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Full text of "The reptiles of British India"

RatouvWl 1<^4I 



^o^ Zoology *'/^\ 




t.flof H.C-L 



i7i 



MAR 26 1923 



THE 



RAY SOCIETY. 




INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. 




This Volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society /o>- the year 1863. 



LONDON; 



MDCCCLXIV. 






C 



■0 



3 



THE 



REPTILES 



OF 



BRITISH INDIA. 



J >' 



BY 

ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, 

M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.Z.S., etc. etc. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE RAY SOCIETY BY 
ROBERT HARDWICKE, 192 PICCADILLY. 



MDCCCLXIT. 

s 



Trans 



.toMtis,of0oi»p.^^400*« 



MCZ LIBRARY 
UERVARD UNIVERSITY 
CAMBRIDGE- MA USA 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




PREFACE. 



The coincidence of several most favoui-able circumstances, which seemed to promise a fair 
success, induced me to entertain the idea of making the Reptilian fauna of British India the 
subject of a special work ; and I was confirmed in this, as I had frequent opportunities of 
observing that such a work would supply a real want among a class of men residing in India, 
who, imbued with a desire to promote Natural History knowledge, are deterred by the want 
of a work which would guide them in their first steps to acquainting themselves vdth objects 
coming daily under their notice, and which would show them where and how new facts may 
be gathered. 

As this work is the first attempt to comprise the entire Reptilian fauna of the continent of 
the Indian region, it must be in many respects incomplete, although I trust it will form a basis 
for the labours of future times. Every one who makes the fauna of a country an object of 
special study has a triple task before him : first, to distinguish and systematically to arrange 
the species as exactly as possible ; secondly, to make himself acquainted with their habits ; 
and, thirdly, to ascertain the geographical range of each variety, of each species, of each 
genus. A perfect knowledge of the species is the first condition, without which progress in 
the two latter respects is impossible ; and it is much more the part of that zoologist who is 
furnished with a complete series of the objects for repeated comparison and exammation, 
and has access to the thousand volumes through which descriptions and notes are scattered, 
than of the naturalist and collector who has the opportunity of observing the animals in 
their natural haunts ; on him mainly devolves the fulfilment of the two latter tasks ; but 
scarcely anything has been done in this respect as far as the Indian Reptiles are concerned, 
and therefore my work, in its present shape, is one of abstract science. 

I have enjoyed the great advantage of unlimited access to collections accumulated in 
this country from the time of Russell. A considerable number of the types used by this 
pioneer in Indian Ophiology are still preserved in the collections of the British Museum 
and of the Royal College of Surgeons ; the types, with a very few exceptions, of the species 
described by Shaw, Gray, and myself, form part of the collection of the British Museum. 
Cantor had sent invaluable collections, containing his types, to the University of Oxford, 
where a part of the specimens, with his early manuscripts and drawings, are still preserved, 
and at a later period to the Museum of the East India Company, which contained also a 
number of the types sent by Kelaart and Griffith. 

The entire collection of Reptiles of the East India Company was transferred to the British 

b 



iv PREFACE. 

Museum in the year 1860, and the task afterwards devolved upon me to name its contents, 
and to embody them in the national collection, together with very numerous additions 
received through other channels. I found that this could not be satisfactorily done except 
by a critical revision of the labours of my predecessors and of my own ; but I had no idea 
of the proportions the work would finally assume, which was calculated to comprise 
descriptions of about 300 species, a number now raised to above 500. This considerable 
increase has been caused partly by the rediscovery of a number of species which, although 
noticed and named by pre\ious writers, have been omitted m general works on Herpetology, 
or included among the synonyms on account of the inaccuracy or incompleteness of the 
original descriptions; partly by the establishment of many new species the characters of 
which could be defined only after an inspection of numerous specimens. In this respect I 
have been most liberally aided by the curators of public collections, who have allowed me to 
examine the specimens entrusted to their care ; and it gives me gi-eat pleasure to express my 
best thanks to Mr. T. Moore of the Free Public Museum at Liverpool, to Mr. F. Moore 
of the India Museum at Fife House, to Mr. W. H. Flower of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, to Professor Grant of University College, and to the Curators of the Museum of the 
University of Oxford, of the Bristol Museum, and of the Collection at Haslar Hospital. Nor 
can I omit to express my acknowledgments for tlie aid I have received from gentlemen 
interested in similar studies. Mr. Walter Elliot entrusted to me a most valuable collection 
of original drawings made during his long residence in the Madras Presidency, and repre- 
senting a number of its species. Mr. B. H. Hodgson gave me much information concerning 
the Reptiles of Nepal, drawings of which had been previously deposited by him in the British 
Museum. Sir A. Smith and Sir J. E. Tennent assisted me with collections from Ceylon. 
Captain R. H. Beddome communicated to me the discoveries made during his excursions in 
the mountains of the Carnatic and Mysore, sending at the same time typical specimens. 
Finally, Mr. L. L. Dillwyn gave me the types of the species figured in the ' Natural History 
of Labuan,' by which the synonymy could be rectified. 

The present work being based upon collections mainly brought together within British 
dominions or in countries under British protection, I thought it best to define its object as 
an account of the Reptiles of British India. But it would have been very unphilosophical 
to exclude species which, however near to British territory, have not been obtained within 
its political boundaries, or to cut off the fauna of Burmah, Siam, Cochinchina, and Southern 
China, forming as it does a natural unity with that of India proper. Besides, by extending 
my researches over the entire Indian continent, I became better acquainted with the geo- 
graphical range of a species, and was better enabled to discriminate critically between really 
specific characters, and between those peculiar to local or individual variations. Further, it 
was of especial interest to point out where the Reptilian fauna of the Indian continent is 
intermingled with forms properly belonging to other regions. I have therefore included 
what is known of the Reptiles of Afghanistan, of Tibet, and of Northern China. In a few 
genera, like the Dragons and Sea Snakes, it appeared necessary to go beyond even those 
limits, and to treat of all the species known, in order to render the specific characters more 
intelligible, and to avoid omissions which would have been otherwise inevitable on account 
of the imperfect state of our knowledge of their geographical range. 

A few words must be added in explanation of the plan followed in the arrangement of the 



PREFACE. V 

synonymy and in referring to previous writers. All the synonyms proper have been intro- 
duced, — that is, all the different specific denominations under which one and the same species 
has been described ; but when the difference m the denomination was limited to the genus, 
I have selected those only by which the knowledge of the natural affinity of the species 
has really been advanced. I have likewise omitted all references to descriptions or notes by 
which no new fact has been added to the previously known history of a reptile. Changes 
in the generic nomenclature are frequently ventured upon now-a-days in the most unscru- 
pulous manner by persons Avho, having seen only a small proportion of the species, copy the 
delusive characters of their new genera from the original descriptions, and with their most 
slender materials attempt to break up well-characterized and natural genera. Whilst the 
genus is that which, in the zoological system, simplifies most, and at the same time pre- 
serves the greatest variety of types — is therefore that which is most frequently used in our 
philosophical intercourse and operations, and ought to be as comprehensive as the natural 
affinities of the species will allow — any trifling character is now used to give a new generic 
name to every two or three species ; and I am afraid this is more frequently done for the 
purpose of introducing the author to notice than from a desire to advance science. For it 
will be observed that, generally, the men who thus endeavour to burden our memory are 
not satisfied with having their name recorded in connexion with their systematic produc- 
tions, but must have all the old, well-known species assigned to their credit also. Under 
all circumstances, such a change of the name of the authority for binomial designations is 
quite irrational, nor does our method imply anything which is untrue. Thus, when we 
speak of a Eumeces punctahis, L. (instead of Wiegm.), or of a Biopa punctata, L. (instead 
of Gray), every herpetologist knows that Linnaeus did not use the terms Eumeces and 
Riopa, and therefore that his name can have reference to the species only : which informa- 
tion is of greater value than that Wiegmann and Gray referred the species to some modern 
genus, as it guides us at once to the typical description on which the species for ever 
depends. Moreover, in numerous instances we are by no means certain whether the person 
who uses a new generic name really has identified the species of the elder author : thus, for 
instance, if Wiegmann or Gray had referred to their genera Eimieces or Riopa a species 
which they considered as the Lacerta punctata of Linnaeus, but which in reality is different 
from it, every one who used the expression Eumeces pimctatus, Wiegm., or Biopa punctata, 
Gray, for the Linnean species, would commit an error. Therefore I hold, with the pro- 
moters of the rules of zoological nomenclature which were laid before the Meeting of the 
British Association in 1842, that the claims of an author who is induced to make alterations 
in previously existing generic arrangements do not extend beyond them, but should be duly 
recorded at the proper place, viz. in the synonymy of the genus. 

On the other hand, I consider it inconsistent to apply the same rule to generic names : 
whilst a species when once properly described and named is fixed, a genus remains for a 
longer or shorter period in a fluctuating state, and frequently scarcely more than the name 
of old genera remains, or even a more modern generic name has quite a different significance 
from that attributed to it by its original inventor. In these cases science ought to pay more 
deference to the kernel than to the shell ; and if, in an instance like that of the Ophidian 
genus Ablabes proposed by Dumeril and Bibron, the original compilation is never adopted, 

12 



vi PREFACE. 

and no two herpetologists agree as to its extent, it appears much more natural and more for 
the benefit of science to append the name of that man whose modification of the genus is 
adopted, than to continue to quote Ablahes, Dum. & Bibr., which implies nothing beyond the 
fact that the name is the creation of the French herpetologists. 

When elder authors thought themselves under the necessity of restricting a genus estab- 
lished by a predecessor, they invariably followed the practice of retaining the original generic 
name for the greater portion of the species. But this suits our modern reformers of zoolo- 
gical nomenclature much less than the absolute rule, that the first species (perhaps the most 
aberrant) should be considered as the type of the old genus. Are they of opinion that 
Linnaeus considered Lacerta crocodilus, the first species of his genus Lacerta, as the type "? 
In this case they will be obliged to cancel Cu\"ier's name of Crocodilus for that of Lacerta, 
and to tack upon us a new name for our common Lizards ! 

Finally, I have to thank the Council of the Ray Society for the liberality with which they 
invariably granted my requests, and allowed an excess far beyond the originally contemplated 
limits of the work. My best thanks are due to Mr. Ford ; his work speaks for itself. 

A. G. 

Hampton Wick, 

31st May, 186i. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX, 

WITH EEMAEKS ON THE DISTEIBUTION OF EEPTILES OVER THE INDIAN CONTINENT. 



The fauna of so immense an area as that of the Indian Continent is much diversified, 
according to the physical peculiarities of its different districts, and according to their prox- 
imity to neighbouring regions. Although some of the districts are well enough explored to 
enable us to give an accurate account of the general character of their fauna, I am afraid 
that even here, in some special cases, we cannot avoid falling mto errors, owing to the falla- 
ciousness of our information as to where the specimens were collected. Of other districts 
the Reptiles are very insufficiently known, and the following remarks will show how much 
remains to be done. We are also much in want of accurate information whether a species 
is an inhabitant of the coast or of the interior, of the hills or of the plains, of the jungle 
or of the prairie. 

I commence the following rapid sketch with the south-western corner, the island of Ceylon 
included. The leading type in this province is the family of UropeUides, which are found 
nowhere else, and of which only one or two species extend into the Deccan ; it includes, 
therefore, Mysore, the Carnatic, Malabar, and Travancore, and is one of the best-explored 
and best-characterized parts of India. It resembles the segment of a disk, of which Ceylon 
is the centre. A number of most peculiar forms radiate from this centre ; but whilst some of 
the radii do not reach beyond the limits of the island, others extend more or less far into 
the peninsula, and diverging receive between them other types peculiar to northern latitudes. 
One of the most characteristic features of the Reptilian fauna of Ceylon is the total absence 
of affinity with Archipelagic types, as far as the Tortoises, Saurians, and Ophidians are con- 
cerned. There are no Dragons, no Callophides, no Calamarise, whilst a comparison of its 
Batrachians with those of the Archipelago does not show greater diversity than one of 
species*. A connexion with the African fauna is indicated by the presence of Acontiadid(e, 
and of a species of Chameleon, which has found its way from the continental portion of 
this province. It would be a mere repetition of the contents of our systematic index to 
repeat all the species peculiar to the island; and it must suffice here to mention the genera: 
Otocri/jitis, Lyriocephalus, Csratophora, Cophotis, Aspidura, Haplocercus, Cercaspis. Charac- 
teristic forms which extend over to the peninsula, but not beyond, are Testudo elegans, Emys 
trijuga, Salea, Cipiophis, Hypnale, Dahoia, Cyclophis calamarla, and they are intermixed witli 
others peculiar to this province {Eublepharis, Sitana, Charasia, Tropidococcyx, Peltopelor, 
Cacopus), and again with others which are, as it were, strangers in it. Of these latter we 

* With the exception of a frog lately described by Peters as Hoplobatrachus. 



viii REMARKS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF 

must mention especially those the affinity of which is African : ChamaJeo vulgaris is more 
frequent than in Ceylon ; a species of Eryx, Echis, PsammopMs, and Pyxicephalus are common, 
and, singularly, so similar to their congeners from Africa, that it requires some attention 
to distinguish them ; Zamenis fasciolatus is the southernmost species of a Mediterranean 
genus. On the other hand, we find some decidedly Archipelagic types : a Dragon occurs, 
strangely enough, on the west coast; CallopMs finds here its western limits; and, finally, 
Oligodon, which extends from the larger islands of the western Archipelago, over Ceylon to 
the Deccan, has here its real centre. 

The collection made by Colonel Sykes in the Deccan is still the only one of any import- 
ance made in that district ; and it appears from it, and from what we gather from other 
sources, that it contains a sufiicient number of peculiar forms to distinguish the Deccan as a 
separate province, but we cannot arrive at any conclusion as to its limits, the immense tract 
between it and the upper Gangetic plain being herpetologically unknown. The African 
types which we have noticed in the more southern province persist in the Deccan, and are 
increased in number towards the north-west. 

The Reptilian faunae of the two immense plains formed by the Indus and by the Ganges 
present entirely difierent features, though both are inhabited by the small number of such 
species as are spread over nearly the whole, and characteristic of the Indian region generally, 
like Tropiclonottis quincundafus, Naja tripudians, &c. The fauna of Sindh assumes an Indo- 
African character, extending for some distance southwards along the coast of Concan. Its 
southern and eastern limits are marked by TJromastix and by Zamenis diadema, the eastern 
representative of the African Z. cliffordii. Here, in Sindh and in the Punjab, disappear 
Naja tripiidians and Tropidonotiis stolatus ; and when we pass into Afghanistan we find very 
few of its reptiles identical with those of India proper, Euprepes rufescens and Calotes 
versicolor being the only remnants of the Saurians, Tropidonotus quineunciatus of the Ophi- 
dians, whilst a species of Polypedates and of Bhacopliorns remind us of the Indian Batrachians, 
all the other reptiles belonging either to North-African or Central-Asiatic types. 

The Reptilian fauna of Bengal is, as may be expected, well known. Herpetologically, this 
province extends beyond its political boundaries, including the upper Gangetic plain, and 
reaching southwards along the western shores of the Bay of Bengal to about 20° N. lat. ; its 
northern boundaries are the Himalayas, where the fauna is gradually changed at an altitude 
of about 4000 feet above the level of the sea. Although there are several species peculiar 
to this province, like Emys thurgi, Emys hamiltonii, Gavialis gangeticus, Ferania, yet the 
features of its fauna are of a plain and rather uniform character, not relieved by forms which 
would awaken particular interest by their divergence from the ordinary Reptilian types or 
by their affinities with distant regions. This, of course, is quite in accordance with the 
vmiformity of its physical features and with its central position. Thus, its fauna is chiefly 
composed of the common species ranging over a greater or smaller part of the other pro"\inces. 
Archipelagic types are very scarce ; Passerita is lost on its south-western borders and now 
replaced by Tragops prasimis, which extends over entire Eastern India. Dipsas has become 
more numerous, there being five species known from this province alone. 

The Reptilian fauna of the Himalayas is distinguished less by the appearance of forms 
similar to, or identical with, those of the neighbouring temperate region, than by the 
appearance of a great number of new species and genera peculiar and confined to the 



KEPTILES OVER THE INDIAN CONTINENT. ix 

Himalayas*, and by the disappearance of such species as are abundant in Bengal ; this 
change commences to be very marked from an altitude of 4000 feet above the level of the 
sea. It is remarkable that the Nilgherries do not show any traces of a fauna similar to that 
of the corresponding altitude in the Himalayas, although rising to 8000 feet. On the other 
hand, the reptiles of the Khasya Hills show such a degree of identity with those of the 
Himalayas that they must be referred to the same fauna. Probably High Assam also 
belongs to it, but we know too little of this country to draw any definite conclusion. In 
Tibet the Himalayan fauna is mixed with that of Temperate Asia, Bufo vulgaris, B. calamita, 
and Phrynoce])halus caudivolmdus being apparently of not uncommon occurrence ; in the 
Himalayas proper a representative of the Central-Asiatic genus Halys is found, and, most 
singularly, in Khasya a Pseudopus. 

We are obliged to leave the vast extent of the central parts of Eastern India as having 
been scarcely touched by collectors, and to return from the alpine pro^^ince of India to 
the eastern coast of the Gulf of Bengal, and to follow it round the Malayan Peninsula to 
Siam. This belt of land is well explored, and distinguished by a Reptilian fauna which 
assumes more and more the Archipelagic character the nearer we approach to the Malayan 
Peninsula, where more than one-half of the reptiles are species found also in the islands of 
the Archipelago. I will first mention the most remarkable of the species peculiar to this 
province. The Tortoises are numerous : Testudo elongata extends from Arakair into Siam, 
Manouria from Arakan to the Malayan Peninsula; in Tenasserim appear Cyclemiis oldhami. 
Emys oceUata, Emys crassicollis, extending more or less southwards or eastwards ; in Siam 
Geoemyda grandis, Emys macrocephala. Not less characteristic are the Saurians and Ophi- 
dians: Crocodilus siamensis, Acanthosaura, Bilophyms, Physignathus, Liolepis, Herpeton. 
Hipistes, Xenelaphis, &c., whilst the Batrachians are almost identical with those of the other 
provinces and of the Archipelago. Quite isolated is the occurrence of a tailed Batrachian 
[Plethodon) in this province. As regards the Archipelagic types, we first meet them well 
represented in Tenasserim, where, among others, Cuora amboinensis, Geoemyda sjnnosa, Gonyo- 
soma owycephalum, Bufo asper occur ; there also is the northern limit of Draco. Their 
number is considerably increased in the southern parts of Siam by the addition of species of 
Bronchocela, Calamaria, XenopeUis, Homalopsis, Calloselasma, Oxyglossus, until in the 
Malayan Peninsula they actually outnumber the continental types. 

Laos and the central and northern parts of Cochinchina are almost unknown, the little 
that we do know being due to the labours of Mouhot, who perished before he had well com- 
menced to reap the rich harvest before him. A few species had been described by Cuvier. 
It would appear that the fauna stands in the same relation to that of the preceding province 
as the fauna of the Deccan to that of Southern India, but it would be too hazardous to draw- 
any conclusion from so small a collection of facts. 

From China a great number of collections have been imported for many years, and we can 
hardly look forward to very numerous additions to our list of species, except perhaps from the 
western and south-western provinces ; but our knowledge of the geographical range of most 
of the species known is very defective, " China " having been considered sufficient information 
as to their habitat. Moreover the Chinese carry on a brisk trade in natural-history objects 
in their seaports, mixing not only collections from the different parts of the empii-e, but also 

* See a paper in the Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 148. 



X SYSTEMATIC INDEX 

frequently selling to the European collector specimens imported from other parts of the East 
Indies. Thus, although the list of Chinese reptiles clearly indicates two distinct fauna?, one 
of a thoroughly tropical character, and the other showing the influence of the neighbourhood 
of the temperate region, it would be a mere guess to point at a boundary-line where the 
northern one commences to predominate. However, collections made by Dr. Cantor during 
his residence in Chusan, by Mr. Swinhoe during the campaign in North China, and by the 
same in the island of Formosa, show that the change from the tropical to the temperate 
fauna is very gradual, and that the two faunae deeply intersect each other. For whilst a 
Hyla extends as far southwards as 22° N. Lat. (to the southern part of Formosa), Zaocys 
persists in Chusan (30° N. Lat.). This mixture of both faunae is the character of the Chinese 
province, which othermse is not distinguished by peculiar types strikingly different from 
those of the neighbouring provinces. Although the number of species rapidly diminishes the 
fvu'ther we proceed northwards, on the whole it is great, but they belong to widely spread 
genera, and it will be found comparatively small when we shall be better acquainted with 
the faunae of the other Indian provinces. However, the Freshwater Tortoises are represented 
as well as in the Malayan province, and the occurrence of Trioni/x sinensis may assist in 
fixing the southern boundary of the Chinese fauna. Several species with afiinity to the 
North American or Japanese fauna are added to this mixture of types of the Old World. 

When we proceed from Southern China towards the north, we find that lAolepis, Naja, 
Tropidonotus quincunciatus, Lycodon milieus, and PoJypedates are the first to disappear; 
their place is taken by Bimgarus semifasciatus, Tropidonotus annularis, Lycodon rufozonaftis, 
which southern forms are associated with the northern of Hyla cliinensis, Halys hlonihoffii, 
and Coluber ritfodorsatus. The last species of Simotes (S. stoinhonis) occurs near Amoy. In 
Chusan also the Bungarus just mentioned is lost, whilst two other true Colubri, Rana esctt- 
lenta, and Bvfo vulgaris enter. Finally, in Northern China every trace of the Indian Reptilian 
fauna has disappeared, and the greater part of the forms are even specifically identical with 
those of Central Asia and Europe. 



First Subclass. REPTILIA PROPER. 

THE ORDER OF TORTOISES—CIIELONIA. 

I. LAND TOniOISES—TESTUDINIDyE. 
Testudo, Oppel. 

elegans, Schopff Peninsula of India, Ceylon Po^ge \ 

horsfieldii. Gray Afghanistan 7 

elongata, Blyth Gamboja, Arakan, Mergui 8 

II. FRESHWATER TORTOISES— EiliYD/Z)^. 
Manouria, Gray. 

emys, M. ^ Schl Pinang, Arakan, Tenasserim 10 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xi 

CuoEA, Gray. 

amboineusis, Daud Eastern India Parje 12 

flavomarginata, Gray .... China, Formosa 13 

trifasciata, Gray China 14 

Cyclemys, Bell. 

oldhami, Gray Mergui, Gamboja 15 

Pyxidba, Gray. 

mouhotii, Gray Cochinchina IG 

NoTOCHELYs, Gray. 

platynota, Gray Singapore 17 

Geoemyda, Gray. 

spinosa, Gray Tenasserim, Pegu 18 

grandis, Gray Gamboja 19 

Emys, Cuv. 

ocellata, D. ^ B Tenasserim, Pegu 22 

bealii. Gray Southern China 23 

thurgi, Gray Bengal, Pinang 24 

mutica. Cantor Chusan 25 

nigricans. Gray Southern China 26 

sinensis. Gray Canton, Formosa 27 

crassicollis, Gray Mergui, Malayan Peninsula, Gamboja 28 

reevesii, Gray Cochinchina, Southern China 29 

trijuga, Schweigy Peninsula of India, Ceylon 29 

macrocephala, Gray Siam, Gamboja . 31 

hamiltonii, Gray Lower Ganges 32 

Pangshura, Gray. 

tecta. Gray 33 

tentoria, Gray Deccan, Indus 34 

flaviventer, Gthr Bengal ? 35 

smithii, Gray Punjab? 36 

Batagur, Gray. 

baska, Gray Ganges, Irawaddy, Pinang 37 

lineatus. Gray Nepal, Moulmein 39 

eUioti, Gray Kistna River 40 

affinis {Cantor) Malayan Peninsula 40 

dhongoka, Gray Nepal, Assam 42 

Platysternum, Gray. 

megacephalum, Gray .... China, Pegu 43 

III. FRESHWATER TURTLES— r7?/0iVrC/Z>^. 

Em YD A, Gray. 

granosa, Schijpjf Hindostan, Sikkim, Bengal 45 

ceylonensis, Gray Ceylon 45 

"vittata, Peters Goa 46 

Trionyx, Geoffr. 

sinensis, Wiegm China, Chusan, Formosa 46 

gangeticus, Cuv Ganges, Pinang 47 

javanicus, Schweigg Ganges, Deccan, Pinang 48 

ornatus, Gray Siam, Gamboja 48 

c 



xu SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Trionyx, Geojfr. 

subplanus, Schweigy Singapore, Pinang Page 49 

giintheri. Gray 49 

Chitra, Gray. 

indica, Gray Ganges, Malayan Peninsula 50 

IV. MARINE TURTLES— CifjBZOA/Dvfi. 
Caouana, Gray. 

olivacea, Eschsch Coasts 52 

Chelonia, Flem. 

virgata Coasts 53 

Cahetta, Merr. 

squamata, L Coasts 54 

Dermatochelys, Merr. 

coriacea, L Coasts 55 



THE ORDER OF lAZARDii—SAURIA. 

I. CROCODILES— C'i«0C'0D7i/Z)v«. 
Crocodilus, Cuv. 

palustris. Less Ganges, Peninsula of India, Ceylon 61 

siamensis, Schneid Siam, Gamboja 61 

porosus, Schneid AU rivers 62 

pondicerianus. Gray Pondicherry 62 

Gavialis, Geoffr. 

gangeticus, Gm Ganges 63 

II. WATER LIZARDS— F^/? J A/7D^. 
Vabanus, Merr. 

flavescens. Gray Ganges, Indus, Pinang 65 

dracffina, L From Bengal to Ceylon 65 

lunatus. Gray QQ 

nebnlosus. Gray Bengal, Siam (jQ 

Hydrosaurus, Wagl. 

salvator, Laur China, Siam, (Ceylon) 67 

III. LAND LIZARDS— i.4C£/?7YZ)^. 
Tachydromus, Daud. 

sexlineatus, Daud Rangoon 69 

meridionalis, Gthr Southern China 70 

septentrionalis, Gthr Northern China 70 

Cabrita, Gray. 

leschenaultii, Milne-Edw. . . . Coromandel 71 

Ophiops, Menetr. 

(jerdoni, Blyth Mhow 72) 

Acanthodactylus, Fitz. 

cantoris, Gthr Ramuuggar 73 

(nilgherrensis, Jerd Coonoor 72) 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xiu 

IV. COKDYIjES—ZONURW.^. 
PsEUDOPus, Merr. 

gracilis. Gray Khasya Page 75 

V. SKINKS— -SC/iVC/D^. 

Tkopidophorus, B. i^ B. 

microlepis, Gthr Chartaboum 76 

cochincliinensis, Cm Cochinchina 77 

(Aspris berdmorei, Bhjth . . . Mergui 77) 

EupREPES, Wagl. 

cbinensis, Gray China 78 

rufescens, Shaiv From Afghanistan to China 79 

monticola, Gthr Sikkim 80 

olivaceus, Gray Malayan Peninsula 80 

macularius, Blyth Rungpore ? 81 

trilineatus, Gray Carnatic 81 

Mabouia, Fitz. 

quaclrilineata, Blyth Hongkong 82 

chinensis, Gray China 83 

(maculata, Blyth Assam 84) 

ExjMECEs, Wiegm. 

bilineatus, Gray Nilgherries 85 

himalayanus, Gthr Himalayas 86 

schlegelii, Gthr Sikkim 86 

modestus, Gthr Niugpo 87 

reevesii, Gray China 87 

ladacensis, Gthr Tibet 88 

(formosus, Blyth Mirzapore, Wuzeerabad 88) 

iudicus, Gray Sikkim 89 

taprobanensis, Kelaart .... Ceylon 89 

chalcides, L Pinang, Siam, Hongkong 90 

siamensis, Gthr Siam 91 

bo^-ingii, Gthr Hongkong 91 

albopunctatus, Gray Nellore, Mergui 92 

hardwicldi. Gray Peninsula of India 92 

punetatus, L Peninsula of India 93 

isodaetylus, Gthr Gamboja 93 

Hagria, G)-ay. 

vosmserii. Gray Bengal 94 

Chiamela, Gray. 

lineata, Gray 95 

(Anguis melanosticta, Merr. . . Coromandel 95) 

VI. ACONTIADS— JC0iV7YJZ)/Z)^. 

ACONTIAS, CuV. 

layardi, Kelaart Colombo 96 

Nessia, Gray. 

burtonii, Gray Ceylon 97 

monodactyla, Gray Ceylon 97 

c2 



xiv SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

VII. SAND JAZAUBS—SEPSIDyE. 

SphenocephaluSj Blyth. 

tridactylus, Blyth Afghanistan Page 98 



VIII. GECKOS— G^CA'Or/D.,^. 

Gecko, Gray. 

guttatus, Daiid From Southern India to China 102 

stentorj Cant Pinang 102 

smithii, Gray Prince of Wales Island 103 

monarchus, D. ^- B Malayan Peninsula, Ceylon 103 

jaiDonicus, D. ^ B. China, Chusan 103 

swinhonis, Gthr Northern China 104 

subpalmatixs, Gthr Chikiang 104 

Ptychozoon, Kuhl. 

homalocejjhalum, Creveldt . . . Pinang, Singapore 105 

Hemidactylus, Cuv. 

triedrus. Baud Ceylon, Peninsula of India 107 

maculatus, D. &; B From Ceylon to China 107 

sykesii, Gthr Deccan 108 

frenatus, D. i; B From Ceylon to Siam 108 

leschenaultii, D. S^ B Madras 109 

(punctatus, Jerd Tellicherry 109) 

coctaei, D. ^ B Pinang, Bombay, Ceylon 109 

(Leiurus berdmorei, Blyth . . . Mergui 107) 

Peripia, Gray. 

peronii, Z). ^- jB Pinaug, Ceylon 110 

cantoris, Gthr Pinang 110 

Nycteridium, Gthr. 

schneideri, Shaw Ceylon, Bengal, Assam, Siam, Pinang Ill 

Phelsuma, Gray. 

andamanense, Blyth Andaman Islands 112 

Gymnodacty'lus, Spix. 

triedrus, Gthr Ceylon 113 

pulchellus, Gray Pinang, Singapore 113 

frsenatus, Gthr ' . . Ceylon 113 

kandianus, Kelaart Ceylon 114 

mysoriensis, Jerdon Bangalore 114 

indicus, Gray Nilgherries 115 

(malabaricus, Jerdon .... Malabar 115) 

(littoralis, Jerdon Malabar 115) 

deccanensis, Gthr Deccan 115 

variegatus, £/«/</« Moulmein 116 

(Naultinus fasciolatus, SZy//i . . Subathoo 116) 

Pentauactylus, Gray. 

borneensis, Gthr Borneo 117 

felinus, Glhr Singapore 117 

duvaucelii, D. ^ B Bengal 118 

PUELLULA, Blyth. 

rubida, Blyth Andaman Islands 118 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xv 

EUBLEPHARIS, Gl'tty . 

hardwickii, Gray Peninsula of India Page 119 

IX. AGAMES— ^G^M/D^. 

Draco, L. 

volans, L Pinang, Singapore 124 

reticulatus, Gthr Philippine Islands 125 

timorensis, Kuhl Timor 123 

cornutus, Gthr Borneo 125 

fimbriatus, Kuhl Java 123 

maculatus, Gray Siam, Pinang, Tenasserim 125 

spilopterus, Wtegm Manilla 124 

dussumieri, D. i^ B Peninsula of India 125 

quinquefasciatus, Gray .... Pinang 126 

tseniopterus, Gthr Siam, Tenasserim 126 

haematopogon, Boie Java 124 

bimaculatus, Gthr Philippine Islands 127 

Kneatus, Daud Amboyna, Celebes 124 

rostratus, Gthr Borneo? 127 

Otocryptis, Wiegm. 

bi^dttata, Wiegm Ceylon 127 

Lykiocephalus, Merr. 

scutatus, L Ceylon 128 

Ceratophora, Gray. 

stoddartii. Gray Ceylon 129 

tennentii, Gthr Ceylon 130 

aspera, Gthr Ceylon 131 

CoPHOTis, Peters. 

ceylanica, Peters Ceylon 132 

Japalura, Gray. 

variegata, Gray Sikkim 133 

swinhonis, Gthr Formosa 134 

polygonata, Hallowell .... Loochoo 134 

SiTANA, Cuv. 

pondiceriana, Cuv Western India 135 

minor, Gthr Madras, Ceylon 135 

DiLOPHYRrs, Gray. 

grandis, Gray Rangoon 136 

Bronchocela, Kaup. 

cristate] la, Kuhl Malayan Peninsula 138 

smaragdina, Gthr Gamboja 138 

jubata, D. i^' B Pondicherry 139 

Calotes, Cuv. 

versicolor, Daud Ceylon, Continent of India 140 

nemoricola, Jerd Nilgherries 141 

mystaceus, D.y; B Pegu, Siam, Mergui, Ceylon 141 

rouxii, D. t^ B 142 

ophiomachus, Merr Ceylon, Southern India 142 

(platyceps, Blyth Cherra Piuiji 143) 



xvi SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Calotes, Cuv. 

nigrilabris, Peters Ceylon Paye 143 

emma, Gray Mergui 144 

maria, Ch-ay Himalayas 144 

Salea, Gray. 

horsfieldiij Gray Nilgherries, Ceylon 145 

Oriocalotes, Gthr. 

minor. Gray Himalayas 147 

Acanthosaura, Gray. 

armata. Gray Eastern India 148 

capra, Gthr Chartaboum 148 

coronata, Gthr Chartaboum 149 

Oriotiaris, Gthr. 

ellioti, Gthr Silikim 150 

Tiaris, D. ^f B. 

(Tiara subcristata, Blyth . . . Port Blair 151) 

Physignathus, Cuv. 

cocliiucliinensis, Ciw Cochiuchina 153 

mentager, Gthr Chartaboum 153 

LiOLEPis, Cuv. 

guttatus, Cuv Eastern India, China 154 

Uromastix, Merr. 

hardwickii, Gray Hindostan 155 

Charasia, Gray. 

dorsalis. Gray Southern India 156 

Stellio, Baud. 

tuberculatus. Gray Upper Hindostan, Himalayas 157 

Trapelus, Cuv. 

megalonyx, Gthr Afghanistan 159 

Phrynocephalls, Kaup. 

tickelii. Gray Afghanistan 160 

caudivolvulus, Pall Tibet 161 

(Brachysaui'a ornata, iJ/^M . . Sagur 161) 

FAMILY OF CHAMEL^O^^—CHAMjELEONIDjE. 

Cham^leo, auct. 

vulgaris. Baud Peninsula of India, Ceylon 162 



THE ORDER OF Sl:iAKES—OPHIDIA. 

First Suborder. INNOCUOUS SNAKES. 

I. BLIND SNAKES— Tl'PittOP/DJS. 
Typhuna, Waffl. 

lineata, Boie Pinang, Hongkong 171 

Typhlops, D. ^ B. 

nigro-albus, D. ^ B Pinang, Singapore 172 

horsfieldii, Gray Khasya, Assam, Tenasserim, Cochinchina 173 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xvii 

Typhlops, B. ^ B. 

bothriorhynchus, Gtkr Pinang Page 174 

striolatus, Peters Bengal 174 

siamensisj Gthr Siam 175 

braminus, Baud All over the Continent, Ceylon 175 

pammeces (tenuis), Gthr. . . . Madras 176, 444 

mirus, Jan Ceylon 176 

Onychocephalus, B. £f B. 

acutus, B. S^ B Peuiusula of India 177 

II. SHORT-TAILS— T07?ra/C7I)^. 
Cylindrophis, TVagl. 

rufus, Law Gamboja, Singapore, Tranquebar 179 

maculatus, L Ceylon 179 

III. XENOPELTIDES— X£ArOP£L77DyE. 
Xenopeltis, Reinw. 

unicolor, Reinw Malayan Peninsula, Gamboja 180 

IV. ROUGH-TAILS— C/«OP^Lr/I>^. 

Rhinophis, Hempr. 

oxyrhynchus, Schneid Ceylon 184 

punctatus, Milll Ceylon 184 

pbilippinus, Cuv Ceylon 184 

trevelyanus, Kelaart Ceylon 185 

sanguineus, Beddome .... Wynad 186 

blythii, Kelaart Ceylon 186 

pulneyensis, Beddome .... Puln6y HiUs 187 

Ukopeltis [Cuv.). 

grandis, Kelaart Ceylon 188 

SiLYBURA {Gray). 

macrolepis, Peters Peninsula of India 189 

beddomii, Gtkr Peninsula of India 190 

ocellata, Beddome Nilgherries 190 

ellioti, Gray Madi-as, Deccan 190 

bicatenata, Gthr Deccan 191 

shorttii, Beddome Shevaray Hills 191 

brevis, Gthr Anamallay HiUs, Nilgherries 192 

Plectrurus, B. ^ B. 

perrotetii, B. ^ B Madras, Nilgherries 193 

giintheri, Beddome Nilgherries 193 

Melanophidium, Gthr. 

Tvynandense, Beddome .... Wynand 194 

V. DWARF Sl^AKES— CAL AM ARIBJi. 
Calamaria, Boie. 

siamensis, Gthr Siam, Cochinchina 196 

quadi'imaculata, B. ^ B. . . . (Java) 197 

albiventer. Gray Pinang 197 

nigro-alba, Gthr Pinang 198 



xviii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Calamaria, Boie. 

leucocephala, D. ^ B Paffe 198 

(catenata, Bli/th Assam 196) 

(reticulata, Blyf/i Assam 196) 

Macrocalamus, Gth7: 

lateralis, Gthr 199 

OXYCALAMUS, Gthr. 

longiceps. Cantor Pinang 199 

Geophis, Wagl. 

microcephalus, Gthr Madras 200 

(Platypteryx penoteti, D. ^ B. . Nilgherries 201) 

AspiDURA, Wagl. 

brachyon-hos, Boie Ceylon 202 

copii, Gthr 203 

trachyprocta, Co2)e Ceylon 203 

Haplocercus, Gthr. 

ceylouensis, Gthr Ceylon 204 

VI. OLIGODONTES— Oi/GOZ)OAT/Z)yE. 

Oligodon, Boie. 

subgriseus, D. Sf B Peninsula of India 207 

spilonotus, Gthr Madras 207 

ellioti, Gthr Madras 208 

subpunctatus, D. ^ B Coast of Malabar 208 

spinipunctatus, Jan 208 

fasciatus, Gthr Deccan 208 

sublineatus, D. i^ B Ceylon 209 

affinis, Gthr Anamallay Hills 209 

templetonii, Gthr Ceylon 209 

modestus, Gthr 210 

dorsalis. Gray Afghanistan? 210 

brevicauda, Gthr Anamallay HiUs 211 

SiMOTES, D. ^- B. 

venustus, Jerdon Peninsula of India 213 

russeUii, Daud CeyloD, Peninsula of India, Himalayas 213 

binotatus, D. ^ B Peninsula of India 214 

albiventer, Gthr Ceylon 214 

signatus, Gthr Singapore 215 

cinereus, Gthr Gamboja 215 

swinhonis, Gthr Amoy 215 

tpeniatus, Gthr Gamboja, Bangkok 216 

trilineatus, B. ^ B 216 

puuctulatus. Gray Himalayas 217 

(labuanensis, Gthr Borneo 217) 

bicatenatus, Gtkr 217 

albocinctus. Cantor Assam 218 

fasciolatus, Gthr Pachebone 218 

cochinchinensis, Gthr Lao [Mountains 219 

trinotatus, Z). i^ B Pinang, China 219 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xix 

VII. COLUBRIDES— C0LC/J5i?/D^. 

Ablabes, Gthr. 

baliodirus, Boie Pinang Page 224 

temiiceps, Blyth Nepal, Darjiling 224 

fuscus, Blyth Himalayas 225 

rappii, Gthr Himalayas 225 

bicolor, Blyth Kliasya 226 

olivaceus, Beddome Nilgherries 227 

Sagittarius, Cantor Pinang, Bengal, Himalayas 227 

humberti, Jan Madras, Ceylon 228 

coUaris, Gray ........ Khasya, Nepal 228 

melanocephalus, Gray .... Malacca 229 

Cyclophis, Gthr. 

major, Gthr China 230 

frsenatus, Gthr Afghanistan 230 

calamaria, Gthr Ceylon, Peninsula of India 231 

nasalis, Gthr 231 

monticola, Cantor Assam 332 

OUONTOMUS, D. ^ B. 

nympha, Daud Vellore 233 

semifasciatus, Gthr 234 

gracilis, Gthr Madras Presidency 234 

Nymphophidium, Gthr. 

maculatum, Gthr 235 

Elachistodon, Reinh. 

westermanni, Reinh 444 

CORONELLA, Gthr. 

orientalis, Gthr 236 

Coluber, Gthr. 

rufodorsatus. Cantor China 238 

mandarinus, Cantor Chusan 238 

porphyraceus, Cantor .... Khasya, Assam 239 

Elaphis, D. ^' B. 

dione, Pall Northern China 240 

sauromates, Pall Ningpo 241 

tseniurus. Cope China, Siam 242 

COMPSOSOMA, D. ^ B. 

radiatum, Reinw Eastern India* 243 

melanurum, Schleg Bengal, China 241 

reticulare. Cantor Himalayas, Assam 245 

hodgsonii, Gthr Himalayas 246 

Cynophis, Gray. 

helena, Daud. Ceylon, Madras 247 

malabaricus, Jerdon Peninsula of India 248 

Ptyas, Fitzinger. 

mucosus, L All over the Continent, Ceylon 249 

korros, Reinw Eastern India 250 



* In the description of this species, p. 244, I ought to have said " eastern parts of India," instead of 
" western parts of India." 

d 



XX SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Xenelaphis, Gthr. 

hexahonotus, Cantor Arakan, Pinang, Singapore Page 251 

Zamenis, Wagl. 

diadema, Schleg Afghanistan, Sindli 252 

ventrimaculatus, Grag .... Western India 253 

gracilis, Gthr Deccan, Sindli 254 

fasciolatus, Shaio Peninsula of India, Bengal, Province Wellesley . . . 254 

Zagcys, Cope. 

(fuscus, Gthr Borneo 256) 

(carinatus, Gthr Borneo 256) 

dhumnades. Cantor Chusan, Ningpo 256 

nigromarginatus, Blyth .... Himalayas 257 

Herpetoreas, Gthr. 

sieboldii, Gthr Sikkim 257 

Tropidonotus, Kuhl. 

quincunciatus, Schleg AU over India 260 

annularis, Hallowell China 261 

triauguligerus, Reimv Piuang 261 

macrophthalmus, Gthr Himalayas 262 

dorsalis, Gthr Chikiang 263 

macrops, Blyth Darjiling 263 

platyceps, Blyth Himalayas 264 

subminiatus, Reinw Eastern India 265 

himalayanus, Gthr Himalayas 265 

angusticeps, Blyth Assam, Arakan 266 

stolatus, L All over the Indian Continent 267 

monticola, Jerdon Anamallay Hills 267 

junceus, Cantor Pinang, Chikiang 268 

ceylonensis, Gthr Ceylon 268 

beddomii, Gthr Nilgherries 269 

nigrocinctus, Blyth Pegu ?, Tenasserim ? 269 

flavipunctatus, Hallow Hongkong 270 

(zeljrinus, Blyth Mergui 270) 

tigrinus, Boie Northern China 271 

leucomelas, Gthr Pinang 271 

plumbicolor, Cantor Madras Presidency 272 

Atretium, Cope. 

schistosum, Daud From Ceylon to the Malayan Peninsula 273 

Xenochrophis, Gthr. 

cerasogaster, Cantor Malayan Peninsula, Bengal, Assam, Khasya .... 274 

Prymnomiodon, Cope. 

chalceus, Coiie Siam 274 

VIII. FRESHWATER SNAKES— /fOM^LOPSf/D^. 
Fordonia, Gray. 

unicolor, Gray Pinang 277 

Cantoria, Girard. 

eloiigata, Gthr Singapore 277 

Cerberus, Cuv. 

rhynchops, Schneid From Ceylon to Siam 279 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xxi 

Hypsirhina, Wagl. 

plumbea, Boie Eastern India Page 280 

enlivdris, Schneid Bengal, Eastern India 281 

jagorii, Peters Siam 282 

bennettii, Gray China 283 

cliineusis, Ch-ay China 283 

Ferania, Gray. 

sieboldii, Schley Bengal, Province Wellesley 284 

HoMALOPSis, Gray. 

buccata, L Malayan Peninsula, Gamboja 285 

HiPisTES, Gray. 

hydrinus, Cant Pinang 287 

Herpeton, Lacep. 

tentaculatum, Lacep Siam 288 

IX. DESERT ^^KKE^—PSAMMOPHID^. 
PsAMMOPHis, Boie. 

condauarus, Merr Peninsula of India 291 

PSAMMODYNASTES, GtJir. 

pulverulentus, Boie Eastern India 292 

X. TREE SNAKES— D£.VZ)/?0Pi7/Z).«. 
GoNYOsoMA, Wagl. 

oxycephalum, Boie Pinang, Tenasserim 294 

gramineum, Gthr Khasya 294 

fraenatum. Gray Khasya 295 

Phyllophis, Gthr. 

carinata, Gthr China 295 

Dendrophis, Boie. 

picta, Gm All over India 297 

caudolineata, Gray Pinang, Singapore 297 

Chrysopelea, Boie. 

ornata, Shaw All over India 298 

rubescens. Gray 299 

XI. WHIP-SNAKES— Z)«170P//7i)vS. 
Tropidococcy-x, Gthr. 

perroteti, D. ^~ B North Canara 301 

Tragops, Wagl. 

prasinus, Reimv Eastern India* 303 

dispar, Gthr Anamallay Mountains 303 

fi'outicinctus, Gthr 304 

Passerita, Gray. 

myeterizans, L Ceylon, Peninsula of India 305 

purpurascens, Gthr Ceylon 306 



* In the description of this species, p. 303, 1 ought to have said " eastern half of the continent," instead 
of " western half of the continent." 

(12 



xxii SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

XII. DIPSADES— Z)/P,Sr^i)/D^. 
DiPSAS, auct. 

cynodon, Cuv Malayan Peninsula Page 308 

forsteni, D. l^ B Anamallay Mountains 309 

boops, Gthr Bengal ? 309 

dencli'ophila, Reinw Malayan Peninsula 310 

bubalina, A7ei« Assam, China? 311 

multimaculata, -SfcA/e^r Bengal, Eastern India 311 

trigonata, Schneid Peninsula of India, Bengal 312 

multifasciata, BIyth Subatboo 313 

gokool, Gray Pinang, Bengal 313 

ceylonensis, Gthr Ceylon 314 

XIII. LYCODONTES— LlCODOA^TYDv^. 
Lycodon, D. ^ B. 

aulicus, L Ceylon and Continent of India 316 

laoeusis, Gthr Cochinchina 317 

striatus, Shaw Peninsula of India 318 

anamallensis, Gthr Anamallay Mountains 318 

rufozonatus, Cant Chusan 319 

Tetragonosoma, Gthr. 

eflrene. Cant Pinang 320 

atropurpureum. Cant Mergui 321 

Leptorhytaon, Gthr. 

jara, Shaw Peninsula of India, Bengal, Assam 321 

Ophites, Wagl. 

subcinctus, Boie Pinang 322 

albofuscus, D. i^ B Coast of Malabar ? 323 

Cekcaspis, JVagl. 

carLuata, Kuhl Ceylon 324 

XIV. BLUNT- HEAD S—^il/£LrC'£Pi7JZ,/i)^\ 

Amblycephalus, Wagl. 

boa, Kuhl Pinang 325 

Pareas, Wagl. 

carinata, Reinw Cochinchina 320 

monticola. Cant Assam 327 

Ijevis, Kuhl Cochinchina, Khasya 328 

XV. ROCK SNAKES— PlTi/OA^D^. 

Python [Baud.). 

reticulatus, Schneid Malayan Peninsula 330 

moliu'us, L Peninsula of India, Bengal, Nepal 331 

XVI. SAND SNAKES— £i?rC/D^. 
(ioxGYLOPHis, Wagl. 

conicus, Schneid Peninsula of India, Sikkim 333 

CuRSOEiA, Gray. 

elegans. Gray Afghanistan 334 

Eryx, D. &• B. 

johnii, Russell Peninsula of India, Punjab, Sikkim 335 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xxiii 

XVII. WART SNAKES— ACROCHORDID^. 
AcROCHORDus, Homstedt. 

javanicus, Hornst Pinang, Singapore Page 336 

Chersydrtjs, Cuv. 

granulatus, Schneid Eastern coasts of Southern India, Malayan Peninsula . 336 

Second Suborder. VENOMOUS COLUBRINE SNAKES. 

I. TERRESTRIAL— SL^P/Z)^'. 

Naja, Laur. 

tripudians, Merr Over nearly entire India 338 

Ophiophagus, Gthr. 

elaps, Schleg Over nearly entire India 341 

BuNGARuSj Daud. 

cseruleus, Schneid Peninsula of India, Bengal, Assam 3 i3 

fasciatus, Schneid Continent of India 343 

ceyloiiicus, Gthr Ceylon 344 

semifasciatus, Kuhl China, Formosa 344 

Xenurelaps, Gthr. 

bungaroides, Cantor Assam 345 

Meg^rophis, Gray. 

fla^^ceps, Reinh Pinang 346 

Callophis, Gray. 

bivirgatus, Boie Malayan Peninsula 348 

intestinalis, Laur Malayan Peninsula 348 

gracilis, Gray Pinang and Singapore 349 

macclellandii, Reinh Himalayas, Nepal, Assam 350 

annularis, Gthr 350 

trimaculatus, Daud Tenasserim, Bengal 350 

maculiceps, Gthr Malayan Peninsula 351 

nigrescens, Gthr Nilgherries 351 

II. SEA S'NKKES—HYDROPHID^. 
Platurus, Latr. 

scutatus, Laur Indian Ocean, Pacific 356 

fischeri, Jan Indian Ocean 356 

AiPYsuRTJS, Lacep. 

anguiUffiforrais, Schmidt . . . Australian Seas 357 

Isevis, Lacep Northern Australia 358 

fuscus, Tschudi Australia 358 

DisTEiRA, Lacep. 

doliata, Lacep 359 

ACALYPTUS, D. ^ B. 

superciliosus, D. i^- B South-Western Pacific 359 

Hydrophis [Daud.). 

jerdonii, Gray Madras, Pinang 362 

stokesii, Gray Northern Australia 363 

major, Shaw Indian Ocean 364 

robusta, Gthr Indian Ocean 3G4 



xxiv SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 

Hydkophis [Daud.). 

belclieri, Gray New Guinea Page 364 

cserulesceiis, Shaw Indian Ocean 365 

aspera, Graij Singapore 365 

spiralis, Shaw Indian Ocean 366 

cyauocincta, Daiul Indian Ocean 367 

melanosoma, Gthr 36" 

subciucta, Gray Indian Ocean 368 

iiigrocincta, Daud Bengal 368 

elegans, Gray Australia 369 

torquata, Gthr Pinang 369 

ehloris, Daud. Madras, Bengal, Pinang 370 

lindsayi, Gray China, Siam, Malabar 371 

atriceps, Gthr Siam 371 

latifasciata, Gthr Mergui 37;2 

coronata, Gthr Bengal 372 

diadema, Gthr 373 

gracilis, Shaiv Madi-as, Java 373 

fasciata, Schneid Vizagapatam 374 

cantoris, Gthr Pinang 374 

lapemoides, Gray Ceylon, IMadras 375 

longiceps, Gthr Indian Ocean 375 

stricticollis, Gthr Indian Ocean 376 

ornata. Gray Indian Ocean 376 

ellioti, Gthr Siam, Madras, Ceylou 377 

pachycercus, Fisch East Indian Archipelago 378 

viperina, Schmidt Madras, Java 378 

ocellata. Gray Australia 378 

anomala, Schmidt Samarang 379 

curta, Shaw Madras 379 

hardwickii. Gray Pinang 380 

loreata. Gray Borneo, Philippines 380 

Enhydrina, Gray. 

bengalensis, Gray Indian Ocean 381 

Pelamis {Daud.). 

bicolor, Schneid Indian and Pacific Oceans 382 



Third Suborder. VIPERINE SNAKES. 

I. PIT-VIPERS— CJR07Mi/Z>^. 

Trimeresurus, Gthr. 

gramineus, Shaiv Eastern parts of the Continent 385 

erjrthrurus. Cant China, Bengal, Siam, Java 386 

carinatus. Gray Sikkim, Bengal, Rangoon 386 

purpureus. Gray Pinang, Singapore 387 

anamallensis, Gthr Anamallay Hills 387 

monticola, Gthr Nepal, Sikkim 388 

wagleri, Schleg Malayan Peninsida 388 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xxv 

Trimerestjrus, Gthr. 

strigatus. Gray Nilgherries, Deccan Page 389 

trigonoceplialuSj Mcrr Ceylon 390 

mucrosquamatus, Cant Assam 390 

Peltopelok, Gthr. 

macrolepis, Bvddome .... Anamallay Hills . 391 

Calloselasmaj Cope. 

rhodostoma, Reinw Siara 391 

Halys, Gray. 

blomlioffii. Bote Japan, Formosa 393 

(pallasii, Gthr Tartaiy 392) 

himalayanus, Gthr Tibet 393 

(emoti,/errf Nilgherries 392) 

Hypnale, Fitz. 

nepa, Laur Ceylon, Southern India 394 

II. YlV^nS—VIPERIDyE. 
Daboia, Ch-ay. 

russellii, Shaw Ceylon, Southern India, Himalayas 396 

EcHis, Merr. 

carinata, Schneid Southern India 397 



Second Subclass. BATRACHIANS. 

THE ORDER OF TAILLESS BATRACKIA'NS—JMTIIACHIA SALIENTIA. 

OxYGLossus, Tschudi. 

lima, Tschudi Siam, Gamboja, China 401 

DicROGLossus, Gthr. 

adolfi, Gthr Himalayas 402 

Rana, auct. 

kuhlii, Schleff Ceylon, Ningpo 404 

hexadactyla. Less Ceylon, Madras 405 

cyanophlyctis, Schneid Ceylon, Southern India, Lower Bengal 406 

tigrina, Baud AH over India 407 

liebigii, Gthr Sikkim, Nepal 407 

esculeuta, L China 408 

sUvatica, Leconte Ningpo 409 

gracilis, Wiegm From Madras to Southern China 409 

HoPLOBATRACHus, Peters. 

ceylauicus, Peters Ceylon 410 

Pyxicephalus, Tschudi. 

breviceps, Schneid Southern India, Himalayas 411 

rufescens, Jerdon Coast of Malabar 412 



XXM 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Megalophrys, Kuhl. 

montaua^ Kuhl 

Xenophrys, Gthr. 

monticola, Gthr 

Cacopus, Gthr. 

systoma, Schneicl 

globulosus, Gthr 

DiPLOPELMA, Gthr. 

ornatum, D. Sf B 

pulchrum, Hallow 

Euro, auct. 

vulgaris, Laur 

calamita, Latir 

kelaartii, Gthr 

galeatus, Gthr 

melanostictus, Schneid. . 

asper, Schleg 

Hylorana, Tschudi. 

macrodactyla, Gthr 

erythrsea, Schleg 

macularia, Blyth 

malabaricaj D. &; B 

temporalis, Gthr 

POLYPEDATES, D. ^- B. 

maciilatus, Gray 

quadrilineatus, Wiegm. . 
microtympanum, Gthr. . 

pleurostictus, Gthr 

reticulatus, Gthr 

eques, Gthr 

afgliana, Gthr 

IXALUS, D. ^ B. 

variabilis, Gthr 

temporalis, Gthr 

femoralis, Gthr 

leucorhinus, Martens . . . 

schmardanus, Kelaart 
Rhacophorus, Kuhl. 

maxiraus, Gthr 

IIyla, D. &; B. 

cliinensis, Gthr 

Callula, Gray. 

pulchra, Gray 

obscura, Gthr 

(Bombinator sikkimensis, Blyth 



Pinang, Ceylon Page 413 

Khasya, Sikkim 414 

Carnatic 415 

Russelconda 416 

Southern India, Ceylon ? 417 

Siam, China 417 

China, Himalayas 419 

Tibet 420 

Southern Ceylon 421 

Gamboja 421 

All over India 422 

Mergui 423 

Hongkong 424 

Malayan Peninsula, South coast of Siam 425 

Ceylon 425 

Coast of Malabar 426 

Ceylon 427 

AH over the Continent of India, Ceylon 428 

Pinang, Singapore 429 

Ceylon 430 

Madras Presidency 430 

Ceylon 431 

Ceylon 431 

Afghanistan 432 

Ceylon 433 

Ceylon 434 

Ceylon 434 

Ceylon 433 

Ceylon 433 

Nepal, Sikkim, (Afghanistan ?) 435 

Southern China, Formosa 436 

Ceylon, Eastern India, China 437 

Ceylon 438 

Sikkim 400) 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. xxvii 



THE ORDER OF TAILED BATnACUlANS— BATH ACHI A GRADIENTIA. 

Cynops, Tschudi. 

chinensis. Gray Ningpo Pa^e 439 

Plethodon, Tschudi. 

persimilis, Gray Siam 439 



THE ORDER OF BURROWING BATRACHIANS— 5^ra^(7J7J^ APODA. 

Epicrium, Wagl. 

glutinosum, L Ceylon, Southern India, Khasya, Siam, Tenasserim . . 441 

monoeliroum, 5//:r Singapore 443 

CfficiLiA, Wagl. 

oxyura, D. &; B Coast of Malabar 443 



J_HE REPTILES are oviparous or ovoviviparous vertebrate animals with 
red, cold blood, with three cavities of the heart, breathing- by lungs either 
during the whole period or, at least, in the later stages of their growth. 
They are naked ; but frequently the skin shows scale-like folds, or is tuber- 
cular, or forms osseous scutes. 



First Subclass. REPTILIA PROPER. 

Only one ventricle of the heart, incompletely divided ; two atria. Never 
possessing branchiae at any period of life. One occipital condyle. Skin with 
scale-like folds, or tubercular, or forming osseous scutes. 

This Subclass comprises the Order of Tortoises (Chelonia), p. 1, that of Lizards (Sauria), 
p. 56, and that of Snakes (Opiiidia), p. 163. 



THE ORDER OF TORTOISES— C/^^Z0A7.^. 

T'he Tortoises we Reptiles witli the bones of the thorax united into a 
carapace. 

The shell of the Tortoises is formed by an osseous structure covered over with an epider- 
moid coat. The bones participating in the formation of the shell are the vertebrae, the ribs, 
and the sternum, which are so dilated that their edges form sutures with those of the 
neighbouring bones. In some freshwater and marine tortoises, and in young individuals, 
large interspaces between the ends of the ribs and between the sternal bones are, or remain, 
cartilaginous. We distinguish in the shell of a Tortoise the upper part, which is more or 

B 



2 



CHELONIA. 



less convex and formed by vertebrae and ribs, and the sternal part. This osseous shell 
receives in its interior the organs of the chest and of the abdomen, the humeral and pelvic 
bones, and the muscles for the humerus and for the femur. Only the ceridcal and caudal 
portions of the vertebral column are free and moveable. The skull is articulated to the atlas 
by a single condyle. 

The epidermoid coat, covering the osseous shell, is divided into numerous large horny 
shields or plates, not corresponding to the single bones of the carapace : in some species the 
coating is soft, not horny, and not di\ided into shields. The integuments of the head, neck, 
tail, and limbs are similar to those in the Saurians, smooth, or tubercular, or scaly. 

Teeth are wanting, but their office is fulfilled by a horny cutting sheath on each jaw, 
similar to the bill of a bird (Parrot). The intestinal tract terminates in a cloaca, into which 
open the ducts from a large m-inary bladder and from the genital organs. The penis is single, 
provided with a corpus cavernosum and with a groove to conduct the semen. The ovaria 
are paired, containing numerous eggs, which are coated over with a hard or flexible shell 
during their passage through the oviduct. The eggs are deposited in a hole made by the 
mother and carefully hidden under a layer of sand or mould ; they are not incubated, but 
hatched by the sun. 

The following woodcuts will explain the divisions of the epidermoid coat, the single shields 
forming one of the most important characters for the distinction of the species. 





PaNGSHURA SMITHII. 



n. Nuchal. 
v-v. Five vertebrals. 
CO. Four costals. 
m-m. Eleven marginals, 
c. Caudal. 



g. Gular. 
pg. Postgular. 

p. Pectoral. 
ab. Abdominal. 



pa. Prseanal. 

an. Anal. 

X. Axillary. 

i. Inguinal. 



TESTUDO. 3 

The Tortoises show great differences in their mode of life, and may be divided into the 
following families : — 

A. Toes distinct ; feet for walking, without web between the toes. Shell with homy shields ; caudal 

shields united into one : Testudinid^ or Land Tortoises, p. 3. 

B. Toes distinct; feet for walking and swimming, with a web between the toes; claws 5 (4) — 4.. Shell 

with horny shields ; caudal shields separate : Emtdid^ or Freshwater Tortoises, p. 9. 

C. Toes distinct ; feet for swimming, strongly webbed ; claws 3 — 3. Shell covered with soft skin : 

Trionycidjj or Freshwater Turtles, p. 43. 

D. Feet without distinct toes, fin-shaped : Chelonidje or Marine Turtles, p. 51. 



First Family. 

THE LAND i:OnTOl^Y.^—TESTUDINID^. 

Shell very convex. Toes distinct ; feet club-shaped, for walking ; no web 
between the toes. Shell with horny shields ; caudal shields united into one. 
Only one genus is found in British India. 

TESTUDO. 

Testudo, {L.) Oppel. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely bony, united Into an Immoveable case ; 
the upper shell very convex ; sternum concave in males, flat in females ; 
gular plates not united. Feet club-shaped ; toes very short, not webbed ; 
five (rarely four) claws anteriorly, four posteriorly. Only one caudal plate. 

The head, feet, and tail can be completely retracted within the shell. These animals are 
entii'ely terrestrial, being the worst swimmers of the whole class of Reptiles, with the excep- 
tion of the Chameleon. Their movements are slow. They feed on vegetables, and are 
easily kept in confinement if not removed to a much colder climate than that of their native 
country*. They are edible, but of small size, with the exception of the so-called Indian 
Tortoise, which attains to a length of 4 feet, but which is not found in India proper. 
The specimens of this gigantic Land Tortoise come either from the Seychelles or from the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Synopsis of the Indian Sj)ecies. 

Black, with yellow areolse, and with yellow streaks radiating from the areolae . . T. elegans, p. 4. 
Four claws anteriorly. Pale, varied with blackish ; areolae of the vertebral plates 

behind the centre T. horsfieldii, p. 7. 

Five claws anteriorly. Yellowish, each abdominal plate with a large black blotch 

in the middle ; areolae of the vertebral plates in the centre T. elongata, p. 8. 

* See a more detailed account of their habits under Testudo elegans. 

b2 



4 CHELONIA. 

Testudo elegans. The Starred Tortoise. 

Testudo elegans, Schoepff, p. 111. tab. 25 (young). 

? Testudo stellata, Schweig. Prodr. sp. 13. 

Testudo actinodes, Bell, Zool.Journ. iii. p. 419, iv. tab. suppl. 23 (24), and Testud. pi. (gibbous 

variety) . 

steUata, Gray's Synops. Rept. p. 12. tab. 3 (middle age). 

geometrica, Button, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. \\. 1837, p. 689. pi. 38 (adult male). 

megalopus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 640, is, according to an oral com- 

raimication by Mr. Blyth, identical with T. elegans. 

Form. — The shell of the adult is regularly oblong-ovate, contracted towards both ends 
and elevated in the middle, with the lateral margins very slightly curved. It is rather 
higher than broad, its greatest depth being much more than the width of the sternum 
between the front incisions. The upper shell has a deep, broad, obtusangular notch 
anteriorly, and the sternum a similar one, but of less depth, posteriorly. The sternum is a 
little broader between the hinder incisions than between those in front. Very young speci- 
mens have a nearly globular shell, the front and hind portions not being yet produced. In 
specimens of a more advanced age, of from 2 to 3 inches in length, the shell still retains its 
rounded outline, but becomes more depressed, so that it appears broader than high ; these 
shells have very large areolae occupying the centre of the plates and suiTounded by two or 
three homy rings. 

In many adult specimens the single plates are more or less elevated into prominent humps, 
the height of which may be from half an inch to an inch. This pecuhar form is so frequently 
found, that we cannot consider it as a monstrosity, but rather as an indication of very great 
age. If the shell is viewed from the inner side, deep impressions may be seen corresponding 
to the external prominences. 

Plates. — The areolae of the vertebral plates are in the centre, of the costal plates between 
the centre and the upper margin, and of the marginal plates in the lower posterior corner. 
No nuchal plate. Areolar portion of the three hinder marginals projecting. Gular plates 
elongate, triangular, much longer than broad, the sum of their posterior angles being less 
than a right angle. Postgulars longer than broad. The portion of the pectoral plates 
which is intermediate between postgulars and abdominals is very narrow. Abdominal as 
broad as long. Anal plates nearly regularly rhomboidal. 

In young specimens aU the plates are shortened in their longitudinal diameter. 

Head. — The head is covered with small polygonal horny shields, those on the upper sui'face 
of the snout and on the crown being symmetrically arranged; a single shield somewhat 
larger than the others may be considered as an occipital ; there is an oblong shield above 
the tympanum. Jaws indistinctly denticulated, the front part of the upper jaw being armed 
with a pair of stronger prominences, and sometimes with a third single one in the middle. 

Feet. — The fi-ont part of the fore legs and the hinder part of the lower hind leg are covered 
with rather large, prominent, flat, triangular scales. There is a group of large conical 
tubercles on the hmder side of the thigh. 



TESTUDO ELEGANS. 5 

Colour. — Head and feet yellowish, more or less marbled with brownish. This species is 
readily recognized by the beautiful markings of the shell ; it is black, with yellow areolae ; 
yellow streaks radiate from the areolap; those running towards the corners of the plates 
become gradually wider. The yellow streaks on the sternum are broader than those of the 
upper parts. The shell of young specimens is more simply, yet very neatly coloured ; and 
from their system of coloration it is evident that the ground-colour of this species is yellow, 
the black ornamental colour in young individuals being distributed only in black spots, 
which are very regularly placed, namely on the middle of the sutures formed by the plates. 
It is probable that the young are nearly entirely yellowish when they emerge from the egg. 

This species is not very scarce, and is probably found in many parts of the Peninsula of 
Southern India. Well-authenticated localities are Madras, Coromandel, the low jungles of 
the Carnatic, Pondicherry, and Ceylon. According to Mr. Blyth, it does not inhabit Lower 
Bengal, and is rarely brought alive to Calcutta. The shell attains to a length of 12 inches, 
larger specimens being very scarce. 

I am indebted to Mr. Blyth for an early copy of a paper in which he distinguishes the 
Starred Tortoise of Lower Pegu as a separate species, which he names T. platynotus (Joimi. 
As. Soc. Beng. 1863, xl.). It is, he says, " very similar to T. stellata, but averaging a 
larger size, and conspicuously distinguished by being quite flat on the back, the plates not 
rising in the centre, and the bosses representing the appearance of having been ground flat 
by attrition. The radiating marks are broader and less numerous, in general numbering six 
only on each vertebral plate. No nuchal plate. The carapaces are used abundantly in the 
Rangoon bazaar for baling out oil from earthen vessels : the entire animal is difficult to be 
obtained, as the Burmans are so fond of eating them." 

Captain Thomas Hutton has made some very valuable observations on the habits of the 
Starred Tortoise ; and as they are the only ones which have been published on an Indian 
species of this genus, I give the following abstract of them : — 

" These animals are by no means of rare occurrence in the hUly tracts of Meywar and the adjoining 
districts, where they are found in the high grassy jungles skirting the base of the hills. 

" They are nevertheless not easUy procured, owing to their colour and appearance being so blended 
with the rocky nature of the ground as to render it difficult to distinguish them from surrounding objects ; 
added to which, they remain in concealment beneath shrubs or tufts of grass during the heat of the day. 

" The Bheels, however, are expert in tracking them through loose soils, and having discovered a foot- 
print in the sand of a nullah or the dust of the grass plains, they generally succeed in captm-ing the 
animal by patiently following the traces it has left. 

" It is in the rainy seasons that they are in the greatest activity, and wander about all day feeding and 
coupling. At the approach of the cold weather they select a sheltered spot and conceal themselves by 
thrusting their shell into some thick tuft of grass and bushes, the better to protect them from the cold, 
remaining thus in a sort of lethargic inactivity (for they are not torpid) until the hot season, at which 
time they only remain concealed during the heat of the day, coming out about sunset to feed. 

" As I have several of these animals alive, I shall give an outline of their general habits in a state of 
confinement. I have at different times procured seven of these creatures, three of which are females, and 
are easily distinguished by their larger size. They were all turned loose into a large enclosui'c, and well 
supplied with water and grass, both dried and green, and a heap of bushes and grass to hide themselves in. 



6 CHELONIA. 

" Throughout the hot season they remained all day in concealment, coming out a little before sunset to 
feed on the grass, lucem, or cabbage-leaves which were thrown to them. As night approached they did 
not again retire, but, as if enjoying the coolness of the air, remained stationary until morning, when 
they withdrew to their retreats before the sun rose. They did not wander about during the night, but 
remained as if asleep. 

" At this season they were fond of plunging into water, where they would often remain for half an hoiu' 
at a time ; this, too, generally had the effect of making them void their excrement, which appeared to be 
hard, oblong masses of ill-digested food, vegetable fibres, and along -with it a small quantity of chalky 
substance (urine). 

'' They drank a great quantity of water, which they took by thrusting in the head and swaUo^ving it by 
draughts. As the rainy season set in they became more lively, and were to be seen during the day 
wandering about in the rain, feeding freely and resting at intervals, and frequently performing the rites 
of love. Often, indeed, two or three males succeeded each other with little intermission, without appearing 
to inconvenience the female, who lay quite still, cropping the grass within her reach. The male mounts 
on the back of the female like other quadrupeds, placing his fore legs on the top of the carapace, while his 
hind legs rest on the ground. They remain engaged for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour, the male 
uttering at intervals a groaning soimd. They are not, however, attached after the operation, as is said to 
be the case, but the desire of the male being appeased, he retires to rest and feed. During the whole 
period of the rains the females continued to admit the males frequently, i.e. from the latter end of June 
till the middle of October, being nearly four months, when they became less familiar and drew off from 
each other. 

" On the 11th November, 1835, one of the females commenced sinking a pit to receive her eggs, which 
she performed in the following manner :— Having selected a retired spot at the root of a tuft of coarse, 
tall grass, she began to moisten the earth with water which she produced from the anus, and then with 
the strong horny toes of her hind feet proceeded to scrape away the mud she had made. She used her 
hind feet alternately, and as she proceeded the water continued to be supplied drop by drop, so as to 
render the earth of a thick, muddy consistency, and easy to be scraped out of the pit she was making. 

"In about two hours she had succeeded in making a hole six inches in depth and four inches in 
diameter ; in this she immediately deposited her eggs, four in number, filling up the hole again with the 
mud she had previously scraped out, and then treading it well in, and stamping upon it with her hind feet 
alternately until it was filled to the surface, when she beat it down with the whole weight of her body, 
raising herself behind as high as she could stretch her legs and suddenly withdrawing them, allowing 
herself to drop heavily on the earth, by which means it was speedily beaten flat ; and so smooth and 
natural did it appear that, had I not detected her in the performance of her task, I should certainly never 
have noticed the spot where she had deposited her eggs. She did not immediately leave the place after 
finishing her work, but remained inactive, as if recovering from her fatigues. 

" In about fom* hours she had dug the hole, deposited her eggs, replaced the earth, and retired to feed. 

" As the cold season approached they became more sluggish, seldom leaving their retreats, and at the 
beginning of December 1833 they remained altogether motionless, refusing to feed. They make no 
attempt to bmrow in the ground, as the Greek Tortoise {Testudo graca) is said to do, but thrust them- 
selves in amongst the coarse grass which was heaped up in a corner of their enclosure. Until the 9th of 
February 1834 they remained in a state of lazy, listless repose, having never stirred from the spot they 
had chosen full two months before. They were not, however, in a state of torpidity, but merely lying 
inactive. 

" The 9th, 10th, and 11th days of February being cloudy, with a few showers of rain, the tortoises came 
forth and took some lucern, and drank plentifully of water. They did not continue to come out, but 
relapsed into their former repose ; nor did they venture forth again in the evening until the hot season 
had commenced, or about the middle of April. The winter of 1834. proved much milder than that of the 
•^ -eceding year, and the tortoises in consequence continued to come forth for their supply of food; but 



TESTUDO HORSFIELDII. 7 

instead of doing so in the evening as in the hot weather, they chose the middle of the day, remaining out 
for two or three hours basking in the sun, and retiring again to concealment in the afternoon. 

" The marking of the shells is the same in both sexes, and they are only to be distinguished by the 
difference in size and structure of the sternum and in the unequal length of tail, that of the male being 
about twice the length of that of the female — the latter, indeed, possessing almost none. 

" The eggs of this tortoise are pure white, of an oblong-oval form, the ends being of equal size, and not 
smaller at one extremity as in the eggs of birds. The shell is thin, and 1 inch 8 lines in length by 
4 inches in lateral girth. 

" As they increase in age they lose the beautiful radiated appearance of the shell ; and, indeed, it 
frequently peels off in scales even when they are in their prime. I have an old male which has lost its 
yellow rays, or rather which has lost the whole of the outer coating of the shell and is now of a dirty 
yellowish colour, the carapace being cracked and divided so irregularly as to render it somewhat difficult 
to recognize the true division of the scutella. 

" These animals when handled wUl generally, either from fear or as a means of defence, squirt out a 
quantity of water, in a pretty strong stream, from the anus. 

" I have read that the combat of the males may be heard at some distance, from the noise they produce 
in butting against each other. This was never the case with this tortoise, though mine had frequent 
fights; but these, instead of butting, consisted merely in trials of strength, one male confronting the 
other, with the head and fore legs drawn into the shell and the hind feet planted firmly on the ground, 
and in this manner shoving against each other until one or both became fatigued. This was done chiefly 
when they wanted to pass each other in any narrow space, and sometimes if the one could succeed in 
placing his shell a little beneath the other he tilted him over on his back, from whence he had great 
difficulty in recovering himself; and I have frequently found them sprawling thus, making desperate 
efforts with head and feet to throw themselves back to their natural position, which they were unable to 
effect unless the ground chanced to be very uneven so as to assist them. 

" In this kind of warfare the females also frequently indulged, and from their superior size and strength 
generally accompHshed their wishes. 

" Soon after my arrival at Simla, in March, the old male died from cold ; the others lived through 
the rain well enough, but were not so lively as in the plains, moving about less frequently. One of the 
females even produced four eggs, but made no hole to receive them as in the former case, showing 
plainly that the change of climate was at work upon them. She died in the course of the winter." 



Testudo HORSFIELDII. Afghan Tortoise. 

Testudo horsfieldii. Gray, Catal. Tort., Crocod., i^c, 1844, p. 7, and Catal. Shield Rept. p. 7. tab. 1. 

Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 214. 
Homopus burnesii, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 642. 

Form. — The greatest depth of the shell is one-half of its length, and equal to the width of 
the sternum between the front incisions. The sternum is one-eighth broader posteriorly 
(between the hind incisions) than anteriorly. Anterior and posterior profiles rather truncated, 
the two lateral ones straight, slightly convergent towards the front. 

Plates. — Areoli3e of the vertebral plates behind the centre, of the costal plates in the upper 
posterior corner, of the lateral marginal plates in the lower posterior corner, whilst those of 
the hinder marginal plates occupy the centre. The nuchal plate is narrow and elongate. 
Gular plates elongate, triangular, much longer than broad, the sum of their posterior angles 
being less than a right angle. Abdominal plate rather broader than long. Anal plates 



8 CHELONIA. 

irregularly quadrangular, the anterior side being twice as long as the posterior, whilst the 
two lateral ones are nearly equal in length ; the notch between them is triangular, with the 
inner angle somewhat obtuse. 

Head. — The upper jaAv is armed Avith three strong teeth anteriorly, and indistinctly 
denticulated on the sides ; crown of the head with symmetrical shields ; a large shield 
between the eye and the tympanal margins. 

Feet. — The scales on the inner edge of the front extremities are smaller than those on the 
outer. Only four claws anteriorly. 

Colour. — Pale, varied with blackish, especially on the lower side, the black colour- being 
distributed in the direction of the strise of the plates. 

This species is known to me only from a single specimen in the British Museum. It is 
found in Afghanistan, and resembles T. groeca, the habits of both probably being alike. A 
di-awing made from a Nepalese specimen, and presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., to the 
British Museum, appears to represent this tortoise; if the determination be correct, this 
species would extend to Nepal. 

It has been suggested that this species is identical with T. ibera. Pall. Zoogr. Ross. -As. iii. 
p. 18, but there is nothing in Pallas's description to prove the correctness of this opinion. 



Testudo elongata. The Burmese Tortoise. 

Testudo elongata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. sxii. 1853, p. 639. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1856, 
p. 181. pi. 9, and Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. 1861, vi. p. 218. 

Form. — Shell elongate, ovate, rather broader posteriorly, flat superiorly, the three middle 
vertebral plates lying nearly m a plane ; the lateral margins are nearly straight, the posterior 
slightly reverted. It is nearly twice as broad as high, its greatest depth being one-third of 
its length, or equal to the width of the sternum between the front incisions. The upper 
shell has no notch anteriorly. The sternum is truncated in front, and has a deep acutan- 
gular incision posteriorly ; it is a little broader between the hinder incisions than between 
the anterior. The female and the young have the shell less elongate than the male. 

Plates. — The plates are rather smooth, with the concentric strise not very deeply marked. 
The areolae of the vertebral plates are in the centre, those of the others excentrical. There 
is a very long and narrow nuchal plate ; the last vertebral is as broad as the caudal. Gular 
plates broader than long, the sum of their posterior angles being more than a right angle. 
Postgulars rather longer than pectorals. Abdominal as broad as long. Anal plates triangular, 
entirely separated by a deep notch. 

Head.—'n\e upper jaw is armed with three sharply prominent teeth, separated by two 
vertical grooves running upwards to the nostrils. There are three shields on the upper 



EMYDID^. 9 

surface of the crown, distinguished from the others by their large size, — namely, a pair of 
frontals extend from the nostrils to the interorbital space, forming a suture with the 
third — a large triangular vertical shield ; the supraciliary region and the crown are covered 
with small irregular shields. A large elmigate shield covers the temple, above the tympanum. 

Tail. — Short, thick, terminating in a strong claw. 

Feet. — Fore foot and sole of the hind leg covered with scales of moderate size ; only those 
along the outer margin of the fore foot are larger and prominent ; five short claws anteriorly 
and four posteriorly. 

Colour. — Shell yellowish, the areolar regions of the plates black ; each abdominal plate 
with a large black blotch in the middle. Head and feet brownish, marbled with yellowish 
and black. 

This species attains to a length of 13 inches ; it is found in Gamboja, Arakan, and Mergui. 



Second Family. 
THE FRESHWATER TORTOISES— ^MFZ)//)^. 

Shell sometimes convex, generally more or less depressed. Toes distinct, 
webbed ; feet for walking- and swimming- ; claws 5(4) — 4. Shell with horny 
shields ; caudal shields separate. 

Although the species of this family may be easily distinguished from those of the preceding 
by the characters indicated, there is a gradual transition from the Land Tortoises proper to 
those the habits of which are thoroughly aquatic. The first six genera appear to live as 
much on land as in water. The degi-ee of the development of the webs indicates their 
power of swimming. They are found near, or in, the fresh waters of nearly all the temperate 
and tropical regions. The females deposit about thirty eggs with a hard shell. 

The following genera are found in the East Indies : — 

* Pectoral plates narrow, far apart, not forming a suture together .... Manouria, p. 10. 
** Sternum divided into two moveable lobes by a transverse joint .... Cuora, p. 11. 
*** Sternum not divided by a transverse joint ; the bridge between the upper 
shell and the sternum is very flat, scarcely convex, the latter being fixed 
to the former by a cartilaginous longitudinal suture. 

The suture between the pectoral and abdominal plates cui'ved Cyclemys, p. 15. 

The suture between the pectoral and abdominal plates straight ; fingers and 

toes scarcely webbed Pyxidea, p. 16. 

C 



10 CHELONIA. 

The suture between the pectoral and abdominal plates straight ; fingers and 

toes broadly webbed Notochelys, p. 17. 

**** Pectoral plates forming a suture together ; lobes of the sternum immoveable ; 
the bridge between the upper shell and sternum is broad and very convex, 
and the suture between them is osseous ; head of moderate size ; tail short. 

Only the hind toes are moderately webbed Geoemyda, p. 18. 

Toes broadly webbed ; a broad suture between the third and fourth vertebral 

shields; claws strong £»«?/s, p. 21. 

The third and fourth vertebral shields are pointed at theii' junction ; claws 

of moderate size Pangshura, p. 33. 

Claws feeble Batagur, p. 37. 

***** Head very large, taU very long Platysternum, p. 42. 



MANOURIA, Gray. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely bony, united into an immoveable case ; 
the upper shell depressed ; sternum concave in males, flat in females ; pec- 
toral plates narrow, triangular, far apart, not forming a suture together. 
Feet with the toes very distinct and with the hind toes webbed. Claws five 
anteriorly and four posteriorly. 

Nothing is known about the habits of this Tortoise ; it appears to be an intermediate form 
between the true Land Tortoises and the Terrapens. 

Manouria emts. The Brown Tortoise. 

Testudo emys, Miill. ^ Schleg. Verhand. Nat. Geschied., Rept. p. 34. tab. 4. 

Manouria fusca, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 133, and Shield Rept. p. 16. tab. 3, and Proc. 

Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 395, Rept. pi. 31. 
Testudo phayrei, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 639. 
Teleopus luxatus, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Philad. 1854, p. 187. 

Form. — Shell rather depressed, much broader than high, truncated anteriorly, of sub- 
quadrangular shape, the lateral corners being somewhat prominent, and the lateral margins 
between them nearly straight. Its greatest depth is a little more than the distance between 
the axillary and inguinal incisions, and less than the width of the sternum between the front 
incisions. The anterior and posterior margins of the shell are much reverted. The plates 
are smooth and polished, each with its centre more or less deeply sunk in. The sternum is 
obtusely pointed in front and deeply notched posteriorly; its width between the front 
incisions is nearly equal to that between the hinder. 

Plates. — The areolae of the second, third, and fifth vertebral and of the second and third 



CUORA. 11 

costal plates are in the centre, whilst those of the first and fourth vertebral and costal plates 
are excentric, approximate to the middle of the whole shell. The nuchal plate is broad ; the 
last vertebral as broad as the caudal, which is divided into two by a longitudinal groove and 
notched posteriorly in the middle. Nuchal plates broader than long. Gular plates irre- 
gularly quadrangular, longer than broad, the sum of their posterior angles being more than 
a right one ; the postgulars form a broad suture vsdth a pai't of the anterior margin of the 
abdominals, and are tvdce as large as the pectorals, which are widely apart. Abdominals as 
long as broad. Anals subrhomboid, the notch between their posterior edges being obtusan- 
gular ; their inner edges form together a suture along the whole of theii- length. 

Head. — Of all the Indian specimens which I have seen, only the shell has been preserved, 
so that I am obliged to give the description of the head, &c. from an Australian example, 
the shell of which, however, perfectly agrees with those from the East Indies. The upper 
jaw has no distinct denticulations. A pair of nasal and a pair of frontal shields, a vertical 
and a temporal shield are distinguished by their larger size from the other small ones. 

Tail very short. 

Feet. — The forearm and the sole of the hind leg are covered with very large, projecting, 
triangular scales, each transverse series on the front part of the forearm being formed by 
three scales. Five claws anteriorly, four i^osteriorly. Three large conical spines on each 
side of the tail below the hinder marginal plate, the middle spine being much the strongest. 

Colour. — Nearly uniform dark horn-brown. 

This species grows to a rather large size, the shell of a specimen in the British Museum 
being \%\ inches long, 14 inches broad, and 7^ inches deep. It is found at Pinang, in 
Arakan and the Tenasserim Provinces, in Java and Sumatra. A fine specimen in the col- 
lection mentioned has been brought, on good authority, from the Murray River in Australia ! 
Nothing is known of its habits. 



CUORA, Gray. 

Upper shell entirely bony. Sternum very broad, attached to the upper 
shell by a ligamentous suture, and divided by a similar transverse suture 
into two moveable lobes ; the cross suture corresponds to the middle of the 
sterno-costal suture ; sternum concave in males, flat in females. Feet with 
the web more or less developed, and with the front part covered with very 
large scales. Claws strong, five anteriorly and four posteriorly. 



12 CHELONIA. 

The Indian Box Tortoises have been separated generically by Dr. Gray from those of 
America, with which they have great resemblance in external appearance and in habits. 
They belong to the intermediate forms between Testudo and Emys ; although they are less 
aquatic in their habits than the latter, yet they are exclusively carnivorous. They are very 
timid, withdrawing the head and limbs when handled, and partly closing the aperture with 
the moveable lobes of the sternum, a faculty which they possess in a less degree than the 
American species. They never attempt to bite, and soon become accustomed to confine- 
ment, withdrawing their head only when frightened. 

Anals without notch behind. Toes distinctly webbed . . , . C. aniboinensis, p. 12. 

Anals without notch behind. Toes scarcely webbed C.flavomarginata, Tp. 13. 

Anals separated by a notch behind C. trifasciata, p. 14. 



CuoRA AMBOiNENSis. The Bdning or Cuoro. (Plate IV. figs. A & B.) 

Testudo amboinensis, Baud. Rept. ii. p. 309. 

Cistudo amboinensis, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. tab. Dum. ^- Bibr, Erpet.gen. ii. p. 215. pi. 15. fig. 2. 

Terrapene bicolor, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 484. tab. 16. 

Cuora amboinensis, Gray, Shield Bept. p. 41. 

For7n and Plates. — The general form and the shape of the single plates are subject to 
numerous variations, some dependent on age, others apparently accidental. The shell is, 
generally, not depressed ; we have seen only one male, from the Island of Gilolo, in which 
it might be so called. The most convex and elevated part of the shell is more frequently in 
its posterior half than in the middle. Young specimens always show three longitudinal 
ridges, the lateral of which are nearer to the median ridge than to the outer margin of the 
shell ; these ridges become indistinct with age or disappear entirely. Margin of the shell 
not serrated, slightly reverted in young specimens. Nuchal plate oblong; caudals longer 
than broad, with a very slight notch behind. Sternum concave in males, flat in females, 
rounded anteriorly and posteriorly ; the length of its anterior lobe is contained once and a 
third or once and a half in that of the posterior ; the suture between both lobes corresponds 
to the suture between the fifth and six marginals. Gulars rounded anteriorly, much longer 
than broad, the suture between them being thrice as long as that between the postgulars. 
Pectorals shorter than abdominals. Anals large, as large as postgulars, rounded, and without 
notch behind ; the suture between them equals in length that between the abdominals. 

Head covered with undivided skin ; jaws scarcely denticulated, upper jaw slightly bent 
downwards anteriorly. Tail shorter than the head. Front part of the fore leg and upper 
side of the toes with large imbricate scales ; fingers and toes webbed ; claws stout, five 
anteriorly and four* posteriorly ; a series of four or six large rounded scales across the wrist. 

Colour. — Upper shell brown ; each plate on the lower side with a black or brown blotch in 
the areolar corner ; these spots occupy the greater portion of the plates in young individuals. 



CUOEA FLAVOMARGINATA. 13 

Sides of the head ivifh yellow hands: the upper runs from the nose through the upper 
margin of the orbit along the neck ; the second passes the lower half of the orbit and the 
tympanum, and occupies the whole lower half of the neck. Jaws yellow, each with a black 
longitudinal stripe. 

This species attains to a length of 8 inches; it is found in nearly all the tropical parts of 
India, at least near the coasts ; we are not aware how far inland it may be found. Specimens 
have been received from Pinang, Singapore, the Tenasserim Provinces, Gamboja, Sumatra, 
Java, Amboyna, Gilolo, and the Philippine Islands. The Malays of the Peninsula call 
it Bdning. It is more terrestrial in its habits than aquatic. 

Figures A, A' of Plate IV. represent an adult female, of half the natural size ; figures B, B', 
a young individual, of the natural size. 



CuoRA FLAVOMARGiNATA. The Black-helUed Box Tortoise. (Plate V. fig. A.) 

Cystoclemys flavomarginata, Gray, MS. 

Form and Plates. — Shell very convex, with the margin slightly reverted and not serrated, 
and with three longitudinal ridges which become more or less indistinct with age. Nuchal 
plate narrower in front than behind; caudals longer than broad, without notch behind. 
Sternum rounded in front and behind, the length of its anterior lobe being two-thirds of that 
of the posterior ; the suture between both lobes corresponds to the suture between the fifth 
and sixth marginals. Gulars about twice as long as broad, the suture between them being 
more than twice as long as that between the postgulars. Pectorals rather shorter than 
abdominals. The anals are large, but rather smaller than the j)Ostgulars ; they are grown 
together, and the suture between them has nearly entirely disappeared. 

The head is large ; jaws not denticulated, the upper bent downwards anteriorly. Tail 
nearly as long as the head ; its posterior half is covered by four rows of square shields 
arranged in rings. Th.efore leg is covered with very large imbricate scales anteriorly and 
posteriorly. Neither the fingers nor the toes are webbed ; claws short. 

Colour. — Upper shell blackish brown, the areolar portion of each plate light horny- 
coloured ; lower part of the marginal plates yellowish. Sternum entirely Mack, with a 
narrow yellow border. Crown of the head greenish olive ; a bright yellow band, edged with 
blackish, narrow in front and broader behind, runs from the upper posterior angle of the 
orbit to the side of the occiput ; snout ivithout any band ; cheeks yellowish, with a blackish 
border above ; neck uniform yellowish olive ; feet dirty greenish olive ; tail yellowish, with a 
blackish streak on each side. 

The shell of this species attains to a length of 1\ inches. We have two adult specimens : 
one is said to be from China; the other was brought by Mr. Swinhoe from Tamsuy. 



14 CHELONIA. 

N.W. Formosa. It is singular that large portions of the shell are eroded in both ; but 
whether it is owing to an internal disease of the bones, or the effect of the action of a 
parasite, we do not know. 

The figures are taken from the typical specimen from Formosa, and represent it of half 
the natural size. 



CuoRA TEiFASCiATA. The Chinese Box Tortoise. 

Cistudo trifasciata, Gray, Si/n. Rept. p. 19 ; Illustr. Ind. Zool. tab. 
Sternotherus trifasciatus, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 299. tab. 13. 

Form and Plates. — Although this species also is subject to variations in general form, it is 
less so than C. amboinensis. It is generally depressed, with the back flattened to the last 
vertebral plate, which is obliquely situated. Normally it has three longitudmal ridges, the 
costal ridge being nearly twice as remote from the lateral edge of the shell as from the 
vertebral ridge. The anterior half of the shell is contracted, the posterior widened, its hind 
margin being not, or scarcely, serrated ; lateral margin slightly reverted. The nuchal plate 
varies in form, and is sometimes entirely absent. Vertebrals of moderate length and width. 
Sternum rounded anteriorly and posteriorly ; the length of its anterior lobe is contained once 
and a third in that of the posterior ; the suture between both lobes corresponds to the fifth 
marginal plate. Gulars rounded anteriorly, much longer than broad, the suture between 
them being nearly thrice as long as that between the postgulars. Pectorals as long as 
abdomuaals. Anals large, as large as postgulars, rounded, and separated by a notch behind. 

Head covered with undinded skin, narrow and elongate ; jaws not denticulated, upper 
jaw slightly bent downwards anteriorly. Tail as long as the head. Anterior and posterior 
parts of the fore leg covered mth large, imbricate, shield-like scales. Fingers and toes 
webbed ; claws strong and long, five anteriorly and four posteriorly. 

Colour. — Upper shell brovra, iDith the ridges black; lower half of the marginal plates 
yellow, each with a black spot posteriorly. Sternum black, with light-brown streaks radiating 
from the areolae ; margin of the sternum yeUow. Head yellow, with two black streaks on 
each side, the upper of which passes through the eye and is broader than the lower. Feet 
reddish. 

The shell of the largest specimen in the British Museum is 7 inches long. This species 
appears to be limited to China. 



CYCLEMYS OLDHAMI. 15 

CYCLEMYS, Bell. 

Tliorax and sternum solid, entirely bony ; sternum without transverse 
joint ; a cartilaginous longitudinal suture between sternum and upper shell. 
Upper shell depressed ; sternum flat ; the suture between the pectoral and 
abdominal plates curved. Toes distinctly webbed. 

Only one species is known, from British India. 

Cyclemys OLDHAMI. (Plate V. fig. B.) 

Cyclemys oldhami, Gray, MS. 

Form. — Shell moderately elevated, ovate, flat above, with the lateral margins slightly 
reverted, and with a very distinct vertebral ridge ; there are traces of costal ridges, but they 
appear to be distinct in young indi\iduals only. Anterior margin entire, posterior distinctly 
serrated. The vertebral ridge commences from the nuchal plate and is continued to the 
caudals. The sternum is not quite twice as long as broad, its width between the axillary 
incisions being equal to that between the inguinal ; it is truncated in front, and has a deep 
incision behind. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate small, much longer than broad. The first vertebral plate somewhat 
elongate, bell-shaped ; the three middle vertebral plates as long as broad, the last broader 
than the caudals ; the caudals separated by a grooved ridge and by a small posterior notch. 
Gulars subtriangular, longer than broad, the suture between them longer than between the 
postgulars. Pectorals longer than abdominals ; the transverse suture between pectorals and 
abdominals is curved, with the convexity backwards. Praeanals about as long as abdominals. 
The anals vary in form : in the specimen from Mergui they are as broad as long and rather 
pointed behind, whilst they are broader than long and rounded behind in a specimen from 
Gamboja. 

Head of moderate size. Front part of the fore limb and heel covered with large, thin, 
imbricate scales. Fingers slightly, toes broadly webbed. Tail as long as the head. Shell 
brown above, indistinctly speckled and streaked with black. Sternum with black streaks 
radiating from the areolar portions of the shields. Head with brown dots above. 

One specimen has been sent by Professor Oldham from Mergui ; another was collected by 
M. Mouhot in Gamboja ; the shell of both is 8 inches long. 

Figures B, B', B" of Plate V. represent the specimen from Mergui, two-thirds of the 
natural size. 



16 CHELONIA. 

PYXIDEA, Gray. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely bony; sternum without transverse 
joint ; a cartilaginous longitudinal suture between sternum and upper shell. 
Upper shell angular ; sternum flat ; the suture between the pectoral and 
abdominal plates straight. Legs with transverse shield-like scales above; 
toes scarcely webbed. 

Only one species is known. 

Pyxidea mouhotii. (Plate lY. fig. D.) 

Cyclemys mouhotii, Gray in Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, x. p. 157. 
Pyxidea mouhotii, Gray, MS. 

Form. — Shell moderately elevated, with three strong longitudinal ridges; the space 
between the ridges rather flat. The anterior and posterior margins serrated, the latter much 
more deeply than the former. The median ridge commences behind the nuchal and termi- 
nates before the caudals, and is nearly equally strong throughout its course. The lateral 
ridge runs over all the costals, much nearer to the vertebral line than to the lateral margin 
of the shell. The sternum is nearly twice as long as broad, rather narrower between the 
pectoral incisions than between the inguinal, truncated in front and deeply notched behind ; 
it is very slightly concave in males. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate much longer than broad, sometimes absent; the three middle 
vertebral plates much broader than long, the last much broader than the caudals, each of 
Avhich terminates in a point, the two points being separated by a deep notch. Gulars sub- 
quadrangular, rather broader than long ; the suture between them shorter than that between 
the postgulars. Pectorals shortei- than postgulars and abdominals. Prteanals of about the 
same size as the postgulars ; the suture between the prsanals is shorter than that between the 
anals, which are comparatively large, and the posterior margins of which meet at a rather 
obtuse angle. 

Jaws not denticulated. Front part of the fore limb and sole of the hind limb covered with 
large, thin, imbricate scales. Tail shorter than the head. The shell is yello-wish, more 
brown on the lateral parts. 

Seven specimens were collected by the lamented Mouhot during an expedition in the Lao 
Mountains in Cochinchina, where he unfortunately perished. The species does not alter 
much with age, the shells of the difiierent individuals being from 3 to 7 inches long. 

In a half-grown specimen the anterior lobe of the sternum appears to be slightly moveable, 
whilst it is entirely immoveable in the larger specimens. 

The figm-e represents one of the typical specimens, of tlie natural size. 



NOTOCHELYS PLATYNOTA. 17 

NOTOCHELYS, Gray. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely bony; sternum without transverse 
joint ; a cartila2;inous longitudinal suture between sternum and upper shell. 
Upper shell angular; sternum flat; the suture between the pectoral and 
abdominal ])lates straight. Legs covered with very small scales, fingers and 
toes with small transverse shields. Fingers and toes broadly webbed. 

Only one species is known. 

NoTOCHELTS PLATYNOTA. The Flat-backed Emys. 

Emys platjTiota, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 54; Illustr. Ind. Zool. tab. 
Notochelys platynota, Gray, MS. 

Form and Plates. — This species may be very easily recognized by its flat hack, and by the 
increased number of vertebral plates, of which there are six instead of five ; a very young 
specimen 2^ inches long, from Singapore, has seven vertebrals. The additional vertebral is 
intercalated between tlie last and the penultimate ; it is very much smaller than any of the 
others. Each vertebral, and in half-grown specimens each costal also, has the areola 
elevated, these prominences forming an interrupted keel along the vertebral line. The five 
anterior vertebrals are much broader than long ; the second, third, and fourth quite flat ; 
the sixth polygonal, compressed into a ridge along its middle. The anterior and posterior 
margins of the shell are strongly serrated, the anterior less than the posterior. Sternum 
subtruncated in front and behind. Gulars longer than broad, the suture between them 
longer than that between the postgulars ; pectorals and abdominals equal in length ; anals 
subquadrangular, the suture between them being longer than one of the hind margins, 
which together form a nearly straight line. 

JJjyper jaw with a pair of tooth-like prominences separated by a deep groove ; the 
remainder not denticulated. Front part of the fore leg with broad band-like transverse 
shields, wrist and heel with large scales. Fingers and toes broadly webbed ; claws elongate, 
strong. 

Colour. — Yellowish brown above, with brown streaks radiating from the areolae. Sternum 
yellowish, with the areolar portions more or less brown. Head yellowish, with brown 
specks. Neck brown, with irregular yellow lines along the sides. A half-grown specimen 
from Singapore has a brown spot on the areola of each costal plate, and a pair of brown spots 
on the same portion of the vertebrals. 

The largest specimen I have seen has a shell 10 inches long. The only well-authenticated 
locality inhabited by this species is Singapore, whence it has been brought by Mr. Wallace. 

D 



18 CHELONIA. 

Cantor describes a tortoise from Pinang 19 inches long, and called Katong by the Malays, 
as E. platynota ; but this was certainly an incorrect determination, as is evident from his 
description. 



GEOEMYDA, Gray. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely bony in full-grown specimens ; sternum 
fixed, without transverse joint ; the upper shell depressed, sternum concave 
in males, flat in females ; pectoral plates subquadrangular, forming- a suture 
together. Feet with the toes very distinct and with the hind toes moderately 
webbed. Claws five anteriorly and four posteriorly. 

The two species of this genus are confined to the East Indies, and appear to be inter- 
mediate forms between Testudo and Emys. Nothing positive is known of their habits ; they 
are readily distinguished from one another. 

Anterior margin serrated G. spinosa, p. 18. 

Anterior margin not serrated G. grandis, p. 19. 

Mr. Blyth mentions a species of Geoemyda, G. tricarinata (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiv. 
1855, p. 714), and describes it in the following words, without mentioning whether the 
marsdn of the shell is entire or serrated : — 



'■■n'- 



" Shell 5^ by 3^ inches ; subovate, broader posteriorly : of a dark reddish-brown colour above, with three 
yellow longitudinal ridges which are flat and obtuse ; below pale dull yellow. Claws long, stout, and con- 
siderably hooked. Soles expanded — indication of terrene habits. Dorsal shields hexagonoid ; the third and 
fourth broader than long ; the fifth approximating a triangular form, with posterior base : nuclei of costal 
shields placed high, and traversed by the low lateral ridge." 

Geoemyda spinosa. Tlie Spinous Tortoise. 

Emys spinosa, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. Bell, Testud. tab. (young) . 

Geoemyda spinosa, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834-, p. 100. Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 1. 

Form and Plates. — The shell of an adult specimen, 8 inches long, is nearly twice as broad 
as high, with a semicircular posterior margin ; the angles of the front and hind marginal 
plates are strongly projecting, forming together a serrated edge; a longitudinal ridge along 
the vertebral plates is flat, but very distinct, intersected by slight swellings on the posterior 
margin of each plate. The younger the specimen the less elongate are the plates. The 
nuchal appears constantly to have a triangular shape, with a pointed angle anteriorly ; the 
first vertebral urn-shaped, but somewhat broader than long, the third nearly twice as broad 
as long, the last much broader than the caudal. Each costal plate is provided with a very 
small tubercle on the middle of the hind margin of its areola. Gular plates as long as 
broad ; postgulars and pectorals of equal length ; abdominals broader than long. 



GEOEMYDA GRANDIS. 19 

In a smaller specimen, 4i inches long, from the same locality (Singapore), a wide space 
between the costal and marginal plates, and another on the middle of the sternum, are not 
ossified. This, therefore, is a young specimen, and from its size we may conclude that 
specimens of 8 inches are not full-grown, as has been the belief hitherto, but that the species 
grows, perhaps, to the size of the specimen on which G. grandis has been founded. The 
shell is shorter and more circular than in the other specimen, with the margins reverted, 
and the angles also of the lateral marginal plates are projecting, forming sharp spines, whilst 
the front and hind marginals are sometimes armed with two or three spines. One or two of 
the hinder vertebrals may be divided into lateral halves, and each costal plate has a small 
but vei'y distinct spine at the place Avhich is occupied by a tubercle in the larger example. 
Gular plates terminating in a small spine pointing obliquely outwards. 

Head. — The upper jaw is armed with two tooth-like points anteriorly, separated by a 
groove, and is not denticulated on the sides. The upper part of the snout and crown is 
covered by an undivided hard skin, which is probably leathery in a fresh state ; a temporal 
shield between eye and tympanum. 

Tail very short. 

Feet. — The forearm and the sole of the hind foot are covered with large, rather thin 
scales ; no spines on the side of the vent. Claws strong, five anteriorly and four posteriorly ; 
the fifth hind toe is small and rudimentary. Hind toes with a very distinct web. 

Colour. — Upper part of the shell and the soft parts brown. The specimens from Singa- 
pore show a yellowish spot on each side of the neck, which is sometimes produced backwards 
into a streak. The sternum shows a very characteristic coloration, the areola of each plate 
being yellow, whilst numerous yellow streaks radiate from the areola over the remainder of 
the plate, which is brown. In very young specimens, where the areola occupies nearly the 
whole plate, these streaks are short, and in older specimens, where the epidermis is more or 
less worn ofi", only traces of them remain. 

This species is known to occur in the Malayan Peninsula (Pinang, Singapore) and in 
Sumatra. Its habits are aquatic, as is proved by the web between the hind toes. 



Geoemtda grandis. (Plate I., and Plate II, figs. A & B.) 

Emys siamensis [Gray, MS.), Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 114. 
Geoemyda grandis, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1861, vi. p. 218. 

Form. — Shell ovate, broader than high, subtruncated anteriorly, somewhat dilated pos- 
teriorly, with the caudal extremity slightly produced backwards. The front margins are 
rounded and not serrated, the lateral straight, and the posterior strongly serrated. Its 
greatest depth is somewhat more than the width of the sternum between the front incisions. 
The plates are smooth ; a fiat ridfje runs along the vertebral line. The shell is slightly 

d2 



20 CHELONIA. 

emarginate above the neck, and has a small, deep notch above the tail. The sternum is 
truncated anteriorly and deeply notched posteriorly ; its mdth between the front incisions 
equals that between the hinder, and is less than one-half of the length of the sternum. 

Plates. — Areolae and concentric striae very indistinct. Nuchal plate short, triangular. First 
vertebral urn-shaped ; second rather broader than long ; third as broad as long ; fourth and 
fifth with the keel rather prominent, the latter broader than the caudal. Caudal divided 
into two by a very distinct groove. Marginal plates without any spines in large specimens. 
Gulars as long as broad, the sum of their posterior angles being equal to a right angle ; 
postgulars and pectorals of equal length ; abdominals broader than long ; prseanals as broad 
as long ; anals rhombic, their inner margins forming a suture together and being shorter than 
the posterior ; the angle of the notch between the posterior margins is nearly a right one. 

This description is taken from the typical specimen of Geoemyda grandis, a very old 
male from Gamboja, 17 inches long, with a concave sternum. An apparently full-grown 
female from the same locality, 11 inches long, differs considerably in the form of the shell ; 
but there cannot be any doubt that it belongs to the same species, having the same cha- 
racteristic coloration of the sternum and the same non-serrated anterior margin of the upper 
shell. The shell of this specimen is much depressed, ovate, its greatest depth being con- 
siderably less than the width of the sternum. As it is much younger than the male, the 
areolae and concentric striae are very distinct. Nuchal plate elongate, triangular; sternal 
portion of the abdominal nearly square. 

M. Mouhot, who collected these two specimens in Gamboja, has sent at the same time 
a third, only 3 inches long, with the shell much shrivelled in consequence of its soft con- 
dition in a fresh state. The ai'eolae are proportionally very large, granulated, and surrounded 
by only two concentric striae. The most interesting point in the structure of its shell is, that 
each vertebral plate, except the first, is di\ided into two lateral halves, which are arranged 
in a zigzag line, each half overlapping the longitudinal ridge with its inner angle. Remains 
of this structure are sometimes indicated in old specimens of G. sjn'nosa and of Cyclemys. 

Head, tail, feet, and coloration the same as in Geoemyda spinosa. 

The male specimen in the British Museum bears such evident signs of very old age, that 
we do not believe the species grows to a larger size than from 17 to 18 inches. 

Plate I. represents the typical specimen, a full-grown male, one-thu'd of the natural size ; 
figs. A, A', A" of Plate II., an adult female, also one-third, and figs. B & B' the young, one- 
half of the natural size. 



EMYS. 21 

EMYS. 

(POND TORTOISES. TERRAPENS.) 

Emys, (Bronr/niart) Cuv. Rec/ne Anim. ed. 1817, p. 10. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely bony, and united Into an immoveable 
earapace in the adult state. The upper shell more or less depressed ; the 
third and fourth vertebral plates united by a broad suture ; sternum flat in 
both sexes ; pectoral plates subquadrangular, forming a suture together. 
Feet with the toes broadly webbed. Claws strong, five anteriorly and four 
posteriorly. 

This genus is extremely rich in species, inhabiting all the temperate and tropical regions, 
except Australia. Formerly (between the latest geological and the historical periods) the 
genus had even a still greater geographical range than now, a species in a semi-fossil 
state being found in England * and in other European countries, where it is extinct at 
present. The species undergo great changes in external appearance with age, and it is 
almost impossible to make out the whole history of the development of a species from the 
isolated examples preserved in European collections ; on the other hand, naturalists residing 
between the tropics frequently apply names to species for which they were never intended, 
thereby rendering their observations on the habits, development, 'and geographical range 
useless, or productive of numerous errors. Thus the history of the Indian Terrapens, in its 
present state, is by no means satisfactory, beyond the zoological distinction of the species, 
which is chiefly due to Dr. J. E. Gray. 

The Terrapens cannot well exist without water ; they abound in still waters and tanks in 
the lower parts of India ; perfectly motionless, they rest on the water, with the shell and the 
snout raised above its surface, suddenly disappearing at the approach of danger, and darting 
away with the swiftness of a fish. Their pointed claws enable them to crawl easily over 
slippery and steep places, and to dig little holes for a small number of elongate-o^'ate, hard- 
shelled eggs, which in some species require as long a period as from eighteen to twenty months 
before they are hatched. They are chiefly carnivorous, and the flatter the shell, the broader 
the interdigital web, the more denticulated the jaws — the more aquatic and carnivorous are 
the habits of the Pond Tortoises. The food of the carnivorous species consists of water-insects, 
frogs, small fishes, small aquatic birds and mammals; whilst on the other hand they are 
persecuted by alligators and large fishes, and the young and eggs by numerous other animals. 
They are not used as food by man, the flesh of most species having a very disagreeable smell, 
which is also perceptible when first taken out of the water in a net or by a hook baited 
with meat. 

* Emys lutaria. See Newton, Ann. & iMag. Nat. Hist. 1862. 



22 CHELONIA. 

They are easily kept in capti\ity, provided that they are placed in a tank and fed with 
meat cut into small pieces or with frogs. In Europe they soon succumb to the climate, 
which forces them into a state of hibernation, whilst in their native country they bury 
themselves in the mud, remaining in a state of torpor during the extreme drought. 

Most of the species attain only a small size ; but all are more or less ferocious, turning 
round with their flexible neck and trying to bite, or scratching with their sharp claws. 
The head and feet can be completely retracted within the carapace. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

* A more or less distinct vertebral ridge ; no costal ridges. 

Each vertebral and costal plate with a chestnut-brown^ light-edged, ocel- 

lated spot E. ocellata, p. 22. 

Shell yellowish brown, with numerous linear dark brown specks . . . E. bealii, p. 23. 
Upper shell more or less deep brown ; nuchal plate triangular, narrower 

in front ; abdominals longer than praanals E. thurgi, p. 24. 

Upper shell brown ; each sternal plate with a large square black spot ; 

nuchal plate of moderate size ; abdominals shorter than prseanals . . E. mutica, p. 25. 
Upper shell brown ; nuchal plate very narrow (absent) ; abdominals 

shorter than prseanals E. nigricans, p. 26. 

** A pair of more or less distinct costal ridges, beside the vertebral ridge; 

ridges without nodose prominences. 
Shell not serrated, costal ridges indistinct ; nuchal plate nearly as broad 

as long ; each marginal plate with a brownish ocellus on the lower side . E. sinensis, p. 27. 

Shell with the posterior margin serrated E. crassicollis, p. 28. 

Shell not serrated ; the costal ridges run at an equal distance from the 

vertebral ridge and from the lateral edge of the shell E. reevesii, p. 29. 

Shell not serrated ; ridges not interrupted, very distinct ; those of the 

costal plates are narrow, near the vertebral ridge and remote from the 

lateral edge of the shell E. trijuga, p. 29. 

The ridges do not extend on the last plate of the vertebral and costal 

series ; they are swollen posteriorly on the third and foui-th vertebral 

and on the second and third costal plates E. macrocephala, p. 31. 

*** Shell with three ridges, each vertebral and costal plate being elevated into a 

nodose prominence. 
Shell serrated behind E. hamiltonii, p. 32. 



Emts ocellata. The Ocellated Pmid Tortoise. 

Emys ocellata, Dtim. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 329. pi. 15. fig. 1 (not good). Blyth, in Journ. As. 

Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 645, & xxiv. p. 481. 
Batagur ocellata, Gr-ay, Shield Rept. p. 36 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 1856, p. 182. pi. 10 & 10 a. 
Emys berdmorei, Blytk, I.e. 1859, p. 281. 

For7n. — The shell of this beautiful species is considerably elevated, subhemispherical, 
nearly half as high as long. An interrupted vertebral ridge is formed hy more or less distinct 



EMYS BEALII. 23 

prominences on the four anterior vertebral plates ; these prominences become very indistinct 
with age. The margin of the upper shell is entire, without serrature or notch. Plates 
smoothish, with reticulated lines. Front lobe of the sternum bent upwards. Sternum with 
an obtuse lateral ridge and with a shallow notch posteriorly ; it is equally wide between the 
axillary and inguinal incisions, its width being rather less than one-half of its length. 

Plates. — No areolae are visible in the specimen described ; the nodose protuberances on 
the vertebrals are near the posterior margin of the plates. Nuchal plate oblong, more than 
twice as long as broad. The four anterior vertebrals subquadrangular, more or less broader 
than long ; the last as broad as long, narrowed in its anterior part and dilated in its pos- 
terior. Caudal shields longer than broad. Gulars longer than broad, the suture between 
them being equal in length to that between the postgulars. Pectorals shorter than post- 
gulars, abdominals, or praeanals. Abdominals and prceanals nearly equal in length. The 
suture between the anals is much longer than their posterior margins, which meet at an 
obtuse angle. 

The limbs are stout, and less depressed than in most Emydes ; there are imbricate, very 
narrow and elongate scales on the forearm and on the posterior part of the tarsus. Claws 
long, strong, and curved. The tail is short, and can scarcely be exserted from below the 
carapace. 

Colour. — Shell brownish, each vertebral and costal with a chestnut-brown, light-edged, ocel- 
lated spot. Lower parts yellow. The soft parts are olive-grey ; crown of the head blackish, 
with a yellowish-white V-like mark over the snout, continued over each eye and over the 
back of the neck ; another similar line behind the eye. Both lines are frequently more or 
less broken up into spots. 

The shell from which we have taken the description is only 1^ inches long, and apparently 
belonged to an adult specimen ; it was brought from Mergui. Bibron mentions a specimen 
12 inches long. A specimen (considered by Mr. Blyth as belonging to a different species) was 
obtained on the Tenasserim coast, and others at Schwe Gyen, on the Sitang River, in Pegu. 
This species approaches the Land Tortoises in several characters, and probably also in habits. 



Emys BEALII. The Speckled Pond Tortoise. 

Cistudo (?) bealii, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 71. 
Emys bealii, Gray, Shield Rept. p. 21. tab. 8. 

Form. — Shell not much depressed, rather elongate, not emarginate or serrated, witli a 
single longitudinal ridge, which is distinct posteriorly only. No notch between the caudals. 
Sternum rounded on the sides, truncated anteriorly ; it is rather broader between the in- 
guinal incisions than between the axillary, and twice as long as broad. 

Plates, — The plates are remarkably smooth, polished, with the areolae very indistinct ; 



24 CHELONIA. 

nuchal plate elongate-triangular ; vertebrals broader than long, not imbricate, the fourth and 
fifth with an obtuse and low ridge. The outer edge of the marginal plates is not reverted ; 
caudals rather broader than long. Gulars broader than long, the suture between them 
equalling in length that between the postgulars ; postgulars shorter than pectorals and prae- 
anals, which are equal in length ; the abdominals are the longest of the sternal shields, two- 
sevenths or one-fourth of the length of the sternum. Anals nearly as large as the postgulars ; 
the suture between them is much longer than their posterior margins, which meet at a verij 
obtuse angle. 

Head covered with undivided skin; jaws not denticulated. Tail as long as the head. 

Feet. — Fingers and toes completely webbed. Front side of the forearm with extremely 
broad scutes, occupying nearly the whole width of the arm ; the outer side of the hind foot 
is also covered with enlarged scales. 

Colour. — Shell yellowish brown, with numerous linear dark-brown specks ; sternum yellow, 
with brown blotches. A pair of black, yellow-edged ocelli on the occiput ; a scarlet, black- 
edged band runs along the middle of the neck ; two or three similar streaks along each side 
of the neck. 

I have seen two specimens of this well-distinguished species ; both are much alike, and the 
larger, with a shell 5^ inches long, appears to be fully adult. It is a native of Southern China. 



Emys thurgi. The Thurgi. 

Emys thiirgii, Gray, Syn. pp. 22 & 72, and Shield Rept. p. 21. Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 318. 

Testudo thurgii, Gh-ay, Illustr. Ind. Zool. 

Emys flavo-nigra, Less. Bull. Sc. xxv. p. 12, and in Belanger, Voy. Ind. Orient., Rept. p. 22. 

Form. — Shell rather depressed, ovate ; an interrupted median ridge extends the whole length 
of the shell ; no costal ridge. The upper shell is subtruncated anteriorly and provided with 
a small notch posteriorly. Lateral margins not reverted, posterior scarcely serrated. The 
sternum is elongate, the width between the axillary incisions being two-fifths of its length. 
In the adult specimen the width between the axillary and inguinal incisions is equal, whilst 
the former is the greater in the young specimen. The young specimen has the sternum 
keeled on the sides, the old one perfectly rounded. The sternum is truncated anteriorly, 
notched posteriorly, the angle of the notch being nearly a right one. 

Plates. — The areolae are proportionally large, smooth, and seem to disappear before the 
animal is full-grown. Nuchal plate triangular, broadish posteriorly. The first vertebral 
rather elongate, with the posterior margin concave, the concavity being directed backwards ; 
the last broader than long. Caudal shields square. Gulars longer than broad, the suture 
between them being shorter than that between the postgulars. Postgulars rather longer 



EMYS MUTICA. 25 

than, and nearly as large as, pectorals. Abdominal plates longer than either pectorals or proe- 
anals ; prceanals longer than pectorals. The suture between the anals is longer than their 
posterior margin. 

Head proportionate, covered with undivided skin ; upper jaw strongly denticulated, with 
a pair of tooth-like prominences in front. Tail shorter than the head. Feet broadly webbed ; 
forearm with transverse series of broad, short, imbricate scales. 

Colour. — Shell more or less deep brown, the plates of the lower side edged with yellow. 
A broad yellow band runs from the nostrils over the eyebrows along the side of the neck, a 
short yellow band anteriorly on each side of the upper jaw. Feet olive, spotted with yellow. 

Our description is taken from very old specimens, the shells of which are 14-16 inches long. 
Another specimen, 5 inches long, has the carapace not completely ossified. The species is 
found in the Ganges, and probably in the whole of Bengal ; according to Cantor in Pinang 
also. The structure of its jaws shows that it is a thoroughly carnivorous and probably a 
rather ferocious species. According to Blyth, the species would attain to 22 inches in length 
of carapace (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 643). 



Emts MUTICA. The Chusan Terrapen. 

Emys muticus, Cantor, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. p. 482. 

Form. — Shell rather depressed, with a very distinct continuous median ridge, extending 
from the middle of the fij'st vertebral plate to the end of the last ; no costal ridge ; the 
nuchal region is subtruncated, the caudal with a very distinct notch. Lateral margins but 
little reverted. The sternum is equally wide between the axillary and inguinal incisions, its 
Avidth being rather more than one-half of its length ; it is subtruncated in front and deeply 
notched behind. 

Plates. — The areolae are distinct, situated on the posterior margins of the plates. Nuchal 
plate of moderate size, triangular, longer than broad, broadest behind. The first vertebral 
subpentagonal, broader than long, broader anteriorly than posteriorly ; the last with the keel 
very distinct, and broader than the caudals ; caudals broader than long. Gulars as broad as 
long ; postgulars as long as pectorals and as abdominals ; the sternal portion of the abdominals 
is broader than long, and rather shorter than the prceanals ; the suture between the anals is 
rather longer than their hind margins, which meet at a right angle. Inguinal plates 
extremely small. 

Head proportionate ; jaws not denticulated. Tail as long as the liead. Feet broadly 
webbed ; forearm with large, thin scales. 

Colour. — Shell uniform greenish brown above. Sternum yellow; the areolar portion of 

E 



26 CHELONIA. 

each sternal plate with a large square black spot ; lower parts of the marginal plates uniform 
yellow, without spots or ocelli. Head greenish olive, with a yellow band commencing from 
behind the eye. 

For the determination of this species I had a coloured drawing, made by Dr. Cantor at 
Chusan, and kindly communicated to me by Mr. F. Moore, Gustos of the East India Collection, 
to which the drawing belongs ; and two specimens from Chusan — one in the British Museum 
(K nigricans, spec, a. Gray, Catal. Shield Kept. p. 21), and one in the East India Collection ; 
both specimens agree perfectly with each other, and the latter is without doubt the typical 
specimen from which Cantor has figured the species. It differs so constantly from E. nigri- 
cans in the shape of the nuchal and of the sternal plates, in the depressed shell, and in the 
coloration, that we cannot consider them as identical. The shell of the larger specimen is 
5 inches long and 4 inches broad. 



Emys nigbicans. The Blackish Pond Tortoise, 

Emys nigricans, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 53, and Shield Rept. p. 20. tab. 6. 

Two specimens of E. nigricans are preserved in the British Museum ; the first (typical) 
specimen is a shell, 4 inches long, and injured behind: a peculiarity of this specimen (which 
has been figured by Dr. Gray) is the absence of a nuchal plate. The second specimen is a 
stuffed animal, the shell of which is a little larger than that of the fii'st ; it has a nuchal 
plate. We take our description from the second specimen. 

Form. — Shell rather elevated along the median ridge, which is very distinct, and extends 
fro7n the nuchal to the end of the last vertebral plate ; no costal ridge, only the centres of 
the areolae are a little elevated. The upper shell has a very slight notch anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly, and is scarcely serrated ; its lateral margins are somewhat reverted. The sternum 
is a little wider between the axillary incisions than between the inguinal, its width being 
one-half of its length ; it is truncated anteriorly. 

Plates. — ^The areolae are distinct, situated on or near the posterior margins of the plates. 
Nuchal flate very narrow [sometimes absent). Vertebrals subimbricate : the first pentagonal, 
broader than long, broader anteriorly than posteriorly ; the last with the keel very distinct, 
and broader than the caudals ; caudals broader than long. Gulars rather broader than long ; 
postgulars rather shorter than pectorals ; the sternal portion of the abdominal square, but 
shorter than the prceanal ; the sutui-e between the anals as long as their hind margins, which 
meet at a right angle. 

Head proportionate ; jaws not denticulated. Tail of moderate length. Feet broadly 
webbed ; forearm with large, thin scales. 

Colour. — Shell brown ; sternum yellow, marbled with black near the margins ; head and 



EMYS SINENSIS. 27 

neck blackish brown, sides of the head and neck with four interrupted yellow streaks; jaws 
and throat yellow, marbled with black. 

Nothing is known of the habits of this very obscure species; it is a native of China, 
apparently of the southern parts. 



Emys sinensis. The Chinese Pond Tortoise. 

Emys sinensis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 53, and Shield Rept. p. 21. tab. 7 (half-gro^yn) . 
bennettii, Gray, Shield Rept, p. 22. tab. 10 (adult). 

Form. — Shell depressed, ovate, not emarginate or serrated, with three longitudinal ridges, 
the outer of which are very indistinct, but visible in old and young individuals ; the middle is 
elevated, extending over the anterior and posterior vertebrals, and slightly interrupted behind 
each shield. The notch in the caudal is very small. Lateral margins of the upper shell 
slightly reverted. Sternum rounded on the sides; its breadth between the axillary and 
inguinal incisions is nearly equal, and contained twice and a third in its length ; it is sub- 
truncated anteriorly, its posterior notch being rectangular. 

Plates. — The areolae are finely granular ; those of the vertebrals are situated on the hind 
margins of the plates, and divided into two by the median ridge. The costal areolae are 
more or less remote from the hind margin of the shields, and slightly elevated along the 
middle ; they are nearer to the marginal shields than to the median ridge. The areolae 
disappear entirely in very old individuals. Nuchal plate suhguadr angular, nearly as broad as 
long. The first vertebral nearly as broad as long, the last broader than long. Caudal divided. 
Gulars longer than broad, the suture between them being twice as long as that between the 
postgulars in the adult specimen. Postgular much smaller than the square pectoral. Abdo- 
minal and praeanal of the same length, the former longer than broad in its sternal portion. 
Suture between the anals as long as their posterior margin. 

Head covered with undivided skin ; jaws finely denticulated in old individuals. Tail slender. 

Feet. — Fingers and toes completely webbed. The front side of the forearm is covered with 
large, not prominent, scales of difi'erent size ; wrist with a transverse series of four large scales 
on its inner side. 

Colour. — Shell brownish olive dotted vnth brown, the ridges yellow ; sternum yellow, each 
plate brownish towards the hinder margin. Each marginal plate has on the lower side a 
large brownish ocellus edged with dark brown. Sides of the head, neck, throat, and feet with 
numerous narroiv blackish-broivu longitudinal stripes on a yellow ground. 

This species is found in the neighbourhood of Canton and on the island of Formosa*. 

* Several specimens from South Formosa have been collected by Mr. Swinhoe. 

e2 



28 ■ - CHELONIA. 

The typical specimen of E. sinensis is 4^ inches long, that of E. hennettii 10 inches ; we 
consider the latter as the adult of the former. Although the costal ridges (which are never 
fully developed) have disappeared in the old specimen, the colours of the soft parts and the 
ocelli on the marginal plates appear to us characteristic of the species. 



Emys ceassicollis. The Thick-necked Pond Tortoise. (Plate IV. fig. E.) 

Emys crassicollis, Gray, Syn. p. 21. tab. 7. fig. 3; Illustr. Ind. Zool. tab. . fig. 2; Shield Rept. 

p. 20. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 3. 
nigra, Blyth, Journ, As. Soc. Beng. xxiv. 1855, p. 713. 

Form. — Shell depressed, oblong, mth the lateral edges nearly straight, and ivith the pos- 
terior margin serrated. Three longitudinal ridges run along the vertebral and costal plates, 
but they are very low, and those of the costals become nearly obliterated with age. The 
plates are very smooth, with the areolae and concentric striae obsolete. Costal ridges close by 
the vertebral line and remote from the lateral margins of the shell. Sternum truncated in 
front, its width between the front and hind incisions being nearly equal, and more than one- 
half of its length. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate subtriangular, longer than broad. Vertebrals much contracted 
behind : the anterior triangular, with the posterior point of the triangle truncated ; the last 
broader than the caudals. Upper portion of the marginal plates very narrow. Gulars as 
long as broad; postgulars relatively small, not longer than gulars. Pectorals, abdominals, 
and prseanals of nearly equal length ; sternal portion of the abdominal nearly square. 

Head short and broad ; cleft of the mouth broader than long ; nose slightly protruding. 
Tail short. 

Colotir. — Shell uniform brownish black ; head and feet brown, with several white markings — 
one above each eye, and another (rounded) on each side of the neck ; lower jaw with a broad 
white transverse band. These markings appear to become indistinct with age. 

This description is taken from an old example 7 inches long; the species appears to 
attain to a length of 10 mches. According to Dr. Cantor it feeds on frogs, shellfish, and 
animal ofial. Well-authenticated localities in British India, where this species is found, are 
Mergui and the Malayan Peninsula. Specimens of this species, or of one closely alhed to it, 
have been brought from Gamboja ; the costal ridges of these specimens are very indistinct, 
and the postgular plates comparatively larger. The same species is said to occur also in 
Sumatra and Java*. 

Plate IV. fig. E. represents a half-grown specimen of the natural size, said to be from 
Sumatra. 

* The specimen mentioned by Dr. Gray as from Ceylon is an adult E. sebce. 



EMYS TEIJUGA. 29 

Emys eeevesii. Beeves' s Pond Tortoise. 

Emys reevesii, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 73. Bum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 313. 
Geoclemys reevesii, Gray, Shield Rept. p. 19. pi. 5. 

Form. — Shell oblong-ovate, with three longitudinal ridges, Ttot interrupted by nodose pro- 
minences; it is not depressed, or emarginate or seiTated; the notch in the caudal shield 
small, shallow. Sternum rounded on the sides, not keeled, ' nearly as broad between the 
front as between the hind incisions, the breadth between them being one-half of its length ; 
it is truncated anteriorly, and its posterior notch is obtusangular. 

Plates. — The areolae are finely granular, situated on, or very near to, the posterior margins 
of the plates; those of the vertebral and costal plates are divided into two by the ridges. 
The costal ridges are very narrow, almost linear, but very distinct ; they run at an equal 
distance from the vertebral ridge and from the lateral edge of the shell. The areolae of the 
sternal plates are scarcely perceptible. Nuchal plate very short, broader than long ; verte- 
brals broader than long, the last broader than the caudal, which is divided into two. All 
the marginal plates very narrow. Gulars longer than broad, the suture between the post- 
gulars being very short. Pectoral, abdominal, and prseanal of nearly equal length, or the 
pectoral a Httle shorter than the others ; sternal portion of the abdominal square. Suture 
between the anals longer than their posterior margin. 

Head covered with undivided skin ; upper jaw not denticulated. Tail longer than the head. 
Toes moderately webbed. 

Colour. — The upper shell and the soft parts are brownish ; each sternal plate with a large 
dai'k-brown blotch in the centre ; two oblique yellow lines behind the eye, on the temple ; 
neck with two longitudinal yellow lines on each side, and with one along the middle. 

This small Emys (from 3 to 4 inches long) is a native of Southern China and Cochinchina. 
A specimen which does not differ from a Chinese one, and which has been figured by Dr. Gray, 
is said to come from India. 



Emys teijuga. Common Ceylonese Pond Tortoise. (Plate II. fig. C.) 

Seba, i. tab. 79. fig. 12. 

Emys trijuga, Schweigg. Prodr. p. 310. Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 310. Gray, Shield Rept. 
p. 20. tab. 4, aud tab. 37. fig. 2. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Ceylon, p. 177. 

sebse, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 75. 

tbermalis, Reyneau, in Less. Cent. Zool. p. 89. pi. 29 (test. Gray). 

belangeri, Less, in Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient., Rept. p. 291. pi. 1 (not good). 

Geoclemys seba, Gi-ay, Shield Rept. pp. 18 & 77. 

Form. — Shell depressed, ovate, not emarginate or serrated, with three longitudinal ridges, 
which are not interrupted by nodose prominences. The notch in the caudal shield is veiy 



30 CHELONIA. 

small and shallow. Sternum rounded on the sides in adult females, and angularly bent in 
young males ; its breadth between the front and hind incisions is nearly equal, and one-half 
of its length ; it is subtruncated anteriorly, its posterior notch being rectangular. 

Plates. — The areolae are finely granular, situated on the posterior margins of the plates ; 
those of the vertebrals as well as of the costals are divided into two by the longitudinal 
ridges. The costal ridges are narrow, but very distinct, near to the vertehral ndge, and 
remote from the lateral edge of the shell. Nuchal plate longer than broad. Vertebrals as 
broad as long in adult specimens, rather broader in young ones ; the last vertebral a little 
broader than the caudal, which is divided into two by a groove. Marginal plates of moderate 
width, with the outer edge slightly reverted in adult specimens. Gulars longer than broad, 
the suture between them being twice as long as that between the postgulars. Postgular and 
pectoral of equal length, the latter square. The abdominal plate is the longest plate on the 
sternum, its sternal j^ortioii being considerably longer than broad. Suture between the anals 
longer than their posterior margin. 

This description is taken from the shell of an evidently old and full-grown individual, 
7 inches long, sent by Dr. Kelaart from Ceylon. In a specimen 3^ inches long the shell is 
shorter, broader, more depressed, and the lateral margins are much reverted. All the plates 
are proportionally shorter, and the abdominal is rather broader than long. Finally, in a 
very young specimen, 2 inches long, in which the umbilical cicatrix is still visible, the plates 
are very broad, the lateral margins of the shell being subhorizontal, not reverted. The notch 
at the sternal extremity is shallow, obtusangular. 

Head covered with undivided skin ; jaws not denticulated. Tail shorter than the head. 

Feet. — Fingers and toes completely webbed ; claws pointed, five anteriorly and four pos- 
teriorly. The front side of the forearm and the dorsal side of the toes are covered with large, 
not prominent, scales, the remainder of the limbs being granular. Wrist with a transverse 
series of four large scales on its inner side. 

Colour. — Shell nearly uniform brown, the ridges somewhat lighter; sternum brownish 
black, in young specimens with broad white margins ; head and feet browTi, the former with 
numerous red or yellow spots. 

This Pond Tortoise is rather common in the peninsula of India and in Ceylon, and a 
thoroughly aquatic and carnivorous species, as I have convinced myself by observation of 
a specimen living for some time in the Zoological Society's menagerie, and as may be 
inferred from the structure of the shell and of the feet. It appears to be full-grown at a 
length of from 7 to 8 inches. I cannot assure myself of the specific distinctness of the 
Ceylonese specimens. It is very doubtful whether this species is also found in the East 
Indian Archipelago. Schlegel and Dumeril and Bibron mention specimens from Java ; but 
an example in the British Museum, received from Holland with the name of E. siibtrijuga, 
and probably from one of the Dutch colonies, belongs to a distinct species, which is distin- 



EMYS MACROCEPHALA. 31 

guished from E. trijuga by having a broad triangular nuchal plate and by the lateral margins 
of the slioll not being reverted. 

The figures (Plate II. figs. C, C) represent a specimen of the natural size. 



Emys MACROCEPHALA. The Bwad-headed Terrapen. 

Geoclemys macrocephalaj Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 478. pi. 21, and 1861, p. 139. 

Of this beautiful species I have four specimens before me : one adult, and 8^ inches long ; 
two half-grown, of 4 inches ; and a fourth, which is only 2^ inches long, and e^ddently young. 

Form. — Shell depressed, rounded-ovate, with three longitudinal ridges, not extending on the 
last plate of the vertebral and costal series, the ridges of the third and fourth vertebral and of 
the second and third costal being more or less swollen behind; these prominences are very 
distinct in young individuals. The costal ridge is twice as distant from the edge of the shell 
as from the vertebral ridge. The upper shell is subtruncated in front, not emarginate, and 
has scarcely any notch behind ; it is not serrated. The sternum is equally wide between the 
axillary and inguinal incisions, its width being more than one-half of its length ; it is 
truncated anteriorly. 

Plates. — The areolae are indistinct, situated on the posterior margins of the plates. Nuchal 
plate subtriangular — in the young specimen nearly as broad behind as long, in older speci- 
mens narrower. The two anterior vertebrals with the ridge much flattened ; the last vertebral 
almost without keel, broader than the caudals. Caudals square. Gulars much broader than 
long ; postgulars and pectorals of equal length ; the sternal portion of the abdominal square, 
as long as prneanal ; the suture between the anals longer than their posterior margins, which 
meet at an obtuse angle. 

Head large, broad, with the nose rather prominent and turned upwards ; jaws without 
denticulation. Tail very short. 

Feet webbed ; forearm with very large but thin scales ; wrist wdth two or three similar 
scales. 

Colour. — Shell chestnut-brown ; areolae black ; outer edges of the marginal plates yellow ; 
plates on the lower side yellow, with the areolar portion black. In the young specimen the 
sternal plates are dark purplish red, blackish on the areolae, the margins being of a mother- 
of-pearl colour. Head black, brown above ; six yellow stripes radiate from the nose, one 
running above the eye, the second below to the angle of the mouth ; the thii'd pair descend 
vertically to the front incision of the upper jaw. Another yellow streak from the eye along 
each side of the neck. The lower jaw with a pair of longitudinal streaks running to the 
chin. 

Habitat. — Siam, Gamboja. 



32 CHELONIA. 

Emys hamiltonii. The Yellow-sjwtted Emys. 

Emys guttata, Gray, Illustr. hid. Zool. tab. 

liamiltonii, Gi'ay, Syn. Rept. pp. 21, 72. 

picquotii, Less, in Belang. Voij. Ind. Orient., Zool. Rept. p. 294. 

Geoclemys hamiltoniij Gray, Shield Rept. p. 17. 

Form. — ^The shell of this elegant little species is oblong-ovate, with three longitudinal 
ridges, each plate of the vertebral and costal series being elevated into a nodose prominence. 
The upper shell is slightly emarginate in front, and has a small notch between the two 
portions of the caudal plate ; its kinder margin is very distinctly serrated. The sternum has 
an obtuse lateral keel between the axillary and inguinal incisions ; it is wider between the 
front than between the hind incisions, its breadth between the former being one-half of 
its length. 

Plates. — The areolae are proportionally large, rugose, situated on the posterior margin of 
the plates. The nodose protuberances of the vertebral and costal ridges occupy the centre 
of the areolfe. Nuchal plate sub triangular, as broad as long; the last vertebral a little 
broader than the two caudals ; eleven marginal plates on each side ; praeanal as long as 
abdominal. 

Head short, covered with soft skin ; tympanum coated over with coloured skin ; jaws not 
denticulated, the upper without prominence anteriorly. Tail thin, shorter than the head, 
covered with minute spinous tubercles to its extremity. 

Feet. — Forearm with thin, broad, rounded scales. Fingers and toes broadly webbed ; five 
claws anteriorly and four posteriorly. 

Ground-colour brownish black, each vertebral and costal plate with a yellow spot on the 
middle of its areola ; three or four other spots on the margin, ray-like disposed ; marginal 
and sternal plates similarly spotted. Head, neck, and limbs with yellow spots and dots, those 
on the head being the largest ; a pair of these spots in front of the eye are very constant. 
Iris black, with yellow spots. 

This species is common in the lower Ganges and its vicinity. The specimens brought to 
Europe are usually from 2 to 3 inches long ; it attains, however, to a length of 5| inches. 
I have only seen it once, alive, in Europe (Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park) ; it appeared 
to be much affected by the climate, and died after a short time. It feeds on animal sub- 
stances — in captivity on raw meat. 



PANGSHURA TECTA. 33 

PANGSHURA, Gray. 

Tliorax and sternum solid, entirely bony, united into an immoveable cara- 
pace ; tbe upjier shell is angularly elevated, compressed ; the fourth and, 
generally, the third vertebral plates are pointed at their junction. Sternum 
flat in both sexes ; pectoral plates subquadrangular, forming a suture to- 
gether ; caudal divided into two. Feet with the toes broadly webbed. Claws 
of moderate size, five anteriorly and four posteriorly. 

This genus is confined to the Indian Continent, and the species known do not appear to 
differ in habits from the Emydes proper. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

* The third vertebral tapering behind. 

The lower parts of the shell yellow, with large blackish-brown spots . . P. tecta, p. 33. 

Sternal plates blackish brown, with rosy margins P. tentoria, p. 34. 

Sternum uniform yellowish P. flaviventer, ]^. 35. 

** The third vertebral truncated behind. 

The third vertebral quadrangidar, rectangular P. smithii, p. 36. 



Pangshura tecta. The Pangshure. 

Emys tecta, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 23. tab. 25 ; Illustr. Lid. Zool. c. fig. Bell, Testud. c. tab. 

trigibbosa. Less, in Belang. Voy. Lid. Orient., Rept. p. 29. 

Batagur tecta. Gray, Shield Rept. p. 36. 

This species, which is common in the Ganges and other rivers of Bengal, may be easily 
distinguished by its elevated back, by the form of the first vertebral shield, and by the 
coloration of the sternum. A more or less distinct ridge runs along the middle of the 
vertebral plates, and is interrupted by nodose prominences, of which that of the third 
vertebral is the strongest, forming the highest point of the shell ; its greatest depth is rather 
more than one-half of its length. The first vertehral is pentmjonal , the hinder side leing the 
shortest ; the fourth cuneiform, tapering anteriorly ; hind margin of the shell slightly 
serrated ; sternum with a distinct angular ridge on each side. Head covered with undivided 
skin ; jaws obtusely denticulated, the upper not notched in front. Tail shorter than the 
head. 

Shell brownish or blackish ; vertebral ridge yellowish, edged with black ; head with two 



34 CHELONIA. 

broad orange converging streaks, neck with numerous yellowish longitudinal lines ; legs with 
yellowish dots. The lower parts of the shell yellow, with large blackish-brown spots. 

The shell of the largest specimen I have seen is 5 inches long ; specimens 6 inches long 
are on record. 



Pangshura tentoria. The Dura. (Plate IV. figs. C, C) 

Emys tectum (adult), Gray, Illmtr. Ind. Zool. figs. 3-5. 

tentoriaj Crraij, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1834, p. 54. 

Batagur tentoria, Gray, Shield Rept. p. 37. 

The Dui'a is very similar to the Pangshure, from which it may be readily distinguished by 
its shell, which is somewhat more depressed, its greatest depth being less than one-half of 
its length. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate short, broadish, subquadrangular, broadest behind. The vertebral 
plates are raised along their median line into a ridge, which is most distinct on the middle 
of the back, terminating in a nodose prominence on the third, and sometimes on the second 
vertebral. The first vertebral is subquadrangular, as broad posteriorly as anteriorly ; the 
second and third are rounded behind and narrowed; the fourth is cuneiform, tapering 
anteriorly ; the fifth more than twice as broad as the caudals. Caudals much longer than 
broad, separated by a groove and by a very small notch. Hind margin of the upper shell 
distinctly serrated. Sternum flat, keeled on the sides, rather elongate, its width between the 
inguinal incisions being less than one-half of its length. Gulars longer than broad, the 
suture between them being shorter than that between the postgulars. Pectorals shorter 
than postgulars, abdominals, or praeanals; the suture between the anals is longer than 
their posterior margins, which meet at an obtuse angle. 

Head covered with undivided skin ; jaws finely denticulated, the upper jaw not emarginate 
anteriorly. Tail rather shorter than the head. Feet broadly webbed ; front part of the fore 
leg and base of the fifth toe with large imbricate scales ; claws of moderate size. 

Colour. — The upper shell is uniform brovra ; the sternal plates blackish broion with yellow 
margins. 

The only specimen known in European collections* was brought from the Deccan by 
Colonel Sykes, and is 6^ inches long ; it does not appear to be adult, as the shell is not 
entirely ossified. A second specimen, of nearly the same size, was obtained at the Indus by 
Sir A. Bumes, and is now in the Museum of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. Mr. Blyth 
(Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 643) mentions that he has met with one young specimen 

* The two half-grown specimens mentioned by Dr. Gray in the ' Catalogue of Shield Reptiles ' are 
probably the young of Batagur dhonyoka. 



PANGSHURA FLAVIVENTER. 



35 



in the vicinity of Calcutta. This we doubt, as the species may be easily confounded with 
young specimens of the Batagur and of the species allied to it. 

W. Elliott, Esq., has found this species on the banks of the Kistna and its tributaries, 
where it is called by the natives Gunangi mek'ham. The beautiful drawings made from live 
specimens which are in the possession of that gentleman represent the shell nearly uniform 
brownish olive, and the sternal plates blackish with rosy margins ; neck and legs alternately 
striped with greenish and blackish ; hinder part of the thighs with similar transverse bands. 
A series of three or four red spots across the occiput. 

The figures C, C of Plate IV. represent the typical specimen, of half the natural size. 



Pangshura flaviventee. 

This species is easily distinguished from the two preceding by its bell-shaped first vertebral 
plate and by its uniform yellowish sternum. It resembles much in form the P. tecta, but 
is rather more elevated, having a large impression in the middle of the second and third 
costal plates. 

Plates.- — Nuchal plate rather broader than long, broader behind than in front. The ver- 
tebral plates are raised along their median line into a ridge, which terminates in a slight 




nodose prominence on the second of these plates, and in a strong one on tlie third. The 
first vertebral shield is bell-shaped, longer than broad, and broadest behind ; it has six sides : 
the anterior, in contact with the nuchal, is the shortest ; the next following pair, in contact 
with the first marginal, are also short ; the lateral pair, in contact mth the costal, is S-shaped, 
and rather long; finally, the hinder side is the longest, nearly straight, forming a broad 
suture with the second vertebral plate ; the second and thii'd vertebi-als are rounded behind 
and narrowed ; the fourth is much elongate, pear-shaped, tapering anteriorly ; the fifth is more 
than twice as broad as the caudals. Caudals longer than broad, separated by a very small 
notch. Hind margin of the upper shell not serrated. Sternum flat, slightly bent upwards 
anteriorly, keeled on the sides, rather elongate, its width between the inguinal incisions 
being one-half of its length. Gulars nearly as broad as long, the suture between them being 
rather more than one-half of that of the postgulars The transverse sutures between post- 



36 CHELONIA. 

gulars and pectorals are much directed backwards, forming together an angle of about 1 30°. 
Pectorals shorter than postgulars, abdominals, and prteanals : the suture between the anals is 
longer than their hind margins, which are separated by a semicii'cular notch. 

The soft parts are similar to those of P. tentoria. 

The shell is uniform homy brown above, the ridge lighter, the nodose prominences darker. 
Lower parts uniform yellowish, with the exception of the marginal plates, each of which has 
a brown blotch on its lower side. No markings are visible on the soft parts in the single 
stuffed example known. 

I am indebted for the knowledge of this species to Mr. F. Moore, Custos of the East India 
Collection, who kindly allowed me to examine the Reptiles under his charge. It is founded 
on a well-preserved, stuffed example, the shell of which is 8 inches long. No other record 
has been kept of this specimen, except that it had been sent by Mr. M'Clelland; several 
other Tortoises sent by the same gentleman, at the same time, are Bengal species. 



Pangshura smithii. (Figure, see p. 2.) 

Batagur smithii, Gray, MS. 

Form. — Shell ovate, slightly depressed, with a very distinct vertebral ridge, which extends 
from the nuchal to the caudal plate, and terminates in an elongate prominence on the 
third plate. The sternum is flat, its width between the inguinal incisions being rather more 
than that between the axillary, and rather less than one-half of its length ; it is rounded in 
front. Upper shell slightly serrated posteriorly. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate small, rather longer than broad, broader behind than in front. The 
first vertebral shield is bell-shaped, scarcely longer than broad, and broadest behind ; the 
second is subquadrangular, much broader than long; the third is rectangular, oblong, two- 
thirds as broad as long; the fourth is much elongate, pear-shaped, tapering anteriorly. 
Gulars considerably longer than broad, the suture between them being two-thirds of that 
between the postgulars. The posterior margms of the postgulars are strongly convex, forming 
a deep curve. The abdominals are nearly as large as the postgulars and pectorals together, 
the latter being scarcely longer than the anals. 

The soft parts do not show any peculiarity. The upper shell is yellowish, with a part of 
the vertebral keel blackish. The lower parts are blackish, each plate with yellowish margin. 

The typical specimen of this species is stuffed ; shell 7 inches long, and perfectly ossified ; 
it is not known from what country it came, but it probably occurs in continental India, like 
its congeners. A smaller example, from the Eiver Chenab (Punjab), has been referred to 
this species by Dr. Gray, but it differs in several important points ; and the plates being 
deformed in many places, I hesitate to give a description of it. 



BATAGUR BASRA. 37 

BATAGUR, Gray. 

Thorax and sternum solid, entirely, or nearly entirely, bony in full-grown 
specimens, united into an immoveable carapace ; shell depressed. Sternum 
flat in both sexes ; pectoral plates subquadranj^ular, forming- a suture to- 
gether. Feet with the toes broadly webbed ; claws feeble. 

This genus is confined to the East Indies ; its species grow to a considerably larger size 
than the Emydes proper, but have the same habits. 



Synapsis of the Species. 

* Four claws anteriorly B. baska, p. 37. 

** Five claws anteriorly. 

Posterior margin of the shell not serrated ; the hind margins of the postgiilars 

meet at an obtuse angle ; shell of uniform colour B. lineatus, p. 39. 

Posterior margin of the shell strongly serrated ; vertebral ridge interrupted by 

prominences. The hind margins of the postgulars meet at an obtuse angle . B. elUotti, p. 40. 

Nuchal plate none ; first vertebral broader than long B. affinis, p. 40. 

First vertebral longer than broad. The hind margins of the postgulars form a 

straight line ; upper shell with three black streaks B. dhongoka,-^.A2. 



Batague baska. The Batagur. (Plate III. figs. B, B'.) 

Emys batagirr, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 23, and Illustr. Ind. Zool. tab. 

baska, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. tab. 

Trionyx cuvieri. Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 50 (very young?). 

Tetraonyx longicoUis, Less, in Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient., Rept. p. 297. 

baska, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 341. 

lessonii, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. \\. p. 338. pi. 16. fig. 1. Blyth, Journ. As. Sac. Beng. xxii. 

1854, p. 645. 
Batagur baska. Gray, Shield Rept. p. 35. tab. 16, and tab. 36. fig. 1 (skull). 
Tetraonyx afiinis (part.). Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 6. 

Form. — The most elevated and most convex portion of the shell is in its anterior half 
whilst the posterior is much depressed and flattened; the greatest -width of the shell is 
behind its middle. The lower parts of the carapace are flat, the sternal portion being 
narrow. The width of the sternum between the inguinal incisions is rather more than that 
between the axillary, and two-fifths of its length. Upper shell subtruncated anteriorly. 



38 CHELONIA. 

rounded posteriorly; sternum truncated in front. Small portions between the extremities 
of the ribs appear to remain cartilaginous during the whole lifetime of the animal. 

Plates. — The whole carapace is remarkably smooth and polished. Nuchal plate sub- 
quadrangular, much broader than long, and broader posteriorly than anteriorly. The four 
anterior vertebrals subquadrangular, nearly as broad as long ; the fifth hexagonal ; none of 
them have any trace of a ridge. Caudal plates square, separated by a suture, without notch 
behind ; hind margin not serrated, lateral margin sharpish posteriorly and obtuse anteriorly. 
Gulars twice as broad as long, the length of their suture being two-sevenths of the suture 
between the postgulars. Postgulars longer than broad, as long as the pectorals, but shorter 
than the abdominals and prseanals. Anals quadrangular, their suture being equal in length 
to their posterior margins, which meet at a very obtuse angle. 

Head covered mth undivided skin ; snout rather pointed, nose turned upwards ; upper 
jaw denticulated. Tail rather shorter than tlie head. 

Feet. — Fingers and toes completely webbed ; four rather weak claws anteriorly and 
iwsteriorly. Forearm and lower leg -with very narrow, not imbricate, transverse scutes. 

The colour is a uniform brown in preserved specimens. 

This description is taken from an adult specimen. A young individual, 2^ inches long 
{Tetraonyx affinis, part., Cant.), has the shell orbicular, much depressed, with an obtuse keel 
along the vertebrals ; it is not serrated posteriorly, and only the lateral plates project slightly. 
The skin of the head is rugose. The umbilical cicatrix on the sternum is still visible. 

Dr. Cantor says, in his description of Tetraonyx affinis, that he had three small specimens 
for examination ; two of them were sent by him to the Collection of the East India Company, 
whence they have been transferred to the British Museum. They still have the original 
labels attached to them ; but Dr. Cantor was much mistaken in considering them as identical, 
the one being a young B. baska, the other a young individual of a species for which we 
retain Cantor's name. As it is evident that he himself considered the specimen with four 
claws, of which, besides, he gives the dimensions, as the type of his T. affinis, this name 
ought to be considered as synonymous with £. baska. We have figured the young £. baska, 
from Cantor's collection, on Plate III. figs. B, B', of the natural size. 

This fine species, the shell of which attains to a length of 20 inches, is thoroughly aquatic ' 
in its habits ; it is found in the Ganges and Irawaddy, and probably in numerous other rivers 
of the Indian continent. Mr. Blyth says that it abounds at the mouth of the Hoogly, and 
that great numbers are brouglit to Calcutta, where they are eaten by particular castes of 
Hindoos, and are even kept for sale in tanks. The specimen from Dr. Cantor's collection 
appears to have been caught in the sea off Pinang, " with a small hook baited with a 
shrimp." 



BATAGUR LINEATUS. 39 

Batague LINEATUS. The Kachuga. 

Emys lineata. Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 23. 

kachuga, Gray, lUustr. Ind. Zool. tab. 

Batagur lineata, Gray, Shield Rept. p. 35. tab. 17 (young). 

Form. — This species resembles somewhat in general form the Batagur, but it is less 
rounded on the anterior margin of its shell, the nuchal region being rather prominent. Its 
greatest depth is below the anterior portion of the thii-d vertebral plate, where it is con- 
tained twice and three-fifths in the length of the shell ; the hinder lateral portions of the 
upper shell are considerably depressed and dilated. There is a slight notch between the 
caudal plates ; hind margin not serrated. An interrupted keel along tlie middle of the verte- 
brals, disappearing in old specimens. Sternum flat, with lateral keels in yoimg indi\iduals, 
subtruncated in front. Small, not ossified portions are still visible between the ends of the 
ribs in specimens 15 mches long. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate broad ; the three anterior vertebrals rather broader than long, the 
fourth much longer than hroad ; all with a low keel, which in the second and third verte- 
brals terminates in a prominent elongate knob: keel and prominences disappear entirely 
with age. Caudal plates rather longer than broad. Gulars triangular, not much broader 
than long, the length of their suture being one-half or two-fifths of that of the suture 
between the postgulars. The hind margins of the postgulars meet at an obtuse angle. Pec- 
torals shorter than abdominals or prseanals. Anals quadrangular ; the suture between them 
is much longer than their hind margins, which meet at a very obtuse angle. 

Jaws denticulated. Tail shorter than the head. 

Feet. — Fingers and toes completely webbed ; claws ieeh\e,five anteriorly and four posteriorly. 
Forearm and hind part of the lower leg with narrow, not imbricate, transverse scutes. 

Colour. — Uniform brown above and yellowish below. 

I have had for examination the following specimens : — 

1. A shell, 21 inches long, of a very old individual ; the epidermis is nearly entirely lost, and 
the sutures have disappeared. Shell entirely osseous. I conclude, from the appearance of the 
specimen, that it indicates the largest size to which this species grows. It is from Moulmein. 

2. A shell, 15 inches long. The vertebral keel has disappeared; narrow strips between 
the costals and marginals are cartilaginous. It was sent to the British Museum by B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq., from Nepal. 

3. A shell, 10 inches long. Vertebral keel indistinct, prominences obtuse; cartilaginous 
space half as wide as the third vertebral plate. It was presented to the Britisli Museum by 
Dr. Falconer, who procured it near " Saharumpoor," * where the species is said by him to be 
common. 

4. A stuffed specimen, 6^ inches long — the original of the figure given by Dr. Gray in 
his ' Shield Reptiles.' 

* I am unable to find this place in the maps of India : is it another name for Serampoor on the Hooglv ':" 



40 CHELONIA. 

Batagur elliotti. Penku Tambel. (Plate III. figs. A, A'.) 

Batagur ellioti, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 264. 

This species appears to be undescribed ; it is founded on young specimens, which, however, 
are distinguished by characters so well marked that we do not hesitate to introduce it into 
science imder a distinct name, and the more so as we have the means of comparing it A\ith 
specimens of the allied species of nearly the same age. There is a stuffed specimen, 3^ inches 
long, in the British Museum, which agrees so well with two drawings made by Walter 
Elliott, Esq., from living specimens, that it may have been the original of one of them. The 
stuffed specimen is of imknown origin, whilst the individuals found by Mr. Elliott were 
obtained on the Kistna River. 

Form and Plates. — The shell is rather more elevated than in its congeners, the second 
and third vertebrals being compressed into a keel termmating in an acute prominence at 
the end of each plate ; the keel is continued along the two posterior vertebral plates, but 
less prominently. The first vertebral is but little narrower behind than in front ; the second 
aitd third much broader than long ; the fourth hexagonal, as broad as long, united with the 
thii'd by a long suture ; the fifth pentagonal, much broader than the caudals, united with the 
fourth by a rather short suture. Tlie posterior margin of the shell is strongly serrated, and 
the notch between the caudals is semicircular. Nuchal plate much broader than long. 

Sternum narrow, keeled on the sides, the keel terminating in a small spine at the end of 
each plate. The width of the sternum between the keels is rather less than the width 
between a sternal keel and the lateral margin of the upper shell. Gulars broader than long ; 
the hind margins of the postgulars form an obtuse angle. Postgulars, pectorals, abdominals, 
and prsanals of nearly the same length. The suture between the anals is longer than their 
hind margins, which meet at an obtuse angle. 

Read covered with undivided skin, obliquely truncated in front, with the nose slightly 
turned upwards ; the upper jaw is serrated, and has a slight notch anteriorly. Front part 
of the fore legs and hinder part of the hind legs with narrow, long, transverse, not imbricate 
scales. Webs broad ; claws rather feeble, but little curved, five anteriorly and four posteriorhj. 
Tail shorter than the head. 

Colour. — Uniform brownish above, yellowish below. Feet during life dotted with brown. 



Batagur affinis. (Plate III. figs. C, C) 

? Emys trivittata, Dum. i^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 331. 
Emys trivittata, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 4. 
Tetraonyx affinis (part.). Cantor, I. c. p. 6. 

For the determination of this species I have two examples before me, both from Dr. 
Cantor's collection: the one is adult, shell 18 inches long, and named E. trivittata by Cantor 



BATAGUR AFFINIS. • 41 

himself; it is stuffed, and belongs to the East India Collection. The second is quite young, 
and is one of those examples named by Cantor Tetraonyx affinis, a species confounded by him 
with Batagur baska. Both have five claws anteriorly, convex posterior postgular margins, no 
nuchal plate, and the first vertebral broader than long ; they much resemble a species from 
Borneo [B. pictus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 264), which also has no nuchal plate, but 
is distinguished by having only four anterior claws. 

These two specimens appear to show that the absence of the nuchal plate is of specific 
value in this case, and therefore it is highly improbable that the Emys trivittata of Dumeril 
and Bibron is identical with our species. We therefore prefer to retain the name given bj^ 
Cantor to the younger specimen, although he has confounded two species under it. 

We add, fii-st, some of the characters of the adult specimen, the shell of which is 18 inches 
long by 13 inches broad. It is very convex, with the lower part of the sides very broad; its 
hind part is not much depressed and scarcely dilated ; the serrature of the hind margin, 
which is visible in the young, has become nearly entirely obsolete ; scarcely any trace of a 
vertebral keel remains. Sternum distinctly rounded, truncated in front. 'Nuclial plate none ; 
the first and second vertebrals broader than long, the fourth not much longer than broad ; 
all the vertebrals smooth, nearly even. Caudal plates longer than broad. Gulars rather 
broader than long, the suture between them being half as long as that between the post- 
gulars ; the hind margins of the postgulars form a slight curve ; the abdominals are the 
longest of the sternal plates. Anals quadrangular ; the sutui-e between them is longer than 
their hind margins. The upper part of the shell is yellowish green, with three broad longi- 
tudinal black bands ; the lower parts are uniform yellowish ; a large black blotch at the 
anterior angle of the upper side of each marginal plate. 

The shell of the young specimen is rather soft, flexible, 2^ inches long and 2^ inches broad. 
It is much depressed, suborbicular, somewhat longer than broad, with an obtuse vertebral 
ridge not interrupted by prominences, and with an interrupted linear costal ridge ; this 
costal ridge is rather nearer to the vertebral line than to the lateral margin of the shell. 
Posterior margin of the shell moderately serrated. Nuchal plate none ; all the vertebrals 
broader than long, except the last, which is longer than broad, and about twice as broad as 
the caudals. Sternum narrow, with strong lateral ridges : gulars broader than long ; post- 
gulars, pectorals, and abdominals nearly equal in length ; the suture between the anals is 
longer than their hind margins, which meet at an obtuse angle. 

Head covered with undivided skin. Jaws not denticulated, the upper with a slight notch 
anteriorly. Tail shorter than the head. Feet strongly webbed; front part of the fore leg 
with imbricate, narrow, transverse scutes ; claws feeble. 

Cantor says that it is not numerous in the rivers and ponds of the Malayan Peninsula and 
of Pinang ; the largest specimen examined was the adult example described above. 

The figures of the young are taken from one of Cantor's typical specimens. 



42 • CHELONIA. 

Bataqur dhongoka. The Dhongoka. 

Emys dhongoka, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. ii. tab. 

duvaucellii, Dum. ij- Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 334. 

Batagur dhongoka, Gray, Shield Rept. p. 36. tab. 18 (young), & tab. 36. fig. 1 (skull). 

Although this species is very similar to the Kachuga, it may be easily distinguished by 
several constant characters. The differences between young and old indiAiduals are the same 
in both species, wherefore we need not repeat them. The Dhongoka is rather more de- 
pressed in its general form than the Kachuga, especially in the hinder third of the shell, 
which is much dilated. There is a slight notch between the caudal plates ; hind margin 
distinctly serrated in young specimens, the serrature becoming obsolete with age. An inter- 
rupted keel along the middle of the vertehrals. Sternum flat, with lateral keels in young 
individuals, truncated in front. 

Plates. — Nuchal plate triangular, broadest behind ; the first and second vertehrals longer 
than broad ; the second as long as broad in young specimens ; the fourth much longer than 
broad. All the vertehrals are more or less distinctly keeled, the keel on the second and third 
vertehrals terminating in a prominent elongate knob. Caudal plates longer than broad. 
Gulars as broad as long, the suture between them being equal in length to that between the 
postgulars. The hind margins of the postgulars form a straight line. Pectorals shorter than 
postgulars, abdominals, or praeanals. Anals quadrangular ; the suture between them is as 
long as their hind margins, which are concave. 

The soft parts of this species appear to be very similar to those of the Kachuga. 

Colour. — Vertebral ridge and an interrupted stripe on each side of it black. A yellow line 
runs from the nostril to the upper part of the tympanum. 

This species is found in the Ganges at Sultanpoor (Lahore), in Nepal, and in Assam. The 
shell of the largest specimen I have seen is 15 inches long and is entii-ely ossified. 



PLATYSTERNUM, Gray. 

Shell entirely bony, comparatively small, much depressed ; sterno-costal 
suture covered with a series of three plates. Head very large, covered with 
u thick, hard, horny case ; jaws strong. Tail very long, covered with rings 
of subquadrangular shields. Head, tail, and limbs not capable of being 
retracted within the shell. Toes moderately webbed ; claws strong, five 
anteriorly and four posteriorly. 



TRIONYCIDyE. 43 

Platysternum megacephalum. 

Platysternon megacephalum, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 106 ; Illustr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. Dum. 
«f Bihr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 345. tab. 16. fig. 6. 

Shell much depressed, truncated anteriorly and rounded posteriorly, with tlie plates 
arranged in the same way as in the preceding genera. The sternum is rather narrow, flat, 
joined to the upper shell by three small intercalated plates. The gular plates are very broad 
and short, their hind margins forming a straight line ; pectorals and abdominals shorter than 
postgulars or prseanals ; anals large, with an obtuse notch behind. 

The carapace is too small to receive the liead, legs, or tail within. The head is very large, 
covered with a hard, horny case, flat and triangular above, broad behind, and compressed at 
the snout. The jaws are bent anteriorly into a tooth-like hook. Tail very long, as long a.s 
the shell, covered with rings of large quadrangular shields. 

This very singular tortoise is a native of China, probably of the southern parts, and extends 
southwards into Pegu, where it has been found by Captain Berdmore at Schwe Gyen, on the 
Sitang River. Although several specimens were once brought alive to Eui'ope, unfortunately 
no record of their habits has been preserved. The larger of the two specimens in the British 
Museum is 14 inches long, the shell measuring 5 inches in length. 



Third Family. 

THE FRESHWATER TXJKlh^^—TRIONYCIDJE. 

Shell much depressed, covered with soft skin. Feet for swimming ; toes 
distinct, strongly webbed ; claws 3 — 3. 

Posterior sternal lobe with a broad flexible flap (valve) on each side . . . Emyda, p. 44. 

Sternum without posterior valves ; snout conically pointed Trionyx, p. 4.6. 

Sternum without posterior valves ; snout short, thick-lipped Chiti-a, j). 50. 



G Z 



44 CHELONIA. 

EMYDxV, Gray. 

Shell oval, depressed, only partly ossified, covered with soft skin, a more 
or less broad margin remaining cartilaginous. Sternum more or less carti- 
laginous, the ossifications proceeding from seven centres ; a broad flexible 
flap (valve) on each side of the posterior sternal lobe. Feet broadly webbed, 
with three strong claws anteriorly and posteriorly. 

The species of this genus of Freshwater Tiu'tles are so similar to one another, that a general 
description will suffice to point out their principal characters. From the cartilaginous nature 
of a portion of the shell and its consequent lightness, these animals are better adapted for a 
sojourn in water, and the motions of their limbs and neck are much more free than in the 
preceding genera. The ossifications become more extended over a greater portion of the 
shell with the advancing growth of the animal, so that only a narrow margin of the upper 
shell and about one-half of the sternum remain cartilaginous in the full-grown Turtle. 
The ossified portions assume a coarsely granular surface in drying, and are not covered 
with epidermal plates: only the sutures between the single vertebrae and ribs are visible. 
The upper shell is formed by the large, oval, slightly convex vertebro-costal piece, by a 
broad, small, elliptical nuchal piece, and by a series of marginal bones running along the 
hinder edge of the shell. There is a pair of sternal ossifications between the fore legs, 
another (sometimes united) between the hind legs, a third pair round the inguinal incisions, 
and, finally, a single small ossification behind the front pair. The head and feet can 
be entirely drawn within the shell, which is capable of some extension ; and the flexible 
front and hind margins, together with the posterior sternal valves, serve to shut up the shell 
completely. 

The neck is very long and flexible ; the head short, conical, terminating in a soft, flexible, 
short tube, Avith the nasal openings at its extremity. The jaws are covered with sharp horny 
sheaths, and overlapped by two pairs of broad, soft, pendent lips, the upper and lower lips 
being interrupted by a broad incision in front. These soft organs of the mouth are evidently 
the seat of a developed sense, by which these animals are enabled to search for their food, 
which is hidden in the mud below the surface of the water. The eyes are rather small, 
slightly directed upwards. 

Tail none. Limbs very short, covered with loose, soft skin, in which some crescentic rudi- 
ments of scales are imbedded — four or five on the front part of the fore limb, and one on the 
lieel of the hind foot. There are five fingers and toes, united by a very broad web ; only 
three of them are armed with strong claws, the inner of which is a rather powerful weapon, 
with wliich the animal can not only inflict severe wounds by scratching, but also easily 
remove objects under which its food is hidden, or climb over water-plants, &c. 

The species of this genus are found in the East Indies, one living in Senegambia ; their 



EMYDA CEYLONENSIS. 45 

habits are thoroughly aquatic and carnivorous; they do not attain to a large size; their 
eggs are spherical. When the water di-ies up, they bury themselves deep in the mud. 



Emyda grakosa. The Bungoma. 

La Chagrinee, Lacep. Quadr. Ovip. i. p. 171. 
Testudo granosa, Schoepff, Testud. p. 127. tab. 30. A, B. 
Emyda punctata, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 50. 
Trionyx punctata, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. 

granosus. Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. 

coromandelicus, Geoffr. Ann. Mus. xiv. p. 16. tab. 5. fig. 1. 

Cryptopus granosus, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 501. 

The odd osseous plate on the sternum is very small ; the plates of the posterior pair rather 
small, far apart in young specimens, not confluent, and only in very large individuals forming 
a suture together. Greenish, with large yellowish spots on the head, neck, and shell, which 
disappear with age. 

This species is very abundant on the coast of Coromandel and in Lower Bengal ; it has 
been brought by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit from Allahabad (N.W. Hmdostan) and from 
Sikkim. It grows to a length of 10 inches (shell), and is relished as food by particular 
castes of Hindoos. 



Emyda cetlonensis. 

Emyda punctata, Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Ceyl. p. 179. Bell, Testud. c, tab. duab. 
ceylonensis. Gray, Shield Rept. p. 64. tab. 29. A. 

Scarcely specifically distinct from E. granosa ; the odd osseous plate on the sternum is 
larger ; the plates of the posterior pair of moderate size, confluent in the adult, and rather 
close together in young specimens. Olive-green, with indistinct brown stripes, and minutely 
punctated ; beneath white or fleshy white. Head green, black-striped ; lips yellow. 

The specimens on which this species has been founded are from Ceylon. The shell of the 
largest specimen examined by the late Dr. Kelaart measured IS^ inches. The same author 
remarks : — 

" This Water Tortoise is generally distributed in the lower parts of the island, found in lakes and tanks. 
Several we kept alive for months in a tub filled with fresh water fed freely on animal food, and also on 
bread and boiled rice. A lai-ge female laid three eggs, globular, about 1 inch in diameter, with a hard 
calcareous shell. This tortoise, too (like Ernys trijuga), is put into wells to act the part of a scavenger. 
The shell is in fresh specimens smooth, and it is only in drying that the granular surface of the bony shell 
is apparent." 



46 CHELONIA. 

Emtda vittata. 

Emyda ^dttata, Peters, Monatsher. Berl. Acad. 1854, p. 216. 

This species has been characterized by the black streaks and spots on the head and neck, 
and is said to have been brought from Goa. 

TRIONYX, Geoffr. 

Shell much depressed, only partly ossified, covered with soft skin, dilated 
into a broad cartilaginous margin posteriorly. Sternum more or less carti- 
laginous, sometimes with two pairs of externally visible osseous plates, and 
with the hinder lobe not dilated into lateral valves. Feet broadly webbed, 
with three strong claws anteriorly and posteriorly. Muzzle produced into 
a nasal tube ; snout conically pointed. 

This genus is so closely allied to Emyda in its structure and in its habits, that we may 
refer to the general description given above. The different species also are extremely similar 
to one another. Trionyx, however, wants that series of bones which is found in the posterior 
dilated margin of the upper shell of Emyda ; and instead of seven externally visible ossifica- 
tions in the sternum, it has only four, viz. the inguinal and the anal pair. The hinder sternal 
lobe is small, without lateral valves. The head is more elongate than in Emyda, and the 
tail, although short, always distinct ; it is longer in males than in females. 

The species of this genus are found in North America, Africa, and the East Indies ; they 
are the largest of the Freshwater Turtles, and thoroughly aquatic and carnivorous. 

Various methods of distinguishing the difierent species must be resorted to : one character 
is the colours, more distinct during life and in young indi\dduals, but changing with age ; 
another character is the arrangement of small tubercles on the skin of the upper shell, 
visible only in (young) specimens, fresh or preserved in spirits; finally, a third and very 
important character is the structure and shape of the ossified plates, which can be examined 
only in dried, more or less full-grown individuals. 

Trionyx sinensis. 

Trionyx sinensis, Wiegm. N&v. Act. Acad. Leop. Carol, xvii. 1835, p. 189. Strauch, Chelonolog. 
Stud. p. 177. 

tuberculatus, Cantor, Ann. &; Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 1842, p. 482. 

Tyrse perocellata, G?-ay, Catal. Tort. Brit. Mus. p. 48. 
Trionyx perocellatus, Gray, Catal. Shield Kept. p. 65. tab. 31. 

Shell of the adult. — The bony carapace rather longer than broad, with a low but very 
distinct vertebral ridge. The anterior dorsal bone short, broad, rugose like the other costal 



TRIONYX GANGETICUS. 47 

plates, and confluent with the first pair of costals. The surface of the bony carapace is finely 
rugose, without tubercles. The hinder sternal plates ovate, converging behind, rather larger 
than the last costal plates. 

Voting specimens (in spirits) are distinguished by having the small tubercles of the 
epidermis arranged in about ten irregular longitudinal series on each side of the upper shell, 
the series being rather remote from one another. Upper side with scattered, rounded, 
brownish, light-edged spots ; these spots disappear with age. The whole head and the throat 
with small brown spots, and with a brown line from the lip, through the eye, along each side 
of the occiput ; another brown transverse line between the eyes, and sometimes a thu-d below 
the eye. Young specimens have sometimes large symmetrical blackish spots on the sternum 
and at the root of the tail. 

This species is peculiar to China ; it has been found also on the Chinese island of Chusan, 
and is common in Formosa, where it has been collected by Mr. Swinhoe. The shell of the 
largest specimen in the British Museum is 7 inches long. 



TrIONYX GANGETICUS. 

Trionyx gangeticiis, Cuv. Regne Anim. 

hurum, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. 

ocellatus, Gray, IlhiMr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. 

Gymnopus duvaucellii, Duiii. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 487. 

ocellatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. I. c. p. 489. Jacquem. Voy. Ind., Repf. pi. 9. 

gangeticus, Cantor, Mat. Rept. p. 8. 

Shell of the adult. — The bony carapace rather longer than broad, with a slight swellmg 
anteriorly on the vertebral line. The anterior dorsal bone rather short, broad, rugose like 
the other costal plates, and confluent with the first pair of costals. The surface of the bony 
carapace is coarsely rugose, without prominent tubercles. 

Young specimens (in spirits) with a low, rather indistinct vertebral ridge, terminating in a 
slight transverse swelling anteriorly. The small tubercles of the epidermis are arranged in 
twelve or thirteen very irregular interrupted lines on each side of the upper shell. All the 
sternal bones are covered with soft skin. Greyish olive, with two or three pairs of deep- 
brown ocelli, each of which has a black, red-edged centre ; the soft parts and the margin of 
the shell with yellowish dots ; a rounded yellowish spot beliind each eye, another across the 
nose, and one on the angle of the mouth. Traces only of these ocelli appear to remain in 
older individuals, and at length disappear entirely. 

This species is found in the Ganges and its tributaries, upwards to Nepal ; and at Pinang, 
in rivers and on the sea-coast. Dr. Cantor says that it is of fierce habits, defending itself 
desperately by biting, and emitting when excited a low, hoarse, cackling sound. It appears 
to be far less numerous at Pinang than T. Javanicus and Chitra indica. The shell of the 
largest specimen observed was 23 inches long. 



48 CHELONIA. 

Tkionyx JAVAN'ICUS. 

Trionyx javanicus, Schweigg. Prodr. p. 287. Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. 
Gymnopus javanicus, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 493. 
cartilagineaj [Boddaert) Cantor, Catal. Rept. p. 9. 

Shell of dned adult specimens. — The bony carapace is rather longer than broad, with the 
vertebral line slightly elevated. The anterior dorsal bone is rugose and confluent with the 
anterior costals ; in young specimens only a part of its surface is rugose. Surface of the 
carapace very coarsely rugose, some irregular longitudinal lines being more prominent than 
the rest. Middle and hinder sternal bones nearly entirely rugose. 

Young specimens (in spirits) with a low, rather indistinct vertebral ridge; the small 
tubercles of the epidermis are arranged in thirteen or fourteen irregular interrupted longi- 
tudinal lines. All the sternal bones covered with soft skin. Three pairs of violet stripes 
diverge from a median stripe running from between the eyes to the nape. Upper shell 
sometimes with brown, red-edged ocelli, more or less regularly disposed in pairs. 

This species is found in the Ganges and its tributaries, in the Deccan, and, according to 
Cantor, at Pinang, where it would appear to be numerous. However, two specimens from 
Dr. Cantor's collection, named by him Trionyx javanicus, do not belong to this species, but 
to Ti: subplanus. 

Tr. javanicus has been founded on specimens from Java, which I have not had an oppor- 
tunity of examining. The characteristic mai'kings of the head of the continental specimens are 
not mentioned in descriptions of Javan individuals, so that both may be specifically different. 



Trionyx ornatus. (Plate VI. fig. B.) 

Trionyx omatus, Gray, Pror. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 41. pi. 5 (young). 

Shell of the adult. — The bony carapace is longer than broad, with the vertebral line 
slightly elevated. The anterior dorsal bone is not rugose on its surface; there is a non- 
ossified space behind it. Surface of the carapace very coarsely rugose, some of the reticulated 
lines being more prominent than the rest ; only the middle sternal bones have a small portion 
rugose, the remainder being covered with skin. Head and feet with numerous yellowish 
dots. 

Young specimen. — The small tubercles of the skin are very irregularly arranged, forming 
close, interrupted series. Shell brownish, with large, round, irregularly disposed, black, 
yellow-edged spots ; the upper side of the head with black dots ; the lateral and lower parts 
of the neck with large yellow spots ; limbs with smaller spots of the same colour. 

The British Museum possesses three specimens of this very distinct species: one from 



TPtlONYX GUNTHERI. 49 

Siani, shell 7 inches long ; one from Ganiboja, which is young, and has been figured by 
Dr. Gray ; the third specimen, shell 9 inches long, is from Sarawak (Borneo) : the first of 
them is figured on Plate VI. 



Trio.nyx subplanus. 

Trionyx subplanus, Schweigg. Arch. Konigsb. i. p. 289. Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. 

Gymnopus subplanusj Dui7i. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 496. 

Trion^'x frenatus, Gray, Shield Rept. p. 67. 

Dogania subplana. Gray, Shield Rept. p. 69. tab. 33 (from a Japanese specimen). 

SItcU of the adult. — The bony carapace is longer than broad, much depressed along the 
vertebral line. The anterior dorsal bone is not rugose on its surface, or but little in its 
centre ; there is a large space not ossified between it and between the first costal. The 
second costal is two-fifths as broad as long ; the last costal narrow. The surface of the bony 
carapace is finely rugose, without tubercles. Sternal plates covered with skin, and only a 
very small portion has the surface slightly rugose. 

Young sjjecimen (in spirits). — The small tubercles on the epidermis form about se^enteen 
longitudinal series, which are close together. Brownish, marbled with yellowish and brown ; 
head and neck with yellowish dots ; faint traces of an oblique dark streak behind each eye 
are visible in some specimens. 

This species is found at Singapore, at Pinang, and in Japan. The shell of the largest 
specimen in the British Museum is 10 inches long. A female individual, from Singapore, 
with a shell only 6 inches long, had several eggs in the oviduct when captured. 



Trionyx GtJNTHERi. (Plate VI. fig. A.) 

Dogania giintlieri. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 265. 

The bony carapace is as broad as long, and much depressed, especially along the vertebral 
line. The anterior dorsal bone is finely rugose in its whole extent, like the remainder of the 
shell, leaving a broad, ovate cartilaginous space behind. The second costal is nearly three 
times as long as broad ; the last costal narrow, not much shorter than the penultimate. A 
large portion of the middle and hinder sternal bones is rugose. 

There is only one dried specimen in the British Museum, which formerly formed part of 
the East India Company's Collection. The shell is 7 inches long, head and neck 5 inches. 



H 



50 CHELONIA. 



CHITRA, Gray. 

This genus is very closely allied to Tnonyx, from which it differs only in the form of the 
head ; the hind part of the head is more elongate, whilst the snout is short, with very thick 
lips and with a short, prominent nasal tube. 

It is founded on the following species, which does not appear to differ in its habits from 
the true Trionyx. 



Chitra indica. (Plate VI. fig. C.) 

Trionyx indicus, Gray, Syn, Rept. p. 47. 

segyptiacus, var. indicus, Gray, lUustr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. 

Gymnopus Kneatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 491. 

indicus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 10. 

Chitra indica. Gray, Shield Rept. p. 70. 

Shell of the adult. — The bony carapace is as long as broad, and much flattened. The 
anterior dorsal bone large, broad, rugose, confluent with the first costals. The middle and 
hinder sternal plates with very large rugose patches. 

There is only one rudimentary scale or, rather, fold of the skin on the front part of the 
fore limb. 

The shell is greenish olive above, vermiculated and spotted with brown or rust-colour. 

This species grows to a very large size, and, like the Trionyx, it is eaten by the natives, 
particularly the Chinese. It is found in the Ganges and in its tributaries, upwards into 
Nepal; it is frequent in the estuaries of the Malayan Peninsula, and Mr. Cuming has 
brought home some fine examples, said to have been procui'ed in the PhiUppine Islands. 
Specimens are found weighing 240 pounds ; they are very powerful and of ferocious habits. 
The shell of the largest individual observed by Dr. Cantor measured 37 inches* ; that 
figured by us in Plate VI. is a mature specimen, of half its natural size. 

* Jerdon (Joiirn. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 464) says that he procured a specimen in a net at Mahe, 
on the Malabar coast, where it is considered rare. It is doubtful wliether Mr. Jerdon has properly 
determined that specimen. 



CAOUANA. 51 



Fourth Family. 
MARINE TURTLES— CHELONW^. 

The Marine Turtles are at once distinguished by their long, compressed, fin-shaped, non- 
retractile feet, the toes being enclosed in a common skin, out of which only one or two 
claws project. The carapace is broad and much depressed, so that when these animals are 
on shore and are turned over on theu' back, they cannot regain their natural position. 
Large interspaces between the extremities of the ribs and portions of the sternum are never 
ossified, but always remain cartilaginous, so that the carapace in these Turtles is specifically 
lighter than that of the preceding families. The head is large and globose, and cannot be 
retracted within the shell ; it is covered above with symmetrical homy shields, and the jaws 
are armed with sharp horny sheaths. They are thoroughly marine animals ; their pinnate 
feet and their light shell render them the best swimmers in the class of Eeptiles ; they 
sometimes live hundreds of miles distant from shore, to which they periodically return, in 
order to deposit from 100 to 250 soft-shelled eggs, which are buried in the sand. The 
food of some species consists exclusively of algae ; others subsist upon fish and mollusca. 
They are found in all the intertropical seas ; sometimes they travel far into the temperate 
regions. The flesh and eggs of all the species are edible, although the Indian Turtles 
are much less appreciated in this respect than those of the Atlantic. At certain seasons 
the flesh of Chelonia mrgata acquires poisonous qualities, and lamentable instances of 
death have been ascribed to its use*. 

The Indian Turtles belong to the following genera : — 

Vertebral and costal shields 15 Caouana, p. 51. 

Vertebral and costal shields 13, not imbricate Chelonia, p. 52. 

Vertebral and costal shields 13, imbricate Caretta, p. 53. 

The whole animal, with the carapace, is covered with a coriaceous skin . Dermatochelys, p. 55. 



CAOUANA, Gray. 

Fifteen vertebral and costal shields, which are thin and not imbricate. 
A ridge or a series of prominent knobs along- the rows of vertebral and 
costal shields in young animals. 

Carnivorous, eating fishes, mollusca, and Crustacea. The genus comprises an Atlantic 
species, the Loggerhead, which does not appear to extend into the Indian Ocean, and the 
following, which, on the other hand, is confined to the East Indies. 

* Sir J. E. Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 292. The case there mentioned happened in the month of 
October. 

h2 



52 CHELONIA. 

Caouana olivacea. The Indian Loggerhead. 

Chelonia olivacea, Eschscholtz, Zool. Atl. tab. 3. Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 13. 

dussumieri, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. ii. p. 557. 

Caouana olivacea. Gray, Catal. Shield Rept. p. 73. 

The principal character by which this species is distinguished from its Atlantic congener 
is the presence of only a single small claw to each of its feet. It never has less than 
fifteen vertebral and costal shields, but frequently one or several of these are again divided 
into two, so that their number may be raised to nineteen or twenty. In old specimens (20 
to 24 inches long) the shell is perfectly smooth, whilst m young ones each of the shields 
mentioned is provided with a more or less prominent ridge or oblong knob. The fore limbs 
are very long, extending backwards to the hind limbs. 

This species has been found in the Bay of Bengal, on the coasts of Malabar and Pinang, 
and in the seas of the Philippine Islands and of China. Cantor calls a specimen the shell of 
which is 25 inches long, not quite full-grown. He says that at Pinang it is of rare occurrence, 
and that its flesh, though relished by the Chinese settlers, is unpalatable to Europeans. 
According to Blyth it is abundant at the mouth of the Hoogly. Specimens are rarely 
brought to Europe. 



CHELONIA. 

Chelonia, (F/em.) Gray, Shield Rept. p. 74. 

Thirteen vertebral and costal shields, wliich are thin and not ind)ricate. 
Shell of young animals without or with feeble longitudinal ridges. 

Herbivorous, feeding on algae. 

The species of this genus extend over nearly all the seas between the tropics ; but whether 
they belong to two or more species is a question which cannot be decided in the present state 
of our knowledge. This difficulty arises chiefly from two circumstances: first, from the 
great changes to which the form of the carapace and of the single shields is subject during 
the diff'erent periods of life in animals which attain to so large a size as the Turtles. 
Secondly, it is probable that the Atlantic species is difl'erent from the Indian, and from that 
of the Pacific; again, each of these regions may be inhabited by more than one species, 
or one species may be common to two or three oceans : but, in order to decide this question, 
it would be necessary to have a series of examples loith their native places well ascertained ; 
unfortunately such a series does not exist in any European collection, and thus we are 
still unable to distinguish clearly those species which are the most important of all the 
reptiles on account of their value to man. 

The names of Chelonia midas and Chelonia viridis have been given chiefly to specimens 
from the Atlantic, although Indian examples also were frequently comprised under the same 



CARETTA. 53 

denominations. Both names are now considered to indicate the same species, and one of 
them ought to be retained for that species which is the most common in the Atlantic, and in 
our collections. The name of Chelonia virgata has been given to specimens from the Red 
Sea, which may be considered as identical with others from the Indian Ocean. Dumeril 
and Bibron, however, apply it to Atlantic specimens as well as to Indian ones. 

Finally, Cuvier and Dumeril and Bibron distinguish two other species besides, namely Ch. 
maculosa and Ch. marmorata, the former from the coast of Malabar, and the latter from the 
Atlantic. Gray and Agassiz consider both of them as identical, and the former author as 
even synonymous to Ch. virgata. 

The differences of the species named consist chiefly in modifications of the colours and in 
the form of the shields, characters the constancy of which I have failed to recognize in the 
specimens that I have examined. Two young specimens from Singapore (from Dr. Cantor's 
collection) have been carefully compared with individuals of the same size from the Island of 
Ascension, and although they differ from some of the latter in several points, there are others 
which are perfectly intermediate. Only the central shield on the crown of the head appeared 
to be a little larger in the Indian specimens than in those from Ascension. 

Agassiz, in his Natural History of the United States, has experienced the same difficulties, 
and has retained, for the present, the name of Ch. midas for the Atlantic individuals, and 
that of Cli. virgata for those from the Pacific. 

Chelonia virgata, as we will call the Indian Turtle, appears to be found on all the coasts of 
the East Indies*. Cantor says that " it is at all seasons plentifully taken in fishing-stakes in 
the Straits of Malacca ; it is the ' Green Turtle ' of the European inhabitants of our settle- 
ments and of the seaports of India. In size it equals the Atlantic Turtle, which it rivals in 
flavour. About December and January is the season when the female deposits her eggs, in 
the sandy beach of some sequestered island, and then the fishermen watch during the moon- 
light nights to ' turn turtles.' The eggs are of a spherical shape, about 1 inch in diameter, 
covered by a soft semi transparent membrane of a pale-yellow colour. The expert eye of the 
fisherman baffles the pains with which the turtle conceals her eggs, and prodigious numbers 
are disinterred. They are very rich-flavoured, like marrow, and will keep for weeks although 
exposed to the air." 

We have already mentioned that the flesh of this species is sometimes found to be poisonoixs. 



CARETTA. 

Caretta, [Merr.) Gray, Shield Rept. p. 73. 

Thirteen vertebral and costal shields, which are produced behind and 
imbricate. Two claws to each foot. Shell of yonng animals with three 
keels. — Carnivorous. 

* We have received one specimen from the Island of Formosa, through Mr. Swinhoe . 



54 CHELONIA. 

Caretta squamata. The Hawk-hill Turtle or Indian Caret. 

Caretta imbricata (part.), auct. 

Testudo squamata, Bont. Jav. p. 82. 

Eretmochelys squamata, Ayass. Nat. Hist. U. States, i. p. 382. 

Linnaeus, in his ' Systema Naturae,' enumerates the species of Turtle famous by the tortoise- 
shell which it supplies to commerce, as Testudo imbricata, referring to it specimens from the 
Atlantic as well as from the Indian Ocean, and quoting the Javan Testudo squamata of 
Bontius as a synonym. All subsequent zoologists have adopted Linnaeus's view, until 
the Indian Caret was separated from the Atlantic form by L. Agassiz (Nat. Hist. United 
States, i. p. 382), under the name of Eretmochelys squamata. Whether this distinction will 
hold good I am not prepared to say, as I have not had an opportunity of examining 
specimens from the Atlantic ; and I must not omit to remark, that of the characters assigned 
by Agassiz to the Indian Caret, only the presence of very small scales on the neck appears 
to be constant, whilst the ridges on the epidermal shields are by no means equally developed 
in all the specimens, but frequently low and incomplete, as is stated to be the case in the 
Atlantic Caretta imbricata. The following would be the characters of the Indian species : — 

Very small horny scales are imbedded in the skin of the neck ; the median keel extends 
generally over all the vertebral shields ; other ridges diverge from the point of each vertebral 
shield. The costal shields also have sometimes prominent ridges, commencing at the angles 
they form with the marginal plates and running to the point of each costal. 

The Hawk-bill Turtle, so named from its rather elongate and compressed, curved upper 
jaw, does not attain to the same size as the other Turtles: a shell 2 feet long is considered 
as extraordinarily large. Although it is found throughout the East Indian Archipelago, it 
is plentiful only at certain localities — for instance, on parts of the coasts of Ceylon (Ham- 
bangtotte, Matura), of the Maldives, of Celebes, &c. As, however. Turtles always resort 
to the locality where they were bom, or where they have been used to propagate their kind, 
and as their capture is very profitable, they become scarcer and scarcer at places where they 
are known to have been abundant formerly. Kelaart (Kept. Ceyl. p. 181) says that some 
specimens sell for as much as £4, the price depending on the quality of the shell. If taken 
from the animal when decomposition has set in, the colour of the shell becomes clouded 
and milky, and hence the cruel expedient is resorted to of suspending the turtle over fire 
till heat makes the shields start from the bony part of the carapace, after which the 
creature is permitted to escape to the water*. There is no doubt that Turtles thus allowed 
to escape to the water after such an operation may live ; but there can be no repetition of 
this torture, as a reproduction of the epidermal shields to such a great extent is improbable. 
At Celebes, whence the finest tortoiseshell is exported to China, the natives kill the turtle 
by blows on the head, and immerse the shell in boiling water to detach the plates: dry 
heat is only resorted to by the unskilfulf. The natives eat the flesh of this turtle, but 
it is unpalatable to Europeans; the eggs, however, are regarded as equal to those of the 
other Turtles. The British Museum possesses a fine example, brought by Mr. Swinhoe from 
Formosa. 

* Sir E. J. Tennent's Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 29.3. f .lourn. Ind. Arcliip. iii. 1849, p. 227. 



DERMATOCHELYS CORIACEA. 55 

DERMATOCHELYS, Blainv. 

Carapace subcordlform, covered with a coriaceous skin like the remainder 
of the animal. — Herbivorous. 



DERMATOCHELYS CORIACEA. 

Testudo coriacea, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 350. 

Spliargis mercurialis, Merr. Tent. p. 19. Schleg. Faun. Japon., Rept. p. 6. tab. 1. 

coriacea, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 51. Dum. iSf Bibr. Erpet. yen. ii. p. 560. pi. 24. fig. 2. Tickell, 

' Journ. As. Soc. Beiig. 1862, p. 367, c. fig. 

Shell above with seven longitudinal ridges, separated from one another by grooves. Skin 
smooth in adult specimens, tubercular in young ones. 

This Turtle, although scarce, appears to be spread throughout almost all the seas of the 
tropical and temperate regions, having been found in the Mediterranean, on the south coast 
of England, in the West Indies, at the Cape of Good Hope, on tlie coasts of the United 
States, in Chili, and in Japan. Its occurrence lately in India has been recorded by Major 
S. R. Tickell, who gives a very interesting account of the capture of a female specimen on 
the coast of Tenasserim, from which we extract the following notes : — 

" She was captured February 1st, 1862, near the mouth of the Ye River, on the sandy beach of which 
she had deposited about a hundred eggs, when she was surprised by a number of Burmese fishermen who 
had been lying in ambush near the spot (a favourite resort of the common Turtle, Chelonia virgata), and 
after a desperate struggle was secured. Her entire length was 6 feet 2^ inches. 

" The strength, aided of course by the enormous weight, of tlie animal was such, that she dragged six 
men, endeavouring to stop her, down the slope of the beach, almost into the sea, when she was overpowered 
by increased numbers, lashed to some strong poles, and brought into the village by ten to twelve men at 
a time. 

" The specimen under review was sufiiciently aged to have lost all traces of plates or shields on the head, 
which was tolerably smooth, and apparently covered with a plain, tight, coriaceous skin, loosened into folds 
and wrinkles on the throat and neck — like that on the trunk of an elephant. The paddles were covered 
with similar hard, stretched leather. The fore paddles had, on the extremities of the middle and little 
fingers, a triangidar flat naU, the spaces answering to the ends of the index and ring fingers being marked 
with a curvilinear sharpish edge of the skin. On the hind paddle, the innermost or little toe will be found 
strongly relieved from the contour of the rest of the foot, and covered by a broad triangular scale or nail. 

" The eggs were spherical, of 1 f " diameter, and are as palatable as those of the river Tortoise are 
nauseous. Besides those the animal had laid in the sand, tliei'e must have been upwards of a thousand in 
her ovaria, in all stages of matimty. The flesh was dark and coarse, and very few of the crowds of 
Burmans assembled at Ye to see the animal would eat any of it. 

" It is of exceedingly rare occurrence. The few that have been seen were on the shores of the numerous 
islands along the coast. This was the first one ever found on the mainland." 



56 SAUEIA. 



THE ORDER OF LIZARDS— *S'^67?/.^. 

Anterior ribs generally jomed to a sternum. Tail more or less long. Jaws 
toothed ; the mandibles united in front by an osseous suture. Limbs generally 
f'jur, sometimes rudimentary or not visible externally. Eyelids generally present. 
Integuments with scale-like folds or osseous scutes, or granular. 

By far the greater portion of the Saurians are easily distinguished from the other orders 
of Reptiles by their elongate form, by their moveable thorax covered with skin, by the 
presence of legs, and by their general integuments, which are either folded into scales, or 
granular, or tubercular, or shielded. .Still, there are many Saurians which, at a superficial 
glance, might easily be taken for members of the next order — that of the Snakes, and it 
cannot be denied that there is a gradual transition between both these orders. On the 
part of the Saurians, we allude to those which have no externally visible legs, and which 
combine with a greatly elongate, cylindrical body, the peculiar kind of locomotion we 
observe in Snakes. Yet the greater affinity of these reptiles to the Lizards is indicated by 
another character which is in intimate connexion with their mode of life: — The Snakes, 
having moveable maxillary bones, and mandibles not joined by a symphj'sis, are enabled to 
swallow other animals of an apparently greater bulk than their own. In the Saurians the 
maxillae are fixed and immoveable, and the mandibles are joined by an osseous suture, so 
that the cleft of the mouth can be dilated only in a vertical direction, and not horizontally. 
Moreover, in these limbless Saurians we always find bones of the shoulder hidden below the 
skin, whilst no trace of them can be discovered in the true Snakes. The motions of some 
Lizards are extremely slow, while those of others are executed with very great, but not 
lasting, rapidity. 

Many Lizards have the power of changing their colours ; this depends on the presence of 
several layers of cells loaded with different pigments ; the animal spreads or compresses these 
layers by more or less inflating its lungs, whereby the changes in the coloration are effected. 

The tongue is differently shaped and has different functions in this order of Reptiles, 
affording an excellent character for their subdivision. 

1. It is extremely short, flat, immoveable, and attached to the bottom of tlie mouth, with- 
out special function (Crocodiles). 

2. It is slender, exsertile, and forked in front {Leptoglossw, Fissilingues) : a tongue of this 
shape is eminently adapted for touching ; it is also used for cleansing the lips after the 
animal has fed. 

3. It is short, thick, soft, attached to the gullet, and not, or but slightly, notched in front 
[Pachyglossce, Crassilingues) : many Lizards with such a tongue are herbi\orous ; and we 
cannot doubt that it is an oroan of taste. 



SAURIA. 57 

4. It is extremely long, worm-like, club-shaped in front, projectile {Vermilingues, 
Chameleons) : it serves for seizing the prey, and reminds us of the tongue in many Edentata, 
in the Picidce, and in many tailless Batrachians. 

The atlas is joined to the occiput by one condyle only ; the vertebrae are concave in front 
and convex behind, with the exception of the Hatteria, from New Zealand. The species 
with well-developed limbs have a sternum and a symphysis ossium ischii, beside that of the 
pubic bones. 

The Saurians are oviparous : a few ovoviviparous. 

They have been divided into many families ; representatives of the following occur ia 
British India : — 

I. EMYDOSAURI. 

Body cuirassed with osseous plates ; vent longitudinal. 
Tongue short, flat, immoveable Crocodilid^, p. 58. 

II. LACERTINI. 

Body covered with a skin folded into scales, or granular, or tubercular ; vent transverse. 

A. Leptoglossa. Tongue elongate, exsertile, forked. 

Head covered above with numerous small, flat, many-sided shields .... Varanid^, p. 63. 

Head covered above with large symmetrical shields ; no longitudinal fold along 

the sides ; scales of the belly square, in transverse bands Lacertid^, p. 68. 

Head covered above with regular, symmetrical, many-sided shields; a fold 
along the side of the body ; scales of the belly square or roundish, in 
cross bands Zonurid.^, p. 74. 

Head covered above with symmetrical, regular shields ; scales of the back, sides, 
and belly rounded, imbricate, quiucimcial. Nostril in a separate nasal 
plate SciNciD^, p. 75. 

Head covered above with symmetrical, regular shields ; scales of the back, sides, 
and belly rounded, imbricate, quincuncial. Nostril in the enlarged rostral 
plate, with a longitudinal slit behind Acontiadid^, p. 96. 

Head covered above with symmetrical, regidai' shields ; scales of the back, 
sides, and belly rounded, imbricate, quincuncial. Nostril in the front 
edge of a small shield, in a notch at the hinder side of the rostral . . . Sepsid^, p. 98. 

B. Pachyglossa. Tongue short, thick, attached to the gullet, not exsertile. 

Scales of the back and sides granular or tubercular Geckotid^e, p. 99. 

Scales of the back and sides imbricate, generally rhombic Agamid^e, p. 120. 

C. Vermilingues. Tongue worm-like, club-shaped in front, very exsertile. 

Scales of the body granular Cham^leonid^, p. 162. 

I 



58 SAURIA. 



FAMILY OF CROCODILE^—CR CO DILIByE. 

Head with the snout produced ; body depressed, covered above and 
below with square shields arranged in longitudinal and transverse series ; 
each dorsal shield is composed of an osseous dermal scute and of a corre- 
sponding horny epidermal plate. Tail elongate, compressed. Feet short, 
more or less webbed. Teeth strong, acute, conical, in a single series. 
Tongue short, adherent. Nostrils small, situated close together, on the top 
of the extremity of the snout. Toes 5 — 4 ; only the three interior are armed 
with claws. 

Freshwater Saurians, found between the tropics wherever the country is watered by suffi- 
ciently large rivers or lakes. 

The Crocodilians differ in many essential points from all the other Saurians. The pec- 
toral and abdominal cavities are separated from each other by a muscular diaphragm : the 
ventricular portion of the heart is divided by a complete septum, so that the oxygenated 
blood coming from the lungs is not mixed withm the heart with the venous blood ; but a 
slight intermingling of both kinds of blood takes place in consequence of a persistent com- 
munication between the two aortse. The teeth are implanted in sockets, whilst in all the 
other Saurians they are anchylosed to the bone. The penis is simple. These and some 
other peculiarities have induced many zoologists to consider the Crocodilians either as a 
distinct suborder of the Saurians (Loricati), or to separate them altogether as an order inter- 
mediate between the Tortoises and Lizards (Emi/dosauri). 

The most conspicuous characters of the Crocodiles refer to their thoroughly aquatic life ; 
but these characters are combined with an extremely powerful development of those organs 
which render the Crocodiles the most formidable of all the carnivorous freshwater animals. 
The head, terminating in a long flat snout and fastened to the trunk by a short muscular 
neck, and the longish, depressed trunk, are rapidly propelled through the water by powerful 
lateral movements of the long, compressed tail. The surface of the tail is enlarged superiorly 
by a crest, which is composed of a double series of broad lobes in its basal half, and of a 
single one along its remainder ; these lobes are a sort of caudal web, answering the same 
purpose as the lobes of the feet of some Grallatorial birds. The limbs themselves are short, 
and of secondary use for locomotion in the water, and being more or less webbed in the 
different species, they appear to be mainly for the purpose of preventing these heavy animals 
from sinking in the soft mud or sand, when they are walking on the shore. The tail is not 
only the principal organ for locomotion, but, at the same time, a powerful weapon ; and, in a 
captured animal, much less is to be feared from its teeth than from the strokes of its tail. 

The back, the tail, and the belly are protected by a dermal armour composed of quadran- 
gular shields, which are arranged in regular longitudinal and transverse series. These 



CROCODILID^. 59 

shields are horny plates ; but, on the back (and, in several American Alligators, on the belly), 
these plates are merely coverings of hard bony scutes imbedded in the skin, and of the same 
form and number as the plates. This armour not only most effectually protects the body — a 
rifle-ball glancing off from it as from a rock — but it also serves as ballast, by the aid 
of which a Crocodile sleeping on the surface of the water is enabled to sink to the bottom 
instantaneously on being disturbed, driving out the air from its capacious lungs by which it 
had been kept floating. 

A considerable proportion of the food of the Crocodile is fish, the proverbial swiftness of 
which is of little avail when pursued by these reptiles ; they fall an easy prey especially to the 
young animals, these being more active than the old ones. The latter, requiring a greater 
quantity of food, attack every large animal which accidentally approaches them, and, in over- 
powering it, the whole of their powerful organization is called into requisition. Seizing the 
victim between their capacious jaws, and fastening their long, pointed, conical teeth into its 
flesh, they draw it, in one moment, by their weight and with a stroke of the tail, below the 
water and drown it. Their gullet, however, is much too narrow to allow of the passage of 
the entire body of the victim ; and their teeth being adapted for seizing and holding fast 
only, and not for biting, they are obliged to mangle the carcase, tearing oflF single pieces by 
sudden strong jerks. This is performed chiefly by lateral motions of the head and front part 
of the body ; and we find the bones of the head of the Crocodile much more firmly united 
with one another, and the processes of the cervical vertebrae much more developed, than in 
any other Saurian. 

The nostrils are narrow, situated close together at the upper side of the extremity of the 
snout; the eyes and the ears likewise are near to the upper profile of the head, so that 
breathing, seeing, and hearing are uninterrupted although the whole animal is immersed 
in the water, only the upper part of the head being raised above the surface. When the 
animal dives, the nostrils are closed by valves, a transparent membrane {memhrana nictitans) 
is drawn over the eye, and the ear (a horizontal slit) is shut up by a moveable projecting 
flap of the skin . 

When we add that the pupil of some species is horizontal and of others vertical (indicating 
their nocturnal or seminocturnal habits), that the tongue is short, flat, immoveable, attached 
to the bottom of the mouth, and that the vent is a longitudinal slit, and not a transverse 
opening as in other Saurians, we shall have enumerated all the important external pecu- 
liarities of the Crocodiles. 

The Indian Crocodiles inhabit not only rivers and estuaries, but, according to Cantor, also 
the sea-coasts, and in calm weather may be seen floating at a distance of two or three 
miles from shore. Those inhabiting small inland waters which are dried up during a 
drought are compelled to wander about in search of water, in which alone they can procure 
their food ; they do this during the night. Some of them, however, especially large indi- 
viduals, bury themselves in the mud, as many fi-eshwater tortoises and fish do, and remain 
in a state of torpor below the hard crust during the time of the drought. It is during that 
period, shortly after they have been released from the state of an enforced fasting, that they 
are most formidable. Whilst at other periods they quietly wait tiU some victim is brought 
by accident within easy reach, hunger now renders them more audacious and compels them 
to go in search of food ; a noise which at other times would scare them away, now attracts 

l2 



60 SAUEIA. 

them, and only too frequently man is the unfortunate object attacked. A man seized by a 
crocodile has only one way of saving his life, if not his limb, namely to force his fingers 
into the eyes of the beast, which immediately lets go its victim, — a practice equally known 
to the Indian of South America, to the Negro of Africa, and to the Hindoo. Dr. Cantor 
says that a single crocodile will often appropriate to himself a limited district, which, if it 
happens to be in the vicinity of a callage, will soon be perceived in the loss of the grazing 
cattle. It does not appear to be very difficult to catch such a single depredator by a hook 
baited with flesh or entrails, and made fast by a bunch of strong, thin cords, which it cannot 
gnaw asunder, as they sink into the spaces between the teeth*. When drawn on shore 
they emit a strong musk-like smell, out of some glands, two of which are situated iu the lower 
jaw ; they make a noise intermediate between hissing and bellowing, clashing the jaws 
together. It is not easy to kill them on the spot, except by a ball sent through the eye 
into the brain, or through the neck to the spinal cord : of course, a severe injury to any of 
the vital parts will prove fatal to them, but not before days or weeks have elapsed. 

All the Crocodiles are oviparous : the eggs have a hard shell, and resemble in size and 
shape those of a goose ; from twenty to sixty are deposited in a hollow near the banks, and 
slightly covered over with mould or sand. The young Crocodiles are of a rather rapid 
growth. Jerdon has recorded one casef in which an egg of Crocodilus porosus, brought 
from the fort ditch at Vellore to Walter Elliott, Esq., was hatched m the Government-house 
compound, and in eight years had increased to the length of 8 or 9 feet, becoming so 
powerful as to destroy a full-grovni buck antelope which had come to drink water at the 
tank to which it usually resorted. 

The following genera are found in British India J : — 

Snout moderately long ; teeth — ^ — Crocodilus, p. 60. 



15 

25or26 



Snout very long and slender ; teeth ^ — ^ Gavialis, p. 63. 



CROCODILUS, Cuv. 

Teetli strong, very unequal in size, 18 or 19 above, and 15 below, on each 
side, the teeth in the upper jaw being the strongest ; the fourth tooth of 
the lower jaw passes into a groove at the lateral edge of the upj^er jaw §. 
Snout moderately long. The posterior nuchal plates are separated from the 

dorsal by an interspace. 

« 

* Tennent's Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 288. t Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, xxii. p. 465. 

X Alligators are found only in the New World, but the English in India almost universally apply this 
name to tlie Indian Crocodiles. 

§ The fourth tooth, normally, ought to be visible when the mouth is closed ; however, we have seen 
young specimens of true Crocodiles in which that tooth passed into a groove, as described, on one side, 
whilst its fellow on the other side was received into a pit as in the Alligators. 



CROCODILUS SI AMEN SIS. 61 

The Crocodiles are found in America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The following species 
are found in British India : — 

* A series of anterior nuchal plates : Bombifrons, Gray, 

The width of the interorbital space is miicli less than the vertical dia- 
meter of the orbit C. palusiris, p. Gl. 

The width of the interorbital space is nearly equal to the vertical dia- 
meter of the orbit C. siametisis, li. 61. 

** Anterior nuchal plates none : Oopholis, Gray. 

Dorsal plates in six longitudinal series C. porosus, p. 62. 

Dorsal plates in four longitudinal series C. pondicerianus, p. 62. 



Crocodilus palustris. (Plate VIII. hg. A.) 

Crocodilus palustris, Less. inBelang. Voy. Ind. Orient., Zool., Rept. p. 305. G7-ay, Catal. Tort, ifc, 
8vo, p. 63. 

ATilgaris, var. B, Dum. ^- Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 108. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 15. 

trigonops, Gray, Catal. Tort. 6fc., 8vo, p. 62. 

bombifrons, Gray, I. c. p. 59. Huxley, Proc. Linn. Soc. 1859, pp. 13, 28. 

biporcatus, Cautley, As. Research, xix. tab. 3. figs. 1 & 3 (not Cuv.). 



Bombifrons trigonops. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, x. p. 269. 

The upper surface of the snout is covered with numerous small, rounded, irregular pro- 
minences. Interorbital space deeply concave, its width being much less than the vertical 
diameter of the orbit ; two pau's of strongly keeled anterior nuchal plates ; three pairs of 
large posterior nuchal plates, each with an exceedingly strong keel — the plates of the outer 
pair not much smaller than the middle plates. Six shields in each of the transverse rows 
of the middle of the back ; sixteen transverse rows of dorsal shields ; each shield with a 
strong keel. 

The British Museum possesses specimens from Madras, from Malabar, from Ceylon, and from 
the Ganges ; it attains probably to the same size as Croc, porosus. The figure on Plate VIII. 
is taken from a Madras specimen, and represents the head of half its natural size. 



Crocodilus si.mhensis. (Plate VIII. fig. B.) 

Crocodilus siamensis, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 157. 

galeatus, Cuv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. x. p. 51. pi. 1. fig. 9 (skull of an adult). 

Bombifi-ons siamensis. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, x. p. 269. 

The upper surface of the snout without prominences, and almost smooth. Interorbital 
space moderately concave, its width being nearly equal to the vertical diameter of the orbit ; 
two pairs of strongly keeled anterior nuchal plates ; two pairs of large posterior nuchal 
plates, each with an exceedingly strong keel. Four or six shields in each transverse row on 
the back ; sixteen transverse rows of dorsal shields ; each shield with a strong keel. 



62 SAURIA. 

This species was first described from a skull, sent by French Missionaries from Siam to 
the Paris Museum ; but the first entire animal appears to have been brought to Europe by 
the late M. Mouhot, who procured it in Gamboja. Adult animals of 10 feet in length show 
a longitudinal prominence in the middle, behind the posterior angles of the orbit. Our 
specimen, being only 4^ feet long, has this prominence slightly, but distinctly, indicated ; 
we have figured its head of half its natural size. 



CrOCODILUS i'OROSUS. 

Crocodilus porosus, Schneid. Amph. p. 159. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 16. Jerd. Journ. As. Soe. Btng. 

xxii. p. 466. 
biporcatusj Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. pt. 2. p. 65. tab. 1. figs. 4, 18, 19 (young skulls), & tab. 2. fig. 8. 

Mull. ^ Schleg. Krokod. Ind. Archipel. tab. 3. fig. 6 (midcUe-aged skull), fig. 7 (aged). 
Oopholis porosus. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, x. p. 267. 

Anterior nuchal plates none, or only a pair of very small ones. Dorsal shields in six 
longitudinal series ; generally another rudimentary series on each side of the middle of the 
back, so that there are eight shields in a part of the transverse series ; each shield with a 
keel. Dorsal shields in seventeen* transverse series (to the root of the tail). 

This is a very common species along all the rivers of the East Indian continent and 
Archipelago. The specimens found in Australia scarcely differ from those from the East 
Indies. It grows to the very large size of 30 feet, and specimens from 15-20 feet are by no 
means rare. 



Crocodilus pondiceeiands. (Plate VII.) 

Oopholis pondiclierianus, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat, Hist. 1862, x. p. 268. 

Anterior nuchal plates none. Dorsal shields in four longitudinal series ; another rudi- 
mentary series on each side of the middle of the back ; each shield with a keel. Dorsal 
shields in seventeen transverse series. Fore toes half webbed ; the two outer of the hind 
toes completely webbed. 

Only one specimen is known of this species; it is quite young, 12 inches long, and is said 
to have been brought from Pondicherry. 

* Australian specimens have only sixteen transverse series. 



VARANID^. 63 

GAVIALIS, Geoffr. 

Teeth slender, subequal in size, 27 or 28 above, and 25 or 26 below, on 
each side ; the strongest teeth anteriorly in the jaws ; teeth directed out- 
wards. Snout very long and slender. 

Only one species is known from the Ganges, — the Gavial from Borneo {Crocodilus schlegelii) 
having been rightly referred by Huxley to a distinct genus [Bhynchosuchus). 

Gavialis gangeticus. The Gavial or Nakoo. 

Lacerta gangetica, Gm. Syst. Nat. i. p. 1057. 

Crocodilus longirostris, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 160. Cuv. Oss. Foss. v. pt. 2. p. 60. pi. 1. figs. 2 & 

10, & pi. 2. fig. 11 (head and skull). 
tenuirostris, Cuv. I. c. p. 62. pi. 1. figs. 1 & 11, & pi. 2. fig. 12. 

The length of the snout equals that of nine or ten of the dorsal shields. The upper jaw with 
twenty-seven slender and slightly curved teeth, the lower with twenty-six. The strongest of 
all the teeth are the two anterior lateral ones of the upper jaw, and those of the first, second, 
and fourth pairs of the lower jaw. There is a transverse series of four or six smallish shields 
at a short distance behind the occiput ; another pair of very small shields occupies the space 
between that series and the anterior dorsal shields. The dorsal shields commence in the 
middle of the length of the neck, and form twenty-two transverse rows to the root of the 
tail. The first transverse row is composed of two shields only, whilst the two following have 
a small additional shield on each side ; in the middle of the back each transverse row is 
composed of six shields — four large ones and two small lateral ones ; each shield is keeled. 

Old male specimens have a large cartilaginous hump on the extremity of the snout*, 
perforated by the nostrils and containing a small cavity for the reception of air, so that the 
males are enabled to remain under water for a longer time than the females. 

The Gavial attains to a length of 20 feet. 



FAMILY OF WATER LIZARDS— FJBJNWyi:. 

Head w^ith the snout produced, pyramidal, covered with small, scale-like, 
but not imbricate, shields. Teeth acute, compressed. Tongue elongate, 
slender, terminating in a long fork, retractile into a sheath at its base. 
Scales small, equal on the sides and on the back, arranged in cross rings ; 
those of the belly and tail square, in cross bands. Tail long, generally com- 
pressed. Toes 5 — 5, armed with strong claws. 

* This is referred to by .iElian, who says that the Ganges is inhabited by CrocodUes which have a horn 
on the end of the snout (Hist. Anim. Ixii. c. 41). 



G4 SAURIA. 

This family contains the largest species of Lizards ; the greater part of them live in the 
neighbourhood of large rivers, and are excellent swimmers, their long, compressed tail 
serving as a propeller ; they are carnivorous, feeding on all the different water-animals and 
on the eggs of birds, and likewise on those of other large reptiles. 

Their movements on land are not much less rapid than in the water. Several species 
climb trees ; they are active during a part of the night. The external nasal opening leads 
into a spacious cavity situated on the snout ; when the animal dives, it closes the nasal aper- 
ture, and retaining a certain quantity of atmospheric air in that pouch, or rather in the 
two pouches, it is enabled to remain under water for a prolonged period without the necessity 
of rising to the surface in order to breathe. It is the same plan of structure as that with 
which a large northern Seal [Cystophora horealis) is provided. 

They are found in the tropical parts of Africa, Asia, and Australia. The species of British 
India belong to the following genera : — 

Nostrils an oblique slitj in, or nearly in, the middle between eye and 

extremity of snout Varanus, p. 64. 

Nostrils a more or less rounded opening, near the extremity of the snout . Hydrosaurus, p. 67. 



VARANUS. 

Varanus (part.), Merr. Amph. p. 58. 

The nostrils are an oblique slit, situated in, or nearly In, the middle 
between the eye and the extremity of the snout. Scales elliptic, small ; 
those on the back and on the sides not imbricate, each being surrounded by 
a small, circular, granular fold. Tail with a low crest, formed by two or 
four series of strongly keeled scales. Throat with a transverse fold. 

The species are the following : — ■ 

The free part of the middle fore toe (without claw) is half as long as the snout . . V. flavescens, p. 65. 

The free part of the middle fore toe (without claw) is much longer than the half 
snout ; all the superciliary scales equally small. Ventral scales in 90 trans- 
verse series. Neck without angular dark cross bauds V. dracana,"^. 65. 

The free part of the middle fore toe (without claw) is much longer than the half 
snout ; all the superciliary scales equally small. Ventral scales in 105 trans- 
verse series. Neck with dark angular cross bands, their points being directed 
backwards V. lunatus, p. dQ. 

Superciliary scales small, with a series of larger ones along the middle . . . . V. nebulosus, p. 66. 



VARANUS DRAaENA. 65 

Varanus flavescens. The Short-toed Water Lizard. (Plate IX. figs. A, A'.) 

Monitor flavescens, Gray, Illustr. Ltd. Zool. c. tab. 

Varanus piquotii, Dum. ^- Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 485. pi. 35^. fig. 5 (scales). 

Empagusia flavescens, Gray, Lizards, p. 9. 

Varanus flavescens, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 28. 

The toes of this species are, comparatively, shorter than in its congeners. The nostril is an 
oblique slit, situated entirely before the middle of the length of the snout, although not 
on its extremity. The teeth are of moderate size, subcorneal, scarcely compressed, and not 
denticulated. Superciliary scales of unequal size, the outer being rather smaller than the 
inner. Scales of the upper parts strongly keeled, those of the belly smooth, in 70 trans- 
verse series between the gular fold and the loin. Greenish- or brownish-olive, with irregular 
dai'k markings, which are, generally, confluent into broad cross bars on the back and tail ; 
throat with irregular dark transverse bands. In young specimens the dark colour is pre- 
dominant on the upper parts, the body and tail being crossed by numerous irregular yellow 
bands. 

This species attains to a length of from 3 to 4 feet, the tail being longer than the body. It 
has been found in Nepal (by Mr. Hodgson), in Bengal, at Pinang, and in the Indus Territories. 
On Plate IX. we have figured the head (fig. A), and the fore foot (fig. A'), to show the 
position of the nostril and the short toes. 



Vakanus dkac^na. The Common Indian Water Lizard. (Plate IX. figs. B, B', B''.) 

? Lacerta dracsena, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 360. 

Lacerta dracsena, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 218. pi. 67. 

Tupinambis bengalensis, Daud. Hist. Kept. iii. p. 67. 

Varanus guttatus, Merr. Amph. p. 58. Less, in Belang. Voy. Lid. Orient., Rept. p. 308. 

punctatus, Merr. Amph. p. 59. Less. I. c. p. 309. 

Monitor heraldicus, Gray, in Griff. An. Kingd. ix. p. 25. 

bengalensis, Gray, I. c. p. 26. 

Varanus bengalensis, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 480. 

lieraldicus. Gray, Catal, Liz. p. 9. 

Monitor dracsena, Gray, ^. c. p. 11. 

Varanus bibroni, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xi. p. 869, and in Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Ceyl. App. 
p. 46. 

The toes of this and of the following species are of moderate length, and armed with strong 
claws. The nostril is an oblique slit, situated in the middle of the length of the snout. The 
teeth are stout, subcorneal, and not denticulated. Superciliary scales small, without a series 
of larger ones. Scales of the neck and back without keels, only a little raised in the middle ; 
those of the belly smooth, in 90 transverse series between the gular fold and the loin. 
Brownish olive, uniform or generally with more or less numerous black dots, each of which 
occupies a scale ; these dots are sometimes arranged in irregular transverse series, and are 
most numerous on the throat. Young specimens show numerous small white ocelli edged 

K 



66 SAURIA. 

with darker, whilst the lower parts are marked with irregular dark transverse bands. Nape 
of the neck without regular cross bands. 

This appears to be the most common species in British India. Specimens have been 
obtained from Bengal and Nepal, from diiferent parts of Southern India, and from Ceylon. 
A very young specimen, 10 inches long, brought by Captain E. H. Beddome from the 
Anamallay Mountains, shows narrow black bands across the neck; but they are much 
narrower than in V. lunatus, and rather irregular. It sometimes exceeds a length of 4 feet, 
the tail being longer than the body. 

Kelaart (Prodr. Faun. Ceyl. p. 147) says that it is called in Ceylon the " Goana." " It is 
found in great abundance in all the maritime provinces, rarely in the higher Kandian 
districts. The natives are partial to its flesh ; we have once tasted some excellent soup made 
from a tender Goana; it tasted not unlike hare-soup. They live in holes, and in midday 
they steal out of their cells in search of food, which consists of smaller reptiles and insects. 
Ant-hiUs fm-nish them with a dainty repast. At Trincomalee they are hunted down by dogs, 
and sold in the market for sixpence each." 

Figures B, B', B" of Plate IX. represent the head in two views, and the fore foot, of the 
natural size. 



Vakanus lunatus. The Banded Water Lizard. (Plate IX. fig. C.) 

Varanus lunatus, Gray, Lizards, p. 10. 

This species is very similar to V. draccena, from which it is distinguished by a larger 
number of ventral shields, which are arranged in 105 cross series from the gular fold to the 
loin. Neck, trunk, and tail marked with cross bands, which are as broad as the inter- 
spaces of the ground-colour ; these bands are angular on the neck and trunk, mth the angle 
directed backwards on the neck and forwards on the trunk — four on the neck, eleven on the 
trunk. Sides and legs dotted with white. 

The single (typical) specimen in the British Museum is stuffed, and 25 inches long, the 
tail having a length of 14 inches. It is marked as coming from India, but without further 
information. 



Varanus nebulosus. The Clouded Water Lizard. (Plate IX. fig. D.) 

^Monitor nebulosus, Gray, in Griff. An. Kingd. ix. p. 27. 

Varanus nebulosus, Bum. c^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 483. ? Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. p. 27. 

The toes are as long as in V. draccBna, and armed with very acute claws. The nostril is a 
long slit, and situated nearer to the eye than to the end of the snout. The teeth are slightly 



HYDROSAURUS SALVATOR. 67 

compressed, of moderate strength, and not denticulated. A series of broad, enlarged shields 
runs along the middle of the superciliary region, which otherwise is covered with small 
scales. Scales of the neck and back with an obtuse keel ; those of the belly smooth, in 80 
transverse series between the gular fold and the loin. Greenish- or brownish-olive, irre- 
gularly marbled and dotted with yellowish and black. Nape of the neck with traces of two 
pairs of blackish bands, convergent behind, the anterior band proceeding from the eye. 
Young specimens have these bands very distinct, and the body ornamented with numerous 
white, black-edged ocelli. 

The largest specimen which I have seen is 3^ feet long, the tail being longer than the 
body. This species is found in Bengal and Siam, but not in Java as stated by Bibron ; 
perhaps near Pinang. 



HYDROSxiURUS, Wagl 

This genus differs from Varanus only in its nostrils, which are a more or less rounded 
opening near the extremity of the snout. 

Only one species is known to inhabit the East Indian continent ; it is named — 



Hydeosaukus salvatoe. The Ocellated Water Lizard. (Plate IX. fig. E.) 

Stellio salvator, Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 56. 

Tupinambis bivittatus, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. p. 125. 

Monitor elegans^ Gray, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 225. 

Yaranus vittatus, Less, in Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient., Rept. p. 307. 

bivittatus, Dum. .Sf Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 486. 

Hydrosaurus salvator, Gray, Lizards, p. 13. 

Varanus salvator, Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 29. 

Monitor bivittatus, Schleg. Abbild. p. 76. tab. 21, & tab. 23. figs. 1, 2. 

The toes are as long as in the long-toed Varani, and armed with sharp claws of moderate 
size. The teeth are strong, slightly compressed and curved backwards, not serrated. A 
series of broad, enlarged shields covers the inner half of the superciliary region. Scales of 
the neck and back with a very obtuse keel ; those of the belly smooth, in 90 transverse 
series between the gular fold and the loin. Dark brown above, with transverse series of 
round white spots ; snout with three or four white cross bands ; a dark-brown streak runs 
from the eye to the neck ; throat and sometimes the belly with irregular dark-brown trans- 
verse streaks ; tail with white rings. All these markings become more and more obscure 
with advancing age, and, finally, may disappear entirely. 

This species is an inhabitant of the islands of the East Indian Archipelago ; the British 

k2 



68 SAURIA. 

Museum, however, has received two examples from the continent — one from China, by 
Mr. J. Lindsay, and the other from Siam, by Sir J. BoAvring. 

Kelaart (Prodr. Faun. CeyL p. 148) and Blyth (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 476) state 
that it also occurs in Ceylon, whence we have never received it. 

According to Cantor it is " very numerous in hilly and marshy localities of the Malayan 
peninsula. It is commonly during the day observed in the branches of trees overhanging 
rivers, preying upon birds and their eggs and smaller lizards, and when disturbed, it throws 
itself from a considerable height into the water ; it will courageously defend itself with teeth 
and claws and by strokes of the tail. The lowest castes of Hindoos capture these lizards 
commonly by digging them out of their burrows on the banks of rivers, for the sake of their 
flesh, which by these people is gi'eatly relished. Some individuals attain to nearly 7 feet 
in length." 



FAMILY OF LAND UZ\m)^—LACERTID^. 

Head covered with shields, which are symmetrically arraiis^ed. Tongue 
slender, free, exsertile, terminating in a fork. Scales on the hack granular 
or rhomhic, on the sides granular; on the helly larger, quadrangular or 
rounded, and arranged in cross bands. No longitudinal fold along the 
sides, but generally a fold across the throat. Tail very long, rounded, with 
the scales arranged in rings ; fragile. Eyes diurnal, with eyelids ; tympanum 
distinct. Limbs four, well developed. 

The species of this family do not attain to any considerable size ; most of them are found 
in Africa, America, and Europe. They live generally on the ground, and are not burrowing. 

Only the following genera occur on the East Indian continent : — 

Inguinal pores only Tachydronms, p. 69. 

Femoral pores; toes not toothed on the sides; eyeUds present . . Cabrita, p. 71. 

Femoral pores ; toes not toothed on the sides ; eyelids none . . . Ophiops, p. 72. 

Femoral pores ; toes toothed on the sides Acanthodactylus, p. 72. 



TACHYDROMUS SEXLINEATUS. 69 

TACHYDROMUS, Baudin. 

Head elongato-pyramidal, body subcylindrlcal, tail very long. Nostril in 
a single nasal shield immediately above the labials. Dorsal scales large, 
strongly keeled, the keels being confluent Into longitudinal ridges ; all the 
ventral shields, or at least the lateral ones, keeled. Sides covered with 
granular scales. Anal shield surrounded by smaller ones ; one or two in- 
guinal pores on each side. Femoral pores none. Tail with rings of keeled, 
quadrilateral shields. An indistinct collar. Toes not serrated or keeled. 
Tympanum distinct. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

* All the ventral shields are keeled ; three pairs of chin-shields. 

1. Dorsal scales in four, ventral shields in tenf longitudinal series; ventral shields in twenty-two 

or twenty-three transverse rows. Generally two inguinal pores on each side of the vent : 
Tachydromus sexlineatus , Daud., from Rangoon, Borneo, and probably from other islands of 
the East Indian Archipelago. 

2. Dorsal scales in four, ventral shields in twelve longitudinal series ; one inguinal pore on each side 

of the vent : Tachydromus meridionals, n. sp., from Southern China. 

3. Dorsal scales in six series : Tachydromus septentrionalis , n. sp., from Ningpo. 
** Only the lateral ventral shields are keeled ; four pairs of chin-shields. 

4. Dorsal scales in six, ventral shields in eight series ; inguinal pores two on each side : Tachydromus 

japonicus, Dum. & Bibr., from Japan, 



Tachydromus sexlineatus. (Plate VIII. fig. C.) 

Tachydromus sexlineatus. Baud. Rept. iii. p. 256. tab. 39. Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 158. 

quadriUneatus, Baud. I. c. p. 252. 

typicus, Gray, in Ann. i^~ Mag. Nat. Hist. i. p. 389. 

Three pairs of chin-shields. Dorsal scales strongly keeled, in four longitudinal series ; all 
the ventral shields are keeled, and form ten longitudinal and twenty-two or twenty-three 
transverse series. Generally two inguinal pores on each side of the vent. Greenish bronze- 
coloured above, sometimes with a pair of silvery bands ; sides greenish, separated from the 
brown of the back by a narrow black streak, commencing at the nostril and passing through 
the eye and tympanum. The lower parts yellowish, iridescent. 

We have specimens of this species from Rangoon and from Borneo ; it probably occurs 
also in other parts of the East Indian Archipelago. The largest specimen is 14 inches long, 

t " Six series longitudinales " (Dum. & Bibr. v. p. 160) is probably a misprint. 



70 SAURIA. 

of which the tail takes 11^. The figures marked C, on Plate VIII., show the four dorsal 
series of scales and the two pairs of inguinal pores. 



Tachydeomus MERiDiONALis. (Plate VIII. fig. D.) 

This species has hitherto been confounded by Herpetologists with T. sexUneatiis ; we have 
four specimens before us, which show that the characters by which we distinguish this species 
are constant. It is as slender as the species from the East Indian Archipelago, with the 
snout produced and with the tail exceedingly long. The arrangement of the head-shields is 
the same in all the four species, except that T. japonicus has four pairs of chin-shields : one 
praefrontal, two postfrontals, one vertical, two pairs of occipitals with one or two odd central 
ones, the anterior occipitals being much smaller than the lateral. The nasal opening is in a 
single shield, immediately above the fij'st labial ; one frcenal, one anteorbital, six upper and 
five lower labials ; temples covered with very small keeled scales. The scales on the back 
are rounded behind ; a strong ridge along each of the series of scales. The scales on the 
throat are similar to, and gradually pass into, those of the belly, the collar being very 
indistinct; there is a small fold before each shoulder. The ventral shields are subqua- 
drangular, imbricate, obtusely pointed behind, and arranged in twelve longitudinal and 
twenty-five transverse series. The scales on the tail are arranged in rings and strongly keeled, 
the keels forming continuous ridges as on the back and belly. Limbs slender, rather feeble ; 
the anterior do not extend to the end of the snout, nor the posterior to the axil. Claws 
very feeble. Only one inguinal pore on each side. 

Back brownish olive ; a dark-brown band runs from the snout, through the eye, above the 
tympanum, to the loin ; this band is separated from the colour of the back by an iridescent 
lateral stripe. 

This species is found in Southern China, and probably also in Cochinchina. 

Length of the head 5 lines, of the trunk 18 lines, of the tail 1\ inches. The two figures 
marked D, on Plate VIII., show the four dorsal series of scales and the single inguinal pore 
on each side. 



Tachydeomus septenteioxalis. (Plate VIII. fig. E.) 

This species, the most northern of the Tachydromi, is more closely allied to the Japanese 
species than to any other; yet it is so different from the latter in several respects, that it 
could not be referred to Gray's genus Trachysaiirus, established for T. japonicus. In form 
it is much less slender than T. mcridionalis and T. sexlineatus ; in the arrangement of the 
head-shields it difi'ers but little from T. mcridionalis : there is a small detached shield between 
anteorbital and eye, and there are seven upper and six lower labials. The two vertebral 
series of scales are much smaller than the lateral ones. The ventral shields are as strongly 
keeled as those on the back, and arranged in twenty-eight transverse and in eight longitudinal 



CABEITA LESCHENAULTII. 71 

series ; there are, however, two other rudimentary series of small, keeled scales on each side 
of the belly. The fore limbs extend to the end of the snout, the hind limbs nearly to the 
axil. The claws are feeble, and each has at its base a small, dilated disk belonging to the 
skin of the toe. 

Back brownish- or greenish-olive; a brown band, darkest on its edges, runs from the 
nostril through the eye to the tympanum, and is soon lost. There is a green, iridescent, 
black-edged band on each side of the back in old specimens. Lateral parts greenish, the 
lower yellowish. 



Two specimens have been procured at Ningpo. 



Length of the head f rds of an inch, of trunk 2 inches, of tail (reproduced) 7 inches. We 
have given a figure of the whole animal ; and outlines of the lower jaw, of the anal region, 
and of a portion of the back, to show the six dorsal series of scales. 



CABRITA, Gray. 

Nostrils on the ridge of the snout, between an upper and lower nasal plate, 
both being rather swollen ; a small hinder nasal. Eyelids present ; collar 
none, only a small fold before each shoulder. Ventral scales four-sided, 
smooth, longitudinally arranged. Femoral pores. Toes 5 — 5, keeled be- 
neath, not toothed on the sides. 

I have not had an opportunity of examining this Lizard, which is known from descriptions 
drawn up by Milne-Edwards, Bibron, and Gray. 

CaBEITA LESCHENAULTII. 

Lacerta leschenaiiltii, Milne-Edw, Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi. pp. 80, 86. pi. 6. fig. 9 (bead). 
Calosaura leschenaultii, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. yen. v. p. 262. 
Cabrita bruniiea, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist, i. p. 282. 

Two loreals ; the central occipital very small. The lower eyelid transparent ; temples with 
small, hexagonal, keeled scales of equal size. Dorsal scales keeled, rhombic. Ventral scales 
in six longitudinal and twenty-five or twenty-six transverse series. Vent covered with a larger 
central scale, surrounded by other small ones. Fifteen or sixteen femoral pores. Brown, 
with two broad whitish bands on each side, the upper arising from the superciliary and 
running along the side of the back, the lower proceeding from below the eye and ear along 
the middle of the side. 

Total length 5^ inches, of head and trunk 2 inches. 



72 SAURIA. 

The specimens in the Paris Museum are said to be from the coast of Coromandel. Jerdon 
(Journ. As. See. Bengal, xxii. p. 476) says that he has recognized the species : " it is some- 
what locally distributed. I have seen it in the Salem and Coimbatoor districts only, especially 
near the banks of the Cavery. It frequents bushy ground, hedges of Euphorbia and clumps 
of Cactus." Mr. Blyth adds that the Museum at Calcutta contains examples of what he 
takes to be this species, from Find Dadun Khan, in the Punjab Salt Eange ; and that it 
formerly possessed the same from Afghanistan. 



OPHIOPS, Mcnetrirs. 

Nostrils on the ridge of the snout, hetween an upper and lower nasal plate, 
both being rather swollen ; three small shields behind the nostril. Eyelids 
none ; collar none, only a small fold before each shoulder. Ventral shields 
four-sided, rhombic, smooth ; scales on the back rhombic, keeled, imbricate. 
Femoral pores. Toes 5 — 5, keeled beneath, not toothed on the sides. 

Mr. Blyth refers to this genus a species which we have not seen : — 

Ophiops jerdoni (Joiu-n. As. Soc. Bcng. xxii. p. G53) : — " Dark bronze above, black-spotted, with two 
obscui'e broad dorsal streaks ; below white throughout. Femoral pores seven or eight. Shields of head 
plaited longitudinally. Length of head and body 1^ inch, of tail 2^ inches, of hind limb | inch. Procured 
at Mhow, in pasture land, by T. C. Jerdon, Esq." 



ACANTIIODACTYLUS, Fitzinger. 

Nostril between three shields, the lower of which is the first labial. Eye- 
lids present; a scaly fold across the throat. Ventral scales four-sided, 
smooth. Femoral pores. Toes 5 — 5, keeled beneath, and toothed on the 
sides. 

The species hitherto known of this genus are African ; but it also appears to be represented 
in the East Indies : Jerdon refers a Lizard from the Nilgherries to this genus ; and I have 
also found an Acanthodactylus in the late East India Company's Collection, stated to be from 
Hindostan. Following is the description from which we are expected to recognize the 
species discovered by Mr. Jerdon ; it appears to differ from the other {A. cantoris) in its 
coloration : — 

Acanthodactylus nilgherrensis, Jerd. (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 476) :— " Anterior edge of ear toothed, 
scaly ; collar transverse ; scales of back somewhat lai'ger behind than in front ; an occipital plate.— This 



ACANTHODACTYLUS CANTORIS. 73 

Lizard was obtained by W. Elliott, Esq., near Coouoor. Its colours iu spirits are of a pale pearl-grey, 
with a row of black spots on its back, another row on its sides somewhat larger and white, edged black. 
Length of one 5| inches, of which the tail is 3." 



ACANTHODACTTLUS CANTORIS. 

Head of moderate length, with the snout narrowed ; body and root of the tail rather 
depressed ; limbs well developed. 

Rostral shield bent backwards on the upper surface of the snout, with an obtuse angle 
behind ; supranasals meeting each other behind the rostral ; prsefrontal nearly square ; pos- 
terior frontals longer than broad, each with an obtuse longitudinal keel ; vertical bell-shaped, 
broadest in front, narrow and elongate behind, with two convergent obtuse keels. Super- 
ciliaries three, the anterior of which is small ; they are separated from the orbital margin by 
a narrow strip of small scales. Two pairs of occipitals : the anterior pair small, triangular, 
the posterior twice as large and subquadi'angular ; a very small central occipital is also 
present. The nostril is situated between the supranasal, the first labial, and a small post- 
nasal. Eight upper labials ; an elongate shield below the orbit and above the fifth, sixth, 
and seventh labials. The mental shield is nearly as long as broad; seven rather narrow 
lower labials ; a series of five chin-shields runs along the inner side of the labials (the 
third is the largest) ; the first three pau's of these chin-shields touch each other in the 
median line, whilst the shields of the fourth and fifth pairs are separated from each other by 
Small, smooth scales. These scales gradually increase in size towards the collar, and those in 
front of the collar are as large as the anterior ventral scales. Scales on the cheek obtusely 
keeled, small, but much larger than those on the neck ; no lobules or larger scales in front 
of the ear. 

All the scales on the upper side of the body are strongly keeled, imbricate, obtusely pointed 
behind ; they are exceedingly small on the neck, but become gradually larger towards the 
middle and hind part of the body ; they form thirteen longitudinal rows in the middle of the 
back, the keels forming continuous lines. The scales on the side of the trunk are much 
smaller than those of the back, and keeled. Ventral scales in twelve longitudinal series in 
the middle of the belly, smooth, square ; those near the throat are rhombic. Prseanal region 
covered with scales similar to those near the collar, the last being larger than the others. 
The scales of the tail are keeled and disposed in rings. 

Twenty pores on each side ; the perforated scales form a continuous angular series across 
the prseanal region. The fore limbs extend to the front edge of the orbit, if laid forwards, 
the hind limbs to the collar. The hind toes are very distinctly serrated along their external 



Greenish olive above, with reticulated blackish lines ; uniform whitish below. 



74 SAURIA. 

Total length 7 inches: — head 7 lines; tail 4^ inches; fore limb 11 lines; fourth (longest) 
finger 3| lines ; hind limb 18 lines ; third toe 3^ lines ; fourth (longest) toe 6 lines ; fifth toe 
5 lines. 

The British Museum received the example on which I have founded this species from 
the East India Collection, to which it had been presented by Dr. Cantor ; it is stated to be 
from Ramnuggar. 



FAMILY OF COBBYLES—ZONUBWy^. 

Head covered with regular, symmetrical, many-sided shields. Tongue 
flat, nicked. Scales of the back and tail large, squarish ; sides with a 
distinct longitudinal fold ; scales of the belly square or roundish, in cross 
bands. Tail rounded. Ears distinct ; eyes diurnal, with lids. 

Only one species of this family is found in the East Indies. 



PSEUDOPUS. 

Pseudopus et Hyalinus, Merrem. 
Seps (part.) et Ophisaurus, Daudin. 
Pseudopus, Ophisaurus, et Dopasia, Gi-aij. 
Ophiseps, BIyth. 

Body and tail long, snake-like, without limbs, or with only one pair of 
rudimentary hind legs. Scales quadrangular, arranged in transverse series. 

Three species only of this very remarkable genus are known : one from North America, 
Ophisaurus ventralis, with the palatine teeth in a broad band ; the second from South-Eastern 
Europe and Northern Asia, Pseudoptis pallasii, with rudimentary hind limbs ; and, finally, 
the Ps. gracilis from Khasya. 



SCINCID.^. 75 

PsEUDOPUS GRACILIS. The Khasya Glass Snake. 

Pseudopus gracilis, Gray, Lizards, p. 56. 

Dopasia gracilis, Gray, Ann. §• Mag. Nat. Hist. xii. 1853, p. 389. Gilnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, 

p. 172. 
Ophiseps tessellatus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 655. 

This species is very closely allied to its European congener, differing, however, from it by 
the total absence of the rudimentary, scale-like hind limbs of that species. From the North 
American Glass Snake it differs in having the palatine teeth small, and arranged in a very 
narrow band. The upper surface of its head is covered with a large vertical plate and three 
smaller occipitals behind, the space between the vertical and the rostral being filled up by 
about five pairs of rather irregular frontals of unequal size ; the superciliaries are arranged 
in tvvo series. The dorsal scales form fourteen longitudinal series, each series with a slight 
continuous keel ; the ventral scales are smooth, in ten series. The upper parts are brown, 
with some ii-regular black spots across the back. 

The typical specimen is from the Khasya Hills, 15 inches long, the tail measuring 10. 
We may infer, from its close resemblance to Pseudopus })allasii, that its habits are similar. 
It probably lives in dry places, under stones, feeding on small lizards, mice, &c.* The scaly 
covering of the upper and lower parts is so tight, that it does not admit of the same extension 
as in snakes or other lizards, and the Pseudojms, therefore, could not receive the same 
quantity of food in its stomach as those animals were it not for the expansible fold of the skin 
running along each side of its trunk. Whilst in other Saurians the whole skin of the belh' 
and of the sides is extensible, the extensibility here is limited to a separate part of the skin. 



FAMILY OF SKINKS—SCINCW.^. 

Head covered with shields, which are symmetrically arranged. Tongue 
slender, free, exsertile, terminating in two pointed lobes. Scales on the 
back rounded, quincuncial, imbricate ; those on the belly similar to those on 
the back and on the sides. No fold across the throat or along the side ; 
no femoral or inguinal pores. Tail generally long-, rounded, fragile. Eyes 
and eyelids well developed. Nostrils in a separate plate, between the frontal 
and labial shields. Generally four limbs, moderately developed, sometimes 
feeble or hidden below the skin. 

The species of this family are exceedingly numerous, and inhabit almost every part of the 

* Mr. Blytli's " Ophiseps " is said to be from Rangoon. 

L 2 



76 SAURIA. 

tropical regions, some extending into the temperate zones. They are thoroughly land 
Lizards, preferring dry ground, and hiding themselves in the sand, under stones, &c. ; none 
of them enter the water. They do not attain to any considerable size, a few West Indian 
and Australian species growing to the thickness of a man's wrist, and exceeding a foot in 
length. They deposit from eight to twelve globular eggs. The species of British India 
belong to the following genera : — 

* Tail spiiiose. 

Two or three large prseanal plates Tropidophorus, p. "6. 

** Tail without any spines. 

Scales keeled Euprepes, p. 78. 

Scales smooth ; toes 5 — 5 ; the palatal notch is on a level with the eye . Mabouia, p. 82. 

Scales smooth ; toes 5 — 5 ; the palatal notch is behind the level of the eye Eumeces, p. 84. 

Scales smooth ; toes 5 — 4 Hagria, p. 94. 

Scales smooth ; toes 4 — 4 Chiamela, p- 9a. 

(No external Kmbs Anguis, p. 95.) 



TROPIDOPHORUS, Bum. Sf Bihr. 

Each scale with a strong keel ; tail longish, rounded, the keels of the 
scales being very prominent, forming series of spines. Nostril in a single 
small shield. Two or three large praeanal shields. Limbs four, moderately 
developed, each with five toes. 

The Lizards of this genus are found on the continent of India and in the Philippine 
Islands. They are Skinks, but with the keels of the scales much developed, which gives 
them quite a peculiar appearance. Only three species are known : — 

Keels of the scales exceedingly strong T. grayi, Gthr. * 

Keels of the scales moderately developed ; three prseanal shields . . T. 7nicrolepis, p. 7Q. 
Keels of the scales moderately developed ; two prseanal shields . . T. cochinchinensis, p. 77. 



Tropidophorus microlepis. (Plate X. fig. A.) 

Tropidophorus microlepis, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, April 23, p. 188. 

Snout rather narrow and produced ; head covered with symmetrical rugose shields above : 
a single anterior frontal, two postfrontals ; a cuneiform vertical much narrowed between the 
superciliaries ; two small anteiior occipitals, and two larger posterior, Avith an elongate 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, April 23, p. 189, from the Philippine Islands. 



TROPIDOPHORUS COCHINCHINENSIS. 77 

central shield between ; four supraorbitals. The nostril is in a small single lateral shield 
between the first labial and prsefrontal ; there are two other shields between the nasal and 
the orbit. Five upper and as many lower labials. A single chin-shield in front, behind 
the median lower labial ; three other pairs of chin-shields behind the single one, the shields 
of the last pair being separated by scales. Temple covered by small keeled scales. The 
dorsal scales are aiTanged in seven or eight longitudinal series ; the lateral scales are smaller, 
disposed in series descending obliquely backwards; there are about ten scales in each 
oblique series ; the scales of the belly are nearly smooth, in eight longitudinal series. Prse- 
anal scales three, nearly equal in size. Back of the tail with two series of spinous keels 
which are moderately elevated, and not corresponding to two similar series on the trunk ; 
they are confluent at the root of the tail, and pass into the series of scales in the middle of 
the back ; there are five serrated keels on each side of the tail ; subcaudals in a single series, 
larger and broader than the ventral scales. 

The lower eyelid is scaly ; tympanum as large as the orbit. 

Brownish grey, slightly marbled with darker ; toes and lower part of the tail dotted with 
brown. 

We have seen only one specimen of this species, from Chartaboum, on the coast of Siam. 
It is 5^ inches long, the tail measuring 3^ ; and is figured on Plate X., of the natural size, 
figures a, a', a" representing the head and anal region. 



Tropidophoeus cochinchinensis. 

Leposoma cochinchinensis, Cuv. Regne Anim. 

Tropidophorus cocincinensis, Dum. ^ Bibr. v. p. 556. pi. 57. f. 1. Giinth. I. c, 

Tropidosaurus montanus. Gray, in Griff. An. Kingd, ix. p. 35. 

This species is closely allied to T. microlejns, but its snout is rather more obtuse. Scales 
on the back strongly keeled, the keels terminating in slightly elevated spines. Two series 
of moderately elevated spines along the middle of the back of the tail, the series being 
continuous with two series of the back of the trunk. Prseanal shields two, large. Two 
prsefrontals. 

Cochinchina. 

Aspris berdmorei (Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 650), from Mergui, is probably 
another species of this genus, but the description given does not contain any definite 
characters ; it would appear to agree with T. cochinchinensis in having only two praeanals, 
and with T. microlepis in having a compressed and subacute snout. 



78 SAURIA. 

EUPREPES. 

Euprepis (part.)^ Wagler. 

Each scale with several keels. Tail longish, rounded, without spines. 
Nostril in a single small shield. Limbs four, each with five toes. The 
palatal notch is j)laced far backwards. 

This genus has nearly the same geographical distribution as Eumeces, and is also very rich 
in species. Those belonging to the East Indian fauna are less numerous, and may be 
distinguished as follows : — 

I. Supranasal shield none : Ateuchosaurus, Gray. 
Each scale mth two keels E. chinensis, p. 78. 

II. A pail* of supranasal shields are present. 

A. The whole of the lower eyelid is scaly : Tiliqua, Gray. 

Each scale with three keels ; opening of the ear not very small E. rufescens, p. 79. 

Each scale with two keels E. monticola, p. 80. 

Each scale with three keels ; opening of the ear very small E. oUvaceus, p. 80. 

Each scale with from five to seven keels E. macular lus,^. ^\. 

B. The lower eyelid with a transparent disk : Euprepis, Gray. 
Each scale with six or seven keels E. trilineatus, p. 81. 



EUPBEPES CHINENSIS. 

Ateuchosaui'us chinensis, Gi'ay, Lizards, p. 107. 

Supranasal shield none, the prsefrontal forming broad sutures with the rostral and vertical, 
the latter shield being very long ; opening of the ear not fringed. Scales with two keels 
each, in twenty-six longitudinal and thirty-four transverse series. Prseanal and subcaudal 
scales not enlarged. Limbs rather feeble ; hind toes unequal in length, the third being 
one-fifth shorter than the foui'th. Uniform brownish (in spirits). 

Only one specimen is known of this Skink ; it is the type, but in bad condition. It is 
3 inches long, of which the tail takes rather more than one-half China. 



EUPREPES EUFESCENS. 79 

EuPREPES RUFESCEXS. The Common Indian Skink. (Plate X. fig. B.) 

Lacerta rufescens, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 285. 
Scincus multifasciatuSj Kuhl, Beitr. p. 12. 
Tiliqua rubriventris, Gray, hid. Zool., and Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, xvii. p. 430. 

carinata, Gray, Zool. Journ. 

affiuis, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 289. 

Euprepes sebse, Duni. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 692. 

Tiliqua rufescens, Gray, Lizards, p. 109. 

Euprepes rufescens. Cantor, Cat. Mai. Rept. p. 46. 

Plestrodon sikkimensis. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, xii. p. 388. 

A pair of supranasal shields ; the prsefrontal is generally separated from the rostral and 
vertical by the supranasals and postfrontals, but sometimes it slightly touches one of the 
median shields named. The fifth upper labial is below the orbit, and much longer than 
high. Opening of the ear with a few minute tubercles in front. Scales with three more 
or less obtuse keels each, in twenty-eight or thirty longitudinal, and in about thirty 
transverse series. Prseanal shields not enlarged ; subcaudals generally broadish. Limbs of 
moderate strength ; the third hind toe is one-fourth shorter than the fourth. 

The coloration varies : — 

a. Specimens from Madras and from the Deccan have a very distinct yellowish band 
running fi'om the superciliary along the upper part of the side of the neck, becoming 
indistinct on the trunk. The sides below the yellow band are dark brown. Upper parts 
brown, with a blackish streak running along each series of scales. Lower parts whitish. 
Specimens from Nepal are generally more darkly coloured. 

b. Specimens from Ceylon have the yellowish bands less distinct than the former ; their 
sides are sometimes nearly black, or blackish brown, without lighter spots. Dorsal streaks 
very indistinct. 

c. There is no trace of a whitish band in a specimen from Afghanistan. Upper parts 
brownish, with scattered black dots ; sides variegated with black, white, and brown. This 
specimen has only twenty-eight longitudinal series of scales. 

d. Pinang, Siam, and the East Indian Archipelago are inhabited by three varieties : the 
first is provided mth a light lateral streak, more or less distinct brownish dorsal streaks, and 
with scattered white, black-edged ocelli on the sides. The second of these varieties is nearly 
uniform brownish olive ; sides in some sprinkled with blood-red. The third shows a large 
oblong blood-red (in spirits, white) lateral blotch, the remainder of the body being of 
uniform coloration ; the posterior part of the sides of the body and the anterior of the tail of 
some specimens are provided with square sky-blue spots in the middle of some of the scales. 

This is one of the most common and most widely spread Lizards of the East Indies; it 
occurs in almost every part of the continent as well as of the Archipelago, from Afghanistan 
to China and to the Philippine Islands; it is even said to inhabit the Sandwich Islands. 



80 SAURIA. 

With regard to its altitudinal extent, it is not found beyond an elevation of 8000 feet*. 
Cantor says that it is " exceedingly numerous in the hills and valleys of the Malayan 
countries. They may be seen basking in the sun, in bamboo hedges, or on trees ; and they 
fearlessly enter houses in pursuit of insects, in which they display great agility. The female 
deposits six to twelve yellowish-white, oval, cylindrical eggs, half an inch in length." 
I have seen examples from 14 to 16 inches long, the trunk measuring 6 inches. The view 
of the head (Plate X. fig. B) is taken from a Madi-as specimen. 

Having the typical specimen of Plestiodon sikkimensis before me, I have been enabled to 
convince myself of its identity with E. rufescens. 

Tiliqua trivittata (Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig., and Jerd. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 478) 
appears to be a variety of this species ; it has a third, well-marked whitish vertebral band, 
besides the two others running along the sides of the back. Mr. Jerdon procured his 
specimens at Jalnat, where it is the common species. 



EUPREPES MONTICOLA. (Plate X. fig. C.) 

A pair of contiguous supranasal shields ; postfrontals forming a broad suture together ; 
vertical rather elongate, tapering behind. The fifth upper labial is below the orbit, and 
much longer than high ; opening of the ear rather small, with lobules in front. Each scale 
with only two rather prominent keels ; scales in thirty-four longitudinal and in thirty trans- 
verse series. Prseanal scales not enlarged ; subcaudals rather larger than the others. Limbs 
of moderate strength ; the third hind toe is one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Upper and lateral parts greenish olive, with a light band running along each side of the 
back ; back with small black spots ; some scales on the sides with a white, black-edged 
ocellus. A white longitudinal streak edged with black below the orbit. Lower parts 
greenish white. 

This species is found in Sikkim, at an altitude of above 8000 feet, where it represents the 
E. rufescens of the lowlands, from which it may be distinguished by its scales, which have 
two keels only. An adult female specimen is 8^^ inches long, of which the tail takes 5. 



EuPREPES OLiVACEUS. (Plate X. fig. D.) 

Dasia olivacea. Gray, Ann. k Mag. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 331. 

Euprepes ernestii, Bum. i^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 696. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 47. 

A pair of small supranasal shields ; the single prsefrontal forms a suture with the rostral, 

* My former assertion that this species occiu's at between 8000 and 10,000 feet in the Himalayas is 
incorrect, as the specimens on which that opinion was founded, on a more careful examination, prove to 
belong to a species closely allied to, but different from, Euprepes rufescens (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 167). 



EUPREPES TRILINEATUS. 81 

and is somewhat produced behind, slightly or nearly touching the vertical. The fifth upper 
labial is below the orbit, and not much longer than high. Opening of the ear very small, 
nearly entirely covered by the scales. Scales with three or more very slight keels each, 
not denticulated behind, in twenty-eight or thirty longitudinal and in as many transverse 
series. Praeanal scales not enlarged ; subcaudals rather larger than the scales on the side of 
the tail. Limbs of moderate strength ; the third hind toe is one-sixth shorter than the fourth. 

Upper parts brownish, with about twelve narrow, irregular, black transverse streaks, each 
black scale having a white spot. A whitish band along each side of the root of the tail. 
Lower parts greenish olive. 

Young: the upper parts of the trunk black, with numerous, rather irregular, silvery 
transverse bands ; shields of the head edged with black, and a black line edged with silvery 
from the snout to the ear. Feet and toes rose-coloured. Tail brilliant scarlet ; loAver parts 
whitish. 

This species is less numerous than E. rufescens ; it has been found on the Malayan Penin- 
sula and on Prince of Wales Island ; a specimen in the Paris Museum is said to have been 
captured in Java. Our largest individual is nearly 9 inches long, of which the tail takes 
rather more than one-half. Cantor found eleven eggs in a female, similar to those of 
E. rufescens. 



EUPBEPES MACDLARIUS. 

Euprepes macularius, BIyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 652. 

Mr. Blyth describes this species as follows : — 

" Like E. rufescens, but the scales of the upper parts 5-7-cariiiate. Bronzed olive-green above, pale 
below ; the hinder half of back and base of tail above marked witli irregular reddish-brown spots, and a 
broad reddish-brown lateral streak continued from the ear to the middle of the tail, marked throughout 
with white, which tends to form continuous lines posteriorly. Terminal half of tail whitish." Length of 
specimen 5;^ inches, of which the tail measures 3^ inches. Hab. Rungpore ? 



Euprepes trilineatus. 

Euprepes trilineata, Gray, Ann. if Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, xvii. p. 430. Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. xxii. p. 479. 

A pair of very narrow supranasal shields ; the single praefrontal touches the rostral as well 
as the vertical. The fifth upper labial is below the orbit, and much longer than high. 
Opening of the ear small, with two more or less elongate lobules in front. Lower eyelid 
with a transparent disk. Scales with six or seven strong keels each, in thirty longitudinal 



82 SAURIA. 

and twenty-eight transverse series. Prseanal scales not enlarged ; subcaudals rather larger 
than the others. Limbs of moderate strength ; the third hind toe is one-fourth shorter than 
the fourth. 

Yellowish olive, with three yellowish-white longitudinal bands: the first commences on 
the crown of the head, is edged with black, and disappears on the middle of the back ; 
anotlier runs along the upper lip, passes the tympanum, and terminates at the loin ; it is 
edged with black superiorly and with red inferiorly ; tlie hinder part of the back dotted with 
yellow ; limbs and tail rose-coloured. 

This elegant species was discovered by Mr. Jerdon, who found it " only in sandy ground 
near the sea in the Carnatic, concealing itself in holes and fissures, and under shrubs. It 
attains to a length of 7 inches, of which the tail is nearly 4." 



MABOUIA, Fitzimjer. 

Scales thill, smooth, polished, not keeled. Tail rather long-, rounded, 
without any keels or spines. Nostrils in a single small shield. Limhs four, 
each with five toes. Palate with more or less distinct teeth, the palatal 
notch heiiig placed on the level of the eye. 

Only two or three species are found on the East Indian continent : — 

Scales in 20 longitudinal series M. quadrilineata, p. 83. 

Scales in 34 or 26 longitudinal series ; opening of the ear not fringed M. chinensis, p. 83. 

(M. mamlata, Blyth, p. 84.) 
(Scales in 36 longitudinal series ; opening of tlic ear fringed . . . M. awya^a, Sclnieid. From Persia.) 



Mabouia quadrilineata. (Plate X. fig. E.) 

Plestiodon quadrilineatum, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. x.^ii. p. 653. 
Eumeces quadrivirgatuSj Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 502. 

Supranasal shields forming a suture together before the praefrontal ; eyelid scaly ; hind 
toes very unequal in length, the third being one-fourth shorter than the fourth. 

Prsefrontal broad, short, not in contact with the vertical, the postfrontals forming a suture 
together. Four superciliary shields ; a pair of anterior occipitals. A small shield between 
the nasal and the first loreal ; two loreals. Opening of the ear not denticulated. Twentj 
longitudinal series of scales round the trunk ; thirty-three transverse series between the axils 
of the fore and hind legs. A pair of large anal shields ; subcaudals broad. Limbs well 



MABOUIA CHINENSIS. 83 

developed : the fore legs extend to the snout, the hind legs two-thirds up the sides towards 
the axil. 

Upper parts black, with a pair of whitish lines along the back, the lines beginning from 
the nose and the superciliaries ; no median white line ; another line commences at the 
tympanum and runs along the middle of the side. Lower parts whitish. 

Honglcong. Length 6 inches, head and trunk measuring 2i. 



Mabouia CHINENSIS. The Chinese Skink. (Plate X. fig. F.) 

Tiliqua chinensis, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. i. p. 289. 

Plestiodon sinense, Dmn. &; Bihr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 704. 

Tiliqua rufo-guttata. Cantor, Ami. &; Mag. Nat. Hist. 184.2, ix. p. 482. 

Plestiodon chinensis. Gray, Lizards, p. 92. 

Supranasal shields forming a suture together before the praefrontal ; eyelid scaly ; hind 
toes very unequal in length, the third being one-fourth or one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Praefrontal small, not, or but slightly, in contact with the vertical, the postfrontals gene- 
rally forming a suture together. Four superciliary shields ; a pair of anterior occipitals. JS'o 
small shield hetiveen the nasal andjirst loreal; two loreals. Front margin of the opening of 
the car witli a few tubercles, but without prominent denticulations. Twenty-four or twenty- 
six longitudinal series of scales round the trunk ; from thii'ty-four to thirty-six transverse series 
between the axils of the fore and hind legs. A pair of large anal shields ; subcaudals broad. 

Limbs well developed : the fore legs extend to the snout, the hind legs halfway or more 
than halfway up towards the axil. 

The coloration changes with age : — 

ioung specimens have the same coloration as Plestiodon quinquelineatus from North 
America and Japan : the upper parts are black or blackish brown, with five longitudinal 
Hues : one along the vertebral line, terminating in a fork on the crown of the head ; one 
along each superciliary margin and along the side of back and tail, and one througli each 
tympanum along the middle of the side. 

The young specimens of a variety are browner on the back, and the outer white band 
is absent ; this is Plestiodon pulcher. Gray, Lizards, p. 92. 

In another yownrj specimen the outer white band is replaced by a series of rose-coloured spots. 

With advancing age the ground-colour of the upper parts changes from black to brown or 
brownish olive, and the longitudinal bands become rather broader and dirty white, but always 
remain visible, especially that along the vertebral line. They were edged with black, and 
the black edges, instead of being continuous, are now changed into series of black dots. 
Old specimens have some irregular black spots along the sides, which are intermixed with 
red ones during life. 

M 2 



84 SAURIA. 

I have compared this species with specimens from Japan and North America, and it is of 
no small interest that the Japanese specimens are specifically identical with those from 
North America, both constantly differing from the Chinese ones in having an additional 
small shield between first loreal and nasal. They also have somewhat smaller scales than 
those from China. In other respects all these Lizards are extremely similar. I have 
examined numerous specimens from Ningpo, Chikiang, Canton, and from the islands of 
Formosa and Chusan (type of Tiliqua rufoguttata^ Cantor). This species attains to a length 
of 12-14 inches, the head and trunk measuring 5. In Persia it is represented by Scincus 
auratus of Schneider, a species extending westwards to the north of Africa. 

Figure F of Plate X. represents the head of a half-grown specimen from Ningpo, in which 
the postfrontals are more widely separate than is usual, the prsefrontal being slightly in 
contact with the vertical. 



Mabouia maculata. 

Lissonota maculata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 653. 

This species is apparently allied to Mabouia chinensis, — the genus Lissonota being founded 
on altogether insufficient characters. 

" Lower eyelid scaly; supranasals (frontinasals) small. Subcaudals larger than those of the body ; two 
large triangular anals. Greyish olive-green, with a double row of irregular dark spots along the nape and 
back, and a median line of the same along the tail. On each side a dark band is continued throughout, 
commencing at the nostrils; and beneath this is a narrow pale streak, then a narrow dark one, and, 
finally, a few dark spots on the sides of the throat and belly. Upper surface of the limbs variegated 
thi"oughout. Lower parts greenish white. Head and body 1| inch ; tail probalily about the same, but 
the tip is wanting. Fore limbs § inch ; hind limbs |^ inch ; distance apart of fore and hind limbs 1 inch. 
From Assam." 



EUMECES, JFiegmann. 

Scales thin, smooth, polislied, not keeled. Tail more or less long-, rounded, 
without any keels or spines. Nostril in a single small shield. Limbs four, 
each with five toes. Palate without any teeth, the palatal notch being- placed 
far backwards, behind the level of the eye. 

The species of this genus are very numerous and spread over nearly all the different 
countries between, or near, the tropics ; the Indian species may be referred to the following 
subdivisions : — 



EUMECES BILINEATUS. 85 

I. Supranasal shields none. 

A. A small round space on the lower eyeHd is transparent, not covered with scales : Mocoa, Gray. 

* Vent covered by a pair of large anals. 

Scales in 24 longitudinal series ; ear not denticulated ; a pair of black 

lines along the back E. bilineatus, p. 85. 

Scales in 26 longitudinal series ; ear denticulated E. himalayanus, p. 86. 

Scales in 25 longitudinal series ; ear not denticulated ; uniform black . E. schlegelii, p. 86. 

Scales in 28 longitudinal series ; ear not denticulated E. modestus, p. 87. 

Scales in 34 longitudinal series ; ear not denticulated E. reevesii, p. 87. 

Scales in 38 longitudinal series ; ear denticulated E. ladacensis, p. 88. 

(** Anal shields similar to the abdominal Mocoa formosa, Blyth, p. 88.) 

B. The whole of the lower eyelid is scaly; body and tail of moderate length : Hinulia, Gray. 

Scales in 38 longitudinal series E. indicus, p. 89. 

Scales in 36 longitudinal series E. taprobanensis, p. 89. 

C. Lower eyelid entirely scaly ; body and tail very elongate ; limbs feeble : Podophis, Wgm. 
Scales in 26 longitudinal series E. chalcides, p. 90. 

II. A pair of supranasal shields are present. 

A. The third hind toe is distinctly shorter than the fourth : Mabouya, Gray. 

Scales in 30 longitudinal series E. siamensis, p. 91. 

B. The third and fourth hind toes are equal, or nearly equal, in length : Riopa, Gray. 

* Body of moderate length. 

Scales in 30 transverse series E. bowringii, p. 91 . 

Scales in 56 transverse series ; the lower eyelid is scaly E. albo-punctatus, p. 92. 

Scales in 50 transverse series ; lower eyelid with a transparent disk . . E. hardwickii, p. 92. 

** Body elongate. 

Scales in 79 transverse series ; lower eyelid with a transparent disk . . E. punctatus, p. 93. 
Scales in 80 transverse series ; lower eyelid scaly E. isodactylus, p. 93. 



EuMECES BILINEATUS. Tlie Black-striped SkinJc. 

Mocoa bilineata. Gray, Ann. if May. Nat. Hist. 1846, xviii. p. 430. Jerd. Journ. As. Soc. Be/iy. 
xxii. p. 477. 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single praefrontal is in contact with the rostral as well as with the vertical. Four 
superciliary shields; a pair of anterior occipitals; front margin of the ear with a pair of 
tubercles, not denticulated. Twenty-four longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, forty- 
four transverse series between the axils of the fore and hind legs. Vent covered by a pair of 
large anals ; subcaudals broad. 



86 SAURIA. 

Limbs rather feeble : the fore legs extend nearly to the eye, the hind legs not quite half- 
way up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Brownish olive above, greenish below. A broad brown or black band runs from the 
shoulder along the upper half of the side, enclosing below a whitish longitudinal line. A 
pair of black lines along the back, arising on the nape ; these lines are brown or less distinct 
in half-grown specimens, and entirely absent in young ones. 

Discovered by Jerdon under stones on the summit of the Nilgherries. Length 5 inches, 
the head and trunk measuring half of it. 



EUMECES HIMALAYANUS. (Plate X. fig. H.) 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single praefrontal forms a suture with the rostral ; prefrontal, postfrontals and vertical 
meet in a point. Four superciliary shields ; a pair of anterior occipitals ; front margin of the 
ear very distinctly denticulated. Twenty-six longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, 
forty-one transverse series between the axils of the fore and hind legs. Vent covered by a 
pair of large anals ; subcaudals broad. 

Limbs moderately developed : the fore legs extend to the eye, the hind legs more than 
halfway up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Greenish olive above, with intei'rupted whitish lines and series of blackish dots ; sides with 
a dark band, which has a narrow greenish-white edge above and a broad one below ; the 
lower parts greenish, each scale with a darker margin. 

Several specimens were procured by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in the Himalayas, and are 
now in the British Museum : two from Kashmir, two from Garhval, and one from Simla. 
The largest is 4 inches long, the tail measuring half. 

Figure H of Plate X. represents the head of the largest example, of twice the natural size. 



EUMECES SCHLEGELII. 

Tiliqim schlegelii, Gunth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 153. pi. 25. fig. C. 
Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single pniefrontal forms a suture with the rostral as well as with the vertical. Front 
margin of the ear without any tubercles or lobules. Scales striated, but not keeled, in twenty- 



EUMECES REEVESII. 87 

five longitudinal and in thirty-five transverse series. Vent covered by four shields, the middle 
pair being considerably the larger ; subcaudals broad. 

Limbs moderately developed: the fore legs extend somewhat beyond the eye, the hind 
legs more than halfway up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-fifth shorter than 
the fourth. 

The upper parts are uniform black, the lower ones blackish. 

A single specimen, nearly 4^ inches long, has been found by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit in 
Sikkim, at an altitude of 8930 feet. 



EUMECES MODESTUS. (Plate X. fig. G.) 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single prsefrontal forms a suture with the rostral ; prsefrontal, postfrontals and vertical 
meet in a point, or the prsefrontal is slightly in contact with the vertical. Four superciliary 
shields ; a pair of anterior occipitals. Opening of the ear not denticulated. Twenty-eight 
longitudinal series of scales round the trunk ; forty transverse series between the axils of the 
fore and hind legs. The middle pair of shields covering the vent are much larger than the 
lateral ones; subcaudals broadish. 

Limbs rather feeble : the fore legs extend to, or nearly to, the eye, the hind legs halfway 
up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-sixth shorter than the fourth. 

Yellowish olive above, with indistinct and interrupted lines of black dots ; upper part of 
the sides with an undulated brovni band ; lower parts whitish with some olive dots. 

The two specimens in the British Museum are 4 inches long, the head and trunk measuring 
Ij inch ; they are from Ningpo. 

Figure G of Plate X. represents the head, of twice the natural size. 



EUMECES REEVESII. (Plate X. fig. K.) 

Tiliqua reevesii, Gray, in Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 292. 
Hinulia reevesii, Gray, Lizards, p. 76. 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single prcefrontal forms a suture with the rostral, but is separated from the vertical by 
the two postfrontals, which are broadly joined together. Four superciliary shields ; a pair 



88 SAURIA. 

of anterior occipitals. Opening of the ear not denticulated. Thirty-four longitudinal scries 
of scales round the trunk, forty-six transverse series between the axils of the fore and hind 
legs. The middle pair of shields covering the vent are much larger than the lateral ones, 
whilst the shields along the middle of the lower side of the tail are not much larger than 
the rest. 

Limbs rather feeble : the fore legs extend to the eye, the hind legs to rather more than 
halfway up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Brownish above, yellowish below, a dark-brown band running along the upper part of the 
side. 



The typical specimen (the only one known*) is apparently young, 4^ inches long, the head 
and trunk measuring 1-^ inch. It is a native of China. 

Figure K of Plate X. represents the head, of twice the natural size. 

EuMECES LADACENSis. (Plate X. fig. I.) 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single prsefrontal forms a suture with the rostral and with the vertical. Four super- 
ciliary shields. A pair of anterior occipitals. Thirty-eight longitudinal series of scales round 
the trunk, fifty-six transverse series between the axils of the fore and hind legs. Vent covered 
with a pair of large anals ; subcaudals broad. Opening of the ear denticulated in front. 

Limbs well developed : the fore legs extend to the snout, the hind legs more than half- 
way up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Greenish above, with longitudinal series of black dots ; sides with an obscure band ; lower 
parts greenish white. 

A single specimen was brought home by Messrs. v. Schlagintweit from Ladak (Tibet), and 
is now in the British Museum. Head and trunk 2 inches long, the greater part of the tail 
beins: broken off". 



'O 



Figure I of Plate X. represents the head, of twice the natural size. 

Mocoa formosa, Blytli (Jom'ii. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 651), is a species unknown to me. As 
Blyth refers this Lizard to Gray's genus Mocoa, we may presume that it has no supranasal, and that the 

* We doubt whether Australian specimens {Lygosoma quoyii, D. & B.) are specifically identical with 
Eumeces reevesii. 



EUMECES TAPROBANENSIS. 89 

lower eyelid has a transparent disk. It is described as follows : — " Scales hexagonal, in six dorsal series ; 
anal similar to the abdominal. Form robust. Vertical broadest to the front, and rounded posteriorly. 
Anterior occipitals distinct, but unsymmetrically divided. Colour obve-green, with black lateral and pale 
super lateral bands, the former much speckled with white, and the latter showing a series of black spots. 
Between the pale superlateral streaks are five narrow black lines along the nape and body, variegated witli 
angular greenish-white spots. Limbs minutely pencilled with black, and spots or streaks of the same upon 
the head. Under parts greenish plumbeous. Seven inches long, of which the tail measures half. Pro- 
cured at Mirzapore. Others from Wuzeerabad are smaller and less marked with black, which does not 
form continuous lines along the back, but variegated scales are throughout scattered, and there are some 
black markings on the head." 



EUMECES INDICUS. 

? Lygosoma dussumierii, Dum. 6f Bibr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 725. 
Hinulia indica. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, xii. p. 388. 
?? Mocoa sikimensis, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 653. 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is scaly. 

The single prsefrontal forms a suture with the rostral and with the vertical. Four super- 
ciliary shields; anterior pair of occipitals not united. Two loreals and one anteorbital. 
Opening of the ear not denticulated in front. Thirty-eight longitudinal series of scales 
round the trunk, eight of which run along the back. Forty-six transverse series of scales 
between the axils of the fore and hind legs. Vent covered with a pair of large anals ; tail 
with a series of enlarged subcaudals. 

Limbs well developed : the fore legs extend to the snout, the hind legs nearly to the axil ; 
the third hmd toe is one-fourth shorter than the fourth. 

Brownish olive above, with a few scattered black spots; sides vnth a broad, ill-defined, 
blackish-brovra band, generally with irregular whitish edges ; the band itself is spotted with 
white, and, becoming paler, it is continued on along the sides of the tail. Lower parts 
whitish. Some specimens are nearly uniform brownish, showing faint traces of the dark 
lateral band. 

This species is common in Sikkim ; one specimen, purchased of Mr. H. Cuming, is said 
to come from Ningpo in China. From 8 to 10 inches long, of which the trunk takes 3 or 
3^ inches. 



EUMECES TAPEOBANENSIS. (Plate XIII. fig. B.) 

Eumeces taprobanensis, Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl., Rept. p. 21 . 
Lygosoma fallax, Peters, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1860, p. 184. 

Supranasal shield none ; the lower eyelid is scaly. 



90 SAURIA. 

The single prsefrontal forms a suture with the rostral ; prefrontal, postfrontals, and vertical 
meet in a point. Four superciliary shields ; the anterior occipitals are sometimes united into 
one shield, sometimes divided into three pieces, but generally in a pair; two loreals, one 
anteorbital. Opening of the ear with two very small denticulations in front. Twenty-six 
longitudinal series of scales round the trunk ; thirty-six transverse series of scales between 
the axils of the fore and hind legs. The middle pair of shields covering the vent are scarcely 
larger than the lateral ones ; middle subcaudals slightly enlarged. 

Limbs rather short : the fore legs extend to the eye, the hind legs rather more than half- 
way up towards the axil ; the third hind toe is one-sixth shorter than the fourth. 

Brown above, with a light band running from above the tympanum along the side of the 
back ; sides blackish or black, this colour forming sometimes a band accompanying the light 
one ; the lower parts yellowish. Some individuals have the sides of the head and the throat 
dark greenish blue with numerous white dots ; others are uniform brownish. 

Ceylon. One specimen, purchased of Mr. H. Cuming, is said to be from Ningpo in China. 
Kelaart says that it is found at Newera Ellia. The British Museum possesses one of the 
typical specimens and several others. Total length 5^ inches ; head and trunk 2 inches. 



EUMECES CHALCIDES. 

Lacerta chalcides, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 369. 

serpens, Block, in Beschceft. Berl. Gesellsch. naturf. Freund. ii. p. 28. tab. 2. 

Scincus brachypus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 192. 
Lygosoma serpens, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 228. 

aurata, Gray, in Griff. Anim. Kingd. ix. p. 72. 

bracliypoda, Durn. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 721. 

Podophis chalcides, Gray, Lizards, p. 88. 
Lygosoma chalcides, Cantor, Catal. p. 49. 

Body and tail very elongate, with very short limbs, each with five minute toes. Supra- 
nasal none ; the lower eyelid is scaly. 

The single prsefrontal forms a suture with the rostral and with the vertical ; anterior 
occipitals confluent into one shield. Opening of the ear very small. Twenty-six longitu- 
dinal series of scales round the trunk, from ninety to a hundred transverse series between the 
axils of the fore and hind limbs. The middle anal shields a little larger than the lateral ; 
subcaudals small. Greyish olive, with brown lines along the series of scales. 

The longest specimen I have seen measures 8 inches, head and trunk taking one-half of it ; 
it is not thicker than a goose-quill. The species is found in Java, at Pinang, in Siam, and 
near Hongkong. 



EUMECES BOWRINGII. 91 

EUMECES SIAMENSIS. 

Supranasal shields meeting before the prsefrontal ; the lower eyelid is transparent. Hind 
toes very unequal in length, the third being one-fifth shorter than the fourth. 

Prsefrontal, postfrontals, and vertical meet in a point. Four superciliary shields ; a pair of 
anterior occipitals ; opening of the ear without denticulation. Thirty longitudinal series of 
scales round the trunk, thirty-two transverse series between the axils of the fore and hind 
legs. Anal shields subequal in size ; subcaudals broadish. 

Limbs well developed : the fore legs extend to the eye, the hind legs not quite to the axil. 

Uniform greenish olive above, whitish below ; a well-defined deep-black band runs from 
the snout along the upper part of the sides ; it is not margined with white. 

This species is closely allied to the West Indian Mahouia agilis ; we have seen only one 
specimen, sent by Mouhot from Siam for the British Museum. It is 6 inches long, head 
and trunk measuring 2 inches. 



EUMECES BOWRINGII. 

The supranasal shields touch each other, separating the rostral from the prsefrontal, which 
forms a broad suture with the vertical. The lower eyelid is scaly. Toes rather short, the 
third hind toe being but very little shorter than the fourth. A pair of anterior occipitals. 
Twenty-eight longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, thirty transverse series between 
the axils of the fore and hind legs. The middle anal shields are scarcely larger than the 
lateral ; no broad subcaudals. 

Opening of the ear not denticulated. Limbs rather feeble ; the fore legs do not extend on 
to the eye, and the hind legs scarcely extend halfway up the sides towards the axil. 

Brownish olive above, with an indistinct dark line along each series of scales; a brown 
band along each side of the back ; sides with interrupted series of dark-brown dots. 

A single specimen, from Hongkong, was presented to the British Museum by Sir J, 
Bowring; it is ^\ inches long, head and trunk measuring 1\ inch. 



n2 



92 SAURIA. 

EuMECES ALBOPUNCTATUS. The WMte-dotted Skink. 

Riopa albo-punctata, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist, xviii. 1846, p. 430. Jerd. Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. xxii. p. 477. 
Eumeces punctatus, var., Cantor, Mai. Repi. p. 45. 

Supranasal shields in contact with each other. Limbs feeble, with very short toes, the 
third hind toe being but little shorter than the foiu-th. The lower eyelid is scaly. 

The single praefrontal is in contact with the vertical. Four superciliary shields ; a pair of 
anterior occipitals ; front margin of the ear tubercular, not denticulated. Twenty-eight 
longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, fifty-six transverse series between the axils of 
the fore and hind legs. Middle anal shields somewhat larger than the lateral ones; no 
broad subcaudals. 

The fore legs do not extend to the eye ; the length of the hind legs is two-sevenths of that 
of the trunk. 

Back uniform olive-coloured, or with a line of very small dots along each series of scales. 
Anterior part of the sides blackish brown, with numerous small white spots. Uniform 
whitish below. 

The largest specimen I have seen is 4^ inches long, the head and trunk measuring 
2^ inches. This species was discovered by Jerdon in the Nellore district : Blyth has received 
it from Mergui. Cantor has confounded it with E. punctatus and E. hardwickii, as I have 
convinced myself by the examination of specimens named and sent by him ; he says that it 
is numerous in the Malayan countries. 



Eumeces hardwickii. The JMiite-streaked Skink. 

Riopa hardwickii, Gray, Lizards, p. 96. Je7'd. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 478. 
Mabouya elegans, Gray, Lizards, p. 95. 

Supranasal shields in contact with each other. Limbs and toes feeble, the third hind toe 
being but little shorter than the fourth. The lower eyelid with a transparent disk. 

The single prsefrontal forms a suture with the vertical. Four superciliary shields ; a pair 
of anterior occipitals. Front margin of the opening of the ear not denticulated. Twenty- 
six longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, fifty transverse series between the axils of 
the fore and hind legs. Middle anal shields scarcely larger than the lateral ones ; no broad 
subcaudals. 

The fore legs do not extend to the eye ; the length of the hind legs is two-fifths of that of 
the trunk. 



EUMECES ISODACTYLUS. 93 

Back brownish, \vith four series of black dots, and with a yellowish-white band arising 
from the nose and from the superciliaries ; a series of black dots along each edge of these 
bands ; each scale on the sides with a black dot, the upper dots being the largest and ron- 
fluent. Lower parts uniform white. 

This species attains to the length of 4 or 5 inches, the head and trunk measuring 2 inches. 
Jerdon mentions a specimen 9 inches long, and says that it is common in the Carnatic. 
According to Blyth it is also found in Ceylon. The British Museum possesses a specimen 
from Patna, and others from the Nilgherries. 



EuMECES PUNCTATUS. The Lotted Skink. 

Lacerta punctata, L. Syst. Nat. p. 369. 

interpimctata, Gm. L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 1075. 

Seps scincoides, Cicv. Regne Anim. 

Eumeces punctatus, Wlegm. Herp. Mex. p. 36. 

Riopa punctata. Gray, Lizards, p. 96. 

Supranasal shields in contact with each other. Limbs feeble, with very short toes, the 
third hind toe being but little shorter than the fourth. The lower eyelid is transparent. 

The single preefrontal forms a suture with the vertical. Four superciliary shields ; a pair 
of anterior occipitals; front margin of the ear tubercular, not denticulated. Twenty-four 
longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, seventy-nine transverse series between the axils 
of the fore and hind legs. Middle anal shields not enlarged ; no broad subcaudals. 

The fore legs extend to, or somewhat beyond, the ear ; the length of the hind legs is two- 
ninths of that of the trunk. 

Each scale with a black dot, the dots forming longitudinal series ; they are largest on tlie 
back of the tail, and sometimes entii'ely absent on the belly. The outer series of scales on 
each side of the back has very small dots. 

This species is found on the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel, in the neighbourhood of 
Madras, and in the Deccan. Kelaart (Prodr. Faun. Zeylan. p. 151) mentions it as inhabiting 
Ceylon, but this requires confirmation. It attains to a length of 12 inches, the head and 
trunk measuring 5 inches. 



Eumeces isodacttlus. The Short-toed Skink. (Plate XIII. fig. A.) 

Supranasal shields separated by the rostral. Limbs feeble, with very short toes, the tliird 
and fourth hind toes being equal in length. The lower eyelid is scaly. 



94 SAURIA. 

The single praefrontal touches the rostral, and forms a broad suture with the vertical. 
Four superciliary shields. Anterior occipitals united (this may be an individual peculiarity, 
as a part of the supranasal also is confluent with the nasal). Opening of the ear a very 
narrow and short obUque slit. Thii-ty-four longitudinal series of scales round the trunk, 
eighty transverse series between the axils of the fore and hind legs. Vent covered with 
about six subequal anals ; no broad subcaudals. 

Limbs feeble : the fore legs extend to the ear ; the length of the hind legs is two-elevenths 
of that of the trunk ; the four outer hind toes are subequal in length. 

Olive, the upper parts with irregular, confluent, blackish spots ; each transverse series of 
the scales on the sides with a narrow blackish edge; belly with numerous blackish dots 
irregularly arranged. 

This species is allied to Scnira bicolor, Gray, from the Philippine Islands, which, however, 
has considerably larger scales (twenty-six round the trunk). A single specimen has been sent 
from Gamboja by Mouhot; it is 8 inches long, the tail measuiing half of it. 



HAGRIA, Gray. 

Scales smooth, not striated or keeled. Body and tail elongate, rounded, 
tapering-, without any keels or spines. Nostrils lateral, in a single shield. 
Limbs four, short, feeble, far apart ; the anterior with five toes, the posterior 
with four. Palate without teeth, slightly notched behind. 

Only one species is known. 



Hageia vosm^rii. 

Hagria vosmserii, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 333. 
Campsodactylus lamarrei, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. v. p. 762. 

Snout conical ; a pair of contiguous supranasal shields ; the single prsefrontal forms a 
suture with the vertical. Superciliaries four on each side. Opening of the ear not fringed. 
Toes of unequal length, clawed. Scales in twenty-two longitudinal series; prteanal scales 
not enlarged. Body and tail with alternate brown and yellow lines, corresponding to the 
series of scales. Head brown. 

Bengal. 



CHIAMELA LINEATA. 95 

CHIAMELA, Grmj. 

Scales smooth, not striated or keeled. Body and tail elongate, tapering, 
without any keels or spines. Nostrils lateral, in a single shield. Limbs 
four, short, feeble, far apart, each with four clawed toes. 

Only one species is known. 

ChIAMELA LINEATA. 

Chiamela lineata, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 333. 

Two band-like, transverse, contiguous supranasals. Opening of the ear small, nearly 
hidden under the scales. The first hind toe very short, the second and third gradually 
longer ; the third and fourth equal and longest. Brownish, with black lines corresponding 
to the series of scales. 

I have seen only a very small specimen of this Slow-worm-like Lizard ; it is not known in 
what part of the East Indies it is found. 

Anguis melanosticta. — Russell (Ind. Serp. i. tab. 42) figures a small Blindworm-like Reptile which has 
not been recognized by later naturalists. The figure does not give suificient characteristic details to enable 
us to determine the genus to which this reptile belongs, or even to ascertain whether it is a Lizard or a 
Snake. Merrem names it Tortrix melanosticta : Gray refers it provisionally to Anguis. The specimen 
figured was obtained on the coast of Coromandel, and is described as follows : — 

" Ventral shields 151, subcaudals 120. The head not broader than the neck, ovate, obtuse, convex, 
covered with laminse of unusual shapes. The first pair small, perforated by the nostrils ; then one lamina, 
transverse, resembling a flask with a short neck ; the next between the eyes, broad-oval ; the next sagit- 
tate ; and, behind all, two, long-oval, lying obliquely on the occiput. The mouth not wide ; the jaws 
unequal. The teeth small, numerous, reflex; a marginal and two palatal rows in the upper jaw. The 
eyes lateral, small, suboval, not prominent. The nostrils close to the point of the rostrum, very small. 
The trimk cyUndric, nearly of equal thickness from the head to the end of the tail. The scales small, 
orbicular, imbricate, and each having a black dot : eight or ten parallel dotted lines are formed, running 
from the head to the end of the tail. The length IO5 inches ; thickness about that of a swan-quill. The 
tail round, smooth, hardly tapering, point blunt ; measures 4^ inches. The colour a reddish brown ; but 
part of the tail is cineritious, or of a pale blue ; the abdominal and subcaudal squamee are of a glossy white, 
without dots. It quickly buries itself in the sand when pursued." 



96 SAURIA. 

FAMILY OF ACONTIADS—JCONTIJDW^. 

Head covered with shields which are symmetrically arranged. Tongue 
free, exsertile, nicked at the end. Scales on the back rounded, quincuncial, 
indjricate ; those on the belly similar to those on the back and on the sides. 
No fold across the throat or along the side ; no femoral or inguinal pores. 
Tail long, rounded, fragile. Eye and lower eyelid well developed. Nostrils 
in the enlarged rostral plate, with a longitudinal slit behind. Limbs rudi- 
mentary or absent. 

The form of the body of these Lizards much resembles that of our common BUnd-worm ; 
and they appear to have very similar habits. Their limbs, if present, are so rudimentary 
that they can give but little assistance in locomotion. 



ACONTIAS, Cuvier. 

Legs entirely absent. 

The type of this genus is a South African species; Kelaart, however, has discovered in 
Ceylon a lizard which appears to belong to it. 

ACONTIAS LATARDI. 

Acontias (?) layardi, Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. ii. p. 12. 

" Light olive and spotted longitudinally with brown spots, paler beneath. Length of young 4 inches. 
Soil of the Cinnamon Gardens of Colombo." 



NESSIA. 

Nessia et Evesia, Gi-ay. 

Four rudimentary legs. Rostral shield large, subconical, depressed. 

These small Lizards are evidently buiTOwing reptiles, approaching the Rhinophides in 
habit and mode of Ufe. They appear to be confined to the island of Ceylon, whilst the latter 
extend over some parts of the neighbouring continent also. The two species known are so 



NESSIA MONODACTYLA. 97 

similar to each other, that I do not venture to separate them into two different genera. 
No previous observer has had an opportunity of comparing both species. 

Feet divided into three minute toes N. burtonii, p. 97. 

Feet undivided N. monodactyla, p. 97. 



Nessia BUKTONII. 

Nessia burtonii. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. ii. p. 336. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. ii. p. 12. 

Body and tail elongate, cylindrical, as in a Blindworm. Tail generally shorter than the 
body, fi'om its being constantly broken off and reproduced. Eostral shield large, pro- 
truding, depressed, pierced laterally by the nostril, behind which is a longitudinal groove. 
Frontals confluent into one large shield ; vertical large, subquadrangular, concave laterally 
to receive the supraorbitals, which are four in number ; three occipital shields, the middle 
of which is the largest, triangular. A very long loreal shield, below which is the first 
labial, which is similar in form and length to the loreal ; several other imbricate, scale-like 
labials behind. Trunk surrounded by twenty-five longitudinal and by eighty-four transverse 
series of smooth equal scales ; prseanals and subcaudals scarcely larger than the others. 
Eye small ; opening of the ear not visible. Feet very short and feeble ; the hind feet are 
about as long as the snout ; each terminates in three minute toes with short claws. Colour 
brownish above, whitish below, each scale with a darker margin. 

This species grows to a length of 5 inches, the head and trunk measuring -3. Kelaart 
obtained specimens from Kaduganava and from AUagalla (3000 feet), and was informed that 
it is common at Ambegammoa. 



Nessia monodactyla. 

Evesia monodactyla, Gray, I. c. 

bellii, Dum. ^ Bibr. v. p. 783. 

Tetrapedos smithii, Jan, in Wiegm. Arch. 1860, p. 69. tab. 2. fig. 4. 

This species is so similar to N. burtonii, that we need not give a lengthened description or 
figure of it ; it may be readily recognized by the following characters : — Trunk surrounded 
by twenty-two or twenty-five longitudinal and by 102 transverse series of scales. Opening 
of the ear minute, but distinct. Feet very short and feeble, the hind feet about half as long 
as the snout, not terminating in toes. 

The proportions of the body and tail are the same as in N. burtonii. 



98 SAURIA. 



FAMILY OF SAND UZAm)^—SEPSID^. 

This family differs from those of the Skinks and of the Acontiads by the 
nostrils being- in the front edge of a small shield, in a notch at the hinder 
side of the rostral. 

The species are African, extending over the warmer parts of Western Asia. One species 
reaches to Afghanistan, and was first described by Mr. Blyth. 



SPHENOCEPHALUS, Blyth. 
Limbs four, rudimentary, each with three toes. Ears invisible. 

SPHENOCEPHALUS TEIDACTYLUS. 

Sphenocephalus tridactylus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 654. 

" A Sepsoid form affined to Sphenops, but with more slender and elongate shape, and the limbs placed 
more distinctly apart ; the anterior minute, and fitting into a groove ; the posterior as large as in Sphenops, 
and each having but three toes, of which the innermost and next are subequal, and the outer much 
shorter. Form slender, two-thirds cylindrical, quite flat, and laterally angulated beneath as far as the 
vent ; the body and tail covered with small, smooth, lustrous, hexagonal scales, with a median roAV of 
broader subcaudals. Tongue broad, triangular, its cleft scarcely perceptible ; the incision of the palate 
small. Teeth very minute. Eyes minute, with semitransparent lower lid. No external trace of ear. 
Nostrils terminal, placed in the anterior margin of the nasals, contiguous to the front of each supranasal* 
and the rostral ; rostral equilaterally triangular ; the single prsefrontal broad, septangular, with apex to 
the front ; postfrontals subtriangular, a little elongated ; vertical obtusely subtriangular ; occipital inequi- 
laterallj' pentangular, wdth obtuse posterior base, single, and as large as the vertical. A large subquadri- 
lateral plate under the eye, and three small transversely narrow plates in front of it, and posterior to the 
nasal plate. A large diamond plate on centre of chin, emarginate anteriorly to admit a small roundish 
plate which is bordered by the anterior laterals. Very pale brown. Total length 6 inches, of which the 
tail is 2 inches, and distance apart of the fore and hind limbs half an inch (?). Length of fore limb |th of 
an inch, of hind j^gths of an inch. From Afghanistan." 

* I have changed the terms applied by Mr. Blyth to the shields of the head, for those used by myself. 



GECKOTID^. 99 



FAMILY OF GECKOS— GECK077D^. 

Head broad, triangular, more or less depressed ; upper parts granular or 
tubercular ; belly covered with small, rhombic, imbricate scales. Tongue 
rather thick and short, its basal portion being attached to the gullet. Eye- 
lids generally rudimentary, and not connivent ; pupil generally erect. Toes 
generally with an adhesive apparatus. 

The typical forms of this family may be recognized at first sight : the head is broad and 
depressed, with large eyes ; the body is of moderate breadth ; the tail thick at the base, 
tapering, generally somewhat deformed, as it easily breaks off and is as easily renewed. The 
limbs are stout, of moderate length, with at least four of the toes well developed. 

They are found in almost every part between and near the tropics, frequenting houses, 
rocks, and trees; and some of the species are so numerous around and within human 
dwellings, that they are most famihar objects to the inhabitants. All the Indian species, 
with the exception of Eublepharis, are able to run up and along the surface of a wall or of 
any other perpendicular object : for this purpose the lower surface of their toes is promled 
with a series of moveable plates or disks, by the aid of which they adhere to the surface over 
which they pass. These plates occupy either the whole length of the toes, or only their 
basal half, or they are most developed towards or at the extremities. All the Indian species, 
with the exception of a species referred by Blyth to the genus Phelsuma, ai'e also provided 
with claws ; and in some of the genera which inhabit forests rather than houses, the adhesive 
disks are less developed than the claws, the latter being of greater use for Avalking up the 
rough bark of a tree than the former. 

The next important feature iu the organization of the Geckos is the eye. This organ is 
rather large, surrounded by a cu-cular rudimentary eyelid, except in Eublejjharis, which has 
two distinct connivent eyelids. The pupil is generally contracted in a vertical direction, 
shaped like two rhombs placed with the angles towards each other. This structure of the 
eye is in accordance with their nocturnal habits ; a few species, however, are diui-nal, and 
have round pupils. The iris is bright-coloured. 

No Gecko has imbricate scales on the back*; the head is finely granular, and generally 
the back also, but frequently larger or smaller tubercles are intermixed with the granulations 
in greater or less number. The covering of the tail resembles that of the back ; it is 
generally verticillated, and breaks off so readily that the slightest touch, or e\en fear, will 
make some shake off their tails, as if desirous to get rid of such an incumbrance. When the 

* Mr. Jerdon describes a scaled Gecko, Homonota fasciata (Joiu'n. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 468) ; but 
the descriptions of reptiles given by that gentleman are so obscure (partly because he rarely hit upon the 
proper generic name, and partly because the few words serving for a description generally contain the most 
trivial characters), that in this case also we are entirely at a loss to imagine what sort of lizard is the type 
of this Homonota fasciata. 

02 



100 SAURIA. 

tail is reproduced, it is rounder, thicker, sometimes bifid or trifid ; and if it originally had 
tubercles or a series of enlarged subcaudals, these tubercles and shields are sometimes absent, 
or at fii'st much less developed. The reproduction of the tail is so quick a process, that it is 
certainly often renewed dui'ing the lifetime of the animal. 

Larger shields or scales are only present round the margin of the jaws, and sometimes in 
the prseanal region. The rostral shield is one of the largest, and either contiguous to the 
nostrils or separated only by a very small shield. The larger scales in the prseanal region 
are generally in connexion with the pores which are found in the greater part of the species, 
either along the inner side of the femur, or across the praeanal region. The presence or 
absence of these pores is not a specific character, as where present in a species they are peculiar 
to the male sex only. 

There is a great tendency towards an enlargement of the surface of the body by expansions 
of the skin: it is very loose, and forms a slight fold along the sides of the body, in 
numerous Indian Geckos ; others have a more or less developed web between the toes ; 
Peripia and Nycteridium have a broad fold in the ham, which prevents the log from being 
stretched in a straight line. The lateral fold is more developed in Nycteridium than in 
other Geckos ; and, finally, Ptychozoon shows such a development of these cutaneous expan- 
sions that they become of essential assistance in locomotion, as will be seen in the description 
of that genus. 

I have observed in many Geckos a calcareous mass on each side of the neck, at the 
place where the parotoid gland of the Toads is situated. This secretion may be entirely 
absent in some individuals, forming in others of the same species only a thin layer of soft 
consistence, whilst in others, again, it is accumulated \i\ round and hard masses. No pores 
in the skin are visible externally. 

The Geckos do not attain to any considerable size, the largest species being from 10 to 
14 inches long. They are carnivorous animals, destroying insects, moths, and even the 
younger and weaker members of their own species ; Geckos have even been seen devouring 
their own tail. They are of fierce habits, fighting between themselves, particularly when 
one has caught a larger insect than he is able to swallow at once. They make a spring at 
their victim. Their greediness has developed some intellectual faculties in the House 
Geckos: accustomed to be fed at a certain time with rice, &c., these little lizards will 
punctually make theii' appearance, and fearlessly take the profiered food*. 

Another peculiarity of the Geckos is that they are endowed with voice: in Gecko 
guttatus it is a shrill cry, sounding like "To-kee"; in Gecko monarchus it resembles the 
monosyllable " Tok," repeated six or eight times with increased celerity ; in Hemidactylus 
frcenatus it is a sharp quick call, like " Chic, chic, chit," &c. They have several vernacular 
names in imitation of these sounds — as Too-kai, To-kee, Cheecha, Gokee, Keko ( Gecko). 

The following genera are known to exist in British India : — 

* Tennenf s Nat. Hist. Ceyloiij p. 282. 



GECKO. 101 

A. Eyelids rudimentary, circular. 
* All the phalanges but the last with transverse plates below. 

One series of undivided plates below each toe ; trunk without cuta- 
neous appendage Gecko, \>.\0\. 

One series of undivided plates helow each toe ; trunk with a wing-like 

expansion on each side Ptychozoon, p. 105. 

Two series of plates below the toes ; claws 5/5 ; trunk without cuta- 
neous appendage Hemidactylus, p. 106. 

Two series of plates below the toes ; thumb and inner toe without claw 

or ungual phalanx Peripia, p. 110. 

Two series of plates below the toes ; trunk with a cutaneous expansion 

on each side Nycteridium, p. 1 11 . 

** Toes with the base slender and with the extremity dilated, below provided loith undivided plates ; 
claws none. 

Fingers and toes rather elongate Phelsuma, p. 112. 

*** Basal portion of the toes depressed and plated below, the two outer phalanges being compressed and 
slender ; no dorsal crest. 

Claws 5/5, fi'ce Gymnodactylus, p. 112. 

Claws 5/5, hidden in a sheath Pentadactylus, t^. 117. 

**** Toes not dilated ; a rudimentary dorsal crest. 

No femoral pores Puellula, -p.WS. 

B. Eyelids well developed, connivent. 
Toes cylindrical Eublepharis, p. 119. 



GECKO, Gray. 

Fingers and toes dilated in their whole length, with a series of undivided, 
imbricate, transverse plates below; only the short terminal joint is more or 
less compressed ; four claws to each foot. Sides of the trunk without cuta- 
neous appendage. 

The species of this genus are confined to the Old World ; the following are found in 
British India: — 

* Back granular, with larger tubercles. 

Tubercles in about twelve longitudinal series ; front chin-shields not 

longer than the first lower labial ; body light-spotted .... G. gutlatus, p. 10:2. 
Tubercles in ten longitudinal series ; front chin-shields longer than the 

first lower labial ; body dark-spotted G. stentor, p. 102. 

Tubercles very small ; body with white cross bands G. smithii, p. 103. 

Tubercles numerous; front chin-shields much longer than the first 

lower labial; pairs of brown spots along the vertebral line . . . G. monarchus, p. in.'3. 



102 SAURIA. 

Tubercles numerous ; frout chin-shields not longer than the first 

lower labial; back marbled with brown G.japonicus, p. lOS. 

Tubercles very small, in six or eight rather irregiilar series; chin- 
shields shorter than the first lower labial G. sivinhonis, p. 104. 

** Back imiformly granular G. subpalmatiis, p. 104. 



Gecko guttatus. 

Lacerta gecko, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 365. 

teres et G. verticillatus, Laur. p. 44. 

guttatus, Baud. iv. p. 122. tab. 49. 

verus, Merr. Amph. p. 42. Gi-ay, Lizards, p. 160. 

aunulatus, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. p. 132. 

Platydactylus guttatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 328. 
Gecko reevesii. Gray, Lizards, p. 161. 

Back covered with small flat granulations, and with about twelve longitudinal series of 
rounded conical tubercles ; scales of the middle of the belly in about thirty-eight longitudinal 
series; prseanal pores about twenty-four, in a slightly angular series; fom-teen upper and 
eleven lower labials ; the front pair of chin-shields are not longer than the first lower labial. 
Head depressed, triangular, not much longer than broad. Tail without large subcaudals, 
with transverse series of tubercles across its back. Above ash-coloured, with numerous round 
pale-orange spots. 

This is one of the most common species in British India, in Siam, Cochinchina, and 
Southern China; it is found on numerous islands of the Archipelago, but appears to be 
entirely absent in Ceylon ; it frequents houses, and attains to a length of 10-12 inches. 



Gecko stentor. (Plate XL fig. A.) 

Platydactylus stentor, Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 18. 

Back covered with small flat granulations and with ten longitudinal series of mamilliform 
tubercles ; scales of the middle of the belly in about thirty-four longitudinal series ; prseanal 
pores thirteen (all together), in a slightly angular series. Nostril separated from the rostral 
plate by a pair of small shields ; thii'teen upper and lower labials ; the front pair of chin- 
shields are longer than the first lower labial. Head depressed, triangular, much longer 
than broad. Tail with a double series of enlarged subcaudals. Above light bluish grey, 
with numerous irregular blackish spots, on the vertex an angular mark like an inverted V, 
and on the neck short oblique lateral bands. 

The typical specimen, 16 inches long, and obtained from the villa on the Pentland Hills 
at Pinang, is the only one known to have been found ; it is in the British ISIuseum. The 
species, therefore, appears to be very scarce. 



GECKO JAPONICUS. 103 

Gecko smithii. 

Gecko smithii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 57. 

" Black, with minute white-tipped tubercles ; back with cross bands of white spots, the 
two front bands lunate ; tail with eight white spots : the first small, the next round, the rest 
oblong, longer towards the tip, last spot subapical; beneath grey, brown-marbled; head 
grey, occiput with three diverging, and the sides of the throat with two black streaks." 

This species has been described by Dr. J. E. Gray from a specimen in Fort Pitt Museiim ; 
it is said to be from Prince of "Wales Island (Pulo Pinang). 



Gecko monarchus. 

Platydactylus monarchus, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 335. Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 19. 
Gecko monarchus, Ch-ay, Lizards, p. 161. 

Back covered vdth small flat gi'anulations and with numerous small, rounded, conical 
tubercles, arranged in ii-regular longitudinal series; scales of the middle of the belly in 
about forty-four longitudinal series ; prteanal and femoral pores thirty-two, disposed in two 
curved, continuous series ; twelve upper and eleven lower labials ; the front pair of chin- 
shields are much longer than the first lower labial. Head longer than broad. Tail with 
band-like, narrow, irregular subcaudals. Above buff' or ash-coloured, or reddish brown, with 
from eight to twelve pairs of irregularly rounded, approximate, brownish-black spots along 
the vertebral line ; head, limbs, and sides with numerous, more or less distinct, irregular 
dark-brown spots ; the tail of immature specimens whitish, with brown rings. 

This species attains to a length of 7 inches ; the newly-hatched animal is 2^ inches long. 
It is foimd on the Philippine Islands, in Amboyna, Borneo, on the Malayan Peninsula, and 
in Ceylon. Cantor says that this species possesses the power of changing its ground-colour 
in a greater degree than any other Gecko. It is very numerous at Pinang, swarming at 
night in rooms, occasionally giving out a sound resembling the monosyllable " Tok," repeated 
six or eight times Avith increased celerity. They are pugnacious among themselves, two or 
more sometimes fighting for an insect. 



Gecko japonicus. 

Platydactylus japonicus, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. iii. p. 337. 

jamori, Schleg. Faun. Jap., Rept. p. 103. pi. 2. figs. 1-4. 

Gecko chinensis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 57. 

Hemidactylus nanus, Ca7itor, Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. p. 482. 

Back minutely granulated, with numerous very small, rounded, conical tubercles, arranged 
in irregular series ; scales of tlie middle of the belly in about forty-two longitudinal series ; 



104 SAURIA. 

nine or ten upper and ten or eleven lower labials ; the front pair of chin-shields small, not 
longer than the first lower labial ; a short series of from seven to twelve pores before the 
vent. Head longer than broad. Tail with the subcaudals enlarged. Brownish, back 
marbled with darker; a brown streak between the anterior angles of the orbit, across the 
forehead. A dark streak through the lower part of the orbit, indistinctly edged with 
whitish above. 

This species attains to a length of 5 inches ; it is found in Southern Japan, China, Chusan, 
and P'ormosa. It is a house Gecko. 



Gecko swinhonis. (Plate Xll. fig. A.) 

Back minutely granulated, with six or eight rather irregular series of distant, very small 
tubercles ; scales of the middle of the belly in about forty longitudinal series ; eight or nine 
upper and as many lower labials ; the front pair of chin-shields is small, shorter than the 
first lower labial ; nine pores before the vent. Head longer than broad. Tail with the 
subcaudals enlarged. Greyish, back marbled with darker ; head xmiformly coloured. 

A single specimen, 4-j inches long, was sent home from Northern China by Mr. Swinhoe. 



Gecko subpalmatus. (Plate XII. fig. B.) 

Upper parts covered with uniformly minute granulations ; scales of the middle of the belly 
in about forty-eight longitudinal series ; scales on the inner side of the femur minute ; ten 
upper and eight lower labials ; the front pair of chin-shields are considerably smaller than 
tlie first lower labial. Tail slightly depressed, with a series of enlarged subcaudals. Fingers 
not webbed ; the four inner toes with a very distinct web. No fold of the skin in the ham. 
Greyish above, clouded with darker, the darker parts forming a very indistinct angular band 
on the neck, and cross streaks on the back and tail. 

The single specimen observed was obtained from Chikiang (China) ; it is 4 inches long 
(the tail measurmg one-half), and apparently a female. There are no pores, — only scarcely 
visible impressions on a series of praeanal scales ; I doubt whether the male has any femoral 
pores. A large lump of calcareous matter occupies each side of the neck below the skin. 



PTYCHOZOON HOMALOCEPHALUM. 105 

PTYCHOZOON, Kuhl. 

Fingers and toes dilated, united in their whole length hy a web, with a 
series of undivided, imbricate, transv erse plates below ; four claws to each 
foot ; sides of the head, body, tail, and of the limbs with broad, wing-like 
expansions of the skin. 

Only one species is kno\vii. 



Ptychozoon HOMALOCEPHALUM. The Flying Gecko. 

Lacerta homalocepliala, Creveldt, Schrift. naturf. Freund. Berl. iii. p. 266. tab. 8. 

Gecko liomalocephalus, Tiles. Mem. Acad. Petersb. vii. tab. 10. 

Ptycbozoou homaloceplialura, Kuhl, his, 1822, p. 475. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 20. 

Pteropleura horsfieldii, Gray, Philos. May. ii. p. 56. 

Platydactylus liomalocephalus, Dum. ^ Bibr. iii. p. 339. pi. 28. fig. 6, & pi. 29. figs. 1 & 2. 

This Gecko has all the general characters of the preceding genus, but its integuments are 
dilated into broad folds, forming wing-like expansions along the sides of the whole animal, 
somewhat resembling those of the Dragons in form and function. One of these flaps is 
situated below the tympanum, extending from the angle of the mouth to the side of the 
neck ; the largest runs along the side of the trunk, and is nearly as broad as the body ; each 
side of the tail is fringed ^vith a series of from fifteen to twenty rounded lobes, which are 
confluent into a broad, thin flap towards the extremity of the tail ; when the tail has been 
broken ofi" and is reproduced, the lobes are not separate in the reproduced portion, but 
always confluent ; each leg has a broad expansion of the skin in front and behind, and the 
fingers and toes are united by a broad web. The upper parts of the body are finely granular, 
with four or six series of small tubercles, which are continued on the tail ; the expansions 
are covered with transverse series of quadrangular scales ; tail without enlarged subcaudals. 
There are twenty-five pores in a single series running across the prseanal region and slightly 
angular in front. There are three plates above the rostral, the two lateral of which touch 
each other ; twelve upper and thirteen lower labials ; the front pair of chin-shields elongate. 

The colours during life have been noted by Cantor. The ground-colour of the head and 
of the back yellowish-green olive, of the sides reddish brown. Between the eye and snout a 
double figure, in whitish outline, representmg in front a broad arrow-head, posteriorly united 
by a narrow stalk to a rectangular transversal band, situated in front of tlie eyes. On the 
vertex another larger figure, traced in whitish outline, rectangular in front, spreading like a 
four-rayed star oyer the occiput. A dark-bro-svn band proceeds from behind the eye across 
the ear to the shoulders, where it joins the anterior black transversal line; the flaps on the 
cheeks are of a pale flesh-coloui", with dark-blue spots. Iris rich golden brown. From four 



106 SAURIA. 

to six distant, undulated, black dotted lines cross the back, others the tail and the limbs. On 
each elbow a whitish ring. All the light markings disappear in preserved specimens ; and 
the whole of the ground-colour is a reddish brown. 

This very handsome Gecko attains to a length of 7 inches, of which the tail takes one-half. 
It is found chiefly in Java and in a few other islands of the East Indian Archipelago. Pinang, 
Singapore, and the Island of Ramree appear to be the only places where it has hitherto been 
found in British India. The expansions of the skin have the same purpose as the wings of 
the Dragons and of the Flying Squirrels ; in leaping, these membranes are expanded by the 
pressure of the air from below, and act as a parachute. When the Gecko is at rest, they are 
kept in close contact with the body by muscles attached to their inferior surface. Cantor 
kept a pair of these lizards for some time in confinement; he observed that, like other 
Geckos, they have in some degree the power of changing the ground-colour from a darker 
to a lighter shade. A female deposited a single egg, of a spherical form, about half an inch 
in diameter, soft*, and of a yellowish-white colour, which the following day she devoured- 
A male ate the integuments he had been changing. This lizard also has a rounded mass of 
calcareous matter on each side of the neck ; it is a very thin layer in most of the specimens, 
but in others it is considerably enlarged, and visible externally as a globular swelling. 



IIEMIDACTYLUS, Cuv. 

Fingers and toes dilated, ovate, with two series of transverse, imbricate 
plates beneath ; thnnib and inner toe with the ung-ual phalanx compressed 
and clawed, tbe claw sometimes being minute ; sides of the trunk without 
cutaneous appendage ; tail with the lateral edge not serrated. 

Species of Hemidactylus occur in almost every part of the tropical regions ; the following 
are known from British India : — , 

* Back granular, ivith numerous trihedral tubercles. 

Some of the tubercles are as large as the opening of the ear^ of a white colour . H. triedrus, p, 107. 
All the tubercles smaller than the opening of the ear ; eight lower labial shields . H. maculatus, p. 107. 
All the tubercles smaller than the opening of the ear; ten lower labial shields . H. sykesii, p. 108. 

** Back granular, with very small, scattered, conical tubercles. 

Pores running across the prseanal region ; no yellow lateral band H. franatus, p. 108. 

Femoral pores not continued on into the prajanal region ; no yellow lateral band . H. leschenaultii, p. 109. 
A yellow streak runs from the muzzle to the tail H. punctatus, p. 109. 

*** Back uniform granular, almost without any tubercles : Boltalia^ Gray. 
Greyish, marbled with darker H. coctm, p. 109. 

* Probably premature. 



HEMIDACTYLUS MACULATUS. 107 

Note. — Mr. Blyth describes a Gecko from Mergui mider the name of Leiurus berdmorei (Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. xxii. p. 646), referring it to a West African genus distinguished from Hemidactyhis by having the 
tail rounded, not depressed, and without tubercles. Considering that the tail of a Hemidactylus is smoother 
and more rounded when reproduced than before it was broken off, we are justified in expressing our 
doubts whether this new species of Mr. Blyth really belongs to the West African genus Leiurus, and we 
can only regret the shortness and indistinctness of the description : — 

" Leiurus berdmorei. — Agrees with Mr. Gray's definition of Leiurus, except that there is no appearance 
of the toes being webbed at the base. Colour grey, with four longitudinal blackish streaks along the back 
and sides ; three or four interrupted cross bands of the same on the upper surface of the tail, a medial 
black streak on the nape, and others successively diverging on each side of it, and a black streak from 
before the eye continued to the shoulder. Some mottling also on the limbs.'' 



Hemidactylus teiedeus. 

Gecko triedrus. Baud. Hist. Rejit. iv. p. 155. Wolf, Abbild. merkiv. naturh. Gegenst. tab. 20. fig. 2. 
Hemidactylus triedrus. Less, in Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient., Rept. p. 311. pi. 5. fig. 1. Dmn. ^ 
Bibr. iii. p. 356. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 157. 

Back with numerous trihedral tubercles, some of which are as large as the opening of the 
ear; back of the tail with cross series of similar tubercles; nine or ten upper and eight 
lower labials. The scales of the middle of the belly form thirty longitudinal series. The 
series of femoral pores are not continuous across the preeanal region. Brownish olive : some 
of the dorsal tubercles are white, surrounded by a deep-broAvn ring ; these ocelli are 
frequently confluent, forming cross bands ; a brown, white-edged streak behind the eye. 

Localities. — Madras ; coast of Malabar : on rocks and trees. According to Kelaart it is 
rare in Ceylon ; he obtained a few specimens at Trincomalee, where it is found in ant-hills ; 
he never saw it in houses or on trees ; it lays from three to six eggs, and attains to a length 
of 7 inches. 

H. suitriedrus, Jerd., Calc. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 467, from the Nellore district 
in the Indian Peninsula, is so insufficiently characterized that we cannot decide whether it is 
distinct from, or identical with, H. triedrus. 



Hemidactylus maculatus. 

Hemidactylus maculatus, Bum. ^ Bibr. iii. p. 358. Gray, Lizards, p. 153. Kelaart, Prodr. 

Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 158. 
Nubilia argentii, Gray, Lizards, p. 273. 
? Hemidactylus pieresii, Kelaart, I. c. p. 159. 

Back with numerous trihedral tubercles of moderate size, all being considerably smaller 
than the opening of the ear; tail rather depressed, with numerous small spines along its 

p2 



108 SAUEIA. 

lower lateral edge ; back of the tail with cross series of spinous tubercles which are larger 
than those on the trunk. Eleven upper and eight lower labials. The scales of the middle 
of the belly form from thirtyrseven to forty-one longitudinal series. The series of femoral 
and prseanal pores are but slightly interrupted in the middle of the preeanal region, or some- 
times continuous. Brownish olive above, irregularly spotted or banded with brown ; a brown 
band runs from the first upper labial through the eye to above the ear. 

This appears to be the most common species of India ; we have seen specimens from 
China, Lahore, Bengal, Singapore, Ceylon, and from the Anamallay Mountains. According 
to Bibron it is found also in the Philippine Islands and in Mauritius. It is one of the 
common House Geckos. 



Hemidactylus stkesii. (Plate XII. fig. C.) 

Back with numerous trihedral tubercles of moderate size, all being considerably smaller 
than the opening of the ear. Tail rounded and smoothish on the sides, with cross series of 
tubercles above, which are larger than those on the trunk. Eleven or twelve upper and ten 
lower labials. The scales of the middle of the belly form forty or forty-two longitudinal 
series. The series of femoral pores are not continued on into the prseanal region. Browiiish 
olive above, with cross series of rounded brown spots, sometimes confluent into bands ; two 
brown streaks behind the eye, and one before it. 

The single specimen which I have observed of this species, and which is in the British 
Museum, is 7| inches long, and was brought by Colonel Sykes from the Deccan. 



Hemidactylus fr^natus. The Cheecha of Ceylon. 

Hemidactylus frenatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. iii. p. 366. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 161. 

Back with scattered, very small, obtusely conical tubercles ; tail but slightly depressed, 
with cross series of small spinous tubercles above. Eleven upper and nine lower labials. 
The scales of the middle of the belly form about forty longitudinal series. The series of 
femoral pores are continuous across the preeanal region, or but slightly interrupted in the 
middle. Brownish olive 5,bove, irregularly marbled with darker ; sometimes a dark band 
through the eye ; sometimes of uniform coloration. 

We have observed specimens of this species from Ceylon, Pinang, Singapore, from Siam 
and Gamboja, from Bengal and Assam. According to Bibron the same species would occur 
in Southern Africa, in the East Indian Archipelago, and in Polynesia. It scarcely ever 
exceeds the length of 4 to 5 inches ; and is one of the most common House Geckos, seen 
soon after sunset in search of prey, which consists of flies and other insects. It does not 
reject boiled rice and crumbs of bread, always returning to the spot where it has been thus 



HEMIDACTYLUS COCT^I. 109 

fed before. It is also frequently met with on trees and on rocks. The female lays three or 
four eggs, in crevices of old walls or in the hollows of trees. 



Hemidactylus leschenaultii. 

Hemidactylus leschenaultii, Bum. ^ Bibr. iii. p. 364<. 

? Hemidactylus leschenaultii, Jerd. Calc. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 468. 

Very similar to H. frcenatus, with which it agrees in the structure, size, and number of the 
scales and tubercles. Eleven or twelve upper and ten lower labials. The series of femoral 
pores are not continued on into the praeanal region. Olive-coloured, marbled with grey. 

1 have received this species only from Madras and from the Anamallay Mountains, where 
it was found by Captain R. H. Beddome. The largest specimen is 5^ inches long. 

The following description of a Hemidactylus has been given by Mr. Jerdon ; it does not contain any 
character of importance by which this Gecko may be distinguished from the others : — 

Hemidactylus punctatus, Jerd. Calc. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 467. " Back with some larger 
conical scales, and subcaudal scutes very large; scales of abdomen dotted, brown above; limbs and tail 
reddish, with dark bands ; a pale-yellow streak from muzzle to tail, bordered beneath by a dark line ; 
another dark line from nostrils to behind the eye." A single specimen was obtained in a house at 
Tellicherry, 



Hemidactylus coctjei. 

Hemidactylus coctsei, Dum. §■ Bibr. iii. (1836) p. 365. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 23. 
BoltaKa sublsevis. Gray, Zool. Misc. 1842, p. 58. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. ii. p. 18.* 

Back uniform gi-anular, without tubercles, except a short series of four or five very small 
ones running on each side of the sacral region. Tail rather depressed at the base, verticil- 
lated, finely granular above, with an enlarged, scale-like tubercle on each side of the lower 
part of each verticillus. From twelve to fourteen upper and eleven or twelve lower labials. 
The scales of the middle of the belly form thii'ty-six longitudinal series. The series of 
femoral poi'es are not continued on into the praeanal region. Olive-coloured, uniform or 
marbled with grey. 

Localities. — Patna, Pinang, Bombay, Ceylon. Length 6 or 7 inches. Living on trees and 
on the roofs of houses. 

The thumb of this species has a minute claw, which is easily lost, and then the species 
may be (and has been) described as having a clawless thumb. 

* Kelaart (Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 160) mentions a Hemidactylus coctcei as a species distinct from 
Boltalia sublavis ; I have not been able to identify this H. coctati of Kelaart. 



110 SAURIA. 

PERIPIA, Gray. 

Fingers and toes dilated, ovate, with two series of transverse, imbricate 
plates beneath ; thumb and inner toe without ungual phalanx, clawless : 
claws 4 — 4. Sides of the trunk without cutaneous appendage. 

Peripia is very similar to Hemidactylus ; one species is found in Mauritius, another in 
Australia, and the following in British India : — ■ 

Chin anteriorly with two or three pairs of elongate shields P. peronii 

Chin anteriorly T^ith numerous, subequal, very small shields P, cantoris. 



Peeipia peronii. 

Hemidactylus peronii, Dum. ^ Bibr. iii. p. 352. pi. 30. fig. 1. Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 22. 
Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 187. 

Back uniform granular, without any tubercles. Scales of the middle of the belly in 
about forty-four or forty-six longitudinal series. Tail rather depressed, sometimes \>'ith a 
sharpish, minutely serrated lateral edge, and with a series of enlarged subcaudals below*. 
Pupil erect. From seven to nine upper and from seven to eight lower labials : three pairs 
of elongate chin-shields on the anterior part of the chin ; the shields of the outer 
pair are the smallest, and sometimes broken up into smaller pieces. Cutaneous 
fold in the ham developed. The praeanal and femoral pores, thu'ty-seven in number, 
form one continuous series, angularly bent and extending along nearly the whole length of 
the femur. Ash-coloured above ; labials whitish, each with a brown spot. 

This species, which attains to a length of from 4 to 5 inches, was first described from 
specimens from the Isle of France, and has been found by Cantor in houses in the valley of 
Pinang, and by Kelaart at Kaduganava, Ceylon, Avhere it frequents trees. 



Peripia cantoris. 

Platydactylus lugubris, Canter, Mai. Rept. p. 16 (not Dum. ^- Bibr.). 

Back uniform granular, without any tubercles. Scales of the middle of the belly in 

* In a female specimen from Pinang, in which the tail had been broken off and is reproduced, this 
member is swollen at the base, and terminates in a dilated flap. 





NYCTERIDIUM SCHNEIDERI. Ill 

about forty longitudinal series. Tail rather depressed, with a sharpish, non-serrated lateral 
edge, entirely granular, without enlarged subcaudals*. Pupil elliptical, erect. 
Twelve upper and eight lower labial shields; the chin behind the front labial is 
covered with numerous, subequal, very small shields. The lamelltB of the thumb 
are angularly bent, but not divided into two. Cutaneous fold in the ham rudi- 
mentary. Uniform brownish olive. 

The single specimen observed is in the British Museum, which received it from Pinang 
through Dr. Cantor, who named it Hemidactylus peronii, D. <&■ B. It is 3 inches long. 



NYCTERIDIUM. 

Fingers and toes dilated, ovate, with two series of transverse, imbricate 
plates beneath ; thumb and inner toe with a compressed ungual phalanx 
and with a claw. Sides of the trunk with a cutaneous expansion. Tail 
flattened, serrated on the sides. 

This genus is identical with Plafi/urus, Gray, a name preoccupied for a genus of Sea 
Snakes. It is a modified form of Hemidactylus, to which it stands in the same relation as 
Ptychozoon to Gecko. Only one species is known. 

NyCTEEIDIUM SCHNEIDERI. 

Stellio platyurus, Schneid. Denkschr. Acad. Wiss. Munch. 1811, tab. 1. fig. 3. 

Lacerta sclmeideriana, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 278. 

Hemidactylus platyiirus, Wiegm. Act. Ac. Leop. Carol. Nat. Cur. xvii. p. 288. 

marginatus, Wiegrn. Amph. p. 145. Dum. ^- Blbr. iii. p. 370. pi. 30. fig. 2 (not good). 

Platyurus schneiderianus, Gray, Lizards, p. 157. 

Back uniform granular, without any tubercles. Scales of the middle of the belly in 
thirty-eight or forty-two longitudinal series. Tail strongly depressed, with compressed and 
finely serrated lateral edges, uniform granular above, scaly beneath, with a series of enlarged 
subcaudals along the middle. Nine or ten upper and as many lower labials ; two pairs of 
mental shields. The hind limb with a broad cutaneous fringe behind. Olive-coloured 
above, uniform or marbled with darker ; an irregular brownish baud runs through the eye 
along the side of the body. 

This species is found throughout the East Indian Ai-chipelago, in Assam and Bengal ; it 
is common in Siam and at Pinang. Kelaart has sent two specimens from Ceylon. It 
attains to a length of i\ inches. 

* In the single specimen observed the tail had been broken off and is reproduced. 



112 SAUEIA. 

PHELSUMA, Gray. 

Fingers and toes free, rather elongate, with the base rather slender and 
with the extremity dilated, ovate below, provided with undivided, imbricate, 
transverse plates ; claws none. 

We admit this genus on account of a species described by Mr. Blyth as follows : — 

Phelsuma andamanense. 

Phelsuma andamanense, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxix. p. 108. 

Opening of the ear round ; chin with a series of five plates of equal size, and larger than 
the rest, anteriorly adjoining the labial plates; no femoral or prseanal pores. A pale mesial 
line commences on the nape and is continued half way along the back, the rest of the upper 
parts being sprinkled with numerous orange spots ; disks of the toes dark-coloured. 

Andaman Islands. Head and body 2 inches, tail (renewed) If inch. 



GYMNODACTYLUS, Spix. 

Eacli finger and toe is composed of two portions : a basal portion, 
depressed, and provided with a series of transverse plates beneath ; and a 
terminal portion formed by two compressed, more or less slender phalanges ; 
claws five to each foot, free, without sheath. Tail cylindrical, tapering. 

We refer the following species from British India to this genus : — 

* Back and sides yramilar, vnth intermixed larger tubercles. 

Tubercles numerous, trihedral ; body uniformly coloured G. triedrus, \:). 113. 

Tubercles numerous, conical; body -(vitli regiilar broad black cross bands G. pulchellus, p. 113. 
Tubercles in six or eight series; body with irregular dark cross bands . G.franatus, p. 11.3. 
A few minute, spine-like tubercles on the side ; a single series of subcaudals G. kandianus, p. 114. 
Two or three distant rows of spines on each side ; three series of subcaudals G. mysoriensis, p. 114. 
^* Back and sides uniformly granular, without tubercles. 

Five or six lower labials G. indicus,-^. 115. 

(G. malabaricus et G. littoralis, p. 115.) 
*** Back covered with uniformly large tubercles, not separated by granulations. 

Trunk with three regular, white, black-edged cross bands G. deccanertsis, ■^. \\^. 

Trunk marbled or irregularly cross- banded G. variegatus, p. 116. 

{Gymnodactylus fasciolatus , p. 116.) 



GYMNODACTYLUS FR^NATUS. 113 

Gymnodactylus triedrus. 

Back granular, studded all over with small trihedral tubercles ; (tail (reproduced) uniformly 
granular above, with small irregular scales beneath, rather thick, tapering). Ten upper and 
nine lower labials ; nostril immediately behind the rostral ; prseanal or femoral pores none 
(in the single specimen observed) ; scales of the middle of the belly in about thirty longi- 
tudinal series. Limbs and toes moderately slender. The two terminal joints of the fingers 
and toes are compressed, not very distinct from the basal joints, which are provided Avith 
transverse disks below. Uniform brown ; tail with four indistinct rings of irregular Avhitish 
spots. 

Ceylon. The single specimen observed is in the British Museum ; it is nearly 4 inches 
long, and not in a very good state of preservation. 

Gymnodactylus pulchellus. 

Cyrtodactylus pulchellus, Gray, Phil. Mag. ii. p. 56, and Ind. ZooL, Rept. tab. 
Gymnodactylus pulchellus, Wagl. Amph. p. 144. Cantor, Catal. Mai. Rept. p. 25. 

Body finely granular, with numerous conical (in old specimens, three-sided) tubercles of 
moderate size. Eleven or twelve upper and lower labials ; the median lower labial is 
triangular, produced backwards between the anterior chin-shields, which are rather elongate. 
The scales of the middle of the belly form twenty-six longitudinal series ; the series of 
femoral pores extends along nearly the whole length of the thigh, and is bent forwards in 
the middle of the preeanal region, where it is continued into a short longitudinal groove in 
the skin ; each half of the series is composed of nineteen pores. Subcaudals enlarged. The 
two terminal joints of the fingers and toes are much compressed, and very distinct from the 
basal joints, which are provided with a series of transverse disks. Bro\vnish yellow: the 
nape of the neck and the back with six broad browTiish-black cross bands edged with 
yellow ; the two anterior bands crescent-shaped. Tail with eight or nine rings of the same 
colour, but without yellow margin. 

This beautiful species is found in elevated parts near Pinang and Singapore, and attains 
to a length of 10 inches. Cantor says that its habits are similar to those of other Geckos ; 
it bites fiercely in defence ; in captivity it refuses insects *. The integuments, when about 
being renewed, are torn off piecemeal by the teeth and devoured. A single egg deposited 
was of a spherical form, about half an inch in diameter, of a whitish-yellow colour. 



Gymnodactylus fr^natus. (Plate XII. fig. D.) 

Body granular, with six or eight series of very small tubercles ; tail uniformly granular, 
* I should recommend as food other small Geckos or lizards. 



114 SAURIA. 

without tubercles, and with enlarged subcaudals below. Eleven upper and nine lower 
labials ; the median lower labial is of moderate size ; the front pair of chin-shields form a 
long suture together. Nostril immediately behind the rostral. A group of enlarged scales 
and two pairs of pores in the prseanal region ; scales of the middle of the belly in about 
thirty-four longitudinal series. Pupil erect, denticulated. Limbs and toes moderately 
slender. The two terminal joints of the fingers and toes are much compressed, and distinct 
from the basal joints, which are provided with transverse disks below. Light brownish, with 
dark-brown markings : a broad band proceeds from behind the eye to the side of the neck, 
where it joins two irregular broad cross bars, the one behind the occiput, and the other 
between the shoulders ; two or three similar cross bars on the back of the trunk, and broad 
brown rings round the tail. All these markings are much less distinct in old age than in 
immature specimens, being indicated only by irregular black outlines. 

We have received this fiaie species only from Ceylon ; it attains to a length of 7 inches. 
Figure D of Plate XII. represents the animal of the natural size, figure D' the anal region. 



Gymnodactylus kandiakus. 

Gymnodactylus kandianus, Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 52. 

Body finely granular, with a few scattered conical tubercles along the side and in rings 
across the tail ; each tubercle acute, like a spine ; some specimens are nearly entirely 
smooth. Eight upper and seven lower labials ; the median lower labial is large, entirely 
separating the front chin-shields, which are smaller than the first lower labial. Femoral or 
prseanal pores none ; subcaudals generally enlarged. Pupil round. Limbs and toes slender. 
The two terminal joints of the fingers and toes are much compressed, but not very distinct 
from the basal joints, which are provided with transverse disks below. Brownish grey, 
marbled with brown ; fingers and toes annulated with brown. 

This species appears to have been discovered by Kelaart, who, however, so far as we know, 
has never described it ; specimens ■with the name of Gymnodactylus Jcandianus have been 
sent by him to the British Museum. It is a small diurnal species, 3 inches long, and very 
abundant on every house in Kandy and Kaduganava. 



Gymnodactylus mysoriensis. 

Gymnodactylus mysoriensis, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. .xxii. p. 469. 

Back granular, with two or three distant rows of spines on each side, and extending 
along the tail ; scales of the tail imbricate, with three rows of larger nail-shaped scutes 
below; scales of the basal joints of the fingers and toes enlarged, nail-shaped. Greyish 
brown, with a light strijie down the centre of the back, and a series of dark-brown marks on 
the head, back, and sides ; legs and feet" banded. 



GYMNODACTYLUS DECCANENSIS. 115 

Two and a half inches long. Bangalore, frequenting rocks and also entering out-houses. 
The young has the tail flesh-coloured. Two or three femoral pores on each side. We have 
never seen this species. 



Gyiinodactylds indicds. 

Goniodactylus indicus, Gray, Ann. £(■ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, x^iii. p. 429. Jerdon, Journ. As. 
Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 469. 

Head depressed, rather short, of moderate size. Body and tail uniformly coarsely 
granular, without tubercles ; tail without enlarged subcaudals. Eight upper and five or six 
lower labials ; the median lower labial is very large, entirely separating the chin-shields 
from each other. Nostril immediately behind the rostral ; pupil round. Femoral or prse- 
anal pores none. Limbs and toes moderately slender. The two terminal joints of the 
fingers and toes are compressed, and not very distinct from the basal joints, which have 
transverse disks below. Brownish or greenish, irregularly marbled with darker along the 
vertebral line. 

A small species from the NUgherries, three inches long. Jerdon says that it conceals itself 
under stones in the daytime ; whilst we should have supposed it to be a diurnal species, 
as it has the pupil of the eye round. He procured it on the top of Dodabetta, the highest 
mountain of the group, and has also found it in Coorg. Its colours, Avhen fresh, are of a 
mottled brown, or greenish brown, mth a row of yellow spots along the back, edged with 
darker, and a series of similarly coloured spots on each side. 

Mr. Jerdon distinguishes two other species Avith a uniform granular covering of the back, 
but they are so insufficiently characterized that it will be difficult to recognize them : — 

a. G. malabaricus, Jerd. /. c. p. 469. — Dark brown above, marbled with black spots, and a white spot 
on the nape. 2^ inches long. Forest of Malabar. 

b. G. littoraUs, Jerd. /. c. — Very slender ; pale brown, with a series of paler marks along the back and 
tail ; a 1)lack spot on the nape. 2^ inches long. Sea-coast of Malabar. 



Gymnodactylus DECCANENSIS. (Plate XII. fig. E.) 

Head finely granular ; body covered with flat subequal tubercles of moderate size, disposed 
in transverse series ; tail rounded, tapering, covered with rings of square subequal scales ; 
ventral scales small; (femoral and praeanal pores none, in the single specimen observed). 
Eleven upper and nine lower labials ; the front pair of chin-shields are oblong, and form a 
suture together. Limbs and toes rather slender; the two terminal joints of the fingers 
and toes are much compressed, and not very distinct from the basal joints, which are pro- 
vided with very narrow transverse scales not dilated into disks. Reddish olive, with narrow 

q2 



116 . SAURIA. 

white, black-edged cross bands : the first is semicii'cular, running from one eye across the 
nape to the other eye; trunk with three and tail with five or six bands; a similar band 
across the forearm and across the lower hind leg. 

This pretty species was discovered by Colonel Sykes in the Deccan ; a single specimen 
in the British Museum is i^ inches long. 



Gymnodactylus variegatus. 

Naultinus variegatus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc, Beng. 1859, xxviii. p. 279. 

" Ungual and penultimate phalanges of toes long and compressed. Body and sides 
uniformly studded with large tubercles, which gradually disappear on the tail ; the lower 
parts covered with large flat scales, bounded by a prominent ridge on each flank : series of 
femoral pores extending quite across, and behind these, anterior to the vent, four scales 
larger than the rest : a few small scales posterior to the vent, followed by a series of broad 
subcaudal plates. Scales upon head and throat minute, those on the face anterior to the 
eyes larger. Eyes large, with vertical pupils. Colour grey, beautifully spotted and marbled 
with black, set off" with subdued white. Lower parts whitish, freckled on the tail with 
black, and gradually more of this to the extremity, the terminal third being almost wholly 
blackish ; above, the tail is irregularly banded. A broad dark streak bordered with whitish 
behind each eye, and continued irregularly round the occiput. On the back the markings 
appear as irregular bands, paler internally and blackish on their zigzag borders, most difficult 
to describe intelligibly ; the head above is spotted and not banded." 

Moulmein. Entii'e length 6|- inches, of which the tail measures 3f inches. 



Gymnodactylus C?) fasciolatus. 

Naultinus (?) fasciolatus, Blylh, Journ. As. Soc. Bmg. xxix. p. 114. 

A dark band from behind the eye, abruptly bent to meet its opposite on tlie occiput ; twenty-three 
other blackish cross bands continued to the end of the tail, those of the body being edged with whitish 
posteriorly ; subcaudals enlarged ; no larger scales before the vent. 

Subathoo. -Ij inches long, of which the taU is 2f inches. 

It is very doubtful whether this species belongs to the present genus ; Mr. Blyth has com- 
pared it with G. variegatus and considers it as congeneric with that species. The colouj-s 
are the only character given by him by which we may recognize this species. 



PENTAD ACTYLUS FELINUS. 117 

PENTAD ACT YLUS, Gray. 

Fingers and toes but slightly dilated in their basal half, with a series of 
undivided, imbricate transverse plates below the dilated portion, the ungual 
half being compressed and angularly bent ; all the fingers and toes clawed, 
each claw being retractile into a compressed, bilobed sheath. 

Only three species ai'e known — two from British India; the other, undescribed, from 
Borneo. 

* Snout above with five shields behind the rostral. 

a. Brown, sides of the body with some scattered pearl-coloured dots ; 
the upper and lower parts of the tail with irregular white spots, 

each being composed of dots P. borneemis, u. sp.* 

6. A double series of light ocellated spots along the back P.felinus,Tp.ll7. 

** Snout with a siiigle shield above behind the rostral ; part of the nostril 

formed Ijy the rostral P. duvaucelii, p. 118. 



Pentadactylus FELiNUS. (Plate XII. figs. F, F.) 

The habit of this lizard is rather slender ; the head is depressed, elongate-triangular, very 
distinct from the neck ; trunk somewhat thin ; tail tapering, slightly compressed ; limbs 
slender, fingers and toes rather short. All parts are finely granular. There are two series 
of shields above and behind the rostral, two in the anterior series, and three in the posterior ; 
nostril in the hind part of a shield contiguous with the rostral ; another small shield above it. 
Twelve upper and ten lower labials, Avhich are longer than high ; the lower labials are 
accompanied by a series of similar chin-shields. (Two angular series of scales larger than 
the rest, before the praeanal region, from which they are separated by a furrow.) Pupil 
erect; tympanum sunk; opening of the ear rather small, round. Limbs rather slender, the 
fore limb extending beyond the orbit when laid forwards. Fingers and toes rather short ; 
the basal phalanges are but very slightly dilated, provided with a series of narrow transverse 
plates beneath ; the penultimate and ungual phalanges are strongly compressed ; each claw 
is hidden below a compressed cap-like sheath, which is bilobed in front, the sheath ha\ing 
the appearance of a strong, compressed claw. The upper parts are brownish ; head marbled 
with lighter above; two series of large, irregularly rounded light spots, edged with dark 
brown, run along the back; upper lip whitish; lower parts whitish, speckled with brown; 
tail with some irregular black spots edged with lighter. 

A single specimen, said to be from Singapore, is in the British Museum Collection ; head 
and body 3^ inches, tail (renewed) 2 inches. Figure F of Plate XII. represents the animal 
of the natural size, figures F' the structure of the claws magnified : \iz. the right-hand figure 

* Otherwise very similar to P. felinus. 



118 SAURIA. 

is a lateral \'iew of the sheath, showing the swollen dorsal ridge ; in the left-hand figure 
one lateral half of the sheath has been removed, so that the retracted claw may be seen ; 
finally, the central figure is a front view, showing the dorsal ridge and the two lobes of the 
sheath, with the point of the claw in the middle. 



Pentadactylus duvaucelii. 

Platydactylus duvaucelii, Dum. ^- Bibr. iii. p. 312. 
Pentadactylus duvaucelii, Gray, Lizards, p. 160. 

The nostrils are surrounded by four small shields, by the first labial, and by the rostral. 
Rostral shield large, notched above, receiving in its notch a small shield situated on the 
upper side of the head, between the two nasal shields. Twelve upper and eleven lower 
labials, which are higher than long. Opening of the ear large, ovate. Males with five 
angular concentric series of pores before the vent, the posterior series being composed of 
five scales, the anterior of forty-six. 

The specimens described by Bibron are said to have been brought from Bengal. Bibron 
does not mention the peculiar structure of the sheath of the claw ; but in other points his 
description of this Gecko agrees so well with the species observed by us that we can scarcely 
doubt that they are congeners. Bibron's specimens were 10 inches long, the tail measuring 
?)\ inches. 



PUELLULA, Bhjth. 

Toes not dilated, l)ut distinctly ribbed, except on the ungual phalanges. 
A distinct rudimentary dorsal crest. No femoral or praeanal pores, but a 
large, raised glandular space at the base of the thighs underneath, divided 
by a slight median groove on the anterior half, which deepens to form a 
large glandular cavity on the posterior half. (This structure is less 
developed in the female.) 

PUELLULA RUBIDA. 

Puellula nibida, Bhjth, Journ. As. Soc. Beny. sxix. p. 109. 

Back granular, thickly studded with larger tubercles ; tubercles on the tail in transverse 
series ; a fold of the skin along the side of the belly. Four large chin-shields, the medial of 
which exceed the outer in size. Colour of the fresh animal very ruddy ; a dark line passes 
backward from the eye, and meets its opposite upon the occiput, this V-like marking being 
succeeded by one or two others like it ; body with irregular narrow transverse bands com- 



EUBLEPHARIS HARDWICKII. 119 

posed of black tubercles interspersed among the rest, and a series of broad dark annnli on 
the tail. Labials alternately dark brown and white. 

Length about 5 inches, of which the tail is half. A common species at Port Blair 
(Andaman Islands). 

The characters of the genus and species have been given after Blyth. 



EUBLEPHARIS, Gray. 

Fingers and toes not dilated or depressed, rather short, all clawed, and 
with a single series of simple, transverse, narrow scales below. The up])er 
eyelid broad, prominent, the lower well developed. Tail cylindrical, tapering. 

The single species of this genus differs in many respects from the Geckos. The form of 
its head and trunk is similar to that of the Geckos, but it is evidently a ground lizard, 
unable to climb walls or other erect objects with smooth surface. Its toes are not dilated at 
all, and rather short, without plates beneath, covered with transverse scales only, as in many 
other lizards. The claws are short. The head, body, and limbs are covered with tubercles, 
which are unequal in size on the back and the sides, the larger tubercles being separated 
from one another by a series of smaller ones. The lower parts are covered with small, 
imbricate, rhombic scales. A series of prseanal pores in the male, absent in the female ; 
there is an obtuse tubercle at the root of the tail, on each side behind the vent ; tail thick, 
conical, verticillated, covered with rings of small subquadrangular scales, which pass into flat 
tubercles on the back of the tail ; the tail is fragile and easily reproduced. 

The tongue is flat, oblong, slightly nicked in front ; teeth small, compressed. The nostril 
is lateral, in a single plate, situated above the first upper labial ; a pair of small shields above 
and behind the rostral. The upper eyelid is broad, projecting, moveable, the lower well 
developed, granular. The pupil is subelliptical ; tympanum very thin, deeply sunk. 



EUBLEPHAKIS HAEDWICKII. (Plate XI. fig. B.) 

Eublepharis hardwickii, Gray, Zool. Journ. 'in. p. 223. 

Pale reddish white : the upper part of the head from the nose to the nape, two very broad 
bands across the trunk, and three or four rings round the tail deep brown or black, the brown 
portions being edged with black, and broader than the ground-colour. Limbs reddish oli^e. 
with black dots on the elbows and knees. There are ten upper and lower labials ; two chin- 
shields larger than the first lower labial. The scales of the middle of the belly form thirty 
longitudinal series ; seventeen pores in an angular series in the prseanal region. 



120 SAURIA. 

This species attains to a length of from 8 to 9 inches. We have seen four specimens : one 
from Chittagong, two from Russelconda, Madras Presidency, and a fourth from the Anamallay 
Mountains, collected by Captain R. H. Beddome. W. Elliott, Esq., has also found it in the 
public bath at Waltair, a suburb of Vizagapatam. 



FAMILY OF AGXMY.^—AGAMID,E. 

Head covered with numerous, very small, flattish or convex shields. 
Tong-ue thick, attached to the gullet along its whole hase, not, or hut 
slightly, notched in front. Scales of the back, sides, and belly imbricate, 
generally rhombic. Tail long, tapering, not fragile. Eye and eyelids well 
developed ; pupil round. Nostrils in a separate plate. Teeth implanted on 
the edge of the bones of the jaws ; generally a pair of catiine teeth in front 
of each jaw. Limbs well developed. 

The family of Agames are spread over almost every part of the Old World and of 
Australia, being much less numerous in the temperate parts than in the tropical. They are 
Land Lizards — some, with a compressed body and with a long, more or less compressed tail, 
li\ing on trees or bushes, whilst others, with a depressed body and with a shorter tail, inhabit 
rocks or plains. The most slender and the most gaily-coloured forms belong to the former 
division, the heavier ones with duller colours to the latter. They do not attain to any con- 
siderable size, and none of the Indian species exceed a foot in length, the tail not inchided. 
The greater part are insectivorous, but many feed on vegetables (seeds, fruits, leaves) as well 
as on animals. All are oviparous. The species of British India belong to the following 
genera : — 

A. Tree Agames, slender in habit, with the body more or less compressed ; tail very long. 
I. Femoral pores none. 

a. A iving-like expansion on each side of the body. 

Tbroat with a more or less elongate appendage Draco, p. 121. 

b. No lateral unngs ; tympanum hidden. 

Hind leg longer than the body Otoci~yptis, p. 127. 

Body covered with minute scales, several distant series of large scales along the 

trunk ; superciliaiy margins pointed behind Lyriocephalus, p. 128. 

Scales of the upper part of the trunk unequal in size ; an appendage on the 

nose, at least in the male Ceratophora, p. 129. 

Body covered with very large, imbricate, irregular scales Cophotis, p. 131. 

Body covered with small imbricate scales, between which larger ones are inter- 
mixed; hind legs shorter than the body J no rostral appendage .... Japalura, ^. 132. 



DRACO. 121 

c. No lateral wings ; tympanum naked. 
f Only four toes behind. 
Scales regularly arranged Sitana, p. 134. 

** Crest on the back very high, the lobes being united by a membrane. 

Scales minute, equal Dilophyrus, Tp.136. 

*** five toes behind ; lobes of the dorsal crest separate. 

Scales on the sides equal in size, regularly arranged, with the tips directed 

backwards and downwards ; no spines on the head Bronchocela, p. 137. 

Scales on the sides equal in size, regularly arranged, \rith the tips directed 

backwards and upwards ; subcaudal scales as broad as long Ca/o^es, p. 139. 

Scales on the sides of moderate size, strongly keeled, arranged in longitudinal 
series ; a series of some larger distant scales along the side ; head -nathout 
any spines Salea, p. 145. 

Scales on the sides of moderate size, with the tips directed backwards and 
upwards ; larger ones are scattered between the others ; a spine behind 
the orbit ; subcaudal scales as broad as long Oriocalotes, p. 146. 

A spine behind the orbit ; subcaudal scales longer than broad Acanthosaura, p. 147. 

Scales on the sides very small, irregular, and unequal in size ; a tubercle behind 

the orbit; subcaudal scales as broad as long; gular sac none Oriotiaris, p. 150. 

Scales on the sides small, with scattered larger ones ; no spine behind the orbit ; 

gular sac present, at least in the males Tiaris, p. 151. 

II. Femoral pore^ present. 
Tympanum naked Physignathus, p. 152. 

B. Tree Agames, with the trunk depressed, and with a very long tail. 

Femoral pores present Liolepis, p. 153. 

C. Ground Agames, stout in habit, with the body depressed, and with the tall of moderate length. 

Femoral and prseanal pores Uromastix, p. 155. 

No pores ; scales of the tail arranged in rings, those of the sides equal in size . Charasia, p. 156. 

No pores; scales of the tail arranged in rings, those of the sides unequal . . Stellio, p. 157. 

Scales of the tail not arranged in rings ; tympanum naked TVajoe^M*, p. 159. 

Scales of the tail not arranged in rings ; tympanum scaly Phrynocephalus, ^.l&d. 

(Appendix Brachysaura, p. 161.) 



DRACO, Linn. 

A semicircular membrane, supported by the five or six posterior (false) ribs, 
which are much prolonged, forms a sort of wing- or parachute on each side 
of the body. A vertical appendage is suspended from the niitUlle of the throat ; 
a smaller horizontal fold of the skin on each side of the gular appendage. 

The Dragons are entirely confined to the East Indies ; they are more numerous in the 



122 SAURIA. 

Archipelago than on the continent, but they have not yet been found in Ceylon. The 
character by which they are at once recognized is the peculiar additional apparatus for loco- 
motion formed by the much-prolonged five or six hind ribs, which are connected by a broad 
expansible fold of the skin, the whole forming a subsemicircular wing on each side of the 
body. The Snakes are the only order in the whole animal kingdom in which the ribs serve 
as organs of locomotion ; but whilst in that order all the ribs are charged with a function 
for which no other organ exists, in the Dragons only a part of the ribs are modified for the 
purpose of assisting four well developed limbs. The Dragons are Tree Lizards, and, jumping 
from branch to branch, they are supported in the air by their expanded parachutes, which 
are laid backwards at the sides of the animal while it is sitting or merely running. If 
the hind extremities of a Dragon were cut off, it would lie helpless on the ground ; but it 
would still move with great velocity if it were merely deprived of its wings. The locomotion 
of the Dragons is a series of leaps, and not a continuous running : they are the Anoles of 
the Old World. 

The species are extremely similar to one another, scarcely diflFering in size, and one general 
description will suffice for all. The head is thick and high, with a short, obtuse snout, 
covered with very small scales; the labial shields are low, varying in number*. The tongue 
is elongate-cylindrical, attached to the gullet in its whole length, not or but slightly notched 
in front. Two of the front teeth in the upper and lower jaws are larger than the rest. 
The nostrils are small, round, situated in a single, small, rather prominent shield: the 
direction in which they pierce this shield is of great importance for the distinction of the 
species. In some the nostrils are visible when the head is viewed from above {Dracocella), 
in others only from the side. The eye is of moderate size, with well developed eyelids, 
and with a round pupil, the Dragons being diurnal lizards delighting to bask in the sun. 
The tympanum is present in all species ; but whilst it is naked and exposed in some, it is 
covered with small scales in others (Dracimculus) ; this difierence also offers an important 
character for the distinction of the species, but less so than the nostril, as young examples of 
a species which usually has a scaly tympanum, sometimes show the centre of this membrane 
scaleless, whereby naturalists may be misled in their determinations. 

The skinny appendages of the throat are merely folds of the skin, ornamental and sexual, 
like the wattles of the throat of gallinaceous birds ; they have no ca\ity in their interior, 
and have no communication with the cavity of the mouth or with the respiratory organs. 
They are supported by the posterior horns of the hyoid bone, and can be erected or spread 
out when the animal is excited. Such appendages as those in the Dragons always betray 
an excitable temper. They are found in both sexes, one in the middle and one on each 
side of the throat ; but they are much more developed in the mature male, where the middle 
gular appendage sometimes attains to a length thrice as great as that of the head. Most of 
the species have a short, low crest, formed by granular or triangular scales, along the middle 
of the neck, which also is more developed in the adult male than in the female and young, 
if present at all in a species. This nuchal crest is generally accompanied by small isolated 
or serial tubercles on the hind part of the head or on the side of the neck. 

* In comparing the dorsal scales with the labial shields, in the specific descriptions, I have always taken 
the labials of middle size. 



DRACO. 123 

The trunk is rather slender, covered above and below with ^'ery small, more or less dis- 
tinctly keeled scales. Large spaces on the wings are naked, and separated from one another 
by stripes of minute scales. The tail is long, slender, tapering to a point, not fragile ; we 
liave never seen a Dragon in which the tail had been reproduced, nor, indeed, with this 
member mutilated. Perhaps the tail is necessary for their peculiar locomotion, in which 
case its loss would soon prove fatal to the animal. The limbs are slender, each provided 
Avith five, clawed, thin and long toes. Their length varies a good deal in the different 
species, and is a very important character for their distinction. 

Cantor says that " the transcendent beauty of their colours baffles description. As the 
lizard lies in shade along the trunk of a tree, its colours at a distance appear like a 
mixture of brown and grey, and render it scarcely distinguishable from the bark. Thus it 
remains with no signs of life except the restless eyes, watching passing insects, which, 
suddenly expanding its wings, it seizes with a sometimes considerable unerring leap. The 
lizard itself appears to possess no power of changing its colours." These beautiful colours * 
disappear almost entii-ely in spirits ; there remain, however, certain markings of dark colour, 
which are of much greater importance for distinction of the species than those variable and 
perishable iridescent tints which are common to all the species. 

From three to four ovate, whitish eggs are very frequently found in the females ; they are 
three-eighths of an inch long. Almost all the species attain to the same length, viz. 7-8 
inches, of which the tail takes one-half or rather more than one-half. D. quinquefasciatus 
appears to be somewhat larger than the others. 

We give first a Synopsis of all the species of Dragons known, as we have had the oppor- 
tunity of examining all of them, and proceed then to the descriptions of the new species and 
of those found in British India : — 

I. Short-limbed Dragons, in which the length of the hind limb is less than the distance between the shoulder 
and hip-joints. 

A. Nostrils lateral, directed outwards. 

a. Tympanum naked. 

1 . Dorsal scales as large as the upper labial shields ; no orbital spine. Throat dotted with browu ; wuigs 

black-spotted below : D. volans, p. 124. 

2. Dorsal scales as large as the upper labial shields ; no orbital spine. Throat reticulated witli brown ; 

wings uiiifomi whitish below : D. reticulatus, n. sp., p. 125. 

3. The scales of the three median dorsal series large, larger than the labials ; the middle series smooth, 

the two outer ones keeled, the keels being continuous : D. timorensis, Kuhl. 

4. Dorsal scales smaller than the upper labials ; a horn-like spine above the hinder angle of the orbit : 

D. cornutus, n. sp., p. 125. 

5. Dorsal scales smaller than the upper labials; no orbital spine: D. fimbriatus, Kuhl.t 

b. Tympanum scaly. 

6. An interrupted series of large keeled scales along each side of the trunk : D. maculatus, p. 125. 

* They wiU be more fully described under D. volans. 
t Its occurrence in Singapore is more than doubtful. 

K 2 



124 SAURIA. 

7. A more or less distinct continuous series of rather larger keeled scales along each side of the posterior 

half of the back: D. spilopterus, Wiegm. = X). ornatus, Gray. 

B. Nostrils directed upwards. 

8. Tympanum naked : D. dussumieri, p. 125. 

9. Tympanum scaly : D. quinquefasciatus, p. 126. 

II. Long-limbed Dragons, in which the hind limb extends to or beyond the shoulder -joint, if laid forwards. 

A. Nostrils directed upwards ; tympanum naked. 

10. Wings with regular arched black bands : D. taniopterus, p. 126. 

11. Wings with subreticulated lines: D. hamatopogon, Boie. 

B. Nostrils directed outwards. 

12. Tympanum naked : D. bimaculatus, n. sp., p. 127. 

13. Tympanum scaly ; dorsal scales smaller than upper labials : D. lineal us, Daud. 

14. Tympanum scaly ; dorsal scales larger than^ or as large as, the upper labials : D. rostratus, n. sp., 

p. 127. 



Draco volans. 

Draco volans et praepos, L. Syst. Nat. xii. p. 358. 

viridis et fuscus, Daud. Kept. iii. pp. 301, 307. 

daudinii, Dum. ^- Bibr. iv. p. 451. 

viridis, Schleg. Abbild. p. 89. tab. 24. fig. 1. 

volans. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 37. 

The length of the hind limb is contained 1-2 or 1'3 times in the distance of the axils of 
the limbs. Nostrils lateral, directed outwards ; tympanum naked. Dorsal scales subequal 
in size, as large as the upper labial shields, slightly keeled ; a small short tubercle above 
the hind part of the orbit ; male with a distinct nuchal crest ; on each side of the back a 
series of larger, rhombic, keeled, distant scales. Throat and sides of the gular appendage 
with numerous brown dots. The outer part of the upper surface of the mngs with large 
irregular black spots ; their lower surface with large rounded spots, which are more or less 
confluent into bands towards the margin of the wings. 

The colours vary much, not only accordmg to the localities, but also individually ; the 
brown or black dots on the throat appear to be constant. Cantor describes the colours from 
living specimens : — Head metallic brown or green, with a black spot between the eyes. 
Back and inner half of the wing-membrane varied with metallic, iridescent dark brown and 
rose-colour, in some disposed in alternate transversal bands, with numerous black spots and 
short irregular waved lines. Outer half of the wing-membrane orange- or rose-coloured, 
with irregular black transverse spots ; the margins minutely fringed with silvery. Limbs 
and tail in some with alternate rose-coloured and brown cross bands. Eyelids with short, 
radiating black lines. Throat and gular sac bright yellow, the former dotted with black ; 



DRACO DUSSUMIERI. 125 

lateral pouches yellow or silvery rose, with black dots. Wings below with large brownish 
or blackish spots. 

This species is found in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and at Pinang and Singapore. 

Note 1. — Draco reticulatus (n. sp.), from the Philippine Islands, is allied to D. volans. The length of 
the hind limb is contained 1*1 times in the distance of the axils of the limbs ; male with a distinct nuchal 
crest, and with a similar crest along eacli side of the neck ; on each side of the posterior half of the trunk 
a continuous series of keeled scales, some of which are larger than the rest. Throat and base of the 
gular sac with brown reticulated lines, enclosing round whitish spots ; neck and the upper surface of the 
wings with a meshwork of similar hues, enclosing round greenish-white spots ; the lower surface of the 
wings uniform whitish. 

Note 2. — Draco cornutus (n. sp.), from Borneo, also is allied to D. volans. The length of the hind 
limb is contained 1'4 times in the distance of the axils of the limbs. Dorsal scales subequal in size, 
smaller than the middle upper labials, obscurely keeled ; a spine-like tubercle above the hind part of the 
orbit, longer than broad at the base ; both sexes with a very low nuchal crest ; on each side of the back 
a more or less distinct series of rhombic, keeled, distant scales which are rather larger than the rest. 
Chin with a few reticulated greenish lines ; gular sac uniform ; a pair of black spots on the neck, before 
the shoulder. Ground-colour of the wing brownish in the male, light reddish in the female, with 
numerous round black spots in both sexes ; margin of the wing black. 



Draco maculatus. (Plate XIII. fig. C.) 

Dracunculus maculatus. Gray, Lizards, p. 236. 
Draco maculatus. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 39. 

The hind limb extends nearly to the axil of the fore limb, if laid forwards, its length 
being contained 1-1 times in the distance between the axils of the limbs. Nostrils lateral, 
directed outwards; tympanum scaly. Dorsal scales smaller than the upper labials, partly 
keeled ; male with a very low and indistinct nuchal crest ; the gular sac is very large, 
strongly compressed in front. On each side of the back a series of large, trihedral, distant 
scales. Throat with small brown dots. The upper surface of the wings with numerous 
whitish longitudinal stripes of scales, and with black rounded spots, of which one in the 
outer, anterior corner of the wing is generally the largest. The lower part of the wing 
uniform whitish, sometimes with an isolated black spot. 

This is a truly continental species, having been found in different parts of the coast of 
Siam, at Pinang, and in Tenasserim. The figure given represents a male specimen from the 
former country. 



Dkaco DUSSUMIERI. (Plate XIII. fig. D.) 

Draco dussumieri, Dum. 6f Bibr. iv. p. 156. Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 474. 

The hind limb extends very nearly to the axil of the fore limb, if laid forwards. Nostrils 
directed upwards ; tympanum naked. Dorsal scales rather smaller than the upper labials, 



126 SAURIA. 

slightly keeled ; a very prominent, horn-like, conical tubercle behind and above the posterior 
part of the orbit. Male with a very low and indistinct nuchal crest ; gular sac very long and 
narrow ; on each side of the back a series of small tubercular prominences, each being com- 
posed of several small scales. Throat with scattered, irregular brown spots. Ground- 
colour of the wings light ; blackish violet reticulated lines occupy the middle and outer half 
of the wings, enclosing round light spots. 

Jerdon observes that this Dragon is only found in the neighbourhood of forests of the 
west coast of the Peninsula of India, frequenting the cocoa-nut and betel-nut plantations in 
theii' vicinity. It is tolerably common in all INIalabar, Cochin, and Travancore, but not 
known farther north than Malabar, being either unknown or very rare in Canara. 

Figui'e D of Plate XIII. represents the head of a male. 

Deaco quinquefasciatus. 

Draco quinquefasciatus, Gray, Zool. Journ. 1827, p. 219; Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

The length of the hind limb is contained I'l times in the distance between the axils of 
the limbs. Nostrils directed upwards ; tympanum scaly. Dorsal scales very small ; an 
indistinct series of rather larger, distant, rhombic scales along each side of the trunk. No 
tubercle above the orbit. Male with a very low nuchal crest; gular sac very long and 
narrow, lanceolate. Body light reddish, dotted all over with brown ; wings with five con- 
centric black bands, each extending from the margin of one wing to that of the other, across 
the trunk. That portion of the bands which crosses the trunk is not black, only darker 
than the ground-colour. 

Only one specimen is known of this species ; it is said to be from Pinang, and 8 inches 
long, the tail measuring 4. 

Deaco T^moPTEEUS. (Plate XIII. fig. E.) 

Draco tseniopterus, Giinfh. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, April 23, p. 187. 

The hind limb extends beyond the shoulder-joint, if laid forwards. Nostrils dii-ected 
upwards ; tympanum entirely scaleless. Dorsal scales smaller than the upper labial shields, 
keeled ; an indistinct series of larger, distant scales along each side of the trunk. No 
tubercle above the orbit. Male with a very low nuchal crest ; gular sac strongly compressed, 
of moderate breadth and length, covered with large smooth scales. Back greenish iridescent ; 
wings with five arched, black bands, not extending to the margin of the Aving ; some of them 
are forked at the base, and all arc continued across the back of the trunk, although they 
are there of a much fainter colour. 

Only a single male specimen was obtained by Mouhot, at Chartaboum, on the coast of 
Siam ; a second, young specimen came from the coast of Tenasserim. 



OTOCRYPTIS BIVITTATA. 127 

Note. — In the synopsis of the species of Dragons we have mentioned two other new forms, of which 
we here subjoin short descriptions. 

Draco bimaculatus. — The hind Hmbs extend on to the axil of the fore limb, if laid forwards. Nostrils 
directed outwards ; tympanum entirely scaleless. Dorsal scales smaller than the upper laliial shields, 
distinctly keeled ; an interrupted row of larger rhombic scales along each side of the trunk, two scales 
always being together; no tubercle above the orbit. Male with a distinct nuchal crest; gular sac 
triangular, covered with minute scales. A large, round, deep-black spot behind each angle of the mouth ; 
throat and base of the gular sac with short subreticulated blackish streaks. Wings greenish; above 
beautifully reticulated with blackish, and with about thirteen narrow longitudinal stripes of white scales ; 
below with blackish spots, confluent into bands. Philippine Islands. 

Draco rostratus. — This species has the snout less obtuse and somewhat more elongate than any of the 
other Dragons. The hind limb extends to the axil of the fore limb, if laid forwards. Nostrils directed 
outwards; tympanum scaly. The dorsal scales are as large as, or even larger than, the upper labial 
shields, and keeled; a series of larger scales runs along each side of the trunk. Male with a very distinct 
nuchal crest ; gular sac triangular, compressed, covered with very small scales. Throat and basal half of 
the gular sac with brown dots ; wings with irregular narrow longitudinal stripes of white scales, and with 
small, round brown spots ; the lower side of the wing immaculate. Probably from Borneo. 



OTOCRYPTIS, TFiegm. 

Tympanum hidden. Back and sides covered vvitli small scales, which are 
regularly arranged ; a few large ones scattered over the sides. Male witli 
a low nuchal crest and with a large gular sac ; no dorsal crest. Head 
without any prominent spines or appendages. Limbs exceedingly long ; hind 
limb longer than the body. Scales on the lower part of the tail not elongate. 

Only one species is known. 

OtOCRTPTIS BIVITTATA. 

Otocryptis bivittata, Wiegm. Ms, 1831, p. 291. 

Head tetrahedral, with a sharp canthus rostralis, and with the eyebrows somewhat raised ; 
it is covered above with numerous keeled scales ; one of them, situated above the nasal shield, 
is larger than the others ; the bony part of the interorbital space is concave and finely 
granulated. Ten upper labial shields and as many lower labials. Occipital and nuchal 
regions rough, but without prominent tubercles. Nostril small, round. Throat covered 
with small keeled scales ; no fold in front of the shoulder or at the throat : male with a very 
large gular appendage, extending backwards to the belly ; it can be folded up like a fan, 
as in Sitana, but the scales with which it is covered are smaller and keeled. The female 
and the young have no such appendage. 



128 SAURIA. 

The trunk is compressed in the male and rounded in the female ; its back is covered with 
small keeled scales, larger than those on the sides, which are directed obliquely downwards ; 
a few large scales are intermixed between the small ones ; those on the belly rather larger 
than the dorsal, strongly keeled ; praeanals small. A very low crest on the neck is peculiar 
to the male. Tail long, scarcely compressed at the root ; all its scales are keeled, and 
those on its lower side as broad as long, scarcely different from the others. 

The limbs are exceedmgly long, the hind limb extending far beyond the extremity of the 
snout, if laid forwards ; the fourth hind toe is nearly twice as long as the third. 

Brownish olive ; male generally with a whitish band along each side of the back ; six or 
seven brown cross bars on the middle of the back between the bands ; legs and tail witli 
brownish transverse bands. A brown band broadly edged with whitish between the orbits ; 
throat and an oblique streak from the eye to the angle of the mouth white; gular sac 
immaculate ; throat of the female sometimes brownish. Sometimes nearly uniform brownish 
olive. 

This species, though local, does not appear to be scarce in Ceylon ; Peters (Monatsber. 
Berl. Acad. 1860, p. 184) mentions its occurrence at Trincomalee, Hinida, Ratnapura, and 
on Adam's Peak. An adult male measures 10 inches, the tail measuring 7 ; the length of its 
hind leg is 3^ inches. It is evidently a Tree Lizard. 



LYRIOCEPHALUS, Merr. 

Tympanum liiddeu. Back and sides covered with minute scales ; several 
distant series of large scales along the trunk ; a crest runs along the whole 
vertebral line ; superciliary margins ])ointed behind. Gular appendage 
moderately developed. The adult with a globular hump on the nose. 

Only one species is known. 



Lyriocephalus scutatus. 

Lacerta scutata, L. Si/st. Nat. i. p. 360. 
Lyriocephalus margaritaceus, Merr. Amph. p. 49. 

scutatus, Wa/jl. Amph. p. 150. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zcijl. i. p. 166. 

— — - macgregorii, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

The hump on the nose is globular, covered with small shields ; it appears to be present 
in both sexes, but in very young specimens it is entirely absent. Canthus rostralis sharp 



CERATOPHORA STODDARTII. 129 

and prominent, continued into the elevated eyebrows. Head covered above with very small 
shields, between which larger round ones are intermixed. Twelve upper and lower labials. 
Gular sac moderately developed. Neck, trunk, and tail with a crest formed by triangular, 
distant scales. Body covered with minute scales ; three longitudinal rows of large, sub- 
quadrangular scales run along each side. Ventral scales small, rhombic, keeled. Tail 
compressed, with the subcaudals strongly keeled and truncated behind. The hind limbs 
extend to the shoulder, if laid forwards. Nearly uniform dark green above, paler below. 

This species is a native of Ceylon ; the assertion that it has been found in Southern India 
has not been proved by more recent investigations. It attains to the length of 15 inches, of 
which the tail takes one-half. Kelaart says that it is frequent in the Kandian provinces, 
and that it feeds chiefly on leaves and on coleopterous insects. In confinement boiled rice 
is freely taken. The female lays from three to four hard-shelled eggs, of about the size of 
sparrows' eggs. 



CERATOPHORA, Gray. 

Tympanum hidden. Scales of the upper parts of the trunk unequal in 
size ; anterior part of the hack with a rudimentary, or without any crest ; 
superciliary margins not pointed hehiiid. Gular sac not developed or 
ahsent. A pointed or scaly appendage on the nose, at least in the male sex. 

Since the discovery of two other species which approach Lynocej)lialus^ it has become a 
question whether it would not be better to unite Cemto])hora with that genus. All these 
lizards come from the interior of Ceylon. 

* Numerous small scales are intermixed between the large ones on the sides of the body; rostral 
appendage a single, pointed, horn-like scale : C. stoddartii, p. 129. 
** Sides of the body covered with larger scales only ; rostral appendage compressed, fleshy : C ten- 
nentii, p. 130. 
*** Scales on the body very small, with scattered larger ones; rostral appendage cylindrical, scaly, 
present in the male only : C. aspera, p. 131. 



Ceratophoea stoddartii. (Plate XIII. figs. F, F', F".) 

Ceratophora stoddartii, Gray, Tnd. Zool. c. fig. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. ZeyL i. p. 165. 

Head covered with very small, irregular shields ; labial shields numerous ; throat with 
longitudinal series of quadrangular scales ; nostril small, lateral. A very low, dentated 
crest along the neck and front part of the trunk ; scales on the back small and smooth, 

s 



130 SAURIA. 

those on the sides very large, irregularly shaped and arranged, intermixed with numerous 
smaller scales similar to those on the back ; ventral scales small, smooth, or slightly keeled ; 
praeanal region covered with very small scales. Tail long, thin, tapering, compressed at the 
root, covered above with smooth rhombic scales, below with keeled ones which are more 
elongate. Limbs rather long, the hind limbs extending on to the cleft of the mouth, if laid 
forwards. Dark green, with dark-brown cross bands across the back, tail, and limbs ; gene- 
rally a whitish streak behind the orbit. 

The horn on the snout is more developed in the adult males than in the females and in 
the young ; it is half an inch long in the former, whilst it is reduced to half that length in 
the females, and even to a still smaller size in the young. This proves that it is an orna- 
ment, analogous to the appendages in gallinaceous birds, or to the horns of the Cervidoe, and 
that it is not for the purpose of facilitating the discovery of food among decayed wood, as 
has been supposed. It is a modified, flexible, pointed scale, usually white, but assuming a 
purplish colour, like the scales on the throat and lips, when the animal is excited. This 
lizard lives in the elevated parts of the island. 

Figure F of Plate XIII. represents the head of an adult male, F' of an adult female, 
and F" of an immature male. 



Ceratophora texnentii. 

Ceratophora tennentii, Giinth. in Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceyl. p. 281 (with a woodcut) . 

Head covered with very small, irregular shields; the appendage on the nose is fleshy, 
compressed, subovate, covered with very small transverse scales; labial shields numerous; 
throat with longitudinal series of quadrangular scales, and without a developed gular sac ; 
the lower eyelid is scaly ; nostril small, lateral. Nuchal crest very low ; scales on the back 
smooth, and much smaller than those on the sides, which are arranged in regular oblique 
series, all being of equal size ; ventral scales small, keeled ; preeanal region covered with 
very small scales. Tail long, thin, tapering, with smooth rhombic scales above and with 
keeled ones below. Limbs long, the hind limbs extending on to the eye, if laid forwards. 
Green, irregularly marbled with brownish. The young has well-defined markings : a brown 
band between the eyes ; an oblique band from the eye to the angle of the mouth ; a light 
band along each side of the back, with a vertebral series of dark-brown spots. 

This species is likewise an inhabitant of Ceylon, but appears to be a very local species, 
as Ave have received it only in two collections. I have named it after Sir J. E. Tennent. 
Both the adult specimens which I have examined* are males, 10^ inches long, the tail 

* Sir J. E. Tennent mentions that the typical specimens were sent by Dr. Kelaart from Ceylon ; 
Kelaart certainly would not have left such a remarkable lizard undescribed if he had known it. These 
specimens were selected by myself for the British Museum from collections sent by Sir. Thwaites to 
Mr. Cuming, 



COPHOTIS. 131 

measuring 7. In young specimens, the trunk of which is only 1 inch long, the rostral 
appendage is already very distinct; in its internal structure it is spongy, and apparently 
consists of an erectile tissue. 



Ceratophoea aspeea. (Plate XIII. figs. G, G'.) 

Head covered vdth very small, irregular shields, each of which is elevated into a small 
tubercle ; a larger tubercle behind the superciliary edge, and another on each side of the 
occiput ; occiput with a pair of low ridges, convergent anteriorly. Nasal appendage cylin- 
drical, slender, covered with small, imbricate, strongly keeled scales ; it is nearly half as long 
as the head in the male, but quite rudimentary in the female. Labial shields numerous ; 
throat vdth small, strongly keeled scales, without appendage ; no fold in front of the shoulder. 
Nostril small, lateral. Scales on the back and sides very small, with numerous, irregularly 
scattered, larger keeled scales ; no crest whatever, but some of the larger scales form short 
angular series across the vertebral line, with their angles pointing backwards. Ventral 
scales strongly keeled ; prceanal region covered with very small scales. Tail of moderate 
length, not compressed, mth all its scales keeled ; those at its lower surface are scarcely 
longer than broad. Limbs rather long, the hind limbs extending to, or nearly to, the orbit, 
if laid forwards. Brownish, marbled with darker; a rhombic light-coloured spot on the 
sacral region. The brown spots on the fore leg are edged with white in the male. 

I have examined a male and female of this extraordinary species, both apparently matui'e, 
but not longer than 3 mches, of which the tail measures one-half. The British Museum 
received them from Ceylon, from the same source as the C. stoddartii and C. tennentii ; hence 
it is probable that it is also confined to the mountainous parts of the interior of the island. 

Figure G of Plate XIIL represents the female in a position which we have observed in 
many Agames ; figure G' the head of the male. 



COPHOTIS, Peters. 

Tympanum hidden. Back and sides covered with very large, imbricate, 
irregular scales subequal in size. A nuchal and dorsal crest. A small 
gular sac in both sexes. Male with only a very small tubercle behind the 
rostral shield. 

Only one species is known, from Ceylon. 



s2 



132 SAUEIA. 

CoPHOTis CEYLANiCA. (Plate XIII. fig. H.) 

Cophotis ceylanica, Peters, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. Dec. 1861, p. 1103. ■, 

Head tetrahedral, rather narrow, with the snout somewhat produced and pointed ; body 
and tail compressed, the latter slightly prehensile. The upper surface of the head is covered 
with small, iiTegular, rather convex shields. Nose of the male mth a small obtuse tubercle. 
Nine upper and eight lower labials ; nostril lateral, situated in the hinder half of a small 
shield. Eye rather small, eyelid scaly. Longitudinal series of quadrangular scales on each 
side of the gular sac, which in both sexes is but little developed. Nuchal crest composed of 
three compressed triangular scales, not continuous with the dorsal crest. The dorsal crest 
is composed of about twelve similar, distant scales, which are much larger in the male than 
in the female. The upper parts of the trunk covered with very large imbricate scales, 
irregularly arranged, but with their points directed downwards and backwards ; some of them 
are keeled. Ventral scales small, strongly keeled. The scales on the upper parts of the tail 
similar to the dorsal, those on its lower surface similar to the ventral scales, their keels 
being continuous. Limbs moderately developed ; the hind limbs extend on to the shoulder, 
if laid forwards. Toes with non-carinated transverse scales below ; the tliird and fourth 
hind toes are nearly equal in length. Fawn-coloui-ed, with irregular broad bro^vn cross 
bands ; tail nearly white, with brown rings ; a white spot in front of the nuchal crest and a 
white band running from the angle of the mouth to the shoulder are more distinct in the 
male than in the female. Jaws with a broad brown margin ; throat white, with one or two 
oblique brown streaks on each side. 

This species must be rare and very locally distributed in the island of Ceylon, as it has 
escaped the observation of Kelaart. Two beautiful specimens have lately been procured 
for the British INIuseum, male and female of nearly the same size, 6 inches long, the tail 
measuring of inches. It is evidently a Tree Lizard. 



JAPALURA. 

Japalura et Biancia, Gray. 

Tympanum hidden. The upper parts covered with small, imhricate, keeled 
scales, hetween which larger ones are intermixed ; dorsal crest low. Tail 
slightly compressed at its base. Throat with a small pouch in the male, and 
with a transverse fold. No rostral appendage. Ventral scales of moderate 
size, keeled ; scales below the tail as broad as.Jong. 

The geographical distribution of this genus is very singular, one species being found in 



JAPALUEA SWINHONIS. 133 

the Himalayas, a second on the island of Formosa, and a third in one of the Loochoo 
Islands. 

* A white band along each side of the neck J. variegata, p. 133. 

** A white band along each side of the body J. SKnnhonis,^). IS3. 

*** Uniform greenish olive /. polyyonata, p. 134. 



Japalura VAEIEGATA. 

Biancia niger. Gray, in Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. xii. 1853, p. 387. 
Japalura variegata, Gray, ibid. 

Head covered with small, irregular, keeled shields above ; canthus rostralis sharp ; a small 
tubercle behind the superciliary edge ; throat covered with small keqled scales ; a series of 
small shields commences at the chin and runs backwards parallel to the lower labial shields. 
Tongue scarcely notched in front ; two small canine teeth in each jaw ; the upper with 
fifteen very small molars on each side, much smaller than those of the lower jaw, which are 
subcorneal and seventeen in number. A fold across the throat ; male with a small gular 
pouch. Nape of the neck granular, with scattered larger tubercles. Both sexes with a 
nuchal crest, composed of triangular lobes; it is continued along the back as a slight 
serrated ridge, and gradually disappears on the anterior part of the tail. Trunk slightly 
compressed ; the upper parts are covered with smallish, keeled scales, intermixed with larger 
ones, all having their points obliquely directed upwards. Ventral scales strongly keeled, of 
moderate size ; there are about thirty-eight scales in a longitudinal series between fore and 
hind limb. All the scales of the tail are rhombic and keeled, those on its lower side being 
the largest. The hind limb extends to the eye, if laid forwards ; toes with keeled scales 
below ; the fourth hind toe is one-fourth longer than the third. Back with alternate brown 
or black and greyish or yellowish-white cross bands which ascend obliquely backwards ; 
head above variegated with black ; a light, black-edged cross band on the interorbital 
space. A white or yellow band along the upper lip ; another irregular band along each 
side of the neck, confluent with one of the light cross bands. Gular sac black behind ; tail 
with broad brown or black rings. 

The colours, however, vary to a considerable extent in this species. A large female is 
almost wholly black above, variegated with yellow, all the larger scales being of the latter 
colour. The characteristic bands on the head and side of the neck are present. 

This species is a native of Sikkim ; it attains to a length of 12 inches, the tail taking two- 
thirds of it. 



Japalura swinhoxis. (Plate XIV. fig. B.) 

This species has a very great resemblance to that from the Himalayas, and may be chiefly 
distinguished by its peculiar coloration. 



134 SAURIA. 

A small tubercle behind the superciliary edge ; ten upper labials ; sides of the nape tuber- 
cular, one larger tubercle on each side of the commencement of the nuchal crest. Twelve 
very small molars on each side of the upper jaw, thirteen larger ones below ; the latter are 
closely set and triangular. A fold of the skin before each shoulder, not extending across 
the throat. Dorsal crest low, extending on to the root of the tail, which is rather com- 
pressed ; only the upper dorsal scales have their points directed upwards, those on the sides 
point straight backwards. Ventral scales strongly keeled; there are about thirty-eight 
in a longitudinal series between fore and hind limb. The hind limb extends to the eye, if 
laid forwards ; the fourth hind toe is one-iifth longer than the third. 

Brov\Tiish grey, a white band along each side of the back ; back between the white bands 
with broad, angular, black cross bands, the points of which are directed backwards ; these 
bands are separated from one another by narrow, angular, white cross streaks formed by the 
larger scales, which are intermixed between the small ones and of a white colour. The 
remainder brownish grey ; head and sides subreticulated with brown ; legs and tail with 
brown bands, the latter about fifteen in number. 

Only one specimen was obtained at Formosa by Mr. Swinhoe, H.B.M. Consul at that 
place ; it is 8 inches long, the tail measuring 5f inches. 



Japalura polygokata. 

Diplodcnna polygonatum, Hallowell, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860^ p. 490. 

This appears to be a third species of this genus, although its characters are not well pointed 
out ; it is described as being uniform greenish olive above ; eight dark-coloured bands on the 
tail ; seven upper labials ; no fold across the chest ; neck slightly folded. 

A single specimen was obtained on Amakarima Island (Loochoo) ; it is 7 inches 9 lines 
long, the tail measuring 5^ inches. 



SITANA, Cm. 

Limbs long, with five toes in front and with only four behind. Scales 
regularly arranged, keeled. Tympanum visible. Scarcely any crest on the 
neck ; male with a very large gular appendage which can be folded up like 
a fan. Femoral pores none. 

One of the most easily distinguished genera, having only four toes behind. Head tetra- 
hodral, with the snout of moderate length ; body slightly compressed ; tail longish, rounded. 



SITANA MINOR. 135 

tapering. Head covered with small, keeled scales ; labial shields numerous ; a series of larger 
scales on each side of the chin. A pair of small canine teeth in each jaw ; tongue elongate, 
not notched ; nostril small, directed outwards, in a very small shield ; eyelid scaly ; tympanum 
smaller than the orbit. The male is provided with a very large, subtriangular gular appendage, 
which extends on to the belly ; it is covered with large square scales regularly arranged ; it 
can be folded up like a fan, and in this state it is scarcely visible. The female has no trace 
of this appendage. 

Sitana is confined to Western India and to Ceylon ; only two species are known : — 

The hind feet extend to the orbit S. pondiceriana. 

The hind feet extend to or beyond the extremity of the snout . S. 'minor. 



Sitana pondicebiana. 

Sitana ponticeriana, Cuv. Regne Anim. Dum. ^- Bibr. iv. p. 437. 

The fore limb does not extend on to the vent, if laid backwards ; the hind limb reaches 
to the orbit, if laid forwards ; the lower thigh is rather shorter than the foot (measured from 
the heel to the tip of the longest toe), the length of which is only three-fourths of the 
distance between the shoulder and hip joints. Brown, with a series of dark spots along the 
middle of the back, the spot on the neck being the darkest ; a whitish band along each side 
of the back. Gular appendage tricoloured — blue, black, and red. 

This species attains to a length of 8 inches, of which the tail takes 5 inches. It appears to 
inhabit more northern parts of India than the following. 



Sitana minor. (Plate XIV. figs. A, A'.) 

Sitana ponticeriana, Jerd. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 473 (not Cuv.). 

The fore limb extends beyond the vent, if laid backwards ; the hind limb to or beyond the 
extremity of the snout, if laid forwards ; the lower thigh is considerably shorter than the 
foot, the length of which is more than the distance between the shoulder and hip joints. 
Brownish, with a series of rhomboidal dark spots along the back, the spot on the neck beftig 
the darkest ; a whitish Ime along each side of the back. Gular appendage tricoloured — blue, 
black, and red. 

This new species is closely allied to the other, but readily distinguished by its proportion- 
ally much longer limbs, — the foot of a *S^. minor, the body of which measures 2 inches in 
length, being almost as long as that of a S. pondiceriana, the body of which is 3 inches long. 
Moreover it remains smaller, full-grown specimens measuring 7 inches, of which the tail takes 



136 SAURIA. 

5 inches. It is found in the neighbourhood of Madras, where it appears to be common in 
fields and low copses, avoiding wooded districts. The gular appendage is equally developed 
in both species. Mr. Jerdon observes that the splendid colours of this appendage are only 
exhibited during the pairing-season. It is the common prey of many raptatorial birds. 

Kelaart (Prodrom. Faun. Zeyl. p. 164) mentions the occurrence of S. jiondiceriana in 
Ceylon ; but it is more probable that the Ceylonese Sitana is identical with the Madras 
species. 

Figure A of Plate XIV. represents a full-grown male of the natural size, with the gular 
appendage expanded; figure A' the throat of the same animal, with the appendage folded up. 



DILOPHYRUS, Gray. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with equally niiiuite granular 
scales ; a very high nuchal and dorsal crest, the lobes of the crest being 
united by a membrane. Gular sac small. Tail comj)ressed. 

Only one species is known. 



DiLOPHYEUS GEANDIS. 

Dilophyrus gi-andls, Gray, Lizards, p. 239. Cantor, Mai. Rejit. p. 34. pi. 20. 

Head tetrahedral, with a sharp canthus rostralis ; body and tail compressed ; limbs long. 
Head entirely covered with very small scales. The canthus rostralis is continued into the 
superciliary edge, and lined with a series of larger scales ; the upper surface of the snout is 
concave. Nostril small, in the upper part of a subquadrangular shield. Twelve upper and 
as many lower labials; a series of small shields on each side of the chin. Upper jaw with 
two or three pairs of very small incisors in front, then follow one canine tooth and thirteen 
tricuspid molars on each side ; lower jaw with two conical and twelve tricuspid teeth on each 
side. Tongue very slightly nicked in front. Eyelids entirely covered with granular scales ; 
tympanum half as large as the orbit ; an isolated tubercle, and an oblique series of three or 
four others above the tympanum. Gular sac small, with a transverse fold behind, extending 
upwards to the shoulder. Neck and body covered with minute granular scales ; ventral 
scales small, smooth. The nuchal and dorsal crests are very high, and not continuous ; they 
are formed of long lanceolate scales which are united by a membrane ; the base of the crests 
is covered by two or three series of large pointed scales, all with their tips pointing upwards. 
The upper edge of the compressed tail is sharp and slightly serrated ; subcaudals in two 
series, rather broader than long, truncated behind, strongly keeled ; sides of the tail covered 
with small smooth scales. The hind leg extends beyond the orbit, if laid forwards ; the 



BRONCHOCELA. 137 

fourth hind toe is one-fourth longer than the third. Back with the crests brownish, head 
yellow ; chin and throat with seven oblique blue streaks ; tail with broad brown rings. 

The typical specimens of this fine lizard are from Rangoon, and identical with the one 
described and figured by Cantor, which is now in the British Museum. It is 22|^ inches 
long, the tail measui-ing 16 inches. It was captured by Sir William Norris on the Pinang 
Hills, on the bank of a mountain stream, at an elevation of 2000 feet. It appeared slow in 
its movements and of general sluggish habits. 



BRONCHOCELA, Kaiqi. 

Tympaiiuni naked. Back and sides covered with scales equal in size and 
regularly arranged, the tips of those on the sides being directed backwards 
and downwards. Head without appendages or prominent spines. Dorsal 
crest present, formed by non-united spines. Gular sac but slightly developed. 
Tail not compressed, the scales on its lower side being* as broad as long-. 
Femoral pores none. 

The lizards of this genus are true Tree Lizards, of a more or less pure green colour ; they 
are found chiefiy in the Archipelago, but extend to the southern coasts of the continent, and 
several of the species belong to the most common lizards of the East Indies : they are not 
found in Ceylon. Their head is tetrahedral, not ornamented by prominent spines, but 
uniformly covered by small keeled scales. The nostril is small, round, lateral ; the eye of 
moderate size, with a round pupil ; the tympanum large. A pair of canine teeth above and 
below, between which are several smaller conical teeth ; lateral teeth compressed, tricuspid. 
These lizards are insectivorous. Tongue large, oblong, entirely attached to the gullet, not 
notched in front. The scales on the upper parts of the trunk are of equal size, keeled, in 
some species rather small, in others rather large ; they are regularly arranged, and their 
tips point backwards and downwards. A more or less developed crest commences on the 
neck, where it is always highest ; it does not extend on the tail. The gular poucli is but 
little developed, but there is generally a distinct fold before each shoulder. Ventral scales 
keeled. Tail exceedingly long, not compressed, covered with keeled scales; those on its 
lower surface are the largest, not longer than broad. Limbs long ; toes with bicarinated 
scales below. 

Three species are known to occur on the Indian continent : — 

About forty scales in a transverse series between vertebral line and belly . . B. cristatella, jj. 138. 
About twenty scales in a transverse series ; all the scales between tympanum 

and eye of equal size B. smaragdina, p. 138. 

About twenty scales in a transverse series ; a series of larger scales from the 

eye to the tympanum B.jubaia, i^. 139. 

T 



138 SAURIA. 

Bronchocela cristatella. The Gruning. 

Agama cristatella, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. p. 108. 

gutturosa, Merr. Amph. p. 51. 

moluccana, Less. Voy. Coqu. Rept. pi. 1. fig. 2. 

Bronchocela cristatella, Dum. ^- Bibr. iv. p. 395. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 30. 

Scales of the sides small, there being about forty in one of the transverse series ; ventral 
scales much larger, in foiu'teen longitudinal rows. A short series of three or four larger scales 
forms a continuation of the superciliary margin ; no other large scale on the temple. Nuchal 
crest low, formed by triangular spines ; it is not continued on the back, where the vertebral 
scales are scarcely prominent. The fourth hind toe is one-eighth longer than the third. 
Uniform grass-green. 

This species is very common in the Malayan countries and in numerous islands of the East 
Indian Archipelago — Sumatra, Java, Amboyna, Celebes, Borneo, Booroo, Philippines, &c. 
It moves and leaps with great quickness among the branches of trees. Cantor saw the 
colours of these lizards change suddenly to grey, brownish or blackish, sometimes with 
orange spots or with indistinct black network ; large, isolated, round black spots appeared 
on the head or back or round the tympanum. It attains to a length of 20 inches, the tail 
measuring 16 inches. 



Bronchocela smaragdina. 

Scales of the sides of moderate size, there being nineteen in one of the transverse series ; 
ventral scales twice as large as those on the sides, in twelve longitudinal series. All the 
scales between the orbit and tympanum are of the same small size. Nuchal crest slightly 
indicated by a series of larger, scarcely promment scales ; back without any trace of a crest, 
the scales along its vertebral Ime not being larger than the others. Gular pouch none ; 
sixteen series of scales across the throat, between the angles of the mouth. There is no fold 
of the skin before the shoulder, but the scales are considerably smaller than those of the 
throat. The hind leg extends beyond the extremity of the snout, if laid forwards ; the 
fourth huid toe is one-tifth longer than the third. Above uniform beautiful emerald-green, 
below greenish white ; both colours are separated by a yellow band, running along each side 
of the belly, extending over the hind part of the femur, and lost behind the root of the tail. 
This band has the same position as that which may be seen in many green Tree Snakes. 

Two specimens have been collected by Mouhot in Gamboja; they are 16f inches long, the 
tail measuring 13 inches. 



CALOTES. 139 

Bronchocela jubata. 

Bronchocela jubata, Dum. if Bibr. iv. p. 397. 
guttiu'osa, Gray, Lizards, p. 241 (not Merr.). 

Scales of moderate size, forming from fifty-two to fifty-six longitudinal series round the 
body ; those of the sides smaller than those of the belly ; a short series of rather larger scales 
continued from the superciliary margin, a second similar series from the middle of the eye to 
above the tympanum ; no other large scale before the tympanum. Dorsal crest high on the 
neck, formed by contiguous pointed lobes, its base covered by scales. Green, generally with 
some yellow spots on the neck. 

This species is common in Java; according to Bibron it occurs also in Pondicherry. It 
attains to a length of 21 inches, the tail measuring 16 inches. 



CALOTES. 

CaloteSj sp., Cuvier. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with scales equal in size and 
regularly arranged, the tips of those on the sides being directed backwards 
and upwards. Dorsal crest present, formed by non-united spines. Gular 
sac but slightly developed. Subcaudal scales as broad as long. Femoral 
pores none. 

The lizards of this genus are closely allied to BroncJiocela ; but whilst the latter are almost 
entirely confined to the Archipelago, the Calotes are found only on the continent, including 
Ceylon. As far as our present knowledge extends, the coast of Siam is the only country where 
both genera intermingle with each other. The chief structural difierence between both is in 
the direction of the scales. They are true Tree Lizards, some having the tail rather com- 
pressed at the base. They feed on insects, on tender leaves, and on berries. 

The following species are known : — 

* Two small groups of spines on each side of the neck. 

No fold in front of the shoulder C. versicolor, p. 140. 

A fold before the shoulder; scales on the sides much larger than 

those on the belly, not keeled C. nemoricola, p. 141. 

A fold before the shoulder ; scales on the sides nearly twice as large 

as those on the belly, strongly keeled C. mystaceus,^.\4!\. 

A fold before the shoulder ; scales on the sides nearly as large as 

those on the belly C. rouxii, p. 142. 

t2 



140 SAURIA. 

** Spines above the tympanum in a single continuous series. 

Scales between eye and tympanum small, of equal size C. ophiomachus, p. 142. 

(C. platyceps, p. 143.) 
A stripe of larger scales between eye and tympanum C. nigrilabris, p. 143. 

*** Three small groups of spines on each side of the head. 

A fold before the shoulder C. emma, p. 144. 

**** Tivo series of scales above each tympanum. 

Fifty-eight series of scales round the middle of the body . . . . C. maria, p. 144. 



Calotes versicolor. The Bloodsucker. 

Agama versicolor, Daiid. Rept. iii. p. 395. t. 44. 

tiedemanni, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. p. 109. Kaup, Isis, 1827, p. 619. t. 8. 

vultuosa, Harl. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. iv. p. 296. t. 19. 

Calotes versicolor, Dum. ^- Bibr. iv. p. 405. Gray, Lizards, p. 243. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. 
i. p. 170. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 649. Jerdon, ibid, p. 470. 

viridis, Gray, Ann. If Mag. Nat. Hist. 1846, xviii. p. 429 (not Jerdon or Blyth). 

rouxi, Blyth, I. c. xxi. p. 354 (not D. ^ B.). 

Two small groups of spines, perfectly separated from each other, above each tympanum*. 
Dorsal crest moderately elevated on the neck and anterior part of the trunk, extending on to 
the root of the tail in large individuals, and gradually disappearing on the middle of the 
trunk in younger ones. No fold in front of the shoulder, but the scales behind the lower 
jaw are much smaller than the others ; gular sac not developed. From thirty-nine to forty- 
three series of scales round the middle of the trunk. The hind foot (measured from the 
heel to the extremity of the fourth toe) is not much longer than the head in the adult, 
whilst it is considerably longer in the young. The coloration is very variable, sometimes 
uniform brownish or greyish-olive or yellowish. Generally broad brown bands across the 
back, interrupted by a yellowish lateral band. Black streaks radiate from the eye, and some 
of them are continued over the throat, running obliquely backwards ; belly frequently with 
greyish longitudinal stripes, one along the median line being the most distinct ; young and 
half-grown specimens have a dark, black-edged band across the interorbital region. 

The ground-colour is generally a light brownish olive, but the lizard can change it to 
bright red, to black, and to a mixture of both. This change is sometimes confined to the 
head, at other times diffused over the whole body and tail. A common state in which it may 
be seen (as stated by Mr. Jerdon) is, seated on a hedge or bush, with the tail and limbs black, 
head and neck yellow picked out with red, and the rest of the body red. Jerdon and Blyth 
agree that these bright, changeable colours are peculiar to the male during the breeding- 
season, which falls in the months of May and June. 

Mouhot has collected in Siam one of those fine variations of colours, which, however, 
appear to be infinite. It has the usual cross streaks between the eyes and the radiating 

* These spines are very small in specimens from Afghanistan, and a female from that country has no 
trace of them. 



CALOTES MYSTACEUS. 141 

lines round the orbit ; nearly the whole of the neck and anterior half of trunk are uniform 
brown ; the posterior half and the sides are grey, reticulated with black, and with black ocelli 
on the side of the belly ; tail with narrow black rings ; belly with the usual brown longi- 
tudinal streaks, and mottled with grey. 

This is one of the most common lizards, extending from Afghanistan over the whole 
continent of India to China ; it is very common in Ceylon, not extending into the temperate 
zone of the Himalayas. Ceylonese specimens are generally somewhat larger ; one of them 
measured 16 inches, the tail taking 11 inches. It is found in hedges and trees; it is known 
in Ceylon vmder the name of " Bloodsucker," a designation the origin of which cannot be 
satisfactorily traced ; in the opinion of Kelaart, the name was given to it from the occasional 
reddish hue of the throat and neck. The female lays from five to sixteen soft oval eggs, 
about |ths of an inch long, in hollows of trees, or in holes in the soil which they have 
burrowed, afterwards covering them up. The young appear in about eight or nine weeks. 
In a hot sunny day a solitary Bloodsucker may be seen on a Uvig or on a wall, basking in 
the sun, with mouth wide open. After a shower of rain numbers of them are seen to come 
down on the ground and pick up the larvse and small insects which fall from the trees 
during the showers. 



Calotes nemoricola. 

Calotes nemoricola, Jerdon, Jown. As. Soc, Beng. xxii. p. 471. 

One detached spine in front of three or two small ones on each side of the nape ; a fold 
of the skin before the shoulder. Scales of the sides very large, not keeled ; those of the 
abdomen much smaller, keeled. Dorsal crest extending only about one-third along the 
back ; where the dorsal crest terminates, the scales of the ridge are pointed. The scales at 
the base of the tail above are of rather large size. Green. 

These characters have been noted by Jerdon from a single specimen obtained near the foot 
of the Coonoor ghat of the Nilgherries. It was 18 inches long. 



Calotes mtstaceus. 

Calotes mystaceus, Dnm. ^- Bibr. iv. p. 408. Blyth, in Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. App. p. 47. 

Two gi-oups of small spines above each tympanum ; a series of scales, which are rather 
larger than those in the neighbourhood, runs from the eye to above the tympanum. A fold 
of the skin in front of the shoulder. Dorsal crest well developed : in adult males it is com- 
posed of long lanceolate lobes, which gradually become shorter behind, its continuation on 
the tail being a series of prominent spinous scales, which are rather larger than those in the 
lateral series. The crest is much lower in immature specimens. Scales on the sides of the 
body nearly twice as large as those on the belly ; the middle of the body is siUTOimded by 



142 SAURIA. 

about fifty longitudinal series of scales. The hind limb extends nearly to the tympanum, if 
laid forwards. Green, clouded with yellowish ; a series of large round purplish-brown spots 
along each side of the back. Lips yellowish. 

This species is found in the Birman Empire (Pegu), Siam, Mergui, and in Ceylon. We 
have received specimens from Gamboja and from Mergui. An old male measures nearly 
24 inches, the tail taking 19 inches. The specimen in the Paris Museum is not full-grown. 



Calotes rouxii. 

Calotes rouxii, Dum. ^ Bibr. iv. p. 407. 

Two small groups of spines, separated from each other, on each side of the neck. A fold 
in front of the shoulder. Tail compressed into a sharpish edge at its base, covered superiorly 
with very large pentagonal scales. Scales on the sides of the body nearly as large as those 
on the belly. Tail below with four longitudinal series of rhomboid, strongly keeled scales, 
each terminating in a point posteriorly. Brownish, uniform or spotted with black. 

The exact locality whence this species has been obtained is not known, nor has the species 
ever been identified by more recent observers. Jerdon enumerates a C. rouxii in his list of 
the Reptiles of Southern India (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 471) ; having seen a rough 
figure of this species in the collection of drawings in the possession of W. EUiott, Esq., 
I have come to the conclusion that this must be an undescribed species, having a pair of 
isolated spines immediately behind the orbit and a black fold of the skin before each 
shoulder. The male is represented as uniform blackish brovra, with yellow head and neck ; 
the female brown, with irregular dark cross bands. I propose for this species the name of 
C. elliotti. 

Mr. Blyth also has a C, rouxi from Biinna and Ceylon ; but this determination is as 
incorrect as that by Mr. Jerdon, the lizard in question having a row of three or four spines 
above the tympairum (see C. nigrilabris). 



Calotes ornioMACHUS. 

Lacerta calotes, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 367. 

Agama opliiomachus, Merr. Amph. p. 51. 

Calotes opliiomaclius, Gray, Syn. Rept. in Griff. Anim. Kingd. ix. p. 55. Dum. &^ Bibr. iv. p. 402 

Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. p. 169. Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceyl. p. 276. 
? Calotes vhidis, Kelaart, I. c. p. 171 (not Gray). 

A single series of spines descending obliquely backwards above the tympanum ; the spines 
at either end of the series are longer than those in the middle ; scales between eye and 
tympanum small, of equal size. Dorsal crest much elevated, extending on to the end of 
the trunk, gradually becoming lower behind ; gular sac but slightly developed ; a fold behind 
the lower jaw. About thirty-two series of scales round the middle of the trunk, twelve of 



CALOTES NIGKILABRIS. 143 

which belong to the belly. Dark green, with four or six narrow, vertical white bands on 
the body ; they are edged with brown in young specimens ; head lighter-coloui-ed or red ; 
tail with some white bands anteriorly, brown posteriorly, with darker rings. Generally 
some white streaks or spots on the limbs. 

The native country of this species is Ceylon and the neighbouring parts of Southern 
India. According to Blyth it is also found in the Nicobar Islands. It attains to a length 
of 26 inches, the tail being four times as long as the body. It is not rare in the jungle. 
Kelaart says that when the animal is irritated or alarmed at the sight of an enemy, its head 
and part of its neck and the crest become of a blood-red colour. When lying in a passive 
state, the head is of a light-yellow colour-. Sometimes parts of the head and neck put on 
a black colour. 

Mr. Blyth mentions another species, from Khasya, which he compares with C. ojohio- 
machus : — 

Calotes platyceps (Blyth, in Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. i. Append, p. 46). — Head much flatter than in 
C. ophiomachus ; the nuchal spines are less laterally compressed or widely flattened and more rigid, being 
scarcely at all expanded on their terminal half; a well-marked second sincipital crest above the ear, 
showing eight spines, the first three of which are short and the fifth longest. No black stripe through the 
eye. — Cherra Punji. 



Calotes nigrilabris. (Plate XIV. figs. D, D'.) 

Calotes rouxii, Blyth, in Journ. As. Soc. Bang. xxii. p. 64:7 (not Dum. &,- Bib?:). 
nigrilabris, Peters, in Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1860, p. 183. 

A smgle uninterrupted series of from three to six spines above and behind the posterior 
part of the tympanum ; scales between the eye and upper part of tympanum larger than the 
surrounding scales. Dorsal crest moderately developed, composed of slender pointed spines, 
gradually becoming lower posteriorly on the trunk, and continued on the tail as a series of 
prominent keels of the median row of scales. The scales round the basal portion of the tail 
are rather large, ua thirteen series. Scales on the side of the body smaller than those of the 
belly, which, again, are much smaller than the gular scales. A fold in front of the shoulder. 
The middle of the body is surrounded by forty-six longitudinal series of scales, twelve of 
which belong to the belly. The hind leg extends on to the eye, if laid forwards. The 
ground-colour is beautiful green, but the ornamental colours vary : — 

a. A male, 13^ inches long, is uniform green, with a broad black band along the lips to 
behind the tympanum ; tail brownish green, with distant, yellowish, brown-edged ocelli. 
Another male, rather younger, differs in having the lips and temples green, variegated with 
black. 

/3. Females, from 10 to 12 inches long, are green, with a narrow brownish-red vertebral 
band, passing into the brown tail, which is ornamented with ocelli as in a. Lips green, like 
the rest of the head ; a short white, black-edged streak behind the eye, not extending on to 
the tympanum. 



144 SAURIA. 

•y. A female, 12 inches long, has the brown vertebral band and the tail of variety /3, but 
the back is crossed by four angular yellow, black-edged streaks, the angles of which are 
directed backwards ; a white, black-edged streak below the eye, nearly reaching the tym- 
panum ; lips green. Legs with narrow yellow, black-edged cross bands. Fold before the 
shoulder black. 

B. A young specimen, 6 inches long, is green, with the black-edged cross bands of variety y, 
but of a white colour ; tail with whitish ocelli. 

This species is by no means very rare in Ceylon ; it is found in the environs of Newera 
Ellia. It was well known to Blyth, who gave a good description of varieties a and (3, but 
mistook it for C. rouxii. The description and the name given by Peters are applicable to 
variety a only. 

Figure D of Plate XIV. represents a female of variety y, D' the head of a male, variety a : 
both figures of the natural size. 



CaLOTES EMMA. 

Calotes emma, Gray, Lizards, p. 244. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 647. 

Three small groups of spines, completely separate from each other, on each side of the 
head — one behind the superciliary margin and two above each tympanum. Dorsal crest 
well developed on the neck and on the anterior part of the trunk, gradually disappearing 
behind. A transverse fold in front of each shoulder ; gular sac but little developed. Tail 
compressed. About fifty-one series of scales round the middle of the trunk. Brownish 
olive, with brown bands across the back, which are lighter in the middle and interrupted by a 
white band running along each side of the back ; eyelids with short, radiating brown streaks ; 
a brovra band from behind the eye to above the tympanum ; fold before the shoulder black, 
with an irregular white margin ; legs and tail with indistinct dark cross bands. 

An inhabitant of Mergui, whence we have received it from Professor Oldham, ranging 
northwards perhaps to the Khasya Hills; extremely doubtful as an inhabitant of Afghanistan. 
It attains to a length of 11 inches, the tail measuring 8 inches. Mr. Blyth mentions it amongst 
a collection made by Captain Bedmore at Scliwe Gyen on the Sitang River in Pegu. 



Calotes maria. 

Calotes mariaj Gray, Lizards, p. 243. 

? Calotes tricarinatus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beny. xxii. p. G50. 

Two series of larger scales, more or less prominent and spine-like according to age, above 
the tympanum, the upper being continuous with the superciliary ridge. Dorsal crest 
elevated only on the neck and on the anterior part of the trunk ; gular sac not developed ; 
male with a fold in front of the shoulder. About fifty-eight series of scales round the 



SALEA HORSFIELDII. 145 

middle of the trunk. Uniform green : elbow and heel with a yellowish-white spot ; some- 
times a light band edged with black along each side of the back. 

We have received specimens of this lizard from the Khasya Hills, and from Jamu, 
Himalayas, where it is found at an elevation of about 3000 feet. It attains to a length of 
16 inches, the tail measuring 12. Its occurrence in Afghanistan is more than doubtful. 



SALEA, Gray. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with strongly keeled scales 
of moderate size ; several larg-er scales are intermixed with the others on the 
side ; the scales form longitudinal series, and their tips are directed hack- 
wards ; head without any spines. A crest on the back ; gular sac none. 
Tail slightly compressed at the base, with keeled scales below, which are 
almost as broad as long. 

The head is tetrahedral, covered with small irregular shields above, which are nearly as 
large as the labials. Nostrils lateral, in the hinder part of a small shield. Canthus rostralis 
very distinct ; superciliary edge not prominent ; eye of moderate size ; tympanum as large 
as the eye. The trunk is slightly compressed, and covered with scales of moderate size 
which are sharply keeled and acutely pointed, the keels forming continuous longitudinal 
lines; the ventral and gular scales are similar in shape and size to those on the sides. 
There are three larger scales, separate from one another, and placed in the same longitudinal 
line somewhat below the middle of the sides. Throat without pouch or fold ; dorsal crest 
more or less developed. Tail long, tapering, slightly compressed at the base, uniformly 
covered with rhombic keeled scales, those at its lower side having very strong keels. The 
limbs are well developed ; the fourth hind toe is not much longer than the third. 

Only one species is known. 

Salea hoesfieldii. 

Salea liorsfieldii, Graij, Lizards, p. 242 (female). 

jerdonii, Gray, Ann. §• May. Nat. Hist, xviii. 1846, p. 429 (male). Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. xxii. p. 473. Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeyl. p. 167. 
Mecolepis trispiuosus, Dimierif, Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. viii. 1856, p. 564. pi. 24. fig. 1 (adult 

male = S.jerdonii, Gray). 

hirsutus, Dumeril, I. c. fig. 2 (immature male). 

sulcatus, Z)M?«eVi/, ;. c. fig. 3 (female = S. horsfieldii). In these three figures the larger scales 

have been omitted ; the colours are represented from preserved specimens. 

A series of scales between orbit and tympanum rather larger than the others on the side 

u 



146 SAURIA. 

of the neck. The hind leg extends to, or nearly to, the angle of the mouth, if laid forwards. 
The middle of the trunk is surrounded by about thirty-eight series of scales. Dorsal crest 
high in the adult male, composed of long, closely-set, lanceolate spines, a nuchal portion 
being separated fi'om the dorsal portion by a very short interspace ; it extends on to the 
tail ; it is much less developed in immature males in its altitudinal and longitudinal extent, 
and remains rudimentary in the female sex. An irregular black band, edged below with 
white, is most distinct between the orbit and the tympanum ; it is interrupted behind the 
ear and reappears before the shoulder-joint. The back is ornamented with irregular white 
and black cross bands — many white scales having a dark margin, and the black ones a red 
longitudinal streak. The isolated large scales are white. Head with red and white dots 
above ; spines of the dorsal crest partly black and partly red ; legs with bands similar to 
those of the back ; tail with broad brown rings. The females have less bright colours ; and 
the young ones broad brown bands across the back, between a pair of indistinct light longi- 
tudinal bands running along the sides of the back. 

This description of the colours is taken from drawings of living specimens in the possession 
of Walter Elliott, Esq. The coloration, however, appears to be very variable : Jerdon 
describes it as a bright grass-green marbled with brown, with some red marks on the head 
and nape and with a few white scales on the sides. The colours become darker at a low 
temperature, as is the case with many tropical lizards. 

This is the only species known, the S. (jularis of Blyth* evidently belonging to a different 
genus. It is found in the Nilgherries and at Newera Ellia in Ceylon, where it frequents 
bushes and hedges. The statement of its occurrence in Afghanistan depends on a label found 
with the typical specimens in the former collection of the East India Company. It attains 
to a length of 15 inches, the tail measuring 11 inches. 



ORIOCALOTES. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with scales of moderate size, 
between whicli larger ones are intermixed ; their tips are directed backwards 
and u])wards ; a spine behind the superciliary edge. Dorsal crest present, 
formed by non-united spines, less distinct in the female than in the male. 
Gular sac none. Tail rounded, with keeled scales below, which are as broad 
as long. 

Only one species is known. 

* Joiu'n. As. Soc. Beug. xxii. p. 473. 



ACANTHOSAURA. 147 

Oriocalotes minor. 

Calotes minor. Gray, Lizards, p. 24-1. 

This lizard has quite the appearance of a Calotes ; its head is covered above with small 
obtusely keeled shields, some on the superciliaries and on the occiput being larger than the 
rest. The canthus rostralis and the superciliary margin are but slightly prominent, and 
there is a small spine behind the latter ; neck and temples tubercular ; two groups of spines 
above each tympanum ; throat covered with small keeled scales ; a fold of the skin before 
each shoulder. Trunk but slightly compressed ; a low crest, composed of triangular spines, 
commences on the neck and is visible as a serrated ridge to the end of the trunk. The 
middle of the trunk is surrounded by forty-eight or fifty series of scales ; those on the sides 
are as large as those on the belly, but several very large ones are intermixed between the 
smaller ones on the sides ; tail covered with keeled scales equal in size and form. The hind 
limbs extend beyond the tympanum, if laid forwards ; the fourth hind toe is but little longer 
than the thii'd. Greyish olive, marbled with brown, the brown spots being sometimes band- 
like between the eyes, on the limbs, and across the base of the tail. Brown streaks radiate 
from the orbit. 

Some of the specimens received from the East India Company were marked as coming 
from Afghanistan, and others from Khasya; it is probable, however, that they were all 
from the latter country. Messrs. v. Schlagintweit found this lizard in Sikkim. It is a small 
species, attaining to the length of 7 inches, the tail taking 4^ inches. 



ACANTHOSAURA, Grai/. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with very small scales, between 
which, generally, larger keeled ones are scattered ; a free spine behind the 
superciliary edge. Dorsal crest present, formed by non-united spines. 
Gular sac none. Tail slightly compressed at the base, with keeled scales 
below, which are longer than broad. 

The three species known are confined to the continent, as far as our present knowledge 
extends. 

A long spine on each side of the neck ; orbital edge not serrated . . . . A. armata. 

No spine on the side of the neck A. capra. 

A short spine on each side of the neck ; orbital edge serrated A. coronata. 



"U2 



148 SAURIA. 

ACANTHOSAURA AEMATA. 

Agama armata. Gray, Zool. Journ. 1827, iii. p. 216. 

Acanthosaura armata, Gray, Lizards, p. 240. 

Lophyrus armatus, Bum. ^ Bibr. iv. p. 413. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 32. 

Body covered with small, rough, granular scales; larger scales, each termmating in a 
small spine, are scattered all over the back : a crest, slightly mterrupted on the neck, extends 
from the occiput to the root of the tail ; it is composed of spines, which are long, pointed on 
the neck and on the anterior part of the back, and short and triangular posteriorly ; two or 
three series of shorter spines cover the base of the crest. The upper orbital edge is promi- 
nent, sharp ; there is a long spine, surrounded by smaller ones, above the hinder angle of 
the orbit ; a similar spine with smaller ones at its base on each side of the neck above the 
tympanum. Tympanum as large as the eye. Gular sac none ; a fold before each shoulder, 
not extending across the throat. Ventral scales keeled ; twenty or twenty-two longitudinal 
series across the breast between the axils. The scales in the prseanal region are generally 
rather larger than those of the belly. Tail but slightly compressed, with all the scales keeled ; 
tliose on its lower surface are longer than broad, very strongly keeled, each keel terminating 
in a small spine. Limbs of moderate length ; the hind limb extends to the temple, if laid 
forwards. Toes with keeled scales below ; the foui'th toe (measured from the heel) is as long 
as, or only a little longer than, the head ; the third is one-fourth shorter. Greenish brown, 
with roundish lighter spots ; five or six black lines radiate from the orbit over the lip. 
Sometimes light-coloured, Avith irregular dark-brown spots. 

This species is found at Singapore, Pinang, on the coasts of Tenasserim and Siam 
(Chartaboum), and in Cochinchina, but does not appear to be numerous. We have examined 
specimens 12J inches long, the tail taking 7. Dr. Cantor observes that two live specimens 
(which arc now in the British Museum) were very active and fierce, possessed in a slight 
degree the power of clianging the ground-colour, and refused food and water. In a female 
were found thirteen eggs, of an oval shape, f ths of an inch long. The stomach contained 
fragments of leaves and twigs. 



Acanthosaura capra. (Plate XIV. fig. F.) 

Acantliosaura capra, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 18G1, April 23, p. 188. 

Back and sides covered with small but imbricate smooth scales, which become gradually 
somewhat larger and more distinctly keeled towards the belly ; no large scales intermixed 
with tlie small ones, only a few appearing to be a little larger than the rest. Nuchal crest 
separated from the dorsal crest by a small interspace ; the former is composed of long, pointed, 
compressed spines; the latter of triangular scales, which are of moderate size anteriorly, 
becoming smaller behind. The upper orbital edge is rather prominent, terminating in a long 
spine behind, with some small spines at its base. No spine on the side of the neck. Tym- 
panum smaller than the eye. Throat expansible, without appendage ; a short fold before 



. ACANTHOSAURA CORONATA. 149 

each shoulder. Ventral scales small, strongly keeled ; tAventy-four longitudinal series across 
the breast, between the axils. The scales in the prseanal region not larger than tliose of the 
belly. Tail slightly compressed at the base, with all the scales keeled ; those on its lower 
surface are longer than broad, very strongly keeled, each keel terminating in a small spine. 
Limbs of moderate length ; the hind limb extends to the temple, if laid forwards. Toes with 
keeled scales below ; the fourth toe (measured from the heel) is as long as the head ; the 
third is one-third shorter. Greenish brown, with indistinct, roundish light spots ; throat of 
the adult blackish brown, with an orange-coloured streak along the middle. 

Two specimens were collected by Mouhot, at Chartaboum, on the coast of Siam ; the larger 
is 13 inches long, the tail measuring 8; the other is only half that size, and has the post- 
orbital spine and the nuchal crest Avell developed, though comparatively lower. 



xiCANTHOSAURA CORONATA. (Plate XIV. fig. E.) 

Acanthosaura coronata, Gilnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, April 23, p. 187. 

Back and sides covered with small, imbricate, smooth scales, the tips of which are slightly 
turned towards the dorsal line ; larger keeled scales are scattered between the small ones. 
A low crest formed by triangular scales runs from the nape to the root of the tail, where it 
is very indistinct. The supraorbital edge is very prominent, sharp, serrated behind ; a very 
short conical spine behind the supraorbital edge, separated from it by a deep incision. 
Another short spine on each side of the neck, midway between the tympanum and nuchal 
crest. Tympanum neai-ly as large as the eye. No gular sac ; an oblique fold before each 
shoulder, not extending across the throat. Ventral scales keeled ; eighteen longitudinal 
series across the breast, between the axils ; pra;anal scales not larger than ventrals. Tail 
slightly compressed at the base, with all the scales keeled ; those on its lower surface are 
longer than broad and very strongly keeled. Limbs of moderate length ; the hind limb 
extends to the eye, if laid forwards. Toes with keeled scales below ; the fourth toe (measured 
from the heel) is as long as, or shorter than, the head ; the third is one-third shorter. The 
ground-colour of the male is grey, of the female brownish red ; irregular dark-brown bands 
across the back and the legs. A yellowish-olive band edged with black across the crown, 
from one superciliary edge to the other ; an oblique, short yellow band, broadly edged with 
brown, from below the orbit to the angle of the mouth. Four short brown streaks radiate 
from the upper eyelid over the lower surface of the prominent superciliary edge. 

Several specimens have been collected at Chartaboum together with A. armata and A. capru. 
An adult pregnant female is 1 inches long, of which one-half is taken by the tail ; we have 
figured it on Plate XIV. 



150 SAURIA. 



ORIOTIARIS. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with very small scales, 
between which larger keeled ones are scattered ; a tubercle behind the 
superciliary edge. Dorsal crest very low, formed by a series of larger, 
keeled, not prominent scales. Gular sac none. Tail not compressed, with 
keeled scales below, which are almost as broad as long. 

Only one species is known. 



Oriotiaris elliotti. 

Tiaris elliotti, Gimth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 151. pi. 25. fig. B. 

The head is rather high, with a sharp canthus rostralis, short snout, and convex upper 
eyelids ; it is covered with numerous slightly keeled scales, and one situated in the middle of 
the occiput appears to be rather larger than the others ; the width of the space between the 
bony orbits is very narrow ; the canthus rostralis and the margin of the upper eyelid form 
one continuous sharp edge. The rostral shield is very low, like the upper labials, which are 
five in number. The nostril is very small, in a single shield, which is situated between the 
canthus rostralis and the first labial. The loreal region is a little concave, and covered with 
small irregular shields. The median shield of the lower jaw is sub triangular and longer 
than broad; there are five lower labials on each side, the remainder of the throat being 
covered with imbricate and keeled scales. There is a small conical tubercle behind, and 
detached from, the orbital edge ; and another similar tubercle on each side of the throat below 
the tympanum ; a series of tubercles proceeds from above the tympanum, and is bent inwards 
to the nuchal ridge. The tympanum itself is small and subcircular. There is no fold across 
the throat, but a transverse band of rather smaller scales. 

The trunk is rounded, in the female depressed ; a series of larger, keeled scales mns along 
the middle of the neck and back to the base of the tail, and forms a sort of dorsal crest ; 
the back and the sides are covered with small scales of unequal size and quite irregularly 
arranged ; they are intermixed with scattered, considerably larger scales, which are dis- 
tinctly keeled. The scales of the belly are imbricate, rhombic, more equal in size and more 
regularly arranged and slightly keeled ; the praeanal are like those of the belly ; prteanal 
pores none. 

The tail is very long, slender, rounded at the base, and covered on all sides with rhombic, 
keeled, imbricate scales ; it is not verticillated. 

The upper parts of the extremities are covered with very large and strongly keeled scales ; 
some scales on the hinder side of the femur have even two or three keels. The fore leg 



TIARIS. 151 

reaches to the loin, if laid backwards ; the hind leg, if laid forwards, nearly to the end of 
the snout. The fourth hind toe is one-fourth longer than the third. 

The ground-colour of the upper parts is brownish ; uniform in the females, variegated with 
darker in the males Some of the large scales of the back appear to have been iridescent 
during life. The lower parts are uniform dull yellowish. 

This species attains to a length of nearly 7 inches, the tail measuring 4|. It inhabits 
the Sikkim parts of the Himalayas, and has been obtained at an altitude of 9200 feet. 



TIARIS. 

Tiaris, {Bum. ^ Bib)-.) Gray, Lizards, p. 239. 

Tympanum naked. Back and sides covered with small imbricate scales 
with scattered larger ones ; no spine behind the superciliary margin. Dorsal 
crest present, formed by non-united spines ; gular sac present, at least in the 
males. A fold before the shoulder. Femoral pores none. 

Species from New Guinea and from the Philippine Islands have been refeiTed to this 
genus. Mr. Blyth considers a lizard from the Andaman Islands also as belonging to it. 

Tiara subcristata (Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxix. p. 109). — A low nuchal crest, and merely a shght 
serrated ridge along the back ; gular pouch in the males only, covered with small smooth scales of equal 
size ; ventral scales keeled ; those of the upper parts minute, arranged in irregular transverse series, their 
keels presenting a tuberculated appearance except towards the ridge of the back : a row of about ten large 
tubercles on each side, commencing from the occiput. Colours various, the young being much speckled 
and reticulated with greyish black ; the full-grown mostly plain, with dark bands on the tail more or less 
distinct. Length 12 inches, of which the tail is 8^ inches. Common at Port Blair. 



152 SAURIA. 

PHYSIGNATHUS, Cuv. 

Tympanum naked; the upper parts covered with minute granular scales 
of equal size, arranged in transverse series ; throat tubercular ; ventral scales 
smooth ; head without any spines. A crest on the back and tail ; a fold 
across the throat. Tail compressed, covered with keeled scales, those at 
its lower side rather broader than long, strongly keeled. A series of pores 
on the inner side of the femur. 

Head tetrahedral, covered above with minute granular scales, with some larger scales along 
the canthus rostralis ; snout obtuse ; nostril lateral, in the middle of a small shield ; eyebrows 
not prominent ; eyes of moderate size ; eyelid scaly. Teeth compressed, triangular ; a pair of 
small canine teeth in each jaw. Tongue slightly notched. Labial shields numerous; a series 
of shields along each side of the throat ; skin of the throat lax, covered with tubercular scales ; 
the tubercles on the side of the throat are unequal in size, larger ones being mixed between 
smaller ones, and three or four in the middle between angle of the mouth and shoulder 
being the largest, conically prominent. A fold across the throat, none before the shoulder. 
Trunk of the adult compressed, and elevated into a sharp ridge ; the body of the young is 
more rounded. The scales are uniformly small, granular, disposed in transverse series. 
Adult specimens with a crest, composed of more or less elongate lobes according to the age 
of the individual ; the crest is more or less distinctly interrupted above the fore and hind 
legs. Belly covered with small, smooth, rhombic scales. The tail is very long, and strongly 
compressed; the crest of the back is continued for some distance, and gradually passes into 
a double, minutely serrated ridge ; the sides of the tail are covered with keeled rhombic 
scales, smaller than those at its lower siu-face, where they are strongly keeled. Legs rather 
long ; the hind toes are slightly fringed along the outer edge ; the scales at their lower side 
are not keeled. 

The lizards of this genus attain to a larger size than the other Indian Agamidce, and 
approach the Iguanidce in general habit. Nothing is known of their habits. 

Only two species are known : — 

Six or seven intralabial shields Ph. cochinchinemis. 

Eleven intralabial shields Ph. mentager. 



LIOLEPIS. 153 



Physignathus cochinchinensis. 



Physignathus cocincinus, Cuv. Regne Anim. 

Lophura cuvieri, Gray, in Griff. Anim. Kingd. ix., Syn. Rept. p. 60. 

concinna, Gray, I. c. p. 61. 

Istiurus physignathus, Dum. ^ Bibr. iv. p. 387. 

An occipital shield is present, flat and subcircular ; thirty-six molar teeth in each jaw ; a 
series of six or seven shields along each side of the throat. Greenish olive : tail with bro\vn 
cross bands. 

This species, which we have not seen, is from Cochinchma. A specimen in the Paris 
Museum is 28 inches long, the mutilated tail taking 17 inches. 



Physignathus mentagee. (Plate XV.) 

Dilophynis mentager, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 188. 

Occipital shield very small, one-thu'd of the size of the tympanum, circular ; eleven molar 
teeth on each side of the upper jaw, and twelve in the lower ; a series of eleven shields along 
each side of the throat. Five or six pores on the inner side of the femur. Green : tail with 
brown cross bands. 

A specimen of this species was sent by Mouhot from Chartaboum, on the coast of Siam ; 
it is stuffed, 30 inches long, the tail measuring 21 inches. In a second specimen, sent by 
the same collector from Pachebone, and preserved in spirits, I was enabled to ascertain that 
femoral pores are present, and consequently that this species does not belong to the genus 
Dilopkyrus. The longest lobes of the dorsal crest are as long as the inner front toe in the 
adult specimen, whilst they are only half as long in the other, which is 21 inches long. 



LIOLEPIS, Cuv. 

Tympanum naked ; the upper parts covered with minute granular scales 
of equal size ; tail depressed, with very small, square, keeled scales arranged 
in transverse series ; throat with two transverse folds ; no dorsal crest ; 
ventral scales small, smooth. Femoral pores. Skin of the sides of the 
trunk very lax, capable of being expanded into a sort of wing, supported by 
the very long anterior spurious ribs. 

Only one species is known. 



154 SAURIA. 



LlOLEPIS GUTTATUS. 



Leiolepis guttatus, Cuv. Regne Anim. Dum. ^ Bibr. iv. p. 465. pi. 43. fig. 1. 
Uromastix belliana, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

Leiolepis reevesii. Gray, Lizards, p. 263. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 44. 
bellii. Gray, Lizards, p. 263. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 41. 

Head tetrahedral, with a distinct canthus rostralis ; body and tail depressed ; legs strong. 
Snout covered above vdth keeled scales, the remainder of the upper and lateral parts of the 
head being granular. Rostral and mental shields large, the latter pentagonal, much longer 
than broad. Throat granulated, with two transverse folds extending upwards to the side 
of the neck ; a series of small shields commences at the chin, runs backwards along each 
side of the throat, and is separated from the labials by smaller shields. Nostril lateral, 
ovate ; eye of moderate size, with the eyelids scaly ; tympanum as large as the eye, ovate 
in its vertical diameter. Trunk depressed, with a lateral fold of the skin ; it is covered 
with minute granular scales above, each scale being raised into a conical tubercle ; ventral 
scales small, smooth, rhombic. Tail depressed, long, tapering, covered vdth very small keeled 
scales arranged in cross rings; the scales are smallest in the middle of the upper surface, 
and largest below. Limbs strong ; the hind limb extending nearly to the tympanum, if laid 
forwards; toes with keeled scales below, armed with strong claws, those of the fore toes 
being much longer than those of the hind toes ; the third hind toe is one-thu'd shorter than 
the foui'th. Each femur with a series of from thirteen to nineteen pores, not extenduig into 
the prseanal region ; each pore is in a separate scale. 

Blackish grey above, with series of yellow, black-edged spots ; some of the spots are con- 
fluent, entirely black, forming irregular longitudinal bands : in Chinese specimens the spots 
are not confluent, forming regular ocelli {L. reevesii). The expanded membrane black, with 
seven or eight broad transverse bands of a brilliant orange. The tail above with numerous 
small pale-yellow spots ; fore legs with rounded orange-coloured spots ; hind legs dotted with 
yellow. Throat pale azure ; belly pale orange, reticulated with blue ; lower eyelid pure white. 

For a more intimate knowledge of this lizard we are indebted to Cantor, who had the 
opportunity of observing li\ing specimens, and who discovered the presence of an expansible 
wing-membrane. " In a state of repose it appears like a longitudinal loose fold ; expanded the 
external margin becomes arched, the trunk and the membranes forming a gi'eatly flattened 
oval disk, resembling the hood of Naja. Like the mechanism of the genus Draco, the mem- 
branes are .expanded by means of the very long six anterior pairs of spurious ribs, which the 
lizard has the power of moving forward at a right angle with the vertebral column. The 
wings are used as a parachute in leaping from branch to branch, after which they immediately 
resume their state of repose. Sudden fear or anger will also cause a momentary expansion. 
The specimens which were obtained from a spice plantation in the province Wellesley were 
active and swift, more so than their rather heavy make would induce one to believe, and they 
would bite and scratch when handled, although among themselves, in a spacious cage, they 
appeared peaceable. They were fed with soft fi'uit and boiled rice." 

I have seen specimens from the Malayan Peninsula, from Mergui, from Gamboja, and from 
China. One of the largest measured 19 inches, the tail taking 13 inches. 



UROMASTIX HARDWICKII. 155 

UROMASTIX, Merrem. 

Tympanum naked ; the upper parts covered with minute granuhir scales 
of equal size ; tail depressed, surrounded by rings of spinous tubercles, not 
extending on its lower side ; throat with a transverse fold ; no dorsal crest ; 
ventral scales small, smooth. Femoral and praeanal pores. 

Only one species is knoA^Ti from India, the others belonging to the North-African fauna. 
Inhabitants of rocky parts of plains. 

Ubomastix haedwickii. 

Uromastix hardwickii, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii. p. 219; Illustr. Ind. Zool. c. tab. 

reticulatus, Ctm. Begne Anim. 

Saara hardwickii, Gray, Lizards, p. 262. 

Head short, obtuse ; body and tail depressed ; legs stout. Snout covered above with small 
shields, the remainder of the head being finely granular, with the exception of a few larger 
tubercles between the orbit and the tympanum ; canthus rostralis indistinct, bent downwards 
over the nostril ; labial shields very small, the hinder of the upper lip being triangular lobes ; 
a series of larger scales along each side of the throat, separated from the lower labials by a 
granular interspace. Nostril lateral ; eye rather small, eyelids scaly ; tympanum deeply sunk, 
larger than the eye, ovate in the perpendicular dkection, frmged with small tubercles in 
front. Skin of the throat very lax, folded. The tail is depressed, very thick anteriorly, 
tapering behind, di\'ided into numerous rings, each with a transverse series of small spinous 
shields ; the interspaces between these series are finely granular. The lower part of the tail 
is smooth, covered with small scales, which are rather larger than those of the belly ; the 
shields of the upper parts are visible also below, but they do not reach across the tail, and only 
those on the hind part of the tail are keeled. The legs are stout, and armed with strong claws ; 
the fore leg is covered with small smooth scales. Femur with smooth imbricate scales in 
front, and with a few small tubercles above ; the lower hind leg with several conical tubercles 
of unequal size. The hind leg does not extend on to the axil, if laid forwards. Toes rather 
short, with keeled scales below ; the fourth hind toe is one-third longer than the third. A 
series of eighteen pores extends from the end of the femur to the middle of the praeanal 
region ; it is curved, and not continuous with that of the other side ; each pore is surrounded 
by several small scales. 

Lighter or darker yellowish grey, or greyish olive, uniform, or clouded, or with waved 
blackish transverse hues ; sometimes a large black spot on the inner side of the femur. 

This lizard inhabits the plains of Hindostan ; we have seen specimens from Kanouge, 
from Kurrachee, and from Goojerat : it is not found in Bengal. It attains to a length of 
13 inches, the tail measuring 5^ inches. 

s2 



156 SAURIA. 

CHARASIA, Gray. 

Tympanum naked. Body depressed, covered with small, imbricate, 
keeled scales equal in size, and regularly arranged in transverse series : tail 
slightly compressed, with cross rows of small, keeled scales ; those at its 
lower side small, truncated. Throat with a cross fold ; no gular sac ; a 
low dorsal crest ; ventral scales small, smooth. Femoral or praeanal pores 
none. 

Only one species is known. 



Charasia doesalis. 

Agama dorsalis, Gray, Syn. Rept. in Griff. Anim. Kingd. p. 56. Dum. ^ Bibr. iv. p. 486. Jerdon, 

Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 475. 
Charasia dorsalis, Gray, Lizards, p. 246. 

Head depressed, oblong, triangular ; body depressed ; tail slightly compressed, tapering, of 
moderate length. The upper parts of the head are covered with very small flat shields ; only 
those along the canthus rostralis, which is rather sharp, are larger than the rest. Throat 
covered with very small smooth scales ; a series of five larger scales along each side of the 
chin, separated from the lower labials; the median lower labial is elongate, triangular, 
pointed behind. Teeth small, triangular ; tongue slightly notched in front. Tympanum as 
large as the eye ; two groups of small spines above each tympanum. The scales on the back 
and sides are regularly arranged in transverse series, slightly keeled, with the points directed 
obliquely upwards ; the middle of the body is surrounded by about 130 series of scales. The 
dorsal crest is very low, slightly prominent on the neck, and continued as a series of strongly 
keeled, prominent scales along the back and anterior part of the tail. Praeanal scales not 
different from those of the belly. The scales on the tail are similar to those on the trunk, 
but rather larger, and the scales at its lower side are obtusely rounded or subtruncated 
behind. Legs strong; the hind leg extends beyond the tympanum, if laid forwards: the 
toes are armed with claws of moderate strength ; the fourth hind toe is one-fifth longer than 
the third. The colour is brownish yellow or dusky grey on the back ; a black band com- 
mences behind the eye, and another behind the angle of the mouth ; the former is continued 
on, and spreads over the sides of the body ; legs dotted with black. The male is sometimes 
of a brighter colom- — red or yellow on the back, black on the sides and on the belly. 

This is a rock lizard, and, according to Mr. Jerdon, it is partially distributed in Southern 
India, and only found at some elevation above the sea. It is most abundant in Mysore, and 
especially in the neighbourhood of Bangalore, where it may be seen on every bare rock. 



STELLIO TUBERCULATUS. 157 

It is not uncommon also on the edges of the Nilgherries up to the height of nearly 6000 feet. 
Mr. W. Theobald has collected specimens from Pind Dadun Khan. 

It attains to a length of from 15 to 16 inches, of which the tail takes 11 inches. 



STELLIO, Baud, 

Tympanum naked. Body depressed, covered above and laterally with 
scales unequal in size and shape ; tail rounded, taperinj^, surrounded by 
rings of more or less prominent spinous scales. Throat with a cross fold ; 
no gular sac ; nuchal crest none or rudimentary ; ventral scales small, 
smooth ; femoral and preeanal pores none. 

We refer to this genus not only the African type, Stellio cordylinus, distinguished by the 
large spinous scales of the tail, but also an Indian lizard, Laudakia tuherculata. Gray, in 
which the caudal spines are reduced to prominent keels of the scales. The latter agrees in 
this respect with a third species of Stellio, the St. cyanogaster of Riippell, from Arabia, 
which, however, has a small crest on the neck. These lizards have no true prseanal pores* ; 
but the epidermis of all the scales in the preeanal region becomes thickened, callous, and of 
a brown colour in the males during the breeding-season. 

Only one species is known from British India. 



Stellio tuberculatus. 

Agama tubercxilata, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. c. fig. mediocri. Bum. Sf Bibr, iv. p. 488. 

Laudakia tiiberculata, Gray, Lizards, p. 254. 

? Stellio indicus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 646. 

BarycepLalus sykesii, Gunth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 150. pi. 25. fig. A. 

The head is rather depressed and flat, with the canthus rostralis distinct and with the 
snout of moderate length ; it is covered above with numerous very small shields ; there is a 
shield in the middle of the occipital region, which is rather larger than the others, but it is 
not present in all the specimens ; a series of slightly keeled shields runs along the median 
line of the snout. The width of the space between the bony orbits is one-half that of the 
upper eyelid. The rostral shield is low, twice as broad as high : there are twelve upper 

* Gray and Bibron speak of preeanal pores in Laudakia tuberculata, which is the reason of my not 
having at first recognized this species, and, considering it as a new form, I described it as Barycephalns 
sykesii. 



158 SAURIA. 

labials. The nostril is in a single shield, which is situated between the canthus rostralis and 
the first upper labial. The loreal region is concave, and covered with minute shields. The 
median shield of the lower jaw is subpentagonal, and longer than broad ; the lower labials 
are eleven in number, and higher than those of the upper lip ; several other series of very 
small shields run parallel to that of the labials, the remainder of the throat being covered 
with minute granules. A low spiny crest proceeds from below the eye to the tympanum, 
the anterior circumference of which is also provided with spinous scales ; there are several 
other groups of spines between the tympanum and the fold of the throat, and on the sides of 
the neck, which is exceedingly finely granulated. 

The trunk is depressed and flattened: the back is covered with small imbricate scales, 
each being provided with a strong keel ; they gradually pass into the granulations of the 
sides, which, however, are intermixed with small scattered spines. The belly is covered with 
smooth square shields arranged in transverse series ; they are so small that I counted fifty of 
them m one of the series in the middle of the belly. 

The tail is considerably depressed at the base, assumes gradually a more conical form, and 
tapers posteriorly into a fine point ; it is verticillated. The scales form rings, are quadrangular 
and strongly keeled, each keel terminating posteriorly in a small spine. The scales which 
are the largest and provided with the strongest keels are those on the anterior and superior 
parts of the extremities; the scales round the joints and on the posterior and inferior sides 
are smaller and smooth. The fore leg reaches to the loin, if laid backwai-ds ; the third and 
fourth fingers are the longest, and equal in length ; the second and fifth are shorter, and 
equal each other in length ; the first is the shortest. All the fingers and toes are slightly 
compressed and armed with strong claws. The hind leg reaches to the end of the snout, if 
laid forwards ; the fourth toe is the longest, somewhat longer than the third and fifth, which 
are nearly equal ; the second is considerably shorter, and the fii'st is the shortest. 

The ground-colour of the upper parts is a dusky brown, the back being ii-regularly speckled 
with black ; two of the specimens exhibit also some lighter indistinct spots ; the lower parts 
are whitish ; the throat is reticulated with greenish ; one specimen has the breast dotted with 
bluish green. 

Our specimens were obtained at Simla, and in Tibet, where it extends to an elevation of 
15,000 feet, according to a statement of Messrs. von Schlagintweit, who collected these 
specimens. If I am correct in referring the Stellio mclicus of Blyth (which is very super- 
ficially characterized) to this species, it occurs also in Upper Hindostan (Mirzapore, Wuzeer- 
abad). It attains to a length of 11 or 12 inches, the tail measuring 7 or 8 inches. 



TEAPELUS MEGALONYX. 159 

TRAPELUS. 

Trapelus, {Cuv.) Gray, Lizards, p. 258, 

Tympanum naked. Body depressed, covered with irregular scales unequal 
in size ; tail rounded, tapering, covered with imbricate keeled scales, not 
arranged in rings ; head and neck without spines. Throat with a cross fold ; 
nuchal crest none, or rudimentary; a series of anal pores in the male. 

This is a North- African genus, extending into Western Asia ; the following species appears 
to reach farthest westwards into British India. 



TkAPELUS MEGALONYX. (Plate XIV. fig. C.) 

Head thick, short, triangular, covered above with numerous small convex shields ; canthus 
rostralis none ; superciliary edge prominent, shielded with longish, narrow plates ; nostril 
anteriorly on the snout ; the upper lip is surrounded by thirty-nine small square labials, the 
rostral scarcely differing from them in size or shape. Ear small, deeply sunk ; its upper 
margin slightly denticulated ; throat covered with very small smooth scales ; a transverse fold 
across the whole throat. No trace of a crest on the neck. Body above covered with rather 
small, rhombic, keeled scales, irregularly arranged, with numerous larger ones scattered over 
the whole of the back and of the sides ; ventral scales small, very indistinctly keeled, in 
about twenty-two oblique series between the fore legs. No anal pores in the female. All 
the scales on the tail are rhombic, keeled, imbricate, subequal in size. Legs rather slender : 
the fore leg reaches beyond the hip-joint, if laid backwards ; the fingers are strong, provided 
below with a triple series of spines, and armed with very strong and long claws, each of 
which is at least as long as the thumb without claw. The hind leg extends to the eye, if 
laid forwards ; toes with the claws of moderate strength, one-third as long as those of the 
fore leg ; the fourth toe is one-fourth longer than the third. 

Greyish, marbled with brown ; a series of six ocellated white spots, edged with blackish, 
along the vertebral line. 

The specimen on which I have founded this species is 5^ inches long, the tail measuring 
3 inches. It formed part of Mr. Grifiith's collections which were sent to the Museum of 
the East India Company, and which were afterwards transferred to the British Museum. 
The collections made by Griffith being from Afghanistan and from Khasya, it is probable 
that this species, belonging to a western genus, was obtained in the former country. 
Moreover, as the Afghan collection was not in so good a state of preservation as the 
Khasyan, and as this specimen of Trapelus is in much the same state of preservation as the 
other specimens of Griffith's Afghan collection, it is reasonable to conclude that it came from 
Afghanistan, and not from Khasya. 



160 SAURIA. 

PHRYNOCEPHALUS, Kaup. 

Head very short, depressed, obtusely rounded in front ; nostrils in front 
of the snout, directed upwards and forwards. Tympanum hidden. Body 
and tail depressed, covered with very small scales ; no dorsal crest what- 
ever ; throat with a transverse fold ; no prseaiial or femoral pores. 

The species of this genus may be easily recognized by the form of the head, which is 
extremely short, and almost as broad as long ; there is no canthus rostralis ; and a very distinct 
groove runs round the upper jaw, above the labial shields. The nostrils are entirely in front 
of the snout, being directed forwards. Labial shields numerous, small, square, or sometimes 
triangular, like fringes ; rostral none, replaced by several labials. Tongue slightly pointed, 
not notched. Eyes rather small, with the eyelids well developed, the upper being hidden 
below the projecting superciliary ridge. Head covered above with small shields, those on 
the snout and occiput being the largest and convex. Throat with granular scales. Trunk 
much depressed, covered with veiy small scales above, which become granular on the sides ; 
those of the belly are rather larger than those on the back. Tail depressed, at least at its 
base, in some species rather slender, in others somewhat stouter, and said to be prehensile ; 
it is covered with scales similar to those on the trunk. Legs well developed. 

This genus is peculiar to Central Asia ; but the two following species extend southwards 
to Afghanistan and to the southern parts of Tibet. They are probably inhabitants of rocky 
parts, and we doubt much whether the tail of some of the species is truly prehensile. 

Tail slender, with spinous tubercles at its base .... Ph. tickelii. 

Tail stoutish, without tubercles Ph. caudivolvulus. 

PHRYNOCEPHALUS TICKELII. 

? Phrynocephalus olivieri. Bum. ^ Bibr. iv. p. 517. 
Phrynocephalus tickelii, Gray, lAzards, p. 260. 

Tail depressed at the base, slender, not prehensile, vnth. a series of small spinous tubercles 
along each side of its basal portion. Scales of the upper parts of equal size, except in the 
sacral region, where some larger ones are intermixed with the others. Thirty-one upper 
labials, most of which are triangular and slightly pointed. The hind leg extends to the eye, 
if laid forwards. Tail with alternate broad whitish and blackish rings. 



'b'- 



The typical specimen of Ph. tickelii is from Afghanistan, and in a bad state of preservation. 
It is at all events very closely allied to, if not identical with. Ph. olivieri. The latter appears 
to have square upper labial shields, more numerous larger dorsal scales, and tubercles on the 
root of the tail. Whether these differences are of specific value, we cannot decide from a 



PHRYNOCEPHALUS CAUDIVOLVULUS. 161 

single example. The tail is so slender that it cannot have been used as a prehensile organ. 
Our specimen is 4 inches long, the tail measuring 2^ inches. 



PhEYNOCEPHALUS CAUDIVOLVULUS. 

Lacerta caiidivolvula, Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-As. iii. p. 27. 

Phrynocephalus caudivolviilus, Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 144. Eichw. Faun. Casp.-Cauc. Rept. p. 85. 

t. 13. f. 6, 7, t. 13. f. 9-14. Bum. ^- Bibr. iv. p. 522. 
Agama ocellata, Lichtenst. in Eversm. Reis. p. 143. 
Phrynocephalus tickeliij Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 161 (not Gray), 

Tail depressed in its whole length, stoutish (prehensile "?), without any tubercles. All the 
scales of the upper parts of equal size, very small. Twenty-six quadrangular upper labials. 
The hind leg does not quite extend to the eye, if laid forwards. Greyish olive marbled with 
blackish ; tail with a series of irregular blackish spots on each side ; adult specimens with 
the middle of the belly and the terminal portion of the tail black. 

The specimens which I formerly referred to Ph. ticJcelii, but which, on a renewed examina- 
tion, I consider as identical with Ph. caudivolvulus, were obtained by Messrs. von Schlagint- 
weit, in Tibet, and, according to their statement, at an elevation of more than 15,000 feet 
above the level of the sea. The species appears to be common in Tartary and other parts of 
Central Asia. At my request. Professor Peters of Berlin has kindly compared the Tibetan 
examples vdth the typical specimen, and informs me that they are specifically identical. A 
full-grown specimen is 4 inches long, the tail measuring 2^ inches. 



AjJjJendix to the Agamidce. 

Mr. Blyth has shortly indicated an Agamoid Lizard which had been sent to him by Mr. Jerdon from 
Sagur. It is just possible that this animal may be recognized when rediscovered; but from the description 
alone it is impossible to characterize the new genus Brachysaura, or to fix its position in the family of 
Agamidae. 

Brachysatjra ornata (Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxv. 1856, p. 448). — A Calotes with enormous 
head, short and thick body, the tail not exceeding the body in length, and the toes also short and strong ; 
a slight nuchal crest, and medial dorsal ridge composed of a row of high keeled scales ; two detached tufts 
of sincipital spines, one contiguous to the tympanum, and each comprising one principal spine. Coloui' 
olive, with a row of large round dark spots, bordered and set off with white, along the back and anterior 
half of the tail, continued as simple indistinct dark spots to the end of the tail ; the white broader and 
forming a kind of pale spot on each side of the neck ; and anterior to this first large spot is a small one 
upon the crest ; lower parts yellowish white, the throat regularly speckled with pale dusky ; a conspicuous 
oblique white band passing from beneath the eye to the angle of the mouth. Scales of the body in trans- 
verse bands, the oblique tendency much less conspicuous than in Calotes. 



162 SAURIA. 

FAMILY OF CnXMElMOK^—CHAMyELEONID^. 

Head larg-e, angular, covered with numerous very small, flattish or convex 
shields ; body compressed, covered with granular scales above and below ; 
tail long and prehensile. Tongue exceedingly long, worm-like, club-shaped 
and viscous in front, very extensile. Eyes globular, very mobile, covered with 
a circular lid which is pierced with a small central hole. Tympanum hidden. 
Legs thin, each with five toes, formed into two grasping opposable groups. 

The proper native country of the Chameleons is Africa, which is inhabited by numerous 
species ; they extend to the northern shores of the Mediterranean and into South-western Asia, 
into Hindostan and Northern Ceylon. Theu- habits are so perfectly knoAvn, that it would 
be almost superfluous to give a detailed account of them. They live on trees : each of their 
feet is converted into a grasping hand, by means of which, assisted by a strong prehensile tail, 
they hold so fast to the branch on which they are sitting that they can only Avith difficulty be 
removed from it : on the ground and in water they are nearly helpless. Although extremely 
slow in theu" locomotion, they feed on insects, which they catch by darting their long viscous 
tongue at the prey, which remains attached to it. The inflexibility of the neck is com- 
pensated by the wonderful structui'e of the eyes, which are so prominent that more than 
one-half of the ball stands out of the head ; and not only can they be moved in any du'ection, 
but each has an action independent of the other : one eye may be looking forwards, whilst 
an object behind the animal is examined with the other. 

The faculty of changing colour possessed by the Chameleons, although common to nume- 
rous other lizards, has become proverbial, and is so much developed that one side may assume 
a colour diff'erent from that of the other. 

They are oviparous, depositing, under leaves, from ten to twelve oval eggs with calcareous 
shells. 

The species have been left together in one genus : only one species is found in British India. 



Cham^leo vulgaris. The Common Chameleon. 

Lacerta chamseleo, L. Sijst. Nat. p. 364. 

Chamaeleo ceylanicus, Laur. Kept. p. 46. Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 466. 

vulgaris^ Daud. Rept. iv. p. 181. 

A denticulated ridge along the back and belly ; occiput with a prominent longitudinal 
crest, highest behind, and separated from the nape by a deep groove. Scales of the body 
small, granular, of equal size. 

We can confirm the observation made by Mr. Jerdon, viz. that most of the Indian speci- 
mens are of a green colour, uniform, or irregularly spotted and banded with dark green or 
brown ; whilst in African specimens the ground-colour is greyish, olive, yellowish or brownish. 



OPHIDIA. 163 

This, however, does not appear to amount to a specific difference. This Chameleon is found 
in many parts of the Peninsula of India and in the northern parts of Ceylon ; it attains to 
a length of 10 inches, the tail taking more than one-half. 

The occurrence of a second species of Chameleon in Indisi (Ch. ;pumilus, Latr.), mentioned 
by Jerdon (I. c), is extremely doubtful. 



THE ORDER OF SNAKED— OPHIDIJ. 

Body exceedingly elongate, loithout limbs, or with merely rudiments of limbs, 
scarcely visible from without ; the ribs are articulated moveably with the vertebral 
column ; no sternum ; generally both jaws and the palate toothed ; the mandibles 
united in front by an elastic ligament, and generally very extensible. Eyelids 
none. Integuments with numerous scale-like folds, rarely tubercular. 

In the general remarks on the preceding Order, that of Saurians (p. 56), we have observed 
that there is no sharp boundary-line between it and that of Snakes; we have mentioned 
apparently limbless Saurians, of Ophidian appearance, but the systematic position of which 
is decided by the structure of their jaws. On the other hand, certain Ophidians remind us, 
by several characters, of the Saurian type ; we allude to the snakes forming the fii'st four 
families {TypMopidce, Tortricidce, Xenopeltidce, TIropeltidce), which are distinguished by 
polished, closely adherent, rounded, subequal scales, much resembling the smooth scales of 
some Scincoids ; most of them have a very narrow mouth, unlike the enormous gape of 
the typical Serpents, and some are without that longitudinal fold in the median line of the 
chin which is so characteristic of Ophidians ; moreover, most have rudiments of the bones 
of a pelvic arch. The reason why we adopt the view of those systematists who refer these 
reptiles to the Ophidians, instead of associating them with the limbless Scincoids, is the 
loose connexion of their jaw-bones, a character which must be considered as peculiar to the 
Ophidians, and which is only somewhat less developed in the families mentioned than in the 
typical forms. The two halves of the lower jaw in Ophidians, namely, are not united by an 
osseous symphysis, but by an elastic ligament. The intermaxillary is but little developed, 
generally without teeth, and coalesces with the nasal bones and the vomer into a single 
moveable bone. The intermaxillary, palatine, and pterygoid bones are so loose that they 
can not only be easily pressed outwards and forwards, but even the intermaxillary and man- 
dibulary of one side can be moved in those du'ections independently of the bones of the other 
side. The mandible is suspended from a much-elongated tympanic bone. 

This peculiar mobility of the jaw-bones enables the snakes to extend the gape in an 
extraordinary degree, and to work their prey down through the collapsed pharynx. 

y2 



164 



OPHIDIA. 



Other snakes, as the Pythonidoe and Erycidoe, also have rudiments of hind limbs ; but in 
other respects, especially in the structure of the mouth, they have the Ophidian character 
so much developed that there cannot be any doubt as to their position in the system. 

The organs of locomotion for the exceedingly elongate body of the snakes are the ribs, 
the number of which is very great, nearly corresponding to that of the vertebrae of the 
trunk. Although their motions are in general very quick, and may be adapted to every 
variation of ground over which they move, yet all the varieties of their locomotion are 
founded on the following simple process. When a part of their body has found some 
projection of the ground which affords it a point of support, the ribs, alternately of one and 
the other side, are drawn more closely together, thereby producing alternate bends of the 
body on the corresponding side. The hinder portion of the body being drawn after, some 
part of it finds another support on the rough ground or a projection ; and the anterior bends 
being stretched in a straight Ime, the front part of the body is propelled in consequence. 
During this peculiar kind of locomotion the numerous broad shields of the belly are of great 
advantage, as, by means of the free edges of those shields, they are enabled to catch the 
smallest projections on the ground which may be used as points of support. A pair of ribs 
correspond to each of these ventral shields. The snakes are not able to move over a perfectly 
smooth surface. 

The snakes are naked, like all other reptiles : that is, no separate epidermal productions 
form the external integument, but the epidermis is very regularly laid into scale-like folds 
on the back and the sides, and into broad imbricate transverse shields or plates on the belly. 
The epidermis on the head is generally divided into non-imbricate shields. The form of the 
scales and ventral shields, the number of their longitudinal and transverse series, and the 
shape and arrangement of the head-shields are of the greatest value for the distinction 
of the species and genera. The followdng woodcuts of the head of a snake with the 
normal arrangement of the shields {Ptyas korros) will explain the terms used for their 
denomination : — 




i P a 





r. Rostral. 
/'. Anterior frontal. 
/, Posterior frontal. 
V. Vertical. 
s. Supraciliary, 
0. Occipital. 



n, n . Nasals. 
I. Loreal. 
a. Anterior ocular or orbital ; 

anteocular or praeorbital. 
p. Posterior ocular or orbital ; 
postocular or postorbital. 



u, u. Upper labials. 
t, t. Temporals. 
m. Median lower labial or 

mental. 
**. Lower labials, 
c, c. Chin-shields. 



OPHIDIA. 165 

The skin does not form eyelids ; the part of the epidermis which covers the eye is trans- 
parent, convex, and has the shape of a watch-glass, behind which the eye moves. The 
epidermis is cast off in a single piece several times every year. 

Generally the snakes are provided with numerous teeth, which are elongate, conical, thin 
and pointed like a needle, and more or less bent backwards. In the first suborder, that of 
non-venomous snakes, the teeth are either entirely smooth, or only the last of the maxillary 
series is provided with a faint longitudinal groove, which is not intended to convey a 
poisonous saliva into a wound, as the saliva of these snakes has never been proved to be 
poisonous : the groove appears to increase the strength of the tooth. Many of the non- 
venomous snakes have long teeth in front of the jaws or of the palate, but they are never 
grooved or perforated, and only serve to afford a firmer hold on the living and struggling prey. 

The pmsonous snakes are armed with a long canaliculated tooth in front of the upper jaw ; 
the channel terminates in a small slit at the extremity of the tooth, and is in connexion 
with a duct which carries the poisonous fluid from a large gland to the tooth. This venom- 
gland corresponds with the parotid salivary gland of the Mammals, and is situated on the 
side of the head, above the angle of the mouth ; it is invested by a dense fibrous sheath, 
which is covered by a layer of muscular fibres. At the moment the snake opens its mouth 
to bite, these muscles compress the gland, and force its contents through the excretory duct 
into the channel of the venom-tooth, whence it is injected into the wound. We may judge 
of the force of this pressure when we read the accounts of travellers Avho have seen irritated 
animals spouting the poison from the aperture of the tooth to a short distance. The venom- 
apparatus serves these creatures not only for defence, but also and chiefly for the purpose 
of overpowering their prey, which is always killed before they commence to swallow it. 

The structure of the venom-tooth is not the same in all poisonous snakes : in some it is 
fixed to the maxillary bone, which is as long, or nearly as long, as in the non-venomous 
snakes, and generally bears one or more ordinary teeth on its hinder portion. The venom- 
tooth is fixed, more or less erect, not very long, and its channel is generally visible as 
an external groove. The poisonous snakes with such a dentition have externally a more 
or less striking resemblance to the non-venomous serpents ; and on this account they are 
designated as venomous colubnne snakes, forming the second suborder of snakes (Cobras, 
Bungarums, Sea-snakes, &c.). 

In the other venomous snakes, the third suborder, the maxillary bone is extremely short, 
and does not bear any teeth except an exceedingly long fang, with a perfectly closed, 
externally invisible channel in its interior. Although this tooth also is fixed to the bone, 
the bone itself is very mobile, so that the tooth, which is laid backwards when at rest, can 
be erected the moment the animal prepares to strike. This tooth, like all the other teeth, 
is not only occasionally lost, but appears to be shed at regular intervals. From two to four 
other venom-teeth in different stages of development, destined to replace the one in action, 
exist between the folds of the gum, and are not anchylosed to the bone. 

Most of the snakes feed on living animals, — only a few on eggs : some of them first kill 
their prey by poisoning it, as we have mentioned, or by smothering it between the coils of 
their body ; others swallow the struggling victim ali^ e. As they do not possess organs for 
tearing the prey to pieces, nor a dentition fit for mastication, the prey is swallowed entire ; 
and in consequence of the great width of the mouth and of the extraordinary extensibility of 



166 OPHIDIA. 

the skin, of the oesophagus, and of the stomach, they are able to swallow animals the 
girth of which exceeds their own. The process of digestion is very quick, and considerably 
accelerated by the quantity of saliva secreted during deglutition, or injected into the animal 
by serpents with poison-fangs; for, physiologically, the poisonous saliva of the venomous 
snakes performs the same office in their economy as the non-poisonous of the innocuous 
species. All the snakes drink much, and die when they are deprived of water. 

The tongue is long, vermiform, forked, terminating in two long thread-like points ; it is 
the organ of touch, and is frequently and rapidly exserted to examine an object; the 
slightest provocation brings the action of the tongue into play. All the internal organs 
imitate the elongate form of the body, being long and narrow : most snakes have the limg 
of only one side developed. 

The greater part of the snakes are oviparous, the eggs having an oblong form, and a soft, 
leathery shell. The Pythons alone incubate their eggs, whilst all the other oviparous snakes 
leave them to the heat of the place where they have been deposited. Other snakes (the 
freshwater and poisonous species) are viviparous, the embryos being developed in the o\dduct 
of the mother. 

Snakes may be said to be found wherever the climatic relations and the progress of culture 
have not put a natural or artificial barrier to their existence. The consequence of such an 
extensive distribution over the globe's surface is that they differ much in their mode of life, 
exhibiting a variety of corresponding characters which are most important for their natural 
subdivision. We may, then, distinguish — 

1. Burrowing Snakes, living under ground, only occasionally appearing above the surface. 
They are distinguished by a rigid, cylindrical body, short tail, narrow mouth, small head not 
distinct from the neck, little teeth in small number, and by the absence or feeble develop- 
ment of the ventral shields. They feed chiefly on small invertebrate animals. None of them 
are venomous. 

2. Ground Snakes, or species which live above ground, and only occasionally climb bushes 
or enter the water ; their body is more or less cylindrical, very flexible in every part, and 
of moderate proportions. Their ventral shields are broad. They feed chiefly on terrestrial 
vertebrate animals. By far the greater number of snakes belong to this category, and it is 
represented by many variations in all the three suborders. 

3. Tree Snakes, or species passing the greater part of their life on bushes and trees, which 
they climb with the greatest facility. They are distinguished either by an exceedingly 
slender body, with broad, sometimes carinated ventral shields, or by a prehensile tail. Many 
of the species are characterized by their vivid coloration, of which green forms the principal 
part. We shall see in the sequel that the first and third suborders ofier numerous instances 
of Tree Snakes, the Tree Snakes of the second suborder being confined to tropical Africa. 
They feed on animals which have a mode of life similar to their own, — only a few species 
on eggs. 

4. Freshioater Snakes, distinguished by the position of the nostrils, which are placed on 
the top of the snout, and by a tapering tail. They inhabit fresh waters, and are, therefore, 
excellent swimmers and divers ; only a few species (which also in external characters approach 
the following group, that of the true Sea Snakes) venture out to sea. They feed on fish, 
frogs, Crustacea, and other water-animals, and are viviparous. None are venomous. 



OPHIDIA. 167 

5. Sea Snakes, distinguished by a strongly compressed tail, and by the position of the 
nostrils, which are placed as in the last group. They live in the sea only, occasionally 
approaching the land, feed on marine fish, are viviparous, and venomous. One genus only 
(Platurus) has the ventral shields so much developed as to be able to move on land. 

Although these five groups are not separated from each other by defined lines of demar- 
cation, and frequently pass into one another by intermediate forms, yet a family and genus 
which should be composed of species of several of these groups would be a very unnatural 
assemblage of heterogeneous forms. 

Tropical India surpasses every other part of the globe in the number of Ophidian forms, 
and almost every investigation of a limited but previously unexplored district is sure to add 
largely to our knowledge of them. Unfortunately the proportion of venomous snakes is 
somewhat large, and as we hope that this treatise will not be confined to the use of the 
professed naturalist, we think it useful to add a few words on these dangerous animals in 
general, and on the means to counteract the effects of their bite. 

The degree of danger depends but little on the species which has inflicted the wound, 
but rather on the bulk of the individual, on the quantity of its poison, on the temperature, 
and on the place of the wound. Large snakes have generally larger fangs, penetrating more 
deeply into the flesh, and produce and inject a greater quantity of poison: the bite of a 
snake not exceeding 18 to 20 inches in length will rarely be followed by a fatal result when 
the wounded person is an adult. Further, it has been experimentally proved that a snake 
which has bitten several times within a short time exhausts its stock of poison, and the 
eff'ects of the fourth or flfth bite are much less dangerous than of those preceding, and it 
may indeed be entirely harmless. Therefore the danger from a snake which has bitten a 
person shortly after it has fed is considerably reduced. The temper of snakes generally 
depends much on the temperature, so that the same individual snake which shows itself 
extremely fierce during the hottest part of the day becomes sluggish when the temperature 
sinks, biting only when provoked, and with but little energy. The parts of the human body 
in which a wound inflicted by a snake is most dangerous are those which are distinguished by 
the abundance of blood-vessels, or those which can be caught by the snake between both its 
jaws, so that the animal is enabled to fix its fangs deeply. If unfortunately a larger blood- 
vessel is pierced by the fang, the poison is carried instantaneously into the mass of the blood, 
and sudden death is almost always the result. 

Although it is always possible to recognize the venomous nature of a snake from external 
characters only, yet this requii-es such a knowledge of snakes as can be attamed only by a 
special study of them ; it would, therefore, be a useless attempt to enumerate here the different 
characters by which a dangerous species may be distinguished externally from a harmless 
one. The wound itself speaks for or against the venomous nature of a snake which • . 
has bitten. When there are numerous punctured wounds disposed in two lines, thus, : 
the snake is not poisonous ; but when there are only two ( . . ) they are most '■ 
probably inflicted by a venomous snake, although there is still some hope that it may have 
been one of those innocuous snakes which have long, non-perforated fangs in front (Lyco- 
donts, Dipsades, &c.) ; in such a case much anxiety may be spared if the snake is killed at 
once and properly inspected. 

The treatment to be followed in all cases of poisoned wounds caused by snakes must be 



168 OPHIDIA. 

local as well as internal ; and both must be resorted to at once, especially the former, imme- 
diately the accident has happened. 

1. If the wound is on some part of the hand, arm, or foot, one or two ligatures should be 
made as tightly as possible at a short distance above the wound, to prevent the absorption of 
the poison. The ligature is left until the proper means are taken to destroy the virus in the 
wound and until medicine is taken internally, or until great pain or swelling necessitate its 
removal. 

2. The punctured wounds are to be enlarged by incisions at least as deep as the wounds, 
to cause a free efflux of the poisoned blood, and to facilitate its removal by sucking. 

3. The wounds should be sucked either by the patient himself or by another person whose 
mouth is free from any solution of continuity ; cupping-glasses answer the same purpose in 
cases where they can be applied. 

4. The wound should be washed with ammonia, and its vicinity rubbed with it. Cauteri- 
zation with a red-hot iron, or with sulphuric acid, butter of antimony, nitrate of silver, &c., 
are of great advantage, if done before the virus has spread far beyond the place of the bite. 

5. Internally, ammonia should be taken in large doses — one, two, or three wineglasses of 
the eau de luce. Where this is not at hand, from one to six glasses of brandy may be 
taken at short intervals. 

In all accidents caused by bites of snakes the action of the heart is much affected ; its 
contractions become feeble, the respu'ation difficult, and the patient feels great anguish 
or sinks into a fainting state. To prevent a complete collapse it is necessary to use these 
strong excitants, and to repeat them until the alarming symptoms are allayed. It would 
be a great risk in such a case to trust to the remedies of a snake-charmer. 



First Suborder. 
OPHIDII COLUBRIFORMES—INKOCVOVS SNAKES. 

Snakes without grooved or perforated fang-like teeth in front. 

Synopsis of the Families. 

I. Body cylindrical, rigid, covered with comparatively large, polished, 

firmly adherent scales; head not distinct fi'om neck; none of the 

teeth axe enlarged. 
Ventral scales not larger than those on the back ; mental groove none ; 

upper labials four Typhlopid^e, p. 170. 

Ventral scales but little larger than the others ; mental groove present ; 

upper labials six Tortricid^, p. 178. 

Ventral shields distinct ; two pairs of frontals ; five occipitals . . . XENOPELTiDiE, p. 180. 



OPHIDIA. 169 

Tail extremely short, truncated, scarcely tapering, generally termi- 
nating in a rough naked disk, or covered with keeled scales* . . Uropeltid^, p. 182. 
Ventral shields distinct ; two occipitals ; tail tapering Calamarid^, p. 194. 

II. Body rather rigid, covered with rounded, smooth scales ; ventral 
shields developed ; head short, not distinct from neck ; teeth of the 
maxillary few in number, the last enlarged, not grooved. 
Rostral shield large, more or less produced backwards Oligodontid^, p. 205. 

III. Body flexible throughout ; ventral shields developed ; head more or less 

distinct from neck ; a mental gi-oove ; no rudiments of hind limbs. 

Body neither very slender nor much compressed ; nostril lateral ; no 

faug-like tooth in front or in the middle of the upper jaw . . . Colubrid^, p. 220. 

Nostrils on the top of the snout Homalopsid.k, p. 275. 

Body elongate or stout ; pupil round or vertical ; loreal region con- 
cave ; one of the four anterior maxillary teeth is enlarged, the last 
grooved Psammophid^, p. 290. 

Body and tail much compressed or very slender ; head elongate ; snout 

obtuse or rounded ; pupil round ; no fang-like tooth in front . . Dendrophid^, p. 293. 

Body generally excessively slender; head very long, with tapering 

snout ; pupil linear, horizontal ; last maxUlary tooth grooved . . Dryiophid*, p. 300. 

Body and base of the tail much compressed; head subtriangular, 
broad behind, very distinct from neck, with short snout; loreal 
region flat DiPSADiDiE, p. 307. 

Maxillary with a fang-Hke tooth in front, but without elongate pos- 
terior tooth LycodontidvE, p. 314. 

IV. Body flexible; ventral shields developed; head thick, very distinct 

from neck ; no mental groove. 
MaxiUary teeth very small, few in number AmblycephalidjE, p. 324. 

V. Body cylindrical, flexible ; anterior maxillary teeth unequal in length ; 
none of the hinder teeth enlarged ; rudiments of hind limbs present. 

Tail prehensile Pythonid^, p. 328. 

Tail very short, not prehensile Erycid.e, p. 332. 

VI. Body, head, and tail covered with small, wart-like, not imbricate 
scales. 
Tail prehensile Acrochordid.e, p. 335. 



* See Mtlanophidium, Tp.ldS. 



170 OPHIDIA. 

FAMILY OF BLIND SNAKES— TYPHLOPW^. 

Body cylindrical, with very short head not distinct from neck, and with a 
very short tail. The body and tail are covered with rounded, polished, 
imbricate scales, equal in size and form above and below ; fore part of the 
head covered with large shields, upper labials four. Eye rudimentary, 
covered by, and more or less transparent from below, the shields ; cleft 
of the mouth inferior, very short and narrow ; jaws scarcely dilatable. A 
few teeth in the upper jaAv only, none in the lower or on the palate ; 
maxillaries very short, mandibles feeble ; no long-itudinal fold at the chin. 
Rudiments of hinder extremities are hidden below the skin. 

This family contains forms which are most remote from the true Ophidian type. They 
live under ground, their rigid body and short curved tail being adapted for burrowing. 
After showers of rain they occasionally appear above ground, and then they are very agile 
in their serpentine movements. The eye, which is scarcely 'visible in many species, can 
give to them only a general perception of light. They feed on worms and small insects ; 
the tongue is forked and, as in other snakes, frequently exserted. They ai'e o\iparous. 

The smallest species of snakes belong to this family, some of them being only half the 
size of a common earthworm. Species are found in almost every part of the tropical 
regions, and in the countries adjoining them. 

The determination of the species will be found to be not an easy task, and I consider it 
necessary to give an explanation of the terms generally used in distinguishing the different 
head-shields. 

„ r. Rostral. 

^ — Tv '^"- ' ■•, /T >\' jy '"" ^^ 

iQ^><OA ... -P '• ■^''''' f\\J' /^ /'*• Fronto-nasal. 

p^^^^^a — ^ /— L®VCV-<1 P^- I'rseocular. 

S^5S^ "^^^^^^^^3 °' Ocular. 

pr" J^ii^?f^^) P-f^' P^'sefrontal. 

j„ -'^r^^y f- Frontal. 

^::^y\jJj^SK ^P- Supraocular. 

ji ^ -' p Parietal. 

ip. Interparietal. 

The Indian species belong to the following genera : — 

Prffiocular none Ttjphlina, p. 171. 

A prseocular ; rostral obtusely rounded in front .... Typhlops, ^.172. 

A pr^ocular J rostral with a trenchant anterior edge . . . Onychocephalus, i^. 177 . 



TYPHLINA LINEATA. 171 



TYPHLINA, JFagler. 

Snout covered with large shields ; rostral shield large, rounded in front ; 
praeocular none ; nostril inferior ; nasal and fronto-nasal simple. Lower 
jaw without teeth. 

Only one species is known. 

Typhlina LINEATA. (Plate XVI. fig. B.) 

Typhlops lineatus, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 563. Schleg. Abbild. p. 39. taf. 32. figs. 32-34 (incorrect). 
Pilidion lineatum, Dum. ^ Bibr. vi. p. 259. 
Typhlinalis lineatum, Gray, Lizards, p. 134. 

Shields of the snout thick, horny ; eyes scarcely visible. Rostral shield large, more than 
half as broad as the head, its lower portion being broader than long. Nostril inferior ; nasal 
small, united with the fronto-nasal above the nostril; fronto-nasal large, as broad as the 
lower portion of the rostral shield, extending to behind the rostral, but remaming separate 
from the fronto-nasal of the other side. Ocular not quite so broad as the fronto-nasal. 
Labials four, none of which ascend between the lateral shields of the head: the first in 
contact with rostral, nasal, and fronto-nasal, the second with fronto-nasal and ocular, the 
third with ocular alone, and the fourth with a temporal shield ; the third is larger than the 
fourth. The prsefrontal and the supraoculars are rather larger than the parietals, the frontal 
and interparietal being considerably smaller, scarcely larger than the other scales. 

The hind part of the body is rather thicker than the front part, more so in females than 
in males ; its circumference in its middle is one-fom'teenth of the total length. Tail very 
short, slightly curved, terminating in a minute spine ; its length equals the width of the 
head. Body surrounded by twenty-two longitudinal series of scales. I count 405 transverse 
series (about 430, Dum. & Bibr.); eight series round the tail. 

Reddish olive above, vnth brown lines running along the joining edges of the longitudinal 
series of scales ; these lines are either straight or in a short zigzag. Snout and belly yellow ; 
tail either uniform yellow or with a yellow band across its back. 

This species is known from Java, Sumatra, and Pinang. We have received also a specimen 
from Hongkong. It attains to a length of 18 inches. 

Three different views of the head are given on Plate XVI., of twice the natural size. 



z2 



172 OPHIDIA. 

TYPHLOPS. 

Typhlops (sp., Schneid.), Dum. ^ Bibr. 

Snout covered with large shields ; rostral large, rounded in front ; prse- 
ocular present ; nostril laterally in front of the snout. 

Inhabitants of almost every part between the tropics. The following species occur in 
British India: — 

I. Subocular none. 

A. Fronto-nasal in contact with the second labial. 

Scales in twenty-six series ; black above, yellow below T. iiigro-albus, p. 172. 

Scales in twenty-six series ; the darker coloration of the back gradually 

passing into that of the lower part T. horsfieldii, ]). 173. 

Scales in twenty-four series; four grooves at the lower side of the snout . T. bothriorhynchus, p. 174. 

Scales in twenty-four series; each scale with a yellow, posteriorly black- 
edged cross streak T. striolatus, p. 174. 

Scales in twenty-two series T. siamensis, p. 175. 

B. The fronto-nasal is separated from the labials by the intervening nasal and pr<Bocular shields. 

The circumference of the body is jJgth of the total length T. braminus, y>- 175. 

The circumference of the body is gVth of the total length T. tenuis, ]). 176. 

II. A subocular below the prceocular. 

Scales in eighteen series T. mirus, p. 176. 

Typhlops nigbo-albus. (Plate XVI. fig. F.) 

Typhlops nigro-albus, Dum. &; Bibr. vi. p. 295. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 51. 
Argyrophis bicolor, Gray, Lizards, p. 136. 

The upper part of the rostral shield is not quite twice as broad as the lower ; nostril 
lateral ; nasal entirely separated fi-om the fronto-nasal, the suture between both shields being 
continued above the nostril. The fronto-nasals are close together behind the rostral, without 
touching each other ; their broadest part is just above the nostril, where they are as broad 
as the lower part of the rostral ; prfeocular rather larger than ocular, which extends as far 
backwards as the hinder labial. Labials four* : the first in contact Avith rostral and nasal, 
the second with nasal, fronto-nasal, and praeocular ; the third slightly ascending between 
praiocular and oculai", the fourth below the ocular. Of the scale-like shields of the crown 
of the head, the supraocular and parietal are rather larger than the others, which otherwise 
much resemble the scales of the body. 

The body is rather thicker behind than in front ; the circumference in its middle is con- 
tained ten times and a half in its total length. The tail is slightly curved, extremely short, 
its length being rather less than the width of the head ; it terminates in a minute spine. 



TYPHLOPS HORSFIELDII. 173 

Body surrounded by twenty-six longitudinal series of scales. I count 353 transverse series 
(326, Dum. & Bibr.) ; eight round the tail. 

The back (eleven dorsal series of scales) is bluish black, the belly yellowish, both colours 
being well defined. 

This species is found at Pinang, Singapore, and in Sumatra ; it attains to a length of 
14 inches. 

The three views of the head on Plate XVI. are of twice its natural size. 



Typhlops HORSFIELDII. (Plate XVI. figs. E, E'.) 

? Typhlops diardii, Schleff. Abbild. p. 39. Dum. ^ Bibr. vi. p. 300. 
Argyrophis horsfieldii, Gray, Lizards, p. 137. 

Closely allied to T. nigro-albus. 

The width of the upper part of the rostral shield is one-third of that of the head, and not 
much more than that of its lower portion. Nostril lateral : nasal united with fronto-nasal 
above the nostril; its lower portion is considerably broader than that of the fronto-nasal. 
The fronto-nasals extend backwards to behind the rostral, but remain widely separate. 
Prseocular subequal in size to the ocular, which extends as far backwards as the hinder labial. 
The labials are the same as in T. nigro-albus. 

The size of the scale-like shields on the crown of the head varies in different individuals : — 

a. In specimens from Assam and Khasya (fig. E) the supraoculars and parietals are larger 
and broader than the frontals and interparietal. 

b. In a specimen from the coast of Tenasserim (fig. E') the anterior frontal is the largest 
scale, and the interparietal the smallest. 

c. The typical specimen of T. diardii is from Cochinchina, and, if we are correct in 
identifying it with A. horsfieldii, it is a third variation, having the interparietal larger than 
the prEefrontal. 

The body is thicker behind than in front ; tlie circumference in its middle is one-tenth of 
its length. The tail is slightly curved, extremely short, its length being equal to, or rather 
less than, the width of the head ; it terminates in a minute spine. The body is surrounded 
by twenty-six longitudinal series of scales. I count in a specimen 

from Assam 315 transverse series. 

from Tenasserim 304 „ „ 

from Assam 304 ,, „ 

and in the typical specimen (Khasya) .288 „ „ 

Nine series round the tail. 

Blackish olive above, this colour gradually passing into the dull yellowish of the belly. 

This species has been found in Kliasya, Assam, on the Tenasserim coast, and in Cochin- 
china. It attains to a length of 17 inches. 

The different views of the head are of twice its natural size. 



174 OPHIDIA. 

Ttphlops bothriobhynchus. (Plate XVI. fig. G.) 

Nostril lateral. A round groove, larger than the nostril, on the suture between nasal and 
fronto-nasal, below the nostril ; another similar but smaller groove on the suture between 
rostral and nasal. The upper part of the rostral one-third of the width of the head, the 
lower much longer than broad. Nasal very broad below, as broad as the fronto-nasal in the 
middle ; the suture between both these shields is continued above the nostril. The fronto- 
nasal extends a little backwards to the hinder side of the rostral ; its posterior margin is 
deeply concave. Prseocular and ocular subequal in size. Four labials : the first in contact 
with rostral and nasal ; the second with nasal, fronto-nasal, and preeocular ; the third slightly 
ascending between prseocular and ocular ; the fourth not much larger than the third, scarcely 
reaching further backwards than the ocular. All the shields on the crown of the head are 
enlarged, the supraoculars and the interparietal being rather the largest, the latter being 
very broad, though short. 

Body not much thicker behind than in front ; the circumfei'ence in its middle is one-twelfth 
of the total length. Tail curved, its length being equal to the width of the head ; it termi- 
nates in a minute spine. The body is surrounded by twenty-four longitudinal series of scales. 
I count 329 transverse series ; ten series round the tail. 

Uniform brownish olive above and below. 

I have examined a single specimen from Pinang (Dr. Cantor's collection) ; it is 7 inches long. 
The views of the head are of thrice its natural size. 



Typhlops striolatus. 

Typhlops striolatus, Peters, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1801, p. 922. 

The upper portion of the rostral shield band-shaped, extending backwards to between the 
eyes, broader than the lower part. The nasal is partly united with the fronto-nasal above 
the nostril, and touches the fu'st and second labials. Fronto-nasals not contiguous behind 
the rostral, with their lower portion as long as the corresponding part of the nasal ; their 
hind margin is concave. The second labial in contact with nasal, fronto-nasal, and proeocular ; 
the third labial has an acute upper angle wedged in between prseocular and ocular. Prse- 
ocular as large as ocular ; eye very distinct. Supraorbitals and parietals broader than the 
frontals, which are of the same size ; interparietal nearly twice as broad as frontal. 

Body rather thicker behind, surrounded by twenty-four series of scales. Tail shorter than 
the head, curved, terminating in a minute spine, with eight transverse series of scales. 

Olive-brown above, the darker terminal part of each scale separated from the lighter base 
by a yellow, posteriorly black-edged, transverse streak ; paler below. 

The typical specimen, a female, 12\ inches long, came from the banks of the Ganges. 



TYPHLOPS BRAMINUS. 175 

Typhlops siamensis. (Plate XVI. fig. D.) 

Closely allied to T. horsjieldii. 

The width of the upper part of the rostral shield is somewhat less than one-third of that 
of the head ; its lower portion is rather longer than broad. Nostril lateral ; nasal united 
with fronto-nasal above the nostril, considerably dilated in its lower portion. The fronto- 
nasals extend backwards to behind the rostral, but remain separate ; their hinder margin is 
deeply concave. Praeocular as large as ocular, which extends nearly as far backwards as the 
hinder labial. The labials are the same as in T. nigro-albus. The shields on the crown of 
the head do not show any peculiarity, being subequal in size. 

Body scarcely thicker behind than in front ; the circumference in its middle is contained 
thirteen times and a half in the total length. The tail is scarcely curved, extremely short, 
its length being much less than the width of the head ; it terminates in a minute spine. 
The body is surrounded by twenty-two series of scales. I count 3G8 transverse series; nine 
series round the tail. 

Upper and lateral parts uniform greyish olive, the lower yellowish. 

We have only one specimen of this species, %\ inches long ; it was collected in Siam by 
M. Mouhot. We have given figures of the head of thrice its natural size. 



Typhlops beaminus. (Plate XVI. fig. I.) 

Rondoo Talooloo, Russell, Ind. Serp. i. p. 48. pi. 43. 

Eryx braminus, Baud. Rept. vii. p. 379. 

Tortris russellii, Merr. Tent. p. 84. 

TypUops braminus, Cuv. Regne Anim. Dum. ^ Bibr. vi. p. 309. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 52. 

russelliij Schleg. Abbild. p. 39. 

Rostral not much broader above than below, its width being about one-third of that of the 
head ; the nasal is entirely separate from the fronto-nasal, the suture being continued above 
the nostril to the upper surface of the head ; the nasal is in contact with the prseocular, 
below the fronto-nasal. Nostril lateral. Upper part of the fronto-nasal almost as broad as 
the rostral ; it extends rather more backwards than the rostral, but it does not touch its felloAv 
from the other side. Prseocular as large as ocular ; eye very distinct. Four labials : the 
first in contact with rostral and nasal ; the second with nasal and prseocular, but not with 
fronto-nasal ; the third slightly ascending between prseocular and ocular ; the fourth below 
the ocular, and extending rather further backwards than the latter shield. Frontal, supra- 
oculars and parietals equal in size, twice as large as the scales ; interparietal equal to a scale. 

The body is rather thicker behind than in front ; the circumference in its middle is one- 
thirteenth of the total length. The tail is slightly curved, very short, as long as the head is 
broad ; it terminates in a minute spine. Body surrounded by twenty longitudinal series of 
scales. In a specimen from Bengal I count 316 transverse series ; twelve round the tail. 

Uniform brown, paler beneath ; the upper shields of the head with a faint, crenulated, 
whitish marginal line. 



176 OPHIDIA. 

This is the most common species of Indian Tyiihlopidce, and almost generally distributed 
throughout the Indian continent and archipelago ; it is common in Ceylon as well as in China 
and Nepal. It does not attain to any large size, the largest I have seen measuring 8 inches. 

The three views of the head are given of four times its natural size. 

TypHLOPS TENUIS. (Plate XVI. fig. C.) 

This species is closely allied to T. hraminns, but comparatively only half as thick. It has 
the same peculiarity of nasal and praeocular touching each other below the fronto-nasal ; the 
nasal extends upwards on the upper side of the head ; and the body is surrounded by 
twenty longitudinal series of scales. But the circumference of the body is only a twenty- 
foui-th of the total length, and I count 366 transverse series round the body and eleven round 
the tail. 

A single specimen, 5 inches long, has been received from Madras. We have given the 
outlines of its body, to show its slender form. 

Typhlops mirus. (Plate XVI. fig. H.) 

Typhlops mii'us, Jan, Archiv Zoolog, i. p. 185 (without description). 

Eostral shield half as broad as the head, its lower portion being broader than long. 
Nostril lateral ; nasal separated from the fronto-nasal by a suture above the nostril. The 
fronto-nasal extends backwards behind the rostral without touching its fellow from the other 
side ; it is broadest above the nostril, where it is broader than the rostral ; its hinder margin 
is S-shaped, and bordered by two shields subequal in size, the upper of which is the prae- 
ocular, the lower a subocular. The ocular is situated behind the praeocular and above the 
fourth labial, the ocular and the fourth labial being rather larger than the prse- and sub- 
oculars. The first labial is in contact with rostral and nasal, the second with nasal, fronto- 
nasal, and subocular, slightly ascending between the two latter shields; the third is smaller 
than the second and in contact with the subocular only ; the fourth is as large as the three 
others together and in contact %vith the subocular and ocular. The scale-like shields on the 
croviii of the head are regular, subequal in size, not much larger than the scales. 

Body rather thicker behind than in front, its circumference in the middle being one- 
sixteenth of the total length. Tail not very short, straight, not quite twice as long as broad, 
terminating in an obtuse point. Body surrounded by eighteen longitudinal series of scales. 
I count 333 transverse series ; fifteen round the tail. 

This species is uniformly coloured, like T. hraminus; its snout is yellow. It is peculiar to 
Ceylon, where it appears to be rather local, being confined to the interior of the island. The 
longest of our specimens is 5 inches long. 

The three views of the head represent it of six times its natural size. 



ONYCHOCEPHALUS ACUTUS. 177 

ONYCHOCEPHALUS, Diim. Sf Bibr. 

Snout covered with large shields ; rostral with a trenchant anterior edge ; 
praeocular present ; nostril at the lower side of the snout. 

Only one species is found in British India. 

ONYCHOCEPHALUS ACUTUS. (Plate XVI. fig. A.) 

Onychocephalus acutus, Durn. ^ Bibr. vi. p. 333. 
Typhi ops russellii, Ch-ay, Lizards, p. 132. 

Onychocephalus westermaniii, Liitken, in Naturhist. Foren. Vidensk, Meddel. 1863, Nov. 29, 
tab. 1. fig. 5. 

Rostral shield exceedingly large, covering nearly the whole of the upper surface of the 
head ; it has a sharp edge in front, which is slightly bent downwards and produced into a 
rather acute point ; it is so much dilated that its lateral margin touches the nostril and the 
eye ; the portion situated at the lower surface of the snout is slightly concave. All the 
other shields appear to be narrow, as each shield overlaps a great portion of the shield behind 
it ; consequently the eye is visible from below the fronto-nasal, this shield covering a large 
portion of the ocular*. Fronto-nasal with the posterior margin undulated, not extending 
so far backwards as the rostral. Praeocular situated behind the lower portion of the fronto- 
nasal, ocular behind its upper portion. A narrow, crescent-shaped supraocular behind each 
posterior corner of the rostral. There is a subocular plate, nearly as large as the ocular, 
behind the praeocular, below the ocular and above the two hinder labials. Labials four: 
the fij'st touches the rostral and nasal, the second the nasal, fronto-nasal and prseocular, the 
thu'd and fourth the subocular. The frontal and parietal scales scarcely differ from one 
another in shape and size, and are nearly twice as broad as the scales of the body. 

The body is only a little thicker behind than in front ; its circumference in the middle is 
contained fourteen times in the total length. The tail is slightly curved, extremely short, its 
length being equal to (or, in females, less than) the width of the head ; it terminates in a 
minute spine. Body surrounded by twenty-eight or twenty-nine longitudinal series of scales. 
I count 500 transverse series (466, Bibr.) ; ten round the tail. 

Light bronze-coloured, each scale on the back lighter in the centre ; below uniform 
yellowish. 

This species is one of the best-marked Blindworms in India ; we have received specimens 
from Madras, from the Anamallay Mountains, and from the Deccan. It attains to a length 
of 16 inches. 

The three views of the head represent it of twice its natural size. 

* This may lead to a misinterpretation of the head-shields, as in the case of Omjchocephalus ivestermanni, 
where Dr. Liitken takes the fronto-nasal which overlaps the ociUar, for the ocular itself. Bibron very well 
describes the arrangement of the shields : " La plaque preoculaire, vu son peu de hauteur, ne separe la 
fronto-nasale et I'oculaire I'une de I'autre, que dans les deux tiers inferieurs de leur etendue verticale." 

2 A 



178 OPHIDIA. 



FAMILY OF mOnT-TAlL^—lVRTRICW^. 

Body cylindrical; with a depressed, rounded head not distinct from neck ; 
tail extremely short, conical, with its extremity smooth. Rudiments of hind 
limbs are hidden in a small groove on each side of the vent. The body is 
covered with rounded, polished, imbricate scales of moderate size, those in 
the ventral series being but little larger than the rest. Only one pair of 
frontals ; six upper labials. Eye small. Cleft of the mouth of moderate 
width ; teeth of the jaws in small number, rather stout, subequal in size ; 
palatine teeth present. A longitudinal fold at the chin. 

The species occurring in the East Indies belong to one genus only. 



CYLINDROPHIS, TFa(/ler. 

Nostrils in a large undivided plate which forms a suture with the other 
nasal behind the rostral. Occipitals small. Eye small, with round pupil, 
surrounded by a supraorbital, a postocular, two labials, and the frontal ; 
only one pair of frontals. No intermaxillary teeth. 

Two of the three species known are inhabitants of British India, the thii'd (C. melanonotus) 
being, apparently, peculiar to the island of Timor. They are extremely similar to one 
another, differing merely in coloration and in the form of the head, whilst the arrangement 
of the shields of the head is the same. 

The head is depressed, scarcely distinct from the neck, with the cleft of the mouth ex- 
tending backwards behind the occipitals. Eye small, more or less directed upwards ; trunk 
cylindrical; tail extremely short, conical, terminating in a horny, conical, smooth scale. 
Rostral shield low, not extending far backwards. The two nasals are rather large, forming 
together a suture behind the rostral; their anterior outer portion is pierced by the nosti-il. 
Only one pair- of large frontals, entering the orbit ; a vertical ; a supraorbital, which is as large 
as, or even larger than, the small occipitals. Six upper labials, the third and fourth of which 
form the lower part of the orbit ; a very distinct postocular, followed by a very large temporal, 
behind which are situated two pairs of scale-like temporals. Mental shield small, triangular : 
five or six lower labials ; the first pair form a suture together behind the mental shield. One 
pair of chin-shields, separated by a deep groove from each other ; three pairs of labials are 
in contact with the chin-shields. Scales smooth, polished, rounded, without apical groove, 
in nineteen or twenty-one series. The ventral shields scarcely differ in size from the other 



CYLINDROPHIS MACULATUS. 179 

scales in the anterior part of the body, and become somewhat larger posteriorly ; anal bifid ; 
subcaudals nan-ow, simple. 

The Cylindrophides are burrowing animals, only occasionally found above ground ; they 
feed on insects, worms, and small mammals living in earth-holes. 

Width of the interocular space more than the length of the snout . C. rufus. 
Width of the interocular space equal to the length of the snout . . C. maculatus. 

Note. — Mr. Jerdon (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 527) mentions two Cylindrophides occurring in the 
Peninsula of India, and adds the following characters (!) : — 

" C curticeps. Differs from C. maculatus (? ?) in its shorter, more triangular head, &c. &c." 

" C. macroscelis*. Differs from both in the much larger scales." 

Very probably these new species of Mr. Jerdon will turn out not to be Cylindrophides at all. 



Cylindrophis rufus. 

Anguis rufa, Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 71. 

Schilay Pamboo, Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. pi. 28. 

Anguis scytale, Russell, ii. pi. 27. 

Cylindi'ophis resplendens, Wagl. Ic. Amph. tab. 5. fig. 1. 

Tortrix rufa, Sclileg. Rhys. Serp. p. 128. pi. 1. fig. 1-3. 

Cylindrophis rufus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 46. Cantor, Mai, Rept. p. 53. 

Head depressed, broad, short, its width between the eyes being more than the length of 
the snout. Vertical shield as broad as long, subtriangular, not larger than a supraorbital. 
Ventral shields scarcely larger than the scales of the adjoining series. Scales in nineteen or 
twenty-one series. Ventrals 184-200 ; subcaudals 6-9. Brown or black : belly with irregular 
white cross bands, extending more or less up the sides ; the first of these cross bands is behind 
the angle of the mouth, frequently extending near to the median line of the back, and 
forming an interrupted collar. Sometimes a white spot on each frontal. This spot, the 
collar, and the lower part of the tail are bright vermilion during life. 

This species attains to a length of 30 inches, and is found in many islands of the East 
Indian Archipelago (Java, Borneo), in Gamboja, at Singapore, and on the coast of Tranquebar. 
The differences in the number of the scales and in the coloration do not depend on the 
various localities, and therefore are not indicative of different specific forms. 



Cylindrophis maculatus. 

Anguis maculatus, L. Stjst. Nat. i. p. 391. Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. p. 33. pi. 29. 

Cylindrophis maculatus, Wayl. Syst. Amph. p. 195. 

Tortrix maculata, Oppel, Rept. p. 56. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 12. pi. 1. figs. 6 & 7. 

Head depressed, oblong, its width between the eyes being equal to the length of the snout. 

* Qufere macrolepis ? 



180 OPHIDIA. 

Vertical shield longer than broad, pentagonal, smaller than a supraorbital. Ventral shields 
not much larger than the scales of the adjoining series. Scales in 21 series. Ventrals 
186-196; subcaudals 5-6. The body is brown above and white below, and encircled by a 
network of black lines and bands; the longitudinal parts of the network are a black 
vertebral line and an irregular band along each side ; the transverse bands on the back are 
narrow, those on the belly broad ; the head and the neck are black ; a white collar behind 
the black part of the neck. An oblique white band descends from the occipital to the 
throat. 

It attams rarely to the length of 2 feet, and is found only in Ceylon. 



FAMILY OF XENOPELTIDES— X^A^0P^/.77Z)^. 

Body cylindrical, with a depressed, rounded head not distinct from neck ; 
tail short, tapering; no rudiments of hind limbs. Scales rounded, polished, 
rather large ; ventral shields well developed. Two pairs of frontals ; occiput 
covered by five shields. Eye small, with subvertical pupil. Cleft of the 
mouth of moderate width. Teeth numerous in the jaws and on the palate ; 
no longer tooth ; a longitudinal fold at the chin. 

Only one genus. 



XENOPELTIS, Reimvardt. 

Upper labials eight ; praeocular large, replacing the loreal ; occiput covered 
by five shields ; scales in fifteen rows ; anal and subcaudals bifid. 

Only one species is known. 



Xenopeltis unicolor. 

Xenopeltis uiiicolor, coucolorj et leucoceplialus, Reinw. Ms, 1827, p. 564. 
Tortrix xenopeltis, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 20. pi. 1. figs. 8-10. 
Xenopeltis unicolor, Cantor, Mai. Repi. p. 54. 

The head of this snake is flat, depressed, obtusely rounded in front ; the eye small, with 
subvertical pupil ; the body cylindrical ; the tail tapering, short. 



XENOPELTIS UNICOLOR. 1«1 

Rostral shield broader than high, slightly recurved on the upper surface of the snout, with 
an obtuse superior angle. The anterior frontals are about half the size of the posterior, and 
rather broader than long ; the posterior frontals are longer than broad, five-sided, their inner 
and prseocular margins being the longest. Vertical five-sided, with an acute angle behind, 
and with the hinder sides longest. Supraorbital small, not much larger than the eye. The 
occipital region is covered by five shields, viz. by an anterior pair, by a posterior pair, and by 
a central shield ; the shields of the anterior pair and the central one resemble the vertical in 
form and size. The nasal shield is rather small, oblong, and divided into two by a transverse 
suture, on which the nostril is situated. The praeocular is very large, forming a long suture 
with the posterior frontal, and a shorter one with the vertical. Postoculars two, equal in 
size and form. Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which are produced upwards to 
form the lower part of the orbit together with the lower postorbital. Six scale-like temporals 
arranged in two series descending obliquely forwards ; two are in contact with the postoculars. 
The mental shield is rather broader than long, with a slight median groove ; the first pair of 
lower labials form a suture together behind the rostral ; one pair of chin-shields, which are 
longer than broad, and separated by a longitudinal groove. Seven lower labials, three of 
which are in contact with the chin-shield, and the third of which is longer than the second. 

The cii'cumference of the body is equal to the length of the tail, and one-tenth or one- 
eleventh of the total length ; it is surrounded by fifteen longitudinal series of smooth, pore- 
less, polished scales, those of the outer series being much larger than the others. Abdominal 
shields about 180; anal bifid; subcaudals bifid, 27. 

Old specimens are uniform brown or blackish above, and white below ; young individuals 
have a white head, and this part is frequently of a lighter coloration even in older examples. 
Light lines run along the joining edges of the series of scales, but disappear nearly entirely 
with age. 

The cleft of the mouth is of moderate width, and the mandibles cannot be moved much 
from each other ; there are forty closely set teeth of equal size on each side of the upper 
jaw, and as many in the lower. The palatine teeth are rather stronger and more widely set, 
twenty-six in number. 

This snake attains to a length of 3-4 feet ; we have received it from Pinang and Singapore, 
from Gamboja, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and Borneo. It is a nocturnal species and of fierce 
habits, feeding on small mammals, which it hunts for in their subterranean holes. 



182 OPHIDIA. 



FAMILY OF ROUGU-TAIL^—UBOPELTID^. 

Body cylindrical, with a short, narrow head not distinct from neck ; tail 
extremely short, truncated or scarcely tapering, generally terminating* in a 
rough, naked disk, or covered with keeled scales (see Melanopliidiuiii). The 
body is covered with rounded, polished, imbricate scales, those in the 
ventral series being always somewhat larger than the rest. Only one pair 
of frontals ; four upper labials. Eye very small. Cleft of the mouth of 
moderate width ; teeth in small number, small, subequal in size, in the 
maxillary and mandibulary bones, none on the palate. There is no longi- 
tudinal fold at the chin, except in Melanophidium. No rudiments of hinder 
extremities. 

This family, founded by J. Miiller, contains forms which, from the simplicity of the 
shields of their head, from theii- scales, their short tail, and their but little dilatable mouth, 
bear some resemblance to the Typhlopidce. They also, like the Typhlopes, live under 
ground, — theii- conical head, followed by a generally very stout neck, their rigid body, and, 
above all, their short, strong, and posteriorly shielded tail being admirably adapted for 
bun-owing. The species are very similar to one another, so that a general description will 
suffice for all. 

The head is always narrower than the neck, which is generally slightly swollen and the 
thickest part of the trunk. Very frequently the longitudinal axis of the head is not the same 
as that of the neck, the head being impressed on one side, as if it had been dislocated 
during some eifort of the snake to penetrate the soil. The rostral shield is conical, frequently 
pointed, and sometimes (Bhinojphis) extending backwards to the frontals, entirely separating 
the nasals from each other. The nasal is large, pierced inferiorly by a nostril which is 
situated on the side of the head ; the nasal is in contact with the first and second labials. 
Only one pair of frontals, in contact Avith second and third labials ; a six-sided vertical, the 
lateral margins of which are sometimes extremely short ; a pair of well-developed occipitals, 
in contact with the fourth labial. The eye is very small, and covered by a separate shield 
in Plectrurus only, where also a supraorbital and postocular can be distinguished, the eye 
resting on the third labial ; in the other species these shields are confluent, forming an ocular, 
the eye being visible from behind a transparent portion of the ocular. The labials increase 
in size backwards, the last forming a broad suture with the occipital. 

The scales are short, rounded, polished, without apical groove, rather larger in the ventral 
series than in the dorsal; a series of narrow ventral shields* becomes distinct at a short 
distance behind tlie throat ; the vent is covered by a bifid anal. The subcaudals are scale- 

* In counting the ventral shields I have always commenced from the first scale behind the mental shield. 



RHINOPHIS. 183 

like, sometimes in a double series, sometimes confluent and forming only one series — which 
does not appear to be a specific character ; they are few in number, from four to twelve. 

The species do not attain to a considerable size, and hitherto they have been found only 
in Ceylon and in the Peninsula of India. They are by no means scarce, but escape observa- 
tion from their peculiar mode of life. In order to collect them it is necessary to dig for them 
to a depth of 4 feet. According to Peters they are viviparous {Bh. melanog aster). They 
live on insects and worms. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 

Nasals separated by the rostral Rhinophis, p. 183. 

Tail terminating in a flat, rough, scaleless shield Uropeltis, p. 188. 

Hind part of the tail covered with keeled scales ; supraorbital and postocular 

confluent Silybura, p. 189. 

Supraorbital and postocular distinct Plectrurus, p. 192. 

Tail covered with smooth scales, terminating in a small, smooth, horny point . Melanophidium, p. 193. 



RHINOPHIS, Hemprich. 

Tail cylindrical, covered with smooth scales, terminating in a convex, 
scaleless, rough shield. Head conical ; nasal shields separated from each 
other hy the rostral, which is produced backwards ; supraorbital and post- 
ocular confluent into one shield. Tail of the male longer than of the 
female. 

Found in Ceylon only. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

* Rostral shield nearly half as long as the head, with a longitudinal keel 
above. 

Body nearly uniformly coloured Rh. oxyrhynchus, p. 184. 

Yellcivish, with series of black dots Rh. punctatus,^.\M. 

** Rostral shield not half as long as the head, without distinct keel; 
caudal shield large. 
Coloration uniform or vnth some white blotches on the front part of 

the trunk Rh. philippinus, p. 184. 

A series of triangular white spots along each side of the body . . . Rh. trevelyanm, p. 185. 

Belly and sides red, with black spots Rh. sanguineus, p. 186. 

*** Caudal shield very small. 

Snout pointed Rh. bhjthii, p. 186. 

Snout obtuse Rh. pulneyen^is,Y>. IS7. 



184 OPHIDIA. 

Khinophis oxyrhynchus. 

Typhlops oxyrhynchus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 341. 

Rhinophis oxyrhyiichus, Hempr. Grundriss Naturgesch. p. 119. Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 154. Peters, 

Uropelt. p. 9. tab. 2. fig. 1. 
Dapatnaya lankadivana, Kelaart, Prodr. ii. p. 16. 
MytiHa unimaculata, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 264. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral shield nearly half as long as the head, compressed into a 
distinct longitudinal keel above ; vertical as broad as long, or even broader. Caudal shield 
large, obtusely convex, extending on to the lower surface of the tail, its extent being about 
equal to that of the head. Anterior part of the trunk surrounded by nineteen, the remainder 
by seventeen longitudinal series of scales ; ventral shields not much larger than the scales of 
the adjoining series, varying in number from 214 to 223; male with seven or eight, female 
with six subcaudals, which are partly simple, partly divided into two. Brownish, each scale 
with a lighter margin ; anal shields, and sometimes a spot on the upper or lower part of the 
tail, white ; caudal shield brown. 

Our largest specimen is 15 inches long, the circumference of the thickest (anterior) part 
of the trunk being one-thirteenth or one-fovirteenth of the total length. The species is a 
native of Ceylon, and, according to Kelaart, common at Trincomalee and in the Kandyan 
Province, where it is found two or three feet under ground and in ant-hills. 



Rhinophis punctatus. 

Rhinopliis punctatus, Milller, Treviran. Zeitschr. Physiol, iv. p. 248. Ihtm. £f Bibr. vii. p. 157. 

Peters, Uropelt. p. 12. tab. 2. fig. 3. 
Pseudotyplilops oxyrhyuchus, Schley. Abbild. p. 43. tab. 12. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral shield nearly half as long as the head, compressed into a 
distinct longitudinal keel above ; vertical as broad as long. Caudal shield large, rather flat, 
extending on to the lower surface of the tail. Scales in seventeen longitudinal series ; ventral 
shields not much larger than the scales of the adjoining series, 228 in number; seven or 
eight subcaudals. Yellowish, each scale with a black or brown central spot ; the scales in 
the series adjoining the vertebral series without spot. 

This species attains to a length of 19 inches, and appears to be one of the scarcest 
Ceylonese snakes. 



Rhinophis philippinus. 

T^'phlops philijjpinus, Cuv. Regne Anim. 

Rhinophis philippinus, MiilL, Treviran. Zeitschr. Physiol, iv. p. 249. Dum. &; Bibr. vii. p. 154. 
tab. 59. fig. 1. Peters, Uropelt. p. 15. 

Snout acutely pointed ; the length of the rostral shield is much less than one-half of that 



EHINOPHIS TREVELYANUS. 185 

of the head ; it is scarcely compressed above. Caudal shield large, obtusely convex, extending 
on to the lower surface of the tail, its extent being rather more than that of the head. Anterior 
part of the trunk surrounded by nineteen, the remainder by seventeen longitudinal series of 
scales; ventral shields not much larger than the scales of the adjoining series, varying in 
number from 156 to 174 ; six entire subcaudals in the male, foui- divided ones in the female. 
Blackish olive, each scale with a ligliter margin ; prseanal scales white ; sometimes some 
white blotches on the front part of the trunk. 

This species usually attains to a length of from 10 to 11 inches, the circumference of the 
thickest (anterior) part of the trunk being one-ninth or one-tenth of the total length ; how- 
ever, I have seen an example, from Sir Andrew Smith's collection, which is 16^ inches long. 
It is found in Ceylon, and not in the Philippine Islands as stated by the French zoologists. 

Professor Peters has described another species of RMncyphis, Eh. plcmiceps (Uropelt. 
p. 17. tab. 1. fig. 0) ; it is founded on a specimen which we received from Ceylon with Rh. 
philijppmus, from which, in my opinion, it does not differ specifically. The depression, or 
rather impression, of the head is not a specific character, as we often find it in some specimens 
of a species whilst it is absent in others, and the greater breadth of the vertical shield 
appears to me to be an individual peculiarity. In some specimens of Rh. philipinnus that 
shield is longer than broad, in others as broad as long, and in the typical specimen of 
Rh. planiceps it is broader than long. No other differences are observable. If my opinion 
should be found to be correct, the name oi planiceps might be substituted for johilijjpinus, as 
the latter term conveys a serious error. 

RhINOPHIS TREVELYANUS. 

Dapatnaya trevelyana*, Kelaart, Prodr. ii. p. 17. 

Mitylia gerrardi, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, pp. 58, 263. tab. 13. 

Rliinophis liomolepis, [Hemprich) Peters, Uropelt. p. 14. tab. 2. fig. 2. 

Snout acutely pointed ; the length of the rostral shield is much less than one-half of that 
of the head; it is slightly compressed above into a rather indistinct, obtuse, longitudinal 
keel; vertical as broad as long, or rather longer. Caudal shield large, obtusely convex, 
extending on to the lower surface of the tail, its extent being rather more than that of the 
head. Anterior part of the trunk surrounded by nineteen, the remainder by seventeen lon- 
gitudinal series of scales; ventral shields not much larger than the scales of the adjoining 
series, varying in number from 193 to 202; four or five subcaudals, partly simple, partly 
divided into two. Ventrals and subcaudals smooth. Upper parts black, the lower parts 
white, each scale with a black central spot ; a series of triangular white spots along each 
side of the body ; extremity of the tail white or whitish. 

The largest specimen I have examined is 11 inches long, the circumference of the thickest 
(anterior) part of the trunk being one-twelfth or one-thirteenth of the total length. The 
species is a native of Ceylon, and found on the Kandyan Hills, three or four feet under ground. 

* This is tlie first name under which this species lias been described. 

2 B 



186 OPHIDIA. 

Rhinophis sanguineus. (Plate XVII. fig. A.) 

Rhinophis sanguineus, Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 227. 
microlepis, Beddome, I. c. pi. 26. fig. 2. 

Snout acutely pointed ; the length of the rostral shield is one-third of that of the head ; 
it is slightly compressed into a very obtuse longitudinal keel ; vertical rather longer than 
broad. Caudal shield large, flattish in front, obtusely convex behind, scarcely extending on 
to the lower surface of the tail, its extent being rather more than that of the head. Fore- 
most part of the trunk surrounded by nineteen, farther behind by seventeen, its middle by 
fifteen series of scales. Ventral shields 197, twice as large as the scales of the adjoining 
series; subcaudals partly entire, partly bifid, nine or ten in the male, six or seven in the 
female ; the subcaudals, the hinder ventrals, and the scales in their vicinity are provided with 
from four to eight keels in the male sex. Uniform black above ; belly with the three outer 
series of scales scarlet, many of the scales and ventral shields having a black spot. Caudal 
shield black, with a yellow median streak and with red outer margin. A large black spot 
on tlie lower side of the extremity of the tail. 

Captain Beddome wiites that he has prociu'ed numerous examples of this species at 
Cherambady in the Wynad, at an elevation of 3500 feet ; all were dug up in one spot ; and 
he has not met with it elsewhere. The specimen he sent is 13 inches long, and a male. 

We have given two views of the head, a portion of the side of the body and of the belly, 
and the posterior view of the tail : all of the natural size. 



Rhinophis blythii. 

Rhinophis blythii, Kelaart, Prodr. ii. p. 14. Peters, Uropelt. p. 17. 
Mytilia templetonii, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 263 (old age). 

melauogaster, Gray, I. c. p. 264 (male, not full-grown). 

Plectrurus ceylonicus, Peters, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1859, p. 388. 
Rhinophis' melanogaster, Peters, Uropelt. p. 18. tab. 2. fig. 4. 

Snout pointed ; the length of the rostral shield is much less than one-half of that of the 
head ; it is very slightly compressed above ; vertical longer than broad. Caudal shield small, 
not of half the extent of the head. Anterior part of the trunk suiTounded by nineteen, the 
remainder by seventeen longitudinal series of scales. Ventral shields not much larger than 
the scales of the adjoining series, varying in number from 150 to 169. 

In other respects this species varies considerably : — 

o. In specimens from 13 to 14 inches long [Rh. blythii) the circumference of the thickest 
part of the body is one-eighth of the total length ; the extremity of the caudal shield is 
obtuse, with the keel which may be observed in younger individuals worn ofi". Subcaudals 
divided, from seven to nine. Brownish above ; belly sometimes paler, sometimes blackish ; 
a series of five or six triangular yellowish spots, united at the base by a more or less distinct 



RHINOPHIS PULNEYENSIS. 187 

longitudinal band, along each side of the front part of the trunk ; a yellowish ring round 
the root of the tail. 

/3. In female specimens from 9 to 10 inches long the ch-cumference of the body is one- 
eleventh or one-twelfth of the total length. The caudal shield terminates below in a very 
indistinct transverse keel ; six divided subcaudals. Brown above, black below, both colours 
being separated by an irregular yellowish lateral band, which is broken up into a series of 
spots on the front part of the trunk and more or less continuous posteriorly. 

y. In male specimens from 7 to 8 inches long {Mytilia melanogaster) the circumference of 
the body is one-tenth or one-eleventh of the total length. The caudal shield terminates 
below in a distinct transverse keel, with a minute spine on each side ; nine or ten divided or 
entire subcaudals. Brownish above, with or without dark longitudinal lines ; black below ; 
an irregular yellowish longitudinal band along each side. 

S. In young specimens from 3^ to 4 inches long the circumference of the body is one- 
seventh or one-eighth of the total length. The shield and the scales of the tail are as in the 
specimens described under y. Greyish olive above, each scale •with a blackish dot, the dots 
forming longitudinal series ; belly and lower part of the sides uniform yellowish ; each 
scale of the tail with a black central dot. 

Having most carefully examined more than twenty specimens, besides the types oi. Mytilia 
tevipletonii and Mytilia melanogaster, I cannot arrive at any other conclusion than that these 
two forms are identical. The principal ground on which both have been separated is the 
form of the extremity of the caudal shield, which has a slightly spinose transverse keel in 
younger examples. This keel becomes indistinct with age, so that the extremity of the tail 
appears more rounded. The coloration of the belly, also, is not a distinctive character in 
one of the two supposed species ; the British Museum possesses an old example with a 
rounded caudal shield without keel (as in M. templetonii) but with a black belly (as in 
M. melanogaster). 

The variation in the comparative thickness of the body is dependent on age, and very 
remarkable. It appears, from my observations, that young specimens have a comparatively 
short body, whilst it becomes most slender in middle age ; when the individuals have attained 
to their full length (13-14 inches) their body increases in thickness, and old individuals are 
easily distinguished by the stoutness of their habit. 

This is the most common species of Ceylon, 

Rhinophis pulnktensis. (Plate XVII. fig. C.) 

Plectrurus pulneyensisj Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 228. pi. 25. fig. 2. 

Snout rather obtuse ; rostral shield rounded behind, short, its length being one-fourth of 
that of the head ; it is flat above, not compressed ; vertical as broad as long. Caudal shield 
very small, about as large as the rostral. Anterior part of the trunk surrounded by nineteen, 
its middle by seventeen rows of scales. Ventral shields twice as large as the scales of the 
adjoming series, 175 in number; subcaudals twelve in the male, from six to eight in the 
female. The circumference of the body is about one-tenth of the total length. Brownish 

2b2 



188 OPHIDIA. 

black : a yellow band commences from the labials, runs along each side of the front part of 
the body, and is continued as an interrupted series of transverse spots to the vent ; the spots 
sometimes extend across the belly ; a yellow band along each side of the tail, reaching across 
the vent. 

It is very abundant on the Pulney Hills, at elevations of from 7000 to 8000 feet. A female 
which I have examined is 8^ inches long, and has three eggs in its oviduct, each of wliich is 
9 lines long. 

We have given on Plate XVII. two views of the liead and the side view of the tail, of the 
natural size. 



UROPELTIS. 

Uropeltis (jiart.), Cuvier. 

Tail cylindrical, obliquely truncated as if severed by a knife ; the truncated 
portion flat, scaleless, rough. Head conical ; nasal sliields forming a suture 
together behind the rostral ; supraorbital and postocular confluent into one 
shield. 

Ceylon. 

Only one species is known. 

Uropeltis gbandis. 

Uropeltis pliilippinus, Cuv. Regne Anim. Dum. ^" Bibr. vii. p. IGl. pi. 59. fig. 3. Peters, Uropelt. 

p. 20. Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceyl. p. 302, c. fig. 
saffragamus, grandis, et pardalis, Kelaart, Prodr. ii. pp. 15 & 16. 

Snout pointed; rostral convex, produced and tapering behind, nearly as long as the 
vertical. Scales in twenty-three longitudinal series on the neck, in twenty-one in the middle 
of the body ; ventrals 138-148 ; seven or eight pairs of bifid subcaudals. The circumference 
of the thickest (anterior) part of the body is one-seventh of the total length. The adult is 
rmiform bro\A-u above ; the lateral scales and ventral shields brown, with a broad yellowish 
margin. Young specimens sometimes with numerous ii-regular white spots. Another half- 
grown specimen is nearly uniform brown above and white below. 

This snake is found near Adam's Peak and Matura, and is rare ; it attains to a length of 
20 inches, being the largest species of this family. 



SILYBURA MACROLEPIS. 189 

SILYBURA. 

Siluboura, Gray= Silyburaj Peters. 

Tail subcylindrical, the scales on its upper posterior side being shield-like 
and provided with one or several keels, forming together a flattish disk 
which terminates in a horny, bispinous, horizontal scale. Head more or less 
conical ; nasal shields forming a suture together behind the rostral ; supra- 
orbital and postocular confluent into one shield. 

Peninsula of India. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

* Scales in fifteen ro^ys 5. macrolepis, p. 189. 

** Scales in seventeen rows ; rostral longer than vertical S. beddomii, p. 190. 

*** Scales in seventeen i-o« s ; rostral shorter than vertical. 

Ventrals 199-203 S. ocelluta, p. 190. 

The lovFcr part of the tail is completely encircled by a yellow band; 

ventrals 143-168 S. elliotti, p. 190. 

A yellow band along each side of body and tail ; vertical shield square . S. bicatenata, p. 191. 
The fourth upper labial much longer than high ; ventrals 139, nearly twice 

as broad as the scales ; tail with a yellow liand only along the side . S. shorttii, p. 191. 

Ventrals 122 S. brevis, p. 192. 



SiLTBURA MACROLEPIS. (Plate XVII. fig. B.) 

Silybura macrolepis, Peters, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1861, p. 904. 

Snout obtusely conical ; rostral shield without keel above, shorter than the vertical. 
Caudal disk flat, well defined, twice as long as broad ; each scale of the disk with one or 
two keels. Scales of the middle of the body in fifteen rows; ventral shields 137 ; nine pairs 
of subcaudals. The circumference of the thickest part of the body is contained ten times 
and a half in the total length. Black : a broad, irregular, yellowish band along each side 
of the front part of the trunk ; traces of a similar narrow band are visible along the sides of 
the body ; a yellow band along each side of the lower part of the tail. 

The single specimen known is a female, 10|- inches long, and probably a native of the 
peninsula of India. 

The head is represented in two views on Plate XVII. 



190 OPHIDIA. 

SiLYBURA BEDDOMii. (Plate XVII. fig. F.) 

Silybura beddomii, Gunth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, January, p. 56. 

Snout pointed ; rostral shield compressed into a slight keel above, longer than the vertical. 
Caudal disk rather convex, not well defined, nearly as long as the tail, with two or three 
strong keels on each scale. Scales of the middle of the body in seventeen rows ; ventral 
shields 178; from five to six pairs of subcaudals. The cu'cumference of the thickest part 
of the body is one-eleventh of the total length. Brown : each scale on the sides with a pair 
of whitish dots ; each ventral shield with a small whitish spot. A yellowish line along the 
side of the neck, commencing behind the angle of the mouth ; vent and tip of the tail yellow. 

This species was discovered by Captain R. H. Beddome in the Anamallay Hills and in the 
Nilgherries, at elevations of from 3000 to 4500 feet ; the specimens are 11 inches long. 

Two views of the head are given on Plate XVII., of its natural size. 



SiLYBUEA OCELLATA. (Plate XVII. figs. E, E'.) 

Silybura ocellata, Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 226. 

Snout pointed ; rostral shield slightly compressed above, much shorter than the vertical. 
Caudal disk rather convex, twice as long as broad, not very clearly defined ; each scale of the 
disk with three or four strong keels. Scales of the middle of the body in seventeen rows ; 
ventral shields 199-203 ; subcaudals from eight to ten, in pairs or entire. The cuxumference 
of the thickest part of the body is one-twelfth of the total length. Ground-colour of the male 
yellowish olive, darker towards head and tail ; of the female dull brownish ; of the young 
dark purplish brown : all with numerous, closely-set, rather irregular transverse series of 
yellow, black-edged ocelli ; the ocelli are small, always two on each side of the back ; a series 
of irregular, transverse, yeUow, black-edged spots along each side of the belly corresponds to 
these bands. Belly brownish. 

This species was discovered by Captain R. H.' Beddome at Walaghat, on the western slope 
of the Nilgherries, at an elevation of 3500 feet, in dense moist forests. The specimen sent 
by him is a male, 14^ inches long. Figures E, E' on Plate XVII. represent the head in two 
different views, a portion of the side of the body, and the caudal disk : all of the natural size. 



Silybura elliotti. 

Uropeltis ceylanicus, Cuv. Regne Anim. 

Siluboura ceylanica, Gray, Lizards, p. 142. 

Coloburus ceylanicus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 164. tab. 59. fig. 3. 

Siluboura elliotti. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 262. 

Silybura ceylanica, Peters, Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1861, p. 903. 

nilgberriensis, Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 226. pi. 26. fig. 1. 

Snout more or less obtusely conical ; rostral shield without keel above, shorter than the 



SILYBUEA SHORTTII. 191 

vertical. Caudal disk flattened in females, convex and ill defined in males, twice or more 
than twice as long as broad ; each scale of the disk veith two or three strong keels. Scales 
of the middle of the body in seventeen rows ; ventral shields 168 in a male (S. elliotti, Gray), 
143-154 in females; the number of the subcaudals, which are divided, varies between seven 
and twelve, irrespectively of sex. The cu-cumference of the thickest part of the body is one- 
tenth of the total length. Blackish brown above and below ; a narrow yellowish streak runs 
from the angle of the mouth along each side of the neck ; sometimes there are irregular 
small yellowish spots along the sides and on the back ; the lower part of the tail is com- 
pletely encircled by a yellow band. 

This species attains to a length of 11 inches. All the specimens I have seen are from the 
Southern Peninsula (from the neighbourhood of Madras and from the Deccan) ; none are 
from Ceylon, as has been stated by some herpetologists. 



SiLTBUEA BIOATENATA. (Plate XVII. figs. H, H'.) 

Snout obtusely conical ; rostral rounded, very short, shorter than the nasals ; vertical 
square, its front part, which extends between the frontals, being as large as its hind part ; 
it is rectangular anteriorly and posteriorly. Fourth upper labial as high as long. Caudal 
disk fiat, well defined, not much shorter than the tail, terminating in a broad, horny, 
bicuspid scale which is slightly turned upwards ; each scale composing the caudal disk is 
provided with one or two or three keels. The body is surrounded by seventeen series of 
scales on the neck as well as in its middle; ventral shields 135; twelve pairs of subcaudals. 
The circumference of the thickest (anterior) part of the body is one-eleventh of the total 
length. Black above and below, each scale on the back with a yellowish margin. A yellow 
band runs along each side of the body; it corresponds to the joining edges of the fourth 
and fifth outer series of scales ; anteriorly it is broken up into a series of large spots, 
posteriorly it flanks the lower part of the tail. Lower parts entirely black. 

A single example of this beautiful species, 9^ inches long, was brought by Colonel Sykes 
from the Deccan. The specimen is a male, with the tail 8 lines long; it is figured on 
Plate XVII. of its natural size ; figure H' represents the upper side of the head. 



SiLYBURA SHORTTII. (Plate XVII. fig. G.) 

Silybura shorttii, Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 225. pi. 25. fig. 1. 

Snout not conical, rather obtuse in front, depressed ; eye comparatively large ; rostral 
rounded, short, shorter than the nasal ; vertical hexagonal, its anterior and posterior angles 
being nearly right ones. Fourth upper labial much longer than high. Caudal disk flat, 
well defined, not quite twice as long as broad, and not much shorter than the tail, termi- 
nating in a broad, horny, bicuspid scale. Each scale composing the caudal disk is provided 
with two or three strong keels. Seventeen rows of scales round the middle of the body ; 



192 OPHIDIA. 

ventral shields 139, nearly twice as broad as the scales of the adjoining series; nine pairs of 
subcaudals. The circumference of the thickest part of the body is one-tenth of the total 
length. Black : numerous irregularly disposed scales are white ; an irregular white band 
from the angle of the mouth along each side of the front part of the trunk ; a yellowish 
band along each side of the tail, not joined over the vent. 

I have examined the single specimen to which Captain Beddome has assigned the name 
of its discoverer; it was found in the Shevaray Hills, at an elevation of 4500 feet; it is 
8 inches long. 

We have given two views of the head, of its natural size, taken from the same (typical) speci- 
men as that which served for the drawings in the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society. 

SiLYBUKA BREVIS. (Plate XVII. fig. D.) 

Silybura breads, Gilnth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, January, p. 56. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral shield rounded, shorter than the vertical. Caudal disk well defined, 
flat, nearly as long as the tail ; each scale of the disk with two strong keels. Scales of the 
middle of the body in seventeen rows ; ventral shields 122 ; nine pairs of subcaudals. The 
circumference of the thickest part of the body is contamed six times and a half in the total 
length. Brown above; the lower part of the sides and the belly yellowish, densely marbled 
with brown ; sides of the throat yellowish, immaculate ; the lower part of the tail black, 
with a broad white band on each side. 

The single specimen I have seen is 6^ inches long, and apparently young. It was brought 
by Captain R. H. Beddome from the Anamallay Hills ; he informs me that he has lately 
found a second example in the Nilgherries, which is rather smaller than the one described. 
We have given an entire figure of the typical specimen, and two views of the head. 



PLECTRURUS. 

Plectrurus, Dum. ^ Bibr. 

Maudia, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 261. 

Posterior part of the tail compressed, covered with obtusely keeled scales, 
and terminating in a horny bicuspid scale, the two points being ])laced one 
above the other. Head conical ; the nasals form a suture together behind 
the rostral ; supraorbital and postocular distinct. 

Peninsula of India. 

Uniform brown P- jierrofetii. 

Purple, with triangular yellow lateral spots P. yiintheri. 



MELANOPHIDIUM. 193 

Plectrukus pereotetii. 

Plectrurus perrotetii, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 167. pi. 59. fig. 4. 

Snout obtusely conical ; rostral shield short, rounded, as long as a nasal ; vertical elongate, 
produced behind, much longer than broad. Body with fifteen series of scales round its 
middle; ventrals nearly t^vice as broad as the scales of the adjoining series, 161-162 in 
number ; eight pairs of subcaudals. The circumference of the body is one-eleventh or one- 
twelfth of the total length. Uniform brownish or blackish. 

This species is common in the Madras Presidency and in the Nilgherries ; it attams to the 
length of 14 inches. It is found at an elevation of from 7000 to 8000 feet, and is frequently 
dug up in gardens or taken from under turf and stones. 



Plectrurus guntheri. 

Plectnirus giintheri, Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 228. pi. 27 (the ground-colour is too 
dark in this figure, owing to the fault of the colourer). 

Head flat above, with obtuse snout ; rostral shield as high as broad, considerably shorter 
than a nasal, with a right angle behind. Vertical elongate, produced behind, nearly twice 
as long as broad. Body with seventeen series of scales round its foremost part, and with 
fifteen round its middle. Ventrals nearly twice as broad as the scales of the adjoining series, 
172-175 in number; twelve pairs of subcaudals. The circumference of the body is one- 
twelfth or one-thirteenth of the total length. Beautiful purple above, each scale with a 
lighter margin ; belly yellow, the yellow colour rising up on the sides in triangular mark- 
ings, which are alternate with similar markings of the colour of the back, the purple spots 
sometimes joining those of the other side by narrow stripes crossing the belly. 

This fine species was discovered by Captain R. H. Beddome in the moist forests at Walaghat, 
on the western slopes of the Nilgherries (3500 feet) ; the specimen which he sent is 14 inches 
Ions:. 



MELANOPHIDIUM, Gthr. 

Tail slightly compressed, covered with smooth scales, and terminating- in 
a very small, smooth, horny point slightly turned upwards. Snout rather 
obtuse ; nasal shields forming a suture together behind the rostral ; supra- 
orbital and postocular confluent hito one shield. A median groove along 
the chin. 



Only one species is known. 



2 c 



194 OPHIDIA. 

Mblai^ophidium wynandense. (Plate XVII. figs. I, I'.) 

Plectrurus wynandensisj Beddome, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863j p. 228. 

Snout obtuse. Rostral shield rather small, simply convex, as high as broad ; nasals large, 
forming a broad suture behind the rostral. Vertical hexagonal, longer than broad, with an 
obtuse anterior and a pointed posterior angle ; occipital as large as vertical. The first pair 
of lower labials form a suture together behind the median shield; a pair of chin-shields. 
Scales in fifteen rows. Ventrals 180, thrice as broad as the scales of the adjoining series; 
anal large, bifid ; subcaudals in twelve pair's. Body rather slender, the circumference of its 
thickest part being one-fifteenth of the total length. Black ; posterior two-thirds of the belly 
irregularly black and white. 

A specimen, 9 inches long (tail half an inch), was found at Wynand, at an elevation of 
3500 feet; we have figured it of its natural size, figures I' representing the head in two 
different views. 



FAMILY OF DWARF ^N AKE^— CJLJMJUID^. 

Body cylindrical, rigid, with a short head which is not distinct from neck ; 
tail more or less short, tapering-. Body and tail covered with rounded, 
smooth or keeled scales, which are not much imbricate, and disposed in from 
thirteen to seventeen longitudinal series. The ventral shields are well de- 
veloped, and generally less than 200 in luimber; anal entire in all the Indian 
species ; subcaudals two-rowed or entire. Cleft of the mouth rather short ; 
nostril lateral ; eye rather small, with round pupil. The normal number of 
shields of the head is always reduced by two or more shields being confluent. 
Chin with a longitudinal fold. All the Indian species have the maxillary 
teeth equal in size, none being grooved ; palatine teeth present. 

The snakes of this family are very small species, measuring between 12 and 24 inches in 
length ; they are always found on the ground, beneath stones, fallen trees, or turf; their 
diminutive size, narrow cleft of the mouth, and very limited capability of extending the skin 
of the throat and trunk prevent them from attacking other reptiles, and their food appears 
to consist chiefly of insects and worms ; more frequently they themselves fall an easy prey 
to other snakes, especially to the Bungari and CaUo])hides, which inhabit the same localities. 
They are very gentle and never attempt to bite. 



CALAMARIA. 195 

The Indian species belong to the following genera : — 

* Subcaudals bifid. 

t Only one pair offrontals. 

Fo\ir or five upper labial shields Calamaria, p. 195. 

Eight upper labial shields Macrocalamus, p. 198. 

tt Tivo pairs offrontals. 

Loreal none, replaced by the posterior frontal ; a prseoeidar . . . Oxy calamus, p. 199. 

Loreal and prseocular united into one elongate shield Geophis, p. 200. 

** Subcaudals entire. 

Scales smooth Aspidura, p. 202. 

Scales keeled Haplocercus, p. 204. 



CALAMARIA, Boie. 

Body cylindrical, stout or slender ; head short, slightly depressed, not 
distinct from neck ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; tail short. 
Only one pair of frontals ; nasal simple, small ; loreal none, united with the 
frontal ; one anterior ocular (sometimes absent) and one posterior ; four or 
five labials. Scales smooth, rounded, polished, in thirteen series ; anal 
entire ; subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth equal in size and structure. 

The snakes of this genus are peculiar to the East Indian archipelago, where they are 
represented by numerous species, a few only being found in the neighbouring parts of the 
continent (Malayan peninsula, Siam) ; they are entirely absent in the peninsula of India and 
in Ceylon. They are all ground snakes, and are very small, not much exceeding 12-15 inches 
in length, of diurnal habits, feeding on small invertebrates, and frequently falling a prey to 
more powerful snakes, particularly to the Elapes. They much resemble one another in 
every part of their organization : the head-shields are reduced in number ; the rostral is low ; 
the frontals large, always replacing the loreal, and sometimes even suppressing the prse- 
ocular, forming a portion of the orbit ; vertical large, supraorbital small ; the occipital forms 
a suture with the last labial, a single temporal fitting-in in the notch between these two 
shields. Four or five labials, the hinder of which is the largest; if there are four, the 
second is larger than the first and third ; two labials enter the orbit. Mental shield much 
broader than long ; five pairs of lower labials, the first pair forming a suture behind the 
mental shield in some species, whilst in others the mental is in immediate contact with the 
anterior chin-shields. Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior of which is larger than the 
posterior ; sometimes a small azygos shield is intercalated between the posterior chin-shields, 
separating them entirely from each other, — a character which is also used for the distinction 
of the species. 

2 c2 



196 OPHIDIA. 

The following species occur on the continent of India : — 

* Upper labials foiu' ; the first pair of lower labials form a suture together. 

Ventral shields bicoloured, 179-190 C. siamensis, p. 196. 

Ventral shields uniform whitish, 136-145 C. quadrimaculata, p. 197. 

** Upper laljials five ; the first pair of lower labials are separate from each 
other. 

Brown, with fom* vermilion (white) streaks C, albiventer, p. 197. 

*** Upper labials five ; the first pair of lower labials form a suture together. 

Head light brownish ; vertical shield as broad as long C. nigro-alba, p. 198. 

Head white ; vertical shield broader than long C. leucocephala, p. 198. 

Some other species of Calamaria appear to have been discovered on the Indian continent, 
but unfortunately they have not been sufficiently well characterized to enable us to admit 
them into the system. It is even doubtful whether they belong to the genus Calamaria : — 

1. Calamaria catenata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1854, p. 287. — No anterior frontals; the vertical 
plate broad, pentagonal, and almost as large as the occipitals; 13 rows of scales: scuta 187; scuteUa 41 
pairs. Predominant colour dusky above, formed by minute black specks upon a pale ground tint ; below 
])ale buft' with an iridescent lustre, and marked with lateral series of square black spots, chiefly upon 
alternate scuta. Four black lines throughout above, the upper bordering a pale medial streak, which is 
simple upon the tail, but along the body forms a concatenation of elongated oval spots. An imperfect 
whitish-buff collar, and similar marks before and behind the eye. Length of specimen 17 inches, of which 
the tail is 2^ inches. From Assam. 

2. Calamaria reticulata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1854, p. 287. — Vertical plate hexagonal, angu- 
lated to the front, and not half so large as the occipitals ; supraorbital large and subtriangular. Thirteen 
rows of scales: scuta 136-138; scutella 27-28 pairs. Colour shining dull black, brilliant and iridescent 
l)elow ; minute yellowish- white specks on the side of the mouth, throat, and along the sides of the body. 
In spirit the edges of the scales are seen to be of a deep black, imparting a reticulated appearance. The 
larger of two specimens measures 12 inches, of which the tail is 2^ inches. From Assam. 



Calamaria siamensis. (Plate XVIII. fig. B.) 

Upper labials four ; the first pair of lower labials are in contact with each other ; there is 
no azygos shield in contact with the anterior chin-shields. Vertical shield not much longer 
than broad or as broad as long, six-sided, much smaller than an occipital. The circumference 
of the body is one-sixteenth or one-eighteenth of the total length. Ventral shields 179-190 ; 
subcaudals 12-20. Brownish above, minutely dotted with black, uniform or with seven 
indistinct blackish lines ; neck with a black collar, which has a more or less distinct whitish 
posterior margin ; upper part of the tail \\ith two or three pairs of white spots, one at its 
base, the other behind the middle and remote from its extremity, the third on its extremity ; 
in females with a short tail there are only two pairs of these spots. Ventrals and sub- 
caudals whitish, densely punctulated with brown, only the hind margins of the shields 
remaining immaculate. 



CALAMARIA ALBI VENTER. 197 

Three specimens, from 8 to 9 inches long, were collected by Mouhot in the southern parts 
of Siam, and in the Lao Mountains, Cochinchina. We have given three views of the head, 
of twice its natural size, and a portion of the belly, to show its peculiar coloration. 



Calamakia quadkimaculata. 

Calamaria quadrimaculata, Dutn. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 73. 

Upper labials four ; the fu'st pair of lower labials are in contact with each other ; there 
is no azygos shield in contact with the anterior chin-shields. Vertical shield as broad as 
long, six-sided, half as large as an occipital. The circumference of the body is one-fourteenth 
of the total length. Ventral shields 136-145 ; subcaudals 13. Light brownish, with five or 
seven brown longitudinal lines ; neck with a broad blackish-brown collar, edged with white 
anteriorly and posteriorly. Lower parts uniform white ; a faint blackish subcaudal line. 
Upper part of the taU with two pairs of white spots, one at its base, and the other on its 
extremity. 

This species is found in Java. Having seen a specimen from General Hardwicke's collec- 
tion, it is possible that it occurs also in British India. For this reason, and for comparison 
with C. siamensis, we have admitted it in the present work. 



Calamaria albiventer. 

Changulia albiventer, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 
Calamaria hnnei, var., Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 62. 
albiventer, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 4. 

Upper labials five ; the first pair of lower labials are not in contact with each other ; there 
is no azygos shield in contact with the hind part of the anterior chin-shields. The cii'cum- 
ference of the body is one-twelfth or one-thirteenth of the total length. Ventral shields 
160-166, subcaudals 16-17. Head brown, vpith darker dots; trunk brown, with four ver- 
milion longitudinal streaks, the outer of which runs along the joining edges of the two 
outer series of scales; a third, rather indistinct, pair of streaks run along the joining edges 
of the third and fourth outer series of scales. Belly carmine, the brown coloration of the 
side just touching the margin of the ventral shields. A black serrated line along the middle 
of the subcaudals. 

Pinang. Length 11 inches. The young specimens mentioned by Cantor appear to belong 



to another species. 



198 OPHIDIA. 

Calamaria niqro-alba. (Plate XVIIl. fig. C.) 

Calamaria liimbricoidea, var., Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 61 (not Boie). 

Upper labials five ; the first pair of lower labials are in contact with each other ; there is 
no azygos shield in contact with the anterior chin-shields. Vertical shield as broad as long, 
six-sided, much smaller than an occipital, with an acute posterior angle. The circumference 
of the body is one-fourteenth or one-eighteenth of the total length. Ventral shields 
147(-154)-166 ; subcaudals 30(-29)-25. Upper parts blackish, head somewhat lighter, all 
the lower parts and the outer series of scales whitish, immaculate, both colours being well 
defined ; a faint blackish subcaudal line. 

Pinang. Length 12-13 inches. This species has been confounded by Cantor with C. lum- 
hricoidea, from Java, which differs in the arrangement of the labial shields. C. modesta, from 
Java, is more closely allied to our species, but differs in its coloration, and in hanng a greater 
number of ventral shields and a shorter tail. The three views of the head on Plate XVIII. 
are of twice the natural size, and are taken from one of Cantor's typical specimens. 



Calamaria leucocephala. 

Calamaria leucocephala, Drnn. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 83. 

Upper labials five ; the first pair of lower labials are in contact with each other ; there is 
no azygos shield in contact with the anterior chin-shields. Vertical shield broader than 
long, six-sided, with an obtuse angle posteriorly and anteriorly. Ventral shields 136 ; sub- 
caudals 37. Black above; head, neck, the two outer series of scales, and the lower parts 
white. 

The only specimen known is in the Fort Pitt Museum at Chatham, and is 9 inches long. 
It is probably from British India. 



MACROCALAMUS, Gthr. 

Body cylindrical, stout ; head of moderate length, slightly depressed, not 
distinct from neck ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; tail short. 
Only one pair of frontals ; nasal simple, nostril between nasal and first 
labial ; loreal none, united with frontal ; one anterior and one posterior 
ocular ; eight upper labials. Scales smooth, rounded, polished, in thirteen 
series ; anal entire ; subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth equal. 

East Indies. 



OXYCALAMUS LONGICEPS. 199 

Macrocalamus lateralis. (Plate XVIII. fig. D.) 

Rostral shield depressed, longer than broad, extending on to the upper surface of the head ; 
frontals bent downwards to the second and third labial shields ; vertical indistinctly five-sided, 
longer than broad and smaller than the occipital ; superciliary and prseocular well developed 
and in contact with each other, the latter not extending on to the upper surface of the head ; 
the nasal is as large as, and exactly above, the first labial, the nostril being between them ; 
eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth forming the lower part of the orbit, and the seventh 
being the largest. One postocular ; temporals 1 + 2. Mental shield very narrow in a trans- 
verse direction ; six lower labials, the first pair forming a suture together behind the mental ; 
foui" are in contact with the anterior chin-shields. Chin-shields two pairs : the anterior are 
nearly twice as long as broad, the posterior scale-like and entirely separated from each other 
by an intermediate azygos scale. Ventral shields 118; subcaudals 20. Brown: a dark- 
brown band, enclosing a regular series of whitish dots, runs along the side, bordering the 
belly ; back with two series of indistinct brownish-black spots ; an irregular series of very 
small black dots along each side of the belly, which is whitish ; a blackish subcaudal band. 

Total length 12 inches; head ^ inch, tail 1|- inch, circumference of the body 1^ inch. 

The only specimen known is from General Hardwicke's East Indian collection, and is pro- 
bably from the continent. We have given three views of its head, of the natural size. 



OXYCALAMUS, Gf/n-. 

Body cylindrical, moderately stout ; head narrow, pointed, not distinct 
from neck ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; tail rather short. 
Rostral very small ; two pairs of frontal shields ; two (?) very small nasals, 
nostril between ; loreal none, replaced by the posterior frontal ; one prse- 
and one post-ocular ; five upper labials, the last in contact with the occipital. 
Scales smooth, in fifteen rows ; anal entire ; subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth 
equal. 

Only one species. 

OXYCAL.UIUS LONGICEPS. 

Calamaria longiceps, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 63. fig. 1. 
Rostral very small ; anterior frontals half as large as posterior ; vertical six-sided, longer 



200 OPHIDIA. 

than broad, with an obtuse angle in front and a right angle behind. Occipitals narrow. 
Nasals'?* Five upper labials: the first below the nasals; the second forming a suture with 
the posterior frontal ; the third in contact with posterior frontal f, preeorbital, and eye ; the 
suture between thii'd and fourth below the middle of the eye ; the fourth in contact with the 
eye and posterior ocular ; the fifth is the largest, and forms a long suture with the occipital ; 
an elongate temporal shield along the hind part of the lateral edge of the occipital. The 
mental shield is in immediate contact with the chin-shields, separating the first pair of lower 
labials from each other. Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior being very long. Ventral 
shields 131 ; subcaudals 26. Uniform brownish black. 

The typical specimen is still unique, and preserved in the British Museum. Unfortunately 
it was very much dried when it arrived fi'om India, so that it does not admit of an original 
description, although it proves, on comparing it with, the figure given by Cantor, that the 
latter is correct in the main points. It was captui'ed on the Great Hill of Pinang, and is 
Q^ inches long, the head measuring f inch, and the tail f inch. The circumference of the 
body was ys inch. 



GEOPHIS, ^P^af/Ier. 

Body cylindrical, stout or slender ; head short, not distinct from neck ; 
eye rather small, with round pupil ; tail short or of moderate length. Two 
pairs of frontal shields ; two small nasals, nostril hetween ; loreal and ])rae- 
ocular united into one elongate shield ; one or two posterior oculars ; rostral 
small. Scales smooth, rounded, without apical groove, in thirteen, fifteen, 
or seventeen series ; anal entire ; subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth equal. 

Species of this genus are found in tropical America and in the East Indies. One or two 
occur in British India. 



Geophis microcephalus. (Plate XVIII. fig. A.) 

E-habdosoma microceplialum, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 12. 

Body rather stout ; tail rather short ; head small, short, conical, not distinct from neck ; 
eye small, with round pupil. Rostral shield small, grooved, extending upwards to the upper 
surface of the head ; anterior frontals small, one-third the size of the posterior ; the latter 

^^ We cannot distinguish whether there are two minute nasals or whether they are confluent into one. 
t Incorrect in Cantor's drawing. 



GEOPHIS MlCllOCEPHALUS. 201 

six-sided, entering the orbit at its upper anterior angle. Vertical six-sided, as long as broad, 
with an obtuse anterior angle, and with a right one behind ; its superciliary edges are as long 
as its anterior; occipitals twice as long as broad; superciliary small, postocular minute. 
One elongate shield, pointed behind, and broader in front, enters the orbit, and replaces the 
loreal and prseocular. Nasals minute; six* upper labials: the first is minute, the third and 
fourth enter the orbit, the fifth is the largest. Temporal shields 1 + 2 + 3 ; sometimes the 
upper of the second and third series are confluent and form one elongate shield, situated 
along the side of the occipital. Mental shield very small ; seven lower labials : the first, 
second, and third are very narrow, and nearly entirely suppressed by a single pair of very 
large chin-shields, which are twice as long as broad. 

Scales in thirteen series; ventrals 148; subcaudals 26-30 in males, 17 in a female. 
Maxillary teeth 22 ; palatine 11 ; pterygoid 27. 

Brown : back with three more or less distinct series of small dark spots ; a blackish band 
with whitish edges runs along each side of the body, and is more distinct towards and on the 
tail than anteriorly ; an oblique yellowish streak behind the angle of the mouth ; belly nearly 
uniform broAvnish black, only the margins of the scutes remaining whitish. A variety is nearly 
uniform brown, with black belly ; a few scales are whitish, the light spots forming a band on 
each side of the tail. 

This species is found near Madras, and attains to a length of 1 7 inches. 

Figure A of Plate XVIII. represents this species of its natural size ; views of the lower 
side of the head and of the dentigerous bones of the upper jaw have been added. 

Dumcril and Bibron describe a small snake from the Nilgherries under the name of 
Platypteryx ferroteti (\ii. p. 501), which is e^'idently very similar to our species ; indeed, we 
at first believed both to be the same, but on reconsideration it appeared too hazardous to 
identify them. Bibron assigns as the chief character of the genus Platypteryx the excessive 
breadth of the posterior portion of the pterygoid bone. This part is strong and concave 
in G. microcephalus ; but although somewhat dilated, it must be much less so than in Platy- 
pteryx. Secondly, the postfrontal and third upper labial of Platypteryx touch each other 
before the eye, thereby excluding the loreal from the orbit. Finally, the belly oi Platypteryx 
is whitish. 

At all events, Geophis microcephalus and Platypteryx perroteti cannot be referred to two 
difierent genera; and if the latter genus be retained, its characters must be considerably 
altered. 

* Five, as stated in my first description, if the last be not considered as a labial. 



2 D 



202 OPHIDIA. 

ASPIDURA, Wagler. 

Body rather stout or moderately slender ; head more or less narrow, not 
distinct from neck ; eye small, with round pii])il ; tail rather short ; a single 
anterior frontal, two posterior ; two very small nasals ; loreal none, united 
with the frontal ; one anterior ocular, sometimes united with frontal, two 
postoculars ; six (five) labials. Scales smooth, in fifteen or seventeen series, 
those near the vent sometimes keeled or tubercular ; anal and subcaudals 
entire. Teeth equal. 

The snakes of this genus are peculiar to Ceylon, and may be readily distinguished by their 
smooth scales, single anterior frontal, and entire subcaudal shields. 

Three species may be distinguished : — 

Scales in seventeen rows ; prseorbital present .... A. brachyorrhos. 

Scales in seventeen rows ; prseorbital none A. copii. 

Scales in fifteen rows A. trachyprocta. 



ASPIDURA BEACHTOREHOS. 

Scytale brachyorrhos, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 517. 
Aspidura brachyorrhos, Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 191. 
Calamaria scytale, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 42. 

The postfrontal does not enter the orbit at all, and is in contact with the second and third 
labials ; prseorbital well developed, in contact with the superciliary ; the lower postorbital 
larger than the upper; six upper labials. Two pairs of chin-shields: the anterior large, 
about thrice as long as broad ; the posterior small, scale-like, without intermediate azygos 
scale ; six lower labials, the four anterior of which are in contact with the anterior chin- 
shield. Scales in seventeen rows, all perfectly smooth. Ventral shields 148-154 ; subcaudals 
•30-32. The circumference of the body is one-fourteenth of the total length, the length of 
the tail one-eighth. Yellowish olive, with four indistinct darker longitudinal bands and 
with a vertebral series of black dots ; an oblique black band on each side of the neck ; belly 
uniform white. 

Eather common; 14-15 inches long. 



ASPIDURA TRACHYPROCTA. 203 

AspiDURA copii. (Plate XVIII. fig. E.) 

The postfrontal forms the entire anterior margin of the orbit, and is in contact with the 
second, third, and fourth labials; no prseorbital ; postorbitals subequal in size; six upper 
labials. Three pairs of chin-shields, the middle being not much larger than the others ; six 
lower labials, the three anterior in contact with the front chin-shield, the third and fourth 
with the middle, and the fourth with the hmder. Scales in seventeen rows, those on the side 
of the vent and tail keeled. Ventral shields 128; subcaudals 34. The circumference of the 
body is one-eleventh of the total length, the length of the tail two-elevenths. Brownish 
above, minutely dotted with black: a series of pairs of black spots runs along the back; 
there are twenty-six pairs of spots on the trunk, each spot occupying about four scales and 
having a reddish margin in front and behind. The first pair of these spots form a collar. 
A black transverse spot behind the angle of the mouth ; each labial with a black margin 
behind. Belly white, marbled with black. 

The only specimen I have seen of this species is an adult male, 16^ inches long; we have 
procured it by purchase, without locality marked ; it is very probable that it is a Ceylonese 
species, like its congeners. I have named it after Mr. E. Cope, who first showed the existence 
of another species of Aspidura. 



ASPIDUEA TEACHTPEOCTA. (Plate XVIII. figs. F, F'.) 

Aspidura tracliyprocta, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 75. 

The postfrontal forms the upper part of the anterior margin of the orbit, and is in contact 
with the second and third labials, being generally separated from the fourth by a small prse- 
orbital ; the lower postorbital larger than the upper ; six upper labials. Two pairs of chin- 
shields : the anterior large, about thrice as long as broad ; the posterior small, scale-like, and 
sometimes separated by another small, intermediate shield ; six (five) lower labials, the four 
anterior of which are in contact with the anterior chin-shield. Scales in fifteen rows ; those 
on the side of the vent are provided with a small, slightly curved spine in the male, whilst 
in the female they are merely keeled or entirely smooth. Ventral shields 128-144; sub- 
caudals 10-16 in females, 21-23 in males. The circumference of the body is one-ninth or 
one-eleventh of the total length ; the length of the tail one-twelfth or one-seventeenth in 
females, and one-ninth in males. Sometimes uniform brown above ; sometimes with four or 
five series of small dark spots, which in other specimens are confluent into streaks. The 
middle streak runs along the vertebral line, and is more frequently present than absent ; the 
outer streak occupies the joining edges of the second and third outer series of scales. A dai"k 
band along the side of the tail is always distinct. Belly more or less marbled with black. 

This species is nearly as common in Ceylon as A. hrachyorrhos, and attains to a length of 
15 inches. 

The figures referred to by F are taken from a male, those by F' from a female. 

2 d2 



204 OPHIDIA. 

HAPLOCERCUS, Gthr. 

Body very slender ; head narrow, not distinct from neck ; eye of moderate 
size, with round pupil ; tail rather short, taperinsf ; a single anterior frontal, 
two posterior ; two very small nasals ; loreal none, united with the frontal ; 
one anterior ocular, two posterior ; seven upper labials. Scales keeled, 
lanceolate, in seventeen series ; anal and subcaudals entire. Teeth equal. 

Ceylon. 



Haplocercus cetlonensis. (Plate XVIII. fig. G.) 

Haplocercus ceylonensis, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, 1858, p. 15. 
Aspidura cariuata, Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. ii. 1862, p. 30*. 

Body very slender, its circumference being one twenty-seventh of the total length ; the 
length of the tail is one-eighth of the total. Rostral shield small, just reaching to the upper 
surface of the head ; anterior frontal truncated in front and pointed behind, smaller than one 
posterior frontal. Vertical rather elongate, five-sided ; one prteocular, not extending on to 
the upper surface of the head, but in contact with the superciliary ; two postoculars, the 
upper of which is rather larger than the lower. Nostril between two small nasals, and 
resting on the first labial ; seven upper labials, the fourth being below the eye, and the third 
entering the orbit with its posterior angle ; temporal shields 1+2, the anterior and the upper 
rather large, elongate. The first pau" of lower labials form a suture together behind the 
mental. Two pairs of chin-shields, the front pair being the larger. Ventrals 208; sub- 
caudals 45-49. Above uniform blackish, or light bro^vn, vdth a narrow black vertebral line, 
and with two dorsal rows of small black spots ; an oblique whitish, black-edged band on 
each side of the neck. Lower parts dull yellowish, immaculate. 

Length 19 inches. 

* This second name has been given by M. Jan, although he was well aware that the snake had been 
named and described by myself; but this, unfortunately, is only one out of several instances in which he 
has followed the same dishonest practice. 



OLIGODON. 205 



FAMILY OF OUGOJ)OKY¥.^—0LIG0D0NTID^. 

Body cylindrical or slightly compressed, rather rigid, with a short, sub- 
conical head, which is not distinct from neck ; tail of moderate length, 
tapering. Body and tail covered with rounded, smooth scales, in fifteen, 
seventeen, nineteen, or twenty-one series. Belly rounded or slightly angu- 
lated ; subcaudals two-rowed. Cleft of the mouth rather short ; nostril 
lateral ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil. Shields of the head 
normal (except in OUgodon bremcaudd) : rostral more or less enlarged, flat 
in front, but more or less produced far backwards. Maxillary teeth few in 
number, the last being the longest, not grooved. Head nearly always with 
symmetrical arrow-shaped markings. 

Small snakes, peculiar to the East Indies. 

Palatine teeth none OUgodon, p. 205. 

Palatine teeth present Simotes, p. 212. 



OLIGODON, Boie. 

Rostral shield more or less enlarged, or produced backwards ; two pairs 
of frontals, in one species confluent into a single pair ; nostril between two 
partly confluent nasals ; one prccocular, one or two postoculars. Scales 
smooth, in fifteen or seventeen rows. Teeth in the maxillaries few in 
number, the last larger than the others ; no teeth on the palate. 

The snakes of this genus are small, and confined to the peninsula of Southern India, 
Ceylon, and a few of the larger islands of the western part of the East Indian archipelago. 
Their "physiognomy" is so peculiar that they may be distinguished at once, and can 
be confounded only with species of Simotes. The head is short, scarcely depressed; the 
snout very short, covered in front with a rostral, which is always well developed, and some- 
times produced far backwards between the anterior frontals ; these latter shields, shortened 
in their longitudinal diameter and lengthened transversely, are always much smaller than 
the posterior. The loreal is generally present, — in a few species absent, and then confluent 
with the posterior frontal ; only once have I observed its absence in a species which, normally. 



206 OPHIDIA. 

has it distinct. The anal is bifid : in a specimen of 0. spilonotus and in one of 0. modestiis 
it was entire. Further, the coloration of the head is peculiar: a brown band crosses the 
forehead between the front angles of the orbits, and descends obliquely on each side through 
the eye towards the lip, forming a distinct brown spot below the orbit ; a second angular 
band on the crown of the head, touching with its point the hind part of the occipitals, and 
descending obliquely backwards behind the angles of the mouth ; a third band or blotch on 
the neck; these transverse bands are sometimes united by a median longitudinal line or 
band, sometimes they are broken tip in the middle into lateral portions, sometimes only 
traces of them remain. 

Very little is known of the habits of these snakes. Their dentition is strong enough to 
enable them to seize other small snakes or lizards. 

The following species occur in British Indiaf : — 

* Belly white, immaculate ; seven upper labials. 

Back with numerous, narrow, rather irregular black cross streaks; 

ventral shields 180-202 0. su griseiis, p. 207. 

Back with about seventeen large 8-shaped brown spots ; ventrals 

155-162 0. spilonotus, p. 207. 

Back with about thirty-seven large rhombic black spots j ventrals 

156 0. elliotti, p. 207. 

** Eiffhf or nine upper labials. 

Belly white, with a series of black dots on each side O. subpunctatus, p. 208. 

Belly uniform white 0. spinipunctatus , p. 208. 

*** Belly with numerous small brown spots, irregularly disposed. 

Back with about twenty-seven cross bands 0. fasciatus, p. 208. 

**** Belly with three series of brown dots. 

Back with pairs of transverse spots O. sublineatus, p. 209. 

***** Belly with quadrangular black spots. 

Scales in seventeen rows ; the sixth labial shield enters the labial 

margin O. affinis, p. 209. 

Scales in fifteen rows ; the sixth labial shield does not enter the 

labial margin 0. templetonii, p. 209. 

Loreal none, one postocular 0. modestus, p. 210. 

A yellow band runs along the whole vertebral line ; two pairs of 

frontals 0. dorsalis, p. 210. 

A single pair of frontals O. brevicauda, p. 211. 

(Appendix : 0. dorsalis, Berthold, p. 211.) 



t In the Hst of Reptiles and Fishes observed by Mr. Hodgson in Nepal, I have mentioned Simotes 
octolineatus (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 216), referring two coloured drawings presented to the British 
Museum by that gentleman, to the variety with two series of spots on the belly. I am now convinced 
that those drawings represent an unknown species. 



OLIGODON ELLIOTTI. 207 

Oligodon sdbgeiseus. (Plate XIX. fig. F.) 

Oligodon subgriseum, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 59. 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct (exceptionally confluent with posterior frontal) ; 
one prseocular, two postoculars ; seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit ; 
temporals 1+2. Ventral shields 180(-187-189)-202 ; subcaudals 48-54. Head with sym- 
metrical brown, black-edged markings ; back with numerous, narrow, rather irregular, reti- 
culated cross streaks, formed by the black edges of some of the scales, and interrupted by 
three more or less distinct, narrow whitish lines, one of which runs along the vertebral line. 
Belly uniform white : some specimens have a minute black dot on the lateral edge of every 
second or third abdominal shield. 

This species inhabits the southern parts of the peninsula of India ; Capt. R. H. Beddome 
found it in the Anamallay Mountains ; our largest specimen is 1 9 inches long. 

Figure F on Plate XIX. shows the coloration of the back. 



Oligodon spilonotds. (Plate XIX. figs. E, E'.) 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct; one prseocular, two postoculars; seven upper 
labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit; temporals 1-f 2. Ventral shields 155-162 ; 
subcaudals 50*. Head with symmetrical brown, black-edged markings: an angular band 
across the forehead, descending obliquely through the eye ; a second on the crown, descending 
to the angle of the mouth, separated from the nuchal band by a yellowish interspace ; nuchal 
band nearly as large as the head, and covering the extremity of the occipitals. Back with 
about seventeen large 8-shaped brown, black-edged transverse spots ; they are distant from 
one another, the middle of each iaterspace between them being occupied by a narrow trans- 
verse stripe formed by the black edges of some of the scales ; the transverse bands and stripes 
become gradually similar to one another on the hinder part of the body. Lower parts uni- 
form white. 

We have received this species from the Madras Presidency. The largest of three speci- 
mens is 15 inches long; we have given two views of its head (E), and one of a portion of 
its body (E'), to show its coloration. 



Oligodon elliotti. (Plate XIX. fig. G.) 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct; one prgeocular, two postoculars; seven upper 
labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit; temporals 1+2. Ventral shields 156; 
subcaudals 30. Head with symmetrical brown markings : an angular band across the fore- 
head, descending obliquely through the eye ; a second on the crown, descending to the angle 

* The anal sliielcl is bifid in two specimens and entire in anotlier. 



208 OPHIDIA. 

of the mouth, where it becomes broader and confluent with a large nuchal spot ; a faint 
continuation of this band runs round the throat. Back of the trunk with about thirty-seven 
large rhombic black spots of equal size, each of which transmits a process downwards on 
each side, the process being separated from the central spot by a few white scales. The 
lower parts entirely white. 

A single specimen, 10^ inches long, was sent from Madi'as by Walter Elliott, Esq. 
Figure G shows the coloration of the back. 



Oligodon subpunctatus. 

Oligodon subpunctatum, Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 58. 

Loreal distinct ; eight upper labial shields, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the 
orbit; temporals 2+2. Head with the usual symmetrical markings. Body greyish, with a 
dorsal series of round black spots edged with white ; belly whitish, each ventral shield with 
a black dot on each side, the dots forming regular longitudinal series. 

Coast of Malabar. 



Oligodon spinipunctatus. 

Oligodon spinsepimctatus, Jan, Arch. Zoo/. Anat. ii. p. 40. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Loreal distinct ; one praeocular and two postoculars ; nine upper 
labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit; temporals 2+2. Ventral 
shields 193; subcaudals 62. Eesembles 0. subpunctatus in coloration, but has no spots on 
the belly. 

The typical specimen is stated to be from Calcutta ; but this, of course, is incorrect, as the 
genus Oligodon does not extend so far eastwards. 



Oligodok fasciatus. (Plate XIX. figs. D, D'.) 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct ; one prseocular, two postoculars ; seven upper 
labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit; temporals 1+2. Ventral shields 180; 
subcaudals 40. Symmetrical markings on the head very indistinct: the second angular 
band on the head is not confluent with the nuchal spot on the sides. Body brownish olive : 
trunk with about twenty-seven broadish, brown, black-edged cross bands, each slightly 
interrupted by a narrow yellow vertebral line ; the cross bands are subequal in size, rather 
irregular in shape, each being apparently composed of four spots ; they are nearly as broad 
as the interspaces between them. Belly whitish, with small brown spots, more numerous 
on the sides than in the middle. 



OLIGODON TEMPLETONII, 209 

Two specimens were collected in the Deccan by Colonel Sykes. Total length 14 inches, 
of which the tail takes 2 inches. 

We have given figures of portions of the trunk and of the belly (D'), to show their colo- 
ration, and a lateral view of the head (D). 



Oligodon sublineatus. 

Oligodon sublineatum, Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 59. 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct; one prseocular, two postoculars; seven uppe^ 
labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit; temporals 1+2. Ventral shields 150 ; 
subcaudals 32. Brownish olive : a brown spot below the eye ; a large brown blotch on each 
side of the neck ; back mth pau's of rather small, transverse, brown, light-edged spots, those 
of one side not exactly corresponding to those of the other. Each ventral shield with three 
brown dots, the dots forming three punctated streaks ; tail with two similar series below. 

A small species (10 inches long), common in and peculiar to Ceylon. 



Oligodon affinis. (Plate XIX. figs. B, B'.) 

Oligodon affinis, Giinth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1862, p. 58. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Loreal none, confluent with posterior frontal ; one prseocular. 
two postoculars; seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit; temporals 
1-f 2. Ventral shields 134; subcaudals 25. The two angular bands on the head (usually 
found in the species of this genus) and the nuchal band are joined by a broad median 
longitudinal streak ; nuchal band very narrow, crescent-shaped. Body brownish grey ; back 
crossed by about thirty-eight short black streaks not broader than half a scale. Belly 
white, with subquadrangular black spots, both colours being distributed in nearly equal 
proportions. 

This very fine species was discovered by Captain K. H. Beddome in the Anamallay Hills ; 
a specimen measures 10^ inches, of which the tail takes 1| inch. We have given figures 
of a part of the body and of the belly (B'), to show their coloration, and a side view of the 
head (B). 



Oligodon templetonii. (Plate XIX. fig. C.) 

Oligodon templetonii, Giinth. Ann. S^- Mag. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1862, p. 57. 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct; one prseocular, two postoculars; seven upper 

2 E 



210 OPHIDIA. 

labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit ; the fifth and seventh are in contact with 
each other below, excluding the sixth from the labial margin. Temporals 1 + 2. Ventral 
shields 135 ; subcaudals 31. Head with an indistinct dark band between the eyes, descending 
through the orbit ; a brown blotch on each side of the neck. Body brownish, with a light 
vertebral band, which becomes more distinct on the tail, and is crossed by about eighteen 
narrow, short, dark-brown bands. Belly white, with square black spots, both colours being 
distributed in nearly equal proportion. 

We have received only one specimen of this species, through Dr. R. Templeton, who sent 
it from Ceylon; it is 10^ inches long, the tail measuring 1^ inch. We have given a lateral 
view of the head, for comparison with 0. affinis. 



Oligodon modestus. 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal none, confluent with posterior frontal ; one prse- and one 
postocular ; six upper labials, the third being the largest, forming the entire lower margin 
of the orbit; temporals 1+2. Ventral shields 158; (anal entire;) subcaudals 41. The 
markings on the upper parts of the head are very obscure ; the dark-coloured occiput and 
neck are separated by a lighter collar ; brown spot below the eye very distinct. Body 
uniform greyish brown ; a yellowish vertebral band becomes distinct on the hinder part 
of the trunk and on the tail. Belly white, with quadrangular black spots, the ground-colour 
rather predominating. 

The single specimen in the British INIuseum was purchased of Mr. Cuming, who stated that 
it came from the Philippine Islands. We have reason to doubt this, and to suppose that 
it was one of a number of Ceylonese reptiles received at the same time. It is an adult 
male, 13 inches long, the tail measuring 2 inches. 



Oligodon doesalis. 

Elaps dorsalis, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 
Oligodon dorsalis, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 22. 

Scales in fifteen rows. Loreal distinct ; one prse- and one postocular ; seven upper labials, 
the thii'd and fourth of which enter the orbit; temporals 1+2. Body slender; ventral 
shields 173-175; anal bifid; subcaudals 50. Head brown, symmetrically marbled with 
darker ; a dark-brown spot below the eye ; rostral shield dark brown with a yellow edge ; 
nuchal spot small. Body brownish grey, minutely punctulated vsdth black * : a yeUow band, 
two scales broad, extends from the neck to the tip of the tail ; it is bordered on each side 
with a series of small black spots, and interrupted by two or three large black spots on the 

* The typical specimen is reddish white^ but evidently bleached. 



OLIGODON BREVICAUDA. 211 

back of the tail ; a narrow black band runs along each side of the trunk. Belly white, with 
quadrangular black spots, which are sometimes so numerous and so frequently confluent as 
nearly entii'ely to suppress the ground-colour. The middle of the lower surface of the tail 
always remains white. 

Inhabits, probably, Afghanistan, a second specimen having been found in Griffith's collec- 
tion. It is a male, like the typical specimen. Total length 16 inches; tail 3 inches. 



Oligodon brevicauda. (Plate XIX. fig. A.) 

Oligodon brevicauda, Giinth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. Jan. 1862, p. 58. 

Rostral shield rather thick, broad, reaching far backwards on the upper side of the head. 
Only one pair of frontals. Loreal none, the nasal being in contact with the smgle praeocular ; 
two postoculars ; seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit; temporals 
1+2. Scales in fifteen rows. Ventral shields 172 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 30. Head with 
the symmetrical markings usual in this genus, viz. a brown fronto-labial band ; the band on 
the crown of the head is rather broken up, and its lateral portions are confluent Avith the 
large nuchal band. Body greyish violet : a band runs along the vertebral line ; it is indistinct 
anteriorly, light greyish on the middle of the body, and becomes pure white posteriorly and 
on the tail ; it is bordered anteriorly by a series of pairs of small equidistant blackish spots ; 
there are no black spots on the tail interrupting the dorsal band. A blackish longitudinal 
streak on each side, along the third outer series of scales. Ground-colour of the belly the 
same as of the upper parts, with black quadrangular spots ; subcaudals whitish. 

This species also was discovered by Captain R. H. Beddome in the Anamallay Mountains. 
One might be inclined to consider it as the type of a distinct genus ; but this is forbidden by 
its close proximity to 0. dorsalis. The only specimen we have seen is a female, 15 inches 
long, the tail measuring 1 inch and 7 lines ; we have given a view of the upper side of the 
head, besides the entire figure. 

Finally, Berthold (Gott. Nachr. 1859, p. 179) refers some snake to the genus OUgodon, 
but the characters given seem to indicate that it belongs to another genus, wherefore we do 
not propose an alteration of the specific name, which is preocupied : — 

"Oligodon dorsale. — Supra cinereum, linea mediana alba, ^dtta interoculari brunnea flexa; infra 
album; squamis 13. Ventr. 183; an. 1; caud. 46. — Bengal." 



2 e2 



212 OPHIDIA. 

SIMOTES, Bimn. 4- Bihr. 

Rostral shield more or less enlarged, truncated, bent and produced back- 
wards ; anterior frontals narrow, transverse ; nostril between two nasals. 
Scales smooth, in seventeen, nineteen, or twenty-one rows. Teeth in the 
maxillaries few in number, the last longer than the others ; palatine teeth. 

The Simotes are Oligodontes of a larger size and with palatine teeth ; the number of the 
rows of scales is somewhat enlarged in Simotes, which, otherwise, has the same physiognomy 
as Oligodon. In both we find the peculiar markings of the head which we have described in 
the latter genus ; traces at least of those markings are always visible. These snakes are of 
rather fierce habits, but perfectly harmless ; their geographical distribution is not so limited 
as that of Oligodon, as they extend all over the continent and over many of the islands. 
The following are found on the continent : — 

* Scales ill seventeen rows. 

t Anal bifid ; belly with quadrangular black spots. 

Loreal none S. venustus, p. 213. 

tt Anal bifid ; belly uniform white. 

Black, white-edged bands across the back S. russellii, p. 213. 

Angular, light-coloured, black-edged bands across the back . S. binotatus, p. 214. 

Uniform brownish above S. albiventer, p. 214. 

ttt Anal entire. 

White bands across the back S. signatus, p. 215. 

Uniform brownish grey above ; the anterior chin-shield is in 

contact with four labials ; belly immaculate, white . . . jS. ciwereM*, p. 215. 
Indistinct reticulated bands across the back ; the anterior chin- 
shield is in contact with three labials; belly immaculate, 

white S. stvinhonis, p. 215. 

Eight upper labial shields ; body with dark longitudinal bands ; 

belly with quadrangular black spots S. taniatus, p. 216. 

Body with three whitish longitudinal bands S. trilineatus, p. 216. 

** Scales in nineteen rows. 

Seven upper labial shields ; two prseorbitals, equal in size or confluent 

into one S. punctulatus, p. 217. 

(-S. labuanensis, p. 217.) 
Seven (eight) upper labial shields ; two prseorbitals, the upper being 

the larger ; belly with two regular series of brown spots . . . . >S. bicatenatus, p. 217. 
Eight upper labial shields ; two (three) prseorbitals, the upper being 

the larger; white, dark-edged bauds across the Ijack S. albocinctus, p. 218. 

*** Scales in twenty-one rows. 

Belly white ; numerous reticulated streaks and bands across the back ; 

ventrals 163 S.fasciolatus, ]). 218. 

Belly white; twelve black bands across the back ; ventrals 216 . . S. cochinchinensis, ^. 219. 
Belly with quadrangular brown spots ; a triple series of spots along 

the trunk ; ventrals 183-189 S. trinotatus, p. 219. 



SIMOTES RUSSELLII. 213 

SiMOTES VBNUSTUS. 

Xenodon venustum^ Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 528. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Loreal none, confluent with posterior frontal, the lower angle of 
which is in contact with the second labial ; one praeocular, two postocvilars ; seven upper labials, 
the third and fourth entering the orbit ; the sixth is excluded from the labial margin, the 
fifth and seventh being contiguous below ; temporals 1+2. Anterior chin-shields not twice 
as long as broad, in contact Avith four labials ; posterior chin-shields half as large as anterior. 
Ventral shields 142-145 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 31-35. Ground-colour greyish or reddish 
brown, with three series of rounded black, yellow-edged spots : each spot of the vertebral 
series is 8-shaped, evidently composed of two smaller ones ; the spots of the lateral series 
are more oblong and rather irregular, sometimes touching the median spots ; head with 
the usual symmetrical markings. Belly white, with quadrangular black spots, both colours 
being distributed in equal proportions. 

This species is rare on the west coast of the peninsula of India ; it attains to the length of 
16 inches, the tail measuring 2^ inches. 

It would have been impossible to identify this species from the characters of Xenodon 
venustum given by Mr. Jerdon but for a named drawing in the possession of Walter 
Elliott, Esq. 

SiMOTES RUSSELLII. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. tab. 35 & 38. 

Coluber arneusis, Shaw, Gen. Zool. iii. p. 526. 

russellii, Daud. Rept. vi. p. 395. 

monticolus {Hodgson), Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 51. 

Coronella russelii, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 78. 
Simotes russelii, Dmn. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 628. 

Scales in seventeen rows ; occipitals subtruncated behind ; loreal distinct, sometimes con- 
fluent with posterior frontal ; one prseorbital, two postorbitals ; seven upper labials, the 
third and fourth of which form the lower part of the orbit; temporals 1 + 2. Anterior 
chin-shields twice as large as posterior. Ventral shields 160-190; anal bifid; subcaudals 
47-56. Ventral shields with a slight keel. Brownish olive, with the bands on the head 
very distinct ; body with well-defined black, white-edged cross bands ; belly uniform white. 

Var. a. Cross bands as broad as a scale long, about thu'ty on the trunk. Anamallay 
Mountains, Madras, Nepal, Sikkim. 

Var. /3. Cross bands of the width of three scales, about twenty-three on the trunk. 
Anamallay Mountains. 

Var. y. Cross bands broadest in the middle, nearly as broad as the interspaces between 
them ; about twenty-five on the trunk. Dukhun. 

Var. S. Cross bands of the width of three scales, about seventeen on the trunk. Ceylon. 



214 OPHIDIA. 

This species is rather common in the peninsula of India, extending northwards into Nepal 
and the Himalayas, where it reaches an altitude of 4100 feet above the level of the sea; 
it occurs also in Ceylon, but it does not appear to be common there. The largest specimen 
I have seen is 25 inches long, the tail measuring 5 inches. 



SiMOTES BINOTATUS. 

Xenodon dubiiim, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1853, p. 528. 
Simotes binotatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 630. 

Scales in seventeen rows ; loreal distinct ; one prseorbital, two postorbitals ; seven upper 
labials, the thii-d and fourth of which form the lower part of the orbit. Ventral shields 
181; subcaudals 41. Head with three angular white, black-edged cross bands: the first 
crosses the snout, descends to the lip, and passing the eye it is united with the second band ; 
the third occupies the neck and occiput, its light portion being heart-shaped. Back with 
a series of pairs of square, brownish-grey, black-edged spots which are confluent at their 
internal angles, forming ^ -shaped cross bands ; other smaller spots form a lateral series, and 
correspond either to the cross bands described, or to the interspaces between them. Lower 
parts uniform white. 

Coast of Malabar ; North Canara. 

Mr. Walter Elliott has lent me a coloured drawing of Xenodon dnbmm, Jerd., from which 
I see that it is identical with Simotes binotatus, Dum. & Bibr., although Jerdon states that 
his snake has only fifteen series of scales. Jerdon's denomination would be prior to that 
given by Dumeril, but no right of priority can be established on the ground of so insufficient 
a diagnosis as that given for '■^Xenodon dubimn, n. s.V 



Simotes albiventer. (Plate XX. fig. D.) 

Simotes purpurascens, var. A, Gi'mth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 25. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Occipital obliquely truncated behind ; loreal none, confluent 
with the posterior frontal ; one prse-, two postorbitals ; seven upper labials, the third and 
fourth forming the lower part of the orbit; temporals 1+2. Anterior chin-shields not 
twice as long as broad, in contact with three labials ; posterior chin-shields half as large as 
anterior. Ventralsl79; anal bifid; subcaudals 45 ; ventrals without lateral keel. Uniform 
greyish brown above, whitish below ; a dark spot below the eye. 

Ceylon. Total length 24 inches ; tail 3| inches. We have given a lateral view of the 
head, of the natui-al size. 



SIMOTES SWINHONIS. 215 

SiMOTES siGNATUs. (Plate XX. figs. F, F.) 

Simotes purpurascens, var. F, Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 26. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Occipitals rounded behind. Loreal distinct ; one prae- and one 
postorbital ; seven upper labials, the third and fourth forming the lower part of the orbit ; 
temporals 1+2. Anterior chin-shields not much longer than broad, in contact vsdth three 
labials; posterior chin-shields scale-like. Ventrals 149-157 ; anal entire; subcaudals 59-47. 
Ventrals without keel. Brown, with reddish-white cross bands edged with darker. Belly 
whitish, with a few small brown lateral spots anteriorly. 

Var. a. Specimen 21 inches long; tail 5 inches. Fifteen cross bands on the trunk, broadest 
in the middle, tapering on the sides ; their widest part covers three to four transverse series 
of scales, and is one-fourth of the interspace between the bands ; a whitish transverse line 
crosses the middle of each interspace. 

Var. ^. Specimen 15 inches long ; tail 3 inches. Fourteen whitish escutcheon-like spots 
along the back, the point of which is directed forwards, emitting on each side a whitish 
streak descending obliquely backwards ; each spot is longer tlian broad, half as long as the 
interspace between two spots; an indistinct oblique whitish line in the middle of each 
interspace. 

The two specimens are said to be from Singapore ; but whether this is their real native 
place, or they have been merely procured there, is uncertain. 

We have given an entire figure of the specimen of var. /3 (F), with two views of its 
head (F). 

Simotes cineeeus. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Occipitals truncated behind ; loreal distinct ; a large praeorbital, 
below which there is sometimes a second very small one; two postorbitals ; eight upper 
labials, the fourth and fifth forming the lower part of the orbit; temporals 1 + 2. Anterior 
chin-shields twice as long as broad, in contact with four labials ; posterior chin-shields scale- 
like. Ventrals 165, with an obtuse keel along each side; anal entire; (tail injured). Uni- 
form brownish grey above, white below ; a very indistinct spot below the eye. 

We have received only one example, from Gamboja; it is 17 inches long without the tail, 
which is broken off. 



Simotes swinhonis. (Plate XX. fig. E.) 

Scales in seventeen rows. Occipitals truncated behind ; loreal distinct ; two prseorbitals, 
the lower of which is smaller than the upper ; two postorbitals ; eight (seven) upper labials, 
the fourth and fifth forming the lower part of the orbit ; the second and third or the seventh 
and eighth are sometimes united into one shield; temporals 1+2. Anterior chin-shields 



216 OPHIDIA. 

twice as long as broad, in contact with three labials; posterior chin-shields one-third the 
size of the anterior. Ventrals 158-168; anal entire; subcaudals 35-39. Ventral shields 
with a very obtuse keel along each side. Eeddish olive above, with numerous indistinct 
reticulated cross bands, produced by the blackish edges of some of the scales. Head with 
scarcely any trace of markings. Lower parts pure white. 

I have seen three specimens of this species, one of which was brought by Mr. Swinhoe 
from Amoy. It is 16 inches long, the tail measuring 2^ inches; we have given a figure of a 
portion of its back, to show the coloration, and a side view of the head. 



SiMOTES T^NiATUS. (Plate XX. fig. A.) 

Simotes tseniatus, Gunth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 189. 

Scales in seventeen rows*. Occipitals obliquely truncated behind; loreal distinct; two 
prseorbitals, the lower of which is much smaller than the upper ; two postorbitals ; eight 
upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which form the lower part of the orbit ; the lower 
prseorbital is sometimes confluent with the third labial, so that three labial shields enter 
the orbit; temporals 1 + 1 + 2. The anterior chin-shields are not twice as long as broad, 
in contact with four labials ; the posterior are rather shorter than the anterior. Ventral 
shields 150-166 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 42-44 in the male, and 30-35 in the female. 
Head with the symmetrical markings usual in this genus distinct. Body brownish olive, 
with a brown dorsal band enclosing a light vertebral line. A brown line runs along each 
side of the body, along the joining edges of the third and fourth outer series of scales ; 
sometimes it is only represented by a series of dark dots. Belly white, with quadrangular 
black spots, more numerous in the female than in the male. Two large blackish spots on 
the back of the tail — one at its root, the other near its extremity. 

This species inhabits Gamboja and the neighbourhood of Bangkok, and attains to the 
length of 15 inches, the tail measuring 2 inches. 



Simotes tbilineatus. 

Simotes trilineatus, Dum. i^- Bibr. vii. p. 636. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Loreal distinct ; one prse- and one postorbital ; seven upper 
labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit. Ventral shields 145; anal entire; 
subcaudals 54. Body reddish brown above and below, with three longitudinal bands : one 
runs along the vertebral line and is yellowish ; the others are white, bordering the sides of 
the belly. 

This species is from the Indian continent, but from what part is not known. 
* The former statement that the scales are in nineteen rows, is erroneous. 



SIMOTES BICATENATUS. 217 

SiMOTES PUNCTULATUS. 

? Corouella violacea, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 50*. 

Coronella puncticulatus, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, xii. p. 389. 

Simotes purpurascens, var. D & E, Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 25. 

Scales in nineteen rows. Occipitals obliquely truncated behind ; loreal distinct ; two pnt- 
orbitals, equal in size, frequently confluent into one ; two postorbitals ; seven upper labials, 
the third and fourth forming the lower part of the orbit ; the second labial is sometimes 
split into two; temporals 1+2. Ventral shields 180-202 ; anal entire; subcaudals 52-62. 
Ventral shields mth an obtuse keel along each side. Belly with more or less confluent 
square black spots. 

Var. a. Brown : back crossed by about twenty-three straight, light-brown, black-edged 
bands, each about two scales broad. Khasya. 

Var. /3. Brown : back with about twenty-two pairs of roundish, lighter, black-edged spots ; 
the spots of each pak are separate in young specimens, but more or less confluent in old ones, 
forming 8-shaped figures. Khasya, Nepal. 

Var. y. Brown : back with very numerous irregular transverse lines formed by black edges 
of some of the scales (as in Oligodon subgriseus). Khasya. 

Var. g. Nearly uniform blackish brown. Sikkim. 

This snake is a mountain species, and is found in different parts of the Himalayas, where 
it ascends into the temperate zone to above 4000 feet above the level of the sea. Although 
living at a higher altitude than most of its congeners, it attains to the large size of from 
^ to 3 feet. 

Note. — A species from Labuan is very similar to S. punctulatus, but is distinguished by a 
greater number of temporals, viz. 2 + 3. Ventrals 172-187; subcaudals 60. We propose 
for it the name of Simotes lahuauensis. It is figured in Motley and Dillwyn's ' Contributions 
to the Natural History of Labuan,' p. 49, under the name of Calamaria brachyorrhos. Our 
specimen has the lower prseorbital much smaller than the upper, whilst in the figure quoted 
both are of equal size ; we may also remark that the tail of the specimen figured had evidently 
been injured. 



Simotes bicatenatus. 

Scales in nineteen rows. Occipitals obliquely truncated behind ; loreal distinct ; two proe- 
orbitalsj the lower of which is much smaller than the upper ; seven upper labials, the third 
and fourth of which enter the orbit ; the second labial may be divided into two ; temporals 

* The typical specimen of Coronella violacea appears to be lost ; however, there is a coloured drawing 
of it, mth a more detailed description written by Cantor himself, in the collection of the Oxford Museum. 
He had seen only one example, and there cannot be any doubt that it was a Simotes, which probably 
belonged to our variety S. of S. 'punctulatus. 

2f 



218 OPHIDIA. 

1+2. Ventral shields 170 ; anal entire; subcaudals 43. Ventral shields distinctly keeled 
on the sides. Light brownish, with three rather indistinct dark longitudinal bands — one 
along the back, and the lateral along the third and fourth outer series of scales ; these bands 
disappear entirely when the epidermis is lost. Head with the markings usual in this genus. 
Belly yellowish, each ventral shield with a brown spot near the lateral edge, the spots forming 
two chain-like series ; subcaudals nearly uniform yellowish. 

One example of this species is 21^ inches long, the tail measuring Si; inches. It was in 
a collection containing only species from British India, hence it is probable that it is a native 
of the continent of India. 

Cantor, in his list of Indian Snakes (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. -51), mentions a Coronella 
cyclura, the typical specimen of which, unfortunately, appears to be lost. A coloured drawing 
of it, with a short description, are in the possession of the Oxford Museum ; and from their 
examination it did not appear to me to be impossible that they have been taken from a 
specimen of S. Mcatenatus. However, the dra-wing does not represent a snake with the 
physiognomy of a Simotes, the coloration of the upper parts is different, and C. cyclura 
would appear to have only one prseocular. Under these circumstances, I have preferred to 
describe our specimen under a distinct name. 



Simotes albocinctus. 

Coronella albocincta, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 50. 
Simotes albocinctus, Bum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 633. pi. 82. fig. 1. 

Scales in nineteen rows. Loreal distinct ; two (or three) prseorbitals, the upper much 
larger than the others ; two postorbitals ; eight upper labials, the (fourth and) fifth of which 
enter the orbit. Ventrals 175-181 ; anal entire; subcaudals 47-65. Brownish, with about 
eighteen white, dark-edged cross bands ; a pair of fine black transverse lines in the middle 
of each interspace between these cross bands. Head with the usual cross bands, which are 
whitish and edged with darker. The ventral shields are alternately uniform white or marked 
with quadrangular brown spots. 

Assam (Chirra-Punji). 



Simotes fasciolatus. (Plate XX. hg. B.) 

Simotes trinotatus, var., Giinth., Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 114. 

Scales in twenty-one rows. Occipitals obliquely truncated behind ; loreal distinct ; two 
prseorbitals, the lower of which is much smaller than the upper ; two postorbitals ; eight 
tipper labials, the fourth and fifth of which form the lower part of the orbit ; temporals 
2+2-1-3. Anterior chin-shields not quite twice as long as broad, in contact with four lower 



SIMOTES TMNOTATUS. 219 

labials; posterior chin-shields small, scale-like. Ventral shields 163-164; anal entire; 
subcaudals 42-45. Ventral shields slightly bent upwards on the side of the body. Yellowisli 
olive above : fronto-labial band distinct ; the oblique band on the side of the occiput does 
not meet its fellow on the crown of the head, but is confluent with a broad angular nuchal 
band. Numerous scales on the back are edged with black, the black edges producing nume- 
rous irregular narrow transverse lines and less numerous broader cross bars, the latter about 
fourteen in number. A broad lighter band runs along each side of the back ; tail with a 
median whitish longitudinal band. Lower parts pure white. 

We have received two specimens from Pachebone, through M. Mouhot ; they are 19 inches 
long, the tail measuring 3 inches. Two views of the head are given on Plate XX., of the 
natural size. 



SiMOTES COCHINCHINENSIS. (Plate XX. fig. C.) 

Scales in twenty-one rows. Occipitals rounded behind ; loreal distinct ; two prseorbitals, 
the lower of which is much smaller than the upper ; two postorbitals ; eight upper labials, 
the fourth and fifth of which form the lower part of the orbit; temporals 2+2. Anterior 
chin-shields nearly twice as long as broad, in contact with four lower labials ; posterior chin- 
shields small, scale-like. Ventral shields 216 ; anal enth-e ; subcaudals 47. Ventral shields 
with an obtuse keel on each side. Greyish olive, with twelve black cross bands on the 
trunk, and three on the tail ; each of these bands is two scales broad, and formed by two 
square spots on the back and by a smaller spot on each side ; these spots are confluent. 
Markings of the head deep black ; the nuchal blotch emits a process forAvards, extending to 
the vertical and separating the oblique bands which descend behind each angle of the mouth. 
Lower parts pure white. 

We have seen only one young specimen of this species, which was found by M. Mouhot in 
the Lao Mountains ; it is 7 inches long, the tail measuring 1 inch. 



SiMOTES TEINOTATUS. 

Simotes trinotatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 631. 

Xenodon piirpurascens. Cantor, Mai, Rept. p. 67 (uot Schleg.). 

Scales in twenty-one rows. Loreal distinct ; two prae- and two (three) post-orbitals ; eight 
upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which enter the orbit. Ventral shields 183-189, Avith 
an obtuse lateral keel; anal entire; subcaudals 49-51. Yellowish brown, with a triple 
series of darker, black-edged spots : the lateral spots have a curved upper black edge, the 
convexity of which is turned upwards, and each is united with the corresponding spot of the 
other side by an intermediate subhexagonal spot. The markings on the head are indistinct ; 

2 f2 



220 OPHIDIA. 

a dark spot below the eye ; belly yellowish, with quadrangular brown spots, irregularly 
arranged and more numerous posteriorly than anteriorly. 

Dumeril and Bibron say that their specimen is from China. Our specimen (type of Cantor's 
Xenodon purpurascens) is from Pinang, and agrees almost entirely with Dumeril's description : 
but it has three postoculars instead of two ; the lower prseocular is much smaller than the 
upper, which, again, is sometimes divided into two ; temporals rather irregularly arranged. 
Our specimen is 24 inches long, the tail measuring of inches. 



FAMILY OF COhV^mYyY.^—COLUBRIDJE. 

This family comprises the greater part of tlie non-venomous snakes, 
namely all those which do not present any striking character either In their 
general habit, In the shields of the head, In the dentition, or In any other 
part of their organization : we therefore describe the body as of moderate 
length compared with Its circumference, flexible in every single part ; the 
head as well-proportioned In every dimension, and distinct from neck ; the 
eye of moderate size, the nostril lateral ; the cleft of the mouth in accord- 
ance with the length of the head. They have numerous teeth in the jaws 
and on the palate, but no fangs in front or In the middle of the maxillary. 
The subcaudals are two-rowed ; and the chin-shields symmetrically arranged, 
separated by a longitudinal mental groove. 

These snakes are found in every part of the temperate and tropical regions, but are only 
scantily represented in Australia and in the islands of the Pacific. The species are so 
numerous and show such a gradual passage between extreme forms, that, although genera 
can be easily characterized, it is almost impossible to distinguish wider groups by definite 
characters. We have endeavoured to refer the genera to certain groups distinguished by 
their mode of life ; but in order to determine a species it is sufficient to compare only the 
generic characters without reference to those given for the groups. 

Synopsis of the Genera. 
GROUP OF GROUND COLUBRIDES— (76)i2(9iVEii/iY4. 

Colubride snakes of small size, with smooth scales, which generally are disposed in thirteen, 
fifteen, or seventeen series ; some of them approach in general habit the Calamandie, whilst 
others have a more slender body and even angulated ventral shields. They live on the 



COLUBRID^. 221 

ground, and are generally of not brilliant coloration ; only a few which frequent grassy 
plains are of a bright green colour. 

Scales smooth, iii 13-17 series, those on the back equal in size; ventrals not 

angulated ; one loreal ; two nasals ; maxillary teeth equal in length . . Ablabes, p. 223. 

Scales smooth, in 15 series ; one nasal ; maxillary teeth equal in length . . . Cyclophis, p. 229. 

Scales smooth, Ln 13-15 series ; ventrals angulated ; two praeoculars ; maxillary 

teeth equal in length Odontomus, p. 233. 

Scales smooth, in 15 series; ventrals angulated; the three posterior maxillary 

teeth long, trenchant, not grooved Nymphophidium, p. 235. 

Scales smooth, in 17-23 series; ventrals not angulated; two nasals; the pos- 
terior maxillary tooth longest, either in a continuous series with the others 
or grooved Coronella, p. 236. 



GROUP OF TRUE COLVBmDES—COLUliRINA. 

These snakes form, as it were, the nucleus of the whole family, or, rather, of the whole 
suborder of innocuous snakes ; they are typical forms, not characterized by the excessive 
development of some particular organ, but by the fairness of the proportions of all parts. 
Yet some of them have a more slender body than others which always live on the ground ; 
they are land snakes, but swim well when driven into the water, or climb when in search of 
food. Their scales form never less than fifteen series, generally more. Their teeth are 
numerous, subequal in size, except in the genus Zamenis. They are of moderate or rather 
large size. 

Scales smooth or feebly keeled, in 19-27 series; one prseocular; anal bifid; 

maxillary teeth equal in length Coluber, p. 237. 

Scales keeled ; ventrals 200 or more in number ; anal bifid ; one loreal ; two 

prseoculars ; maxillaiy teeth equal in length Elaphis, p. 240. 

Scales keeled, in 19-23 series ; ventrals more than 200 in number ; anal entire 

(except in C. hodgsonii) ; one praeocular; maxillary teeth equal in length . Compsosoma, p. 243. 

Scales keeled or with a pair of apical grooves, in 25-27 series ; ventrals more 
than 200 in number ; anal entire ; one prseocular ; maxillary teeth sub- 
equal in size Cynophis, p. 246. 

Scales smooth or feebly keeled, in 15-17 series ; loreals two or three .... Ptyas, p. 248. 

Scales smooth, in 17 series, those of the vertebral series hexagonal .... Xenelaphis, j). 250. 

The posterior maxiUary tooth is lengtlieued, and separated from the others by a 
short interspace ; ventral shields 200 or more in number, rounded or very 
indistinctly angulated Zamenis, p. 252. 



GROUP OF BUSH COLUBRIDES— -Di?r^i)/iY./l. 

The form of these snakes is elongate and somewhat compressed, indicating their climbing 
propensities; they have the body not so excessively slender as the true Tree Snakes, to 
which they lead off. They are much more numerous in the New World than in the Old. 



222 OPHIDIA. 

and only the following genera are found in British India. Green is very frequently the 
ground-colour in this group. 

Scales in 14 or 16 series Zaocijs, p. 255. 

The last maxillary tooth is the longest, in a continuous series witli the others. 

Ventrals more than 200 in number, angulated Herpetoreas, p. 257. 



GROUP OF FRESHWATER COLUBRIDES— i\MTi?/6'/iA':4. 

These snakes are generally not elongate or compressed, and the number of their ventral 
shields is considerably less than 200. All the Indian forms have keeled scales. They freely 
enter the water in pursuit of their food, which consists chiefly of frogs and fishes. All the 
snakes of the preceding groups overpower their prey by throwing some coils of the body 
round or over it, and commence to swallow it only after it has been smothered or at least 
exhausted ; but the Natricines swallow their prey immediately after they have seized it. 
The genus Trojndoj^Ms leads off to the true Freshwater Snakes or Ho7nalqpsides, the Indian 
species of which are distinguished by their grooved posterior tooth. 

Scales keeled ; ventrals considerably less than 200 in number, rounded ; two 

anterior frontals ; maxillary teeth lengthened behind Tropidonotus , p. 258. 

Scales keeled ; ventrals considerably less than 200 in number, rounded ; only 

one anterior frontal Atreimm, p. 272. 

Scales keeled, in 19 rows; ventrals considerably less than 200 in number, 
rounded ; maxillary teeth widely set, the middle a little longer than the 
others Xenochrophis, p. 273. 

Scales keeled, in 19 rows; ventrals considerably less than 200 in number, 
rounded ; maxillary teeth smallest behind, gradually becoming longer 
anteriorly Prijmnomiodon, p. 274. 



Appendix. 

Among the drawings sent by Mr. Hodgson from Nepal, is one of a snake, 10^ inches long, to which 
he gave the name of Coluber sanguiventer. Cantor, who examined this drawing (which is 
now in the British Museum), introduced the snake into his list of Indian Serpents, with the 
name oi Hurriah sanguiventer (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 52). The drawing as well as the 
diagnosis are too imperfect to show what place in the system should be assigned to this 
snake ; but, from the characters known, it would appear that it is the type of a distinct 
genus. We add the diagnosis given by Cantor, and a figure of the upper side of the head, 
copied from Mr. Hodgson's drawing, and apparently of thrice the natiu-al size : — " Claret- 
purple above, with metallic lustre ; blood-coloured beneath. Ventrals 207 ; subcaudals 99, 
the fourteen anterior of which are entire." Valley of Nepal. 




ABLABES. 223 

ABLABES. 

Ablabes, sp., Bum. ^ Bibr. 

Body cylindrical, not compressed, rather slender ; head of moderate 
length, rather depressed, with flat crown, more or less distinct from neck ; 
tail of moderate length or rather long ; eye of moderate size, with round 
j)upil. Rostral shield not produced backwards ; two nasals ; one loreal ; 
one or two anterior and one or two posterior oculars. Scales smooth, in 
thirteen, fifteen, or seventeen rows; ventrals not angulated ; anal bifid; 
subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth in the jaws and on the palate numerous, 
small, and of equal size. 

The snakes of this genus are small, living on the ground, and are found in North America 
and in the East Indies. Some of them have been separated into a distinct group under the 
name of Enicognathus, having the notch in the dentary bone placed more forwards than in 
other snakes ; the species referred to our division F. would belong to it. On reconsideration, 
however, I refer the genus Trachischium, which I had established for A. fuscus (Colubr. 
Snakes, p. 30), to Ablahes. It was founded on the number of scales, on the peculiarly 
keeled scales in the ischiadic region, and on the united posterior frontal shields ; but these 
characters appear to me to lose their generic value since I have become acquainted with 
A. tenuiceps^ A. raj)])ii, and A. bicolor, which form connecting links between Trachischium 
and Ablabes. 

The following species occur in British India : — 

A. Scales in 13 roivs ; those of the ischiadic region not keeled; two praoculars. 

Upper labials seven A. baliodirus, p. 224. 

B. Scales in 13 rows ; those of the ischiadic region keeled in the male ; one praocular (Trachischium). 

Anterior and posterior chin-shields equal in size ; two posterior 

frontals A. tenuiceps, p. 224. 

Anterior chin-shields much larger than posterior ; posterior frontals 

united into one shield A. fuscus, t^. 225. 

[A. obscurostriatus, p. 225.) 

C. Scales in 15 roivs. 

Upper labials six A. rappii, p. 225. 

D. Scales in 17 roivs ; two jirceoculars ; frontals united into two transverse shields. 

Two postoculars, one of which is below the eye A. bicolor, p. 226. 

E. Scales in 17 rows ; two prceoculars ; two pairs of frontals. 

Five upper labials A. olivaceus, p. 227. 

F. Scales in 17 roivs ; one prceocular. 

A series of black dots along the vertebral line ; upper labials seven 

(eight) A. Sagittarius, p. 227 



224 OPHIDIA. 

A series of black dots along the vertebral line; upper labials ten, 

the eighth excluded from the labial margin A. humberti, p. 228. 

A series of black dots along the vertebral line ; upper laloials ten ; 

subcaudals 102 A. collaris, p. 228. 

Two white bands along the back, each band interrupted by a series 
of black spots -4. melanocephalus, p. 229. 



Ablabes baliodieus. 

Coronella baliodeira [Boie) , Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 64. pi. 2. figs. 9, 10. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 66. 
Ablabes baliodeirus, Dum. (^ Bibr. vii. p. 313. Gilnih. Colubr. Snakes, p. 29. 

Scales in thirteen rows. Vertical longer than broad; two prseoculars; temporals 1+2, 
the anterior elongate and in contact with both postocnlars. Upper labials seven, the third 
and fourth of which enter the orbit ; the sixth is the largest, and very similar in size and 
shape to the anterior temporal. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, the posterior of which 
are as long as, or even longer than, the anterior ; the anterior in contact with four labials. 
Ventrals 122-132; subcaudals 65-72. Above brownish or black, yellowish on the head; on 
each side of the anterior part of the trunk a series of equidistant transverse ocellated spots, 
with white centre and black edge. Labials yellow, edged with black. Uniform pearl- 
coloured below. 

This species belongs to the archipelago, being found in Borneo, Java, and at Pinang. Our 
longest specimen is 14 inches long, the tail measuring 3| inches. 



Ablabes tenuiceps. 

Calamaria tenuiceps, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bcng. xxiii. p. 288. 

Scales in thirteen rows, without apical groove. Rostral shield rather broader than high ; 
anterior frontals broader than long, more than half as large as the posterior ; vertical longer 
than broad, six-sided, the six sides being nearly equal in length, the anterior angle being a 
right one, the posterior rather pointed ; occipitals as long as vertical and posterior frontal 
together, not reaching the lower postorbital. Nostril between two small nasals ; loreal much 
longer than broad. One pra^orbital, not extending on to the upper surface of the head ; two 
postorbitals, the upper larger than the lower. Six upper labials, the third and fourth 
entering the orbit, and the sixth being the largest. Temporals 1 + 2, the anterior in contact 
with both oculars. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, equal in size; the anterior are in 
contact with four labials. The scales are perfectly smooth, except those on each side of the 
vent and of the base of the tail, which are keeled. Ventrals 137 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 39. 
Above uniform blackish ash ; below whitish. 

We have seen only one specimen of this species, sent by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., from Nepal ; 
it is 12 inches long, the tail measuring 2 inches. Mr. Blyth's example is from Darjiling, 
and 14 inches long, of which the tail is 2 inches. 



ABLABES RAPPII. 225 

Ablabes fuscus. 

Calamaria fusca, Bhjth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. 1854, p. 288. 

? Calamaria obsciiro-striata, Blyth, I. c. 

Trachischium rugosura, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, pp. 30, 245. 

fiiscum, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 161. 

? obscuro-striatum, Giinth. I. c. 

Scales in thirteen rows, without apical groove. Posterior frontals united into one shield* ; 
loreal much longer than high ; one prceocular, not reaching to the upper surface of the head ; 
one postocular. Six upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit, the last 
the largest. Temporals 1+2. Two pairs of chin-shields, the posterior much smaller than 
the anterior, which are in contact with four labials. The scales are smooth ; but in the male 
sex those on the side of the vent and of the root of the tail are keeled, the keels being more 
or less tubercular : in the females these scales are smooth. Ajial bifid. Ventrals : male, 154 ; 
female, 161. Subcaudals: male, 42 ; female, 34. Uniform black above, whitish below. 

This is a Himalayan species, being found in Nepal and Sikkim, and reaching an altitude 
of 8500 feet. It remains small, the largest specimen which came under my observation 
being 19 inches long, the tail measuring 2\ inches. 

In the collection of Messrs. von Schlagintweit there is a single specimen, from Sikkim, 
12 inches long, which agrees in some respects with Calamaria ohscurostriata of Blyth, so 
far as we are able to judge from the short diagnosis given by that gentleman. It is dusky 
brown, with a pair of very indistinct light bands occupying the joining portions of the 
fourth and fifth rows of scales; but whilst Blyth states 163 ventrals and 40 subcaudals, I 
count in the Sikkim specimen 142 ventrals and 29 subcaudals. This circumstance, together 
with the difference of locality (Blyth's specimen being from Eangoon), makes it very doubtful 
whether they are identical. 

I must even hesitate to identify it with Trachischium fuscum ; for, in a doubtful case like 
the present, one is hardly justified in deciding from a single specimen. 



Ablabes rappii. 

Ablabes rappii, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 154. pi. 26. fig. B (adult), 
owenii, Giinth. I. c. p. 155. pi. 36. fig. A (young). 

Scales in fifteen rows, without apical groove. Loreal square ; one prseocular, just reaching 
to the upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. The occipital does not extend downwards 
to the lower postocular; temporals 1+2 : the anterior in contact with both oculars; the 
lower posterior temporal fits into the notch between the upper posterior temporal and the 
last labial. Upper labials six, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit. Two pairs of 
oblong chin-shields, subequal in size, the anterior m contact with four labials. Ventrals 

* One specimen out of twelve had two posterior frontals. 

2g 



226 OPHIDIA. 

191-198; anal bifid; subcaudals 60. Uniform blackish above, whitish below: some speci- 
mens show a faint dark collar, and a series of vertical bars along the side of the anterior 
part of the body ; these markings axe the remaining traces of the coloration of young indi- 
viduals, the ground-colour of which is light brownish grey, the collar and the lateral vertical 
bars being black. 

The two specimens collected by Messrs. von Schlagintweit are from Sikkim, obtained at 
altitudes of 5340 and 10,200 feet above the level of the sea. A third example is in 
Mr. Hodgson's collection from Nepal. It attains to a length of 16^ inches, the tail mea- 
suring 3|- inches. 

Guided by two rather rough drawings presented by Mr. Hodgson to the British Museum, 
I was of opinion that A. rappii and A. owenii were really distinct (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, 
p. 217) ; but having lately succeeded in finding the typical specimen of one of these drawings, 
I see that it was intended for a difierent species (A. tenuiceps), and therefore I no longer 
hesitate to unite the two former. 



Ablabes bicolor. 

Calamaria bicolor, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. 1854, p. 289. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Eostral shield twice as broad as high ; the frontals are united 
into two simple transverse plates ; vertical five-sided, broader than long, with the supraciliary 
margins short, and with a rather acute angle behind ; occipitals as long as the vertical and 
frontals together, rounded behind, and touching the upper postocular only. Nostril between 
two small shields ; loreal square ; two preeoculars, the lower much smaller than the upper, 
and entering the orbit with its hinder pointed part only. Two postoculars : the lower is 
situated below the eye, above the fourth labial. Six upper labials : the third only enters 
tlie orbit, and the fifth is the largest. Temporals 1+1 : the anterior is in contact with both 
postoculars, elongate, pointed, meeting the posterior temporal with its pointed end only. 
Mental shield very small ; the first pair of lower labials form a suture behind the mental ; 
two pairs of oblong chin-shields, the posterior rather smaller than tlie anterior, which are in 
contact with four labials. Ventrals 210-221 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 75-80. Uniform 
greyish brown above, whitish below. Teeth rather small, of equal length, thii'teen in the 
upper and the same number in the lower jaw. 

The only specimen I have seen is from the Khasyan collection of the late Mr. Griffith, and 
is not in a good state of preservation ; it is 16| inches long, the tail measuring 3J inches. 
Mr. Blyth's specimen was 19^ inches long (tail 4f), and formed part of a collection which 
came either from Khasya or from Assam. 



ABLABES SAGITTARIUS. 227 

Ablabes olivaceus. 

Ablates olivaceus, Beddome, Madr. Quart. Journ. Med. Sc. vol. v. 

Scales in seventeen rows, short, rounded, without apical groove. Rostral shield large, 
convex, nearly twice as broad as high, rounded behind, just reaching the upper surface of 
the head ; anterior frontals small, not quite half as large as posterior, broader than long ; 
posterior frontals twice as broad as long, bent dovmwards on the sides ; vertical six-sided, 
nearly as broad as long, with an obtuse angle in front and with an acute one behind, and 
with the supraciliary margins very short. Supraciliary small ; occipitals as long as the 
vertical and frontals together, rounded and not notched behind, touching the upper post- 
ocular only. Nostril small, in a shield which is divided into two by a suture below, but not 
above, the nostril. Loreal longer than high. Eye small ; two small prseoculars, two post- 
oculars ; five upper labials : the third forms the lower edge of the orbit ; the fourth is the 
smallest, and the fifth the largest, much longer than high. Temporals 1 + 1+2. Two pairs 
of chin-shields, subequal in size, the posterior separated by two intercalated scales. Ventrals 
224 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 75. Teeth small, equal in length, five in each maxillary. Dark 
greenish olive, paler below ; a series of distant, small black dots along each side of the back, 
and another, less distinct, along the middle of the side. 

This species was discovered by Captain R. H. Beddome in the Nilgherries (Manantoddy) ; 
the specimen sent by him is 20| inches long, the tail measuring 4 inches. 



Ablabes Sagittarius. 

Calamaria sagittaria, Cantor, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1839, p. 49 ; and Mai. Rept. p. 64. 
Enicognathus grayi, Jan, Arch, per la Zool. ii. p. 274. 

Scales in seventeen rows; one preeocular. The occipital extends laterally to the lower 
postocular ; temporals 1 + 1, the anterior being in contact with the lower postocular only. 
Upper labials seven, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit ; the second sometimes 
split into two. Two pairs of longish chin-shields, equal in size, the anterior pair in contact 
with four labials. Ventrals 216-245 ; subcaudals 57-70. Reddish or greyish olive, dark on 
the sides, the lighter coloration of the back being separated from the darker on the sides by 
a blackish line ; a series of black dots along the vertebral line. Head brovra above ; a broad 
black or dark-brown collar, edged with yellow. Belly white, each ventral with a black dot 
on each side (during life the belly is of a citrine colour, with a blue lateral band and with 
the dots). 

This species remains small; the longest specimen we have seen is 12 inches, the tail 
being one-sixth. It is found at Pinang, and at Tirhoot (Bengal). An example collected by 
Messrs. von Schlagintweit, at Kangra (Himalayas), differs only m having eight upper labials, 
the second being split into two. Typical specimens of this species are preserved in the 
British Museum and in the Museum of the University of Oxford. 

2g2 



228 . OPHIDIA. 

Ablabes humberti. 

Calamaria sagittaria, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1853, p. 528 (not Cantor). 
Enicogiiathus humbertij Jan, Arch, per la Zool. ii. p. 275. 

Scales in seventeen rows ; one prseocular ; two postoculars. The occipital extends laterally 
to the lower postocular; temporals 1+2, the anterior in contact with the lower postocular 
only. Upper labials ten, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit ; the seventh 
and ninth are contiguous below, excluding the eighth from the labial margin, so that the 
latter, situated below the anterior temporal, might be taken for a temporal shield. Two 
pairs of elongate chin-shields, equal in size, the anterior pair in contact with four labials. 
Ventrals 175 ; subcaudals 55-57. Reddish olive, darker on the sides, the lighter back being 
separated from the dark-coloured side by an indistinct punctated line. A series of black 
dots edged with yellow runs along the vertebral Une. Upper part of the head brown ; a 
broad black or dark-brown collar, edged vpith yellow. Belly white, each ventral shield with 
a black dot on each side. 

This species is found in the Madras Presidency and in Ceylon. Our largest specimen is 
17^ inches long, the tail measuring 4 inches. 



Ablabes collaris. 

Psammophis collaris, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, p. 390. 
Ablabes collaris, Giinfh. Colubr. Snakes, p. 28. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Loreal rather longer than high ; one prseocular, just reaching 
to the upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. The occipital does not extend down- 
wards to the lower postocular ; one temporal in front, in contact with both postoculars ; a 
second elongate temporal behind the first, contiguous to the occipital; two smaller tem- 
porals, one behind the other, occupy the space between the second temporal and the 
posterior labial shields. Upper labials ten, the fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the orbit, 
the eighth and tenth being the largest. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, subequal in 
size, the anterior in contact with four labials. Ventrals 177; anal bifid; subcaudals 102. 
Teeth small, closely set, of equal size, 28 in each maxillary and 46 in each mandible*. 
Greyish brown above, with a vertebral series of equidistant black dots on the anterior part 
of the trunk. Neck with a broad black collar, edged with yellow behind, the yellow edge 
being produced forwards to the eye; head brown above; labials brown-spotted. Lower 
parts white ; each ventral with a black speck on each side ; anterior ventrals with another 
pair of similar dots in the middle. 

This species is found in Khasya and Nepal, and attains to a length of 32 inches, the tail 
measuring 10 inches. 

* The notch of the dentary is IdcIow the nineteenth tooth. 



CYCLOPHIS. 229 

Ablabes melanocephalus. 

Lycodon melanocephalus, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 
Herpetodryas prionotus, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1839, p. 52. 
Ablabes melanocephalus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 38. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Loreal square ; one praeocular, two postoculars ; the occipital 
extends laterally to the lower postocular ; one temporal in front, in contact with the lower 
postocular only ; a second elongate temporal behind the first, contiguous to the occipital ; 
two or three smaller scale-like temporals between the second temporal and the posterior 
labial shields. Upper labials ten, the fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the orbit ; the seventh 
and ninth are contiguous below, excluding the eighth from the labial margin, so that the 
latter, situated below the anterior temporal, might be taken for a temporal shield. Two 
pairs of oblong chin-shields, subequal in size, the anterior in contact with four labials. 
Ventrals 152; anal bifid; subcaudals 65. Teeth small, closely set, of equal size, 37 in each 
maxillary and 34 in each mandible. Light brown above, mth two white longitudinal 
bands, commencing from a broad black collar, and becoming indistinct towards the hinder 
parts of the body ; each band is interrupted by a series of quadrangular, equidistant black 
spots ; head brown above ; lips yellow, vpith a black band running from the eye to the angle 
of the mouth. Lower parts whitish, each ventral with a black spot on each side. 

The typical specimens are from General Hardwicke's collection; the place where they 
were collected is not known. The typical specimen of Cantor's Herpetodryas jmonofits 
appears to be lost ; but, fortunately, a drawing of it has been preserved in the Oxford Museum, 
which proves its identity with A. melanocephalus. Cantor says that it inhabits Malacca. 
The species attains to a length of 22 inches, the tail measuring 8 inches. 



CYCLOPHIS, Gthr. 

Body or tail or both rather slender ; belly rounded ; head of moderate 
leng-th, rather distinct from neck. Shields of the head regular ; loreal 
present, or confluent with the nasal ; only one nasal, pierced by the nostril ; 
one (two) anterior and two posterior oculars. Scales smooth, in fifteen 
rows. Eye of moderate size, or rather large, with round j)upil. All the 
teeth of equal size, none grooved. 

The snakes of this genus are small species — intermediate forms between the Coronellina 
and the Bryadina ; like the former, they appear to be ground snakes, frequenting grassy 
plains rather than dry places ; therefore their predominant colours are green or olive. One 



230 OPHIDIA. 

species is known from North America ; the others are from the Liclian continent and from 
Ceylon. 

Uniform green C. major, p. 230. 

Anterior part of the body witli black longitudinal bands . . . C. frcenatus, p. 230. 

Loreal united with nasal ; one praeocidar C. calamaria,^. 2Z\. 

Loreal united with nasal ; two prseoculars C MasaZis, p. 231. 

Loreal distinct. A bright yellow collar C. monticola, p. 232. 



Cyclophis major. (Plate XVII. fig. L.) 

Cyclophis major, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 120. 

Herpetodryas chloris, Hallow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 503. 

Body and tail of moderate length, not compressed; head rather narrow, of moderate 
length, scarcely distinct from neck ; eye of moderate size. Rostral shield small, as high as 
broad ; anterior frontal subtriangular, as long as broad, obtusely pointed in front. Vertical 
much longer than broad, with the lateral margins but little convergent. Nostril rather wide, 
nearly entirely dividing the single nasal ; loreal much longer than high ; praeocular extending 
to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical; two postoculars; eight 
upper labials, the foui'th and fifth entering the orbit ; temporals elongate, 1 + 2. Two pairs 
of chin-shields : the anterior elongate, subsemicircular, in contact with four lower labials ; 
the posterior narrow, strongly divergent. Scales smooth, without apical groove, ovate, not 
elongate, in fifteen rows. Ventrals 175, without keel and not extending up the sides ; anal 
bifid ; subcaudals 78-86. Uniform green above, paler beneath. 

Specimens of this snake have been received from Ningpo and Hongkong. Our largest 
specimen is 37| inches long, the tail measuring 9 inches; another is SOg inches long, tail 
7 inches. 



Cyclophis fr^natus. (Plate XIX. fig. I.) 

Cyclophis ti-enatus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 120. 

Body and tail somewhat elongate, slightly compressed; head distinct from the slender 
neck, broad between the eyes, with short snout ; eye of moderate size. Rostral broader than 
high; anterior frontals much broader than long, subquadrangular, truncated in front, not 
quite half as large as posterior ; vertical broad in front, with the lateral margins much con- 
vergent ; superciliaries broad behind ; occipitals longish, rounded behind. One anterior 
ocular, not extending on to the upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. Loreal square. 
Seven upper labials, the third and fourth forming the lower part of the orbit; temporals 
large, 1+2. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, the anterior being in contact with four 
labials. Scales smooth, without apical groove, rhombic, rather short, in fifteen rows. Ven- 



CYCLOPHIS NASALIS. ' 231 

trals 165, without keel, slightly bent up the sides; anal bifid; subcaudals 95. Crown of 
the head, back, and posterior part of the body uniform olive ; a broad black band begins 
behind the eye, becomes gradually narrower, and disappears in the second fifth of the total 
length; a second streak or zigzag line runs from the throat along the outer edges of the 
ventrals ; a third is intermediate between the band and the zigzag line, and disappears with 
the first. Uniform yellowish below. 

We have received one specimen from Afghanistan and another from Mesopotamia. The 
first is 27 inches long, the tail measuring 8 inches. 



Ctclophis calamakia. (Plate XVII. fig. K.) 

Cyclophis calamaria, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 250. 

Body of moderate length, not compressed ; tail rather long ; head of moderate length, with 
obtusely conical snout, scarcely distinct fi-om neck. Kostral shield as high as broad ; anterior 
frontals rather broader than long, not quite half as large as posterior; posterior frontals 
much broader than long. Vertical twice as long as broad, with the lateral margins slightly 
convergent; occipitals of moderate length, rounded behind. Loreal none. Nasal shield 
large, long, replacing the loreal, in contact with the prteocular ; the nostril is small, situated 
in its anterior half One praeocular, not extending on to the upper surface of the head ; two 
postoculars. Seven upper labials, the third and fourth forming the lower part of the orbit. 
Temporals large, 1+2. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, the anterior being in contact 
with four labials. Scales smooth, some with a very indistinct single apical groove, oblong, 
ovate, in fifteen rows. Ventrals 129-132, scarcely bent up the sides; anal bifid; subcaudals 
64-83. Greyish or brownish grey above ; each scale on the sides with two indistinct, very 
small brown streaks on the base ; the scales on each side of the back are edged Avith black, 
the black edges forming small irregular spots, which are more or less confluent into a very 
narrow undulated line on the hind part of the body ; lower parts entirely white. In imma- 
ture specimens the black lines are more distinct than in old ones, extending further back- 
wards on the body : a young specimen, 4 inches long, has a broad black band across the hind 
part of the occipitals. 

This small snake is not uncommon in Ceylon, but scarcer in the peninsula of India, and 
attains to a length of 13-14 inches, the tail measuring 4 inches. We have given three views 
of the head, of the natural size. 



Cyclophis nasalis. (Plate XVII. fig. M.) 

This species agrees in almost every respect with C. calamaria, but it may be readily dis- 
tinguished by the presence of two prseoculars ; the nasal shield is very large and long. Ventrals 
149; anal bifid; subcaudals 77. Greyish olive above; a slightly curved black streak on 



232 OPHIDIA. 

each side of the neck, followed by a series of black spots, which are confluent into a more or 
less interrupted band which runs along the joining edges of the fifth and sixth outer series 
of scales and gradually disappears on the tail; an indistinct black line runs between the 
third and fourth series of scales and disappears on the anterior third of the trunk. Belly 
uniform whitish. 

I have examined only a single specimen of this species ; it is not known from what part of 
British India it came; it is 16 inches long, the tail measuring 4 inches. We have given a 
lateral view of the head, of the natural size. 



Cyclophis monticola. 

Calamaria monticola, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 50. 

Body rounded, of moderate length ; tail rather short ; head rather narrow, not depressed, 
with the snout of moderate length, obtusely conical. Eye of moderate size, with round pupil. 
Eostral shield narrow, much higher than broad, reflected on to the upper surface of the head, 
with an obtuse angle behind. Anterior frontals twice as broad as long, about one-third the 
size of posterior ; posterior frontals subrhomboidal, rather broader than long. Vertical six- 
sided, much longer than broad, with an obtuse angle in front and with a right angle behind, 
the lateral margins being nearly parallel; supraciliaries well developed, elongate, rather 
narrow ; occipitals long, as long as vertical and posterior frontals together, rounded behind. 
Nostril an oblique slit, directed forwards, in a single nasal plate of moderate size, which is 
not much larger than the loreal. Loreal oblong, longer than high, rather larger than the 
single prseorbital, which does not extend upwards to the upper surface of the crown. Two 
postoculars, subequal in size. Six upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit : the 
third is in contact with loreal and prseocular, and forms the anterior angle of the orbit ; 
the fourth is below the centre of the eye ; the sixth upper labial is the largest, and as large 
as the fourth and fifth together. Temporals 1 + 1 : the anterior is elongate, and in contact 
with both postoculars ; the posterior is short, rhombic. Six lower labials on each side : the 
first pair form a suture together behind the mental. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, each 
being more than twice as long as broad ; the anterior in contact with four labials. Scales 
smooth, in fifteen rows ; ventrals 125 ; subcaudals 44 ; anal bifid. All the teeth subequal 
in size, about nineteen in each maxillary. Dark olive-brown, with a bright yellow collar and 
with a whitish dorsal line ; beneath of a citrine colour. 

This description is taken from the typical specimen, which is still preserved in the Oxford 
Museum ; it is only 50 lines long, the tail measuring 9 lines. This species inhabits the Naga 
Hills in Assam. 



ODONTOMUS NYMPH A. 233 

ODONTOMUS, Bum. S^ Bibr. 

Body and tail slender, strongly compressed ; head of moderate size and 
width, depressed, distinct from neck ; ventrals more than 200 in number, 
angularly bent on the sides. Scales in thirteen or fifteen rows, smooth. 
Shields of the head regular ; nostril in a nasal shield which is divided into 
two by a more or less distinct suture. Two praeoculars, the lower of which 
is sometimes united with the loreal. Maxillary and palatine teeth subequal 
in length, none grooved ; the anterior mandibulary teeth but little larger 
than the following. Eye of moderate size, with round pupil. 

Having previously seen only two specimens of Odontomus, in an indifferent state of preser- 
vation, I adopted the diagnosis given by Dumeril and Bibron, and placed these snakes in the 
family of Lycodontidos (Colubr. Snakes, p. 206); but I have since convinced myself that their 
dentition is very different from what I supposed it to be from Dumeril's description, and that 
their natural place is near Dryocalamus. 

The following species occur in British India : — 

Scales in thirteen rows ; upper labials eight O. mjmpha, p. 233. 

Scales in thirteen rows ; upper labials seven O. semifasciatus , p. 234. 

Scales in fifteen rows 0. gracilis, p. 234. 



Odontomus nympha. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. tab. 36, 37. 

Coluber nympha. Baud. Rept. vi. p. 244. 

Lycodon nympha, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 522. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 120. 

Odontomus nympha, Bum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 450. 

Rostral shield low, nearly twice as broad as high. Anterior frontal subquadrangular, as 
long as broad, more than half as large as posterior. Posterior frontal broader than long ; 
vertical and occipitals of moderate size, the latter rounded behind. Nasal subdivided ; the 
loreal is generally united with the lower praeocular, entering the orbit, but there is some- 
times a lower detached prgeorbital ; the upper reaches just to the upper surface of the head. 
Two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit. Tem- 
porals 2 + 3 : the anterior narrow, elongate, in contact with the postoculars. Scales in 
thirteen rows, with an apical groove ; ventrals 234-243 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 82-87. 
Maxillary teeth small, subequal in size ; palatine teeth not prolonged ; the anterior of the 
mandible are but very little longer than the posterior. White, with about thirty-eight 

2h 



234 OPHIDIA. 

rounded, broad brown bands, each of which is about thrice as broad as the intervals of the 
ground-colour ; the first occupies the head, the second the neck, both being separated by a 
white collar. The head appears to be sometimes entirely yellowish. 

The specimens which I have examined are from Russell's collection ; he obtained them 
from Vellore ; the largest is 17 inches long, tail 3| inches. 



Odontomus semifasciatus. 

Hydrophobus semifasciatus, Gunth. Ann. 8; Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, Febr., p. 127. pi. 9. fig. 6. 

Rostral shield of moderate size, somewhat broader than high ; anterior frontals subqua- 
drangular, nearly as broad as long, more than half the size of the posterior. Posterior frontal 
broader than long; vertical and occipitals of moderate size, the latter rounded behind. 
Nasal subdivided, a suture below the nostril being very indistinct. Loreal rather longer than 
high. Two praeoculars equal in size, the upper just reaching to the upper surface of the 
head ; two postoculars. Seven upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit. 
Temporals 2 + 2 + 2 : the two anterior are in contact with the postoculars, and that on the 
side of the hind portion of the occipital is elongate, twice the size of the others. Scales 
in thirteen rows, with an apical groove ; ventrals232; anal bifid; subcaudals 84. Maxillary 
teeth small, equal in size; palatine teeth not elongate. White, vdth fifty rounded, dark- 
brown bands, each of which is about twice as broad as the intervals of the ground-colour ; 
the first occupies the head, the second the neck, both being separated by a white collar. 

I have seen only one example of this species, and I do not know whence it was obtained. 
It is young, 75 lines long, the tail being 27 lines. Ha\ing formerly followed Dumeril and 
Bibron in placing Odontomus among the Lycodonts, I did not at first recognize the generic 
affinities of the present species, considering it as the type of a distinct genus. 



Odontomus gracilis. 

Rostral shield low, twice as broad as high, slightly bent backwards on the upper surface 
of the head. Anterior frontal quadi-angular, as long as broad, two-thii'ds the size of posterior ; 
posterior frontal much broader than long. Vertical not much longer than broad ; occipitals 
of moderate size. Two nasals ; loreal united with lower prseocular, entering the orbit ; upper 
prpeocular small ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter 
the orbit. Temporals 2 -f 3( -f 3), the two anterior in contact with the postoculars. Scales 
in fifteen rows, without apical groove ; ventrals 234 ; anal entu-e; subcaudals 81-83. Each 
maxillary is armed with nine teeth of moderate size and in a continuous series ; they gradu- 
ally become somewhat longer behind; palatine teeth small; anterior mandibulary teeth a 
little longer than the posterior. White, with about thirty-eight broad, round, dark-brown 
cross bands, thrice or twice as broad as the interspaces of the ground-colour ; these interspaces 



NYMPHOPHIDIUM MACULATUM. 235 

again are marbled with brown ; the first cross band occupies the head, the second the neck, 
both being separated by a white collar. Lower parts uniform white. 

A single specimen was brought to this country by Captain B. H. Beddome from the 
Anamallay Mormtains ; it is 21 inches long, the tail measuring 4 inches. Another specimen 
is figured in Mr. W. Elliott's collection of drawings ; it was killed at Waltair. 



NYMPHOPHIDIUM, Gthr. 

This genus agrees with Odontomus in every respect but the dentition, 
the three posterior maxillary teeth being very strong and trenchant ; neither 
the palatine nor the mandibulary teeth are enlarged. 

I know of only one species. 

NtMPHOPHIDIUM MACULATUM. (Plate XIX. fig. H.) 

Head of moderate width and length, rather depressed, and distinct from neck ; body and 
tail slender, compressed. Rostral rather broader than high, just reaching the upper surface 
of the head ; anterior frontals quadi-angular, as long as broad, obliquely trimcated in front, 
more than half as large as posterior ; posterior much broader than long ; vertical of mode- 
rate size, with the lateral margins slightly convergent; occipitals as long as vertical and 
posterior frontals together, slightly notched behind. Nostril between two small nasals, 
indistinctly separated by a suture ; loreal long, quadrangular, entering the orbit ; a small 
prseorbital above ; two postorbitals ; seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the 
orbit. Temporals rather UTegularly arranged, two being in contact with the postoculars. 
Scales smooth, in fifteen rows. Ventrals 244 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 107. Each maxil- 
lary is armed with a continuous series of six or seven teeth, the three last of which are 
comparatively very strong and trenchant. There are two obtusely conical prominences on 
the base of the skull, one behind the other, not covered by the mucous membrane of the 
cavity of the mouth ; their white colour makes them very conspicuous. The specimen is 
now light brownish, with two dorsal series of rounded dark-brown spots ; they are confluent 
into one series on the anterior part of the body, and become smaller on the posterior and on 
the tail ; sides with very small brown spots ; lower parts uniform whitish. 

The only specimen I have seen is fi-om General Hardwicke's collection, and marked 
" India" ; it appears to be young, being only 12 inches long, the tail measming 2f inches. 

We have given on Plate XIX. two views of the head, of twice its natural size, and a figure 
of a portion of the back from the anterior third of the length, of the natural size, to show 
its coloration. 

2h2 



236 OPHIDIA, 

CORONELLA. 

Coronella, sp., Laurenti. 

Body cylindrical, not compressed in the middle, stout ; head of moderate 
length, rather flat, and distinct from neck, with the snout rounded ; tail of 
moderate length ; eye moderately large, with round pupil. Rostral shield 
of normal size and form ; two pairs of frontals ; nostril between two nasals ; 
one loreal ; one anterior and two or three posterior oculars. Scales smooth, 
in (fifteen) seventeen to twenty-three rows ; subcaudals two-rowed. Pos- 
terior maxillary tooth longest, smooth, and in a continuous series with the 
anterior ones, or grooved. 

Although species of this genus were known from almost every part of the temperate and 
tropical regions, they were thought to be entirely absent in tropical India ; therefore, 
when I saw the first specimen said to be from the Dekkan, I was much tempted to doubt 
the correctness of the statement. The British Museum received that specimen from the 
collection of the East India Company ; and although an error may have occurred, I do not 
feel myself entitled to presume that such is really the case, more especially as the species 
is apparently undescribed. 

CoRONELLA ORIENTALIS. 

Head rather depressed, of moderate length, scarcely distinct from neck ; body rounded, 
slightly compressed posteriorly ; tail of moderate length. Eye of moderate size, with round 
pupil. Rostral shield rather broader than high, just reaching the upper surface of the head ; 
frontals of moderate size ; vertical not quite twice as long as broad, with the lateral margins 
parallel, and with a pointed posterior angle ; occipitals not much longer than vertical. 
Nostril between two nasals ; loreal square ; one praiorbital, reaching to the upper surface of 
the head ; two postorbitals, the lower between the eye and the fifth and sixth labials. Eight 
upper labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; temporals 1 + 2, the anterior in contact 
with both oculars. Two pairs of elongate chin-shields, the posterior rather shorter than the 
anterior, which are in contact with five labials. Scales in seventeen rows, without apical 
groove. Ventrals 163; anal bifid; subcaudals 65. Each maxillary is armed with sixteen 
teeth, the last of which is twice as strong as the preceding, and not separated from it by an 
interspace. Above greyish brown ; two indistinct narrow dark streaks along each side of the 
posterior part of the trunk, confluent into one band on the side of the tail. Neck with a 
very narrow white collar. Belly white, with subquadrangular blackish spots. 

Total length 11 inches ; head ^ inch; tail 2 inches. 



COLUBER. 237 

A single specimen was transferred from the collection of the East India Company to that 
of the British Museum, and is stated to belong to the collection made by Colonel Sykes in 
the Dekkan. 



COLUBER. 

Coluber, sp., Linn. 

Body rounded above, generally of moderate length ; tail one-fifth or less 
than one-fifth of the total length ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; 
nostril lateral, between two plates. Shields of the head regular ; one prae- 
ocular. Scales smooth or with feeble keels, in nineteen to twenty-seven 
rows ; ventrals not keeled ; anal bifid. Teeth in the jaws of equal size. 

Numerous species of this genus are found in North America, Europe, and Asia ; those in 
British India belong to the northern parts of this region, scarcely extending southwards into 
the tropical region. 

* Anterior frontals pointed in front ; less than 200 ventrals. 

Scales in twenty-one rows C. rufodorsatus, p. 238. 

** Anterior frontals obtuse in front ; more than 200 ventrals. 

Scales in twenty-three rows C. mandarinus, p. 238. 

Scales in nineteen rows C. porphyraceus, p. 239. 

I am quite at a loss as to where the Platyceps semifasciafus, Blyth, Joum. As. Soc. Beng. 
xxix. 1861, p. 114, should be placed; no mention is made either of the shields of the head 
or of the scales. The genus is characterized as follows : — 

Platyceps, n. g. — Like Coluber (Coryphodon, D. ^ B.), but with exceedingly flat head, and tail only 
about a sixth of the total length. 

Pl. semifasciatus. — Colour olive-grey above, white below ; the posterior two-fifths without markings, 
and the nuchal region marked with broad transverse black bands, having lateral black spots alternating 
on either side. These gradually become narrower and are broken into alternate bands on the second fifth 
of the body, being still more broken into smaU spots on the third fifth, beyond which they gradually 
disappear anterior to the vent. Eyes of moderate size. Specimen evidently young. Length about 
\0\ inches, of which taU about 2 inches, its extreme tip being lost in the specimen. Ventral shields 187. — 
Subathoo. 



238 OPHIDIA. 

Coluber eufodoesatus. (Plate XX. fig. G.) 

Tropidonotus rufo-dorsatus, Cantor, Ann. &; Mag. Nat, Hist. 1842, ix. p. 483. 
Ablabes sex-lineatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 324. 
Coluber rufo-dorsatus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 89. 

Body and tail stout ; head rather short, high, scarcely distinct from neck ; snout obtusely 
pointed, with a sharpish canthus rostralis. Eostral broader than high ; anterior frontals 
small, triangular, pointed in front. Vertical not twice as long as broad, with the lateral 
margins but little convergent, and with a right angle behind ; occipitals of moderate length 
and width, rather rounded behind. One prseocular, extending to the upper surface of the 
head ; two postoculars. Seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit. Tem- 
porals varying in form and number. Scales smooth, with an indistinct apical groove, in 
twenty-one rows. Ventrals 174-178; anal bifid; subcaudals 50-52 in males as well as in 
females. Each maxillary with fifteen teeth, which gradually become rather larger behind. 
Upper parts brownish grey, with four series of oblong, irregular, brown, black-edged spots, 
the spots of each series being confluent in the middle of the trunk, and forming four bands 
continued to the tip of the tail ; head with three A-like bands : the anterior across the pos- 
terior frontals, running through the eye to the angle of the mouth, and passing into the 
lateral series of spots ; the second crosses the vertical and the occipitals ; the third is in the 
occipital suture. A series of black spots along the edge of the abdomen ; belly wdth more 
or less numerous and confluent subquadrangular black spots. 

This species is found in China (Ningpo, Chikiang) and in the islands of Chusan and For- 
mosa. An adult male and female measured 19 inches, the tail of both being 3 inches. I 
found a frog in the stomach of one. 

Two views of the head, of its natural size, are given on Plate XX. 



Coluber mandarinus. (Plate XX. fig. H.) 

Coluber mandarinus, Cantor, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. p. 483. 

Body and tail of moderate length ; head rather narrow, oblong, scarcely distinct from neck ; 
snout subtruncated. Rostral shield nearly twice as broad as high ; anterior frontals qua- 
drangular, broader than long, with the anterior margin not much shorter than the posterior. 
Vertical five-sided, broader than long, with the lateral margins convergent, and with a rather 
acute angle behind. Occipitals of moderate length and width, rounded behind. Loreal 
small; prseocular just reaching to the upper surface of the head; two postoculars. Seven 
upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit. Temporals 1 + 3. The anterior chin- 
shields in contact with four lower labials. Scales smooth, with an indistinct apical groove, 
in twenty-three rows. Ventrals not keeled, extending a little up the sides, 222 ; anal bifid ; 
subcaudals 62. Each maxillary is armed with fifteen teeth equal in size. Scarlet above 
(brownish olive in spirits), with a dorsal series of about forty-four lozenge-shaped black spots, 



COLUBER PORPHYEACEUS. 239 

each with a yellow centre and a narrow yellow margin; irregular black spots along the 
sides. Head with black cross bands : one across the anterior frontals and the first upper and 
second lower labials ; a second runs across the fronto-vertical suture, and passes through the 
eye to the lower jaw ; the third is V-like, and occupies the crown of the head ; another 
black spot on the suture between the fifth and sixth upper labials ; belly with numerous 
black cross bands, generally interrupted in the middle. 



This beautiful species is an inhabitant of the island of Chusan; the largest specimen I 
ive seen is 2 J 
on Plate XX. 



have seen is 28 inches long, the tail measuring 5 inches. Three views of the head are given 



Coluber porphtraceus. (Plate XX. fig. I.) 

Coluber porphyraceus, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 51. 

Psammophis nigrofasciatus, Cantor, I.e. p. 53 (young). 

CoroneUa callicephalus, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, xii. p. 390. Bhjth, Journ. As. Soc. 

Beng. xxiii. 1855, p. 289. 
Coluber caUicephalus, Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 92. 

Body and tail of moderate length ; head narrow, oblong, scarcely distinct from neck ; 
snout rather long. Rostral as broad as high; anterior frontal truncated in front, rather 
broader than long, its anterior margin being shorter than its posterior. Vertical very large, 
rather longer than broad, six-sided, with an obtuse angle in front and a right angle behind, 
and with the lateral margins convergent ; occipitals considerably longer than broad, obliquely 
truncated behind. Loreal rather longer than high ; one prseorbital, extending on to the upper 
surface of the head, in contact with the vertical ; two small postorbitals ; temporals elongate, 
1+2, the anterior in contact with the lower ocular only. Eight upper labials, the fourth 
and fifth entering the orbit. The anterior chin-shields in contact -ndth four lower labials. 
Scales smooth, without apical groove, in nineteen series. Ventrals scarcely extending upwards 
on the sides, 189-211 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 56-70. Each maxillary is armed with sixteen 
teeth equal in size. Brownish olive above, with about twenty-two very broad, darker, black- 
edged cross bands ; a narrow black streak commences behind the middle of the trunk, and 
runs along each side of the back to the tip of the tail. Crown of the head with a black 
median longitudinal streak ; a second runs from behind the orbit to the first cross band. 
Belly uniform whitish. In the young the cross bands are entirely black, edged with white, 
reaching downwards to the belly. 

This very fine species appears to be confined to Khasya and Assam ; our largest specimen 
is 29 inches long, the tail measuring 5^ inches. Two views of the head are given on 
Plate XX. 

I have examined a coloured drawing of Cantor's Coluber porphyraceus, and the typical 
specimen of his Psammophis nigrofasciatus. both being preserved in the Museum of the 
University of Oxford. 



240 OPHIDIA. 

ELAPHIS. 

Elaphis, sp., Aldrovandi. 

Body and tail generally elongate and compressed ; ventral shields 200 or 
more in number ; head distinct from neck ; the length of the tail is less than 
one-fourth of the total ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; nostril 
lateral, between two shields ; shields of the head regular ; two pra^oculars, 
the lower small. Scales keeled ; ventrals with a slight, or without any, 
keel ; anal bifid. Maxillary teeth equal in size. 

The species of this genus belong to the European and Asiatic faunas ; the following are 
found in British India : — 

Upper side of the head with oblique cross bands edged with black E. dione, p. 240. 

Head uniformly coloured above ; trunk with broad cross bands anteriorly ; tail 

without band E. sauromates, p. 241. 

Tail with a broad black lateral band E. tmniurus, p. 242. 



Elaphis dione. 

Coluber dione, Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-As. iii. pp. 39, 40. 

Coelopeltis dione, Eichw. Nouv. Mem. Nat. Mosc. 1842, vii. p. 151. tab. 28. 

Elaphis dione, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 248. Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 92. 

Body of moderate length, compressed ; head and tail of moderate length ; snout obtuselj' 
rounded. Rostral broader than high ; anterior frontals half as large as posterior, pentagonal, 
with two anterior margins. Vertical rather large, pentagonal, with the lateral margins con- 
vergent, and with a rather acute angle behind. Occipitals somewhat longer than vertical, 
slightly pointed behind. Loreal rather longer than high ; two prsaeoculars, the lower of 
which is small, the upper extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the 
vertical. Two postoculars. Eight low upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which enter the 
orbit. Temporals 2 + 3, the posterior scale-like. Scales on the back slightly keeled, in 
twenty-five series. Ventrals 200-203, scarcely bent upwards on the sides ; anal bifid ; sub- 
caudals 63-78. Each maxillary is armed with from ten to twelve teeth of equal size. Upper 
parts brownish or yellowish olive, minutely speckled with red ; two series of irregular black 
rings along the back, the rings of the two series sometimes confluent and forming transverse 
markings ; generally a light band along each side of the back, and sometimes a third along 
the vertebral line, dividing the two series of rings. Sides with two other series of uTegular 
small black spots. Head with brown oblique cross bands edged with black ; generally 
only the black edges are visible : one across the anterior frontals, bent backwards to the eye ; 



ELAPHIS SAUROMATES. 241 

the second on the fronto-vertical suture ; both these cross bands are united into one behind 
the eye, running from the orbit to the angle of the mouth ; a third large blotch occupies 
the crown of the head, emitting two divergent streaks behind. Belly white with black spots, 
the spots being sometimes small, sometimes subquadrangular, and occupying more than one- 
half of the ventral and subcaudal shields. 

This species was known from the western parts of Asia, but it appears to extend through 
entire Central Asia to China, where (at Pekin) it has been found by Mr. Swinhoe. These 
Chinese specimens agree completely with others collected at the foot of the Caucasus. Our 
longest specimen is a male, 39 inches long, the tail measuring S^ inches. 



Elaphis SAUROMATES. (Plate XXI. fig. E.) 

Coluber sauromates, Pall. Zoogr. Ross.-As. iii. p. 42. Nordm,. inDemid. Voy. Russ. Merid., Rept. 

pi. 7. 
Elaphis pareyssii, {Fit~.) Wagl. Icon. tab. 25. 

Tropidonotus sauromates, Eichiv. Faun. Casp.-Caucas. pi. 25. figs. 1 & 2. 
Elaphis sauromates, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 288. Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 93. 

Body and tail of moderate length, the former scarcely compressed ; head rather depressed, 
flat, with the snout obtusely rounded ; eye of moderate size, superciliary somewhat projecting. 
Rostral broader than high ; anterior frontals more than half as large as posterior ; vertical 
pentagonal, with the lateral margins convergent. Occipitals of moderate extent. Loreal 
longer than high ; two prseoculars, the lower of which is small, the upper extending on to the 
upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical. Two postoculars. Eight low upper 
labials, the fourth and fifth coming into the orbit. Temporals 2 -f- 3, the anterior somewhat 
elongate. The anterior chin-shields are in contact with four lower labials. Scales keeled, 
in 23-25 series. Ventrals 204-214, slightly bent upwards on the sides; anal bifid; sub- 
caudals 64-82. Each maxillary is armed with ten to fourteen teeth of equal size. Anterior 
part of the trunk with broad black cross bands, separated from each other by narrow yellow 
interspaces, and more or less confluent on the hinder part of the trunk. In the Chinese 
variety the scales within the black cross bands and on the posterior half of the trunk and on 
the tail have a yellow central streak or spot, whilst the scales between the bands are yellow 
with a black central streak. A black temporal band in specimens from Western Asia, absent 
in the Chinese variety, which has the head-shields yellow, edged with black. Belly yellow ; 
in the Chinese specimen marbled with black, and entia-ely black posteriorly. 

This species appears to have the same geographical range as E. dione, viz. from the shores 
of the Caspian Sea to the most eastern parts of China. Our specimen is from Ningpo, and 
having compared it with an example from Shirvan, presented by Professor Peters to the 
British Museum, I do not, at present, consider the differences between them of sufficient 
value to distuiguish them specifically. It has the scales very strongly keeled, and is 57 inches 
long, the tail measuring 12 inches. I have given two views of its head, of the natural size. 



242 OPHIDIA. 

Elaphis t^niurus. 

Elaphis virgatus, var. (spec, c), Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 95. 
tseniurus. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 565. 

Body rather slender, compressed ; tail of moderate length ; head narrow, with rather long 
snout. Rostral scarcely broader than high ; anterior frontals obtusely rounded in front, not 
quite half as large as posterior. Vertical nearly twice as long as broad, \vith parallel lateral 
margins and with a posterior right angle. Occipitals somewhat longer than vertical, some- 
Avhat rounded behind. Loreal rather longer than high ; two prseoculars, the lower small, 
the upper extending to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical. Two 
postoculars. Eight low upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which enter the orbit. Tem- 
porals rather irregular, generally 2 + 3, the two anterior bemg elongate, in contact with the 
postoculars. Anterior chin-shields in contact with six lower labials. Scales on the back 
slightly keeled, in twenty-five series. Ventral shields 230-232; anal bifid; subcaudals 
98-101. Each maxillary is armed with sixteen or seventeen teeth of equal size. Back 
greenish olive, assuming a yellowish hue on the hinder part of the trunk, this colour being 
narrowed into a yellow band rumiing along the back of the tail. Sides of the body greyish 
olive, variegated Avith blackish and with a narrow, subinterrupted black longitudinal line 
above. The sides of the trunk become gradually entirely brownish black behind, this colour 
being narrowed into a black band running along the side of the tail ; a white band separates 
this lateral band from the ventral and subcaudal shields. Numerous black streaks cross the 
anterior part of the trunk. Belly whitish, checkered with black along the edges of the 
abdomen, the black spots forming posteriorly a continuous band running along each side of 
the belly and of the subcaudals. Head without any spots, but with a deep-black streak 
from the eye to the angle of the mouth. 

This species is closely allied to the Japanese E. virgatus, which is represented by it in 
China (Ningpo, Chikiang), and, according to Cope, also in Siam. It attains to a length of 
more than 5 feet, the tail measuring one-fifth. 



COMPSOSOMA RADIATUM. 243 

COMPSOSOMA. 

Compsosoma, sp., Dum. ^ Bibr. 

Body elongate, compressed ; ventral shields more than 200 In number ; 
head narrow, with the snout rather elongate ; tail about one-fifth of the 
total length ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; nostril lateral, between 
two plates ; the shields of the head have a tendency to unite ; one anterior 
ocular (exceptionally two in C. ret'iculare). Scales keeled, in 19—23 series ; 
ventrals with a slight, or without any, keel ; anal entire, except in C. Iiodg- 
so7in. Teeth numerous in the jaws and on the palate, equal in size. 

This genus, thus limited, forms a more natural group than when united with its American 
allies under the name of Sjnlofes. All the species are Indian, and distinguished by a narrow- 
head with a long, anteriorly truncated snout ; they are the following : — 

Scales in nineteen rows ; a black streak crosses the extremity of the occipitals . C. radiatum, p. 243. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; tail and hinder part of the body black C. melanurum, p. 244. 

Scales in twenty-one rows ; blackish or brownish, with numerous narrow, reti- 
culated whitish cross bands C. reticulare, p. 245. 

Scales in twenty-three rows C. hodgsonii, p. 246. 



Compsosoma kadiatum. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. tab. 42. 

Coluber radiatus {Reinw.), Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 135. pi. 5. figs. 5, 6. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 73. 

quadrifasciatusj Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 51. 

Tropidonotus quinque, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 54. 
Compsosoma radiatum, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 292. 

Body and tail elongate, compressed ; head narrow, fiat, rather distinct from neck ; snout 
rather long, obtusely rounded. Rostral shield broader than high; anterior frontals of 
moderate size, not quite half as large as posterior, subquadrangular, broader than long. 
Vertical five-sided, very broad in front, its anterior margin being rather longer than the 
lateral; lateral margins strongly convergent; hinder margins meeting at a right angle. 
Occipitals longer than vertical, obliquely truncated behind. Loreal longer than high ; one 
anteocular, large, extending to the upper surface of the head, nearly to the vertical; two 
postoculars. Nine low upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the orbit; the 
third and fourth, or the fourth and fifth, are sometimes confluent into one shield. Tempo]-als 
generally 2 +2 + .3; the anterior are elongate, and the upper alone is in contact with the 
postoculars. Scales rhombic, not elongate, in nineteen rows, those of the dorsal series 
keeled. Ventrals 222-248 ; anal entire; subcaudals 82-94. The ventrals have an obtuse 

9 T 9 

^ 1 w 



244 OPHIDIA. 

lateral keel, and ai'e bent up the sides. Each maxillary is armed with about twelve teeth, 
the middle of which are rather longer than the others. Light yeUo^^ish-bay above and 
behind, paler on the sides ; a black streak across the extremity of the occipitals, extending 
downwards to the throat ; three black lines radiate from the eye : one runs along the occipital 
margin to the black cross band ; the second is oblique, running along the hinder margin of 
the seventh labial ; the third is vertical, below the eye. On each side of the back a broad 
longitudinal black band, accompanied by a narrower one below ; both gradually disappear 
towards the middle of the trunk. Lower parts uniform yellow ; a series of black longitudinal 
streaks along the edges of the anterior third of the abdomen. 

This fine species is peculiar to the western parts of India ; it is found in Java and Sumatra, 
in the Malayan peninsula, on the coast of Tenasserim, in Assam and Cochinchina, and, 
finally, in the Khasya Mountains and Sikkim. It attains to a length of 6 feet, the tail being 
rather more than one-sixth ; it not only inhabits bushes, but, at Pinang, it is also numerous 
in marshes and paddy-fields. It is equally nocturnal and diurnal, preying on rats, birds, 
lizards, and frogs. Cantor found in a female twenty-three eggs. 



COMPSOSOMA MELANURUM. 

Coluber melanurus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 141. pi. 5. figs. 11,12; and Abbild. taf. 5. 
Compsosoma melanurum, Duiii. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 299. 
Spilotes melanurus, Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 97. 

Body and tail elongate, compressed ; head flat, distinct from neck ; snout rather long, 
obtusely rounded. Rostral shield broader than high ; anterior frontals of moderate size, not 
quite half as large as posterior, subquadrangular, broader than long. Vertical five-sided, very 
broad in front, its anterior margin being rather longer than the lateral ; lateral margins 
strongly convergent ; hinder margins meeting at a right angle. Occipitals much longer than 
vertical, obliquely truncated behind; one prseocular, large, and extending to the upper 
surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; two postoculars, sometimes confluent into 
one. Nine low upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the orbit, the fourth with 
its hinder angle only ; the sixth forms a part of the hinder margin of the orbit. Temporals 
2 4- 2 : the two anterior are elongate, and the upper only is in contact with the postoculars ; 
the hinder temporals vary in size and form. Scales rhombic, not elongate, rather strongly 
keeled, in nineteen rows. Ventrals 202-234; anal entire; subcaudals 80-107. Theventrals 
have no trace of a keel, and are bent up the sides. Each maxillary is armed with about 
twelve teeth, equal in size. Ground-colour of the anterior parts browTiish, gradually passing 
into black posteriorly. A yellow vertebral band, broadly edged with black on both sides, 
commences behind the neck and is lost before it arrives in the middle of the trunk ; a short 
black vertical streak below the eye; another descends from the hinder part of the orbit 
towards the angle of the mouth ; a third, longer one commences in the temporal region and 
runs in an oblique direction to the edge of the belly, where it is continued as a series of 
about five large, distant black blotches. The lower parts uniform yellow, black posteriorly. 



COMPSOSOMA RETICULAEE. 245 

The markings described are found in some old individuals, whilst they are nearly entirely 
absent in others. On the other hand, young specimens always show them very bright, and 
more developed, — the series of black spots along the margins of the abdomen extending 
more backwards, being composed of twenty-three or more spots, each of which, moreover, has 
a white ocellus above. 

This species is found in Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and other islands of the East Indian 
archipelago. We have seen two specimens, one of which is said to be from Bengal, the 
other from China. The former is 65 inches long, the tail measuring 14^ inches. 



COMPSOSOMA RETICULARE. (Plate XXI. fig. D.) 

Coluber reticularis, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 51. 
Spilotes reticularis, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 98. 

Body and tail somewhat elongate and compressed ; head flat, rather distinct from neck ; 
snout long and broad, obtusely rounded in front. Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior 
frontals of moderate size, nearly half as large as posterior, broader than long. Vertical five- 
sided, broad in front, its anterior margin being as long as, or rather longer than, the posterior ; 
lateral margins convergent; hinder margins meeting at a right angle. Occipitals rather 
longer than vertical, rounded behind. Loreal longer than high ; one prseocular, extending 
on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; sometimes a portion of the 
fourth labial is detached, forming a small lower prgeocular. Two postoculars, the upper 
sometimes united vdth the superciliary. Eight low upper labials, sometimes the two posterior 
united ; the fourth, fifth, and sixth enter the orbit, or the fifth and sixth only, when there is 
a second prseorbital, as mentioned above : the sixth is low, and does not ascend behind the 
hinder margin of the orbit. Temporals 2 + 3, the two anterior elongate, and in contact with 
the postoculars. Scales rhombic, not elongate, slightly keeled, in twenty-one (nineteen) 
rows. Ventrals 225-234; anal entire*; subcaudals 75-85. The ventrals have no trace of 
a keel, and are but little bent up the sides. Each maxillary is armed with seventeen teeth 
equal in size. Blackish brown ; behind black, with numerous narrow whitish cross bands, on 
the anterior part of the body less conspicuous than on the posterior, where they generally 
assume a light brownish-red colour: the bands are sometimes indistinct and form only 
reticulated spots. Belly yellowish, spotted or marbled with black, sometimes uniform black. 
Some specimens show an indistinct pale longitudinal band along each side of the back. 

In young specimens the whitish cross bands are very indistinct on the anterior part of the 
trunk, whilst brown spots disposed in four longitudinal series occupy this portion of the 
body ; they are confluent towards the middle of the length and gradually disappear entirely. 
The abdominal spots are quadrangular. 

In almost every specimen one or two pairs of cephalic shields are united, and the irregu- 
larities mentioned above are only a few of those which may occur ; in this respect this species 



In a single specimen out of t^venty, bifid. 



246 OPHIDIA. 

shows its affinity to C. melanurum. It is numerous in diflferent parts of the Himalayas — 
Nepal, Sikkim, Khasya : Cantor's specimens came from Chirra Punji. The largest specimen 
I have seen is 46 inches long, the tail measuring 9 inches. 

We have given two \iews of the head, and one of a portion of the body, to show its 
coloration. 



COMPSOSOMA HODGSONII. 

Spilotes hodgsonii, Criinth, Proc, Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 156. pi, 27. 

Body and tail elongate, compressed; head flat, distinct from neck; snout rather long, 
obtusely rounded. Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior frontals of moderate size, half 
as large, or nearly half as large, as posterior, subquadrangular, broader than long. Vertical 
large, five-sided, pointed behind, its anterior margin being rather longer than the lateral ; 
lateral margins strongly convergent. Occipitals much longer than vertical, obliquely trun- 
cated behind. Loreal longer than high, sometimes confluent with frontal ; one large pree- 
ocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; two 
postoculars. Generally eight low upper labials, three of which enter the orbit ; but sometimes 
two, and even three, are confluent into one shield ; the fifth does not ascend to the hinder 
margin of the orbit. Temporals irregular in shape and number, but only one is in contact 
with the postoculars. Scales rhombic, not elongate, in twenty-thi'ee rows, those on the back 
with feeble keels. Ventrals 226-256 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 79-90. The ventrals have no 
trace of a keel, and are bent up the sides. Each maxillary is armed with sixteen or seventeen 
teeth, equal in size. Uniform brownish olive above ; the skin between the scales and a part 
of the margin of the scales black. Lower parts uniform yellowish ; the outer part of the 
margin of each ventral shield blackish. 

This species appears to be rather scarce ; we have received two specimens from Nepal 
through Mr. B. H. Hodgson, after whom the species is named, and one from Ladak, Tibet, 
stated to have been captui-ed at an altitude of 15,200 feet. The latter specimen is 51 inches 
long, the tail measuring 11 inches. 



CYNOPHIS, Gra^. 

Body rather slender and compressed ; head narrow ; tail one-fifth of the 
total length ; trunk with more than 200 short ventral shields ; eye of 
moderate size, with round pupil ; nostril lateral, between two plates. 
Shields of the head regular ; one praeocular. Scales slightly keeled or with 
a pair of apical grooves, in from twenty-five to twenty-seven series. Anal 
entire. Teeth numerous in the jaws and on the palate, subequal in size. 



CYNOPHIS HELENA. 247 

Two species are known, which are found in Southern India and in Ceylon : — 

Scales in twenty-seven rows C. helena. 

Scales in twenty-five rows C malabaricus. 



CtNOPHIS HELENA. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. tab. 32. 

Coluber helena, Daud. Kept. y\. p. 377. 

Herpetodryas helena, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 192. 

Cynophis bistrigatus. Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1849, iv. p. 246. 

Plagioclon helena, Bum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 170. 

Cynophis helena, Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 95. 

Body and tail slender, compressed; head narrow, flat, rather distinct from neck; snout 
long, obtusely rounded. Rostral rather broader than high ; anterior frontals small, one-third 
or one-fourth the size of posterior, quadrangular, rather broader than long. Posterior frontals 
large, rather longer than broad. Vertical nearly twice as long as broad, pointed behind, 
with the lateral margins convergent. Occipitals elongate, obliquely truncated behind. Loreal 
somewhat longer than high ; one prseocular, extending to the upper surface of the head, and 
generally in contact with the vertical. Two postoculars. Nine low upper labials, the fifth 
and sixth, and sometimes the hinder angle of the fourth, coming into the orbit ; sometimes 
the fourth is divided into two, the eye then being over the sutui-e between the sixth and 
seventh. Temporals irregularly arranged, varying in size and number. Anterior chin-shield 
in contact with five or six lower labials. Scales on the back very slightly keeled, in twenty- 
seven series. Ventral shields 220-238 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 85-94. Each maxillary is 
armed with twelve teeth, the middle of which are rather longer than the others. Reddish 
olive, with numerous more or less distinct, reticulated, black transverse bands across the 
anterior part of the back, each of which encloses two white ocelli on either side of the body, 
one above the other. On the posterior part of the body and on the tail the series of ocelli 
is replaced by a broad lateral brown band running to the tip of the tail. Neck with a pair 
of parallel longitudinal black bands above, and with an oblique black band on the side. A 
black line along the occipital suture ; another oblique one from the eye, along the edge of 
the seventh labial. The ocellated lateral spots and the cross bands on the back are more 
distinct in the young than in the adult. Lower parts uniform white. 

This species is not uncommon in Ceylon, but rarer in the Madras Presidency. The largest 
specimen I have observed measures 42 inches, the tail being 8 inches. It feeds on field mice 
and rats : a specimen figured in Mr. Elliott's collection of drawings was found in a rat-hole 
in a field at Martoor. 



248 OPHIDIA. 

Cynophis malabaeious. (Plate XXI. fig. A.) 

Herpetodryas malabaricuSj Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. 1854, p. 530. 

Body and tail of moderate length, rather compressed ; head narrow, flat, not very distinct 
from neck ; snout rather long, obtusely rounded. Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior 
froutals small, one-third the size of posterior, quadi'angular, broader than long. Posterior 
frontals rather large, as long as broad. Vertical not twice as long as broad, five-sided, with 
the lateral margins convergent, and with a right angle behind. Occipitals rather longer 
than vertical, truncated behind. Loreal somewhat longer than high, irregularly quadrangular ; 
one large prseocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head, and sometimes touching 
the vertical. Two postoculars. Nine low upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth coming 
into the orbit. Two elongate temporals are in contact with the postoculars; the hinder 
temporals are irregularly arranged, varying in size and number. Anterior chin-shield in 
contact with five lower labials. Scales smooth, with two apical grooves, in twenty-five series. 
Ventral shields 222-239; anal entire; subcaudals 91-95. Each maxillary is ai'med with 
fourteen teeth, the middle of which are rather longer than the others. Light brownish olive, 
with about twenty-two black cross bands, one-half or one-third as broad as the interspaces of 
the ground-colour between them ; they disappear towards the end of the trunk, and each 
encloses six white ocelli, two on the back and two on each side ; each band emits below two 
arched black lines crossing some of the ventral shields, one running to the band in front, the 
other to the band behind. The first band is modified into a white, black-edged collar. A 
broad brown band runs along the side of the tail and of the posterior part of the trunk. 
A short black vertical streak below the eye ; another oblique streak fi'om behind the eye, 
along the suture between the seventh and eighth labial shields. 

This beautiful species is not very rare in Malabar ; we received our specimens from the 
Anamallay Mountains, through Captain Beddome : the largest is 15 inches long, the tail 
measuring 3 inches ; it had swallowed a mouse. 



PTYAS. 

Ptyas *, Fitzinger. 

Body elongate, more or less compressed ; tail one-tliird or rather more 
than one-third of the total length ; head distinct from neck ; eye rather 
large ; nostril lateral, between two plates. Shields of the head regular ; 
two prseoculars ; two or three loreals. Scales smooth or feehly keeled, in 
fifteen or seventeen rows ; ventrals without keel ; anal bifid. Maxillary 
teeth gradually increasing in length posteriorly. 

* I adopt this name, although iinaccompanied by a proper diagnosis, in preference to that of Coryphodon, 
because the latter is preoccupied by a genus of fossil Mammalia (Owen, Brit. Fobs. Mamm. 18 14-46). 



PTYAS MUCOSUS. 249 



Two species are known : — '- 



Scales in seventeen rows P. mucosus. 

Scales in fifteen rows P. korros. 



Ptyas mucosus. 

Coluber mucosus^ L. Mus. Ad. Fried, t. 13. fig. 2, t. 23. fig. 2. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. pi. 34; ii. pi. 18. f. 2 (young). 

Coluber blumeiibacbii, Merr. Tent. p. 119. Schley. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 137. pi. 5. figs. 7 & 8. 

dbumna, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 51. 

Leptophis trifrenatus, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 503. 
Ptyas mucosus, Cope, ibid. p. 563. 

Head rather broad and high, distinct from neck, with the snout not elongate ; body and 
tail elongate, scarcely compressed ; eye rather large. Rostral shield as high as broad ; 
anterior frontals not quite half the size of posterior ; vertical with the lateral margins con- 
vergent, concave, and longer than anterior; superciliary projecting; occipitals truncated 
behind. Three loreal shields, one above the two others ; two prseoculars : the upper large, 
concave, extending on to the upper side of tlie head, but not reaching the vertical ; the lower 
is small. Two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit ; 
temporals elongate, 2+2, the anterior being in contact with the postoculars. Scales rhombic, 
in seventeen rows, those of the vertebral series rather larger than the others ; they have a 
pair of apical grooves, and those on the back are generally keeled, but sometimes the keels 
are very faint, or appear to be entirely absent. Ventrals without any keel, very slightly bent 
up the sides, 196-208; anal bifid; subcaudals 118-134. Each maxillary is armed with from 
eighteen to twenty teeth, slightly increasing in strength posteriorly. Light brownish olive, 
scales with darker margins ; the dark edges of the scales become broader and black on the 
posterior part of the trunk and on the tail, giving a reticulated appearance to these parts. 
Young and half-grown specimens show dark irregular transverse streaks. Shields of the 
head with blackish margins. 

The Indian Kat-snake is one of the most common species on the continent and in Ceylon, 
and appears to occur everywhere ; it is scarce in the archipelago, as its occurrence has been 
recorded in Java only ; on the other hand, it is not rare in Chusan and Formosa. In the 
Himalayas it ascends to only 5240 feet above the level of the sea. It is a powerful snake, 
attaining to a length of 7 feet, the tail being one-third or rather more. Its food consists of 
mammals, birds, and frogs ; it frequently enters the dwellings of man in search of mice, rats, 
and young fowls. It is of fierce habits, always ready to bite, and old examples brought to 
Europe never become tame. Cantor says that it utters, when irritated, a peculiar diminuendo 
sound, not unlike that produced by a gently struck tuning-fork. 



2k 



250 OPHIDIA. 

Ptyas koeeos. (Figure, p. 164.) 

Coluber korros (Reinw.), Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 139, and Abbild. p. 99. pi. 27, &pl. 28. figs. 1-6. 

Cantor, Mai, Rept. p. 74. 
Ptyas korros. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 563. 

Head rather narrow, with the snout of moderate length ; body and tail elongate, scarcely 
compressed ; eye large. Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior frontals half as large as 
posterior ; vertical with the lateral margins convergent, concave, and longer than anterior ; 
superciliary projecting ; occipitals obliquely truncated behind. Generally two loreal shields, 
one behind the other ; two prgeoculars : the upper large, concave, extending on to the upper 
side of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; the lower is small, and evidently a detached 
portion of the thii'd upper labial ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth 
entering the orbit ; temporals elongate, 2+2, the anterior being in contact with the post- 
oculars. Scales rather elongate, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series not larger ; 
they have a pair of apical grooves, and are smooth, but those on the hinder part of the back 
have an indistinct keel. Ventrals \vithout keel, somewhat bent up the sides, 162-176 ; anal 
bifid ; subcaudals 97-136. Each maxillary is armed with about twenty teeth, slightly 
increasing in strength posteriorly. Light or dark brownish-green above, the scales with a 
darker margin ; those on the hinder part of the trunk and on the tail are edged with black, 
the edges producing a regular network. Lower parts uniform yellowish. 

This species is very closely allied to Pt. mucosiis ; and, sometimes, it is difficult to decide 
to which species examples should be referred. Pt. mucosus generally has the scales more 
strongly keeled, a triple loreal, seventeen rows of scales, black-edged shields of the head, and 
about 200 ventrals : yet a specimen from Hongkong with three loreals, fifteen rows of scales, 
and 166 ventrals appears to belong to that species, and not to Pt. korros. Another specimen 
from Ceylon which we refer also to Pt. mucosus has only one loreal. 

Pt. korros has a more limited range than Pt. mucosus ; it is found in Java and Sumatra, 

Siam, the Malayan peninsula, Arakan, Tenasserim, and Southern China. Its habits are 

similar to those of Pt. mucosus; but we have never seen a specimen more than 69 inches 
long, the tail measuring 24 inches. 



XENELAPHIS, Gthr. 

Body elongate, not compressed ; tail more than one-third of the total § 

length ; head rather short ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; nostril 
lateral, hetween two plates. Shields of the head regular ; two praeoculars ; 
one loreal. Scales smooth, without apical groove, in seventeen rows, those 



XENELAPHIS HEXAHONOTUS. 251 



of the vertebral series enlarged, six-sided; ventrals not keeled; anal bifid. 
Jaws with numerous teeth subequal in size. 

Only one species is known. 



Xenelaphis HEXAHONOTUS. (Plate XXI. fig. C.) 

Coluber hexahonotus. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 74. 
Coryphodon hexahonotus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 110. 

Head short, truncated in front, rather distinct from neck; body and tail elongate, not 
compressed ; eye of moderate size. Rostral broader than high ; anterior frontals as long as 
broad, more than half as large as posterior ; vertical five-sided, with the anterior margin longer 
than the lateral margins, whicli are somewhat convergent, and with a right angle behind ; 
occipitals angular behind. Loreal quadrangular, rather longer than high, entering with its 
hinder angle between the two praeorbitals ; the upper praeorbital is larger than the lower, 
extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical. Three post- 
oculars, the lower being as large as the two others ; it forms a part of the lower orbital margin. 
Eight upper labials, the fourth of which enters the orbit ; the fifth is small, about as large as 
the first, situated below the lower postorbital. Temporals elongate, 2 + 2, the two anterior 
in contact with the postoculars. Scales rhombic, with truncated apex, smooth, without 
apical groove, in seventeen rows; those of the vertebral series are rather larger than the 
others and hexagonal. Ventrals 191-197, extending very little up the sides ; anal bifid ; 
subcaudals 148-179. Each maxillary is armed mth a continuous series of twenty-two closely- 
set teeth, which gradually become somewhat longer and stronger behind. Brown, with black 
cross bands in immature specimens; these bands are as broad as the interspaces of the 
groimd-colour, and occupy only the anterior half of the length of the trunk ; they become 
indistinct with age : old examples are uniform brown above, with traces of some of the bands 
left on the sides of the anterior part of the trunk. Lower parts uniform yellowish. 

This species is scarce ; it is found in Arakan, Pinang, and Singapore : the British Museum 
has received an example from Borneo. It attains to a length of 62 inches, the tail measuring 
25 inches, the head only 1|- inch. 

We have given an upper and lateral view of the head, and one of a portion of the trunk, 
to show the form of the scales of the vertebral series : all of the natural size. 



■Zk'A 



252 OPHIDIA. 



ZAMENIS, Wagler. 

Body and tail elongate ; trunk with 200 or more ventral shields ; head 
distinct from neck, flat ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil ; nostril 
lateral, between two plates. The shields of the head have a tendency to 
divide in two or more pieces ; loreal present ; generally two anterior and 
two posterior oculars ; eye sometimes surrounded by separate pieces of 
the upper labials. Scales smooth or slightly keeled ; ventrals rounded or 
with a very indistinct lateral keel ; anal bifid ; subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth 
numerous in the jaws and on the palate ; the last maxillary tooth is generally 
the largest, and separated from the others by a short interspace. 

This genus of Colubrine snakes is confined to the countries round the shores of the Medi- 
terranean, extending eastwards through South-western Asia to the peninsula of Southern 
India; it is distinguished from the other Colubri by its dentition, which cliaracter, however, 
becomes rather indefinite in Z. diadema and also in Z. fasciolatus ; the British INIuseum 
possesses an example of the former and two of the latter in which the dentition is corypho- 
dont or even isodont. 

The following species occur in British India : — 

A ring of small separate shields round the orbit ; a transverse series of small 

shields between posterior frontals and vertical Z. diadema, p. 252. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; occipitals truncated behind, each with a small semi- 
circular shield behind Z. ventrimaculatus, p. 253. 

Scales in twenty-one rows ; a series of large round brown spots along the 

anterior half of the back Z. gracilis, p. 254. 

Scales in twenty-one or twenty-three rows ; narrow white, broAvn, or black 

variegated cross bands on the anterior part of the back Z. fasciolatus, p. 254. 



Zamenis diadema. (Plate XXI. fig. G.) 

Russell, ii. p. 34. pi. 30. 

Coluber diadema, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 148 (not Blyth). 

Closely allied to Z. cliffordii. Head rather elongate, broader behind, very distinct from 
neck. Body and tail rather slender, compressed. Eye of moderate size. Rostral shield as 
high as broad. Anterior frontals rather larger than posterior, which are separated from the 
vertical by a transverse series of four small shields. Vertical large, five-sided ; occipitals 



ZAMENIS VENTRIMACULATUS. 253 

obliquely truncated behind. Loreals three or four. One pra^ocular, large, extending to, or 
nearly to, the vertical ; a ring of small shields surrounds the lower and hinder parts of the 
orbit. Upper labials small, about fourteen ; temporals numerous, scale-like. Scales oblong- 
ovate, keeled, in twenty-nine series. Ventrals 237; anal entire; subcaudals 110. There 
is a very distinct ridge along each side of the abdomen. Each maxillary is armed with about 
twelve teeth subequal in size : the last tooth is in a continuous series with the others, and 
scarcely larger than the preceding ; in one specimen it is quite equal in size to the others. 
Ground-colour yellowish olive, with a dorsal series of roimd brown spots ; two series of short 
brown longitudinal streaks run along each side of the body. Each shield on the snout with 
a brown spot ; a brown band crosses the interorbital space and is continued to the angle of 
the mouth ; a similar horseshoe-like band on the occipitals. 

This species is the eastern representative of Z. cliffordii, from which it differs only in the 
small shields behind the frontals, and in tlie keeled ventral shields. The feeble development 
of the posterior maxillary tooth is very remarkable — so much so, that its dentition would be 
pronounced equal by every one who was not aware of its affinity to Z. cliffordii. It is 
found in Afghanistan and in Sindli (Kurrachee). Russell's specimen was from Bombay. 
One of the specimens in the British Museum is 36 inches long, the tail measuring 8 inches ; 
but I have seen an example which must have been at least 5 feet long. 

The upper and lateral views of the head, given on Plate XXI., are of the natural size. 



Zamenis ventrimaculatus. 

Coluber ventrimaculatus, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

diadema, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. (1855) p. 291 (not Schleg.). 

Zamenis ventrimaculatus, var. A, Gmith. Colubr. Snakes, p. 106. 

Head of moderate length, distinct from neck ; body and tail slender ; eye of moderate size. 
Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior frontals nearly as large as posterior, as long as 
broad. Vertical five-sided, broad in front, with the lateral margins very concave ; occipitals 
truncated behind, each with a small semicircular shield behind. Loreal quadrangular, nearly 
as high as long ; two prjeoculars : the lower is small ; the upper concave, extending on to the 
vertical shield ; two postoculars. Nine upper labials, the fifth and sixth of which enter the 
orbit. Temporals rather irregular: two are in contact with the postoculars, the lower of 
them being larger than the upper. Scales oblong-ovate, smooth, without apical groove, in 
nineteen rows. Ventrals 205-220 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 90-102. Abdomen with a slight 
ridge on each side. Each maxillary is armed with twehe teeth, the last of which is longer 
than the others, and somewhat remote from the preceding. Yellowish olive, with numerous 
very distinct narrow black cross bars on the back, each being half as wide as an interspace of 
the ground-colour ; a series of small black spots along each side ; belly yellowish, witli an 
irregular series of black dots along each side. A black cross band between the eyes, an 
oblique black streak below them, another oblique streak on the temple, a blackish spot in 
the loreal region, and, finally, a black streak along the median line of the neck. 



254 OPHIDIA. 

The coloration here described is pecuHar to the Indian variety of a species which extends 
throughout the whole of South-western Asia to Egypt, and the Egyptian variety of which 
is known by different names — Z.florulentus, &c. The typical specimens of Z. ventrimacu- 
latus are said to be from Bengal, but it is more probable that they came from the western 
parts of the Indian region. A specimen which we received from INIesopotamia agrees com- 
pletely with the types : the largest of the latter is a mature female, 35 inches long, the tail 
measuring 9 inches ; but we have seen examples which were about 4 feet long. 



Z.^MENIS GRACILIS. (Plate XXI. fig. H.) 

Zameuis gracilis, GUnth. Ann. i^ Mag. Na(. Hist. 1862, February, p. 125. 

Head rather narrow, distinct fi"om neck ; body and tail slender, scarcely compressed ; eye 
of moderate size. Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior frontals half as large as posterior, 
broader than long. Vertical five-sided, broad in front, with the lateral margins concave. 
Occipitals rounded behind. Loreal square ; two praeoculars : the upper is in contact with 
the vertical ; the lower small — apparently a separate portion of the fourth labial. Two 
postoculars. Upper labials nine, the fifth and sixth coming into the orbit. Temporals 
2 + 2 + 3 + 3, the two anterior in contact with the postoculars. Scales elongate, narrow, 
smooth, in twenty-one rows — some mth a pair of very indistinct apical grooves. Ventrals 
219; anal bifid; subcaudals 120. Abdomen with a slight ridge on each side. Each maxil- 
lary is armed witlr twelve teeth, the last of which is longer than the others, and somewhat 
remote from the preceding. Yellowish olive, with a single series of large round brown spots 
edged with black, along the anterior half of the trunk ; the spots become indistinct pos- 
teriorly, and only the black edges continue, forming cross bars on the back, but merely 
spots on the tail. A blackish streak across the snout ; crown of the head with two brown, 
black-edged cross bands, the anterior between and below the eyes ; the posterior across the 
occipitals, forming an acute angle on the vertical. The first brown nuchal spot is produced 
forward within the limbs of the occipital cross band. An irregular series of black spots on 
each side of the belly, which is uniform yellow. 

This species is found in the Dekkan and in Sindh ; it attains to a length of 33 inches, the 
tail measuring 10 inches. 



Zajvienis fasciolatus. (Plate XXI. fig. F.) 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. pi. 21. 

Coluber fasciolatus, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 528. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 72. 

hebe, Baud. Rept. vi. p. 385. 

currirostris, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 51. 

Corypliodon fasciolatus, Giinth.'Colubr. Snakes, p. 109. 

Tyria fasciolata, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1862, p. 338. 

Head of moderate length and width, rather distinct from neck ; body and tail somewhat 



ZAOCYS. 255 

slender, not compressed ; eye of moderate size. Eostral shield broader than high, swollen 
and protruding (more so in adult examples than in young ones). Anterior frontals more than 
half as large as posterior, as long as broad. Vertical large, very broad in front, with the 
lateral margins much convergent and concave ; its anterior margin is longer than the pos- 
terior. Occipitals subtruncated behind. Loreal square ; a large prteorbital is in contact with 
the vertical ; generally a small piece is detached from the third upper labial shield, forming 
a second lower preeorbital; two postorbitals. Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth 
entering the orbit ; the fifth is the highest, ascending a short way up behind the orbit. 
Temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3, the lower anterior the largest; both anterior in contact with the 
postoculars. Scales elongate, narrow, smooth, with a pair of apical grooves, in twenty-one 
or twenty-three rows. Ventrals 201-229, somewhat ascending up the sides, without any 
keel; anal bifid; subcaudals 73-87. Each maxillary is armed with about fourteen teeth, 
slightly increasing in length posteriorly, the last being rather stronger, but scarcely longer, 
than the preceding, separated from it by a short interval. Yellowish or brownish olive 
above, with narrow, equidistant, white, brown, and black variegated cross bands ; they occupy 
only the anterior half or third of the body, extending more backwards in young individuals 
than in old ones, in which they may entirely disappear ; lower parts uniform yellowish. 

This species is not uncommon in the peninsula of Southern India ; it appears to be scarce 
in Bengal ; a single specimen (which I have also examined) was found in the Province Wel- 
lesley by Dr. Cantor. It attains to a length of 41 inches, the tail measuring 9 inches. 

The upper and lateral views of the head, given on Plate XXI., are of the natural size. 



ZAOCYS, Cope. 

Body elongate and compressed ; ventral shields about 200 ; tail elongate, 
its length being one-fourth or more than one-fourth of the total. Head 
distinct from neck, of moderate length, rather elevated ; eye large, with 
round pupil. Shields of the head regular ; superciliaries large, convex ; two 
praeoculars, the upper of which is large, not reaching the vertical, the lower 
small ; two postoculars. Scales in fourteen or sixteen rows, those of the 
median series generally keeled. Anal bifid. Teeth in the jaws subequal in 
size; those of the maxillaries in a continuous series, rather larger behind. 

This genus has been formed for several species, found on the Indian continent and in 
Borneo, which approach the Tree Snakes by the character of their elongate body; their 
ground-colour- is generally green. Having examined numerous examples, I now distinguish 



256 OPHIDIA. 

three species among the specimens formerly included under the name of Coryphodon cari- 
nafusf, retaining this name for the Bornean form. 

Four species are known, two of which occur in British India : — 

* Three loreals : Zapyrus. 

Median scales smooth Z.fuseus-f. 

Two median rows of scales keeled Z. carinatusX. 

** One loreal : Zaocys. 

Two median rows of scales keeled Z. dhumnades. 

Foui- median rows of scales keeled Z. niyromaryinatus. 

Zaocys dhumnades. (Plate XXII. fig. A.) 

Coluber dhumnades, Cantor, Ann. i^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. p. 483, and Mai. Rept. p. 74. 

Ablabes vittatus, Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 326 §. 

Coryphodon carinatus, var., Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 112. 

Zaocys dhumnades. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. I860, p. 563. 

Occipitals obliquely truncated behind ; loreal simple, rather longer than high ; eight upper 
labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit ; temporals 2 + 2, the two anterior in contact 
with the oculars. Scales rhombic, not elongate, in sixteen (fourteen) rows, those of the two 
middle series strongly keeled, the others with two apical grooves. Ventrals 189-199; anal 
bifid; subcaudals 92-08. Each maxillary is armed with thirteen teeth, the anterior of which 
are smallest, the middle and posterior equal in size. Greenish anteriorly, each scale with a 
black margin ; a yellow band, broadly edged with black, runs along the median line of the 
front part of the trunk ; an indistinct blackish band on each side of the body, along the 
third outer series of scales. Tail and posterior half of the trunk entirely black. 

This species does not appear to be confined to the Chinese island of Chusan, Cope men- 
tioning its occurrence at Ningpo. Our longest specimen measures 70 inches, the tail being 
20 inches. 

We have given a lateral view of the head, and one of a portion of the trunk, to show the 
carination of the dorsal scales. 

t From Borneo: see Colubr. Snakes, p. 112. 

X Zaocys carinatus (Coryphodon carinatus, spec, a, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 112). — Occipitals trun- 
cated behind; loreal triple; nine upper labials, the fifth and sixth entering the orbit; temporals 2 + 2, 
the two anterior iu contact with the ocidars. Scales rhombic, not elongate, in sixteen rows, those of the 
two middle series keeled ; the others with two apical grooves. Ventrals 209 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals ca. 110. 
Each maxillary is armed with about twenty teeth, which gradually become stronger and longer posteriorly. 
Brownish olive anteriorly, with reticulated white cross bands ; tail and posterior third of the trunk black, 
with two series of pm'e white spots on each side, ovate on the trunk and circular on the tail ; belly and 
lower part of the tail with series of round white spots. — Borneo. Our largest example is nearly 10 feet 
long, the tail being one-fourth. 

§ The specimen on which A. vittatus, D. & B., has been founded has sixteen series of scales. 



HERPETOREAS SIEBOLDII. 257 

Zaocts nigromarginatus. (Plate XXII. fig. B.) 

Coluber nigromarginatus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. p. 290. 

Coryphodon carinatus, var., Giinfh. Colubr. Snakes, p. 113, and Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 167. 

Occipitals obliquely truncated behind ; loreal simple, rather longer than high ; eight upper 
labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; temporals 2+2, the two anterior in contact 
with the oculars. Scales elongate, acutely pointed, in sixteen rows, those of the four middle 
series keeled; the others with two apical grooves. Ventralsl93; anal bifid; subcaudals 
126-134. Each maxillary is armed with from eighteen to twenty teeth, which gradually 
become somewhat stronger posteriorly. Green, paler below; two broad deep-black bands 
along each side of the tail, advancing forwards on the trunk to its middle third in adult 
specimens, and nearly to the head in young ones ; the two upper bands are separated from 
each other by the joining halves of the two vertebral series. 

We have received this species from Nepal, Sikkim, and Khasya; it belongs to the fauna 
of the temperate zone of the Himalayas, reaching an altitude of 7100 feet above the sea; 
our largest specimen is 8 feet long, the tail measuring 27 inches. 

We have given a lateral view of the head, and one of a portion of the trunk, to show the 
carination of the dorsal scales. 



HERPETOREAS, Gthr. 

Body and tail slender, compressed ; trunk with more than 200 ventral 
shields ; head somewhat elongate, rounded in front, flat above ; eye of 
moderate size, with round pupil ; nostril lateral, between two shields. 
Shields of the head regular : loreal present ; one anterior, two posterior 
oculars. Scales moderately elongate, slightly keeled, in nineteen rows ; 
ventrals strongly bent up the sides; anal bifid. The posterior maxillary 
tooth is the longest, in a continuous series with the anterior ones. 

Only one species is known. 

HeRPETOREAS SIEBOLDII. 

Herpetoreas sieboldii, Gunth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 156. 

The rostral shield is broader than high, and rounded superiorly ; the anterior frontals are 
pentagonal, one-half the size of the posterior, which are bent downwards on the side of the 

2l 



258 OPHIDIA. 

head. The vertical is pentagonal, much broader than the superciliary, and not quite twice 
as long as broad ; its lateral margins are nearly parallel ; the posterior ones very short, and 
meeting at a right angle. The occipitals are slightly elongate and rather narrow, subtrun- 
cated posteriorly. Nostril between two plates; one loreal, one anterior, and two posterior 
oculars ; eight upper labials, the thu-d, fourth, and fifth of which enter the orbit. There 
appear to be five temporal shields. Ten lower labials, those of the first pair being in contact 
with each other, behind the median shield, which has the posterior margin obtusely rounded. 
Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior being the smaller. The trunk is compressed, especially 
towards the tail, and slender ; it is surrounded by nineteen series of scales, those of the back 
being slightly keeled ; they are rather elongate, and assume a rhombic form towards the tail. 
The ventral and subcaudal plates are bent upwards to the sides, but not keeled. Ventrals 
216; anal bifid; caudals 90. 

The two posterior teeth are twice as long as the anterior, with which they form a con- 
tinuous series ; they are not grooved. The upper parts are uniform greenish brown, the 
lower parts yellowish ; the ventrals have an elongate spot on each side. 

The single specimen I have seen has the head injured ; it was procured by Messrs. von 
Schlagintweit in Sikkim, at 7500 feet above the level of the sea. Total length 3 feet 1 inch ; 
length of the head 10 lines, of the tail 9 inches. 

Coluber jprasinus (Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. p. 291), from Assam and Tenasserim, 
is perhaps the same snake ; but it would be hazardous to name a species from so insufficient 
a diagnosis as that quoted. 



TROPIDONOTUS, Kuhl. 

Body cylindrical ; head distinct from neck, flat, cleft of the mouth wide ; 
eye of moderate size, or rather large, with round pupil ; nostril lateral, 
between two plates. Shields of the head regular ; loreal always present. 
Scales keeled ; ventrals rounded, considerably less than 200 in number ; 
anal bifid ; subcaudals two-rowed. Teeth numerous in the jaws and on 
the palate : the anterior in the jaws are always shortest ; the posterior 
lengthened, but not grooved. 

The typical Tropidonoti are easily recognized by their stoutish, cylindrical body, keeled 
scales, flat head covered with very regular shields, wide cleft of the mouth, and numerous 
teeth, the strongest of which are at the hinder end of the maxillary bone. They frequent 
the neighbourhood of fresh waters, and feed on aquatic animals — frogs, toads, and fishes. 
They do not overpower or kill their prey by throwing a coil of the body round it, but. 



TROPIDONOTUS. 259 

ha-ving seized it, they at once commence to swallow it. They are excellent swimmers, but 
more frequently live near water than in it ; in agreement with which habit, the position of 
their nostrils is not on the upper surface of the head, as in the true freshwater snakes, but 
on the side. 

However, this type of snakes passes into other groups : whilst the species with a stout 
body approach the Ilomalopsides, others, of a more slender make, show a transition to an 
aberrant species, Tropidonotas platijceps, which at first sight might be taken for a Herpeto- 
dryas, having a remarkably slender body and very feeble keels of the scales ; the ventrals, 
however, are rounded, without any trace of a keel. 

The Tropidonoti are found in North America, Europe, Asia, the East Indian archipelago, 
and North-western Australia : a single species has lately been received from tropical Africa. 
The species are very numerous, and some of them extremely rich in individuals. The fol- 
lowing occur in British India : — 

I. The teeth form one continuous series, gradually increasing in length, the last tooth being not much 

larger than the preceding. 
Each ventral with blackish anterior margin ; two labials entering the 

orbit T. quincunciatus, p. 260. 

Belly with black cross bands T. annularis, p. 261. 

Three labial sliields entering tlie orbit T. trianguUgerus, Tp. 26\. 

II. The last tooth is much larger than the one preceding, and enveloped in a separate membranaceous 
pouch : Tropidonotus. 

A. The last tooth is scarcely separated from the others by an interval. 
Scales in nineteen rows ; subcaudals ca. 78 ; eye large ; anterior part of 

the belly with large quachangnlar blackish-browTi spots .... 7". macropfithalmus, p. 262. 
Scales in seventeen rows; subcaudals ca. 52; eye large; anterior part 

of the belly with subquadrangnlar blackish-brown spots . . . . T. dorsalis, p. 263. 

(*) Scales in seventeen rows ; subcaudals 124-146 ; eye large T. macrops, p. 263. 

B. The last tooth is separated from the others by a distinct interval: Amphiesma, D. & B. 
Scales in nineteen rows; one (two) prse-, two post-oculars. Rostral 

shield with a black vertical streak T. platyceps, p. 264. 

Scales in nineteen rows; one prseocular; the third, fourth, and fifth 
labials enter the orbit ; an oblique triangular black spot below the 
eye; no dorsal bands T. subminiatus, -p. 2(\h. 

Scales in nineteen rows; one praeocuiar; the fourth and fifth labials 
enter the orbit. Upper labials edged with black behind ; two dorsal 

series of small yellow spots T. himalay anus, p. 265. 

(*) Scales in seventeen rows ; 2-4 praj-, 4-5 post-oculars T. angusticeps, p. 266. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; anterior frontals pointed in front ; back with 

black transverse bands and with two yellowish longitudinal bands . T. stolatus, p. 266. 

Scales in nineteen rows; anterior frontals truncated in front. Body 

with black cross bauds, each divided into three square spots ... 7". monticola, p. 267. 

Scales in nineteen rows; one prseocular ; nine upper labials, the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth entering the orbit ; a V-Uke yellow marking on the 
neck T.junceus,^.2Q%. 



* The species marked (*) were not examined by myself. 



o T 9 

^ Li .J 



260 OPHIDIA. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; two prseoeulars ; a series of white ocelli along 

each side of the back ; a black band on the side of head and neck . T. ceylonensis, p. 268. 
Scales in nineteen rows ; one prseocular, three postoculars ; the fourth, 

fifth, and sixth labials enter the orbit; temporals 1+2 . . . . T. beddomii, p. 269. 
(*) Scales in seventeen rows ; ventrals 160 ; the penultimate and ante- 
penultimate upper labials very large T. nigrocinctus , p. 269. 

(*) Scales in seventeen rows; ventrals ca. 128; upper labials 8, the eye 

resting on the third and fourth T. flavipunctatus, p. 270. 

(*) Scales in fifteen rows T. zebrinus, p. 270. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; two prse-, four (three) post-oculars ; an obhque 

black spot on each side of the neck T. tigrimis, p. 271 . 

Scales in nineteen rows. Black, with narrow white rings T. lencomelas, 'p. 271. 

Scales in (twenty-three), twenty-five, (twenty-seven) rows T. plumbicolor, p. 272. 



Tropidonotus quincunciatus. 

fl?me/Z,/n<;?. -Sferp. i.pl.20(bad),pl.28(bad),pl.33; ii. pl.S.fig.l (young), &pls.U, 15 a (young). 

Hydrus piscator et palustris, Schneid. Amph. pp. 247, 24'9. 

Coluber anastomosatus, braminus, et umbratus, Daud. Rept. pp. 140, 144, & 176. 

rectangulus. Gray, Ind. Zool. 

hippus, Reuss, Mus. Senckenb. i. p. 150. pi. 9. fig. 2. 

Tropidonotus quincunciatus et umbratus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. pp. 307, 309. pi. 12. figs. 4, 5. 

umbratus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 89. 

quincunciatus. Bum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 592. Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 64. 

Head and tail of moderate length, body rather stout ; eye rather small. Scales in nineteen 
rows. Ventrals 129-146 ; subcaudals 64-80. Anterior frontals pointed in front. One prse- 
ocular, just reaching to the upper surface of the crown ; three (exceptionally four) postoculars. 
Loreal large, square. Nine upper labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit, the seventh 
and eighth being the largest. Temporals 2 + 2*. Each maxillary is armed with eighteen 
teeth, which are small anteriorly but gradually increase in size posteriorly, the last standing 
in a continuous series with the others, and being but little larger than the preceding. 

The coloration varies exceedingly ; but there are generally two oblique black streaks 
behind the eye : the upper crosses the temporal plates and the eighth labial ; the lower the 
inferior postorbital, running along the suture of the sixth and seventh labials. These streaks 
are absent only in a dark variety from Nepal. The belly is white, each ventral having a 
more or less distinct blackish anterior margin. The ground-colour of the upper parts is 
generally greyish or brownish olive. 

Var. a. Square black spots are arranged quincuncially in three, five, six, or seven series ; 
when they are large they form fewer series than when they are small ; during life the sides 
are ornamented with a series of scarlet spots, separated from each other by black cross bars. 
Specimens with this coloration are found in almost every part of India. 

* In one example only, from Gamboja, I found a single anterior temporal shield. 



TROPIDONOTUS TRIANGULIGERUS. 261 

Var. /3. The spots are, as it were, dissolved into a network of black lines, with intermixed 
white dots. Specimens of this variety are as frequent as of var. a. 

Var. y. The spots are confluent, forming broad, rhombic, transverse blackish or brownish 
bands, each with a darker margin ; the anterior of these bands are sometimes again con- 
fluent, forming a zigzag band. We have received this variety from Ceylon only. 

Var. S. Upper parts nearly entirely uniform blackish ash-coloured ; only a few scales have 
a black or white dot at the base. The temple-streaks are very inconspicuous or entirely 
absent. This variety is very common in Nepal and in Ceylon, indi%iduals from the latter 
country having strongly keeled scales. 

This is one of the most widely spread species of the East Indies, ranging from Mesopotamia 
into the southern parts of China, and inhabiting most of the islands of the western half of 
the Archipelago. It abounds near rivers and pools, feeding on frogs and fishes ; it attains to 
a length of 3 feet, and is of fierce habits. 



Tropidonotus annulaeis. 

Tropidonotus annularis, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1856, p. 151. Giinth. Colubr. 

Snakes, p. 67. 
chinensis, {Jan) Berthold, Gbtt. Nachr. 1859, p. 180. 

Head, body, and tail of moderate length ; eye rather small. Scales ia nineteen rows. 
Ventrals 158 ; subcaudals 54. Anterior frontals pointed in front, as long as posterior. 
Occipitals narrow, elongate. One prseocular, just reaching to the upper surface of the crown ; 
three postoculars. Loreal quadrangular. Eight (nine) upper labials, only the fourth (fifth) 
entering the orbit. Temporals 3 + 3 ; two of the anterior temporals are in contact with the 
postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with eighteen teeth, the posterior being scarcely larger 
than those in the middle, and all forming one continuous series. Back uniform lead-coloured ; 
belly red (white in spirits), with black cross bands, each occupying one or two ventral or sub- 
caudal shields, frequently interrupted in the middle, and extending upwards on the sides of 
the body, where they form a series of about forty vertical bars ; each of these bars generally 
encloses several white dots. 

This species is found in China ( Ningpo, Chikiang) and on the island of Formosa ; it attains 
to a length of more than 30 inches. 



Tropidonotus trianguligeeus. 

Tropidonotus trianguligerus, {Reinw.) Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 535. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 311. 
pi. 12. figs. 1-3. 

Head, body, and tail of moderate length ; eye of moderate size. Scales in nineteen rows ; 
ventrals (140-)148; subcaudals 70-90. Anterior frontals triangular, somewhat truncated in 



262 OPHIDIA. 

front, longer than broad, and at least as long as posterior; occipitals of moderate length, 
rounded behind. One prseocular, reaching to the upper surface of the crown ; three post- 
oculars. Loreal quadrangular, as high as long. Nine upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth of which enter the orbit. Temporals 2+2, the two anterior being in contact with the 
postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with about twenty-one closely-set teeth, the posterior 
being but little larger than those in the middle, and all forming one continuous series. 
Upper parts uniform blackish brown, sides lighter, and on the anterior part of the body 
yellowish (probably red during life) ; a series of large triangular black spots, with the points 
resting upon the ventral shields, runs along each side of the trunk and tail ; belly uniform 
whitish, some ventral shields with a blackish posterior margin ; all the upper labial shields 
have either a black posterior margin or, at least, a black spot. 

This species is found in Java, Sumatra, and Borneo ; we have also received a specimen 
which is undoubtedly from Pinang. It attains to a length of about 30 inches. 



Tropidonotus macrophthalmus. (Plate XXII. fig. C.) 

Xenodon macrophthalmus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 58. 

Head, trunk, and tail of moderate length ; eye large. Scales in nineteen rows, much 
imbricate, those on the neck and anterior part of the trunk disposed in transverse rows as 
in Naja. Ventrals 162-165 ; subcaudals 78. Anterior frontals obtusely rounded in front. 
One praeocular, just reaching to the upper surface of the crown; three postoculars. Loreal 
large, quadrangular, as high as long ; eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth entering the 
orbit, the seventh the largest. Temporals rather irregular, two being in contact with the 
postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with twenty small teeth, the last being much larger 
than the preceding, from which it is not separated by an interspace *. Brown or blackish 
brown above, uniform or with a dorsal series of reddish-brown spots ; neck with an indistinct 
arrow-shaped mark. Anterior part of the belly with large quadrangular blackish-brown 
spots, posterior part and lower side of the tail more or less clouded with brown. 

Young specimens have indistinct square dark spots on the back, arranged in quincunx, 
and a bright-yellow collar broadly edged with black. 

This species may be at once distinguished by its large eye and by its dilatable neck, the 
scales of which show an arrangement very similar to that of a Cobra, for which it is fre- 
quently taken. All the specimens I have seen shoAV vuimistakeable signs that their captors 
considered it best to kill them from a distance, and to inflict a death-wound as near to 
the head as possible. It is a Himalayan species, being found in Khasya and Sikkim — in the 
latter country at an elevation of 4000 feet. It attains to a length of 39 inches, the tail 
measuring 7 inches. 

* In 'the specimen of which I formerly examined the dentition, two of the small hinder teeth are lost^ 
so that a toothless interspace appcai-s to exist in front of the last tooth. 



TROPIDONOTUS MACROPS. 263 

I thought for some time that Tropidonottis macrops, Blyth (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. 
1855, p. 29G), might be identical with the above species; but, on further consideration, this 
does not appear to be probable, on account of the great difference in the number of sub- 
caudal shields. 

We have given an entire figure of this species, of the natural size. 



Tkopidonotus doesalis. 

Xenodon macrophtlialmus, spec, f, G'dnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 58. 

Head, trunk, and tail of moderate length; eye large. Scales in seventeen rows, much 
imbricate, those on the neck and anterior part of the trunk disposed in very oblique rows. 
Ventrals 143; subcaudals 52. Anterior frontals obtusely rounded in front, more than half 
as large as posterior. Vertical five-sided, with the lateral margins longest and convergent, 
and with an obtuse hinder angle. Occipitals not twice as large as vertical. One praeocular, 
just reaching to the upper surface of the crown ; three postoculars (two of which are confluent 
into one on one side of the specimen). Loreal subtriangular, higher than long ; eight upper 
labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit, the seventh the largest. Temporals rather 
irregular, two being in contact with the postoculars. Two pau's of chin-shields, the posterior 
of which are divergent behind, and rather longer than the anterior, which are in contact 
with four labials. Each maxillary is armed with twenty small teeth, the last being much 
larger than the preceding, from which it is scarcely separated by an interspace. Brownish 
grey, with a vertebral series of about twenty-five rhombic reddish spots, each occupying 
about four scales ; the spots are confluent posteriorly, and continued on the tail as a reddish, 
black-edged band. An ill-defined blackish band runs along the edge of the ventral shields. 
Belly with subquadi'angular blackish spots anteriorly, and punctulated with brown posteriorly ; 
an indistinct arrow-shaped blotch on the crown of the head, separated by a reddish streak 
from a black band running from the eye to the angle of the mouth. Upper labials with a 
narrow black hinder edge. 

This species is very closely allied to T. macrophtlialmus ; its neck appears to be less dilatable, 
although it has a similar arrangement of the scales. The only specimen I have seen is from 
Chikiang ; it is 24i inches long, the tail measuring 4|- inches. 



Not having seen the following species, I can only say that probably it has the same den- 
tition as T. macrophthalmits and dorsalis, to which it appears to be closely allied. 

Tkopidonotus mackops. 

Tropidonotus macrops, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 296. 
Eye very large; posterior frontals twice as large as anterior. Scales in seventeen rows. 



264 OPHIDIA. 

Ventrals 164-166 ; subcaudals 130-146. Prevailing hue of the upper parts a dull vinaceous ; 
mauy of the scales margined with black, and some with yellow ; a series of yellow spots 
(about fifty in number) continued along the spine to the extremity of the tail, with a row of 
black spots on either side. A slight, whitish, V-like mark on the occiput. Lower parts 
yellowish white, with specks and powdering of dusky, more prevalent towards and on the 
tail. 

Two specimens closely resemble each other, but a thir-d presents some differences of colour : 
the row of yellow spots is wanting along the spine, also the dark band on the nape and the 
pale V-like occipital mark ; the under parts also are more uniformly whitish. Ventrals 168 ; 
subcaudals 124. 

From the vicinity of Darjiling. Length 31 inches, of which the tail is 6\ inches. 



Tropidonotus plattceps. (Plate XXII. fig. D.) 

Tropidonotus platyceps, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 297. Gunth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1860, p. 162. 

Head of moderate length, rather depressed, distinct from neck; body and tail slender. 
Scales in nineteen rows, with very feeble keels. Ventrals 173-186 ; subcaudals 90-96. 
Anterior frontals rounded in front, half as large as posterior ; occipitals much longer than 
vertical. Loreal square ; one praeocular (sometimes split into two), just reaching to the 
upper surface of the crown; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and 
fifth of which enter the orbit, the sixth and seventh being the largest. Temporals 1 + 1 + 3. 
Each maxillary is armed with ten teeth, which gradually become longer and are more widely 
set posteriorly ; there is another tooth, considerably larger than the others, at the end of 
the bone, placed at some distance from the continuous series. Brown or brownish olive 
above, uniform or with a pair of pale doi'sal bands ; belly yellow, with a more or less distinct 
blackish stripe along each side ; chin and throat and the lower parts of the tail sometimes 
entirely black. Eostral shield with a black vertical streak. A blackish streak from behind 
the eye to the angle of the mouth ; males with a yellow streak from the nostril through the 
lower part of the orbit to the angle of the mouth, ascending on the side of the neck. During 
life a coral-red streak runs along the edges of the ventral shields. 

A variety of this species is very similar in its coloration to the European Coronella IcBvis, 
having black specks on a light-brown ground-colour ; the keels of the scales can only be seen 
with some difficulty. 

This species is found in different parts of the Himalayas (in Nepal, Sikkim, Khasya), at an 
elevation of from 4000 to 9000 feet. I found the eggs of a lizard or of another snake in 
the stomach of one of the specimens. It attains to a length of 30 inches, the tail measuring 
85 inches. 

We have given three views of the head, of the natural size. 



TEOPIDONOTUS HIMALAYANUS. 265 

TrOPIDOXOTUS SUBMINIATUS. 

Tropidonotus subminiatus, [Reinw.) Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 313. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 

1855, xxiii. p. 296. 
Amphiesma subminiatum, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 734. 

Head of moderate length, rather depressed, distinct from neck ; body and tail of moderate 
length; eye of moderate size. Scales in nineteen rows. Ventrals 142-168; subcaudals 
70-88. Anterior frontals subtriincated in front ; occipitals somewhat pointed behind, longer 
than vertical. One prseocular, extending on to the upper surface of the crown ; three post- 
oculars. Loreal square. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth entering the orbit ; 
temporals rather irregular — there are always two elongate anterior temporals, in contact with 
the postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with twelve slender and rather distant teeth; 
there are one or two much longer and stronger teeth behind, not continuous with the series 
of small teeth. Greenish above, uniform or with small indistinct black and reddish-white 
spots ; the vicinity round the eye whitish, with an oblique triangular black spot below, 
occupying the suture between the fifth and sixth labials. Belly white, with an irregular 
series of black dots on each side. Young specimens with a broad black collar edged with 
yellow behind ; this collar gradually disappears with age. 

This species belongs to the fauna of the eastern portion of the Indian continent and of 
some of the islands ; I have examined specimens from China, Cochinchina, Siam, Khasya, 
Sikkim, the Tenasserim coast, and Java *. One of the largest examples measures 42 inches, 
the tail being 10^ inches. 



Tropidonotus himalayanus. (Plate XXII. fig. H.) 

Head of moderate width and length, rather depressed, distinct from neck ; body and tail 
. rather slender ; eye of moderate size. Scales in nineteen rows, strongly keeled. Ventrals 
171 ; subcaudals 85. Anterior frontals truncated in front, half as large as posterior; vertical 
five-sided, with the lateral margins convergent, and with a right angle behind ; occipitals 
rather longer than vertical, rounded behind. Loreal square ; one pra^ocular, reaching to the 
upper surface of the head ; three postoculars ; eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth of 
which enter the orbit. Temporals 1+2. Each maxillary is armed with a continuous series 
of eighteen slender teeth, followed at some distance by one or two strong but not very long 
posterior teeth. Brownish olive above, with two dorsal series of numerous small quadran- 
gular transverse yellow spots, more distinct on the posterior half of the trunk than on the 
anterior ; an indistinct yellow collar, behind which the trunk is variegated with yellowish ; 
upper labials with a narrow black hinder edge. Clirn and throat uniform yellow ; anterior 
half of the belly clouded with brownish, posterior gradually becoming entirely blackish 
brown. 

* The Britisli Museum has also received two examples from the East India Company, marked " Dukhuii. 
Col. Sykes." 

2 M 



266 OPHIDIA. 

I have examined two specimens of this species, one from Sikkim, the other from Nepal, 
both perfectly alike. The former is 31 inches long, the tail measuring 8 inches. 

An upper and lateral \iew of the head have been given, from the Sikkim specimen, of the 
natural size. 



Tropidonotus angusticeps. 

Tropidonotus angusticeps, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 295. 

Head narrow, not broader than the neck, little depressed. vScales in seventeen rows. 
Ventrals 167-172; subcaudals 57-67. Two or three (four) prseorbitals, four (five) post- 
orbitals. Colour (in spirits) plumbeous above, uniformly spotted with black throughout; 
below whitish, more or less variegated with black on the hinder half; head without mark- 
ings, but a V-like mark on the nape, with the apex towards the occiput, becoming obsolete 
in adults. A specimen with four prse- and five post-orbitals is remarkable for having no 
dark markings above, but some indistinct pale spots. 

Length of an adult 41 inches, of which the tail is 8| inches. Inhabits Assam and Arakan. 
I have not seen this species. 



Tropidonotus stolatus. 

Coluber stolatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 379. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. pi. 10; ii. pi. 15. B (young), and pi. 19. 

Tropidonotus stolatus, i?oie, Isis,l827, p. 535. Schleg. Phys. Serp. p. 317. Cantor, Mai. Kept. p. 90. 

Amphiesma stolatum, Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 727. 

Head rather narrow, body and tail of moderate length, eye of moderate size. Scales in 
nineteen rows. Ventrals 125-161*; subcaudals 50-79, Anterior frontals pointed in front ; 
occipitals rounded behind, not much longer than vertical. One preeocular, extending on to the 
upper surface of the crown ; three (four) postoculars. Loreal square. Eight upper labials, 
of which the third, fourth, and fifth enter the orbit ; the third and fourth are sometimes 
united into one shield; temporals large, 1 + 1. Each maxillary is armed with seventeen 
teeth, which become larger and more distant posteriorly ; at some distance behind this series 
there are one or two much larger teeth. Greenish or brownish olive, with numerous narrow, 
serrated or reticulated cross bars, intersected by two yellow or white longitudinal dorsal 
bands. Lower parts white ; the anterior ventral shields have frequently a black dot on each 
side. Head brown above, the shields more or less distinctly edged with black ; praeocular 

* In a specimen from China 125, in a male fi'om Madras 128, in a female 138, in one from Ceylon 144, 
in one from Nepal 157, in one from Khasya 161. Cantor found in specimens from Pinang 143-156. 



TEOPIDONOTUS MONTICOLA. 267 

and postoculars white, the former with a black anterior margin ; the suture between the 
fifth and sixth and between the sixth and seventh upper labials black. 

A male in the breeding-season, from Madras, is figm-ed by Mr. Walter Elliott with the 
throat yellow, and with the ground-colour of the anterior part of the body red. 

This is perhaps the most common species of snake on the East Indian continent, ranging 
from Ceylon through the Peninsula along the southern slope of the Himalayas to southern 
China (Formosa) ; it is scarcer in the Malayan Peninsula and the northern parts of Siam, and 
appears to be entirely absent in the Archipelago. It is of very gentle habits, feeding on small 
frogs ; it attains to a length of 2 feet, but generally remains within smaller proportions. 

This species is readily recognized by the peculiar pattern of its coloration, but varies much 
in the relative length of the body and tail, on which also depends the number of ventral and 
subcaudal shields and of the black cross bands. The presence of seven upper labials is not 
uncommon; but the occurrence of four postoculars is more so. Single specimens may be 
found which deviate so much from the type that they might be taken for another species. 
Thus, for instance, an old example from Khasya has two postoculars only, seven upper labials. 
161 ventrals, and a very dark coloration. 



TrOPIDONOTUS MONTICOLA. 

? Tropidonotus monticolus, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 530. 

Head rather narrow, body and tail slender, eye large. Scales in nineteen rows. Ventrals 
142 ; subcaudals 82. Anterior frontals trimcated in front, half as large as posterior ; occi- 
pitals rounded behind, not much longer than vertical. One prteocular, extending on to the 
upper surface of the head ; three narrow postoculars. Loreal large, quadrangular. Eight 
low upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the orbit. Temporals small, 
2+2+3. Each maxillary is armed with eighteen small teeth and with a large posterior 
tooth separated from the others by an interspace. Green above, with about twenty-eight 
black bands across the trunk, each cross band being divided into three square spots by a pair 
of lateral bands not distinct fi-om the ground-colour ; there is a white dot where the longi- 
tudinal band intersects the cross bars. The first cross band is paler than the others and 
occupies the occiput ; it has a white anterior edge ; a pair of white dots between the eyes ; 
a black dot on the suture between the fifth and sixth upper labials. The lower parts are 
white ; the lateral black spots, however, extend somewhat on the ventral shields. 

The meagre description of T. monticola given by Mr. Jerdon leaves it somewhat uncertain 
whether we are correct in referring a specimen 14 inches long, and found by Captain 
Beddome in the Anamallay Mountains, to that species. Mr. Jerdon says that it is common 
in the Wynaad. 



2 m2 



268 OPHIDIA. 

Tropidonotus jujfCEUS. (Plate XXII. fig. F.) 

Tropidonotus junceus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 93. 

clipsas, Blyth, Jown. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 297, & sxiv. p. "16. 

Head narrow, rather depressed, distinct from neck ; body and tail slender ; eye rather 
large. Scales in nineteen rows. Ventralsl54— 159 ; subcaudals 86. Anterior frontals trun- 
cated in front, half as large as posterior ; occipitals considerably longer than vertical, rounded 
behind. Loreal square ; one praeocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head ; 
three narrow postoculars. Nine low upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the 
orbit. Temporals arranged in two longitudinal series ; the upper series contains three small 
shields adjoining the occipital, the lower two larger ones. Each maxillary is armed with a 
continuous series of fifteen small teeth, and with a posterior longer and stronger tooth placed 
at some distance behind the series. Greyish olive above, with a series of well-defined rounded 
whitish spots along each side of the back ; belly whitish, a black dot on each side of each 
ventral and subcaudal shield. Lips and throat gamboge ; a gamboge band ascends obliquely 
from the angle of the mouth to the neck, joining its fellow at an acute angle; this band is 
less distinct in adult specimens than in young ones. 

Since the publication of the ' Colubrine Snakes' in 1858, we have received the typical 
specimen of T. junceus of Cantor, so that I have convinced myself that it is a valid species ; 
it was captured on the Great Hill of Pinang, and is 27 inches long, the tail measuring 
1\ inches. Another young specimen has been received from Chikiang. Dr. Cantor observes 
that it is of fierce habits and very ready to bite. It is said to occur also in the vicinity of 
Darjiling. 

The figures on Plate XXII. (upper and lateral views of the head) have been taken from the 
typical specimen, and are of the natural size. 



Tkopidonotus ceylonensis. (Plate XXII. fig. G.) 

Tropidouotus chrysargus, var. ceylonensis, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 71. 

Head of moderate width and length, distinct from neck ; body and tail of moderate 
length; eye rather large. Scales in nineteen rows, strongly keeled. Ventrals 137; sub- 
caudals 60. Anterior fi'ontals obtusely rounded in front, half as large as posterior ; vertical 
five-sided, with the lateral margins slightly convergent and with a right angle behind; 
occipitals not much longer than vertical, obtusely rounded behind. Loreal quadrangular ; 
two pra?oculars, of nearly equal size, the upper reaching to the upper surface of the head ; 
three narrow postoculars ; eight low upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which enter the 
orbit ; temporals 2 + 3, the lower anterior being the largest. Each maxillary is armed with 
a continuous series of twenty small teeth, followed at some distance by a much larger pos- 
terior tooth. Brownish olive above; a series of about twenty yellow ocelli, edged with black, 
along each side of the body ; the black edges are dilated into cross bands extending down- 



TROPIDONOTUS NIGROCINCTUS. 269 

wards to the side of the belly and upwards to the ocelli of the other side. The ocelli of 
both sides are generally not opposite to each other but alternately placed. Belly uniform 
yellowish, greyish towards behind. A broad black band runs from the eye to the angle of 
the mouth, and is continued along the side of the neck. 

AVe have only one (immature) specimen of this species, 11 inches long, tail 2^ inches. It 
is from Ceylon. Closely allied to Trop. chrysargus from Java, but with fewer upper labials 
and with a different coloration. 



Tropidonotus beddomii. (Plate XXII. fig. E.) 

Spilotes vittatus, Beddome, Madras Quart. Journ. Med. Sc. vol. v. 

Head of moderate width and length, distinct from neck ; body and tail of moderate length ; 
eye rather large. Scales in nineteen rows, strongly keeled. Ventrals 146 ; subcaudals 70. 
Anterior frontals obtusely rounded in front, half as large as posterior ; vertical five-sided, 
nearly twice as long as broad ; occipitals nearly as long as vertical and posterior frontals 
together, truncated behind. Loreal quadrangular, as high as long ; one prteocular, extending 
on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; three postoculars ; nine 
low upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit ; temporals elongate, 
1+2, the anterior in contact with the two lower oculars. Brown above; a series of small, 
short, transverse streaks of orange-colour along each side of the back ; a narrow yellow cross 
bar behind the occipitals ; labials edged with black ; a yellowish, black-edged band from the 
eye to the angle of the mouth. Belly whitish, its sides and the subcaudals dotted with 
brown. 

Captain Beddome, who discovered this species in the Nilgherries, has kindly sent me the 
typical specimen of his Spilotes vittatus ; it is a Tropidonotus allied to T. ceyJonensis ; but the 
specific name proposed by him cannot stand, as it is already given to the common Javan 
species. The specimen is very young, only 8|^ inches long, the tail measuring 2^ inches. 
Several discrepancies in my description and that of Captain Beddome appear to indicate that 
he has confounded this new species with some other Tropidonotus under the same name. 



Tropidonotus nigrocinctus. 

Tropidonotus nigrocinctus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1856, xxiv. p. 717. 

Scales in seventeen rows. Ventrals 160 ; subcaudals 81. The penultimate and antepenul- 
timate upper labials very large. Olive-grey above, passing into bright green towards the 
head, and conspicuously marked throughout with a series of about fifty narrow transverse 
black bands, some perfect, others broken and alternating ; head with two broad black 
lateral streaks, one from behind the eye to the cleft of the mouth, the other below the eye ; 
a narrow and indistinct black band edging the occipital plates posteriorly ; and behind this 



270 OPHIDIA. 

a broad pale collar, which was probably bright red above in the living snake. Lower parts 
white, each shield beginning to be margined with grey from about the twentieth ; and this 
grey gradually darkening posteriorly, until towards and upon the tail it becomes blackish 
and occupies half of each shield ; besides which a row of small lateral spots may be traced. 

Length of specimen 26^ inches, of which the tail measures Q^ inches. This species appears 
to inhabit either Pegu or Tenasserim. 



Tkopidonotds flavipunctatus. 

Amphiesma flavipunctatmn, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 503. 

Head small. Scales in seventeen rows. Ventrals 128; subcaudals 78. Three or four 
postoculars ; upper labials eight, the eye resting on the third and fourth. Dusky yellow, 
with numerous yellow spots along the margins of the scales; a black undulating band 
running transversely behind the occiput, and two oblique ones on the side of the head : one 
commencing at the mferior margin of the eye, passing over the lower postocular, and 
extending between the fifth and sixth upper labials to the margin of the jaw; the other 
commencing behind the postorbital and extending obliquely across the temples, and termi- 
nating at the inferior and posterior margin of the seventh upper labial. Lower parts yellow, 
the posterior margin of each ventral edged with black. 

Hongkong, Canton Eiver. Total length 21f inches, of which the tail is 6f inches. 



Tkopidonotus zebeinus. 

Tropidonotus zebrinus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beny. 1855, xxiii. p. 295. 

Mr. Blyth gives the following description : — 

" Scales in fifteen rows ; ventrals 137 ; subcaudals 96. One pr<e- and three post-orbitals. Upper parts 
(in spirits) deep plumbeous, obscurely spotted with black ; the sides and under parts yellowish white, the 
former throughout banded with black, and each band having a whitish spot above it. Labial plates with 
a triangular black spot at the point of junction of each of them above. Two or three distinct black bands 
across the nape. 

" Length of specimen (which is quite yoimg) lOf inches, of which the tail measiues 8^ inches*. — From 
Mergui." 

* Evidently erroneous. 



TROPIDONOTUS LEUCOMELAS. 271 

Tkopidonotus tigeinus. 

Tropidonotus tigrinus, Boie, his, 1826, p. 206. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 315, and Faun. Japon., 

Ophicl. tab. 4. 
Amphiesma tigrinum, Du7n. Sf Bibr. vii. p. 732. 
Tropidonotus lateralis, Bert hold, Gott. Nachr. 1859, p. 180. 
orientalis, G'dnth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, January, pi. 9. fig. 3. 

Head of moderate length, rather depressed, distinct from neck ; body and tail of moderate 
length; eye of moderate size. Scales in nineteen rows. Ventrals 152-168; subcaudals 
62-80. Anterior fi-ontals truncated in front, more than half as large as posterior. Two prse- 
oculars, the upper extending on to the upper surface of the head ; four (three) postoculars. 
Loreal square ; seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit ; temporals 1 + 2. 
Each maxillary is armed with ten or twelve slender teeth, slightly increasing in strength 
posteriorly; at a short distance behind this series there is another tooth, stronger and 
longer than the others. Greenish or brownish olive, with three series of subquadrangular 
black spots ; a series of reddish spots on the anterior part of the side, these spots alternating 
with the black ones. Belly with a series of rounded small black spots anteriorly, nearly 
entirely black posteriorly ; neck with an oblique black spot on each side. A black spot 
below the eye, on the suture between the fourth and fifth labials ; a black blotch on the 
temple descending obliquely to the angle of the mouth. 

This species is the representative of the European T. natrix in Japan and Northern China, 
and attains to the same size. 



Tropidonotus leucomelas. (Plate XXII. fig. I.) 

Head rather short, thick, distinct from neck ; body and tail of moderate length ; eye of 
moderate size. Scales in nineteen rows, strongly keeled; anal bifid. Ventrals 129; sub- 
caudals 61. Anterior frontals truncated in front, not quite half as large as posterior. 
Vertical large, five-sided, with parallel lateral margins and with an obtuse angle behind ; 
occipitals not much longer than vertical, rounded behind. Loreal quadi-angular. One 
praeorbital, reaching to the upper surface of the head; three postorbitals. Seven upper 
labials, the fourth being elongate and forming the entire lower margin of the orbit. Tem- 
porals elongate, 2 + 3. Each maxillary is armed with twelve teeth, gradually increasing in 
length behind ; at a very short distance behind this continuous series there is a very long 
posterior tooth. Black above, with twenty-three very narrow white rings round the trunk ; 
belly white anteriorly, brownish posteriorly. Neck with a broad black collar, behind which 
is a yellow rmg as broad as the collar. Head uniform greenish olive. 

The single specimen of this very distinct species is evidently young, 8 inches long, the tail 
measuring If inch. It is said to be from Pinang. 



272 OPHIDIA. 



Tkopidonotus plumbicoloe. 



Tropidonotus plumbicolor. Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 54. 
Xenodon viridis, Dimi. ^" Bibr. vii. p. 763. Gi'mth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 57. 

Head broad, body stout, tail short. Scales in twenty-five rows, sometimes in twenty-three 
or twenty-seven. Ventrals 160-161; subcaudals 42. Two prte- and three post-oculars. 
Seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit ; temporals 2 + 3. Vertical five- 
sided, anterior margin as long as lateral ; occipital not twice as lai'ge as vertical ; anterior 
frontal more than half as large as the posterior; the praeorbital scarcely reaches to the upper 
surface of the head. Each maxillary is armed with eight small teeth, and with a very long 
posterior one separated from the others by a considerable interspace. Dirty greenish : 
} oung specimens with a broad white collar, pointed in front and forked behind, preceded by 
a similar black spot, the point of which extends to the vertical shield and is edged with black 
behind ; an oblique black streak behind the eye ; trunk with ten or eleven narrow black 
cross bars, and generally with a black lateral spot in the middle of the interspaces of the 
cross bands. Sides of the throat dotted with black ; belly more or less blackish. All these 
markings generally disappear with age, with the exception of an oblique, more or less distinct 
l)lackish band on each side of the neck, — the upper parts being uniform dirty green, the 
lower whitish. 

This species is not uncommon in the Madras Presidency, and frequently enters houses ; it 
attains to a length of 25 inches, the tail measuring 3 inches. 



ATRETIUM. 

Atretium, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1861, p. 299. 

Body cylindrical, rather stout ; head narrow ; eye of moderate size, with 
round pupil. The anterior frontals are united into one triangular transverse 
shield, which is in contact with the rostral. The other shields of the head 
are regular. Two nasals ; the nostril is in the upj)er part of the suture 
between them, but on the side of the head. Scales rather short, rhombic, 
keeled, in nineteen rows. Ventrals broad, rounded; anal bifid; subcaudals 
two-rowed. Teeth numerous, those of the maxillaries increasing- in length 
posteriorly, forming- a continuous series. 

Only one species is known, forming the transition from Tropidonotus to the true fresh- 
water snakes. Cantor says that it is very fierce, and prepares to attack by raising the head 
3 or 4 inches vertically from the ground, and that it has the power of flattening and laterally 
expanding the skin of the anterior part of the body, like Naja, but in a much slighter degree. 
Frogs and fishes form its food. 



XENOCHROPHIS. 273 

Atretium schistosum. 

Chittee, Russe/l, Ind. Serp. ii. pi. 4. 
Coluber schistosus, Baud. Rept. vii. p. 132. 

Tropidonotus schistosus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 319. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 91. Diim. ^ Bibr. 
vii. p. 596. 

moestus et surgens, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Sac. 1839, p. 54. 

Tropidopliis schistosus, Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 69. 

Head rather narrow, not very distinct from neck; body and tail of moderate length. 
Scales in nineteen rows, those of the dorsal series keeled. Ventrals 147-150; subcaudals 
80-83. Anterior frontal triangular, broader than long, broadly joined to the rostral, as 
large as one of the posterior frontals. Vertical five-sided, nearly twice as long as broad, 
with the lateral margins slightly concave ; occipitals somewhat longer than vertical. Loreal 
higher than long ; one prseocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head ; three post- 
oculars. Eight upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit. Specimens 
from Madras have nine labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit. Temporals rather 
irregular: the anterior and those joining the occipital are elongate; two are in contact with 
the postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with sixteen teeth. Upper parts uniform blackish 
olive ; labial shields, the outer or the two outer series of scales and the lower parts uniform 
yellowish. Young specimens with a blackish (during life purple) stripe from the orbit, 
along the anterior part of the body. 

This snake attains to a length of more than 2 feet ; it is found in Ceylon and in Southern 
India, extending eastwards to Bengal and to the Malayan peninsula, where, however, it is 
scarce. According to Dumeril and Bibron it is found also in the Philippine Islands and 
in Madagascar, but this is very doubtful. 



XENOCHROPHIS, Gtkr. 

Body cylindrical, rather stout ; head narrow, elong-ate ; eye with the pupil 
round. Nostril lateral, situated in the upper part of a sing-le j)late. Shields 
of the head regular. Scales keeled, in nineteen rows ; ventrals rounded ; 
anal hifid ; suhcaudals two-rowed. No conspicuously longer teeth ; they are 
widely set, those in the middle of the maxillary series and those in front of 
the mandihle beina; rather lar<>er than the others. 

Only one species is known. 



2n 



274 OPHIDIA. 



Xenochrophis cerasogastek. 



Psammophis cerasogaster, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 52. 

Tropiclonotus cerasogaster, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 92. G'dnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 79. 

Head narrow, elongate, not very distinct from neck ; body and tail of moderate length ; 
eye rather small, superciliai-y somewhat projecting. Scales in nineteen rows; anal bifid; 
ventrals 141-149; subcaudals 60-69. All the shields of the upper part of the head elon- 
gate : anterior frontals rather pointed in front, not much smaller than posterior. Nasal 
quadrangular, entire, pierced in the middle of its length by the nostril. Loreal large ; one 
praeocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head; three postoculars, the lower of 
which is the largest and sometimes split into two. Nine upper labials, only the fourth enter- 
ing the orbit. Temporals 3 + 3, two of the anterior being in contact with the postoculars. 
Each maxillary is armed with twelve slender widely-set teeth, the middle of which are the 
longest ; ten or eleven teeth in each mandible, those in front being the longest, the others 
gradually decreasing in length posteriorly ; a series of fourteen similar teeth along each side 
of the palate. Brown above, sometimes uniform, sometimes with a pair of lighter dorsal 
bands, sometimes with indistinct quadrangular dark spots. Lower parts purple, marbled 
with darker, or entirely black ; a bright-yellow lateral band runs from the snout along the 
upper labials and the edge of the abdomen to the extremity of the tail. Occiput sometimes 
with a pair of yellow dots. 

This most singular snake is found in the Malayan peninsula, Bengal, Assam, and Khasya, 
and grows to a length of above 2 feet, the tail measuring one-fourth. It is not numerous. 
It is very fierce, and attacks in a vertical attitude, but without expanding the anterior part 
of the bodv. It feeds on frogs and fishes. 



PRYMNOMIODOX, Cojje. 

Form slender, head moderately distinct. Shields of the head normal : 
two nasals, a loreal, one preeoctdar. Scales keeled, in nineteen series. 
Ventrals not angulated, about 150 in number; anal entire. Pupil round. 
Palatine teeth very little longer than pterygoids ; maxillary teeth mitiute 
posteriorly, becoming much longer anteriorly ; none grooved. 

Only one species is known. 

Prtmnomiodgn chalceus. 

Prymnomiodon chalceus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 558. 
I have not seen this snake. It is described from a single example, 12| inches long, 



HOMALOPSID.^. 275 

without tail, and said to be from Siam. Cope says that it is similar in appearance to a 
Tropidonotus, and describes it as follows : — 

" Muzzle rather narrow ; rostral i^late nearly as high as broad. Vertical rather large, its lateral borders 
converging, presenting a right angle posteriorly. Nasals equal in size. Loreal trapezoid, posterior 
inferior angle acute. Preocular not reaching vertical. Three postoculars. Eight superior labials, eye 
resting on fourth and fifth. Nine or ten inferior labials ; postgeneials sepai-ated, longer tlian the anterior. 
Scales in nineteen longitudinal rows, elongate, emarginate at the tip, those of the external row not larger 
than the others, keeled. Gastrosteges 152. 

" Olivaceous above, shading into leek-green upon the flanks, and greenish white upon the belly. A 
vertebral band of light green bordered with black extends from the occipital plates to the origin of the 
tail, involving one row and two half rows of scales. Another, narrower and paler band extends upon tlie 
third and fourth rows of scales upon each side from the neck to origin of the tail ; this band is bounded 
above by an interrupted narrow black border. Temporal region lively green, plates of liead and muzzle 
tinged with fulvous. Upper labials and preocular white : a narrow black postocular vitta." 



FAMILY OF FRESHWATER SNAKED— HOilLJLOPSW^. 

Body of moderate length, cylindrical or slightly compressed ; head rather 
thick, hroad, not very distinct from neck ; tail strong', of moderate length, 
tapering, more or less prehensile and compressed at its root, especially in 
the males. Scales subequal in size, not much imbricate ; ventrals rather 
narrow, sometimes hicarinate ; anal bifid; subcaiidals two-rowed. Eve 
small. The nostrils are situated anteriorly on the upper surface of the 
head, small, provided with a valvule; the nasals are much developed, so as 
considerably to reduce the anterior frontals in size, which, frequently, are 
confluent into a small single shield, or, if double, are very small, triangular. 
The other shields of the head also frequently deviate from the arrangement 
typical in the Colubrine Snakes. Cleft of the mouth of moderate width. 
All the Indian freshwater snakes of this fiimily have a grooved fang- at the 
hinder extremity of the maxillary bone. 

The snakes of this family are thoroughly aquatic, and are only occasionally found on 
the beach ; several of them even enter the sea, and in several points of their organization 
approach the truly marine snakes, with which they have been associated in Gray's system. 
They may easily be recognized by the position of the nostrils on the top of the snout, 
which enables them to breathe by raising but a very small part of their head out of the 
water; it is the same arrangement as that in the Crocodiles, Sea-snakes, and other aquatic 

2 n2 



276 OPHIDIA. 

animals. Many have a distinctly prehensile tail, by means of which they hold on to pro- 
jecting objects. Their food consists entirely of fish, and, in a few species, of Crustacea also. 
All of them appear to be viviparous, and the act of parturition is performed in the water. 
They do not grow to any considerable size, are of a gentle disposition, and their bite would 
be by no means dangerous. They will not feed in captivity, and therefore die after a short 
time. 



Spiopsis of the Genera. 

* Snout without appendage. 
t Five upper labials. 

Scales smoothj iu from tweaty-five to twenty-nine series .... Fordonia, p. 276. 

Scales smooth, in nineteen series . Cantoria, p. 277. 

tt More than five upper labials ; ventrals not keeled. 

Occiput covered with scales Cei-berus, p. 278. 

Scales smooth ; one anterior frontal Hypsirhina, p. 280. 

Scales smooth ; two anterior frontals Ferania, p. 284. 

Scales keeled ; occiput shielded Homalopsis, p. 285. 

ttt Ventrals tvith two sharp ridges. 

Scales smooth Hipistes, p. 286. 

** Snout with a pair of tentacles. 

Ventrals very narrow, bicarinate Herpeton, p. 288. 



FORDONIA, Gray. 

Head depressed, short, broad, scarcely distinct from neck ; body stout, 
cylindrical ; tail rather short, tapering-, longer in males than in females, thick 
and strongly compressed in the former. Cleft of the mouth of moderate 
width, not angularly bent behind. Eye small, with vertical pupil. The 
whole upper surface of the head is shielded. Nostril directed upwards, in 
the middle of a simple nasal shield. Anterior frontal siui^le, small, in con- 
tact with the rostral. Five upper labials. Scales smooth, without apical 
groove, in from twenty-five to twenty-nine series, those of the outer series 
with truncated apex in adult specimens. Ventrals rather narrow, the two or 
three last bifid ; subcaudals two-rowed. Maxillary short, with three or four 
small teeth and with a longer grooved tooth behind ; mandibulary teeth very 
short. Viviparous. 

Only one or two species are known. 



CANTORIA ELONGATA. 277 



FORDONIA UNICOLOE. 



■ ? Homalopsis leucobalia, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 345. pi. 13. figs. 8, 9. Schleg. S^ Miill. Verhand. 
Nat. Gesch. Nederl. Overz. Bezitt., Rept. p. 61. tab. 8. 
Homalopsis leucobalia, var., Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 102. pi. 40. fig. .5 (head). 
Fordonia unicolorj Gi-ay, Viper. Snakes, p. 77. 

Scales in twenty-five or twenty-seven, rarely in twenty-nine series. Ventrals 140-156; 
subcaudals 26-37. Anterior frontal much longer than broad, rather smaller than one of the 
posterior frontals ; vertical six-sided, as long as broad, broader behind than in front ; super- 
ciliary narrow ; occipital longer than vertical, rounded behind ; nasal larger than a posterior 
frontal ; one prseocular, two postoculars. Five large upper labials, the thu-d of which enters 
the orbit. Temporals 2 + 3; only the upper anterior temporal is in contact with the post- 
oculars. Two pairs of subquadrangular short chin-shields, subequal in size. Uniform 
blackish ash above, the lower parts and the three outer series of scales whitish. 

We have received numerous examples of this species from Borneo, Ceram, and Pinang, 
where it is common in fresh waters as well as for some distance out at sea. It attains to a 
length of 25 inches, the tail measuring 3 inches. It is of sluggish, not fierce, habits. I 
have found only Crustacea in its stomach, but Cantor has found fishes also. A female dis- 
sected by me had fully developed embryos in its oviduct. 

Fordonia leucobalia, Schleg., from Timor, appears to differ in its coloration only, having 
white spots across the back. 



CANTORIA, Gircfrd. 

Body subcylindrical, deeper than broad, and very much elongated. Tall 
moderate, thick at its base and conical posteriorly. Head depressed, con- 
tinuous with the body. Mouth moderate. Eye very small. Anterior 
frontal single, in contact with the rostral. One loreal. Orbital plates con- 
stituting a complete circle around the eye. Scales moderate, smooth, shining, 
disposed in nineteen longitudinal series. 

One species. 

CaNTOEIA ELONGATA. 

Cantoria violacea, Girard, in U. S. Explor. Exped., Herpetol. xx. p. 156. pi. 11. figs. 7-10 {not 
Coronella violacea, Cantor) . 

Eyes very small. Vertical as broad as long, large ; occipitals of moderate size. Loreal 



278 OPHIDIA. 

present ; one prse-, one post-, and two sub-oculars. Five (or six ?)* upper labials. The single 
anterior temporal is large and elongate, the posterior are scale-like. Scales smooth, in nine- 
teen series. Ventrals narrow, not keeled, 278 in number, the last two di\'ided; anal bifid; 
subcaudals 64. Reddi.sh violet above, with transverse bands of small whitish dots, indistinct 
towards the tail. Uniform whitish below ; lower part of the tail marbled with brown. 

The typical specimen was obtained in the neighbourhood of Singapore ; it is 50 inches long, 
the tail measuring 6 inches. The supposition that it is identical with Coronella violacea of 
Cantor is utterly groundless, the latter species being a Simotes and having its ventral shields 
nearly a hundred less in number. 



CERBERUS, Ciivier. 

Head rather lils^h, of moderate length and width ; body cylindrical, its 
hinder part and the tail rather com])ressed. Cleft of the mouth wide, turned 
upwards behind. Eye small, with vertical pupil. Snout covered with shields, 
occiput with scales. Nostril situated on the upper side of the head between 
two nasals, the anterior of which is the larger, forming a suture with the 
corresponding nasal of the other side ; two small triangular anterior frontals ; 
eye surrounded by a ring of small ori)itals, the superciliary being well deve- 
loped ; posterior upper labials divided transversely into two. Scales keeled, 
in from twenty-one to twenty-five rows ; ventrals of moderate width ; anal 
bifid ; subcaudals two-rowed. Maxillary teeth in a continuous series, slightly 
increasing in length posteriorly, the last being grooved. Mandibulary 
teeth longest in front, decreasing in strength and more closely set behind. 
Viviparous. 

This genus extends through the whole of India, from Ceylon to the north coast of Australia. 
Only one species occurs in British India. 

* One of the figures quoted represents five upper labials, — another, more than five : both are taken 
from the same individual. 



CERBEKUS RHYNCHOPS. 279 

Cerberus rhtnchops. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. p. 43. pi. 40, i. pi. 17. 
Hydrus rhynchops, Schneid. Hist. Amph. i. p. 246. 
Elaps boaeformis, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 301. 
Hurria schneideriana, Baud. Rept. v. p. 281. 
Cerberus obtusatus, Cuv. Reyne Anim. 

cinereus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 64, and Viper. Snakes, p. C4. Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, 

p. 54. 
Homalopsis schneideri, Schleg.Phys. Serp. ii. p. 341. pi. 13. figs. 6, 7. 

rhynchops. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 94. 

Cerberus boeeformis, Dtmi. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 978. 

Scales in twenty-three or twenty-five rows*, strongly keeled. Ventrals 132-148 ; sub- 
cauclals 54-57 (-72, Cantor). The two anterior frontals together as large as one of the 
posterior; vertical generally broken up into smaller shields, sometimes perfect, elongate. 
Loreal as large as, or larger than, one posterior frontal, extending on to the upper surface of 
the snout. One prseocular, sometimes split into two ; two postoculars, one infraocular. 
Nine or ten upper labials, the fifth being below the infraocular ; some (two to four) of the 
hinder upper labials split transversely into two. Temporals scale-like. Three pairs of chin- 
shields, of which the anterior are the largest, broadest in front and tapering behind ; the 
second and third pairs are wedged in between the front pair and the lower labials. Upper 
parts blackish ash, with irregular, more or less distinct black cross bars ; the two or three 
outer series of scales yellowish. Lower parts whitish, with numerous more or less confluent 
black blotches, the black colour being generally predominant over the ground-colour, and 
sometimes throwing up short vertical bars into the yellow lateral band. Labials spotted 
with black. 

This species has a wide geographical range, as it inhabits not only the large islands of the 
East Indian archipelago, but also Ceylon, the peninsula of India, Bengal, the Malayan 
peninsula, and Siam. It is not known whether it occurs far inland ; according to Cantor it 
is numerous in the Malayan countries in rivers and estuaries, and occasionally along the sea- 
coast. Its usual size is between 2 and 3 feet, the tail being one-fifth of the total length ; 
but it attains to nearly 4 feet. The female brings forth eight living young, 7-7^ inches in 
length. 

* A single specimen from Pinang has the scales in twenty-one rows in the middle of the body. 



280 OPHIDIA. 



HYPSIRHINA, TFagler. 

Head rather depressed ; tall of moderate length, distinctly compressed at 
its root in the males. Cleft of the mouth of moderate width ; eye small. 
The whole upper surface of the head is shielded. Nostril on the u])per 
surface of the head, in a large nasal shield, the outer part of which is divided 
into two by a groove running outwards from the nostril. The nasals of both 
sides form a broad suture together behind the rostral ; only a single anterior 
frontal ; two posterior frontals. Scales smooth, without apical groove, in 
from nineteen to twenty-three series. Ventrals rather narrow ; anal bifid ; 
subcaudals two-rowed. Maxillary with a grooved tooth behind. Viviparous. 

This genus is limited to the East Indies ; the following species are known : — 

Scales in nineteen rows H. plumbea, p. 280. 

Scales in twenty-one rows; ventrals 159-166; anterior frontal iu contact with 

the loreal H. enhydris, p. 281. 

Scales iu twenty-one rows; ventrals 128; anterior frontal in contact with the 

loreal H. jagorii, p. 282. 

Scales iu twenty-one rows ; anterior frontal not in contact with the loreal . . . H. bennettii, p. 283. 

Scales in twenty-three rows H. chimnsis, p. 283. 



Hypsirhina plumbea. 

Homalopsis plimabea, Boie, Isis, 1827, xx. p. 550. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 346. pi. 13. figs. 12 &13. 

Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 101. 
Hypsirhina plumbea, Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 170. Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 66. 
Coluber plumbeus, Eyd. i>; Gerv., Voy. Favor, v. p. 73. pi. 30. fig. 1. 
Hyijsirhiua hardwickii, Gray, Lid. Zool. c. fig. ; Zool. Misc. p. 67. 

Head short, rather thick, distinct from neck ; body and tail short, stout. Scales polished, 
short, rhombic, poreless, in nineteen rows. Anterior frontal as large as one of the posterior ; 
vertical five-sided, much longer than broad, with parallel lateral margins, and with a right 
angle posteriorly ; occipitals much longer than vertical, pointed behind. Loreal rather higher 
than long ; one prseocular, just reaching to the upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. 
Eight upper labials, the eye above the fourth ; the fifth either does not enter the orbit, or 
with its anterior angle only; temporals scale-like, 1+2 + 3. Two pairs of chin-shields, of 
nearly equal length, the posterior not touching each other in the median line. Ventral 
shields 120-131 ; anal bifid; subcaudals 29-44. Each maxillary is armed with nine teeth, 
increasing in length posteriorly, and with a long posterior grooved tooth. Brownish- or 



HYPSIRHINA ENHYDEIS. 281 

greyish-olive above, uniform or with an irregular dorsal series of small black spots. The 
two or three outer series of scales yellowish, each scale spotted or edged with brown ; lips 
and lower parts yellowish ; a black central zigzag line along the subcaudals. 

This species is not common, but widely spread, inhabiting Java, Borneo, Celebes, Formosa, 
the southern parts of China, Pachebone, and the Malayan Peninsula. It attains to a lengtli 
of 21 inches, the tail measuring 2| inches. 



Hypsirhina ENHYDEIS. (Plate XXII. figs. K, K'.) 

Mutta Pam, Ally Pam, Russell, Ind. Serp. i. p. 35. pi. 30. 

Hydrus enhydris, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 245. 

Homalopsis aer*, Boie, Ms, 1827, p. 550. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 347. pi. 13. figs. 10 & 11 . 

Hypsirhina aer, JVagl. Syst. Amph. p. 170. Ch-ay, Viper. Snakes, p. 73. 

Coluber aer, Eydoux ^ Gerv., Voy. Favor, v. p. 74. pi. 30. figs. 2 & 3. 

Hypsirhina trilincata, bilineata, et furcata, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 66. 

Homalopsis olivaceus, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 99. 

Hypsirhina enhydris, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 946. 

Homalopsis enhydris, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 99. 

This is a very variable species as regards form. Sometimes it is slender, with a thin 
neck and narrow, elongate head; sometimes stout, with a somewhat slender neck and a 
triangular head : the former appear to be males, the latter females. But intermediate forms 
also occur. The scales are short, rhombic or rounded, without apical groove, constantly in 
twenty-one series. Anterior frontal much broader than long, in contact with the loreal ; 
vertical elongate. Loreal square, or longer than high ; one prgeocular, just reaching to the 
upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the eye being above the 
fourth. Temporals scale-like, l-j-2 + 3. Two pairs of chin-shields, the posterior rather 
longer than the anterior, and not touching each other in the median line. Ventral shields 
159-166 ; subcaudals 62-69. Each maxillary is armed with sixteen teeth, subequal in 
length, the last being stronger and grooved. Brownish olive above, the three outer series of 
scales and the belly whitish ; a blackish line along each margin of the belly. 

Var. a. Back without bands, and belly without spots. 

Var. /3. Back with two light longitudinal bands, convergent on the head ; a brownish-red 
streak within the white lateral streak ; belly without spots : //. furcata, Gray ; //. bilineata. 
Gray. 

Var. y. Back mth or without bands ; belly with a central series of brown dots : II. tri- 
lineata. Gray. 

This species is found in most parts of the East Indies, in Java, Borneo, the Malayan 
Peninsula, on the coast of Tenasserim, in Siam, Bengal, China, and, according to Jerdon, in 
Southern India; it attains to a length of 28 inches, the tail measuring 5 J inches. Cantor 
has made the following observations on living specimens : — 

* From a name, Oulur oyer, given by the Javanese to this species. 



282 OPHIDIA. 

" Numbers of this species may be seen in rivers, as well as in irrigated fields and estuaries, preying upon 
fishes, which, however, it refuses in a state of captivity. It is of timid and peaceful habits. A large female, 
after having been confined upwards of six months in a glass vessel filled with water, brought forth eleven 
young ones. During the process she lay motionless at the bottom of the vessel ; the anterior part of the 
abdomen was retracted towards the vertebral column, while the muscles of the posterior part were in 
activity. Shortly after the parturition she expired, under a few spasmodic movements ; and also two of the 
young ones died in the course of about two hoiu's, after having, like the rest, shed the integuments. In 
length they varied from 6 inches to 6f . The living nine presented a most singular appearance : they 
remained a little way below the surface of the water, coiling themselves round the body of an adult male 
which was also kept in the vessel, occasionally lifting their heads above the siu'face to breathe, at the same 
time resisting the efforts of the senior to free himself. Fishes and aquatic insects were refused, in conse- 
quence of which the young ones expired from inanition in the course of less tlxan two months." 

We have figured the heads of two specimens, each in three views, to show the great 
differences of form. One (fig. K) is taken from the typical specimen of Hypsirhina Mlineata, 
Gray, from China; the other (fig. K') from a specimen collected by Griffith, probably in 
Khasya. 



Hypsirhina jagoeii. 

Hypsirhina jagorii, Peters, in Monatsber. Berl. Acad. 1863, p. 245. 

Head narrow, elongate, depressed, rather distinct from neck, which is thin but short; 
trunk short, thick ; tail somewhat compressed at its root. Eye small, prominent, with per- 
fectly round pupil. Scales polished, short, rounded, mthout apical groove, in twenty-one 
row^s, those of the outer series twice as large as the dorsal scales. Anterior frontal much 
broader than long, in contact with the loreal ; posterior frontals small. Vertical five-sided, 
not quite twice as long as broad, pointed behind ; occipitals small, rounded, not much longer 
than vertical. Loreal subpentagonal ; one prseocular, extending on to the upper surface of 
the head ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the fourth below the eye ; temporals scale- 
like, 1 -|- 2 + 3. Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior of which are the largest, the posterior 
being separated from each other by two longitudinal series of scales. Ventrals 128; sub- 
caudals 66 {Peters). Each maxillary is armed with a series of seven longish, closely-set 
teeth, at some distance behind which there is a somewhat stronger and grooved tooth. 
Brownish grey above, many isolated scales black ; the third outer series of scales and the 
adjoining halves of the second and fourth yellowish white ; the outermost series and the 
adjoining parts of the second and of the ventral shields blackish ; many scales of the outer- 
most series and the middle of the ventrals white. 

A single specimen was sent by M. Mouhot from Siam; it is 12^ inches long, without the 
tail, which is injured. 

Although our specimen differs in the coloration from that described by Peters, I have no 
doubt that both belong to the same species. The latter is said to have broad, bluish-black 



HYPSIRHINA CHINENSIS. 283 

cross bands on the sides, alternating with narrow yellow ones which either extend on to the 
other side across the belly, or alternate witli the opposite bands. A series of large, rhombic 
dark spots along the back. This specimen also was from Siam. 



Hypsirhina bennettii. 



3/. 



Hypsirhina bennettii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 67 

maculata, Dum. ^ Bibr. Erpet. gen. vii. p. 950. 

Head rather narrow, not very distinct from the neck, which is slender ; body and tail of 
moderate length. Scales polished, short, rhombic, in twenty-one series. Anterior frontal 
very small, half as large as a posterior, not in contact with the loreal. Vertical five-sided, 
elongate, pointed behind ; occipitals not much longer than vertical. Loreal quadrangular ; 
one prse-, two post-oculars. Seven upper labials, the fourth entering the orbit. Temporals 
1+24-3. Three pairs of chin-shields, the anterior being the largest and the middle the 
smallest ; the shields of the two hinder pairs do not touch each other in the median line. 
Ventrals 158-161 ; sub caudals 47-51. Each maxillary is armed with from twelve to thirteen 
teeth, the last being somewhat stronger and grooved. Brownish grey above, with numerous 
irregular transverse black spots ; the three outer series of scales and the belly are whitish ; 
each ventral shield y, ith three black dots, one on each side and one in the middle, and with 
anterior blackish margin. 

This species appears to be peculiar to China, and attains to a length of 21 inches, the tail 
measuring 3f inches. 



Hypsirhina chinensis. 

Hypsirhina chinensis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 73. 

Head of moderate width and length ; neck more or less slender ; body rather stout, its 
hinder part and the tail compressed. Scales in twenty-three rows, without apical groove ; 
ventrals 150 ; subcaudals 44-45. Anterior frontal sometimes square, sometimes broader 
than long, as large as one of the posterior frontals ; vertical twice, or more than twice, as 
long as broad. Seven upper labials, the fourth entering the orbit. Temporals not much 
larger than the scales, 3+2 + 3. Blackish ash above, with irregular series of small black 
spots; the second and third outer series of scales white, the outermost blackish; belly 
whitish, clouded with blackish on the anterior and outer margrins of each ventral shield. 



'O"^ 



The larger of our specimens is 16| inches long, the tail measuring 2^ inches; they are 
from China. 



2o2 



284 OPHIDIA. 

FERANIA, Gray. 

Head short, thick ; body stout, compressed ; tail of moderate length ; 
cleft of the mouth of moderate width ; eye small, with vertical pupil. The 
whole upper surface of the head is shielded. Nostril on the upper surface 
of the head, in a large nasal shield, the outer part of which is divided into 
two by a groove running outwards from the nostril. The nasals of both 
sides form a broad suture together, behind the rostral ; two very small 
anterior frontals. Scales smooth, without apical groove, in twenty-seven 
series. Ventrals rather narrow ; anal bifid ; subcaudals two-rowed. Maxil- 
lary with a grooved tooth behind. 

Only one species is known. 

Ferania sieboldii. 

Homalopsis sieboldii, Schleg. Phys. Serp. p. 349. pi. 13. figs. 4 & 5. Cant. Mai. Rept. p. 98. 
Ferania sieboldii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. Q>7. 
Trigonurus sieboldii, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 960. 

Body stout and compressed ; head thick, broad, short, rather distinct from neck ; tail 
rather short. Anterior frontals small, triangular, half as large as posterior ; vertical longer 
than broad, five-sided, with parallel lateral margins and with a right angle behind ; occipitals 
but little longer than vertical, rounded behind. Loreal rather larger than an anterior frontal ; 
one prse-, two post-oculars. Eight rather high upper labials, the fourth entering the orbit ; 
temporals scale-like, 1 + 2-1-3. Anterior chin-shields convergent behind, in contact with four 
lower labials ; the posterior chin-shields are small, scale-like, intercalated between the anterior 
and the lower labials. Scales elongate-ovate, in twenty-seven series. There are about six 
transverse series of scales between the chin-shields and the first ventral. Ventrals 147-156 ; 
subcaudals 48-55. Each maxillary is armed %vith seven equal teeth and with a longer pos- 
terior grooved tooth. White, with about thirty-two very large, rounded, brown, black-edged 
spots, the interspaces between them being narrow. A series of rather irregular, triangular 
black spots along the lower part of the side, these spots alternating with the rounded ones ; 
belly checkered with black. The white ground-colour appears on the upper part of the head 
in the shape of two lines, diverging from the muzzle over the eyes to the sides of the head. 
From each side of the vertical shield a line diverging towards the head. Old examples have 
the head uniform brown. 

A rare species, from Bengal and from the province Wellesley. It attains to a length of 
25 inches, the tail measuring 4 inches. 



HOMALOPSIS BUCCATA. 285 

HOMALOPSIS. 

Homalopsis, sp., Kuhl. 

Head rather depressed, flat, triangular, distinct from neck ; body stout, 
cylindrical ; tail of moderate length, tapering. Cleft of the mouth wide, 
turned upwards behind. Eye small, with vertical pupil. The whole upper 
surface of the head shielded. Nostril situated on the upper surface of the 
head, in a single nasal shield, the outer part of which, however, is divided 
into two by a groove commencing from the nostril and running outwards. 
The two nasals form a broad suture together behind the rostral ; anterior 
frontal single, small (exceptionally divided) ; eye surrounded by a ring of 
small orbitals, the superciliary being well developed. Posterior upper labials 
transversely divided into two or three. Scales striated and keeled, in from 
thirty-seven to forty-seven series ; ventrals rather narrow ; anal bifid ; sub- 
caudals two-rowed. Maxillary teeth subequal in size, the last being grooved ; 
mandibulary teeth longest in front, decreasing in strength and more closely 
set behind. Viviparous. 

Only one species is found in British India. 

HOMALOPSIS BUCCATA. 

Coluber buccatus, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 377. 
Russell, ii. p. 39. pi. 33 (young). 

Homalopsis buccata, (Kuhl) Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 337. pi. 13. figs. 1-3. Gray, Viper. Snakes, 
p. 67. Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 968. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 96. 

hardwickii, Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 67. 

semizonata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1856, xxiv. p. 187. 

Pythonia (!) semizonata, Blyth, I. c. xxviii. p. 297. 

Scales in thirty-seven, thirty-nine, forty-one, forty-five, or forty-seven series, keeled. Ven- 
trals 160-171 ; subcaudals 70-84. The single anterior frontal is broader than long, smaller 
than one of the posterior, its hinder margins being longer than the anterior ; vertical gene- 
rally transversely split. Occipitals subtriangular, as broad as long. Loreal much longer 
than high, sometimes divided into two. One or two prseoculars, two postoculars ; infraocular 
very narrow, irregular in shape. Upper labials high, the fifth or the sixth being below the 
infraorbital ; there is a longitudinal groove between the upper labials and the shields above 
them ; all the hinder upper labials are divided into two or three by transverse sutures. 
Temporals 1+2, scale-like. Three pairs of chin-shields, the anterior of which are the 



286 OPHIDIA. 

largest, broadest in front and tapering behind ; the second and third pairs are wedged in 
between the front pair and the lower labials, and they do not extend further backwards than 
the anterior. Brownish olive, with narrow, rather irregular, greyish, black-edged cross bands ; 
a brown triangular spot on the snout, its point being directed backwards and on to the 
posterior frontals; a roundish spot on each side of the occiput; an oblique streak of the 
same colour as the spots runs from the prseocular through the eye to the side of the neck, 
sometimes joining the first blackish-brown cross band. The three or five outer series of 
scales and the belly yellowish white ; generally a series of black spots along each side of the 
abdomen : all these markings are much more distinct in young specimens. Broad blackish- 
brown cross bands, about thirty-seven in number, alternate with white ones, the width of 
which is only one-third or one-fifth of that of the brown ones. The lower parts of the tail 
are either marbled with brown or entirely black. 

This snake is found in Java, in the Malayan Peninsula, and in Gamboja; it attains to a 
length of 42 inches, the tail measuring 10 inches. Cantor says that they are sluggish in their 
movements, and on dry land very awkward ; the young ones are veiy gentle, and the old but 
seldom bite. The female brings forth six or eight living young at a time, each between 
7 and 8 inches in length. 

Homalopsis hardwickii was founded on a specimen with a divided loreal ; but this is acci- 
dental in that individual, as specimens may be observed which have one loreal on one side 
and two on the other; the infraorbital of that specimen is somewhat naiTower than is 
usually the case. 

Pythonia semizonata, Blyth, is e\-idently founded on a specimen of this very common 
species, but which, accidentally, had some of the shields of the head and the last ventral 
shields divided. 



HIPISTES, Gray. 

Head short, dejiressed, distinct from neck ; neck rather slender ; body of 
moderate length ; tail stout, compressed, tapering. Cleft of the mouth of 
moderate width, somewhat turned upwards behind ; eye very small, directed 
upwards, with vertical pupil. The whole upper surface of the head is 
shielded : nostril on the upper surface of the head, in a single nasal shield, 
the outer part of which, however, is divided into two by a groove running- 
outwards from the nostril. The nasals are separated from each other by a 
single narrow anterior frontal shield, which forms a suture with the rostral ; 
two posterior frontals. Scales smooth, in thirty-nine series. Ventrals rather 



HIPISTES HYDRINUS. 287 

narrow, divided into three portions by a pair of sharp lateral ridges, the 
central portion beiny; much the largest ; anal bifid ; subcaudals two-rowed. 
Maxillary with a grooved tooth behind ; two or three strong teeth in the 
palatine series. 

Only one species is known. 

HiPiSTES HYDRINUS. (Plate XXIV. fig. H.) 

Homalopsis hydrinus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 104. fig. 4 (head). 
Hipistes fasciatus, Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 78. 
Bitia hydroideSj Gray, I. c. p. 63. 

Rostral shield small, as high as long ; anterior frontal short, cuneiform, broadest behind, 
much longer than broad; posterior frontals very small, hexagonal; vertical bell-shaped, 
elongate, broadest behind ; supraciliaries elongate ; two pairs of small occipitals, one pair 
behind the other, with a small central shield; sometimes the occipitals are more irregularly 
arranged. Nasal shield nearly twice as large as a posterior frontal, with the nostril behind its 
middle. Loreal large, subquadrangular ; one prseocular, extending on to the upper surface 
of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; two postoculars, the lower of which is the larger, 
extending forwards and meeting the prsBocular. Seven upper labials, the fourth being below 
the suture between the prae- and post-ocular ; the fifth, sixth, and seventh are the largest, 
higher than long. Temporals 2 + 3, the anterior being in contact with the postoculars, the 
posterior scale-like. One pair of long chin-shields, in contact with six lower labials. There 
are about six series of scales between the chin-shields and the first ventral. Scales smooth, 
without apical groove, elongate-ovate ; the apex of each scale, however, being turned inwards, 
and not overlapping the root of the following scale, small square grooves remain between the 
scales. The ventrals are narrow, with a sharp ridge on each side, 153-161 ; subcaudals 34-35. 
Each maxillary is armed with twelve teeth gradually increasing in length posteriorly, the last 
being grooved. Pale ash-coloured above, with a few blackish specks on the neck, and with 
about forty-eight black cross bars on the back of the trunk and tail, each about half as wide 
as the interspaces of the ground-colour. Lower parts white. 

This appears to be a semipelagic species, resembling a true Hydrophis in general appear- 
ance and colours ; its discoverer has made the following observations : — " Of three individuals 
observed, two were captured in fishing-stakes placed in the sea off the shores of Keddah ; a 
third was washed on shore by the waves on the coast at Pinang. The largest male was 
19f inches long, the tail measuring 2| inches. It moved actively and without difficulty on 
the sand, and did not offer to bite. In one examined the stomach contained remains of two 
small pelagic fishes." It appears to be a scarce snake. 

We have given two views of the head, and figures of portions of the trunk and belly, to 
show the peculiar structure of the shields and scales, and the coloration. The figures are of 
the natural size. 



288 OPHIDIA. 

HERPETON. 

Erpeton, Lacepede. 

Head depressed, of moderate length, distinct from neck ; snout termi- 
nating in two flexible, cylindrical, scaly tentacles ; body and tail rather stout, 
rounded. Cleft of the mouth of moderate width, turned upwards behind. 
Eye small, with vertical pupil. Head shielded above, with the occipitals 
well developed. Nostril on the upper side of the head, in the middle of a 
large nasal, the outer portion of which is divided by a groove running out- 
wards from the nostril. The nasals form a broad suture together ; two 
small triangular anterior frontals ; lateral shields of the head very small ; 
eye surrounded by a ring of small orbitals, the su])erciliary being well 
developed ; upper labials small ; chin-shields small, narrow % oblique. Scales 
strongly keeled, in thirty-seven series ; ventrals very narrow, each with two 
keels ; anal bifid ; subcaudals not differing from scales. Maxdlary with the 
last tooth grooved. 

Only one species is known. 

Herpeton tentaculatum. 

Erpeton tentacule, Lacep. Bull. Sri. Soc. Philom. 1800, ii. p. 169. 
Erpeton tentaculatus, Lcitr. Hist. Rept. iv. p. 190. 

Homalopsis Lerpeton, Schleg. Abbild. p. 50. pi. 16 (from a discoloured specimen). 
Herpeton tentaculatum, Giintk. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 114. pi. 23 ; and Ann. if Mag. Nat, Hist. 
1861, viii. p. 26G. 

The nasal shields form a broad suture behind the rostral, each being as large as one of the 
posterior frontals ; anterior frontals much smaller than posterior. Vertical broad, five-sided ; 
occipitals well developed, rounded behind. Small portions, however, are broken off from the 
shields mentioned, and intercalated between the regular shields ; they vary much in number 
in different individuals. 

The rostral appendages are as long as the snout, and covered with scales similar to those 
in the loreal region ; the upper labials are very small, from thirteen to fifteen in number ; 
eye surrounded by a ring of small shields. The temporal region is covered with keeled 
scales similar to those on the neck. AU the scales are keeled, in thirty-seven rows. Ventrals 
133-136, each being only twice as large as a scale. 



HERPETON TENTACULATUM. 289 

Having received specimens with the natural colours preserved, I may refer to the coloured 
figure given in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society.' The ground-colour of the broad 
back is brown or olive-brown, bordered on each side by a black line, which becomes indistinct 
posteriorly, and is more conspicuous in young specimens ; these black lines are separated 
from each other by five or six series of scales, and show button-like swellings in regular 
interspaces; transverse black lines run obliquely from one line to the other, and are most 
conspicuous on the anterior part of the trunk, whilst they appear in the. form of specks 
towards the middle of the length, entirely disappearing posteriorly. A blackish-brown band 
proceeds from the tentacle through the lower half of the eye along the side of the body to 
the end of the tail ; it occupies two or three series of scales, and is separated from another 
similar band, running along the lower part of the side, by a brownish-yellow band-like 
interspace. The lower of the blackish bands is confluent with the upper on the side of the 
vent. The lower parts are brownish yellow, with a pair of darker longitudinal streaks 
flanking the abdominal shields. There is a series of white or faint rose-coloured, posteriorly 
black-edged, spots on each side between the ventral and the lower lateral band ; they form 
very distinct and elegant markings in immature specimens, where they are continued to the 
vent, forming altogether twenty-four pairs ; some of them are opposite to those of the other 
side, others alternate with them. These spots are less bright in old specimens, and distinct 
only on the anterior part of the belly. The lower lip has a yellowish margin, and there are 
two wavy yellow lines along the throat. 

For more than half a century this snake was knovm from a single example only, and is 
still rare in collections. It has been found hitherto in the southern parts of Siam only, 
and it appears to be a local species even there. It is an aquatic snake ; and its tentacles are 
probably employed as organs of touch, under water, — perhaps to discern its food, the nature 
of which is not knoAvn. The largest specimen known is 25 inches long, the tail measuring 
6 inches. 

The intestinal tract is narrow and much convoluted ; in a specimen 25 inches long it has 
a length of 21 J inches, measured from the pyloric end of the stomach to the vent — a distance 
of 5i inches. The first portion immediately behind the stomach is slightly bent, and half an 
inch long ; then follows a large subcylindrical mass of twelve or tliirteen convolutions, only 
1| inch long, but measuring 17| inches when unfolded; the remainder of the tract is slightly 
undulated, and 3^ inches long*. 

* Prof. Peters (Monatsber. Acad. Berl. 1863, p. 247) says that Herpeton scarcely differs fi-om HypsirJiina 
■with regard to the circumvolutions of the intestinal tract. As this statement contradicts my observation, 
viz. that the Homalopsides have a simple intestinal tract, I take this opportunity of confirming the truth 
of Prof. Pcters's remark. I recollect having received, at the time I examined Herpeton, some large, 
almost fresh specimens of Fordonia, a genus distinguished from the other Homalopsides by a short 
intestinal tract, and I based on it an observation which ought to have been confirmed by the exami- 
nation of other genera. The peculiarity of the intestinal tract of Herpeton consists merely in the circum- 
volutions being concentrated into a shorter and more solid mass than in other Homalopsides [Cerberus, 
Hypslrhina, Homalopsis) . 

2P 



290 OPHIDIA. 



FAMILY OF DESERT mAKE^—PSJMMOPHW.^. 

Body and tail generally elongate, sometimes stout, rounded ; head very 
distinct from neck, narrow or thick, with the loreal region very concave. 
Scales smooth, in fifteen, seventeen, or nineteen rows ; subcaudals two- 
rowed. Cleft of the mouth wide ; nostril lateral ; eye of moderate size, 
with round or vertical puj)il. Shields of the head normal : posterior frontals 
rounded or angular behind ; vertical narrow, superciliaries prominent ; loreal 
present ; one prae-, two post-oculars. One of the four or five anterior 
maxillary teeth is longer than the others, and the last is grooved. 

Most of the species of this family belong to the fauna of tropical Africa, which also pro- 
duces a slender form {Psammophis elegans). The other species are of a stouter habit, fre- 
quenting plains, or at all events living on the ground. The family approaches in some 
respects the Dryiophidoe ; but species of the latter family may always be distinguished either 
by the green coloration, or the horizontal pupil, or the absence of a long anterior maxillary 
tooth. 

The Indian species belong to two genera : — 

Body more or less slender Psammophis, p. 290. 

Body rather stout Psammodynastes, p. 292. 



PSAMMOPHIS, Boie. 

Body and tail elongate ; head with a rather long and pointed snout ; loreal 
region concave, superciliaries prominent. Shields of the head regular : ver- 
tical long and narrow ; loreal elongate. Scales lanceolate, smooth, flat, in 
from fifteen to nineteen rows. Anal bifid. Pupil round. Maxillary with 
the fourth or fifth tooth elongate, and with the last tooth grooved ; front 
teeth of the lower jaw long. 

One species of this African genus is found in British India. 



PSAMMOPHIS CONDANARUS. 291 

PSAMMOPHIS CONDANARUS. 

Condanarouse, Russell, Ind. Serp. i. p. 32. tab. 27 (not good). 

Coluber condanarus, Merr. Tentam. p. 108. 

Psammophis condanarius, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 293. 

Psammophis taeniata, Gibith. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, ix. p. 126. 

Leptophis? bellii?, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. p. 529. 

Psammophis indicus, Beddome, Madr. Quart. Journ. Med. Sci. vol. v. 

Body and tail slender, rather compressed ; head elongate-triangular, rather pointed in front, 
distinct from neck. Eye of moderate size, with round pupil. Rostral shield as high as broad ; 
anterior frontals small, subtriangular, with the front obliquely truncated, as long as broad ; 
posterior frontals rather large, longer than broad, rounded behind, scarcely extending down- 
wards on the side of the head. Vertical narrow, elongate, as long as the occipitals, which 
are rounded behind. Nostril in the middle between two shields ; loreal quadrangular, twice 
as long as high ; one prseocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not 
reaching to the vertical ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth entering 
the orbit. Temporals l-f-3-|-3. Scales lanceolate, smooth, with a minute apical groove, in 
seventeen rows. Ventrals 176-182, without keel, bent upwards on the sides; anal bifid; 
subcaudals 80-90. The fifth or fourth maxillary tooth is long and strong ; a series of from 
five to six small teeth between this tooth and the last grooved tooth ; lower jaw with two 
pairs of strong teeth in front. Back brown, with a black edge along each side ; a brown, 
black-edged band along the second outer series of scales, separated from the back by a 
brownish-grey band, and from the belly by a yellow one. Belly yellow, with a black line 
along each side. Head uniform light brown above ; a yellow, black-edged streak runs from 
the rostral shield along the canthus rostralis, above the orbit to the neck ; a second along 
the upper half of the labial shields. After the loss of the epidermis in preserved specimens, 
the dark-brown bands appear of a bluish-olive colour. 

Russell's specimen was from Ganjam : we have lately received one from Chillianwallah : 
Beddome found it on the Nullay Mullay Hills (Kurnool District). It attains to a length of 
40 inches, the tail measuring 8^ inches. 

A drawing in the possession of Walter Elliott, Esq., representing our snake, and named 
Leptophis bellii, has helped me to identify Mr. Jerdon's " Leptophis 1 belliil" — a circumstance 
which must be mentioned in order to explain how it was possible to recognize it. Mr. Jerdon 
observes that he procured one specimen in a grassy plain at Falna. " It had killed and was 
swallowing a small Vipera echis." This is, perhaps, the only instance ever heard of, in which 
a non-venomous snake overpowered a venomous species. 



2 p2 



292 OPHIDIA. 

PSAMMODYNASTES, Gthr 

Body and tall rather stout ; head with the snout short, and with the front 
part of the lips swollen ; loreal region concave, superciliaries prominent. 
Shields of the head regular : anterior frontals very small ; vertical narrow, 
elongate ; one nasal, pierced by the nostril. Scales short, rhombic, smooth, 
without apical groove, in seventeen rows ; anal entire. Pupil elliptic, erect. 
Anterior teeth in both jaws long, posterior maxillary tooth grooved. 

Only two species* are known, one of which occurs in British India. 



PSAMMODTKASTES PULVEEULENTUS. 

Psammophis pulverulenta, Boie, his, 1827, p. 547. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 211. pi. 8. figs. 10 

& 11 ; and Abbild. tab. 4.3. figs. 1-4. 
Dipsas femiginea, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 53. Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. 

p. 293; xxiv. p. 715. 
Psammodyiiastes pulverulentus, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 140. 

Head short, thick, with the canthus rostralis and the superciliaries prominent, and with 
the front part of the upper lips swollen ; body rather stout, tail rather short. Rostral shield 
small, rather broader than long ; anterior frontals very small, triangular ; posterior frontals 
small, rounded behind ; superciliaries much larger than vertical ; occipitals rounded behind. 
Loreal as high as long ; two praeoculars : the upper is large, extending on to the upper surface 
of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; the lower is very small, and sometimes quite rudi- 
mentaiy ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the thu-d, fourth, and fifth of which enter the 
orbit. Temporals rather irregular, generally 2 -(- 3 -}- 3. Three pairs of chin-shields, the middle 
of which are the smallest. Ventrals 146-167; subcaudals 50-59. Each maxillary is armed 
with fifom eight to nine teeth, the first or second of which is long and strong, the last grooved. 
The gi'ound-coloiu' is always very dark, dotted and speckled with black ; the lower parts are 
lighter, the dots forming spots, which are arranged in two or three or more longitudinal 
series ; the upper surface of the head generally mth symmetrical dark longitudinal streaks. 
Sometimes the whole snake is black ; sometimes a broad dark band runs along the side of 
the body, — the back, above the band, being of a lighter coloration. Other specimens show a 
vertebral series of large rhombic pale spots, the spots being either entire, or broken up into 
two ; these specimens have also a white streak on each side of the head. 

This snake has a very repulsive aspect: its dark, undefined colours, short and thick head, 
and swollen lips, caused by large hidden fangs, give it the appearance of a venomous snake ; it 

* Ps. pictus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 251. Borneo. 



GONYOSOMA, 293 

remains small, the largest specimen I have seen being only 21 inches long, the tail measuring 
4^ inches. It has a wide geographical range, occurring in Khasya, Sikkim, Assam, Pegu, 
Mergui, Cochinchina, Sumatra, Java, and the Philippine Islands. 



FAMILY OF TREE SNAKED— DENDROPHWyE. 

Body and tail much compressed or very slender and elongate ; head 
generally elongate, narrow, flat, depressed, distinct from the slender neck ; 
snout rather long, obtuse or rounded in front ; cleft of the mouth wide ; 
nostril lateral ; eye of moderate size or large, with round pupil. Shields of 
the head normal. Scales generally narrow and much imbricate ; ventral 
shields generally with two keels, rising on the sides ; subcaudals two-rowed. 
No large fang either in front or in the middle of the upper jaw. 

The snakes of this family are diurnal species, liAing in trees, and feeding chiefly on tree- 
lizards ; they are found in all the tropical regions. The Indian species belong to the follomng 



Vertebral scales not enlarged ; no grooved tooth ; one prseocular, two nasals. Gonyosoma, p. 293. 

Vertebral scales not enlarged ; no grooved tooth; two prseoculars, one nasal. Phyl/ophis, p. 295. 

A vertebral series of larger scales Dendrophis, p. 296. 

A grooved tooth behind Chrysopelea, p. 298. 



GONYOSOMA, TFa(/Ier. 

Body and tail elongate, strongly compressed, with more than 200 keeled 
ventral shields ; head flat above, with the snout more or less elongate, 
distinct from neck ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil. Shields of the 
head regular : loreal sometimes absent ; one anterior, two posterior oculars ; 
two nasals. Scales not much elongate, smooth or very faintly keeled. Anal 
bifid. Teeth subequal in size, none grooved. 

The species known are East Indian ; the following occur in British India : — 

Scales in twenty-five rows G. oxycephalum. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; loreal shield present G. gramineum. 

Scales in nineteen rows ; loreal none G. frcenaium. 



294 OPHIDIA. 

GONYOSOMA OXTCEPHALUM. 

Coluber oxyceplialus, Boie, his, 1827, p. 537. 

Gonyosoma viride, Wagl. Icon. tab. 9. 

Hcrpetodryas oxyceplialus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. p. 189. pi. 7. figs. 8 & 9; and Abbild. taf. 44. 

figs. 1-9. Cantor, Mai. Kept. p. 80. 
Alopecophis chalybseus, Gi-ay, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1849, iv. p. 247. 
Gonyosoma oxyceplialum, Bum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 213. 
? Aepidea robusta, Halloivell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1860, p. 488. 

Scales in twenty-five rows, rather elongate and pointed, smooth, with a pair of apical 
grooves. Anterior frontals as broad as long, one-third the size of posterior. Vertical large, 
very broad anteriorly ; occipitals rounded behind. Loreal very elongate ; one large prse- 
orbital, in contact with the vertical ; two postorbitals, the lower rather smaller than the 
upper. Two labials enter the orbit ; there are four or five before, and three or four behind, 
the orbit. Ventrals 236-263; anal bifid; subcaudals 138-149. Sea-green, paler below; 
a blackish line runs from the nostril to the angle of the mouth ; tail generally ochre-brown, 
separated from the trunk by a yellow ring. Sometimes entirely green. 

This snake occurs in many of the large islands of the Archipelago — Java, Celebes, Borneo, 
the Philippines, — at Pinang, and in Tenasserim. We have a specimen 82 inches long, the tail 
measuring 19 inches. It is described as exceedingly strong and fierce, defending itself fero- 
ciously when attacked. It raises nearly the anterior third vertically from the ground before 
it strikes. The form and colour of the body clearly indicate its thoroughly arboreal habits. 



Gonyosoma gramineum. (Plate XXIII. fig. D.) 

Body and tail rather elongate, strongly compressed; head flat, very distinct from neck, 
with the snout of moderate length. Eye of moderate size, with round pupil; nostril an 
oblique slit between two nasals. Scales smooth, with tw^o apical grooves, not elongate, in 
nineteen rows. Rostral shield as high as broad, rounded above, just reaching the upper sur- 
face of the head ; anterior frontals subquadrangular, ratlier broader than long, half as large 
as posterior; vertical five-sided, much longer than broad, with the lateral margins slightly 
convergent, and with an obtuse angle behind ; occipitals truncated behind. Loreal square ; 
prseocular extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; 
two postoculars ; nine upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit ; 
temporals 2 + 2 + 2, scale-like, the two anterior in contact with the oculars. Two pairs of 
chin-shields, subequal in length, in contact with seven labials. Ventrals 203 ; anal bifid ; 
subcaudals 100. Each maxillary is armed with about thirteen small teeth, equal in size. 
Ventral shields keeled, bent up the sides. Upper and lateral parts uniform green, lower 
parts pale greenish ; hinder part of the tail reddish olive. 

We have seen only one example of this species, from one of Griffith's collections, and 
probably from Khasya. It is 14^ inches long, the tail measuring 3^ inches. 



PHYLLOPHIS CARINATA. 295 



GONYOSOMA FR^XATUM. 



Herpetodryas frenatus, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1853, p. 390. 
Gonyosoma frenatum, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 123. 

Scales nearly smooth, only those of the dorsal series with faint keels, not elongate, in nine- 
teen rows. Rostral shield much broader than high, flat ; anterior frontals subquadrangular, 
rounded and narrow in front, rather bi'oader than long, not quite half as large as posterior ; 
posterior frontal bent downwards on the sides, in contact with the second and third labials ; 
vertical of moderate size, with a right angle behind; occipitals rounded behind. Nostril 
between two nasals; loreal none, confluent with posterior frontal. One praeocular, large, 
extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical. Two postoculars. 
Nine low upper labials, the fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the orbit. Temporals irregular : 
two in front are elongate and in contact with the postoculars. Ventral shields keeled, the 
outer portion bent up the sides, 203 ; anal bifid; subcaudals 120. Maxillary teeth equal in 
length, the anterior being rather more feeble than the posterior. Entirely grass-green, paler 
below; ventral keel whitish. A black band runs from the loreal region through the eye to 
the angle of the mouth. 

The only specimen known is fi-om Khasya ; it is 27^ inches long, the tail measuring 
7^ inches. 



PHYLLOPHIS, Gf/ir. 

Body and tail moderately elongate, strongly compressed, with more than 
200 keeled ventral shields. Snout not depressed, of moderate length ; 
supraciliary rather prominent ; head distinct from neck ; eye of moderate 
size, with round pupil. Shields of the head regular : two anterior and two 
posterior oculars ; one nasal. Scales not much elongate, keeled, in twenty- 
three rows. Anal bifid. Teeth subequal in size, none grooved. 

Only one species. 

PHYLLOPHIS CARINATA. (Plate XXI. fig. B.) 

Eostral shield not quite as high as broad ; anterior frontals subtruncated in front, more 
than half as large as posterior ; posterior frontals rather broader than long, bent downwards 
on the sides ; vertical five-sided, two-thirds as broad as long; supraciliaries not much smaller 
than vertical ; occipitals rounded behind. Nostril round, open, in an undivided shield ; 
loreal longer than high ; two praeoculars, the upper of which is the larger, and extending on to 
the upper surface of the head, but not touching the vertical ; the lower is small, intercalated 
between the third and fourth labials. Two postoculars; temporals rather irregularly 
arranged, 2 + 2 + 3, the two anterior being the largest and in contact with the postoculars. 



296 OPHIDIA. 

Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit. Two pairs of elongate chin- 
shields, the anterior being in contact with five lower labials. Scales rather strongly keeled, 
only the outermost series being composed of perfectly smooth scales. Ventrals 223; anal 
bifid ; subcaudals 97. The teeth are subequal in size, of moderate strength ; there are eleven 
in each maxillary. Upper parts uniform greenish olive (in spirits) ; a pair of black dots on 
the nape of the neck, and some very small, distant, black specks along the vertebral line. 
Lower parts uniform whitish. 

I have examined only one specimen of this new species, said to be from China; it is 
21 inches long, the head measuring 10 lines, and the tail 4| inches. 



DENDROPHIS, Boie. 

Body and tail very elongate, slender, compressed ; head rather depressed, 
oblong-, with the snout obtusely rounded in front. Eye rather large, with 
round pupil ; nostril lateral, between two nasals. Shields of the head 
regular. Scales smooth, in thirteen or fifteen rows, those of the vertebral 
series more or less enlarged, triangular or polygonal ; the other scales much 
imbricate and elongate, narrow, quadrilateral. Ventral shields keeled ; anal 
bifid. Posterior maxillary teeth not enlarged or grooved. 

The genus Lendrophis has been formed to comprise those tree-snakes which combine an 
isodont dentition with an obtuse snout and enlarged, smooth vertebral scales. Three Indian 
species {B. picta, formosa, and caudolineata) and one from Australia [L. punctulata) have 
been referred to it*. On close examination, however, it will be found that they all differ 
from each other in the dentition. First, D. formosa has a truly " syncranterian " dentition, 
its hind tooth being strong and long ; it therefore approaches that West- African form which 
I have described as BhamnopMs. In D. picta the maxillary teeth are subequal in size, but 
the lower jaw has two or three lengthened teeth anteriorly. J), caudolineata has two or 
three pairs of fang-like teeth above and below, and the last maxillary tooth is not enlarged. 
Finally, D. punctulata has no longer teeth anteriorly in either of the jaws, and the last 
maxillary tooth is not longer, but rather stronger, than the preceding. 

Two species are found in British India : — 

Scales in fifteen rows D. [ncta. 

Scales in thirteen rows Z). caudolineata. 

* Dr. van Bleeker's collection of Indian lleptiles contains a Dendrophis dumerilii, wliich, however, is 
identical with Xene/aphis hexahonotus. Although I am not aware that Dr. Bleeker lias published a 
description of it, I would not omit to mention it here, as I may have o\erlooked the description. 



DENDEOPHIS CAUDOLINEATA. 297 

Dendrophis picta. 

Coluber pictus, Chn. Syst. Nat. \. p. 1116. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. tab. 25 & 26. 

Coluber decorus, Shmv, Zool. iii. p. 538. 

Leptophis mauiar, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 329. 

Alisetulla bellii, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

Dendrophis boii, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 53. 

picta, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 228. pi. 9. figs. 5-7. Giinth. Coliibr. Snakes, p. 148. 

Leptophis pictus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 83. 

Scales smooth, elongate, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series being considerably 
larger than the others, and sometimes of a hexagonal form. Ventral shields 160-187; 
anal bifid; subcaudals 100-150. Loreal narrow and elongate ; one prseocular, extending on 
to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; two, sometimes three, post- 
oculars ; nine upper labials ; maxillary teeth subequal in size ; the two or three anterior 
teeth of the lower jaw distinctly longer than the others. Eye of moderate size. Bronze 
or brown above, sometimes with a yellow vertebral line on the front part of the trunk ; 
a yellow band runs along each side, along the outer series of scales, and has a black or 
blackish edge either below, or above and below — the upper black margin being the continu- 
ation of a black band which commences behind the eye. Lower parts white or yellow. 

This tree-snake is one of the most common species in almost every part of the East Indies. 
Variations occur not only in the coloration, but also in the form of the shields of the head 
and of the vertebral scales. In specimens from Siam the occipitals are obtusely rounded 
behind, in those from Ceylon somewhat pointed and divergent. The temporal shields vary 
much in number and shape. 

Its food consists of lizards and frogs. When old it is rather ferocious and bites readily ; 
it attains to a length of 4 feet, the tail being not quite one-third. 



Dendrophis caudolixeata. 

Ahsetulla caudolineata. Gray, Ind. Zool. c. tab. 
Leptophis caudalineatus. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 85. 
Dendrophis octolineata, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 201. 

picta. Motley if Dillwyn, Labuan, p. 46. 

caudoliueata, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 150. 

Scales smooth, elongate, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series scarcely larger than 
the others; those on the neck with a single apical groove. Ventral shields 183-188; anal 
bifid; subcaudals 105-110. Occipitals rounded behind. Loreal narrow, rather elongate; 
one prseocular, extending on to the upper surface of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; 
two postoculars. Nine upper labials, the fifth and sixth forming the lower part of the 
orbit. Temporals large, 2 + 2, the two anterior in contact with the oculars; there is gene- 
rally a small piece detached from the lower anterior temporal, situated immediately behind 

2q 



298 OPHIDIA. 

the lower postocular. The two or three anterior teeth in both jaws are elongate and much 
stronger than the following. Light brownish bronze, with two black bands running from a 
short distance behind the head along the lower part of the side to the tip of the tail. Four- 
narrower black lines commence on the posterior half of the back, and terminate at the root 
of the tail, whence commences a single central black band. Pale yellow beneath ; a black 
line along the middle of the lower surface of the tail. 

This species is found at Pinang, Singapore, and in Borneo, and attains to a length of 5 feet, 
the tail being one-fourth. 



CHRYSOPELEA, Boie. 

Body and tail very elongate, slender, and compressed ; back rounded ; head 
depressed, oblong, with the snout obtusely rounded In front. Eye rather 
large, with round pupil ; nostril lateral, between two nasals. Shields of the 
head regular (the loreal exceptionally confluent with the frontal) ; upper 
labials low. Scales not much elongate, rhombic, in fifteen or seventeen 
rows ; the ventral shields have very sharp lateral keels, and appear to be 
formed of three pieces, separated by a notch in the hind margin ; the lateral 
])ieces are the smaller and erect ; anal bifid. The maxillary is armed with a 
series of teeth subequal in size, and with a longer posterior tooth, which is 
grooved ; the anterior mandibulary teeth longer than the others. 

With the exception of one West- African species, the others are East Indian ; one or two 
of the latter inhabit British India : — 

Scales smooth, in seventeen rows C. ornata. 

Scales smooth, in fifteen rows C. rubescens. 

Chrysopelea oenata. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. tab. 2. 

Coluber ornatus, Shaw, Zool. ill. p. 477. 

Chrysopelea omata et Ch. paradisi, Boie, Isis, 1827, pp. 546, 547. 

Dendrophis ornata, Schleg. Phys. Serp. p. 234. pi. 9. figs. 8-10, & Abbild. p. 18. taf. 6. 

Leptophis ornatus. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 87. 

Chrysopelea ornata, Dum. £(• Bibr. vii. p. 1042. Gilnth. Catal. Colubr. Snakes, p. 146. 

Dendrophis paradisei. Motley ^ Dillwyn, Labuan, p. 46 c. fig. opt. 

Scales smooth, with two apical grooves, broader on the back than on the sides, in seventeen 



CHRYSOPELEA RUBESCENS. 299 

rows. Ventrals 180-236 ; anal bifid; subcaudals 96-147. Head black above, with yellow 
cross bands ; body beautifully ornamented with regular yellow or black markings, the 
arrangement of which is subject to great variation. 

Var. a. The black colour is predominant, each scale having a yellow central spot ; the 
yellow bands on the head are numerous and frequently broken up into spots : I have seen 
specimens of this variety from Pinang, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippine Islands. 

Var. (B. The yellow colour is predouiinant, each scale being yellow veith a narrow black edge 
and with a median black streak, the streaks forming longitudinal lines : Siam, Khasya, &c. 

Var. y. The black colour is predominant, each scale having a yellow central spot ; these 
spots are larger on the back, forming a series of tetrapetalous flowers; five or six yellow 
cross bands on the head, some of which are broken up into spots : Malabar, Java, Borneo. 

Var. S. Much like var. j3, but back with pairs of black cross bars ; abdomen yellow, each 
ventral shield with a black lateral spot : Bengal, Khasya, Cochinchina, Anamallay Mountains, 
Ceylon. 

Var. e. Back red, with pairs of black cross bars, the bands of each pair being separated 
from each other by a narrow yellowish interval. Sides brown, with irregularly scattered black 
dots. Belly dark green, the outer portion of each ventral shield being yellow, with a blackish 
spot. A yellow, black-edged cross band between the hinder angles of the orbits ; a similar 
band across the extremities of the occiput: Borneo. All these specimens are of small size*. 

Var. C Greyish olive, with narrow, serrated, equidistant black cross bands ; head black 
above, with numerous yellow cross bauds : two specimens from Ceylon are of small size and 
evidently immature. 

It will be seen from the notes given above that this most beautiful of all snakes has a 
wide geographical range on the continent as well as in the Archipelago ; but it appears 
to be limited to the tropical parts, as we have never received it from China nor from the 
Himalayas, except from Khasya. It attains to a length of more than 4 feet, the tail being 
one-fourth or rather more. Cantor says that it is but seldom seen in treesf ; that it is more 
frequently found on the ground, in the grass, watching for lizards and frogs ; that it differs 
from other tree-snakes in its being ■without the power of compressing and expanding the 
anterior part of the body, and in its gentleness. Dillwyn, on the other hand, describes the 
capture of one, clinging in a most extraordinary manner upon the trunk of a large tree, head 
downwards, and without any visible means of supporting itself; when it came down it climbed 
up another small tree with wonderful speed. I found geckoes in its stomach. 



Chrysopelea kubescens. 

Dipsas rutescens, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

? Leptophis rubescens, Bhjth, Joirrn. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 293. 

Chrj'sopelea rubescens, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 145. 

Scales smooth, narrow, with two apical grooves, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral 

* A specimen of this variety is called " Chrysopelea hasseltii " in Dr. P. v. Bleeker's collection, 
t Probably because it makes too rapid a retreat to be seen. 

2 Q 2 



300 OPHIDIA. 

series somewhat larger than the others. Ventrals 187-225 , anal bifid ; subcaudals 108-146. 
Rostral shield much broader than high ; anterior frontals rounded in front, half as large as 
posterior. Vertical sub triangular, broad in front, narrow in the middle, witli the lateral 
margins very concave ; superciUaries convex, large ; occipitals rounded behind ; the two 
nasals are narrow, together as long as the loreal ; one prseocular, reaching to the vertical ; 
two postoculars. Upper labials nine, the foui-th, fifth, and sixth entering the orbit. Tem- 
porals 2 + 2-f-2 ; the two anterior the smallest, in contact with the oculars, the two posterior 
the largest. Each maxillary is armed with twelve teeth, the last of which is somewhat 
elongate and grooved ; each mandible with three or four long teeth in front, and with a 
series of smaller ones behind. Purplish above and below, minutely dotted with brown, and 
with irregular black specks. Head with symmetrical brown longitudinal markings above ; 
a brown streak from the nostril through the eye to the angle of the mouth. A very old 
specimen is nearly uniform greyish olive. 

The occurrence of this species in British India is rather doubtful. The typical specimen 
from General Hardwicke's collection is said to be from Bengal, whence it has never been 
received since ; on the other hand, specimens from Borneo perfectly agree with it. Mr. Blyth 
says that he has received it from Mergui ; bvit as he attributes to it seventeen rows of scales, 
I doubt whether he has properly identified it. Other specimens have been received from 
the Philippine Islands. It appears also to occur in Sumatra, as we have received with 
Dr. P. V. Bleeker's collection a specimen named " BendropMs sumatrana, Blkr." Their food 
appears to consist entirely of saurians (dragons, geckoes, &c.). 

The typical specimen is 30 inches long, the tail measuring 9 inches; another, from the 
Philippines, is 48 inches long, tail 15 inches. 



FAMILY OF WmV-^^AKE^—DRYIOPHID^. 

Body and tail generally excessively slender and elongate ; head very narrow 
and long, with tapering snout, ending: in a protruding- rostral shield, which 
is sometimes modified into a flexible appendage. Mouth deeply cleft ; 
nostril lateral, small ; eye of moderate size, in all the Asiatic species with a 
linear, horizontal pupil. Shields of the crown of the head normal. Scales 
very narrow, much imbricate, in from fifteen to seventeen series ; ventral 
shields without or with obsolete keels ; subcaudals two-rowed. The Asiatic 
species have a long, fang-like tooth In the middle of the maxillary, and all 
are provided with a posterior grooved tooth. 

The species of this family may be at once distinguished by their excessively slender body, 



TROPIDOCOCCYX PEEROTETI. 301 

which has been compared to the cord of a whip, by their prevalent green colour with two 
white stripes on the belly, by their horizontal pupil, indicative of their nocturnal habits, and, 
finally, by their dentition. Tropidococcyx alone approaches the Psammophides by a stouter 
habit. Their movements are awkward on the flat ground, but extremely graceful and rapid 
in their natural haunts, among the branches of trees. Whilst they retain their hold with 
a few coils of the tail, their long body enables them to reach a distant branch, or to shoot 
forth to seize a remote prey, as birds, lizards, &c. They are numerous almost everywhere 
between the tropics. The Indian species belong to the following genera : — 

Snout without appendage ; loreal none Tropidococcyx, ]). 301. 

Snout witliout appendage ; loreal present Tragops, p. 302. 

Snout with a flexible appendage Passerita, p. 305. 



TROPIDOCOCCYX, Gfhr. 

Body and tail rather slender, slightly compressed ; head rather depressed, 
with pointed snout and sharp canthus rostralis ; rostral shield not prolonged. 
Eye of moderate size, with horizontal pupil. Nostril small, lateral, in a 
single nasal. Shields of the head regnlar ; loreal none. Most of the scales 
smooth, rather elongate, in fifteen rows ; those of the vertebral series not 
enlarged. Ventral shields not keeled ; anal bifid. The fourth or fifth max- 
illary tooth enlarged, the last grooved. 

Only one species is kno^vn. 



TROPIDOCOCCYX PEEROTETI. 

Psammophis perroteti, Dum. 3j- Bibr. vii. p. 898. 

Leptophis canariensis, Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxii. p. 530. 

Dryiopliis tropidococcyx, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 157. 

Tropidococcyx peiToteti, Giinth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1860, vi. p. 428 c. fig. 

The rostral shield is rather higher than broad, slightly convex, with the upper margin 
bent backwards. Anterior frontals small, bent downwards on the sides, in contact with the 
first and second upper labial shields ; posterior frontals about three times as large as anterior, 
bent downwards on the side, in contact with the second upper labial. Vertical rather long, 
bell-shaped; occipitals much longer than broad, somewhat pointed behind, with a notch 
between the points. Nasal shield very narrow, simple, pointed behind ; the small round 
nostril is in its hinder half. Loreal none, replaced by the frontals. Praeorbital region deeply 



302 OPHIDIA. 

concave, with a sharp superciliary and rostral ridge above. One prseocular, in contact with 
the vertical ; a single postomtlar. Eight upper labials, vrith a black-coloured groove above 
them ; the first is exceptionally divided into two ; when undivided it is larger than any of 
the three following ; the fourth and fifth form the lower margin of the orbit. Temporal 
shields varying in number and size ; only one is in contact with the postocular. Two pairs 
of chin-shields, the anterior rather longer than the posterior. Scales smooth, without apical 
groove, in fifteen rows ; those on the end of the trunk are slightly keeled. Ventrals 
138-140; anal bifid; subcaudals 70-82. Each maxillary is armed with twelve teeth, the 
fourth and fifth of which are enlarged, and the last two grooved ; the four anterior teeth in 
each mandible are much longer than the others. Uniform grass-green ; lower parts yellowish ; 
a yellow streak along each side of the belly, edged with green interiorly. 

Common in North Canara ; it attains to a length of 24 inches, the tail measuring 5| 
inches. 

Judging by a figure in the possession of W. Elliott, Esq., the " Leptophis 1 nilagiricns ?, 
n. sp.," Jerdon, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxii. p. 529, would belong to this genus. The cele- 
brated Indian ornithologist describes it thus : " Green above, yellow beneath ; ventrals 140, 
subcaudals 73 ; thirteen rows of scales. Very common on the grassy hills of the Neelgher- 
ries." The figui-e mentioned does not show a lateral stripe on the belly. 



TRAGOPS, JFafjl. 

Body and tail exceedingly slender, slightly compressed ; head depressed, 
very long, with the snout long and pointed, but without rostral appendage ; 
canthus rostralis sharp ; loreal region concave. Eye of moderate size, with 
horizontal pupil; nostril small, lateral, situated in the hinder part of a single 
nasal shield. Shields of the head regular ; loreal present. Scales smooth 
or faintly keeled, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series sometimes dis- 
tinctly larger than the others. Ventral shields not, or slightly, keeled ; anal 
bifid. The fourth, fifth, or sixth maxillary tooth enlarged, the last grooved. 

I now know of three species of this genus, all occurring in British India : — 

Rostral in contact with the frontals ; ventral shields 200 or more ... 7". prasinus. 
Rostral in contact ^yith the frontals ; ventral shields about 150 . . . . T. dispar. 
Rostral separated from the frontals by the nasals T. fronticinctus. 



TRAGOPS DISPAE. 303 

Tragops prasinus. 

Dryiopliis prasina^ {Reimv.) Bote, Isis, 1827, p. 545. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 250. pi. 10. 

figs. 9-12, & Abbikl. taf. 8. figs. 1-6. Motley S^ Dillwyn, Labuan, p. 47. 
Dryinus nasutus, Bell, Zool. Journ. ii. p. 327. 
Tragops nasutus, Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 184. 
Dryinus prasinus, Cantor, Mai. Kept. p. 81. 
Tragops prasinus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 824. 

Scales smooth, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series considerably larger than the 
others. Ventrals 212-234; anal bifid; subcaudals 176-203. Rostral shield flat, subcres- 
centic, not extending on to the upper surface of the head, with a rather sharp ridge above. 
Both frontals much longer than broad ; vertical bell-shaped, elongate behind ; supraciliaries 
large, considerably broader than vertical ; occipitals as long as vertical, rounded behind. Nasal 
simple, very long and narrow, pierced by the nostril posteriorly ; from one to three loreals. 
Praeocular single, deeply grooved, joining the vertical ; two postoculars. Nine upper labials, 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit. Temporals irregular, generally two 
small ones in contact with the postoculars. The ground-colour is in some green, in others 
yellow, and, again, in others brown ; all have a yellow or white line running along each side 
of the ventral shields ; the young ones have a central ventral line besides. 

The brown variety is rather scarce, and has been considered as a distinct species, Tragops 
xanthozonius (Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. pi. 24). 

This species is very common in the East Indian archipelago and the western half of the 
continent, from Bengal to China ; we have never received it from the peninsula of Southern 
India or fi-om Ceylon. Motley and Dillwyn say that it haunts the thicker parts of the 
jungle where there is much low wood, and that it is very active. From its long and graceful 
form and the beauty of its colours, its movements are very elegant. Old examples are very 
ferocious ; they prey on birds, lizards, frogs, and, when young, on insects. They attain to a 
length of more than 7 feet, the tail being rather more than one-third. 



Teagops DISPAE. (Plate XXIII. figs. A, A'.) 

Scales smooth, vnthout apical groove, in fifteen series ; those of the vertebral line four 
sided, a little larger than those on the side, which are rather narrow, much imbricate, but 
not very long. Ventrals 151 ; anal bifid; subcaudals 100-105. Rostral shield rather flat, 
rather longer than broad, with its upper mai'gin somewliat reflexed. Anterior frontals sub- 
triangular, much longer than broad, bent downwards on the side, in contact with the second 
upper labial ; posterior frontals longer than broad, rounded behind, not in contact with any 
of the labial shields. Vertical bell-shaped, elongate behind ; occipitals as long as vertical, 
rounded and divergent behind. Superciliary and rostral ridge rather sharp. Nasal shield 
single, very narrow, pierced by the small, round nostril posteriorly; loreal small, always 
present ; one large prseocular, forming a broad suture mth the vertical ; two postoculars. 
Eight upper labials, the fourth and fifth of which form the lower part of the orbit ; the 



304 OPHIDIA. 

fourth is divided transversely into an upper and a lower portion. Temporals irregular in form 
and number ; one is in contact with the postoculars. Two pairs of chin-shields, the posterior 
being rather longer than the anterior. The fifth maxillary tooth and the two anterior teeth 
of the mandible are prolonged. Males bright green, females bronze-coloui-ed ; skin between 
the scales black ; a yellowish line with a greenish inner edge runs along each side of the 
abdomen. 

We have received several specimens from the Anamallay Mountains through Captain B. 
H. Beddome ; an adult female with mature eggs measures only 26 inches m length, the 
tail being 8 inches. 



Teagops fronticinctus. (Plate XXIII. fig. E.) 

Dryiophis fronticinctus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 158. 

Scales on the back keeled, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series scarcely larger than 
the others. Ventrals 190; anal bifid; subcaudals 140. Rostral shield small, oblique, flat, 
semicircular, not extending on to the upper surface of the head. Nasal shield single, much 
elongate, pointed behind, and joiiaing its fellow of the other side, so as to separate the rostral 
from the anterior frontals, forming a sort of frontlet ; the nostril is in its hind part. Both 
frontals much longer than broad, the anterior pointed in front. Vertical bell-shaped, elongate ; 
supraciliaries long, slightly arched; occipitals rather narrow. Two loreals; one (to three) 
prseorbitals, reaching the vertical. Seven or eight upper labials ; some of the anterior are 
always divided into two horizontal portions : in one specimen the two foremost are simple ; 
the third, fourth, and fifth are di\ided, portions of the fifth forming additional praeoculars ; 
the sixth is very long, and forms the greater part of the lower edge of the orbit ; the seventh 
and eighth elongate. Two postoculars; temporals irregular, small, always two in contact 
with the postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with ten widely-set teeth, the fourth of which 
is enlarged, the last being grooved ; the two or three anterior teeth of each mandible much 
longer than the following. Uniform grass-green above, paler below, with a yellow band 
along each side of the belly. 

Since the first publication of this species, I have ascertained that the collection, of which 
the typical specimens formed part, was not made in the West Indies (as was then believed), 
but in the East Indies, and as all the species contained in it belong to the fauna of British 
India, I cannot hesitate to admit it mto this work, although I have never met with any other 
example, nor do I know from what part of the East Indies it came. The length of the 
longest of the three specimens is 36 inches, the tail measuring 10^ inches. 



PASSERITA MYCTERIZANS. 305 



PASSERITA, Gray, 

Body and tail exceedingly slender, slightly compressed ; head depressed, 
very long, with the snout long, pointed, and terminating in a flexible 
appendage ; praeorbital region deeply concave, with a projecting edge above. 
Eye of moderate size, with horizontal pupil ; nostril small, lateral, situated 
in the hinder part of a single nasal shield. Shields of the head regular ; 
loreal none. Scales smooth, elongate, narrow, much imbricate, in fifteen 
rows, those of the vertebral series larger than those on the side. Ventral 
shields not keeled ; anal bifid. Maxillary with a strong tooth in the middle 
and with a grooved tooth behind. 

It is difficult to say whether the rostral appendage has to perforin a function similar to 
that of the tentacles of Herpeton^ which are presumed to serve as organs of touch, in the 
water or mud, without necessitating the exsertion of the tongue and the opening of the 
mouth. In Passerita, which never enters the water, the tongue would appear to perform 
its function quite as perfectly as in other land snakes ; moreover the rostral appendage of 
Passerita is covered with tough shields, and is consequently but slightly sensitive to touch. 

Two species are known : — 

Belly with two yellow longitudinal bands P. myctei-izaris. 

Belly -Nrithout bauds P. purpurascens. 



Passerita mtcterizaxs. 

? Coluber mycterizans, L. Mus. Ad. Fried, p. 28. 

Russell, hid. Serp. i. tab. 12, 13. 

Dryinus nasutus, Meir. Tent. p. 136 (not Bell), Bum. ^c Bibr. vii. p. 809. 

Passerita mycterizans, Graij, Ann. Phil. x. p. 208. 

Dryiophis nasuta, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 246. pi. 10. figs. 1-5. 

vScales smooth, without apical groove, those of the vertebral series rather larger and broader 
than the others, in fifteen rows. Ventrals 172-188; anal bifid; subcaudals 140-166. The 
rostral appendage is formed by the rostral shield, which is prolonged, foui-sided, folded ; in 
young specimens it is curved upwards ; the nasal shields also are prolonged and form a part 
of the lateral surface of the appendage, which is sometimes injured, when it is covered with 
small irregular shields ; the whole length of the rostral shield equals one-half of that of the 
snout without appendage. Occipitals pointed and divergent behind. Loreal none, replaced 

2r 



306 OPHIDIA. 

by the frontals, which are bent downwards and in contact with the labials. The single prse- 
ocular forms a rather long suture with the vertical ; two postoculars. Generally two upper 
labials form the lower edge of the orbit, the anterior of which is divided into an upper and 
a lower portion, and sometimes into three or even four. Bright grass-green, with a bronze 
shade on the back ; on the anterior part of the trunk the skin between the scales is white or 
black, these two colours forming alternate cross bands when the animal expands that portion 
of the body ; a yellow stripe runs along each side of the pale-green abdomen. Immature 
specimens show a pair of fine yellowish central lines along the abdomen. 

Examples sometimes occur which are brownish-olive instead of green, but they retain the 
yellow abdominal bands; they are of small size, and have been named Bryinus fuscus (Dum. 
& Bibr. vii. p. 812). 

We have received this snake only from Ceylon and from the peninsula of India ; the other 
localities mentioned — Khasya, Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and the Philippine Islands — are more 
or less suspicious ; at all events, it is much scarcer in those parts than in Western India : 
Passerita mycterizans and Tragops prasinus are supplementary species with regard to their 
geographical distribution. It attains to a length of more than 6 feet, the tail being rather 
more than one-third*; it appears to remain smaller in Ceylon, the largest specimen I have 
seen from that island being only 40 inches long. It feeds on birds and lizai'ds, and its habits 
are the same as those of Tragops prasinus. 



Passerita pukpurascens. (Plate XXIII. fig. F.) 

Passerita mycterizans, vai". Dryinus fuscus, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 161 (not Dum. ^ Bibr.). 

fusca, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1860, p. 554. Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceylon, p. 307 

c- fig- 
Very similar to the preceding species. Scales smooth, without apical groove, those of the 
vertebral series rather larger and broader than the others, in fifteen rows. Ventrals 194; 
anal bifid ; subcaudals 154. The rostral appendage is formed by the rostral shield, which is 
prolonged, foui--sided, and verrucose on its upper surface ; the length of the rostral shield is 
rather more than one-half of that of the snout without appendage. Occipitals small, pointed 
and divergent behind. Loreal none, replaced by the frontals, which are bent downwards 
and in contact with the labials. The single prseocular reaches the vertical ; two postoculars. 
Two upper labials below the orbit, the anterior divided into an upper and a lower portion, some- 
times into three. Brownish grey, marbled with purple and dotted with brown, above and 
below ; on the anterior dilatable part of the trunk the skin between the scales is white or 
black, these two colours forming alternate cross bands when the animal expands that portion 
of the body ; no abdominal band. The shields of the upper surface of the head are brown, 
with broad yellowish edges ; a brown band runs from the rostral appendage through the eye 
to the side of the neck. 

* Specimen from Madras 67 inches long, tail 25 inches; another, 44 inches, taU 16 inches; a third, 
15 inches, tail Sj inches; specimen from Ceylon 40 inches, tail 14 inches. 



DIPSAS. 307 

This snake is peculiar to Ceylon ; it is rare, attaining to a length of 4 feet, the tail mea- 
suring 1^ foot. 

It is a distinct species, and not Bryinus fuscus (Dum. & Bibr.) as I formerly believed ; 
the latter being merely a variation of colour of Passerita mycterizans, having the yellow 
abdominal band, which is always absent in P. jnirjmrascens. The latter has the rostral 
appendage always verrucose, and rather longer than in P. tnycterizans. 



FAMILY OF DIPSADES— Z>/P&^i>/Z>^. 

Body much compressed, elongate or of moderate length; head short, 
generally broad behind, subtriangular, with rounded, short snout, distinct 
from neck ; eye large, generally with vertical pupil ; nostril lateral. Shields 
of the head regular ; cleft of the mouth wide ; lower jaw expansible, with a 
mental groove. Scales generally smooth, those of the vertehral series fre- 
quently enlarged. Maxillary bone and its teeth well developed : all the 
Indian species with a grooved fang behind ; and several, moreover, with 
fangs in front. 

The Indian Dipsades are nocturnal Tree Snakes with a vertical pupil, a short, broad 
head, and compressed, elongate body; some of them attain to the considerable length 
of 6 or 7 feet, and all live on warm-blooded animals ; it is worthy of notice that some prey 
on bu'ds only, whilst others attack nothing but mammals. Their coloration is much more 
varied than in the preceding family, and green but rarely forms the ground-colour, whilst 
brown and black prevail. The Indian Dipsades have congeners in Africa and Australia ; we 
refer them to one genus. 



DIPSAS. 

Dipsas, uuct. 

Body and tail much elongate and compressed ; head depressed, triangular, 
short, broad behind, very distinct from neck; snout short. Eye ratber 
large, with vertical pupil ; nostril between two nasals. Shields of the head 
regular ; loreal present. Scales smooth, more or less narrow on the sides, 
those of the vertebral series dilated. Anal entire ; subcaudals two-rowed. 

Posterior maxillary tooth grooved. 

2 e2 



308 OPHIDIA. 

The species of this genus are very numerous, and found in each of the tropical regions. 
The following occur in British India : — 

* The anterior palatine and mandibulars/ teeth are enlarged — considerably larger than the other teeth : 
EuDiPSAS, Fitz. 

Scales in twenty-three series D. cynodon, p. 308. 

Scales in twenty-five or twenty-seven series D. forsteni, p. 309. 

** Palatine teeth not enlarged; scales moderately imbricate, in not very oblique series: thoroughly 
arboreal and chiefly feeding on birds : Dipsas, Gtlir. 

Body covered with brown and black dots and spots ; eye very large . . . D. boops, p. 309. 

Black with yellow cross bands D. dendrophila, p. 310. 

Uniform greenish above D. bubalina, p. 311. 

A series of round brown spots along each side of the back D. multimaculata, p. 311. 

*** Anterior palatine and mandibulary teeth but little enlarged; scales much imbricate, in vei'y oblique 

series : living partly on the ground and feeding on small mammals: Dipsadomorphus, Fitz. 
Scales in twenty-one rows ; vertebral scales somewhat larger than the others ; 

belly immaculate along the middle D. trigonata, p. 312. 

Scales in twenty-one rows; vertebral scales somewhat larger than the others; 

belly checkered with black D. multifasciata, p. 313. 

Scales in twenty-one rows; vertebral scales subquadrangular, much larger 

than the others D. gokool, p. 313. 

Scales in nineteen rows D. ceylonensis, p. 314. 



Dipsas cynodon. 

Dipsas cynodon, Cuv, Regne Anitn. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 268. pi. 11. figs. 10 & 11. Cantor, 

Mai. Repf. p. 77 (the adult specimen) . 
Eudipsas cynodon, {Fitz.) GUnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 168. 
Pareas waandersii, Bleek, Nat. Tydschr. Nederl. Ind. 1860, xx. p. 470. 

Scales in twenty-three series, smooth, without apical groove, those of the vertebral series 
large, hexagonal. Ventrals 275-287; anal entire; subcaudals 141-162. The rostral shield 
has a deep impression in front, and is nearly as high as broad. Nostril a wide oblique slit. 
Loreal irregularly quadrangular, longer than high. One prseocular, extendmg on to the upper 
side of the head, but not reaching the vertical. Two postoculars. Normally nine upper labials, 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth of which enter the orbit ; sometimes one of the anterior labials is 
split into two, or two are united. The temporals vary in size and number ; there are always 
two in contact with the postoculars. Two pairs of very broad chin-shields, the posterior bemg 
nearly twice as large as the anterior. The eight anterior lower labials are very narrow. 
Each maxillary is armed with about twelve slender teeth subequal in size, the last being 
grooved; three or four strong teeth on each palatine bone, the anterior being very long; 
eight small teeth occupy the anterior half of the pterygoid. Each mandible with about 
fourteen teeth, the first two very long. A black streak runs from the eye to the angle of 
the mouth ; tail black, with irregular narrow white rings. 

We have examined two very distinct varieties of coloration : — 

Var. a. Blackish brown, dotted all over with black ; indistinct rhombic black bands across 



DIPSAS BOOPS. 309 

the back; belly entirely black or on the sides only; sometimes a series of distant flesh- 
coloured spots along each side of the belly : — males. 

Var. |3. Reddish- or yellowish-olive ; back of the trunk with 35-36 rhombic, rather irre- 
gular black spots, extending downwards to the belly — the centre of each spot is the same as 
the ground-colour ; belly uniform yellowish, or marbled with blackish or black : — females. 

This species is found in the Malayan Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Bali, and the Philippine 
Islands ; it attains to a length of 82 inches, the tail measuring 19 inches. 

Cantor has confounded two species under the name of I), cynodon, — the young specimen 
described by him, and examined by myself, belonging to D. (jokool, Gray. 

DiPSAS rORSTENI. 

Triglypbodon forsteui, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1077. 

Scales smooth, with a broad apical groove, in twenty-five or twenty-seven series, those of 
the vertebral series larger than the others. Ventrals 260-265 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 
106-131. Nostril rounded, immediately below the anterior frontal; hinder margin of the 
posterior nasal swollen, forming a rather prominent ridge ; loreal as high as long ; one prse- 
ocular, extending on to the upper side of the head, but not reaching the vertical ; two post- 
oculars. Nine upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the orbit ; the third 
sometimes split into two. Temporals rather numerous, varying in form ; there are always three 
in contact with the postoculars. Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior much larger than the 
posterior. Each maxillary is armed with ten equal teeth of moderate size and with a long 
grooved tooth behind ; the two or three anterior teeth of the palatine and of each mandible 
are enlarged and much longer than the others. Brownish olive, many scales black at the 
base, the black spots forming rather broad transverse bands extending downwards on the 
sides ; the lateral portions of these bands are frequently broken oif, forming separate spots. 
Lower parts yellow, with more or less numerous blackish spots along each side. A longi- 
tudinal median black band along the occiput and the nape of the neck ; a short black band 
along each side of the neck ; another from the eye to the angle of the mouth. 

This species, described from a specimen the origin of which is unknown, was discovered 
by Captain B. H. Beddome in the Anamallay Mountains; it attains to a length of 61 inches, 
the tail measuring 13 inches. 

DiPSAS BOOPS. (Plate XXIV. fig. G.) 

Dipsas fusca, Motley ^ Dilhvyn, Nat. Hist. Labuan, p. 43 c. tab. 
Dipsas boops, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 170. 

Body and tail very slender, much compressed ; head thick, eye very large ; nostril round, 
wide. Scales smooth, in twenty-one rows, those of the vertebral series large, hexagonal. 
Ventrals 265; anal entire; subcaudals 160. Loreal rather higher than long; one high 



310 OPHIDIA. 

prseocular, extending to, or nearly to, the vertical ; two postoculars. Eight low upper labials, 
the third, fourth, and fifth very low, forming the lower part of the orbit. Temporals 2+2 
or 2 + 3, the two anterior in contact with the postoculars. Two pairs of very broad chin- 
shields, the posterior smaller than the anterior; the first pair of lower labials are large, 
forming together a broad suture behind the mental shield; the other anterior labials are 
numerous, but narrow and small. Each maxillary is armed with ten teeth equal in size and 
with three posterior grooved teeth ; palatine teeth not enlarged ; the anterior mandibulary 
teeth are rather larger than the others. Eeddish olive, dotted and spotted with brown and 
black, the spots being numerous, forming longitudinal and transverse series ; a series of white 
spots along each side of the belly ; a black spot below each white one ; belly marbled with 
purple and dotted with broAATi. Head symmetrically spotted with black, each black spot 
having a white edge. 

This appears to be a very scarce species, as I have met with but one other example besides 
the two typical specimens from General Hardwicke's collection, which are said to be from 
Bengal. The larger is 57 inches long, the tail measuilng 15 inches. Its stomach contained 
the remains of a bird. The third example mentioned is that figui-ed by Motley and Dillwyn 
as Dipsas fusca* , from Labuan, which specific name cannot be adopted, as it has been used 
for an Australian and for a West- African species of Bipsas. This Bornean specimen differs 
slightly from those from British India, ha\ing 240 ventral and 140 subcaudal shields. 
Whilst in the latter the posterior frontal is in contact with the loreal, both these shields are 
separated by the intervening nasal in the Bornean specimens. 

The three views of the head on Plate XXIV. are taken from one of the typical specimens 
from Hardwicke's collection. 



DiPSAS DENDKOPHILA. 

Dipsas dendrophila, [Reinw.) Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 181, and Icon, taf, 8. Schleg. Phys. Serp. 

p. 263. pi. 11. figs. 1-3, and Abbild. taf. 45. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 76. Motley ^- Dillwyn, 

Labuan, p. 47. Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 169. 
Triglyphodon dendrophilum et gemmicinctum, Dum. if Bibr. -s-ii. pp. 1086, 1091. 

Scales in twenty-one series, smooth, with two narrow apical grooves ; those of the vertebral 
series large, hexagonal. Ventrals 211-229 ; anal entii-e ; subcaudals 90-112. Nostril roimd ; 
loreal higher than long. One prseocular, just reaching the upper surface of the head ; two 
postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, foui'th, and fifth of which enter the orbit. The 
temporals vary in number and form, but there are always two in contact with the postoculars. 
Two pairs of chin-shields, the anterior being considerably larger than the posterior. Each 
maxillary is armed with twelve equal teeth of moderate size and with a posterior grooved 
tooth ; palatine teeth not enlarged ; anterior mandibulary teeth rather longer than the others. 
Black, iridescent, with numerous (40-50-90) narrow yellow cross bands, broader below, and 
generally interrupted on the median line ; occasionally they are reduced to lateral spots ; 

* This figui'e does not represent a Dipsas trigonata, as I formerly believed. 



DIPSAS MULTIMACULATA. 311 

lips and throat yellow, each shield with a black margin ; belly sometimes marbled with black, 
sometimes entirely black. 

This fine species properly belongs to the fauna of the East Indian Archipelago, being found 
in all the larger islands ; but it extends to the Malayan Peninsula, Singapore, and Pinang. 
It attains to the large size of 7 feet, the tail being rather less than one-fourth. 



DiPSAS BUBALiNA. (Plate XXIV. fig. E.) 

Seba, ii. p. 87. tab. 83. fig. 1. 

Vipera bubalina, Klein, Tent. Herpet. p. 21. 

Triglyphodon cyaneum, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1079. 

Dipsas nigromarginata^ Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxiii. p. 294. 

Scales smooth, with a single apical groove, in twenty-one series, those of the vertebral 
series hexagonal. Ventrals 249-252; anal entire; subcaudals 124-134. Nostril round; 
loreal rather higher than long. One pifeocular, just reaching the upper surface of the head ; 
two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the orbit. 
The temporals appear to vary somewhat in arrangement, 3 + 3 + 3 ; only the two upper of 
the anterior are in contact with the oculars. Each maxillary is armed with ten or eleven 
teeth, which gradually become somewhat longer behind, the last grooved ; palatine teeth not 
enlarged ; the three or four anterior teeth of each mandible considerably longer than the 
following. Uniform green above ; the skin between the scales and the inside of the mouth 
black. Lower parts uniform greenish olive. 

This is a rare snake : a specimen in the Liverpool Museum ii said to be from China. 
According to Blyth, it is an inhabitant of Assam. Our specimen is 53 inches long, the tail 
measuring 14 inches. 

Mr. Blyth mentions a small snake obtained "in the neighbourhood" (of Calcutta 1), 
18 inches long, and names it Dipsas hexagonotus (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1856, xxiv. p. 360); 
" it was bright ruddy ferruginous, inclining to coral-red ; paler below, and mottled with black 
bordermg some of the scales of the upper parts. Head green, throat white ; a slight blackish 
occipital streak. Ventrals 247 ; subcaudals 126 ; series of scales 21." Mr. Blyth adds that 
"it probably grows to a large size, and may become wholly green." If this be the case, 
how does it differ from D. hubalina, which has been named D. nigromarginata by the same 
author \ 



Dipsas multimaculata. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. tab. 23, 

Dipsas multimaculata, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 265. pi. 11. figs. 4 & 5, and Abbild. taf. 45. 
figs. 13-15. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 76. 

Scales in nineteen, sometimes in seventeen series, smooth, with a narrow apical groove ; 



312 OPHIDIA. 

those of the vertebral series large, hexagonal. Ventrals 202-235; anal entii-e; subcaudals 
80-106. Nostril round; loreal rather higher than long. One prseocular, not extending on 
to the upper side of the head ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and 
fifth of which enter the orbit. The temporals vary in form and arrangement. Two pairs of 
chin-shields, the anterior being rather longer than the posterior. Four labials are in contact 
\vith the front chin-shields. Each maxillary is armed with ten rather small teeth equal in 
size and with a posterior grooved tooth ; palatine teeth not enlarged ; anterior mandibulary 
teeth rather longer than the others. Reddish olive, with a series of round brown spots, 
lighter in the centre and edged with white along each side of the vertebral line ; another 
series of smaller spots along the side ; belly white, marbled or spotted with broAvn. A brown 
streak runs from the eye to the angle of the mouth ; a A-like mark of the same colour on 
the head, its point resting upon the forehead ; nape of the neck with a round or ovate bro-wn, 
white-edged spot. 

This species is found in Bengal, Tenasserira, the Malayan Peninsula, at Pinang, in Siam, 
Java, Celebes, and China ; it attains to a length of 2 J feet, the tail being one-fifth. I have 
found the remains of birds in the stomach. 



DiPSAS TRIGONATA. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. tab. 15. 

Coluber trigonalis, Schneid. in Bechst. Uebers, Lacep. iv. taf. 40. fig. 1. 

Dipsas trigonata, Boie, his, 1827, p. 559. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 267. pi. 11. figs. 6 & 7. 

Dipsadomorphus trigonatus, [Fitz.) Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 175. 

Scales smooth, in twenty-one (exceptionally in nineteen) series, those of the vertebral series 
distinctly larger than the others. Ventrals 235-269 ; anal entire; subcaudals 79-87. Nostril 
rather small, rounded. Loreal as high as long ; one praeocular, just reaching the upper surface 
of the head ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which 
enter the orbit. Temporals varying in form, number, and arrangement. Each maxillary is 
armed with ten small teeth and with a pair of grooved posterior teeth ; the two anterior 
teeth of the palatines and of each mandible are somewhat larger than the others. Yellowish 
olive, with a rather irregular white or yellow zigzag band along the back, edged with black ; 
crown of the head with two dark bands edged with black, convergent behind ; an indistinct 
brown band from the eye towards the angle of the mouth. Belly white, ^vith an irregular 
series of brown dots along each side. 

This is a common species in the peninsula of Southern India, extending to Bengal and to 
the foot of the Himalayas, and attains to a length of about 3 feet, the tail being one-fourth. 
It feeds on mice. 



DIPSAS GOKOOL. 313 

DiPSAS MULTIFASCIATA. 

Dipsas multifasciata, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1861, xxix. p. 114. 

A specimen, of unknown origin, very closely allied to D. trigonata, lias been considered by 
myself as a variety of that species, and is mentioned as var. B. in the ' Colubrine Snakes,' 
p. 175. A second specimen of this snake appears to have been observed by Blyth, and as he 
has assigned to it a specific name, we record it as a separate species, the validity of which 
still requires further confirmation. 

It agrees in every respect with B. trigonata but in coloration : its natural ground-colour is 
bro\Mi, and grey after the loss of the epidermis ; some scales along and near the vertebral 
series yellow or black ; other scales on the sides are black, forming narrow, irregular vertical 
streaks, about seventy-five in number ; the lower parts are checkered with black. Two tem- 
porals are in contact with the postoculars. Ventrals 247 ; subcaudals 106. 

Blyth's specimen was captured at Subathoo : ours is 25 inches long, the tail being one-fifth 
of the total length. 



Dipsas gokool. 

Dipsas gokool, Gray, Ind. Zool. c. fig. 

cynodon. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 77 (the young specimen). 

Scales smooth, in twenty-one series, those of the vertebral series much enlarged, subqua- 
drangular. Ventrals 224-225; anal entire; subcaudals 87-94. Nostril of moderate size, 
round. Loreal square ; one prseocular, sometimes divided into two, not extending to the 
upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth 
of which enter the orbit. Temporals 2 + 3+3 ; the upper of the anterior ones is in contact 
with the oculars. Each maxillary is armed with about ten teeth, which gradually become 
somewhat longer behind, and with two posterior grooved teeth ; the teeth of the palatine 
bones and the three anterior of the lower jaw are a little longer than the following. Yellow- 
ish brown : head with an arrow-shaped brown, black-edged mark, longitudinally divided into 
two by a yellow line ; its point rests on the anterior frontals ; a rounded black spot on the 
nape, between the two barbs of the arrow-shaped mark ; a black streak runs from the eye 
to the angle of the mouth ; a straight yellow vertebral line ; on each side of the trunk a 
series of about fifty black erect Y-shaped marks ; lower parts yellowish, with an irregular 
series of brown spots along each side. 

Having now seen two specimens of this snake which are perfectly alike, viz. the typical 
specimen of D. gokool and that of I), cpiodon (i/oung), Cantor, I cannot hesitate to consider it 
as a valid species, distinguished from D. trigonata by large vertebral scutes and by a peculiar 
coloration. It is scarce at Pinang and in Bengal. The larger specimen is 33 inches long, the 
tail measuring 7 inches ; it had fed on a mouse. 

2 s 



314 OPHIDIA, 

DiPSAS CEYLONENSIS. (Plate XXIII. fig. B.) 

Dipsadomorplius ceylonensis, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 176. 

Scales smooth, without apical groove, in nineteen series ; those of the vertebral series large, 
hexagonal. Ventrals 220 ; anal entire; subcaudals 108. Nostril of moderate size. Loreal 
square ; one prteocular, just reaching the upper surface of the head ; two postoculars. Eight 
upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the orbit. Temporals numerous, 
scale-like ; two are in contact with the postoculars. Each maxillary is armed with ten teeth 
of moderate size and with a grooved posterior tooth. Palatine teeth not enlarged ; the 
anterior mandibulary teeth are a little longer than the following. Greyish olive, minutely 
punctulated with black; a vertebral series of more or less rounded blackish-brown spots, 
each emitting an oblique naiTow streak towards the sides of the belly ; belly finely marbled 
with brown, with a series of brown spots along each side. A black blotch on the occiput ; a 
brown streak runs from the eye to the angle of the mouth. 

The representative of the continental D. trigonata in Ceylon ; it attains to a length of 
37 inches, the tail measuring 9 inches. It feeds on mice. 



FAMILY OF LYCODONTES— i.lC0Z>0iV77/>^. 

Body generally of moderate length or rather slender, rounded or sliglitly 
compressed ; head of moderate length and width, generally with depressed, 
flat, and elongate muzzle. Eye rather small, generally with vertical pupil. 
Shields of the crown of the head regular, with the posterior frontals enlarged. 
Maxillary with a fang in front, but without a posterior grooved tooth. 

The Indian species, having a vertical pupil, would appear to be nocturnal snakes ; yet they 
feed exclusively on skinks, which they must catch during the day, if they do not follow them 
into the places of their retreat. The African Lycodontes feed on mice and other small 
nocturnal mammals. They are ground-snakes, and some of the species are extremely nume- 
rous in British India ; they belong to the following genera : — 

Scales smooth ; loreal present ; two nasals Lycodon, -p. 3lo. 

Scales smooth; loreal none Tetraffonosoma, ]). 320. 

Scales smooth ; nasal single Leptorhytaon,-^. 32\. 

Scales keeled ; subcaudals bifid Ophites, p. 322. 

Subcaudals entia-e Cercaspis, p. 323. 



LYCODON. 315 



LYCODON. 

Lycodon, sp., Boie. 

Body and tail of moderate length, slightly compressed ; generally a slight 
ridge along the side of the helly and tall. Head depressed, with flat, ohtnse 
snout, distinct from neck. Number of ventrals between 150 and 250. 
Nostril between two shields. Shields of the head regular ; loreal present ; 
one or two prse- and two post-oculars. Scales smooth, in seventeen rows. 
Subcaudals two-rowed ; anal entire or bifid. Pupil elliptical, erect. Maxil- 
lary with one of the anterior teeth enlarged, there being a toothless space 
behind it; posterior maxillary tooth enlarged, not grooved; anterior mandi- 
bulary teeth longer than the following ; palatine teeth not enlarged. 

This genus is entirely composed of Indian species, the following occurrmg on the conti- 
nent : — 

* One loreal, not entering the orbit. 
The praeocular is in contact with the vertical ; posterior frontals longer than 

broad L. aulicus, p. 316. 

The prseocular is in contact with the vertical ; posterior frontals scarcely longer 

than broad. Black, with white cross bands L. laoensis, p. 317. 

The praeocular is not in contact with the vertical; ventrals ca. 170 . . . . L. striatus, p. 318. 

** Two loreals. 
Anal entire L. anamallensis, p. 318. 

*** The loreal enters the orbit. 

Anal entire L. rufozonatus, p. 319. 

Note. — Lycodon subfuscus (Cantor, Proc. Zool. See. 1839, p. 50), from Bengal, remains an uncertain 
species for the present. The typical specimen has been lost ; and the figure of it, preserved in the Museum 
of the University of Oxford, does not show sufficient details to enable us to give a description of it. It 
would appear from that figure that it has only one prje- and one post-ocular, nine upper and ten lower 
labials. Cantor himself characterizes the species thus : — " Light brown ; yellowish white beneath. 
Ventrals 245 ; subcaudals 78.^' 



'1 S 



316 OPHIDIA. 

Ltcodon aulicus. 

Coluber aulicus, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 381. Russell, ii. pi. 39*. 

Lycodon aulicus, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 981. Cantor, Catal. p. 68. 

hebe, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 106. pi. 4. figs. 1-3 {not C. hebe, DaucL). 

Note. — The synonymy in all the preceding herpetological works is confused — C. striatus, C. malignus, 
C. hebe, C. fasciolatus, and probably C. capucinus belonging to other species. 

Snout broad, much depressed, long, spatulate, with the upper lip swollen, and without 
canthus rostralis. Rostral shield very low, broad, slightly bent backwards on the upper 
surface of the snout ; anterior frontals very small ; posterior frontals longer than broad, 
much more so in adult specimens than in young ones; there is a lateral notch between 
the anterior and posterior frontals, in which the inner anterior angle of the loreal is received ; 
the posterior fi-ontals have an obtuse lateral angle corresponding to the sutui'e between 
loreal and prseocular; occipitals elongate. Nostril small, directed upwards, between two 
nasals, the anterior of which is situated on the foremost part of the snout. Loreal single, 
large, nearly twice as long as broad. Prteocular single, in contact with the vertical and with 
the third labial; specimens in which it does not reach the vertical are very scarce. Two 
postoculars; supraciliary rather small. Nine upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of 
which enter the orbit. Temporals numerous, scale-like. Scales smooth, Avith a minute 
apical groove, in seventeen rows. Abdomen and tail with an angular ridge on each side. 
Ventrals 183-209 ; anal bifid, in a few specimens entire; subcaudals 57-77f. Each maxil- 
lary is armed Avith two fangs in front, placed in a transverse line, the outer being much larger 
than the inner ; the lateral longitudinal series of teeth commences at some distance from the 
fangs ; they are small, from four to twelve in number, the last being considerably larger than 
the others ; pterygoido-palatine teeth small, of equal size ; mandible with two or three fangs 
on each side and with a series of small teeth. Coloration variable. 

I. Continental varieties. The posterior frontals are moderately elongate — in young speci- 
mens nearly as broad as long. Each upper labial with a brown spot. [To this category 
belong also specimens from the Philippine Islands.] 

Var. a. Russell, ii. pi. 39. Uniform brown above, without collar: Malayan peninsula, 
Bengal, Madras. 

Var. j3. Uniform brown above, with a white collar : Madras. 

Var. y. Brown or greyish brown, with indistinct traces of a white network, and with a 
white collar, more distinct in young specimens than in old ones : Coast of Malabar, Pinang, 
Malayan Peninsula, Gamboja, Philippine Islands, Timor. 

Var. S. Ferruginous or chestnut-brown, with wliite, brown-edged cross bars on the back, 

* We can quote only this figure to this species ; others, as i. pi. 16, or pi. 21, belong to quite different . | 

snakes. I 



t Specimen from Ceylon 185 + 64. 
„ Ceylon 190 + 65. 

„ Ceylon 192 + 57. 

„ Madras 183 + 72. 

„ Nepal 207+78. 



Specimen from Pinang 209 + 60. 
„ Gamboja 201 + 70. 

„ Philippines 199 + 77. 

„ Phihppuies 185 + 65. 



ft 



LYCODON LAOENSIS. 317 

which are sometimes bifid on the sides, tlie branches of one band joining a branch of the 
preceding and following bands. The first band forms a collar ; those on the hind part of the 
body gradually become indistinct. This variety is very common, and similar to, but specifi- 
cally distinct from, the snake figured by Russell (i. pi. 16): we have received it from Pinang, 
Bengal, Nepal, Kangra (Himalayas), the Dekkan, and the Anamallay Mountains. 

II. Ceylonese varieties. The posterior frontals are much elongate, much longer than broad 
in every age. Upper labials white or shaded with brown. 

Var. e. Uniform brownish grey above. 

Var. X,- Brown, with three or four broad, distant, white cross bands on the anterior half of 
the body ; the anterior forms a collar, the others being broadest on the sides. 

Var. T). Brown or greyish, with pure-white or reticulated white cross bands extending 
dovrawards to the belly, where they are broadest. 

This is one of the most common snakes of the Indian continent and of Ceylon ; it does 
not extend northwards to China, and becomes scarcer on the coasts of the south-eastern parts 
of India ; it occurs in only a few of the islands — in the Philippines and in Timor ; it is not 
certain whether the Javan form is specifically the same. It attains to a length of more 
than 2 feet, the tail being one-sixth. It is one of the most formidable enemies of the skinks, 
which form almost its sole food, tlie fangs in front of its jaws being admirably adapted for 
piercing and making good its hold on the hard smooth scales with which those lizards are 
coated. It is of fierce habits and defends itself vigorously. 



LyCODOK LAOENSIS. 

Snout broad, much depressed, short, with the upper lip not swollen and without canthus 
rostralis. Eostral shield moderately depressed, not twice as broad as high, slightly bent 
backwards on the upper surface of the snout ; anterior frontals rather small, not quite half 
as large as posterior, obtusely rounded in front, as long as broad ; posterior frontals scarcely 
longer than broad ; vertical of moderate length and width ; supraciliary small ; occipitals not 
much elongate, rounded behind. Nostril small, directed upwards, between two nasals, the 
anterior of which is situated on the foremost part of the snout. Loreal single, large, nearly 
twice as long as broad. Prseocular single, in contact with the vertical and with the third 
labial ; two postoculars. Nine upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the 
orbit. Temporals numerous, scale-like. Scales smooth, with a minute apical groove, in seven- 
teen series. Abdomen and tail with a distinct angular ridge on each side in the male, indis- 
tinct in the female. Ventrals 185; anal bifid; subcaudals 68. Dentition as in L. (adieus. 
Deep black above, with pure-white cross bands : the first cross band forms a collar ; those on 
the anterior half of the trunk are distant, five in number, widening below, so that the ground- 
colour appears in very large rounded patches ; the cross bands on the posterior half of the 
trunk and on the tail are closer and narrower. Lower parts uniform white. 

Two specimens from the Laos Mountains, a male and female, are perfectly alike, and 
having a considerably shorter and narrower snout than L. aulicus, this character, combined 



318 OPHIDIA. 

with the peculiar coloration, appeared to me to indicate a specific difference. The male is 
16^ inches long, the tail measuring 3^ inches. A third specimen has been purchased, and is 
said to be from Siam. 



Lycodon striatus. 

Russell, Incl. Seiy. i. pi. 16. 

Cohiber striatus, Shaw, Zool. ill. p. 527. 

malignus, Daud. Rept. vii. p. 46. 

Snout much depressed, rather broad, of moderate length, with the upper lip not swollen, 
and without canthus rostralis. Rostral shield low, not quite twice as broad as high, slightly 
bent backwards on the upper surface of the snout. Anterior frontals rather small, half as 
large as posterior, obtusely rounded in front, as long as broad. Posterior frontals as broad 
as long ; vertical of moderate size, not elongate ; occipitals of small size, scarcely longer than 
vertical, rounded behind. Nostril small, lateral, between two nasals. Loreal single, twice 
as long as high ; prtcocular narrow, single, in contact with the third labial, but not with the 
vertical ; two postoculars. Eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the 
orbit. Temporals scale-like, generally 2 + 3, the anterior in contact with the postoculars. 
Dentition similar to that of L. milieus. Scales smooth, with a minute apical groove, in seven- 
teen rows. Abdomen and tail without lateral ridge. Ventrals 167-174; anal bifid ; sub- 
caudals 46-48. Black or brown, with or Avithout a whitish collar ; body and tail with white 
cross bands, which are sometimes bifid on the sides, sometimes reduced to a vertebral series 
of white spots. 

This species appears to be confined to the peninsula of India ; we have received it lately 
from the Anamallay Mountains and from the Madras Presidency ; it does not grow to the 
same size as L. aulims, the largest specimen I have seen being less than 2 feet, tail one-sixth 
of the total length. 



LyCODON AJS'AMALLENSIS. 

Snout of moderate width, rather depressed, scarcely longer than broad, with the upper lip 
not swollen, and with a very obtuse canthus rostralis. Rostral shield very low, twice as 
broad as high, slightly bent backwards on the upper surface of the snout. Anterior frontals 
square, not rounded in front, half the size of posterior ; posterior frontals rather longer than 
broad. Vertical not much elongate ; occipitals rather narrow, rounded behind, of moderate 
length. Two loreals on each side ; nostril lateral ; prseocular scarcely touching the vertical ; 
two postoculars ; supraciliary of moderate size. Nine upper labials, the third, fourth, and 
fifth of which enter the orbit. Temporals numerous, scale-like. Scales smooth, in seventeen 
rows, a minute apical groove being visible in only a few scales. Abdomen and tail with an 
angular ridge along each side. Ventrals 202 ; anal entire; subcaudals 74. Each maxillary 



I 



LYCODON RUFOZONATUS. 319 

is armed with twelve teeth — the thu"d on each side being enlarged, situated in front of the 
mouth ; there is an interval behind it, and the last again is a little enlarged ; mandible with 
a fang anteriorly. Greyish brown, with about twenty-five small, white, brown-edged cross 
bars on the back of the trunk ; sides indistinctly reticulated with whitish ; no collar ; each 
labial with a brown spot. Lower parts uniform white. 

A single specimen was brought by Captain B. H. Beddome from the Anamallay Mountains ; 
it is 20 inches long, the tail measuring 3^ inches. 



LyCODON RUFOZONATUS. 

Lycodoa rufozonatus, Cantor, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. p. 483. 
Coronella striata, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1856, p. 152. 
Eumesodon striatus. Cope, ibid. 1860, p. 263. 

Head broad, depressed, triangular, with rather short and rounded snout; upper lip not 
swollen, canthus rostralis rounded. Rostral shield of moderate size, somewhat broader than 
high, slightly bent backwards on the upper surface of the head. Anterior and posterior 
frontals broader than long, the former not quite half the size of the latter. Vertical broad 
anteriorly ; occipitals of moderate size, rounded behind. Nostril lateral, between two nasals ' 
loreal elongate, entering the orbit ; a small praeorbital above, which does not extend to the 
upper surface of the head ; two postoculars ; supraciliary of moderate size. Eight upper 
labials, the third, fourth, and fifth entering the orbit. Temporals rather irregularly arranged, 
the two anterior being elongate and in contact with the oculars. Scales smooth, in seventeen 
rows, with a pair of minute grooves. Abdomen and tail with an angular ridge along each 
side. Ventrals 193-201; anal entire; subcaudals 72-75. Each maxillary is armed with a 
lateral series of about eight teeth, the third and last of which are somewhat longer than the 
others ; the third is not placed quite at the front part of the mouth, but more backwards on 
the side ; there is a free interspace behind it. The three or four anterior mandibulary teeth are 
rather longer than the following. Crimson above, dotted and speckled with brown, and with 
about eighty broad brown cross bands, twice as broad as the interspaces, not extending down- 
wards to the belly ; sides and lower parts of the tail with brown spots ; belly yellowish. 
Each shield on the upper side of the head brown with yellowish margin ; a brown band runs 
from the eye to the angle of the mouth ; an oblique crimson band on each side of the neck. 

This is rather a stout species, found on the Chinese island of Chusan ; it attains to a length 
of 40 inches, the tail measuring 5^ inches. The typical specimens of Coronella striata are 
said to be from Ningpo. 



320 OPHIDIA. 

TETRAGONOSOMA, Gthr. 

Body and tail of moderate length, compressed, with rounded back and 
angular belly. Head depressed, of moderate length, with rounded snout, 
distinct from neck. Ventrals more than 200, angularly bent on each side. 
Nostril between two shields. Shields of the head regular : loreal none, 
replaced by posterior frontal ; one ante-, three (two) post-ocidars. Scales 
smooth, without apical groove, in seventeen rows. Subcaudals two-rowed. 
Pupil elliptical, erect. Maxillary with one of the anterior teeth (third) en- 
larged, there being a toothless space behind it ; palatine teeth not enlarged ; 
mandible with a fang- in front. 

Body with broad buff-coloured rings T. ejfrene. 

Body marbled with white and black T. atropurpureum. 

Tetragonosoma effeene. (Plate XXIV. fig. K.) 

Lycodon effrsenis, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 70. fig. 2 (not good). 

Tetragonosoma effrene, Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 253. 

Lycodon ophiteoides, Bleek. Nat. Tydschr. Nederl. Lid. x\i. p. 436. 

Rostral shield much broader than high, scarcely extending to the upper surface of the 
head ; anterior frontals nearly square, one-fourth the size of posterior ; posterior frontals bent 
downwards on the sides, in contact with the second and third labials, as broad as lonsr. 
Vertical rather elongate ; occipitals rounded, and not separated by a notch behind. One 
prfpocular, just reaching to the upper surface of the head ; three postoculars, the lower of 
which is sometimes confluent with the fifth labial. Nine upper labials, the third, fourth, 
and fifth of which enter the orbit, the four posterior very small. Temporals numerous, 
scale-like. Ventrals 215-228; anal entire; subcaudals 72-101. Black above and below; 
throat, lips, and a band along each side of the upper part of the head buff"-coloured. Eleven 
distant rings of the same colour encircle body and tail in the young, but the posterior become 
indistinct with age, so that only the three or four anterior remain visible. 

The typical specimen was found on the Great Hill of Pinang ; it is 12^ inches long, the 
tail measuring 2.\ inches. We have seen only one other specimen, the type of Lycodon 
ophiteoides of Bleeker ; this is from Sinkawang (Borneo), and is 27 inches long, the tail mea- 
suring 6^ inches. We have given two views of the head of the Pinang specimen, of the 
natural size. 



LEPTORHYTAON JARA. 321 

Tetragonosoma atropuepureum. 

Lycodon atropurpureus. Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 50. 

The typical specimen, with a drawing, was deposited by Dr. Cantor in the Radcliife Library, 
Oxford ; the former has been lost ; and as the species has not been rediscovered hitherto, we 
can add but little infonnation from an examination of the figure. 

Cantor's diagnosis is limited to the foUomng words : — " Deep purple, marbled Avith white 
and black; beneath pearl-coloured. Ventrals 257 ; subcaudals 91." 

The loreal shield is absent, so that the frontals come into contact with the labials. One 
prse- and two post-oculars. Occipitals very long and tapering ; upper labials nine, the fourth 
and fifth (and perhaps the third) entering the orbit. Cantor has also figured the dentition, 
which perfectly agrees with that indicated in the diagnosis of this genus. 

Mergui. 



LEPTORHYTAON, Gf/u: 

Body of moderate length, rounded, not compressed ; tail short ; head 
depressed, of moderate length, with rounded snout, distinct from neck. 
Ventrals less than 200, not bent on the sides. One nasal shield, pierced by 
the nostril ; loreal elongate, pointed behind, but scarcely coming into the 
orbit. One praeocular, situated above the loreal ; two postoculars. Scales 
smooth, with a minute apical groove, in seventeen series. Subcaudals two- 
rowed. Pupil elliptical, erect. Maxillary with a fang in front of the mouth, 
a toothless space behind it ; a series of small teeth on the side, the last 
being stronger than the others. Palatine teeth not enlarged. Mandible 
with one or two fangs in front. 

Only one species is known. 

LEPTORHYTAON JARA. 

Jara-potoo, Russell, Lid. Serp. i. pi. 14. 
Cohiber jara, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 525. 

bipunctatus, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 52. 

LycodoQ jara, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 110. 
Leptorhytaoii jara, Giinth. Cohibr. Snakes, p. 205. 

Rostral shield rather broader than high ; anterior frontals small, pentagonal, one-third the 

2t 



322 OPHIDIA. 

size of posterior, as long as broad; posterior frontals pentagonal, of moderate size, as long as 
broad; vertical and occipitals of moderate size, the latter rounded and not notched behind. 
The single prseocular reaches just to the upper surface of the head. Nine upper labials, the 
third, fourth, and fifth of which enter the orbit ; the four posterior are higher than long. 
Temporals small, scale-like, rather irregularly arranged, one being in contact with the post- 
oculars. Ventrals 167-175 ; anal bifid; subcaudals 66-63. Brown above, each scale with 
two white dots ; generally a white collar ; lower parts uniform white. 

Russell received liis specimen from Ganjam ; ours is from the Anamallay Mountains ; 
according to Cantor it occurs also in Bengal and Assam. Our largest specimen is 16^ inches 
long, tail 2-j inches. 



OPHITES, TFagler. 

Body and tail rather slender, compressed, with an angidar ridge along each 
side of the belly and tail. Head depressed, with flat, obtuse snout, distinct 
from neck. A^entrals about 200 or more, angularly bent on each side. 
Nostril between two shields. Shields of the head regular : in one species 
prseocular absent. Scales keeled, in seventeen rows. Subcaudals two- 
rowed. Pupil elliptical, erect. Maxillary with one of the anterior teeth 
(third or fourth) enlarged, there being a short toothless space behind it ; 
last maxillary tooth and palatine teeth not enlarged ; mandible with a fang 
in front. 

Two species are known : — 

Loreal entering the orbit ; prseocular absent 0. subcinctus. 

A praeocular between loreal and orbit O. albofuKcus. 

Ophites subcinctus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. pi. 41. 

Coluber platurinus, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 468*. 

Lycodon subcinctus, Bole, Isis, 1827, p. 551. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 117. pi. 4. figs. 14&15. 

platurinus, Cantor, Mai. Rep(. p. 69. 

Ophites subcinctus, f faff I. Si/st. Ainph. p. 186. 

Scales in seventeen rows, those on the back slightly keeled. Ventrals 198-221 ; anal 

* As it was impossible to recognize this species from Shaw's description, the name proposed by him 
has no claim to priority. 



CERCASPIS. 323 

bifid; subcaudals 69-82. Vertical uot much longer than broad. Nostril wide, situated 
between the two nasals, the anterior frontal, and first labial. Loreal leather elongate ; no 
prseocular ; two postoculars ; nine upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth entering the 
orbit. Temporals 1+2 + 2. Black, paler on the sides and below, with a varying number of 
broad, distant white or whitish bands which become broader below ; they are more distinct 
and more numerous in young specimens than in adult ones, in which those on the hinder 
part of the body entirely disappear. The first band forms a collar extending on to the lips, 
but frequently disappears with age. 

This is a Javan species, extending to Pinang, where it is very scarce. It attains to a 
length of S^ feet, the tail being one-fourth or one-fifth of the total length. It feeds on 
skinks and is of fierce habits, like the other Lycodontides. 

Ophites albofuscus. 

Sphecodes albofuscus, Du7n. ^- Bibr. \\\. p. 394. 
Ophites albofuscus, G'dnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 207. 

Scales in seventeen rows, strongly keeled. Ventrals 256 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 204-208. 
Anterior frontals short, much broader than long ; vertical five-sided, as broad as long. 
Nostril Avide, situated between the two nasals, the anterior frontal, and first labial. Loreal 
as high as long ; one preeocular, just reaching the upper surface of the head ; two post- 
oculars; eight upper labials, the third, fourth, and fifth entering the orbit. Temporals 
rather irregularly arranged : two in front rather elongate and in contact with the postoculars ; 
another, of elongate form, is situated on the side of the hinder half of the occipital. Light 
reddish, with numerous (about fifty) brown cross bands, which are twice or thrice as broad 
as the intervals of the ground-colour ; a reddish-white collar. 

Dumeril states that the single typical specimen came from Sumatra ; his description agrees 
with our specimen as accurately in every point as if it had been taken from it ; I, however, count 
204 subcaudals, whilst Dumeril states 208. It was purchased of a Paris dealer, who stated 
that it came from the coast of Malabar; it is 24| inches long, the tail measuring 8| inches. 



CERCASPIS, IFagl 

Body of moderate length, strongly compressed ; tail rather short. Head 
rather depressed, flat above, with rounded snout of moderate length, not very 
distinct from neck, Ventrals not quite 200 in number, witli a strong- angular 
ridge on each side ; subcaudals simple. Shields of the head regular. Scales 
strongly keeled, in nineteen series. Pupil elliptical, erect. Maxillary with 

one of the anterior teeth (third or fourth) enlarged, there beings a toothless 

"2t2 



324 OPHIDIA. 

space behind it ; the last maxillary tooth is larger than the preceding', and 
separated from tliem by an interspace. Palatine teeth not enlarged ; the 
anterior mandibulary teeth are not much larger than the following. 

Only one species, from Ceylon, is known. 

Cercaspis carinata. 

Hurria carinata, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. p. 95. 

Cercaspis carLaatuSj Wagl. Syst. Amph. p. 191. 

Lycodon carinatus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 109. pi. 4. figs. 6 & 7. 

Anterior frontals small, not quite one-third of posterior ; loreal rather longer than high ; 
praeocular just reaching the upper surface of the head; two postoculars ; eight upper labials, 
the third, fourth, and fifth entering the orbit. Temporals 2 + 3 + 3, the two anterior in 
contact with the postoculars, that situated at the side of the extremity of the occipital 
enlarged. Ventrals 188-193; subcaudals 53-60. Black: white rings encircle the body 
and the tail, and are much wider below than above, where they are reduced to the width of 
one or two scales ; in immature specimens they are almost as wide as the interspaces of the 
ground-colour, the first forming a broad collar, partly covering the head ; in adult specimens 
tlie whole of the head and neck is black. 

It is not scarce in Ceylon, attaining to a length of 2 feet, the tail taking from 4 to 
5 inches. 



FAMILY OF V»U]KT.\mAT>'^—JMBLYCEPHALID^. 

Body much compressed, slender or of moderate length ; its hinder portion 
and the tail prehensile ; head short, thick, very distinct from neck ; eye of 
moderate size, with vertical pupil ; nostril lateral, in a single plate. Shields 
of the crown of the head sometimes increased in number. Cleft of tlie 
mouth much narrower than the external posterior commissure of the lips 
would indicate; lower jaw not expansible, covered with large uiisymmetrical 
chin-shields, not separated by a mental groove. Scales smooth or faintly 
keeled, in from thirteen to fifteen series, those of the vertebral series en- 
larged. Maxillary bone very short, provided with only a few very small teeth ; 
palate and lower jaw with strong teeth anteriorly ; no grooved tooth. 



AMBLYCEPHALUS BOA. 325 

These snakes are of small size, and their narrow mouth does not admit of their swallowing 
large animals ; they feed on insects, and live on trees and bushes or under roofs of huts ; 
they are nocturnal animals. Two genera are known in British India, — a third genus, Bipsa- 
domorus, being confined to Sumatra : — 

Subcaudals entire Amblycephalus, p. 325. 

Subcaudals bifid Pareas, p. 326. 



AMBLYCEPHALUS. 

Amblycephalus, sp., Kuhl. 

Body and tall slender, strongly compressed, prehensile ; head thick and 
large, much elevated, with convex lips, very distinct from neck. Shields 
of the head irregular : rostral very high ; two pairs of frontals of moderate 
size ; an elongate vertical and supraciliaries ; a pair of rounded occipitals ; 
smaller shields are sometimes intercalated between those mentioned. Several 
loreals ; a ring of small separate shields round the orbit ; anterior labials 
narrow, high ; temporals numerous, scale-like. Scales smooth, thin, elon- 
gate, without apical groove, much Imbricate, in thirteen series ; those of the 
vertebral series exceedingly large, hexagonal. Ventrals rounded, less than 
200 in number ; anal and subcaudals simple. Teeth few In number : a long- 
fang anteriorly in the palate and in the lower jaw. 

One species. 



Amblycephalus boa. 

Amblycephalus boa, [Kuhl) Boie, Isis, 1828, p. 1035. 

Dipsas boa, Schkff. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 284. pi. 11. figs. 29, 30. Cantor, Mai. Rept.^. 78. pi. 40. 
fig. 3. 

Loreals three, one above the other; upper labials nine. Ventrals 152-170; subcaudals 
88-112. Pui-plish, densely marbled and dotted with brown, and with very small rose- 
coloured spots ; cheeks and lips carnation, with a vertical black band below the eye. 

The head of this most singular snake resembles much that of a mastiff, the lips being- 
arched and tumid ; it climbs with great facility, frequenting the roofs of the huts of the 



326 OPHIDIA. 

natives in pursuit of its food, which consists of insects. It belongs properly to the fauna of 
the archipelago, inhabiting Java, Borneo, and the Philippine Islands ; Cantor found it at 
Pinang ; it does not appear to be common anywhere. It readily bites ; and attains to a 
length of 3 feet, the tail being one-third. 



PAREAS, Wagl 

Body strongly compressed, of moderate length or rather slender ; tail of 
moderate length, prehensile. Cleft of the mouth very short. Shields of the 
tipj)er side of the head regular. Loreal present, or united with pra?ocular. 
Scales smooth or faintly keeled, in fifteen series, those of the vertebral series 
largest. Ventrals rounded, less than 200 in number; anal simple; sub- 
caudals bifid. Maxillary teeth small, few in number; palatine and mandi- 
bulary teeth in a continuous series, gradually increasing in length towards 
the front. 

The first of the following species resembles in some respects Amblycephalus, whilst the 
second is intermediate between the first and third : — 

Scales slightly keeled P. carmata, p. 326. 

Scales smooth, those of the vertebral series hexagonal ; ventrals 194 .... P. monticola, p. 327. 
Scales smooth, those of the vertebral series but little larger than the others ; 

ventrals ca. 160 P- l<Evis, p. 328. 

PaEEAS CAEINATA. 

Dipsas carinata, {Reinw.) Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 285. pi. 11. figs. 26-28, and Abbild. taf. 45. 

figs. 10-12. 
Pareas carinata, Wagl. Syst. Ainph. p. 181. 

Head of moderate length, thick, elevated, with obtuse snout and tumid upper lips ; eye of 
moderate size, with elliptical pupil ; body and tail of moderate length, strongly compressed, 
prehensile. Eostral shield narrow, high, not reaching to the upper surface of the snout ; 
frontals small, the anterior more than half as large as posterior; vertical six-sided, much 
longer than broad, with an obtuse angle in front. Supraciliaries long, of moderate width ; 
occipitals not larger than vertical. Nasal simple, pierced by the small nostril ; loreal higher 
than long ; a ring of narrow orbitals surrounds the orbit, excluding the labials and the po.s- 
terior frontal. Eight or seven upper labials, the posterior low. Temporals rather irregu- 
larly arranged, scale-like, generally 3 + 3-|-3, the three anterior in contact with the oculars; 
three pairs of broad chin-shields. Teeth slender, of moderate strength ; those of the max- 



PAREAS MONTICOLA. 327 

illary are rather small, fom- in number ; those of the palatines and mandibles are longest 
in front, gradually diminishing in size posteriorly. Scales slightly keeled, thin, in fifteen 
rows, those of the vertebral series distinctly larger than the others. Ventrals 160-174 ; anal 
entire ; subcaudals 52-74. Greyish brown, with numerous closely-set, reticulated blackisli 
cross bands ; a curved black band on each side of the neck, continued to the eye as a narrow 
streak. Whitish below, with some irregular brown dots. 

This species is not very rare in Java; we have also received a specimen from the Laos 
Mountains in Cochinchina. It attains to a length of 20 inches, the tail being one-fourth. 



PaREAS MONTICOLA*. 

Dipsas monticolaj Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 53. 

Head short, flat above, not elevated, distinct from neck, with broad, obtusely rounded 
snout ; eye of moderate size, witli vertical pupil ; body rather slender, strongly compressed ; 
tail of moderate length, prehensile. Rostral shield subquadrangular, as high as broad, just 
reaching the upper surface of the snout ; anterior frontals twice as broad as long, half the 
size of posterior, which form a part of the orbital edge. Vertical rather large, six-sided, 
with an obtuse angle in front and witli an acute one behind; supraciliaries of moderate 
size ; occipitals rather narrow, tapering behind. Nasal simple, pierced by the nostril ; loreal 
none, replaced by a large prtBorbital; another small prseorbital is wedged in between the 
orbit and the third labial ; two very narrow postorbitals, the lower of which excludes the 
fifth labial entirely or partially from the orbit. Seven upper labials, the fourth (or fifth) 
entering the orbit. Temporals rather irregularly arranged ; the two anterior are in contact 
with the postoculars, the lower being much larger than the upper. Lower labials very 
narrow ; two pairs of very large chin-shields. Teeth slender, feeble : each maxillary is armed 
with five small teeth ; those of the palatines and mandibles are more numerous, and the 
anterior are a little longer than the following. Scales smooth, thin, in fifteen rows, those of 
the vertebral series larger than the others, hexagonal. Ventrals 194; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 87. Brown : a black streak commences at each supraciliary, forms a ring behind the 
occiput, and is continued as a short black band along each side of the neck ; along each side 
of the anterior part of the trunk a series of oblique Y-shaped black cross bands which 
gradually become indistinct on the middle and hinder parts of the body. Yellowish below, 
irregularly dotted with brown. 

Two specimens, from Assam, have been examined : one is the type, and preserved in the 
Oxford Museum; the other is 24 inches long, the tail measuring 5^ inches. Mr. Blyth 
mentions a Bipsas monticola from Assam (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 294) ; but this 
must be a very diff'erent snake, having 158 ventrals and 106 subcaudals. 

* Before I had an opportunity of examining the typical specimen I had named this species P. nuchalis, 
which name has no claim whatever to further notice. 



328 OPHIDIA. 

Pareas l^vis. 

Amblycephalus Isevis, [Kiehl] Boie, his, 1827, p. 519. 

Dipsas Ijevis, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 287. pi. 11. figs. 24 & 25. 

Pareas Isevis, Diim. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 442. 

Head short, with broad, obtusely rounded snout, not elevated, distinct from neck ; eye of 
moderate size, with elliptical pupil ; body of moderate length, compressed ; tail short. 
Rostral shield as high as broad ; anterior frontals twice as broad as long, half the size of 
posterior, which enter the upper part of the orbit. Vertical large, six-sided, as broad as, or 
broader than, long, with a very obtuse angle in front. Occipitals of moderate size. Nostril 
rather wide, in the posterior part of a single nasal. Loreal none, replaced by the smgle 
prseocular. Supraciliary and two postoculars narrow, small, sometimes confluent. Seven or 
eight upper labials, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit, the two posterior being 
very low. Temporals rather irregularly arranged, the two anterior being elongate and in 
contact with the oculars. Maxillary teeth minute, few in number ; palatine and mandibulary 
teeth slender, feeble ; the latter are closely set, numerous, longest anteriorly, and gradually 
decreasing in length posteriorly. Specimens from the continent have these teeth rather 
swollen and more equal in length than specimens from the islands. Scales smooth, thin, 
without apical groove, in fifteen rows, those of the vertebral series being but little larger than 
the others. Ventrals 150-164; anal entire; subcaudals 34-46. Brown or blackish ash, 
marbled with black, the black colour being disposed in irregular cross bands ; belly brown 
(Java), or white with irregular blackish lateral spots (Java, Cochinchina). 

This snake is found in Java, Cochinchina (Lao Mountains), and Khasya. Our largest 
specimen is 16 inches long, the tail measuring 3 inches. 



FAMILY OF ROCK SNAKES— P FTWOAYZ).^. 

Body and tall of moderate length or rather slender, rounded ; tail pre- 
hensile ; head with the snout rather long, depressed, truncated or rounded 
In front. Eye of moderate size, with vertical pupil. Scales smooth, in 
numerous series; subcaudals two-rowed. Some of the upper and lower 
labials are ])ltted. Teeth in the intermaxillary, maxillary, palatine, pterygoid, 
and mandibulary bones, of unequal size ; none are grooved. Adult individuals 
with a spur-like prominence on each side of the vent ; it is the extremity of 
a rudimentary hind limb hidden between the muscles. 

The Eock-snakes are found in the hottest parts of Africa, Asia, the East Indian Archi- 



PYTHON 329 

pelago, and Australia. They climb as well as they swim ; most of them prefer the neigh- 
bourhood of water. This family contains the largest snakes. 

Only one genus is found in British India. 



PYTHON. 

PythoDj sp.j Baud. 

Only the anterior half of the upper side of the head is covered with sym- 
metrical shields, the hinder with scales ; rostral shield and a part of the 
upper and lower lahials pitted. Nostrils between two shields unequal in size. 

The two species of Indian Eock-snakes are among the largest of living reptiles. Of 
snakes, only their African congeners and the American Eunectes murimis can be placed beside 
them. Their dimensions and their strength, however, have been much exaggerated : speci- 
mens of 18 to 20 feet in length are very rare, although isolated statements of the occurrence of 
individuals which measured 30 feet are on record and worthy of credit*. Rock-snakes from 
15 to 20 feet long have the thickness of a man's thigh, and will easily overpower a small deer, 
a sheep, or a good-sized dog. But although able to kill these animals, the width of their 
mouth is not so large that they can swallow one larger than a half-grown sheep. The 
way in which they seize and kill their prey is the same as that observed in numerous 
smaller snakes : after having seized the victim, they smother it by tlirowing several coils of 
the body over and round it. In swallowing they always commence with the head ; and as 
they live entirely on mammals and birds, the hairs and feathers offer a considerable impedi- 
ment to the passage down the thi'oat. Tlie process of deglutition is therefore slow, but it 
would be much slower except for the great quantity of saliva discharged over the body of the 
victim. During the time of digestion, especially when the prey has been a somewhat large 
animal, the snake becomes very lazy ; it moves but slowly when disturbed, or defends itself 
with little vigour when attacked. At any other time the Rock-snakes will fiercely defend 
themselves when they perceive that no retreat is left to them. Although individuals kept 
in captivity become tamer, the apparent tameness of specimens brought to Europe is much 
more a state of torpidity caused by the climate than an actual alteration of their naturally 
fierce temper. The Rock-snakes must attain to a considerable age. A Python reticulatns 
lived in the menagerie of the Zoological Society of London for fifteen years ; when brought 
to England it was about 11 feet long, and in ten years it had attained to a length of 21 feet, 
after which no further growth could be observed. According to observations made by Bibron 
on young Rock-snakes born in the Garden of Plants in Paris, this specimen would have been 

* We regret to find in tlie ' Reise der Novara/ ii. p. 2-^7, a passage in which it is stated that the tra- 
vellers saw in Manilla a living " Boa constrictor," 48 feet long and 7 inches thick. Surely none of the 
naturalists accompanying the expedition can have seen this passage before it was sent to press. 



330 OPHIDIA. 

about four years old at the time when it was 11 feet long ; so that the growth is much quicker 
in the first period of life than afterwards. The males remain smaller than the females. 

The Eock-snakes will propagate in captivity — the Indian P. molurus having bred in Paris, 
and the African P. sebce in London*. In both cases the eggs were incubated by the mother, 
and in the former successfully hatched. The copulation of the P. molurus took place at 
several times in the months of January and February, and fifteen eggs, of the size of that of 
a goose, were deposited on the 6th of May. The snake having collected them in a conical 
heap, coiled herself spirally round and on this heap, entii'ely covering the eggs, so that her 
head rested in the centre and at the top of the cone. The snake remained in this position 
until eight of the eggs were hatched on the 3rd of July. 

As almost the same facts have been observed in another species from Africa, we may 
conclude that all the Pythons in a free state take care of their progeny. An increase of the 
temperature has been observed between the coils of the snake in both cases, and it is probable 
that a higher degree of warmth is necessary for the development of the embryonic Pythons 
tlian for that of other snakes. 

The two species found in British India are : — 

A black line runs from the rostral along the median line of the head and neck . P. reticulatus. 
A brown spot, shaped like the head of a lance, occupies the crown of the head 

and the nape P. molurus. 



Python reticulatus. The Ular sawa of the Malays. 

Seba, i. p. 98. tab. 62. fig. 2 ; ii. p. 83. tab. 79. fig. 1, a^d p. 85. tab. 80. fig. 1. 

Boa reticulata, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 264. 

Python schueiderii, Merr. Tent. p. 89. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 415. pi. 15. figs. 5-7. 

reticulatus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 44. Dum. &; Bibr. vi. p. 426. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 55. 

A pair of anterior and posterior frontals ; one or two other pairs of smaller shields inter- 
calated between the posterior frontals and the vertical. Four upper and about six lower 
labials are pitted. Scales small, in about seventy-four series round the middle of the trunk. 
Ventrals 297-330; anal entire; subcaudals 82-102. Ground-colour light yellowish brown, 
chestnut, or olive : a black line runs from the rostral along the median line of the head and 
neck ; another band from the eye to the angle of the mouth. A series of irregular black 
rings, these markings being sometimes lozenge-shaped along the back ; the scales nearest the 
black rings are of a light or whitish colour, and, laterally, an irregular ocellated or reticulated, 
white, black-edged spot is joined to each side of each ring or lozenge. Lower parts yellowish, 
with irregular small lateral spots ; subcaudals marbled with brown. 

This is a common species in the Archipelago, inhabiting almost all the islands. The fauna 
of the Malayan Peninsula bears as much the insular as the continental character, and appears 
to be the only part of the continent where this Rock-snake is found ; according to Cantor it 
is numerous there and in the neighbouring islands, feeding on quadrupeds and birds. It 

* See Sclater, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 365. 



PYTHON MOLURUS. 331 

often takes up its abode in outhouses, preying at night, and is thus useful in destroying 
vermin, although plunder is occasionally committed in poultry-yards. When kept in cap- 
ti\'ity it is of importance to supply it with a small tank of water, in which it will frequently 
remain for days. Individuals of 16 feet in length are not of rare occurrence, and some about 
30 feet long are on record. 

PiTiiox MOLUEUS. The Adjiger of the Hindoos. 

5fe6a, i-P-59. tab. 37. fig. 1. 
Coluber moliirus, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 225. 
Peddapoda, Russell, hid. Serp. i. pis. 22-24 & 39. 
Python tigris, Baud. v. p. 241. 

bivittatus (part.), Schleg. Phys.^Serp. ii. p. 403. pi. 15. figs. 1^ 3 &4. 

moliirus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 44. Dum. ^ Bibr. vi. p. 417. 

A pair of anterior and posterior frontals ; several other small shields between the vertical 
and the posterior frontals. The two anterior upper labials and four of the lower ones are 
pitted. Supraorbital not divided; the sixth upper labial is below the orbit, entering it. 
Scales small, in about sixty-five series round the middle of the trunk ; those of the outer 
series large, half the size of the ventrals. Ventrals 242-262 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 60-72. 
The ground-colour is light greyish brown. A brown spot, shaped like the head of a lance, 
occupies the crown of the head and the nape ; its point rests on the frontals, but frequently 
it is truncated anteriorly, its extremity being on or behind the vertical; a light median streak 
divides its triangular portion into two. A dark-brown streak runs from the nostril through 
the eye to behind the angle of the mouth, gradually becoming broader and confluent with 
another band running along the lower jaw. A sub triangular brown spot below the eye. 
Back of the body and tail with a vertebral series of large quadrangular spots, the margins of 
which are sometimes serrated, sometimes straight ; an oblong spot on each side of each of 
these quadrangular spots. Sides of the body with another series of rather irregular bro\vn 
spots, which sometimes have a light centre. Lower parts yellowish, brownish or blackish 
on the sides. 

This Python, commonly known under the name of " Rock Snake," and by some misnamed 
" Boa," is almost peculiar to the continent of India. Common in the Southern Peninsula 
and in Bengal, it extends northwards into the Saul Forest at the foot of the Himalayas, and 
probably to Southern China*. Its occurrence in the Malayan Peninsula is problematical, and 
in Java it is at all events much scarcer than P. reticulatus. Ceylon is inhabited by a Python, 
but it is not known whether it is molurus or reticulatus — probably the former. 

Specimens are known to have been captured which were 20 feet long, and it is probable 
that it attains to the same size as its congener from the Archipelago. It prefers swampy 
ground, or at least the neighbourhood of Avater, where it finds a more regular supply of food 
in the animals visiting their drinking-places. It feeds on birds, Rodentia. young or small 
deer, sheep, &c. 

* Blytb mentions a speeimen from Formosa, sent by Mr. Swinhoe ; but, according to a communication 
from the latter gentleman, it appears that it had been imported into that island from China. 

2 U2 



332 OPHIDIA. 

FAMILY OF SAND SNAKES— ERYCID^. 

Body of moderate length, cylindrical, covered with small, short scales ; 
tail very short, with a single series of suhcaudals ; head with a hroad snout 
of moderate length, or somewhat elongate. Eye rather small, with vertical 
pupil. None of the lahials are pitted ; cleft of the mouth wide ; teeth in 
the maxillary, on the palate, and in the mandible, none in the intermaxillary ; 
the anterior teeth are the lonafcst. Adult individuals with a short conical 
prominence in a groove on each side of the vent ; it is the extremity of a 
rudimentary hind limb. 

The snakes of this family show great similarity to the Pythons and Boas with regard to 
their internal structure as well as to their external characters. But their tail is very short, 
not flexible, much less, prehensile; and whilst the snakes of the families mentioned are 
more or less arboreal, frequenting marshy places with luxuriant vegetation, the Erycides 
inhabit dry, sandy or stony plains, burrowing with the greatest facility below the surface, 
and entering crevices and holes in search of their prey, which consists of mice, lizai'ds, and 
other burrowing snakes. Probably they are seminocturnal, and able to see in dark places as 
well as in the night. They are found in Northern Africa, in the islands of the Mediterranean, 
in Asia Minor, in the peninsula of Southern India, and probably in Arabia ; two species are 
known to have been brought from Sikkim. 

The following genera occur in British India : — 

Mental groove none ; scales keeled Gongylophis, p. 332. 

Scales smooth Cursoria, p. 333. 

Mental groove present ; scales keeled Eryx, ]). 334. 



GONGYLOPHIS, 7rar/L 

Head flat, oblong, scarcely distinct from neck, with the snout rather long' 
and obtusely rounded in front, and without canthus rostralis. Body cylin- 
drical, of moderate length ; tail very short, tapering. Nostril lateral, directed 
upwards ; eyes rather small, with vertical pupil. Head covered with scales, 
only the foremost part of the snout and the lips are shielded ; scales small, 
keeled ; ventrals and subcaudals narrow. Chin entirely covered with small 
scales, without median groove. Anterior teeth in the jaws and on the palate 
longest. 



CURSORIA ELEGANS. 333 

GONGYLOPHIS CONICUS. 

Russell, Lid. Serp. i. p. 5. pi. 4. 

Boa conica, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii. p. 268, and Denkschr. Miinch. Acad. 1821, vii. p. 119. tab. 6. 

fig. 2. 
Gongylophis conicus, TVaffl. Syst. Amph. p. 192. Gilnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 163. 
Eryx coiiicus, Du7ii. i^- Bibr. vi. p. 470. 

Rostral shield nearly twice as broad as high, with two pairs of small shields behind, the 
outer of which are the anterior nasals. The labials are low, subequal in size, twelve in 
number. The remainder of the snout and the crown of the head are equally covered with 
small keeled scales ; none of the shields enter the orbit, which is entirely surrounded by 
scales. The margin of the lower jaw is surrounded by a narrow belt of numerous labials, 
the entire chin and throat being covered with small smooth scales. The middle of the body 
is surrounded by from forty-one to forty-seven series of short keeled scales, the keels becoming 
much stronger posteriorly. Ventrals 168-176 ; subcaudals 17-23. Brownish grey, with a 
dorsal series of large quadrangular brown blotches edged with dark brown and whitish ; the 
spots are frequently confluent and form a broad zigzag band ; irregular smaller brown spots 
along the side ; the lower parts white ; an oblique brown streak on the temple proceeding 
from behind the eye. 

This snake is common in many parts of the peninsula of Southern India. Messrs. von 
Schlagintweit brought a specimen from Sikkim, which, according to their notes, was captured 
at an elevation of 4900 feet. Nothing positive is known of its habits, which probably, how- 
ever, are similar to those of Eryx. It attains to a length of more than two feet. 



CURSORIA. 

Cusoria, Gray. 

This genus is distinguished from Oongylophis by having smooth scales ; moreover it appears 
to have a mental groove, but this is not quite certain, as the head of the single specimen 
known is very much shrunk. 



CURSOEIA ELEGANS. 

Cusoria elegans, Gi-ay, Viper. Snakes, p. 107. 

Head oblong, of moderate width and length, with the snout truncated in front, not distinct 
from neck ; trunk cylindrical, of moderate length ; tail short, tapering. The eye is very 
small, with vertical pupil ; nostril lateral, very narrow. The whole head, above, below, and 
on the sides, is covered with small scales, those on the snout being somewhat larger. Rostral 
shield large, broad, wedge-shaped, with an anterior and lower surface. A pair of small frontal 



334 OPHIDIA. 



shields behind the rostral. Eleven small upper labials, the sixth of which is the highest, 
situated below the orbit, which is entirely surrounded by small scales ; one series of scales 
between the orbit and the labials. A mental groove is present (1). The scales are small, 
rounded, smooth, in thirty-six series round the middle of the body. Ventrals 184 ; subcaudals 
perhaps 30 (the tip of the tail is broken off). Light brownish olive, with a dorsal series of 
irregular rounded chestnut-brown, black-edged spots ; numerous small brown spots along the 
side and the belly. 

The single specimen known is considerably shrunk and not in a good state of preservation ; 
it is 16 inches long, and said to be from Afghanistan. 



ERYX. 

EryXj sp., Daudin. 

Head not distinct from neck, with the snout ohtusely conical, and with a 
sharp transverse anterior edge. Body cyHndrical, of moderate length ; tail 
very short. Nostril very narrow, lateral; eyes small, with vertical pupil. 
Head covered with scales; snout shielded; scales small, slightly keeled. 
Chin with some small shields along the middle separated by a median 
groove. 

One species extends from the south of Europe to Persia ; the other is Indian. 

Erys johnii. 

Boa johnii, RusseU, Ind. Serp. ii. p. 18. pi. 16, and p. 20. pi. 17. fig. 1. 
Clothonia jolinii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 45. G'dnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 164. 
Eryx johnii, Dum. cV Bib?', vi. p. 458. 
maculatus, Hallowell, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. 1849, p. 184 c. fig. 

Eostral shield very large, wedge-shaped, subtriangular ; two pairs of small shields (frontals), 
one behind the other, on the upper surface of the snout ; from ten to thirteen upper labials, 
none of which enter the orbit, which is entii-ely surrounded by scales. The remainder of the 
head is covered with small smooth scales. The body is surrounded by from fifty-four to sixty- 
five longitudinal series of slightly keeled scales. Ventrals 194-209; subcaudals 26-36. 
Upper parts reddish olive, uniform or with irregular small black spots and dots ; lower parts 
generally marbled with blackish. Young specimens with three or four broad brownish rings 
round the hinder part of the body. 



ACROCHORDUS. 335 

This is a common species in the plains of the peninsula of Southern India ; a large specimen, 
spotted all over with black, was brought from Sikkim by Messrs. von Schlagintweit, who fix 
the elevation at which it was captured at 9800 feet above the level of the sea. No other 
instance of the occurrence of this snake at any considerable elevation is known. It is also 
found in the Punjab. It is perfectly harmless, and never attempts to bite. It is frequently 
found in the possession of serpent-charmers, who mutilate the end of the short, thick tail in 
such a manner that the scarred extremity somewhat resembles the form of the head. Such 
specimens are shown as " deadly two-headed snakes," and frequently brought to Europe. A 
specimen in the menagerie of the Zoological Society of London lived there for about eight 
years, and fed regularly on young mice. The keeper assured me that it frequently covered 
its prey with saliva, which I have never seen. It always kept itself hidden below the gravel 
at the bottom of its cage. The species attains to a length of nearly 4 feet, the tail measuring 
4 inches. 



FAMILY OF WART ^NAKE^—JCROCHORDJDyE. 

Body of moderate length, rounded or slightly compressed, covered with 
small, wart-like, not imhricate, tuhercular or spiny scales ; tail rather short, 
prehensile. Head rather small, not distinct from neck, covered with scales 
like the hody. Eye small. Nostrils close together, at the top of the snout. 
Teeth short, but strong, subequal in size, in the jaws and on the palate. 
Viviparous. 

Only three species of this family are known, forming as many genera, if, indeed, the Javan 
Xenodermus, with broad ventral and subcaudal shields, belongs to it. The two others are 
found in British India : — 

Tail without broad fold below : terrestrial Acrochordus, p. 335. 

Tail with a broad fold below : aquatic Cher sy dries, p. 336. 



ACROCHORDUS, Homstedt. 

The hind part of the body and tail are slightly compressed ; tail not 
expanded by a fold of the skin. No ventral or subcaudal shields whatever ; 
each scale with a strong triangular keel, terminating in a spine ; many 
scales with another j)air of smaller spines. 

Only one species is known. 



336 OPHIDIA. 

ACKOCHOEDUS JAVANICUS. 

Acrochordus javanicus, Horiist. Abhandl. Acad. Stockh. 1797, vii. p. 306. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. 
p. 424, and Abbild. p. 55. taf. 17. figs. 12-14. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 58. 

Head rather short and broad, with the snout much broader than long, and with the eyes 
directed forward. The nostrils are minute, in the centre of a small circular nasal shield, the 
nasals being close together, in front of the snout. The cleft of the mouth is of moderate 
width, not bent upwards posteriorly ; it is closed anteriorly by a central notch of the upper 
jaw and by two lateral ones of the lower, receiving corresponding protuberances of the 
opposite jaw. Brown above, more yellowish on the sides ; the young with large irregular 
dark-brown spots, confluent into undulating and interrupted bands on the back ; these spots 
become very indistinct with age. 

This snake is very rare, and has been found only in Java, at Pinang, and Singapore. It 
grows to a length of 8 feet, and it has been ascertained by actual observation that its habits 
are terrestrial. Cantor justly compares its physiognomy with that of a thorough-bred bull- 
dog : a female in his possession brought forth not less than twenty-seven young ones in the 
course of about twenty-five minutes ; they were very active, and bit fiercely. Hornstedt found 
a quantity of undigested fruits in the stomach. No opportunity of making further observa- 
tions on the habits of this remarkable snake should be lost. 



CHERSYDRUS, Guv. 

The hind part of the body and the tail are slightly compressed ; the 
surface of the latter is vertically expanded by a fold of the skin running- 
along its lower side. No ventral or subcaudal shields whatever ; a low fold 
of the skin runs alonff the median line of the ahdomen. Scales with a short 
tubercle-like keel, not spiny. 

Only one species is known. 
Chekstdrus geanulatus. 

Hydrus gi'anulatus, Schneid. Amph. p. 243. 

Acrochordus fasciatus, Shaiv, Zool. iii. pp. 11, 576. pi. 130. 

Chersydrus fasciatus, Cuv. Regne Anim. 

Acrochordus granulatus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 59. 

Chersydrus granulatus et annulatus. Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 61, 

The cleft of the mouth is of moderate width, not bent upwards posteriorly ; it is closed 



ELAPID^. 337 

anteriorly by a central notch of the upper jaw and by two lateral ones of the lower, receiving 
corresponding protuberances of the opposite jaw. The nostrils are round, and can be her- 
metically closed by a valve in their interior. Only the scales occupying the medial abdominal 
fold are spinous, their keels terminating in a minute point. Brownish black, with whitish 
cross bands on the sides and abdomen ; head with some small yellowish spots. In the young 
the bands are more clearly defined, and extend on to the back, where they are generally 
interrupted. 

This is a thoroughly aquatic species, as is indicated by its broad, compressed tail, which, 
however, differs greatly from that of the Hydrophides in not having the processes of the 
caudal vertebrae prolonged. It is more or less scarce, but found in the rivers and on the sea- 
coasts of numerous islands of the Archipelago, extending to New Guinea and the Philippines. 
It inhabits also the eastern coasts of Southern India and the Malayan Peninsula, and some- 
times it may be seen three or four miles distant from the shore. Cantor found six eggs with 
developed embryos in a female which he dissected, the mother being nearly 3 feet long, the 
embryos lOf inches. In food and general habits this snake resembles the Hydrophides; but 
it is not venomous, as has been stated by previous writers. 



Second Suborder. 

OP HID 11 COLUBRIFORMES FENENOSI—YY.^OMO\]^ 

COLUBRINE SNAKES. 

Snakes with an erect, immoveable, grooved or perforated tooth in front of 
the maxillary. 

Two families of this Suborder are represented in the East Indies : — 

Tail conical, tapering Elapid^e, p. 337. 

Tail strongly compressed, paddle-shaped HydrophidjE, p. 352. 



FAMILY OF ELAPIDES— ^/.^P/Z^y^. 

Body cylindrical or subcylindrical ; tail rather short, tapering. Head 
with the normal number of shields above ; loreal constantly absent. Nostril 
lateral. Eye rather small, with round pupil. The venom-fang shows a 
distinct groove along its front, and the canal in its interior terminates in a 

slit at its extremity. 

2x 



338 OPHIDIA. 

The snakes of this family inhabit all the tropical regions and Australia; those of British 
India belong to the following genera : — 

A. Neck dilatable : Najid.e. 

All the subcaudals are bifid Naja, p. 338. 

Three pairs of very large sliields round the occipitals Ophiophagus, p. 340. 

B. Neck not distensible : Elapid^. 

Scales in fifteen serieSj those of the vertebral series hexagonal ; subcaudals simple . Bungm~us, p. 342. 

Scales in fifteen series, those of the vertebral series hexagonal ; subcaudals bifid . Xenurelaps, p. 345. 

Scales in thirteen series, those of the vertebral series hexagonal Megarophis, p. 346. 

Scales in thirteen series, those on the back of equal size Callophis, p. 346. 



NAJA, Laur. 

Body and tail of moderate length ; belly flat ; head rather high and short, 
not very distinct from neck, which is very dilatable, the anterior ribs being- 
elongate. The shields of the head normal, but the loreal is absent. Nostril 
wide, lateral, between two shields ; eye of moderate size, with round pupil. 
One pr£e-, three, sometimes two or four post-oculars. Six upj)er labials, the 
third and fourth entering the orbit ; the third forms the lower half of the 
anterior margin of the orbit. Scales smooth, much imbricate, in numerous 
series round the hood. Anal entire ; subcaudals two-rowed. Tlie fang is 
grooved, with a foramen at its extremity ; one or two small ordinary teeth 
at a short distance behind it. 



Naja tripudians. The Cobra or 'Haga. 

Coluber naja, L. Syst. Nat. i. p. 382. 

Naja lutescens, Laur. Syn. p. 91. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 117. 
Russell, Ind. Serp. i. tab. 5 & 6; ii. tab. 1. 

Naja tripudians, Merr. Tent. p. 147. Gray, Ind. Zool. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 466. pi. 17. 
figs. 1-3. Gunth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 223. 

larvata, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 32. 

atra, Cantor, Ann. ^- Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. p. 482. 

kaouthia. Less, in Belang. Voy. Ind. Orient. Zool. p. 312, Rept. pi. 2 (very bad). 

The sixth upper labial is small, and forms a suture with a lai-ge temporal shield ; two 
temporals in contact with the postoculars. Scales on the foremost part of the neck in 
twenty-five or twenty-three series. 



NAJA TRIPUDIANS. 339 

Var. a. Uniform brownish olive above, with a pair of very conspicuous white, black- 
edged spectacles on the neck ; belly yellowish, uniform or slightly marbled with brown, and 
with a broad blackish cross band, corresponding to the spectacle-like mark. 

* The lower anterior temporal shield is in contact with three or four other temporals ; 

ventrals 193: Madras, Anamallay Mountains, Dukhun, Bengal, Pinang. 
** The lower anterior temporal shield is in contact with two other temporals : Sikkim. 

Var. j3. Dark brown above, many scales with whitish edges ; a pair of spectacles on tlie 
neck, white, black-edged, and more conspicuous in young individuals than in old ones, in 
which the spectacles are uniform black ; a large ovate black blotch on each side of the belly, 
corresponding to the spectacles ; anterior part of the belly with three or four black cross 
bands, posterior part marbled with blackish or entirely black. The lower anterior temporal 
shield is in contact with three temporals; ventrals 195; subcaudals 62: Ceylon. 

Var. y. Olive-brown above, with a pair of very conspicuous white, black-edged spectacles ; 
posterior third of the trunk with distant narrow white cross bands. Belly yellowish, punc- 
tulated with brown, and with a broad black cross band behind the spectacles. The lower 
anterior temporal shield is in contact with two other temporals; ventrals 174: China. 

Var. S. Uniform blackish brown above and below ; head of a lighter colour ; a pair of 
elongate-ovate white spots on the neck. The lower anterior temporal shield is in contact 
with two other temporals ; ventrals 180: China. 

Var. e. Uniform brownish black above and below, without spectacles, sometimes with an 
indistinct black cross band on the front part of the belly. 

* The lower anterior temporal is in contact with two other temporals ; ventrals 184-187 : 

Dekkan, Pinang. 
** The lower anterior temporal is in contact with three other temporals : Sikkim. 

Var. t. Uniform black ; a large white ocellus on the neck with black centre and black 
margin ; anterior part of the belly whitish, with a broad black cross band ; the lower tem- 
poral is in contact with two other temporals; ventrals 174: Siam. 

Var. 7). Black above and below ; a large white ocellus on the neck with black centre ; 
about fifteen narrow, equidistant, well-defined white bands across the trunk; the lower 
temporal is in contact with three other temporals; ventrals 170 : Siam. 

Var. 0. Black above and below ; a large white ocellus on the neck with black centre and 
black edge. Body with rather irregular whitish cross bands ; the two anterior are broad, 
the following are divided into a pair of narrower bands ; and in the middle of the body the 
bands become indistinct and are dissolved into small spots. The lower anterior temporal is 
generally in contact with two, sometimes with three other temporals; ventrals 193; sub- 
caudals 53: Naja larvata, Cantor, from Bombay, Calcutta, Assam, and Sikkim. 

All the varieties mentioned form but one species, which is widely spread, and only too 
common all over the continent of the Indian region. A black form, without spectacles, and 
with fewer series of scales on the neck, the Naja sputatrix of Reinwardt, is limited to the 
East Indian Archipelago, and appears to be a distinct species. The true Naja triimdians, 

2x2 



340 OPHIDIA. 

however, is by no means confined to the continent and Ceylon, being found in a number of 
the larger islands of the Archipelago. It extends eastwards to the Sutlej, and westwards to 
the Chinese island of Chusan. Singularly, it has never been observed by Mr. Hodgson in 
the valley of Nepal, but occurs in difierent parts of the Himalayas, reaching an altitude of 
8000 feet in Sikkim. It attains to a length of 5 feet, feeding on small mammals and birds, 
on lizards, frogs, toads, and fishes ; in order to obtain its prey it occasionally climbs trees or 
the roofs of huts ; it is an expert swimmer, and is sometimes found at a considerable dis- 
tance out at sea. It is more a nocturnal animal than a diurnal one, and ovoviviparous. Its 
chief enemies are the jungle fowl, which destroy the young brood, and the Herpestes or 
ichneumons, which will attack and master the largest Cobra : in districts where the Cobras 
or other venomous snakes have too much increased in number, the most efficient way of 
destroying them is to protect their natural enemies. 

The Cobra, the most common venomous snake of India, is so much an object of dread to 
the natives, of wonder to the Europeans, and of profit to the numerous itinerant snake- 
charmers, that it has become as celebrated an animal as its cousin, the Naja haje, which was 
a symbol of female divinities among the ancient Egyptians. Almost every writer on the 
natural productions of the East Indies has contributed to the natui'al history of this snake, 
which has been surrounded by such a number of evidently fabulous stories that their repe- 
tition and contradiction would fill a volume. 

This snake is frequently brought to Europe, and -will live in captivity for years. Two may 
be well kept together ; and it appears as if they felt some attachment for each other, for when 
they are excited by having food brought into their cage, or by some other incident, they will 
frequently fight each other, raising the anterior part of the body, spreading the hood, and 
darting as if to bite, but always carefully avoiding to wound. When, however, a third indi- 
vidual or any other snake is brought into the same cage, they attack and kill it. They 
feed more frequently at dusk and duiing the night than in the daytime ; they drink often 
and much. 

The Cobra is one of the most deadly snakes, the poison of which afiects the whole system 
in a very short time ; comparatively few are the cases where the person bitten escaped death 
without the timely application of remedies, and only too frequently the psychical and physical 
health of the unfortunate individual remains for a long time afiected, sufiering periodical 
returns of most painful symptoms. We refer to our general remarks on the poison of snakes 
and on its antidotes, pp. 167 & 1G8. 



OPHIOPHAGUS, Gthr. 

Body rather elongate ; tail of proportionate length ; head rather short, 
depressed, scarcely distinct from neck, which is dilatable. Occipitals sur- 
rounded by three pairs of large shields, the two anterior of which are 
temporals. Nostril between two nasals. Loreal none ; one or two prae-, 



OPHIOPHAGUS ELAPS. 341 

three post-oculars. Scales smooth, much imbricate, in transverse rows, in 
fifteen series round the body, but in many more round the neck ; those of 
the vertebral series are rather larger than the others. Ventrals more than 
200 ; anal entire ; anterior subcaudals simple, posterior two-rowed, some- 
times all bifid. Maxillary with a large fang in front, which is perforated at 
the end, showing a longitudinal groove in front ; a second, small, simple tooth 
at some distance behind the fang. 

Only one species is known. 

OpHIOPHAGUS ELAPS. 

Naja bungarus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 476, and in Verhand. Overz. Beziit. Nederl. Ind. Zool. 
p. 71. pi. 10 (young). 

elaps, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 485. 

vittata, Elliott, Madr. Journ. Lit. ^ Sci. xi. pi. 1. 

Hamadryas (liannah) opliiopliagus, Cantor, As. Res. xx. p. 87. pi. 10-12, and Mai. Rept. p. 116. 
Trimeresm-us ophiophagus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1245. 
Hamadryas elaps, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 219. 

This snake is easily recognized by the large shields surrounding the occipitals. There is 
generally one prseorbital ; only once have I found it divided into two, viz. in a specimen from 
the PhiUppine Islands. Seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit, the 
third the largest, the sixth and seventh very low; temporals large, 2+2. Ventrals 215-262 ; 
subcaudals 80-100; the number of entire anterior subcaudals varies much. The colours of 
the adult are subject to great variation : — 

a. Olive-green above ; the shields of the head, the scales of the neck, hinder part of the 
body and of the tail edged with black ; trunk with numerous oblique, alternate black and 
white bands converging towards the head ; lower parts marbled with blackish, or uniform 
pale greenish : Malayan Peninsula, Bengal, Peninsula of Southern India. 

j3. Brownish olive, uniform anteriorly, with the scales black-edged posteriorly ; each scale 
of the tail with a very distinct white, black-edged ocellus (as in Ptyas mucosus) : Philippine 
Islands. 

y. Uniform brownish black, scales of the hinder part of the body and of the tail somewhat 
lighter in the centre ; all the lower parts black, except the chin and throat, which are yellow : 
Borneo. 

Young specimens have a much more varied coloration: they are black, with numerous 
white, equidistant, narrow cross bands descending obliquely backwards; head with four 
white cross bands : one occupies the extremity of the snout, the second across the posterior 
fi-ontals, the third across the crown of the head, behind the orbit; the fourth across the 
occiput to the angle of the mouth ; the two latter bands are composed of oval spots. In a 
specimen from the Anamallay Mountains the belly is black, and the white bands extend 



342 OPHIDIA. 

across, being wider than on the back ; in a second specimen, of which the locality is un- 
known, the belly is white, each ventral having a blackish margin. 

This remarkable snake, although rather rare, has a very wide geographical range : it has 
been found in almost every part of the Indian continent, in the Andaman Islands, in Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo, in the Philippine Islands, and, according to Dumeril, also in New Guinea. 
It is one of the largest and most deadly venomous snakes, attaining to a length of more than 
12 feet, of which the tail is about one-fifth. It inhabits hollow trees, and is sometimes found 
resting between the branches ; it feeds on other snakes. 



BUNGARUS, Baud. 

Body rather elongate ; tail comparatively short ; head more or less dilated, 
depressed, with broad, rounded muzzle, scarcely distinct from neck, which is 
not dilatable. Nostril between two nasals. Loreal none ; one pree-, two 
post-oculars. Scales smooth, moderately imbricate, disposed in oblique rows, 
forming fifteen longitudinal series round the body ; those of the vertebral 
series are very broad, hexagonal. Ventrals between 200 and 250 ; anal and 
subcaudals entire. Maxillary with a fang in front, which is perforated at the 
end, showing a longitudinal groove in front ; a second, small, simple tooth at 
some distance behind the fang. 

All the species occur on the continent of India ; they are extremely closely allied to one 
another, so that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish species from varieties. We first give 
a general description. 

The body is subcylindrical and rather slender, the head depressed, scarcely distinct from 
neck, the tail short. Eye small, with round pupil. Rostral shield broader than high, 
reaching to the upper surface of the snout; anterior frontals half the size of posterior; 
vertical five-sided ; occipitals tapering behind. Nostril rather wide, between two nasals ; one 
prseocular, not extending on to the upper surface of the snout ; two postoculars. Seven upper 
labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit, the fifth and sixth the largest. Temporals 
rather small, 1 + 2 -f 3. Scales without apical groove. 

The name of the genus has been derived from a vernacular name, Bungarum, used on 
some parts of the coast of Coromandel. The Bungarums are terrestrial snakes, feeding on 
small mammals, lizards, small snakes, and toads. Although diurnal, yet, like all Indian 
serpents, they prefer the shade to the sun. They are shy and attempt to escape, but when 
attacked they defend themselves fiercely : Cantor says that they are capable of darting nearly 
the anterior half of the body. Their bite is always very dangerous ; but the magnitude of 



BUNGARUS FASCIATUS. 3i3 

the danger depends, as in other venomous snakes, on many drcumstances — chiefly on tlie 
size and energy of the individual snake, and on the place of the wound. As the fangs of 
the Bungarums are comparatively short, the Avound is always superficial, and can be easily 
excised and cauterized ; also, experiments made on animals show that the general effect on 
the whole system becomes visible only after a lapse of time. 

All the species known belong to the continental fauna, two of them extending to some of 
the islands of the Archipelago ; the diagnoses given, although short, will be found fully 
sufficient to recognize and distinguish these closely allied species. 

BUNGARUS C^RULEUS. 

? ? Coluber Candidas, L. Mus. Ad. Fried, tab. 7. fi^. 1 . 

Pseudoboa coerulea, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 284. 

Boa Krait, Williams, As. Res. ii, p. 328. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. tab. 1. 

Boa lineata, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 356. 

Biuigarus cceruleus, Baud. Hist. Rept. v. p. 270. Dum. £f Bibr. vii. p. 1273. 

Uvidus, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 32. 

Candidas, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 113 (not synon.). 

arcuatus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1272. 

liueatus, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 219. 

The first temporal shield is considerably longer than high. Ventrals 201-221 ; subcaudals 
38-56. Lower parts uniform white; upper parts bluish or brownish black, uniform, or with 
more or less numerous, very narrow white cross streaks, not quite as broad as a scale, and 
generally radiating from a white vertebral spot. No collar. 

Var. a. Upper parts uniform blackish brown : JB. Uvidus, Cantor, from Assam. In young 
specimens the head is white, with a black line between the occipitals. 

Var. /3. A vertebral series of equidistant small white spots, from which narrow transverse 
streaks proceed. 

Var. -y. Upper parts with narrow white streaks arranged in pairs: £. arcaatus, D. & B. 

This species is rather common throughout the peninsula of Southern India, in Bengal, 
and in Assam, but not in Ceylon. It attains to a length of 54 inches, of which the tail takes 
about one-seventh. 



BUNGARUS FASCIATUS. 

Seba, ii. pi. 58. fig. 2. Russell, Ind. Serp. i. pi. 8. 

Pseudoboa faseiata, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 283. 

Bmigarus annularis, Baud. Rept. v. p. 265. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 457. pi. 16. fig. 21, and 

Abbild. taf. 48. figs. 1-5. 
fasciatus. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 113. 

The first temporal shield is scarcely longer than high. Ventrals 200-233; subcaudals 



344 OPHIDIA. 

32-36. Body with alternate broad black and yellowish rmgs, extending across the belly ; 
there are from twenty-five to thirty-three of these black rings round the trunk ; the first is 
the broadest, and produced into a triangular process, the point of which rests on the vertical 
shield. Head black anteriorly and on the sides, separated from the triangular process by a 
yellow V-like mark. Lower parts and throat uniform yellow. 

This is the largest species of Bunganis, attaining to a length of 4 feet, the tail taking one- 
tenth of it. It has a wide range, but appears to be rather locally distributed ; it has been 
brought from Java, from the Malayan Peninsula and Pinang, from the Tenasserim coast, 
from Bengal and China, and from the coast of Coromandel. Jerdon says that he has seen 
specimens only in the Northern Circars at Ganjam, where it is not very common. In Ceylon 
it is represented by a distinct species. 



BUNGAEUS CETLONICUS. 

Bungai-us fasciatus, var. B, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 221. 

The first temporal shield is considerably longer than high. Ventrals 229 ; subcaudals 
36-40. Broad black rings encircle the whole body, eighteen to twenty round the trunk, the 
white intervals being very narrow and spotted with black ; no collar. The i/onng has a broad 
white collar, interrupted by a black occipital streak, and extending over the sides of the 
head ; the black bands do not extend across the belly as in mature age. 

This species or variety is peculiar to Ceylon, and not uncommon ; our largest specimen is 
40 inches long, the tail measuring 3^ inches. I have found Uropeltides in its stomach. 



BUNGAEUS SEMIFASCIATUS. 

Bungarus semifasciatus, Kuhl, Isis, 1827, p. 552. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 459. pi. 16. figs. 18-20, 

aud Abbild. taf. 18. figs. 6-10 (synon. part.). Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1271. 
Aspidoclonion semifasciatum, Wagl. Icon. tab. 3. 
Bungarus multicinctus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng, 1861, xxix. p. 98. 

The first temporal shield is considerably longer than high. Ventrals 210-221 ; subcaudals 
44-52. Black bands across the back, but not extending across the belly, from thirty-five to 
fifty in number ; the anterior are broader than the posterior ; they are separated by white 
cross bands, each of which is as broad as one or two scales ; the black bands extend entirely 
round the tail. Collar none. 

We have received this species only from China and from the island of Formosa: as 
B. cceruleus has been confounded with it by Schlegel, it is very doubtful whether it occurs in 
the localities mentioned by this herpetologist. It attains to a length of 4 feet, the tail being 
one-ninth of the total length. It feeds on hzards when young, and afterwards probably on 
small mammals. 



XENURELAPS BUNGAROIDES. 345 



XENURELAPS. 



Body siibcyliiulrical, long and slender ; belly rounded ; head short, subtri- 
angular, with rounded snout, not distinct from neck, which is not dilatable ; 
tail short. The shields of the head normal, but the loreal is absent. Nos- 
tril lateral, between two shields ; eye small, with round j)upil ; one prse-, two 
post-oculars. Scales smooth, not much imbricate, in fifteen rows; those of 
the vertebral series enlarged, hexagonal. Anal entire ; subcaudals bifid. 
Maxillary with a grooved fang in front, and with a small smooth tooth 
behind. 

Only one species is known. 

XENURELAPS BUNGAEOIDES. 

Elaps bungaroides, Cantor, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 33. 

Very similar in general habit to a Bungarus. Shields of the upper surface of the head 
normal, the occipitals somewhat tapering behind. Rostral as broad as high. Nostril open, 
round. Loreal none, the preeorbital being in immediate contact with the postnasal. Two 
postoculars ; seven upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit. Temporals 
14-2-1-3, the anterior in contact mth both postoculars. Six lower labials; two pairs of 
short chin-shields, the anterior in contact with three lower labials. Scales in fifteen series, 
those of the vertebral series enlarged, hexagonal. Ventrals 237 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 46. 
Upper parts black, with narrow white, angular, transverse lines, the angle of which is 
pointed foi"wards ; these lines are more distinct in front than behind ; there are about forty- 
eight on the trunk. The lower part of the rostral shield white; a white line across the 
snout, before the eyes; two interrupted, divergent white lines commence on the vertical 
shield, each descending to the side of the neck ; another band descends from behind the eye 
to the fifth and sixth labial. Lower parts whitish, with irregular blackish cross bands. 

From Chirra Punji. The single specimen knoAvn is fortunately still preserved in the 
Museum of the University of Oxford ; it is 15f inches long, the tail measuring If inch. 



346 OPHIDIA. 

MEGiEROPHIS, Gray. 

Body elongate, tail of moderate length ; head flat, depressed, with broad, 
rounded snout, scarcely distinct from neck, which is not dilatable. Nostril 
between two nasals. Loreal none ; one prse-, two post-oculars. Scales 
smooth, moderately imbricate, in thirteen series, those of the vertebral series 
being very broad, hexagonal. Ventral shields about 225 ; anal and anterior 
subcaudals entire, the others bifid. Maxillary with a fang in front, which is 
perforated at the end, showing a longitudinal groove in front ; a second 
small, simple tooth at some distance behind the fang. 

Only one species is known. 

Meg^rophis flaviceps. 

Bungarus fla\aceps, Reinh. Dansk, Vidensk. Affiandl. x. p. 253. tab. 3. fig. 5. Cantor, Catal. 

p. 112. Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 221. 
Megserophis formosus, Gray, Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1849, iv. p. 247. 

Black, with a white vertebral line which becomes red posteriorly ; head and neck blood- 
red, in young specimens with a black median band. A white zigzag band along the two 
outer series of scales, which becomes red and broader posteriorly, occupying nearly the entire 
hinder part of the tail. Belly red in specimens from Borneo, black anteriorly and red pos- 
teriorly in specimens from Pinang. Ventrals 209-226 ; subcaudals 38-52, the ten or sixteen 
anterior of which are entire. 

This snake has the structui-e of the head-shields and of the vertebral scales of a Bungarus, 
whilst the resemblance of its coloration to that of Callopliis bivirgatus is very striking ; it is 
rare, and found in Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and at Pinang. It attains to a great length, our 
largest specimen measuring 6 feet and 1 inch, the tail being 9 inches long. 



CALLOPHIS, Gray. 

Body subcylindrical, very long and slender ; belly rounded ; head short, 
obtuse, with broad snout, not distinct from neck, which is not dilatable ; tail 
short. The shields of the head normal, but the loreal is absent. Nostril 
wide, lateral, between two shields ; eye small, with round pupil ; one prae-. 



CALLOPHIS. 347 

two-postoculars ; temporals In a single longitudinal series. Six, seven, or 
eight upper labials, the third and fourth entering the orbit. Scales smooth, 
not much imbricate, in thirteen rows, those of the vertebral series not en- 
larged. Subcaudals bifid. Maxillary with a grooved fang In front, without 
other teeth behind. 

The Callophides are very similar to one another : their body is cylindrical, of nearly the 
same width throughout, and much elongate, the number of ventral shields almost always 
exceeding 200. The head is of moderate length, slightly depressed, not distinct from neck, 
with broad rounded snout. The nostril is lateral, rather narrow, situated between two 
shields ; eye small, with round pupil. Cleft of the mouth of moderate width, not much 
extensible. The shields on the upper side of the head normal, the occipitals generally some- 
what elongate. Loreal absent ; the single pr?eocular forms a short suture with the hinder 
nasal ; it extends on to the upper surface of the head, but does not reach the vertical, which is 
comparatively narrow. Two postoculars, in contact with the single anterior temporal. The 
number of upper labials does not exceed eight, generally there are less than eight, the third 
and fourth entering the orbit. Scales invariably in thirteen rows, smooth, polished, not 
much imbricate. Tail short, tapering, with bifid subcaudals. 

The Callophides are more numerous on the East Indian continent than in the Archi- 
pelago ; they are the representatives of the American Elaps, of the Australian Vermicella, 
and of the African ffomorelaps ; they appear to prefer hilly countries to the plains, live con- 
stantly on the ground, and are slow in their movements. In their habits, in their form, and 
in their powerless muscular organization they show the greatest similarity to the Calamariae ; 
and this is why the Callophides almost entirely feed on the latter — the venomous snake being 
able to overpower the non-venomous. Both these genera have also the same geographical 
distribution ; and Ceylon, where we do not find the Calamarice, is not inhabited by a single 
Cullojihis. If we are allowed to judge from the number of individuals of both genera 
brought to Europe in collections, the Calamarioe are about twice as numerous as the Callo- 
phides. Cantor has had the opportunity of observing them iu a living state ; he says that they 
are generally seen lying motionless, with the body thrown into many irregular folds, but not 
coiled. Although they are diurnal, their sight, from the minuteness of the pupil, appears 
to be as defective as their sense of hearing, and they may be closely approached without 
apparently their being aware of danger. He never observed them to bite voluntarily, even 
when provoked, and he had difficulty in making an adult C. gracilis bite a fowl, — although, 
of course, the venom of these snakes is as virulent as that of a viper, the animals used for 
the experiments having died in the course of from one to three hours after they had been 
bitten. Therefore the greatest caution should be observed in catching or handling these 
snakes. The shortness of their fangs and the small quantity of their poisonous fluid, how- 
ever, will always give a very fair chance of recovery if an accident should occur and the 
proper remedies be applied. 

All the species known occur in British India : — 

2 Y 2 



348 OPHIDIA. 

Head vermilion, immaculate C. bivirgatus, p. 348. 

A vermilion, black-edged band runs along the vertebral line from the occiput 

to the tip of the tail C. intestinalis, p. 348. 

A black vertebral line with small, equidistant, button-like swellings, accom- 
panied by a series of round black spots on each side C. gracilis, p. 349. 

Upper labials seven ; a yellow Ijand across the head, behind the eyes . . . C. macclellandii, p. 349. 

Upper labials six ; a yellow baud across the head, behind the eyes . . . . C. annularis, p. 350. 

Upper labials six; ventrals 258-374. Head and neck black, spotted with 

yellow C. trimaculatus, p. 350. 

Upper labials seven ; ventrals 205-247. Upper part of the snout black, emit- 
ting three black longitudinal streaks, which join a broad black collar . . C. maculiceps, p. 351. 

Upper parts blackish or black, uniform, or with indistinct ornamental mark- 
ings; lower parts red ; bead with symmetrical black markings .... C. nigrescens, 'p. 3o\. 



CaLLOPHIS BIVIEGATUS. 

Elaps bivirgatus, (Boie) Schleg. Phys. Serp. p. 451. pi. 16. figs. 10 & 11 ; and Abbild. taf. 47. 

G'dnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 230. 

flaviceps. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 109. 

Doliophis flaviceps, Girard, in U. S. Explor. Escped. Herpetol. pi. 10. figs. 1-5 (coloured from a 

specimen in spirits). 
Callophis bivirgatus, Giinih. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 81. 

Head, belly, and tail vermilion (yellowish in spirits) ; body, a dorsal band on the tail, and 
the outer portion of the ventral shields black ; an azure band, longitudinally divided by 
a white zigzag line, along the two outer series of scales. Upper labials six. Ventrals 
248-284; subcaudals 38-50. Temporal shields two, one behind the other, subequal in size. 

Found in Borneo, Java, Sumatra, the Malayan Peninsula, and at Pinang. We have a 
specimen which is 54 inches long, the tail measm-ing 5 inches. 

Two narrow white lines run along the back sometimes ; this variety has been named Elaps 
tetratcenia by Dr. van Bleeker. 



Callophis intestinalis. 

Seba, ii. tab. 77. fig. 6 (var. javan.). 

Aspis intestinalis, Laur. Syn. Amph. p. 106. 

Elaps furcatus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. p. 303. Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 450. pi. 16. figs. 12 & 13 ; 

Abbild. taf. 46. figs. 1-8 (var. javan.); and Verhand. Nederl. Overz. Bezitt. Zool. p. 64. Motley 

^ Dillw. Labuan, p. 45. 
Russell, Ind. Serp. ii. pi. 19 (var. javan.). 
Maticora lincata, Gray, Illustr. Ind. Zool. c. fig. (var. malay.). 
Elaps intestinalis. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 107. GUnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 230. 
Callophis intestinalis, GUnth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 82. pi. 16. fig. A. (var. philipp.), B. (var. 

javan.), C. (var. malay.). 

Head light brown above, yellowish below, spotted with black on the sides; a vermilion. 



CALLOPHIS MACCLELLANDII. 349 

black-edged band runs from the occiput to the tip of the tail ; a buff-coloured band, with an 
upper and lower black border, runs along the joining edges of the two outer series of scales ; 
the upper black border is as broad as the stripe of reddish-grey ground-colour on the side of 
the back. Belly with alternate pale citrine and black cross bands, the latter colour occupying 
three or four ventral shields together, whilst the former rarely occupies more than two ; tail 
with three black rings, which, however, are sometimes absent. 

Upper labials six; ventral shields 223-271; subcaudals 24-26. 

The coloration described above is that which is found in the variety from the Malayan 
Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore, and Central India (Malwah) (var. malayana)*. Specimens 
from Java have the vertebral line continued on the head, where it is forked ; it has no black 
edges ; and the ground-colour is brown. 

This species occurs also in Sumatra, Borneo, and in the Philippine Islands [y^x.pMlijypina) ; 
it attains to a length of 2 feet, the tail measuring 1^ inch. 

Callophis gracilis. 

Calliophis gracilis, Gray, Incl. Zool. c. fig. (dentition incorrect). 
Elaps nigromaculatus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 108. pi. 40. fig. 7. 

Head yellowish brown above, paler below, each shield with a blackish spot. Ground- 
colour of the trunk and tail reddish light-grey; a black vertebral Ime runs from the occiput 
to the tip of the tail, showing small button-like swellings in regular interspaces ; along the 
lower part of the side a white band, edged with black above and below, and longitudinally 
divided into two by a black median line. A series of large, round, black, white-edged spots 
along each side of the back, the spots being disposed in quincunx order with the small 
swellings of the vertebral line. Belly pale yellow with black cross bands, both colours being 
nearly equally divided. Tail at the root and near the apex with a broad black, white-edged 
ring ; its lower surface is vermilion, with a black cross band in the middle between the rings. 

Six upper labials; ventrals 238-311; subcaudals 21-28; anterior temporal very large, 
posterior small. 

This fine species has been found only at Pinang and Singapore ; it attains to a length of 
28 inches, the tail measuring 1^ inch. 

Callophis hacclellandii. 

Elaps macclellandii, /feiw^. Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. 1844, iv. p. 532; and Vidensk. Medd. Naturh. 
Foren. Kjobenh. 1860, p. 247. 

personatus, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1855, xxiii. p. 298. 

univirgatiis, Giinth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 231. 

Callophis univirgata, Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 83. pi. 17. 
macclellaudii, Gimth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, May 28. 

Upper labials seven; temporals small, 1 + 1 -f-l ; anal bifid. 

* A specimen of this variety has been received by Dr. van Bleeker as " Elaps thepassii." 



350 OPHIDIA. 

Head and neck black above, with a yellow cross band behind the eyes. Body and tail 
reddish brown, generally with a black vertebral line from the nape to the tip of the tail. 
Belly yellovdsh, with black cross bands or quadrangular black spots. 

Var. a. Belly with uninterrupted black cross bands, alternately limited to the belly, or 
extending up the sides of the body, so as to cover scales of the four outer rows and give 
the appearance of a lateral series of large black spots. The three last cross bands of the 
trunk form complete rings crossing the vertebral line; tail with three other black rings. 
This specimen is 2Q^ inches long, tail 2^ inches. Ventrals 218; subcaudals 28. 

Var. (3. Belly with quadrangular black spots rather irregularly disposed, and not extending 
up the sides. Tail without black rings. This specimen is 18 inches long, tail 1^ inch. 
Ventrals 224 ; subcaudals 25. 

Var. y. The cross bands reach entirely across the back, forming rings, from twenty-two to 
twenty-eight in number; no black vertebral line, which, however, is indicated by isolated 
small spots. Ventrals 196-218; subcaudals 27-34. 

Varieties .a. and j3. are from Nepal and Darjeeling, y. from Assam. 



Callophis anndlaeis. (Plate XXIV. fig. I.) 

Head and neck black above, with a broad yellow cross band behind the eyes. Body and 
tail reddish brown, without longitudinal band, but with forty narrow, equidistant, black, 
white-edged rings ; each of them is about as broad as a scale on the back (those round the 
tail being broader), and occupies one ventral shield on the belly. Belly yellowish, with a 
black cross band in the middle between the rings; each of these cross bands occupies a 
ventral shield, so that about every third ventral is black. 

Upper labials six ; temporals small, l + l-)-l : the first very narrow, the third the largest. 
Ventrals 208 ; anal bifid ; subcaudals 33. 

I have examined only one specimen of this species, remarkable on account of its singular 
coloration. It is marked "India" ; and 19 inches long, the tail measuring 2 inches. 



Callophis teimaculatus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i. pi. 8. 

Vipera trimaculata, Daud. Rept. vi. p. 25. 

Elaps trimaciilatus, Merr. Tent. p. 143. 

Coluber melanurus, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 552. 

Callophis trimaculatusj Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 83. pi. 16. fig. E. 

Light bay above : an indistinct line formed by minute brown dots, along each series of 
scales. The upper side of the head, the neck, and a spot below the eye black ; snout with 
some in-egular small yellow spots ; a yellow spot on each temporal shield ; a subtriangular 
yellow spot on the middle of the neck ; the black of the neck edged with yellow behind. 



CALLOPHIS NIGRESCENS. 351 

Tail marbled with black below, and with two black rings, each of which is variegated with 
yellow. Belly uniform white (red during life). 

Upper labials six ; temporals elongate, 1 + 1, equal m size. Ventrals 258-274 ; anal bifid ; 
subcaudals 35. 

Besides the typical specimen from Russell's collection and from the coast of Tenasserim, I 
have now received a second, which is probably from Bengal. Both agree in every point, only 
the colours are better preserved in the latter. They are very small, 12 inches long, the tail 
measuring f inch. 

Jerdon in his " Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the Peninsula of India," Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng. xxii. p. 522, enumerates an Flaps malabaricus, Jerdon, besides an Elaps melanums, 
Shaw, both being so insufficiently characterized that it is impossible to determine what 
species had been observed by the [author ; the " E. malabaricus " appears to be the true 
E. inelanurus, Shaw. 



Callophis maculiceps. 

Elaps melanurus, Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 106. pi. 40. fig. 6 (not Shaw). 

Elaps maculiceps, Gilnth. Colubr. Snakes, p. 232. 

Callopliis maculicepsj Giinth. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 84. pi. 16. fig. D. 

Light bay above, with a series of distant black dots along each side of the back ; belly 
uniform whitish (red during life). Upper and lateral parts of the snout black, with a white 
line along the canthus rostralis; three black streaks proceed from the snout and join a 
broad black collar — one running along the occipital suture, the others from the eye along 
the temple. Tail marbled with black below, with two black rings. 

Vertical shield six-sided, elongate, much longer than broad; seven upper labials; tem- 
porals 1+1, the anterior much larger than the posterior. Ventrals 205-247; anal bifid; 
subcaudals 24-32. 

"We have seen only one specimen of this species, which is found in the Malayan Peninsula ; 
according to Cantor it exceeds a length of 2 feet. 



Callophis nigeescens. (Plate XXIV. figs. F, F'.) 

Callopliis nigrescens, Giinth. Ann. ^ Mag. Nat. Hist. 1862, ix. p. 131. 
concinnus, Beddome, Madr. Quart. Journ. Med, Sc. vi. 

Upper parts dark blackish ash, or black, the lower uniform red. Upper part of the head 
symmetrically marbled with black ; a black spot below the eye ; another descends from the 
occipital to the angle of the mouth ; a black horseshoe-like collar, with the convexity directed 
forwards ; a narrow black vertebral line slightly edged with yellowish runs from the collar 



352 OPHIDIA. 

to the tip of the tail ; a series of small ovate black spots, indistinctly edged with whitish, 
along each side of the trunk, disappearing posteriorly ; tail coloured like body, without black 
rings. In old examples the black dorsal stripe and the black lateral spots disappear, and 
only the whitish edges of the latter remain, forming indistinct longitudinal lines. 

Vertical shield elongate. Upper labials seven ; temporals 1 + 1, the anterior twice the size 
of the posterior. Ventrals 232-247 ; anal entire, in one specimen bifid ; subcaudals 33-42. 

I have examined three specimens of this species, one of which was sent by Captain 
R. H. Beddome from the Nilgherries ; the largest is 4 feet long, the tail measuring 5 inches. 
We have given (F) two views of its head, and one of a portion of the body, to show its 
coloration : for comparison we have added (F') a figure of a portion of the body of a 
younger example. 



FAMILY OF SEA ^^AKES—HYDROPHW.^. 

Body subcyllndrlcal anteriorly, more or less compressed posteriorly ; tail 
strongly compressed, elevated, ])addle-shaped. Head-shields generally ab- 
normal ; loreal none. Nostrils situated on the upper side of the head, 
except in Platurus. Eye small, with round pupil. The venom-fang small, 
grooved in front, and with a canal in its interior terminating in a short slit. 

The Sea-snakes are inhabitants of the tropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, 
extending from the coast of Madagascar to the Isthmus of Panama ; they are most numerous 
in the East Indian Archipelago and in the seas between Southern China and North Australia, 
being represented on the outskirts of the geographical range we have mentioned by only one 
species, and that the most common, viz. Pelamis bicolor. They pass their whole life in the 
water (with the exception perhaps of Platurus), and soon die when brought on shore. 

The most striking feature in the organization of the Sea-snakes is their elevated and com- 
pressed tail, the processes of the caudal vertebrae being much prolonged and styliform. The 
hind part of the body, and sometimes forwards to beyond the middle of its length, is also 
compressed, and the belly forms a more or less sharp ridge. The ventral shields would be of 
no use to snakes moving through a fluid, and not over a rough hard surface, and therefore 
they are either only rudimentary or entirely absent. The genus Platurus, however, is a most 
remarkable exception in having ordinary ventral shields ; and this circumstance, together 
with the lateral position of its nostrils, induce me to believe that these serpents frequently go 
on shore, sporting or hunting over marshy ground. In many Sea-snakes the hind part of the 
body is curved and prehensile, so that they are enabled to secure a hold by twisting this part 
of the body round corals, seaweeds, or any other projecting object. Their tail answers all 
the purposes of the same organ in a fish, and their motions in the water are almost as rapid 
as they are uncertain and awkward when removed out of their proper element. Their nostrils 



HYDROPHID.E. 353 

are placed quite at the top of the snout, as in crocodiles and in freshwater snakes, so that 
they are enabled to breathe whilst the entire body and the greater part of the head are 
immersed in the water. These openings ai'e small and subcrescentic, and provided with 
a valve interiorly, which is opened during respiration, and closed when the animal dives. 
They have very capacious lungs, extending backwards to the anus, and consequently all their 
ribs are employed in performing the respiratory function ; by retaining a portion of the air 
in these extensive lungs, they are enabled to float on the surface of the water without the 
slightest effcjrt. 

The " scales " of the Sea-snakes are frequently very diff"erent from those of other snakes ; 
they overlap one another in only a few species (Platums, Hz/drojiMs stokesii and helcheri), in 
others they are but little imbricate and rounded behind, and, agam, in others they are of a 
subquadrangular or hexagonal form, placed side by side, like little shields ; the less imbri- 
cate they are, the more they have lost the polished surface which we find in other snakes, 
and are soft, tubercular, sometimes porous. The form and the arrangement of the scales 
aff'ord good specific characters, but it is necessary to observe that they generally difi^er in size, 
arrangement, and form in the dift'erent parts of the body. In my descriptions I have always 
counted the series of scales on the neck — that is, at a distance from the head about equal to 
its length, having found that the numbers at that place are least subject to variation in 
dift'erent individuals ; whilst I have taken the characters of the form or arrangement of the 
scales from those in or behind the middle of the body, the scales on the neck being narrow 
and more or less imbricate in almost all the species. 

The shields of the head differ so much in their arrangement from those of other snakes, 
that a snake may be recognized as a marine species by an inspection of the head only. 
The large nasal shields occupy the upper anterior part of the snout and are generally con- 
tiguous, replacing the anterior frontals which are absent ; the single pair of small frontals 
are homologous with the posterior frontals of other snakes. There is a vertical, a pair of 
supraciliaries and another of occipitals, one ocular, and one or two postoculars ; the number 
of the latter is rather constant in the same species. Loreal none. The labials are somewhat 
irregularly arranged, frequently subdivided, especially the posterior ; in most of the species, 
small pieces, nearest to the labial margin, are detached from the lower labials. There is a 
triangular mental shield in front of the lovt-er jaw, behind which the first pair of lower labials 
form a suture together ; one or two pairs of chin-shields follow. Several Sea-snakes are dis- 
tinguished by having some or all of the head-shields broken up into smaller irregular pieces, 
whilst Flafurus difiers from all others in an arrangement of the sliields which is extremely 
similar to that in the Elapidce. The Sea-snakes shed their skin very frequently, and the 
skin peels ofi" in pieces as in the lizards, and not as in tlie freshwater serpents, in which the 
integuments come off entire. 

Several species are remarkable for the extremely slender and prolonged anterior part of 
the body, for which we use the term " neck," and which terminates in a very small head. 
These snakes can hardly form a separate genus, as we find a most complete transition from 
them to the forms with thick and short body. The extreme forms must diff'er considerably 
in their habits, but no observations on this point are on record. 

The eye is small, with round pupil, which is so much contracted by the light when the 
snake is taken out of the water, that the animal becomes blinded and is unable to hit any 



354 OPHIDIA. 

object it wants to strike. The tongue is short, and the sheath in which it lies concealed 
opens near to the front margin of the lower jaw; scarcely more than the two terminating 
points are exserted from the mouth when the animal is in the water. The mouth shuts in 
a somewhat different way from that in other snakes, the middle of the rostral shield being 
produced downwards into a small lobule which prevents the water from entering the mouth ; 
this lobe is most developed in Enhydrina. There is generally a small notch on each side of 
the lobule for the passage of the two points of the tongue. Cantor says that when the snake 
is out of the water and blinded by the light, it freely makes use of its tongue as a feeler. 

The food of the Sea-snakes consists entirely of small fish ; I have found all kinds of fish in 
their stomach — among them species with very strong spines {Apogon, Siluroids) ; as all these 
animals are killed by the poison of the snake before they are swallowed, and as their muscles 
are perfectly relaxed, their armature is harmless to the snake, which commences to swallow 
its prey from the head, and depresses the spines as deglutition proceeds. There cannot be 
the slightest doubt that the Sea-snakes belong to the most poisonous species of the whole 
order. Russell and Cantor * have ascertained it by direct observation : tortoises, other snakes, 
and fish died from their bite in less than an hour, and a man succumbed after four hours. 
Accidents are rarely caused by them, because they are extremely shy and swim away on the 
least alarm ; but when surprised in the submarine cavities forming their natural retreats, they 
will, like any other poisonous terrestrial snake, dart at a pole ; or, when out of the water, 
they attempt to bite every object near them, even turning round to wound theii- own bodies 
( Cantor). They cannot endure captivity, dying in the course of two or three days even when 
kept in capacious tanks. 

The males may be easily distinguished from the females by a distinct swelling on each side 
of the tail, extencUng from the root to, or beyond, the middle of its length ; sometimes the 
whole tail is thickened, and such specimens may be taken for distinct species. All the 
species are viviparous, bringing forth, without leaving the sea, from four to nine young ones. 
The young are more brightly coloured than the adult, the faint cross bands of the latter 
being complete black rings in the former ; the tail also of the young is comparatively thicker 
and less compressed than in the adult. That they live to a great age I infer from the cir- 
cumstance that we find relatively very large examples of almost every species, but that such 
examples are very scarce. Now, as they have very formidable and very numerous enemies in 
the sea-eagles {HaUaetus), in the sharks, and other lai'ge raptatorial fishes, it appears to me 
to be a just conclusion, that, if Sea-snakes of large dimensions were more numerous than 
they are, they would, in spite of those enemies, arrive at that size in a shorter period than 
that which we assume as necessary for their growth. The greatest size, however, to which 
some species attain, according to positive observation, is about 12 feet, and, therefore, far 
short of the statements as to the length of the so-called " Sea-serpents." The largest example 
I have seen measured only 8 feet. 

There is no other group of reptiles the species of which are so little known, and the 
synonymy of which is so confused, as that of the Sea-serpents. All the preceding authors, 
with the exception of Gray, have worked at them with the idea that the species were less 
numerous than they in reality are ; thus confounding forms which had been previously dis- 
tinguished, though imperfectly characterized. Having had the gi-eat advantage of examining 

* Trans. Zool. Soc. ii. p. 303. 



PLATURUS. 355 

and comparing, first, a portion of Russell's typical specimens, or specimens captured in the same 
seas as those from which Russell received his examples, and, secondly, the types of Shaw and 
Gray, I find the results of my examinations so much at variance with those of others, that it 
is necessary to treat on all the species of this family, and not to confine myself to those alone 
which are known or supposed to be found in the Indian seas. Moreover, our present know- 
ledge of the geographical distribution of most of the species is extremely vague, and I have 
reason to believe that, as in other families of snakes, so in the Sea-snakes, numerous species 
are very local, whilst others extend over an enormous area. 



Si/nojisis of the Genera. 

A. VenU'al shields well developed, flat. 

Two pail's of frontal shields PZaiwrw*, p. 355. 

B. Ventral shields well developed, with a median ridge. 

Scales imbricate Aipysurus, p. 357. 

C. Ventral shields narrow, or rudimentary or absent. 

* Nasals separated by frontal shields. 

Ventral shields distinct to the vent Disteira, p. 358. 

** Nasals contiguous. 

Head covered with scales behind Acalyptus, p. 359. 

Head short or of moderate length, entirely shielded; lower jaw without 

notch in front Hydrophis, p. 360. 

Head of moderate length, entirely shielded ; lower jaw deeply notched 

in front Enhydrina, p. 381. 

Snout very long, spatulate Pelamis, p. 382. 



PLATURUS, Latr. 

Body subcylindrical, of moderate length. Shields of the head subnormal 
in number and arrangement ; nostrils lateral, in a single nasal shield, both 
nasals being separated from each other by a pair of anterior frontals. Scales 
imbricate, smooth ; ventral shields well developed ; tail with two series of 
subcaudals. 

This genus approaches the Land-snakes in several characters. The shields of the head 
are very regularly disposed : there are two pairs of frontals, frequently with an azygos shield 
between the hind pair. The nostril is lateral, piercing a single narrow nasal shield ; loreal 
absent ; one prae- and two post-oculars. Seven upper labials, the third and fourth of which 
enter the orbit; temporals scale-like, 1 + 2 + 3. The throat is covered by two pairs of chin- 
shields anteriorly and by scales posteriorly, the ventrals commencing at some distance behind 
tlie head. The scales are regularly imbricate, smooth, short, slightly rounded behind ; the 

2 z2 



356 OPHIDIA. 

number of longitudinal series on the body varies much, from nineteen to twenty-five, in 
different individuals, mthout affording a character for specific distinction ; it is more constant 
on the front part of the trunk. The ventral shields are broad, and sometimes show a lateral 
keel. Anal bifid. The tail is longer and thicker in males than in females, and covered with 
high, short, shield-like scales, the two lower series of which may be considered as subcaudals. 

The poison-fang is short, and not followed by a series of other simple teeth as 'va.Hydrophis. 
A very small single tooth is implanted at some distance behind the poison-fang, and is fre- 
quently lost. 

These snakes have quite the physiognomy of an Elaps, and the cleft of the mouth is not 
turned upwai'ds behind as in other sea-snakes ; the eye is rather small. Neither the tail 
nor the hind part of the body is prehensile ; and although we have not received positive 
information concerning their habits, it becomes evident from their whole organization that 
they must differ considerably from the other types of the family in this respect. 



Platurus scutatus. 

Coluber laticaudatus, L. Mus. Ad. Fried. 1754, tab. 16. fig. 1. 
Laticauda scutata, Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 109. Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 125. 
Hydrus colubrinus, Schneid. Hist. Aniph. p. 238. 
Platunis fasciatus, Latr. Rept. iv. p. 185. 

Hydrophis colubrinus, Schley. Phys. Serp. ii. p. 514. taf. 18. figs. 18-22; Faun. Japan. Rept. 
p. 92. tab. 10. 

Generally an azygos shield between the posterior frontals ; scales of the front part of the 
trunk in twenty-one or twenty-three longitudinal series; ventral shields from 213 to 241. 
Body surrounded by from twenty-five to fifty black rings. Crown of the head black ; the 
first and second black mark of the head and neck are joined below by a black longitudinal 
band, commencing from the chin ; snout and side of the head yellow, with a black band 
running through the eye. 

After having examined nearly fifty examples of this species, I have come to the conclusion 
that the number and width of the black cross bands do not constitute specific characters 
in these snakes. The length of the tail also varies with the sex. It is a common species, 
extending from the Bay of Bengal to the Chinese seas and to the coasts of New Zealand. 
The largest example I have seen is exactly 5 feet long. 



Platurus fischeri. (Plate XXV. fig. A.) 

Platurus fischeri, Jan, Iconogr. desci'ipt. in Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1859. 

No azygos shield between the posterior frontals ; scales of the front part of the trunk in 
nineteen longitudinal series; ventral shields 232-241. Trunk surrounded by from thirty- 
three to thirty-six black rings, which are broader than the interspaces. A black band crosses 
the occiput and extends forward over the vertical plate and over the lower jaw, but, gene- 



AIPYSURUS ANGUILL^FORMIS. 357 

rally, it is not confluent with the next following ring. Upper part of the snout yellow, upper 
labials black. 

I have no dovibt that this is a distinct species, as eight specimens examined by myself show 
the same assemblage of characters ; they are from the Bay of Bengal, from Chartaboum on 
the coast of Siam, from New Guinea, and from Aneiteum (New Hebrides). The largest 
specimen is only 30 inches long. 



AIPYSURUS, Lacep. 

Body not much compressed, with trencliant belly, of moderate length. 
Shields of the head generally divided into more or less numerous smaller 
pieces ; normally only one pair of frontals ; nostrils superior, each in a 
single nasal, the nasals being contiguous to each other. Scales of moderate 
size, imbricate, smooth or slightly tubercular ; ventral shields well developed, 
with a longitudinal median ridge. Subcaudals broad, entire. 

The species of this genus appear to belong rather to the fauna of Polynesia and Australia 
than to that of British India, no instance of a specimen captured in the seas of the latter 
countries being on record. 

AlPYSURUS ANGUILL^FORMIS. 

ThaJassopliis anguillseformis, Schmidt, Abhandl. Naturw. Hamb. ii. p. 76. taf. 1. 

miu'seujeformis, Schmidt, I. c. p. 77. 

? Tomogaster eydouxii, Bibr. in Voy. Pole Sud, Rept. pi. 6. (This figure distinctly shows twenty- 
one series of scales on the highest part of the body.) 

Tomogaster eydouxii, Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 59. 

? Aipysvu'us Isevis, Guichen. Voy. Pole Sud, Rept. p. 21. 

Aipysurus Isevis, Du?n. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1326. pi. 77 bis. fig. 4. Fischer, Abhandl. Naturw. Hamb. 
iii. p. 32 (not Lacepede; Lacepede's typical specimen has 151 ventral shields). 

margaritophorus, Bleek. Natuurk. Tydschr. Nederl. Ind. xvi. p. 49. 

Scales on the highest part of the body in seventeen series, perfectly smooth. Ventral 
shields 142*. Tail covered laterally with scales similar to those of the trunk, and termi- 
nating in a large shield-like scale. Shields of the head not, or but little, subdivided. Upper 
parts brownish, with cross bands of yellow, black-edged scales ; head uniform blackish. An 
older example (described by Schmidt) is yellowish, with numerous rhombic, rather irregular, 
confluent brown spots on the back. 

* This number has been found not only by Schmidt, but also by myself in two examples. 



358 OPHIDIA. 

Specimens have been captured on the coast of Java ; the largest is more than 2 feet long. 
A female, 20 inches long, with the yellow cross bands mentioned, had two half-developed 
embryos in her oviduct. 



AlPYSUKUS L^VIS. 

Aipysurus Isevis, Lacep. Ann. Mus. iv. pp. 197, 210. pi. 56. fig. 3. 
Hypotrophis jukesii, Gray, in Jukes, Voy. Fly, p. 333. pi. 1. 
Stephanohydra fasca, Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 60 (not Tschudi). 

Aipysurus fiiliginosus, Dum. ^ Bibr. vii. p. 1327. pi. 77 bis. figs. 1 & 2. Fischer, Abhandl. 
Naturw. Hamb. iii. p. 33. 

Scales on the highest part of the body in twenty-one rows, perfectly smooth. Ventral 
shields 151(-152)-154; scales on the side of the tail elevated, band-like; terminal scale 
of the tail very large. Shields of the head much subdivided in old examples, which are 
uniform bro\vn. 

I have examined four adult specimens from Darnley Islands, New Caledonia, and New 
Guinea. The largest example I have seen measures more than 5 feet. 



AlPTSURUS FUSCUS. 

Stephanohydra fusca, Tschudi, in Wiegm. Arch. 1837, p. 331. tab. 8. 
Aipysurus fuscus, Fischer, Abhandl. Naturw. Hamb. iii. p. 33. 

Scales on the highest part of the body in nineteen rows ; those of the outer series and the 
ventral shields with small tubercles, which are more distinct in old individuals than in young 
ones. Ventral shields 157-165-166. Scales on the side of the tail larger than those on the 
body. Shields of the head much subdinded in old examples. Either uniform brown, or 
each scale and ventral shield with a large brownish-black spot near the hind margin. 

This species belongs to the fauna of the Australian seas ; the larger of our specimens is 
39 inches long. 



DISTEIRA, Lacep. 

Body compressed, of moderate length ; head shielded above : a pair of 
anterior frontals between the nasals, which are small. Scales imbricate ; 
ventral shields distinct, but small. 



ACALYPTUS SUPERCILIOSUS. 35^ 

DiSTEIRA DOLIATA. 

Disteira doliata, Lacep. Ann. Mas. iv. p. 199. pi. 57. fig. 2. Dum. if Bibr. Erpetol. gen. vii. 

p. 1331 (not synon.). 
dumerilii, Jan, Iconogr. descript. in Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1859. 

One postocular. Scales in thirty-nine or forty-one series round the highest part of the 
body, and having a short central keel; ventrals 234, bicarinate. Back with broad brownish 
cross bands, the interspaces of the light ground-colour being again divided by narrow brownish 
transverse streaks, at least on the anterior part of the trunk. 

Only the typical specimen of this species is known ; it is 33 inches long ; no record of the 
locality where it was obtained has been preserved. 



ACALYPTUS, Bum. Sf Bihr. 

Posterior half of the trunk compressed, of moderate length. Head 
covered with scales above, the snout and superciliary region only being- 
shielded. Scales imbricate ; ventral shields none. 

ACALYPTUS SUPERCILIOSUS. 



Acalyptus superciliosus (vel peronii !), Dum. ^- Bibr. vii. p. 1340. 



Head small, scarcely longer than broad ; body of moderate length, with the anterior por- 
tion rather slender. Two labials below the orbit; two postoculars. Nasals forming a 
suture together ; a pau' of frontals, as large as the nasals ; the nostrils are between the nasals 
and frontals; twenty-three series of scales round the neck; scales slightly imbricate, each 
with a more or less prominent short keel. Trunk with twenty-two black cross bands, 
tapering on the belly, and about half as broad as the interspaces; each interspace with a 
very faint greyish cross band. Belly with narrow blackish transverse bands alternating with 
those descending: from the back. 



*& 



This is one of the scarcest Ophidians, only two specimens being known to exist in collec- 
tions; the larger, 26 inches long, is in the British Museum. It is believed to inhabit some 
part of the south-western Pacific. 



360 OPHIDIA. 

HYDROPHIS. 

Hydrophis, sp., Baud. 

Posterior part of the body strongly compressed. Head short or of mode- 
rate length, shielded above ; only one pair of frontals ; nostrils superior, in 
a single nasal shield, both nasals being contiguous to each other. Scales 
imbricate or not imbricate, not polished, generally with a tubercle or with a 
keel. Ventral shields very narrow, or quite rudimentary, or entirely absent. 
Lower jaw without notch in front. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Scales more or less distinctly imbricate. 

A. Scales large, in not more than seventeen longitudinal series round the neck : Kerilia, Gray. 
Head short H.jerdonii, p. 362. 

B. Scales much imbricate, rather small, in forty-three to forty-seven series round the neck ; ventral 

shields split into two: Hydrus, {Shaw) Gray. 
Body stout H. stokesii, p. 363. 

C. Scales in tiventy-three to thirty-eight series round the neck; head not very small : anterior part 

of the body {neck) not, or moderately slender: Hydropliis, {Daiid.) Gthr. 

Head rather short and broad ; neck and body of moderate length. One 

postocular. Belly with only a few ventral shields H. major, p. 363. 

Head of moderate size and width ; neck and body not elongate. One post- 
ocular. Ventrals broad, 310 H. robusta, p. 364. 

Head of moderate size and width ; neck and body of moderate length. Two 
postoculars. Ventrals broad, 317; scales w"ith a short keel; terminal 
scale of the tail very large H. belcheri, p. 364. 

Head rather small ; neck and body somewhat elongate. One postocular ; 
scales strongly keeled. Ventrals not much larger than the adjoining 
scales H. ccerulescens, p. 365. 

Head of moderate size and width ; neck and body somewhat elongate. Two 
postoculars ; scales strongly keeled, the keel of each scale with two tuber- 
cular prominences H. aspera, p. 365. 

Head of moderate size and width ; neck and body somewhat elongate. One 
postocular. Back with a series of round black spots, alterjiating with 
black cross bands H. spiralis, p. 366. 

Head of moderate size and width ; neck and body rather elongate. Two 
po.stocukus ; scales faintly keeled. Ventrals broad, 320— 4'J6 ; terminal 
scale of the tail small or of moderate size H. cyanocincia, p. 367. 

Head rather small and short ; neck and body elongate. One postocular ; 
twenty-seven series of scales round the neck. Ventrals twice as large 
as the adjoining scales. Trunk with sixty broad black rings, nearly sup- 
pressing the ground-colour H. mehuiosoina, p. 367. 



HYDROPHIS. 361 

Head rather small and narrow ; neck slender. Two postoculars ; twenty- 
three series of scales round the neck. Ventrals not t^^nce as large as the 
adjoining scales. Trunk with forty-one cross bauds H. subcincta, p. 368. 

Head small ; neck slender. Two postoculars ; twenty-seven to twenty- 
nine series of scales round the neck. Ventrals not twice as broad as the 
adjoining scales. Trunk witli from forty-three to sixty-one black rings, 
not tapering on the sides H. nigrocincta, p. 368. 

Head rather small ; neck slender. Two postocidars ; twenty-eight series 
of scales round the neck. Ventrals more than twice as broad as the ad- 
joining series. Trunk with from forty-two to forty-eight cross bands . H. elegans, p. 369. 

Head rather small ; neck slender. One postocular ; thirty-three to thirty- 
five series of scales roxind the neck ; vertical short H. torquata, p. 369. 

D. Head very small ; neck exceedingly slender : Liopala, [Gray) Gthr. 
The Icugtli of the thin part of the body is more than one-third of the total. 

One postocular ; thirty-one to thirty-three series of scales round the 

neck. Trunk encircled by from fifty-nine to sixty-seven blackish rings . H. chloris, p. 370. 
The length of the thin part of the body is one-third of the total. One 

postocular ; thirty-one to thirty-tliree series of scales round the neck. 

Trunk with from forty-eight to fifty-eight blackish cross bands extending 

to the middle of the side H. lindsayi, t^. 371. 

Two postoculars ; twenty-six to twenty-eight series of scales round the neck. 

Ventrals 376. Trunk with from sixty to sixty-four rhombic blackish 

cross bars; sides and belly not banded H. atriceps, p. 371. 

One postocular; twenty-three series of scales round the neck. Trunk with 

thirty-eight broad black cross bands, confluent on the back and bell}' . H. latifasciata, p. 372. 
One postocular ; nineteen to twenty-three series of scales round the neck. 

Trunk with from fifty-three to fifty-nine complete blackish rings . . . H. coronata, p. 372. 
Two postoculars ; thirty-three series of scales round the neck. Truidc with 

sLxty-two blackish rings H. diadema, p. 373. 

II. Scales not imbricate, placed side by side. 

A. Head very small ; neck exceedingly slender : Microcephalophis, (Less.) Gray. 
One postocular. Ventral shields 228-294, those on the hinder half of the 

body split into two H. gracilis, p. 373. 

Two postoculars. Ventral shields 316, all undivided H. fasciata, p. 374. 

One postocular. Ventral shields 412-440, those on the hinder half of the 

body split into two H. cantoris, p. 374. 

B. Head of moderate size ; anterior part of the body not, or moderately elongate: Thalassophis, 

{Schmidt) Gthr. 

Head narrow, elongate; body rather slender. Two postoculars. Ventral 
shields twice as broad as the adjoining scales, 350 in number . . . . H. lapemoides, p. 375. 

Head narrow, elongate ; body rather slender. Two postoculars. Ventral 
shields twice as broad as the adjoining scales, 271 in number. Scales 
keeled H. longiceps, p. 375. 

Head narrow, elongate; body rather slender. One postocular. Ventral 
shields distinct, only the anterior being twice as broad as the adjoining 
series, 398 in number H. stricticoUis, p. 376. 

Head rather narrow and produced ; body somewhat elongate. Two post- 
oculars. Ventral shields twice as broad as the adjoining scales, 252-260 

•S A 



362 OPHIDIA. 

in number. Scales with a central tubercle. The first upper temporal 

shield much longer than high H. ornata, p. 376. 

Head rather thick and short ; body of moderate length. Two postoculars. 
Ventral shields nearly twice as broad as the adjoining scales, 253-258 in 
number. The first upper temporal shield is not much longer than high ; 
thirty-five or thirty-seven series of scales round the neck H. elliotti, p. 377. 

Head and body of moderate width and length. Two postoculars ; nasal 
shields longer than broad. Ventrals more than twice as broad as the 
scales, 258 in number. The first upper temporal shield longer than high ; 
twenty-eight series of scales round the neck H. pachycercus, p. 378. 

Head of moderate size and width ; body of moderate length. Two post- 
oculars ; nasal shields as broad posteriorly as they are long ; anterior 
ventral shields broad H. viperina, p. 378. 

Head rather short; body moderately stout. Two postoculars. Ventrals 
distinct, but not twice as broad as the adjoining series. Back and sides 
with large rounded spots, each with a lighter centre H. ocellata, p. 378. 

Head short and thick ; body rather stout ; shields of the snout irregular. 
Two postoculars ; scales witli a strong white keel. Ventrals bicariuate, 
not larger than the adjoining scales H. anomala, p. 379. 

Head short and thick; body stout. One postocular. Ventral shields 
nearly twice as broad as the scales of the adjoining series H. curta, p. 379. 

Head short and tliick ; body stout. One postocular. No distinct ventral 
shields. Trunk with from forty-one to forty-three blackish cross bands, 
not extending downwards to the belly H. hardwickii, p. 380. 

Head short and thick ; body stout. One postocular. No distinct ventral 
shields. Trunk encircled by from twenty-nine to thirty-four (thirty- 
seven) black rings H. loreafa, p. 380. 



Hydrophis jeedonii. (Plate XXV. fig. B.) 

Hydrus nigrocinctus, var., Cantor, Mai. Rept. p. 129. pi. 40. fig. 8. 
KerUia jerdonii, Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 57. 

Head short, with the snout declivous and rather pointed ; body of moderate length. 
Frontal shields small, not much larger than prseocular ; one postocular ; five upper labial 
shields, the third and fourth of which enter the orbit, the last below the postocular ; two or 
three large temporals on the side of each occipital, the anterior of which enters the labial 
margin behind the fifth labial shield. Two pairs of chm-shields, in contact with one another. 
Scales imbricate, large, higher than long, with the apex slightly truncated ; each scale with 
a strong keel ; they are disposed in fifteen or seventeen series round the neck, and in nine- 
teen or twenty-one in the middle of the body. Ventral shields distinct, but not twice as 
large as the scales of the adjoining series, bituberculate, 235-238 in number. Anal shields 
small ; terminal scale of the tail large. A series of seven simple teeth behind the grooved 
fang in front. Trunk with from thirty-four to thirty-eight black cross bands, broadest on 
the back and extendmg to the belly in young and half-grown speciinens. 

I have examined four examples, among which are the types of the descriptions of Gray and 



HYDROPHIS MAJOR. 363 

Cantor ; they were captured on the coasts of Madras and Pinang. The largest is 35 inches 
long, the tail measuring 4 inches. We have given three views of its head, of the natural size. 



Hydrophis stokesii. 

Hydrus major, Shaw, Zool. iii. p. 558, descript. part : " and in one specimen, &c.," third line 

from bottom ; not figure. 

stokesii. Gray, in Stokes, Australia, i. p. 502. tab. 3 (very good). 

Hydrophis schizopholis, Schmidt, Abhandl. Naturw. Hamb. 1846, i. p. 166. taf. 15. Bum. Sf Bibr. 

Erpet. gen. vii. p. 1357. 
Hydrus major. Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 58. 

annvdatus. Gray, Viper. Snakes, p. 59. 

Astrotia schizopholis, Fischer, Abhandl. Naturiv. Hamb. iii. p. 38. 

Head rather short and broad ; body stout. Two or three labial shields below the eye ; 
two postoculars ; chin covered with scales, with no other shields but the mental and labials. 
Forty-three to forty-seven series of scales round the neck. Scales rather small, much imbri- 
cate, keeled, each keel being interrupted in the middle. The ventral shields are replaced 
by two series of smooth scales, not larger than the scales of the adjoining series, the scales 
of the two ventral series being arranged opposite to each other. Young specimens and 
adult males with broad black cross bands, which either extend only over the back or entirely 
surround the body. The interspaces between them are generally again divided by a narrow 
transverse black streak or series of black spots. Old females nearly entirely uniform greyish 
above and whitish below. 

I have examined eight specimens of this species, of different ages, and among them the types 
of //. stokesii and H. annulatus. A very large and old female is 61 inches long, 4|^ inches 
high, and has 10 inches in its greatest circumference. It is not rare on the northern coasts 
of Australia, but its occurrence in the Chinese seas and in the East Indian Archipelago 
(Singapore) is rather doubtful. 



Htdeophis major. (Plate XXV. fig. G.) 

Hydrus major, Shaiv, Zool. iii. p. 558, descript. pars & tab. 124. 
Pelamis shavii, Merr. Tent. p. 139. 
Hydrophis mentalis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 62. 

Head rather short and broad ; neck and body of moderate length. Only one labial shield 
below the eye ; one postocular ; three temporal shields on the side of each occipital. Two 
pairs of small chin-shields, the anterior of which are in contact with each other. Rostral 
shield of moderate size, as broad as high, with a small lobule, and without notches below. 
Thirty-one series of scales round the neck. Scales much imbricate, keeled, those on the 
highest part of the body as long as high, rounded behind. The belly is covered with scales, 
not different from those of the adjoining series; there are only a few ventral shields irregu- 

3 A 2 



364 OPHIDIA. 

larly disposed along the ventral line ; 236 transverse series of scales between the throat and 
the vent. Four large anal shields ; tail covered with rhombic scales larger than those of the 
body ; terminal scale of the tail small. Back of the trunk with thirty-one large rhombic 
black spots, rather broader than the interspaces between them, and not extending downwards 
to the middle of the sides. 

The typical specimen is the only individual which I have examined ; it has been preserved 
in spirits for a long time and is much bleached ; it is a male, with a thick and elevated tail, 
said to be from the Indian Ocean, and 44 inches long, the cleft of the mouth measuring 
10 lines, and the tail 4f inches. Shaw has confounded this species with H. stokesii : the 
larger specimen "more than 3 feet long," which also has been figured by him, must be con- 
sidered as the type, to which the name of "ma;'or" properly belongs. We have given an 
upper and a lateral view of its head, of the natural size. A second specimen with the acci- 
dental " strictures of the tail," and also preserved in the British Museum, is a //. stokesii. 



Hydrophis robusta. 

Hydrophis nigrocincta, Schleg. Phtjs. Serp. ii. p. 505. pi. 18. figs. 8-10 (adult specimens) (not 
synon.). Fischer, Abhandl. Naturw. Hamb. iii. p. 46. taf. 1 (not synon.). 

Head of moderate size and Avidth ; neck and body not elongate. Two or three upper 
labials below the orbit ; one postocular ; anterior temporal shield large ; two pairs of chin- 
shields, which are in contact with one another. Thirty-one series of scales round the neck. 
Scales slightly imbricate, eacli with a subcentral tubercle ; those on the highest part of the 
body are rounded or subtruncated behind, as high as long. Ventrals twice or thrice as broad 
as the sca