 

The rural districts of Bishopthorpe, Selby, Tad- 
caster, and Wetherby, the part of the rural district 
of Great Ouseburn which consists of the civil 
parishes of Acomb, H essay, Knapton, Moor Monk- 
ton, Nether Poppldxm, Rufforth, and Upper Pop- 
pleton, and the urban districts of Garforth and 
Selby. 



534 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

COLNE VALLEY. 

The urban districts of. Farnley Tyas, Golcar, Holme, 
Holmfirth, Honley, Linthwaite, Marsden, Meltham, 
New Mill, Saddleworth, Scammonden, Slaith- 
waite, South Crosland, Springhead, and Thurston- 
land . 

DONCASTER. 

The municipal borough of Doncaster, and the 
urban districts of Adwick-le-Street and Bentley- 
with-Arksey. 

DON VALLEY. 

The rural districts of Doncaster and Thorne, and 
the urban districts of Mexborough and Tickhill. 

ELLAND. 

The rural district of Halifax (except the civil parish 
of Norland), the municipal borough of Brighouse, 
and the urban districts of Clayton, Elland, Greet- 
lahd, Hipperholme, Queensbury, Shelf, Southow- 
ram, and Stainland. 

HEMSWORTH. 

The rural district of Hemsworth, the part of the 
rural district of Barnsley which is not included in 
the Wentworth Division, and the urban districts of 
Cud worth and Roys ton. 

KEIGHLEY. 

The rural district of Keighley, the municipal 
borough of Keighley, and the urban districts of 
Denholme, Haworth, Oakworth, Oxenhope, and 
Silsden . 

NORM ANTON. 

The urban districts of Altofts, Castleford, Feather- 
stone, Methley, Norman ton, and Whitwood. 

PENISTONE. 

The rural districts of Ponistone and Wortley, and 
the urban districts of Clayton West, Denby and 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Cumber-worth, Gunthwaite and Ingbirchworth , 
Hoyland Swaine, Kirkburton, Penistone, Shelley, 
Shepley, Skelmanthorpe, Stocksbridge, and Thurl- 
stone . 

PONTEFRACT. 

The rural districts of Goole and Pontefract, the 
municipal borough of Pontefract, and the urban 
districts of Goole and Knottingley. 

PUDSEY AND OTLEY. 

The part of the rural district of Wharfedale which 
is not included in the Shipley Division, the muni- 
cipal borough of Pudsey, and the urban districts 
of Burley-in-Wharfedale, Calverley, Farsley, Hors- 
forth, Ilkley, Otley, and Rawdon. 

RIPON. 

The rural districts of Knaresborough, Pateley 
Bridge, an-d Ripon, the part of the rural district 
of Great Ouseburn which is not included in the 
Barkston Ash Division, the municipal boroughs of 
Harrogate and Ripon, and the urban district of 
Knaresborough . 

ROTHER VALLEY. 

The rural district of Kiveton Park, the part of the 
rural district of Rotherham which is not included 
in the Wentworth Division, and the urban districts 
of Handsworth and Swinton. 

ROTHWELL. 

The rural districts of Hunslet and Wakefield, and 
the urban districts of Ardsley East and West, 
Emley, Flockton, Horbury, Rothwell, and Stanley. 
SHIPLEY. 

The part of the rural district of Wharfedale which 
consists of the civil parishes of Esholt, Hawks- 
worth, and Menston, and the urban districts of 
Baildon, Bingley, Guiseley, Shipley, and Yeadon. 



53t) REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(1) ENGLAND, EXCLUDING MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

SKIPTON. 

The rural districts of Bowlaiid, Sedbergh, Settle, 
and Skipton, and the urban districts of Barn olds- 
wick, Earby, and Skipton. 

SOWERBY. 

The rural district of Todmorden, the part of the 
rural district of Halifax which consists of the civil 
parish of Norland, the municipal borough of Tod- 
morden, and the urban districts of Barkisland, 
Hebden Bridge, Luddenden Foot, Midgley, 
Mytholmroyd, Rishworth, Sowerby, Sower by 
Bridge, and Soyland. 

SPEN VALLEY. 

The urban districts of Birkenshaw, Birstal, Drigh- 
lington, Gildersome, Heckmondwike, Hunsworth, 
Kirkheaton, Lepton, Mirfield, Spenborough, and 
Whitley Upper. 

WENT WORTH. 

The part of the rural district of Barnsley which 
consists of the civil parishes of Billingley and Stain- 
borough, the part of the rural district of Rother- 
ham which consists of the civil parishes of Bramp- 
ton Bierlow and Wentworth, and the urban districts 
of Bolton-upon-Dearne, Dariield, Dodworth, Hoy- 
land Nether, Thurnscoe, Wath-upon-Dearne, 
Wombwell, and Worsborough. 



(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

ANGLESEY. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Anglesey. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 537 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

BRECON AND RADNOR. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative counties of Brecon and Radnor, 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



'Name of Parliamentary County. 

CARDIGAN. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Cardigan. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

CARMARTHEN. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Carmarthen 



538 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIBE ^#ttfo'm*e$. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oounty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CAKMARTHEN . 

The rural districts of Carmarthen, Llandovery, 
Llanybyther, Newcastle-in-Emlyn, and Whitland, 
the part of the rural district of Llandilofawr which 
is not included in the Llanelly Division, the muni- 
cipal boroughs of Carmarthen, Kid welly, and Llan- 
dovery, and the urban districts of Llandilo and 
Newcastle Emlyn. 

LLA NELLY. 

The rural district of Llanelly, the part of the rural 
district of Llandilofawr which consists of the civil 
parishes of Bettws, Llandybie, and Quarter Bach, 
and the part of the civil parish of Llandilo Rural 
which comprises Ward I. of that parish as formed 
by the order of the county council of Carmarthen 
dated the 23rd day of October, 1894, the municipal 
borough of Llanelly, and the urban districts of 
Ammanford, Burry Port, and Owmamman. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

CARNARVON. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Carnarvon exclusive of the part 
thereof comprised in the Carnarvon District of Boroughs and 
inclusive of Bardsey Island. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Oounty. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 539 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

DENBIGH. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Denbigh. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary (bounty. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

DENBIGH. 

The rural districts of Llangollen, Llanrwst, Llan- 
silin, Buthin, St. Asaph (Denbigh), and Uwchaled, 
the rural district of Glan Conway consisting of the 
civil parishes of Llanelian yn Elios and Llansant- 
ffraid Glan Conway, the part of the rural district 
of Chirk which is not included in the Wrexham 
Division, the municipal boroughs of Denbigh and 
Ruthin, and the urban districts of Abergele and 
Pensarn, Colwyn Bay and Colwyn, Llangollen, and 
Llanrwst. 

WREXHAM. 

The rural district of Wrexham, the part of the rural 
district of Chirk which consists of the civil parish 
of Chirk, and the municipal borough of Wrexham. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

FLINT. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Flint. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



540 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

GLAMORGAN. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Glamorgan exclusive of the p&rte 
thereof comprised in parliamentary boroughs. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Seven. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ABERAVON. 

The part of the rural district of Neath which con- 
sists of the civil parishes of Baglan Higher, Bag- 
Ian Lower, Michaelston Higher, and Michaelston 
Lower, the part of the rural district of Penybont 
which consists of the civil parishes of Kenfig, Pyle, 
Sker, Tythegston Higher, and Tythegston Lower, 
the municipal borough of Aberavon, and the urban 
districts of Briton Ferry, Glencorwg, Margam, and 
Porthcawl. 

CAERPHILLY. 

The urban districts of Caerphilly and Gelligaer. 
GOWER. 

The rural districts of Gower and Swansea, and the 

urban district of Oysterrnouth. 

LLANDAFF AND BARRY. 

The rural district of Llandaff and Dinas Powis, and 
the urban district of Barry. 

NEATII. 

The rural district of Pontardawe, the part of the 
rural district .of Neath which is not included in 
the Aberavon Division, and the municipal borough 
of Neath. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 541 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

OGMORE. 

The part of the rural district of Penybont which is 
not included in the Aberavon Division, and the 
urban districts of Bridgend, Maesteg, and Ogmore 
and Garw. 

PONTYPRIDD. 

The rural districts of Cowbridge and Llantrisant 
and Llantwitfardre, the municipal borough of Cow- 
bridge, and the urban district of Pontypridd. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

MERIONETH. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Merioneth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

MONMOUTH. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The administrative county of Monmouth. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Five. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

ABERTILLERY. 

The urban districts of Abercarn, Abertillery, and 
Nantyglo and Blaina. 



542 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

BEDWELLTY. 

The part of the rural district of St. Mellons which 
consists of the civil parish of Bogerstone, and the 
urban districts of Bedwas and Machen, Bedwellty, 
Mynyddislwyn, and Eisca. 

EBBW VALE. 

The urban districts of Ebbw Valo, Bhymney, and 
Tredegar. 

MONMOUTH. 

The rural districts of Abergavenny, Chepstow, 
Magor, Monmouth, and Pontypool, the rural dis- 
trict of St. Mellons (except the civil parish of 
Bogerstone), the municipal boroughs of Aberga- 
venny and Monmouth, and the urban districts of 
Caerleon. Chepstow, and Usk. 

PONTYPOOL . 

The urban districts of Abersychan, Blaenavon, 
Llanfrechfa Upper, Llantarnam, Panteg, and 
Pontypool. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

MONTGOMERY. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 
The administrative county of Montgomery. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County . 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary Oounty. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

PEMBBOKE. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 
The administrative county of Pembroke. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 543 

(2) WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Na/nes of Divisions of 

Parliamentary. County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



(3) SCOTLAND. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

ABERDEEN AND KINCARDINE. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Aberdeen and Kincardine, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein except the county of the city of Aberdeen 
arid the burgh of Inverbervie. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. . 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CENTRAL. 

The county districts of Aberdeen, Ellon, Garioch, 
and Huntly, inclusive of the burghs of Ellon, 
Inverurie, Kintorc, Old Meldrum, and Huntly. 

EASTERN . 

The county districts of Deer and Turriff, inclusive 
of all burghs situated therein. 

KINCARDINE AND WESTERN. 

The county of Kincardine, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein except the burgh of Inverbervie and 
that portion of the county of the city of Aber- 
deen which is situated within the said county of 
Kincardine, together with the county districts of 
Alford and Deeside, inclusive of all burghs situated 
therein . 



544 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

ARGYLL. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The county of Argyll, inclusive of all burghs situated therein. 

Total number of Members -for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Caunty. 

AYE AND BUTE. 

Contents &f Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Ayr and Bute, inclusive of all burghs situated 
therein except the burghs of Ayr, Ardrossan, Irvino, Prest- 
wick, Saltcoats, and Troon. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BUTE AND NORTHERN. 

The county of Bute, inclusive of all burghs situ- 
ated therein, and the county district of Northern 
Ayr, inclusive of all burghs situated therein except 
in so far as included in the Ayr District of Burghs. 

KlLMARNOCK. 

The county district of Kilmarnock, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein except in so far as included 
in the Ayr District of Burghs. 
SOUTH AYRSHIRE. 

The county districts of Ayr and Carrick, inclusive 
of all burghs situated therein except in so far as 
included in the Ayr District of Burgb 



is. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 545 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

BANFF. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The county of Banff, inclusive of all burghs situated therein. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

BERWICK AND HADDINGTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Berwick and Haddington, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Co-ntents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

CAITHNESS AND SUNDERLAND. 

Contents o>f Parliamentary C&unty. 

The counties of Caithness and Sunderland, inclusive of all burghf 

situated therein. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Sotmdaries of Divisions. 



F. 35 



546 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

DUMBARTON. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The county of Dumbarton, inclusive of all burghs situated therein 
except the burghs of Dumbarton and Clydebank. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary Caunty. 

DUMFRIES. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The county of Dumfries, inclusive of all burghs situated therein. 

Total number oj Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

FIFE. 



Contents &f Parliamentary County. 

The county of Fife, inclusive of all burghs situated therein except 
the burghs of Dunfermline, Cowdenbeath, Inverkeithing, 
Lochgelly, Kirkcaldy, Buckhaven Methil and Innerleven, 
Burntisland, Dysart, and Kinghorn. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 547 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EASTERN. 

The Cupar and St. Andrews County Districts, in- 
clusive of all burghs situated therein, together with 
the burgh of Leven and so much of the Kirkcaldy 
County District as is contained within the extra- 
burghal portion of the parish of Scoonie and the 
parish of Kennoway. 

WESTERN . 

The Dunfermline County District, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein except in so far as in- 
cluded in the Dunfermline District of Burghs, 
together with so much of the Kirkcaldy County 
District, inclusive of all burghs situated therein, 
as is included neither in the Eastern Division nor 
in the Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy Districts of 
Burghs. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

FORFAR. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The county of Forfar, inclusive of all burghs situated therein 
except the county of the city of Dundee and the burghs of 
Montrose, Arbroath, Brechin, and Forfar. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Cvunty. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

35(2) 



548 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

GALLOWAY. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Kirkcudbright and Wigtown, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein. 

Total number o-f Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Diiiisions. 



Name of Parliamentary C&unty. 

INVERNESS AND BOSS AND CEOMAETY. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Inverness and Eoss and Cromarty, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein. 

Total Dumber of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Three. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

INVERNESS. 

The county of Inverness, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein, except in so far as contained within 
the Western Isles Division. 

Eoss AND CROMARTY. 

The county of Eoss and Cromarty, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein, except in so far as con- 
tained within the Western Isles Division. 

WESTERN ISLES. 

So much of the county of Eoss and Cromarty as is 
contained within the Lews County District, in- 
clusive of the burgh of Stornoway, together with 






PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 549 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

so much of the county of Inverness as is contained 
within the Harris County District, the North Uist 
County District, and the South Uist County Dis- 
trict. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

LANARK. 

Contents o>f Parliamentary County. 

The county of Lanark, inclusive of all burghs situated therein 
except the county of the city of Glasgow and so much of the 
burgh of Renfrew as is contained within the parish of Go van. 

Total number o<f Members for Parliamentary County. 

Seven. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

BOTHWELL. 

The part of the Middle Ward County District 
which is contained within the parishes of Old Monk- 
land and Bothwell, exclusive of all burghs or pjor- 
tions of burghs situated therein. 

COATBRIDGE. 

The burghs of Coatbridge and Airdrie. 

HAMILTON. 

The burgh of Hamilton and the part of the Middle 
Ward County District which is contained within 
the extra-burghai portion of the parish of Hamilton 
and the parish of Dalserf . 

LANARK. 

The Upper Ward County District, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein, together with the p&rt of 
the Middle Ward County District which is con- 
tained within the parishes of Avondale, East Kil- 
bride, Glassford, and Stonehouse. 



550 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

MOTHERWELL . 

The burghs of Motherwell and Wishaw, together 
with the part of the Middle Ward County Dis- 
trict which is contained within the extra-burghal 
portion of the parish of Dalziel. 
NORTHERN. 

The parts of the Lower Ward and Middle Ward 
County Districts Which are contained within the 
parishes of Glasgow, Gadder, New Monkland, 
Shotts, and Cambusnethan, exclusive of any burghs 
or portions of burghs situated therein. 

RUTHERGLEN. 

The burgh of Rutherglen and the parts of the 
Lower Ward and Middle Ward County Districts 
which are contained within the (parishes of Car- 
munnock, Cambuslang, and Blantyre, and the extra- 
burghal portion of the parish of Eutherglen. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

LINLITHGOW. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

ffhe county of Linlithgow, inclusive of all burghs situated therein. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

MIDLOTHIAN AND PEEBLES. 

Contents #/ Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Midlothian and Peebles, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein, except the county of the city of Edinburgh 
and the burghs of Leith and Musselburgh. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 551 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary Cvunty. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

NORTHERN. 

The Calder and Suburban County Districts, the 
burgh of Dalkeith, and that part of the Lasswade 
County District which is included in the extra- 
burghal portions of the parishes of Dalkeith and 
Inveresk. 

PEEBLES AND SOUTHERN. 

The county of Peebles with all the burghs situated 
therein, and the Gala Water and Lasswade County 
Districts of Midlothian (except that part of the 
latter district which is included in the Northern 
Division as above) with all burghs situated therein 
except the burghs of Dalkeith and Musselburgh. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

MORAY AND NAIRN. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Elgin and Nairn, inclusive of all burghs situated 

therein. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries -of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

ORKNEY AND ZETLAND. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Orkney and Zetland, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein. 



552 REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Total wimber of Members -for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary C&unty. 

PERTH AND KINROSS. 

Contents af Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Perth and Kinross, inclusive of all burghs situated 

therein . 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

KINROSS AND WESTERN. 

The county of Kinross, inclusive of the burgh of 
Kinross, together* with so much of the county of 
Perth as is contained within the Central, Highland 
and Western County Districts, inclusive of all 
burghs situated therein. 
PERTH. 

So much of the county of Perth as is contained 
within the Eastern or Blairgowrie and Perth County 
Districts, inclusive of the city of Perth and all 
burghs situated within the said county districts. 

Name of Parliamentary County. 

RENFREW. 

Contents o>f Parliamentary County. 

The county of Renfrew, inclusive of all burghs situated therein, 
except the burghs of Greenock and Paisley, together with so 
much of the burgh of Renfrew as is contained within the 
parish of Govan in the county of Lanark. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 553 

(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Diviaio-ns of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

EASTERN . 

The Upper County District, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein, except the burghs of Paisley and 
Johnstons, together with so much of the burgh of 
Renfrew as is contained within the parish of Govan 
in the county of Lanark. 

WESTERN . 

The Lower County District, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein, except the burgh of Grecnock, 
together with the burgh of Johnstone. 

Name of Parliamentary C aunty. 

ROXBURGH AND SELKIRK. 

Contents of Parliamentary County. 

The counties of Roxburgh and Selkirk, inclusive of all burghs 

situated therein. 

Toted number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

One. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 



Name of Parliamentary County. 

STIRLING AND CLACKMANNAN. 

Contents of Parliamentary Co^unty. 

The counties of Stirling and Clackmannan, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein, except the burghs of Stirling, Falkirk and 
Grangemouth. 



554 



REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 



(3) SCOTLAND continued. 

Total number of Members for Parliamentary County. 

Two. 

Names of Divisions of 

Parliamentary County. Contents or Boundaries of Divisions. 

CLACKMANNAN AND EASTERN. 

The county of Clackmannan, inclusive of all burghs 
situated therein, together with the Eastern County 
District of the county of Stirling, exclusive of the 
burghs of Falkirk and Grangemouth. 

WESTERN. 

The Central and Western County Districts of the 
county of Stirling, inclusive of all burghs situated 
therein, but exclusive of the burgh of Stirling. 



PART III. 
UNIVERSITIES. 



Description of University Constituency. 



England and "Wales : 

The University of Oxford 

The University of Cambridge 

The University of London 

The University of Wales 

The University of Durham, the Victoria University of Manches- 
ter, the University of Liverpool, the University of Leeds, 
the University of Sheffield, the University of Birmingham, 

and the University of Bristol 

Scotland : 

The University of St. Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the 
University of Aberdeen, and the University of Edinburgh. . 



Number of 
Members. 



APPENDIX I. 

ORDERS IN COUNCIL, DIRECTIONS OF 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, &c. 



[N,B, For further Orders in Council, published too late to 
be included in this Appendix, see p. 747, infra, et seq.~] 

No. CONTENTS. PAGE 

1. Order in Council prescribing Forms for Registration 

Purposes (R. P. 4) 555 

2. Directions by Local Government Board to Registration 

Officers (R. P. 2) 579 

3. Memorandum as to Franchises sent by Local Government 

Board to Registration Officers (R. P. 6) 589 

4. Memorandum of Instructions by Registration Officers to 

Overseers (R. P. 5) 597 

5. Scale of Registration Expenses (Pt. P. 8) 610 

6. Order in Council fixing dates (a) in connection with First 

Register (R. P. 3) 613 

7. Registration Officers Order, 1918 615 

8. Circular Letter from Local Government Board as to 

Polling Districts, &c. (R. P. 1) 618 

9. Circular Letter from Local Government Board to Regis- 

tration Officers dated April 6th, 1918 620 

10. Circular Letter from Local Government Board to Regis- 

tration Officers dated April 10th, 1918 (R, P. 12) 623 

11. Order in Council dated March 22nd, 1918 626 

12. Rules by Admiralty defining expression ' * afloat " 628 

13. Circular Letter from Local Government Board to Regis- 

tration Officers dated May 13th, 1918 (R. P. 14) 628 

14. Lists of Bodies recognised by Admiralty, Army Council, 

and Air Council as doing Work of National Importance 
(R. P. 7 andR. P. 12) 635 

No, 1. 

OEDEE IN COUNCIL PRESCRIBING FORMS 
FOE EEGISTEATION PUEPOSES (b). 

R. P. 4. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 4th day of March, 
1918. 

PRESENT, 

The King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 
WHEREAS under the Representation of the People Act, 1918 
(hereinafter referred to as " the Act "), various matters are 
to be prescribed by His Majesty by Order in Council: 

(a] A further Order iii Council has been substituted for the Order in 
Council referred to above. Such further order, -which has been published 
too late to be included in this Appendix, will be found on p. 747, infra. 

(b) See ss. 13 (2) and 5 (2), pp. 133, 134, and 77, svpra. 



56 APPENDIX I. 

And whereas in particular provision is made by the Act as 
follows: 

" His Majesty may by Order in Council proscribe the 
forms to be used for registration purposes and any foes 
to be taken in connection therewith, and alter the rules, 
contained in the First Schedule to this Act for the pur- 
pose of carrying this Act into full effect . . . ." (s. 13 (2)). 
" The statement of any person, made in the prescribed form 
and verified in the prescribed manner, that he would have 
had the necessary qualification in any constituency but for 
the service which brings him within the provisions of this 
section, shall for all purposes of this section be sufficient 
if there is no evidence to the contrary." (s. 5 (2)). 
Now, therefore, His Majesty is pleased, by and with the advice 
of His Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, as 
follows: 

1. The forms specified in the Schedule to this Order, or forms 
to the like effect, shall be used in the cases to which they are 
expressed to be applicable and shall for the purposes of the Act 
be deemed to be the prescribed forms. 

2. In particular the forms of statement as therein specified 
under heading V. (" Forms of statement to be made under s. 5 (2) 
of the Act "), or forms to the like effect, shall be deemed to be 
the prescribed forms of statement that a person would have had 
the necessary qualification but for the service which brings him 
within the provisions of the said section, and shall be verified 
by being countersigned by an officer or other person in the 
manner shown on the forms. 

3. This Order shall not apply to Scotland or Ireland. 

ALMERIC FrrzRoy. 

SCHEDULE. 



FORMS. 

I. FORMS OF INFORMATION TO BE REQUIRED FROM 
HOUSEHOLDERS, OCCUPIERS, OWNERS, AGENTS, 
&c. 



FIRST SCHEDULE, RULE 35 (6). 

FORM A (HOUSEHOLDER OR OCCUPIER). 

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Particulars required from Householder or Occupier ~lnj the 

Registration Officer for 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING UP THIS FORM. 

(1) You will enter as a resident any person who is ordinarily 
living in the house, whether he is actually present there on a 
given date or not. 

(2) Generally speaking, the person to be entered as occupier 
is the person who pays rent in respect of the premises or land, 

(b) For this Rule, see p. 352, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 



557 



where the premises or land are let, and where the premises 
or land are not let, the owner if in occupation. 

(3) A person who inhabits a dwelling house or rooms (with- 
out payment of rent), by virtue of any office, service or employ- 
ment, is to be treated as an occupier, so long as his employer 
does not himself inhabit the house or rooms. 

(4) Lodgers are only to be treated as occupiers where the 
lodgings are let to them unfurnished. 

(5) Where land .or premises are occupied by a partnership, 
or otherwise by persons as joint tenants, all the members of 
the partnership and all the joint tenants should be entered, 
with a statement that they occupy as members of a partnership 
or otherwise as joint tenants. 

(6) A person qualified under more than one heading should 
be entered under each of those headings. 

To , Householder [Occupier] at 

You are required to give information on the following points 
for the purpose of assisting the Registration Officer in compiling 
the Parliamentary and Local Government registers. 

1. For the purpose of the PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE (MEN). 
(a) Information as to men who are resident in the premises 
(occupier to be included if resident; men under 21 not to be 
entered). 



Names. 



Surname. 



Other 

names in 

full. 



State whether present residence commenced I 

on or before, or after * 19 i Whether a 



If after, give addresses (with dates) of 
previous residences since that date, so far 
as known. 



British 
Subject. 



(b) Information as to men (if any) who are occupiers of the 
premises or any part thereof for the purpose of a business, 
profession, or trade (men under 21 not to be entered). 







i 




State whether present occupa- 






Names. 

Other 
Surname. names in 


tion of the premises com- 
menced on or before, or 
after * 19 
If after, give addresses (with 
dates) of previous occupa- 
tion since that date so far 


Description 
of 
Business, 
Profession, 
or Trade. 


Whether a 
British 
Subject. 




full. 


as known. 















First day of qualifying period. 



558 



APPENDIX I. 



2. For the purpose of the PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE (WOMEN). 

(a) Information as to women over thirty years of age who 
are occupiers of the premises or any part thereof in their own 
right. 



Surname. 



Names. ; State whether present occupation of the 

premises commenced on before, or after * 

19 . 

Other ; If after, give addresses (with dates) of 
names in ! previous occupation since that date so far 
full. as known. 



Whether a 
British 
Subject. 



(b) Information as to married women over thirty years of 
age whose husbands are occupiers of the premises or any part 
thereof. 



Names. 



Surname. 



Other 

names in 

full. 



State whether the husband's occupation of 

the premises commenced on or before, or 

after* 19 

If after, give addresses (with dates) of 

previous occupation since that date so far 

as known. 



Whether a 
British 
Subject. 



3, For the purpose of the LOCAL GOVERNMENT FRANCHISE 

(MEN). 

Information as to men who are occupiers of the premises or 
any part thereof (men under 21 not to be entered). 



Names. 



Surname. 



Other 

names in 

full. 



State whether present occupation of the 

premises commenced on or before, or i -.T^ ,.. 
after * 19 Whether a 



If after, give addresses (with dates) of 
previous occupation since that date so far 
as knowa. 



British 
Subject. 



* First day of qualifying period. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 



559 



4. For the purpose of the LOCAL GOVERNMENT FRANCHISE 

(WOMEN). 

(a) Information as to women who are occupiers of the pre- 
mises or any part thereof in their own right (women under 21 
not to be entered). 



Names. 



Surname. 



Other 

names in 

full. 



State whether present occupation of the 

premises commenced on or before, or 

after * 19 

If after, give addresses (with dates) of 

previous occupation since that date so far 

as known. 



Whether a 
British 
Subject. 



(b) Information as to married women over thirty years of age 
who are living with their husbands at the premises, and whose 
husbands are occupiers of the premises or any part thereof. 



Nan 

Surname. 


aes. State whether the husband's occupation of 
the premises commenced on or before, or 
after * 19 
Other If after give addresses (with dates) of 
names in previous occupation since that date so far 
full. as known. 


Whether a 
British 
Subject. 




| 





5. For the purpose of the registration of NAVAL OR MILITARY 

VOTERS. 

Information as to any person who is 
(a} serving in His Majesty's Forces, or 
(b) serving abroad or afloat in connection with the war 
(i) as a merchant seaman, pilot or fisherman; or 
(ii) in some other capacity, 

and who would have been, in the case of a man residing on or 
occupying, or, in the case of a woman occupying, the premises 
but for his or her service. 

NOTE. Only men over 19 and women over 30 to be entered. 



Names . 



Other- 
Surname, names in 
full. 



Male 

or 
Female. 



Description of service. 

fa) If in the Forces, give so 
far as known regiment, ship, 
number, &c. 

(b) If not in the Forces, state ! 
nature of service. 



* First day of qualifying period. 



560 



APPENDIX I. 



Other information required by the registration officer. 
(To be filled in by registration officer) . 



I declare that the particulars given in this return are true 
and accurate to the best of my knowledge and belief. 
Signature 
Date 

This form should be filled up without delay, and if not pre- 
viously called for should be sent by post within days from 
this date to the address given on the back. 

Signed , 

Registration Officer. 
Date 

N.B. The Eepresentation of the People Act, 1918, imposes a 
penalty in the case of failure to give the required information 
and in the case of false information being given. 

POEM B. (OWNER,, AGENT OR FACTOR.) 
EEPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

To (Owner, Agent or Factor.) 

For the purpose of assisting the registration officer in com- 
piling the parliamentary and local government registers you are 
required to give the undermentioned information in respect of 
each person who occupies separately any part of the land or 
premises known as 



Occupiers. 


Address of 
land or 
premises 
occupied.* 


State whether 
dwelling house, or 
business premises or 
other premises. 


Date on which 
occupation 
commenced. 


Surname. 


Other 
names in 
full. 











* In the case of numbered flats, offices, &c., insert the number of the 
flat, office, &c. In the case of unnumbered flats, offices, &c., describe 
premises occupied, e.ff., 2 rooms 1st floor ; 1 room 4th floor, &c. 



I declare that the particulars given in this return are true and 
accurate to the best of my knowledge and belief. 
Signature 

Date 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 561 

This form should be filled up without delay, and if not pre- 
viously called for should be sent by post within days from 
this date to the address given on the back. 

Signed 

Registration Officer. 
Date 

N.B. The Representation of the People Act, 1918, imposes 
a penalty in the case of failure to give the required information 
and in the case of false information being given. 

FORM 0. (HOUSEHOLDER, OCCUPIER, OWNER, AGENT OR FACTOR.) 

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

To 

For the purpose of assisting the registration officer in com- 
piling the parliamentary and local government registers you are 
required to give supplemental information on the following 
particular points : 

Information Required . Answer . 



I declare that the information given in this return is true and 
accurate to the best of my knowledge and belief. 
Signature 

Date 

This form should be filled up without delay, and if not pre- 
viously called for should be sent by post within days from 
this date to the address given on the back. 

Signed 

Registration Officer. 
Date 

N.B. The Representation of the People Act, 1918, imposes 
a penalty in the case of failure to give the required information 
and in the case of false information being given. 

F. 36 



562 APPENDIX I. 

II. POEMS OF CLAIM TO BE REGISTERED. 



FIBST SCHEDULE, RULES 9 AND 10 (c). 

(1) 
MAN'S PARLIAMENTARY CLAIM (RESIDENCE QUALIFICATION) ((?). 

To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

Claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector in respect of 
a residence qualification. 

I hereby declare 

(1) that I claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector 
for the above constituency in respect of residence at* 

(2) that I was residing at the qualifying premises on thef 

day of last, and have resided at the qualifying pre- 

mises during the whole of the six months ending on the said 
day$; 

(3) that I have attained the age of twenty-one; 

(4) that I am a British subject. 

Signed , 

Date 

NOTE. Any false declaration made for the purpose of this 
claim will render the claimant liable to a penalty. 

* Here insert full postal address. 

t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 

1 See instruction at foot of Form. 



INSTRUCTION AS TO SUCCESSIVE RESIDENCE (e). 

If the claimant's residence commenced after the day 

of ,19 , paragraph (2) must be struck out and the 

following paragraph filled in and signed: 

(2) I hereby declare that I Tvas residing at the qualifying 

premises on thef day of last, and that during the 

six months ending on the said day I resided as follows: from 

to at , from to at , 

etc., etc. 

Signed 

Here insert first day of qualifying period. 
t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 



(c) For these rules, see pp. 342343, supra, 
(<f) See pp. 924, tttpra. 
(e) See pp. 23, 24, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 563 



(2) 

MAN'S PARLIAMENTARY CLAIM (BUSINESS PREMISES 
QUALIFICATION) (/). 

To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

Claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector in respect of 
a business premises qualification. 

I hereby declare 

(1) that I claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector 
for the above constituency in respect of the occupation of the 
following business premises* 

(2) that I was in occupation of the qualifying premises pn 
thef day of last, and have been in occupation of 
them during the whole of the six months ending on the said] 
day:}:; 

(3) that the qualifying premises were occupied by me for 
the purpose of my business [profession] [trade] as and 
are of a yearly value of not less than ten pounds; 

(4) that I have attained the age of twenty-one; 

(5) that I iam a British subject; 

(6) that I reside at 

Signed 
Date 

NOTE. Any false declaration made for the purpose of this 
claim will render the claimant liable to a penalty. 

* Here insert full postal address and description (e.g. shop at ). 

t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 
% See instruction at foot of Form. 

Here insert full postal address of residence or, if claimant has no 
settled residence, of place to which communications may be sent. 

INSTRUCTION AS TO SUCCESSIVE OCCUPATION (g}. 

If the claimant's occupation of the premises commenced after 
thej| day of ,19 , paragraph (2) must be 

struck out and rthe following paragraph filled inland signed: 

(2) I hereby declare that I was in occupation of the qualifying 
premises on thef day of last, and that during 

the six months ending on the said day I have occupied qualify- 
ing premises for the purposes of my business [profession] [trade] 
as follows: from to at , from to 

at , etc., etc. 

Signed 

|| Here insert first day of qualifying period. 
t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 



(/) See pp. 24 37, supra. 
(V) See p. 25, supra. 

36 (2) 



564 APPENDIX I. 

% 

(3) 
WOMAN'S PARLIAMENTARY CLAIM (OWN OCCUPATION) (&). 

To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

Claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector in respect of 

own occupation, 
I hereby declare 

(1) that I claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector 
for the above constituency in respect of the occupation of the 
following qualifying premises* 

(2) that I was in occupation of the qualifying premises on 
thef day of last, and have been in occupation of 
them during the whole of the six months ending on the said 
dayi; 

(3) that the annual value of the qualifying premises is not 
less than five pounds; 

(4) that I have attained the age of thirty; 

(5) that I am a British subject; 

(6) that I reside at|| 

Signed 
T)ate 

NOTE. Any false declaration made for the purpose of this 
claim will render the claimant liable to a penalty. 

* Here insert full postal address and description (e.g., land at , 

dwelling house at , shop at ) . 

t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 

J See instruction at foot of Form. 

Strike out this paragraph where the qualifying premises are a dwelling 
house. 

|| Here insert full postal address of residence or, if claimant has no 
settled residence, of place to which communications may be sent. 

INSTRUCTION AS TO SUCCESSIVE OCCUPATION (i). 

If the claimant's occupation of the premises commenced after 
the^f day of ,19 , paragraph (2) must be 

struck out and the following paragraph filled in and signed: 

(2) I hereby declare that I was in occupation of the qualifying 
premises on thef day of last, and that during the 

six months ending on the said day I occupied qualifying pre- 
mises as follows: from to at , from 
to at , etc., etc. 

Signed 

IT Here insert first day of qualifying period. 
t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 



(/) See pp. 8872, supra. 
(t) See p. 60, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 565 

(4) 

WOMAN'S PARLIAMENTARY CLAIM (HUSBAND'S OCCUPATION) (A?). 
To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

Claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector in respect of 

husband's occupation. 
"I hereby declare 

(1) that I claim to be registered as a Parliamentary elector 
in respect of the occupation by my husband of the following 
qualifying premises* 

(2) that my husband was in occupation of the qualifying pre- 
mises on thef day of last, and has been in occupa- 
tion of them during the whole of the six months ending on the 
saidday$; 

(3) that the annual value of the qualifying premises is not 
less than five pounds; 

(4) that I have attained the age of thirty; 

(5) that I am a British subject; 

(6) that I reside atfl 

Signed 

Date 

NOTE. Any false declaration made for the purpose of this 
claim will render the claimant liable to a penalty. 

* Here insert full postal address and description (e.g., land at , 

dwelling house at , shop at ). 

t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 

J See instruction at foot of Form. 

Strike out this paragraph where the qualifying premises are * 
dwelling house. 

|| Here insert full postal address of residence or, if the claimant has no 
settled residence, of place to which communications may be sent. 

INSTRUCTION AS TO SUCCESSIVE OCCUPATION (I}. 

If the husband's occupation of the premises commenced after 
the^[ day of , 19 , paragraph (2) must be 

struck out and the following paragraph filled in and signed: 

(2) I hereby declare that my husband was in occupation of 
the qualifying premises on thef day of last, and 

that during the six months ending on the said day he occupied 
qualify ing premises as follows: from to at , 

from to at , etc., etc. 

Signed 

II Here insert first day of qualifying period. 
t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 

(k) See pp. 6872, tupra. 
(t) See p. 60, supra. 



666 APPENDIX I. 

(5) 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLAIM (ALL CASES EXCEPT THAT OP A WOMAN 
CLAIMING IN RESPECT OF HER HUSBAND'S QUALIFICATION) (m). 

To the registration officer for 
Address 

Claim to be registered as a Local Government elector. 

I hereby declare 

(1) that I claim to be registered as a Local Government; 
elector for all local government elections [except local government 
elections for ~\ in respect of the occupation of the follow- 
ing qualifying premises* 

(2) that I was in occupation of the qualifying premises on 
thef day of last, and have been in occupation of 
them during the whole period of six months ending on the said 
day$; 

(3) that I have attained the age of twenty-one; 

(4) that I am a British subject; 

(5) that I reside at 

Signed 

Date 

NOTE. Any false declaration made for the purpose of this 
claim will render the claimant liable to a penalty. 

* Here insert full postal address and description (e.g., land at , 

dwelling house at , shop at ). 

t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 

J See instruction at foot of Form. 

Here insert full postal address of residence or, if claimant has no 
settled residence, of place to which communications may be sent. 



INSTRUCTION AS TO SUCCESSIVE OCCUPATION (n}. 

If the claimant's occupation of the premises commenced after 
the|| day of ,19 , paragraph (2) must be 

struck out and the following paragraph filled in and signed: 

(2) I hereby declare that I was in occupation of the qualifying 
premises on thef day of last, and that during the 

six months ending on the said day I occupied qualifying pre- 
mises as follows: from to at , from 
to at , etc., etc. 

Signed 

|| Here insert first day of qualifying period. 
T Here insert last day of qualifying period. 



(z) See pp. 73, 74, supra. 
(n) See p. 60, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 567 

(6) 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT CLAIM (WOMEN CLAIMING IN RESPECT OF 
HUSBAND'S QUALIFICATION (o). 

To the registration officer for 
. Address 

Claim to be registered as a Local Government elector in respect 
of husband's occupation. 

I hereby declare 

(1) that I claim to be registered as a Ijocal Government 
elector for all local government elections [except local government 
elections for ] in respect of the occupation by my husband 
of the following qualifying premises* 

(2) that my husband was in occupation of the qualifying pre- 
mises on thef day of last, and has been in occupa- 
tion of them during the whole of the six months ending on the 
saiddayj; 

(3) that my husband is entitled to be registered as a local 
government elector in respect of the occupation of the qualify- 
ing premises and that we both reside there; 

(4) that I have attained the age of thirty; 

(5) that I am a British subject. 

Signed 

Date 

NOTE. Any false declaration made for the purpose of this 
claim will render the claimant liable to a penalty. 

* Here insert full postal address and description (e.g., land at , 

dwelling house at , shop at ). 

t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 
i See instruction at foot of Form. 



INSTRUCTION AS TO SUCCESSIVE OCCUPATION (p). 

If the husband's occupation of the premises commenced after 
the day of ,19 , paragraph (2) must /be 

struck out and the following paragraph filled in and signed: 

(2) I hereby declare that my husband was in occupation of 
the qualifying premises on thef day of last, and 

that during the six months ending on the said day he occupied 
qualifying premises as follows: from to at , 

from to at , etc., etc. 

Signed 

Here insert frt>t day of qualifying period. 
t Here insert last day of qualifying period. 



(o) See pp. 75, 76, supra. 
(p) See p. 60, wpra. 



668 APPENDIX I. 



(7) 

CLAIM MADE BY ONE PERSON ON BEHALF OF ANOTHER 
(PARLIAMENTARY) (q). 

To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

I hereby claim on behalf of of that he [she] 

should be registered as a Parliamentary elector for the above 
constituency; in respect of* 

Signed 

Address 
Date 

NOTE. The Act provides that where a claim is made by one 
person on behalf of another the name is not to be entered on the 
register unless the matters required to be stated in the declara- 
tion made by a person claiming on his own behalf are proved 
to the satisfaction of the registration officer. 

* Here insert qualification (e.g^ Evidence at , Occupation of 

Business Premises at , &c,), and full postal address and descrip- 

tion of qualifying premises. 



(8) 

CLAIM MADE BY ONE PERSON ON BEHALF OF ANOTHER* 
(LOCAL GOVERNMENT) (q}. 

To the registration officer for 
Address 

I hereby claim on behalf of of that he [she] 

should be registered as a local government elector for all local 
government elections in respect of* 
[except local government elections for ]. 

Signed 

Address . 

Date 

NOTE. The Act provides that where a claim is made by one 
person on behalf of another the name is not to be entered on the 
register unless the matters required to be stated in the declara- 
tion made by a person claiming on his own behalf are proved 
to the satisfaction of the registration officer. 

* Here insert qualification (e.g. t Occupation of dwelling house at , 

or husband's occupation of shop at , &c.) and full postal address 

and description of qualifying premises. 



(q] See Rule 10, p. 343, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 569 

(9) 
CLAIM FOE COREECTION OF ENTRY IN LISTS (r). 

To the registration officer for 
Address 

I hereby claim that the following entry of my name in the 
lists prepared by you* 
should be altered as follows: f 
Signed 

Address 

Date 

NOTE. Where the correction claimed would give to the 
claimant the right to vote at any election at which the claimant 
could not vote but for the correction, there must be added to 
this claim a declaration in the same form as that to be made by 
a, person claiming to be registered as such a voter. 

* Here insert extract from printed electors lists, stating registration 
unit. 

t e.g., by removing the name from one division to another, altering the 
mark placed against the name, correcting the particulars entered, &c. 



III. CLAIM AND DECLARATION TO BE MADE BY 
NAVAL AND MIL1TAKY VOTERS BEEOEE BEING 
REGISTERED IN EESPECT OE AN ACTUAL RESI- 
DENCE QUALIFICATION. 



SECT. 5 (1) (a). 

In the case of a merchant seaman, pilot, or fisherman, who 
is a naval or military voter the statement set out in the form 
prescribed for such persons under heading V. (" Eorms of state- 
ment to be made under s. 5 (2) of the Act ") shall (if it includes 
a statement of actual residence) be sufficient form of claim and 
declaration . 

In other cases the same form must be used as in the case of a 
Man's Parliamentary Claim (Residence Qualification) with the 
substitution of " month " for " six months," and of " the age> 
of nineteen " for " the age of twenty-one "; and must be accom- 
panied by the following declaration: 

I, being a naval [military] voter hereby declare that I have 
taken steps to prevent my being registered in a constituency 
for which I should have had the necessary qualification but for 
my service, as follows: * 

Signed 
* Here insert steps taken. 



(/) See Rule 9, pp. 342343, supra. 
(*) See pp. 76, 77, 9193, *upra. 



570 APPENDIX I. 



IV. POEMS OE NOTICE OP OBJECTION. 

EIEST SCHEDULE, EULE 12 ($). 

(1) 

OBJECTION TO LISTS OP PARLIAMENTARY OBJECTORS. 
To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

I hereby give you notice that I object to the entry of* 
as a Parliamentary elector. 

The grounds of my objection are: 

I am entered in the electors lists as a Parliamentary elector 
for the above constituency as follows: * 

Signed 
Address 

Date 

* Here insert extract from printed electors lists, stating registration 
unit. 

(2) 
OBJECTION TO LISTS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTORS. 

To the registration officer for 
Address 

I hereby give you notice that I object to the entry of* 
as a local government elector for the local government 

area. 

The grounds of my objection are: 

I am entered in the lists of local government electors for the 
above local government area as follows: * 

'Signed 
Address 
Date 

* Here insert extract from printed electors lists, stating- registration 

unit. 

\ 

(3) 
OBJECTION TO CLAIMS (PARLIAMENTARY). 

To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

I hereby give you notice that I object to the name of 
being placed in accordance with the claim made in that behalf 
in the lists of Parliamentary electors for the above constituency. 
The grounds for my objections are as follows: 
I am entered in the electors lists as a Parliamentary elector 
for the above constituency as follows: * 

Signed 
Address 

Date 

* Here insert extract from printed electors lists, stating registration 
unit. 

(t) For this Rule, see p. 344, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 571 



OBJECTION TO CLAIMS (LOCAL GOVERNMENT). 

To the registration officer for 

Address 

I hereby give you notice that I object to the name of 
being placed in accordance with the claim made in that behalf 
in the lists of local government electors for the following local 
government electoral areas: 

The grounds of my objection are as follows: 

I am entered in the lists of local government electors for the 
above areas as follows: * 

Signed 
Address 
Date 

* Here insert extract from printed electors lists, stating registration 
unit. 



V. POEMS OF STATEMENT TO BE MADE UNDER 
S. 5 (2) () OP THE AOT. 



A. BY MEN. 

Navy. 
REPRESENTATION or THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Parent Ship (or Establishment) 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

Rank or Rating . Official No. 

Age (on 15th April, 1918) . State whether R.N., R.M., 

R.N.R., R.N.V.R., or R.N.D. 

Qualifying Address, that is, full postal address (including 
the County, or in London the Metropolitan Borough) where 
officer or man would have been residing but for his service in 
the Forces 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of the above named officer or man 

Counter-signature of officer 

(M) See pp. 77, 8890, supra. 



672 APPENDIX I. 

(2) 

Army Form 

REPRESENTATION OP THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Unit and Arm of the Service 

Regimental Number* . Bank 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

Age (on 15th April, 1918) 

Qualifying Address, that is, full postal address (including 
the County, or in London the Metropolitan Borough) where 
officer or soldier would have been residing but for his service? 
in the Forces . i 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of above-named officer or soldier . \ 

Counter-signature of officer 

* To be struck out in the case of an officer. 



(3) 

Air Force .Form 

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Unit 

Official number . Rank 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

Age (on 15th April, 1918) 

Qualifying Address, that is, full postal address (including 1 
the County, or in London the Metropolitan Borough) where 
officer or airman would have been residing but for his service 
in the Forces 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

"Signature of above-named officer or airman 

Counter-signature of officer 

(4) 

MEN (not in H.M. Forces) serving abroad or afloat in connection 
with the War. 

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Department, Body or Association under which serving 

Class of work on which engaged 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

Age (on 15th April, 1918) 

Qualifying Address, that is, full postal address (including 1 
the County, or in London the Metropolitan Borough) where! 
man would have been residing if not serving abroad or afloat 
in connection with the War 

Address for postal communications 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 573 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of above-named man 

Counter-signature of representative of Department, Body or 
Association under which the above-named is serving 

(5) 

Merchant Seamen, Pilots or Fishermen serving abroad or afloat 
in connection with the War. 

REPBESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Nature of Service (i.e., whether Merchant Seaman, Pilot, or 
Fisherman, &c.) 

Name of Vessel 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

Age (on 15th April, 1918) . Description and number 

of certificate (if any) 

Qualifying Address, that is, full postal address (including" 
the County, or in London the Metropolitan Borough) where 
man would have been residing if not serving abroad or afloat 
in connection with the War 

Where a man has not given up his residence owing to his 
service, he should write below the qualifying address the words 
" actual residence." 

Address for postal communications 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of above-named man 

Counter-signature of representative of Board of Trade, Pilotage 
Authority, or Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, as case may 
be, and name of place 

B. BY WOMEN. 

(6) 

Army Form 

WOMEN serving with the Military Forces. 

REPKESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Unit 

Service description and regimental number if any 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

State if over 30 years of age (on 15th April, 1918) 

Description of qualifying property (dwelling-house, shop, 
land, &c.) 

Rental value (if not a dwelling-house) 

Full postal address of qualifying property (including the 
County, or, in London, the Metropolitan Borough) 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of above-named woman 

Counter-signature of Officer or Administrator 



574 APPENDIX I. 

(7) 

Air Force Form 

WOMEN Serving with the Air Force. 

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Unit 

Service description and number if any 

Surname 

Christian Names (in full) 

State if over 30 years of age (on 15th April, 1918) 

Description of qualifying property (dwelling-house, shop, 
land, &c.) 

Rental value (if not a dwelling-house) 

Full postal address of qualifying property (including the 
County, or, in London, the Metropolitan Borough) 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of above-named woman 

Counter-signature of Officer or Administrator 



WOMEN serving abroad or afloat in connection with the War. 
REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Body or Association under which serving 

Class of work on which engaged 

Surname 

'Christian Names (in full) 

State if over 30 years of age (on 15th April, 1918) 

Description of qualifying property (dwelling-house, shop, 
land, &c.) 

Rental value (if not a dwelling-house) 

Full postal address of qualifying property (including the 
County, or, in London, the Metropolitan Borough) 

Address for postal communications 

The foregoing particulars are true and accurate to the best of 
my knowledge and belief. 

Signature of above-named woman 

Counter- signature of representative of Body or Association 
under which the above-named is serving 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 575 



VI. FORM OP CLAIM TO BE PLACED ON ABSENT 
VOTERS' LIST. 



FIRST SCHEDULE, RULE 16 (a?). 
REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 
To the registration officer for the constituency of 
Address 

I, being a person entitled to be registered as a parliamentary 
elector for the above constituency in respect of qualifying pre- 
mises at* , hereby claim to be placed upon the absent 
voters' list on the ground that there is a probability that owing 
to my occupation [service] [employment] as I shall be 
debarred from voting at a poll at parliamentary elections held 
whilst the register now being prepared is in force. 
Signed 
Address 
Date 

* Here give postal address, stating registration unit where possible. 

VII. FORMS OF NOTICE OF APPEAL. 

FIRST SCHEDULE, RULE 29 (y). 

(1) 

NOTICE TO REGISTRATION OFFICER OF APPEAL AGAINST HIS 
DECISION. 

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

To the registration officer for 
Address 

I hereby give notice of appeal against your decision* 
on the following grounds: f 

Signed 
Address 
Date 

* Give particulars of decision, f.y., ' refusing to enter my name on the 
Register of Parliamentary Electors," &c. 
t Here insert grounds of appeal. 



(x) For this Rule, see p. 345, supra. 
(y} For this Rule, see p. 350, supra. 



576 APPENDIX I. 

(2) 
NOTICE OF APPEAL TO THE OPPOSITE PARTY. 

REPBESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 
To 

Address 

I hereby give you no'tice of appeal against the decision of the 
[Registration Officer for* 
on the following grounds: f 

Signed 
Address 
Date 

* Give particulars of decision, <?.<?., " allowing your claim to be entered 
on the register as a Parliamentary elector," &c. 
t Here insert grounds of appeal. 



VIII. FOBM OF REQUISITION FOE A CERTIFIED COPY 
OF ENTRY OF BIRTH. 



FIRST SCHEDULE, RULE 38 (z). 
REPEESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918. 

Requisition for a certified copy of entry of Birth under Rule 38 
of the First Schedule. 

To the Superintendent Registrar or other person having the 
custody of the Register Book in which the Birth of the under- 
mentioned person is recorded. 

I, the undersigned, hereby demand for the purpose of the 
Representation of the People Act, 1918, a certified copy of the 
entry of the Birth of the person in relation to whom particulars 
are given below. 

Name of person in full 

Date of Birth. The day of one thousand 

hundred and . (The year to be written in words, not 

figures.) 

Place of Birth 

Father's Name (in full) 

Father Occupation 

Mother's Name (in full) 

Mother's Maiden Surname 

Signature of Applicant 

Address 

Dated this day of ,19 

(z) For this Rule, see p. 353, supra. 



REGISTRATION FORMS. 



577 



IX. POEM OP REGISTER (a). 

Division I. contains the names of those persons who are 
entitled to vote both as parliamentary electors and as local 
government electors. 

Division II. contains the names of those persons who are 
entitled to vote as parliamentary electors but not as local govern- 
ment electors. 

Division III. contains the names of those persons who are 
entitled to vote as local government electors but not as parlia- 
mentary electors. 

NOTE. f Persons against whose names the mark f is placed 
are not entitled to vote in respect of that entry at elections of 
County Councillors. 

^Persons against whose names the mark $ is placed are not 
entitled to vote in respect of that entry at elections of Rural 
District Councillors or Guardians. 

Persons against whose names the mark is placed are not 
entitled to vote in respect of that entry in the case of a Borough, 
Metropolitan Borough or Urban District at elections for Borough 
or District Councillors as the case may be, and in the case of a 
Parish at elections for Parish Councillors or at Parish Meetings. 

*Persons against whose names the mark * is placed will vote 
at another polling place at Parliamentary Elections. '. 

oPersons against whose name the letter a is placed are absent 
voters. 

In the fourth column the following abbreviations are used: 

B. = Residence qualification. 

B.P. = Business premises qualification. 

0. = Occupation qualification. 

H.O. = Qualification through husband's occupation. 

N.M. = Naval or military voter. 

DIVISION I. PERSONS ENTITLED TO VOTE AS PARLIAMENTARY 

ELECTORS AND AS LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELECTORS. 
Constituency 
Registration Unit 
Polling District 



t) 


(2) (8) 


(4) 








Nature of 


Number. 


Names in full. 
Surname first. 


Residence or Property 
Occupied and Abode 
of Non-resident 


Qualification. 








Occupier. 


Parlia- 


Local 








mentary. 


Govt. 











(a) See Rule 2, pp. 339340, supra. 



F. 



87 



678 



APPENDIX I. 



DIVISION II. PERSONS ENTITLED TO VOTE AS PARLIAMENTARY 
ELECTORS ONLY. 



(i) 

Number. 



(2) 



Names in full. 
Surname first. 



(3) 

Residence or Property 

Occupied and Abode 

of Non-resident 

Occupier. 



(4) 



Nature of 
Qualification. 



DIVISION III. PERSONS ENTITLED TO VOTE AS LOCAL 
GOVERNMENT ELECTORS ONLY. 



(1) (2) (3) (4) 


Number. 


Names in full. 
Surname first. 


Residence or Property 
Occupied and Abode Nature of 
of Non-resident Qualification. 






Occupier. 













DIRECTION'S TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 579 



No. ;>. 

DIRECTIONS GIVEN BY THE LOCAL GOVERN- 
MENT BOARD TO REGISTRATION OFFI- 
CERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 13(1) (cV 

K. P. 2. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, 
Whitehall, S.W.I. 

20th March, 1918. 
SIR, 

I am directed by the President of the Looal Government 
Board to enclose copies of an Order in Council (a) which has 
been mado under section 46 (2) of the Representation of the 1 
People Act, 1918, altering, in connection with the first register, 
the registration dates fixed in the First Schedule of the Act 
and the dates governing the qualifying period fixed by Sections 6 
and 11 of the Act, and of an Order in Council (6) made under 1 
Section 13 (2) of the Act prescribing certain Forms to be used 
for registration purposes. 

It will be seen that the qualifying period for the first 
register will be the six months ending on the 15th April next 
and that the register will come into force on the 1st October 
next. The effect is to extend considerably the period for the 
preparation of that register beyond the time allowed by the 
Eules in the First Schedule for the preparation of a normal 
register. The periods fixed by the Eules for various stages in 
the preparation of the electors lists and registers are corre- 
spondingly extended. 



DUTIES OF EEGISTRATION OFFICERS. 

The duty of compiling the registers for a parliamentary 
county or borough and of placing or causing to be placed therein 
the names of persons entitled to be registered as parliamentary 
electors and as local government electors is imposed on the 
Registration Officer, and it will be the duty of the Registration 
Officer to comply with any general or special directions given 
by the Local Government Board with respect to the arrange- 
ments to be made by him for carrying out his duties (S. 13) (c). 

The Board propose to deal in this Circular with matters 
immediately concerned with the preparation of the electors 
lists. They feel that the procedure to be adopted in each regis- 
tration area must to some extent depend on local circumstances, 
and they do not at the present time regard any specific instruc- 
tions to the Registration Officers as necessary. Mr. Hayes Fisher 

(z) See p. 133, supra. 

(a) For this Order in Council, see pp. 613 614, infra. 

(b) For this Order in Council, see pp. 555 578, supra. 
(e) Seep. 133, supra. 

37(2) 



580 APPENDIX I. 

desires, however, to refer to Rule 6 (d) in the First Schedule, 
which requires the Registration Officer to cause a house to house, 
or other sufficient inquiry, to be made for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the names of persons entitled to be registered. In con- 
nection with this subject attention is called to the observations 
in the memorandum of instructions to overseers (e), as to the 
utilisation of Form A. prescribed by the Order in Council. 

It will be observed that by Rule 36 (/) the Registration Officer 1 , 
subject to any directions given by the Board, has access to the 
national register compiled under the National Registration Act, 
1915. The Board have no doubt that the Clerk to the Local 
Registration Authority will give any necessary assistance for 
the purpose of supplementing the information obtained by the 
persons making the above-mentioned inquiry, or otherwise for 
facilitating the preparation of the electors lists and register, 
and the Board do not at present think it necessary to give any 
specific directions in the matter. It is, however, desirable that 
where the register is not in the charge of the Registration Officer, 
and access to it is desired for the overseers or other persons 
engaged in preparing the lists, he should himself arrange with 
the Clerk to the Local Registration Authority as to the times 
when and manner in which reference may be made to the register. 

CERTIFICATES OF BIRTH AND STATUTORY DECLARATIONS. 

Under Rule 37 (#) in Schedule 1, a person before being regis- 
tered may be required by the Registration Officer to produce 
a certificate of birth or of naturalisation or to make a statutory 
declaration that he or she is of the requisite age or is a British 
subject, as the case may be. The form of requisition (h} for a 
certificate of birth, it will be seen, is prescribed by the Order in 
Council. Any fee payable in connection with a declaration 
will be paid by the Registration Officer. Ordinarily, the Board 
do not think that for the purposes of preparing the electors; 
lists any such requirement should be necessary. If in any special 
case a certificate of birth or declaration is found necessary, 
it ishould only be required under the express direction of the 
Registration Officer. 

FRANCHISES. 

Copies of a memorandum (&) as to the franchises created by 
the new Act are enclosed. The new parliamentary franchises 
take the place of all parliamentary franchises existing at the 
time of the passing of the Act, and the new local government 
franchises take the place of all local government franchises exist- 
ing at the time of the passing of the Act so far as respects. 



(d) For this Rule, see p. 341, supra. 

(e) For this memorandum, see pp. 597 609, infra. 
(/) For this Rule, see p. 352, tupra. 

(g) For this Rule, see pp. 352 353, supra. 
(A) For this Form, see p. 576, supra. 
() See pp. 589596, infra. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 581 

elections for county councils, municipal borough councils, metro- 
politan borough councils, district councils, boards of guardians, 
parish councils, and any other bodies elected at the time of the 
passing of the Act by persons on the local government register 
of electors or on the register of parochial electors. 

Some points in which the new franchises differ from those 
hitherto in force may be mentioned: 

Woman suffrage. Women are for the first time admitted to 
the parliamentary franchise, and their rights to the local govern- 
ment franchise are considerably enlarged. 

Naval or military^ voters. A new class of electors is created, 
termed naval or military voters, whose qualifications, etc., are 
explained in the memorandum (Z). 

Period of qualification. The period of qualification for both 
the parliamentary franchise and the local government franchise 
is ishortened from twelve months to six months, and there will 
be normally two periods of qualification in each year, namely, 
the period of six months ending on the 15th of January and the 
period of six months ending on the 15th of July, including in 
each case the fifteenth day. In the case of naval or military 
voters and persons who have served as members of the naval 
or ^military or air forces of the Crown at any time during the,. 
six months of the qualifying period and have ceased to serve, 
the period of qualification is further shortened to one month. 
For the purposes of the preparation of the first register 
under the Act, the qualifying period will be the six 
months ending on the 15th April, 1918. 

Eating and payment of rates, etc. No condition as to the 
rating of qualifying premises or the payment of rates or assessed 
taxes is any longer imposed. 

Lodgers. The lodger franchise as such disappears for par- 
liamentary purposes, being superseded by the residence qualifica- 
tion. For the local government franchise, however, lodgers are 
recognised as tenants where they occupy rooms let to them in 
an unfurnished state. 

Receipt of poor relief, etc. -The disqualification for the par- 
liamentary and the local government franchise arising from the 
receipt of poor relief or other alms is removed. 

ORDER OF NAMES IN EEGISTER. 

The names in the register of a registration unit (m) in a 
parliamentary borough will be arranged in street order unless 
the Council whose Clerk is the Eegistration Officer considers, 
having regard to the general character of the area forming 
the unit that arrangement to be inapplicable (n). If the unit 
is in a parliamentary county the names will be arranged in 
alphabetical order unless the Council whose Clerk is the Eegistra- 



(?) See pp. 589596, infra, 
(m) See Rule 1, p. 339, suprc. 
() See Rule 4, p. 340, supra. 



582 APPENDIX 1. 

tion Officer considers that arrangement in street order is possible 
and convenient ( w) . 

In many municipal boroughs and urban districts in a county, 
arrangement of the names in street order will no doubt be the 
most convenient method, and in some parliamentary boroughs 
there may be registration units where the names can only be 
arranged in alphabetical order. You should at once bring such 
cases to the notice of your Council, so that the necessary direc- 
tion may be given as early as practicable with a view to the 
electors lists being prepared with the names in the order con- 
sidered to be appropriate. 

EMPLOYMENT OF OVERSEERS. 

The Eegistration Officer may require the overseers of a parish 
to prepare on his behalf the electors lists for the parish or for 
any .registration unit forming part of the parish, and to make 
the necessary inquiries for the purpose and to publish the lists, 
(Schedule \, Rule 7) (o). In the case of many parishes, espe- 
cially those in parliamentary counties, the Registration Officer 
will probably find it convenient to require the overseers to make 
out the lists. Copies of a memorandum of instructions (p] are, 
enclosed which will be available for supply to the overseers, 
assistant overseers, and other persons employed in making out 
the electors lists, and can also be supplied to persons employed 
by the Registration Officer where he himself prepares the electors! 
lists. 

The instructions are intended as a general guide, and the 
Registration Officer will supplement them in such particulars 
as he may think desirable. 

He should particularly inform the persons preparing the lists 
of any case in which there is a departure from the general rule 
that the lists of a registration unit in a parliamentary borough 
are to be made out in street order and in a parliamentary county 
in alphabetical order (g). 

Any direction given to the overseers to prepare the lists should 
indicate that the .assistant overseer or rate collector or vestry 
clerk should be empk^ed. In this connection it will be borne 
in mind that an assistant overseer or other officer who, being 
in office at the time of the passing of the Act, suffers any direct 
pecuniary loss in consequence of the Act is entitled to claim 
compensation under Section 18 (/), in accordance with the 
applied provisions of Section 120 of the Local Government Act, 
1888. The compensation will be payable as registration expenses 
undpr the Act. Whore the Registration Officer docs not call 
upon the overseers to prepare the lists, and the assistant over- 
seer or other officer who previously received remuneration for 
registration work is prepared to do the work, Mr. Hayes Fisher 

() See Rule 4, p. 340, supra. 

(<>} For Rule 7, see pp. 341342, *upr<t. 

(p] See pp. 597 609, infra. 

(q) See preceding page. 

(/) See pp. 148 149, tupra< 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 583 

is of opinion that such officer should be employed, unless there 
are special reasons for not utilising his services. Even where 
the assistant overseer or other officer has not received special 
remuneration for registration work in the past, it is desirable 
that he should be employed, wherever practicable, to assist the 
Registration Officer. If the Registration Officer wishes that the 
overseers should do the work and there is no assistant overseer, 
etc., of the parish, or such officer has been called up for military 
service, it will be open to the Registration Officer to employ 
some person to assist the overseers or authorise them to employ 
a suitable person (s). 

REGISTRATION EXPENSES. 

By Section 15 (1) (t) of the Act the expenses incurred by tho 
Registration Officer, including charges for his trouble, care and 
attention in the performance of his duties will be paid by the 
Council whose Clerk is the Registration Officer, subject to such 
contributions by the Councils of other areas included in the 
registration area, as the Board may direct; and under sub- 
section (4) of the section one half of the amount so paid by 
the Council is to be paid out of moneys provided by Parlia- 
ment. 

Any reasonable expenses incurred by overseers (including the 
remuneration of the assistant overseer or other paid officer) are 
to be paid by the Registration Officer as part of his registration 
expenses (s). 

The Treasury are empowered by sub-section (2) of Section. 
15 (v) to frame a scale of registration expenses applicable to all 
or any class or classes of those expenses, and to alter the seal 
as and when they think fit. Any expenses to which a scale so, 
framed is applicable are to be deemed to have been properly 
incurred if they do not exceed the amount fixed by the scale, 
or if being in excess of that amount such excess is specially 
sanctioned by the Council and the Treasury. With regard to 
expenditure to which no scale framed by the Treasury is appli- 
cable any question as to whether the expenditure has been 
properly incurred is to be determined by the Board. 

In accordance with the provision above mentioned, the Treasury 
have framed a scale (#) indicating the maximum expenditure 
which may be incurred by the Registration Officer in respect 
of his own fees and the fees payable to any Deputy appointed 
by him, and in respect of the remuneration of the clerks, assistant 
overseers and other persons engaged in connection with the pre- 
paration of the lists and registers. Copies of the scale (a>) are 
enclosed, and it will be observed that it is to apply only to the 
first two registers. 

The Council, if they think fit, may make to the Registration 
Officer an advance of such amount and on such conditions as 

(*) See Rule 7, pp. 341 342, supra. 

(t) See pp. 139, 140, supra. 

(t>) See pp. 140, 141, supra. 

(x) For this Scale, see pp. 610612, infra. 



APPENDIX I. 

they may approve (y} . Such an advance will generally be re- 
quired in order to meet current expenses such as remuneration 
of temporary clerks and canvassers, cost of stationery, postage, 
travelling expenses, etc. The Board cannot express any opinion 
as to the amount of the advance which will be needed, as this 
will depend on the circumstances of each case, but no advance 
will be necessary to cover the cost of printing the lists and 
registers under the contracts made by the Stationery Office or 
of the forms or other matter supplied by that Department under 
the arrangements subsequently described. 

In view of the great need for economy at the present time it 
is hoped that Eegistration Officers will endeavour to avoid any 
expenditure that is not strictly necessary, and in particular that 
they will as far as possible be able to arrange with the consent 
of their Council for the free use of their existing office accom- 
modation. Where, however, the hiring of additional offices is 
unavoidable the cost of these may be defrayed as part of .tho 
Registration Officer's out-of-pocket expenditure. 

As regards the accounts which should be kept of the regis- 
tration expenses, instructions (2) will be issued to Eegistration 
Officers by the Treasury. In the meantime each Eegistration 
Officer should keep complete and accurate records of the various 
items of expenditure with vouchers, and he should instruct the 
overseers to do so likewise if the electors lists are prepared 
by them. 

PRINTING ARRANGEMENTS. 

A most important item of expenditure in connection with the 
registration of the electors, half of which will be borne by the 
State, is the cost of printing the electors lists and registers, 
and the supply of various forms which will be provided by the 
Stationery Office, and the following arrangements have been 
made by the Stationery Office with the consent of the Treasury: 

The Stationery Office will supply direct to the Eegistration 
Officer such copies of prescribed forms as they require. Imme- 
diately Form A. () has been printed off, a supply, based on the 
approximate number of electors in each registration area, will 
be sent to the Eegistration Officer for distribution to the over- 
seers or other officers engaged in the work of preparing the 
lists. Copies of Form B. (6) and Form C. (c) prescribed by the 
Order in Council will be sent on demand, together with sheets 
for the purpose of entering therein the requisite particulars of 
persons entitled to be registered. 

It is essential that the greatest economy should be exercised 
in regard to use of paper, and the Board do not think that it 
should be necessary to furnish special books for the purpose of 
inquiries, especially if Forms A. are personally left and called 

(y) See sect. 15 (5), p. 141, supra. 

(z) These Instructions have not, up to the time of going to press been 
issued. 

(a) For this Form, see_pp. 556 560, supra. 
(*) For this Form, see pp. 560561, supra, 
(c} For this Form, see p. 561, supra. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 585 

for, when any necessary explanations can be given to assist 
persons in completing them. These forms filled up by house- 
holders, occupiers, etc., together with any particulars obtain- 
able from the rate books, will be the main source of information 
required in preparing the lists, and if a house to house service 
and collection of the returns is systematically made to ensure 
that all occupiers receive and fill up Form A. the Board would 
not anticipate any need for supplying books or stationery beyond 
what each officer should himself have available for the purpose. 
Small memorandum books or sheets in block form can, however, 
be supplied by the Stationery Office if desired. 

Copies of the memorandum of instructions to overseers (d), and 
of the memorandum as to franchises (e) will be obtainable from 
the Stationery Office 011 demand indicating the quantities re- 
quired. In addition to prescribed forms, it is contemplated that 
the .Stationery Office will supply forms for various purposes 
required by Registration Officers. A list of the forms to 
be supplied will be sent to each Registration Officer in due course. 

As regards the printing of the electors lists and register, it 
is the intention that these will not be printed independently, 
but that in every case the type used for printing the lists should 
stand, and at a later stage be used for printing the register. 
The Stationery Office will enter into the contracts with the 
local printers on behalf of the Registration Officer, who will in 
this respect be in the same position as a Government Depart- 
ment whose printing is done through the Stationery Office. The 
period of the contract is proposed to be from the date of accep- 
tance until the completion of the first of the half-yearly registers 
made in the year 1920, and in the discretion of the Controller 
of the Stationery Office the period may be extended up to the 
completion of the first register of 1922. 

Forms of contract will be prepared by the Stationery Office 
and supplied to the Registration Officer, and on receipt of these 
the Registration Officer should at once take steps to publish 
as widely as possible, by advertisement or otherwise, that tenders 
may be made to him for the printing of the lists and registers. 
When the tenders are received they should be forwarded to the 
Stationery Office by the Registration Officer with any observa- 
tions he wishes to make as to the merits of the tenders. In 
forwarding the tenders the Registration Officer should inform 
the Stationery Office of the number of copies estimated to be 
required of the lists and register respectively, the number being 
kept as low as practicable. In fixing the number of copies of 
the register it would, of course, be considered whether, in view 
of the use of the several divisions for parliamentary and local 
government elections, as the case may be, a greater number of 
copies will be required by Division I. (<?). Looking to the large 
amount of work which the printing will involve and the limited 



(d) For this memorandum, see pp. 597 609, infra. 

(e) For this memorandum, see pp. 589 596, infra, 
(g] For form of register, see pp. 577578, stiprc. 



586 APPENDIX I. 

time for its execution, it will probably be necessary in most 
constituencies that the printing should be divided amongst several 
printers, so as to secure the expeditious printing of the lists 
and registers. The tender form will therefore be so drawn that 
a printer may tender for part of the lists and register for a con- 
stituency, but each part tendered for should comprise a sub- 
stantial section of the register. It will, of course, be open to 
any printer to tender for as many complete sections as he will 
be in a position to undertake. 

The contract will cover the printing of the lists of absent 
voters, as well as the electors lists and register. The printer 
will not bind any portion of the matter printed by him, but he 
will stitch or wire together the sheets belonging to each registra- 
tion unit, or the sheets belonging to each division of the regis- 
tration unit, as the Registration Officer may think most 
convenient. The Registration Officer may, however, arrange for 
two copies of the complete register of each constituency to be 
bound, one bound copy being for his own use and the other for 
transmission to this Department. 

The contract will also provide for printing the lists of 
claims (h) and objections (i) if the Registration Officer requires 
this. It will be in the discretion of the Registration Officer to 
arrange for these lists being printed elsewhere if convenient*, 
but in cases where the lists are very short, typed copies would 
suffice. 

The Registration Officer will himself arrange for any print- 
ing work considered to be necessary and not done or supplied 
by the Stationery Office, and he will also procure stationery, 
etc., required for carrying ovit his duties. 

The Stationery Office will supply all paper for the lists and 
registers printed under contract with them, and the printers, 
will account to the Station &ry Office for its use. The Stationery 
Office will not supply paper for printing not done under the, 
contract. 

The Registration Officer will realize that the arrangements, 
undertaken by the Stationery Office are to facilitate the print- 
ing under the exceptional conditions prevailing, and that he 
will not be relieved of his responsibility for the proper prepara- 
tion of the lists and registers. It will be provided for in the 
contract that the printer must comply with tho directions of 
the Registration Officer as to time for receiving proofs, correc- 
tions, etc., and he will be required to deliver to the Registration 
Officer prints in the various stages as may be needed. 

The Registration Officer will make his own arrangements as 
to the manuscript lists being sent on direct from the overseers 
to the printer or through him, but the Board would suggest 
that he should in every case inspect such lists before they are 
forwarded to the printer. In any case the overseers should 
retain the draft or a copy of the lists so as to avoid dolay 

(A) See Rule 11, p. 343, .supra. 

(i) See Rule 15, p. 344345, supra. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 587 

which might occur through loss or miscarriage. It will probably 
be found convenient to provide for parts of the lists as soon, 
as prepared to be sent at once to the printer, so that the printer 
may be able to proceed with the work and not wait for the whole, 
of the draft lists he has undertaken to print. In connection 
with this, see paragraph 6 (k) in the instructions to overseers. 

APPOINTMENT OF DEPUTY REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 

Section 12 (3) (I) of the Act provides that any of the duties 
&nd powers of the Registration Officer may be performed and 
3xeicised by any Deputy for the time being approved by the 
Board. It is desirable that the Registration Officers should as 
early as practicable consider to what extent they will require 
io employ deputies, and inform the Board of their proposals. 
In many registration areas there will be no necessity to appoint 
deputies, but in the case of registration areas comprising a 
number of constituencies the employment of some deputies may 
be needed. In connection with the number of deputies to be 
appointed, it will be seen from the scale of registration 
expenses (m) fixed by the Treasury that the fee provided for 
the remuneration of the Registration Officer includes the re- 
muneration of any deputy appointed by him. The actual fee 
payable to any deputy will be a matter for arrangement between 
the Registration Officer and the deputy. Subject to any par- 
ticular duties which the Registration Officer may prefer to retain 
under his own control, it would seem a convenient arrangement 
that the deputy should be appointed for a constituency or con- 
stituencies, and Mr. Fisher would not, as a general rule, be 
willing to approve of the appointment of a deputy for an area 
less than an entire constituency. 

Mr. Fisher thinks it desirable that, where it is proposed to 
employ a deputy, the clerk to some one of the larger authorities 
of the local government areas situate in the constituency or 
constituencies should be the deputy for the whole of the con- 
stituency or constituencies, but where a clerk proposed to be 
appointed is a whole time officer of a local authority, the consent 
of the authority to his acting as a deputy must be obtained. 

Any application to the Board for the approval of a deputy 
should specify the area for which he is to act, and the precise 
duties to be delegated to him, and, where the deputy is a whole 
time officer of an authority, should indicate that the consent of 
the authority has been obtained. 

In a further circular which will be sent as soon as possible, 
the Board propose to refer to the procedure to be adopted by 
Registration Officers in dealing with claims and objections and 
-otherwise in making up the register, and to various other matters 
such as the period for keeping documents published and fees 
chargeable for supply of copies of lists, etc. 

(k] P. 601, infra. 

(I) See pp. 130131, supra. 

(m) See pp. 610612, infra. 



588 APPENDIX I. 

Mr. Fisher realises that the new Act imposes upon Eegistration 
Officers much responsibility and a considerable amount of work 
which in present conditions can only be carried out under diffi- 
culties, but he feels confident that, in view of the importance 
of securing that the new Eegister shall be as complete and 
accurate as possible, the Eegistration Officer will use every effort 
to promote the smooth and efficient working of the machinery 
provided by the Act. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) H. C. MONRO, 

Secretary. 
To 

The Eegistration Officer. 



MEMORANDUM AS TO FRANCHISES. 589 



No. 3. 

MEMORANDUM (a) AS TO THE FEANCHISES 
CREATED BY THE PRESENT ACT. 

R. P. 6. 

PARLIAMENTARY AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT FRANCHISES. 
Definitions. 

A person's age is that person's age on the last day of tho 
qualifying period (&). 

The expression " qualifying period " means the period of 
six months ending in the case of the first register on 
the 15th April, 1918 (c) 3 and in the case of registers 
in subsequent years on the 15th day of January (d) 
or the 15th day of July (d), including in each "case 
the fifteenth day, but in the application of this ex- 
pression to a person who is a naval or military voter, 
or who has been serving as a member of the naval, 
military or air forces of the Crown at any time during 
the period of such six months, and has ceased so to serve, 
one month is to be substituted for six months (e). 

The expression " constituency " means any county, borough, 
or combination of places, or university* or combination 
of universities, returning a member to serve in Parlia- 
ment; and where a county or borough is divided for 
the purpose of parliamentary elections means a division 
of the county or borough so divided (/) . 

The expression " local government electoral area " means 
the area for which any county council, municipal 
borough council, metropolitan borough council, district 
council, board of guardians, parish council, or any other 
body elected at the time of the passing of the Act by 
persons on the local government register or on the 
register of parochial electors is elected (gr). 

The " yearly value " of land or premises is to be taken to 
be the gross estimated rental, or in the metropolis the 
gross value, where those premises are separately assessed 
to rates and in any other case is to be deemed to be tlie 
amount which would in the opinion of the registration 
officer be the gross estimated rental or gross value, as 
the case requires, if they were separately assessed (h). 

(a) This memorandum was sent by the Local Government Board to 
Registration Officers together with the Directions set out on pp. 579 
588, supra, and is referred to in such Directions at pp. 580 and 585, supra. 

(b) See p. 4, supra. 

(c) See pp. 128129, supra. 

(d) See sect. 6, p. 94, supra, 
(c) See sect. 6, p. 94, supra. 

(/) See sect. 41 (1), p. 305, supra. 

Iff) See sect. 41 (2), pp. 305306, supra. 

(h) See sect. 41 (9), pp. 307308, supra, and pp. 2833, 6870, supra. 



590 APPENDIX I. 

The expression " dwelling house " includes any part of a 
house where that part is occupied separately a? a 
dwelling house (i). 

PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE (MEN). 

1 . A man is entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector 
for a constituency if he is a British subject of full age and not 
subject to any legal incapacity and has either 

(i) The requisite residence qualification, or 
(ii) The requisite business premises qualification (&)-. 

2. Residence Qualification. In order to have this qualifica- 
tion a man 

(a) Must, on the last day of the qualifying period,* be resid- 

ing in premises in the constituency, and 

(b) Must, during the whole of the qualifying period,* have 

resided in premises in the constituency (I), subject, how- 
ever, to the provisions in regard to successive residence 
hereinafter mentioned. (See paras. 17 and 19,) 

3. A man, who is an inmate or patient in any prison, lunatic 
asylum, workhouse, poorhouse, or any other similar institution, 
is not to be treated as resident therein for the purposes of this 
qualification (m). 

4. Business Premises Qualification. In order to have thi-> 

qualification a man 

(a) Must, on the last day of the qualifying period,* be occupy- 

ing business premises in the constituency, and 

(b) Must, during the whole of the qualifying period,* have 

occupied business premises in the constituency {n}, sub- 
ject, however, to the provisions in regard to the suc- 
cessive occupation of premises hereinafter mentioned, 
(See para. 17.) 

5. The expression business premises means land or other pre- 
mises of the yearly value of not less than 10, occupied for the 
purpose of the business, profession, or trade of the person to be 
registered (o). 

PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE (WOMEN). 

6. A woman is entitled to be registered as a parliaments^- 
elector if she is a British subject, and has attained the age of 
30 years and is not subject to any legal incapacity and has the. 
requisite qualification (p}. 

7. In order to have the requisite qualification, which is based 

* N.B. In the case of the first register the qualifying period is the 
six months ending on the 15th April, 1918. 

(i) See sect. 41 (8), p. 307, supra^ and pp. 49 54, 70, supra. 

(Jc) See sect. 1, pp. 1 3, supra. 

(T) See pp. 924, supra. 

(m) See sect. 41 (5), p. 306, supra. 

(n) See pp. 2437, supra. 

(o) See pp. 2836, supra. 

(p) See sect. 4 (1), p. 63, supra. 



MEMORANDUM AS TO FRANCHISES. 591 

on such occupation in a constituency of land or premises aa 
confers the local government franchise, the woman or (if she 
is married and is not herself the occupying owner or tenant) her 
husband : 

(a) Must on the last day of the qualifying period* be occupy- 

ing as owner or tenant land or premises (other than a 
dwelling house) of a yearly value of not less than 5, 
or a dwelling house, and 

(b) Must during the whole of the qualifying period* have- 

so occupied land or premises (other than a dwelling 
house) of the yearly value of not less than 5, or a 
dwelling house (g). 

8. For the purposes of this franchise the following points 
should be noted: 

(i) A dwelling house may be part of a house if such part is 
occupied .separately as a dwelling house (r). 

(ii) A lodger is not to be considered as a tenant unless the 
lodging is let to her or him in an unfurnished state (s). 

(iii) A person who inhabits a dwelling house, as above defined, 
by virtue of any office, service, or employment is, if the 
dwelling house is not inhabited by the person in whose 
service she or he is in such office, service or employ- 
ment, deemed to occupy the dwelling house as a 
tenant . 



SPECIAL PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE FOR NAVAL OR MILITARY 

VOTERS. 

9. A naval or military voter may be a man or a woman who is 
engaged in such service as hereinafter mentioned, and will be 
entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector for any 
constituency for which he or she would have had the necessary 
qualification but for his or her service. A naval or military 
voter must be a British subject and must, if a man, at the com- 
mencement of his service have attained, or during his service- 
attain, the age of 19 years, and, if a woman, must have attained 
the age of 30 years, and in either case must not be subject to 
any legal incapacity (u), 

10. In order to rank as a naval or military voter a person 
must 

(i) be serving on full pay as a member of any of the naval, 

military, or air forces of the Crown, or 
(ii) be abroad or afloat in connection with any war in which 

His Majesty is engaged, and be: 

(a) in service of a naval or military character for 

* ET.B. In the case of the first register the qualifying period is the 
six months ending on the 15th April, 1918. 

(q) See pp. 6872, supra. 

(r) See sect. 41 (8), p. 307, titpra, and pp. 4954, 70, supra. 

(s) Seep. 69, supra. 

(t) See pp. 69, 4956, supra. 

(u) See sect. 5 (1) and (3), p. 7679, supra. 



592 APPENDIX I. 

which payment is made out of moneys provided by Par- 
liament, or (where the person serving was at the com- 
mencement of his or her service resident in the United 
Kingdom) out of the public funds of any part of His 
Majesty's Dominions, or^in service as a merchant sea- 
man, pilot, or fishermanfincluding the master of a mer- 
chant ship or fishing boat and an apprentice on such a 
ship or boat, or 

(b) serving in any work of the British Bed Cross'. 
Society, or the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in 
England, or any body with a similar object, or 

(c) serving in any other work recognised by the 
Admiralty, Army Council, or Air Council, as work of 
national importance in connection with the war (a;). 

11. The right of a naval or military voter to be registered 
as a parliamentary elector is to be in addition to any other right 
to be registered (y}. But a male naval or military voter is not 
to be entitled to be registered for a constituency in respect of an 
actual residence qualification in the constituency except on mak- 
ing a claim for the purpose, accompanied by a declaration in 
the prescribed form, that he has taken reasonable steps to pre- 
vent his being registered as a naval or military voter for any 
other constituency (z). 

12. The statement of any person, made in the prescribed form 
and verified in the prescribed manner that he or she would have 
had the necessary qualification in a constituency but for the 
service which entitled him or her to rank as a naval or military 
voter is to be sufficient for all purposes of such qualification, 
if there is no evidence to the contrary (a). 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT FBANCHISE. 

13. A man or woman is entitled to be registered as a local 
government elector for a local government electoral area if he 
or she is a British subject of full age and not subject to any 
legal incapacity and has the requisite qualification (&). 

14. In order to have the requisite qualification the man or 
woman: 

(a) must on the last day of the qualifying period* be occupy- 

ing as owner or tenant land or pTemises in the local 
government electoral area, and 

(b) must during the whole of the qualifying period* have so 

occupied land or premises in the local government elec- 
toral area (c), subject, however, to the provisions in 

* N.B. In the case of the first register the qualifying period is the 
six months ending on the 15th April, 1918. 

(x) See sect. 5 (3), and pp. 8285, supra. 

(y} See pp. 91, 92, supra. 

(z) See sect. 5 (1), and pp. 91 93, supra. 

(a] See sect. 5 (2), and pp. 8890, supra. 

(b) See as to men, sect. 3, pp. 40, 41, supra, anl as to women, sect 
4 (3), pp. 64, 65, supra. 

(c} See as to men, pp. 43 62, supra, and as to women, p. 74, supra. 



MKMOKANiHJM AS TO FRANCHISE. 593 

regard to the successive occupation of land or premises 
as hereinafter mentioned. (See paras. 18 and 19.) 

15. A woman who has attained the age of 30 years, and is not 
subject to any legal incapacity, will be entitled to be registered 
as a local government elector where she is the wife of a man 
v/ho is entitled to be registered as a local government elector in 
respect of premises in which they both reside, imd for this purpose 
n naval or military voter who is registered in respect of a resi- 
dence qualification which he would h#ve had but for his service, 
is to be deemed to be resident in accordance with that qualifica- 
tion (d}. 

16. The expression '* tenant '' includes a man or woman, 
who 

(a) himself or herself inhabits any dwelling-house, or part 

of a house occupied separately as a dwelling-house, by 
virtue of any office, service, or employment if the 
dwelling-house or the part so occupied separately is 
not inhabited by the person in whose service he or she 
is in such office, service, or employment (e], or 

(b) occupies a room or rooms as a lodger provided that such 

room or rooms are let to him or her in an unfurnished 
state (/). 

SUCCESSIVE RESIDENCE on OCCUPATION. 

17. Parliamentary Franchise. A man, though he may have 
resided in premises or occupied business premises, as the case 
may be, in the constituency for a part only of the qualifying 
poriod, as mentioned in paras. 2 and 4, will, nevertheless, be 
entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector if, throughout 
the remainder of the qualifying period, he resided in premises or 
occupied business premises, as the case may be, in another con- 
stituency within the same parliamentary borough or parliamen- 
tary count} 7 , or within a parliamentary borough or parliamentary 
county contiguous to that borough or county, or separated from 
that borough or county by water, not exceeding at the nearest, 
point fi miles in breadth, measured in the case of tidal water 
from low- water mark (r/). For the purpose of this provision 
the Administrative County of London is to be treated as a par- 
liamentary borough (h). 

18. Local Government Franchise. A man or woman, though 
he or she may have occupied land or premises in the local govern- 
ment area, for a part only of the qualifying period, as mentioned 
in para. 14, will, nevertheless, where the local government area is 
not an administrative county or county borough, be entitled to be 
registered as a local government elector, if, throughout the re- 

(d) See sect. 4 (3) (ft), and pp. 75, 76, supra. 

(e) See pp. 49 56, supra. 
(/) See pp. 57 61, wpra. 

(V) See sect. 1 (2) (*), pp. 2, 3, and pp. 2324, supra. 
(A) See sect. 1 (2) (*}, p. 3, supra. 

F. 38 



594 APPENDIX I. 

mainder of the qualifying period, he or she occupied land or 
premises in any administrative county or county borough in which 
the local government area is wholly or partly situate (t) . 

19. In connection with the two preceding paragraphs it should 
be borne in mind that 

(i) A man is not entitled to be registered as a parliamentary 
elector for a constituency in respect of a residence quali- 
fication though he may have been residing in premises 
in the constituency on the last day of the qualifying 
period, if he commenced to reside in the constituency 
within thirty days before the end of the qualifying 
period, and ceased to reside within thirty days after the 
time when he so commenced to reside (&). 

(ii) A man or woman is not entitled to be registered as a local 
government elector for a local government electoral area 
though he or she may have been occupying land or 
premises in the area on the last day of the qualifying 
period, if he or she commenced to occupy the land or 
P'remises within thirty days before the -end of the qualify- 
ing period, and ceased to occupy the land or premises 
within thirty days after the commencement of the 
occupation (I). 

JOINT OCCUPATION. 

20. Where land or premises are in the joint occupation of 
two or more persons, each of the joint occupiers is to be treated 
as occupying the premises, subject as follows: 

(a) In the case of the business premises qualification for the 

purpose of the parliamentary franchise the aggregate 
yearly value of the premises must be not less than the 
amount produced by multiplying ten pounds by the 
number of the joint occupiers (m) ; and 

(b) In the case of the occupation of land or premises (not 

being a dwelling-house) the aggregate yearly value 
thereof must for the purpose of the parliamentary fran- 
chise of women be not less than the amount produced by 
multiplying five pounds by the number of joint 
occupiers (ft); and 

(c) Not more than two joint occupiers are to be entitled to 

be registered in respect of the same land or premises, 
unless they are bond fide engaged as partners carrying 
on their profession, trade or business on the land or 
premises (o). 

(*) See pp. 61, 62, supra. 

(k) See sect. 7 (3), p. 99, supra, and pp. 10, 11, supra. 
1} See sect. 7 (3), and p. 43, supra, 
(m} See sect. 7 (1), p. 98, and p. 37, supra. 
') See sect. 7 (1), p. 98, and p. 69, supra. 

to) See sect. 1, pp. 13, sect. 3, pp. 40, 41, 56, 57, 59, sect. 4, pp. 63 
65, 69, supra. 



MEMORANDUM AS TO FRANCHISE. 505 



INTEREUPTION OF EESIDENCE OB OCCUPATION. 

21. Residence in a house or the occupation of a house by a 
person is not to be deemed to be interrupted by reason only of 
permission being given, by letting or otherwise, for the occu- 
pation of the house, as a furnished house, by some other person 
for part of the qualifying period not exceeding four months in 
the whole (p), or by reason only of notice to quit being served 
and possession being demanded by the landlord of the house (g r ); 
but the express enactment of this provision is not to affect in any 
way the general principles governing the interpretation of the 
expression " residence ' and cognate expressions (r) . 

PROVISIONS AS TO DISQUALIFICATIONS. 

22. A person is no longer disqualified from being registered 
as a parliamentary or local government elector by reason that 
he or some person for whose maintenance he is responsible has 
received poor relief or other alms (). 

23. A conscientious objector who either 

(a) Has been exempted from all military service (including 

non-combatant service) on the ground of conscientious 
objection, or 

(b) Having been convicted by- a court martial of an offence 

against military law, and having represented that the 
offence was the result of conscientious objection to mili- 
tary service, has been awarded imprisonment or 
detention, 

is disqualified during the continuance of the war and a period 
of five years thereafter from being registered as a parliamentary 
or local government elector unless before the expiration of one 
year after the termination of the war he proves to the Central 
Tribunal as established for the purposes of the Military Service 
Act, 1916, and obtains from that Tribunal a certificate to the 
effect 

(i) That he has during the continuance of the war taken up 
and, so far as reasonably practicable, continued service 
which constitutes a person (other than a person serving 
on full pay as a member of the naval, military or air 
forces of the Crown) a naval or military voter, or 
(ii) That, having been exempted from military service on 
condition of doing work of national importance, he has 
done such work in accordance with the decision and to 
the satisfaction of the appropriate tribunal or authority, 
or 

(iii) That, having obtained an absolute exemption from mili- 
tary service without any such condition, he has (whether 
before or after the 6th February, 1918) been engaged 

(p) See pp. 1623, 27, 28, 45, 46, *npra. 

(q) See pp. 23, 28, 46, 46, supra. 

(r) See p. 11, supra. 

() See sect. 9 (1), pp. 112, 116, 117, supra. 

38 (2) 



590 APPENDIX I. 

in and, so far as reasonably practicable, continued some 
work of national importance (). 

24. If a conscientious objector disqualified as above-mentioned 
would have been entitled to be registered as a parliamentary or 
local government elector but for that disqualification, the dis- 
qualification is not to extend so as to affect the right of his 
wife to be registered as a parliamentary or local government 
elector, as the case may be (w). 

25. A man or woman is not entitled to be registered as a parlia- 
mentary or local government elector, if he or she is not a British 
subject, and nothing in the Act, except as expressly provided, 
is to confer on any person, whether a man or a woman, who is 
subject to any legal incapacity to be registered either as a 
parliamentary or local government elector, any right to be so 
registered (x). 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD. 
March, 1918. 



(t) See sect. 9 (2), pp. 112114, 117121, *upra. 
w) See p. 121, supra. 
*) See sect. 9 (3), pp. 114, 115, 120, 121, ,/</. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO OVERSEERS. 597 



No. 4. 

MEMORANDUM (a) OF INSTRUCTIONS BY 
REGISTRATION OFFICERS TO OVERSEERS 
OR OTHER PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE 
PREPARATION AND PUBLICATION OF 
THE LISTS OF ELECTORS. 

1 . FRANCHISES. 

The Statement as to the Parliamentary and Local Government 
Franchises which accompanies these Instructions will inform you 
generally as to the persons entitled to be registered as parlia- 
mentary and local government electors respectively under the 
Act. 

2. INQUIRIES AS TO PERSONS ENTITLED TO BE EEGISTERED. 

Upon receipt of these instructions you should at once arrange 
for a survey of the parish or other area (6) for which the electors 
lists will be compiled by you, keeping in view the most con- 
venient way of doing this for the purpose of making out the lists 
in alphabetical or in street order (c), as the case may be. The 
rate book will be, of assistance to you in arranging for this survey. 
Hule 6 (c) of the First Schedule to the Act requires a hou~ 
to house or other sufficient inquiry to be made, and having regard 
to the large number of persons who will be entitled to be regis- 
tered in respect of a residential qualification it is essential that 
a house to house inquiry should be made in practically all cases. 
For the purpose of eliciting the necessary information you should 
supply each householder or occupier with Form A. (e) (copies of 
which will be supplied to you). Where there may be more than 
one person in occupation of premises, e.g., a house occupied 
partly as a dwelling-house and partly as business premises, or a 
house comprising flats, or partly let out as unfurnished rooms, 
Form A. should be left with each occupier. In some cases, such 
as a building containing a number of separate dwellings, or 
suites of offices, it may be necessary to obtain information 
from the owner or his agent as to the several occupiers, and for 



(a) This memorandum was sent by the Local Government Board to 
Registration Officers, together with the Directions set out on pp. 579 
588, supra, and is referred to in such Directions at pp. 580 and 582, supra. 

(b) See Rule 1, p. 339, supra, 
tc) See Rule 4, p. 340, supra. 

(d) For this Rule, see p. 341, supra. 

() For this Form, see pp. 556560, suprn. 



598 APPENDIX I. 

this purpose a special Form E. (/), copies of which may be 
obtained from me, should be used, so that when information as to 
these occupiers has been obtained Form A. (g} may be left with 
each of them. This use of Form A. will provide a convenient 
means of ascertaining the persons resident in or occupying pre- 
mises who may be entitled to registration either as parliamen- 
tary or as local government electors. 

Before .leaving the Form you should insert in the space for 
the address the address to which it, if sent by post, is to be 
returned. A rubber stamp can be conveniently used for this 
purpose. The spaces showing the date of delivery of the Form, 
and the number of days within which it, if not called for, is to 
be returned by post, must also be filled in. 

In leaving the Form you should give any explanation you 
think will assist its being filled up. It should usually be called 
'for, as you will then see whether it has been filled in properly. 

In some instances it may be found necessary at a later period 
to make a formal service of Form A. in accordance with Rule 
35 (&), but you should communicate with me before making any 
such formal service explaining the circumstances in which it 
is needed. 

As soon as Form A. (g} has been returned to you, and it has 
been verified so far as may be necessary by the rate book or 
otherwise, you will be in a position to proceed with the making 
up of the lists in the manner required for the purpose of forming 
the register. 

3. MODE OF MAKING OUT ELECTORS LISTS. 

The electors lists will be made out for each registration unit (i) 
in three divisions (&): 

Division I. is to comprise the names of those persons who are 
entitled to be registered both as parliamentary and local govern- 
ment electors. 

Division II. is to comprise the names of those persons who are 
entitled to be registered as parliamentary electors but not as 
local government electors. 

Division III. is to comprise the names of those persons who 
are entitled to be registered as local government electors but 
not as parliamentary electors. 

Each parish will be a registration unit (i) unless the parish is 
contained in more than one voting area, that is, any polling 
district, electoral division, borough and urban district, and any 
ward of a borough, urban district, or parish, or any other area 
for which a separate election is held at which the register is to 
be used. In such a case each part of the parish for which a 

(/) For this Form, see pp. 560 561, supra. 

(g} For this Form, see pp. 556 560, supra. 

(A) For this Rule, see p. 352, supra. 

(i) See Rule 1 , p. 339, supra. 

(*) See Rule 2, pp. 339340, ntpra. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO OVEK6EEKS. 699 

separate part of tlie register is required for the purpose of form- 
ing the register for each voting area will be a registration unit, 
and you will make out separate lists for each registration unit. 

The names in the lists will be entered in alphabetical order 
if ilie registration unit is situated in a parliamentary county, 
and in street order if the unit is situated in a parliamentary 
borough (I). You will therefore make out the lists accordingly, 
unless you receive from me directions to the contrary. 

You will be supplied with sheets corresponding to the form (m) 
prescribed for the register, and you will enter therein the names 
of and other particulars required relative to the electors. As a 
heading to each sheet you will indicate the polling district which 
forms the registration unit or in which the registration unit is 
comprised, and give the name of the parish, or if the parish is 
not the registration unit the description of the unit, and the 
appropriate Division of the lists. You will receive instructions 
from me as to the- particulars to be inserted in the title page- 
for each unit. 

4. ENTRIES IN LISTS. 

(1) In Column 1 you will not make any entries, nor should any 
mavk be placed against the name of any person unless you 
receive special direction from me. 

(2) In Column 2 you will enter the surname and other name 
or names of each person in full, the surname being placed first. 
If the names in the list are to be arranged in street order the* 
names of persons residing or occupying property at the same 
address as shown in column 3 must be placed in strict alpha- 
betical order. 

(3) In Column 3 you will enter the address or description of 
the premises in which the person resided or of the property 
occupied by him on the last day of the qualifying period, which 
is for the purposes of the first register the 15th April, 1918 (n). 
The address of residence or property occupied before that date 
should not be inserted. 

If the person does not reside on the premises you should, 
also enter in this column his or her actual abodo, or if he or 
she has no settled residence the address to which postal com- 
munications will be sent. Thus (abode 34, Duke Street, 
Exeter). In the case of a naval or military voter, however, no 
such address should be entered. 

Where the names are arranged in alphabetical order, the 
name of the parish should not be inserted as part of the address 
of the qualifying premises. Where the names are arranged in 
street order, the name of the street in which is situate the 
qualifying premises should be inserted as a cross heading, and 
the name or number of the premises only should be inserted 
opposite the entry. 

(1} See Rule 4, p. 340, supra. 

(m) For Form of Register, see pp. 577 578, supra. 

(n] See pp. 613 614, infrtt. 



600 APPENDIX I. 

(4) The name of a naval or military voter who is still in occu- 
pation of business premises or of promises in which he would 
be residing but for his service (o) should ordinarily be entered 
in Division I., as he will be a local government voter as well as 
a parliamentary voter. Otherwise naval or military voters should 
be entered in Division II. only. 

(5) In Column 4 of each Division you will make the necessary 
entries, '.showing the nature of the qualification in respect of 
which persons are entitled to be registered. The various quali- 
fications will be indicated by distinguishing letters, as follows: 

E. = residence qualification. 

B. P. = business premises qualification. 

0. = occupation qualification. 

H.O. qualification by virtue of a husband's occupation quali- 
fication. 

N.M. naval or military voter. 

(i) In Division I., Column 4 is sub-divided into two parts for 
parliamentary and local government purposes respectively. 

In the case of a man residing in and occupying the qualifying 
premises, whether business premises or not, the entries 
will be K. in the first sub-division and O. in the second. 

In the case of a man who is qualified as the occupier of busi- 
ness premises and is not resident in the qualifying pre- 
mises, the entries will be B.P. in the first sub-division 
and O. in the second. 

In the case of a naval or military voter who is also in occu- 
pation of premises, the entries will be N.M. in the first 
sub-division and O. in the second. 

In the case of a woman who is resident with her husband in 
premises occupied by him or who is the wife of a, naval 
or military voter and would have so resided with her 
husband but for his service, the entry in each sub- 
division will be H.O. 

In the case of a woman who is herself the occupier of a 
dwelling-house, or of other property of a yearly value 
of not leys than 5, the entry will be O. in each sub- 
division. 

Where a person resides in a dwelling-house which he occupies 
by virtue of service, or in lodgings let unfurnished, 
the entries, respectively, will be, in the case of a man, 
B. and O., and in the case of a woman, O. and 0. 

(ii) In Column 4 of Division II. only single entries will be 
required. 

In the case of a man residing in premises, the entry will be R. 

In the case of a naval or military voter the entry will be 
JN .JM.. 

In the case of a woman who is the wife of a man occupying 
land or premises (not being a dwelling-house) of the 
yearly value of not less than 5, the "entry will be H.O. 

(iii) The entry in Column 4 of Division III. will ordinarily 
be 0. 

(0) See pp 86 91, xi<pr<t. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO OVERSEERS. 601 

The tables appended (/>), which give examples as to the com- 
pilatiou pi the register, indicate how the several columns are 
to be filled. 

These instructions ax to entries in lists must be strictly ad- 
hered to. 

5. NAVAL OR MILITARY VOTERS. 

The general scheme for the registration of naval or military 
voters is explained in the appended memorandum (q). In the 
course of your enquiries you will obtain information as to the 
persons who appear to be entitled to registration as such voters. 
You should keep notes of such cases for*comparison with the cards 
which I shall send containing the statements (/) made by these 
persons as to their right to registration, and you will be thus 
enabled in most cases to place the names in the appropriate 
Division of the lists. The cards should be returned to me when 
dealt with. If any difficulty arises in a particular case you should 
report it to me for further investigation. 

6. DEALING WITH MANUSCRIPT LISTS. 

If your Parish comprises more than one registration unit (s), 
,you are to forward to me the lists for each registration unit as 
and when those lists are made up, without waiting for the com- 
pk'tion of the lists of the whole parish. The draft or a copy 
of the lists should be retained by you. 

The arrangements for printing the liwts will be made by me, 
and you will be informed whether the manuscript lists are to 
be sent to the printers direct, or through me, and also what 
work is to be done in the examination and correction of the 
proofs. . 

7. PUBLICATION OF LISTS. 

When you receive the final prints of the electors lists relating 
to your parish, or to any registration unit forming part of the 
parish, you are to publish those lists () on my behalf in the 
parish or registration unit, as the case may be, on or before the 
loth June, 1918 (*), in the case of the first register, and on 
or before the 1st February () and the 1st August (#) in the 
case of registers in normal years. The mode of publication (y] 
'will be by making copies available for inspection: 

(i) By depositing* a copy in the chief post office in the parish 

* This will be subject to direction by the Postmaster General. 



'/>) See pp. 603604, infra. 
//} See pp. 605609, infra. 

(V) See sect. 5 (2), p. 77, supra, and Forms set out on pp. 571 574, supra. 
s) See Rule 1, p. 339, supra, and paragraph 3, pp. 598599, supra. 
t] See Rules 6 and 7, pp. 341342, *upra. 
(It) See pp. 613614, infra. 
; See Rule 6, p. 341, tttpra. 
(//) See Rule 31, pp. 350351, tup. 



602 APPENDIX I. 

or registration unit to which the lists relate, or if such 
deposit cannot be made, 
(ii) By depositing a copy in some other convenient place 

in that parish or registration unit, and 

(iii) Exhibiting copies in such other manner as I may 
instruct you as is desirable for the purpose of bringing 
the lists to the notice of those interested. 
You are also to publish at the same time and in the same- 
manner the corrupt and illegal practices list '(a?) (if any) wTiich 
will be sent to you. 

The lists when published as above-mentioned must be kept 
so published for f 

and if you find any list to be destroyed, mutilated, defaced, 
or removed you are forthwith to place another copy in its place. 

8. SUPPLY OF FORMS. 

You should be prepared to supply (zz) to any persons, who may 
require them, forms of claim to be registered (a) or to be regis- 
tered correctly (6) (as the case may be) in the electors lists 
and of notices of objection (c) to the registration of persons- 
whose names are included in the electors lists, or of persons 
whose names are included in the list of claimants (d), and I 
will supply you with such number of forms as may be necessary 
for this purpose. 

9. FURTHER INFORMATION. 

It will be your further duty at any time to furnish me with 
any information required by me respecting any persons resident 
in or occupying land or premises in your parish or the removal 
of any person from the parish (e). 

You will keep and furnish to me a record of any cases which 
you discover in making up the lists of persons possessing dupli- 
cate qualifications which may necessitate my striking out the 
name, or placing a mark against the name, of any such persons 
in accordance with Rules 2 (/) and 23 (g) in the First Schedule 
to the Act. 

t The period during which the lists must be kept published will be- 
communicated to you in due course. 

(-) See Rule 8, p. 342, xupra. 
(zz) See Rule 32, p. 351, xupra. 

(a) For Forms, see pp. 562568, supra. 

(b) For Form, see p. 569, supra. 

(c) For Forms, see p. 570, wprti. 

(d) For Forms, see pp. 570 571, supra. 

e) See Rule 7, pp. 341342, supra. 

f) For this Rule, see pp. 339 340, supra. 
See pp. 347348, supra. 



INSTRUCTIONS TO OVERSEERS. 

TABLE I. (ALPHABETICAL OEDEE.) 

DIVISION I. 
Polling District D., Parish of Corting. 



(1) 

Num- 
ber. 


() 

Names in Full 
(surname first). 


(3) 

Kesidence or Property 
Occupied, and 
Abode of Non-Resident 
Occupier. 


(4) 
Nature of 
Qualification . 

. s- 




Brown, Arthur John . . 
Carter, Jessica . . . 


High Court Farm .... 
Rose Cottage, Burley 


R. 0. 
H.O. H.O. 




Carter. William 


Lane. 
Do. 


N.M. 0. 




Green, Samuel 


Shop, Church Road. 


B.P. O. 




Matthews Mabel 


(Abode 34, Duke 
Street, Exeter.) 
Stone House 


O. O. 




Smith, Clarence John . . 


3, Church Row 


R. 0. 




Smith, Elizabeth 


Do 


H.O. H.O 











DIVISION II. 
Polling District D., Parish of Corting. 



(1) 

Num- 
ber. 


(2) 

Names in Full 
(surname first). 


(3) 
Residence or Property 
Occupied , and 
Abode of Non-resident 
Occupier. 


(4) 

Nature of 
Qualification. 




Archer, Henry John . . 


Bell Inn 


R. 




Brown, James Arthur. 
Green, Florence Emily. 


High Court Farm 
Shop, Church Road. 
( Abode 34, Duke 
Street, Exeter.) 


N.M. 
H.O. 



DIVISION III. 
Polling District D., Parish of Corting. 



(1) 

Num- 
ber. 


Names in Full 
(urname first) . 


(3) 

Residence or Property 
Occupied, and 
Abode of Non-resident 
Occupier. 


(4) 

Nature, of 
Qualification. 




Black, Violet Hester.. 


Orchid Villa 


O. 




Jones, Joshuti . 


Land Plough Lane. 


o 






(Abode 15, Dia- 
mond Terrace, 11- 
chester.) 





APPENDIX I. 



(1) 



Num- 
ber. 



TABLE II. (STEEET OEDEE.) 

DIVISION I. 
Polling District D., Parish of Carting. 



(2) 



Names in Full 
(surname first') . 



(3) 


(4) 


1 


Nature of 


1 


Qualification. 


Residence or Property 
Occupied, and 
Abode of Non-resident 
Occupier. 


Parlia- 
mentary. 


Local 
Govern- 
ment. 



QUEEN STREET continued. 

Matthews, Mabel 21 0. O. 

Greeu. Samuel '22. (Abode 34, Duke B.P. O. 

Street, Exeter.) 

Carter, Jessica 23 ! H.O. H.O. 

Carter, William 23 N.M. ! O. 

Smith, Clarence John. 24 ..... R. O. 

Smith, Elizabeth 24 H.O. H.O. 

Brown, Arthur John . . - 25 j E. O. 



DIVISION II. 
Polliny District D., Parish of Carting. 



(1) 


(2). 


(3) 


(4) 




Residence or Property 




Num- 


Names in Full Occupied, and 


Nature of 


ber. 


(surname first). Abode of Non-resident 


Qualification. 






Occupier. 





QUEEN STREET continued. 

Green, Florence Emily 22. (Abode 34, Duke ! H.O. 
Street, Exeter.) 

Brown, James Arthur. 25 . N.M. 

Archer, Henry John. . Bell lun R. 



DIVISION III. 
Polling District D., Parish of Carting. 



0) (2) 

Nuin- Names in Full 
ber. (surname first) . 

1 


(3) 
Residence or Property 
Occupied, and 
Abode of Non-resident 
Occupier. 


(4) 

Nature of 
Qualification. 



QUEEN STREET continued. 
Jones, Joshua 22, Stables. (Abode O. 

15, Diamond Ter- j 

race, Ilehester.) 
Black, Violet Hester.. 26 ! O. 



MEMORANDUM AS TO NAVAL OK MILITARY VOTERS. 605 



NAVAL OB MILITARY VOTEKS (h). 

Section 5 (i) of the Act confers an entirely new electoral 
qualification for persons described, therein as " naval or mili- 
tary voters." These comprise the following classes:- 

1. Persons serving at home or abroad on full pay as members 
of any of the naval, military or air forces of the Crown. 

2. The following persons serving abroad or afloat in connection 
with the war: 

(a) Persons in service of a naval or military character for 

which payment is made out of moneys provided by Par- 
liament or (where they were at the commencement of 
their service resident in the United Kingdom) out of 
the public funds of any of the Dominions. 

(b) Persons in service as merchant seamen, pilots, or fisher- 

men, including masters and apprentices. 

(c) Persons serving in any work of the British Red Cross 

Society or the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in 
England, or any other body with a similar object.* 

(d) Persons serving in any other work recognised by the 

Admiralty, Army Council or Air Council as work of 
national importance in connection with the war.* 
Males in each of the foregoing classes are entitled to be registered 
if they have attained 19 years of age, and females if they have 
attained 30 years of age, on the last day of the qualifying period, 
which in the case of the first register is the 15th April, 1918. 

These naval or military voters are entitled to be registered 
as parliamentary voters for any constituency for which they 
would have had the necessary qualification but for the service 
which under the Act entitled them to be registered as naval or 
military voters. 

The section provides (&) that the statement of any person made- 
in the prescribed form and verified in the prescribed manner 
that he would have had the necessary qualification in any con- 
stituency but for the service which brings him within the pro- 
visions of the section, shall for all purposes of the section bo 
sufficient if there is no evidence to the contrary. 

An Order in Council has been issued prescribing the form (I) 
in which these statements are to be made and verified, and 
arrangements have been made with the Admiralty, the Army 
Council and the Air Council, for the collection, so far as is pos- 
sible, from naval or military voters- of information respecting 1 
any qualification which they would have had but for their ser- 

* See List on pages 608 and 635 of Bodies with a similar object to those 
mentioned in para, (<?) and of organisations recognised by the Admiralty, 
Army Council, or Air Council under para. (d). 

(A) This is the memorandum referred to in the preceding memorandum. 
See p. 601, supra. 

(i) See pp. 7679, supra. 

(k) See sect. 5 (2), p. 77, supra. 

(I) See pp. 571574, supra. 



606 APPENDIX r. 

vice. The forms have been printed in postcard shape, and so 
far as is practicable they will be filled up individually by the 
naval or military voters. In the case of men serving in the 
Forces in distant parts of the world from whom it would not be 
possible to obtain particulars in time for the first registra- 
tion (m), the Record Offices in regard to the Army and the 
Air Force, and the Admiralty in regard to the Navy, will furnish 
such information as they can (n). In this way a large mass 
of information will reach the Registration Officers from all classes 
of naval or military voters. On the other hand, the Registration 
Officers and other officials employed in the compilation of the 
electors lists will, in the course of their canvass, obtain a large 
amount of information with regard to these voters. The Regis- 
tration Officers are accordingly recommended, on receipt of the 
postcards, to dispatch them to the officials engaged in preparing 
the lists in the areas to which the cards relate, so that as far as 
possible they may utilise them, together with the particulars! 
which they will obtain in the course of their canvass, in pre- 
paring the lists of voters. The naval and military voters are, 
by Rule 17 (o) of the First Schedule to the Act, to be placed 
automatically on the absent voters list, unless they notify a 
desire to the contrary or they are registered in respect of actual 
residence. Except in the latter cases, the names of naval or 
military voters will be marked (p) in the register with the 
letter a, and will also be included in the separate list of absent 
voters for the polling district, and the cards should therefore 
be returned by the overseers to the Registration Officer when 
the necessary information contained in them has been noted for 
the purpose of preparing the electors lists. 

The cards in use in the Navy, Marines and Naval Division 
are of a different form from those adopted for other classes of 
naval or military voters, being double cards. It is desired that 
as soon as it is clear that any man in the naval forces will be 
registered, his card should be marked in the space provided, 
showing the constituency in which he will be registered, and the 
card be transmitted to the ship or establishment in which he is 
recorded as serving. Each card will be received in an envelope 
and should be returned in the same envelope re-addressed as 
indicated thereon. The envelopes can, however, be made up in 
packages if there are a number relating to the same ship or 
establishment. 

All other cards than naval cards can be retained by the Regis- 
tration Officer, but it will be necessary that lists should be 
made out of voters in the Army and Air Force according to 
Record Offices (of which a list showing the Corps included under 
each Office will be sent to the Registration Officer), and that 
a copy of the list relating to each Record Office should be 
forwarded to that Office. Those lists should be made and for- 



(/) See pp. 613 614, infra, 

(n) See Rule 18, p. 346, supra. 

(o) For this Rule, see pp. 345 346, supra. 

(p] See note on Form of Register, p. 577, supra. 




MEMORANDUM AS TO NAVAL OR MILITARY VOTERS. 607 

warded as soon as the register is sufficiently advanced to enable 
the Registration Officer to know that the voters will be registered. 
These lists will be kepi up to date by the Record Offices by 
noting changes of posting (which are now very numerous), 
deaths, discharges and other alterations as recorded, and will 
enable them to supply for future registers particulars of the men 
entered as (electors in thei constituency in a imore or less up-to-date 
form. Similarly, if an election takes place they will supply 
the lists as amended, so as to show changes in the addresses 
to which voting papers are to be dispatched (g). 

It is open to the Registration Officers to inquire of the Naval 
or Military Authorities (r) in regard to men of whose registra- 
tion they are in doubt, but it must be realised that so far aai 
particulars connected with registration are concerned those autho- 
rities have no information beyond the name of the individual 
man, his age as entered in the records, and the particulars of 
his next of kin, whose address may or may not be that in respect 
of which he is entitled to be registered. It will thus be of no 
service, generally speaking, to correspond with these Autho- 
rities on other points, and those engaged in the registration; 
will have to depend upon such information as can be collected 
in the locality. It will be remembered that, as noted above, 
the statement of the naval or military voter as to his qualification 
is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, to be sufficient 
for the purpose of registration. 

In cases where inquiry of the Naval or Military Authorities 
is necessary, it should be addressed in the case of the Army 
or the Air Force to the " Officer i/c Records." In the case 
of the Navy and Marines it should be addressed to the Com- 
manding Officer of the Ship or Marine Division (i.e., Chatham, 
Portsmouth, Plymouth, Eastney or Deal) if such is known. In 
other cases application should be made as follows: 

Branch of Service. Department concerned. 

(1) Royal Navy and Royal Naval Admiralty (Seamen's Ser- 
Volunteer Reserve (other than vices Branch), S.W. 1. 
men serving in the Royal Naval 

Division). 

(2) Royal Naval Reserve . . The Registrar General of 

Shipping and Soamen, 
Tower Hill, E. 1. 

(3) Royal Marines . . . Admiralty (Royal Marino 

Office), S.W. 1. 

In the case of the Royal Naval Division, application should 
be made in all cases to the Officer in Charge of Records, 63rd 
(R.N.) Division, 47, Victoria Street, S.W. 1. 

Inquiries cannot be answered unless the name, official number, 
rating or rank, and branch of service can be given. 

(q) See sect. 23, pp. 172 176, supra. 
(r) See Rule 18, p. 346, supra. 



608 APPENDIX I. 

Inquiries as to Officers, whether naval or military, must be 
made to the Officers themselves. 

It will be borne in mind that the right of a person to bet 
registered as a naval or military voter is in addition to any other 
right to be registered (s), and that therefore he can be registered 
in respect of an actual residence qualification in a constituency. 
He must, however, make a claim for the purpose, accompanied 
by a declaration, in the prescribed form, that he has taken reason- 
able steps to prevent his being registered as a naval or military 
voter in another constituency. The qualifying period in such 
a case is one month (). A form () of claim and declaration 
has been prescribed by Order in Council. 

LIST, WITH ADDRESSES FOE COMMUNICATIONS, OF CERTAIN BOWKS 
. WITHIN PARAGRAPH 2 (c). 

British Rod Cross Society. \ The Secretary to the 

Order of St. John of Jerusa- i Joint War Committee of the 

lem in England. British Red Cross and the 

Scottish Women's Hospital. > Order of St. John of Jeru- 

First Aid Nursing Yeomanry salcm in England, 

working for the British. 83, Pall Mall, 

Friends' Ambulance Unit. / London, S.W.I. 

St. Andrew's Ambulance The Secretary, 

Association. 176, West Regent Street, 

Glasgow. 

Other Red Cross organisations, such as the Australian, 
Canadian, South African, American, French, Italian and Serbian 
Red Cross Societies are included under the Paragraph. 

LIST, WITH ADDRESSES FOR COMMUNICATIONS, OF BODIES, 
SERVICE WITH WHOM HAS BEEN RECOGNISED (a?) UNDER PARA- 
GRAPH 2 (d). 

Young Men's Christian Asso- National Headquarters, 
ciation. Tottenham Court Road, 

London, W. 1. 

Salvation Army . . . Salvation Army Headquarters, 

101, Queen Victoria Street, 
London, E.C. 4. 
Church Army . . . Hon. Secretary, 

55, Bryanston Street, 

London, W. 1. 
Scottish Churches Huts . 22, Queen Street, 

Edinburgh. 
Catholic Women's League . \ UQ> ^^ ^^ 

Catholic Olub Huts . . ) London, S.W. 1. 

(*) See sect. 5 (1), pp. 76, 77, and pp. 90, 91, 
(t) See sect. 6, p. 94, and pp. 96, 97, sitpra. 
(M) For this Form, see p. 569, wpra. 
(.r) See p. 637, infra. 



MEMORANDUM AS TO NAVAL OR MILITARY VOTERS. 609 



United Navy and Army 
Board. 

Soldiers' Christian Associa- 
tion. 

The Colonial and Continental 
Church Society. 

Navy and Army Canteen 
Board. 



Wesleyan Army and Navy 
Board. 



4, Southampton Row, 

London, W.C.I. 
296, Vauxhall Bridge Road, 

London, S.W. 1. 
9, Serjeants' Inn, 

Fleet Street, 

London, E.C. 4. 
The Naval Secretary, 
Navy and Army Canteen 
"Board, Imperial Court, 
Knightsbridge, 

London, S.W. 3. 
Rev. J. H. Bateson, 

Secretary, 
Wesle}^an Army and Navy 

Board, 

Central Buildings, 
Westminster, 

London, S.W. 1. 



F. 



39 



APPENDIX I. 



No. 5. 
SCALE OF REGISTRATION EXPENSES a. 



E. P. 8. 

IN PURSUANCE OF THE POWERS CONFERRED BY SECTION 15 OF 

THE EEPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918, WE BEING Two 
OF THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF His MAJESTY'S TREASURY HAVE 
FRAMED THE FOLLOWING SCALES OF EEGISTRATION EXPENSES FOB 
ENGLAND AND WALES. THESE SCALES WILL BE APPLICABLE ONLY 
TO THE FIRST AND SECOND EEGISTERS PREPARED UNDER THE Ad. 



I. 



First 
Register. 
' s. d. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES. 

(a) Registration Officer's Fee. 

(To cover payments to Deputies 
and Clerks.) 

For the first 25,000 electors in the 

Registration Area 250 

For each additional 1,000 electors up 

to 100,000 700 

For each additional 1,000 electors be- 
yond 100,000 600 

(b) Registration Officer's Expenses 

in respect of the remuneration 
of Assistant Overseers and 
other persons, similarly em- 
ployed. 

In a parish where the number of elec- 
tors 

(i) does not exceed 250 for every 
elootor 



(ii) exceeds 250 but does not exceed 
1,000 for every 100 electors 
exceeds 1,000 for every 100 
electors ........................... 

Provided that the minimum 
expenditure which may be in- 
curred under any item of this 
scale shall not be less than the 
maximum under the preced- 
ing item. 



of 

with a. 
raiiiimum 

of 1. 

1 13 4 



Second 
Register. 

s. d. 



>0 
700 
6 



004 

with a 

minimum 

15*. 

1 5 

16 8 



n \ 



SPC sect. 15, pp. 139141, supra, 



SCALE OF REGISTRATION EXPENSES. 611 

First Second 

Register. Register. 

s. d. s. d. 

2. PARLIAMENTARY BOEOUGHS OUTSIDE 

LONDON. 

(a) Registration Officer's Fees. 

(To cover fees to Deputies and 

Clerks, the personal fee of the 

Registration Officer and of any 

deputy or deputies appointed by 

him not to exceed in the aggre- 
gate an amount calculated at the 

rate of 2 10s. -for every 1,000 

electors.) 
For the first 25,000 electors in the 

Registration area 175 175 

For each additional 1,000 electors ... 400 400 

(b) Registration Officer's Expenses 

in respect of the ^remuneration 
of Assistant Overseers and 
other persons similarly em- 
ployed. 
For every 100 electors in the parish... 126 16 8 

3 . PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS IN LONDON. 

(a) Registration Officer's Fee. 

(To cover Fees to Deputy Regis- 
tration Officers). 

For every 1,000 electors in the Regis- 
tration area 2 10 2 10 

(b) Registration Officer's Expenses 

in respect of the remuneration 
of Clerks, Canvassers, &c. 
For every 100 electors in the Regis- 
tration area 1 11 130 

NOTES. Where the payment is for every 1,000 electors or 
100 electors as the case may be, the payment for any number 
in excess of a complete 1,000 or 100 should be calculated pro- 
portionately. 

The number of electors means in the case of the Registration 
Officer's Fee the number registered in the Registration Area, 
in the ca.-e of the remuneration of Assistant Overseers and other 
persons similarly employed the number in the civil parish, and in 
the case of the remuneration of clerks, canvassers, &c., in 
London the number in the Registration Area. 

II. 
PRINTING, &c. EXPENDITURE. 

(1) Where the printing is carried out under arrangements 
made by His Majesty's Stationery Office such amount as may 
be certified by that Department to be the expenditure incurred 
in connection therewith. 

S9 (2) 



612 APPENDIX I. 

(2) Printing carried out directly by the Registration Officer 
and other Out of Pocket Expenditure. 

The actual expenditure supported as far as possible by vouchers 
and certified by a statutory declaration by the Registration Officer 
to the effect that it was necessarily and properly incurred. First 
class railway expenses and subsistence allowance at the rate of 
1 a night when the Registration Officer or his Deputy are neces- 
sarily absent from their homes on account of their registration 
duties will be allowed. 

(Sd.) J. W. PRATT. 
(Sd.) J. TOWYN JONES. 

TREASURY CHAMBERS, 

WHITEHALL, S.W., 

1th March, 1918. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL. 613 



No. 6. 

OEDEE IN COUNCIL UNDEE SECTION 46 (2) (x) 
OF THE EEPEESENTATION OF THE 
PEOPLE ACT, 1918, FIXING THE DATES ON WHICH 
THE FIRST EEGISTER SHALL COME INTO FORCE, AND 
UNTIL WHICH IT SHALL REMAIN IN FORCE, AND 

ALTERING IN CONNECTION THEREWITH THE EEGISTRA- 

TION AND QUALIFYING PERIOD DATES SPECIFIED IN 
THE ACT. 

[N.B. For alterations to this Order, see Order in Council 
of. June 4th, 1918, rule 6, p. 749, infra, and Fifth Schedule, 
p. 152, infra.~\ 

R. P. 3. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 4th day of March, 
1918. 

PRESENT, 
The King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

Whereas under s. 46 (2) of the Eepresentation of the People 
Act, 1918 (herein-after referred to as " the Act "), provision is 
made as follows: 

" Notwithstanding anything in this Act, the first register 

to be prepared under this Act shall come into force on, and 

remain in force until, such date as His Majesty may fix by 

Order in Council, and His Majesty may by any such Order 

alter, in connection with the first register, any registration 

dates, including the dates governing the qualifying period, 

and direct that this Act shall have effect as so altered." 

Xow, therefore, His Majesty is pleased, by and with the advice 

of His Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, as 

follows: 

The first register to be prepared under the Act shall come into 
force on the first day of October, 1918, and shall remain in force 
(unless otherwise ordered) until the fifteenth day of March, 1919, 
and in connection with the first register to be so prepared the 
registration dates and the dates governing the qualifying period 
shall, instead of the dates specified in the Act, be the dates 
specified in the third column of the Schedule to this Order. 

ALMEEIC FixzEov. 
(#) See p. 336, xupra. 



614 



APPENDIX I. 



Schedule. 
^REGISTRATION DATES, &c. 



Sub j ect-matter . 


Date specified in 
Act. 


Substituted 
date. 




15th Jan. July 


15th April 


Publication of lists 


1st Feb. Aug. 


15th June 


Last day for objections to electors 


15th Feb. Aug. 


29th June 


lists 








18th Feb. Aug. 


5th July 


Last day for claims as absent voters. 


18th Feb. Aug. 


5th July 


Publication of list of objections to 


2lst Feb. Aug. 


8th July 


electors lists. 






Publication of list of claimants .... 


24th Feb. Aug. 


13th July 


Last day for objections to claimants. 
Publication of list of objections to 


7th Mar. 4th Sept. 
7th Mar. 4th Sept. 


26th July 
26th July 


claimants (as soon as practicable 






after. 






Publication and coming into force 


15th April Oct. 


1st October 


of register. 







[N.B. Most of these dates have been altered by Order in 
Council dated June 4th, 1918. See rule 6, p. 749, infra, and 
Fifth Schedule, p. 752, infra.'] 



REGISTRATION OFFICERS ORDER, 1918. 615 



No. 7. 

THE REGISTRATION OFFICERS ORDER, 1918, 
MADE IN PURSUANCE OF S. 12 (2) (x}. 

To THE COUNTY COUNCILS of the several Administrative 
Counties named in Column 2 of Schedule A. to this 
Order; 

To the Clerks to the said County Councils; 

To the Councils of the several Municipal Boroughs named in 
Column 2 of Schedule B. to this Order; 

To the Town Clerks of the said Municipal Boroughs; 

And to all others whom it may concern. 

WHEEEAS by sub-section (2) of Section 12 (a?) of the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act, 1918, it is provided that where the 
registration area is a parliamentary county and is coterminous 
with, or wholly contained in, one administrative county, the clerk 
of the county council, and where the registration area is a parlia- 
mentary borough and is coterminous with, or wholly contained in, 
one municipal borough, the town clerk of the borough, shall be 
the registration officer for the area, and that in any other case 
such clerk of the county council, or town clerk, shall be registra- 
tion officer for the area as the Local Government Board may by 
Order direct, subject to any conditions which may be made by the 
Order as to the appointment of deputies for any part of the area; 

And whereas each of the Parliamentary Counties named in 
Column 1 of Schedule A. to this Order is a registration area 
which is jnot coterminous with or wholly contained in one adminis- 
trative county, and each of the Parliamentary Boroughs named in 
Column 1 of Schedule B. to this Order is a registration area 
which is not coterminous with or wholly contained in one 
municipal borough: 

Now THEEEFOEE, in pursuance of Our powers in that behalf, 
We, the Local Government Board, by this Our Order Direct as 
follows: 

AETICLE I. In the case of each of the Registration Areas 
named in the first column of the Schedules A. and B. to this 
Order the person for the time being holding the office of Clerk of 
the County Council, or Town Clerk, as the case may be, specified 
in the second column of those Schedules opposite to the name of 
the Registration Area shall, until We by Order otherwise direct, 
be the Registration Officer. 

AETICLE II. This Order may be cited as " the Registration 
Officers Order, 1918." 

(x) See pp. 130131, supra. 



APPENDIX I. 



SCHEDULE A. 



Name of 
Parliamentary County. 



Registration Officer. 



Chester Clerk of the County Council of Chester. 



Cornwall 

Kent 

Parts of Kesteven and 

Rutland. 
Northampton with the I 

Soke of Peterborough. 

Stafford 

East Sussex 

Brecon and Radnor .... 



Cornwall. 
Kent, 

the Parts of 

Kesteven. 
Northampton. 

Stafford. 
East Sussex. 
Brecon . 



REGISTRATION OFFICERS ORDER, 1918. 617 



SCHEDULE B. 



Name of 
Parliamentary Borough. 1 



Registration Officer. 



Aucriugton Town Clerk of the Borough of Accrington. 

Ashton-under-Lyne. . . . I ,, ,, ,, ,, Ashton-under- 

Lyne. 

Barnsley ,, ,, ,, ,, Barnsley. 

Batley and Morley .... ,, ,, ,, ,, Batley." 

Blackpool ! ,, ,, ,, ,, Blackpool. 

Brighton i ,, ,, ,, , Brightpn. 

Bromley ,, ,, , Bromliy. 

Bury | ,, ,, ,, , Bury. 

Cheltenham j ,, ,, , Cheltenham. 

Dudley ! ,, ,, ,, , Dudley. 

Eccles , , , , , , Eccles. 

Exeter , , , , , , Exeter. 

Grrimsby ,, ,, , , Grimsby. 

The Hartlepools ,, , , West Hartlepool. 

Hythe ,, , , , Folkestone. 

Kingston-upon-Thames. ,, ,, , ,, Kingston- upon - 

Thames. 

Leigh ,, ,, ,, Leigh. 

Lincoln ,, ,, ,, ,, Lincoln. 

Morpeth ,, . , ,, ,, Morpeth. 

Nelson and Colne ,, ,, ,, ,, Nelson. 

Newcastle- under -Ly me. ,, ,, ,, ,, Newcastle-under 

Lyrae. 

Preston ,, ,, ,, ,, Preston. 

Richmond ,, ,, ,, ., Richmond. 

Rochester ,, ,, ,, ,, Chatham. 

Rossendale j ,, ,, ,, ,, Rawten stall. 

Rotherham ,, ,, ,, ,, Rotherham. 

Southampton ,, ,, ,, ,, Southampton. 

Stockton -on -Tees ,, ,, ,, ,, Stoekton-on-Tees. 

Sunderland j ,, ,, ,, Sunderland. 

Wallsend | ,, Wallsend. 

Wednesbury ,, ,, ,, ., Wednesbtiry. 

Wimbledon ,, ,, ,, ,, Wimbledon. 

Wolverharapton ,, ,, ,, ,, Wolverhampton. 

York ,, York. 

Cardiff , , ,, . , ,, Cardiff. 

Carnarvon District of ,, ,, ,, ,, Carnarvon. 

Boroughs. 

Merthyr Tydfil , , , . Merthyr Tydfil . 



Given under the Seal of Office of the Local Government 
Board, this Thirteenth day of February, in the year 
One thousand nine hundred and eighteen. 

W. HAYES FISHER, 
President, 

H. C. MONRO, 

Secretary. 



618 APPENDIX I. 



No. 8. 

CIRCULAE LETTER (a) FROM LOCAL GOVERN- 
MENT BOARD TO REGISTRATION OFFI- 
CERS AS TO POLLING DISTRICTS AND 
POLLING PLACES. 

K. P. 1. 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, 

Whitehall, S.W. 1, 

16th February, 1918. 
SIR, 

I am directed by the President of the Local Government 
Board to state that the Representation of the People Act, 1918, 
which received the Boyal Assent on the 6th instant, makes special 
provision, in substitution for enactments previously in force, in 
regard to the division of parliamentary constituencies into polling 
districts and the appointment of polling places. Sections 31 
and 39 are as follows: 

Section 31. (1) It shall be the duty of the council, whose 
clerk is the registration officer for any constituency or by 
whom the registration officer is appointed, as occasion 
requires, to divide the constituency into polling districts, 
and to appoint polling places for the polling districts in such 
manner as to give to all electors in the constituency such 
reasonable facilities for voting as are practicable in the 
circumstances : 

Provided that, before dividing any constituency in the 
administrative County of London into polling districts, the 
authority therefor shall send a draft of any scheme for that 
purpose to the London County Council, and shall take into 
consideration any representations made to them by that 
Council. 

(2) If a local authority, or not less than thirty electors in a 
constituency, make a representation to the Local Government 
Board that the polling districts or polling places do not meet 
the reasonable requirements of the electors in the con- 
ytituency, or any body of electors, the Local Government 
Board shall consider the representation, and may, if they 
think fit, direct the council whose duty it is to divide the 
constituency into polling districts to make such alterations 
as the Board think necessary in the circumstances, and if the 
council fail to make those alterations within a month after 
the direction is given may themselves make the alterations, 
and any alterations so made shall have effect as if they had 
been made by the council. 

(a) See sect. 13 (1), p. 133, supra ; also p. 134. 



INSTRUCTIONS POLLING DISTRICTS AND PLACES. 619 

In this provision the expression " local authority " means 
as respects any constituency the council of any county, 
borough, urban or rural district, or parish wholly or partly 
situate in the constituency, or the parish meeting of any 
parish so situate where there is no parish council. 

(3) On the exercise of any powers given by this section 
the council by whom the powers are exercised shall send to 
the Local Government Board a report and publish in the 
constituency a notice showing the boundaries of any polling 
districts or the situation of any polling places constituted 
as a result of the exercise of the power. 

(4) An election shall not be questioned by reason of any 
non-compliance with the provisions of this section or any 
informality relative to polling districts or polling places. 

(5) This section shall not apply to University con- 
stituencies. 

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect any polling districts 
or polling places constituted before the passing of this Act 
until occasion arises for the exercise of the powers given 
by this section. 

Section 39. The council having power to divide a con- 
stituency into polling districts shall, not later than one month 
after the passing of this Act, take into consideration the 
division of the constituency into polling districts, a!hd make 
any re-arrangements of those districts and of polling places 
which it appears necessary to make as a consequence of 
alterations effected by this Act. 

It will be observed that under Section 39 the Council are to 
review the polling districts within a month from the 6th instant, 
and Mr. Hayes Fisher requests you to be good enough to bring 
the matter at once to the notice of the Council. 

It is of importance that any alterations in the polling districts 
should be made at the earliest date practicable, as the electors' 
lists must be prepared so as to conform with the polling districts. 
I am to add for your information that the Board, in consulta- 
tion with the Treasury and the Stationery Office, have under con- 
sideration the general arrangements to be adopted throughout the 
country in regard to the printing of the lists and registers, and 
the supply of copies of forms required in connection with the 
preparation of the lists. As soon as the necessary Orders in 
Council prescribing the qualifying period and registration dates 
for the purposes of the first register, and the forms to be used, 
have been issued, a further communication with respect to these 
and the other matters above referred to will be sent to you. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

H. C. MONRO, 

Secretary. 
The Eegistration Officer of the 

Parliamentary County or Borough. 



620 APPENDIX I. 



No. 9. 

CIRCULAR LETTER (a) FEOM LOCAL 
GOVERNMENT BOARD TO REGIS- 
TRATION OFFICERS. 

R. P. 10. 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, 

Whitehall, S.W.I. 

6th April, 1918. 
SIR, 

I am directed by the President of the Local Government 
Board to request that you will be good enough to bring before 
your Council the accompanying copy of the circular letter dated 
the 20th ultimo addressed to you in your capacity as Registra- 
tion Officer of the Parliamentary County or Borough on the 
subject of the procedure in relation to the registration of electors 
under tjie Representation of the People Act, 1918. 

EXPENSES. 

Ari the Council are responsible for the payment of registration 
expenses, subject to contributions by other Councils in certain 
cases, Mr. Hayes Fisher desires that the attention of the Council 
should be directed in particular to the paragraphs in the circular 
relating to such expenses. A copy of the scale of expenses 
framed by the Treasury should also be laid before the Council. 

In connection with this matter, it will be borne in mind that 
the expenses in the case of a county are to be paid out of the 
county fund, and if necessary as expenses for special county 
purposes, in the case of a borough out of the borough fund or 
rate or, if there is no borough fund or rate, out of the fund or 
rate out of .which the ordinary expenses of the council are paid, 
in the case of an urban district out of the general district rate, 
and in the case of a metropolitan borough as general expenses. 

The Council are empowered on the request of the Registra- 
tion Officer to make to him, in respect of his expenses, advances 
of such amount and subject to such conditions as the Council 
may approve. 

The attention of the Council should also be drawn to the last 
paragraph but one on page 5 of the circular with regard to the 
suggested arrangement, with the consent of the Council, for the 
use of existing office accommodation. Mr. Fisher lias no doubt 
that, in view of the great need for economy, the Council will be 
willing to do all in their power to facilitate such an arrangement. 

(a) See sect. 13 (1), p. 133, supra; also p. 134. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 

ORDER OF NAMES IN EEGISTER. 

A^ stated in the circular letter, the names in the register 
of a registration unit in a parliamentary borough will be 
arranged in street order, unless the Council whose Clerk is the 
Registration Officer considers, having regard to the general 
character of the area forming the unit that this arrangement is 
inapplicable. If the unit is in a parliamentary county the names 
will be arranged in alphabetical order, unless the Council whose 
Clerk is the Kegistration Officer considers that arrangement in 
street order is possible and convenient. (Schedule I., Rule 4.) 

In many municipal boroughs and urban districts in a parlia- 
mentary county, arrangement of the names in street order will 
no doubt be the most convenient method, and in some parlia- 
mentary boroughs there may be registration units where the 
names can only be arranged in alphabetical order. Any direc- 
tion by the Council in cases of the kind should be given at the 
earliest possible moment, so that the electors lists may be 
prepared with the names in the appropriate order. 

VACANCY IN OFFICE OF EEGISTRATION OFFICER. 

In the event of any vacancy in the office of clerk of the 
county council or of town clerk or clerk to the urban district 
council it will rest with the chairman of the county council, the 
mayor, or the chairman of the urban district council, as the 
case may be, to appoint a person temporarily to perform the 
duties of the Registration Officer. 

POLLING DISTRICTS AND POLLING PLACES. 

The circular letter addressed to Eegistration Officers on the 
16th February drew attention to the provisions of Sections 31 and 
39 of the Act relative to the division of constituencies into polling 
districts and the appointment of polling places. 

In those cases where any rearrangement of polling districts or 
polling places has become necessary as a consequence of the 
alterations of the areas of constituencies, the Board will be glad 
to receive as soon as possible a report as to the boundaries of the 
polling districts and the situation of the polling places, in accor- 
dance with Section 31 (3) of the Act, if such a report or a copy of 
the order or direction of the Council has not already been 
transmitted. 

In cases where no alteration of the polling districts or of the 
polling places in a constituency has been found to be necessary, 
the Board would be obliged by being furnished if practicable 
with a copy of the order or direction of the local authority, made 
or given before the passing of the Act, fixing the present polling 
districts and polling places. 

In the cases of some parliamentary boroughs, difficulty is 
understood to have been experienced in regard to the appoint- 
ment of polling places in consequence of there being no building 
in the polling district which can be stated as available 
for the purposes of the poll. The Board are not prepared to 
say that a polling place should not in any circumstances be out- 



622 APPENDIX I. 

side the polling district, but wherever a suitable building for the 
purpose is or can be made available within the polling district 
the polling place should be within the district. Generally they 
consider that any school or other building known to be available 
for the poll might be designated as the polling place. If there 
is 110 such school or other building it would seem to be sufficient 
to describe the appointed polling place as a suitable building in 
or as near as practicable to a particular street, or square, or 
other well-known place in the polling district. The number of 
polling stations to be provided at each polling place will be 
determined by the Eeturning Officer, in accordance with Rule 15 
in the First Schedule to the Ballot Act, 1872. 

In parliamentary counties, the Board themselves raise no 
objection to the continuance of the practice hitherto followed 
of designating the polling place by the name of the particular 
village or parish in which the polling place is situated, if it is not 
practicable to define the place more closely. The Board observe 
that in some instances where a town or other area has been 
divided into more than one polling district the name of the town 
or other area has been given as the polling place for each poll- 
ing district. It is not clear, therefore, where the polling place 
of any particular district is, in fact, situated. The Board con- 
sider that it is desirable in such a case to adopt a similar method 
to that mentioned in the preceding paragraph by distinguishing 
the polling place by reference to a building or some known place 
in the polling district. 

Having regard to Rule 26 in the First Schedule to the new 
Act, it is desirable that each polling district should be dis- 
tinguished by a separate letter. 

There is another point to which reference may be made. In 
parliamentary boroughs which existed before the /new Act, the 
polling place or booth was fixed by the Returning Officer, for the 
purposes of the particular election at which the booth was 
required. The Board doubt whether the building or booth thus 
fixed by the Returning Officer can be regarded as a polling 
place constituted before the passing of the new Act within the 
meaning of Section 31 (6) of the Act. It is desirable, therefore, 
that polling places should be appointed in these cases although 
no alteration of the polling districts may have been made. 

So far as regards the publication of the boundaries of polling 
districts and the situation of polling places, in accordance with 
Section 31 (3), the Board think that this may be done by adver- 
tisement in the manner hitherto adopted under Section 34 of the 
Representation of the People Act, 1867, or by placards posted in 
the constituency, or otherwise in such manner as may be found 
most convenient for the purpose of bringing the matter to the 
notice of persons interested. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

H. C. MOXRO, 

Secretary. 

To the Clerk of the County Council or 
Town Clerk or 

Clerk to the Urban District Council. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 623 



No. 10. 

CIRCULAR LETTER (a) FROM LOCAL 
GOVERNMENT BOARD TO REGIS- 
TRATION OFFICERS. 

E. P. 12. 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, 

Whitehall, S.W.I. 

Wth April, 191$. 

SIR, 

I am directed by the Local Government Board to advert to 
the remarks in their circular letter of the 20th ultimo as to the 
inquiries to be made by Registration Officers for the purpose of 
ascertaining the names of persons entitled to be registered as 
electors. 

ACCESS TO FOOD REGISTERS. 

It has been represented that access to the information 
afforded by the Pood Registers under the control of Local Food 
Committees would be of considerable assistance to Registration 
Officers, more especially as disclosing the names of householders 
or heads of families by whom it is desired that statements in 
Form A. prescribed by the Order in Council should be made. The 
Board are informed by the Ministry of Food that the Food Con- 
troller raises no objection to the Executive Officers of the Local 
Food Committee and the Registration Officers making their own 
arrangements to assist one another. It will be understood, how- 
ever, that the information thus obtained by Registration Officers 
must be treated as strictly confidential and that in no circum- 
stances should such information be disclosed or be used other- 
wise than for the purpose of facilitating the preparation of the 
electors lists and register. 

NAVAL OR MILITARY VOTERS. 

Another matter to which the Board desire to refer is the 
registration of naval or military voters. The special memo- 
randum R.P.7 appended to the Instructions to Overseers, of 
which copies accompanied the circular, indicated the arrange- 
ments wnich have been made for dealing with the cards 
containing the statements by naval or military voters as to their 
qualifications to be registered. The Board feel that under 
present conditions there may be considerable delay in the trans- 
mission of the cards of naval or military voters to the Registra- 
tion Officer and that in some cases there may be miscarriage of 
the cards. The Registration Officer will, of course, realise the 



) See sect. 13 (1), p. 133, supra; also p. 



134. 



624 APPENDIX I. 

importance of securing the registration of all naval or military 
voters entitled to be registered, and of obtaining in the case 
of persons serving in the Forces the necessary information as to 
regiment, ship, number, etc., which will be required for 
the purpose of addressing communications to these voters to 
enable them to record their votes as absent voters. The Record 
Offices, it is understood, would probably be unable to furnish 
these particulars in the absence of means of identifying the 
voters. It is therefore desirable that the overseers or other 
persons employed in making inquiries should take especial care 
to ensure that the particulars as to description of service, 
regiment, ship, number, etc., indicated in the heading to the 
4th column of He turn No. 5 in Form A., are correctly filled in, 
and that any of these particulars otherwise obtained in the course 
of their inquiries are carefully recorded. In any cases where 
the particulars obtained in the course of the inquiries are 
found to differ from those contained in the card filled in by the 
voter, the Registration Officer should require the case to be 
reported to him, but the name of the voter should be included 
in tjie electors lists as well as in the separate list referred to 
below. 

The Board have under consideration the question of the 
form in which the Absent Voters List should be made out, 
and they will shortly address a communication to the Registra- 
tion Officer on the subject. In order to facilitate the preparation 
of this list and to ensure that the particulars above mentioned 
as to description of service, regiment, etc., of naval or military 
voters which are given in Form A., or otherwise obtained, 
may be available for the purposes of the record of addresses "to 
be kept by the Registration Officer, it may be of advantage that 
the overseers should, when making out the electors lists, make a 
separate list of naval or military voters containing in three 
columns (a) the names of the naval or military voter, surname 
first, (b) the qualifying premises and (c) the description of 
service, regiment, ship, number, rank, etc. The names in this 
separate list should be in the same order as they appear in the 
electors lists. Columns (a) and (b) will contain the same entries 
as those in columns (2) and (3) of the electors lists, whilst the 
particulars in column (c) will be those obtained from Form A., or 
otherwise. The separate list should be headed so as to show the 
name of the constituency and the polling district or registration 
unit. 

PEG VISION OF BALLOT BOXES, &c. 

It has been represented to the Board that, in view of the 
increased electorate and the requirement of the Act that at a 
general parliamentary election all polls shall be held on one 
day, the existing provision of ballot boxes and stamping instru- 
ments will be insufficient and that it will be necessary, having 
regard to present conditions, for early steps to be taken to make 
up the deficiency. H.M. Stationery Office are making arrange- 
ments for the supply of ballot boxes and stamping instruments 
where necessary and it is the view of the Treasury that Registra- 
tion Officers should not obtain these independently, and that, 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRA/riO.V OFFICERS. 

unless a definite contract has already been made, they should 
cancel any arrangements entered into for the purpose. 

In order to avoid unnecessary expense in new purchases 
the Registration Officer should ascertain at the earliest prac- 
ticable date the precise number of ballot boxes and stamping 
instruments which would be available, including those in the 
possession of any local authority in the registration area, for 
a general parliamentary election. In addition to ballot boxes 
and stamping instruments in the hands of local authorities 
which could be utilized, the Deputy Sheriff or other person who 
has ^conducted parliamentary elections in the past may have a 
number of these in his possession, and inquiry should be made 
of him as to this and whether they can be handed over to the 
Acting Returning Officer or otherwise made available for his 
use. 

When this information has been obtained the Eegistration 
Officer should at once forward to the Superintendent of Stores, 
H.M. Stationery Office, Westminster, London, S.W. 1, a state- 
ment showing (a) the number of ballot boxes, etc., available; 
(b) the additional number estimated to be required; and (c) the 
basis upon which the estimate is arrived at, e.g., the number of 
polling places in the registration area and of the polling stations 
at each such polling place. 

WORK RECOGNISED UNDER SECTION 5 (3) (ii) (c). 

The Board may add that the work of the Young Women's 
Christian Association (25 and 26, George Street, Hanover Square, 
London, W. 1) has been recognised (w) by the Admiralty, Army 
Council and Air Council under Section 5 (3) (ii) (c) of the new 
Act as work of national importance in connection with the war, 
so that persons serving abroad or afloat under the Associa- 
tion in connection with the war are entitled to be registered for 
any constituency for which they would have had the necessary 
qualification but for their service. The name and address of this 
Association should accordingly bo regarded as added to the list 
of bodies under paragraph 2 (c) on pages 5 and 6 (x] of the 
Memorandum as to Naval or Military Voters (II. P. 7). 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

H. C. MONRO, 

Secretary. 
To the Registration Officer. 

(if) See p. 635, infra. 

(x) See pp. 608, 609, *M/vr. 



V. 



40 



626 APPENDIX I. 

No. 11. 

CRDE1I IN' COUNCIL, DATED 
MARCH 22ND, 1918. 

[N.B. For alterations to this Order, see Order in Council of 
June 4th, 1918, rules 6 and 10, p. 749, infra.'] 

WHEREAS under the Representation of the People Act, 1872, 
(hereinafter referred to as " the Act "), various matters are to 
be prescribed by His Majesty by Order in Council: 

And whereas in particular provision is made by the Act as 
follows: 

" Notwithstanding anything in this Act, the first register 
to be prepared under this Act shall come into force on, and 
remain in force until, such date as His Majesty may fix 
by Order in Council, and His Majesty may by any such 
Order alter, in connection with the first register, any regis- 
tration dates, including the dates governing the qualify- 
ing period, and direct that this Act shall have effect as so 
altered" (s. 46 (2)) (a): 

" His Majesty may by Order in Council prescribe the 
forms to be used for registration purposes and any fees to 
be taken in connection therewith, and alter the rules con- 
tained in the First Schedule to this Act for the purpose 
of carrying this Act into full effect " * * * (s. 13 (2)) (6): 
" The statement of any person, made in the prescribed 
form and verified in the prescribed manner, that he would 
have had the necessary qualification in any constituency 
but for the service which brings him within the provisions 
of this section, shall for all purposes of this section be suffi- 
cient if there is no evidence to the contrary " (s. 5 (2)) (c). 
And whereas by two Orders in Council dated the 4th day of 
March, 1918 (d] (hereinafter referred to respectively as the 
"dates order" and the "forms order"), provision was made 
with respect to the dates applicable to the first register to be 
prepared under the Act, and the forms to be used for registra- 
tion purposes respectively: 

And whereas the forms order does not apply to Scotland and 
Ireland and it is necessary to prescribe forms for use in Scotland 
and Ireland respectively: 

And whereas it is expedient, in order to avoid any question 
which may arise, to comply as respects England and Wales and as 
respects Ireland with the provisions of the Rules Publication 
Act, 1893, both as to the matters for which provision has been 
already made by the dates order and the forms order, and as to 
the forms to be prescribed for Ireland under this order, and it 
is necessary on account of urgency that any order providing for 
Ihe matters dealt with by this order should come into operation 
forthwith: 

Now, THEREFORE, His Majesty is pleased, by and with the 

(a) See p. 336, supra. (b) See pp. 133, 134, supra. 

(e) See p. 77, supra. 

(d] See pp. 613, 614 and 655578 respectively. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL. 



advice of His Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, 
as follows: 

1. The dates affecting the first register to be prepared under 
the Act, including the registration dates and the dates govern- 
ing the qualifying period, shall, instead of the dates specified in 
the Act, be the dates specified in the third column of the Sche- 
dule (e) to the dates order, and in addition the date mentioned 
in Rule 17 of the First Schedule to the Act shall for the 
purposes of that register (instead of the 18th day of February 
[August]) be the 5th day of July(e). 

2. The forms specified in the Schedule (g] to the forms order 
or forms to the like effect shall be used in the cases to which 
they are expressed to be applicable and shall for the purposes of 
the Act be deemed to be the prescribed forms for England and 
Wales. 

3. The forms specified in the Schedule to the forms order under 
Heading V. (h) (Forms of statement to be made under sec- 
tion 5 (2) of the Act), and HeacLing VII. (*) (Forms of notice 

eal) 



of appeal) or forms to the like effect shall be used in the cases 
to which they are expressed in that Schedule to be applicable and 
shall for the purposes of the Act be deemed to be the prescribed 
forms not only for England and Wales but for the United 
Kingdom. 

4. In particular- the forms of statement under Heading V. (h), 
in the Schedule to the forms order or forms to the like effect 
shall for the whole United Kingdom be deemed to be the pre- 
scribed forms of statement that a person would have had the 
necessary qualification but for the service which brings him 
within the provisions of section 5 of the Act, and shall be veri- 
fied by being countersigned by an officer or other person in the 
manner shown in the forms. 

5. The forms specified in Part I. of the Schedule to this order 
or forms to the like effect shall be used in the cases to which they 
are expressed to be applicable and shall for the purposes of the 
Act be deemed to be the prescribed forms for Scotland. 

6. The forms specified in Part II. of the Schedule to this order 
or forms to the like effect shall be used in the cases to which they 
are expressed to be applicable and shall for the purposes of the 
Act be deemed to be the prescribed forms for Ireland. 

7. This order shall take effect from the date hereof, and, except 
as respects Scotland, shall take effect provisionally in accordance 
with tho provisions of section. 2 of the Rules Publication Act, 1893. 

ALMEBIC FrrzRoY. 



SCHEDULE. 

[Forms for fr'otJnnd and It'el<uid.~] 

(e} The dates prescribed by the Order in Council of June 4th, 1918, 
Lave been substituted for the dates here referred to. See rule 6, p. 749, 
infra, and Fifth Schedule, p. 752, infra. 
*(g) See pp. 556 578, supra. (h) See pp. 571674, supra. 

(i) See pp. 575, 576, tupra. 

40(2) 



628 APPENDIX I. 

No. 12. 

KULES MADE BY THE ADMIRALTY IN 
PURSUANCE OF SECT. 41 (10) (y) FOR THE 
PURPOSE OF THE INTERPRETATION OF 
THE EXPRESSION "AFLOAT" IN SECT. 5 

(3) (ii) (*). 

The expression " afloat in connection with the war " means 
any person employed under Admiralty directions who is living 
on board any of His Majesty's ships or any ship or hulk pro- 
vided for his accommodation by the Admiralty. 

No. 13. 

CIRCULAR LETTER (*) FROM LOCAL GOVERN- 
MENT BOARD TO REGISTRATION 
OFFICERS. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT BOARD, 
Whitehall, S.W. 1, 

13th May, 1918. 
SIR, 

I ,arn directed by the President of the Local Government 
Board to advert to the circular letter of the 10th ultimo, in 
which reference was made to certain matters arising under the 
Representation of the People Act, 1918, and in particular to the 
registration of naval or military voters. 

REGISTRATION OF NAVAL OR MILITARY VOTERS. 

In the circular the Board pointed out that under present 
conditions there might be miscarriage, or delay in the return to 
the Registration Officer, of the postcards containing the state- 
ments anade by naval or military voters of their qualifications to 
be registered under section 5 (&) of the Act, and that therefore 
special care was desirable to obtain as full information as possible 
from local sources as to naval or military voters in order to secure, 
not only that they should be included in the electors lists, but 
also that the particulars as to description of service, regiment, 
ship, etc., should be recorded for the purpose of their voting as 
absent voters. Some misapprehension would, however, appear to 
exist as to the right of a naval or military voter to be registered 
unless a postcard containing the prescribed form of statement 

(y) See p. 308, upr. (z) See p. 77, supra. 

(a) See sect. 13 (1), p. 133, wpra. (8) See pp. 7679, supra. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 

under sub-section (2) (c) of the section has been received. The 
effect of the sub-section is that the statement of the naval or 
military voter as to his qualification is to be taken as sufficient in 
the absence of evidence to the contrary. It must, however, be 
borne in mind that any person to whom section 5 of the Act 
applies is entitled to be registered as a parliamentary elector for 
any constituency in which he would have had the necessary 
qualification but for the service which brings him within the 
section, and if, in the case of any naval or military voter, the 
Registration Officer is satisfied from the evidence obtained by 
local enquiry or otherwise that such voter would, but for his 
service, have possessed the qualification to be registered for the 
constituency, it is the duty of the Registration Officer to cause 
the name of the voter to be entered in the electors lists. If 
a postcard is subsequently received from the voter any necessary 
correction in the entry of the name should of course be made by 
the Registration Officer in the revision of the lists. 

The Boa.rd have received some inquiries as to the manner in 
which the cases of naval or military voters who possess an actual 
residence qualification in a constituency should be dealt with in 
preparing the electors lists and registers. Some men in the 
Forces have, by reason of the nature of their duties, been actually 
residing in a particular constituency for more than six months, 
although the constituency is not that in which they would have 
resided but for their service. In such a case a naval or military 
voter is by virtue of section 5 (1) of the Act not entitled 
to 'be registered in the constituency in which he is residing 
unices he makes a claim in the prescribed form to be regis- 
tered in respect of his actual residence qualification in the 
constituency, and makes the necessary declaration as to the steps 
taken by him to prevent his being registered in any other 
constituency for a residence qualification which, he would have had 
but for his service. In such cases Form III. (d) can be supplied 
for the use of the voter. 

The Board understand that in some cases a man although he 
has taken up service which brings him within the provisions of 
section 5 of the Act has not ceased to reside in premises in the 
constituency in respect of which he would have been qualified to 
be registered in the ordinary way but for such service. The 
Board do not think that t is necessary in any such case for u claim 
to be made in respect of an actual residence qualification, as it is 
obvious that a declaration cannot be made by him that he has 
taken steps to prevent his being registered for another con- 
stituency. The voter should be registered in the electors lists in 
the ordinary way but his qualification should be described as N.M. 
like other naval or military voters and he should be entered sub- 
sequently in the absent voters list unless he gives notice to the 
Registration Officer that he does not desire to l)e placed on that 
list in accordance with Rule 17 (e] in the First Schedule to the 
Act, 






(r) See p. 77, supra 
(d\ See p. 569, snpr>i. 
. See pp. 345, 346, <; 



t>;JO APPENDIX 1. 



DELIVERY OF CARDS. 

The Registration Officer should now be receiving the postcards 
containing the statements of naval or military voters. In order 
to facilitate the return to the proper Registration Officer of the 
completed cards which are to be distributed to the different classes 
of naval or military voters by the Admiralty, Army Council, Air 
Council, Board of Trade, Board of Agriculture and [Fisheries and 
the various Organisations whose work comes within section 5 of 
the Act, lists of place names indicating the parliamentary areas in 
which places are situate have been supplied to the Government 
Departments and the Organisations so that the officers verifying 
the statements of the voters might be able to insert in the address 
the name of the parliamentary county or borough. In general 
therefore the cards will bear the proper address and will be 
received [by the 'Registration Officer in the ordinary course of post. 

In some cases, however, loss of time may be occasioned through 
a card bearing only the name of the county or. the name of a town 
other than that in which the office of the Registration Officer is 
situated. The Postmaster-General has issued instructions which 
it is hoped will secure as far as practicable that such cards are 
delivered at the office of the Registration Officer of the parlia- 
mentary borough or parliamentary county to which the qualify- 
ing address relates. A certain number of cards may nevertheless 
reach a Registration Officer which do not relate to qualifying 
addresses within his registration area, e.g., a card may relate 
to an address in an adjacent parliamentary county or to a par- 
liamentary borough in the county. It is desirable therefore that 
immediately on the receipt of a card the Registration Officer 
should cause the qualifying address to be verified so as to ensure- 
that the address is in his area. If on examination he finds that 
the qualifying address relates to another registration area in 
England or Wales, it is requested that he will at once forward 
the card to the Registration Officer of that area if he is able to 
identify the area. If the information is insufficient for this 
purpose, the card should at once be sent to the Superintendent 
on Duty, Inland Section, Mount Pleasant, London, E.G. 1. If 
the qualifying address on the card shows that it relates to a 
constituency in Scotland, it should be forwarded to the General 
Register Office, Edinburgh, or if to a constituency in Ireland to 
the Superintendent on Duty, Sorting Office. Dublin. 

There may be special difficulty in regard to the cards relating 
to qualifying addresses in the case of the geographical counties of 
Yorkshire, Sussex, Lincolnshire and Suffolk which comprise two 
or more parliamentary counties. If the cards have been addressed 
to the Registration Officer, Yorkshire, Sussex, etc., the Post Office 
will be in doubt to which Registration Officer the cards should be 
sent. Arrangements have therefore been made for all cards thus 
addressed to be forwarded by the Post Office to one Registration 
Officer in each of these geographical counties who will distribute 
to the other Registration Officers in that county the cards relating 



DIRECTIONS TO REGLSTRAT1ON OFFICERS. 631 

to their registration areas. The Registration Officer \vlio has 
undertaken the distribution in each of the counties is: 

1. Yorkshire ... Registration Officer for the County of 

Yorks (West Biding), Wakefield. 

2. Lincolnshire ... Registration Officer for the County of 

the Parts of Lindsey, Lincoln. 

3. Sussex Registration Officer for the County of 

East Sussex, County Hall, Lewes. 

4. Suffolk ... ... Registration Officer for the County of 

East Suffolk, Ipswich. 

The Registration Officer of any other parliamentary county or 
borough who receives a card relating to any one of the four 
counties mentioned and is unable .to identify the particular parlia- 
mentary county to which it relates might adopt the same course. 

Appended to this Circular is a list of the parliamentary counties 
comprising more than one administrative county and of the 
parliamentary boroughs containing more than one municipal 
borough or urban district, indicating the Registration Officer for 
each such parliamentary county or borough. 

The difficulty of securing the registration of naval or military 
voters is very greatly increased owing to the present war con- 
ditions, and much additional labour may be thrown on Regis- 
tration Officers. Mr. Hayes Fisher feels sure, however, that 
every Registration Officer will by reciprocal action as above 
suggested do what is possible to ensure that every card reaches 
its proper destination. 



TITLE PAGE FOR ELECTORS LISTS. 

Some inquiries have been made as to the form of a title page 
for the electors lists for each Registration Unit. 

It has not been thought necessary to prescribe a form for the 
purpose, and the Registration Officer will determine the precise 
particulars which the page should include. The Board consider, 
however, that in view of the need for economy there should be 
onlv one title page for the unit which will be prefixed to Division 
One of the electors lists. The Registration Officer will direct 
what references to areas in addition to the constituency, polling 
district (with its distinctive letter) and registration unit shall be 
given on the title page. The particulars indicating the contents 
of each of the three divisions of the electors lists and the 
abbreviations used in the fourth column relating to the nature of 
the qualifications which are prescribed with the Form of Register 
by Order in Council should also appear on the front or on the 
back of the title page. The description of the marks against tho 
names of electors should not appear on the title page for the 
electors lists, as marks will be placed, where necessary, by tho 
Registration Officer in the course of making up the register and 
the description can then be inserted. The Board do not think 
that it is necessary to include in the headings of any of the sheets 
in Division One or Divisions Two and Three any more com- 



APPENDIX I. 



prehensive particulars than arc indicated in the register sheets 
supplied by the Stationery Office for the purpose of entering up 
the electors lists. 

ABSENT VOTERS LIST. PUBLICATION OF DOCUMENTS, &c. 

The Board desire to add that the Absent Voters List will not 
bo published with the electors lists but is to be prepared by the 
Registration Officer subsequently to the publication of the electors 
lists. The separate list of naval or military voters suggested in 
the Circular of 10th April (/) is intended to facilitate the prepara- 
tion of the Absent Voters List and more particularly to secure 
that particulars as to the ship, regiment, number, etc., of the 
naval or military voters should be obtained so as to be entered 
in the record of the addresses of absent voters. 

A further circular will shortly be addressed to the Registration 
Officer as to the form of the Absent Voters List and as to the 
period for keeping documents published. The Board will also 
furnish for the use of Registration Officers a model form of notice 
as to the manner of and time for making claims and objections 
which under Rule 6 (gr) in Schedule I. of the Act is to bo 
published at the same time as the electors lists. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 



H. C. MONRO, 

Secretary. 



To the Registration Officer. 



PARLIAMENTARY COUNTIES CONTAINING MORE THAN ONE COUNTY. 



Parliamentary Counties contained in 

County. Parliamentary County. 

Cornwall . 



Parts of Kesteven 



Registration 

Officer. 



Cornwall, Isles of Scilly.. j Clerk of the County 
Council of Coruwall. 



Lincoln (Parts of Kent- 



(Lincolnshire) and even), Rutland. 
Rutland. 

Northampton, with [ Northampton, Scke of 

the Soke of Peter- i Peterborough. 
hi ) rough. 

Brecon and Raduor. . j Brecon, Radnor 



Clerk of the County 
Council of Parts of 
Kesteven . 

Clerk of the County 
Council of North- 
ampton. 

Clerk of the County 
Council of Brecon. 



(/) See pp. 023, 624, *pra. 
Iff} See p. 341, .supra. 



DIRECTIONS TO REGISTRATION OFFICERS. 



633 



PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGHS CONTAINING MORE THAN ONE BOROUGH 
OR URBAN DISTRICT. 



Pa vl ia men ta r y 
Borough. 


Boroughs or Urban District* 
contained in 
Parliamentary Borough. 


Registration 
Officer. 


Accrington 


Accrington Church Clay- 


Town Clerk 


Asliton-under-LyiKj. . 
Barnsley 

Batley and Morley . . 
Blackpool , 


ton-le-Moors, Owald- 
twistle, Rishton. 
Ash ton- under- Lyne, 
Hurst. 
Barnsley, Ardsley, Dar- 
ton, Monk Bretton. 
Batley, Morley, Osnett . . 
Blackpool Binpham with 


Accrington. 

Town Clerk, Ashton- 
uuder-Lyiie. 
Town Clerk, 
Barnsley. 
Town Clerk, Batley. 
Town Clerk, 


Brighton 


Norbreck, Lytham and 
St. Anne's-on-the Sea. 
Brighton, Hove 


Blackpool. 
Town Cierk, 


Broinley 


Bromlev, Beckenhain, 


Brighton. 
Town Clerk, 


Bury 


Peuge. 
Bury, Tottington 


Bromley. 
Town Clerk, Bury. 


'Cheltenham 


Cheltenham Charlton 


Town Clerk, 


Eccles 


Kings. 
Eccles, Swinton and Peii- 


Cheltenham. 
Town Clerk, Eccles. 


'Grirosby 


dlebury. 
Grimsbv Clee^horpes . . 


Town Clerk, 


The Hartlepools 
Hythe 


Wet Hartlepool, 
Hartlepool. 
Hythe, Folkestone, 


G-rimsby. 
Town Clerk, 
West Hartlepool. 
Town Clerk, 


Kingston- upon - 
Thames. 

Leigh 


Cheriton, Sandgate. 
Kingston - upon - Thames, 
Surbilon, Maidens and 
Combe. 
Leigh, Atherton, Tyldes- 


Folkestone. 
Town Clerk, 
Kingston -upon- 
Thanies. 
Town Clerk, Leigh, 


Lincoln 


ley-with-Shakerley. 
Lincoln, Bracebridge .... 


Lanes. 
Town Clerk, Lincoln. 


Morpeth 


Morpeth, Ashington, Bed- 


Town Clerk, 


Neluon and Colne . . 

^Newcastle- under - 
Lyme. 

Preston 


lingtonshii-e, Blyth and 
some email adjacent 
areas. 
Colne, Neleou, Barrow- 
ford, Brierfield, Traw- 
den and some small adja- 
cent areas. 
Newcastle - under - Lyme, 
Audley, Wolstanton 
United. 


Morpeth. 
Town Clerk, Nelson. 

Town Clerk, New- 
castle-under-Lyme. 

Town Clerk, Preston. 


Richmond 


Richmond, Barries, Ham 


Town Clerk, Rich- 




Chatham, Grillingham, 


mond, Surrey. 
Town Clerk, 




Rochester. 


Chatham. 



634 



APPENDIX I. 



Parliamentary 
Borough. 


Boroughsor Urban Districts 
contained in 
Parliamentary Borough. 


Registration 
Officer. 


Rossendulf . . . 


Bacup, Hasliugden, Rn,\v- 


Town Clerk 


Rotherham 


tenstall. 
Rotherham, Grreasbrough, 


Rawtenstall. 
Town Clerk, 


Southampton . ... 


Rawmarsh 
Southampton. Itchen, 


Rotherham. 
Town Clerk, 


8tocktou-on-Tees. . . . 
Sunderland . . 


Bitterne (parish of). 
Stockton-on-Tees, 
Thornaby - on- Tees. 
Sunderland, South wick- 


Southampton. 
Town Clerk, 
Stockton- on -Tees^ 
Town Clerk, 


Wall send 


on -Wear. 
Wallsend, Gosforth 


Sunderland. 
Town Clerk 


Wednesbury 


Longbenton, Weetslade, 
A\^ednesbury Darlaston, 


Wallsend. 
Town Cleik 


Wimbledon 


Tipton. 
TV^imbledou JVIertoii, 


Wednesbury. 
Town Clerk, 


Wolverhamptou .... 
Cardiff 


Morden. 
Wolverhampton, Bilston, 
Coseley, Heath Town 
(or Wednesfield Heath), 
Sedglev, Short Heath, 
Wednesfield, Willenhall. 
Cardiff, Penarth 


Wimbledon. 
Town Clerk, 
Wol verhampton... 

Town Clerk Cardiff. 


Carnarvon District of 
Boroughs. 

Merthyr Tydfil .... 


Bangor, Carnarvon, Con- 
way, Pwllheli, Criccieth, 
Llandudno, Llanfair- 
fechan, Penmaenniawr, 
Nevin (parish of). 
Merthyr Tydfil, Aberdare, 
Mountain Ash. 


Town Clerk, 
Carnarvon.. 

Town Clerk, 
Merthyr Tydfil. 



WORK RECOGNISED AS OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE. 



No. 14. 

WOEK RECOGNISED BY THE ADMIRALTY, 
ARMY COUNCIL, AND AIR COUNCIL, AS 
WORK OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE IN 
CONNECTION WITH THE WAR IN PUR- 
SUANCE OF SECT. 5 (8) (n) (c) (h). 

ADMIRALTY. 

Navy and Army Canteen Board. 
Wesdeyan Army and Navy Board. 
Young Men's Christian Association. 
The Salvation Army. 
Young Women's Christian Association. 

ARMY COUNCIL. 

Young Men's Christian Association. 

Salvation Army. 

Church Army. 

Scottish Churches Huts. 

Catholic Women's League. 

Catholic Club Huts. 

United Navy and Army Board. 

Soldiers' Christian Association. 

The Colonial and Continental Church Society. 

Navy and Army Canteen Board. 

Wesley an Army and Navy Board. 

Young Women's Christian Association. 

AIR COUNCIL. 
All the bodies recognised by the Army Council. 

(A) See pp. 78. 80, .//>//. 



636 APPENDIX II. 



APPENDIX II. 

COUNTY COURT RULES AND RULES OF 
SUPREME COURT AS TO APPEALS TO 
COURT or APPEAL FROM COUNTY 
COURTS. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

1. County Court Rules, Explanatory Memorandum 636 

2. County Court Rules 638 

3. County Court Rules, 1918 (No. 2) 662 

4. Rules of Supreme Court as to Appeals (Registration 

Appeals Rule, 1918) 669 



No. 1. 

COUNTY COURT RULES, DATED ISTH JUNE, 
1918, AS TO APPEALS FROM REGISTRA- 
TION OFFICERS UNDER THE REPRE- 
SENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918 
(7 & 8 G-EO. 5, c. (54), SECT. 14 (Ii). 

EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM. 

These Rules have been framed under section 14, sub-s. 1 of 
the Representation of the People Act, 1918. 

Rule 2 defines the court to which an appeal shall lie, as 
provided by s. 14, sub-s. 1. 

Rule 3 provides who shall be respondents to an appeal. See 
Act, s. 14, sub-s. 1, and Sched. 1, Rule 29. 

Rules 4 and 5 provide for the information to be furnished by 
the registration officer to the court. See Act, Sched. 1, Rules 29 
and 30. 

Rule 6 requires the appellant to send notice to the court re- 
questing the appeal to be entered for hearing, and to pay the 
prescribed fee. 

(A) See pp. 134137, supra. 



COUNTY COURT RULES. 637 

Rule 7 provides for cases where appeals are sent to the wrong 
court. 

Rule 8 provides for the numbering of appeals, and for a record 
to be kept of such appeals. 

Eule 9 provides for the fixing of a time and place for the 
hearing of an appeal, and for the length of notice to the parties. 

Paragraph 3 applies to appeals in the present year. The work 
of the registration officers in framing the first register must 
necessarily be heavy, and it is uncertain when notices of appeal 
will reach the county courts; and it will be difficult for the 
judges to fix courts for the hearing of appeals without delay, 
unless special arrangements are made. Paragraph 3 therefore 
fixes for this year a period within which the appeals may be set 
down for hearing, so as to fit in with any arrangements which 
may be made altering the normal time for the closing of the 
courts during the vacation, and to provide for appeals being 
heard and decided in time for the register to be altered in 
accordance with the results before it is published. 

Paragraph 4 gives power to fix the hearing of appeals at 
courts other than those to which the appeals lie. 

Rule 10 provides for notice of hearing. 

Rule 11 provides for evidence on an appeal. In most cases the 
statement of the registration officer may be expected to be suffi- 
cient ; but as an appeal lies on question of fact, the rule provides 
that the parties may, by leave of the judge, give further evidence. 

Rule 12 provides for the appearance of parties. With regard 
to par. (1) (d), the parties may under the Act, Sched. 1,, 
Rule 39, appear by any person, which includes registration 
agents: and it is thought that where parties are not repre- 
sented by solicitors or counsel, it would facilitate the hearing 
of appeals if such agents were allowed to appear, and par. (1) (d) 
has been framed accordingly. 

Rules 13, 14 and 15 define the powers of the court on the 
hearing of appeals. 

Rule 16 requires the judge to take a note of any question of 
law raised, and to furnish copies. 

Rule 17 provides for costs: Paragraph 3 is taken from sect. 70 
of the Registration Act of 1843. 

Rule 20 provides for the consolidation of appeals in cases 
decided on the same points of law, or rather for the selection of 
one case for hearing as a test case, as contemplated by the Act, 
Sched. 1, Rule 30. 

Rule 21 provides for service of notices, etc., and proof of 
service. 

Rule 22 provides for fees. 

Rule 23 provides that a person desiring to appeal from the 
county court to the Court of Appeal shall give notice to the 
county court of his intention to appeal, so as to enable the judge 
to consolidate appeals. 



638 APPENDIX II. 

Rule 24 provides for the consolidation of appeals. The Rules 
of the Supreme Court giye power to the judge of the county 
eourt to order such consolidation. The rule is based on sect. 44 
of the Registration Act of 1843. 

Rule 25 provides for cases in which a deputy or acting registra- 
tion officer deals with the register, and notice of appeal from 
his decision is given. 

Rule 20 provides for cases in which an assistant judge ap- 
pointed under sect. 14 of the Act hears appeals. 

Rule 27 provides forms for use on appeals. 

Rule 28 provides for cases of non-compliance with the Rules 
or departure from the prescribed forms. 

Rule 29 provides for the computation of time, and is based on 
the Act, Sched. 1, Rule 42, and the County Court Rules, 
Order LIV., Rules 17-19. 



No. 2. 

COUNTY COUET EULES, DATED 18-TH JUNE, 
1918, AS TO APPEALS FEOM EEGISTEA- 
TION OFFICEES UNDEE THE EEPEE- 
SENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1918 
(7 & 8 GEO. 5, c. 64), SECT. 14 (b). 

1. Procedure on appeals under 7 & 8 Geo. 5, c. 64, s. 14.- 
The procedure on appeals to the county court from the decisions 
of registration officers under section fourteen of the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act, 1918 (in these Rules referred to 
as "the Act"), shall be governed by the following rules. 

2. Court to which appeal shall lie.- (1) The court (c) to which 
an appeal shall lie shall be the court 'in the district of which the 
qualifying premises (as denned by this Rule) are situate, subject 
to paragraph 2 of Rule 7, and to the power of the judge to fix 
the place for the hearing of the appeal pursuant to Rule 9. 

(2) For the purposes of this Rule the expression " the qualify- 
ing premises " means the premises in respect of which the person 
whose right to be registered is in any way in question on the