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Full text of "Reptilia and Batrachia"

S&3S3 



THE GIFT OF 

FLORENCE V. V. DICKEY 

TO THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 




THE DONALD R. DICKEY 

LIBRARY 
OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF 
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFOED. 



EEPTILIA and BATKACHIA. 



GEORGE A. BOULENGER. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

CALCUTTA: I BOMBAY: 

THACKEK, SPIU'K, & CO. THACKER & CO., LIMITED. 

BERLIN : 

U. FIUEDLANDER & SOHN, 11 CARLSTEASSE. 

1890. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COUUT, FLEET STREET. 




QL 

30") 



PKEFACE. 



Two classes of Vertebrata, the Reptiles and the Batrachians 
or Amphibians, are described in this volume of the ( Fauna 
of British India/ These two classes have often been 
associated in zoological works, and were, by many writers, 
until recently, not regarded as distinct. The study of both 
is usually prosecuted by the same observers, and no practical 
advantage would result from publishing the descriptions of 
the two separately. 

Mr. Boulenger, to whom Indian naturalists are indebted 
for the present work, has already classified and described all 
known Crocodiles, Tortoises, Lizards, Chamaeleous, and 
Batrachians in Catalogues of the British Museum that have 
appeared during the last eight years. Many of the characters 
of genera and species now published are taken from those 
Catalogues, but numerous additions have been made and 
several alterations have been inserted. Wherever the com- 
plete synonymy is given in the Catalogues it has been 
considered unnecessary, in the present work, to insert more 
than a reference to the original description of the species, 
to the page in the British Museum Catalogue where full 
details can be found, and to the general works on Indian 
Reptiles by Giinther and Theobald. 

713616 "* 



The classification of the Snakes, which comprise nearly one 
half of the Reptilian species known to occur in India, is new, 
and all the descriptions of families, genera, and species have 
been prepared expressly for the present work. As there is no 
recent publication with a complete synonymy of the Ophidia, 
somewhat fuller references to the literature of the subject 
have been rendered necessary than in the other suborders 
of Reptiles and Batrachians. 

Two general works on Indian Reptiles have been published 
before the present volume. The first was ' The Reptiles of 
British India/ by Dr. A. Giinther, which appeared in quarto 
and was issued by the Ray Society in 1864; and the second, 
an octavo ( Descriptive Catalogue of the Reptiles of British 
India/ by Mr. W. Theobald, published in 1876. In the 
first, which was founded on the earlier publications of Russell, 
Cantor, Gray, Blyth, Jerdon, Kelaart, and others, largely 
supplemented by the author's own researches, the Batrachia 
were included ; but both the Batrachia and the Hydrophiinee 
or marine snakes were omitted in Mr. Theobald's book, 
a great part of which was virtually an abridgment of 
Giinther's, but with the numerous discoveries and observa- 
tions of Stoliczka, Beddome, Anderson, and of the author 
himself added to those of Giinther, many additions by the 
latter having been made after the publication of his large 
work on Indian Reptiles. In the present volume the principal 
additions have been due to the collections of Beddome in 
Southern India, Fea and Davison in Burma, and of Murray 
and the Editor of this work in Western India and Baluchistan. 

The limits of the fauna described in Giinther's ' Reptiles of 
British India ' w r ere wider than those adopted in Theobald's 
work and in the present, and comprised all South-eastern 
Continental Asia. The area here accepted as that of the 
' Fauna of British India ' has been defined in the Introduction 
to the Mammalia of the present series, and may be briefly 



described as British India with Burma and all other depen- 
dencies,, and with the addition of Ceylon Baluchistan, Kash- 
mir, Ladak, and all Cis- Himalayan States being included, and 
Afghanistan, Tibet Proper, China, Siam, and the Malay 
Peninsula south of Tenasserim excluded. 

The following comparison of the number of species de- 
scribed, from within the limits adopted in the present work, 
in Giinther's ' Reptiles of British India 'with those enumerated 
in Theobald's Catalogue and in the present volume will serve 
roughly to indicate the additions to our knowledge of the 
Reptilia and Batrachia of India in the last quarter of a 
century. As already noticed, one subfamily of Snakes, 
the Hydrophiinre, was omitted by Theobald, 

Giinther, Theobald, Boulenger, 



REPTILIA. 
EMIDOSATJEIA (Crocodiles) .... 
CHELONI A (Tortoises & Turtles) 
SQTJAMATA. 
Lacertilia (Lizards) 


1864. 

4 
.. 30 

. . 95 


1876. 

4 
54 

173 


1890. 

3 
43 

225 


lihiptoglossa (Chameleons) 
Ophidia (Snakes) .... 


.. 1 
. . 180 


1 
225 


1 
264 




310 


457 


536 


BATRACHIA. 

ECAUDATA (Frogs and Toads). . 
CATJDATA (Newts &c.) 
APODA (CaDcilians) . . 


37 


2 





124 
1 
5 



39 130 

In cases where the numbers have been reduced the reduc- 
tion is due to the union of species formerly supposed to be 
distinct. The additions in the present volume are much more 
numerous than the preceding comparison indicates. 

By permission of the Trustees of the British Museum, 
through the kindness of Professor Flower and Dr. Giinther, 



VI PREFACE. 

several figures from the Catalogues of the National Collection 
prepared by Mr. Boulenger and from the Guide to the 
Reptile Gallery have been inserted in the present work. One 
cut lias also, by permission of the Zoological Society, been 
taken from its 'Proceedings/ 

The Fishes, Reptiles, and Batrachiaus of the f Fauna of 
British India ' have now appeared, with one volume of Birds 
and half a volume of Mammals, leaving two volumes of Birds 
and half a volume of Mammals still in hand. 



W. T. BLANFORD. 

July, 1890. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



REPTILIA "T 

Order I. EMYDOSAURIA . . 1 
Faui. I. CROCODIUDJE . . 2 



1 . Gavialis, Opp 3 

1. gangeticus (Gm.) .... 3 

2. Crocodilus, Law 4 

1. porosus, Schn 4 

2. palustris, Less 5 

Order II. CHELONIA .... 6 

Subord. I. THECOPHORA. 9 

Superfam. A. Trionychoidea 9 

Fam. I. TRIONYCHID^E 9 

10 
11 
12 
12 
13 
14 
14 
16 



1. Trionyx, Geoff 

1. subplanus, Geoff r 

2. gangeticus, Cuv 

3. leithii, Gray 

4. hurum, Gray 

5. formosus, Gray 

6. phayrii, Theob 

7. cartilagineus (Bodd.) 

2. Pelochelys, Gray 15 

1. cantoris, Gray 

3. Chitra, Gray . .' 

1. iiidica, Gray 

4. Emyda, Gr 

1. granosa 

2. vittata, Ptrs. 



IS 

10 
16 
16 
17 
17 
3. scutata, Ptrs 18 

Superfam. B. Cryptodira . . 18 
Fam. II. TESTUDINUXE 18 

1. Testudo, Z 19 

1. .elongate, Blyth 20 



2. leithii, Gthr 20 

3. elegans, Schoepff 21 

4. platynota, Blyth 22 

5. emys, Schleg. 8f Midi. 22 

2. Geoemyda, Gray 23 

1. spinosa, Gray 25 

2. grandis, Gray 25 

3. depressa, Anders 25 

3. Nicoria, Gray 26 

1. trijuga (Scliweigg.) . . 27 

2. tricarinata (Blyth) 28 

4. Cyclemys, Bell 28 

1. platynota, Gray 30 

2. dhor, Gray 30 

3. mouhoti, Gray 31 

4. amboinensis (Daud.) 31 

5. Bellia, Gray 32 

1. crassicollis, Gray .... 32 

6. Danionia, Gray 34 

1. hitmiltonii, Gray 34 

7. Morenia, Gray 35 

1. oceUata(Z). #5.).... 35 

2. petersii, Anders 36 

8. Hardella, Gray 36 

1. thurgi, Gray 36 

9. Batagur, Gray 37 

1. baska, Gray 38 

10. Kachuga, Gray 38 

1. lineata, Gray 40 

2. trivittata (D. # B.) . . 41 

3. dhongoka (Gray) 41 

4. smitlii'i (Gray) 42 

5. sylhetensis (Jerd.) .... 42 

6. intermedia, Blanf. 43 

7. tectum (Gray) 43 



Fam. III. PLATYSTEUNID.S: . . 44 

1. Platysternum, Gray .... 44 
1. megacephalum, Gray . 44 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

Fam. IV. CHELONms: 47 

1. Chelone, Brongn 48 

1. mydas (L.) 48 

2. imbricata (L.) 49 

2. Thalassochelys, Fitz 49 

1. caretta (L.) 50 



Subord. II. A T H E c M 
Fam. V. SPHARGIDJE . 



1. Dermochelys, Blainv 
1. coriacea (L.) 



Order III. SQUAMAT A .... 52 

Subord. I. LACERTILIA .. 52 

Fam. I. GECKONID^: 54 

1. Stenodactylus, Fitz 56 

1. orientalis, Blanf. 57 

2. lurnsdenii, Blgr 58 

2. Alsophylax, Fitz 58 

1. tuberculatus (Blanf.) 59 

3. Gymnodactylus, Spix .... 59 

1. fedtschenkoi, Strauch 61 

2. scaber (Hiipp.) 62 

3. brevipes, Blanf. 63 

4. kachhensis, Stol 63 

6. stoliczkee, Steind. 63 

6. lawderanus, Stol 64 

7. nebulosus, Bedd 64 

8. jeyporensis, Bedd 65 

9. deccanensis, Gthr. . . 66 

10. albofasciatus, Blyr. . . 66 

11. oldhami, Theob 67 

12. triedrus, Gthr 67 

13. frenatus, Gthr 68 

14. khasiensis (Jerd.) 68 

15. rubidus (Blyth) 69 

16. pulchellus (Gray) 69 

17. variegatus (Blyth) 70 

18. fasciolatus (Blyth) .... 71 

4. Agamura, Blanf. 71 

1 . cruralis, Blanf. 71 

5. Pristurus, Rilpp 72 

1. rupestris, Blanf. 72 

6. Gonatodes, Fitz 73 

1. indicus (Gray) 74 

2. wynadensis (Bedd.) . . 75 

3. sisparensis (Theob.) . . 75 



4. ornatus (Bedd.) 75 

5. marmoratus (Bedd.). . 75 

6. mysoriensis (Jerd.) . . 77 

7. kandianus (Kel.) .... 77 

8. gracilis (Bedd.) 78 

9. jerdonii (Theob.) .... 78 
10. littoralis (Jerd.) 79 

7. Calodactylus, Bedd. 80 

1. aureus, Bedd 80 

8. Ptyodactylus, Gray .... 81 

1. homolepis, Blanf. .... 81 

9. Heinidactylus, Gray 82 

1. reticulatus, Bedd. .... 84 

2. gracilis, Blanf. 84 

3. frenatus, D.$B 85 

4. gleadovii, Murray. . . . 86 

5. turcicus (L.) 87 

6. persicus, Anders 88 

7. maculatus, D. Sf B. . . 88 

8. triedrus (Daud.) .... 89 

9. subtriedus, Jerd. .... 90 

10. depressus, Gray 90 

11. leschenaultii, D. 8f B. 91 

12. cocteei, D. $ B 92 

13. giganteus, Stol. 92 

14. bowringii (Gray) .... 93 

15. karenorum (Theob.) . . 93 

16. garnoti, I). $ B 94 

17. platyurus (Schneid.) . . 95 

10. Teratolepis, Gthr 96 

1. fasciata (Blyth) 96 

11. Gehyra, Gray 96 

1. mutilata ( Wiegm.) . . 96 

12. Lepidodactylus, Fitz 97 

1. ceylonensis, Blgr 98 

2. aurantiacus (Bedd.) . . 98 

3. lugubris (D. $ B.) . . 99 

13. Hoplodactylus, Fitz 100 

1. duvaucelii (D.$B.).. 100 

2. anainallensis (Gthr.). . 101 

14. Gecko, Laur 101 

1 . verticillatus, Laur. . . 102 

2. stentor (Cantor) 103 

3. monarchus (D. # B.) . 103 

15. Ptychozoou, Fitz 104 

1. hornalocephalum 

(Crev.) 104 

16. Phelsuma, Gray 105 

1. andamanense, Blyth . . 106 



Fam. II. EUBLEPHABID.E . . 107 

1. Eublepharis, Gray 107 

1. hardwickii, Gray .... 107 

2. macularius (Blyth) . . 108 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Fam. III. AGAMID^E , 



Page 

109 



1. Draco, Linn Ill 

1. maculatus (Gray) 112 

2. blanfordii, Blgr 112 

3. dussumieri, D. $ B. . . 113 

4. teeniopterus, Gthr. . . 114 

2. Sitana, Cuv 114 

1. ponticeriana, Cuv 114 

3. Otocryptis, Wiegm 115 

1. bivittata, Wiegm 115 

2. beddomii, Blgr 116 

4. Ptyctolaemus, Ptrs 116 

1. gularis, Ptrs 117 

5. Cophotis, Ptrs 117 

1. ceylanica, Ptrs 118 

6. Ceratophora, Gray 118 

1. stoddartii, Gray 119 

2. tennentii, Gthr 120 

8. aspera, Gthr 120 

7. Lyriocephalus, Merr 121 

1. scutatus (L.) 121 

8. Gonyocephalus, Kaup .... 122 

1. subcristatus (Blyth) . . 122 

2. humii (Stol.) 123 

3. belli! (D. # B.) 123 

4. grandis (Gray) 124 

9. Acanthosaura, Gray .... 124 

1. armata (Gray) 125 

2. crucigera, Blyr 125 

3. lamnidentata, Blgr. . . 126 

4. minor (Gray) 127 

5. kakhienensis (Anders.) 127 

6. major ( Jerd.) 128 

7. tricarinata (Blyth) . . 129 

10. Japalura, Gray 129 

1. variegata, Gray 130 

2. planidorsata, Jerd. 130 

11. Salea, Gray 131 

1. horsneldii, Gray .... 131 

2. anamallayana (Bedd.) . 132 

12. Calotes, Cuv. 132 

1. microlepis, Blgr 134 

2. cristatellus (Kuhl) 134 

3. jubatus (D. 8?B.) 135 

4. versicolor (Daud.) . . 135 

5. maria, Gray 136 

6. jerdonii, Gthr 137 

7. emrna, Gray 137 

8. mystaceus, D. % B. .. 138 

9. grandisquamis, Gthr. . 138 

10. nemoricola, Jerd. .... 139 

11. ceylonensis, Blyr 139 

12. liolepis, Blgr 140 

13. ophioinachus (Merr.) . 140 



Page 

14. nigrilabris, Ptrs 141 

15. liocephalus, Gthr 141 

16. rouxii, D. 8f B 142 

17. ellioti, Gthr 142 

18. fete, Blgr 143 

13. Charasia, Gray 144 

'I. dorsalis (Gray) 144 

2. blanfordiana, Stol. . . 145 

3. ornata (Blyth) 145 

14. Agama, Daud. 146 

1. isolepis, Blgr 147 

2. rubrigularis (Blanf.). . 147 

3. tuberculata, Gray 148 

4. dayana (Stol.) 148 

5. hirnalayana (Steind.). . 149 

6. agrorensis (Stol.) 149 

7. melanura (Blyth) 150 

8. lirata (Blanf.) 150 

9. nupta, De Fil 151 

10. caucasica (Eichw.) . . 151 

15. Phrynocephalus, Kaup . . 152 

1. olivieri, D. # B 153 

2. theobaldi, Blyth .... 153 

3. caudivolvulus (Pall.).. 154 

4. ornatus, Blgr 154 

5. maculatus, Anders. . . 155 

6. luteoguttatus,.%r. . . 155 

16. Liolepis, Cuv 156 

1. belliana (Gray) 156 

17. Uromastix, Merr 157 

1. hardwickii, Gray .... 157 



Fain. IV. 



158 



1. Ophisaurus, Daud. 159 

1. gracilis (Gray) 159 



Fam. V. VARANID^: 160 

1. Varanus, Merr 161 

1. griseus (Daud.) 163 

2. tiavescens (Gray) 164 

3. bengalensis (Daud.) . . 164 

4. nebulosus (Gray) .... 165 

5. dumerilii (Schleg.) . . 165 

6. salvator (Laur.) 106 



Fam. VI. LACERTID^; 



167 



1. Tachydromus, Daud 168 

1. sexlineatus, Daud. ... 169 

2. tachydromoides 

(Schkg.) 169 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Page 

2. Aoanthodactyliis, Wieym. 170 

1, 'cantoris, Gthr 170 

2, micropholis, Blanf. . . 171 

3. Cabrita, Gray 171 

1. leschenaultii (M.- 

Edw.) 172 

2. jerdonii, Bedd. 173 

4. Ophiops, Men&r 173 

1, ierdonii, Blyth 174 

2. .beddomii (Jerd.) 174 

3, elegans, Menetr 175 

4. microlepis, Blanf.. . . . 175 

5. Eremias, Wieym. .' 176 

1. guttulata (Licht.) 177 

2. brevirostris (Blanf.).. 177 

3. velox (Pall.) 178 

4. fasciata, Blanf. 179 

6. Scapteira, Wiegm 179 

1. acutirostris, Blyr 179 



Fam. VII. SCINCIDJE 180 

1. Mabuia, Fitz 183 

1. bibronii (Gray) 184 

2. doriae, Blgr 184 

3. dissimilis (Hallow.) . . 185 

4. septemtteniata (Reuss) 185 

5. innotata (Blanf.) .... 186 

6. novemcarinata 

{Anders.) 187 

T.'beddoruii (Jerd.) 187 

8. vertebralis, Blyr 188 

9. carinata (Schn.) 188 

10. macularia (Blyth) . . 189 

11. rugifera (Stol.) 190 

12. moltifasciata(Zu^).. 191 

13. tytieri, Blgr 191 

14. quadricarinata, Blyr. . 192 

2. Lygosoma, Gray 192 

T. indicum (Gray) 195 

2. zebratum, Blgr 195 

3. iriaculatum (Blyth) . . 196 

4. dussumieri, D.$B... 197 

5. olivaceum (Gray) 197 

6. kakhienense, Blyr. . . 198 

7. melanostictum, Blyr. . 199 

8. sikkimense (Blyth) . . 199 

9. Mmalayanum (Gthr.) . 200 

10. doriae, "Blgr 201 

11. ladacense (Gthr.) 201 

12. laterimaculatum, Blyr. 202 

13. bilineatum (Gray) ..202 

14. beddomii, Blyr 203 

16. travancoricum (Bedd.) 204 



I Page 

10. inacrotyujpanum(fo/.) 204 

17. maerotis (Steind.) 205 

(Mocoa formosa, Blyth.) 

18. taprobanense (Kel.) . . 200 

19. fallax, Ptrs 206 

20. lineolatum (Stol.) 207 

21. coinotti, Blgr 207 

22. albopunctatum (Gray) 208 

23. punctatum (L.) 208 

24. guentheri (Ptrs.) 209 

25. fea3, Blgr 210 

26. cyaneUum (Stol.) 210 

27.' anguinum (Theub.) . . 211 

28.' calamus, Blyr 211 

29. lineatum (Gray) 212 

(Euprepes halianus, Nevill.) 

3. Ablepharus, Fitz 213 

1. brandtii, Strauch 213 

2. grayanus (Stol.) 214 

4. Ristella, Gray 214 

1. rurkii, Gray 215 

2. travancorica, Bedd. . . 216 

3. guentheri, Blgr 216 

4. beddomii, Blgr 216 

5. Tropidophorus, D. 8f B. . . 217 

1. berdmorii (Blyth) . . 217 

2. yunnanensis, Blyr. . . 217 

6. Euineces, Wieym 218 

1. scutatus (T/ieob.) 218 

2. taeniolatus (Blyth) .. 219 

3. sclineideri (Daud.) . . 219 

4. blythianus (Anden.).. 220 

7. Scincus, Laur 220 

1. arenarius, Murr 221 

8. Ophiomorus D. $ B 221 

1. tridactylus (Blyth) . . 222 

2. blanfordii, Blyr 222 

9. Clialcides, Laur 223 

1. ocellatus (Forsk.) 224 

2. pentadactylus (Bedd.) 224 

10. Sepophis, Bedd. 225 

1. punctatus, Bedd. 225 

11. Chalcidoseps. Blgr 226 

1. thwaitesii (Gthr.) 226 

12. Acontias, C'uv 226 

1. burtonii (Gray) 227 

2. inonodactylus ( Gray) . 228 

3. layardii, Kel. 228 

4. sarasinorurn, F. Mull. . 228 



Fam. VIII. DIBAMIDJE 229 

1. Dibamus, 1). $ B 229 

1. novae-guineae, D. Sf B. 230 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



ii 



Page 

Subord. II. RHIPTOGLOSSA. 230 
Fam. I. CHAMJELEONTID^E. . . 230 

1. Chamseleon, Law 232 

1. calcaratus, Merr 232 



Subord. III. O P H i D i A. , 



232 



Fam. I. TYPHLOPIDJE 234 



1. Typhlops, Schneid 

1. braniinus (Daud.). . 

2. beddomii,^//- 

3. leucomelas, Blgr. . . 

4. jerdoni, Blgr 

5. oatesii, Blyr 

6. diardi, Sclileg 

7. bothriorhynchus, 

Gthr 

8. porrectus, Stol 

9. theobaldiauus, Stol. 

10. mirus, Jan 

11. andamanensis, Stol. 

12. tenuicollis(P*rs.).. 

13. acutus (D. $ B.) . . 



Fam. II. GLAUCONIID^; 

1. Glaucoma, Gray 
1 . blanfordii, Blgr 



235 
236 
237 
237 
238 
238 
238 

239 
240 
240 
240 
241 
241 
241 



242 



243 
243 



Fam. HI. BOIDJE 244 

Subfam. I. Pythonince 245 

1. Python, Daud 245 

l". reticulatus (Schneid.). . 246 
2. molurus (L.) 246 



Subfam. II. Boinee 



246 



2. Gongylophis, Wagl. 246 

1 . conicus (Schneid.) .... 247 

3. Eryx, Daud 247 

1. johnii (Russ.) 248 



Fam. IV. ILYSIID.E 



242 



1. Cylindrophis, Wagl. 249 

1. rufus (Laur.) 251 

2. maculatua (L.) 251 



Fam. V. UBOPELTID^: 251 

1. Uropeltis, Cuv 253 

1. grandis, Kel 254 

2. Rhinophis, Hempr 254 

1. oxyrhynchus 

(Schneid.) 255 

2. punctatus, M till 255 

3. planiceps, Ptrs 255 

4. trevelyanus (Kel.) 256 

5. sanguineus, Bedd. .... 256 

6. blythii, Kel. 253. 

3. Silybura, Gray 257 

1. melanogaster (Gray). . 258 

2. pulneyensis, Bedd. . . 260 

3. grandis (Bedd.), 261 

4.. petersii, Bedd 261 

5. maculata, Bedd. .... 261 

6. liura, Gthr 262 

7. ocellata, Bedd 262 

8. nigra, Bedd. 263 

9. nitida, Bedd. 263 

10. dindigalensis, Bedd... 264 

11. broughami, Bedd 264 

12. macrorhynchus, Bedd. 264 

13. beddomii, Gthr 265 

14. ellioti, Gray 265 

15. phipsonii, Mason .... 266 

16. rubrolineata, Gthr. . . 266 

17. .myhendrfe, Bedd 267 

18. madurensis, Bedd. . . 267 

19. rubromaculata, Bedd. . 268 

20. arcticeps, Gthr 268 

21. brevis, Gthr 268 

22. macrolepis, Ptrs 269 

4. Pseudoplectrurus, Blgr. . . 270 

1. canaricus (Bedd.) .... 270 

5. Plectrurus, D. $ B 270 

1. perroteti, D. $ B 271 

2. davisonii, Bedd 271 

3. guentheri, Bedd. 271 

4. aureus, Bedd 272 

6. Melanophidium, Gthr. . . 272 

1. wynadense (Bedd.) . . 272 

2. punctatum, Bedd. 273 

3. bilineatum, Bedd. 273 

7. Platyplectrurus, Gthr. . . 273 

1. trilineatus (Bedd.) .... 274 

2. madurensis, Bedd 274 

3. sanguineus (Bedd.) . . 274 



Fam. VI. XENOPELTID^. . . 275 

1. Xenopeltis, Reinw 276 

1. unicolor, Reinw 276 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



Fam. VII. COLUBRIDJE 
Series A. Aglypha . . . 



..s* 



279 



Subfam. I. Colubrince 279 

1. Cakmaria, Boie 281 

1. pavimentata, D. $ B. . 282 

2. oatenata, Blyth 282 

2. Xylophis, Bedd 283 

1. perroteti (D. $ B.) .. 283 

2. 8tenorhvnchus((37Ar.) . 284 

3. Trachischiuiu, Gthr 284 

1. fuscum (Blyth) 285 

2. guentheri, Blgr 285 

3. tenuiceps (Blyth) 286 

4. monticola(ftmi5.) 286 

5. rubriventer (Jerd.) . . 286 

4. Blythia, Theob 287 

1. reticulata (Blyth) .... 287 

5. Aspidura, Wagl. 288 

1. brachyorrhos (Boie) . . 289 

2. copii, Gthr 289 

3. guentheri, Fergus. . . 290 

4. trachvprocta, Cope . . 290 

6. Haplocercus, Gthr 290 

1. ceylonensis, Gthr 291 

7. Lycodon, Boie 291 

1. striatus (Shaw) 292 

2. jara (Shaw) 292 

3. anamallensis, Gthr. . . 293 

4. travancoricus (Bedd.) . 293 

6. aulicus (L.) 294 

6. atropurpureus (Cant.) 294 

7. septentrionalis 

(Gthr.) 295 

8. fasciatus (Anders.) . . 295 

9. gammiei (Blanf.) 296 

10. carinatus (Kuhl) 296 

subfuscus, Cant 297 

sanguiventer ( Cant.) . . 297 

8. Hydrophobus, Gthr 297 

1." nympha (Daud.) 298 

2. gracUis (Gthr.) 298 

3. davisonii (Blanf.). ... 299 

9. Pseudocyclophis, Bttg. . . 299 

1. walteri, Bttg 300 

2. olivaceus (Bedd.) .... 300 

3. bicolor (Blyth) 300 

10. Polyodontophis, Blgr. . . 301 

1. collaris (Gray) 302 

2. subpunctatus (D. 8f 

B.) 303 

3. Sagittarius (Cant.) 303 

4. bisarigatus (Gthr.) . . 304 



Pa K e 

11. Ablabes, D. $ B 304 

1. calamaria (Gthr.) 305 

2. scriptus, Theob 305 

3. frenatus (Gthr.) 306 

4. dorise, Blgr 306 

5. rappii, Gthr 307 

6. nicobariensis, Stol. 307 

7. porphyraceus (Cant.) . 308 

12. Coronella, Laur 308 

1. brachyura (Gthr.) 309 

13. Simotes, D. $ B 309 

1. splendidus, Gthr 310 

2. cvclurus (Cant.) 311 

3. albocinctus ( Cant.) . . 312 

4. violaceus (Cant.) 312 

5. octolineatus (Schn.) ..313 

6. arnensis (Shaw) 314 

7. beddomii, Blgr 314 

8. theobaldi, Gthr 315 

9. cruentatus, Gthr 315 

10. torquatus, Blgr 316 

1 1 . plauiceps, Blgr 316 

14. Oligodon, Boie 317 

1. venustus (Jerd.) 317 

2. travancoricus, Bedd. . . 318 

3. affinis, Gthr 318 

4. brevicauda, Glhr 319 

5. dorsalis (Gray) 319 

6. teinpletonii, Gthr 320 

7. sublineatus, D.$B.. 320 

8. ellioti, Gthr 321 

9. subgriseus, D.fyB... 321 

15. Lytorhynchus, Ptrs 322 

1. paradoxus (Gthr.) 323 

16. Zamenis, Wagl 323 

1. korros (Schleg.) 324 

2. mucosus (L.) 324 

3. ventrimaculatus 

( Gray) 325 

4. ladacensis, Anders. . . 326 

5. kareKnii (Brandt) .... 326 

6. gracilis, Gthr 327 

7. fasciolatus (Shaw) 327 

8. diadema (Schleg.) 328 

9. arenarius, Blgr 329 

17. Zaocys, Cope 329 

1. niorromarginatus 

(Blyth) 329 

18. Coluber, L 330 

1. heleua, Daud 331 

2. reticularis, Cant 332 

3. hodgsonii (Gthr.) .... 332 

4. tseniurus (Cope) 333 

5. radiatus, Schleg 333 

6. melanurus, Schleg 334 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



7. prasiuus, Blyth 
8. frenatus (Gray) .... 
9. oxycephalus, Boie .... 
19. Xenelaphis, Gthr 


Page 

334 
335 
335 
336 
336 
337 
337 
337 
338 
338 
339 
339 
339 
340 
340 
341 
343 
343 
344 
344 
345 
345 
346 
346 
347 
347 
348 
348 
349 
350 
350 
350 
351 
352 
352 
352 
353 
353 

354 

354 
355 
355 
355 

356 
356 

357 
358 
359 
359 
360 


Page 

5. multimaculata, Schleg. 360 
6. hexagonotus, Blyth . . 361 
7. cyanea (D. $ B.) 361 
8. forsteni(D. 8fB.) .... 362 
29. Elachistodon, Reinh 362 
1. westermanni, Reinh. . . 363 
30. Psammodynastes, Gthr... 363 
1. pulverulentus (Boie). . 363 
31. Psammophis, Boie 365 


1. hexagonotus (Cant.). . 
20. Dendropnis, Boie 
1. grandoculis, Blyr 
2. pictus, Gm 
3. subocularis, Blgr 
4. bifrenalis, Blyr 


1. leithii, Gthr 365 


5. caudolineolatus, Gthr, . 
21. Dendrelaphis, Blgr. .... 
1. caudolineatus (Gray) . 
22. Pseudoxenodon, Blyr. . . 
1. macrops (Blyth) 
23. Tropidonotus, Kuhl 


2. condanarus (Metr.) . . 366 
3. longifrons, Blgr 366 
32. Dryophis, Boie 367 
1. perroteti (D. # B.) . . 368 
2. dispar (Gthr.) 368 


3. fronticinctus, Gthr. . . 368 
4. prasinus, Boie . . 369 


1. modestus, Gthr 
2. platyceps, Blyth .... 
3. khasiensis, Blgr 


5. mycterizans (Daud.) . . 370 
6. pulverulentus (D.Sf B.) 371 
33. Chrysopelea Boie 371 


5. parallelus, Blyr 

6. chrysargus, Schleg . . . . 
7. nigrocinctus, Blyth . . 


1. ornata (Shaio) . . 371 


Subfam. IV. Homalopsina . . 372 

34. Homalopsis, Kuhl 373 
1. buccata (L.) . . 374 


9. subrnimatus, Schkg. . . 
10. hinmlayanus, Gthr. . . 
11. monticola, Jerd 
12 stolatus (L ) 


35. Cerberus, Cuv. . . . 374 


1. rhynchops (Schn.) . . 374 
36. Hypsirhina, Wagl. 375 


13 pi^cator (Schn ) 


14 bellulus Stol 


1. plumbea (Boie) 376 


15. sancti-johannis, Blgr. . 
16. punctulatus, Gthr. . . 
17. plumbicolor, Cant. . . . 
angusticeps, Blyth . . 
24. Helicops, Wayl 


2. enhydris (Schn.) 376 
3. blanfordii, Blgr 377 
4. sieboldii (Schleg.) .... 377 
37. Fordonia, Gray 378 


1. leucobalia (Schleg.) . . 378 
38. Gerardia, Gray 379 


1. schistoaus (Daud.) . . 
25. Xenochrophis, Gthr 


1. prevostiana (Eyd. $ 
Gerv.) . 379 


1. cerasogaster (Cant.) . . 

Subfam. II. Acrochordince . . 

26. Stoliczkaia, Jerd. 
1. khasiensis, Jerd 
27. Chersydrus, Cuv 


39. Cantoria, Gir 380 


1. violacea, Gir 380 


40. Hipistes, Gray 381 


1. hydrinus (Cant.) .... 382 

Series C. Proteroglypha . . 382 
Subfam. V. Elapince 382 


1. granulatus (Schn.) . . 

Series B. Opisthoglypha . . 
Subfani. III. Dipsadince 
28. Dipsas, Boie 


41. Callophis, Gray 383 


1. trimaculatus (Daud.) . 384 
2. maculiceps, Gthr 384 
3. nigrescens, Gthr 384 
4. macclellandii (Reinh.) 385 
6. bibronii (Jan) 386 
42. Adeniophis, Ptrs. . . 386 


1. trigonata (Schn.) 
2. barnesii, Gthr 
3. ceylonensis, Gthr 
4. gokool, Gray 


1. intestinalis (Laur.) . . 386 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



43. Bungarus, Daud 387 

1. fasciatus (Schn.) 388 

2. ceylonicus, Gthr 388 

3. cfflruleus (Schn.) 388 

4. bungaroides (Cant.) . . 389 

5. lividus, Cant 389 

44. Naia, Lour 390 

1. tripudians, Merr 391 

2. bungarus, Schleg 392 

Subfam. VI. Hydrophiince . . 393 

45. Platurus, Daud 394 

1. laticaudatus (L.) 395 

2. colnbrinus (Schn.) 395 

46. Enhydris, Merr 396 

1. curtus (Shaw) 396 

2. hardwickii(G'ray) 397 

47. Hydrus, Schneid 397 

1. platurus (L.) 397 

48. Hydrophis, Daud. 398 

1. schistosus, Daud. 399 

2. cserulescens (Shaw) . . 400 

3. nigrocinctus, Daud. . . 401 

4. mamillaris (Daud.) . . 401 

5. spiralis (Shaw) 401 

6. latifasciatus, Gthr. . . 401 

7. coronatus, Gthr 402 

8. torquatus, Gthr 402 

9. qbscurus, Daud. 403 

10. fasciatus (Schn.) 404 

11. gracilis (Shaw) 404 

12. cantoris, Gthr 405 

49. Enhydrina, Gray 405 

1. yalakadien (Boie) 406 

50. Distira, Lacep 407 

1. stokesii (Gray) 408 

2. jerdonii (Gray) 408 

3. robusta (Gthr.) 409 

4. tuberculata (Anders.) 409 

5. cyanocincta (Daud.) . . 410 

6. b*i tuberculata (Ptrs.) . 411 

7. ornata (Gray) 411 

crassicollis (Anders.) . 411 

8. lapemidoides (Gray) . . 412 

9. yiperina (Schmidt) 413 

Fam. VIII. 
AMBLYCEPHALIDJE .... 414 

1 . Amblycephalus, Kiihl. ... 414 

1. monticola (Cant.) 415 

2. leyis, Boie 415 

3. andersonii, Blgr 416 

4. modestus (Theob.) 416 

5. macularius (Theob.) . . 416 



Fam. IX. VIPERID^E 
Subfam. 1. Viperince, 
1. Azemiops, Blgr. 



1. fese, Blgr. 

2. Vipera, Laur 

l.russellii (Shaw) 

2. lebetina (L.) 

8. Echis, Merr 

1. carinata (Schn.) . . . 



Page 

417 

418 

418 
418 
419 
420 

421 
422 



Subfam. II. Crotalince 423 



4. Ancistrodon, Beauv. . . . 

1. hinialayanus (Gthr.) 

2. hypnale (Merr.) . . . 

5. Trimeresurus, Lacep. . . . 

1. monticola, Gthr. . . . 

2. strigatus, Gray 

3. jerdonii, Gthr 

4. mucrosquamatus 

(Cant.) 

5. cantoris (Blyth) , 

6. purpureomaculatus 

(Gray) 

7. gramineus (Shaw) 

8. anamallensis, Gthr. . . 

9. trigonocephalus 

(Daud.) 

10. macrolepis, Bedd 



423 
424 
424 
425 
426 
427 
427 



428 

429 
429 
430 

431 

431 



BATRACHIA 432 

Order I. ECAUDATA. . . . 432 



Suborder I. 
PHANEROGLOSSA. . 



433 



Series A. Firmisternia 433 

Fam. I. RANIDJE 435 

1 . Oxyglossus, Tsch 43(5 

l.'lima (Gravh.) 436 

2. laevis, Gthr 437 

2. Rana, L 438 

1 . hexadactyla, Less 441 

2. cyanophlyctis, Schn. . . 442 

3. corrugata, Ptrs 443 

4. kuhlii, D. $ B 443 

5. laticeps, Blgr 444 

6. khasiana (Anders.) . . 444 

7. liebigii, Gthr 445 

8. sternosignata, Murr . . 445 



SYSTEMAT 
Page 

9 fees Blgr. . . 446 


1C 1XDBX. 

9. cruciger (Blyth) .... 
10. eques (Gthr ) .... 


XV 

Page 

476 
476 

477 
477 
477 
478 
478 
479 

479 
480 
480 
481 

481 
482 
483 
483 

484 
484 
485 
485 
485 
486 
486 
187 
487 
487 
488 
488 

489 

489 
489 
490 
490 
491 
491 
491 
492 
493 
493 
494 
494 
494 
495 
495 
496 
497 
497 
497 

498 

498 

Ana 


10. andersonii, Blgr. . . 447 
1 1 dorise, Blgr 447 


11, nasutus (Gthr.) 
12. reticulatus (Gthr.) . . 
13. dubius, Blgr 


12. macrodon, D. < B. 448 
13, verrucosa, Gthr. . . 448 
14. tigrina, Daud 449 
15. limnocharis, Wiegm 450 
16. rufescens (Jerd.) .... 451 
17. breviceps Schn. . . 451 


14, nanusfG-7/i/-.) 
15. jerdonii (Gthr.) 
16. pleurostictus (Gthr.) . 
17. microtvmpanum 
'(Gthr.) 
18, stictomerus (Gthr.) . 
19. fergusonii, Blgr 
20. cavirostris (Gthr.) . . 
8. Ixalus, D. # B. . . 


18. dobsonii, Blgr 452 


19. strachani (Murr.) .... 452 
20. leithii, Blgr 453 
21. beddomii (Gthr.) 453 
22. semipaluiata, Blgr. . . 454 
23. leptodactyla, Blgr. .. 454 . 
24. diplosticta (Gthr.) . . 455 
25. pbrynoderma, Blgr. . . 455 
26. macrodactyla (Gthr.) . 455 
27. gracilis, Gravh 456 


1. o.xyrbynchus, Gthr. . . 
2, leucorhinus, Mart. . . 
3. schmardanus(Xe/.) .. 
4. nasutus, Gthr. .... 


. hvpomelas, Gthr 


28. malabarica, D.8f B... 456 
29 lateralis Blgr. . . 457 


6. vittatus, Blgr 


7. pulcher, Blgr 
8. femoralis, Gthr 
9. beddomii, Gthr 
10. adspersus, Gthr 
11. variabilis, Gthr 
12 si"natus, Blgr 


30. curtipes, Jerd 458 
31 tytleri ( Theob ) 458 


32. nicobariensis (Stol.) . . 459 
33. temporalis (Gthr.) . . 459 
34. rnargariana (Anders.) 459 
35. humeralis, Blgr 460 
36. erytbrsea (Schleg.) . . 460 
37. monticola (Anders.) . . 461 
38. livida (Blyth) 462 
39. latopalmata, Blgr. . . . 462 
40. himalayana, Blgr. . . . 463 
41. formosa (Gthr.) 463 
3. Micrixalus, Blgr 464 
1 saxicola (Jerd ) 465 


13. flaviventris, Blgr 
14. chalazodes, Gthr 
15. gland ulosus, Jerd. . . . 

Fam. II. ENGYSTOMATID-ZE . . 

1. Melanobatracbus, Bedd. . 
1. indicus, Bedd. . 


2. Calopbrynus, Tsch 


2. sarasinoruui (F. Mull.) 465 
3. opistborhodus (Gthr.) 465 
4. fuscus (Blgr.) 466 
5. silvaticus (Blgr.) 466 
4. Nyctibatracbus, Blgr. . . 467 
1. pygmseus (Gthr.). . . . 467 


1 . pleurostigma, Tsch. . . 
3. Microhyla, Tsch 




2. ornata (D. # B.) 
3. berdmorii (Blyth) 
4. Callula, Gray 


1. obscura, Gthr 


5. Nannobatracims, Blgr. . . 468 
1. beddomii, Blgr 468 
6 Nannopbrys Gthr 469 


2. pulcbra, Gray 


3. macrodactyla, Blgr. . . 
4. variegata, Stol. 
5. triangularis, Gthr. . . 
5. Cacopus, Gthr. . 


1. cevlonensis, Gthr. . . 469 
2. giientberi, Blgr 469 
7. Kbacopborus, Kuhl 470 
1. niaximus, Gthr 472 
2. bimaculatus, Blgr. . . 472 
3. malabaricus, Jerd. . . . 473 
4. beddomii, Blgr 473 
5 lateralis, Blgr 473 


1. systoma (Schn.) 
2. globulosus, Gthr 
6. Glyphoglossus Gthr 


1. molossus, Gthr 


Fam. III. DYSCOPHID^; 
1 Calluella, Stol . . 


6. tuberculatus (Anders.) 474 
7. leucoiuystax (Gravh.). 474 





XVI SYS1 

Series B. Arcifera 


PEMAT 

4*99 
499 

500 

500 
500 
501 
502 
602 
502 
503 
503 
504 
504 
504 
505 
505 
505 
507 
507 
507 
508 
508 

509 

509 
509 


1C INDEX. 

Fain. VI. PELOBATIDJE . . . 

1. Leptobrachium, Tsch.. . 
1. monticola (Gthr.) . . 
2. hasseltii, Tsch 


Page 
.. 510 

.. 510 
.. 510 
.. 511 


Fam. IV. BUFONHXS: 
1. Nectophryne, Buchh. fy 
Ptrs 


1. tuberculosa (Gthr.) . . 
2. Bufo, Laur. 


3. carinense, Blgr. . 
4. fese, Blgr 

Order II. CAUDATA. . . . 
Fam. I. SALAMANDIUDJE . . 


. . 611 
.. 512 

. . 513 
.. 513 
513 




2. kelaartii Gthr. . . 


3. hololius, Gthr 




5. beddomii, Gthr 
6. latastii, Blgr 


7. viridis, Laur 
8. andersonii, Blgr 
9. olivaceus, Blanf. .... 
10. himalayanus, Gthr. . . 
11. microtympanum, Blgr. 
12. melanostictus, Schn. . . 
13. parietalis, Blgr 
14. biporcatus, Gravh 
15. asper, Gravh 


1. verrucosus, Anders. 
Order III. APOD A 


.. 514 
.. 515 


Fam. I. C./ECILIID^E 


.. 515 




515 


1. glutmosus (L.) 
2. monochrous (Blkr.) 
2. Urseotyphlus, Ptrs 
1. oxyurus (D. $ B.) 
2. malabaricus (Bedd.) 
3. Gegenophis, Ptrs 
1. carnosus (Bedd.) . . 


.. 515 
.. 517 
.. 517 
.. 517 
.. 518 
.. 518 
.. 518 




1. sikkimensis (BlytK) . . 
Fam. V. HYLIDJE 


1. Hyla, Laur 
1. annectens (Jerd.) .... 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS QUOTED IN 
THE SYNONYMY. 



A. M. N. H. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London, 1838-1889. 

Anders. An. Zool. Res. Anatomical and Zoological Eesearches, comprising 
an Account of the Zoological Results of the two Expeditions to Western 
Yunnan in 1868 and 1875. By John Anderson. London, 1879. 

Blanf. E. Pers. Eastern Persia, an Account of the Journeys of the Persian 
Boundary Commission, 1870-71-72. Vol. II. The Zoology and Geology. 
By W. T. Blanford. London, 1876. 

Bouleng. Cat. Batr. Grad. Sec. Catalogue of the Batrachia Gradientia 
s. Caudata and Batrachia Apoda in the Collection of the British Museum. 
2nd Edition. By G. A. Boulenger. London, 1882. 

Bouleng. Cat. Batr. Sal. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientias. Ecaudata 
in the Collection of the British Museum. 2nd Edition. By G. A. Boulenger. 
London, 1882. 

Bouleng. Cat.Chelon. &c. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, 
and Crocodiles in the British Museum. New Edition, by G. A. Boulenger. 
London, 1889. 

Bouleng. Cat. Liz. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. 2nd 
Edition, by G. A. Boulenger. 3 yols. London, 1885-1887. 

Daud. Kept. Histoire Naturelle des Reptiles. By F. M. Daudin. 8 vols. 
Paris, 1802-1803. 

Dum. So Bibr. Erp. Gen. Erpetologie Generate ou Histoire naturelle 
complete des Reptiles. By A. M. C. Dumeril et G. Bibron. 9 vols. 
Paris, 1834-1854. 

Fayrer, Thanatoph. The Thauatophidia of India, being a Description of 
the Venomous Snakes of the Indian Peninsula, with an account of the 
influence of their poison on life, and a series of experiments. 2nd Edition, 
by J. Fayrer. London, 1874. 

Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from 
the collection of Major-General Hardwicke. By J. E. Gray. 2 TO!S. 
London, 1830-1834. 

Gray, Cat. Liz. Catalogue of the Specimens of Lizards in the Collection of 

the British Museum. By J. E. Gray. London, 1845. 
Gray, Cat. Sh. Kept. i. Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in the Collection of 

the B ritish Museum. Part I. Testudinata. By J. E. Gray. London, 1855. 

Gray, Cat. Sh. Kept. i. Suppl. Supplement to the Catalogue of Shield 
Reptiles. Part I. Testudinata. By J. E. Gray. London, 1870. 

Gray, Cat. Sn. Catalogue of the Specimens of Snakes in the Collection of 
the British Museum. By J. E. Gray. London, 1849. 

6 



XV1U WORKS QUOTED. 

Gray, Cat. Tort. Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Amphis- 
banians in the Collection of the British Museum. By J. E. Gray. London, 
1844. 

Gunth. Cat. Batr. Sal. Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum. By A. Giinther. London, 1858. 

Gunth. Cat. Col. Sn. Catalogue of the Colubrine Snakes in the Collection 
of the British Museum. By A. Gimther. London, 1858. 

Gunth. R. B. I. The Reptiles of British India. By A. Giinther. London 

(Ray Society), 1864. 
J. A. S. B. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Calcutta, 1831-1889. 

Jan, Icon. Ophid. Iconographie G6nerale des Ophidiens. By G. Jan. 
Milan, 1860-1881. 

Kelaart, Prod. Prodromus Faunae Zeylanicse ; being Contributions to the 
Zoology of Ceylon. By E. F. Kelaart. Ceylon, 1852. 

Laur. 83711. Rept. Specimen medicum, exhibens Synopsin Reptilium emenda- 
tum. By J.N. Laurenti. Vienna, 1768. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. Systema Naturae. Ed. duodecima reformata. By C. 
A. Linne. Stockholm, 1776. 

MB. Ak. Berl. Monatsberichte der koniglich Preussischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Berlin, 1856-1881. 

Merr. Tent. Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum. By B. Merrem. Marburg, 
1820. 

Murray, Zool. Sind. The Vertebrate Zoology of Sind. By James A. 
Murray. London and Bombay, 1884. 

P. A. Si B. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta, 1865- 

1887. 

P. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London. 1830- 

1889. 
Russell, Ind Serp. An Account of Indian Serpents, collected on the Coast 

of Coromandel. By P. Russell. 2 vols. London, 1796-1801. 
Schleg. Phys. Serp. Essai sur la Physionomie des Serpens. By H. 

Schlegel. 2 vols. The Hague, 1837. 

Schneid. Hist. Amph. Historia Amphibiorum naturalis et literaria. By 
J. G. Schneider. Jena, 1799-1801. 

Theob. Cat. Descriptive Catalogue of the Reptiles of British India. By W. 
Theobald. Calcutta, 1876. 

Wagl. Syst. Amph. Natiirliches System der Amphibien. By J. Wagler 
Munich, 1830. 



REPTILIA. 



REPTILES may be briefly defined as cold-blooded Vertebrates 
breathing by lungs throughout their existence, and having the 
body covered with scales or scutes. A basioccipital bone is present 
in the skull, which articulates with the vertebral column by a single 
coudyle. 

The class Eeptilia is divided into a considerable number of 
Orders, which are, however, mostly extinct. Eecent Eeptiles 
belong to four Orders, viz. : 

I. EMYDOSAUEIA, Crocodiles. 
II. CHELONIA, Tortoises and Turtles. 

III. SQTJAMATA, Lizards and Snakes. 

IV. EH YNCHOCEPH ALIA, a primitive type, probably ances- 
tral to the three others, and of which a single existing representative 
is known, the Tuatera of New Zealand. 



Order I. EMYDOSAURIA. 

Quadrate bone immovably united to cranial arches ; two hori- 
zontal bony temporal arches. Cervical and dorsal ribs mostly 
two-headed, the middle dorsals articulating with the transverse 
processes of the neural arch. Sternum and tnterclavicle present ; 
seven or eight transverse series of " abdominal ribs," not connected 
with the vertebral ribs, each series composed of four ossicles, and 
forming an angle directed forwards. Teeth present in the jaws, 
implanted in alveoli. Ventricle of the heart divided by a complete 
septum. Pectoral and abdominal cavities separated from each 
other by a muscular diaphragm. Anal opening longitudinal. 
Copulatory organ present, single. 



CROCODILTDjE. 



Family I. CROCODILID^. 

Nares anterior ; choanse opening far back between the pterygoids, 
which, like the palatines and maxillaries, are produced into osseous 
plates joining on the median line of the. palate; orbit communi- 
cating with the infratemporal fossa. Vertebrae proccelous ; ribs 
with unciuate processes. No clavicles. Pubis excluded from 
acetabulum. Manus with five well-developed digits, pes with four. 
A dorsal armour of bony scutes. Ears with movable opercles. 




Fig. 
A. Side view. 

atig. Angular. 
dr. Articular. 
bo. Basioccipital. 
d. Dentary. 
co. Exoccipital. 
/. Frontal. 
j. Jugal. 
I Lachrymal. 



1. Skull of Crocodilus pahistris. 



B. Upper view. 
m. Maxillary. 
n. Nasal. 
p. Parietal. 
pi. Palatine. 
pm. Prsemaxillary. 
prf. Procfrontal. 
pt. Pterygoid. 



C. Lower view. 
ptf. Postfrontal. 
q. Quadrate. 
qj. Quadratojugal. 
s.ang. Supra-angular. 
so. Supraoccipital. 
sq. Squamosal. 
tp. Transpalatine. 



GAVIALIS. 3 

Tongue entirely attached to the floor of the mouth. Pupil 
vertical. Only the three inner digits clawed. 

The Crocodiles are at the same time the most highly organized 
and the largest of existing Eeptiles. They are thoroughly aquatic 
and carnivorous. Their eggs, which have a hard shell, are deposited 
on the banks of the water, in a hollow slightly covered up with 
sand. 

23 or 24 living species are known from Africa, Southern Asia to 
the Tang-tse-Kiang, North Australia, and the tropical and warm 
parts of America. In the fauna with which the present work 
deals, Crocodiles are represented by two genera, thus distin- 
guished : 

Snout extremely elongate ; 27 teeth or more on each 

side of upper jaw GAVIALIS, p. 3. 

Snout moderate; 17 to 19 teeth on each side of 

upper jaw CUOCODILTJS, p. 4. 

Genus GAVIALIS, 
Oppel, Ordn. Kept. p. 19, 1811. 

27 to 29 upper and 25 or 26 lower teeth on each side, anterior 
largest, laterals subequal, not received into interdental pits ; the 
first, second, and third mandibular teeth fitting into notches in the 
upper jaw. Snout extremely narrow and elongate, dilated at the 
end ; nasal bones comparatively short, widely separated from the 
prsmaxillaries ; nasal opening smaller than the supratemporal 
fossae ; lower anterior margin of orbit (jugal) raised. Mandibular 
symphysis extremely long, extending to the 23rd or 24th tooth, 
comprising the splenial bones. A dorsal shield formed of four 
longitudinal series of juxtaposed, keeled, bony scutes. 

A single species, only found in rivers. 

1. Gavialis gangeticus. 
Lacerta gangetica, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 1057. 
Gavialis gangeticus, Gilnth. Kept. B. 1. p. 63; Bouleng. Cat. Chd. 

$c. p. 275. 
Gharialis gangeticus, Theob. Cat. p. 37. 

Snout 3 (adult) to 5| times (young) as long as broad at the 
base. Nuchal and dorsal scutes forming a single continuous shield, 
composed of 21 or 22 transverse series ; an outer row of soft, 
smooth or feebly-keeled scutes in addition to the bony dorsal 
scutes ; two small postoccipital scutes. Median fingers one-third, 
outer toes two-thirds webbed. A strong crest on the outer edge of 
the forearm, leg, and foot. Adult dark olive above ; young pale 
olive, with dark brown spots or cross-bands. 

Hob. Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers and their larger 
tributaries ; also Mahanadi of Orissa, and Koladyne river, Arrakau, 
but not the Nerbudda, Tapti, Godiivari, Kistna, Irrawaddy, or other 
rivers of India or Burma. 

The Gharial reaches a length of 20 feet ; it feeds entirely upon 
fish, for seizing which its narrow jaws are specially adapted. 

B2 



CEOCODILID.E. 

Genus CROCODILUS, 
Laur. Syn. Kept. p. 63 (part.), 1768. 

17 to 19 upper and 15 lower teeth on each side ; fifth maxillary 
tooth largest ; the fourth mandibular usually fitting into a notch 
in the upper jaw. Snout more or less elongate ; nasal bones ex- 
tending to the nasal aperture, which is undivided and larger than 
the suprateinporal fossae. Splenial bones not entering the rnan- 
dibular symphysis, which does not extend beyond the eighth tooth. 
A dorsal shield formed of four or more longitudinal series of juxta- 
posed, keeled, bony scutes. 

Distribution. Africa, Southern Asia, North Australia, Tropical 
America. 

11 or 12 species appear to be well established. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Snout* 1| to 2 times as long as broad C. porosus, p. 4. 

Snout 1| to 1 times as long as broad C. palustris, p. 5. 

2. Crocodilus porosus. 

Crocodilus porosus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 159 ; Giinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 62 ; Theob. Cat. p. 36 ; Boukny. Cat. Chel. Sfc. p. 284. 
Oopholis pondicherianus, Gray, A. M. N. H. (3) x, 1862, p. 268. 
Crocodilus pondicerianus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 62, pi. vii ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 36. 

17 to 19 upper teeth on each side. Snout ] | to 2| times as long 
as broad at the base ; head rough, snout with a more or less strong 
ridge on each side in front of the eye, slightly converging towards 
its fellow ; mandibular symphysis extending to the fifth tooth ; 
praemaxillo-inaxillary suture, on the palate, directed backwards or 
\V-shaped ; nasal bones separating the prsemaxiUaries above. Four 
large nuchal scutes forming a square, with one or two smaller ones 
on each side ; postoccipital scutes usually absent, sometimes small 
and irregular. Dorsal shield well separated from the nuchal, the 
scutes forming 16 or 17 transverse and 4 to 8 longitudinal series ; 
scales on sides and limbs smooth or feebly keeled. Fingers webbed 
at the base ; outer toes extensively webbed. A serrated fringe on 
the outer edge of the leg. Adult dark olive above ; young pale 
olive, with large black spots on the body and tail and dots on the 
head. 

Hob. Bengal, East coast of India, Ceylon, Burma, and Southern 
China to North Australia and the Solomon and Fiji Islands. 
Entering salt water and frequently occurring out at sea. Not 
recorded from West coast of India. It is not certain that this 
species is found far above the tideway in rivers. 

A specimen 33 feet long is on record. 

* The snout is the portion of the head in front of the orbits. 



CROCOUILUS. 5 

3. Crocodilus palustris. 

Crocodilus palustris, Lesson in B6lang. Voy. 2nd. Or., Zool. p. 305 ; 

Kelaart, Prodr. p. 183 ; Giinth. Sept. B. I. p. 61, pi. viii, fig. A ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 36 ; Bouleny. Cat. Chel. Sfc. p. 285. 
Crocodilus trigonops, Gray, Cat. Tort. 8fC. p. 62. 

19 upper teeth on each side. Snout 1^ to 1^ as long as broad 
at the base ; head rough but without any ridges ; mandibular 
synaphysis extending to the level of the fourth or fifth tooth ;, pree- 
maxillo-uiaxillary suture, on the palate, transverse, nearly straight, 
or curved forwards ; nasal bones separating the praemaxillaries 
above. Four large nuchals forming a square, with a smaller one 
on each side ; two pairs of smaller nuchals on a transverse series 
behind the occiput. Dorsal shield well separated from the nuchal, 
the scutes usually in 4, rarely in 6, longitudinal series, those of 
the two median usually considerably broader than long ; 16 or 17 
transverse series. Scales on limbs keeled. Fingers webbed at the 
base ; outer toes extensively webbed. A serrated fringe on the 
outer edge of the leg. Adult blackish olive above: young pale 
olive, dotted and spotted with black. 

The largest specimen in the British Museum measures 12 feet, 
but individuals are said to grow much larger. 

Hub. India, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 
This is the common Crocodile of India, found in rivers, marshes, 
and ponds, and extending west to Sind and Baluchistan. 

This species is easily distinguished from C. porosus by its 
shorter snout and by the presence of five teeth in each pra?- 
maxillary bone, whilst the adult of the latter has but four. 



Order II. CHELONIA. 

Quadrate bone immovably united to cranial arches. Dorsal ribs 
single-headed, the anterior attached between two vertebrae. Body 
encased in a bony shell. A plastron formed of a small number of 
elements in addition to the clavicles. No sternum. No teeth ; 
jaws covered with horny sheaths. Anal opening round or 
longitudinal. Copulatory organ present, single. 

Oviparous ; eggs with a hard shell, except in the CTielonidce. 

The Tortoises and Turtles of India fall into five Families*. 

Suborder I. THECOPHORA. 

Dorsal vertebrae and ribs immovably united and expanded into 
bony plates forming a carapace. Parietals prolonged downwards 
towards the pterygoids. 

Superfam. A. TEIONYCHOIDEA. 

Articulation between the last cervical and the first dorsal 
vertebra by the zygapophyses only. Marginal bones absent or 
forming an incomplete series. 

Carapace and plastron without epidermal shields, 

covered with a soft skin Fam. 1. Trionychidae. 

"Superfam. B. CETPTODIEA. 

Centrum of the last cervical vertebra articulating with the 
centrum of the first dorsal. A complete series of marginal bones, 
connected with the ribs. 

Digits short ; tail short, with precocious ver- 
tebrae Fam. 2. Testudinidae. 

Digits short ; tail long ; caudal vertebras mostly 

opisthocoalous Fam. 3. Platysternidae. 

Limbs paddle-shaped, with only one or two claws. 

Marine . Fam. 4. Chelonidae. 



Suborder II. ATHECM. 

Vertebras and ribs free, separated from a bony exoskeleton. 
Skull without descending processes of the parietal bones. 
Limbs paddle-shaped, clawless. Marine Fam. 5. Sphargidae. 

* These five families, so far as Indian genera are concerned, may be recog- 
nized from external characters by use of the following key: 
Limbs with four or five claws. 

Tail short Testudinidae. 

Tail nearly as long as the shell Platysternidae. 

Limbs with three claws Trionychidae. 

Limbs with one or two claws Chelonidae. 

Limbs without claws , Sphargidae. 



CHELOXIA. 



For the illustration of the osteological characters employed in 
the systematic arrangement, the following figures are appended of 
a skull, and of a shell stripped of the horny epidermal shields. 



A. 




Fig. 2. Skull of Trionyx yangeticus. 

A. Side view. B. Upper view. C. Lower view. 

ar. Articular. j. Jugal. pt. Pterygoid. 

bo. Basiocoipital. m. Maxillary. ptf. Postfrontal. 

bp. Basiphenoid. opo. Opisthotic. q. Quadrate. 

c.a. Columella auris. p. Parietal. qj. Quadratojugal. 

cor. Coronoid. pi. Palatine. s.ang. Supra-angular. 

d. Dentary. pm. Prfemaxillary. so. Supraoccipital. 

eo. Exoccipital. prf. Praefrontal. sq. Squamosal. 

/. Frontal. pro. Prootic. v. Vouier. 



8 CHELONIA. 

The arrangement of the bones or plates of the shell, as shown in 
fig. 3, differs entirely from that of the overlying shields, both in 
the upper shell (carapace) and lower (plastron) ; but the impres- 
sions of the shields are nearly always distinct, as represented in 
figures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14. In these figures crosses are inserted 
to indicate the position of the anterior (axillary) and posterior 
(inguinal) processes or buttresses of the plastron, which, if present, 
anchylose with the lower surface of the carapace. Figure 4 refers 
to the terminology of the epidermal shields. 





Fig. 3. Shell of Morenia ocellata, showing bony plates. 

A. Carapace. B. Plastron. 

co. Costal. typp. Hypoplastron. nu. Nuchal. 

enp. Entoplastron. m. Marginal. py. Pygal. 

epp. Epiplastron. ne. Neural. xyp. Xiphip 

hyop. Hyoplastron. 



xyp. Xiphiplastron. 



The investigation of the bony plates presents no great difficulty, 
and need not cause the slightest damage to the specimen, whether 
dry or preserved in spirit ; for the removal of one or two epidermal 
shields with a penknife requires but a little care, and after the 
examination the horny shields may be stuck on again with gum 
which is not soluble in alcohol. There is much greater variety, 
apart from individual variations, in the disposition of the bony 
plates than in that of the overlying shields, and much greater 
profit is to be derived from the study of the former in determining 
the relationship of genera of Tortoises. 



TBIONYCHIDJE. 



The connexion between the carapace and plastron is called the 
bridge. 




Fig. 4. Shell of Chelone mydas, with epidermal homy shields. 

A. Carapace B. Plastrou. 

a. Abdominal. h. Humeral. n. Nuchal. 

an. Anal. iff. Intergular. p. Pectoral. 

o. Costal. im. Inframarginal. sc. Supracaudal. 

/. Femoral. m. Marginal. v. Vertebral. 

g. Gular. 
The anterior inframarginal is also termed axillary, and the posterior inguinal. 

Suborder I. THECOPHOEA. 

Superfam. A. TRIONYCHOIDEA. 

Neck bending by a sigmoid curve in a vertical plane ; cervical 
vertebrae without welt-developed transverse processes ; articulation 
between the last cervical and the first dorsal vertebra by the zyga- 
pophyses only. Mandible with articulary concavity ; outer border 
of tympanic cavity notched ; pterygoids not narrowed posteriorly, 
separated from each other, the basisphenoid joining the palatines. 
Pelvis not anchylosed to the carapace and plastron. Fourth digit 
with four or more phalanges. Epiplastra separated from the 
hyoplastra by the A-shaped entoplastron. Marginal bones absent 
or forming an incomplete series, not connected with the ribs. 



Family I. TRIONYCHIOE. 

Carapace and plastron without epidermal shields, covered with a 
soft skin. Jaws concealed under fleshy lips ; snout ending in a 
proboscis. Head and neck completely retractile. Ear hidden. 
Only the three inner digits clawed. Tail very short. 



10 

Distribution. Kivers of Asia, Africa, and North America. Of 
the six known genera, four are represented in the Indian Region. 

The Trionychoids are thoroughly aquatic Turtles, living chiefly 
in rivers ; Pelochelys even enters the sea. Specimens of Emyda, 
however, are occasionally found at some distance from water, 
according to the observations of Kelaart and Blanford. All are 
carnivorous, and their ferocious habits, together with the extreme 
rapidity with which they project their necks, render the larger indi- 
viduals dangerous to men bathing. Of no commercial value. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

A. Plastron without cutaneous valves ; hyoplastroii 

distinct from hypoplastron ; no marginal ossi- 
fications. 

a. Orbit nearer the temporal than the nasal fossa ; 

bony choanae between the orbits TBIONYX, p. 10. 

b. Orbit nearer the nasal than the temporal fossa ; 

bony choanae between the orbits PELOCHELYS, p. 15. 

c. Orbit nearer the nasal than the temporal fossa ; 

bony choanae behind the orbits CHITRA, p. 16. 

B. Plastron with a cutaneous femoral valve, 

under which the hind limb may be con- 
cealed ; hyoplastron coossified with hypo- 
plastron ; marginal bones present EMYDA, p. 10. 

Genus TRIONYX, 
Geoftr. Ann. Mus. xiv, 1809, p. 1 (part.). 

Outer extremities of the nuchal plate overlying the second 
dorsal rib ; neural plates well developed. Limbs completely 
exposed. Hyoplastron distinct from hypoplastron ; not more 
than live plastral callosities. Bony choanse between the orbits ; jaws 
strong; postorbital arch narrower than the diameter of the orbit ; 
posterior border of pterygoids free, without ascending process. 

Distribution. Africa, Asia, North America. 

15 species are recognized, 7 of which are found in India and 
its dependencies. The dimensions given are those of specimens in 
the British Museum : individuals may be found considerably larger, 
some attaining probably 5 feet in length of carapace. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. All the costal plates separated on the median 

line by the neural plates ; head very large . T. subplanus, p. 11. 

B. Last pair of costal plates in contact on the 

median line. 

a. Two neural plates between the first pair 
of costals; alveolar surface of lower jaw 
without a strong longitudinal ridge at the 
symphysis. 



TRIONYX. 11 

a'. Inner edge of alveolar surface of mandible 
strongly raised, forming a sharp ridge, 
which sends off a short perpendicular 
process at the symphysis ; interorbital 
space, in the adult skull, narrower than 
the external nasal opening ; head with 
oblique black lines, converging for- 
wards ; no ocellar spots T. yangcticus, p. 12. 

I'. Inner edge of alveolar surface of mandible 
not or but very slightly raised, sym- 
physis flat or with a longitudinal furrow ; 
interorbital space narrower than the 
external nasal opening; head with 
oblique black lines, converging for- 
wards ; young with small ocellar dorsal 
spots T. leithii, p. 12. 

c'. Inner edge of alveolar surface of mandible 
not or but very slightly raised, sym- 
physis flat or with a longitudinal fur- 
row ; interorbital space, in the adult 
skull, broader than the external nasal 
opening; head black-marbled, with a 
large yellow spot behind each eye; 
young with large ocellar dorsal spots . . T. hurum, p. 13. 
b. A siiigle neural plate between the first pair 
of costals; alveolar surface of lower jaw 
with a strong longitudinal symphysial 
ridge. 

a'. Epiplastra widely separated from each 
other; plastral callosities well deve- 
loped and largely pitted T.formosus, p. 14. 

b'. Epiplastra in contact in front of the ento- 
plastron ; plastral callosities very feebly 
developed, finely sculptured T. phayrii, p. 14. 

c'. Epiplastra in contact in front of the ento- 
plastron ; plastral callosities well deve- 
loped and largely pitted T. cartilagineits^, 15. 

4. Trionyx suhplanus. 

Trionyx subplanus, Geoffr. Ann. Mus. xiv, 1809, p. 11, pi. v, fig. 2 ; 

Qiinth. Kept. B. I. p. 49 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 246. 
Dogania giintheri, Gray, P. Z. S. 1802, p. 265. 
Trionyx giintheri, Gilnth. Rept. B. 1. p. 49, pi. vi, fig. A. 

Carapace very flat ; costal plates eight pairs, the last well deve- 
loped and separated by the last neural plate ; a single neural 
between the first pair of costals ; these plates very finely granulate 
and vermiculate ; a large fontanelle, till late in life, between the 
nuchal and dorsal plates. Epiplastra narrowly separated from 
each other in front of the entoplastron, which forms an obtuse or 
a right angle ; plastral rugosities scarcely developed, on the hyo- 
and hypoplastra and on the xiphiplastra. Dorsal skin of young 
with interrupted longitudinal ridges. Head very large ; snout (on 
the skull) about as long as the diameter of the orbit, which is more 
than double the interorbital width; postorbital arch extremely 



12 TRIONYCHID.E. 

narrow, forming a keel on its outer surface; mandibular symphysis 
shorter than the diameter of the orbit, without median ridge. 
Brown above, yellowish beneath and on the sides of the neck ; 
head and neck with yellowish dots ; some young with an oblique 
dark streak behind each eye. 

Length of dorsal disk 10 inches. 

Hob. Mergui, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Java. 

5. Trionyx gangeticus. 

Trionyx gangeticus, Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v, pt. 2, pp. 186. 222. pi. xi, 

figs. 5-8; Bouleng. Cat. CM. $c. p. 248. 
Trionyx javanicus (non Geoff")-.), Gray, IN. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixv ; 

Ounth. Kept. B. I. p. 48. 

Aspilus gataghol, Gray, A. M. N. H. (4) x, 1872, p. 339. 
Trionyx gangeticus, part., Theob. Cat. p. 28. 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed and in contact 
throughout on the median line; two neurals between the first 
pair of costals ; plates coarsely pitted and vermiculate. Epiplastra 
narrowly separated from each other in front of the entoplastron, 
which forms an obtuse or a right angle ; plastral callosities very 
large, hyo-hypoplastral, xi phi pi astral, and, in old specimens, ento- 
plastral. Dorsal skin of young with longitudinal ridges of small 
tubercles. Head moderate ; snout (on the skull) about as long as 
the diameter of the orbit ; interorbital region, in the adult, con- 
siderably narrower than the nasal fossa ; postorbital arch one third 
to one half the greatest diameter of the orbit ; mandible with the 
inner edge strongly raised, forming a sharp ridge, which sends off 
a short perpendicular process at the symphysis ; the diameter of 
the mandible at the symphysis does not exceed the diameter of the 
orbit. Olive above ; back of young vermiculated with fine black 
lines, but without ocelli ; head with a black longitudinal streak 
from between the eyes to the nape, intersected by two or three 
A- shaped black streaks ; lower parts yellowish. 

Length of dorsal disk 2 feet. 

Hab. Gangetic river-system ; Indus ? 

6. Trionyx leithii. 

Trionyx leithii, Gray, A. M. N. H. (4) x, 1872, p. 334 ; Bouleng. 

Cat. Chel. 8fc. p. 249. 
? Trionyx gangeticus, Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 342. 

Intermediate between T. gangetiats and T. Tiurvm. Agrees with 
the former in the width of the interorbital space, the comparatively 
short mandibular symphysis, and the markings of the head ; with 
the latter in the longer and more pointed snout, the absence of a 
strong ridge on the inner alveolar surface of the mandible, and in 
the presence, in the young, of four or more dorsal ocelli, which are, 
however, smaller than in T. hurum. 

Hab. Kistna River, Deccan, and Nelambar Eiver, Malabar. 

This will probably prove to be a Peninsular form, ranging from 
the Indus to Madras and Malabar. 



TK1ONYX. 



13 



7. Trionyx hurum. 



Trionyx hurum, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 47, pi. x ; id. III. Ind. Zool. ii, 

pi. Ixvi ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. Sfc. p. 249. 
Tnonyx ocellatus, Gray. III. Ind. Zool. i. pi. Ixxviii : Theob. P. A. S. 

B. 1875, p. 174, pi. iv ; id. Cat. p. 29. 
Trionyx gangeticus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 47. 
Trionyx buchanani, Theob. P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 78. 
Trionyx gangeticus, part., Theob. Cat. p. 28. 







Fig. 5. Trionyx hurum (young). 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed and in contact 
throughout on the median line; two iieurals between the first 
pair of costals ; plates coarsely pitted and vermiculate. Epiplastra 
narrowly separated from each other in front of the eutoplastron, 
which forms an obtuse or a right angle ; plastral callosities very 
large, hyo-hypoplastral, xiphiplastral, and in old specimens ento- 
plastral. Dorsal skin of young with longitudinal ridges of small 
tubercles. Head moderate ; snout (on the skull) a little longer 
than the diameter of the orbit ; iuterorbital region, in the adult, as 
broad as the nasal fossa; postorbital arch somewhat more than 
half the diameter of the orbit in the adult ; inaudible without 
strongly raised inner edge or longitudinal symphysial ridge ; the 
diameter of the mandible at the symphysis exceeds the diameter of 
the orbit. Olive-brown above and beuealh ; head, neck, limbs, and 



14 TBIONYCHIDjE. 

border of shell light-dotted ; head with large yellow spots, viz. 
across the snout, behind the orbit, at the angle of the mouth, 
on the tympanic region, and on the chin ; these spots become 
indistinct in the adult, the head of which is more or less closely 
spotted or vermiculated with black ; dorsal disk in the young with 
dark marblings and four or six very large ocelli. 

Length of dorsal disk 16 inches. 

Hob. Ganges and its tributaries. 

8. Trionyx formosus. 

Trionyx formosus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 217, pi. xv, fig. 1 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 31 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. Sfc. p. 250. 

Trionyx peguensis, Gray, Suppl.Cat. Sh.Rept. \, p. 99 ; Theob. Cat. p.31. 
Trionyx grayii, Theob. P. A. S. B. 1875, p. 176, pi. iii ; id. Cat. p. 31. 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed and in contact 
throughout on the median line ; a single neural between the first 
pair of costals ; plates coarsely pitted and vermiculate. Dorsal 
skin of young with longitudinal ridges of small tubercles. Epi- 
plastra separated from each other ; entoplastron forming an obtuse 
or right angle ; plastral callosities well developed, hyo-hypoplastral 
and xiphiplastral, and coarsely sculptured like the carapace. Head 
moderate : snout (on the skull) about as long as the diameter of 
the orbit ; interorbital region, in the adult, as broad as the nasal 
fossa ; postorbital arch, in the adult, a little less than half the 
diameter of the orbit ; mandible with a strong ridge along the 
symphysis, the diameter of which equals or a little exceeds that 
of the orbit. Olive-brown above, white below ; head of young 
ornamented with yellow black-edged markings, the largest being 
a cross-band on each side of the back of the head ; these markings 
disappear in the adult, the head of which is closely spotted with 
black above and uniform white inferiorly ; young with four large 
dorsal ocelli, as in T. hurum. 

Size of T. hurum. 

Hab. Irrawaddy, Sittoung, and Salween rivers, Burma. 

9. Trionyx phayrii. 

Trionyx phayrei, Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x. 1868, p. 18 ; id. Cat. 

p. 30; Bouleng. Cat. CM. #e. p. 251. 
Trionyx jeudi, Gray, P. Z. 8. 189, p. 217, figs. 
Trionyx cariniferus (non Gray), Theob. P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 80, pi. iv. 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed, with slightly 
concave posterior border, and in contact on the median line ; a 
single neural between the first pair of costals ; plates rather 
coarsely pitted and vermiculate. Epiplastra in contact in front of 
the entoplastron, which forms an obtuse or right angle ; plastral 
callosities hardly developed, the hyoplastra bearing a mere trace of 
sculpture. Head moderate; skull as in T. formosus, but snout a 
little longer in the adult. Head of adult spotted or vermiculated 
with black above and uniform whitish inferiorly, as in T. formosus. 

Length of dorsal disk 20 inches. 

Hab. Pegu, Arrakan range, Tenasserim and Sumatra. 



PELOOHELYS. 15 

10. Trionyx cartilagineus. 

Testudo cartilaginea, Boddaert, Epistola ad W. Roell, 1770. 
Trionyx ornatus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 41. pi. v ; Gilnth. Kept. B. I. 

p. 48, pi. vi, fig. B. 
Trionyx stellatus, var. javanicus (Geofr.), Theob. P. A. S. B. 1874, 

p. 79, pi. iii ; id. Cat. p. 30. 

Trionyx ephippium, Theob. P. A. S. B. 1875, p. 177, pi. v. 
Trionyx cartilagineus, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. fyc. p. 253. 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed and forming a 
median suture behind the last neural ; a single neural between the 
first pair of costals ; dorsal plates coarsely pitted and vermiculate. 
Dorsal skin of young with longitudinal ridges of small tubercles. 
Epiplastra in contact, or narrowly separated, in front of the 
entoplastron, which forms an obtuse or a right angle ; plastral 
callosities well developed in the adult, hyo-hypoplastral and 
xiphiplastral, and coarsely sculptured like the carapace. Head 
moderate ; snout (on the skull) considerably longer than the 
diameter of the orbit ; iuterorbitai region, in the adult, as broad as 
the nasal fossa, or a little narrower ; postorbital arch very narrow, 
one third or one fourth the diameter of the orbit ; mandible with 
a strong ridge along the symphysis, the diameter of which equals 
or exceeds the diameter of the orbit. Olive-brown above and on 
the chin ; head and chin with numerous yellow spots, the largest 
of which are below the temple ; dorsal disk of young light-dotted, 
and usually with a few large blackish spots ; lower parts white. 

Size of T. hurum. 

Hob. Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam, Camboja, Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Borneo, Java. 

Genus PELOCHELYS, 

Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 89. 

Outer extremities of the nuchal plate overlying the second 
dorsal rib ; neural plates well developed. Limbs completely 
exposed. Hyoplastron distinct from hypoplastron ; not- more 
than five plastral callosities. Bony choanso between the orbits ; 
jaws weak ; postorbital arch as broad as the diameter of the orbit ; 
posterior border of pterygoids free, without ascending process. 

A single species. 

11. Pelochelys cantoris. 

Chitra indica, part., Gray, Cat. Tort. p. 49 ; Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 50, 

pi. vi. fig. C. 

Gymnopus indicus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 616. 
Pelochelys cantorii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 90, figs. ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 28 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. 8fe. p. 26S. 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed and forming a 
median suture ; a single neural between the first pair of costals ; 
plates coarsely pitted and vermiculate. Dorsal skin of young 



16 TRIONYCHIDjE. 

tuberculate. Epiplastra small and widely separated ; entoplastron 
forming a right or an acute angle; plastral callosities largely 
developed. Head moderate; snout very short and broad; pro- 
boscis very short ; interorbital space broader than the greatest 
diameter of the orbit ; mandible narrowest at the symphysis. 
Olive above, uniform or spotted with darker ; lips and throat of 
young olive, speckled with whitish ; plastron whitish. 

Length of dorsal disk 2 feet. 

Hob. Ganges, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines. 

Genus CHITRA, 
Gray, Cat. Tort. p. 49, 1844. 

Outer extremities of the nuchal plate overlying the second 
dorsal rib ; neural plates well developed. Limbs completely 
exposed. Hyoplastron distinct from hypoplastrou ; not more 
than five plastral callosities. Bony choanse behind the orbits, 
which are situated quite at the anterior extremity of the skull ; 
jaws weak ; postorbital arch at least twice as broad as the diameter 
of the orbit ; posterior border of pterygoids free, without ascending 
process. 

A single species. 

12. Chitra indica. 

Trionyx indicus, Gray, Syn. Kept. p. 47. 

Trionyx aegyptianus, var. indicus, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxx. 
Chitra indica, part., Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 50. 

Chitra indica, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 91, figs. ; Theob. Cat. p. 27 ; 
Bouleng. Cat. Chel Sfc. p. 264. 

Costal plates eight pairs, the last well developed and forming a 
median suture ; a single neural between the first pair of costals ; 
plates coarsely pitted and vermiculate. Epiplastra widely sepa- 
rated ; entoplastron forming an acute angle ; plastral callosities 
largely developed. Head small, with extremely short snout ; 
interorbital space considerably narrower than the greatest diameter 
of the orbit. Olive or green above, whitish interiorly ; dorsal disk 
oE young with dark vermiculations ; head and neck with dark 
longitudinal lines. 

Length of dorsal disk 2 feet. 

Htib. Ganges and Irrawaddy ; Indus ? 



Genus EMYDA, 
Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 49, 1831. 

Nuchal notched at each outer end, which underlies the first 
costal plate ; carapace large, with a series of bony plates in the 
posterior cutaneous border and a pranuchal marginal bony plate ; 
neural plates well developed, seven or eight in number, forming a 



EMTDA. 17 

continuous series ; eighth pair of costals large in the adult, and, 
like the penultimate, forming a median suture. Plastron with a 
cutaneous femoral valve, under which the hind limb may be con- 
cealed ; hyoplastron coossified with hypoplastron ; seven plastral 
callosities (in the adult). Bony choanae between the orbits ; jaws 
strong ; postorbital arch moderate, much narrower than the dia- 
meter of the orbit ; posterior border of pterygoids with a median 
ascending process forming a suture with the opisthotic. 

Three species are distinguished, all being Indian or Burmese. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

Head with yellow spots ; entoplastral callosity small. E. granosa, p. 17. 
Head without yellow spots ; first marginal plate much 

larger than second E. vittata, p. 17. 

Head without yellow spots ; first marginal plate not 

larger than second E. scutata, p. 18. 

13. Emyda granosa. 

Testudo granosa, Schoepff, Test. p. 127, pi. xxx, A & B. 

Trionyx granosa and T. punctata, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pis. Ixiii, 

Ixiv. 
Emyda granosa, Giinth. Sept. B. I. p. 45 ; Theob. Cat. p. 32 ; 

Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 269. 
Eniyda dura, Anders. Journ. Linn. Soc. xii, 1876, p. 514. 

Carapace and plastral callosities finely and uniformly granulate ; 
two neural plates between the first pair of costals ; anterior marginal 
very large, much larger than the others; seven plastral callosities, 
of which the entoplastral is much the smallest ; the extent of these 
callosities varies considerably, not only with age, but according 
to individuals. Head moderate ; snout short. Skin of dorsal disk, 
in the young, longitudinally plaited. Olive-brown above, with 
round yellow spots on the head and back, which become less distinct 
in adult specimens; plastron and margin of carapace yellowish 
white. 

Length of dorsal disk 10 inches. 

Hub. Indus and Ganges plains, in rivers, canals, &c. 

14. Emyda vittata. 

Emyda punctata (non Gray), Kelaart, Prodr. p. 179. 

Emyda vittata, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl 1854, p. 216 ; Giinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 46 ; Theob. Cat. p. 32 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. c. p. 269. 
Emyda ceylonensis, Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 64, pi. xxix A ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 45. 

Under this name may be provisionally grouped such specimens 
as agree with E. granosa except in the uniform brown colour of 
the upper parts (with or without darker bands on the head and 
neck), and usually in the larger entoplastral and xiphiplastral 
callosities. The constancy of these characters and the correlation 



18 

between thorn, however, still require to be tested upon a larger 
number of specimens. 

Hab. Ceylon ; Southern India ; Grodavari, Mahiinadi, and their 
tributaries. 

15. Emyda scutata. 

Emyda scutata, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1808, p. 449 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 32 ; Boukng. Cat. Chel $c. p. 270. 
Emyda fusconiaculata, Gray, A.M.N. H. (4) xi, 1873, p. 308. 

Very closely allied to E. yranosa and E. vittata, but anterior 
marginals less enlarged, less unequal in size, the first not larger 
than the second. Entoplastral callosity large or moderate. Brown 
above, carapace spotted or reticulated with darker. 

Hab. Irrawaddy. 

Superfam. B. CRYPTODIRA. 

Neck bending by a sigmoid curve in a vertical plane ; cervical 
vertebrae without transverse processes or with mere indications of 
them ; centrum of the last cervical articulating with the centrum 
of the first dorsal. Mandible with articulary concavities ; outer 
border of tympanic cavity incompletely bony ; pterygoids narrow 
in the middle, in contact on the median line. Pelvis not anchy- 
losed to the carapace and plastron. Digits with not more than 
three phalanges. Epiplastra in contact with hyoplastra ; ento- 
plastron, if present, oval, rhomboidal, or T-shaped. A complete 
series of marginal bones, connected with the ribs. 



Family II. TESTUDINID^E. 

Shell covered with epidermal shields. Caudal vertebra) pro- 
coelous. Neck completely retractile within the shell. Parietal 
bones widely separated from squamosals. Digits short or mo- 
derately elongate ; phalanges with condyles ; claws four or five. 

This family, which contains the bulk of recent Chelouians, is 
distributed over every part of the world except Australia. Ten 
genera are represented in the Indian Eegion. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

A. Limbs club-shaped ; alveolar surface of upper jaw 

with a median ridge TESTUDO, p. 19. 

B. Digits distinct, with at least a rudiment of 

web ; alveolar surface of upper jaw without 
median ridge. 

a. Head covered with undivided skin. 

a'. Plastron not hinged ; no bony temporal arch. GEOEMYDA, p. 23. 
V. Plastron not hinged ; a bony temporal arch. NICOEIA, p. 26. 
c'. Plastron hinged, movable ; a bony temporal 

arch CYCLEHYS, p. 28. 



TESTUDO. 19 

b. Hinder part of head covered with small 
shields. 

a'. Choanae between the eyes BELLIA, p. 32. 

V. Choanae behind the level of the eyes .... DAMONIA, p. 34. 
C. Digits distinct, extensively or entirely webbed ; 
alveolar surface of upper jaw with one or two 
median ridges. 
a. Fourth vertebral shield not longer than third, 

embracing three neural bones. 
a'. Axillary and inguinal buttresses of plastron 
short; choanse behind the level of the 

eyes MOBENIA, p. 35. 

b'. Axillary and inguinal buttresses much de- 
veloped, the former connected with the 
first rib or nearly reaching it. 
a". Choanee behind the level of the eyes ; al- 
veolar surface of upper jaw with a single 

median ridge HARDELLA, p. 36. 

b". Choana? behind the level of the eyes ; 
alveolar surface of upper jaw with two 
median ridges; fore limb with four 

claws only BATAGUR, p. 37. 

b. Fourth vertebral shield elongate, embracing 

four or five neural bones KACHUGA, p. 38. 



Genus TESTUDO, 
Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 350 (part.), 1766. 

Neural plates usually alternately tetragonal and octagonal ; costal 
plates alternately narrower and wider. Suture between the mar- 
ginal and costal bones and shields usually corresponding ; supra- 
caudal shield usually single. Plastron extensively united to the 
carapace by suture, with short axillary and inguinal buttresses, 
which do not reach, or just reach, the costal plates ; entoplastrou 
usually anterior to the humero-pectoral suture. Skull with weak 
or moderately wide postorbital and temporal arches ; alveolar surface 
of upper jaw with one or two median ridges ; choanae between the 
eyes. Head shielded above. Limbs club-shaped, covered with 
large scales or tubercles. Tail short. 

This genus, of which some 40 species are known, is represented 
in every part of the world except Australia. Habits terrestrial and 
herbivorous. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A . Supracaudal shield single. 

a. Nuchal shield present ; forehead with large 

shields. 
a'. Anal shields forming a very short suture, 

or entirely separated by the anal notch. . T. elongata, p. 20. 
b'. Suture between the anals at least as long as 

that between the abdominals T. leithii, p. 20. 

C2 



20 



TESTUDINID^. 



b. No nuchal; forehead with small irregular 

shields. 

'. Heel and hinder side of thighs with spur- 
like tubercles ; plastron with dark radia- 
ting lines T. eleyans, p. 21 . 

b'. Heel and hinder side of thighs without 
spur-like tubercles ; plastron without ra- 
diating lines T. platynota, p. 22. 

B. Supracaudal shields two T. emys, p. 22. 



16. Testudo elongata. 

Testudo elongata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 639 ; Guntli. Rept. 
B. /. p. 8 ; Theob. Cat. p. 3 ; Boukny. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 173. 

Shell considerably depressed, more than twice as long as deep, 
with flat vertebral region ; anterior and posterior margins slightly 
reverted, strongly serrated in young, feebly in old specimens ; shields 
concentrically striated, except in old specimens ; nuchal present 
(rarely absent), narrow and elongate ; supracaudal undivided, more 
or less incurved ; first vertebral usually nearly as long as broad in 
the adult, the others broader than long and nearly as broad as the 
costals. Plastron large, truncate anteriorly, deeply notched poste- 
riorly; suture between the pectoral shields as long as or longer than 
that between the humerals : suture between the gulars as long as or 
a little shorter than that between the pectorals ; anals forming a very 
short suture, or entirely separated by the anal notch ; axillary and 
inguinal moderate. Head moderate; a pair of large pnefrontal 
shields, usually followed by a nearly equally large frontal ; beak 
feebly hooked, tricuspid ; alveolar ridge of upper jaw short and 
rather feeble. Anterior face of fore limbs with moderate, unequal- 
sized, imbricate scales, which are largest towards the outer side ; no 
enlarged tubercles on the thighs ; tail ending in a claw-like horny 
tubercle. Carapace and plastron greenish yellow, each shield with 
an irregular black spot or blotch, which may occupy its greater 
portion, or may be much broken up or indistinct. 

Length of shell 10| inches. 

Hab. Bengal (Chaibassa), Assam, the whole of Burma, Camboja, 
Cochin China. 



17. Testudo leithii. 

Testudo leithii, Giittth. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 602, figs. ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 3 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. tips. p. 175. 

Shell very convex, not twice as long as deep, deeply notched 
anteriorly ; nuchal shield triangular ; posterior border of supra- 
caudal forming an angle, projecting beyond the marginals ; second 
vertebral shield longest ; shields concentrically striated. Plastron 
large, hind lobe notched behind and movable in the adult ; suture 
between the pectoral shields a little shorter than that between the 
humerals ; suture between the anals longer than that between the 



TESTTJDO. 21 

feniorals ; axillary and inguinal moderate. Head moderate ; a 
pair of large praefrontal shields, followed by a very large frontal ; 
beak scarcely hooked ; alveolar ridge of upper jaw short and feeble. 
Anterior face of fore limb covered with a few extremely large im- 
bricate bony scutes disposed in three longitudinal and five trans- 
verse series. Carapace yellow, each shield bordered anteriorly and 
laterally with blackish brown; plastron yellow, each abdominal 
shield with a dark brown triangular or cuneiform marking. 

Length of shell 5 inches. 

Hcib. Lower Egypt and the neighbouring part of Syria. The 
single specimen upon which the species was founded was said to 
be from Sind, where, however, this tortoise does not appear to have 
been rediscovered during the last twenty years. 

18. Testudo elegans. 

Testudo elegans, Schoepff, Test. p. Ill, pi. xxv; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

p. 4 ; Theob. Cat. p. 2 ; Bouhnq. Cat. Chel. tyc. p. 161. 
Testudo megalopus, Myth, J. A. 8. B. xxii, 1853, p. 640. 




Fig. 6. Testudo elegans. 

Carapace very convex, dorsal shields often forming humps ; lateral 
margins nearly vertical ; posterior margin somewhat expanded and 
strongly serrated; no nuchal ; supracaudal undivided, incurved in the 
male ; shields strongly striated concentrically ; first vertebral longer 
than broad, the others broader than long, third at least as broad 
as the corresponding costal. Plastron large, truncate'd or openly 
notched in front, deeply notched, bifid behind ; suture between the 
humerals much longer than that between the femorals ; suture be- 
tween the pectorals very short : axillary and inguinal rather small. 
Head moderate ; forehead swollen, convex, and covered with 
rather small and irregular shields ; beak feebly hooked, bi- or 



22 TESTUDINID.E. 

tricuspid; edge of jaws denticulated; alveolar ridge of upper 
jaw strong. Outer-anterior face of fore limb with numerous un- 
equal-sized, large, imbricate, bony, pointed tubercles ; heel with large, 
more or less spur-like tubercles ; a group of large conical or sub- 
conical tubercles on the hinder side of the thigh. Carapace black, 
with yellow areolas from which yellow streaks radiate ; these streaks 
usually narrow and very numerous : plastron likewise with black 
and yellow radiating streaks. 

Length of shell 10 inches. 

Hob. India (except Lower Bengal), extending west to Sind ; 
and Ceylon. 

19. Testndo platynota. 

Testudo platynota, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, 1863, p. 83 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 2 ; Bouletig. Cat. Chel 8fc. p. 162. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, but carapace more regularly 
oval ; posterior border not or but very slightly expanded, and more 
feebly serrated ; vertebral shields flat. Tellow rays on the dorsal 
shields wider and fewer, usually three to the right and three to the 
left of each shield ; plastron yellow, with some large black blotches 
but without radiating streaks. According to Anderson, the scales 
on the fore limb are fewer and all rounded, the sharp scales on the 
heel are absent, and the conical scales on the posterior portion of 
the thigh are very much smaller and not at all prominent. 

Hob. Upper Burma and Northern Pegu. 



20. Testndo emys. 

Testudo emys, Schleg. 8f Milll. in Temminck, Ver. Nat. Nederl Ind., 

Rept. p. 34, pi. iv ; Boulmg. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 158. 
Geoemyda spinosa, part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 607. 
Manouria fusca, Gray, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 134. 
Testudo phayrei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 639. 
Manouria emys, Gilnth. Rept. B. 1. p. 10 ; Theob. Cat. p. 4. 
Testudo (Scapia) falconeri, Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 169, figs. 

Shell considerably depressed, its depth not half its length ; ante- 
rior and posterior margins reverted, more or less strongly serrated ; 
nuchal present ; supracaudal shields two ; dorsal shields concentri- 
cally striated, often concave ; vertebrals much broader than long 
and at least as broad as costals. Plastron large, gular region some- 
what produced and usually notched, hind lobe deeply notched ; the 
pectoral shields may be widely separated from each other, or from a 
short median suture; axillary shield very small, inguinal large. 
Head moderate ; two large prafrontal shields and a large frontal ; 
beak not hooked ; jaws feebly denticulated, the alveolar surface of 
the upper jaw with a strong median ridge. Fore limb anteriorly 
with very large, bony, pointed, imbricate tubercles, forming four or 
five longitudinal series ; hind limb with very large bony tubercles 
on the plantar surface, with others larger, conical, and spur-like on 



GEOEMYDA. 



the heel, and a group of still larger conical tubercles on each side on 
the back of the thighs. Adult dark brown or blackish ; carapace 
of young yellowish brown, with dark-brown markings. 

Length of shell 18 inches. 

Hob. Assam, Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. 



Genus GEOEMYDA, 
Gray, P.Z. S. 1834, p. 100 (part.). 

Neural plates mostly hexagonal, hinder lateral margins shortest. 
Plastron extensively united to the carapace by suture, with axillary 




Fig. 7. Skull of Geoemyda grandis. 

and inguinal peduncles just reaching the first and fifth costals ; 
entoplastron intersected by the huniero-pectoral suture. Skull 



24 



TESTUDINID^l. 



without bony temporal arch ; alveolar surfaces narrow, without 
median ridge. Upper surface of head covered with undivided skin. 
Digits with a short web. Tail very short, not longer in the young 
than in the adult. 

Distribution. Burma, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

Three species are known. Habits terrestrial or semiaquatic. 




Fig. 8. Shell of Geoemyda grandis. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

A. Anterior margin of shell serrated ; second verte- 

bral shield at least as broad as the second 

costal, much broader than long O. spinosa, p. 25. 

B. Anterior margin of shell not serrated; second 

vertebral shield narrower than the second 
costal, not much broader than long. 

a. Carapace arched or tectiform in a transverse 

section O. grandis, p. 25. 

b. Carapace much depressed, flat on the vertebral 

region G. depressa, p. 25. 



GEOEMYDA. 25 



Emys spinosa, Gray, Syn. Kept. p. 20; id. III. Ind. Zool. i, pl.lxxvii, 

figs. 1, 2. 
Geoemyda spinosa, Gray, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 100 ; id. III. Ind. Zool. ii, 

pi. Ivii, fig. 2 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 18 ; Theob. Cat. p. 5 ; Bouleng. 

Cat. CM. Sfc. p. 137. 

Carapace of adult much depressed, with broad flat vertebral 
region and an uninterrupted obtuse keel ; anterior and posterior 
margins serrated ; carapace of young more regularly arched, with a 
short keel or spinose tubercle on each costal shield, and the border 
strongly serrated all round, each marginal being produced in a spine, 
with or without smaller denticulation on each side ; the vertebral 
keel stronger than in the adult. Vertebral shields (2-4) much 
broader than long, at least as broad as the costals ; nuchal shield 
longer than broad. Plastron large ; the width of the bridge about 
equals the length of the posterior lobe, which is angulai'ly eniar- 
ginate ; as regards size, the plastral shields take the following order 
commencing with the largest: abdominals, pectorals, femorals, 
numerals, anals, gulars ; the suture between the abdominals not or 
but slightly longer than that between the pectorals ; axillary and 
inguinal shields present. Upper jaw bicuspid. Carapace brown 
above, reddish in the young, the vertebral keel lighter ; each plas- 
tral shield with yellow and dark-brown radiating streaks ; soft 
parts dark brown, with a yellowish spot on each side of the neck, 
near the ear. 

Length of carapace 8 inches. 

Hob. Tenasserim, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. 

22. Geoemyda grandis. 

Geoemyda grandis, Gray, A. M. N. H. (3) vi. 1860, p. 218 ; Giinth. 
Rept. B. I. p. 19, pis. i & ii, figs. A & B ; Theob. Cat. p. 5 ; 
Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 138. 

Carapace arched or tectiform, not flattened on the vertebral 
region, which bears a strong but obtuse keel ; only the posterior 
margin serrated. Vertebral shields (1-3) not or but slightly 
broader than long and narrower than the costals ; nuchal longer 
than broad. Plastron similar to that of G. spinosa the length of 
the suture between the pectoral shields at least two thirds that of 
the abdominals. Dark brown or blackish above ; plastron and 
lower surface of marginals with black and yellow rays, either the 
black or the yellow predominating. 

Length of carapace 16 inches. 

Hob. Pegu, Tenasserim, Siarn. 

23. Geoemyda depressa. 

Geoemyda depressa, Anders. A. M. N. H. (4) xvi, 1875, p. 284 ; id. 

An. Zool. lies. Yunnan, p. 721, pis. Iv, Ivi, & Ixxv B, figs. 1-5; 

Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 139. 
Geoemyda arakana, Theob. Cat. p. vii. 



26 

Shell much depressed, the depression increasing from before 
backwards, the shell being somewhat expanded across the inguinal 
region ; only the posterior border serrated ; second vertebral about 
as long as broad, narrower than the costals ; nuchal longer than 
broad. Plastral shields as in G. spinosa and G. grandis. Carapace 
light brown ; plastron and lower surface of marginals yellow, the 
plastral shields with a few broad black rays ; the interval between 
the axillary and inguinal notches black. Head leaden, neck pale 
yellowish brown ; limbs of the latter colour, with the large scales 
dark, almost black. 

Length of carapace 9| inches. 

Hob. Hills near Akyab, Arrakan. 



Genus NICORIA, 
Gray, Cat. Sh. Kept, i, p. 17 (1855). 
Neural plates mostly hexagonal, with the hinder lateral margins 




Fig. 9. Shell oiNicoria trijuga. 

shortest, or alternately tetragonal and octagonal. Plastron more or 
less extensively united to the carapace by suture, with short axillary 



NICORIA. 27 

buttress, just reaching the first costal plate ; entoplastron intersected 
by the huruero-pectoral suture. Skull with a bony temporal 
arch ; alveolar surfaces without median ridge ; choanse between 
the eyes. Upper surface of head covered with undivided skin. 
Digits with a short web or nearly free. Tail short, not longer 
in the young than in the adult. 

Distribution. Oriental Eegion, Central and South America. 

Two species occur within the limits of the present fauna. Habits 
terrestrial or semiaquatic. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Digits webbed ; plastron brown or black .... N. trijuga, p. 27. 
Digits nearly free ; plastron yellow N. tricarinata, p. 28. 

24. Nicoria trijnga. 

Emys trijuga, Schiocigg. Prodr. p. 41 (370) ; Giinth. Kept. E. I. p. 29. 
Melanochelys trijuga, Gray, P. Z. S. 18(i9, p. 187 ; Thtob. Cat. p. 12. 
Emys trijuga, var. maderaspatana, Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, 

p. 729. 
Nicoria trijuga, Bouleng. Cat. Chelon. fyc. p. 121. 

Carapace moderately depressed, tricarinate. Vertebral shields in 
adult as long as broad or longer than broad, and much narrower 
than the costals; nuchal moderate or small, sometimes absent. 
Plastron large ; the width of the bridge equals or a little exceeds 
the length of the posterior lobe, which is broadly notched ; front 
lobe truncated. Axillary and inguinal shields present. Upper jaw 
not hooked, notched mesially ; the width of the mandible at the 
symphysis is less than the diameter of the orbit. Digits distinctly 
webbed. Tail shorter than the head. Shell brown, with a yellow 
stripe on each side of the plastron ; keels sometimes yellowish. 
Head brown, in the young reticulated with yellowish (in spirit), 
and with a yellowish line from the eye to above the tympanum. 

Length of sheU 9 inches. 

Hub. Peninsula of India and Punjab. 

Var. thermalis. 

Emys thermalis, Lesson, Cent. Zool. p. 86, pi. xxix. 

Geoclernmys seba, Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. \, p. 18. 

Emys trijuga, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 177 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. pi. ii, fig. C. 

Melanochelys sebae, Theib. Cat. p. 12. 

Emys sebae, Anders. An. Zool. Res. p. 729. 

Shell dark brown in the young, with a broad yellow border to 
the plastron ; keels often yellowish ; shell of adult deep black, with 
a narrow yellow border to the plastron. Soft parts blackish ; head 
of young and halfgrown with irregular bright-orange spots, which 
disappear in the adult. 

Length of shell 9 inches. 

Hab. Ceylon. 



28 TESTUDINIDJB. 

Var. edeniana. 

Melanochelys edeniana, Theob. Cat. p. 12. 

Emys trijuga, var. burmana, Anders. An. Zool. Res. p. 729, pis. Ivii 
& Iviii. 

A larger race, with the shell deep black, the plastral border, 
and sometimes also the keels, yellowish. Light markings on the 
head, if present, small. 

Length of shell 16 inches. 

Hob. Burma. 



25. Nicoria tricarinata. 

Geoemyda tricarinata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, 1855, p. 714. 

Chaibassia tricarinata, Theob. Cat. p. 6. 

Chaibassia tricarinata and theobaldi, Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, 

pp. 717, 718 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel 8?c. pp. 139, 140. 
Nicoria tricarinata, Lydekker, J. A. S. B. Iviii, 1889, p. 327, fig. 

Allied to the preceding species, but of more terrestrial habits, 
as indicated by the more convex carapace, abruptly descending pos- 
teriorly, and the very indistinct web between the digits. Scales 
on the limbs larger. The hypoplastron is frequently attached to 
the carapace by ligament; no inguinal shield. Carapace dark 
brown or black, with the three keels yellow; plastron uniform 
yellow ; head black, with a broad yellow or reddish band on each 
side passing over the eye and the tympanum; a narrow similar band 
below the angle of the mouth, along the inferior margin of the lower 
jaw ; neck and limbs blackish. 

Length of shell 5 inches. 

Hob. Bengal (Chaibassa) and Assam (Bisthnath Plain). 

I have recently had an opportunity of examining specimens of 
0. tricarinata and theobaldi, and regard them as belonging to one 
species, which cannot be generically separated from N. trijuga. 

Genus CYCLEMYS, 
Bell, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 17. 

Neural plates mostly hexagonal, posterior lateral margins shortest. 
Plastron united to carapace by ligament, and more or less distinctly 
divided into two lobes moving upon a ligamentous hinge between 
the hyo- and the hypoplastra; both the latter bones contributing 
to the formation of the bridge; entoplastron intersected by the 
humero-pectoral suture. Skull with a bony temporal arch ; 
alveolar surfaces without median ridge ; choanae between the eyes. 
Upper surface of head covered with undivided skin. Digits webbed 
or nearly free. Tail short, not longer in the young than in the 
adult. 

Distribution. The greater part of the Oriental Eegion, east of the 
Bay of Bengal. Terrestrial or semiaquatic. 



CYCLEMYS. 



The ligameutous transverse hinge, dividing the plastron into 
an anterior and a posterior moiety, may be indistinct, and is nearly 
always so in quite young specimens. These may, however, be 
readily distinguished from young of the preceding genus by the 
hooked upper jaw. 




Fig. 10. Shell of Cyckmys amboinensis. 

Synopsis of Burmese Species. 

A. Plastron emarginate posteriorly ; posterior 

margin of carapace serrated. 

a. Suture between pectoral shield and mar- 

ginals longer than that between abdomi- 
nal and marginals C. platynota, p. 30. 

b. Suture between pectoral and marginals 

shorter than that between abdominal and 

marginals. 

a'. Carapace unicarinate C. dhor, p. 30. 

b'. Carapace tricarinate ; C. motihoti, p. 31. 

B. Plastron not notched posteriorly ; carapace 

tricarinate in the young ; posterior margin 

not serrated C. amboinensis, p. 31. 



30 TESTTTDINIDJE. 

26. Cyclemys platynota. 

Emys platynota, Gray, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 54 ; id. III. Ind. Zool. ii, 

pi. Ivii, tig. 1. 
Cyclemys platynota, Gray, Cat. Sh. Kept. i. p. 43; Bculeng. Cat. 

CM. $c. p. 130. 
Notochelys platynota, Ovmth. Kept. B. I. p. 17; TJieob. Cat. p. 10. 

Carapace depressed, angular, the vertebral region flat, with an 
interrupted obtuse keel ; posterior margin serrated ; six, rarely seven, 
vertebral shields, the small additional shield intercalated between 
the fourth and fifth ; vertebrals (except the first) much broader 
than long, at least as broad as the costals. Plastron narrower than the 
opening of the shell, hind lobe openly emarginate, connected with 
the carapace by a distinct bridge, the width of which is contained 
twice and a half to twice and two thirds in the length of the plas- 
tron ; the hyo- and hypoplastral bones contribute to an equal 
degree to the formation of the bridge ; no distinct transverse hinge ; 
a large inguinal shield ; the suture between the pectoral shield and 
the marginals longer than that between the abdominal and the 
marginals ; the median suture between the pectoral shields as long 
as or a little longer than that between the abdominals. Hook of 
the upper jaw bicuspid, divided by a median groove. Digits exten- 
sively webbed ; claws long, curved, sharp. Front part of arm with 
broad, band-like transverse shields. Carapace reddish brown, or 
yellowish brown with radiating brown lines ; young with a pair of 
round black spots on each vertebral shield, and one or two similar 
spots on each costal ; plastron yellow with brown spots, or brown 
with the sutures between the shields yellow. Head yellowish 
brown ; neck brown, with irregular yellowish streaks, the broadest 
of which extends from the posterior corner of the eye. 

Length of shell 9| inches. 

Hob. Mergui, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. 

27. Cyclemys dhor. 

Emys dhor, part., Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 20. 

Emys dentata, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Iviii, fig. 2. 

Cvclemys oldhamii, Gray. P. Z. S. 1863. p. 178 ; Gilnth. Kept. B. I. 

p. 15, pi. v, fig. B. 
Cyclemys dentata, Theob. Cat. p. 8. 
Cyclemys dhor, Bouleng. Cat. CM. #c. p. 131. 

Carapace depressed, with a single, obtuse keel ; posterior margin 
serrated ; vertebral shields as broad as long or broader than long, 
narrower than the costals. Plastron narrower than the opening of 
the shell, hind lobe angularly notched, connected with the carapace 
by a distinct bridge, the width of which is contained twice and 
three fourths to three times in the length of the plastron ; the hyo- 
and hypoplastral bones contribute in a nearly equal degree to the 
formation of the bridge ; the transverse hinge between the hyo- 
and hypoplastrals, which does not correspond with the curved 
suture between the pectoral and abdominal shields, is only deve- 



CTCLEMTS. 31 

loped in adult specimens ; a small inguinal shield may be present ; 
the suture between the pectoral shield and the marginals shorter 
than that between the abdominal and the margiuals ; the longest 
median suture is that between the pectorals. Hook of upper jaw 
bicuspid. Digits distinctly webbed, with sharp claws. Front part 
of arm with broad transverse scales. Carapace brown, or yellowish 
brown spotted with dark brown ; plastron yellowish or pale 
brown in the young, with dark brown spots or radiating lines ; in 
the adult, dark brown. Neck with dark and light longitudinal 
lines. 

Length of shell 7| inches. 

Hob. Malay Archipelago and Peninsula, Carnboja, Siam, Burma 
(Pegu, Tenasserim). 

28. Cyclemys mouhoti. 

Cyclemys mouhotii, Gray, A. M. N. H. (3) x, 1862, p. 157 ; 

Bvuleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 132. 
Pyxidea mouhotii, Giinth. JRept. B. I. p. 16, pi. iv, fig. D ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 9. 

Carapace depressed, angular, the vertebral region flat, with three 
strong parallel keels ; posterior margin serrated ; vertebral shields 
much broader than long and as broad as the costals ; first vertebral 
as long as broad or broader than long, narrower than second. 
Plastron a little narrower than the opening of the shell, hind lobe 
angularly emarginate; bridge broad and very short, its width 
about one third the length of the plastron ; the hypoplastral bone 
and the abdominal shield have a much greater share in the forma- 
tion of the bridge than the hyoplastral and pectoral ; the longest 
median suture is that between the abdominals. Hook of the upper 
jaw strong, entire. Digits nearly free ; limbs covered with large 
scales. Carapace yellowish or reddish brown ; plastron yellowish, 
with or without a few large dark-brown spots ; neck of young 
brown, spotted with yellow. 

Length of shell 6| inches. 

Hab. Cachar, Siam, Cochin China. 

29. Cyclemys amboinensis. 

Testudo aniboinensis, Daud. Kept, ii, p. 309. 

Cistudo amboinensis, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxvii, figs. 3, 4. 

Cuora amboinensis, Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 41 ; Giinth. Kept. B. 1. 

p. 12, pi. iv, figs. A, B ; Theob. Cat. p. 7. 
Cyclemys aniboinensis, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. 8>c. p. 133. 

Carapace depressed and tricarinate in the young, usually very 
convex and without or with a single keel in adult females ; verte- 
bral shields as long as broad or a little longer than broad in the 
adult, broader in the young, much narrower than the costals. 
Plastron as large as the opening of the shell in the adult, without 
distinct bridge; no anal notch; the line of junction between the 



hyo plastron and the carapace shorter than that between the hypo- 
plastron and the carapace ; pectoral shields as long as the abdo- 
minals or shorter, as long as the humerals or slightly longer ; 
axillary and inguinal small or absent. Head rather small ; upper 
jaw scarcely hooked, without any emargination. Front part of 
arm with large transverse scales. Digits moderately webbed, with 
sharp claws. Carapace brown or blackish ; plastron yellow with 
large black spots, or dark brown with the suture between the 
shields yellow ; in the very young the black spots of the plastron 
are confluent into a broad longitudinal zone, the borders of the 
plastron being yellowish ; head and neck brown above, yellow 
beneath ; a yellow band borders the head and neck superiorly, 
meeting its fellow above the nostrils ; a second yellow band passes 
through the eye and is separated from the upper jaw by a dark- 
brown band ; ear yellow. 

Length of shell 8 inches. 

Hob. Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, 
eastward to the Moluccas. 



Genus BELLIA, 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 197. 

Neural plates hexagonal, anterior lateral margins shortest. 
Plastron extensively united to the carapace by suture, with long 
axillary and inguinal buttresses, the latter anchylosed between 
the fifth and sixth costal plates ; entoplastron intersected by the 
humero-pectoral suture. Skull with a bony temporal arch ; alveolar 
surfaces without median ridge ; choanae between the eyes. Skin 
of hinder part of head divided into small shields. Digits webbed. 
Tail very short, not longer in the young than in the adult. 

Distribution. Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 
Semiaquatic. 

30. Bellia crassicollis. 

Emys crassicollis, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 21 ; id. III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxvi, 

fig. 2 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 609 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

p. 28, pi. iv, fig. E. 
Emys nigra, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, 1855, p. 713, and xxxii, 1863, 

p. 81. 
Bellia crassicolli.s, Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 197; Souleiio. Cat. Cliel. 

#c. p. 98. 
Bellia crassilabris, Theob. Cat. p. 10. 

Carapace moderately depressed, tricarinate in the young, the 
keels, especially the laterals, becoming indistinct in old specimens ; 
vertebral region flattened in the adult male ; posterior border 
serrated ; nuchal small, broadest behind ; posterior side of first 
vertebral not half the length of the shield in the adult ; vertebrals 
2 to 4, as long as broad or a little broader than long, much nar- 
rower than the costals, narrowly in contact with each other in old 



BELLIA. 



33 



specimens ; in the latter, the autero-lateral sides are convex, the 
postero-lateral longer and concave. Plastron smaller than the 
opening of the shell, truncate anteriorly, angularly notched pos- 
teriorly, feebly concave in the males, strongly angulated laterally 




Fig. 11. Shell otBellia crassicollis. 

in young specimens, feebly in old ones ; the width of the bridge 
about equals the length of the hind lobe ; relative size of plastral 
shields very variable; abdominals usually forming the longest 
median suture, humerals the shortest ; axillary and inguinal shields 
present. Head rather large ; snout very short, not prominent ; 
upper jaw strongly curved on each side, not hooked ; the width of 
the mandible at the symphysis is a little less than the diameter of 
the orbit. Digits webbed to the claws ; front of forearm and outer 
side of leg with large transverse band-like scales. SheU dark 
brown or black, plastron usually with yellowish variegation, or 
bands following the sutures of the shields, or a broad band along 
each side. Soft parts dark brown or black ; some large yellow 
spots on the head, viz. above the eye, above the ear, below the ear, 

D 



34 TESTUDINID^E. 

and on each side of the mandible ; these spots become indistinct 
in old specimens. 

Length of shell 7 inches. 

Httb. Tenasserirn, Siam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra. 



Genus DAMONIA, 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 193. 

Neural plates hexagonal, anterior lateral margins shortest. Plas- 
tron extensively united to the carapace by suture, with long axillary 
and inguinal peduncles ; the latter anchylosed between the fifth and 
sixth, exceptionally fourth and fifth, costal plates ; entoplastron 
intersected by the humero-pectoral suture. Skull with a bony 
temporal arch ; alveolar surfaces very broad, without median 
ridge ; choanse behind the level of the eyes. Skin of posterior 
part of head divided into small shields. Digits webbed. Tail 
short or moderate. 

Distribution. East Indies, China, Japan. Semiaquatic. 

A single species is found in India. 

31. Damonia hamiltonii. 

Emys hamiltonii, Gray, Syn. Eept. pp. 21, 72 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

p. 32. 

Emys guttata (non Schn.), Gray, III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxvi, fig. 1. 
Damonia hamiltonii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 195 ; Theob. Cat. p. 11 ; 

Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $u. p. 93. 
Melanochelys pictus, Murray, A. M. N. H. (5) xiv, 1884, p. 107. 

Carapace much elevated, with three interrupted keels or series 
of nodose prominences corresponding to the vertebral and costal 
shields ; posterior border strongly serrated in the young, feebly in 
the adult ; nuchal moderate, broader posteriorly than anteriorly ; 
first vertebral not or scarcely broader anteriorly than posteriorly ; 
second and third vertebrals broader than long in the young, 
nearly as long as broad in the adult, narrower than the costals. 
Plastron large, angulate laterally, truncate anteriorly ; posterior 
lobe much narrower than the opening of the shell, nearly as 
long as the width of the bridge, deeply notched posteriorly. 
Head rather large ; snout very short, not projecting ; upper jaw 
emarginate mesially ; the width of the mandible at the symphysis 
neai'ly equals the horizontal diameter of the orbit ; a large shield, 
sometimes divided into three, covers the upper surface of the snout 
and the crown ; one shield round the upper jaw and one on each 
side between the eye and the ear. Digits webbed to the claws. 
Tail extremely short. Shell dark brown or blackish, elegantly 
marked with yellow spots and radiating streaks. Soft parts dark 
brown or blackish, with round yellow spots, largest on the head 
and neck. 

Length of shell 9 inches. 

Hal. Bengal, Punjab, Upper Sind. 



35 



Genus MORENIA, 
Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Eept. i, p. 62, 1870. 

Neural plates hexagonal, anterior lateral margins shortest. Plas- 
tron extensively united to the carapace by suture, with short axil- 
lary and inguinal buttresses, just reaching the first and fifth costal 
plates ; entoplastron anterior to the humero-pectoral suture. Skull 
with a bony temporal arch ; alveolar surfaces very broad, that of 
upper jaw with a strong tuberculate median ridge ; edge of jaws 
strongly toothed ; choanse behind the level of the eyes. Upper 
surface of snout and crown covered with a single shield, behind 
which the skin is corrugated. Digits extensively webbed. Tail 
short. 

Distribution. Northern India and Burma. Aquatic ; herbivorous. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

Suture between abdominal shields longer than that 

between pectorals .......................... M. ocellata, p. 3". 

Suture between abdominal shields not longer than 

that between pectorals ...................... M. petersii, p. 36. 



32. Morenia ocellata. 

Emys ocellata, Dum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. ii, p. 329, pi. xv, fig. 1 ; 

Giitith. Eept. B. 1. p. 22. 

Emys berdmorei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxvii, 1858, p. 281. 
Morenia berdmorei, 'Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Reft, i, p. 62 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 17. 
Batagur (Morenia) ocellata, Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 755, 

pis. Ix & Ixi. 
Morenia ocellata, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 66. 

Carapace moderately depressed, with a strong, interrupted, 
tubercular keel in the young, which becomes fainter in the adult ; 
margin not serrated ; nuchal narrow ; first vertebral not or but 
little broader anteriorly than posteriorly, lateral borders usually 
sinuous ; second, third, and fourth vertebrals broader than long 
or as long as broad, narrower than the costals. Plastron large, 
angulate laterally, truncate anteriorly, notched posteriorly ; the 
width of the bridge exceeds the length of the hind lobe ; the 
longest median suture is that between the abdominals ; suture 
bet\veen the gulars as long as that between the numerals or 
shorter ; axillary and inguinal large. Head moderate ; snout 
short, obtuse ; upper jaw notched mesially, denticulated ; lower 
jaw strongly serrated, flat beneath, its width at the symphysis 
equalling the diameter of the orbit. Scales on limbs small ; digits 
broadly webbed. Tail very short. Carapace brown, each shield 
of the disk with a large central blackish ocellus encircled with 
yellowish ; lower surface uniform yellow. Head olive, with yellow 

D2 



markings ; a yellow streak running above the canthus rostralis, 
supraciliary edge and temple, and another from behind the eye to 
above the ear. 

Length of shell : d 1 6 inches, 9 inches. 

Hab. Burma. 



33. Morenia petersii. 

Emys ocellata (non D. & B.), Blytli, J. A. S. B. xxvii, 1858, 

p. 281. 

Morenia ocellata, Theob. Cat. p. 18. 
Batagur (Morenia) petersi, Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 701, 

pi. lix. 
Morenia petersii, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 08. 

Very closely allied to the preceding. Snout much more pointed 
and relatively longer. Suture between the pectorals not shorter 
than that between the abdominals. Carapace black, each vertebral 
with a narrow yellowish mesial line ; the last four vertebrals with 
a yellowish linear horseshoe mark with the ends directed forwards ; 
each costal with an ocellus placed rather low and formed by a 
narrow yellowish line, above which are some irregular looped lines 
of similar colour ; the nuchal and each marginal with a vertical 
narrow yellowish mesial streak ; plastron yellow. Three yellow 
streaks on each side of the head, the lower extending from below 
the nostril to the angle of the mouth. 

Length of shell : 3 5 inches, $ 8 inches. 

Hab. Bengal. 



Genus HARDELLA, 
Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Kept, i, p. 58, 1870. 

Neural plates elongate, hexagonal, anterior lateral margins 
shortest. Plastron extensively united to the carapace by suture, 
with extremely developed axillary and inguinal buttresses, the for- 
mer connected with the first rib, the latter anchylosed between the 
fifth and sixth costal plates ; entoplastron anterior to the humero- 
pectoral suture. Skull with a bony temporal arch ; alveolar surfaces 
very broad, that of upper jaw with a strong tubercular median ridge ; 
edge of jaws strongly toothed ; choana) behind the level of the 
eyes. L T pper surface of snout and crown covered with a single 
shield, behind which the skin is corrugated. Digits extensively 
webbed. Tail short. 

Distribution. Northern India. Thoroughly aquatic ; herbivorous. 



34. Hardella thurgi. 

j, Syn. Kept. p. 2 
Emys thurgii, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p, 



Emys thurjii, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 22 ; id. 111. Ind. Zool i, pi. Ixxiii. 



BAT AGUE. 37 

Batagur thurgii, Theob. Cat. Rept. Mus. As. Soc. 1868. p. 12 : id. 

Cat. p. 23. 

Kachuga oldhami, Gray, P. Z. 8. 1869, p. 200, fig. 14. 
Hardella thurgi, Gray, Suppl Cat. Sh. Rept. i. p. 58 ; Bouleng. Cat. 

CM. $c. p. 63. 
Hardella indi, Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 58. 

Carapace moderately depressed, with an interrupted tubercular 
keel ; margin not serrated ; nuchal narrow, broadest posteriorly ; 
first vertebral usually narrower anteriorly than posteriorly, lateral 
borders usually slightly sinuous ; second, third, and fourth verte- 
brals considerably broader than long in the young, nearly as long 
as broad in the adult. Plastron large, angulate laterally, truncate 
anteriorly, angularly notched posteriorly ; the width of the bridge 
exceeds the length of the posterior lobe ; the longest median suture 
is that between the abdominals ; suture between the gulars as long 
as that between the humerals or a little shorter (at least three 
fourths) ; inguinal large, axillary smaller. Head moderate ; snout 
short, obtuse ; upper jaw notched mesially, serrated ; lower jaw 
very strongly dentated, flat inferiorly, its width at the symphysis a 
little less than the diameter of the orbit. Limbs with transversely 
enlarged, band-like scales. Carapace dark brown or black ; plas- 
tron yellowish, with a large blackish spot occupying the greater 
part of each shield, or entirely black. Soft parts dark brown ; a 
yellow band across the prsefrontal region, extending on each side, 
through the eye, to above the ear ; another from below each eye, 
passing below the nostrils. 

Length of shell 18 inches ( $ ). Males much smaller. 

Hub. Northern India (Ganges and Indus systems). 



Genus BATAGUR, 
Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 35, 1855. 

Neural plates elongate, hexagonal, anterior lateral margins 
shortest. Plastron extensively united to the carapace by suture, 
with extremely developed axillary and inguinal buttresses, the for- 
mer connected with the first rib, the latter anchylosed between the 
fifth and sixth costal plates ; entoplastron anterior to the humero- 
pectoral suture. Skull with a bony temporal arch ; alveolar surfaces 
very broad, that of the upper jaw with two strong, slightly den- 
ticulated median ridges ; edge of jaws denticulated ; choanse be- 
hind the level of the eyes. Limbs somewhat approaching the 
paddle-shape, very broadly webbed, with four claws. Tail very 
short. 

Distribution. Bengal, Burma, Malay Peninsula. Thoroughly 
aquatic ; herbivorous. 



TESTUDINID.E. 



35. Batagnr baska. 



Emys batagur, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 23 ; id. 111. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. lix. 
Emys baska, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 24 ; id. 111. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxv. 
Tetraonyx baska, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. ii. p. 341 ; Theob. Cat. 



p. 25. 

Tetraonyx batagur, Gray, Cat. Tort. p. 29. 
Tetraonyx affinis, part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 612. 
Batagur baska, Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 35, pi. xvi; Giinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 37, pi. iii, figs. B, B'; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. fyc. p. 01. 

Carapace moderately depressed, with a vertebral keel in the 
young, which keel disappears in the adult ; nuchal broader than 
long ; first vertebral as broad in front as behind, or a little broader ; 
vertebrals 2 to 4 subequal, much broader than long in the young, 
nearly as long as broad and as broad as the costals in the adult ; 
the postero-lateral border of the third vertebral strongly concave. 
Plastron large, strongly angulate laterally in the young, convex in 
the adult, truncate anteriorly, angularly notched posteriorly ; the 
width of the bridge exceeds the length of the posterior lobe ; the 
longest median suture is that between the abdominals, the shortest 
that between the gulars, the latter never more than half that be- 
tween the hutnerals ; inguinal large, axillary smaller. Head rather 
small ; snout pointed, produced, directed upwards ; jaws with 
denticulated edge, upper feebly notched mesially ; the width of 
the lower jaw at the symphysis nearly equals the diameter of 
the orbit. Limbs with transversely enlarged, band-like scales. 
Upper surface of shell and soft parts olive-brown, lower surface 
yellowish. 

Length of shell 21 inches. 

Hab. Bengal, Burma, Malay Peninsula. 



Genus KACHUGA, 
Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 35, 1855. 

Fourth vertebral shield elongate, embracing four or five neural 
plates ; neural plates hexagonal, anterior lateral margins shortest. 
PJastrou extensively united to the carapace by suture, with ex- 
tremely developed axillary and inguinal buttresses, the former con- 
nected with or nearly reaching the first rib, the latter anchylosed 
between the fifth and sixth costal plates ; entoplastron anterior to 
the humero-pectoral suture. Skull with a bony temporal arch ; 
alveolar surfaces very broad, that of upper jaw with a median ridge ; 
edge of jaws denticulated ; choanae oa a level with the posterior 
border of the eyes, or behind it. Upper surface of head covered 
with undivided skin. Digits very broadly webbed. Tail very 
short. 

Distribution. India and Burma. Thoroughly aquatic ; her- 
bivorous. 



KACHUGA. 3! 

Synopsis of tlie Species. 

A. Third vertebral shield forming a broad suture 
with the fourth, which embraces four neural 
plates. 

a. Second vertebral shield with straight trans- 
verse posterior border. 

a'. Alveolar surface of upper jaw extremely 
broad, the median ridge nearer the outer 
than the inner margin ; bony choanae be- 
hind the orbits K. lineata, p. 40. 

b'. Alveolar surface of upper jaw narrower, 
the median ridge nearer the inner than the 
outer margin ; bony choanae between the 
orbits K. trivittata, p. 41 . 




Fig. 12. Shell of Kachuga trivittata. 

b. Second vertebral shield pointed or produced 

behind, entering the third K. dhongoka, p. 41. 

B. Fourth vertebral shield pointed in front, nar- 
rowly in contact with the third, embracing 
five neural plates. 

a. Third vertebral quadrangular, much longer 
than broad, posterior border straight or 
slightly convex K. smithii, p. 42. 



40 TESTUDINID^!. 

b. Third vertebral shield pentagonal, pointed be- 
hind, 
a'. Second vertebral shield much shorter than 

third, embracing two neural plates. 
a". Posterior margin of carapace strongly ser- 
rated ; 26 marginal shields (including 

caudals) K. sylhetensis, p. 42. 

b". Posterior margin not serrated K. intermedia, p. 43. 

b'. Second vertebral shield as long as broad, 

embracing three neural plates K. tectum, p. 43. 



36. Kachuga lineata. 

Emys dhor, part., Gray, Syn. Kept, p. 20. 

Emys dentata, part, Gray, Syn. Rept. errata, & pis. via, ix ; id. III. 

Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Iviii, fig. 1. 
Emys lineata, Gray, Syn. Rept. p. 23. 
Einvs kachuga, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxiv. 
Batagur lineata, Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 35, pi. xvii ; Gilnth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 39. 
Batagur ellioti, Gray, P. Z. S. 1862, p. 264 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. 1. 

p. 40, pi. iii, figs. A, A'. 

Kachuga hardwickii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 202. 
? Kachuga fusca, Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 56. 
Kachuga liueata, Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 56 ; Boideng. Cat. 

Chel. Sfc. p. 54. 
Batagur kachuga, Theob. Cat. p. 19. 

Carapace of young strongly keeled, the keels tubercular poste- 
riorly on the second and third vertebral shields, posterior margin 
strongly crenulated ; the marginal serrature disappears in adoles- 
cent specimens, and the vertebral keel, after being reduced to a 
series of low knobs, vanishes entirely in the full-grown, the cara- 
pace of which is very convex. Nuchal shield small, trapezoid, 
broadest posteriorly ; first vertebral as broad in front as behind, or 
broader ; second vertebral longer than third, with which it forms 
a straight transverse suture ; fourth longest and forming a broad 
suture with the third ; second vertebral broader than long in the 
young, as long as broad in the adult. Plastron angulate laterally 
in the young ; anterior and posterior lobes rather narrow and 
shorter than the width of the bridge, truncate anteriorly, openly 
notched posteriorly ; the longest median suture between the 
abdominals, the shortest between the gulars, which equals about 
one half that between the humerals ; the suture between gulars 
and humerals forms an obtuse angle, and so does that between 
humerals and pectorals; inguinal large, axillary smaller. Head 
moderate ; snout obtuse, moderately prominent ; jaws with denti- 
culated edge, upper not notched mesially ; alveolar surfaces very 
broad, the median ridge of the upper jaw being somewhat nearer 
the outer than the inner margin ; choanse behind the line of the 
posterior borders of the orbits ; the width of the lower jaw at the 
symphysis equals the diameter of the orbit. Limbs with trans- 



KACHUGA. 41 

versely enlarged, baud-like scales. Brown above, yellowish below ; 
nape with red longitudinal lines. 

Length of shell 15 inches. 

Hab. Northern Peninsular India ; Ganges, Kistna, and Godavari 
rivers; Burma. 

37. Kachuga trivittata. 

Emys trivittata, Dum, $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. ii, p. 33 1. 

Batagur trivittata, Theob. Jour. Linn. Soc. x, 1808, p. 14, and Cat. 

p. 20. 

Kachuga peguensis et trilineata, Gray, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 200. 
Batagur iravadica, Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 736, pis. Ixiv, 

Ixv, Ixviii, & Ixix. 
Kachuga trivittata, Bouleng. Cat. Cliel. SfC. p. 55. 

Differs from the preceding in the much narrower alveolar sur- 
face of the jaws, the median ridge of the upper jaw being nearer 
the inner than the outer margin ; choanae between the orbits ; 
the width of the lower jaw at the symphysis is less than the dia- 
meter of the orbit. Considerable uncertainty prevails in the dis- 
tinction of isolated shells of this species from the preceding. The 
male B. trivittata is characterized by three black longitudiinal 
bands on the carapace, which are absent in the female according to 
Theobald, whose opinion I am disposed to endorse rather than 
that of Anderson, who makes a distinct species (B. iravadica) for 
the specimens (females and young males) without bands. 

Length of shell 22 inches. 

Hab. Irrawaddy river from Bhamo to Bangoon ; Tenasserim. 



38. Kachuga dhongoka. 

Emys dhongoka, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ix. 

Batagur dhongoka, Gray, Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 36, pi. xviii ; Gunth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 42 ; Theob. Cat. p. 22. 
Pangshura leithii, Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 60. 
Kachuga dhongoka, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. fyc. p. 56. 

Carapace much depressed, keeled in the young, the keels reduced 
to a knob on each of the anterior vertebrals in the adult ; posterior 
margin crenulated. Nuchal shield small, trapezoid, broadest 
behind ; first vertebral usually narrower in front than behind, with 
sinuous lateral borders ; second vertebral broader than long in the 
young, longer than broad in the adult, posterior border pointed or 
more or less produced, fitting into an emargination of the third 
vertebral, which is shorter than either the second or the third. 
Plastron angulate laterally in the young ; front lobe truncate, hind 
lobe angularly notched, shorter than the width of the bridge ; the 
longest median suture is between the abdominals ; suture between 
the gulars as long or nearly as long as that between the humerals ; 
the suture between gulars and humerals forms a right angle, and 



42 TESTUDINID^E. 

that between humerals and pectorals a straight transverse line ; 
inguinal large, axillary smaller. Jaws and soft parts as in 
K. trivittata. Brown above, yellowish below ; carapace with three 
more or less distinct black longitudinal bands. 

Length of shell 14 inches. 

Hob. Northern India (Granges and Indus) ; and Poona in the 
Deccan, if a specimen obtained by Dr. Leith was correctly labelled. 

39. Kachuga smitMi. 

Balagur smithii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 253. 

Pangshura smithii, Oiinth. Rept. B. I. p. 36 ; Theob. Cat. p. 15. 

Kachuga smithii, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. fyc. p. 57, pi. i. 

Carapace much depressed, feebly keeled. Nuchal shield small, 
trapezoidal, broadest posteriorly ; first vertebral with sinuous lateral 
borders, usually a little narrower in front than behind ; second 
vertebral shortest, broader than long, usually with straight or 
slightly convex posterior border ; third vertebral considerably 
longer than broad, subquadrangular, posterior border straight or 
slightly convex ; fourth vertebral longest, tapering anteriorly and 
forming a narrow suture with the third ; fifth vertebral much 
broader than the others. Plastron feebly angulated laterally, 
large ; front lobe rounded, hind lobe angularly notched and as long 
as or a little shorter than the width of the bridge ; the longest 
median suture is that between the abdominals, which about equals 
the length of the front lobe ; gulars usually shorter than the 
suture between the humerals, their suture with the latter shields 
forming a right angle ; inguinal large, axillary smaller. Head 
moderate ; snout short, obtuse, feebly prominent ; jaws with 
denticulated edge, upper not notched mesially ; alveolar surface of 
upper jaw broad, the median ridge nearer the inner than the outer 
border ; bony choanso between the orbits ; the width of the lower 
jaw at the symphyeis is less than the diameter of the orbit. Fore 
limbs with large transverse scales. Pale olive-brown above ; dorsal 
keel usually blackish ; plastral shields and lower surface of mar- 
ginals dark brown, bordered with yellow. 

Length of shell 8^ inches. 

Hob. Upper Gauges and Indus with their tributaries. 

40. Kachuga sylhetensis. 

Pangshura sylhetensis, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 69 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 15. 
Kachuga sylhetensis, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. fyc. p. 57. 

Carapace elevated, tectiform, the keel ending in an elevated 
pointed nodosity on the third vertebral shield, forming a strong 
ridge on the last two vertebral s ; posterior margin very strongly 
serrated ; 26 marginal shields, instead of 24 as in all other species 
of the genus ; first vertebral shield much broader in front than 
behind in the half-grown specimens, equally broad in front and 



KACHUGA. 43 

behind in the adult ; second vertebral shortest, broader than long, 
with straight posterior border ; third vertebral considerably longer 
than broad, pointed behind, and forming a very narrow suture 
with the fourth, which tapers anteriorly and equals in length the 
first and second together ; fifth vertebral not broader than fourth, 
pointed posteriorly. Plastron large, feebly angulate laterally, 
truncate anteriorly, angularly notched posteriorly ; the longest 
median suture is that between the abdominals ; suture between the 
gulars as long as or shorter than that between the numerals; 
suture between gulars and humerals forming a right angle ; inguinal 
and axillary large. Carapace olive-brown, usually with a lighter 
streak along the keel ; plastral shields dark brown with a broad 
yellow border. 

Length of shell 7 inches. 

Hob, Sylhet and Assam. 

41. Kachuga intermedia. 

Emys (Pangshura) tectum, var. intermedia, Blanf. J. A. S. . xxxix, 

1870, pt. 2, p. 339, pi. xiv, and xlviii, 1879, p. 110. 
Kachuga intermedia, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. fyc. p. 58. 

Shell as in K. tectum, but second vertebral shield shortest and 
broader than long. Carapace brown ; plastral shields black, with 
yellow anterior and lateral margins. Head dull oh' ve, paler below ; 
a ferruginous spot behind the eye, and three others, less well 
marked, in a convex line on the occiput ; limbs uniform olive. 

Length of shell 4| inches. 

Hob. Hasdo river, Bilaspur, Central Provinces ; Godavari. 

This Tortoise is only known to me from Blanf ord's description. 

42. Kachuga tectum. 

Emys tecta, Gray, Syn. Kept. p. 23, pi. v ; id. III. Ind. Zool. i, 

pi. Ixxii. 

Emys tentoria, Gray, P. Z. S. 1834, p. 54. 
Pangshura tecta, Gunth. Rept. B. 1. p. 33 ; Theob. Cat. p. 13. 
Pangshura tentoria, Gunth. Rept. B. 1. p. 34, pi. iv, figs. C, C'; Theob. 

Cat. p. 14. 

Pangshura flaviventer, Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 35 ; Theob. Cat. p. 15. 
Kachuga tectum, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 58. 

Carapace elevated, tectiform, the keel ending in a nodosity on the 
third vertebral shield ; posterior margin not or but very slightly 
serrated ; nuchal shield small, square or trapezoidal ; first vertebral 
very variable in shape, usually with straight lateral borders diverg- 
ing forwards in the half-grown specimens, narrower in front and 
with sinuous lateral borders in the adult ; second vertebral as long 
as or a little longer than second, frequently obtusely pointed 
behind ; third vertebral pointed behind, in contact with the point 
of the very elongate fourth ; fifth vertebral broader than the 
others. Plastron large, strongly angulated laterally in the young, 
truncate anteriorly, angularly notched posteriorly ; proportions of 



44 PLATYSTEENID^E. 

plastral shields very variable ; suture between gulars and humerals 
forming a right angle ; axillary and inguinal large. Head mode- 
rate ; snout short, rather pointed and prominent ; jaws with den- 
ticulated edge, upper not notched mesially ; alveolar surface of 
upper jaw with the median ridge nearer the inner than the outer 
border ; bony choanse between the orbits ; the width of the lower 
jaw at the symphysis is less than the diameter of the orbit. Fore 
limbs with large transverse scales. Carapace olive, that of young 
with some black spots, especially on the posterior edge of the first 
three vertebrals ; an orange vertebral band and a narrow yellow 
margin ; carapace more uniform in the adult ; plastron orange or 
red, with black spots, or brown with a yellowish anterior and lateral 
border to each shield, in one specimen uniform yellow. Head 
blackish ; jaws and sides of crown orange ; neck with numerous 
yellow lines on a blackish ground ; limbs dark olive, spotted with 
yellow. 

Length of shell up to nearly 9 inches. 

Hah. Ganges and Indus systems. 



Family III. PLATYSTERNID.E. 

Shell covered with epidermal shields. Caudal vertebras mostly 
opisthocoelous. Neck completely retractile within the shell. 
Parietal bones widely separated from squamosals ; temporal region 
completely roofed over. Digits moderately elongate ; phalanges 
with condyles ; claws four or five. 

A single genus and species, remarkable for its large head and 
long tail. 

Genus PLATYSTERNUM, 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 106. 

Plastron moderately large, connected with the carapace by liga- 
ment ; a series of inframarginal shields separates the plastral 
shields from the marginals. Head very large, covered above with 
an undivided horny shield; jaws very strong, hooked, without 
additional alveolar ridges. Digits feebly webbed, all except the 
outer toe clawed. Tail very long, subcylindrical, compressed at 
the end, with rings of squarish shields. 

A single species. 

43. Platystenmm megacephalum. 

Platysteraum megacephalum, Gray, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 107 ; id. Ill 
Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixii ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 43 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. 
8fc. p. 46. 

Platysternon peguense, Gray, Suppl. Cat. Sh. Rept. i, p. 70 ; TJieob. 
Cat. p. 26. 



PLATYSTEENUM. 



Carapace much depressed, oval, with a feeble median keel poste- 
riorly ; anterior border broadly emarginate. Nuchal shield very 
small, broader than long ; vertebrals broader than long, as broad 
as the costals or a little narrower, much broader in the young, 
in which the posterior border of the carapace is distinctly serrated. 




V 

Fig. 13. Skull of Platysternum megaccphal; 

Front lobe of plastron squarish, posterior angularly emarginate ; 
the width of the bridge contained four or five times in the length 
of the plastron ; the longest plastral shields are the anals, femorals, 
and humerals ; the shortest the gulars, which occupy, however, 
the whole width of the front border of the plastron ; frequently a 
small intergular shield between the gulars and the humerals. 
Upper surface of head and temple with an undivided horny scute. 



46 



PLATYSTERXIDJE. 



Throat with round flat tubercles. Anterior surface of arm with 
large squarish scutes. Hinder side of thighs with large conical 
tubercles. Tail at least as long as the shell. Carapace and soft 
parts of adult olive-brown ; plastron yellowish brown. Young 
more elegantly marked : Upper surface of head and neck and 
carapace olive-brown, with a few dark brown dots on the crown 
and one in the centre of each costal scute ; the edge of the carapace 
yellow ; jaws yellow ; a yellow black-edged streak on each side along 
the temple ; sides and lower surface of neck and limbs whitish ; 
upper surface of limbs blackish : plastron yellow, with a symmetrical 
black marking along the middle ; tail blackish above, yellow with 
a black median line beneath. 

Head and neck 3 inches, carapace 6, tail 6^. 




Fig. 14. Shell of Platysternum megacephalum. 

A rare tortoise, found in streams in Burma and Siam ; the speci- 
mens on record are mostly from Pegu and Tenasserim. It is also 
known from Southern China, where, according to Svvinhoe (P. Z. S. 
1870, p. 409), it occurs in the western parts of Kwangtung Province 
and in Kwangse. 



CHELOHTD.B. 



47 



Family IV. CHELONID^. 



Shell covered with epidermal shields. Caudal vertebrae pro- 
coelous. Neck incompletely retractile ; cervical vertebrae short. 




Fig. 15. Skull of Chelone imlricata. 

Temple completely roofed over ; parietal bone in contact with the 
squamosal. Limbs paddle-sbaped ; phalanges without condyles : 
claws OTIC or two. 

Tbe Marine Turtles belong to three species, falling into two 



48 CHELONID^E. 

genera, viz. : The Green Turtle, Chelone mydas, the Havvksbill, 
Chelone imbricata, and the Loggerhead, Thalassochelys caretta, all 
three of which occur in the Indian Ocean. The Green Turtle is 
valuable as an article of food, the Hawksbill for the tortoise-shell 
(the epidermal horny shields) ; whilst the Loggerhead is of no 
commercial value, or produces but a very inferior quality of tortoise- 
shell. 

The Chelonidae are thoroughly marine turtles, approaching the 
shores only for the purpose of depositing their eggs, which are 
very numerous, soft-shelled, and buried in the sand. As these 
eggs are large and excellent eating, they are much sought for. 

The genera are thus distinguished : 

Costal shields 4 pairs CHELONE, p. 48. 

Costal shields 5 or more pairs THALASSOCHELYS, p. 49. 



Genus CHELONE, 
Brongniart, Bull. Soc. Philom. iii, 1800, p. 89. 

Carapace with persisting fontanelles between the costal and 
marginal plates. Costal shields four pairs. An iutergular shield 
and a series of inframargiual plastral shields. 

Two species are known. 

Synopsis of Species. 

Upper jaw not hooked C. mydas, p. 48. 

Upper jaw hooked C. imbricata, p. 49. 

44. Chelone mydas. 
Testudo mydas, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 350. 

Chelonia mydas, Schweigy. Prodr. p. 22; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 180. 
Chelonia virgata, Schweir/g. Prodr. p. 22 ; Cantor, J. A, S. B. xvi, 
1847, p. 617 ; Gunth. liept. B. I. p. 53 ; Theob. Cat. p. 33. 

Carapace feebly unicarinate in the young (sometimes with slight 
indication of lateral keels), arched or subtectiform in the adult ; 
dorsal shields juxtaposed ; margin not or but indistinctly serrated, 
formed of 25 shields. Snout very short ; jaws not hooked ; horny 
sheaths of upper jaw with feebly denticulated edge and striated 
inner surface, of lower jaw with strongly denticulated edge; 
alveolar surface of upper jaw with two strong denticulated ridges ; 
symphysis of lower jaw short ; one pair of prsefrontal shields. 
Limbs usually with a single claw; the second digit sometimes 
provided with a distinct claw in young specimens. Young dark 
brown or olive above, the limbs margined with yellow : yellow 
beneath, with a large dark brown spot on the hand and foot. 
Carapace of adult olive or brown, spotted or marbled with yellowish. 

Length of shell 4 feet. 

Hob. Tropical and subtropical seas. Eather rare in the Bay of 
Bengal. Herbivorous ; edible, but occasionally poisonous. 



THALASSOCHELYS. 49 

45. Chelone iiubricata. 

Testudo imbricata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 350. 

Chelonia imbricata, Schweigg. Prodr. p. 21 ; Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. 

p. 183. 

Eretmochelys squamata, Ayassiz, Conti: N. H. U. S. i, p. 382. 
Caretta squamata, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 54 ; Theob. Cat. p. 33. 




Fig. 16. Chelone imbricata (young). 

Carapace tricarinate in the young, with the shields strongly 
imbricate, the vertebrals rhomboidal ; dorsal shields of adult smooth, 
of old specimens juxtaposed ; margin formed of 25 shields, more or 
less strongly serrated posteriorly. Snout compressed in the adult ; 
jaws hooked, not or but very feebly denticulated on the margin ; 
symphysis of lower jaw long ; two pairs of shields anterior to the 
azygous frontal. Limbs with two claws. Young pale brown above, 
blackish below. Carapace of adult marbled yellow and dark brown, 
plastron yellow ; shields of head and limbs dark brown with yellow 
borders. 

Length of shell 3 feet. 

Hab. Tropical and subtropical seas. Plentiful on the coasts of 
Ceylon and the Maldives. Carnivorous. 

Genus THALASSOCHELYS, 

Fitzinger, Ann. Wien. Mus. i, 1835, p. 121. 

Carapace completely ossified in the adult. Costal shields five 
pairs or more. A series of infrarnargmal plastral shields. 
A single species. 

E 



50 SPHAEGIDJE. 

46. Thalassochelys caretta. 

Testudo caretta, Linn. Syst. Xat. i, p. 351. 

Chelonia caouanna, SeJttDeigg. Prodr. p. 22. 

Chelonia olivacea, Eschsch. Zool. Ail. p. 3, pi. iii ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. 

xvi, 1847, p. 619. 

Caouana olivacea, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 52 ; Theob. Cat. p. 33. 
Thalassochelys caretta, Bouleng. Cat. Chel. $c. p. 184. 

Carapace of young with three strong keels, of adult arched or 
subtectiform ; dorsal shields juxtaposed ; margin serrated pos- 
teriorly in the young, formed of 27, or rarely 25 shields. Intergular 
shield very small or absent. Head large, with very strong, hooked 
jaws ; symphysis of lower jaw very long ; alveolar surface of horny 
beak with a median ridge, of jaws without ; two pairs of shields 
anterior to the azygous frontal. Limbs of young usually with two 
claws, of adult frequently with but one. Young uniform dark 
brown or blackish ; adult brown above, yellowish inferiorly. 

Length of shell 4 feet. 

Hob. Tropical and subtropical seas ; Mediterranean ; an acci- 
dental visitor in the North. Not rare in the Bay of Bengal. 
Carnivorous, feeding chiefly ou crustaceans and niollusca. 



Suborder II. ATHEC^E. 
Family V. SPHARGLD^E. 

Exoskeleton consisting of mosaic-like juxtaposed plates. Plastral 
elements eight ; no entoplastroii. Limbs paddle-shaped, clawless, 
the digits of the fore limb much elongate ; phalanges without 
condyles. 

This family contains a single genus and species, the well-known 
Leathery Turtle. 

Genus DERMOCHELYS, 

Blainville, Journ. de Phys. Ixxxiii, 1816, p. 259. 

Dorsal shield completely, ventral shield incompletely bony in the 
adult, the former with seven, the latter with five keels. Beak with 
two triangular cusps, between three deep notches ; no enlarged 
alveolar surface, the jaws simply sharp-edged. Head covered with 
small shields. 

47. Dermochelys coriacea. 

Testudo coriacea, Linn. Syst. Nat, i, p. 350. 

Sphargis coriacea, Gray, Syn. Rept. i, p. 51. 

Dermatochelys coriacea, Giinth. Rept. B.I. p . 55 ; Theob. Cat. p. 34. 

Dermochelvs coriacea. Boulenq. Cat. Chel. <yc. p. 10- 

Tore limbs as long as the dorsal shield in the young, shorter in 
the adult. Colour dark brown, uniform or spotted with yellow ; 



DERMOCHELYS. 51 

the longitudinal series of enlarged tubercles and the border of the 
limbs yellowish in the young. 
Grows to a length of 8 feet. 





Fig. 17. Skull of Dennochelys coriacea*. 

Hab. Generally distributed between the tropics, but scarce 
everywhere ; an accidental visitor to temperate coasts. Of no 
commercial value. Only on one occasion has this turtle been 
observed to deposit her eggs on the coast of Tenasserim, on 
February 1st, 1862, near the mouth of the Ye Eiver (c/. Tickell, 
J. A. S. B. xxxi, 1862, p. 367, with figure of the turtle). 

* Figures 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 17are from the British Museum 
Catalogue of Ohelonians &c., 1889, the woodcuts having been, by permission 
of the Trustees, used in the present work. 



52 



Order III. SQUAMATA. 

Quadrate bone free distally ; no lower temporal arch. Ribs 
single-headed. No plastron. Teeth not implanted in alveoli. 
Anal opening transverse. Copulatory organ present, paired. 
Three Suborders : 

1. LACERT1L1A, Lizards. Nasal bones entering the border 
of the nasal apertures ; pterygoid in contact with quadrate ; 
voiuei's distinct ; maudibular rami united by suture. Pec- 
toral arch or its vestiges present ; clavicle present whenever 
the limbs are developed. Tongue flattened. 
II. RHIPTOGLOSSA, Chameleons. Nasal bones not bounding 
nasal apertures ; pterygoid not reaching quadrate ; vonier 
single ; mandibular rami united by suture. Clavicle absent ; 
limbs well developed. Tongue vermiform, projectile. 
III. OPHIDIA, Snakes. Nasal bones bounding nasal apertures ; 
vomers distinct ; mandibular rami connected by ligament. 
No trace of pectoral arch. Tongue flattened and bifid at the 
end, and sheathed at the base. 

Suborder I. LACERTILIA. 

Lizards may be distinguished from Snakes, apart from the 
osteological characters given above, either by the presence of four 
limbs, or in all the limbless forms, which are not very numerous, by 
the tongue not being retractile into a basal sheath, as in the Ophidia. 
Eyelids and an ear-opening, absent in all Snakes, are usually, 
though not always, distinct in limbless Lizards. Only one type of 
Lizards, the American Hdoderma, is known to be poisonous. 

This suborder is divided into 20 families, of which the following 
8 are represented in the Indian fauna. 

Synopsis of Indian Families. 

A. Tongue smooth or with villose papillae ; clavicle dilated, loop- 

shaped proximally ; no postorbital or postfronto-squainosal arches. 
Vertebrae amphiccelian ; parietal bones distinct Fain. 1. Geckonidae. 
Vertebrae proccelian; parietal single Fain. "2. Eublepharidae, 

B. Tongue smooth or with villose papillae; clavicle not dilated 

proxitnally. 
Postorbital and postt'ronto-scLuamosal arches present ; 

supratemporal fossa not roofed over by bone ; 

tongue thick; acrodont Fain. 3. Agamidae. 

Postorbital and postfronto-squamosal arches present; 

supratemporal fossa roofed over ; bodv with 



LA.CERTILIA. 53 

osteodermal plates, each provided with a sys- 
tem of irregularly arranged arborescent or radi- 
ating tubules; anterior portion of tongue 
retractile ; pleurodont Fain. 4. Anguidae. 

Postorbital arch incomplete; postfronto-squamosal 
arch present ; supratemporal fossa not roofed 
over ; nasal bone single ; tongue deeply bifid, 

sheathed posteriorly ". .Fam. 5. Varanidae. 

C. Tongue covered with imbricate scale-like papillae or with oblique 
plicae ; clavicle dilated proximally, frequently loop-shaped. 

Postorbital and postfronto-squamosal arches present; 
supratemporal fossa roofed over ; praemaxillary 
single; no osteodermal plates on the body. Fam. 6. Lacertidae. 

Postorbital and postfronto-squamosal arches present ; 
praemaxillary double ; body with osteodermal 
plates, each provided with a regular system of 
tubules (a transverse one anastomosing with 
longitudinal ones) Fam. 7. Scincidae. 

No interorbital septum ; no columella cranii ; no 
arches; praemaxillary double; no osteodermal 
plates Fam. 8. Dibaxnidae. 

The following is an artificial key, based upon characters which 
are readily observable without any knowledge of the internal 
structure of the animals, and by which any Lizard occurring within 
the area ascribed to this fauna may be referred to the family to 
which it belongs : 

A. Tongue smooth or with villose papillae, 

short or moderate, not sheathed at the 
base (see fig. 20, p. 55). 

a. Head covered with granules or small 

scales ; body without bony armour. 

No movable eyelids 1. Geckonidae, p. 54. 

Movable, connivent eyelids ; dorsal scales 
granular and tubercular, round, jux- 
taposed ; pupil vertical 2. Eublepharidae, p. 107. 

Movable, connivent eyelids ; dorsal scales 

mostly imbricate ; pupil round 3. Agamidae, p. 109. 

b. Head with symmetrical shields above ; 

body rigid, with bony plates under- 
lying the scales 4. Anguidae, p. 158. 

B. Tougue much elongate, sheathed at the 

base, similar to that of Snakes; head 

covered with small scales 5. Varanidae, p. 160. 

C. Tongue covered with imbricate scale- 
like papillae (see fig. 51, p. 167) or oblique 
plicae ; head with symmetrical shields. 

a. Eyes exposed. 

Ventral scales much differentiated from 

the dorsals ; femoral or prseanal 

pores 6. Lacertidae, p. 167. 

Body covered with cycloid imbricate 

scales ; no femoral or praeanal pores 7. Scincidae, p. 180. 
Eyes hidden under the shields 8. Dibamidae, p. 229. 



54 



GECKONIDJE. 



Family I. GECKONID^E. 

Skull without postorbital or postfronto-squamosal arch; no 
squamosal ; praemaxillary single ; nasals distinct ; parietals dis- 
tinct; frontals completely surrounding the olfactory lobes of the 
brain; a fibro-cartilaginous interorbital septum; a columella cranii ; 






B 

Fig. 18. Skull of Gecko veriicillatm. 
A. Side view. B. Upper view. C. Lower view. 



ang. Angular. 
ar. Articular. 
ho. Basioccipital. 
bp. Basisphenoid. 
c. Columella cranii. 
c.a. Columella auris. 
cr. Coronoid. 
d. Dentary. 
eo. Exoccipital. 


./'. Frontal. 
is. Interorbital septum, 
m. Maxillary. 
n. Nasal. 
oo. Opisthotic. 
p. Parietal. 
pi. Palatine. 
pm. PriEinaxillary. 
prf,pf. Praef'rontal. 


pro. Prootic. 
pt. Pterygoid. 
pff. Post frontal. 
(j. Quadrate. 
s.anff. Supra-angular, 
.so. Supraoecipital. 
#. Supratempoi-al. 
tp. Transpalatine. 
v. Vomer. 



mandible containing only five bones, the angular and articular 
having coalesced. Teeth small, numerous, with cylindrical shaft 
anchylosed to the inner edge of the jaws (Pleurodont dentition) ; 



GECKONIDJG. 55 

no teeth on the palate. No dermal ossifications on the haed or 
body. Vertebrae amphicoelous (biconcave). Clavicle dilated and 
perforated proximally ; interclavicle rhoinboidal or cruciform. 

Tongue moderately elongate, very feebly incised anteriorly, 
smooth or villose. Eye usually large, frequently with vertical 
pupil, without connivent eyelids (except in the Malay genus dElu- 
roscalahotes). Ear distinct (except in Teratolepis), Scales soft, 
granular or tubercular on the upper surfaces, usually roundish or 





Fig. 19. Pectoral arch of Gecko vcrticillatus. Fig. 20. Tongue of same. 

cl. Clavicle. i.d. Interclavicle. e.cor. Epicoracoid. 

cor. Coracoid. st. Sternum. sc. Scapula. 

hexagonal and imbricate on the lower surfaces ; in Teratolepig, and 
in a few non-Indian genera, the back is covered with large 
imbricate scales. No symmetrical shields on the crown. Limbs 
well developed ; digits often dilated. Femoral or pracanal pores 
frequently present, but only in the males. Tail fragile (except in 
Ar/amura). 

With the exception of members of the genera Gonatodes, Pristu- 
rus, and Phelsuma, all Indian Geckos are more or less nocturnal. 
They are mostly oviparous, the eggs being round and hard-shelled ; 
the only species at present known to be ovoviviparous are the Xew 
Zealand Naultinus eleyans and Hoplodaetylus pacificus. 

The Geckonidce, of which about 280 species are known, occur all 
over the hotter parts of the world. They are most numerous in 
the Indian and Australian regions. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Genera. 

A. Digits not or but very slightly dilated, all 

clawed. 

a. Digits straight, not angularly bent at 
any of the articulations. 

a'. Digits fringed laterally STENODACTYLUS, p. 56. 

b'. Digits not fringed laterally ALSOPHYLAX, p. 58. 



56 



b. Digits angularly bent, thus composed of a 

basal and a terminal portion. 
a'. Pupil vertical. 

a". Tail fragile 

b" . Tail very thin, not fragile 

V. Pupil round. 

a". Tail compressed, crested 

b". Tail neither compressed nor crested 
B. Digits with strong dilatations. 
. Digits clawed ; pupil vertical. 
a'. Digits not dilated at the base, ending 
in a subtriangular or heart-shaped 
expansion divided beneath by a 
longitudinal groove into which the 
claw is retracted. 

a". Digital expansions with two plates 
beneath ; the penultimate joint 
with an expansion similar to the 

distal 

6". Each digit with only one expan- 
sion, which is furnished beneath 

with fine lamellae 

b'. Digits dilated at the base, the distal 

joint compressed. 

a". The distal joint long, free, rising 
from within the extremity of the 
digital expansion. 

a. Inner digit with compressed, 
clawed phalanx ; dorsal scales 

granular or tubercular 

/3. Inner digit with compressed, 
clawed phalanx ; dorsal scales 

large, imbricate 

y. Inner digit clawless 

6". The distal joint at the extremity of 

the digital expansion, 
a. Digits free or slightly webbed, 
a'. A double series of subdigital 
lamella : inner digit clawless 
ft' . A single series of subdigital la- 
mellae ; inner digit with com- 
pressed, clawed phalanx .... 
y'. A single series of subdigital la- 
mellae ; inner digit clawless . . 

/3. Digits entirely webbed 

b. Digits clawless ; pupil round 



GYMNODACTYLTJS, p. 59. 
AGAMUEA, p. 71. 

PRISTURUS, p. 72. 
GOXATODES. p. 73. 



CALODACTYLTTS, p. 80. 
PTYODACTYLTJS, p. 81. 



HEMIDACTYLUS, p. 



TERATOLEPIS, p. 90. 
GEHYHA, p. 9(5. 



LEPIDODACTYLUS, p. 97. 

HOPLODACTYLUS, p. 100. 

GECKO, p. 101. 
PTYCHOZOON, p. 104. 
PHELSTJMA, p. 105. 



Genus STENODACTYLUS, 

Fitzinger, N. Classif. Kept. p. 13, 1826. 

Digits not dilated, nor bent at any of the articulations, 
furnished with a long claw, and a lateral fringe or denticulation of 
pointed scales ; beneath with a series of keeled scales. Body 
covered with juxtaposed or subimbricate scales. Pupil vertical. 
No praeanal or femoral pores. 



STENODACTYLTTS. 



57 



This genus is restricted to the desert districts of North Africa 
and Southern Asia eastwards to Sind. Six species are known, 
two of which fall within the geographical limits assigned to this 
work. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Snout as long as distance between orbit and ear- 
opening; ventral scales keeled S. orientalis, p. 57. 

Snout much longer than distance between orbit 

and ear-opening ; ventral scales smooth S. lumsdenii, p. 58. 




Fig. 21. Stenodactylus orientalis. 
a. Foot. b. Lower surface of toe. 



48. Stenodactylus orientalis. 

Stenodactylus orientalis, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, pt. 2, p. 21, pi. i, 
fig. 2 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 363 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 16, 
pi. iii, fig. 1. 

Stenodactylus dunstervillei, Murray, 1. c. $ erratum. 

Head rather depressed, regularly oviform ; snout slightly longer 
than the diameter of the orbit, as long as the distance between the 
latter and the ear-opening ; forehead very slightly concave ; ear- 
opening an oblique slit measuring two-thirds the diameter of the 
eye. Body moderate, depressed. Limbs moderate ; digits elon- 
gate, depressed, with well-developed lateral fringes ; the transverse 
inferior lamella} quiuquecarinate. Head covered with small 
granules, which are feebly keeled on the snout and between the 
eyes ; rostral quadrangular, broader than long, with median cleft 
above ; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and 
three nasals ; twelve upper and thirteen lower labials ; rnenta. 
broader than long, subpeutagonal, the lower angle rounded ; no 
chin-shields. Body covered with small granules, keeled on the 



58 GECKONiDvE. 

ventral region, intermixed with small, keeled, irregularly scattered 
roundish tubercles on the back. Tail cylindrical, tapering to a 
fine point, covered with small keeled scales arranged in rings. 
Colour pale sandy, with indistinct darker transverse bands; a 
darker line from the eye down each side; dorsal tubercles darker; 
lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 1*9 inch ; tail 1'4. 

Hab. Sind, in sandy deserts. 

49. Stenodactylus lumsdenii. 

Stenodactylus lumsdenii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 470, and Tr. Linn. 
Soc. v, 1889, p. 94, pi. ix, fig. 1. 

Snout much longer than the diameter of the orbit or the distance 
between the orbit and the ear ; forehead very slightly concave ; 
ear-opening vertically oval, one third the diameter of the eye. The 
fore limb, stretched forwards, reaches the tip of the snout ; the 
hind limb reaches the shoulder. Digits slender, shortly fringed 
laterally, with feebly tricarinate inferior lamellae. Head covered 
with small granules, intermixed with enlarged ones on the vertex, 
the occiput, and the temples ; rostral quadrangular, nearly as 
broad as long, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between 
the rostral, the first labial, and two nasals; 10 upper and 9 
lower labials; mental trapezoid, broader than long; no chin- 
shields; gular granules minute. Back covered with small granules 
intermixed with oval, very feebly keeled tubercles, forming about 
twelve irregular longitudinal series. Ventral scales small, smooth, 
subhexagonal, imbricate. Tail cylindrical, slightly depressed, 
verticillate, with subequal, feebly keeled scales. Sand-colon red 
above, with seven darker bands across the body, and dai'k brown 
bands across the tail ; head marbled with dark brown ; a dark 
brown band from the eye to above the ear ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 1'4 inches ; tail 1'7. 

Differs from S. orientalis by the much longer snout, longer 
limbs, larger and more numerous dorsal tubercles, smooth ventral 
scales, fec. 

Hctb. North Baluchistan, in the sandy desert between Xnshki 
and the Helmand. 

Genus ALSOPHYLAX, 

Fitzinger, Syst. Kept. p. 90, 1843. 

Digits not dilated, nor bent at any of the articulations, clawed, 
not denticulated laterally, with a series of smooth or tuberculate 
lamellae beneath. Body covered above with juxtaposed scales 
intermixed with enlarged tubercles, below with imbricate scales. 
Pupil vertical. Males with praeanal pores. 

Distribution. Arid districts of Turkestan, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, 
Baluchistan, and Sind. Six species are known, of which only one 
has to be dealt with here. 



GTMNODACTTLUS. 59 

50. Alsophylax tuberculatus. 

Bunopus tuberculatus, Blanf. A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, 1874, p. 454; 

id. Eastern Persia, ii, p. 348. pi. xxii. fi<?. 4 ; Murray. Zoo!. Sind, 

p. 364. 
Alsophylax tuberculatus, Bouleny. Cat, Liz. i, p. 20. 

Head moderate ; snout obtuse, a little longer than the diameter 
of the orbit or the distance between the eye and the ear-opening ; 
forehead very slightly concave ; ear-opening elliptic, vertical, 
nearly half the diameter of the eye. Body moderately depressed. 
Limbs moderate ; digits slender, the inferior lamella furnished 
with projecting tubercles. Head covered with large granules, 
smaller and intermixed with round tubercles on the temporal and 
occipital regions ; rostral subquadrangular, not much broader 
than deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the 
rostral, the first labial, and three nasals; about 10 or 12 upper and 
8 to 10 lower labials ; mental subtrapezoid, broader than long ; no 
chin-shields; gular granules minute. Back covered with small irre- 
gular flat granules, intermixed with large trihedral tubercles, forming 
about fourteen irregular longitudinal series. Abdominal scales 
rather small, subhexagonal. Males with 7 or 8 prseanal pores, 
forming a slightly angular series. Tail cylindrical, slightly 
depressed, verticillate, with rings of keeled tubercles ; no enlarged 
scales inferiorly. Colour sandy, with darker spots which may 
more or less take the form of cross-bands on the back and tail ; a 
darker streak on the side of the head, passing through the eye, 
sometimes meeting its fellow on the occiput, sometimes extending 
to the side of the body ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 2*1 inches; tail 2. 

Hub. Abounds in parts of Baluchistan, under 3000 feet of 
elevation, being found in houses and under stones on hill-sides, &c. 
Occurs also in Sind, in South-eastern Persia, and on the coasts of 
the Persian Gulf. 

Genus GYMNODACTYLUS, 

Spix, Spec. nov. Lacert. p. 17, 1825. 

Digits not dilated, clawed, cylindrical or slightly depressed at the 
base ; the two or three distal phalanges compressed, forming an 
angle with the basal portion of the digits ; the claw between two 
enlarged scales, the lower of which is more or less deeply notched 
under the claw ; digits beneath with a row of more or less distinct, 
transverse plates. Body r variously scaled. Pupil vertical. Males 
with or without prfeanal or femoral pores. 

Distribution. Borders of the Mediterranean ; Southern Asia ; 
Australia ; islands of the Pacific ; Tropical America. Some 37 
species are known. 



GECKONID.E. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Large trihedral tubercles forming straight 

series along back. 

a. Diameter of dorsal tubercles more than 

half that of eye ; male with over 30 
femoral pores, continuous in praeanal 
region O. fedtschenkoi , p. 61. 

b. Diameter of dorsal tubercles less than half 

that of eye ; male with 4 to 6 preeanal 
pores. 

a'. About 20 imbricate scales across mid- 
dle of belly. 
a". Dorsal tubercles much larger than 

ear-opening G. sealer, p. 62. 

6". Dorsal tubercles nearly equal to 

small ear-opening in size G. brevipes, p. 63. 

b'. About 30 imbricate scales across 
middle of belly ; dorsal tubercles 
a little larger than ear-opening. ... O. kachhensis, p. 63. 

B. Enlarged dorsal tubercles, if present, not 

forming straight longitudinal series. 
a. No lateral fold. 

a'. Back covered with uniform granules, 
which are smaller than the ventral 
scales, or with scattered slightly 
enlarged tubercles. 

a". Tail swollen, depressed, ringed, 
with enlarged tubercles at each side 

of each ring G. stoliczka, p. 63. 

b". Tail cylindrical, without tubercles ; 
nostril pierced between rostral, 1st 
labial, and only two scales ; male 

with prseanal pores G. lawderanus, p. 64. 

c". Tail cylindrical, without tubercles ; 
nostril pierced between rostral, the 
1st labial, and several scales ; no 

praeanal or femoral pores G. nebulosus, p. 64. 

b'. Back covered with juxtaposed uni- 
form flat scales or tubercles, which 
are much larger than the ventrals. 
a". Seven lower labials ; back and tail 

with large dark spots G. jeyporensis, p. 65. 

b". Nine to eleven lower labials : back 
and tail with transverse white 

bands G. deccanensis, p. 66. 

c'. Back granular, with numerous feebly 

keeled or trihedral tubercles. 
a". Back with tubercles of unequal size ; 
ventral scales tubercular, slightly 

keeled G. albofasciatus, p. 66. 

b". Back with about 30 longitudinal 
series of tubercles contained be- 
tween an area bounded by faint 
keels margining the belly G. oldhami, p. 67. 



GYMNODACTYLUS. 61 

c". Back with numerous small trihedral 

tubercles G. triedrus, p. 67. 

b. A sight fold from axilla to groin. 
a'. Enlarged dorsal tubercles small, 
round, smooth ; male with two pairs 

of praeanal pores G.frenatus, p. 68. 

b'. Dorsal tubercles small, round, feebly 

keeled. 
a". About 35 scales across middle 

of belly, between lateral folds. 

a. Subdigital lamellae occupying 

nearly the whole width of the 

digits ; male without pubic 

groove, with 10 to 13 prseanal 

pores G. khasiensis, p. 68. 

/3. Subdigital lamellae considerably 
narrower than the digits ; male 
with a longitudinal groove on 
the pubic region, containing 12 

pores G. rubidus, p. 69. 

b". About 25 scales across middle 
of belly ; male with a pubic 
groove containing pores and a long 

series of femoral pores G. pulchellus, p. 69. 

c'. Dorsal tubercles large, trihedral. 

a". About 25 scales across middle of 
belly ; male with 16 femoro-prae- 

anal pores on each side G. variegatus, p. 70. 

b". About 35 scales across middle of 
belly ; male with 5 or 6 praeanal 
pores on each side G. fasciolatus, p. 71. 




Fig. 22. Gymnodactylus khasiensis. Foot and lower and side Tiews of toe. 



51. Gymnodactylus fedtschenkoi. 

Gymnodactylus geckoides (non Spix), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, 

p. 410. 
Gymnodactylus caspius (nonEichw.), Stoliczka, P. A. S. B, 1872, p. 80; 

Theob. Cctf. p.91. 
Gymnodactylus fedtschenkoi, Strauch, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. xxxv. 

1887, p. 46 ; Boettg. Zool. Jahrb. iii, 1888, p. 884. 



62 

lu general character allied to G. kadihemis, but the shields on 
the top and sides of head are coarser and carinated, the enlarged 
tubercles on the bod\ T larger and closer together, in about 12 
longitudinal series, separated by one or two rows of minute granu- 
lar scales, and each of the trihedral tubercles is as large as the 
opening of the ear ; tail verticillate, above with similar sharply 
keeled tubercles ; a row of enlarged subcaudals ; about eleven 
upper and eight or nine lower labials ; two pairs of enlarged chin- 
shields ; 18-20 longitudinal rows of scales across the belly, with 
several rows of small scales at the sides ; 32-34 femoral pores (in 
the males) continuous in the praeanal region. The fore limb reaches 
to half the length of the snout, or the end of it, and the hind limb 
is somewhat more than half the length of head and body. The 
colour resembles kacWiensis, there being five or six indistinct trans- 
verse rows of dark brown spots on the upper side. 

The above description is that given by Stoliczka from specimens 
obtained in the Punjab Salt Eange and referred by him to Eich- 
wald's G. caspius. It appears certain, from recent remarks by 
iStrauch, that the Punjab form is not G. caspius, but very probably 
the Turkestan G. fedtscJienkoi, recently distinguished from 
G. caspius. However, neither Strauch nor I myself have been 
fortunate enough to examine Punjab specimens. 

52. Gymnodactylus scaber. 

Stenodactylus scaber, Riipp. Atlas, Rept. p. 15, pi. iv, fig. 2. 
Gymnodactylus scaber, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 27. 

Head moderate ; snout slightly longer than the diameter of the 
orbit, longer than the distance between the eye and the ear-open- 
ing ; eye large, forehead very slightly concave ; ear-opening rather 
small, elliptical, vertical. Body moderate. Limbs long, the fore 
limb reaching as far as the tip of the snout, the hind limb 
reaching articulation of neck ; digits long and slender, cylindrical 
at the base, with well-developed lamellse below. Snout covered 
with large convex polygonal granules ; hinder part of head with 
small granules intermixed with roundish tubercles ; rostral 
quadrangular, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between 
the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; ten upper and 
eight or nine lower labials ; mental triangular or pentagonal, not 
longer than broad ; two pairs of chin-shields, median largest and 
forming a suture behind the point of the mental. Body covered 
above with irregular small flat scales and large trihedral subtrian- 
gular tubercles, forming 12 or 14 longitudinal series ; these tubercles 
are not so large as in G.fedtschenkoi, though, as in that species, much 
larger than the interspaces between them, the diameter of the largest 
not quite equal to half that of the eye ; they are strongly keeled. 
Abdominal scales large, cycloid-hexagonal, imbricate, smooth, in 
about 20 longitudinal series in the middle of the belly. Male 
with five or six praeanal pores. Tail feebly depressed, tapering, 
above with rows of large spinose trihedral tubercles, beneath 



aYMNODACTYLUS. 

with a median series of enlarged transverse plates. Sandy-coloured 
above, bro \vii-spot ted; tail with brown aimuli; lower surfaces 
white. 

Prom snout to vent 1'85 inches ; tail 2-3. 

Hob. From Egypt southwards to Abyssinia and eastwards to 
Afghanistan and Sind (Sukkur and Laki). 



p. 28. 



53. Gymnodactylus brevipes. 

r 

Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 



Gymnodactylus brevipes, Blanf. A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, 1874, p. 4o3, 
and E. Persia, ii. p. 344, pi. xxii, fig. 2 ; T 



Differs from G. sealer in the following points : Limbs shorter ; 
the fore limb reaches to between the eye and the tip of the snout, 
the hind limb to the shoulder. Dorsal tubercles small, nearly 
equal to the small ear-opening in size, forming ten longitudinal 
series. Nine upper and seven lower labials. Proeaual pores four. 
The enlarged plates on the lower surface of the tail are about 
equally long and broad, and many of them are divided into two. 
Colour grey, with three rather imperfect longitudinal dusky bands 
on the back, formed of arrow-head-shaped marks ; a dusky line, 
not very strongly marked, from the eye to the shoulder. 

Hub. Baluchistan. The only specimen known was obtained in 
an open sandy plain, with scattered vegetation, not far from Bampur, 
at an elevation of 3000 feet. 



54. Gymnodactylus kachhensis. 

Gymnodactylus kachheusis, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 79 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 82 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 29. 
Gymnodactylus petrensis, Murray. Zool. Sind, p. 362, pi. . fig. 1. 

Allied to the preceding species. Body rather short ; fore limb 
reaching as far as the tip of the snout or a little beyond, hind 
limb to constriction of neck. Dorsal tubercles in 12 or 14 
longitudinal series, smaller than those of G. scaber, similar in shape. 
Abdominal scales in about 30 longitudinal rows. No regular series 
of subcaudal plates. Prseanal pores four to six. Ten or eleven 
upper and eight to ten lower labials. Ear-opening narrow, vertical. 
Sandy-coloured above, with rather indistinct darker spots on body 
and limbs and annuli on the tail. 

From snout to vent 1*6 inches. 

Hob. Cutch, Sind, and N.E. Baluchistan (Quetta). Common in 
Cutch, mostly in crevices of rocks, and very rarely in houses. 

55. Gymnodactylus stoliczkae. 

Gymnodactylus stoliczkaj, Steind. Novara, Rept. p. 15, pi. ii, fig. 2 ; 

Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 31. 
Cyrtodactylus yarkandensis, Anders. P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 381, fig. 



64 

Head moderate, oviform, much depressed ; snout much longer 
than the diameter of the orbit, slightly longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear-opening ; latter very small, suboval. 
Limbs rather long ; digits long, slender, slightly depressed at the 
base, interiorly with well-developed lamellae. Body much depressed. 
Head and body covered with rather large, flat, round granules, 
some of which are slightly enlarged and generally tubercular. 
Eostral subpentagonal, with median cleft above ; nostril between 
the rostral, the nrst labial, and three nasals ; 10 upper and 9 
lower labials ; mental large, triangular, a little longer than broad ; 
two or three pairs of chin-shields, median largest and forming a 
short suture behind the mental. Abdominal scales moderate, sub- 
hexagonal, slightly imbricate. N"o femoral or prseanal pores. Tail 
swollen, depressed, about as long as head and body, ringed, with 
three enlarged blunt tubercles at each side of the ring. Grey 
above, with darker wavy cross bands on the back. 

From snout to vent 1*6 inches. 

Hob. Upper Indus valley in Ladak. 

56. Gymnodactylus lawderanus. 

Gymnodactylus lawderanus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 105, 
pi. ii, fig. 4 ; Theob. Cat. p. 81 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 32. 

Body rather slender and elongate, depressed, covered above with 
numerous granules intermixed with small roundish tubercles. 
Upper side of head equally granular, the granular scales being 
somewhat larger on the snout. Eostral large, broad ; nostril pierced 
between the rostral, the first labial, and two nasals ; 9 upper and 
8 lower labials ; mental triangular, partially wedged in between 
two elongate chin-shields, forming a suture below it ; each of the 
chin-shields is followed along the labials by three other somewhat 
rounded shields. Eai'-opening small, rounded. Ventral scales 
small. Two pairs of pr&anal pores in the male, close together, 
and forming an angle. General colour above greyish brown, very 
densely marbled and spotted with dark brown, with some indistinct 
undulating, whitish cross bands on the body, margined on the 
anterior edges with blackish brown ; a somewhat indistinct dark 
band from the nostril through the eve to the ear ; front and hind 
edges of the eye white ; labials spotted and speckled with brown ; 
below whitish. 

Length of body nearly 2 inches. 

Hob. Almora, Kumaun. 

57. Gymnodactylus nebulosus. 

Gymnodactylus nebulosus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 

' Theob. Cat. p. 84 ; Baukng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 34, pi. iv, fig. 1. 
Gymnodactylus speciosus, Bedd. I. c. ; Theob. I. c. p. 83. 
Gymnodactylus collegalensis, Bedd. I. c. ; Theob. I. c. 

Head rather large, oviform, generally very convex, sometimes 



GYMNODACTYLUS. 65 

more depressed ; snout longer than the diameter of the orbit or 
the distance between the eye and the ear-opening ; forehead slightly 
concave ; ear-opening elliptical, oblique, one third to one halt' the 
diameter of the eye. Body rather short, not much depressed. 
Limbs moderate ; digits short, thick, slightly depressed at the base, 
compressed at the end, beneath with enlarged plates. Head 
covered with granules, which are larger on the snout ; rostral quad- 
rangular, generally nearly twice as broad as deep ; nostril pierced 
between the rostral, the first labial, and several small scales ; 9 
to 11 upper and 7 to 9 lower labials ; mental triangular ; a pair 
of large chin-shields forming a suture behind the point of the 
mental, surrounded by several smaller shields. Upper surface 
of body covered with small granules, which are uniform or inter- 
mixed with more or less numerous, irregularly scattered, small 
roundish keeled tubercles. Abdominal scales small, cycloid, imbri- 
cate, smooth. No femoral or praeanal pores. Tail cylindrical, 
tapering, probably prehensile, covered with small imbricate smooth 
scales, largest below. Pale brownish above, variously ornamented 
with brown spots or cross bands becoming blackish towards their 
borders and more or less distinctly finely margined with lighter ; 

a brown band passing through the eye ; lower surfaces whitish, the 
throat reticulated with brown, which reticulation has a tendency to 
form oblique lines. 

From snout to vent 2 inches; tail T7. 

Hab. India south of 20, and Ceylon ; found in the daytime 
under stones or dead trees, in forests. 

58. Gymnodactylus jeyporensis. 

Gymnodactylus jeyporensis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 685 j Boideng. 
Cat. Liz. i, p. 36, pi. iv, fig. 2. 

Head rather large, oviform ; snout longer than the diameter of 
the orbit or the distance between the eye and the ear-opening; 
forehead and loreal region slightly concave ; ear-opening an oblique 
slit, three fifths the diameter of the eye. Body depressed, rather 
short. Limbs moderate ; digits rather short, cylindrical in their 
basal, compressed in their distal portion, with enlarged plates 
beneath. Head covered with large subequal flat granules ; rostral 
quadrangular, twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; 
nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 
10 upper and 7 lower labials ; mental triangular ; a pair of large 
chin-shields forming a suture behind the point of the mental, sur- 
rounded by much smaller chin-shields. Body covered above with 
uniform juxtaposed large squarish or hexagonal flat scales arranged 
regularly like the bricks of a wall. Abdominal scales smooth, 
round, imbricate, not half the size of the dorsals. No enlarged 
pnoanal or femoral scales or pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, 
slightly swollen, covered with uniform, rather large smooth scales, 
which are imbricate beneath. Light yellowish brown above, with 



66 GECKXXNIDJE. 

large reddish-brown, black-edged spots arranged in pairs ; two 
transverse spots on the nape, the posterior crescent-shaped ; head 
with small darker spots and a streak from the eye to the ear ; lips 
and side of throat with small brown dots and marblings ; lower 
surfaces brownish white. 

Prom snout to vent 2 inches. 

Hob. Patinghe Hill, Jeypore, near Vizagapatatn, 4200 feet ; in 
woods. 

59. Gymnodactylus deccanensis. 

Gymnodactylus deccanensis, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 115, pi. xii, fig. E ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 81 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 30. 

Head rather large, oviform ; snout longer than the diameter of 
the orbit or the distance between the eye and the ear-opening ; fore- 
head and loreal region concave ; ear-opening suboval, vertical, about 
one third the diameter of the eye. Body moderately elongate, de- 

Sressed. Limbs rather long; digits moderately elongate, cylin- 
rical in the basal, compressed in the distal portion ; the plates 
under the basal phalanx very small, little larger than the surround- 
ing tubercles. Head covered with convex granules, largest on the 
snout and temples ; rostral quadrangular, not quite twice as broad 
as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the 
rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 9 to 11 upper and as 
many lower labials ; mental triangular or pentagonal ; a pair of 
large chin-shields, forming a long suture behind the point of the 
mental, in contact externally and posteriorly with two smaller 
pairs. Body covered above with large juxtaposed subequal tubercles 
arranged in more or less regular transverse series; these tubercles 
flat or very slightly keeled, generally with a small raised point in 
the centre. Abdominal scales round, smooth, subimbricate, much 
smaller than dorsals. Males with enlarged prseanal and femoral 
scales, but without pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered with 
uniform smooth scales arranged in rings. Keddish brown above, 
with narrow white, black-edged cross bars ; the first semicircular, 
extending from one eye to the other across the nape ; a second on 
the scapular region, two on the body, and a fifth on the sacrum ; 
similar bands forming annuli round the tail ; lower surfaces whitish. 
From snout to vent 2-5 inches ; tail 2-25. 
Hob, Deccan (Bombay Presidency) ; also Matheran near Bombay. 

60. Gymnodactylus albofasciatus. 
Gymnodactylus albofasciatus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 37, pi. iv, fig. 3. 

This species resembles G. deccanensis strikingly in size, propor- 
tions, and colour, but is distinguished by the following characters : 
The dorsal pholidosis is not composed of uniform large tubercles, 
but of intermixed smaller and larger tubercles, the latter being 
mostly feebly keeled ; the small scales on the limbs and upper part 



GYMNODACTYLUS. 67 

of the tail intermixed with larger keeled tubercles. The ventral 
scales are larger, tubercular, and feebly keeled. No chin-shields 
behind the median pair. The tubercular plates under the basal 
phalanx of all the digits much more developed. The ground-colour 
of the upper parts darker than in G. deccanensis, chestnut-brown. 
Hob. South Canara ; plains and up to 5000 feet. 

61. Grymnodactylus oldhami. 

Gymnodactylus oldhami, Theob. Cat. p. 81 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, 

p. 38. 

Crown of head behind the eyes finely granular, the scales in 
front being larger; 11 upper and 10 lower labials; three pairs of 
chin-shields. Back granular, with about 30 longitudinal rows 
of tubercles contained within an area bounded by faint keels 
margining the belly. Enlarged praeanal and femoral scales, but no 
pores. Colour above vinous brown ; a white semicircular line 
joins the superciliary ridges ; a second horseshoe-shaped white line 
runs from the gape below the ear to the opposite side, enclosing a 
nuchal collar ; behind the collar two closely approximated white 
lines run along the spine, becoming soon broken into spots merely ; 
on the sides are more white spots, tending to form three distinct 
lines, the lowest of which coincides with the ventral keel ; belly 
whitish. 

tiab. South Canara ; unknown to me. 



62. Gymnodactylus triedrus. 

Gymnodactylus triedrus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 113 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 85 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 38. 
Geckoella punctata, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 99, pi. is ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 96. 

Head rather large, oviform ; snout longer than the diameter of 
the eye, slightly longer than the distance between the eye and the 
ear-opening; forehead concave; ear-opening small, suboval, hori- 
zontal. Body and limbs moderate ; digits short, cylindrical in their 
basal, compressed in their distal portion, with well-developed 
tubercle-like plates inferiorly. Head covered with small granules, 
largest on the snout ; rostral quadrangular, not twice as broad as 
deep ; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and 
several small scales ; 10 or 11 upper and 9 lower labials ; mental 
triangular ; two or three pairs of chin-shields, median largest and 
forming a long suture behind the point of the mental. Upper 
surface of body covered with small granules intermixed with 
numerous small trihedral tubercles. Abdominal scales rather 
small, cycloid, imbricate, smooth. Males with 3 or 4 praanal 
pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, rather swollen, covered with 
roundish smooth scales, which are small and subimbricate above, 

1-2 



68 GECKONID^E. 

much larger and strongly imbricate beneath. Brown above with 
small whitish spots ; lower surfaces light brown. 

From snout to vent 2'4 inches; tail 2-1. 

Hcib. Ceylon. 

63. Gymnodactylus frenatns. 

Gymnodactylus frenatns, Giinth. Rcpt. B. I. p. 113, pi. xii, fig. D ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 80 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 42. 

Head large, depressed, oviform ; snout longer than the orbit, 
the diameter of which equals the distance from orbit to ear-opening ; 
forehead concave ; ear-opening suboval, oblique, nearly one third 
the diameter of the eye. Body and limbs rather elongate. Digits 
strong, distinctly depressed at the base, strongly compressed in the 
remaining portion ; the basal phalanx with well-developed trans- 
verse plates beneath. Head granular, the granules largest on the 
snout ; a few scattered round tubercles on the temples ; rostral 
subquadrangular, twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above, 
and bordering on the nostril considerably ; latter pierced between 
the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 10 to 12 upper and 
9 or 10 lower labials ; mental broadly triangular ; a pair of chin- 
shields, forming a suture behind the mental ; a few small chin- 
shields on each side of the median pair ; gular scales minutely 
granular. Body covered above with flat granules intermixed with 
irregularly scattered small round smooth tubercles. A slight fold 
from axilla to groin. Abdominal scales rather small, cycloid, 
imbricate. Males with two pairs of praanal pores. Tail cylindrical, 
tapering, covered above with small flat subquadrangular scales, 
beneath with a median series of large transverse plates. Light 
pinkish brown above, with five pairs of angular dark-brown spots 
confluent into cross bands, the anterior, on the nape, uniting 
with a dark-brown band extending to the eye, and continued, more 
or less interruptedly, along the side of the body ; tail with dark- 
brown annuli ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 3'2 inches ; tail 4'3. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

64. Gymnodactylus khasiensis. 

Pentadactylus ? khasiensis, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 75. 
Gymnodactylus khasiensis, Theob. Cat. p. 84 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, 
p. 44. 

Head large, ir.uch depressed, oviform ; snout longer than the 
diameter of the orbit, which equals its distance from the ear- 
opening ; forehead and loreal region concave ; ear-opening sub- 
oval, about one third the diameter of the eye. Body and limbs 
rather elongate. Digits rather elongate, slightly depressed at the 
base, strongly compressed in the remaining portion; subdigital 
lamellae well-developed, the distal one of the basal portion largest 
and nearly as long as broad. Head granular, the granules largest 



GYMNODACTYLUS. 69 

on the snout ; occiput and temples with scattered small round 
tubercles ; rostral subquadrangular, not twice as broad as deep, 
with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral and 
several small scales or granules ; 10 to 12 upper and as many 
lower labials ; mental triangular ; one or two pairs of chin-shields, 
the largest forming a suture behind the point of the mental ; 
throat minutely granulate. Body and limbs covered above with 
small granules intermixed with numerous small roundish, feebly 
keeled, subtrihedral tubercles ; a slight fold from axilla to groin ; 
ventral scales small (about 35 across the middle of the belly), 
cycloid, imbricate. Male without pubic groove or femoral pores, 
with a series of 10 to 13 prseanal pores forming a very open 
angle. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered above with small flat 
granules, with a few scattered slightly enlarged tubercles, below 
with small flat scales. Brown above, with darker angular spots, 
forming more or less regular series along the back ; a dark streak 
on the side of the head, passing through the eye ; tail with dark 
annuli ; lower surfaces brownish. 

Prom snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 3'9. 

Hob. Khasi Hills, S. of Assam. 

65. Gymnodactylus rubidus. 

Puellula rubida, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 109 j Giinth. Hept 

B. I. p. 118. 

Gecko tigris, Tytler, J.A. S.B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 546. 
Cyrtodactylus rubidus, Theob. Cat. p. 93. 
Gymnodactylus rubidus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 45. 

Closely allied to the preceding, but the digits are shorter, and 
the subdigital lamella? much smaller, considerably narrower than 
the digits. A longitudinal groove on the pubic region, containing 
a few prseanal pores in the male. 

Hob. Andaman Islands. 

66. Gymnodactylus pulchellus. 

Cyrtodactylus pulchellus, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1828, p. 224 ; id. 

III. Ind. Zool. ii. pi. Ixxiv. 
Gymnodactylus pulchellus, Giinth. Hept. B. I. p. 113 ; Bouleng. Cat. 

Liz. i, p. 46. 

Head large, much depressed, oviform : snout longer than the 
orbit, the diameter of which equals its distance from the ear-opening ; 
forehead and loreal region concave ; ear-opening suboval, vertical, 
slightly oblique, one third to two fifths the diameter of the eye. 
Body and limbs rather elongate. Digits strong, slightly depressed 
at the base, strongly compressed in the remaining portion ; the 
basal phalanx with well-developed transverse plates beneath. Head 
granular, with small round tubercles on the occipital and tem- 
poral regions, the granules enlarged on the snout, except in the 
frontal and loreal concavities. Eostral subquadrangular, nearly 



70 GECKONID^E. 

twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above, and entering the 
nostril to a considerable extent; the latter directed backward, pierced 
between the rostral, the first labial, and three or four nasals ; 10 
to 13 upper and 10 to 12 lower labials ; mental triangular ; two or 
three pairs of chin-shields, median largest and in contact behind 
the point of the mental ; throat minutely granulate. Body and 
limbs above with small flat granules intermixed with small roundish, 
keeled, subtrihedral tubercles ; a series of keeled tubercles from 
axilla to groin, limiting the abdominal region ; ventral scales cycloid, 
imbricate, moderately large. Males with a longitudinal groove on 
the pubic region containing two parallel series of prreanal pores, 
forming a right angle with a long series of femoral pores ; 
altogether 18 to 20 pores on each side, 4 or 5 of which are in 
the groove. Tail cylindrical, tapering, above with small flat scales 
and annuli of feebly keeled tubercles, beneath with a series of 
large transverse plates. Light brown above, with broad chestnut- 
brown, light-edged cross bands, which are narrower than the inter- 
spaces between them ; the anterior horseshoe- shaped, from eye 
to eye over the nape; the second crescent-shaped, on scapular 
region ; three others on the body ; tail with chestnut-brown 
complete annuli ; lower surfaces dirty white. 

From snout to vent 4 inches ; tail 5. 

Hob. Malay Peninsula ; said to occur also in Bengal. 

67. Gymnodactylus variegatns. 

Naultinus variegatus, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 279. 
Gymnodactylus variegatus, Gunth. Kept. B. I. p. 116; Theob. Cat. 
p. 92 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 43. 

Limbs and digits slender ; the basal joints not very distinct from 
the distal ones, which are strongly compressed, and provided with 
transverse imbricate plates below and a series of much smaller ones 
on the compressed phalanges, llostral notched behind and grooved ; 
nostril between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 10 or 
11 upper and 11 lower labials ; mental partially wedged in between 
two large chin-shields, which form a broad suture with each other. 
Body granular, with numerous large trihedral tubercles. 26 lon- 
gitudinal rows of rather elongate leaf-like scales on the middle of 
the belly. A fold of skin along the side, indicating where the 
abdominal scales terminate and the granules begin. 16 femoral 
pores on each side along the whole length of the thigh. Tail cylin- 
drical, the granules arranged in verticils, and the tubercles in rings ; 
a series of enlarged subcaudals. Grey above, spotted and marbled 
with black, set off with subdued white; a broad dark streak 
bordered with whitish behind each eye, and continued irregularly 
round the occiput ; tail irregularly banded above ; lower parts 
whitish. 

Total length about 6 inches, the tail measuring nearly half that 
length. 

Hob. Moulmein. 

Both this and the following species are unknown to me. 



AGAMTJRA. 71 

68. Gymnodactylus fasciolatus. 

Naultinus fasciolatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 114. 
Gymnodactylus fasciolatus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 116; Tfieob, Cat. 
p. 92 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 44. 

Differs from O. variegatus in the smaller ventral scales, which 
form 36 longitudinal series in the middle of the belly, and in the 
small number of praeanal pores, viz., 5 or 6 on each side, exten- 
ding outwards in a line with the commencement of the thigh. A 
dark-brown band, edged behind with white, from the eye to the 
occiput, where it meets its fellow of the opposite side ; a brown 
similarly white-edged band on the nape, with seven cross bands 
on the body ; tail cross-barred. 

Hah. Subathu, near Simla, Western Himalayas. 

Genus AGAMURA, 
Blanford, A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, 1874, p. 455. 

Digits slender, clawed, cylindrical at the base ; the distal pha- 
langes compressed, forming an angle with the basal portion of 
the digits; the claw between two enlarged scales; digits beneath 
with a row of plates. Body covered with small granules inter- 
mixed with enlarged tubercles. Tail very slender, not fragile. 
Pupil vertical. Males with or without praeanal pores. 

Distribution. Persia, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan. Two species 
are known, one of which inhabits Baluchistan. 

69. Agamnra cmralis. 

Agamura cruralis, Blanf. A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, 1874, p. 455; id. 
Eastern Persia, ii, p. 356, pi. xxiii, fig. 3 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i 
p. 50. 







Fig. 23. Agamura cruralis. 
Head short, feebly depressed ; snout as long as, or slightly longer 



72 GECKONIDJE. 

than, the diameter of the orbit, or the distance between the eye and 
the ear-opening ; eye large ; forehead not concave ; ear-opening 
subelliptical, vertical, one third or two fifths the diameter of the 
eye. Body feebly depressed, rather short. Limbs very long and 
slender ; the hind limb if carried forward reaches the eye ; the fore 
limb being stretched forward, the wrist attains the tip of the snout 
or slightly beyond; digits long and slender, unequal. Head 
covered with flat granules, largest on the snout ; rostral broader 
than deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the 
rostral, the first labial, and three rather swollen nasals; 13 or 14 
upper and 10 or 11 lower labials ; mental elongately trapezoidal, twice 
as long as broad ; no chin-shields. Body covered above with small, 
rather irregular, flat granules, intermixed with rather numerous 
scattered round flat tubercles. Ventral scales small, roundish- 
hexagonal, juxtaposed or subimbricate, smooth. Male with two 
praeanal pores. Tail very thin and rounded, of nearly the same 
thickness to the end, covered above with smooth imbricate elongate 
squarish scales, beneath with a row of larger plates. Greyish 
brown or sandy above, more or less dotted with darker, especially 
on the sides of the head and neck ; usually a dark cross band on 
the back of the neck and four or five others on the back. Lower 
surfaces white ; throat more or less brown dotted. 

From snout to vent 2'5 inches ; tail 2-7. 

Hob. Baluchistan ; in barren stony plains up to 3000 feet. 

Genus PRISTURUS, 
Kiippell, N. Wirbelth. Abyss., Kept. p. 16, 1835. 

Digits slender, clawed, cylindrical at the base ; the distal pha- 
langes compressed, forming an angle with the basal portion of the 
digits, the lower surface of which has a row of plates. Body not 
depressed, covered -with uniform granules. Tail compressed, 
keeled. Pupil circular; eyelid distinct all round the eye. No 
prseanal or femoral pores. 

A genus of diurnal Geckos, comprising 6 species, inhabiting the 
shores and Islands of the Eed Sea and the Persian Gulf. The 
following species has recently been added to the fauna of Sind by 
J. A. Murray. 

70. Pristurus rupestris. 

Pristurus nipestris, Blanford, A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, 1874, p. 454 ; 
id. Eastern Persia, ii, p. 350, pi. xxiii, fig. 1 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, 
p. 365, pi. , fig. 1 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. p. 53. 

Head short and high; snout acuminate, If to \\ diameter of 
orbit ; forehead scarcely concave ; ear-opening oval, oblique, about 
one third the diameter of the orbit. Limbs long, the hind limb 
when stretched forwards reaching the ear-opening or between 
the shoulder and the ear-opening ; digits long and slender. Snout 



GONATODES. 73 

covered with polygonal convex scales ; the remainder of the head, 
the body, and the limbs covered with small granules ; those on the 
belly larger, though smaller than the scales on the snout. Eostral 
more than twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril 
pierced between the rostral and two or three nasals ; 7 or 8 upper 
and 5 or 6 lower labials ; mental very large, truncate posteriorly ; 
no regular chin-shields. Tail longer than head and body, slender, 
strongly compressed, keeled above and beneath; the two keels 
denticulate, the upper most strongly, especially in males, in which 
it forms a regular crest, which, however, never extends to the 
body. Grey-brown or olive above, clouded with darker, and 
frequently with round lighter spots ; a dark streak passing through 
the eye ; small bright red dots may be present on the sides of the 
body ; sometimes a light reddish vertebral band. 

From snout to vent 1-25 inches ; tail 2-1. 

Hob. Sind (Karachi), according to Murray ; also islands in 
Persian Gulf, Muscat, and Socotra. 



Genus GONATODES, 
Fitzing. Syst. Kept. p. 91, 1843. 

Digits slender, clawed, cylindrical or depressed at the base (in 
one species dilated) ; the distal phalanges compressed, forming an 
angle with the basal portion of the digits, the lower surface of 
which has a row of plates. Body more or less depressed, granular 
or tubercular above. Tail not compressed. Pupil circular ; 
eyelid distinct all round the eye. Males with or without praeanal 
or femoral pores. 

Of the 18 species of this genus, 6 occur in Tropical America, 2 
in the Malay subregion, the rest in India and Ceylon. Diurnal. 

Synopsis of Indian and Ceylonese Species. 

A. Digits not dilated. 

a. Flanks without spine-like projecting tuber- 
cles. 

a'. Males with femoral pores, without prae- 
anal pores. 
". Back with uniform keeled granules ; 

4 or 5 pores on each side G. indicus, p. 74. 

b". Back with uniform or heterogenous 
round granules, each with a raised 
central point or short keel ; 4 to 6 

pores on each side G. wynadensis, p. 75. 

c". Back with uniform round granules ; 

8 pores on each side G. sixparensis, p. 75. 

b'. Males without femoral pores, with prae- 
anal pores. 

a". Back with small smooth granules 
irregularly intermixed with small 
smooth or slightly keeled tubercles ; 
ventral scales smooth ; 6 to 9 pores. G. ornatus, p. 75. 



74 GECKONIDyE. 

b". Back with small granules irregularly 

intermixed with slightly larger ones, 

all with a central raised point or 

short keel ; ventral scales keeled ; 

6 to 8 pores G. marmoratus, p. 76. 

c'. Males with praeanal and femoral pores. 
a". Back with small strongly keeled 

tubercles, and scattered enlarged 

ones on the flanks ; 2 or 3 praeanal, 

and on each side 3 or 4 femoral pores. G. mysoriensis, p. 77. 
b. Flanks with small spine-like projecting 

tubercles. 
a". Scales under the neck keeled ; tail 

with rings of spine-like tubercles ; 

3 or 4 prseanal, and on each side 3 

to 5 femoral pores G. kandianus, p. 77. 

b" ' . Scales under the neck smooth ; tail 

with rings of spine-like tubercles ; 

2 to 4 prseanal, and on each side 3 

to 5 femoral pores G. gracilis, p. 78. 

c". No enlarged tubercles on the back ; 

no rings of spines on the tail ; no 

prseanal pores ; 5 to 12 femoral pores 

on each side G. jerdonii, p. 78. 

B. Digits dilated at the base, with large plates 

beneath G. littoralis, p. 79. 

71. Gonatodes indicus. 

Goniodactylus indicus, Gray, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1846, p. 429. 
Gymnodactylus indicus, Gunth. Sept. B. 1. p. 115; Theob. Cat. 

p. 85. 
Gonatodes indicus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 64, pi. vi, fig. 1. 

Head short ; snout obtusely pointed, slightly longer than the 
distance between the eye and the ear-opening, 1| diameter of orbit ; 
forehead not concave ; ear-opening very small, round. Body and 
limbs moderate ; the hind limb scarcely reaching the axilla. Digits 
moderately slender ; the basal joint not dilated, scarcely wider than 
the distal joints, with larger subequal plates beneath. Upper sur- 
faces covered with uniform strongly keeled granules, whicb are larger 
on the back than on the snout. Rostral subquadrangular, twice 
as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between 
the rostral and three nasals ; 7 or 8 upper and 5 or 6 lower labials ; 
mental large, broad, subtriangular or pentagonal, with truncated 
posterior angle ; small chin-shields passing gradually into the gular 
granules. Ventral scales hexagonal, imbricate, smooth or feebly 
keeled. Males with 4 or 5 femoral pores on each side. Tail 
cylindrical, tapering, covered above with uniform small keeled scales, 
below with larger scales, those of the median series being slightly 
enlarged. Brown above, marbled with darker and lighter ; some- 
times a light vertebral line ; brownish white beneath, the throat 
frequently brown, or brown -marbled. 

From snout to vent 1*6 inches; tail 1*8. 

Hob. Nilgiris. 



GONA.TODES. 75 

72. Gonatodes wynadensis. 
Gymnodactylus wynaadensis, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 87. 
Gonatodes wynadensis, Bonleng. Cat. Liz. \, p. 65, pi. vi, fig. 2. 

Habit of O. indicus. The basal part of the digits beneath with, 
very small scales, the two distal scales only being a little enlarged 
and plate-like. Head covered with very small granules, which are 
keeled on the snout. Upper surface of body with lanre round 
granules, each with a raised central point or short keel, largest on 
the sides ; these tubercles are either homogeneous or intermixed 
with much smaller ones, and as there occur specimens which are 
intermediate in this respect, no great importance can be attached 
to this difference. Abdominal scales smooth. 6 upper and 7 
or 8 lower labials. Male with 4 or 5 femoral pores on each side. 
Tail generally with a median series of transversely dilated plates 
below. Brown above, marbled with darker and lighter; the 
median dorsal line sometimes lighter, dark-bordered ; below 
brownish, the throat brown-marbled ; tail beneath dark browu, 
usually lighter spotted. 

From snout to vent 1'6 inches ; tail 1/8. 

Hub. Wynaad and hill-ranges further south, in moist forests. 

73. Gonatodes sisparensis. 

Gymnodactylus maculatus (non Steind.\ Beddome, Madras Jmim. 

Med. Sc. 1870. 

Gymnodactylus sisparensis, Theob. Cat. p. 86. 
Gonatodes sisparensis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 66. 

Closely allied to &-'. wynadensis, but the digits much more 
elongate. 8 femoral pores on each side. Dorsal tubercles homo- 
geneous. Brown, with regular transverse dark bands across the 
body and tail. 

From snout to vent 2-4 inches. 

Hob. Sispara Ghat, Nilgiri hills. 

74. Gonatodes ornatns. 

Gymnodactylus ornatus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 88. 
Gonatodes ornatus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 66, pi. vi, fig. 3. 

Head rather elongate ; snout acuminate, longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear-opening, 1| to If diameter of orbit ; 
forehead feebly concave ; ear-opening small, vertically oval. Body 
moderate, limbs rather slender ; the hind limb reaching the shoulder 
or a little beyond. Digits elongate, slender ; the basal part not 
dilated, scarcely wider than the distal, beneath with very small 
plates and a large discoid one under the articulation. Snout covered 
with keeled granules ; hinder part of head with uniform minute 
granules. Eostral four-sided, twice as broad as deep, with median 



76 GECKONIDJ3. 

cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral and three nasals ; 
6 to 9 upper and 7 cr 8 lower labials ; mental large, triangular or 
pentagonal, its posterior angle truncated and in contact with a small 
median chin-shield ; two pairs of larger chin-shields. Upper 
surface of body covered with tmall smooth granules, irregularly 
intermixed with small round convex, sometimes slightly keeled, 
tubercles. Abdominal scales small, round, imbricate, smooth. 
Males with 6 to 9 praeanal pores forming an angular line. Tail 
cylindrical, slender in its distal half, covered above with small 
smooth scales, in its anterior portion with semiannuli of pointed 
keeled tubercles ; inferiorly with large smooth scales, the median 
series being a little enlarged. Brown above, with blackish and 
whitish markings ; head usually with black and white angular 
lines ; generally a black and white band across the neck and a 
white black-edged ocellus in front of the arm ; tail with complete 
black and white annuli ; lower surface brownish, the lower lip 
brown-edged. 

From snout to vent 2-15 inches ; tail 2'4. 

Hob. Tinnevelly and Travancore ; under rocks, in dry jungles. 

75. Gonatodes marmoratus. 

Gymnodactylus marmoratus (non D. fy _Z?.), Beddome, Madras Joiirn. 

Med. Sc. 1870. 

Gymnodactylus beddornei, Theob. Cat. p. 88. 
Gonatodes marmoratus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 67, pi. vi, fig. 4. 

Head rather elongate ; snout acuminate, longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear-opening, 1| to If the diameter of 
orbit ; forehead feebly concave ; ear-opening small, vertically oval. 
Body moderate, limbs rather slender ; the hind limb reaching the 
shoulder or a little beyond. Digits elongate, slender ; the basal 
part not dilated, scarcely wider than the distal, beneath with 
regular plates, that under the articulation being large and discoid. 
Head covered with small granules, largest and keeled on the 
snout. Bostral four-sided, twice as broad as deep, with median 
cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral and three nasals ; 
6 to 8 upper and as many lower labials ; mental large, triangular 
or pentagonal, its posterior angle truncated ; chin-shields very 
small. Upper surface of body covered with small granules, ir- 
regularly intermixed with slightly larger ones ; all these tubercles 
with a central raised point or a short keel. Abdominal scales very 
small, juxtaposed, convex, keeled. Males with 6 to 8 praeanal 
pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered above with uniform, small, 
i'eebly keeled scales, below with larger smooth scales, those of the 
median series sometimes a little enlarged. Brown above, clouded 
with darker and lighter markings ; tail with ill-defined darker and 
lighter annuli ; the lower lip edged with dark brown ; another 
dark brown streak, parallel to the latter, on each side of the throat. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 1*9. 

Hob. Travancore, Wynaad, Tinnevelly, 3000 to 5000 feet. 



GONATODES. 77 

76. Gonatodes mysoriensis. 

Gymnodactylus mysoriensis, Jerdon, J. A. 8. B. xxii, 1853, p. 469 ; 

Giinth. Rept. B. 1. p. 114 ; Theob. Cat. p. 90. 
Gonatodes mysoriensis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 68. 

Head short ; snout obtusely pointed, longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear-opening, 1| the diameter of the orbit ; 
forehead not concave ; ear-opening very small, oval. Body and 
limbs moderate ; the hind limb not reaching beyond the axilla. 
Digits slender but rather short, the basal part not dilated, and with 
small plates beneath. Upper surface covered with small strongly 
keeled tubercles, smallest on the hinder part of the head, largest 
on the sides of the bodv, where the}' are intermixed with irregularly 
scattered tubercles, differing only in size from the granules of the 
back. Rostral quadrangular, nearly twice as broad as deep, with 
median cleft and emargination above ; nostril pierced between the 
rostral and three nasals ; 6 or 7 upper and 7 or 8 lower labials ; 
mental large, broadly triangular, its posterior angle truncated ; 
small chin-shields passing gradually into the rather large, flat, gular 
granules. Abdominal scales moderate, hexagonal, imbricate, smooth. 
Males with 2 or 3 prseanal, and on each side 3 or 4 femoral pores. 
Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered above with small keeled scales and 
large pointed keeled tubercles in six longitudinal series, below 
with larger smooth scales, those of the median series slightly en- 
larged. Brown above, frequently with a light vertebral band and 
a series of dark brown marks on the back ; digits very conspicuously 
dark-barred ; lower surface whitish, throat sometimes brown- 
marbled. 

From snout to vent 1 inch ; tail 1*5. 

Hob. Mysore and Shervaroy hills. 

77. Gonatodes kandianus. 

Gymnodactylus kandianus, Eelaart, Prodr. p. 186 ; Giinth. Rept. B. 

I. p. 114 ; Theob. Cat. p. 86. 
? Gymnodactylus wicksii, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, pt. 2, 

p. 165 ; Theob. Cat. p. 91. 
? Gymnodactylus humei, Theob. Cat. p. 89. 
Gonatodes kandianus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 68. 

Head rather elongate ; snout obtusely pointed, longer than the 
distance between the eye and the ear-opening, 1| the diameter 
of the orbit ; forehead not concave ; ear-opening small, oval. 
Body and limbs rather slender ; the hind limb reaching the 
axilla or the shoulder. Digits slender, the basal part not dilated, 
scarcely wider than the distal, and with enlarged plates beneath. 
Snout covered with suboval keeled granules ; the rest of the 
head minutely granulate; rostral twice as broad as deep, with 
median emargination and cleft above ; nostril pierced between 
the rostral and three or four nasals ; 7 or 8 upper and as many 



78 GECKONID.E. 

lower labials; mental large, triangular, with truncated posterior 
angle ; numerous small chin-shields passing gradually into the 
gular granules, which are feebly keeled. Upper surface of body 
covered with small, more or less distinctly keeled granules, inter- 
mixed with irregularly scattered small keeled tubercles; flanks with 
small, widely separated, spine-like tubercles. Scales on the limbs 
keeled. Ventral scales cycloid, imbricate, those under the neck 
keeled, the others smooth (or keeled in the var. tropidoy aster). 
Males with 3 or 4 praeaual, and on each side 3 to 5 femoral 
pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, above with very small keeled 
scales and annuli of spine-like tubercles, beneath with larger 
scales, but no transversely dilated median plates. Brown 
above, variegated with darker and lighter, these variegations 
generally forming transverse markings on the back and tail ; some- 
times a light vertebral band ; the spine-like tubercles on the 
flanks white ; lower surfaces light brown or dirty white, the throat 
sometimes blackish. 

From snout to vent 1-4 inches; tail 1'5. 

Hob. Ceylon, Southern India ; abundant in houses in Kandy. 
G. ivicksii is from Preparis Island. 



78. Gonatodes gracilis. 

? Gymnodactylus malabaricus, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 469 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 90. 
Gymnodactylus gracilis, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870; 

Theob. Cat. p. 87. 
Gonatodes gracilis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 70, pi. vi, fig. 5. 

Closely allied to G. Jcandianus, from which it differs in the 
following points : The gular granules are larger, flat, smooth ; so 
are also the ventral scales ; the mental is very seldom truncated 
posteriorly, and the median chin-shields form a suture behind its 
point. Males with 2 or 4 praeanal, and on each side 3 to 5 
femoral pores. Grey-brown above, with darker and lighter spots ; 
usually a median row of light blotches on the centre of the back ; 
temples and sides of neck and throat with oblique dark brown 
lines ; tail with blackish semianuuli ; digits conspicuously blackish- 
barred ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 1*25 inches; tail l - 7. 

Hub. Southern India, Ceylon ; in forests. 

79. Gonatodes jerdonii. 

Gymnodactylus jerdonii, Theobald, Cat. Rept, As. Soc. Mus. p. 31 ; 

id. Cat. p ; 89. 
Gonatodes jerdonii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 71. 

In habit similar to G. Tcnndianus and yracilis. Digits not 
dilated, but with rather large plates under the basal part, the most 
distal of these plates being the largest and longitudinally oval in 



GONATODES. 79 

shape. Upper surface covered with uniform small granules, 
smooth on the back, a little larger and keeled on the snout ; a few 
erect spine-like tubercles ou the flanks. Eostral four-sided, nearly 
twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced 
between the rostral and three nasals ; 8 to 10 upper aud 7 or 8 
lower labials ; mental large, triangular or pentagonal ; small chin- 
shields passing gradually into the granules of the throat, which are 
rather large, flat and smooth. Ventral scales hexagonal, imbricate, 
smooth. Male with 5 to 12 femoral pores on each side; no 
praeanal pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered with small 
smooth scales, in its basal half with a few scattered larger tubercles ; 
median series of subcaudals enlarged. Grey-brown above, clouded 
with darker ; the small lateral spines white : sometimes a black 
cervical spot ; whitish beneath, the throat sometimes brown- 
dotted. 

From snout to vent 1*65 inches. 

Hub. Ceylon, Southern India (Lamparis Peak, 5000 feet). 

80. Gonatodes littoralis. 

Gymnodactylus littoralis, Jenlon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 469 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 90. 
Gymnodactylus planipes, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 

' Theob. Cat. p. 87. 
Gonatodes littoralis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 71, pi. vi, fig. 6. 

Habit very slender. Head long ; snout pointed, much longer 
than the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, If to 1| 
diameter of orbit ; forehead very slightly concave ; ear-opening 
small, oval, vertical. The hind limb does not reach beyond axilla. 
Digits strongly dilated at the base, with large plates beneath ; 
the distal plate is the largest, longer than broad, truncated an- 
teriorly. Upper surface covered with equal smooth granules, 
minute on the back, much larger on the snout ; a few very small 
subcouical tubercles are scattered on the flanks. Eostral large, 
quadrangular, twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; 
nostril pierced between the rostral and three nasals ; 8 to 1 
upper and 6 to 8 lower labials ; mental large, broadly trian- 
gular, its posterior angle truncated ; small chin-shields passing 
gradually into the small smooth gular granules. Ventral scales 
hexagonal, imbricate, smooth. Males with 16 to 18 femoral pores 
on each side ; no praanal pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, above 
with uniform small smooth scales, beneath with a median series of 
transversely dilated plates. Grey-brown above, generally with a 
row of lighter dark-edged spots along the back, and a black spot 
on the nape ; nearly always a black line bordering the lower lip, 
and extending as far as the ear ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 1*35 inches ; tail 1'4. 

Hub. Malabar; Nilambiir and Nellakota, on the west side of 
the Nilgiris ; found on trees in dry teak-forests. Jerdon's type 
specimen was obtained in a warehouse on the sea-coast. 



80 GECKONIDJE. 

Genus CALODACTYLUS, 

Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870, p. 30. 

Digits slender at the base, free, with squarish scales beneath, 
with large trapezoidal penultimate and distal expansions, the lower 
surface of each of which is covered by two large plates separated 
by a longitudinal groove ; all the digits clawed, the claw retractile 
between the distal plates ; in the inner digit the penultimate 
expansion is absent. Body covered above with small granular 
scales, intermixed with larger tubercles ; abdominal scales juxta- 
posed. Pupil vertical. No prseanal or femoral pores. 

Southern India. 




a b 

Fig. 24. Foot of Calodactylus aureus : a, upper ; b, lower surface. 

81. Calodactylus aureus, 

Calodactylus aureus, Bedd. Madras Joum. Med. Sc. 1870, p. 30, 
pi. ii. ; Theob. Cat. p. 74 ; Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 108. 

Head large, oviform, very distinct from neck ; a strong rounded 
supraorbital and canthal ridge ; five deep concavities, viz. a frontal, 
two postnasals, and two loreals ; snout longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear-opening, 1^ the diameter of the 
orbit ; ear-opening vertical, measuring half the diameter of the eye. 
Body not much depressed. Limbs long, slender. The width of 
the digital expansion measures about half the diameter of the eye. 
Head covered with very small granules, largest on the canthal 
ridges; rostral four-sided, twice as broad as high, its posterior 
border concave ; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first 
labial, and three nasals, the anterior large and in contact with its 
fellow ; 12 or 13 upper and as many lower labials ; mental as 
large as the adjacent labials, or smaller than them ; no regular 
chin-shields, but small polygonal scales passing gradually into 
the granules which cover the gular region. Upper surface 
covered with minute granules ; back with scattered, scarcely pro- 
'minent, smooth, round, larger tubercles, hardly as large as the 
ventral scales ; the latter flat, smooth, squarish, juxtaposed, 



PTYODACTYLUS. 81 

arranged like the bricks of a wall. Tail long, cylindrical, remark- 
ably slender, covered with squarish scales which are much larger 
beneath. Brownish white above (golden during life), dotted or 
vermiculated with brown ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 3-5 inches ; tail 3-2. 

ffab. Amongst rocks in dark shady ravines on the Tirupati 
Hills in North Arcot. 

Genus PTYODACTYLUS, 

Gray, Ann. Phil. (2) x. 1825, p. 198. 

Digits slender, free, with a series of transverse plates below, 
the extremity strongly dilated, with two diverging series of lamellae 
beneath ; every digit armed with a claw retractile in the anterior 
notch of the distal expansion. Body covered above with small 
granular scales, uniform or intermixed with enlarged tubercles ; 
abdominal scales scarcely imbricate. Pupil vertical. No prseanal 
or femoral pores. 




Fig. 25. Foot of Ptyodactylus homolepis, lower surface. 

Of the two species of this genus, one inhabits the arid districts 
of North Africa, Arabia, and Syria, the other Sind. 

82. Ptyodactylus homolepis. 

Ptyodactylus homolepis, Stanford, J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, pt. 2, p. 19, 
pi. ii ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 358 ; Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 111. 

Head large, very distinct from neck ; snout slightly longer than 
the distance between the eye and the ear-opening ; forehead con- 
cave; ear-opening vertical, subcrescentic. Limbs long and thin. 
Upper parts covered with small uniform granules, smallest on the 
back of the head and neck. Nostril pierced between three scales, 
forming a swelling; rostral six-sided; 14 or 15 upper and as 
many lower labials ; mental small ; a row of small chin-shields. 
Ventral scales small, smooth ; larger scales on the pubic region. 
Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered above with uniform small 
granules, beneath with larger flat scales. Light brownish grey 
above, with broad transverse wavy bands of lighter and darker 
shades ; white beneath. 

From snout to vent 4 inches ; tail 3'4. 

Hab. Sind (Khirthar range, Shikarpur district). 

G 



82 



GECKOKID^E. 



Genus HEMIDACTYLUS, 
Gray, Ann. Phil. (2) x. 1825, p. 199. 

Digits free or more or less webbed, dilated, beneath with two 
rows of lamellae ; all the digits provided with slender distal clawed 
joints angularly bent and rising from within the extremity of the 




Fig. 26. Foot of Hemidactylus coctm. 
a. Upper surface, b. Lower surface. 

dilated portion. Dorsal lepidosis uniform or heterogeneous. Pupil 
vertical. Males with prseanal or femoral pores. 

Distribution. Southern Europe ; Southern Asia ; Africa ; Tropical 
America; Polynesia. 30 species are known. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Slender compressed joint of inner digit very 

short, not half as long as dilated basal 
portion ; 4 to 6 lamellae under inner, and 
7 to 10 under median toe *. 
. Dorsal granules intermixed with nume- 
rous small, roundish, keeled tubercles . . H. reticulatus, p. 84. 

b. Dorsal granules intermixed with longi- 

tudinally oval or elliptical, strongly 

keeled tubercles H. ffracilis, p. 84. 

c. Dorsal granules uniform, or with scattered 

small, round, convex tubercles H.frenatus, p. 85. 

B. Slender compressed joint of inner digit at 

least half as long as dilated portion. 
a. Enlarged dorsal tubercles strongly 
keeled. 



* The infradigital lamellae are counted longitudinally, those which are 
divided on the median line being reckoned as one. See fig. 26, above, which 
represents a foot with 8 lamellae under the inner, and 11 under the median toe." 



HEMIDACTYLUS. 8 

a'. Lamellae not exceeding 8 under inner 

and 11 under median toe. 
a". Digits free. 

a. 4 to 6 lamellae under inner, and 7 

or 8 under median toe ; dorsal tuber- 
cles in 16 to 20 longitudinal series ; 

male with 8 to 12 femoro-prasanal 

pores on each side H. yleadovii, p. 86. 

/3. 6 to 8 lamellae under inner, and 9 

to 11 under median toe ; tubercles in" 

14 or 16 longitudinal series; male 

with 2 to 5 praeanal pores on each 

side H, turcicus, p. 87. 

y. 6 or 7 lamellae under the inner, and 

8 to 10 under the median toe ; tuber- 
cles in 16 to 20 longitudinal series ; 

male with 6 to 8 pores on each side. H. triedms, p. 89. 
b" . Digits webbed at base; tail depressed, 
flat below, with sharp denticulated 

lateral edge H. depresstis, p. 90. 

6'. Lamellae more than 8 under inner, and 

more than 11 under median toe. 
a". Infradigital lamellse obliquely 
curved ; dorsal tubercles in 14 to 16 
longitudinal series ; male with a 

few (8) prseanal pores H. persicus, p. 88. 

b". Infradigital lamellse straight, trans- 
verse ; dorsal tubercles in about 20 
longitudinal series ; male with 19 to 

25 femoral pores on each side .... //. maculatus, p. 88. 
c". Infradigital lamellse slightly oblique ; 
dorsal tubercles in 18 or 20 longitu- 
dinal series H. subtriedrus, p. 90. 

b. Enlarged dorsal tubercles, if present, small, 

smooth, conical, or very feebly keeled. 
a'. Digits free or very slightly webbed at 

base. 

a". Tail with enlarged tubercles above, 
a. 9 to 11 lamellae under median toe, 
and 6 or 7 under inner; male 
with 12 to 16 femoral pores on each 

side H. leschenaultu, p. 91. 

j3. 11 to 13 lamellse under median toe, 
and 8 to 10 under inner ; male with 
5 or 6 femoral pores on each side . . H. coct&ij p. 92. 
h". Tail transversely oval or ellliptical 
in section, with uniform small 
scales above. 

a. Infradigital lamellae straight, trans- 
verse, 11 or 12 under the inner, and 
13 to 15 under the median toe .... H. giganteus, p. 92. 
|3. Infradigital lamellae obliquely 
curved, 5 to 7 under the inner, and 

9 or 10 under the median toe . .' . . H. boivrinyii, p. 93. 
c". Tail flat beneath, with sharpish, 

denticulated lateral edge, covered 
above with uniform small scales. 



84 GECKONID.E. 

o. Back with numerous small convex 

tubercles H. karenomm, p. 93. 

j8. Back uniformly granular H. garnoti, p. 94. 

b'. Digits nearly half-webbed ; a much de- 
veloped cutaneous expansion from 
axilla to groin H. platyunts, p. 95. 

83. Hemidactylus reticulatus. 

Hemidactylus reticulatus, Beddome, Madr. Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 
Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 118, pi. xi, fig. 2. 

Head short, oviform, very convex ; snout a little longer than the 
distance between the eye and the ear-opening and than the diameter 
of the orbit; forehead not concave; ear-opening small, roundish. 
Body and limbs short. Digits short, free, with very short distal 
joints, moderately dilated ; 5 or 6 lamella) under the inner digits, 
7 or 8 under the fourth finger, and 8 or 9 under the fourth toe. 
Snout covered with keeled granules ; the rest of the head with 
smaller granules intermixed with round tubercles. Eostral four- 
sided, not twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril 
pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three or four nasals ; 
9 or 10 upper and 7 to 9 lower labials : mental large, triangular or 
pentagonal ; four chin-shields, inner pair largest and in contact 
behind the point of the mental. Body covered above with coarse 
granules intermixed with numerous irregularly arranged, small, 
round, keeled tubercles. Abdominal scales rather small, cycloid, 
imbricate, smooth. Male with 6 to 9 praeanal pores forming an 
angular series. Tail cylindrical, tapsring, covered above with 
small granular scales and rings of six or eight large conical 
tubercles, beneath with uniform small imbricated scales. Brown 
above, with a network of darker lines ; many of the tubercles 
whitish ; lower surfaces whitish, the throat sometimes vermiculated 
with brown. 

From snout to vent 1'55 inches. 

Hub. Southern India (Colegal, Shevaroys). 

84. Hemidactylus gracilis. 

Hemidactylus gracilis, Stanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, 
p. 362, pi. xvi, figs. 4-6 ; Theob. Cat. p. 76 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, 
p. 119. 

Head narrow, elongate ; snout a little longer than the distance 
between the eye and the ear-opening, 1^ or If the diameter of 
the orbit ; forehead not concave ; ear-opening small, roundish. 
Body and limbs slender, feebly depressed. Digits free, very feebly 
dilated, inner well developed ; the distal joint short ; 5 lamellae 
under the inner digit, 7 under the fourth finger, and 9 under the 
fourth toe. Snout with rather large polygonal rugose scales ; 
hinder part of head with small granules. Eostral four-sided, not 
twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced 



JIEMIDACTYLTTS. 85 

between the rostral and four nasals ; 9 upper and 7 lower labials ; 
mental large, triangular, more than twice as long as the adjacent 
labials ; four large chin-shields, inner pair in contact behind the 
point of the mental. Body covered above with coarse granules 
intermixed with oval, subtrihedral, strongly keeled tubercles ar- 
ranged in about twelve irregular longitudinal series. Abdominal 
scales large, cycloid, imbricate, smooth. Male with 6 praBanal 
pores forming an angular series. Tail round, but slightly de- 
pressed at the base and not at all further back, tapering, without 
any enlarged or spinose tubercles whatever. Grey above, with 
subqundrangular black spots arranged in longitudinal series, con- 
fluent into lines on the rachis and sides ; a black streak white-edged 
above on the side of the head, passing through the eye ; whitish 
beneath, with or without longitudinal grey lines. 

From snout to vent 1*4 inches. 

Hob. South-east Berar and Eaipur, Central Provinces. 

85. Hemidactylus frenatus. 

Hemidactylus frenatus, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 3G6 ; Kelaart, 
Prodi: p. 161 ; Gimth. Kept. S. I. p. 108; Theob. Cat. p. 78; 
Boulemj. Cat. Liz. i, p. 120. 

? Hemidactylus punctatus, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 467. 

Gecko cliaus et caracal, Tytler, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 547. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, 1| to 1^ the diameter of the orbit; forehead concave; 
ear-opening small, roundish. Body and limbs moderate. Digits 
moderately dilated, free, inner with sessile claw ; 4 or 5 lamella? 
under the inner digits, 7 or 8 (seldom 9) under the fourth finger, 
and 9 or 10 under the fourth toe. Upper surfaces covered with 
small granules, largest on the snout ; on the back these granules 
are intermixed with more or less numerous irregularly scattered 
round convex tubercles always much smaller than the ear-opening, 
sometimes almost entirely absent. Rostral four-sided, nearly 
twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced 
between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 10 to 12 
upper and 8 to 10 lower labials ; mental large, triangular or pen- 
tagonal ; two or three pairs of chin-shields, the median in contact 
behind the point of the mental. Abdominal scales moderate, 
cycloid, imbricate. Male with a series of 30 or 36 femoral pores, 
not interrupted on the praeanal region. Tail rounded, feebly de- 
pressed, covered above with very small smooth scales and six 
longitudinal series of keeled tubercles, below with a median series 
of transversely dilated plates. Greyish or pinkish brown above, 
uniform or more or less distinctly marbled with darker; head 
generally variegated with brown ; a more or less defined brown 
streak, light-edged above, on the side of the head, passing through 
the eye, extending sometimes along the side of the body ; lower 
surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 2'2 inches ; tail 2 - 25. 



86 GECKONIDJE. 

Hob. Southern India and Ceylon, China, Indo-China, Burma, 
Malay peninsula and Archipelago, Islands of the Western Pacific 
and Indian Oceans. 

86. Hemidactylus gleadovii. 
Hemidactylus maculatus, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 158 ; Giinth. Kept. B. 

I. p. 107 ; Theob. Cat. p. 75. 

? Gecko tytleri, Tytler, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 547. 
Hemidactylus gleadowi, Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 360, pi. , fig. 3 ; 

Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 129. 
Hemidactylus kushmorensis *, Murray, A. M. N. H, (5) xiv, 1884, 

p. 109 ; Soul. 1. c. p. 135. 
Hemidactylus murrayi, Gleadow, Journ. Bomb. N. H. Sue. ii, 1887, 

p. 49. 

Head oviform ; snout longer than the distance between the eye 
and the ear-opening, 1^ to lg the diameter of the orbit ; forehead 
concave ; ear-opening oval, oblique, about half the diameter of the 




Fig. 27. Hemidactylus gleadovii. 

eye. Body and limbs moderate. Digits moderately dilated, free, 
inner well developed ; iufradigital lamellae with strongly curved 
anterior border, 4 to 6 under the inner digits, 6 to 8 under the 
median. Head covered anteriorly with convex granular, some- 

* Specimens recently received from Mr. Murray, as typical of his H. kmh- 
vnarensis from Upper Sind, are identical with H. gleadovii. The dorsal tubercles 
are keeled. 



HEMIDACTYLUS. 87 

times keeled, scales, posteriorly with miuute granules intermixed 
with round tubercles. Eostral subtetragonal, not twice as broad as 
deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral, 
the first labial, and three or four nasals ; 8 to 10 upper and 7 to 
9 lower labials ; mental large, triangular or pentagonal, twice as 
long as the adjacent labials ; chin-shields generally four, the inner 
largest, in contact behind the mental. Upper surfaces with minute 
granular scales intermixed with moderate-sized trihedral strongly 
keeled tubercles, the largest not measuring more than one third 
the diameter of the eye ; they form 16 to 20 pretty regular longi- 
tudinal series on the back. Abdominal scales smooth, roundish, 
imbricate. Males with a series of femoral pores generally inter- 
rupted in the middle ; altogether 16 to 24 pores. Tail rounded, 
tapering, depressed ; above with small smooth scales and 6 or 8 
longitudinal series of large, pointed, strongly keeled tubercles; 
below with a median series of transversely dilated plates. Brownish 
above, spotted with darker ; a dark streak 011 the side of the head, 
passing through the eye ; lower surfaces dirty white. 

From snout to vent 2-3 inches ; tail 2-25. ' 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Burma, South China. The commonest 
house-gecko in India. 



87. Hemidactylus turcicus. 

Lacerta turcica, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 362. 

Hemidactylus karachien sis, Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 361, pi. , fig. 2. 

Hemidactylus turcicus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 126. 

Snout rounded, about as long as the distance between the eye 
and the ear-opening, 1 to lj the diameter of the orbit ; forehead 
slightly concave; ear-opening oval, oblique, not quite half the 
diameter of the eye. Body and limbs moderate. Digits rather 
variable in length, the inner always well developed ; 6 to 8 lamellae 
under the inner digits, 8 to 10 under the fourth finger, and 9 to 
11 under the fourth toe. Head anteriorly with large granules, 
posteriorly with minute granules intermixed with round tubercles. 
Kostral four-sided, not twice as broad as deep, with median cleft 
above; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and 
three nasals ; 7 to 10 upper and 6 to 8 lower labials ; mental 
large, triangular, at least twice as long as the adjacent labials, its 
point between two large chin-shields, which may be in contact 
behind it ; a smaller chin-shield on each side of the larger pair. 
Upper surface of body covered with minute granules intermixed 
with large tubercles ; these are generally larger than the inter- 
spaces between them, suboval, trihedral, and arranged in 14 or 16 
pretty regular longitudinal series. Abdominal scales small, smooth, 
roundish-hexagonal, imbricate. Males with a short angular series 
of 4 to 10 (exceptionally 2) praeanal pores. Tail cylindrical, 
slightly depressed, tapering, covered above with minute scales and 
transverse series of large keeled tubercles, beneath with a series of 



bO GECKONTDjE. 

large transversely dilated plates. Light brown or greyish above, 
spotted with darker ; many of the tubercles white ; lower surfaces 
white. 

From snout to vent 2 inches. 

Hob. Sind; borders of the Mediterranean and of the Red Sea. 
Common at Karachi, among stones. 

88. Hemidactylus persicus. 

Hemidactylus persicus. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 378, fig. 2 ; 
~ ' 7. Cat. Liz. i, p. 131. 



Snout rather acuminate, as long as the distance between the eye 
and the upper border of the ear-opening, 1| the diameter of the 
orbit ; forehead concave ; interorbital space very narrow ; upper 
eyelid strongly fringed; ear-opening large, obliquely crescentic, 
the concavity being directed forwards and upwards, its diameter 
equalling three fourths that of the eye. Body and limbs moderate. 
Digits free, moderately dilated, inner well developed ; infradigital 
lamella? obliquely curved ; 10 lamellae under the thumb, 10 under 
the third finger, 9 under the inner toe, and 12 under the third 
toe. Snout covered with large convex granular scales, largest 
between the eye and the nostril ; hinder part of head with 
minute granules, and scattered ones of a larger size. Rostral four 
times as broad as deep (having fused with the anterior labial on 
each side) ; nostril above the rostral, between the latter and three 
nasals; 10 or 11 upper and 9 lower labials; mental large, tri- 
angular, twice as long as the adjacent labial, its point between two 
large chin-shields which are in contact behind it ; a small chin- 
shield on each side of the large pair. Upper surface of body 
covered with small irregular flat granules and moderately large, 
trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles arranged in 14 or 16 rather 
irregular longitudinal series ; the largest tubercles measure about 
one fourth the diameter of the eye. Abdominal scales small, 
smooth, rounded, imbricate. Male with a short angular series of 
8 praeanal pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered above with 
small, irregular, imbricate smooth scales and scattered pointed 
tubercles forming four or six longitudinal series, beneath with a 
series of transversely dilated plates. Pale yellowish brown, with 
six faint brownish transverse narrow dorsal bands, the tubercles 
in these areas being almost black ; a dark brown streak from the 
nostrils through the eye above the ear, with a whitish line above 
it ; lips whitish. 

From snout to vent 2-75 inches ; tail 3-2. 

Hob. Sind; Persia. 



89. Hemidactylus maculatus. 

tnaculatus, .Dum. 8f Bibr. Erp. Gen. 

t. Liz. i, p. 132. 

sykesii, Gunth. Kept. B. I. p. 108, 

Head large, oviform ; snout longer than the distance between 



Hemidactylus maculatus, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 358 (part.) ; 

Boulemj. Cat. Liz. i, p. 132. 
Hemidactylns sykesii, Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 108, pi. xii, fig. C. 



HEMIDACTTLTJS. 89 

the eye and the ear-opening, 1| the diameter of the orbit ; fore- 
head concave ; canthus rostralis swollen ; ear-opening large, oval. 
Body and limbs moderate. Digits moderately dilated, free, inner 
well developed ; infradigital lamellae almost perfectly straight, 
9 to 11 under the inner digit, 12 or 13 under the median. 
Head covered anteriorly with convex granular scales, smaller in 
the frontal concavity, posteriorly with minute granules intermixed 
with round tubercles ; rostral subtetragonal, not twice as broad 
as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the 
rostral, the first labial, and three or four nasals ; 10 to 12 
upper and 9 or 10 lower labials; mental large, triangular or 
pentagonal, twice as long as the adjacent labials ; two pairs of 
chin-shields, the inner the larger, elongate, in contact behind the 
mental. Upper surfaces with minute, granular scales intermixed 
with moderate-sized trihedral, more or less strongly keeled tubercles, 
the largest not measuring more than one third the diameter of the 
eye ; they are arranged very irregularly on the back, in about 20 
longitudinal series. Abdominal scales smooth, roundish, imbricate. 
Male with a long series of femoral pores, 19 to 25 on each side, 
interrupted on the praeanal region. Tail rounded, tapering, 
depressed ; above with small irregular keeled scales, and 6 or 8 
longitudinal series of large trihedral tubercles; beneath with a 
median series of transversely enlarged plates. Broun above, with 
darker spots, generally confluent into transverse undulating bands 
on the back ; two more or less distinct dark streaks on each side 
of the head, passing through the eye ; lower surfaces dirty white. 

From snout to vent 4 - 5 inches ; tail 5. 

Hob. Deccan and Southern India. 

90. Hemidactylus triedrus. 

Gecko triedrus, Daud. Rept. iv, p. 155 ; Lesson, in Belang. Voy. Ind. 

Or. p. 311, pi. v, fig. 1. 
Hemidactylus triedrus, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 157 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

p. 107 ; Theob. Cat. p. 75 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 133. 

Head large, oviform ; snout longer than the distance between 
the eye and the ear-opening, 1|- the diameter of the orbit; fore- 
head concave ; ear-opening large, suboval, oblique, measuring 
about half the diameter of the eye. Body and limbs moderate. 
Digits free, moderately dilated, inner well developed ; infra- 
digital lamellae slightly oblique, 6 or 7 under the inner digits, 
8 to 10 under the median digits. Snout covered with convex 
granules, which may be keeled ; hinder part of head with minute 
granules intermixed with roundish tubercles, fiostral subquad- 
rangular, not twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above; 
nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three or 
four nasals ; 8 to 10 upper and 7 or 8 lower labials ; mental large, 
triangular or pentagonal, at least twice as long as the adjacent 
labials ; four chin-shields, median pair largest and in contact 
behind the mental. Upper surface of body covered with small 



90 GECKOWIDJE. 

flat granular scales, and large trihedral tubercles arranged in 16 to 
20 more or less irregular longitudinal series ; these tubercles vary 
somewhat in size according to specimens, but the largest never 
exceed two fifths the diameter of the eye. Abdominal scales 
large, smooth, rounded, imbricate. Males with a series of pramnal 
pores, interrupted mesially ; 6 to 8 pores on each side. Tail 
rounded, feebly depressed, tapering, covered above with irregular, 
small, smooth imbricated scales and rings of large, pointed, keeled 
tubercles, .beneath with a median series of transversely dilated 
plates. Light pinkish brown above, generally with more or less 
defined transverse darker bands bordered by pure white tubercles 
surrounded by deep-brown rings ; young very regularly barred 
with dark brown, there being four dark bars between head and hind 
limbs ; a more or less defined dark-brown streak, white-edged 
above, on the side of the head, passing through the eye ; lower 
surfaces white. 

Prom snout to vent 3*7 inches ; tail 3'8. 

Hob, Central and Southern India, Ajmere, Ceylon. 

91. Hemidactylus subtriedrus. 

Hemidactylus subtriedrus, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 467 ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 75 ; Bouhng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 134. 

Differs from H. triedrus in the following points : Head more 
depressed. Infradigital lamella? more numerous, 10 under the 
thumb, 11 under the median finger, 9 under the inner toe, and 12 
under the median toe. Ventral scales smaller. 10 lower labials. 
Light brown above, with five undulating dark brown cross bands on 
the body, the anterior, on the neck, confluent with a dark streak 
passing through the eye and light-edged above. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches. 

Hub. Nellore and Ellore districts. 

92. Hemidactylus depressus. 

Hemidactylus depressus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 58 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 

i, p. 134. 
Hemidactylus pieresii, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 159 ; Theob. Cat. p. 76. 

Head oviform ; snout longer than the distance between the eye 
and the ear-opening, lj to 1| the diameter of the orbit ; forehead 
concave ; ear-opening oblique, nearly half the diameter of the eye. 
Body and limbs moderate. The skin forms a fold on each side of 
the belly, from axilla to groin. Digits distinctly webbed at the 
base, moderately dilated, inner w r ell developed, with curved, scarcely 
oblique lamellae ; 7 (or 6) under the inner digits, 9 or 10 under the 
median fingers, 10 or 11 under the median toes. Snout covered 
with granular scales, largest in front of the orbits ; hinder part of 
head with minute granules intermixed with round tubercles. 
Rostral subquadrangular, not twice as broad as deep, with median 
cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, 



HEMIDACTYLUS. 91 

and three or four nasals ; 10 to 12 upper and 8 to 10 lower labials ; 
mental large, triangular or pentagonal, twice as long as the 
adjacent labials ; four large chin-shields, median pair largest, 
forming a long suture behind the point of the mental. Upper 
surface of body covered with small flat granules intermixed with 
trihedral tubercles, forming 16 to 20 very irregular longitudinal 
series; the largest tubercles measure about one fourth the dia- 
meter of the eye. Abdominal scales moderate, smooth, rounded, 
imbricate. Males with a long series of femoral pores interrupted 
mesially ; 17 or 18 pores on each side. Tail tapering, much de- 
pressed, flat below, with angular lateral edge ; it is covered above 
with small pointed imbricate scales, which are enlarged and raised 
on the sides, forming a strong denticulation, and with six or eight 
series of spine-like tubercles forming rings ; a median series of 
regular transversely dilated plates beneath. Upper parts light 
brown, marbled or cross-barred with brown ; a dark brown streak, 
white-edged above, on the side of the head, passing through the 
eye ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 3'2 inches ; tail 3. 

Hob. Ceylon, Malay Peninsula. 

93. Hemidactylus leschenaultii. 

Hemidactylus leschenaultii, Dtim. $ Bibr. Erp. Ghi. iii, p. 364 ; 

Giinth. 'Rent. B. I. p. 109 ; Theob. Cat. p. 77 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 

i, p. 136. 

Hemidactylus coctaei, part., Giinth. 1. c. p. 109. 
Hemidactylus kelaartii, Theub. Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. p. 29. 
Hemidactylus marmoratus, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, 

p. 363, pi. xvi, figs. 1-3. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, lj to If the diameter of the orbit; forehead concave, the 
supraorbital ridges prominent in full-grown specimens ; ear-opening 
rather large, oval, vertical. Body and limbs moderate. A slight 
fold of the skin on the side of the belly, from axilla to groin. 
Digits free, strongly dilated, inner well developed ; 6 or 7 (rarely 
5) lamella under the inner digits, 9 to 11 under the median. 
Head covered with minute granules posteriorly, with larger ones 
anteriorly; rostral four-sided, not twice as broad as deep, with 
median cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral, three 
nasals, and generally the first labial ; 10 to 12 upper and 8 
or 9 lower labials ; mental large, triangular or pentagonal ; two 
pairs of chin-shields, the inner the larger aud in contact behind the 
mental. Upper surface of body covered with small granules, uni- 
form or intermixed with more or less numerous scattered round 
tubercles. Abdominal scales moderate, cycloid, imbricate. Male 
with a series of femoral pores interrupted on the pr*anal region ; 
12 to 16 pores on each side. Tail depressed, flat below, covered 
above with small smooth scales and six longitudinal series of 
conical tubercles ; beneath with a median series of transversely 
dilated plates. Grey above, with darker markings, forming undu- 



92 

lating cross-bars, rhomboidal spots on the middle of the back, or 
regular longitudinal bands ; a dark band from the eye to the 
shoulder ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 3-2 inches ; tail 3'25. 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula. A house-gecko. 

94. Hemidactylus coctsei. 

Hemidactylus coctsei, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 365 ; Giinth. 

Kept. B. 1. p. 109 (part.) ; Thedb. Cat. p. 77 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, 

p. 359 ; Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 137. 
Boltalia sublsevis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 58. 
Hemidactylus bengaliensis, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 14. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, lg to 1| the diameter of the orbit; forehead concave ; 
ear-opening rather large, oval, oblique. Body and limbs moderate. 
Digits free, strongly dilated, inner well developed, with nearly 
straight lamella beneath ; the latter 9 or 10 (rarely 8) under the 
inner digits, and 11 to 13 under the median digits. Head covered 
with minute granules posteriorly, with larger ones anteriorly ; 
rostral four-sided, not twice as broad as deep, with median cleft 
above; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and 
three nasals; 12 to 15 upper and 10 or 11 lower labials ; mental 
large, triangular or pentagonal ; two or three pairs of chin-shields, 
median largest and in contact behind the mental. Upper surfaces 
covered with small granules, among which some larger ones are 
sometimes scattered on the sides. Abdominal scales moderate, 
cycloid, imbricate. Male with a short series of 5 or 6 femoral 
pores under each thigh. Tail depressed, flat beneath, covered 
above with small smooth scales and four or six longitudinal series 
of conical tubercles ; beneath with a median series of transversely 
dilated plates. Grey above, uniform or with indistinct darker 
markings ; lower surfaces white. 

From suout to vent 3 inches ; tail 3-2. 

H(ib. India, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Baluchistan, Persia, 
Arabia, Abyssinia. A common house-gecko. 

95. Hemidactylus giganteus. 

Hemidactylus giganteus, Stcliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 99, pi. ii, 
fig. 2 ; Theob. Cat. p. 78 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 138. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, 1| the diameter of the orbit; forehead concave; ear- 
opening rather large, suboval, vertical. Body and limbs stout. 
Digits free, inner well developed, strongly dilated ; with straight 
transverse lamellae beneath ; 11 or 12 under the inner digits, 13 to 
15 under the median. Upper surfaces covered with uniform small 
granular scales, somewhat larger on the snout, smallest on the 
hinder part of the head. .Rostral quadrangular, not quite twice as 
broad as deep ; nostril pierced between the rostral and three nasals ; 



HEMIDACTYLUS. 93 

12 to 15 upper and 11 to 13 lower labials ; mental large, pentagonal ; 
two pairs of chin-shields, the inner the larger. Abdominal scales 
rather small, cycloid, imbricate. Male with a series of femoral pores 
interrupted mesially ; 19 to 22 pores on each side. Tail without 
large tubercles. Olive-grey above, with irregular dark, pale-edged 
marks in imperfect circles, tending to form, or forming, 4 or 5 
transverse undulating bands on the body ; below uniform white. 

From snout to vent 4-8 inches. 

Hob. Godavari Valley and Malabar. Found on trees. 

96. Hemidactylus bowringii. 

Doryura bowringii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 156. 

Leiurus berdmorei, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 646. 

Doryura berdmorei, Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 29 ; id. Cat. 

p. ix. 

Hemidactylus berdmorei, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 100. 
Hemidactylus bowringii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 139, pi. xii, tig. 2. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, 1J- the diameter of the orbit ; forehead slightly concave ; 
ear-opening small, roundish. Body and limbs moderate ; a slight 
fold of the skin along the flank. Digits free, moderatelv dilated, 
inner well developed ; infradigital lamellae obliquely curved, 5 
under the thumb, 7 or 8 under the fourth finger, 5 or 6 under 
the first toe, and 9 or 10 under the fourth toe. Upper 
surfaces covered with uniform small granular scales, largest on 
the snout, smallest on the occiput. Eostral four-sided, twice as 
broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril pierced between 
the rostral, the first labial, and three or four nasals ; 9 to 11 upper 
and 7 or 8 lower labials ; mental large, triangular, followed by 
a pair of chin-shields ; an outer pair of much smaller chin- 
shields. Abdominal scales moderate, cycloid, imbricate. Male 
with a series of praeanal pores, interrupted mesially, composed of 13 
pores on each side. Tail depressed, rounded, oval in section, 
covered above with uniform small scales, beneath with a median 
series of transversely dilated plates. Light brown above, with 
darker spots, having sometimes a tendency to form four longitudi- 
nal bands on the back ; frequently small whitish spots on thebody 
and limbs ; a dark streak passing through the eye ; tail above with 
small chevron-shaped markings ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 1-3 inches ; tail 2. 

Hob. Eastern India (Sikhim and ? Godavari Valley), Burma and 
Tenasserim. 

97. Hemidactylus karenorum. 

Doryura karenorum, Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 30, and Cat. 

p. ix. 
Hemidactylus karenorum, Boulenr/. Cat. Liz. i, p. 140. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, lj to 1^ the diameter of the orbit ; forehead slightly con- 



94 

cave; ear-opening small, roundish. Body and limbs moderate; 
a slight fold of the skin along the sides of the belly, and another 
bordering the thighs behind. Digits free, moderately dilated, 
inner well developed ; infradigital lamellae obliquely curved, 5 under 
the thumb, 9 under the fourth finger, 5 or 6 under the first toe, 
and 10 to 12 under the fourth toe. Head covered with minute 
granules posteriorly, with larger ones anteriorly ; rostral four-sided, 
not quite twice as broad as deep, with median cleft above ; nostril 
pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 11 or 
12 upper and 7 to 9 lower labials; mental large, triangular ; two 
pairs of chin-shields. Upper surface of body covered with minute 
granules intermixed with numerous small convex round tubercles. 
Abdominal scales moderate, cycloid, imbricate. Male without 
praeanal or femoral pores (?). Tail depressed, flat below, with 
sharp denticulated lateral edge; the scales on the upper surface 
very small, equal ; those on the lower surface larger, imbricate, 
with a median series of large transverse plates. Light grey-brown 
above, with rather indistinct darker variegation ; lower surfaces 
whitish. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 2-2. 

Hal. Pegu. 

98. Hemidactlylus garnoti. 

Heinidactylus garnotii, Dutn. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 368 : Bouleng. 

Cat. Liz. i, p. 141. 

Doryura gaudaiua, Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 30; id. Cat.^.ix. 
Hemi dactyl us (Doryura) niandellianus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 

1872, p. 101, pi. iii, tigs. 1, 2. 
Hemidactylus blanfordii, Bouleng. 1. c. p. 141 . 

Snout obtusely pointed, longer than the distance between the 
eye and the ear-opening, 1| to 1| the diameter of the orbit ; fore- 
head slightly concave; ear-opening small, rounded. Body and 
limbs moderate. A slight but distinct fold of the skin along the 
flanks, and another bordering the hind limb posteriorly. Digits 
free or with a very slight rudiment of web, moderately dilated, 
inner well developed ; infradigital lamellae oblique, 6 or 7 under 
the inner digits, 10 to 12 under the fourth finger, and 11 to 14 
under the fourth toe. Upper surfaces and throat covered with 
minute granular scales, a little larger on the snout ; abdominal 
scales moderate, imbricate. Rostral subquadraugular, with median 
cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral and three nasals ; 
12 or 13 upper and 9 to 11 lower labials ; mental large, trian- 
gular, in contact posteriorly with a pair of pentagonal chin-shields, 
followed by a second smaller pair ; the anterior pair of chin-shields 
in contact with the first infralabial, and with each other mesially ; 
the posterior pair separated from each other, and also com- 
pletely or nearly completely from the labials. Tail depressed, flat 
beneath, with sharp denticulated lateral edge ; the scales on the 
upper surface very small, equal ; those on the lower surface 



HBMIDACTTLITS. 95 

larger, imbricate, with a median series of large, transversely dilated 
plates. Brownish grey above, uniform or with more or less distinct 
brown and whitish spots ; lower surfaces uniform whitish. (Theo- 
bald mentions 19 pores on each thigh in his Doryura gaudama, which 
appears to me, from the short description, identical with, and the 
male of, the present species.) 

From snout to vent 2*3 inches ; tail 2*6. 

Hnb. Sikhim, Burma, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, South 
Pacific Islands. 

A number of specimens (from Burma and Java), which I have 
been able to examine since the publication of the Catalogue of Lizards 
have convinced me that the characters upon which I separated 
H. blanfordii from H. yarnoti are insufficient. 

Hemidactylus mortoni, Theobald, Journ. Linn. Soc. x, p. 32, and 
Cat. Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 78, is probably allied to, or identical with, 
one of the three preceding species, but the description is insuffi- 
cient for ensuring its recognition : 

" Back covered with granular scales, with a scattered tubercle here 
and there, just perceptibly larger than the rest. Thumb well de- 
veloped. Colour dark brown, mottled pepper and salt, with black 
spots and small white rosettes of 6 white scales each. Tail barred 
with black above. Length 3'50 inches." 

Described from an immature male taken at Teikgyie, Rangoon. 

99. Hemidactylus platyurus. 

Stellio platyurus, Schneid. Amph. Phys. ii. p. 30. 
Nycteridium schneideri, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 111. 
Nycteridium himalayanum, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 15. 
Nycteridium platyurus, Theob. Cat. p. 79. 
Hemidactylus platyurus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 143. 

Snout longer than the distance between the eye and the ear- 
opening, 1 1 the diameter of the orbit ; forehead concave ; ear- 
opening small, oval, oblique. Body and limbs moderate, much 
depressed ; a cutaneous expansion from axilla to groin, and 
another bordering the hind limb posteriorly. Digits strongly dilated, 
about half- webbed, inner well developed ; 5 or 6 lamellae under 
the inner, and 7 to 9 under the median digits. Upper surfaces 
covered with uniform small granules, largest on the snout. Rostral 
four-sided, not quite so broad as deep, with median cleft above ; 
nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, and three nasals ; 
9 to 11 upper and 7 or 8 lower labials ; mental large, triangular or 
pentagonal, in contact with two large chin-shields, followed by two 
smaller ones. Abdominal scales moderate, cycloid, imbricate. 
Male with an uninterrupted series of femoral pores, 17 or 18 on 
each side. Tail much depressed, flat beneath, with sharp denti- 
culated lateral edge, covered above with uniform small granules, 
inferiorly with a median series of transversely dilated plates. Grey 
above, marbled with darker ; generally a dark streak from eye to 
shoulder ; white beneath. 



96 GECKOHIDJE. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches ; tail 2-2. 

Hob. Ceylon, N.E. India (Darjeeling), Burma, Malay Peninsula 
and Archipelago, South China and Cochinchina. 

Genus TERATOLEPIS, 
Giinth. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 604. 

Digits dilated, with a double series of lamellae beneath, with 
elongate compressed distal joint rising from within the extremity 
of the dilated part ; all clawed. Ear concealed. Body covered 
with large strongly imbricate scales. Pupil ? 

Distribution. India. A single species. 

100. Teratolepis fasciata. 

Hoinonota fasciata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 468. 
Teratolepis fasciata, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 505 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 95 ; Boukng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 145. 

Body somewhat depressed ; limbs rather long and slender. 
Head covered with polygonal flat scales. Seven lower labials ; 
mental large, triangular; two larger anterior chin-shields, in contact 
behind the mental, followed by others passing gradually into the 
small gular granules. Dorsal scales large, lozenge-shaped, slightly 
keeled ; ventral scales much smaller, smooth. Tail depressed, 
swollen, tapering at the end, covered with imbricate irregular scales, 
some of those of the upper surface being extremely large. Greyish 
above, with five brown longitudinal bands, which at regular intervals 
are interrupted by white spots forming cross bands ; seven of these 
cross bands on the neck and trunk. 

Head and body To inches. 

Hab. Deccan (Jalna) and Sind. 

Genus GEHYRA, 
Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 57, 1842. 

Digits strongly dilated, free or webbed at the base, with 
undivided or mesially divided transverse lamella? beneath ; distal 
phalanges free, elongate, compressed, clawed, raised from within 
the extremity of the dilatation; inner digits without free distal 
phalanges, clawless, or with a very indistinct retractile claw. Upper 
surfaces covered with granular scales ; belly with cycloid imbricate 
scales. Pupil vertical. Males with femoral or praeanal pores. 

Distribution. East Indies ; Australia ; islands of the Indian and 
Pacific Oceans ; Mexico. Of the ten known species, one occurs 
in Burma and Ceylon. 

101. Gehyra mutilata. 

Hemidactylus (Peropus) mutilatus, Wiegm. N. Ada Ac. Leap.- Carol. 
xvii, 1835, p. 238. 



LEPIDODACTYLUS. 97 

Homidactylus peronii, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 352, pi. xxx, 

fig. 1 ; 'Kelaart, Prodr. p. 187. 

Peripia peronii, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 110 ; Theob. Cat. p. 79. 
Gecko pardus, Tytler, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 547. 
? Gecko harrietti, Tytler, 1. c. p. 548. 
Gehyra mutilata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 148. 




Fig. 28. Foot of Gehyra mutilata, lower surface, and side view of toe. 

Head longer than broad ; snout longer than distance between 
eye and ear-opening, about lj the diameter of the orbit ; forehead 
with a median groove ; ear-opening moderately large, suboval. 
Body and limbs moderately elongate, depressed ; a fold of the skin 
bordering the hind limb posteriorly. Digits short, more or less 
webbed at the base ; the inferior lamellae angular, divided by a 
median groove. Upper surface and throat covered with small 
granular scales, largest and flat on the back. Abdominal scales 
moderate. Rostral quadrangular, broader than deep, with a median 
cleft above ; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, 
and three nasals, the upper much the largest and generally in 
contact with its fellow ; 8 or 9 upper and 6 or 7 lower labials ; 
mental moderately large, pentagonal ; chin-shields 3 pairs, inner 
very large, elongate, outer small, frequently broken up into small 
scales. Femoral pores in a doubly curved line, angular in the 
middle, 14 to ]9 on each side. Tail depressed, normally with a 
sharpish, minutely serrated lateral edge ; its upper surface covered 
with very small flat scales, its lower surface generally with a median 
series of large transversely dilated scales. Greyish or reddish 
brown above, uniform or dotted or variegated with darker; lower 
surfaces uniform whitish. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches ; tail 2*25. 

Hob. Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, New 
Guinea, Mascarenes and Seychelles, Western Mexico. 



Genus LEPIDODACTYLUS, 

Fitzinger, Syst. Kept. p. 98, 1843. 

Digits more or less dilated, free or with a rudiment of web, 
beneath with transverse lamellae divided by a median groove, 'with 
very short compressed distal clawed joint rising from the extremity 
of the digit ; inner digit clawless. Body covered above with 

H 



granular scales, beneath with juxtaposed or subimbricate scales. 
Pupil vertical. Males with praeanal or femoral pores. 

Distribution. East Indies ; Polynesia ; South-west Australia. 
11 or 12 species are known. 




Fig. 29. Foot of Lepidodactyhis aurantiacus, lower surface. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Thumb rudimentary ; tail subcylindrical. 

a. 4 or 5 divided lamellae under median toe. L. ceylonensis, p. 98. 

b. 2 divided lamella? under median toe. ... L. aurantiacus, p. 98. 

B. Thumb well developed ; tail depressed, flat 

beneath, with sharpish lateral edge .... L. lugubris, p. 99. 

102. Lepidodactylus ceylonensis. 
Lepidodactylus ceylonensis, Boukng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 164, pi. xiii, fig. 3. 

Head much longer than broad ; snout as long as distance between 
eye and ear-opening, 1| times diameter of orbit; ear-opening 
small, oval. Body elongate ; limbs short, fore limb not measuring 
balf the distance between axilla and groin. Digits free, inner 
rudimentary ; 4 or 5 divided lamellae under the toes, tbe rest of 
the lower surface covered with small squarish scales. Head and 
body covered with very small granular scales, slightly larger on the 
snout, larger and flat on the belly. Rostral twice as broad 
as deep ; nostril pierced between rostral, first upper labial, 
and three small nasals; 11 or 12 upper and as many lower labials; 
mental small, subtriangular ; no chin-shields. Tail cylindrical, 
covered with uniform small scales. Brown above, with small 
round yellowish spots ; a dark streak from the tip of the snout to 
the shoulder, passing through the eye. 

Prom snout to vent 1-5 inches ; tail 1'33. 

Hob. Ceylon (Gampola). 

103. Lepidodactylus aurantiacus. 

Hemidactylus aurantiacus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870. 
Lepidodactylus aurantiacus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. \, p. 164, pi. xiii, fig. 4. 

Head oviform, longer than broad ; snout rounded, very convex, 
slightly shorter than distance between eye and ear-opening, 1^ 



LEPIDODACTYLUS. 99 

diameter of orbit ; ear-opening very small, round. Body elongate, 
more so in females than in males ; limbs short, fore limb measuring 
half the distance between axilla and groin, or rather less. Digits 
short, free, inner very small, rudimentary ; only two largo chevron- 
shaped divided lamellae under the distal part of the digits, followed 
by transverse undivided lamellae, decreasing in width. Head 
covered with very minute granules; rostral and mental very small, 
former four-sided, latter pentagonal or triangular ; nostril pierced 
between rostral, first labial, and several granules ; labials very 
small, 9 or 10 upper and as many lower ; no chin-shields. Back 
covered with very small granular scales ; abdominal scales a little 
larger, flat, imbricate. Male with an angular series ot' 7 to 9 
praeanal pores. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered with small 
imbricated smooth scales, larger below. Grey-brown above, with, 
along the head and back, dark-brown undulating lines, which may 
be broken up into spots ; a dark brown streak from the tip of the 
snout to the fore limb, passing through the eye ; whitish dots 
scattered on the head and back ; tail with darker spots or annul! 
and two large whitish black-edged spots at the base, frequently 
confluent mesially. Lower surfaces whitish, more or less speckled 
with brownish. 

From snout to vent T4 inches ; tail 1-25. 

Hob. Shevaroys, S. India. 

104. Lepidodactylus luguhris. 

Platydactylus lugubris, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 304. 
Peripia cantoris, Gitnth. Kept. B. L p. 110 ; Theob. Cat. p. 80. 
Lepidodactylus lugubris, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 165. 

Head much longer than broad ; snout subacuminate, longer than 
distance between eye and ear-opening, about 1| diameter of orbit; 
forehead with a median groove ; ear-opening small, round. Body 
and limbs moderate. Digits moderate, inner well developed, with 
a rudiment of web ; inferior lamellae numerous, 7 or 8 under the 
fingers, 8 or 9 under the toes. Upper surface and throat covered 
with very minute granules, a little larger on the snout ; scales on 
the belly much larger, flat, juxtaposed or slightly imbricate. 
Ilostral quadrangular, broad ; nostril pierced between rostral, first 
upper labial, and two or three nasal shields, the upper separated 
from its fellow by one or three small shields ; 11 to 13 upper and 10 
to 11 lower labials ; mental small, smaller than the adjacent labials ; 
four transverse rows of small chin-shields. Femoral pores in a long 
series, angular in the middle, 25 altogether. Tail flat beneath, with 
sharpish, sometimes feebly serrated, lateral edge ; caudal scales 
small, flat, equal. Upper surfaces light pinkish grey or brownish, 
generally with a series of small blackish or purplish-brown spots on 
each side of the vertebral line ; a purplish-brown streak from the 
end of the snout to the ear, passing through the eye ; labials 
generally finely dotted with brown ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 1'75 inches ; tail 1-4. 

n2 



100 GECKONIDJG. 

Hob. Burma, Andainans and Nicobars, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago, Papuasia and Polynesia. 

Genus HOPLODACTYLUS, 

Fitzinger, Syst. Kept. p. 100, 1843. 

Digits free or shortly webbed at the base, more or less dilated ; 
the distal phalanges slender, elongate, clawed, forming an angle 
with the basal portion ; a series of transverse lamellae under the 
latter. Scales small, granular, equal. Pupil vertical. Males with 
prseanal, or praeanal and femoral pores. 

Distribution. South-Pacific islands ; Southern India. A small 
genus of only 5 species. 





Fig. 30. Foot of Hoplodactylus anamallcnsis. 
a. Upper surface, b. Lower surface. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

16 lamellae under fourth toe H. dvvaucelii, p. 100. 

7 or 8 lamellae under fourth toe H. anamallensis, p. 10]. 



105. Hoplodactylus duvaucelii. 

Platydactvlus duvaucelii, Bum. < Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 312. 
Pentadactylus duvaucelii, Giinth. Jtept. B. I. p. 118. 
Hoplodactylus duvaucelii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 172. 

Head oviform ; snout slightly longer than distance between eye 
and ear-opening; forehead slightly concave; ear-opening rather 
large, oval, oblique. Body and limbs moderate. Digits relatively 
much dilated, width of dilated part contained about twice and a half 
in length of same ; length of slender distal part equals one third 
length of digit; 16 lamella under fourth toe; a distinct web at 
base of digits, absent between two outer toes. Head covered 
with granular scales, minute on the posterior half, considerably 
larger on the snout. Eostral pentagonal, with trace of median 
cleft above ; nostril pierced between rostral, first upper labial, and 
four small nasals ; 14 upper and 12 lower labials ; mental trapezoid, a 



GECKO. 101 

little shorter than the adjacent labials, followed by a small median 
chin-shield ; behind the labials small irregular scales passing gradu- 
ally into the minute granules of the throat. Dorsal scales minutely 
granular ; abdominal scales very small, subimbricate. Five angular 
series of pnmnal pores, the two upper extending as long femoral 
series ; 50 pores in the upper series, from one end to the other. 
Tail rounded, tapering, covered with very small subquadrangular 
juxtaposed scales arranged in verticils. Greyish above, indistinctly 
marbled with darker ; lower surfaces dirty white, immaculate. 

From snout to vent 5 inches. 

Hob. This species was described in 1836 from specimens said to 
have been brought from Bengal by Alfred Duvaucel ; but it has 
not been rediscovered since. 



106. Hoplodactylus anamallensis. 

Gecko anamallensis, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 226. 

Hoplodactylus anamallensis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 175, pi. xiv, fig. 2. 

Head shortly oviform; snout a little longer than distance between 
eye and ear-opening, 1-i- diameter of orbit ; forehead very slightly 
concave ; ear-opening small, oval, oblique. Body and limbs 
moderate. Digits free, not very strongly dilated, inner well 
developed : infradigital lamellae openly angular, 5 under the 
inner digits, 6 or 7 under the median fingers, and 7 or 8 under 
the median toes. Tipper surfaces uniformly granular, the granules 
scarcely larger on the snout than on the back. Rostral four- 
sided, more than twice as broad as high ; nostril pierced be- 
tween rostral, first labial, and three nasals ; 9 or 10 upper and 
7 or 8 lower labials ; mental broadly triangular or pentagonal ; 
two pairs of larger chin-shields anteriorly, followed by smaller 
ones passing gradually into the granules of the throat ; abdominal 
scales cycloid, imbricate, smooth. Male with an uninterrupted 
series of femoral pores, 20 or 21 on each side. Tail cylin- 
drical, tapering, slightly depressed at the base, above with small 
imbricate scales, beneath with a median series of transversely 
dilated plates. Grey-brown above, spotted or marbled with 
darker; a few scattered lighter dots; lower surfaces brownish 
white. 

From snout to vent 1*75 inches ; tail 1'4. 

Hub. Anamallays, S. India. 



Genus GECKO, 
Laureuti, Syn. Kept. p. 43, 1768. 

Digits strongly dilated, free or webbed at the base, with undi- 
vided lamellae below, all but the thumb and inner toe with a very 
short compressed distal phalanx with retractile claw. Head and 
back covered with juxaposed granular scales or tubercles, belly with 



102 GECKOXID.'E. 

small flat imbricate scales. Pupil vertical. Males with pneanal 
or femoral pores. 

Distribution. Japan, China, East Indies, New Guinea and 
neighbouring islands. 8 species are known. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Rostral not entering nostril ; digits free. 

a. Width of head equals twice distance from 

end of snout to orbit; throat covered with 

small flat granules G, verticillatus, p. 102. 

b. Width of head less than twice distance from 

end of snout to orbit; throat minutely 

granulate G. stentor, p. 103. 

B. Rostral enteringnostril ; digits with a rudiment 

of web G. monarchies, p. 103. 



107. Gecko verticillatus. 

Gecko verticillatus, Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 44: Boideng. Cat. Liz, i, 

p. 183. 
Gecko guttatus, Dmid. Rept. iv. p. 122 ; Giinth. Rent. B. 1. p. 102 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 71. 

Head large ; its width equals twice the distance from end of 
the snout to orbit, or from orbit to ear-opening; snout sub- 
triangular, obtuse, 1|^ or 1| diameter of orbit ; forehead con- 
cave; ear-opening narrow, oblique, its vertical diameter at least 
half diameter of orbit. Body and limbs moderate; digits free. 
Head covered with small convex polygonal scales ; upper labials 
12 to 14, the first entering the nostril ; lower labials 10 or 11, gra- 
dually decreasing in size ; mental very variable in shape ; chin- 
shields 4 or 5 on each side, smaller than the labials, the inner 
pair generally not longer than the mental. Back covered with 
small juxtaposed flat granules and about 12 longitudinal series of 
mamilliform tubercles ; throat with flat granules ; abdominal scales 
moderately large. Pores in a short angular series on the praeaual 
region, 13 to 24 altogether. Tail (when intact) slightly depressed, 
tapering, distinctly annulate, covered with subquadrangular smooth 
scales, much larger beneath, arranged in transverse series ; each 
annulus is composed of 5 or 6 transverse rows of scales above, 3 
beneath : also, on the upper surface, large conical tubercles, wide 
apart n^d symmetrically arranged. Slaty grey above, with red 
spots or vermiculations ; tail annulate with darker and lighter; 
lower surfaces whitish, frequently indistinctly variegated with 

grey- 

From snout to vent 6| inches ; tail 6. 

Hub. Eastern Bengal to Southern China and the Malay Penin- 
sula and Archipelago. Found in houses as well as on trees. 
Known as " touktai " in Burma, from its loud call. This species 
and the following are the largest East-Indian geckos. 



GECKO. 103 

108. Gecko stentor. 

Platydactylus stentor, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 624. 

Gecko stentor, Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 102, pi. xi, fig. A; Theob. Cat. 

p. 72 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 184. 
Gecko verreauxii, Tytler, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 546. 

Head large, its width less than twice the distance from the end 
of the suuut to the orbit ; snout longer than in G. verticillatus, 
measuring If or If- the diameter of the orbit and considerably more 
than the distance from the orbit to the ear-opening; forehead 
concave ; ear-opening oval, oblique, its vertical diameter generally 
less than half the diameter of the orbit. Body and limbs rather 
more elongate than in G. verticillatus ; digits free. The scales on 
the head and back similar to those of G. verticillatus, but smaller ; 
upper labials 12 to 14, first entering the nostril ; lower labials 10 
to 12, gradually decreasing in size; chin-shields 3 to 5 on each 
side, smaller than the labials, the inner pair generally longer than 
the mental. Back with 10 or 12 longitudinal series of mamilliform 
tubercles. Throat covered with exceedingly small granules ; ven- 
tral scales larger than in 0. verticillatus. Prseanal pores 11 to 16 
altogether. Tail like that of G. verticillatus, but the scales on the 
upper surface much smaller, the annul! being composed of 10 or 11 
transverse rows of scales ; the large scales on the lower surface of 
the tail are much dilated transversely, forming generally two 
symmetrical series. Brown or brownish grey above, marbled with 
darker, with or without transverse rows of whitish spots, a 
character of the young in this and the preceding species, but which 
may here persist throughout life; sometimes a linear, A-shaped 
dark brown mark on the head ; tail annulate with darker and 
lighter rings; lower surfaces whitish, generally dotted or variegated 
with greyish. 

From snout to vent 7| inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. Chittagong, Burma, Andamans, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo. 

109. Gecko monarchus. 

Platydactylus monarchus, Dum. < Bibr. Erp. Gen. iii, p. 335. 
Gecko monarchus, Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 103 ; Theob. Cat. p. 72 ; 
Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 187. 

Head moderately large, oviform ; snout longer than distance 
between eye and ear-opening, about 1| diameter of the orbit; 
forehead concave ; ear-opening oval, oblique, its greatest diameter 
one third that of the orbit. Body and limbs moderately elongate ; 
digits feebly dilated for the genus, with a rudiment of web. Snout 
covered with rather large granular scales, the rest of the head with 
very small granules intermixed with scattered larger ones ; nostril 
pierced between the rostral and first labial ; upper labials 10 or 11, 
lower labials 9 or 10 ; mental subtriangular : a large median pair 
of chin-shields, about three times as long as broad, bordered by a 



104 GECKONID.E. 

few irregular smaller shields. Back and limbs covered with very 
small granules intermixed with numerous, irregularly arranged, 
rounded conical tubercles. Throat with very small granules ; 
abdominal scales moderate. Femoral pores in a long series, 
forming a very open angle in the middle, 16 to 20 on each side. 
Tail slightly depressed, distinctly annulate, covered above with 
very small flat granular scales and transverse series of backwardly 
directed conical tubercles, beneath with large, rather irregular 
dilated scales ; each annulus is composed of 12 to 14 transverse 
rows of scales above, 3 or 4 below. Brown or grey, spotted 
with blackish, a double series of spots along the middle of the 
back being constant ; tail with more or less marked darker and 
lighter rings ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 3*25 inches ; tail 4 - 16. 

Hob. Ceylon; Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 



Genus PTYCHOZOON, 

(Kuhl), Fitzinger, N. Class. Kept. p. 13, 1820. 

Digits strongly dilated, entirely webbed, with undivided lamella 
below ; all but the thumb and inner toe with a compressed curved 
distal phalanx with retractile claw, originating a little before the 
extremity of the digital expansion. Limbs and sides of head, body 
and tail with much developed membranous expansions acting as 
parachutes. Upper surfaces covered with juxtaposed granular 
scales and tubercles ; lower surfaces with small, slightly imbricated 
scales ; the parachute-membrane of the side covered above with 
imbricate square scales arranged like the bricks of a wall, scaleless 
below. Pupil vertical. Males with pra?anal pores. 

A single species. 

110. Ptychozoon homalocephalum. 

Lacerta homalocephala, Creveldt. Mag. Gcs. Naturf. Fr. Berlin, iii, 

1809, p. 267, pi. viii. 
Ptychozoon homalocephalum, Cantor, J. A. S. JB. xvi, 1847, p. 626 ; 

Giinth. Sept. B. I. p. 105 : Theob. Cat. p. 73 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 

i, p. 190. 

Head oviform ; snout longer than distance from eye to ear- 
opening, 1| diameter of orbit; forehead concave; ear-opening 
rather large, subcircular. Body and limbs moderate, depressed ; 
digits short, not very unequal, webbed to the tips ; the fore limbs 
bordered on each side by a broad dermal expansion; a similar 
expansion bordering the tibia on each side, the femur posteriorly 
only. The parachutes on the sides of the body nearly as broad as 
the latter. Another dermal lobe on the side of the head, below 
the ear-opening, from the angle of the mouth to the neck. Tail 
elongate, depressed, the sides fringed with a series of rounded 



PHELSTTMA. 



105 



lobes, confluent into a broad rounded flap at the extremity. Head 
and back covered with small granular scales. Rostral large, 
quadrangular; nostril pierced between the rostral, the first labial, 
and three small nasals ; 10 to 12 upper and as many lower labials ; 
rostral small, subtriangular ; 3 or 4 small chin-shields on each side, 




Fig. 31. Ptychozoon homalocephalum. 

inner elongate. Back usually with scattered convex tubercles. 
Throat covered with small granules, belly with moderate scales. 
An angular series of about 25 prseanal pores. Tail distinctly 
annulate, covered above with small flat granular scales and trans- 
verse series of conical tubercles, beneath with imbricate scales. 
Greyish or reddish brown above, with transverse undulating dark 
brown bands; a dark brown streak from the eye to the first 
dorsal band. 

From snout to vent 3'75 inches ; tail 3*6. 

Hob. Arrakan, Pegu, Nicobars, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Borneo, Java, Loo Choo Islands. 



Genus PHELSUMA, 
Gray, Ann. Phil. (2) x, 1825, p. 199. 

Digits strongly dilated, free, clavvless, inner rudimentary, with 
undivided lamellae below. Dorsal scales uniform, granular; ven- 



106 

trals flat, imbricate. Pupil round ; eyelid distinct all round the 
eye. Males with pra$anal or femoral pores. 





a b 

Fig. 32. Foot of PheJsuma andamanense. 

a. Lower surface, b. Upper surface. 

Distribution. Seven or eight species are known from Madagascar, 
the Comoro, Seychelle, and Mascarene Islands, and one from the 
Andamans. Diurnal and arboreal. 



111. Phelsuma andamanense. 

Phelsuma andamanense, Elt/th, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 108; 

Giinth. Kept. B. 1. p. 112; Theob. Cat. p. 74; Boulery. Cat. Liz. 

i, p. 212. 
Gecko chameleon, Tytler, J. A. S. B. xxxiii, 1864, p. 548. 

Snout twice as long as the distance between orbit and ear- 
opening, or as diameter of orbit. Upper part of rostral with a 
median cleft. Nostril pierced above the rostral and first labial, the 
suture between the two plates entering its lower border; 9 or 10 
upper labials ; 8 or 9 lower labials ; chin-shields irregular, scarcely 
distinct from the surrounding scales; 2 or 3 scales between the 
naso-rostrals. Ear-opening small, round, one fourth or one third 
the diameter of the orbit. Dorsal scales all granular, perfectly 
smooth. Ventral scales smooth. Femoral pores 12 to ] 5 on each 
side. Tail not much depressed, narrower than the body; seg- 
ments of tail rather indistinctly marked, composed of 7 transverse 
series on the side, of 9 above ; lower surface of tail with a median 
series of transversely dilated scales, two narrower ones alter- 
nating with a broader one ; all the caudal scales perfectly smooth. 
Greenish above, with more or less numerous orange spots, which, 
however, may be absent; an orange streak from the ear to the 
nostril, passing through the eye, and another, A-shaped, from eye 
to eye, are generally present ; lower surfaces whitish, throat not 
spotted. 

From snout to vent 2'5 inches ; tail 2'5. 

Hub. Andaman Islands. 



107 



Family II. EUBLEPHARID.E. 

Differ from the GecJconidce, to which they are closely related, in 
having the vertebrae opisthocoeloas and the parietal bones united, 
as in the normal Lacertilia. Distinguished externally from all 
Indian GecJconidce by the presence of connivent eyelids, another 
character in which they agree with the normal Lacertilia. 

Only three genera are known, viz. Psilodactylus (West Africa), 
Eublephai-is (Southern Asia and Central America), and Coleonyx 
(Central America). 

Genus EUBLEPHARIS, 
Gray, Phil. Mag. (2) ii, 1827, p. 56. 

Digits short and cylindrical, with a row of lamell below, 
clawed, the claws only partially retractile into a small sheath. 
Pupil vertical. Males with prseanal pores. 

Distribution. Southern Asia ; Central America, and Southern 
North America. 

Five species are known, three of which are American. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Dorsal tubercles broader than interspaces E. hardwickii, p. 107. 

Dorsal tubercles not broader than interspaces E. macularius, p. 108. 

112. Eublepharis hardwicMi. 

Eublepharis hardwickii, Gray, Phil. May. (2) ii, p. 56; Gilnth. Kept. 

B. I. p. 119, pi. xi, fig. B ; Theob. Cat. p. 94 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. \, 

p. 231. 
Gymnodactylus lunatus, Blyth, in Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, 

*p. 633 ; fd. xxiii, 1854, p. 210. 

Body stout ; limbs rather short ; digits short. Snout as long as 
distance between orbit and ear-opening ; the latter large, suboval, 
vertical. Head covered with irregular polvgonal scales, intermixed 
with enlarged tubercles on the temple and occiput ; rostral sub- 
pentagonal, twice as broad as high, with median cleft above ; 3 or 4 
internasals ; about 10 upper and as many lower labials ; mental 
broadly pentagonal, in contact with two enlarged chin-shields, 
surrounded by irregular smaller ones passing gradually into the 
flat granules of the gular region. Body covered above with small, 
irregular, flat scales, intermixed with numerous roundish, subconical 
tubercles ; these tubercles larger than the interspaces between 
them. Male with 14 to 18 praeanal pores. Tail swollen, rounded, 
tapering at the end, verticillated, above with small flat scales 
and rows of enlarged subconical tubercles, beneath with larger 
flat scales arranged regularly. Above reddish brown and cream- 
coloured; the former colour occupies the head and forms tsvo 



108 EUBLEPHARIDJE. 

broad bands across the back, the anterior broadest, and three 
round the tail ; the latter borders the upper lip and extends as a 
horseshoe-shaped band to the other side, passing across the neck ; it 
also occupies the interspace between the dorsal and caudal brown 
bands, which are by far the widest ; lower surfaces white. 

Total length 8 inches. 

Hab. Bengal, Central and Southern India. 

113. Eublepharis macnlarins. 

Cyrtodactylus macularius, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 738. 
Eublepharis fasciolatus, Gilnth. A. M. N. H. (3) xiv, 1864, p. 429. 
Eublepharis macularius, Theob. Cut. p. 94 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, 

p. 366 ; Boulena. Cat. Liz. i, p. 232. 
Eublepharis hardwiclui (MOW Gray), Murray, I. c. 




Fig. 33. Eublepharis macularius. 

Differs from the preceding by the smaller and less numerous 
tubercles, the granular interspaces being as wide as the tubercles 
themselves ; these are subconical or slightly keeled. Body and 
digits rather more elongate ; 9 to 14 praeanal pores in the male. 
Young with five chestnut-brown transverse bands from head to 
sacrum, slightly broader than their interspaces, which are whitish, 
and similar bands forming rings on the tail. In the adult these 
bands usually become more indistinct, and the head and body are 
spotted or largely vermiculated with chestnut-brown and whitish ; 
in some, only the brown edges of the dorsal bands remain. 

Total length 8 inches ; grows to nearly a foot long, according to 
Theobald. 

Hab. Punjab and Sind ; also recently found in the ruins of 
Nineveh. 

Both this and the preceding species are regarded as highly 
poisonous by the natives, and the name " Bis-Cobra " is often 
applied to them ; (though more commonly used for young Varani). 



109 



Family III. AGAM1D.E. 

Skull with bony postorbital and postfronto-squamosal arches, the 
first-named formed by the frontal and the jugal, the latter by the 
postfrontal and the squainosal ; suprateraporal fossa not roofed 
over ; praeinaxillary single ; nasals distinct ; parietal single ; a 
fibro-cartilaginous interorbital septum ; a columella cranii. Teeth 
anchylosed to the parapet of the jaws (Acrodont dentition), usually 
unequal in size or divisible into incisors, canines *, and molars ; 




A. Side view. 
ang. Angular. 
ar. Articular. 
bp. Basiphenoid. 
cr. Coronoid. 
d. Dentary. 
eo. Exoccipital. 
/. Frontal. 
is. Interorbital septut 



Fig. 34. Skull of Calotes jttbattts. 

B. Upper view. C. Lower vie 

/. Jugal. 
m. Maxillary. 
n. Nasal. 
p. Parietal. 
pi. Palatine. 
pm. Prasmaxillary. 
prf. PrjefroiitaL 
pt. Pterygoid. 



ptf. Postfrontal. 

q. Quadrate. 
s.ang. Supra-angular, 
so. Supraoccipital. 
sq. Squamosal. 
st. Supratemporal. 
tp. Transpalatine. 
v. Vomer. 



Canines are absent in Uromastix. 



110 AGAMID^E. 

no teeth on the palate. No dermal ossifications on the head or 

body. Clavicle slender, not dilated ; interclavicle T- s ' ia P e( l or 
anchor-shaped. 




Fig. 35. Pectoral arch of Calotcs jubatus. 

cl. Clavicle, cor. Coracoid. icl. Interclavicle. st. Sternum. 

e.cor. Epicoracoid. sc. Scapula. 

Tongue short or moderate, thick, not or but slightly nicked 
anteriorly, villose. Eye small, pupil round ; eyelids well developed. 
Ear distinct or hidden. Scales usually imbricate ; no symmetrical 
shields on the crown ; ornamental appendages, such as crests, gular 
pouches, &c., frequently present. Limbs well developed. Pern oral 
pores absent in most of the genera. Tail usually long and not 
fragile. 

Agamoids are mostly oviparous. Phrynocephalus is reported 
to be ovoviviparous. Many of the Indian forms are arboreal, and 
exhibit to a remarkable degree the rapid changes of colour so well 
known in the Cameleons. 

Members of this family inhabit Africa, Asia, Australia, and 
Polynesia ; both the species and genera are most numerous in the 
Indian Eegion, of the Eeptile fauna of which they, and especially 
the arboreal forms, form one of the typical features. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Genera. 

A. No femoral poi'es. 

a. Ribs much prolonged, supporting a 

wing-like dermal expansion DBACO, p. 111. 

ft. No wing-like lateral expansion, 
a'. Body not depressed. 

a". Four toes only SIT ANA, p. 114. 

b". Five toes. 

a. Tympanum hidden. 

a. Fifth toe short, not longer 

than first ; no dorsal crest. . OTOCRYI'TIS, p. 115. 
j3'. Three parallel longitudinal 
folds on each side of the 
middle of the throat, curved 
and converging backwards, 
forming a U-shaped figure. . PTYCTOIJEMUS, p. 116. 



DBACO. Ill 

y'. A dorsal crest ; scales very 

large, subequal, irregular ; 

tail prehensile COPHOTIS, p. 117. 

8'. No dorsal crest ; a large rostral 

appendage, at least in the 

male CERATOPHORA, p. 118. 

e'. A dorsal crest ; a V-shaped 

gular fold ; a bony supra- 
orbital arch LYRIOCEPHALUS, p. 121. 

f . A dorsal crest; an oblique fold 

in front of the shoulder. . . . JAPALURA, p. 129. 
/3. Tympanum exposed, 
a'. A strong fold across the 

throat GONYOCEPHALUS, p. 122. 

j3'. No fold across the throat ; 

dorsal scales unequal ; no 

gular pouch ACANTHOSAURA, p. 124. 

y. No fold across the throat; 

dorsal scales large, unequal ; 

males with a gular pouch . . SALEA, p. 131. 
8'. No fold, or a very feeble one, 

across the throat; dorsal 

scales equal CALOTES, p. 132. 

b'. Body more or less depressed. 

a". Typanurn exposed ; males without 

callous praeanal scales CHARASIA, p. 144. 

b" . Tympanum exposed ; males with 

callous praeanal scales AGAMA, p. 146. 

c". Tympanum concealed PHRYNOCEPHALUS, p. 152. 

B. Femoral pores present. 

a. Tail long, round, feebly depressed, 

covered with small, equal scales. LIOLEPIS, p. 156. 

b. Tail with whorls of large, spinose 

scales UROMASTIX, p. 157. 

Genus DRACO, 
Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 358, 1766. 

Body depressed, with a large lateral wing-like membrane, 
folding like a fan, supported by the last five or six ribs which are 





Fig. 36. Heads of Draco maculatus and Draco dussumieri. 
much produced. A gular appendage, and a lateral smaller one on 
each side. Tympanum distinct or covered with scales. Tail long. 
Iso femoral or praeanal pores. 

Distribution. The greater part of the Oriental region. 



112 AGAMIDjE. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species. 

A. Nostrils lateral, directed outwards ; tympanum 

covered with scales D. maculattis, p. 112. 

13. Nostrils pierced vertically, directed upwards ; 

tympanum naked. 

a. The hind limb, stretched forwards, does not 

reach beyond the axil. 
a'. Tympanum smaller than the eye-opening ; 

wing-membranes above marbled with 

dark brown, with lighter spots and 

lines, immaculate below ; male with a 

nuchal fold D. blanfordii, p. 112. 

V. Tympanum as large as the eye-opening ; 

wing-membranes black above with 

round light spots, below with a series 

of large black spots near the margin . . D. dussumieri, p. 113. 

b. The adpressed hind limb reaches beyond 

the axil. Wing-membranes above with 
6 transverse black bands, below without 
markings D. t&mopterus, p. 113. 

114. Draco maculatus. 

Dracunculus maculatus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 236. 

Draco maculatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 645 ; Giinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 125, pi. xiii, fig. C ; Theob. Cat. p. 97 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 

i, p. 262. 

Head small ; snout a little longer than the diameter of the orbit ; 
nostril lateral, directed outwards ; tympanum scaly. Upper head- 
scales unequal, strongly keeled ; a compressed prominent scale on 
the posterior part of the superciliary region ; 7 to 11 upper labials. 
The male's gular appendage very large, always much longer than 
the head, and frequently twice as long ; female also with a well- 
developed but smaller gular sac. Male with a very small nuchal crest. 
Dorsal scales but little larger than the ventrals, irregular, smooth 
or very feebly keeled ; on each side of the back a series of large 
trihedral keeled distant scales. The fore limb stretched forwards 
reaches beyond the tip of the snout ; the adpressed hind limb 
reaches a little beyond the elbow of the adpressed fore limb, or to 
the axilla. Greyish above, with more or less distinct darker 
markings ; a more or less distinct darker interorbital spot ; wing- 
membranes above \\ith numerous small round black spots, which 
are seldom confluent, beneath immaculate or with a few black 
spots ; a blue spot on each side of the base of the gular appendage. 

From snout to vent 3'25 inches ; tail 4-5. 

Hdb. From Assam and Tunnan to Singapore. 

115. Draco blanfordii. 

Draco major (non Laur.), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 125. 
Draco blanfordii, Bouleng. Cat'. Liz. i, p. 267, pi. xx, fig. 7. 

Head small, snout constricted, slightly longer than the diameter of 
the orbit ; nostril directed upwards, perfectly vertical ; tympanum 



DRACO. 113 

naked, smaller than the eye-opening. Upper head-scales unequal, 
keeled ; a prominent tubercle at the posterior corner of the orbit ; 
9 upper labials. The male's gular appendage longer than the head, 
very thin, covered with large scales. Male with a slight nuchal 
fold. Dorsal scales equal, smooth or very feebly keeled, not larger 
than ventrals ; a series of widely separated enlarged keeled scales 
along side of back. The fore limb stretched forwards extends 
considerably beyond the tip of the snout ; the adpressed hind limb 
nearly reaches the axil. Grey-brown above, with small dark spots ; 
wing-membranes above marbled with dark brown, with lighter spots 
and lines, beneath immaculate ; throat unspotted, greenish, pale 
scarlet beneath the lateral wattles. 

From snout to vent 475 inches ; tail 9. The largest species of 
the genus. 

Hab. Tenasserim. 

116. Draco dussumieri. 

Draco dussumieri, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iv, p. 456 ; Giinth. .Rept. 
B. I. p. 125, pi. xiii, fig. D ; Theob. Cat. p. 97 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 
i, p. 268. 

Head small ; snout constricted, as long as the diameter of the 
orbit ; nostril directed upwards, perfectly vertical ; tympanum 
naked, as large as the eye-opening. Upper head-scales unequal, 
keeled ; a spinose conical scale at the posterior corner of the orbit ; 
9 to 12 upper labials, the last twice or thrice as large as the 
preceding. The male's gular appendage much longer than the head. 
Male with a slight nuchal fold. Dorsal scales scarcely larger than 
ventrals, unequal, smooth or very slightly keeled ; on each side of 
the back a series of small tubercular prominences, each being com- 
posed of several small scales. The fore limb stretched forwards 
extends beyond the tip of the snout ; the adpressed hind limb 
reaches the axil or not quite so far. Grey-brown above ; a series 
of more or less distinct dark circles on the back ; wing-membranes 
above purplish black, enclosing round light spots, below with a series 
of large black spots near the margin ; throat with irregular dark 
spots. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 4-75. 

Hab. Malabar, Cochin, Travaucore, in forests and plantations of 
cocoa-nut and betel-nut palms. Peculiar to the low country near 
the west coast. 

117. Draco tseniopterus. 

Draco tseniopterus, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1861, p. 187, and Rept. B. /. 
p. 126, pi. xiii, fig. E; Theob. Cat. p. 98; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, 
p. 269. 

Head small ; snout as long as the diameter of the orbit ; nostril 
directed upwards, perfectly vertical ; tympanum naked, smaller 
than the eye-opening. Upper head-scales unequal, strongly keeled ; 
6 to 9 upper labials. The male's gular appendage slightly longer 



114 AGAMID.&. 

than the head, covered with very large scales. Male with a slight 
nuchal fold. Dorsal scales equal, very feebly keeled, not larger 
than ventrals ; a more or less distinct lateral series of enlarged 
keeled distant scales. The fore limb stretched forwards extends 
considerably beyond the tip of the snout ; the adpressed hind limb 
reaches beyond the axil. Greyish or brownish above, with me- 
tallic gloss, without distinct spots ; wing-membranes above with 
5 arched transverse black bands, about as wide as the interspaces 
between them ; some of these bands may be forked at the base 
or enclose large light spots ; wing-membranes uniform below. 

From snout to vent 2-75 inches ; tail 5-25. 

Hob. Tenasserim and Siam. 



Genus SITANA. 
Cuvier, Regne An. 2nd ed. ii, p. 43, 1829. 




Pig. 37. Foot of 
Sitana ponticeriana. 



Body slightly compressed, limbs long. 
Fifth toe absent. Scales all keeled, re- 
gular, smallest on the flanks. No dorsal 
crest. Male with a slight nuchal fold 
and a large folding gular appendage 
extending backwards to the belly and 
covered with large scales. No gular 
fold. Ear exposed. No prseanal or 
femoral pores. 

Distribution. India ; Ceylon. A single 
species. 



118. Sitana ponticeriana. 

Sitana ponticeriana, Cuv. Regne An. ed. 2, ii, p. 43 : Oi'mth. Hept. 

B. I. p. 135 ; Theob. Cat. p. 102 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 270. 
Sitana minor, Oi'mth. I. c. pi. xiv, fig. A. 
Sitana deccanensis, Jerdon, P. A. 8. B. 1870, p. 76. 

Upper head-scales small, sharply keeled ; canthus rostralis and 
supraciliary edge sharp, with much enlarged scales. Dorsal scales 
larger than ventrals, with sharp keels forming straight longitudinal 
lines ; lateral scales smallest, uniform or intermixed with scattered 
enlarged ones. Litnbs above with uniform strongly keeled scales. 
The length of the limbs varies very much : in some specimens the 
hind limb stretched forwards does not extend beyond the orbit, in 
others it reaches the end of the snout or even considerably beyond. 
Tail round, slender, once and a half to twice as long as the head 
and body, covered with equal keeled scales. Olive-brown above, 
with a series of rhomboidal spots along the middle of the back ; 
a more or less distinct light band along each side of the back. 
Gular appendage tricoloured blue, black, and red ; tl " 



OTOCRYPTIS. 115 

is more developed in the breeding-season, and in the majority of 
individuals, at all events, is not coloured at other times. 

From snout to vent 3-2 inches ; tail 4'6. 

Hob. India from the base of the Himalayas to Cape Coinorin, 
and from the Punjab and Cutch (not Sind) to Western Bengal ; 
Ceylon. 

Mr. Blanford, who has observed thousands of specimens, confirms 
Jerdon's statement that Sitana is purely a ground-lizard ; it is 
found in open country as well as in woods. 



Genus OTOCRYPTIS, 

Wiegmann, Isis, 1831, p. 293. 

Body compressed, limbs very long. Fifth toe very short, not 
longer than first. All the scales keeled, the dorsals heterogeneous. 
No dorsal crest. No gular fold. Male with a low nuchal crest 
and a large folding gular appendage ex- 
tending backwards to the belly, and 
covered with large scales. Ear concealed. 
No praeanal or femoral pores. 

Distribution. Ceylon, Southern India. 
Two species. 

This genus, as regards the structure of 
the foot, is intermediate between Sitana, 
in which the fifth toe is absent, and 
Fig. 38. Ptyctolcemus, in which it is much elongate, 

Foot of Otocryptis beddomii. &Q gh()wn j n figureg 37> 3^ and 39< ^ 

spite of its hidden tympanum, Otocryptis is, on the whole, more 
nearly allied to Sitana than to Ptyctolcemus. 

| 

Synopsis of the Species. 

No pit at side of neck O. bivittata, p. 115. 

A pit at side of neck O. beddomii, p. 116. 



119. Otocryptis bivittata. 

Otocryptis bivittata, Wiegm. Isis, 1831, p. 293; Giinth. Rept. B. 1. 
p. 127 ; Theob. Cat. p. 98 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 271. 

Upper head-scales sharply keeled ; canthus rostralis and supra- 
ciliary edge sharp, with much enlarged scales ; supraorbital scales 
large,' the inner series forming, with some enlarged scales on the 
snout, a regular /\ -shaped figure ; interorbital region with four or 
five longitudinal series of very small scales ; 9 to 11 upper and as 
many lower labials. Dorsal scales unequal, the enlarged ones 
sometimes forming regular longitudinal series ; lateral scales small, 

I 2 




116 AGAMIDJE. 

with scattered enlarged ones ; ventral scales larger than dorsals. 
Limbs covered with large subequal scales ; the hind limb stretched 
forwards reaches far beyond the tip of the snout, the heel reaching 
the eye or the posterior border of the orbit. Tail round, slender, 
2| times as long as head and body, covered with equal strongly 
keeled scales. Brownish olive above, sides darker ; a dark-brown, 
light-edged cross band between the eyes, and more or less distinct 
dark cross bands along the middle of the back ; generally a light 
oblique band from below the eye to the angle of the mouth ; males 
generally with a light band along each side of the back ; limbs 
and tail with more or less distinct dark cross bars ; lower surfaces 
whitish, the throat brownish in the females and young. 

From snout to vent 2-6 inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

120. Otocryptis beddomii. 

Otocryptis beddoniii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 272, pi. xxiii, lig. 1 . 

Head-scales as in the preceding, but the interorbitals only 
a little smaller than the others, in two or three longitudinal 
series ; the f\ -shaped figure formed by the keels of some of the 
scales generally indistinct ; canthus rostralis less prominent ; 9 or 
10 upper and as many lower labials. A small pit on each side of 
the neck, in front of the shoulder. Dorsal scales unequal, the en- 
larged ones sometimes forming regular chevrons on the back, with 
the point directed backwards, or a lateral longitudinal series, the 
latter always distinct on the sacral region ; lateral scales a little 
smaller, with scattered enlarged ones ; ventral scales much larger 
than dorsals. Limbs above with large equal keeled scales ; the 
hind limb stretched forwards reaches bevond the tip of the snout, 
the heel reaches the tympanum. Tail round, slender, not twice as 
long as head and body, covered with equal strongly keeled scales. 
Light brownish olive above, uniform, or with small scattered dark- 
brown spots on the back and limbs ; a more or less distinct light 
dark-edged oblique band from below the eye to the mouth ; lower 
surfaces whitish, the throat brownish in the young. 

From snout to vent 1*75 inches ; tail 3. 

Hob. Sivagiri Ghat, Tinnevelly, S. India. Found on grass at an 
elevation of about 4300 feet. 



Genus PTYCTOLJEMUS, 
Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1864, p. 380. 

Body compressed. Fifth toe much longer than first. All the 
scales keeled, the dorsals heterogeneous. No dorsal crest. Three 
parallel longitudinal folds on each side of the middle of the throat, 
curved and converging backwards, forming a U-shaped figure. 
Ear concealed. No prseanal or femoral pores. 

A single species. 



117 



121. PtyctolaBmus gularis. 

Otocryptis (Ptyctolsemus) gularis, Peters, MB. Ak. Serl. 1864, 

p. 386. 
Ptyctolaemus gularis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 273. 





Fig. 39. Throat and foot of Ptyctol&miis gularis. 

Head rather elongate, the snout longer than the diameter of the 
orbit ; canthus rostralis and supraciliary edge angular ; upper head- 
scales unequal, keeled ; 8 upper and as many lower labials. A 
slight indication of a nuchal crest ( $ ). Dorsal and lateral scales 
small, feebly keeled, with some irregularly scattered enlarged and 
strongly keeled; ventrals larger, strongly keeled. Limbs above 
with subequal scales ; the hind limb stretched forwards reaches 
the posterior border of the orbit ; fifth toe as long as third. Tail 
roundish, slender, a little more than twice as long as head and 
body, covered with subequal keeled scales. Olive-brown above, 
with darker transverse spots; two curved dark-brown cross bands, 
separated by a light one of equal width, between the eyes ; an oblique 
dark-brown band from lelow the eye to the angle of the mouth ; 
limbs and tail above with dark cross bands ; the skin in the gular 
folds black. 

From snout to vent 2 '75 inches ; tail 6-25. 

H(ib. Only two specimens of this lizard are known : the type in 
the Berlin Museum, which I have examined, said to be from Cal- 
cutta ; the other, in the British Museum, is from Sadiya, in Assam. 



Genus COPHOTIS, 
Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1861, p. 1103. 

Tympanum hidden. Body compressed, covered with large sub- 
equal irregular scales. A dorsal crest. A very small gular sac in 
both sexes ; a slight transverse gular fold. Tail prehensile. No 
femoral or prseanal pores. 

Two species are known, one inhabiting Ceylon, the other 
Sumatra. 



118 



122. Cophotis ceylanica. 

Cophotis ceylanica, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1861, p. 1103 ; Giinth. 
Rept. B. I. p. 132, pi. xiii, fig. II ; Theob. Cat, p. 100 ; Boukng. 
Cat. Liz. i, p. 275. 

Snout nearly twice as long as diameter of orbit ; upper head- 
scales rather large, unequal, tubercular; male with a small tubercle 
on the tip of the snout ; 8 to 10 upper and as many lower labials ; 
gular scales feebly keeled, smallest on tbe median line. Nuchal 
crest composed of 3 or 4 lanceolate spines, the longest of which 
about equals the diameter of the orbit ; dorsal crest non-continuous 
with tbe nuchal, composed of 12 to 14 similar lobes separated from 
one another ; in the female the lobes of the crest are shorter and 
not raised, but bent sideways on the back. Dorsal scales very 
Large, irregular, imbricate, smooth or shortly keeled, the keels 
pointing downwards and backwards ; ventral scales small, lanceolate, 
strongly keeled, mucronate. Scales on the limbs irregular, 
keeled, some slightly spinose ; fingers and toes not very long, 
third slightly shorter tban fourtb ; infradigital scales feebly 
keeled; the adpressed hind limb hardly reaches the axil. Tail 
feebly compressed, covered with keeled scales which are smaller 
beneath ; its length is not once arid a half that of head and body. 
Olive above, with irregular dark-broun cross bands ; a light, 
reddisb-brown to cream-coloured band from the end of the snout 
on the upper lip to above the shoulder ; a cream-coloured spot 
on the nape and a cross band of the same colour on the anterior 
part of the back ; lower lip with a broad dark-brown margin ; 
more or less distinct oblique brown lines on the sides ; tail with 
dark annuli. 

From snout to vent 2'6 inches ; tail 2-9. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Genus CERATOPHORA, 

Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. ii, 1834. 

Tympanum hidden. Body more or less compressed, covered witb 
unequal scales. No dorsal crest ; a nuchal crest present or absent. 
No gular sac ; no gular fold. A large rostral appendage, at least 
in the males. No femoral or prseanal pores. 

Ceylon. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

a. Gular scales larger than the ventrals, smooth ; 

lateral scales large, unequal ; rostral appen- 
dage scaleless C. stoddartii, p. 119. 

b. Gular scales larger than the ventrals, feebly 

keeled ; lateral scales large, equal ; rostral 

appendage scaly C. tennentii, p. 120. 



CEEATOPHORA. 119 

c. Gular scales smaller than the ventrals, strongly 
keeled ; lateral scales small ; rostral appen- 
dage scaly C. aspera, p. 120. 



123. Ceratophora stoddartii. 

Oeratophora stoddartii, Gray, III. Ind. Zool ii, pi. Ixviii, fig. 2 j 
Kelaart, Prodr. p. 165 ; Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 129, pi. xiii, fig. F ; 
Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 277. 

Lyriocephalus stoddartii, Theob. Cat. p. 99. 




Fig. 40. Head of Ceratophora stoddartii. 

Upper head-scales small, irregular, keeled or tubercular ; occiput 
concave, with a short raised ridge on each side ; interorbital space 
concave ; rostral appendage scaleless, flexible, pointed ; its length 
varies considerably and it is short or entirely absent in the female ; 
10 to 12 upper and 9 or 10 lower labials. Gular scales smooth, 
large, subquadraugular, forming regular longitudinal series, those 
on the median line smaller. A low denticulated nuchal crest. 
Dorsal scales irregular and unequal in size, those on the sides large, 
strongly imbricate, and pointing upwards and backwards, intermixed 
with smaller ones ; some of the dorsal scales feebly keeled, the 
others smooth ; ventral scales small, smooth or feebly keeled. 
Limbs above with unequal keeled scales ; the adpressed hind limb 
reaches the posterior border of the orbit or not quite so far. Tail 
slightly compressed, covered with equal keeled scales, intermixed 
with a few enlarged ones at the base ; its length is once and two 
thirds to twice that of head and body. Olive above, with more 
or less distinct irregular darker cross bars on the back and limbs ; 
frequently a white streak behind the orbit and a white spot or 
longitudinal band on the side of the neck ; a white line along the 
hinder side of the thigh ; rostral appendage and throat white (in 
spirit). 

From snout to vent 3-25 inches ; tail 6-7. 

Hob. Ceylon (only the alpine parts). 



120 AO.VMIP.T. 

124. Ceratophora tennentii. 

Ceratophora tennentii, Gunth. in Tennent, Nat. Hist. Ceyl. p. 281, 

fig. ; id. Sept. B. I. p. 130 ; Bmdeng. Cat. Liz. i,p. 878. 
Lynocephalus tennenti, Theob. Cat. p. 99. 

Upper head-scales small, irregular, keeled ; interorbital space and 
occiput slightly concave ; a short raised ridge on each side of the 
occiput ; rostral appendage large in both sexes, fleshy, compressed, 
suboval, covered with small scales and granules ; 10 upper and 9 
or 10 lower labials. Gular scales feebly keeled, large, subquadran- 
gular, forming regular longitudinal series, those on the median 
line smaller. A. low denticulated nuchal crest. Upper dorsal 
scales irregular and unequal in size, the larger ones feebly keeled ; 
lateral scales equal, large, strongly imbricate, and pointing up wards 
and backwards, smooth or very feebly keeled ; ventral scales smaller, 
keeled. Limbs above with subequal keeled scales ; the ad pressed hind 
limb reaches the eye or a little beyond. Tail slightly compressed, 
covered with equal keeled scales ; its length not quite twice that of 
head and body. Olive above, irregularly marbled with brownish ; 
young with more distinct brown markings, always with an angular 
cross band between the eyes, sometimes with light longitudinal lines; 
a more or less distinct white line along the hinder side of the 
thighs. 

From snout to vent 3 - 5 inches ; tail 6-7. 

Sab. Ceylon. 

125. Ceratophora aspera. 

Ceratophora aspera, Giinth. Sept. B. I. p. 131, pi. xiii, fig. G ; Bmtleng. 

Cat.Liz.i,f. 278. 
Lyriocephalus asper, Theob. Cat. p. 100. 

Upper head-scales small, irregular, tubercular ; interorbital space 
deeply concave ; occiput with a pair of low ridges, convergent an- 
teriorly ; rostral appendage large in the male, cylindrical, pointed, 
covered with small imbricate strongly keeled scales, absent or rudi- 
mentary in the female; 10 to 12 upper and as many lower labials. 
Gular scales smaller than veutrals, very strongly keeled. No nuchal 
crest. Dorsal scales small, irregular, unequal, strongly keeled ; 
ventral scales larger, very strongly keeled. Limbs above with 
strongly keeled unequal scales ; digits very strongly keeled ; fifth 
toe shorter than third ; the adpressed hind limb reaches between 
the shoulder and the orbit. Tail not compressed, covered with 
subequal strongly keeled scales; its length not more than 1| times 
that of head and body. Brown, with lighter and darker mark- 
ings or longitudinal lines ; generally a rhombic mark on the sacral 
region ; males with a large white spot or cross band on the gular 
region. 

From snout to vent 1*75 inches ; tail 1-8. 

Hob. Ce?lon. 



LTBIOCEFHAIT7S. 

Genus LYRIOCEPHALUS, 



121 



Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. p. 49, 1820. 

Tympanum hidden. Body compressed, covered with small scales 
intermixed with enlarged ones. A nuchal and a dorsal crest. A 
gular sac and a V-shaped gular fold. Adult with a globular hump 
on the nose. ?so femoral or pra?anal pores. 

Prae- and post-orbital bones forming an arch limiting a supra- 
orbital fossa. 

Distribution. Geylon. 




Fig. 41. Skull of Lyriocephalus scafattif, upper and side views. 



126. Lyriocephalus scutatus. 

Lacerta scutata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 360. 

Lyriocephalus scutatus, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 166 ; Giinth. Sept. B. I. 

p. 128 ; Theob. Cat. p. 99 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 281. 
Lyriocephalus macgregorii, Gray, III. 2nd. Zool. ii, pi. Ixviii, fig. 1. 

Eostral hump large and globular in the adult, absent in the 
young, covered with subequal smooth scales ; canthus rostralis 
and supraciliary edge sharp, projecting, the latter ending behind 
in a triangular compressed spine ; a pair of small spines on the 
occiput; upper head-scales irregular, unequal, feebly keeled; 
temple granular, with enlarged tubercles ; 14 or 15 upper and as 
many lower labials. Gular sac large in the male, small in the 
female ; gular scales larger than ventrals, keeled, those on the gular 
sac separated by granules. Body strongly compressed. ,A low 
nuchal crest, formed of a cutaneous fold with small triangular 
scales forming a denticulation. Dorsal crest composed of small 
triangular compressed tubercles, separated from one another. Dor- 
sal scales very small, smooth, intermixed with flat, smooth or feebly 
keeled tubercles which, on the nape, and sometimes also on the 
back, form regular longitudinal series ; these tubercles irregularly 



122 AGAMIES. 

scattered on the flanks. Ventral scales moderate, strongly keeled. 
Limbs with keeled scales, with enlarged tubercles on the thighs ; 
the adpressed hind limb reaches the neck or the temple. Tail 
strongly compressed, with a crest similar to the dorsal ; upper cau- 
dal scales unequal, feebly keeled, lower equal and strongly keeled ; 
the length of the tail nearly equals that of the head and body. 
Greenish above, whitish beneath. 

From snout to vent 7 inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. The Kandian provinces. 

Genus GONYOCEPHALUS, 
Kaup, Isis, 1825, p. 590. 

Tympanum distinct. Body compressed. Dorsal scales small, 
uniform or intermixed with enlarged ones. A dorsal crest. A 
strong transverse gular fold. Males with a gular sac. No praoanal 
or femoral pores. 

Distribution. East Indies, Papuasia, Polynesia, North-eastern 
Australia. 

25 species are known, only four of which have to be dealt with in 
this work. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species, 

A. Ventral and gular scales keeled. 

a. Limbs above with subequal scales ; longest 

spines of nuchal crest shorter than greatest 

diameter of tympanum G. subcristatus, p. 122. 

b. Linibs above with unequal scales; nuchal 

crest much higher than dorsal G. humii, p. 123. 

B. Ventral scales keeled, gulars smooth G. bellii, p. 123. 

C. Ventral and gular scales smooth G. grandis, p. 124. 

127. Gonyocephalus subcristatus. 

Tiaris subcristata, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxix, 1861, p. 109 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 112. 
Gonyocephalus subcristatus, Boulcng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 292. 

Snout longer than diameter of orbit ; canthus rostralis and supra- 
ciliary edge sharp ; tympanum nearly as large as eye-opening ; 
upper head-scales of unequal size, strongly keeled ; a few enlarged 
tubercles on back of head ; 7 or 8 upper and as many lower labials. 
Gular sac very small ; gular scales smaller than veutrals, keeled. 
Nuchal crest not continuous with dorsal, formed of triangular 
spines, the longest of which measures less than diameter of eye- 
opening, inserted on a slight fold of the skin ; dorsal crest a serrated 
ridge. Dorsal scales small, keeled, the points directed upwards and 
backwards, a few scales enlarged, irregularly scattered ; ventral 
scales rather small, strongly keeled. Limbs above with subequal 
keeled scales; third and fourth fingers equal; the adpressed hind limb 



GCXNTOCEPHALTTS. 123 

reaches the anterior border of the orbit, or between the latter and 
the nostril. Tail strongly compressed, with serrated upper edge, 
with keeled scales which are larger inferiorly ; the length of the 
tail a little more than twice that of head and body. Brown or 
olive above, spotted or reticulated with black on the sides ; some- 
times a light, dark-edged band along each side of the back. 

From snout to vent 3-25 inches ; tail 8. 

Hab. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 



128. Gronyocephalus humii. 

Tiaris humei, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, 1873, p. 167. 
Gonyocephalus hurnii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 294. 

Near G. subcristatus, but with the crest very much more deve- 
loped ; the nuchal crest considerably higher than the dorsal. 
General coloration greenish olive, on the top of the head brownish ; 
sides of the entire body more or less distinctly and rather densely 
reticulated and spotted with black and yellow ; sides of head and 
neck and the gular sac tinged with purplish blue, labials spotted 
with blue ; chin mostly yellow. 

Head and body 4-4 inches ; tail 11. 

Hal. Tillingchang Island, Nicobars. I have not seen examples 
of this species. 

129. Gonyocephalus bellii. 

Lophyrus bellii, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iv. p. 416 ; Peters, MB. 

Ak. Berl. 1867, p. 16. 
Gonyocephalus bellii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 288. 

Tympanum nearly covered with scales. Upper head-scales 
small, keeled ; two subconical tubercles on the occiput. Gular sac 
small, without serrated anterior edge ; gular scales equal, smooth. 
Nuchal and dorsal crests continuous, commencing on the occiput ; 
the crest is composed of lanceolate spines with two or three rows 
of smaller keeled spines on each side at its base, which gradually 
decrease in size on the back. Dorsal scales small, keeled, with the 
points turned upwards and backwards, intermixed with enlarged 
scales irregularly scattered ; ventral scales strongly keeled. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches nearly the tip of the snout. Tail com- 
pressed, anteriorly with serrated upper edge ; its length more than 
twice that of head and body. Brownish above, whitish-spotted ; 
crest greenish grey ; tail with regular dark annuli. 

From snout to vent 6 inches ; tail 13. 

Hob. The type specimen in the Paris Museum was stated to be 
from Bengal. A second specimen has since been received by the 
Berlin Museum from Capt. von Orlich, together with other lieptiles 
from Bengal. 



124 AGAMID7E. 

130. Gonyocephalus grandis. 

Dilophyrus grandis, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 239 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 
1847, p. 040, pi. xx ; Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 136 ; Theob. Cat. p. 103. 
Gonyocephalus grandis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 298. 

Snout longer than diameter of orbit; canthus rostralis and 
supraciliary edge sharp, projecting ; tympanum nearly as large as 
eye-opening ; upper head-scales very small, bluntly keeled, enlarged 
on the canthus rostralis and the supraciliary and supraorbital 
borders ; one or two enlarged tubercles on each side behind the 
occiput ; 10 to 12 upper and as many lower labials. Gular sac 
moderately large, without serrated anterior edge ; gular scales 
smaller than ventrals, smooth. Nuchal and dorsal crests subcon- 
tinuous, separated by a deep notch, composed of long lanceolate 
spines united together, free only at the tips, with smaller triangular 
smooth spines at the base : in the male, the height of the nuchal 
crest nearly equals the length of the snout, and the dorsal crest is a 
little lower ; in the female, the former is scarcely developed and 
the latter is reduced to a slight serration. Dorsal scales very 
small, with the points directed upwards and backwards ; ventral 
scales rather small, smooth. Limbs above with equal smooth or 
very feebly keeled scales ; third and fourth fingers equal ; the ad- 
pressed hind limb reaches to between the eye and the tip of the 
snout. Tail strongly compressed, with sharp serrated upper edge ; 
caudal scales smooth, with two rows enlarged and strongly keeled 
beneath ; the length of the tail about 2| times that of head 
and body. Brown or olive above, with or without darker cross 
bands ; flanks with roundish yellow spots ; throat sometimes with 
blue lines. 

From snout to vent 6 inches ; tail 16. 

Hob. Pegu, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. The occurrence 
of this species in Pegu strongly needs confirmation. 

Genus ACANTHOSAURA, 

Gray, Griff. A. K. ix, Syn. p. 50, 1831. 

Tympanum distinct. Body generally compressed, limbs more or 
less elongate. Dorsal scales heterogeneous, small or moderate. A 
dorsal crest. No gular fold, but. a more or less distinct oblique 
fold in front of the shoulder. No gular sac. No prseanal or 
femoral pores. 

Distribution. South-eastern Asia. 9 species are known. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species. 

A. Nuchal crest separated from dorsal. 

. Spine between eye and tympanum nearly 

as long as diameter of orbit A. armata, p. 125. 

b. The spine not more than half diameter of 

orbit A. crucif/cra, p. 125. 

c. Postorbital spine ^ to diameter of orbit . . A. lamnidentata, p. 120. 



ACANTHOSAtJRA. 125 

B. Nuchal and dorsal crests continuous. 

a. A spine on each side of neck A. minor, p. 127. 

b. No spine on side of neck. 

a'. Dorsal scales not very unequal in size . . A. kakhienensis, p. 127. 

b'. Dorsal scales very unequal in size A. major, p. 128. 

c'. A serrated ridge on each side of the neck, 

parallel with the nuchal ridge A. tricarinata, p. 129. 



181. Acanthosaura armata. 

Agama armata, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, p. 210. 
Acanthosaura armata, Gilnth. Rept. B. 1, p. 148; Theob. Cat. 
p. 112 (?) ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 301, pi. xxii, fig. 1. 

Snout as long as the diameter of the orbit, or slightly shorter ; 
canthus rostralis and supraciliary edge angular ; tympanum nearly 
as large as the eye-opening ; upper head-scales keeled, much larger 
on the supraorbital region ; a long spine, measuring from three 
fourths to one diameter of the orbit, terminates the supraciliary 
edge; 11 to 13 upper and 13 to 15 lower labials ; gular scales 
strongly keeled, much smaller than the ventrals. An oblique 
fold on each side of the neck, in front of the shoulder ; a large 
spine, of the same size as the postorbital, on each side of the nape 
above the tympauum. Nuchal crest not continuous with the 
dorsal, composed of large compressed spines, as long as the post- 
orbital ones, with the base concealed by two or three rows of 
smaller spines. Dorsal crest anteriorly as high as the nuchal, be- 
coming very low behind. Dorsal scales extremely small, all with 
the points directed upwards, intermixed with irregularly scattered, 
enlarged, rhomboidal, strongly keeled scales ; ventral scales a 
little larger than the enlarged dorsals, strongly keeled. Fore limb 
and tibia above with equal keeled scales, femur with unequal ones; 
fourth finger very slightly longer than third ; the hind limb 
stretched forwards reaches between the temple and the nostril. 
Tail compressed, 1^ to 14 times as long as head and bodv, covered 
with uniform strongly keeled scales, which are larger beneath. 
Brownish above, with round lighter spots, or light with irregular 
dark spots ; some dark lines radiate from the eye ; an oblique dark 
brown band down each side of the neck, from the interruption 
between the nuchal and dorsal crests to the throat. 

From snout to vent 5-4 inches ; tail 6*25. 

Hob. Teiiasserim (?), Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin China. 



132. Acanthosaura crucigera. 
Acanthosaura crucigera, Boukng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 302. pi. xxii, tig. 2. 

Snout as long as diameter of orbit ; cauthus rostralis and supra- 
ciliary edge angular ; tympanum smaller than eye-opening ; upper 
head-scales rather feebly keeled, much larger on the supraorbital 



126 AGAMIM;. 

region ; a spine, measuring one half the diameter of the orbit, 
terminates the supraciliary edge ; 9 or 10 upper and as many lower 
labials ; gular scales strongly keeled, much smaller than the 
ventrals. An oblique fold down each side of the neck, in front of 
the shoulder ; a spine, the length of which does not exceed one half 
the diameter of the orbit, on each side of the nape, above the tym- 
panum. Nuchal crest not continuous with the dorsal, composed of 
large compressed spines a little longer than the postorbital ones, 
with the base concealed by two or three rows of smaller spines. 
Dorsal crest much lower than the nuchal, gradually decreasing 
in size, reduced posteriorly to a very feeble denticulation. Dorsal 
scales not quite so small as in A. armata, with the point directed 
upwards, intermixed with irregularly scattered, enlarged, rhom- 
boidal, strongly keeled scales ; ventral scales larger than the enlarged 
dorsals, strongly keeled. Fore limb and tibia above with equal 
keeled scales, femur with unequal ones : fourth finger very slightly 
longer than third ; the adpressed hind limb reaches the anterior 
border of the orbit in the female, the end of the snout in the male. 
Tail compressed, nearly twice as long as head and body, covered 
with uniform strongly keeled scales, which are larger beneath. 
Pinkish grey above, with brown spots and marblings enclosing 
roundish light spots ; a large cruciform dark-brown marking on the 
nape, the lateral branches descending along the antehumeral fold 
to the throat ; eyelids and a streak from the end of the snout to the 
tympanum, through the orbit, dark brown ; limbs and tail with 
dark and light cross bands. 

From snout to vent 3-8 inches ; tail 6-8. 

Hob. Tenasserim. 



133. Acanthosaura lamnidentata. 

Acanthosaura lamnidentata, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 302, pi. xxii, fig. 3. 

Snout as long as diameter of orbit ; canthus rostralis and supra- 
ciliary edge angular ; tympanum a little smaller than eye-opening ; 
upper head-scales keeled, larger on the supraorbital region ; a 
spine, measuring 3 to ^ the diameter of the orbit, terminates the 
supraciliary edge ; 10 or 11 upper and 11 or 12 lower labials ; 
gular scales strongly keeled, smaller than the ventrals. An ob- 
lique fold down each side of the neck, in front of the shoulder ; a 
spine a little shorter than the postorbital on each side of the nape 
above the tympanum. Nuchal crest not continuous with dorsal, 
composed of compressed triangular scales, the longest of which equal 
the postorbital spine ; spines at base of nuchal crest small. Dorsal 
crest very low, formed of triangular scales, gradually decreasing 
in size behind, where it is reduced to a slight denticulation. Dorsal 
scales extremely small, with the points directed upwards, inter- 
mixed with irregularly scattered, enlarged, rhomboidal, strongly 
keeled scales ; ventral scales larger than the enlarged dorsals, 
strongly keeled. Fore limb and tibia above with equal keeled 



ACANTHOSAUEA. 127 

scales, femur with unequal ones ; fourth finger very slightly longer 
than third ; the adpressed hind limb reaches the eye or the nostril. 
Tail compressed, If or 1| times as long as head and body, covered 
with uniform strongly keeled scales, which are larger beneath. 
Brownish olive above, with roundish lighter spots, or with a 
series of large dark-brown spots on each side of the back ; a 
large dark-brown marking on the nape, in some specimens be- 
coming wider in front ; hind limbs and tail with dark transverse 
bars. 

From snout to vent 4-25 inches ; tail 6-8. 

Hob. Pegu and Tenasserim. Perhaps only a variety of the 
preceding. 

134. Acanthosaura minor. 

Calotes minor, Gray, Cat. Liz, p. 244. 

Oriocalotes minor, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 147. 

Charasia minor, Theob. Cat. p. 113. 

Acanthosaura minor, Bonleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 304, pi. xxiii, tig. 2. 

Snout a little longer than diameter of orbit ; canthus rostralis 
and supraciliary edge angular; tympanum smaller than eye-opening; 
upper head-scales keeled, of very irregular size, enlarged on the 
supraorbital region ; a small spine, measuring a little less than 
the vertical diameter of the tympanum, behind the supraciliary 
edge ; two other similar spines on each side of the back of the 
head, the foremost nearly equally distant from the tympanum and 
the nuchal crest, the other just above the tympanum ; 7 or 8 upper 
and as many lower labials. Gular scales a little smaller than the 
ventrals. An oblique fold on each side of the neck, in front of 
the shoulder. Nuchal and dorsal crests continuous, low, reduced 
to a serrated ridge on the back. Dorsal scales rather large, strongly 
keeled, the upper with the points directed obliquely upwards and 
backwards ; some enlarged scales are scattered on the sides ; 
ventral scales very strongly keeled, smaller than dorsals. Limbs 
above with subequal strongly keeled scales ; fourth finger very 
slightly longer than third ; the adpressed hind limb reaches between 
the neck-fold and the temple. Tail scarcely compressed, nearly 
twice as long as head and body, covered with uniform stronglv 
keeled scales, which are not larger beneath. Pale brownish olive 
above, with irregular dark-brown spots or marbliugs, frequently 
forming irregular cross bands ; several dark streaks radiate from 
the eye ; throat with more or less distinct irregular dark trans- 
verse lines. 

From snout to vent 2-9 inches ; tail 5'8. 

Hob. Sikhiin and Khasi Hills. 

135. Acanthosaura kakhienensis. 

Oriocalotes kakhienensis, Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 806, pi 

Ixxvi, fig. 1. 
Acanthosaura kakhienensis, Bvuleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 305. 



128 

Gauthus rost-ralis and supraciliary ridge not well defined ; upper 
head-scales obtusely keeled, of different sizes ; no spines on the head. 
A slight fold above and in front of the shoulder. Nuchal crest com- 
posed of six to eight triangular spines, disappearing a short way 
behind the shoulders. Dorsal scales of moderate size, keeled ; those 
on the side of the back directed upwards and backwards, and those 
below downwards and backwards; a few large keeled scales scattered 
over the sides ; scales of chest and belly of moderate size and strongly 
keeled. The hind limb extends to the angle of the jaw. Base of 
tail compressed, but thick and somewhat rounded. Oeneral colour 
above olive, irregularly variegated with brown and yellow, these 
colours having a tendency to arrange themselves in cross bands ; a 
broad black band from the posterior margin of the eye to the tym- 
panum ; black streaks radiate from the eye ; under surface olive- 
green. 

Size of A. major. 

Nab. Ponsee, Kakhyen Hills, N. Burma. I have not seen ex- 
amples of this species. 



136. Acanthosaura major. 

Oriocalotes major, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 77. 

Charasia major, Theob. Cut. p. 113. 

Acanthosaura major, Souleny, Cat. Liz. i, p. 306, pi. xxiii, fig. 3. 

Snout longer than diameter of orbit ; canthus rostralis and 
supraciliary edge angular ; tympanum a little larger than eye- 
opening; upper head-scales unequal, keeled, a series of larger ones 
bordering the supraorbital region inside ; no postorbital spine ; a 
row of projecting triangular scales borders the head behind ; 7 
upper and as many lower labials ; gular scales smaller than ventrals, 
feebly keeled. A rather indistinct oblique fold in front of the 
shoulder. Nuchal and dorsal crest continuous, reduced to a serrated 
ridge. Dorsal scales very irregular, some very small, others very 
large ; all are distinctly keeled, and the upper have their points 
directed upwards and backwards ; ventral scales distinctly keeled, 
smaller than the largest dorsals. Limbs above with unequal keeled 
scales ; fourth finger very slightly longer than third ; the adpressed 
hind limb reaches the tympanum. Tail compressed, 1| times as 
long as head and body, covered with unequal keeled scales. Olive 
above; back with six large angular blackish cross bands, with the 
angles directed backward ; flanks reticulated with blackish ; head 
above with blackish cross streaks ; an oblique black band from the 
eye to the tympanum, continued along the side of the neck ; limbs 
and tail with dark cross bars. 

From snout to vent 3-7 inches ; tail 6. 

Hob. Western Himalayas (Valley of the Sutlej, near Kot- 
garh). 



JAPALUBA. 129 



137. Acanthosaura tricarinata. 

Calotes tricarinatus, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1854, p. 650. 
Tiaris elliotti, Giinth. P.Z. S. 1860, p. 151, pi. xxv, fig. B. 
Oriotiaris elliotti, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 150. 
Charasia tricarinata, Theob. Cat. p. 114. 
Acanthosaura tricarinata, Boukny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 306. 

Snout slightly longer than diameter of orbit ; canthus rostralis 
and supraciliary edge angular ; tympanum nearly as large as eye- 
opening; upper head-scales unequal, feebly keeled, a series of 
larger ones bordering the supraorbital region inside ; a conical 
tubercle behind the supraciliary edge ; an oblique transverse row 
of conical ribbed tubercles on each side, bordering the head behind ; 
5 or 6 upper and as many lower labials ; gular scales smaller than 
ventrals, indistinctly keeled ; a conical tubercle below the tym- 
panum. Oblique fold in front of the shoulder very indistinct. 
Body not, or but very slightly, compressed. Nuchal and dorsal 
crests continuous, reduced to a series of enlarged strongly keeled 
scales ; another parallel series of enlarged scales on each side of 
the nape, lost a short distance beyond the shoulder. Dorsal scales 
very irregular, scarcely imbricate, smooth or feebly keeled; strongly 
enlarged keeled scales are scattered on the flanks, and frequently 
others form angular series across the back ; ventral scales as large 
as the enlarged dorsals, feebly keeled. Limbs above with unequal 
strongly keeled scales ; fourth finger longer than third ; the ad- 
pressed hind limb reaches the eye or the tip of the snout. Tail 
not compressed, twice to twice and a half as long as head and body, 
covered with rather unequal keeled scales. Brownish grey or blue 
above, uniform or with angular brown markings on the back ; 
lateral nuchal clenticulation brown-edged ; lower surfaces uniform 
whitish or with small black dots. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 4*25. 

Hob. Sikkim, up to 9200 feet. 



Genus JAPALURA, 
Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 387. 

Tympanum hidden. Dorsal scales heterogeneous. A dorsal 
crest. Gular pouch small or absent. An oblique fold in front 
of the shoulder ; gular fold present or absent. Tail feebly com- 
pressed. No prseanal or femoral pores. 

Distribution. East Indies ; Southern China. 

Of the 6 known species, one occurs in the Himalayas and 
Eastern Bengal, and another in the Khasi Hills. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Body compressed J. varieyata, p. 130. 

Body subquadi angular ; back nearly flat J. plamdorsata, p. 130. 



130 



138. Japalura variegata. 

Japalura variegata, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, p. 388 ; Giinth. Kept. 

B. I. p. 1:33; Theob. Cat. p. 101; Bouleng, Cat. Liz. i, p. 308, 

pi. xxiv, fig. 1. 

Biancia niger, Gray, 1. c. p. 387. 
Japalura microlepis, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 76. 

Snout a little longer than diameter of orbit ; canthus rostralis 
sharp ; upper head-scales irregular, sharply keeled ; a small tuber- 
cular scale behind the supraciliary edge ; other scattered conical 
scales on the hind part of the head; 9 to 11 upper and as many 
lower labials. Male with a very small gular pouch. A well- 
developed nuchal crest. Body compressed, covered above and on 
the sides with small keeled scales intermixed with larger ones, all 
having their points obliquely directed upwards and backwards ; 
dorsal crest a slight serrated ridge ; ventral scales as large as the 
largest dorsals, strongly keeled. Limbs above with scales of 
irregular size ; third and fourth fingers nearly equal ; fifth toe not 
quite so long as third ; the adpressed hind limb reaches the eye ; 
tibia shorter than the skull. Tail compressed, slender, 1| to 1| 
times as long as head and body, covered above with unequal scales, 
beneath with equal larger ones, the size of which does not exceed 
that of the ventral s ; all the caudal scales keeled. Olive-brown 
above, generally with alternating broad dark and narrower light 
chevron-shaped bands 011 the body; flanks reticulated; a more 
or less distinct light band on the upper lip and along each side 
of the neck ; tail with dark annuli ; middle of the throat generally 
black. 

From snout to vent 4-3 inches ; tail 8. 

Hob. Sikhim and Eastern Bengal. 



139. Japalura planidorsata. 

Japalura planidorsata, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 76 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 102; Boulvig. Cat. Liz. i, p. 311, pi. xxiv, fig. 2. 

Snout not or scarcely longer than diameter of orbit ; canthus 
rostralis sharp ; upper head-scales irregular, sharply keeled, the 
largest on the supraorbital region; a few conical scales on the 
hinder border of the head ; 9 or 10 upper and as many low r er 
labials. Body subquadrangular, the back being plane, bordered by 
a slight ridge of enlarged scales on each side ; dorsal and lateral 
scales very irregular, keeled, intermixed with enlarged ones which 
on the back form 5 angular transverse series, with the angle directed 
backwards ; a very slight serrated vertebral ridge ; ventral scales 
as large as the largest dorsals, strongly keeled. Limbs above with 
scales of irregular size ; fourth finger longer than third ; fifth toe 
as long as third ; the adpressed hind limb reaches the eye or a 
little beyond the tip of the snout ; tibia as long as, or slightly 



SALEA. 131 

shorter than, the skull. Tail slightly compressed, above with un- 
equal scales, beneath with equal larger ones, the size of which 
does not exceed that of the ventrals ; all the caudal scales keeled. 
Olive-brown above, flanks darker ; a band on the upper lip, whitish. 

From snout to vent 19 inches. 

Hob. Khasi Hills. 



Genus SALEA, 
Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 242, 1845. 

Tympanum distinct. Body compressed, covered with uuequal- 
sized imbricate keeled scales. Male with a dorso-nuchal crest and 
a gular sac. No transverse gular fold. Tail compressed. No 
femoral or praeanal pores. 

Distribution. Southern India; living on trees. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

No fold in front of the shoulder S. horsfieldii, p. 131. 

A fold in front of the shoulder & anamattayana, p. 132. 



140. Salea horsfieldii. 

Salea horsfieldii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 242 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 145 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. Ill ; Boukng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 312. 
Salea jerdonii, Gray, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1840, p. 429; Kelaart, 

Prodr. p. 167 (?). 

Snout not more than once and a half as long as diameter of 
orbit, which equals about twice that of tympanum ; upper head- 
scales large, rugose, with a more or less marked curved series of 
regular ones bordering the supraorbital region internally; a row 
of 3 or 4 enlarged scales from the eye to above the tympanum. 
Gular scales lanceolate, keeled, ending in a spine, as large as or a 
little larger than the ventrals. No fold in front of the shoulder. 
Nuchal crest in the male composed of a few lanceolate spines 
directed backwards, the longest measuring nearly the length of the 
snout, with smaller spines at the base ; in the female this crest is 
reduced to a double row of alternate oblique short spines ; dorsal 
crest not continuous with nuchal, composed of similar slightly 
shorter lanceolate spines in the male, absent in the female. Dorsal 
scales large, rhomboidal, strongly keeled, pointing straight back- 
wards ; they are nearly always of unequal size, larger ones being 
scattered on the sides; ventral scales very strongly imbricate, 
strongly keeled and ending in a spine, nearly as large as the 
dorsals. Limbs moderately elongate, the adpressed hind limb 
reaching between the shoulder and the tympanum. Tail com- 
pressed and with a small upper crest in ihe male, scarcely com- 
pressed and without a crest in the female; caudal scales subequal, 

K2 



132 

strongly keeled. Pale olive above, with irregular dark-brown cross 
bands, which may be broken up by a band of the light-brown 
colour running along each side of the back ; the enlarged scales on 
the sides frequently white ; a blackish band, edged below with 
white, extends from the eye to the fore limb, passing through the 
tympanum ; tail usually with regular dark-brown annuli. 

From snout to vent 3 - 75 inches ; tail 9*75. 

Hob. Nilgiri Hills, Southern India; Ceylon? 

141. Salea anamallayana. 

Lophosalea anamallayana, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 153, pi. xiv. 
Salea anamallayana, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 313. 

Snout long, measuring nearly twice the diameter of the orbit ; 
tympanum 1| to lj^ the diameter of the orbit ; upper head-scales 
rather large, feebly keeled, with a regular curved series of enlarged 
scales bordering the supraorbital region internally: an enlarged 
tubercle behind the supraciliary edge and a few others scattered on 
the back of the head ; a row of 3 or 4 enlarged scales from the eye 
to above the tympanum. Gular scales a little larger than ventrals, 
smooth or keeled. A well-marked curved fold on each side of the 
neck, in front of the shoulder. Dorso-nuchal crest continuous, 
composed of large lanceolate spines. Dorsal scales of unequal 
size, their arrangement varying considerably, strongly keeled, the 
upper ones pointing upwards and backwards, the others straight 
backwards or backwards and downwards ; ventral scales very 
strongly imbricate, strongly keeled, and ending in a spine. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches the neck. Tail strongly compressed, 
in its anterior half with an upper crest nearly as much developed 
as the dorsal ; caudal scales rather unequal in size, keeled. Pale 
olive above, with 4 broad angular dark-brown cross bands on the 
back, separated by narrow interspaces ; head to the lip dark brown, 
with small light spots ; limbs and tail with more or less regular 
dark-brown cross bars. 

From snout to vent 4*3 inches. 

Hob. Animalai (6000 feet) and Palni Hills. 



Genus CALOTES, 
Cuvier, Regne An. ii, p. 35, 1817. 

Tympanum distinct. Body compressed, covered with equal-sized 
scales. A dorso-iiuchal crest. A more or less developed gular 
sac in the male ; no transverse gular fold, or a very feebly marked 
one. Tail round or feebly compressed. No femoral or prseanal 
pores. 

An essentially East-Indian genus, comprising 22 species, of 
arboreal or subar boreal habits. 



133 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylontse, and Burmese Species. 

A. No fold in front of the shoulder. 

a. Lateral scales pointing backwards and 

downwards. 

a'. Upper dorsal scales pointing back- 
wards, larger than ventrals C. microlepis, p. 134. 

b'. Upper dorsal scales pointing back- 
wards and upwards, smaller than 
ventrals C. cristatellus, p. 134. 

c'. Only the scales of the row at the base 

of the dorsal crest point upwards . . C. jubatus, p. 135. 

b. Lateral scales pointing backwards and 

upwards. 

a'. 35 to 47 scales round middle of body ; 
tympanum at least half diameter of 
orbit C. versicolor, p. 135. 

b'. 53 to 61 scales round middle of body ; 
tympanum not quite one third dia- 
meter of orbit C. maria, p. 136. 

B. An oblique fold or pit covered with small 

granular scales in front of shoulder, not 
extending across throat. 

a. Dorsal scales larger than ventrals, keeled. 
a'. Two serrated parallel ridges on each 

side of back of head ; colour green. . C.jerdonii, p. 137. 
b'. A long spine behind supraciliary edge, 

and two others above ear C. emma, p. 137. 

c'. No postorbital spine; a few small 

spines above ear C, myskacem, p. 138. 

b. Dorsal scales larger than ventrals, smooth 

or nearly so. 
a'. Lateral scales pointing upwards and 

backwards ; 29 to 35 scales round 

middle of body C. grandisquamis, p. 138. 

6'. Lateral scales pointing upwards and 

backwards; 37 to 43 scales round 

middle of body C. nemoricola, p. 139. 

c'. Lateral scales pointing upwards and 

backwards, or straight backwards; 

60 scales round middle of body .... C. ceylonensis, p. 139. 
d'. Lateral scales pointing downwards 

and backwards C. liolepis, p. 140. 

c. Dorsal scales of same size as ventrals or 

smaller, 
a'. Lateral scales pointing upwards and 

backwards C. ophiomachus, p. 140. 

b'. Lateral scales pointing downwards 
and backwards ; ventrals much larger 

than dorsals C. niyrilabris, p. 141. 

. Lateral scales pointing downwards and 
backwards; no spines whatever on 
head C liocephalus, p. 141. 



134 AGAMIDJE. 

C. A long oblique or curved fold in front of 
shoulder, extending across throat or 
nearly so. 
a. Two slender spines on each side of back 

of head. 

a'. No spine at posterior corner of orbit. . C. rou.rii, p. 142. 
b'. A small slender spine behind supra- 
ciliary edge C. clliot!, p. 142. 

1. No slender spines on head C.fece, p. 143. 

A species named by Blyth Salea cjularis, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, 
p. 473, footnote, from Mirzapur (?), probably belongs to this 
genus, but is not recognizable from the description. 



142. Calotes microlepis. 

Calotes microlepis, Bouleny. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) v, 1887, p. 470, 
pi. vi, fig. 1. 

Head narrow, twice as long as broad, deeper tban broad, covered 
with unequal-sized, juxtaposed, feebly keeled scales, without 
tubercles or spines ; tympanum not quite half the diameter of the 
orbit. Gular pouch not developed ; gular scales feebly keeled, a 
little larger than ventrals. No fold in front of the shoulder. 
Nuchal crest composed of small spines ; dorsal crest a slightly 
serrated ridge. 65 scales round the middle of the body, all keeled, 
upper dorsals largest and directed backwards, laterals directed 
downwards and backwards. The hind limb reaches the axilla; 
third and fourth fingers equal, about as long as the fifth toe. Tail 
slightly compressed. Orange above, golden yellow on the sides 
and below ; sides with black specks ; black lines radiate from the 
eye, two of which are prolonged, the upper to the tympanum, the 
lower to the commissure of the mouth. 

From snout to vent 2-6 inches ; tail 6. 

Hob. Pla-pu, Mountains of Northern Tenasserim, 3300-3600 
feet. 

143. Calotes cristatellus. 

Agama cristatella, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. vergl. Anat, p. 108. 
Bronchocela cristatella, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 138 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 104. 

Bronchocela moluccana (non Less.}, Theob. I. c. 
Bronchocela burmana, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 127. 
Calotes cristatellus, Boukny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 316. 

Upper head-scales rather small, keeled, slightly enlarged on 
supraorbital region ; a few more or less distinct, erect, compressed 
scales behind the supraciliary edge ; tympanum half, or more than 
half, the diameter of the orbit. Gular pouch very small ; gular 
scales keeled, smaller than ventrals, distinctly larger than latero- 
dorsals. No oblique fold in front of the shoulder. Nuchal crest 
composed of erect compressed spines, the longest never equalling 



CALOTES. 135 

the diameter of the orbit ; dorsal crest a mere serrated ridge. 57 
to 97 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales keeled, 
much smaller than ventrals, the upper ones directed upwards and 
backwards, the others downwards and backwards. The adpressed 
hind limb reaches between the eye and the tip of the snout ; third 
and fourth fingers equal or nearly so, about as long as the fifth toe. 
Tail round, subtriangular at the base. Green, uniform or with 
reddish markings. 

Prom snout to vent 4-8 inches ; tail 15. 

Hub. Malay Archipelago and Peninsula as far north as Tenas- 
serim. 

144. Calotes jubatus. 

Bronchocela j ubata, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. Gen. iv, p. 397 ; Giinth. liept, 

B. I. p. 139 ; Theob. Cat. p. 104. 
Calotes jubatus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 318. 

Upper head-scales moderate, keeled, not enlarged on supraorbital 
region ; a few erect compressed scales behind the supraciliary edge ; 
tympanum half or more than half the diameter of the orbit. Gular 
pouch well developed: gular scales keeled, smaller than the ventrals. 
No oblique fold in front of the shoulder. Nuchal crest large, com- 
posed of falciform spines directed backwards, the longest equalling 
or exceeding the diameter of the orbit, with several irregular rows 
of smaller spines at the base ; dorsal crest well developed, though 
much less so than the nuchal, gradually decreasing in size towards 
the posterior part of the body. 43 to 53 (exceptionally 65) scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales keeled, smaller than 
the ventrals ; the scales of the row contiguous to the dorsal crest 
point upwards and backwards, those of the next row point straight 
backwards, all the others backwards and downwards. The adpressed 
hind limb reaches between the eye and the tip of the snout ; third 
and fourth fingers equal, about as long as the fifth toe. Tail 
round, subtriangular, and with slight upper ridge at the base. 
Green, generally with yellow or reddish spots and short bands. 

From snout to vent 5 inches ; tail 17. 

Hob. Malay Archipelago, Nicobars. 



145. Calotes versicolor. 

Agama versicolor, Daud. Eept. iii, p. 395, pi. xliv. 

Calotes versicolor, Kelaart,Prodr. p. 170; Giinth. Rept.B. I. p. 140; 

Theob. Cat. p. 109 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 321. 
? Calotes viridis, Gray, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1846. p. 429 : Theob. 

Cat. p. 110. 

Upper head-scales rather large, smooth or feebly keeled, imbri- 
cate, more or less enlarged on supraorbital region ; two well- 
separated spines (seldom absent or scarcely distinct) on each side 
of the back of the head, above the ear ; tympanum half, or less than 
half, the diameter of the orbit. Gular pouch not developed ; gular 



136 



AGAMIDJ5. 




Fig. 42. Calotcs versicolor. 

scales smooth or feebly keeled, as large as the ventrals 
or larger, largest and rnucronate in the adult male. No 
oblique fold in front of the shoulder. Dorso-nuchal 
crest well developed in the male, composed of lanceolate 
spines gradually decreasing in size towards the pos- 
terior part of the back. 35 to 47 scales round the 
middle of the body ; dorsal scales more or less distinctly 
keeled, larger than ventrals, all directed upwards and 
backwards ; ventral scales strongly keeled. The ad- 
pressed hind limb reaches the temple or the eye ; fourth 
finger a little longer than third. Tail round. Light 
brownish or yellowish (in spirit), uniform or with dark 
transverse bands or spots, or dark olive-brown with 
light spots or longitudinal lines ; belly sometimes with 
dark longitudinal lines. The male assumes brilliant 
colours (red, yellow, and black) in the breeding- season. 

From snout to vent 4^ inches ; tail 11. 
Hcib. Ceylon, India, eastwards to Tenasserim, Cochin China, and 

Southern China, westwards to Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Very 

common throughout India. 

146. Calotes maria. 

Calotes mavia, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 243 ; Gunth. Sept. B. I._p. 144. 
Calotes platyceps, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxi, 1852, p. 354 ; id. Kelaart, 

Prodr.) App. p. 46. 
Calotes maria, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 778, pi. xlv, fig. B ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 108 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 1, p. 322. 

Upper head-scales rather large, smooth or feebly keeled, imbricate, 
very slightly enlarged on supraorbital region ; two parallel longitu- 
dinal series of enlarged erect scales, terminating in long spines, 



CALOTES. 137 

above the temple, the lower series separated from the tympanum by 
several rows of scales ; tympanum very small, measuriug less than 
one third the diameter of the orbit. Gular pouch not developed ; 
gular scales strongly keeled, larger than ventrals, not larger than 
dorsals. No oblique fold in frout of the shoulder. Dorso-nuehal 
crest well developed anteriorly, the longest spines measuring nearly 
two thirds the diameter of the orbit, gradually decreasing in size 
and reduced to a feebly serrated edge on the posterior half of the 
back. 53 to 61 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales 
feebly keeled, all directed upwards and backwards ; ventral scales 
much smaller than dorsals, strongly keeled. The adpressed hind 
limb reaches the anterior border of the orbit, or between the latter 
and the nostril ; third and fourth fingers nearly equal. Tail round. 
Green, with a few light (red) markings constantly present on the 
limb-joints. 

From snout to vent 4 - 5 inches ; tail 14 - 5. 

Hab. Khasi hills. 

147. Calotes jerdonii 

Calotes maria, part., Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 243; Gunth. Kept. B. I. 

p. 144. 

Calotes platyceps (non Bli/th), Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 77. 
Calotes jerdonii, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1870, p. 779, pi. xlv, fig. A ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 108 ; Bovdeny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 323. 

Upper head-scales rather large, smooth or feebly keeled, imbri- 
cate, very slightly enlarged on supraorbital region ; two parallel 
longitudinal series of enlarged erect scales on the temple, forming 
serrated ridges, not terminating in spines ; the lower serrated ridge 
separated from the tympanum by one or two rows of scales ; tym- 
panum not quite half the diameter of the orbit. Gular pouch not 
developed ; gular scales strongly keeled, larger than dorsals. A 
strong oblique fold or pit in front of the shoulder. Dorse-nuchal 
crest very low, the longest spines (on the nape) equalling about the 
diameter of the tympanum. 47 to 55 scales round the middle of 
the body; dorsal scales feebly keeled, all directed upwards and 
backwards ; ventral scales much smaller than dorsals, strongly 
keeled. The adpressed hind limb reaches the eye, or between the 
latter and the nostril ; fourth finger a little longer than third. 
Tail round. Green, uniform, or with light (red) markings, which 
may form a longitudinal lateral band ; frequently black lines radiate 
from the eye ; the fold on the side of the neck black. 

From snout to vent 3*5 inches ; tail 10'5. 

Hab. Khasi hills. The supposed occurrence of this species in 
the Himalayas needs confirmation. 



148. Calotes emma. 

Calotes emma, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 244 ; Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 144 ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 108 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 324, pi. xxv, fig. 1. 



138 AGAMID^E. 

Upper head-scales imbricate, keeled, considerably enlarged on 
supraorbital region ; a long spine surrounded by small ones behind 
the supraciliary edge, and two others on each side between the 
tympanum and the nuchal crest ; the posterior spine smallest, and 
situated just above the tympanum, which measures half the dia- 
meter of the orbit. Grular pouch not developed ; gular scales keeled, 
as large as ventrals or a little larger. A very strong oblique curved 
fold in front of the shoulder. Nuchal crest composed of long 
lanceolate spines, soon decreasing in size, the dorsal crest being 
reduced to a feebly serrated ridge. 51 to 55 scales round the 
'middle of the body ; dorsal scales keeled, all directed upwards and 
backwards ; ventral scales smaller than dorsals, strongly keeled. 
The adpressed hind limb reaches the eye ; third and fourth fingers 
nearly equal. Tail slightly compressed. Light brownish olive 
above, with transverse dark-brown bands on the back, which are 
interrupted by a more or less strongly defined light lateral band ; 
black lines radiating from the eye ; the fold in front of the arm 
black. 

From snout to vent 3*5 inches ; tail 9'5. 

Hub. Khasi and Kakhyen Hills, Pegu, Tenasserim, Mergui. 

149. Calotes inystaceus. 
Calotes mystaceus, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gin. iv, p. 408 ; Blyth, 



J. A. S. B. xxi, 1852, p. 354 ; id. Kelaart, Prodr., App. p. 47 ; 
Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 141; Theob. Cat. p. 306; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. 
i, p. 325. 
? Calotes gigas, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxii, 1853, p. 648. 

Upper head-scales smooth or feebly keeled, imbricate, scarcely 
enlarged on supraorbital region ; a few small spines on each side 
of the head above the tympanum ; latter measuring at least half 
the diameter of the orbit. Gular sac small ; gular scales feebly 
keeled, as large as dorsals. An oblique fold in front of the shoulder. 
Dorso-nuchal crest well developed in the male, composed of falciform 
spines directed backwards, the longest measuring the diameter 
of the orbit ; it gradually decreases in height on the back, being 
reduced to a mere denticulation on the sacrum. 45-53 scales 
round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales keeled, nearly twice 
as large as ventrals, all directed upwards and backwards ; ventral 
scales strongly keeled. The adpressed hind limb reaches the tym- 
panum or the posterior border of the orbit ; fourth finger slightly 
longer than the third. Tail a little compressed, at the base with 
a slightly serrated upper ridge. Olive above, frequently with large 
transverse red spots on the back ; lips yellowish. 

From snout to vent 5 inches ; tail 10. 

Hob. Burma generally, Siam, Nicobars, Ceylon. 

150. Calotes grandisquamis. 

Calotes grandisquamis, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 220, pi. xxx ; Bou- 
leng. Cat. Liz. i ; p. 325. 



CALOTES. 139 

Upper head-scales smooth or very feebly keeled, imbricate, en- 
larged on supraorbital region ; 3 or 4 small spines above tympanum ; 
the latter measuring half diameter of orbit. A gular pouch ; lateral 
gular scales larger than ventrals, smooth. A short oblique fold in 
front of the shoulder. Dorso-nuchal crest formed of large lanceo- 
late spines, the longest of which (in the male) equals the diameter 
of the orbit, gradually decreasing in height on the back ; in the 
female the dorsal crest is reduced to a very feebly serrated ridge. 
29 to 35 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales nearly 
four times as large as ventrals, smooth, pointing backwards and 
upwards ; ventral scales strongly keeled. The adpressed hind limb 
reaches the tympanum or slightly beyond ; third and fourth fingers 
equal. Tail compressed. Green, uniform or with broad black 
transverse bands on the back ; an orange spot may be present in 
the centre of each scale within the black bands. 

From snout to vent 5*5 inches ; tail 12-5. 

Hob. Malabar (foot of Cauoot Ghat, near Mauantoddy). 

151. Calotes nemoricola. 

Calotes nemoricola, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 471 ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 105 ; Boukng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 326. 

Upper head-scales feebly keeled, imbricate, enlarged on supra- 
orbital region ; 3 or 4 very small spines above the tympanum ; latter 
measuring not quite half diameter of orbit. A gular pouch ; gular 
scales larger than ventrals, very feebly keeled. A short oblique 
fold in front of the shoulder. Nuchal crest formed of large lan- 
ceolate spines, the largest of which measure three fourths the 
diameter of the orbit; dorsal crest a mere serrated ridge. 37 to 
43 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales three times 
as large as ventrals, squarish, smooth, pointing backwards and up- 
wards ; ventral scales strongly keeled. The adpressed hind limb 
hardly reaches the tympanum ; third and fourth fingers equal. Tail 
compressed. Olive above, with indistinct darker markings ; a 
black streak from the eye to above the tympanum ; dark lines 
radiating from the eye ; gular sac pink (in spirit). 

Prom snout to vent 5'5 inches ; tail 12-5. 

Hob. Base of Coonoor Ghat, Nilgiris ; Malabar. 

152. Calotes ceylonensis. 

Calotes mystaceus, var. ceylonensis, F. Miller, Verh. Naturf. Ges. 

Basel, viii, 1887, p. 292, pi. iii. 
Calotes kelaartii, Nevill, Taprobanian, ii, 1887, p. 134. 

Upper head-scales smooth, imbricate, considerably enlarged on 
the supraorbital region ; two small spines on each side above the 
tympanum ; diameter of the tympanum half that of the orbit. No 
gular sac ; gular scales very strongly keeled, much smaller than 
dorsals. A few small spines form a short nuchal crest ; no dorsal 



140 AGAMIES. 

crest. 60 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest and 
smooth or indistinctly keeled ; on the anterior half of the body 
the scales point upwards and backwards, on the hinder half nearly 
straight backwards ; ventrals two thirds the size of dorsals, mu- 
cronate. The hind limb reaches the posterior border of the orbit. 
Greenish, with six large orange spots across the back, separated 
by dark bands ; sides with a black network ; black lines radiate 
from the eye. 
Hob. Ceylon. 

153. Calotes liolepis. 
Calotes liolepis, Souleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 326, pi. xxv, fig, 2. 

Upper head-scales smooth, imbricate, strongly enlarged on supra- 
orbital region ; two distinct spines on each side of the back of the 
head, between the ear and the nuchal crest ; diameter of the tym- 
panum nearly half that of the orbit. Gular sac not developed 
( $ ) ; gular scales strongly keeled, as large as ventrals. A short 
oblique fold in front of the shoulder. Nuchal crest formed of 
narrow separated spines, the longest of which measure about the 
diameter of the tympanum ; dorsal crest quite indistinct. 35 to 
39 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales three times 
as large as ventrals, squarish, smooth, pointing backwards and 
downwards ; ventral scales strongly keeled. The adpressed hind 
limb hardly reaches the tympanum ; third and fourth fingers equal. 
Tail round. Pale olive, with indistinct brown transverse bands on 
the back ; brown lines radiating from the eye, the lower reaching 
down to the lower lip. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

154. Calotes ophiomachus. 

Agama ophiomachus, Merrem, Tent. p. 51. 

Calotes ophiomachus, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 169 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 
p. 142 ; Theob. Cat. p. 106 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 327. 

Upper head-scales smooth, imbricate, enlarged on supraorbital 
region ; two groups of spines on each side of the head, between the 
ear and the nuchal crest ; tympanum nearly half the diameter of 
the orbit. Gular sac not developed ; gular scales feebly keeled, 
nearly as large as ventrals. A short oblique fold in front of the 
shoulder. Dorso-nuchal crest composed of closely set lanceolate 
spines directed backwards, with smaller ones at the base ; in the 
male the height of the crest on the nape equals or exceeds the 
diameter of the orbit, and decreases gradually on the back. 31 to 
35 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales very feebly 
keeled, or even quite smooth, with the points directed upwards and 
backwards ; ventral scales larger than dorsals, very strongly keeled 
and mucronate. The adpressed hind limb reaches the anterior bor- 
der of the orbit or a little beyond ; third and fourth fingers nearly 
equal. Tail round. Green above, frequently with blackish- green 



CALOTES. 141 

cross bands, broader than the interspaces between them ; young 
sometimes with a whitish longitudinal band on each side of the 
back. 

From snout to vent 5-5 inches ; tail 20. 

Hob. Ceylon, Southern India, Nicobars. 

155. Calotes nigrilabris. 

Calotes rouxii (non D. $ B.\ Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 647. 
Calotes nigrilabris, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1860, p. 183 ; Giinth. 

JRept. B. I. p. 143, pi. xiv, fig. D ; Theob. Cat. p. 107 ; Bouleny. 

Cat. Liz. i, p. 328. 

Upper head-scales smooth, imbricate, not or but slightly enlarged 
on supraorbital region ; a short series of three to six small spines 
above and behind the posterior part of the tympanum ; the latter 
measuring half, or more than half, the diameter of the orbit. 
Gular pouch not developed ; gular scales more or less distinctly 
keeled, as large as ventrals. A strong oblique fold or pit in front 
of the shoulder. Dorso-nuchal crest composed of small lanceolate 
spines, the longest of which, on the nape, measure about two thirds 
the diameter of the orbit ; on the back the crest is very distinct, 
but the spines gradually decrease in size. 43 to 47 scales round 
the middle of the body ; dorsal scales rather feebly keeled, the 
upper pointing straight backwards, the others downwards and back- 
wards ; ventral scales much larger than dorsals, very strongly keeled, 
mucronate. The adpressed hind limb reaches the eye ; third and 
fourth fingers equal. Tail round ; in the males the scales on the 
basal part of the tail very large and bard, those of the median 
upper row forming a slightly serrated ridge. Green, uniform on 
the back and tail, or with angular whitish black-edged angular 
cross bars or ocelli, with or without a reddish-brown vertebral 
band ; lips and sides of head with a broad black band or variegated 
with black in the male ; female usually with a white, black-edged 
horizontal streak below the eye. 

From snout to vent 4 inches ; tail 12. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

156. Calotes lioceplialus. 

Calotes liocephalus, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (4) ix, 1872, p. 86 ; Ttieob. 
Cat. p. 109 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 329. 

Upper head-scales smooth, imbricate, enlarged on supraorbital 
region ; no spines whatever on the side of the head ; tympanum 
measuring a little more than half the diameter of the orbit. Gular 
pouch not developed ; gular scales much larger than ventrals, rathe 
feebly keeled. An oblique fold in front of the shoulder. Nuchal 
crest composed of narrow spines, the length of which equals the 
diameter of the tympanum ; dorsal crest a mere serrated ridge. 
45 scales round the middle of the body ; dorsal scales feebly keeled, 
the upper ones pointing straight backwards or slightly upwards, 



142 AGAMLU.E. 

the others downwards and backwards ; ventral scales strongly 
keeled, nearly the same size as the dorsals. The adpressed hind 
limb reaches the eye ; third and fourth fingers equal. Tail round, 
the scales of its basal part very large and hard, those of the median 
upper row forming a serrated edge. Pale olive-green, above with 
transverse bands of a darker green ; four angular reddish-brown 
cross bands on the back ; a dark streak from the eye to above the 
tympanum ; limbs and tail with alternate lighter and darker cross 
bands. 

From snout to vent 3| inches ; tail 10g. 

Hah. Ceylon. 

157. Calotes rouxii. 

Calotes rouxii, Dum. 8f Bibr. Erp. Gen. iv, p. 407 ; Giinth. JRept. S. 

I. p. 142 ; Theob. Cat. p. 106 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 330. 
Calotes elliotti (non Gthr.), Stoliczka, J. A. S. B.xll, 1872, p. 113. 

Upper head-scales feebly keeled, imbricate, strongly enlarged on 
supraorbital region ; two small slender spines on each side of the 
back of the head, the anterior midway between the nuchal crest 
and the tympanum, the posterior just above the latter, which mea- 
sures half the diameter of the orbit. Gular sac small ; gular scales 
strongly keeled, nearly as large as the ventrals. A strong oblique 
fold or pit in front of the shoulder, and a transverse gular fold. 
Nuchal crest composed of a few slender erect spines, the longest 
of which measures the diameter of the tympanum ; dorsal crest 
a mere denticulation. 55 or 57 scales round the middle of the 
body ; dorsal scales of nearly the same size as the ventrals, keeled, 
those on the upper half of the body directed upwards and back- 
wards, the others downwards and backwards ; ventral scales strongly 
keeled and mucronate. The adpressed hind limb reaches the pos- 
terior border of the orbit; fourth finger longer than third. Tail 
slightly compressed, the scales on its basal part large and hard, 
those of the median upper row considerably enlarged and forming a 
serrated ridge. Olive-brown above, vertebral region rather lighter ; 
a dark band from the eye, through the tympanum, along each side 
of the neck ; the oblique fold in front of the shoulder black ; dark 
lines radiating from the eye. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 6'5. 
' Hob. Matheran near Bombay. 



158. Calotes ellioti. 

Calotes rouxii (non D. fy B.), Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, 

p. 471. 
Calotes elliotti, Giinth. Kept. B. 1. p. 142 ; Thcob. Cat. p. 107 ; 

Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 330, pi. xxv, fig. 3. 
Bronchocela indica, Theob. 1. c. p. 105. 

Upper head-scales feebly keeled, imbricate, much enlarged on 
supraorbital region ; a small spine behind the supraciliary edge, 



CALOTES. 143 

and two others on each side, the anterior midway between the 
nuchal crest and the tympanum, the posterior just above the latter, 
which measures nearly half the diameter of the orbit. Gular sac 
not developed; gular scales strongly keeled, smaller than the 
ventrals. A strong oblique fold or pit in front of the shoulder, 
and a transverse gular fold. Nuchal crest composed of a few 
widely separated slender spines, the longest of which measures 
about two thirds the diameter of the orbit ; dorsal crest a mere 
denticulation. 53 to 61 scales round the middle of the body; 
dorsal scales of nearly the same size as the ventrals, keeled, the 
uppermost with the points directed straight backwards, the 
others directed downwards and backwards ; ventral scales strongly 
keeled. The adpressed hind limb reaches the anterior border of 
the orbit or the tip of the snout; fourth finger longer than third. 
Tail scarcely compressed. Olive above, with more or less distinct 
angular dark-brown cross bands on the body ; an angular black 
mark on each side of the neck ; a white spot below the orbit ; dark 
lines radiating from the eye. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 8-5. 

Hob. Southern India, up to 6000 feet altitude in the Animalai 
Hills. 

159. Calotes fese. 

Calotes fese, Bouleng. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) v, 1887, p. 477, pi. vi, 
fig. 2. 

Tipper head-scales unequal, juxtaposed, strongly keeled ; a small 
spinose tubercle midway between the tympanum and the nuchal 
crest ; two others above and a little behind the tympanum, which 
measures half the diameter of the orbit. Gular sac scarcely 
developed; gular scales smooth or indistinctly keeled, those on the 
sides very much larger, larger than on any other part of the body. 
A strong curved fold in front of the shoulder, nearly meeting its 
fellow on the throat. Nuchal crest composed of a few spines, the 
length of which equals the diameter of the tympanum ; dorsal crest 
a slightly serrated ridge. 60 scales round the middle of the body, 
all keeled, the largest on the flanks, where they form irregular 
patches ; dorsal scales directed backwards and slightly upwards. 
The hind limb reaches the gular fold ; third and fourth fingers 
equal, much shorter than the fifth toe. Tail slightly compressed. 
Pale greenish above, with irregular brown cross bands 011 the body 
and tail, and a black network on the sides ; snout blackish ; lips 
with black vertical lines ; black lines radiate from the eye ; a 
black temporal band, covering the tympanum ; limbs with blackish 
cross bands. 

From snout to vent 3*75 inches ; tail 7. 

Hab. Pla-pu, Mountains of Northern Tenasserim, 3300-3600 
feet. 



144 AGAMIDJE. 

Genus CHARASIA, 
Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 246, 1845. 

Tympanum distinct. Body slightly depressed, covered with uni- 
form keeled scales. A very feeble dorsal crest. A pit on each side 
of the throat, usually connected by a transverse fold. No gular 
sac. Tail round or slightly compressed. No praeanal or femoral 
pores or callosities. 

Distribution. India. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

a. Tail longer than head and body ; 115 to 140 

scales round middle of body C. dorsalis, p. 144. 

b. Tail longer than head and body ; 80 to 100 

scales round middle of body C. blanfordiatia, p. 145. 

c. Tail shorter than head and body ; gular scales 

larger than ventrals C. ornata, p. 145. 

160. Charasia dorsalis. 

Agama dorsalis, Gray, Griff". A. K. ix, Syn. p. 56. 
Charasia dorsalis, Giinth. Kept. B. L p. 156; Theob. Cat. p. 114; 
Sovleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 332. 

Head rather elongate in the adult, covered with small irregular 
smooth or feebly keeled scales, which are a little enlarged on the 
supraorbital region ; two very small spines usually present above 
the tympanum ; the latter larger than the eye-opening ; cheeks 
strongly swollen in the adult male. A strongly marked transverse 
gular fold; gular scales very small, subimbricate, smooth, very feebly 
keeled in the young. Scales on the body very small (115 to 140 
round the middle), subimbricate, and smooth or indistinctly keeled 
in the adult, more distinctly keeled and imbricate in the young, the 
keels of the dorsal scales directed obliquely towards the vertebral 
line. Dorso-nuchal crest scarcely indicated by a slight ridge. 
Limbs covered with small scales slightly larger than those on the 
body ; digits moderately elongate ; the adpressed hind limb reaches 
between the tympanum and the posterior border of the orbit in the 
adult, beyond the latter point in the young. Tail round, slightly 
compressed and much swollen at the base in the adult male, covered 
with small, more or less distinctly keeled scales which are a little 
enlarged inferiorly and on the upper median series; its length equals 
nearly once and three fourths that of head and body. Young olive- 
brown, spotted or marbled with brown, and with a series of rounded 
white spots along each side of the back ; this coloration more or 
less distinctly retained in the female ; male yellow or red, with a 
broad black lateral band commencing from the eye. 

From snout to vent 5-5 inches; tail 10-5. 

Hob. Southern India ; only found on rocks at some elevation 
above the sea, up to 6000 feet in the Nilgiris, 



145 



161. Charasia blanfordiana. 



Charasia dorsalis (non Gray), Blanf. J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 368. 
Charasia blanfordiana, StoKcska, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 110, pi. iii, 
fig. 5 5 Theob. Cat. p. 115; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 333. 

This species is very closely allied to the preceding, but remains 
smaller ; the scales are a little larger (80 to 100 round the middle 
of the body) and always distinctly keeled and imbricate ; and the 
hind limb stretched forwards extends at least to the posterior 
border of the orbit. The nuchal crest is a little more developed. 
Frequently a small spine behind the supraciliary edge, and a few 
scattered slightly enlarged scales on the flanks. Young olive-brown 
above, spotted or marbled with brown, and with a series of more or 
less distinct large lozenge-shaped brown spots on the back ; these 
markings persist in the adult female, but are absent in the male, 
which has a more or less distinct dark lateral baud as in C. dorsalis, 
and in the breeding- season, May, has the head scarlet, belly, limbs, 
and tail blackish. 

Hab. South-western Bengal to Chhatisgarh and the Grodavari 
valley ; S.E. Berar ? Rarely seen except on high rocks, especially 
on hills of granitoid gneiss. 

162. Charasia ornata. 

Brachysaura ornata, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxv, 1856, p. 448 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 110 ; Cockburn, J. A. S. B. li, 1882, p. 50. 
Charasia ornata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 334. 

Habit stout ; head large, short and convex. Upper head-scales 
subequal, tubercular, obtusely keeled ; two small spines surrounded 
by still smaller ones on each side of the back of the head, above the 
tympanum ; the latter not quite so large as the eye-opening. 
Gular fold not well marked; gular scales larger than ventrals, 
feebly keeled. 57 scales round the middle of the body. Dorsal 
scales much larger than ventrals, rhomboidal, imbricate, keeled, the 
keels converging obliquely towards the vertebral line; ventral scales 
feebly keeled. Nuchal and dorsal crests not continuous, reduced to 
a mere serrated ridge. Limbs, and especially digits, rather short ; 
the adpressed hind limb reaches the neck ; scales on limbs much 
smaller than those on the back. Tail round, as long or not quite 
so long as head and body, covered with equal, strongly keeled scales. 
Pale brown above, with three rows of darker, light-edged spots on 
the back, the median row most distinct and formed of rhomboidal 
spots ; limbs and tail with dark cross bars. 

From snout to vent 3'5 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hab. Central India (Saugor) ; North-west Provinces (Allahabad, 
Banda); Cutch. 

A true ground-lizard, of sluggish habits. According to Cockburn 
it appears to be nocturnal in its habits, and it is only in the evening, 
or when its holes are flooded, that numbers are to be seen. 



146 



Genus AGAMA, 
Daudin, Hist. Kept, iii, p. 333, 1802. 

Tympanum distinct. Body more or less depressed. Dorsal crest 
absent or feebly developed. A pit on each side of the throat and a 
transverse gular fold. Gular sac present or absent. Tail round or 
feebly compressed. No femoral pores : males with callose prseanal 
scales. 

Distribution. The whole of Africa and South-western Asia ; in 
the Indian Region only in the North-western and Himalayan 
areas. 43 species are known. 

Agaraas are found in barren localities or on rocks, sometimes on 
shrubs. 





Fig. 43. Agama isolepis. Upper surface of head and anal region. 

Synopsis of Indian Species, 

A. Tail not verticillate. 

a. Dorsal scales keeled A. isolepis, p. 147. 

b. Dorsal scales smooth A. rubrigularis, p. 147. 

B. Tail verticillate, the caudal segments com- 

posed of more than two whorls of scales. 

a. Ventral scales not much smaller than 

largest dorsals. 
a'. Dorsal scales keeled ; upper head-scales 

' smooth or feebly keeled A. tuberotlata, p. 148. 

b'. Dorsal scales keeled ; upper head-scales 

sharply keeled A. dayana, p. 148. 

c 1 . Dorsal scales smooth or very feebly keeled A. himaluyana, p. 149. 

b. Ventral scales not more than half size of 

largest dorsals. 
a'. Upper head-scales keeled ; dorsal scales 

sharply keeled ; flanks with enlarged 

scales A. agrorensis, p. 149. 

b '. Median dorsal scales of unequal width, 

forming regular longitudinal series A. melanura, p. 150. 

c'. Median dorsal scales equal, forming regular 

longitudinal series ; no enlarged scales 

on the flanks A. lirata, p. 150. 

d'. Dorsal scales large, equal, mucronate, the 

keels forming oblique lines A. nupta, p. 151. 

C. Tail verticillate, divided into distinct seg- 
ments each composed of two whorls of scales. A, caucastca, p. 151. 



AGAMA. 147 

163. Agama isolepis. 

Agama agilis (non Oliv.), Bl<inf. Zool E. Persia, p. 314; Murray, 

Zool. Sind, p. 371. 
Trapelus megalonyx (non Giinth.), Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, pp. 88, 

127; Murray, 1. c. p. 370. 
Agama isolepis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 342 ; id. Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) 

v, 1889, p. 96, pi. x. 

Head moderate, convex, subcordiform. Nostril not tubular, 
superior, pierced just above the canthus rostralis in the posterior 
part of a flat nasal. Upper head-scales convex, smooth or feebly 
keeled ; occipital not enlarged ; generally a few short spines on the 
post-temporal region and a few on the upper edge of the ear, which 
is exposed and not larger than the eye-opening ; males with a small 
gular pouch. Body roundish, moderately depressed, covered above 
with equal, rhomboidal, imbricate, keeled, more or less distinctly 
mucronate scales ; lateral and ventral scales much smaller, feebly 
keeled, exceptionally smooth. Limbs moderate ; tibia a little 
longer than the skull (to occiput); third finger shorter than fourth, 
fifth not extending as far as second ; third toe much shorter than 
fourth, fifth not extending quite as far as first. Tail 2| to 2 if times 
as long as distance from gular fold to vent, rounded, covered with 
keeled scales. Male with a single or double row of callose prseanal 
scales. Sandy grey or brown above, with or without dark transverse 
bands and light rhomboidal vertebral spots ; the collar- pit blackish ; 
lower surfaces white, often with dark longitudinal lines more or 
less distinctly marked ; males during the breeding-season with the 
sides of the body and the throat deep blue. 

From snout to vent 4-5 inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, Persia, Egypt. On rocky hills 
and open plains, or on shrubs. 

164. Agania rubrigularis. 

Trapelus rubrigularis, Blanf. P. A. S. B. 1875, p. 233, and J. A. 8. B. 

xlv, 1876, p. 23, pi. i, fig. 1 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 371. 
Agama rubrigularis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 346. 

Head short, convex, subcordiform. Nostril not tubular, pierced 
in the posterior part of a slightly swollen nasal just above the 
canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales keeled ; occipital not enlarged ; 
no distinct spines on the hinder part of the head ; a very slight 
fringe of pointed scales on the upper edge of the ear, which is hardly 
as large as the eye-opening. Male without gular pouch. Body 
depressed, covered above with small rhomboidal, imbricate, smooth 
scales intermixed with much larger, flat, feebly keeled ones forming 
more or less irregular transverse series ; no enlarged scales on the 
limbs ; ventral scales smooth. Limbs moderate ; tibia not quite so 
long as the skull (to occiput) ; third finger shorter than fourth, fifth 
not extending as far as second ; third toe much shorter than fourth ; 
fifth not extending as far as first. Tail If to 1| times as long as 
the distance from gular fold to vent, rounded, rather depressed at 
the base, covered with keeled scales. Male with a row of callose 
praeanal scales. Colour olive-brown to grey, spotted with pale 

L2 



148 AGAMTDJG. 

yellow, each enlarged scale of the back being in the middle of a 
pale spot; a dusky longitudinal line on each side of the neck 
and three or four pairs of dark spots on the back ; a bright red 
patch beneath the throat in living specimens of both sexes. 

From snout to vent 3-6 inches ; tail 3-3. 

Hob. Sind, in the sandy desert or semi-desert along the base of 
the Khirthar hills. 

165. Agama tuberculata. 

Agama tuberculata, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, p. 218 ; id. III. Ind. 

Zool. ii, pi. Ixxiii ; Bvuleng. Cat. Liz. \, p. 361. 
Stellio indicus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 646. 
Barycephalus sykesii, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 150, pi. xxv,%. A. 
Stellio tuberculatus, Gunth. Kept. B. I. p. 157 ; Theob. Cat. p. 116. 

Head much depressed ; snout longer than the diameter of the 
orbit ; nostril lateral, below the canthus rostralis, slightly tubular. 
Upper head-scales smooth or feebly keeled ; occipital not enlarged ; 
small closely-set spinose scales on the sides of the head near the 
ear, and on the neck ; ear entirely exposed, larger than the eye- 
opening. Throat strongly plicate ; no gular pouch. Body de- 
pressed, with a more or less distinct fold on each side of the back ; 
scales oil the neck and sides minute, almost granular, keeled, 
uniform or intermixed with scattered enlarged scales ; those on 
the vertebral region enlarged, equal, rhomboidal, imbricate, strongly 
keeled ; a very slight indication of a nuchal denticulation ; ventral 
scales smooth, nearly as large as the enlarged dorsals. Limbs 
strong, with compressed digits ; the scales on the upper surface 
of the limbs much enlarged and very strongly keeled ; third and 
fourth fingers equal, or fourth very slightly longer; fourth toe 
slightly longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail 
rounded, much depressed at the base, covered with moderate-sized 
strongly keeled scales arranged in rings ; its length equals 2| to 
3 times the distance from gular fold to vent. Males with a large 
patch of thickened praeanal scales and a patch of similar scales on 
the middle of the belly. Olive-brown above, spotted or speckled 
with blackish, sometimes with small yellowish spots ; the breeding 
male's throat blue, with light spots; sometimes a light vertebral band. 

Prom snout to vent 4-5 inches ; tail 8. 

Hob. Western Himalayas, up to 12,000 feet ; Kashmir. 

166. Agama day ana. 

Stellio davanus, Stoliczka. J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 113, pi. iii, fig. 4 : 

Theob. Cat. p. 117. 
Agama dayana, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 362. 

Differs from A. tuberculata in having the head-scales sharply 
keeled, and the enlarged dorsal scales distinctly continuous, though 
considerably smaller, on the neck and up to the occiput. 

Hab. Hardwar, foot of Western Himalayas. I have not seen 
examples of this species. 



AGAMA. 149 

167. Agama himalayana. 

Stellio himalayanus, Steind. Novara, Rent. p. 22, pi. i, fig. 8 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 118. 
Agama himalayana, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 362. 

Head much depressed ; suout slightly longer than diameter of 
orbit; nostril lateral, below the canthus rostralis, slightly tubular. 
Upper head-scales smooth ; occipital not enlarged ; small closely 
set spinose scales on the head near the ear, and on the neck ; ear 
entirely exposed, larger than the eye-opening. Throat strongly 
plicate ; no gular pouch. Body depressed, with a more or less 
distinct fold on each side of the back ; scales on the neck and sides 
small, smooth or very feebly keeled, uniform, those on the vertebral 
region enlarged, equal, roundish-hexagonal, imbricate, smooth or 
very feebly keeled ; ventral scales smooth, a little smaller than the 
enlarged dorsals. Limbs strong, with compressed digits ; the scales 
on the upper surface large and strongly keeled ; fourth finger 
slightly longer than third ; fourth toe considerably longer than 
third, the extremity of the claw of the latter not reaching the base 
of the claw of the former ; fifth toe extending beyond first. Tail 
rounded, much depressed at the base, covered with moderate-sized 
strongly keeled scales arranged in rings ; its length equals 2| to 
3 times the distance from gular fold to vent. Males with a 
double or triple row of thickened praeanal scales. Olive above, 
marbled with black, and generally with round light spots pro- 
ducing a network ; sometimes the black spots forming a festooned 
band on each side of the vertebral line ; the male's throat marbled 
with blackish. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 3-25. 

Hob. Upper Indus Valley, Ladak, Tibet. 

168. Agama agrorensis. 

Stellio agrorensis, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 128. 
Agama agrorensis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 363. 

Head much depressed ; snout longer than the diameter of the 
orbit ; nostril lateral, below the canthus rostralis. Upper head-scales 
keeled ; occipital not enlarged ; small spinose scales on the sides of 
the head near the ear, and on the neck ; ear entirely exposed, larger 
than the eye-opening. Throat strongly plicate; no gular pouch. 
Body depressed, with a slight fold on each side of the back ; scales 
on the neck and sides of the back very small, almost granular, 
keeled, those on the vertebral region and on the flanks enlarged, 
rhomboidal, imbricate, strongly keeled ; a very slight indication of 
nuchal denticulation ; ventral scales smooth, much smaller than the 
enlarged dorsals. Limbs and tail as in A. tuberculata. Male with 
a patch of thickened praeanal scales, and a double longitudinal row 
of similar scales on the middle of the belly. Olive above, spotted 
with yellow, sometimes with dark and light longitudinal bands : 
the male's throat reticulated with grey. 

From snout to vent 3'5 inches. 



150 

Hob. Agror Valley, iii Northern Punjab, about 6000 feet above 
the sea ; Jhelum valley above Murree ; Kashmir. 

169. Agama melanura. 

Laudakia (Plocederma) melanura, Blyth, J, A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, 

p. 738. 
Laudakia tuberculata (non Gray), Theob. Cat, Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 

1868, p. 38. 
Stellio melanurus, Anders. P. A. S. B. 1871, p. 189 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 117 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlv, 1876, p. 25. 
Agama melanura, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 363. 

Head depressed, triangular, as broad as long ; snout as long as 
the diameter of the orbit ; nostril lateral, just below the canthus 
rostralis, slightly tubular. Upper head-scales smooth ; occipital 
not enlarged ; a group of small spines in front of the ear, and other 
scattered ones below ; ear opening twice as large as the eye-opening. 
Throat strongly plicate ; no gular pouch. Body depressed, with a 
slight fold on each side of the back ; scales on the neck and sides 
very small, on the latter region mucronate and feebly keeled ; 
median dorsal scales enlarged, rhomboidal, imbricate, strongly 
keeled, forming regular longitudinal series, some of which are larger 
than the others ; a very slight indication of a nuchal denticulatiou ; 
ventral scales smooth, smaller than the largest dorsals. Limbs 
strong, with compressed digits ; the scales on the upper surface of 
the limbs large and very strongly keeled and spinose ; third and 
fourth fingers nearly equal ; fourth toe very slightly longer than 
third ; fifth extending beyond first. Tail rounded, depressed at the 
base, covered with large strongly keeled spinose scales forming 
annuli ; it is four times as long as the distance from gular fold to 
vent. Males with a patch of callose praanal scales, and another 
patch of similar scales on the middle of the belly. Head and neck 
yellow, the rest of the body blackish brown. 

From snout to vent 4'5 inches ; tail 9. 

Hob. Plateau north of Salt Range, Punjab ; Khirthar, Sind. 

170. Agama lirata. 

Stellio lirata, Blanf. A. M. N. H. (4) xiii, 1874, p. 453, and Zool 

E. Pers. p. 320, pi. xx, fig. 2, 
Agama lirata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 364. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, but the scales on the snout 
bluntly keeled, and the dorsal scales equal, forming six or seven 
rows on the middle of the back. Dusky above, with imperfect 
blackish transverse markings ; a small blackish pit before each 
shoulder. 

From snout to vent 4 inches. 

Hob. The only specimen known, which I have not seen, was 
found on rocks in some barren hills in the Dasht province of 
Western Baluchistan. 



AGAMA. 151 

171. Agama nupta. 

Agama nupta, De FU. Giorn. 1st. Lomb. vi, 1843, p. 407 ; Boukng. 

Cat. Liz. i, p. 365. 
Stellio nuptus, Blanf. E. Pers. p. 317, pi. xix, tig. 1 ; Murr. Zool 

Sind, p. 369. 

Head depressed, triangular ; nostril rather large, slightly tubular, 
pierced on the canthus rostralis; upper head-scales smooth; occipital 
not enlarged ; borders of the tympanum and sides of neck with 
groups of well- developed spines ; ear-opening much larger than the 
eye-opening. Throat strongly plicate ; no gular pouch ; a trans- 
verse fold on the neck. Body depressed ; a distinct curved fold 
from the neck to the sides ; dorsal scales rather large, rhomboidal, 
strongly imbricate, shortly mucrouate, keeled, the keels forming 
oblique lines converging towards the vertebral line ; flanks with 
minute scales ; ventral scales smooth, much smaller than dorsals 
and much larger than laterals. Limbs strong, digits compressed ; 
scales on upper surface of limbs as large^ as the dorsals, or a 
little smaller ; third and fourth fingers nearly equal ; fourth 
toe slightly longer than third, fifth extending beyond first. Tail 
round or slightly compressed, depressed at the base, nearly three 
times as long as the distance from gular fold to vent ; caudal 
scales larger than dorsals, inucronate, feebly keeled, forming regular 
annuli. Male with a patch of thickened prseanal scales and a 
similar patch of ventral scales. Yellowish brown above, uniform or 
with a darker network of dots ; fore limbs dusky or blackish ; 
posterior half of tail black, or annulate with black ; gular region 
marbled yellow and dark blue. 

From snout to vent 6 inches ; tail 12. ' 

A variety (fusca, Blanf.) is distinguished by having the transverse 
nuchal fold less distinct, and the spines on the sides of head and 
neck rather longer. General colour blackish brown, throat yellowish. 

Hab. Persia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Upper Sind. 

172. Agama caucasica. 

Stellio caucasicus, Eichw. Zool. Spec. p. 187, and Faun. Casp.-Cauc. 
p. 80, pi. xiii, figs. 1-S ; Blanf. E. Persia, p. 322, pi. xx, fig. 1. 

. (yAma ra.nifi<jir?i 7?n?///>Wrtr C*.nt. T.i?. i -n 3fi7 



Agama caucasica, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 367. 



Head much depressed; nostril lateral, below the canthus rostralis, 
slightly tubular. Upper head-scales smooth; occipital not en- 
larged ; small conical spinose scales on the side of the head near 
the ear, and on the neck ; ear larger than the eye-opening. Throat 
strongly plicate ; no gular pouch. Body much depressed, with a 
very indistinct lateral fold ; nuchal and latero-dorsal scales very 
small, granular ; vertebral region with enlarged flat, feebly keeled, 
rather irregular scales ; flanks with enlarged, strongly keeled or 
spinose scales ; no nuchal denticulation ; ventral scales smooth, 
distinctly smaller than the enlarged dorsals. 150 to 160 scales 
round the middle of the body. Limbs strong, with compressed 
digits ; the scales on the upper surface of limbs much enlarged, 
strongly keeled, generally spinose ; fourth finger slightly longer 



152 



A.GAMTDX. 



than third ; fourth toe a little longer than third, fifth extending 
beyond first. Tail rounded, depressed at the base, covered with 
rather large spinose scales arranged in rings, two rings forming a 
distinct segment ; the length of the tail does not equal quite twice 
the distance from gular fold to vent. Male with a large patch of 
callose prseanal scales and an enormous patch of similar scales on 
the belly. Olivaceous above, with round yellowish black-edged 
spots, the black frequently forming a network ; vertebral region 
yellowish ; limbs with more or less distinct yellowish cross bars ; 
lower surface yellowish in the female, blackish in the breeding male. 

From snout to vent 5 inches. 

Hob. Prom the Caucasus to Persia, Baluchistan, and Afghanistan. 
This species occurs near Quetta. 

Genus PHRYNOCEPHALUS, 

Kaup, Isis, 1825, p. 591. 

Tympanum hidden. Body depressed. No dorsal crest. A 
transverse gular fold ; no gular sac. Tail cylindrical or transversely 
oval in section. No femoral or pneanal pores. 

Distribution. Central Asia, borders of the Caspian Sea, Persia, 
Baluchistan. 

Sand-Agamoids, stated to be viviparous. Some 15 species are 
known, of which four occur in Baluchistan and one in Northern 
Kashmir. 





Fig. 44. Head of Phrynocephalus olivieri. 
Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Dorsal leuidosis composed of small scales inter- 

mixed with scattered enlarged ones ; digits feebly 
fringed ; no spinose scales on sides of head and 
neck P. olivieri, p. 153. 

B. Dorsal lepidosis homogeneous; no spinose scales 

on sides of head and neck. 

a. Tail not more than 1 times the distance 

from gular fold to vent P. theobaldi, p. 153. 

b. Tail about twice the distance from gular fold 

to vent. 
a'. Nasal shield separated from its fellow by 3 [p. 154. 

to 5 longitudinal series of scales P. caudivolwliis, 

V. Nasal shields in contact P. ornatits, p. 154. 

c'. Nasal shields separated by one scale P. maculatus, p. 155. 

C. Dorsal lepidosis heterogeneous ; digits strongly 

fringed ; sides of head and neck with series of [p. 155. 

erect pointed scales P. Zuteoguttatus, 



PHEYNOOEPHALTJ8. 153 

173. Phrynocephalus olivieri. 
Phrynocephalus olivieri, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. iv, p. 517 ; Blanf. 

Zool. E. Persia, p. 327 ; Bovkny. Cat. Liz. i, p. 370; id. Tr. Linn. 
Soc. (2) v, 1889, p. 96, pi. viii, fig. 2. 
Phrynocephalus tickelii, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 160. 

Snout extremely short ; upper head-scales large, smallest on 
the middle of the supraorbital region, where they are about the 
size of the median dorsals ; nostril directed forwards and up- 
wards ; nasal large, in contact with its fellow (quite exceptionally 
separated by a series of scales). Dorsal scales flat, smooth, juxta- 
posed or slightly imbricate, with scattered enlarged nail-like scales ; 
sides more or less folded, with small granular scales intermixed with 
scattered enlarged ones. Gular, pectoral, and ventral scales smooth, 
the former very small but not granular ; ventrals square, forming 
slightly oblique transverse series. Outer edge of third and fourth 
toes feebly denticulated. Tibia longer than the skull. Tail round, 
gradually tapering to a fine point, covered with smooth or slightly 
keeled scales ; on the basal portion of the tail they are intermixed 
with enlarged conical scales ; the length of the tail equals once 
and two thirds to a little more than twice the distance from 
gular fold to vent. Grey above, marbled with darker and spotted 
with lighter ; sometimes a blackish cross band behind the scapular 
region, and another in front of the sacral region; sometimes a 
large zone on the middle of the back, uniform light grey ; limbs 
and tail with blackish cross bars, on the latter forming annuli which 
are deep black on the lower surface ; body aud limbs white beneath. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 3. 

Hab. Persia, Baluchistan, at elevations from 2000 to 7000 feet ; 
Afghanistan. 

174. Phrynocephalus theobaldi. 
Phrynocephalus theobaldi, Slyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, 1863, p. 90; 

Boideng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 373. 

Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 161 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 115. 

Forehead very convex, with enlarged convex scales ; supraorbital 
scales about as large as the largest dorsals ; occipital scales much 
larger ; nostril directed forwards ; nasal separated from its fellow 
by one or three longitudinal rows of scales. Dorsal scales homo- 
geneous, small, granular on the sides, enlarged, flat, and subimbri- 
cate on the vertebral region, all perfectly smooth ; pectorals and 
ventrals small, perfectly smooth, not mucronate. Outer side of 
third and fourth toes feebly but distinctly denticulated. Tibia 
as long as the skull. Tail roundish, thickened and depressed at 
the base, covered with smooth scales, ending obtusely ; its length 
lg to 1| times the distance from gular fold to vent. Grey above, 
more or less spotted with blackish or with light, dark-edged 
ocelli ; lower surface white ; male with the middle of the throat 
and of the belly, and the end of the tail beneath, black. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hab. Upper Indus Valley and Turkestan. 



154 



175. Phrynocephalus caudivolvnlus. 

Lacerta caudivolvula, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- As. iii, p. 27. 
Phrynocephalus caudivolvulusj&tt'n^. Rept.B. I. p. 161 (part.) ; Bou- 
leng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 375. 

Forehead convex and slightly sloping, with moderately enlarged 
convex scales ; occipital scales larger than the median dorsals ; 
supraorbital scales very small, granular, or 'nearly as large as 
median dorsals ; nostril directed forwards and slightly upwards ; 
nasal separated from its fellow by 3 to 5 longitudinal series of 
scales. Dorsal scales homogeneous, small, granular on the sides, 
enlarged, flat, and subimbricate, smooth or feebly keeled on the 
vertebral region. Gular scales smooth or indistinctly keeled ; 
pectoral and anterior ventral scales strongly keeled and mucronate, 
posterior ventrals smooth. Scales on upper surface of limbs keeled. 
Both sides of third and fourth toes with a strong fringe of acute 
lobules. Tibia longer than the skull. Tail not quite twice as long 
as the distance from gular fold to vent, swollen and much depressed 
at the base, then roundish depressed, tapering to a rather fine point, 
the end curling upwards ; except on the basal portion of the tail, 
the scales are keeled. Greyish above, spotted, marbled, or ver- 
miculated with blackish; fail beneath with 3 to 5 black bars 
alternating with white ones of nearly equal width ; lower surfaces 
white. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 2-6. 

Hob. From the shores of the Caspian Sea to Turkestan ; Ladak 
(fide Schlagintweit). 

176. Phrynocephalus ornatus. 

Phrynocephalus ornatus, Bouleng, Cat. Liz. iii, p. 496 ; id. Tr. Linn. 
Soc. (2) v, 1889, p. 97, pi. viii, fig. 3. 

Forehead convex and slightly sloping, with scarcely enlarged 
keeled scales ; occipitals very feebly enlarged ; supraocular scales a 
little smaller than median dorsals, imbricate, feebly keeled ; nostril 
directed forwards and upwards ; nasals very large and in contact 
mesially. Dorsal scales homogeneous, small and granular on the 
sides, enlarged, flat, imbricate, and feebly keeled on the back. 
Gular, pectoral, and ventral scales smooth or indistinctly keeled. 
Scales on upper surface of limbs feebly keeled. Digital fringes 
moderately developed, stronger on the outer side of the fourth toe 
than on the inner. Tibia much longer than the skull. The hind 
limb reaches beyond the tip of the snout. Tail nearly twice as long 
as the distance from gular fold to vent, strongly depressed at the 
base, roundish-depressed throughout the greater part of its length ; 
except on the basal portion of the tail, the scales are keeled. 
Yellowish or yellowish-grey above, with small grey or blackish 
specks and symmetrical markings; usually a few rose-coloured, 
purple-edged spots on the anterior part of the back and smaller 
orange ones on the hinder part : head with one or two orange trans- 



PHBYNOCEPHALCS. 155 

verse markings ; usually a blackish or purplish-grey, straight-edged 
or festooned lateral band, which may be edged above with a 
yellowish-white band ; a grey band along the hinder side of the 
thighs. Tail sometimes with regular elliptical brown or orange 
spots above, separated by a yellowish-white chain. Lower surfaces 
white; tail usually lemon-yellow, constantly with 4 or 5 black 
spots. 

From snout to vent 1'5 inches ; tail 2-1. 

Hob. Between Nushki and Helmand River, in Northern Balu- 
chistan. 

177. Phrynocephalus maculatus. 

Phrynocephalus maculatus, Anders. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 389, fig.; Blanf 
Zool. E. Pers. p. 331 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i. p. 377 : id. Tr. Linn 
Soc. (2) v, 1889, pi. ix, fig. 3. 

Forehead convex, with slightly enlarged scales ; median supra- 
orbital scales as large as or smaller than the median dorsals ; 
occipital scales slightly enlarged ; nostril directed upwards ; nasal 
separated from its fellow by one scale. Dorsal scales homogeneous, 
smaller on the sides, rhomboidal, imbricate, smooth. Gular, pec- 
toral, and abdominal scales smooth. Scales on the limbs smooth or 
feebly keeled. Third and fourth toes with feeble lateral denticula- 
tion. Tibia longer than the skull. Tail depressed, especially at 
the base, tapering to a point, covered with keeled scales ; its length 
equals nearly twice the distance from gular fold to vent. Greyish 
above, speckled or guttate with whitish, and with more or less 
distinct darker dots, spots, or cross bands ; lower surface white ; 
end of tail black beneath. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. Persia, Northern Baluchistan. 

178. Phrynocephalus luteoguttatns. 

Phrynocephalus luteoguttatus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 497 ; id. 
Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) v, 1889, p. 98, pi. viii, fig. 4. 

Head much depressed, forehead convex, not sloping ; upper head- 
scales small, obtusely keeled, not enlarged on the occipital region ; 
nostril directed forwards and upwards ; nasals in contact mesially ; 
three or four series of scales between the orbit and the upper labials ; 
none of the chin-shields in contact with the mental or the lower 
labials. Sides of head and neck with series of erect pointed scales. A 
fold along theflanks. Dorsal scales rather large, rhomboidal, obtusely 
keeled, intermixed with some that are enlarged, obtusely keeled, 
and flat ; lateral scales smaller, equal. Gular, pectoral, and ventral 
scales smooth or very feebly keeled, ending in a point ; median 
gulars nearly as large as ventrals. Scales on upper surface of limbs 
keeled. Digits strongly fringed, the fringe extremely strong on 
the outer side of the fourth toe. Tibia longer than the skull. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches the eye. Tail about as long as head 



156 

and body, depressed throughout ; caudal scales keeled. Yellowish 
brown or pale buff above, with black dots and round pale yellow 
spots ; the sides sometimes blackish ; frequently a blackish streak 
along the outer side of the leg ; eyelids salmon-pink. Lower sur- 
faces white, belly sometimes pink ; tail salmon-pink, usually black 
at the end, and with 1 to 3 black spots. 

From snout to vent 1-6 inches ; tail 1*6. 

Hob. Northern Baluchistan, between Nushki and Helmand 
Eiver. 



Genus LIOLEPIS, 
Cuvier, Regne An. 2nd ed. ii, p. 37, 1829. 

Tympanum distinct. Body depressed ; skin of sides lax, expan- 
sible; no crest; scales very small. No gular pouch; a strong 
transverse gular fold. Tail long, rounded, feebly depressed. 
Femoral pores. 

Distribution. South-eastern Asia. A single species. 

179. Liolepis belliana. 

Uromastix belliana, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, p. 220. 

Uromastix bellii, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxii. 

Liolepis bellii, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 647 ; Bouleng. Cat. 

Liz. i, p. 403. 
Liolepis guttatus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 154 ; Theob. Cat. p. 119. 

Head rather small ; snout with strongly curved profile, as long 
as the diameter of the orbit or a little longer; nostril large, 
directed backwards ; tympanum large, vertically oval ; upper head- 
scales small and strongly keeled on the snout and interorbital region, 
minute and granular on the supraorbital region and the occiput ; 
no occipital. Gular scales small, granular ; a series of chin-shields 
on each side, parallel with the infralabials, the first shield in con- 
tact with the pentagonal mental and the first infralabial. Side of 
neck plicate ; a more or less distinct fold along the side of the body. 
Dorsal scales minute, granular, feebly keeled, uniform ; ventral 
scales larger, subimbricate, smooth. Limbs rather long, with long 
slender digits and long claws ; the adpressed hind limb reaches the 
neck or the tympanum ; 14 to 21 femoral pores on each side. Tail 
about twice as long as head and body, round, depressed at the base, 
tapering to a fine point, covered with small, equal, keeled scales, 
largest beneath. Grey, brownish or blackish above, with yellowish 
black-edged spots which may form ocelli or be confluent into 
longitudinal bands ; sides with black and orange vertical bars ; 
lower surfaces yellow, uniform or variegated with black or blue. 

From snout to vent 7 inches ; tail 13. 

Hob. South Canara, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Siam, Southern 
China. 

This lizard is herbi- and f rugivorous. Its power of expanding its 
flanks in a sort of wing, supported by the very elongate spurious ribs, 



UROMASTIX. 157 

which foreshadows the parachute of the Dragons and bears great 
analogy to the hood of the Cobra, has led Cantor to suppose it to be 
an arboreal form. But Mr. Theobald, who has observed it in its 
haunts, states that it is absolutely terrestrial and a burrower, 
like Uromastix ; that he has never seen it seek a tree, or adopt any 
means of escape but a hasty retreat to its burrow. The use of the 
lateral expansions to the lizard is probably to expose a greater 
surface when sunning itself. As observed by Cantor, fear or anger 
will cause a momentary expansion, as in the case of the Cobra. 



Genus UROMASTIX, 

Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. p. 56, 1820. 

Tympanum distinct. Incisors large, uniting in the adult into 
one or two cutting-teeth, separated from the molars by a toothless 
interspace. Body depressed, without crest. No gular pouch; 
a transverse gular fold. Tail short, depressed, covered with whorls 
of large spinose scales. Pra3anal and femoral pores present. 

Distribution. Arid tracts of North Africa and South-western 
Asia. 7 species are known. 

These Lizards are herbi- and frugivorous, and terrestrial ; they 
live in burrows, resembling rabbit-holes, dug by themselves. 

180. Uromastix hardwickii. 

Uromastix hardwickii, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, p. 219 ; id. 111. 
2nd. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxi ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 155; Theob. Cat. 
p. 119 ; Murray, Zool Sind, p. 372 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. i, p. 408. 




Fig. 45. Uromastix hardwickii. 

Head small, feebly depressed, with short snout and obtuse can- 
thus rostralis ; nostril large, directed backwards, nearer the end 
of the snout than the eye ; tympanum large, vertically elliptical, 



158 ANGUIDjE. 

anterior border very slightly denticulated; upper head-scales 
smooth, much larger than those on the body, smallest on supra- 
ocular region ; occipital not enlarged ; labials small and numerous. 
Neck strongly plicate. Scales on upper surface very small, uniform 
or with slightly enlarged ones forming irregular cross series on the 
back ; ventral scales larger, flat, smooth, juxtaposed or subimbri- 
cate. Limbs short and thick ; hind limb with spinose conical 
tubercles ; digits short. 9 to 11 femoral, and 5 or 6 prseanal pores 
on each side. Tail above with cross series of enlarged spinose 
scales, largest on the sides, gradually decreasing in size towards the 
median line ; the rows of spines separated from each other by two 
to four rows of small keeled scales ; lower surface of tail covered 
with small scales scarcely larger than the abdominals. Sand- 
coloured above, uniform or with darker dots or vermiculations ; 
lower surfaces whitish ; a large black spot on the anterior face of 
the thigh. 

From snout to vent 5 inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. North-western India and Baluchistan in semi-deserts. 



Family IV. ANGUID^E. 

Skull with bony postorbital and postfronto-squamosal arches ; 
dermal cranial ossifications are present, which roof over the 
supratemporal fossa ; praemaxillary single ; nasals distinct ; 
parietal single ; a fibro-cartilaginous interorbital septum ; a colu- 
mella cranii (ectopterygoid). Dentition pleurodont. Body pro- 
tected by bony plates underlying the scales. Clavicle slender. 
Tongue moderately elongate, bifid posteriorly, 
nicked anteriorly, composed of two distinct 
portions : a principal posterior, thick, covered 
with villiform papillae, and a small anterior, 
extrusible and retractile into a sheath formed 
by a transverse fold at the anterior extremity 
of the villose portion. Head with symmetrical 
shields. Scales imbricate. No femoral or 
praeanal pores. 

The type of this family is the well-known 
European Slow-worm (Anguis fragilis). The 
only Indian species (Opliisaurus gracilis\ 

PI ^g TT ^ y likewise apodal and serpentiform, belongs to 

Ophisaums gTadlis. a genus which is represented by two North- 
American species, one Europaeo-Asiatic, 
ranging from Dalmatia to Afghanistan, and a fifth from Morocco. 
The family (45 species) is otherwise confined to the New World. 




OPHISAUBUS. 159 

Genus OPHISAURUS, 

Daudin, Kept, vii, p. 346, 1803. 

A lateral fold. Scales squarish-rhomboidal, forming straight 
longitudinal and transverse series. Limbs absent externally, or 
reduced to a rudiment of the hind pair. Teeth with conical or 
subspherical crowns. Pterygoid teeth. 

Distribution. South-eastern Europe, North Africa, South-western 
Asia, Himalayas and Burma, Central America. 

181. Ophisaurus gracilis. 

Pseudopus gracilis, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 56 ; Gilnth. Rept, B. I. p. 75 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 47. 

Ophiseps tessellatus, Blyth, J. A. S.B. xxii, 1853, p. 655. 
Opbisaurus gracilis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. ii, p. 283, pi. xv, fig. 1. 




Pig. 47._ Ophisaurus gracilis. 

Lateral teeth conical ; one or two series of teeth on the ptery- 
goids. Azygos prsefrontal narrower than the greatest width of 
the frontal, usually separated from the latter by two or three 
praefrontals on a transverse series ; interparietal broader than the 
parietal s, as broad as the occipital or broader ; three shields on a 
line from the nasal to the azygos praefrontal ; five supraoculars. 
Ear-opening distinct, not larger than the nostril. Dorsal plates 
keeled, in 14 longitudinal and 100 to 110 transverse series; ven- 
trals smooth, in 10 longitudinal series. No rudiments of limbs 
externally. Tail about twice as long as head and body ; upper 
caudal scales keeled, lower less distinctly. Brown above, with a 
darker lateral band, and frequently with irregular transverse series 
of blue, black-edged spots ; lower surface pale brownish or yellowish. 

From snout to vent 7 inches. 

Hdb. Eastern Himalayas, Khasi hills, Eastern Bengal, Eangoon, 
Western Yunnan. 



160 



VABANID.E. 



Family V. VAKANID^l. 

Skull with incomplete postorbital and complete postfronto-squa- 
mosal bony arches ; supratemporal fossa not roofed over ; prse- 
maxillary single, narrowed and much produced posteriorly; nasals 
coalesced, narrow ; parietal single ; infraorbital vacuity bounded by 
the pterygoid, palatine, and transverse (transpalatine) bones, the 
maxillary being excluded ; frontals completely surrounding the 
olfactory lobes of the brain ; a fibro-cartilaginous interorbital 
septum ; a columella cranii. Teeth large, dilated at the base, which 




Fig. 48. Skull of Varamis yriseus. 



A. Side view. 


S. Upper view. 


C. Lower view. 


ang. Angular. 


/. Lachrymal. 


ptf. Postfrontal. 


ar. Articular. 


m. Maxillary. 


q. Quadrate. 


bo. Basioccipital. 
bp. Basisphenoid. 
c. Columella cranii. 


. Nasal. 
oo. Opisthotic. 
p. Parietal. 


s.ang. Supra-angular, 
so. Supraoccipital. 
sor. Supraorbital. 


cr. Coronoid. 


pi. Palatine. 


st. Supratemporal. 


d. Dentary. 


pm. Prsemaxillary. 


s^. Squamosal. 


eo. Exoccipital. 


pro. Prootic. 


tp. Transpalatine. 


/. Frontal. 


prf. Praefrontal. 


fu. Turbinal. 


is. Interorbital septum. 


pt. Pterygoid. 


v. Vomer. 


j. Jugal. 







161 

No dermal 

Clavicle slender, not dilated ; 

iuterclavicle anchor -shaped. Tongue smooth, very long and slender, 
bifid, retractile into a sheath at the base. Pupil round ; eyelids 



is fixed to the inner side of the jaws ; palate toothless, 
ossifications on the head or body. -"'i JA* 




Fig. 49. Pectoral arch of Varanus griseus. 



cl. Clavicle. 
st. Sternum. 



cor. Ooracoid. 
c.cor. Epicoracoid. 



icl. Interclavicle. 
sc. Scapula. 



well developed j ear distinct. Limbs well developed, strong ; neck 
long ; tail long, cylindrical or compressed. Head covered with 
small polygonal scales. Dorsal scales roundish, juxtaposed, sur- 
rounded by rings of minute granules ; ventral scales squarish, 
arranged in cross rows. No femoral or prseanal pores. 

Lizards of large size, carnivorous, terrestrial or aquatic. The 
yellowish-grey Varanus yriseus is essentially a desert Lizard : V. 
salvator and V, niloticus, with their strongly compressed tails, well 
deserve the name of ' Water Lizards ; ' whilst the Papuan 
emerald-green V. prasinus is believed to be arboreal. Eggs oval 
and soft-shelled. 

A single genus. 

Genus VARANUS, 
Menem, Tent. Syst. Amph. p. 68, 1820. 

Of this genus 27 species are known, inhabiting Africa, Southern 
Asia, Papuasia, and Australia. They are known in English as 
Monitors ; and are called glio-samp in Northern India ; the young 
are often called biscobra, and are regarded as venomous, probably 
on account of their having a forked tongue 



162 



VABANIDJE. 






Fig. 50. Upper and side \iews of heads of, A. Varanus bengalc 
B. Varamts salvator. 



163 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 



A. Nostril an oblique slit (see fig. 50, A), nearer to 

orbit than to end of snout ; tail round or slightly 

compressed posteriorly V. griseus, p. 163. 

B. Nostril an oblique slit ; tail compressed, keeled 

above. 
. Nostril a little nearer to end of snout than to 

orbit V, flavescenSjip. 164. 

b. Nostril nearer to orbit than to end of snout. 
'. Ventral scales smooth ; supraoculars equal 

(see fig. 50, A) ; nostril much nearer to orbit [p. 164. 

than to end of snout V. bengalensis, 

V. Ventral scales smooth ; median supraoculars 



slightly enlarged transversely (as in fig. 50, 
B) ; nostril only a little nearer to orbit tl 



ly a little nearer to orbit than 

to end of snout V. nebulosus, p. 165. 

c'. Ventral scales keeled ; nuchal scales very 

large and flat V. dumerilii, p. 165. 

C. Nostril roundish or oval, nearer to end of snout 
than to orbit (see fig. 50, B) ; tail compressed, 
keeled above V. salvator, p. 166. 



182. Varanus griseus. 

Tupiiiainbis griseus, Daud. Kept, viii, p. 352. 

Psammosaurus scincus, Je)-don, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 70 : Theob. Cat. 

p. 39. 
Varanus ornatus (-non Daud.\ Carlleyle, J. A, S. B. xxxviii, 1869, 

p. 192. 
Varanus griseus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. ii, p. 306. 

Teeth acute, compressed. Snout depressed at the end, as long as 
the distance from anterior border of orbit to anterior border of 
ear ; canthus rostralis distinct. Nostril an oblique slit, about 
four times as distant from end of the snout as from orbit. Digits 
rather short. Tail round or slightly compressed. Scales of head, 
including supraoculars, very small, granular, subequal. Scales on 
upper surface small, smooth or feebly keeled ; those on the sides of 
the neck generally conical in adult specimens. Abdominal scales 
smooth, in 110 to 125 transverse series (counted from collar-fold to 
groin). Caudal scales more or less distinctly keeled ; no caudal 
crest. Greyish yellow, sometimes with more or less distinct brown 
cross bars on the back and tail and brown streaks along the sides 
of the neck. Young with round yellow spots and dark brown cross 
bars and temporal and cervical streaks ; a few brown lines across the 
snout and short vertical brown lines on the lower lip. 

From snout to vent 1 foot 10 inches ; tail 2 feet 4 inches. 

Hob. Deserts of North-western India ; westwards, through 
Southern Asia to the Caspian Sea and North Africa. 



164 VABANID.E. 

183. Varanus flavescens. 

Monitor flavescens, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix, Syn. p. 25, and III. Ind. 

Zool. ii, pi. Ixvii. 
Varanus flavescens, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 634 ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 65, pi. ix, fig. A ; Theob. Cat, p. 38 ; Bouleng. Cat. 

Liz. ii, p. 309. 

Teeth subcoiiical, scarcely compressed. Snout short, convex, 
measuring a little less than the distance from the anterior border of 
the orbit to the anterior border of the ear; cauthus rostralis distinct. 
Nostril an oblique slit, a little nearer to the end of the snout than 
to the orbit. Digits short, the length of the fourth toe, measured 
from its articulation with the tarsus to the base of the claw, not 
exceeding the length of the femur. Tail feebly compressed, keeled 
above. Scales of head small, subequal : the median series of 
supraocular scales slightly dilated transversely. Scales on upper 
surfaces moderate, oval, keeled. Abdominal scales smooth, in 65 to 
75 transverse rows. Caudal scales keeled ; the caudal keel with a 
very low, doubly-toothed crest. Olive or yellowish brown above, 
with irregular dai'ker markings which are generally confluent into 
broad cross bars ; a blackish temporal streak ; lower surfaces 
yellowish, with rather indistinct brown cross bars, which are most 
distinct on the throat. Young dark brown above, with yellow 
spots confluent into cross bars ; lower surface yellow, with dark 
brown cross bars. 

From, snout to vent 1 foot 3 inches ; tail 1 foot 8 inches. 

Hob. Northern India, Burma, Malay Peninsula. Terrestrial. 



184. Varanus bengalensis. 

Tupiiiarnbis bengalensis, Daud. Rept. iii, p. 67. 

Varanus bibromi, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi, 1842, p. 869. 

Varanus lunatus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 10; Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 66, 

pi. ix, fig. ; T/ieob. Cat. p. 38. 
Monitor draeaena, Kelaart, Prodr. p. 146. 
Varanus dracsena, Giinth. I. c. p. 65, pi. ix, fig. B ; Theob. I. c. 
Varanus bengalensis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz, ii, p. 310. 

Teeth acute, compressed. Snout high, very convex at the end, 
as long as the distance from the anterior corner of the eye to the 
ear ; canthus rostralis well marked. Nostril an oblique slit, a little 
nearer- to the orbit than to the tip of the snout. Ear-opening 
oblique. Digits strong, moderately elongate. Tail compressed, 
keeled above. Scales of head small, subequal ; supraocular scales 
smaller, subequal. Scales of upper surface of body and limbs small, 
oval, tectiform on the hinder part of the back. Abdominal scales 
smooth, in 90 to 110 transverse rows. Caudal scales keeled; 
caudal keel with a very low, doubly-toothed crest. Upper surface 
yellowish, brownish, or olive, with more or less numerous blackish 
dots ; a more or less distinct dark streak on the temple ; lower 



VARANUS, 165 

surface yellowish, uniform or dotted with blackish ; the dots 
most numerous on the throat. Young with numerous whitish 
ocelli frequently alternating with blackish transverse bands, which 
may persist after the ocelli have disappeared ( F. lunatus). 

From snout to vent 2| feet ; tail 3. 

Hab. The whole of India and Ceylon; Burma? Terrestrial, 
living in holes, in dry places. 



185. Varanus nebulosus. 

Monitor nebulosus, Gray, Griff. A. K. ix, Syn. p. 27. 
Varanus nebulosus, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 66, pi. ix, fig. D ; TJieob. 
Cat. p. 39 j Boukng, Cat. Liz. ii, p. 311. 

Teeth acute, compressed. Snout rather elevated, pointed, convex, 
as long as the distance from the anterior corner of the eye to the 
posterior border of the ear ; canthus rostralis distinct. Nostril an 
oblique slit, half as far from orbit as from end of snout. Ear-opening 
oblique. Digits moderately elongate. Tail compressed, keeled 
above. Scales of head small, subequal ; supraocular region with a 
series of four to seven transversely dilated scales. Scales on upper 
surfaces small, oval, obtusely keeled, those on anterior part of neck 
larger, subcircular, not keeled. Abdominal scales smooth, in about 
80 transverse rows. Caudal scales keeled ; the caudal keel with a 
very low, doubly-toothed crest. Greenish or brownish olive, 
irregularly marbled and dotted with darker and lighter ; chin and 
throat with transverse blackish bands or marbled with blackish. 
The young have numerous yellowish ocelli on the back, limbs, and 
base of tail, and the whole of the lower surfaces marbled with 
blackish ; nape with two posteriorly directed, chevron-shaped, 
blackish bands, the anterior proceeding from the eyes. 

From snout to vent 1 foot 2 inches ; tail 2 feet. 

Hob. Bengal, Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula. 



186. Varanus dumerilii. 

Monitor dumerilii (Miill), Schleg. Abbild. p. 78. 

Varanus macrolepis, Blanf. J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 239, pi. xvi. 

Varanus dumerilii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. ii, p. 312. 

Teeth acute, compressed. Snout depressed at the end, measuring 
a little more than the distance from the anterior border of the orbit 
to the anterior border of the ear; canthus rostral is not well marked. 
Nostril oblique, about half as far from orbit as from tip of snoiit. 
Digits moderate. Tail strongly compressed, keeled above. Scales 
of head moderate, subequal ; those in the middle of the supraocular 
region slightly enlarged transversely. Scales on upper surface of 
neck very large, about as broad as long, flat, the hindermost slightly 
keeled; dorsal scales large, oval, keeled; scales above the limbs 
keeled. Abdominal scales slightly keeled, in 75 to 85 transverse 



166 VAEANID^!. 

rows. Caudal scales keeled, the lateral sometimes intermixed with 
larger ones ; the caudal keel with a very low, doubly-toothed crest. 
Light brown above ; a dark temporal streak, from eye to ear, 
generally confluent with a U-shaped dark marking on the neck ; 
back with very broad dark transverse bars, broader than the inter- 
spaces between them ; limbs dark brown, spotted with yellow ; 
more or less distinct vertical dark bars on the lips ; belly yellowish, 
uniform or with transverse dark bands. 

Prom snout to vent 1 foot 3 inches. 

Hob. Tenasserim, Sumatra, Borneo. 



187. Varanus salvator. 

Stellio salvator, Laur. Syn. Kept. p. 66. 

Varanus salvator, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 035 ; Eoukng. 

Cat. Liz. ii, p. 314. 
Hydrosaurus salvator, Gilnth. Rent. B. I. p. 67, pi. ix, fig. E ; TJteob. 

Cat. p. 39. 

Teeth acute, compressed. Snout depressed at the tip, long, the 
distance from that point to the anterior corner of the eye being 
generally a little greater than the distance from the latter to the 
anterior border of the ear ; canthus rostralis obtuse. Nostril oval, 
at least twice as far from the orbit as from the tip of th6 snout. 
Digits moderate. Tail strongly compressed, keeled above. Scales 
of head moderate, subequal, larger than those on the temples ; supra- 
ocular region with a series of 4 to 8 large transversely dilated 
scales. Scales on upper surfaces small, oval, keeled ; abdominal 
scales keeled, in 85 to 95 transverse rows. Caudal scales keeled ; 
the caudal ridge with a very low, doubly-toothed crest. Dark 
brown or blackish above, with yellow spots or ocelli ; snout 
generally lighter, with transverse black bars, most distinct on the 
lips, and continued across the chin ; a black temporal band, com- 
mencing from the eye and bordered by a yellow band which some- 
times extends along the side of the neck ; lower surfaces yellow. 
The markings most accentuated in the young. 

From snout to vent 3 feet 4 inches. 

Hob. Bengal, Ceylon, S. China, Burma, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. Pound in marshy localities or on trees overhanging 
rivers ; enters the water readily. 



LACERTID^. 



167 



Family VI. LACERTID^l. 

Skull with bony postorbital and post 
fronto-squamosal arches ; praemaxillary sin- 
gle ; nasals distinct ; parietal single ; a 
fibro-cartilaginous interorbital septum ; a 
columella cranii. Skull with bony dermal 
plates, roofing over the supratemporal 
fossae. Dentition pleurodont. Clavicle 
dilated and perforated proximally; inter- 
clavicle cruciform. Tongue flat, elongate, 
bifid in front and behind, covered with 
rhomboidal scale-like papillae or overlapping 
plicae converging forwards. Limbs well 
developed. Tail long, fragile. Pupil round; 
eyelids well developed. Ear distinct. 
Femoral pores usually distinct. Head 
with symmetrical shields. Dorsal scales 
Fig. 51. Tongue of juxtaposed or imbricate, usually smaller 

Acanthodactylus cantons, than the ventrals, which form longitudinal 

and transverse series. 
Distribution. Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the Indian Eegion 

the species are but few in number. 




Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Genera. 



[p. 170. 

ACANTHODACTYLTJS, 



A. Inguinal, but no femoral pores ; dorsal 

scales large and keeled ; flanks granular. TACHYDHOMUS, p. 168. 

B. Femoral pores. 

. Nostrils pierced between two nasals and 
the first labial ; digits fringed laterally. 
b. Nostril not touching the first labial. 
a'. Lower eyelid with a very large trans- 
parent disk, through which the eye 
is _ entirely visible ; dorsal scales 
pointed, imbricate, and strongly 
keeled. 
o". Lower eyelid distinct from the 

rudimentary upper ............ CABBITA, p. 171. 

b". No movable eyelids, the lower 

having fused with the upper .... OPHIOPS, p. 173. 

b'. Lower eyelid scaly or with a small 
transparent disk; dorsal scales 



granular. 
. Diit 



a. igits not fringed laterally ...... EBEMIAS, p. 176. 

b". Digits fringed laterally ........ SCAPTEIEA, p. 179. 



168 




Fig. 52. Upper and side views of head of Eremias guttulata, to explain the 
nomenclature of the shields. 



cs. Chin-shields. 
/. Frontal. 
fn, Frontonasal. 
fp. Frontoparieta 
ip. Interparietal. 
P.P. Loreals. 
la. Upper labials. 


la'. Lower lahiaK 
m. Mental. 
n. Nasal, 
o. Occipital. 
p. Parietal. 
pf. Prafrontal. 
pn. Postnasal. 


r. Eostral. 
sbo. Subocular. 
sc. Supraciliaries. 
MI. Supranasal. 
so. Supraocular. 
ty. Tympanic. 



Genus TACHYDROMUS, 
Daudin, Kept, iii, p. 251, 1802. 
Head-shields normal*. Nostril pierced between two nasals and 



* /. e. a f rontonasal, a pair of praefrontals, a frontal, a pair of f rontoparietals, 
a pair of parietals, an interparietal, and an occipital. 



TACHYDROMUS. 169 

the first labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar more or less distinct. 
Back covered with large, rhomboidal, keeled shields forming longi- 
tudinal series ; flanks granular ; ventral shields rhomboidal, imbri- 
cate, all or part keeled. Digits subcylindrical, with smooth, tuber- 
cular subdigital lamellae, the distal lamellae much enlarged. Inguinal 
pores ; no femoral pores. Tail extremely long, cylindrical. 

Distribution. Eastern Asia ; Japan; Indian archipelago. Four 
species are known. 



Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species. 

First large supraocular in contact with 

loreal T. sexlineatus, p. 169. 

A small shield between supraocular and 

loreal T. tachydromoides, p. 169. 



188. Tachydronms sexlineatns. 

Tachydromus sexlineatus, Daud. Rept. iii, p. 350, pi. xxxix ; Giinth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 69, pi. viii, fig. ; Theob. Cat. p. 41 ; Bouleng. Cat. 

Liz. iii, p. 4. 

Tachydromus meridonalis, Giinth. I. c. p. 70, pi. viii, fig. D. 
Tachydromus sikimmensis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (6) i, 1888, p. 168. 

Supraoculars in contact with the supraciliaries ; the large anterior 
supraocular in contact with the loreal ; temporal scales strongly 
keeled. 6 or 8 longitudinal series of strongly keeled shields on 
the nape, four on the back, median pair largest ; 10 or 12 longi- 
tudinal series of strongly keeled ventral shields (lateral series in- 
cluded). 1 to 6 inguinal pores on each side. Greenish or brownish 
above, with metallic gloss ; a more or less distinct whitish, black- 
edged streak from the supraciliary edge along each side of the back 
to the base of the tail ; the black band bordering the light streak 
beneath begins on the loreal region and passes through the eye 
and above the tympanum ; sometimes two narrow black lateral 
lines instead of the black band ; sides frequently with small round 
light spots ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish. 

From snout to vent 2'5 inches ; tail 11. 

Hob. Southern China, Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Burma, Indo- 
China, Java, Borneo. 

189. Tachydromus tachydromoides. 

Lacerta tachydromoides, Schleg. Faun. Japan. Rept. p. 101, pi. i, 

figs. 5-7. 

Tachydromus japonicus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 69. 
Tachydromus septentrionalis, Giinth. I. c. p. 70, pi. viii, fig. E. 
Trachydromus haughtonianus, Jerdon, P. A. 8. B. 1870, p. 72 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 41. 
Tachydromus tachydromoides, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 5. 

Head shorter than in T. sexlineatus. A series of granules 



170 LACEETIDJE. 

between the supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; a small shield sepa- 
rates the large anterior supraocular from the loreal ; temporal scales 
obtusely keeled. Dorsal shields very variable in number and in 
size, very strongly keeled ; they usually form 6 to 8 series, of which 
the median are as a rule the smallest ; sometimes only five series 
on the posterior half of the body ; 8 or 10 series of large ventrals, 
which are either all strongly keeled or only the outer rows ; 2 to 
4 longitudinal rows of smaller keeled shields on each side of the 
ventrals. One or two inguinal pores on each side. Greenish or 
brownish above, with or without a light black-edged dorso-lateral 
band as in T. sevlineatus ; a more or less distinct light streak from 
below the eye to the shoulder, sometimes extending along the side 
of the body ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches ; tail 8. 

Hob. Japan, China, Assam. 

Genus ACANTHODACTYLITS, 
Wiegmann, Herp. Mex. p. 10, 1834. 

Head-shields normal, occipital absent. Nostril pierced between 
two nasals and the first labial. Lower eyelid scaly. Collar more 
or less distinct. Dorsal scales juxtaposed or imbricate ; ventrals 
smooth, slightly imbricate. Digits keeled beneath and more or 
less strongly fringed laterally. Femoral pores. Tail subcylindrical. 

Distribution. South of Spain and Portugal ; Africa north of the 
equator ; South-western Asia eastwards to the Punjab. 10 species 
are known. 

These are true Sand-Lizafds. Their movements are very quick. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Not more than 16 longitudinal rows of keeled 

scales between the hind limbs A. cantoris, p. 170. 

Posterior dorsal scales much smaller than the 

caudals A. micropholis, p. 171. 

190. Acanthodactylus cantoris. 

Acanthodactylus cantoris, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 73 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 42; Blanf. E. Persia, Zool. p. 381, pi. xxvi, fig. 3; Murray, 

Zool. Sind, p. 348 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 00. 
? Acanthodactylus micvopholis (non Blanf. }, Murray, I. c. 

Snout acutely pointed. Four supraoculars ; subocular not 
reaching the lip ; temporal scales keeled ; front edge of the ear 
usually rather feebly, but distinctly, denticulated. Dorsal scales 
strongly keeled, very much larger on the hinder part of the back 
than between the shoulders and on the flanks, rhomboidal, strongly 
imbricate ; 10 to 16 large keeled scales on a transverse line between 
the hind limbs. Ventral plates usually broader than long, in straight 
longitudinal and slightly angular transverse series; 12 or 14 plates 



CABBITA. 171 

across the middle of the body. Usually a median series of broad 
praanals, the posterior largest. The hind limb reaches the ear or the 
eye. 17 to 23 femoral pores on each side. Digital denticulations 
strong, usually as long as the diameter of the corresponding part 
of the toe, much more developed on the outer than on the inner 
edge of the fourth toe. Upper caudal scales strongly keeled ; 
basal subcaudals smooth or obtusely keeled. Greyish or buff above, 
with or without small blackish spots ; young with whitish longitu- 
dinal lines separated by blackish interspaces with series of round 
whitish spots, which markings gradually become more indistinct ; 
tail pink in the young. 

From snout to vent 2'75 inches ; tail 6. 

Hab. North-western India, from Agra to Sind, Baluchistan, 
South-eastern Persia. 



191. Acanthodactylus micropholis. 

Acanthodactylus micropholis, Blanf. A. M. N. H. .(4) xiv, 1874, 
p. 33 ; id. E. Persia, Zool. p. 383, pi. xxvi, fig. 2 ; Boideny. Cat. Liz. 
iii, p. 63. 

Snout obtuse. Three supraoculars, the fourth being broken up 
into granules, the first usually separated from the second by a 
series of granules ; subocular usually bordering the lip ; temporal 
scales smooth; front edge of the ear very feebly denticulated. 
Dorsal scales more or less strongly keeled, very small on the nape, 
gradually increasing in size towards the posterior part of the back, 
where they are very much smaller than the caudals, rhomboidal, 
feebly imbricate. Ventral plates broader than long, in 10 longi- 
tudinal series. Prseanals usually small, irregular or with a median 
series transversely enlarged. The adpressed hind limb reaches the 
tympanum or the eye. 21 to 27 femoral pores on each side. 
Digital denticulations moderately developed, much shorter than the 
diameter of the corresponding part of the toe, usually more deve- 
loped on the outer than on the inner edge of the fourth toe. 
Upper caudal scales keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth or obtusely 
keeled. Grey above, with white longitudinal lines on the body and 
round spots on the limbs; the interspaces between the light lines 
frequently blackish, with a series of small round white spots. 

From snout to vent 2'4 inches ; tail 5. 

Hob. Baluchistan ; South-eastern Persia. 



Genus CABRITA, 
Gray, Ann. N. H. i, 1838, p. 282. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two or three 
nasals. Lower eyelid distinct from the rudimentary upper, and 
having a very large transparent disk. Collar absent. Dorsal 
scales imbricate and strongly keeled. Ventral plates imbricate, 



172 LACBBTIDjB. 

smooth. Digits compressed, with sharply keeled scales beneath. 
Femoral pores. Tail cylindrical. 
Distribution. India, Ceylon, inhabiting wooded country as a rule. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Anterior labials keeled, forming a projecting 

margin ; occipital present , C. leschenaultii, p. 172. 

Labials not keeled ; no occipital C.jerdonn, p. 173. 



192. Cabrita leschenaultii. 

Lacerta leschenaultii, M.-Edw. Ann. Sc. Nat. xvi, 1829, pp. 80, 86, 

pi. vi, fig. 9. 
Cabrita brunnea, Gray, Ann. N. H. \, 1838, p. 282 ; Thedb. Cat. 

p. 42. 
Cabrita leschenaulti, GiintJi. Eept. B. I. p. 71 ; Theob.l. c. ; fiouleng. 

Cat. Liz. iii, p. 70. 

Upper head-shields strongly keeled and striated ; anterior labials 
keeled, forming a projecting margin ; canthus rostralis very strong ; 
nostril in the horizontal suture between two large nasals which are 
extensively in contact with the rostral, and followed by one or two 
small postnasals, the upper of which sometimes enters the nostril ; 
no azygos prsefrontal; frontal long and narrow ; a small occipital; 
4 supraoculars, first and fourth small, the two principal separated 
from the supraciliaries by a series of granules ; subocular bordering 
the lip, between the fourth and fifth (or fifth and sixth) upper 
labials ; temporal scales small, keeled ; two large shields border the 
parietals exteriorly ; a curved large shield on the supero-anterior 
border of the ear-opening ; six large chin-shields on each side, the 
three anterior in contact with their fellows. Dorsal scales mode- 
rately large, scarcely larger on the back than on the sides ; ventral s 
broader than long, in 6 longitudinal and 25 to 29 transverse series, 
the median longitudinal series narrower than the others ; 42 to 48 
scales round the middle of the body, ventrals included. A large 
postero-median pra?anal plate. The hind limb reaches the ante- 
humeral fold or a little beyond the ear ; the length of the foot equals 
the distance between the antehumeral fold and the nostril or the 
tip of the snout. 12 to 16 femoral pores on each side. Tail nearly 
twice as long as head and body ; caudal scales much larger than 
dorsals. Brownish or golden above ; a pale band, edged above with 
a black one, along each side of the body and tail, commencing from 
the supraciliary edge ; another pale, black-edged band along the 
upper lip and side of the body ; the space between the two light 
bands on each side usually black, or spotted with black; lower 
surfaces yellowish-white, tail and hind limbs often reddish. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. Peninsular India as far north as S.E. Berar and Chanda ; 
Cevlon. 



173 



193. Cabrita jerdonii. 



Cabiita jerdonii, Beddome, Madras Monthly Journ. Med. Sc, 1870, 
p. 34 ; Theob. Cat. p. 42 ; Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 71. 

Differs from the preceding in the following points : A single 
anterior nasal, followed by two postnasals ; labials not keeled, no 
projecting labial margin ; usually one or two small azygos shields 
between the pair of prsefrontals : no occipital. Dorsal scales as 
large as the caudals, much larger than the laterals ; ventral plates 
subequal ; 27 to 30 scales round the middle of the body. The 
length of the foot is less than the distance between the antehumeral 
fold and the nostril. .Femoral pores 11 to 15. Brownish or 
golden above, with two light lateral bands as in C. lescJienaultii, 
which are, however, not bordered witli black bands, but with 
longitudinal series of black spots ; lips, and frequently also the 
throat, speckled with black. 

Hcib. Grodftvari valley, extending north to Chutia Nagpur, and 
south to Cuddapah. 



Genus OPHIOPS, 
Me'netrie's, Cat. llais. p. 63, 1832. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between two to four 
nasals. Eyelids immovable, the lower united with the upper, 
with a very large transparent disk. Collar absent or very indis- 
tinct. Dorsal scales imbricate and strongly keeled. Ventral 
plates imbricate, smooth. Digits compressed, with sharply keeled 
scales beneath. Femoral pores. Tail cylindrical. 





Fig. 53. Head of Ophiops beddomii. 

Distribution. North Africa, Turkey, South-western Asia, India. 
6 species are known. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Upper head-scales rugose, keeled and striated ; 

28 to 35 scales round middle of body (ven- 

trals included). 

a. A single f rontonasal 0. jerdonii, p. 174. 

6. Two or three frontonasals 0. beddomii, p. 174. 



174 LACEBTIDJE. 

B. Upper head-scales smooth. 

a. Snout moderate ; 30 to 40 scales round the 

body (ventrals included) O. elegans, p. 175. 

b. Snout long, much depressed ; 52 to 64 scales 

round the hody O. microlepis, p. 175. 

194. Opblops jerdonii. 

Ophiops jerdoni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 653 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 44 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 73. 
Pseudophiops theobaldi, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 71. 
Cabrita leschenaultii, Murr. Zool. Sind, p. 347. 
Calosaura chaperi, Sauvage, Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) viii, 1884, p. 142. 

Head moderate, feebly depressed. Upper head-shields rugose, 
keeled and striated ; nostril lateral, pierced between 3 or 4 shields, 
viz. an anterior, or an upper and a lower anterior nasal and two 
superposed postnasals ; a large frontonasal ; frequently one or two 
small azygos shields between the pair of praefrontals ; four supra- 
oculars, first and fourth small, the two principal separated from 
the supraciliaries by a series of granules ; occipital small, sometimes 
a little broader than the inter parietal, with which it forms a suture ; 
subocular bordering the lip, between the fourth and fifth (or third 
and fourth) upper labials ; temporal scales small, keeled ; one or two 
large supratemporal shields border the parietals externally ; tym- 
panic shield small or indistinct. No gular fold extending from ear 
to ear ; collar quite indistinct. Dorsal scales large, strongly keeled, 
much imbricate, scarcely larger on the back than on the sides ; 28 
to 35 scales round the middle of the body (ventrals included). A 
large postero-median prseanal plate. The hind limb reaches the 
shoulder or halfway between the latter and the ear in the male, 
not to axilla in the female. 7 to 11 femoral pores on each side. 
Tail once and a half to twice as long as head and body ; caudal 
scales about as large as dorsals. Coppery-brown above, with two 
pale golden lateral streaks bordered with black, the upper exten- 
ding from the supraciliaries to the tail, the lower from the upper 
lip to the groin ; frequently a series of large black spots between 
the two lateral streaks ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

From snout to vent 1*65 inches ; tail 3*2. 

Hob. Central India (Saugor, Mhow), N.W. Provinces (Agra), 
Punjab, Sind, also Madras Presidency (Bellary). 



195. Ophiops beddomii. 

Pseudophiops beddomei, Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 72. 

Ophiops monticola, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 45. 
Ophiops beddomii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 74, pi. iii, fig. 3. 

Very closely allied to the preceding. Two or three f rontonasals 
on a transverse line ; one or two azygos praefrontals nearly always 
present ; first and fourth supraoculars usually broken up into 



OPHIOPS. 175 

several very small shields or granules. Lateral scales distinctly 
smaller than dorsals ; 28 to 32 scales round the body. Femoral 
pores 8 to 13. Coloration as in 0. jerdonii, but the upper lateral 
light streak frequently absent. 

Hab. Wynaad (5000 feet), S. Canara, Khaudala near Bombay. 

196. Ophiops elegans. 

Ophiops elegans, Menttr. Cat. Rais. p. 63 ; Blanf. Zool E. Pers. 

p. 367 ; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 75. 
Gymnops meizolepis, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872. p. 124. 
Ophiops meizolepis, Blanf. I. c. p. 3G9, pi. xxv, fig. 2 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 47. 

Head moderate, feebly depressed. Upper head-shields smooth 
or slightly rugose ; nostril lateral, pierced between an upper and 
a lower nasal, and followed by one or two postnasals; frontonasal 
single ; four supraoculars, first and fourth very small, the two 
principal separated from the supraciliaries by a series of granules : 
occipital small, in contact with or separated from the interparietal ; 
subocular bordering the lip, normally between the fourth and fifth 
upper labials ; temporal scales small, smooth ; usually two large 
supratemporal shields bordering the parietal ; a large tympanic 
shield. A gular fold may be distinguishable ; collar absent or 
feebly marked. Dorsal scales variable in size, as large as or larger 
than the laterals ; 30 to 40 scales round the middle of the body, 
ventrals included. A more or less enlarged postero-mediau 
praeanal plate. The hind limb reaches about the ear in the male, 
the shoulder or a little beyond in the female. 7 to 12 (usually 
9 to 11) femoral pores on each side. Tail about twice as long as 
head and body. Olive or bronzy above, with black spots usually 
forming longitudinal series, sometimes forming a network ; fre- 
quently one or two light longitudinal streaks on each side; lower 
surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 4. 

Hab. Turkey, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Punjab. 

197. Ophiops microlepis. 

Ophiops microlepis, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 351, pi. xv, 
figs. 1-5 ; Theob. Cat.?. 46; Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 77. 

Head much depressed; snout long; loreal region concave; 
upper labials projecting, angular. Upper head-shields smooth ; 
nostril latero-superior, pierced between an upper and a lower nasal ; 
a small postnasal wedged in between the two nasals ; these three 
shields more or less distinctly swollen ; frontonasal single ; prae- 
frontals obtusely keeled; frontal much narrowed posteriorly, 
grooved longitudinally ; four supraoculars, first and fourth smallest, 
the two principal separated from the supraciliaries by a series of 
granules; occipital small, broader than the interparietal, with 



176 

which it is usually in contact ; subocular bordering the lip, between 
the fourth and fifth upper labials; temporal scales small, obtusely 
keeled ; two large supratemporals bordering the parietal ; tympanic 
shield very large, opercle-like. No gular fold ; collar usually dis- 
tinguishable. Dorsal scales small, as large as laterals or slightly 
larger ; 52 to 64 scales round the middle of the body, ventrals in- 
cluded. Ventrals in 6 longitudinal series. A large postero-median 
prseanal plate. The hind limb reaches the ear, or between the 
latter and the eye. 13 to 16 femoral pores on each side. Tail 
about twice as long as head and body ; caudal scales very large. 
Brown or greyish above, with small black spots which may form a 
network on the sides ; usually one or two pale longitudinal streaks 
on each side ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches ; tail 5-5. 

Hab. Northern India : Cutch ; Kurhurbaree (Bengal) ; Bilaspur. 



Genus EREMIAS, 
Wiegmann, Herp. Mex. p. 9, 1834. 

Head-shields normal ; occipital often absent. Nostril pierced 
between three or four nasals. Lower eyelid scaly, or with a small 
transparent disk. Collar more or less distinct. Dorsal scales 
small, juxtaposed or imbricate ; ventral shields feebly imbricate, 
smooth. Digits subcylindrical or compressed, with keeled lamellae 
beneath. Femoral pores. Tail cylindrical. 

Of this essentially African and Central Asian genus, of which 
25 species are known, only a few representatives occur in the 
North-western area of our fauna. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Ventral plates in straight longitudinal 

series ; lower nasal resting on first labial 
only. 

a. Ventral plates in 10 longitudinal series; 

occipital in contact with interparietal . . E. yuttulata, p. 177. 

b. Ventral plates in 12 longitudinal series ; 

occipital separated from interparietal . . E. brevirostris, p. 177. 

B. Ventral plates forming oblique longitudinal 

series ; lower nasal resting on the two or 
three anterior labials ; no occipital. 

a. Length of foot in adult less than distance 

between collar-fold and nostril ; 50 to 65 
scales (counting from ventrals) across 
middle of body E. velox, p. 178. 

b. Length of foot equals distance between 

collar-fold and nostril or end of snout ; 

45 to 50 scales across middle of body . . E.fasciata, p. 179. 



177 



198. Eremias guttulata. 



Lacerta guttulata, Licht. Verz. Doubl. Mus. Berl. p. 101. 
Eremias (Mesalina) watsonana, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 86; 

Theob. Cat. p. 43 ; Murr. Zool. Sind, p. 349. 

Mesalina pardalis, Blanf. Zool. E. Pei-s. p. 377 ; Murr. 1. c. p. 350. 
Eremias guttulata, Boiileng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 87. 

Snout rather pointed. Nasals more or less swollen ; frontonasals 
separated from the rostral by the upper nasals ; 2 prsefrontals ; 4 
supraoculars, first and fourth very small, sometimes broken up, the 
first in contact with the loreal ; a series of granules between the 
two principal supraoculars and the supraciliaries ; interparietal 
pentagonal, in contact with a small occipital; temporal scales 
granular, smooth ; no auricular denticulation ; lower eyelid with a 
more or less transparent disk formed usually of two, not unfre- 
quently of several scales, seldom of one ; subocular bordering the 
lip, normally between the fourth and fifth upper labials ; the 
three anterior pairs of chin-shields in contact. A more or less 
marked transverse gular fold, connecting the ears; collar curved 
or more or less angular, free or attached (sometimes indistinct) 
in the middle, formed of 8 to 13 plates. Dorsal scales roundish, 
convex, smooth, juxtaposed, 40 to 55 across the middle of the 
body ; ventral plates in straight longitudinal and transverse series, 
broader than long ; in 10 longitudinal series, the outer series 
composed of very small plates. Normally a large praeanal plate, 
bordered by two semicircles of smaller ones. The hind limb reaches 
the shoulder or not so far in the female, the shoulder or halfway 
between the shoulder and the ear in the male ; foot as long as 
the distance between the arm and the anterior border of the orbit 
or the centre of the eye ; one series of large, or two of small, 
subtibial plates. 10 to 17 femoral pores. Tail once and a half to 
twice the length of the head and body; upper caudal scales strongly 
keeled ; basal subcaudals smooth or very obtusely keeled. Greyish 
or rufous-brown above, with very variable markings; series of black 
spots and white ocelli, or series of more or less confluent blackish 
spots along the body ; some specimens with irregularly scattered 
blackish dots, or with regular blackish and white longitudinal 
lateral bands ; others with a broad dark grey vertebral band with 
a series of shaft-like blackish marks on each side of it, &c. ; lower 
surface white. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. North Africa ; South-western Asia, from Arabia and 
Syria to Afghanistan and Sind. 

199. Eremias brevirostris. 

Eremias watsonanus, StoUczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 125 (nee ante, 

p. 86). 
Mesalina brevirostris, Blanf. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, 1874, p. 32; id. 

Zool. E. Persia, p. 379 ; Theob. Cat. p. 43. 
Eremias brevirostris, Boukiig, Cat. Liz. iii, p. 89. 

N 



178 

Very closely allied to E. guitulata. Snout shorter, nasals strongly 
swollen ; interparietal not in contact with the occipital, which is 
minute. Ventrals in 12 longitudinal series, only the two median 
distinctly broader than long. 

Hob. Tumb Island, Persian Gulf ; Punjab. 



200. Eremias velox. 

Lacerta velox, Pallas, Reise, i, p. 457. 

Eremias velox, Blanf. Zool. E. Pers. p. 374; Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, 

p. 97. 
Eremias persica, Blanf. 1. c. p. 370, pi. xxvi, fig. 1. 

Head moderate; snout rather obtuse. Nasals swollen, the lower 
usually in contact with the rostral ; frontonasal separated from the 
rostral ; two prafrontals (occasionally with a small additional 
median shield); two large supraoculars, with a smaller one in front 
and behind, which are frequently broken up into small scales or 
granules ; the length of the first principal supraocular equals or 
exceeds its distance from the loreal ; the supraoculars usually in 
contact with the frontal ; interparietal small ; no occipital ; 
temporal scales granular, smooth ; no auricular denticulation ; 
lower eyelid scaly ; subocular bordering the lip, usually between 
the sixth and seventh upper labials ; the two or three first labials 
in contact with the lower nasal. A more or less distinct transverse 
gular fold, connecting the ears ; collar slightly curved, perfectly 
free, with 9 to 11 plates. Dorsal scales granular, round, juxtaposed, 
perfectly smooth, 50 to 65 across the middle of the body. Ventral 
plates forming more or less regular oblique longitudinal, and 
slightly angular transverse series ; the longest transverse series 
contain 14 or 16 plates, which are as long as broad or a little 
longer than broad. Praeanal scales usually small and irregular, 
sometimes with a much enlarged posterior shield. The adpressed 
hind limb usually reaches the collar, or between the latter and the 
ear, in some female specimens not beyond the axil ; foot as long as 
the distance between the arm and the centre of the eye, or the 
anterior border of the orbit; an outer series of large subtibial 
shields, which are more than thrice the size of the others. 17 to 
25 femoral pores on each side, the two series sometimes nearly 
meeting in the middle. Tail once and a half to twice as long as 
head and body; upper caudal scales, at the base, more or le^s 
distinctly keeled, or smooth ; basal subcaudals smooth. Young 
blackish above, with whitish longitudinal lines along the back, and 
round whitish spots on the sides and limbs ; these markings usually 
disappear more or less completely in the adult, which are greyish 
or brownish, spotted or longitudinally streaked with black, with or 
without round whitish spots on the back, sides, and limbs ; some- 
times a series of large blue and black ocelli on each side; lower 
surface white, tail pink in the young. 



8CAPTEIBA. 179 

From snout to vent 2'8 inches ; tail 5. 

Hab. Southern Bussia, Transcaucasia, Turkestan, Persia, 
Baluchistan, Afghanistan. 

201. Eremias fasciata. 

Eremias fasciata, Blanf. A. M. N. H. (4) xiv, 1874, p. 32 j id. Zool. 
E. Persia, p. 374, pi. xxv, fig. 3 j Boukng. 1. c. p. 99. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, but smaller and more slender. 
Head-shields and temporal granules flatter ; supraoculars fre- 
quently bordered internally by a series of granules ; lower nasal 
constantly resting on the three anterior labials ; subocular between 
the sixth and seventh labials ; 45 to 50 dorsal scales across the 
middle of the body. The adpressed hind limb reaches the collar in 
the female, slightly beyond the ear in the male ; the length of the 
foot equals the distance from the collar-fold to the nostril or the 
end of the snout. 16 to 19 femoral pores on each thigh. Upper 
caudal scales distinctly but obtusely keeled. Body pale brown to 
white above, with from six to eight longitudinal dark-brown bands 
as wide as the interspaces between them ; limbs dark brown, with 
large round white spots ; lower parts white. 

From snout to vent 2 inches. 

Hab. Southern Persia and Baluchistan. 



Genus SCAPTEIRA. 
Wiegmann, Herp. Hex. p. 9, 1834. 

Head-shields normal. Nostril pierced between three nasals. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Collar distinct. Dorsal scales small ; ventral 
shields feebly imbricate, smooth. Digits compressed or depressed, 
smooth or keeled beneath, fringed laterally. Femoral pores. Tail 
cylindrical. 

9 species are known, which are confined to the desert districts of 
Central Asia and South Africa. The following species has recently 
been discovered in Northern Baluchistan. 

202. Scapteira acutirostris. 

Scapteira acutirostris, Boukng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 114, and Tr. Linn. 
Soc. (2) v, 1889, p. 100, pi. ix, fig. 4. 

Snout conical, acutely pointed ; loreal region nearly vertical. 
Nasals slightly swollen, lower not reaching the rostral, upper 
forming a long median suture ; frontal grooved anteriorly ; three 
large supraoculars, forming sutures with one another, the first in 
contact with the first supraciliary, the second loreal, the praefrontal, 
and the frontal ; second and third supraoculars separated from the 
supraciliaries and from the frontal by a series of granules ; two or 





180 SCINCIDJE. 

three minute granules between the first and second supraoculars ; a 
small band-like posterior supraocular, separated from the others by 
granules; interparietal pentagonal; no occipital; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal ; no enlarged scales on the outer 
border of the parietals ; temporal scales granular, smooth ; no 
auricular denticulation ; subocular not reaching the lip, resting on 
the fifth, sixth, and seventh upper labials ; the three anterior pairs 
of chin-shields in contact. Collar straight, the marginal scales 
feebly enlarged. Dorsal scales minutely granular, smooth, equal. 
Ventrals equilateral or longer than broad, in oblique longitudinal 
series ; 35 transverse series, the longest of which contain about 
20 plates. A very large preeanal plate, about twice as broad as 
long. The adpressed hind limb reaches the posterior border of the 
orbit ; foot as long as the distance between the arm and the 
anterior loreal ; digits flattened, smooth or distinctly keeled 
beneath, strongly fringed laterally ; the ungual lamellae much en- 
larged, forming a suboval disk ; a series of large transverse subtibial 
shields. 15-17 femoral pore?. Upper caudal scales feebly keeled. 
Sand-coloured above, with blackish network ; head with symmetrical 
black markings ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 1'3 inches (young). 

Hob. A single specimen was obtained betweeu Nushki and the 
Helmand, in Northern Baluchistan. 



Family VII. SCINCIOE. 

Skull with bony postorbital and postfronto-squarnosal arches ; 
prsemaxillaries distinct ; nasals distinct ; parietal single ; a fibro- 
cartilaginous interorbital septum ; a columella cranii. Skull with 
bony dermal plates, roofing over the supratemporal fossae. Dentition 
pleurodont. Clavicle dilated, usually perforated proximally ; inter- 
clavicle unciform. Tongue flat, bifid behind, nicked in front, covered 
with rhomboidal scale-like papilte. Limbs more or less developed, 
or absent. Tail usually long, fragile. Pupil round. No femoral 
pores. Body protected by bony plates underlying the scales, which 
are cycloid-hexagonal, rhomboidal, imbricate, arranged quincun- 
cially ; the bony plates provided with symmetrical tubules, which 
usually consist of a transverse one anastomosing with several 
longitudinal ones, 

Scincoids are cosmopolitan, the bulk occurring in Australia, the 
islands of the Pacific, the East Indies, and Africa. They are, as 
far as we know, ovoviviparous, with the exception of Mabuia 
macularia, which, according to Theobald, is oviparous. 

This family includes terrestrial and arboreal forms. The limbs are 
often rudimentary or absent, but there is every possible gradation 
in their development ; series of species united in one genus often 
showing a complete passage from a well-developed pentadactyle 
limb to a rudiment not distinguishable externally. 



181 





Fig. 54. Upper and side view of head of Mabuia mulfifasciata, to explain the 
nomenclature of the shields. 



cs. Chin-shields. 
/. Frontal. 
/. Frontonasal. 
fp. Frontoparietal. 
ip. Interparietal. 
/. Loreals. 
la. Upper labials. 


la'. Lower labials. 
m. Mental. 
n. Nasal. 
n'. Nuchal. 
p. Parietal. 
pf. Prrefrontal. 


pn. Postnasal. 
r. Rostral. 
sbo. Subocular. 
so. Supraciliaries. 
sn. Supranasal. 
so. Supraocular. 



182 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Genera. 

A. Palatine bones in contact on median line of 

palate (fig. 55, b Sf c). 

a. Tympanum, if distinct, more or less sunk. 
a'. Eyelids movable; claws not retrac- 
tile; pterygoid bones separated on 
median line of palate, palatal notch 
extending anteriorly to an imaginary 

line connecting centres of eyes (fig. b) MABUIA, p. 183. 

b'. Eyelids movable; claws not retrac- 
tile ; palatal notch not extending to 
between centres of eyes (fig. c) .... 

c'. Eyelids immovable, transparent, cover- 
ing eve 

d'. Eyelids movable ; claws retractile into 
a sheath 

b. Tympanum exposed and superficial .... 

B. Palatine bones separated on median line 



LYGOSOMA, p. 192. 
ABLEPHARUS, p. 213. 

RISTELLA, p. 214. 
TROPIDOPHORUS, p. 217. 



(fig. a). 
. No 



ostril pierced in nasal, or between nasal 

and supranasal. 

a'. Limbs pentadactyle, not denticulated. 

b'. Limbs pentadactyle, denticulated 

laterally ...................... 

c'. Limbs rudimentary .............. 

b. Nostril pierced between rostral and a 

very small nasal, or between rostral 
and first labial. 

a'. Nostril pierced between rostral and a 
very small nasal, in an emargination 
of the former shield ; limbs deve- 
loped .......................... 

V. Nostril pierced between rostral, nasal, 
and first labial ; no limbs ........ 

c. Nostril pierced in rostral. 

a'. Nostril close to posterior border of 
rostral ........................ 

b'. Nostril pierced in the very large ros- 
tral, with posterior border of which 
it is connected by a horizontal suture. 



EUMECES, p. 218. 

SCINCUS, p. 220. 
OPHIOMORTTS, p. 221. 



CHALCIDES, p. 223. 
SEPOPHIS, p. 225. 

CHALCIDOSEPS, p. 226. 
ACONTIAS, p. 226. 




MABUIA. 183 

Genus MABUIA, 
Fitzinger, N. Classif. Kept. p. 23, 1826. 

Palatine bones in contact mesially; palatal notch separating 
entirely the pterygoids, extending forward to between the centres 
of the eyes (see fig. 6, p. 182) ; pterygoid teeth minute or absent. 
Maxillary teeth conical or bicuspid. Eyelids movable. Ear distinct ; 
tympanum more or less deeply sunk. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; suprauasals, praef rentals, and frontoparietal present ; single 
or double interparietal usually distinct, sometimes coalesced with 
the parietal s. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle. Digits sub- 
cylindrical or compressed, with transverse lamellae beneath. 

Distribution. Africa and Madagascar ; Southern Asia ; Central 
and South America and West Indies. 66 species are known. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Lower eyelid with an undivided, more 

or less transparent disk. 

a. 28 to 30 scales round middle of body j 

dorsals with 5 to 7 sharp keels. . . . M. bibronii, p. 184. 

b. 34 scales round body; dorsals with 

7 or 9 sharp keels, 2 of which are 

stronger than the others M . doria, p. 184. 

c. 34 to 36 scales round body, dorsals 

strongly hicarinate M. dissimilis, p. 185. 

cl. 34 to 38 scales round body, dorsals 

feebly tricariuate or almost smooth. M. septemtceniata, 185. 
e. 32 to 34 scales round body, dorsals 

quinquecarinate M. innotata, p. 186. 

B. Lower eyelid scaly, or the transparent 

disk divided into two or more parts. 

a. Dorsal scales with 9 keels M. novemcarinata, p. 187. 

b. Dorsal scales with 3, 5, or 7 keels. 
a'. No postnasal. 

". Subdigital lamellae keeled M. beddomii, p. 187. 

b", Subdigital lamellae smooth. 
a. 34 to 36 scales round body, 

dorsals with 3 or 5 keels ; 

suprauasals in contact behind 

rostral ; three light, black- 
edged dorsal bands M. vertebralis, p. 188. 

j3. 30 to 34 scales round body, 

dorsals with 3 or 5 keels; 

supranasals rarely in con- 
tact ; six supraciliaries ; a 

light dorso-lateral band .... M. carinata, p. 188. 
y. 26 to 30 scales round body. 

dorsals with 5 or 7 keels; 

five supraciliaries ; anterior 

loreal deeper than second . . M. mactdaria, p. 189. 
8. 26 scales round body, dorsals 

and laterals very strongly 5- 

keeled ; anterior loreal not 

deeper than second M. ruffifera, p. 190. 



184 SCINCIDJE. 

b'. A postnasal, separated from the 
nasal by a suture just behind 
nostril ; dorsal scales tricarinate. 
a". 30 to 34 scales round body .... M. multifasciata, p. 191. 

b". 26 scales round body M. tytleri, p. 191. 

c. Dorsal scales 4-keeled M. quadricarinata, p. 192. 

203. Mabuia bibronii. 

Tiliqua bibronii, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1838, p. 290. 

Euprepis trilineatus, Gray, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1846, p. 430; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 81 ; Theob. Cat. p. 52. 
Mabuia bibronii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 173. 

Snout short, obtusely pointed. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial ; a postnasal ; anterior loreal not or 
but slightly in contact with the first labial ; frontonasal a little 
broader than long, usually in contact with the rostral and the 
frontal ; the latter longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the second supraocular only ; 4 supra- 
oculars, second very large ; normally 5 supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, usually longer than the interparietal ; parietals 
very short, entirely separated, transversely bisected ; two pairs of 
nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth upper labials, twice 
as long as these shields, not narrowed inferiorly. Ear-opening 
small, oval, with two long pointed lobules, upper largest. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales with from 5 to 7 sharp keels ; 28 to 30 
scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind 
limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. 
Subdigital lamellas smooth. Tail 1| or lj times length of head 
and body. Olive above ; a yellowish vertebral band, broadly edged 
with black, beginning on the vertex, sometimes indistinct on the 
hinder part of the body, which may be spotted with yellowish ; a 
black dorso-lateral band, beginning from the eye, edged below by a 
whitish narrower band, which is again edged with black ; sometimes 
a second light band, extending from axilla to groin. Lower surfaces 
whitish. 

From snout to vent 1*75 inches ; tail 2*25. 

Hob. Carnatic. 

204. Mabuia doriae. 
Mabuia doriae, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 174, pi. x,fig. 4. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; a postuasal ; anterior loreal just touch- 
ing the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal broader than long, in contact with the frontal ; the latter 
longer than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact 
with the second supraocular only ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 
7 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, about as large as the 
interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of 
nuchals ; subocular between the fourth and fifth upper labials, not 



MABUIA. 185 

twice as long as these shields, not narrowed below. Ear-opening 
a little smaller than eye-opening, with 2 or 3 long pointed lobules, 
upper largest. Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales with 7 or 9 sharp 
keels, two of which are stronger than the others ; 34 scales round 
the middle of the body, dorsals largest. The hind limb reaches the 
wrist of the ad pressed fore limb. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Pale 
olive above, with 4 longitudinal series of small blackish spots on 
the body ; a broad blackish-brown lateral band beginning from the 
nostril and passing through the eye ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches. 

Sab. Menhla, Upper Burma. 

205. Mabuia dissimilis. 

Tiliqua trivittata, Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, p. 227 ; id. III. Ind. 

Zool. ii, pi. Ixxvi. 
Euprepis dissimilis, Hallow. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (2) xi, 1857, 

p. 78. 
Euprepes monticola, Giinth. Eept. B. I. p. 80, pi. x, fig. C ; Theob.Cat. 

p. 52. 

Euprepes petersi, Steindachn. Novara, Rept. p. 43 ; Theob. 1. c. p. 53. 
Euprepes guentheri, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, p. 123. 
Mabuia dissimilis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 175. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided serai- 
transparent disk. Nostril behind the vertical of the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial ; no postnasal ; anterior loreal in 
contact with the first labial ; supranasals in contact behind the 
rostral; frontonasal broader than long; prsefrontals forming a 
median suture ; frontal in contact with the second supraocular only 
(exceptionally with the first as well) ; 4 supraoculars, second 
largest; 6 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, usually nearly as 
long as the frontal, and larger than the inter parietal, which en- 
tirely separates the parietals; usually no distinct nuchals; 4, sel- 
dom 5, labials anterior to the subocular, which is about twice 
as long as the neighbouring shields and not narrowed below. 
Ear-opening oval, larger than a lateral scale, smaller than the eye- 
opening, with 3 or 4 short pointed lobules anteriorly. Dorsal 
scales strongly bicarinate, nuchals and laterals tricarinate ; 34 to 
36 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The adpressed 
limbs overlap. Toes short ; subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail about 
1| times length of head and body. Olive or brownish above, black- 
spotted, and with 3 more or less distinct light longitudinal streaks, 
the vertebral sometimes absent ; flanks white-spotted ; a short 
horizontal white streak below the eye ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 3| inches ; tail 5J. 

Hob. Plains of Northern India, from Sind to Bengal, also in the 
Western Himalayas (Chamba). 



206. Mabuia septemtaeniata. 

septemtseniatus, Hems, Mus. Senckenb. i, p. 47, pi. iii, 
r. \ ; Blanf. Zool. E. Pwsia, p. 388 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 352. 
Mabuia septemtaeniata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 177. 



Euprepis 

*.!;. 



186 SCINCID.E. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk. Nostril entirely or mainly behind the vertical of the 
suture between the rostral and the first labial ; normally no post- 
nasal ; anterior loreal in contact with the first labial ; supranasals 
in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasals broader than long, in 
contact with the truncated anterior angle of the frontal ; the latter 
shield as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal together, 
or a little longer, in contact with the second, or first and second, 
or second and third supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest and 
but rarely touching the prrefrontal ; 5 (rarely 4 or 6) supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals 2, smaller than the interparietal, which entirely 
separates the parietals ; 1 (or 2) pair of nuchals ; 4 labials anterior 
to the subocular ; latter not narrower beneath, about twice as large 
as the neighbouring labials. Ear-opening oval-subtriangular, about 
as large as a lateral scale, with 2 or 3 minute projecting lobules 
anteriorly. Dorsal scales more or less distinctly tricarinate, some- 
times almost smooth ; the scales on the neck and flanks smooth or 
very feebly keeled ; 34 to 38 scales round the middle of the body ; 
dorsals a little larger than laterals and ventrals. The adpressed 
limbs overlap. Subdigital lamella? smooth or obtusely unicarinate. 
Tail about ] | times as long as head and body. Two bands, lighter 
than the ground-colour, which is brownish or greyish, extend along 
each side, the upper from the supraciliary border, the lower from 
below the eye ; the interspace between these bands dark brown 
with small whitish spots, or irregularly spotted with darker brown ; 
a narrow vertebral zone constantly remains unspotted ; lower sur- 
face uniform whitish. 

From snout to vent 3| inches ; tail 5. 

Hab. Abyssinia, Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, Persia, Sind according 
to Murray. 

207. Mabuia innotata. 

Euprepes innotatus, Blanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 354, pi. xvi, 

fig. 9 ; T/ieob. Cat. p. 52. 
Mabuia innotata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 178. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced behind the vertical of the suture between the 
rostral and the first labial ; nopostnasal ; anterior loreal in contact 
with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than long, in contact with 
the rostral and (not constantly) with the frontal ; latter a little 
shorter than the frontoparietals and interparietal together, in con- 
tact with the second supraocular only ; 4 supraoculars, second 
very large ; 6 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, slightly 
shorter than the interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals - r 
a pair of nuchals ; 4 labials anterior to the subocular, which is at 
least twice as long as the neighbouring labials, and not narrower 
below. Ear-opening triangular, a little larger than a lateral scale, 
with three or four short lobules anteriorly. Nuchal and lateral 
scales mostly feebly tricarinate ; dorsals quinquecarinate ; 34 (or 
32) scales round the middle of the body. The hind limb readies 
the wrist of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamella? smooth. 



MABUIA. 187 

Tail about 1| times length of head and body. Bronzy olive above, 
sides dark brown ; a light, black-edged streak on each side, from 
the praefrontal and along the supraciliaries to the anterior third of 
the back, where it gradually disappears ; a light streak from below 
the eye to the shoulder ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 2-2 inches ; tail 3'75. 

Hob. Penganga Valley, S.E. Berdr. 

208. Mabuia novemcarinata. 

Euprepes novemcarinatus, Anders. J. A. S. E. xl, 1871, p. 12 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 51. 
Mabuia novemcarinata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 179. 

" Supranasals forming a suture behind the rostral. Eyelid scaly. 
Prsefrontals and vertical (frontal) meet in a point. Seven upper 
labials, the fifth the longest. Ear obliquely oval, with two or three 
strong prominent denticulations ; 32 longitudinal lines of scales 
round the body and 42 transverse lines between the axils. Scales 
with 9 keels, the 3 central ones strongly marked. The fore limb 
reaches to the anterior angle of the eye ; hind limb as long as two 
thirds of the distance between the axils. Above olive-brown, with 
4 or 5 narrow longitudinal black lines along the back. A deep brown 
band from the nostril through the eye and above the ear, along 
the side and on to the base of the tail, with a moderately [?] white 
band above far over the supercilium along the side of the back ; 
another through the upper labials and ear to the shoulder, where 
it changes into the pale greenish yellow of the side. A very faint 
broken blackish line from the angle of the mouth to the shoulder, 
and three or four from behind the fore limb along the side of the 
belly. Limbs with 5 longitudinal black lines with scattered white 
spots." 

From snout to vent 3*8 inches ; tail 4*3. 

Hob. Mandalay, Burma. 

209. Mabuia beddomii. 

Euprepes beddomii, Jerdon, P. A. S. E. 1870, p. 73 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 52. 
Euprepes (Tiliqua) septemlineatus, Slanford, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, 

p. 360, pi. xvi, figs. 7, 8 ; Theob. I. c. p. 50. 
Mabuia beddomii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 179. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind 
vertical of suture between rostral and first labial ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal deeper and shorter than the second, in contact with 
the first labial ; supra nasals in contact behind the rostral ; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, sometimes in contact with the frontal ; the 
latter usually as long as, or a little shorter than, the frontoparietals 
and interparietal together, sometimes not longer than the fronto- 
parietals, in contact with the second, or rarely first and second, 
supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 6 supraciliaries, first 
longest ; frontoparietals distinct, as long as or longer than the 
interparietal, which usually entirely separates the parietals; a pair 



188 

of nuchals ; 4 labials anterior to the subocular, which is large and 
not narrower below. Ear-opening oval, as large as a lateral scale, 
or a little smaller, with three short pointed lobules anteriorly. 
Dorsal and nuchal scales with 3 or 5 keels, sometimes very feeble ; 
30 to 32 scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The 
adpressed limbs meet or slightly overlap. Subdigital lamellae 
unicarinate. Scales on upper surface of tibia mostly tricarinate. 
Tail If to 24- times the length of head and body. The coloration 
varies considerably, but a lateral black band, edged above and below 
with a whitish streak, is constant. Some (young) specimens black 
above, with seven light longitudinal lines ; others olive-brown with 
four black dorsal streaks, which may not extend further back than 
the nape ; or a light black-edged vertebral band may be present ; 
head-shields spotted or variegated with black ; limbs and tail 
rufous ; lower surfaces white. 

From snout to vent 2'2 inches ; tail 4*75. 

Hah. Southern India, Salem, Tinnevelly, Malabar, Mysore, &c., 
the most northern locality known being SiE. Berar. 

210. Mabnia vertebralis. 

Tiliqua trivittata (nun Gray), Jordan, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 478. 

Euprepes trivittatus, Theob. Cat. p. 60. 

Maouia vertebralis, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 180. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind ver- 
tical of suture between rostral and first labial ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal in contact with the first labial, much deeper and 
shorter than the second ; supranasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontonasal broader than long ; prsefrontals forming a short median 
suture ; frontal as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 4 
supraoculars, second largest ; 6 supraciliaries, first largest ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, longer than the interparietal, which entirely 
separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; 4 labials anterior to 
the subocular, which is twice as large as the neighbouring labials, 
and not narrowed below. Ear-opening oval, nearly horizontal, 
with 2 or 3 scarcely projecting lobules. Nuchal and dorsal scales 
with 3 or 5 keels ; 34 or 36 scales round the body, subequal. The 
adpressed hind limb reaches the wrist of the adpressed fore limb. 
Subdigital lamellae smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia mostly 
bicarinate. Tail 1| times length of head and body. Olive-brown 
above, with three pale black-edged longitudinal bands ; a light 
lateral streak from the ear to the tail ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hub. Deccan (Poona, Jalna, Belgaum, and perhaps Nagpur). 

211. Malraia carinata. 

Scincus carinatus, part., Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 183. 
Euprepes rufescens, part., Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 79, pi. x, fig. B. 
Euprepes carinatus, Theob. Cat. p. 49; Murr. Zool. Sind,ip.35l. 
Mabuia carinata, B&uleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 181. 



MABUIA. 189 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind 
vertical of suture between rostral and first labial ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal usually shorter and deeper than the second, in con- 
tact with the first labial ; frontonasal broader than long, usually in 




Fig. 56. Mabuia carinata. 

contact with the rostral, and frequently also with the frontal ; 
latter as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal together or 
shorter, in contact with the second supraocular (rarely also with 
the first) ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; usually 6 supraciliaries, 
first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than the interparietal, 
which entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; 4 labials 
anterior to the subocular, which is large and not narrower below. 
Ear-opening roundish, subtriaugular, as large as a lateral scale or 
smaller, without or with a few very indistinct lobules anteriorly. 
Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales more or less strongly tri- or 
quinquecarinate ; 30 to 34 scales round the middle of the body, 
subequal. The hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow of the 
adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Scales on upper 
surface of tibia mostly bicarinate. Tail 1 5 to If times length of 
head and body. Brown or olive-brown above, uniform or with 
small black spots or longitudinal lines ; sides darker, with or without 
lighter spots ; a light dorso-lateral band begins on the supraciliaries ; 
lower surfaces yellowish (in spirit). In the breeding-season males 
have a scarlet band from the shoulder to the thigh. 

From snout to vent 5 inches ; tail 9'5. 

Hob. India, Ceylon, Burma ; very common. 



212, Mabuia macularia. 

Euprepes macularius, Blyth, J. A. <S. E. xxii, 1853, p. 652; Theob. 

Cat. p. 49 ; Mwr. Zool. Sind, p. 351. 
Tiliqua multicarinata (non Gray), Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, 

p. 479, footnote. 
Euprepes rufesceiis, part., Gilnth. Hept. B. I. p. 79. 



190 SCINCID.E. 

Euprepes brevis, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 225. 

Euprepes subunicolor, Blcmf. J. A. S. B. xlviii. 1879, p. 112. 

Mabuia macularia, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 182. 

Mabuia brevis, Bouleng. 1. c. p. 183, pi. xi, fig. 1. 

Snout short, obtusely keeled, acuminate. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril behind vertical of suture between rostral and first labial ; 
no postnasal ; anterior loreal deeper and shorter than second ; 
frontonasal as long as broad or a little broader than long, in con- 
tact with the rostral and usually also with the frontal; latter as 
long as the frontoparietals and interparietal together or a little 
longer, in contact with the second, or first and second, supra- 
oculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 5 supraciliaries, third long- 
est ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than the interparietal, which 
entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of nuchals ; 4, exceptionally 
3, labials anterior to the subocular, which is large and not narrowed 
below. Ear-opening oval, as large as a lateral scale, or a little 
smaller, with or without a few very indistinct lobules anteriorly. 
Dorsal, nuchal, and lateral scales with 5 to 7 sharp keels ; 26 to 30 
scales round the middle of the body, subequal. The adpressed 
limbs meet or overlap. Digits short ; subdigital Iamella3 smooth. 
Scales on upper surface of tibia mostly bicarinate. Tail 1| to 1| 
times the length of head and body. Brown or olive-brown above, 
sides darker and usually with white black-edged spots ; back 
uniform, or black-spotted, or with one or two black longitudinal 
lines ; sometimes two light lateral lines on each side, well marked 
only on the neck ; lower surfaces yellowish (in spirit). 

From snout to vent 2'5 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hab. Ceylon, Peninsular India, Cutch, Sind, Bengal, Burma, 
Indo-China. 

This species is stated by Theobald to be oviparous, whilst its 
close ally M. carinata is, like most Scincoids, viviparous. 



213. Mabuia rngifera. 

Tiliqua rugifera, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 170, pi. x, 

fig. 3 ; Thcob. Cat. p. viii. 
Mabuia rugifera, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 184. 

Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind 
vertical of suture between rostral and first labial ; no postnasal ; 
anterior loreal not deeper but much smaller than second; fronto- 
nasal broader than long, largely in contact with the rostral and 
with the frontal ; the latter shield longer than the frontoparietals 
and iuterparietal together, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 6 supraciliaries, first 
largest ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than the interparietal ; a 
pair of nuchals ; 5 (or 4) labials anterior to the subocular, which 
is large and not narrower below. Ear-opening very small, oval, 
horizontal, with projecting granules round its border. Dorsal, 
nuchal, and lateral scales very strongly quinquecarinate ; 26 scales 



MABUIA. 191 

round the body, of which 8 or 10 are smooth. The hind limb 
reaches the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamellae 
smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia bicarinate. Tail 1| the 
length of head and body. Dark olive-brown above, greenish-white 
inferiorly. 

From snout to vent 2*5 inches ; tail 4'5. 

Hob. Nicobars, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 

214. Mabuia nmltifasciata. 

Scincus carinatus, part., Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 183. 
Scincus multifasciatus, Kuhl, Beitr, z. Zool. u. vergl. Anat. p. 126. 
Tiliqua rubriventris, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxv, fig. 1. 
Euprepes ruf'escens, Cantor, J. A. S. JB. xvi, 1847, p. 052 ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 79 (part.). 

Plestrodon sikkimensis, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 388. 
Euprepes carinatus, part., Theob. Cat. p. 49. 
Mabuia multifasciata, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 186. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind 
vertical of the suture between rostral and first labial ; a postnasal ; 
anterior loreal not deeper than the second, in contact with the 
first labial ; supranasals frequently in contact behind rostral ; 
froutonasal broader than long ; praefrontals constantly forming a 
median suture ; frontal as long as or shorter than the frontoparietals 
and iuterparietal together, in contact with the second (rarely also 
with the first) supraocular : 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 6 
supraciliaries, first largest ; frontoparietals distinct, larger than 
the interparietal, which entirely separates the parietals ; a pair of 
nuchals ; 4 labials anterior to the subocular, which is large and 
not narrower below. Ear-opening roundish or oval, as large as 
a lateral scale, or a little smaller, with or without a few very 
small lobules anteriorly. Dorsal scales more or less distinctly tri- 
( rarely quinque-) carinate ; nuchals and laterals usually very feebly 
keeled, sometimes smooth ; 30 to 34 scales round the middle of 
the body, subequal or dorsals largest. The hind limb reaches the 
wrist or the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamellae 
smooth. Scales on upper surface of tibia mostly tricarinate. Tail 
1^ to If times length of head and body. Brown or olive above ; 
some specimens uniform, or with a large whitish (red) patch on 
each side ; back frequently with small black spots, sometimes con- 
fluent into longitudinal lines ; sides frequently dark brown, with 
whitish, black-edged ocelli ; a well-defined light dorso-lateral band 
seldom present ; lower surfaces yellowish or greenish white. 
From snout to vent 5 inches ; tail 8. 

Hab. Sikhim (?), Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula and Archi- 
pelago. 



215. Mabuia tytleri. 

Tiliqua rufescens, part., Theobald, Cat. Sept. As. Soc. Mus. p : 23. 
part., Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. : 
ivuleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 187. 



Tiliqua carinata, part., Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 
Mabuia tytleri, 01 ' ~ ' TV * now 



192 SCINCLD^E. 

From what can be gathered from the short remarks of Theobald 
and Stoliczka, the Andamans Mabuia is surely distinct from the 
other species of the genus. It is said to have only 26 scales round 
the body, the dorsals feebly tricarinate, the middle keel being 
weaker than the lateral ones. The supranasals are in contact 
behind the rostral. Above uniform, somewhat pale brown, paler 
on the sides towards the belly, and with a few indistinct darker 
spots ; limbs spotted with white and dark brown ; below yellowish 
white; tail leaden grey. 

From snout to vent about 8 inches ; tail about 12. 

Hob. Andaman Islands. 

216. Mabuia quadricarinata. 

Mabuia quadricarinata, Bouleng. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) iv, 1887, 
p. 618. 

Snout moderate, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril behind 
vertical of suture between rostral and first labial ; a postnasal ; 
anterior loreal not or but very slightly deeper than the second, in 
contact with the second labial only ; rostral forming a suture with 
the f rontonasal ; praefrontals forming a median suture; frontal as 
long as frontoparietals and interparietal together or a little shorter, 
in contact with the second supraocular ; 4 supraoculars, second 
largest ; 6 supraciliaries, second and third longest ; frontoparietals 
distinct, as large as or a little larger than the interparietal, behind 
which the parietals form a median suture ; a pair of nuchals; 3 or 4 
labials anterior to the subocular, which is large and not narrowed 
below. Ear-opening roundish, a little smaller than a lateral scale, 
without distinct lobules. Dorsal scales strongly quadricariuate, 
nuchals mostly tri- or quinquecarinate ; 26 to 28 scales round the 
middle of the body, subequal. The hind limb reaches the wrist or 
the elbow of the adpressed fore limb. Subdigital lamellae smooth. 
Scales on upper surface of hind limb bicarinate. Tail nearly twice 
as long as head and body. Olive above, with small black spots ; 
a whitish streak, edged with black above, from below the eye to the 
ear ; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 3*5. 

Hob. Kakhyen Hills. 

Genus LYGOSOMA, 
Gray, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827, p. 228. 

Palatine bones in contact mesially ; pterygoid bones also in con- 
tact anteriorly, the palatal notch not extending forwards to between 
the centres of the eyes (see fig. c, p. 182) ; pterygoid teeth minute 
or absent. Maxillary teeth conical or obtuse. Eyelids well deve- 
loped. Ear distinct (or hidden) ; if distinct, tympanum more or less 
sunk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; supranasal present or absent. 
Limbs more or less developed (or absent). 



LTGOSOMA. 



193 



Of all lieptilian genera this contains the most species, the number 
amounting already to 166. They are represented in every part 
of the World, Europe excepted, attaining their greatest number 
and variety of form in the Australian Eegion. 

Synopsis of Indian, C'eylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle; 
length of hind lirnb exceeds distance 
between centre of eye and fore limb ; 
lower eyelid scaly. 

a. No supranasals ; dorsal scales smooth. 
'. Four large supraoculars ; rostral con- 



". 36 to 38 scales round middle of 

body , 

b". 30 to 32 scales round body 

b'. Five large supraoculars ; rostral flat 

or concave above ; 38 to 40 scales 

round middle of body. 

a". The hind limb, stretched forwards, 

does not reach beyond axilla .... 

b". The hind limb reaches shoulder or 

beyond 

b. Supranasals present ; dorsal scales 
keeled ; 28 to 30 scales round body. . 
B. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; 
length of hind limb exceeds distance 
between centre of eye and fore limb ; 
lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk ; no supranasals. 
a. llostral forming a straight suture with 

frontonasal. 

a'. Frontoparietals two. 
a". No enlarged nuchals. 

a. 30 scales round middle of body ; 
frontonasal in contact with 

frontal 

/3. 34 to 36 scales round body ; prse- 
frontals forming a median su- 
ture 

b". Two to live pairs of enlarged 

nuchals. 

a. Ear-opening smaller than trans- 
parent palpebral disk; 22 to 24 
scales round middle of body .... 
8. 26 or more scales round body, 
a'. 26 to 30 scales round body ; 
16 to 18 lamellae under fourth 
toe ; ear-opening about as 
large as transparent palpebral 

disk 

/3'. 26 to 28 scales round body ; 
16 to 18 lamelloe under fourth 
toe ear-opening considerably 
larger than transparent pal- 
pebral disk 



L. indieum, p. 195. 
L. zebratum, p. 19o. 



L. maeulatum, p. 196. 
L, dussumieri) p. 197. 
L. olivaceum, p. 197. 



L. kakhienense, p. 198. 
L. melanostictwn, p. 199. 

L. sikkimense, p. 199. 
L. himalayanum, p. 200. 



L. dona,]*. 201. 
o 



] 94 8CTNCIDJE. 

y '. 32 to 38 scales round body . . L. ladacense, p. 201. 
8'. 26 to 28 scales round body ; 
21 to 2o lamellae under 

fourth toe L. laterimaculatum t \>.202. 

y, 20 to 24 scales round body ; ear- 
opening larger than transparent 
palpebral disk, 
a'. Enlarged praeanala much 

longer than oroad L. bilineatum, p. 202. 

;3'. Enlarged praanals not much 

longer than broad L. beddomii, p. 203. 

b'. Frontoparietal single ; 22 to 24 scales 

round body. 
". Ear-opening much, smaller than 

eye-opening L. tracatieoricum, p. 204. 

b". Ear-opening very large L.macrvtympanun^-p.VM. 

b. Posterior border of rostral convex and 
forming a curved suture with fronto- 

nasal L. inacrolis, p. 205. 

C. Limbs -weak. 

a. Lower eyelid scaly ; no supranasals ; 24 

or 26 scales round body. 

a'. Frontoparietals two L. taprobanense, p. 206. 

V. Frontoparietal single L.fnllax, p. 206. 

b. Lower eyelid scaly ; supranasals present. 



a'. Frontoparietal single ; 24 or 26 scales 
round body . . 



body L. lineolfitum, p. 207 

/. Frontoparietals two ; 26 or 28 scales 

round body. 
a". Ear-opening hardly as large as 



pupil ; hind limb half as long as 
distance 



listance between axilla and groin. L. comotti, p. 207. 
b". Ear-opening oval, larger than 
pupil ; hind limb measuring less 
than half distance between axilla 

and groin L. albopunctatum, p. 208. 

i. Lower eyelid with an undivided trans- 
parent disk ; supranasals present. 
a'. 24 or 26 scales round body ; fronto- 

parietals two. 

a". Distance between end of snout and 
fore limb contained 2-2^ times 
in distance between axilla and 

groin L. punctatum, p. 208. 

b". Distance between end of snout and 
fore limb contained about 3 times 
in distance between axilla and 

groin L. yue-ntheri, p. 209. 

b'. 22 scales round body. 
a". Froutoparietals two. 

a. The fore limb reaches a little 
beyond the ear ; 4th toe a little 
longer than 3rd. 

a'. Distance between end of 
snout and fore limb contained 
twice in distance between 
axilla and groin L. fees, p. 210. 



LTGOSOMA. 195 

/3'. Distance between end of snout 
and fore limb contained at 
least twice and a half in dis- 
tance between axilla and 

groin L. cyanellum, p. 210. 

/3. Fore limb does not reach ear ; 

3rd and 4th toes equal L. anffuinum, p. 211. 

b". Frontoparietal single. 

a. Hind limb with 5 toes L. calamus, p. 211. 

(3. Hind limb with 4 toes L. lineatum, p. 212. 

217. Lygosoma indicum. 

Ilinulia indica, Gray, A.M.N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 388; Theob. Cat. 

p. 54. 

Eumeces indicus, part., Giinth. Hept. B. I. p. 89. 
Lygosoma indicum, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 241, pi. xvi. fig. 1. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb contained 1 to lj? times in the distance be- 
tween axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse; loreal region nearly 
vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal, or 
between a nasal and a postnasal ; no snpranasal : rostral convex, 
largely in contact with the frontonasal, which is broader than long, 
and forms a narrow suture with the frontal ; the latter as long as 
frontoparietal and parietals together, in contact with the first, 
second, and third supraoculars ; 4 large supraoculars, followed by 
2 very small ones ; first supraocular not much longer than second ; 
9 or iO supraciliaries, first largest ; froutoparietals and interparie- 
tal distinct, former a little longer than latter ; parietals forming a 
short suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth and sixth 
upper labials largest and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller 
than eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 36 or 38 smooth scales 
round the middle of the body, laterals smallest. A pair of large 
prsoanals. When the limbs are pressed against the body, the hind 
limb reaches the elbow or not quite so far. Digits rather elongate, 
compressed ; subdigital lamellae smooth or obtusely keeled, 17 to 
20 under the fourth toe. Tail almost twice as long as head and 
body. Brown or olive above, uniform or with scattered darker 
dots ; sides of head and body dark brown, light-margined above ; 
usually with large light spots ; lower surface whitish. 

From snout to vent 3*5 inches ; tail 6. 

Hab. Eastern Himalayas (common at Darjeeling), hills of Assam 
and Burma. 

218. Lygosoma zebratum. 

Lygosoma zebratum, Bottlenff. Ann. Mus, Genova, (2) v. 1887, p. 478, 
pi. vii. fig. 1. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between the end of the snout 
and the fore limb contained 1| to If times in the distance be- 
tween axilla and groin in the adult, scarcely more than once in the 
young. Snout short, obtuse ; loreal region nearly vertical. Lower 

o2 



196 SCINCIDJS. 

eyelid scaly. Nostril pieced between a nasal and a postnasal ; no 
supranasal ; rostral convex, forming a suture with the frontonasal, 
which is broader than long and forms a narrow suture with the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as f rontoparietals and parietals 
together, in contact with the first and second, or first, second, and 
third supraoculars ; four large supraoculars, followed by two very 
small ones ; first supraocular longer than second ; 10 or 11 supra- 
ciliaries, first largest ; froutoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
subequal, or former a little larger than latter ; parietals forming a 
short suture behind the interparietal ; enlarged iiuchals absent or 
one pair only present ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest and below 
the eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye-opening ; no auri- 
cular lobules. 30 or 32 smooth scales round the middle of the body, 
laterals very slightly smaller than dorsals. A pair of large praeanals. 
The adpressed limbs meet, or the hind limb reaches the wrist in 
the adult ; the hind limb reaches the axilla in the young. Digits 
rather elongate, compressed ; subdigital lamellae smooth or obtusely 
keeled, 20 to 22 under the fourth toe. Tail 1| to If times length 
of head and body. Brown or bronzy above, uniform, with a 
broad dark brown or black lateral baud, below which the lips and 
sides of the neck and body are ornamented with alternately dark 
and light vertical bars ; these markings most distinct in the young ; 
usually a black line or series of black spots along the upper surface 
of the tail ; lower surface uniform whitish. 

Prom snout to vent 3*5 inches. 

Hal. Hills of Northern Tenasserim (Mount Muleyit, Pla-pu, 
3300 to 3600 feet). 

219. Lygosoma inaculatum. 

Lissonota maculata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 653. 
Mabouia maculata, Giinth. Kept. B. I, p. 84. 
llinulia maculata, Theob. Cat, p. 55. 
Eumeces indicus, part., Giinth, 1. c. p. 89. 
Lygosoma maculatum, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 242. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
equals \\ to 1^ times distance between axilla and groin. Snout 
short, obtuse ; loreal region nearly vertical. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasals ; rostral per- 
fectly flat or a little concave above, largely in contact with the 
frontonasal, which is broader than long, and forms a narrow 
suture with the frontal; latter as long as frontoparietals and 
parietals together, in contact with the two or three anterior 
supraoculars; 5 large supraoculars, first much longer than second, 
fifth smallest; 9 or 10 supraciliaries, first and last largest; fronto- 
parietals and iuterparietal distinct, former a little longer than 
latter ; parietals forming a short suture behind the interparietal ; 
no nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest and below the 
eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye-opening ; no auri- 
cular lobules. 38 or 40 smooth scales round the middle of the 
body; dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of large prseanals. 



LYGOSOMA. 197 

The hind limb reaches the elbow or the axilla. Digits long, 
compressed: subdigital lamella) feebly unicarinate, 16 to 21 under 
the fourth toe. Tail almost twice as long as head and body. Brown 
or olive-brown above, usually with two dorsal series of small dark 
brown spots ; a dark brown lateral band, usually spotted with 
whitish and edged below with white, extends from the nostril to 
the tail, passing through the eye and above the ear; flanks white- 
spotted ; lower surface white. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches ; tail 4-5. 

Nab. Eastern Himalayas (Sikhim), Northern Bengal, Assam, 
Burma to Mergui, Andaman Islands. 



220. Lygosoma dussumieri. 

Lygosoma dussumierii,.D?OH. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. v, p. 725; Boukng. 

Cat. Liz. iii, p. 243. 
Ilinulia dussumierii, Theob. Cat. p. 55. 

Habit lacertiforrn ; distance between end of snout and fore 
limb contained 1 to 1\ times in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse ; loreal region concave. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; rostral flat or a 
little concave above, largely in contact with the frontonasal, which 
is broader than long and sometimes in contact with the frontal ; 
praefrontals sometimes forming a median suture ; frontal as long 
as frontoparietals and parietals together, in contact with the 
three (or two) anterior supraoculars ; 5 large supraoculars, first 
two sometimes fused into a single shield, first much longer than 
second; a very small posterior supraocular; 11 to 13 supraciliaries, 
first and last largest ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
subequal in length ; parietals forming a short suture behind the 
interparietal ; no nuchals ; fifth and sixth upper labials largest 
and below the eye. Ear-opening oval, smaller than the eye-open- 
ing ; no auricular lobules. 40 smooth scales round the middle of 
the body, laterals smallest. A pair of large praeanals. The hind 
limb reaches the shoulder or the ear. Digits long, compressed ; 
subdigital lamellae unicarinate, 22 or 23 under the fourth toe. 
Tail almost twice as long as head and body. Pale olive above 
with small light spots or a series of dark brown spots along each 
side of the back : a broad dark brown lateral baud, involving the 
upper half of the ear, edged above and below with a light streak ; 
tail reddish ; lower surface of head and body greenish white. 

From snout to vent 2'3 inches ; tail 4-3. 

If(tb. Malabar. 



221. Lygosoma olivaceum. 

Dasia olivacea, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1838, p. 331. 
Euprepes ernestii, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. G&n. v, p. 690 : Cantor, J. A. 
S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 653. 



198 SCINCID.S:. 

Euprepes olivaceus, Giintk. Kept. B. I. p. 80, pi. x, tig. D ; Theab. 

Cat. p. 61. 
Lygosoma olivaceum, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 251. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore 
limb contained li to 1| times in the distance between axilla and 
groin. Snout rather elongate, obtusely acuminate, much depressed. 
Lower eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in the middle of a small 
nasal ; a supranasal, rarely in contact with its fellow ; frontonasal 
broader than long, usually in contact with the rostral, and fre- 
quently also with the frontal ; latter as long as the frontoparietals 
and parietals together or a little longer, in contact with the 
first and second, or first, second, and third supraoculars ; 4 supra- 
oculars, subequal in length ; 7 or 8 supraciliaries, first largest ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, latter as large as former 
or a little smaller, and entirely separating the parietals ; a 
pair of nuchals ; 4 labials anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening 
very small. 28 or 30 scales round the middle of the body, the 
dorsals and laterals with 3 to 9 more or less strong keels ; nuchal 
scales smooth or indistinctly keeled ; dorsals a little larger than 
ventrals. Praeanals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs feebly 
overlap, the hind limb never reaching beyond the wrist. Digits 
moderately elongate, with strong sharp claws, the basal phalanges 
cyclotetragonal, the distal strongly compressed ; subdigital lamellae 
smooth, 17 to 20 under the fourth toe. Tail about lg times the 
length of the head and body. Young with transverse dark brown 
bands separated by narrow pale olive interspaces : tail brilliant 
scarlet. Adult olive or olive-brow r n above, with more or less 
regular transverse series of pale, dark-edged spots or traces of 
dark cross bands ; a more or less distinct pale dorso-lateral band on 
the posterior part of the body, continued on the tail : lower sur- 
face light green. 

From snout to vent 4*25 inches. 

Hal. Tenasserim and Malay Peninsula, Xicobars, Sumatra, Java, 
Borneo, Philippines. 

222. Lygosoma kakhienense. 

Lygosoma kakhienense, Bouleng. Attn. Mus. Genova, (2) iv, 1887, 
'p. 621. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
15 times in distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril 
pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontouasal broader than 
long, forming a broad suture with the rostral and in contact with 
the anterior angle of the frontal ; latter shield a little shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; four supraoculars, eight supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in si/e : parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no enlarged nuchals ; 



LYGOSOMA. 199 

the suture between the fifth and sixth upper labials falls below 
the centre of the eye. Ear-opening oval, a little smaller than the 
eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 30 smooth, subequal scales 
round the middle of the body. No enlarged praeanals. The 
adpressed limbs slightly overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital 
lamellae smooth, 16 under the fourth toe. Tail about once and a 
half the length of head and body. Pale bronzy olive above, with 
a few black dots ; a lateral series of large black spots, partly con- 
fluent into a band, from above the ear to the base of the tail, 
extending forwards, as a narrow streak, to the nostril, and passing 
through the eye ; flanks and lips with black dots. 

From snout to vent 1'6 inches : tail 2-4. 

Hal. Kakhven Hills. 



223. Lygosoma melanostictum. 

Lygosoma melanostictum, Bouleny. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) v, 1887, 
p. 479, pi. vii, fig. 2. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore 
limb contained l to If times in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
much broader than long, forming a broad suture with the rostral ; 
prsefrontals forming a median suture ; frontal as long as fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars, first longer than second ; 
9 or 10 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, 
subequal in size ; parietals forming a suture behind the inter- 
parietal ; no enlarged nuchals ; the suture between the fifth and 
sixth upper labials falls below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening 
oval, a little smaller than the eye-opening ; no auricular lobules. 
34 or 36 smooth scales round the middle of the body, laterals 
smallest. A pair of slightly enlarged pra?anals. The adpressed 
limbs hardly meet, or slightly overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; 
subdigital lamellae smooth, 17 to 19 under the fourth toe. Tail 
1| to If times the length of head and body. Pale brown or bronzy 
above, with black dots, which are crowded to form a lateral baud 
from the snout to the tail ; lips and flanks whitish or pinkish, 
dotted with black ; lower surface whitish, throat often dotted 
with black. 

From snout to vent 2'3 inches. 

Hal. Hills of Northern Tenasserim, between 3300 and 4000 
feet. 



224. Lygosoma sikkimense. 

Mocoa sikkimensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxli, 18o4, p. 652 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 60. 

Tiliqua schlegelii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 153, pi. xxv, fig. C. 
Eumeces schlegelii, Giinth. Rept. B. 1. p. 86. 



200 SCINCIDJE. 

Mocoa sacra, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 128, pi. iv, fig. 4 
*> Theob. Cat. p. 67. 
Lygosoma sikkimense, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 257. 

Body more or less elongate ; distance between end of snout and 
fore limb contained lg to 2 times in distance between axilla and 
groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral 
and usually also with the frontal ; latter shield as long as fronto- 
parietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 7 or 8 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 2 to 4 pairs of 
nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening small, 
smaller than the palpebral disk, with or without very indistinct 
lobules. 22 or 24 smooth scales round the middle of the body, 
dorsals largest. A pair of large prseanals. The adpressed limbs 
fail to meet, meet, or overlap. Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital 
lamellae smooth, 16 to 19 under the fourth toe. Tail \\ to 1| 
times the length of head and body. Bronzy olive or brown above, 
dark brown on the sides, which are limited above by a blackish 
line ; back with small blackish spots ; sides with small light spots ; 
lower surface whitish. 

Prom snout to vent 1-75 inches ; tail 2*75. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas (Sikhim, 3000-10,000 feet) ; Paresh- 
nsith Hill, Western Bengal. 

225. Lygosoma himalayanum. 

Eumeces himalayanus, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 86, pi. x, fig. H. 
Euprepes blythi, Steind. Novara, Rept. p. 40. 
Mocoa himalayana and M. blythii, Theob. Cat. pp. 57, 50. 
Lygosoma himalaj'anum, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 257, pi. xvii, 
fig. 2. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
contained 1| to 2 times in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral and with the 
frontal ; latter shield as long as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the two, rarely three, anterior supra- 
oculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 6 to 8 supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal, or latter 
smallest ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 3 or 
4 pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear- 
opening oval, much smaller than the eye-opening, about as large 
as the transparent palpebral disk, with one to three projecting 
lobules or granules anteriorly. 26 to 30 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body, dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of 
large proeanals. The adpressed limbs fail to meet, meet, or overlap. 



LYGOSOMA. 201 

Digits subcylindrical; subdigital lamellae smooth, 16 to 18 under 
fourth toe. Tail If to If times the length of head and body. 
Bronzy olive or brown above, with small dark, and sometimes also 
light spots ; a blackish vertebral streak sometimes present ; a 
broad blackish-brown lateral band, usually edged above and below 
by a light streak ; lower surface greenish white or plumbeous. 

From snout to vent 2'5 inches ; tail 3 - 5. 

ITal. Western Himalayas (Garhwiil, Simla), Kashmir (Ladsik ?). 

226. Lygosoma dorise. 
Lygosoma doriae, Boitleng. Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) iv, 1887, p. 620. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
contained 1^ or 1| times in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
twice as broad as long, forming a suture with the rostral, and in 
contact with the anterior angle of the frontal (in one specimen the 
praafrontals form a median suture) ; frontal a little shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the two 
anterior .supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars ; 8 supraciliaries ; fronto- 
parietals and interparietal distinct, subequal in size; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 3 or 4 pairs of nucbals ; 
fifth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening oval, smaller 
than the eye-opening, but considerably larger than the transparent 
palpebral disk ; no auricular lobules. 26 or 28 scales round the 
middle of the body, smooth, laterals smallest. A pair of enlarged 
praeanals. The hind limb reaches the wrist of the adpressed fore 
limb. Digits subcylindrical; subdigital lamella? smooth, 16 to 18 
under the fourth toe. Tail If to 1| times as long as head and body. 
Bronzy olive above, with, small black spots ; sides and limbs 
closely spotted with black, with small whitish dots ; young with a 
light dorso-lateral line. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 3'2. 

Hob, Upper Burma (Bhamo and Kakhyen Hills). 

227. Lygosoma ladacense. 

Eumeces ladacensis, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 88, pi. x, fig. I. 
Euprepres stoliczkai and kargilensis, Steind. Novara, Rept. pp. 45, 46. 
Mocoa ladakensis, M. stoliczkse, and M. kargilensis, Theob. Cat. 

pp. viii, 59, 60. 
Lygosoma ladacense, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 258, pi. xvii, fig. 3. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
contained 1 1 to If times in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. ]S~ostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral, and usually 
also with the frontal ; latter shield as long as or a little longer 
than frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the 
three anterior supraoculars; 4 supraoculars, second and third 



202 SCINCID.E. 

equal; 6 to 8 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and interparietal dis- 
tinct, subequal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 
3 or 4 pairs of nuchals ; fifth or sixth upper labial entering the 
orbit. Ear-opening oval, much smaller than the eye-opening, 
with two or three projecting lobules or granules anteriorly. 32 to 
38 smooth scales round tho middle of the body, laterals smallest. 
A pair of large praeanals. The adpressed limbs meet or overlap. 
Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital lamella? smooth, 21 to '24 under 
the fourth toe. Tail a little longer than head and body. Bron/y 
olive above, with small darker and lighter spots ; a more or less 
dark brown lateral band, dotted with pale olive, sometimes 
bordered above and below by a light streak ; lower surfaces 
greenish. 

From snout to vent 2 inches ; tail 2*6. 

Hal. Ladak, Upper Indus Valley (12,000-14,000 feet). 

228. Lygosoma laterimaculatum. 

Lygosoma laterimaculatum, Boulenq. Cat. Liz. m, p. 2(!0, pi. xviii, 
'fig. 2. 

Habit lacertiform ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
contained 1J to Ig times in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral and with the 
frontal ; latter shield a little shorter than the frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest : 7 or 8 supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals and interparietal distinct, usually subequal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 3 to 5 pairs 
of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening 
oval, smaller than the eye-opening, without projecting granules or 
lobules. 20 or 28 scales round the middle of the body, smooth, 
or dorsals feebly pluricarinate, dorsals largest, laterals smallest. 
A pair of enlarged prseanals, not much longer than broad. The 
hind limb reaches the wrist or the elbow. Digits subcylindrical : 
subdigital lamella? smooth, 21 to 25 under the fourth toe. Tail \^ 
to 1| times the length of head and body. Bronzy above, with a 
blackish lateral streak, light-edged above, along the head and body ; 
two fine black lines or series of dots along the back ; sides of head 
and body below the lateral streak largely and closely spotted with 
black ; lower surfaces greyish ; tail blue in the young. 

From snout to vent 1-8 inches. 

Hub. Nilgiri, Travancore, and Tinnevelly Hills, S. India. 

229. Lygosoma bilineatum. 

Mocoa bilineata, Gray, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1840, p. 430 ; Theol. Cat. 

p. 58. 

Eumeces bilineatus, Giinth. R^t. B. I. p. 86. 
Lygosoma bilineatum, Battlmg, Cat. Liz. iii, p. 259, pi. xviii, fig. 1. 



LYGOSOMA. ZV6 

Body elongate ; distance between end of snout and fore limb 
contained 1^ to 2 times in distance between axilla and groin in 
the adult, 1| in the young. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid 
with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; 
no supranasal ; frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture 
with the rostral and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as the 
froutoparietals and interparietals together or slightly longer, in 
contact with the first and second supraoctilars ; 4 supraoculars, 
second largest ; 6 or 7 gupraciliaiies ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct, usually subequal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; 4 to '5 pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper 
labial entering the orbit. Ear-opening roundish, a little smaller 
than the eye-opening, with t\vo projecting granules on its anterior 
border. 22 or 24 smooth scales round the middle of the body, 
dorsals largest, laterals smallest. 4 large pra3anals, much longer 
than broad, pointed behind in the male. The ad pressed limbs are 
widely separated in the adult, slightly overlap in the young. 
Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth, 16 to 21 under 
the fourth toe. Tail 1^ to 1| times as long as head and body. 
Bronzy olive or brown above ; a black streak on each side, from 
above the ear to the base of the tail ; usually another finer black 
streak on each side along the back ; small black dots on the sides of 
the head, and usually also below the lateral streak ; lower surfaces 
greenish. 

From snout to vent 2-2 inches. 

//&., Xilgiri Hills, S. India. 

230. Lygosoma beddomii. 

Mocoa travaiikorica, part., Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 58. 
Lygosoma beddomii, Botdeny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 201, pi. xviii, fig. 3. 

The distance between the end of the snout and the fore limb 
contained lg to If times in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal 
broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral and with 
the frontal ; latter shield as long as the frontoparietals and 
interparietal together, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars; 4 supraoculars, second largest and touching the 
supraciliary margin, as sometimes the third does also ; 5 to 7 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, longer than the inter- 
parietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 3 
or 4 pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper labial entering the orbit. Ear- 
opening oval, much smaller than the eye-opening, without pro- 
jecting lobules or granules. 20 or 22 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body, dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of 
feebly enlarged pra^anals, not much longer than broad. The 
adpressed limbs just meet in the adult, overlap in the young. 
Digits subcyliudrical ; .subdigital lamella smooth, 17 or IS under 
the fourth toe. Tail If times the length of head and body. 



204 

Bronzy brown above, lighter on the limit of the blackish-brown 
colour which covers the sides of the head and body ; sometimes a 
blackish vertebral line ; limbs dark brown ; lower sufaces dark 
brown or bronzy olive, the scales edged with darker. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches. 

Hal. Travancore Hills and "Wynaad, S. India. 

231. Lygosoma travancoricum. 

Mocoa travankorica, part., Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 

Theob. Cat, p. 58. 
Lygosoma travancoricum, Bvuleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 261, pi. xviii, 

fig. 4. 

Habit lacertiform ; the distance between end of snout and fore 
limb equals or slightly exceeds the distance between axilla and 
groin in the young, and is contained 1|^ to 1-2- times in the adult and 
halfgrown. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Nostril pierced in the nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal broader than long, forming a suture with the rostral 
and with the frontal ; latter shield as long as or shorter than 
frontoparietal and interparietal together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars, second largest ; 7 or 8 
supraciliaries ; frontoparietal single, longer than the interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; 3 or 4 pairs 
of nuchals ; fifth, or rarely fourth, upper labial entering the orbit. 
Ear-opening oval, much smaller than the eye-opening, without 
projecting lobules or granules. 22 or 24 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body, dorsals largest, laterals smallest. A pair of 
enlarged pra?anals. The adpressed limbs meet or slightly overlap 
in the adult. Digits subcylindrical ; subdigital lamella) smooth, 
18 to 24 under the fourth toe. Tail If to 1| times length of 
head and body. Bronzy brown or olive above, lighter on the 
limit of the blackish-brown sides ; back uniform, or with scattered 
blackish dots, or with a blackish vertebral line ; lower part of 
sides black-spotted : limbs dark brown ; lower surfaces dark grey 
or olive. 

From snout to vent 2-4 inches. 

Hob. Hills of Southern India ("Wynaad, Travancore, Palni, 
Sivagiri G-hat). 

232. Lygosoma macrotympanum. 

Mocoa macrotympanum, Stoliczka, J. A. S. E. xlii, 1873, p. 166. 
Lygosoma macrotympanum, Boulena. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 265. 

Body moderately slender. Snout rather attenuated and prolonged. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Nostril pierced 
in the nasal ; no supranasal ; frontonasal in contact with the 
rostral, posteriorly just touching the frontal : 4 supraoculars : 
frontoparietal single ; interparietal distinct ; parietals forming a 
suture behind the iuterparietal ; 4 pairs of nuchals ; fifth upper 



LYGOSOMA. 205 

labial under the orbit. Ear-opening very large, rounded, with a 
perfectly smooth edge all round. '22 smooth scales round the 
middle of the body, dorsals slightly larger than laterals. A pair of 
moderately enlarged prseanals. Limbs proportionately developed, 
with the toes very slender. Head above brown, paler on the snout ; 
3 longitudinal white bands along the body, separated by 2 some- 
what broader brown bands ; the median dorsal white band becomes 
obsolete at the root of the tail : labials and sides of head brownish, 
spotted with white ; limbs above with very close longitudinal 
brown lines, digits powdered with pure white ; lower portion of 
the sides and lower surfaces livid carneous, tinged with bright 
orange on the lower belly and on the tail. 

Total length 4 inches, of which the tail measures nearly 2'5. 

Hab. South Andaman. A single specimen, which I have not 
seen, was obtained on a sandy beach in Macpherson's Straits. 

233. Lygosoma macrotis. 

Euprepes inacrotis, Steind. Novara, Kept, p. 48. 

Mocoa macrotis, Theob. Cat, p. 60. 

Lygosoma macrotis, Boideng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 265. 

Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. No supra- 
nasals ; rostral large, posterior border convex and forming a curved 
suture with the frontonasal, which is in contact posteriorly with the 
anterior angle of the frontal; frontoparietals and interparietal 
distinct. Ear-opening very large, circular, without projecting 
lobules. 31 smooth scales round the body. A pair of large 
prseanals. Brown above, with a deep black lateral band ; belly 
yellowish white. 

Hal. Nicobars. I have not seen this lizard. 

The following species is insufficiently described : 

MOCOA FORMOSA, Blyth, J. A . S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 651 ; Theob. 
Cat. Eept. Mus. As. Soc. p. 26 ; id. Cat. p. 58. 

" Length 7 in., of which the tail measures half. Scales hexagonal, 
in dorsal series. Prseanal scales similar to the abdominal. 
Form robust. Frontal shield elongate-pentagonal, broadest to the 
front, and rounded posteriorly. Internasal and frontonasals 
lozenge-shaped, or somewhat fan-shaped, broader than long. 
Erontoparietals distinct, but unsynimetrically divided. Colour olive- 
green, with black lateral and pale superlateral bands as usual, the 
former much speckled with greenish white, and the latter showing 
a series of black spots. Between the pale snperlateral streaks are 
five narrow black lines along the nape and body, variegated with 
angular greenish-white spots. A few such spots appear also on 
the upper surface of the tail, caused by a scale variegated with 
black and greenish white here and there placed. Limbs minutely 
pencilled with black, and spots or streaks of the same upon the 
head. Underparts greenish-plumbeous throughout." 

Nab. Mirzapur (N.W.P.), and Wazirabad, Punjab. 



206 SCINOIDJE. 

234. Lygosoma taprobanense. 

Euuieces tiiprobaneusis, Kelaart, Prodi: ii, p. 21. 

Kumeces taprobanensis, part., Giinfh. Rept. B. I. p. 89, pi. xiii, fig. B. 

llimilia taprobanensis, part., Theob. Cat. p. 56. 

Lygosoma taprobaneuse, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. in, p. 319. 

Body rather elongate, limbs short ; distance between end of snout 
and fore limb contained about once and a half in distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout very short, obtusely acuminate. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasal ; 
frontonasal broader than long, forming a broad suture with the 
rostral, and usually in contact posteriorly with the anterior angle 
of the frontal ; the latter shield considerably longer than the fronto- 
parietals, in contact with the two anterior supraoculars ; 4 supra- 
oculars ; 8 or 9 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals distinct, about as 
large as the interparietal ; purietals forming a suture behind the 
interparietal ; no nuchals ; usually, fifth labial below the centre of 
the eye. Ear-opening small, suboval, with 2 or 3 very small, more 
or less indistinct, projecting lobules anteriorly. 24 or 26 smooth 
equal scales round the middle of the body. Pneanals not enlarged. 
The adpressed limbs fail to meet. Digits short, cylindrical ; sub- 
digital lamella; smooth or tubercular, 13 to 19 under the fourtb toe. 
Tail thick, once and a half the length of head and body. Yellowish 
or reddish brown above, usually with a paler brown dorso-lateral 
band and longitudinal series of blackish dots ; sides dark brown or 
blackish, white-dotted ; lower surfaces yellowish ; throat, in males, 
bluish grey, "with or without white dots. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches; tail 3'25. 

Hub. Ceylon. 

235. Lygosoma fallax. 

Lygosoma fallax, Peters, MB. Ak. Bert. 1860, p. 184 ; Bouleng. Cat. 

'Liz. iii, p. 320. 

Eumeces taprobanensis, part., Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 89. 
Hinulia taprobanensis, part., Tlieob. Cat. p. 56. 

Body rather elongate, limbs short ; distance between end of snout 
and fore limb contained about once and a half in distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout very short, obtusely acuminate. Lower 
eyelid scaly. Nostril pierced in a single nasal; no supranasal; 
frontonasal much broader than long, forming a broad suture with 
the rostral ; pnefrontals usually forming a median suture ; frontal 
as long as the frontoparietal or shorter, in contact with the two 
anterior supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars ; 8 or 9 supraciliaries; fronto- 
parietals united into a single shield, much longer than the inter- 
parietal ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no 
nuchals ; usually, fifth labial below the centre of the eye. Ear- 
opening small, roundish, with two very small projecting lobules 
anteriorly. 26 smooth, equal scales round the middle of the body. 
Prseanals not enlarged. The adpressed limbs fail to meet or just 



LYGOSOMA. 207 

meet. Digits short, cylindrical ; subdigital lamellae smooth or 
tubercular, 16 to 18 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, 1 3 to If 
times the length of head aud body. Pale reddish brown above, 
uniform or with darker dots, and with a more or less distinct darker 
and a lighter dorso-lateral band ; lower surfaces yellowish. Throat 
and sides of head and neck, in males, bluish-black, dotted with white. 

From snout to vent 1'6 inches ; tail 2'7. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

236. Lygosoma lineolatum. 

lliopa liueolata, Stoliczka, J.A.S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 175, pi. x, tig. '2 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 63. 
Lygosoma lineolatum, Eouleny, Cat. Liz. iii, p. 314. 

Body much elongate, limbs short ; distance between end of snout 
and fore lirnb contained about twice aud a half in distance 
between axilla and groin . Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Supranasals distinct, in contact behind the rostral ; frontonasal 
very broad, forming a narrow suture with the frontal ; the latter 
shield as long as the frontoparietal and interparietal together; 
5 supraoculars, last very small ; frontoparietal fused into a single 
shield ; interparietal rather small and triangular ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal. Ear-opening moderate, rounded, 
simple. 24 or 25 smooth scales round the middle of the body. 
Praeanals very slightly enlarged. The length of the hind limb 
equals the distance between the axilla and the eye. Fourth toe 
very slightly longer than third. Tail about once and one third the 
length of head and body. Greenish iridescent brown above, with 
an almost continuous series of small dark brown dots on each side 
of the back, beginning at the nape and margined above and below 
by a pale line ; the centres of all the scales above and on the sides 
are paler than at the edges, and form straight longitudinal lines. 
Below whitish, with a vinaceous tinge, and distinctly reddish on the 
tail. 

From snout to vent 1-5 inches ; tail 2. 

Hab. Martaban, opposite to Moulmein, Burma. Only two speci- 
mens, which I have not seen, are known. 

237. Lygosoma comotti. 

Lygosoma comotti, Bouleny. Ann. Mus. Geuova, ('2) iv, 1887, p. (j'2'2. 

Body moderately elongate, limbs short ; distance between eiid of 
snout and fore limb contained once and three fifths in distance 
between axilla and groin. Head much depressed ; snout short, 
obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. Supranasals present, forming a suture 
behind the rostral ; froutonasal broader than long, forming a broad 
suture with the frontal ; latter shield as long as f routoparietals 
and parietals together, in contact with the first and second supra- 
oculars ; 4 supraoculars ; 8 supraciliaries ; frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal distinct, subequal in size ; parietals forming a suture behind 
the interparietal ; no enlarged nuchals ; sixth upper labial below 



the centre of eye. Ear-opening small, hardly as large as the pupil, 
round, with a projecting lohule anteriorly. 28 smooth, subequal 
scales round the middle of the body. No enlarged pracanals. The 
adpressed limbs fail to meet ; the fore limb stretched forwards 
reaches a little beyond the ear ; hind limb half the distance between 
axilla and groin. Fourth toe longer than third ; subdigital lamellae 
obtusely keeled, 15 under the fourth toe. Eufous above, each 
scale edged with dark brown ; sides browu, with yellowish spots : 
lower parts uniform yellowish. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches. 

Hob. Minhla, Upper Burma. 

238. Lygosoma albopunctatum. 

Ifiopa albopunctata, Gray, A. M. N. H. xviii, 1840, p. 430; Theob. 

Cat. p. 62. 

Eunieces pimctatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 651. 
Eumeces albopunctatus, Oilnth. Rept. B. 1. p. 92. 
Lygosoma albopunctatum, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 309. 

Body elongate, limbs weak; distance between end of snout 
and fore limb contained 2 to 2^ times in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid scaly. 
Suprauasals present, in contact behind the rostral ; frontouasal 
much broader than long, in contact with the frontal ; prsefrontals 
small; frontal as long as the frontoparietals and interparietal 
together, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
4 supraoculars ; 7 or 8 supraciliaries, first and last largest ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, larger than the interparietal ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal ; nuchals frequently indistinct ; 
fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear-opening small, 
oval, with one or two small lobules anteriorly. 26 or 28 scales 
round the middle of the body, all smooth, subequal. Marginal 
pra3anals scarcely enlarged. The fore limb stretched forwards 
reaches the ear or a little beyond ; the length of the hind limb is 
contained 2| to 3 times in the distance between axilla and groin. 
Fourth toe longer than third ; subdigital lamellso feebly unicariuate, 
12 to 15 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, a little longer than head 
and body. Pale brown or rufous above, sides closely dotted with 
black ; each dorsal and nuchal scale with a more or less distinct dark 
brown dot, forming longitudinal series ; sides of neck and anterior 
part of body white-spotted ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

From snout to vent 2-5 inches. 

Hob. Southern India, Lower Grodsvvari valley, Bilaspur, Bengal, 
Assam, Burma, Malay Peninsula. 

239. Lygosoma punctatum. 

Lacerta punctata, Linn. Si/st. Nat. i, p. 369. 
Kiopa hardwickii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 96 ; Theob. Cat. p. 63. 
Eumeces hardwickii, Giinth. Kept. B. 1. p. 92. 
Lygosoma punctatum, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 310. 



LYGOSOMA. 209 

Body elongate, limbs weak ; distance between end of snout and 
fore limb contained 2 to 2^ times in distance between axilla and 
groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Supranasals distinct, in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal much broader than long, forming a suture 
with the frontal ; prsof rentals small ; frontal about as long as the 
frontoparietals and interparietal together, in contact with the first 
and second supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars ; usually 7 supraciliaries ; 
frontoparietals distinct, usually a little larger than interparietal ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the iuterparietal ; a pair of nuchals 
and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth upper labial 
below the eye. Ear-opening small, oval, with one or two small 
lobules anteriorly. 24 or 26 scales round the middle of the body, 
all smooth, subequal. Marginal prsoanals not, or scarcely enlarged. 
The fore limb, when stretched forwards, reaches a little beyond the 
ear ; the length of the hind limb is more than one third of the 
distance between axilla and groin. Digits feebly compressed ; 
fourth toe longer than third ; subdigital lamellae feebly unicarinate, 
11 to 14 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, as long as head and 
body, or a little longer. Brown or olive above, each scale with a 
dark brown spot ; these spots sometimes confluent into longitudinal 
lines ; a more or less marked yellowish streak or band on each side, 
beginning on the canthus rostralis ; sides sometimes blackish brown, 
white-dotted ; lower surfaces yellowish white, uniform, or each scale 
with a black central dot ; tail reddish in the young. 

Prom snout to vent 3-5 inches. 

Hob. India, from the base of the Himalayas, rarer in the northern 
parts ; Ceylon. 

240. Lygosoma guentheri. 

Riopa punctata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1839, p. 332 ; Theob. Cat. p. 64. 
Euineces punctatus, Gilnth. Rcpt. S. I. p. 93. 

Eumeces guentheri, Peters, Sitzb. Oes. Naturf. Freunde, 1879, p. 36. 
Lygosoma guentheri, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 311. 

Body much elongate, limbs weak ; distance between end of snout 
and fore limb contained about three times in distance between 
axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an 
undivided transparent disk. Supranasals present, in contact behind 
the rostral ; frontouasal much broader than long, forming a suture 
with the frontal ; prsef rentals small and widely separated ; frontal 
usually as long as frontoparietals and interparietal together or 3, 
little longer, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
4 supraoculars ; 6 to 8 supraciliaries, first and last largest ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, usually larger than the interparietal ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a 
pair of temporals border the parietals ; usually, fifth upper labial 
below the eye. Ear-opening small, roundish or oval. 24 or 26 
scales round the middle of the body, all smooth, subequal. Mar- 
ginal prseanals not or scarcely enlarged. The fore limb, when, 

p 



210 SCINCIDJB. 

stretched forwards, reaches the ear or not quite so far ; the length 
of the hind limb is contained four times or a little more in the 
distance between axilla and groin. Digits feebly compressed ; 
fourth toe longer than third; subdigital lamellae feebly unicarmate, 
13 or 14 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, considerably longer than 
head and body. Brownish or yellowish olive above, each scale with 
a black spot; these spots sometimes confluent into longitudinal 
lines ; sometimes a more or less distinct light dorso-lateral band ; 
the black spots usually larger on the sides, and sometimes inter- 
mixed with white ones; lower surfaces yellowish white, usually 
with a black dot on each scale. 

From snout to vent 4 inches ; tail 5-5. 

Hob. Southern India, Bombay, and the Deccau. 



241. Lygosoma feae. 
Lygosoma feae, Bouleng. Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) iv, 1887, p. 623. 

Body elongate, limbs short ; distance between end of snout and 
fore limb contained twice in distance between axilla and groin. 
Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent 
disk. Supranasals distinct, in contact behind the rostral ; fronto- 
nasal twice as broad as long, forming a suture with the frontal ; the 
latter shield about as large as a frontoparietal or the iuterparietal, 
in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars ; 
7 supraciliaries ; froutoparietals and interparietal distinct, subequal 
in size ; parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair 
of nuchals and a pair of temporals border the parietals ; fifth upper 
labial below tbe centre of the eye. Ear-opening small, round. 22 
smooth equal scales round the middle of the body. No enlarged 
praeanals. The fore limb stretched forwards reaches a little beyond 
the ear ; the hind limb measures one third the distance between axilla 
and groin. Fourth toe a little longer than third ; subdigital lamellae 
smooth, 10 under the fourth toe. Tail thick, a little longer than 
head and body. Yellowish brown above, each scale edged with 
darker; a yellowish dorso-lateral streak; lower surfaces whitish. 

From snout to vent 1'3 inches ; tail 1'6. 

Sab. Rangoon, Burma. 

242. Lygosoma cyanellum. 

Riopa auguiim, part., Theobald, Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 27. 
Riopa cyanella, Stolicska, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 130, pi. v, tig. 3 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 65. 
Lygosoma cyanellum, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 312. 

Very closely allied to L. anguinum, but the limbs a little longer. 
The fore limb reaches slightly beyond the ear, and the length 
of the hind limb is contained 3| times in the distance between 
axilla and groin. Fourth toe slightly longer than third. The 
frontal a little longer and forming a very short suture with the 



LTGOSOMA. 211 

frontonasal. Colour above olive-brown, with aii iridescent blue 
tinge, purer brownish on the tail, pale brownish olive at the sides of 
the body ; each scale, above and at the side, is indistinctly mottled 
with dark, and there are generally a few white spots on the sides of 
the neck and about the shoulder ; a narrow white, slightly black- 
margined band rises from behind the orbit and continues on each 
side of the back; it becomes indistinct in the middle of the body, 
but is again slightly more conspicuous above the hip, gradually 
disappearing on the tail, which is indistinctly speckled with dark 
brown at the sides. 

From snout to vent 2 inches. 

Hab. Pegu. 

243. Lygosoma anguinum. 

Riopa auguiua, part., Theobald, Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 27. 
Riopa anguina, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, 1872, p. 130, pi. v, fig. 4 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 64. 
Lygosoina anguinum, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 313. 

Body much elongate, limbs very weak ; distance between end of 
snout and fore limb contained 2| to 3 times in the distance 
between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with 
an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals distinct, in contact 
behind the rostral; froiitonasal about twice as broad as long, 
forming a suture with the frontal ; prasfrontals small and widely 
separated ; frontal a little shorter than frontoparietals and inter- 
parietal together, in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 
4 supraoculars ; 7 supraciliaries, first and last largest ; fronto- 
parietals distinct, a little larger than interparietal ; parietals forming 
a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals and a pair of 
temporals border the parietals ; fifth upper labial below the centre 
of the eye. Ear-opening small, roundish. 22 scales round the 
middle of the body, all smooth, subequal. Marginal prseanals 
scarcely enlarged. The fore limb, when stretched forwards, does 
not reach the ear ; the length of the hind limb is contained 4 to 5 
times in the distance between axilla and groin. Digits very short ; 
third and fourth toes equal. Uniform olive-brown or rufous above, 
lighter beneath. 

From snout to vent 2-2 inches. 

Hal). Pegu. 

244. Lygosoma calamus. 
Lygosoma calamus, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 314, pi. xxv, fig. 1. 

Body much elongate, limbs short ; distance between end of snout 
and fore limb contained 3 times in distance between axilla and 
groin. Snout short, obtuse. Lower eyelid with an undivided 
transparent disk. Supranasals distinct, in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontonasal about twice as broad as long, forming a narrow 
suture with the frontal ; the latter small, hardly as long as the 

p2 



212 SCINCIJXE. 

frontoparietal, and narrower, in contact with the first and second 
supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars ; 7 supraciliaries, first and last 
largest ; frontoparietals fused into a single large shield ; inter- 
parietal distinct, rather large ; parietal forming a suture behind 
the interparietal ; a pair of nuchals aud a pair of temporals border 
the parietals ; fifth upper labial below the centre of the eye. Ear- 
opening small, roundish. 22 scales round the middle of the body, 
equal, perfectly smooth. Marginal prseanals scarcely enlarged. 
The fore limb when stretched forwards hardly reaches the ear ; 
the hind limb measures about one fourth the distauce between axilla 
and groin. Digits feebly compressed; fourth toe very slightly 
longer than third ; subdigital lamella) smooth, 11 under the fourth 
toe. Yellowish brown above ; a dark brown lateral baud, edged 
above by a yellowish line ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

Prom snout to vent 1*8 inches. 

Hob. Minhla, Burma. 



245. Lygosoma lineatum. 

Chiainela lineata, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1839, p. 333 ; Giinth. Kept. 

B, I. p. 95 ; Theob. Cat. p. 66. 
Hagria vosmaerii, Gray, 1. c. p. 333 ; Giinth. Eept. B. I. p. 94 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 67. 

Campsodactylus lamarrei, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. v, p. 762. 
Lygosoma vosmaerii, Boiileny. Cat. Liz. Hi, p. 315, pi. xxv, h'g. 2. 
Lygosoma lineatum, Boideng. 1. c. fig. 3. 

Body much elongate ; limbs very short, tetradactyle ; distance 
between end of snout and fore limb contained 3^ to 4 times 
in distance between axilla and groin. Snout short, obtuse. 
Lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Supranasals 
present, in contact behind the rostral ; froutonasals much broader 
than long, forming a broad suture with the frontal ; prajfrontals 
small, widely separated ; frontal shorter than the interparietal, in 
contact with the first and second supraoculars ; 4 supraoculars ; 
6 or 7 supraciliaries ; f routoparietals fused into a single large shield ; 
interparietal distinct, not much shorter than the frontal ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; fourth and 
fifth upper labials below the eye. Ear-opening very small. 22 
smooth, subequal scales round the middle of the body. Prsoanals 
not enlarged. Third and fourth toes equal ; subdigital laniellie 
smooth. Yellowish brown, each scale with a dark brown spot 
forming longitudinal lines, which are less marked below than 
above. 

From snout to vent 2-25 inches ; tail 2-8. 

Hob. The Deccan (Poona, Belgaum, Matherau). The unique 
type of Hagria vosmaerii or Campsodactylus lamarrei, stated to be 
from Bengal, is apparently an anomalous specimen of this species, 
with fiv$ fingers instead of four. 



ABLEPHAKTTS. 213 

Under the name of Euprepes halianus (Nevill, Taprobanian, ii, 
1887, p. 56), a Scink has been described which probably belongs 
to the genus Lygosoma. Its characters are given as follows : 

" A pair of very narrow supranasal shields ; the single praofron- 
tal touches both rostral and vertical [frontal]. The fifth upper 
labial is below the eye, a little longer than high. Ear-opening 
small, with no lobules. Lower eyelid scaly. Scales with four very 
weak keels anteriorly, becoming strong posteriorly, reduced to three 
on the tail, in 30 or 31 longitudinal series between the limbs, and 
24 transverse series *. Pra?anal scales not enlarged ; subcaudals 
rather longer than the others. Limbs of moderate strength. 
Third toe nearly as long as fourth. White, back with ten black 
bands one on the nape, one between the fore limbs, three on the 
back, one between the hind limbs, and four on the tail with remains 
of a fifth. Black bands run from the nostril through the eyes, 
which are connected by a band across the occiput ; this band throws 
forward a band each side of the vertical." 

Hab. Hot and dry districts of Ceylon. 



Genus ABLEPHARUS, 

Fitzinger, Verb. Ges. Naturf. Fr. i, 1824, p. 297. 

Palatine and pterygoid bones in contact mesially, the palatal 
notch not extending forwards to between the centre of the eyes ; 
pterygoids toothless. Maxillary teeth conical. No movable eye- 
lids; a transparent disk covering the eye. Ear distinct or hidden. 
Nostrils pierced in the nasal; supranasal (present or) absent. 
Limbs more or less developed. 

Distribution. Hotter parts of both hemispheres. 16 species are 
known, two of which occur in North-western India. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Ear-opening small, but distinct A. brandtii, p. 213. 

Ear hidden A. yrayanus, p. 214. 

246. Ablepharus brandtii. 
Ablepharus brandtii, Strauch, Mel. biol. Ac. _St. Petersb. vi, 1868, 



Blepl 
Cat. p. 62. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye surrounded 
by a circle of small scales, the two upper of which are much larger 
than the others. Rostral largely in contact with the frontonasal, 



* Is not " longitudinal " a lapsus for " transverse " and vice versa ? 



214 SCINCID^E. 

which is in contact with the frontal ; the latter moderately 
in contact with the first and second supraoculars ; frontoparietal 
single ; interparietal distinct ; 3 or 4 supraoculars, first largest ; 
5 small supraciliaries, first largest ; two pairs of nuchals ; 4 labials 
anterior to the subocular. Ear-opening very small. 20 or 22 
scales round middle of body, dorsals largest. Two enlarged 
prsDanals. Limbs short, pentadnctyle, not meeting when adpressed. 
Tail longer than head and body. Olive above, with a dark brown 
lateral band edged above by a light line. 

From snout to vent 1-2 inches ; tail 1-75. 

Hob. Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, Samarkand, Bokhara, Mesopo- 
tamia. 

247. Ablepharus gray anus. 

Blepharosteres grayanus, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 74 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 61 ; Murr. Zool. Sind, p. 354. 
Ablepharus grayanus, Bouleng. Cut. Liz. iii, p. 352. 

Snout short, obtuse, rostral not projecting. Eye surrounded 
by a circle of small scales, the two upper of which are much 
larger than the others. Eostral largely in contact with the fronto- 
nasal, which is in contact with the frontal ; 3 supraoculars, followed 
by 2 small ones, obliquely descending on the temporal region ; 
frontoparietal single ; interparietal distinct ; 4 labials anterior 
to the subocular. Ear hidden. 18 or 20 scales round middle of 
body. Two enlarged prseanals. Limbs short, pentaclactyle. Above 
pale olive-green, with a very distinct metallic lustre, a little darker 
at the sides, speckled with black, and gradually passing into the 
uniform greenish-white lower side ; a silvery green narrow band 
from the supraciliary edge to the base of the tail, edged with black 
below ; limbs brown above, marked with rows of white spots : tail 
with a pink tinge. 

From snout to vent 1-25 inches. 

Hab. Cutch and Sind. 



Genus RISTELLA, 
Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1839, p. 333. 

Palatine and pterygoid bones in contact on the median line of 
the palate, which is toothless ; palatine notch small, far behind, 
corresponding to the posterior notch of the tongue. Teeth conical. 
Eyelids well developed, scaly. Ear-opening distinct. Nostril 
pierced in a single nasal ; no supranasals ; prsefrontals small or 
coalesced ; frontoparietals and interparietal distinct. Limbs well- 
developed, anterior with 4, posterior with 5 digits ; claws com- 
pletely retractile into a large compressed sheath formed of one 
large scale cleft beneath. 

Distribution. Hill-tracts of Southern India. 



215 



Synopsis of the Species. 

rsefrontals ; frontonasal 
ith frontal. 

b larger than nostril; 
s feebly bi- or tricarinate . . R. rurkii, p. 215. 



A. A pair of small prsefrontals ; frontonasal 

forming a suture with frontal. 
a. Ear-opening much larger than nostril; 
dorsal scale 



b. Ear-opening not, or but slightly, larger than 

nostril ; dorsal scales sharply bicarinate. R. travancorica, p. 216. 
B. Two azygos shields between rostral and 

frontal. 
. 22 to 24 scales round middle of body ; 

adpressed limbs not meeting R. giientheri, p. 216. 

b. 26 scales round body ; adpressed limbs 

meeting or overlapping R. beddomii, p. 216. 





"Fig. 57. Foot of Ristella rurkii. a. Upper view. b. Lower view. 



248. Ristella rurkii. 

Ristella rurkii, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1839, p. 333; Giinth. P. Z. 8. 

1875, p. 225 ; Bouhng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 357, pi. xxix, fig. 1. 
Ateuchosaurus travancoricus. part., Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 

1870. 
Ristella travancorica, Bedd. op. cit. 1871 (part.) ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. 

B. xli, 1872, p. 129, pi. iv, fig. 5 ; Theob. Cat. p. 54. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Ear-opening much larger than 
the nostril. Frontonasal broader than long, widely separating the 
nasals ; prsefrontals present, widely separated ; frontal shorter than 
frontoparietals and interparietal together; 5 supraoculars, 3 an- 
terior in contact with the frontal; 10 supraciliaries ; parietals 
forming a suture behind the interparietal ; no nuchals ; third, 
fourth, and fifth upper labials below the eye, from which they are 
separated by a series of small scales. 26 scales round the middle 
of the body, laterals a little smaller than dorsals and ventrals, dorsals 
and laterals feebly bi- or tricarinate. Pra?anal scales not or scarcely 
enlarged. Limbs short, widely separated when adpressed ; third 
and fourth toes equal. Tail cylindrical, 1| to 1| times the length 



216 SCTKCIDJG. 

of head and body. Back reddish brown ; each dorsal scale with a 
small blackish spot or shaft, sometimes confluent and forming 6 
longitudinal lines ; sides blackish brown, dotted with whitish ; 
lower surfaces whitish, throat and tail usually brown-spotted. 

From snout to vent 1*6 inches ; tail 2'75. 

Hub. Anaimalai hills, S. India. 

249. Eistella travancorica. 

Ateuchosaurus travancoricus, part., Beddome. Madras Jottrn. Med. 

Sc. 1870. 
Ristella travancorica, Beddome, op. cit. 1871 (part.) ; Bouleng. Cat. 

Liz. iii, p. 358, pi. xxix, fig. 2. 

Ear-opening not or but slightly larger than the nostril ; third to 
sixth upper labials below the eye. Dorsal scales sharply bicarinate : 
24, rarely 26, scales round the middle of the body. Otherwise as 
in E. rurTcii. Reddish brown above, each dorsal scale usually with 
a dark brown dot ; usually a rather indistinct darker lateral band ; 
lower surfaces uniform whitish. 

From snout to vent 1*5 inches. 

Hab. Travancore hills. 



250. Eistella guentheri. 

Ristella guentheri, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 358, pi. xxix, fig. 3. 

Ear-opening little larger than the nostril ; a single azygos prae- 
frontal, nearly as large as the frontonasal ; third to sixth upper 
labials below the eye. Dorsal scales sharply bicarinate ; 22 or 24 
scales round the middle of the body. Reddish brown above, with 
dark brown lines along the series of scales, or with minute yellowish 
dots; sides dark brown, dotted with yellowish, or with a dark 
brown longitudinal band ; young with three light, dark-edged dorsal 
streaks ; lower surfaces uniform whitish. 

From snout to vent 1-5 inches. 

Hab. Madura, Sirumalai hills. 

251. Eistella beddomii. 

Ristella beddomii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 359, pi. xxix, fig. 4. 

Ear-opening larger than the nostril ; a single azygos praef rental, 
nearly as large as the frontonasal ; fourth to sixth upper labials 
below the eye. Body much shorter than in the other species of the 
genus, the adpressed limbs meeting or slightly overlapping. Dorsal 
scales sharply bicarinate. 26 scales round the middle of the body. 
Reddish brown above, with or without 2 or 3 lighter dorsal streaks ; 
sides with scattered minute whitish dots ; usually a black blotch 
with a few white dots above the axilla ; lower surfaces uniform 
whitish. 

From snout to vent 1-25 inches. 

Ifab, Hills ot South-western India. 



TBOPIDOPHOBUS. 217 

Genus TROPIDOPHORUS, 
Dum. & Bibr. Erp. G6u. v, p. 554, 1839. 

Palatine and pterygoid bones in contact on the middle line of the 
palate, which is toothless. Teeth conical. Eyelids well developed, 
scaly. Tympanum distinct, superficial. Nostril pierced in a single 
nasal ; no supranasals ; praefrontals well developed ; f rontoparietal 
present, single or double; interparietal distinct. Limbs well 
developed, peutadactyle ; digits cylindrical, with transverse lamellae 
beneath. 

Distribution. Burma, Southern China, Cochin China. Philippine 
Islands, Borneo. A genus of 8 species. 

Synopfit of Bumnese Species. 

36 to 40 scales round middle of body, dorsals 

keeled T. berdmorii, p. 217. 

32 to 34 scales round middle of body, all smooth 

in the adult : . . T. yunnanensis, p. 217. 



252. Tropidophorus berdmorii. 

Aspris berdmorei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 651. 
Tropidophorus berdmorei, Theob. Cat. p. 48 ; Boukng. Cat. Liz. iii, 
p. 362. 

Upper head-shields smooth ; a single frontonasal, longer than 
" ; praefrontals forming a short median suture, or their inner 
angles meeting ; frontal as long as frontoparietals and interparietal 
together ; 4 supraoculars, first longest ; 6 or 7 supraciliaries, 
anterior to the fourth supraocular, which borders the eye ; fronto- 
parietals shorter than the interparietal ; parietals forming a suture 
behind the interparietal ; fourth upper labial largest and entering 
the orbit ; an azygos postmental. Tympanum nearly as large as 
the eye-opening. 36 to 40 scales round the middle of the body, 
laterals smallest, dorsals and laterals keeled, not mucronate, ventrals 
smooth. A pair of large praeaiials. The hind limb reaches the 
wrist. Subdigital lamellae smooth. Tail compressed, a little longer 
than head and body, scaled like the body. Brown above, back and 
tail with yellowish, dark-edged irregular cross bars or alternating 
spots ; sides with a series of more or less distinct whitish, black- 
edged round spots; lips dark brown, with whitish spots or vertical 
lines ; belly yellowish, lower surface of tail, and often also the 
throat, variegated with dark brown. 

Prom snout to vent 3-5 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hab. Pegu, Tenasserim. 



broad 



253. Tropidophorus yunnanensis. 

Tropidophorus berdmorei (non Ely h), Anders, An. Zool. Res. 

Yunnan, p. 796, pi. Ixxvi, fig. 3. 
Tropidophorus yunnanensis, Boideng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 362. 



218 

Differs from the preceding in having, when adult, all the scales 
perfectly smooth and in 32 to 34 longitudinal rows. Dorsal scales 
bi- or tricarinate in the young. 

Hctb. Hotha valley, Yunnan : Kakhyen hills. 

Genus EUMECES, 
Wiegmann, Herp. Mex. p. 36, 1834. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate ; 
pterygoids toothed. Lateral teeth conical or with spheroidal crowns. 
Eyelids well developed, scaly. Tympanum distinct, deeply sunk. 
Nostril pierced in the nasal ; supranasals present ; proefrontals, 
frontoparietals, and interparietal distinct. Limbs well developed, 
pentadactyle ; digits subcyliadrical or compressed, with transverse 
lamellae beneath, not serrated laterally. 




Fig. 58. Upper and side views of head of Eumcces scutatiis. 

Distribution. North and Central America ; Eastern and South- 
western Asia ; North Africa. 

31 species are known, mostly American. Three occur in North- 
western India, and one in Baluchistan. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. A median series of transversely enlarged dorsal 

scales. 

a. 21 or 23 scales round body ; two azygos 

postmentals E. scutatus, p. 218. 

b. 17 or 19 scales round body ; a single post- 

mental E. tceniolatm, p. 219. 

B. Longitudinal series of dorsal scales in even 

number. 

c. 24 to 28 scales round body; two azygos 

postmentals E. schneideri, p. 219. 

d. 30 scales round body ; a single postmen tal. . E. blythianu*, p. 220. 

254. Eumeces scutatus. 

Plestiodon scutatus, Theob. Cat. Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 1808, p. 25. 
Mabouia tamiolata (non Blyth), Anders. P. A. S. B. 1871, p. 184. 



EUMECES. 219 

Eumeces taeniolatus, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 75 ; Thfob. Cat 

p. 65; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 356. 
Eumeces scutatus, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 382. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Nasal moderate, divided, 
nostril pierced above centre of first labial ; 3 loreals, anterior in 
contact with the supranasal and the frontonasal ; 5 supraoculars, 
the 3 anterior in contact with the frontal ; parietals entirely 
separated by the interparietal, which touches the frontal ; 4 or 5 
pairs of nuchals ; eighth upper labial largest ; ear-opening mode- 
rately large, with two or three small obtuse lobules anteriorly : 
two azygos postmentals. 21 or 23 scales round the middle of the 
body, the vertebral series composed of a row of large transverse 
scales five times as broad as long ; lateral scales smallest. The 
length of the hind limb is contained 3| to 3| times in the length 
from snout to vent ; limbs widely separated when adpressed. A 
median series of transversely enlarged subcaudals. Pale brown 
above, with three broad dark brown longitudinal bands, the laterals 
with small whitish spots ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

From snout to vent 4 inches ; tail 4'5. 

Hob. Sind, Cutch, Punjab, Kashmir. 

255. Eumeces taeniolatus. 

Eurylepis tamiolatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 740. 
Eumeces taeniolatus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 383. 

Head small ; snout short, obtuse. Xasal very small, nostril 
pierced above the suture between the rostral and the first labial ; 
a postnasal ; 2 loreals, anterior in contact with the second labial 
and the frontouasal ; 5 supraoculars, the 2 anterior in contact with 
the frontal ; parietals in contact behiud the interparietal ; 4 pairs 
of uuchals ; seventh upper labial largest ; ear-opening moderately 
large, with two or three obtuse lobules anteriorly ; a single post- 
mental. 17 or 19 scales round the middle of the body, the 
vertebral series composed of a row of large transverse scales four 
times as broad as long ; lateral scales smallest. The length of the 
hind limb is contained 4 times in the length from snout to vent ; 
limbs widely separated when adpressed. A median series of trans- 
versely enlarged subcaudals. Light brown above, each scale with a 
dai'k brown centre forming longitudinal streaks ; upper surface of 
head and lips spotted with dark brown. 

From snout to vent 4-5 inches ; tail 7. 

Hob. Punjab Salt Range. 

256. Eumeces schneideri. 

Semen-? schneideri, Daud. Kept, iv, p. 291. 
Eumeces pavimentntus, Blanf. Zool. E. Pers. p. 387. 
Eumeces schneideri, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 383. 

Head moderate ; snout short, obtuse. Xasal rather large, usually 



220 SCINCI1XE. 

divided, in contact with the two anterior upper labials ; no post- 
nasal ; 5 supraoculars, the three anterior in contact with the frontal ; 
parietals entirely separated by the interparietal ; 4 or 5 pairs of 
nuchals ; ear-opening rather large, with 4 or 5 long pointed lobules 
anteriorly ; 2 azygos postmentals. 22 to 28 scales round the 
middle of the body, perfectly smooth, the laterals smallest, those 
of the two median dorsal series very broad and larger than the 
ventrals. The length of the hind limb is contained 2^ to 3 times 
in the length from snout to vent ; when pressed against the body 
the limbs just meet or fail to meet. A series of transversely en- 
larged subcaudals. Olive-grey or brownish above, uniform or 
with irregular golden-yellow spots or longiludinal streaks; a 
yellowish lateral streak, extendiug from below the eye to the hind 
limb, is constant ; lower surfaces yellowish white. 

From snout to vent 6-5 inches ; tail 8. 

Hub. North-east Africa and Syria to Baluchistan. 



257. Eumeces blythianus. 

Mabouia blythiana, Ande>-s. P. A. S. B, 1871, p. 186. 

Eumeces blythianus, Theob. Cat. p. 66 ; Bouleng. Cut. Liz. iii, p. 385. 

This species, of which I have not seen examples, appears to be 
very closely allied to the preceding. It has 30 scales round the 
body, and the auricular lobules are strong. It also differs in the 
presence of a single postmental. Olive-brown above ; three dark 
brown longitudinal lines along the back, from the nape to the 
base of the tail ; a broader dark brown band from the eye over 
the tympanum, along the side ; a broad pale yellowish band below 
it from below the eye to the groin ; lower surfaces yellowish. 

From snout to vent 3*5 inches ; tail 6. 

Hab. Amritsar, Punjab ? (the locality is doubtful, and the species 
may not be Indian). 



Genus SCINCUS, 
Lament!, Syn. Kept. p. 55, 1768. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate ; 
pterygoids toothed. Lateral teeth conical or with obtuse tubercular 
crowns. Eyelids well developed, scaly. Ear hidden or partly con- 
cealed under an opercle. Nostril pierced between an upper and a 
lower nasal ; supranasals present ; praefrontals, froutoparietals, and 
interparietal distinct. Limbs well developed, pentadactyle ; digits 
flattened, serrated laterally, with transverse lamellae beneath. 

This genus is restricted to the sandy deserts of North Africa 
and South-western Asia, from the Sahara to Sind. Of the 8 species 
one is peculiar to the last-named province. 



OPHIOMOEUS. 221 

258. Scincus arenarius. 

Scincus arenarius, Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 353, pi. , fig. 2 ; Bouleny. 
Cat. Liz. iii,p. 392. 

Snout depressed, cuneiform, truncated, strongly projecting ; 
loreal region concave ; mouth inferior ; eye small ; ear hidden, 
liostral very large, forming a suture with the frontonasal ; 6 
supraoculars, second, third, and fourth in contact with the frontal ; 
parietals shorter than the interparietal, followed by 2 to 4 pairs 
of nuchals ; 8 or 9 upper labials. Scales perfectly smooth, laterals 
smallest, dorsals not quite so large as ventrals ; 28 or 30 round the 
middle of the body. Sides of belly and neck angular. Digits 
short, much depressed and strongly toothed laterally. Cream- 
coloured, each dorsal scale with one or two buff streaks or dots : 7 
to 10 deep reddish-brown vertical blotches on each side. 

Erom snout to vent 4 inches ; tail 2. 

Hab. Sind (Hab plains). 



Genus OPHIOMORUS, 

Dum. & Bibr. Erp. Gen. v, p. 799, 1839. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate, 
which is toothless. Teeth conical or with obtuse crowns. Eye 
small; lower eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Ear 
hidden or hardly distinguishable. Nostril pierced in the suture 





Fig. 59. Upper and side views of head of Ophiomoms tridactylus. 

between a nasal and a supranasal ; prrofrontals very small or 
absent ; frontoparietals small, distinct from interparietal. Body 
much elongate ; limbs rudimentary or absent. 

Distribution, Greece ; South-western Asia, from Asia Minor 
and Syria to North-western India. 6 species are known. 



of Indian Species. 

Fingers and toes tLree 0. tridaclylns, p. 222. 

Fingers four, toes three O. blanfordii, p. 222. 



2 22 

259. Ophiomorus tridactylus. 

Sphenocephalus tridactylus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1855, p. 654 ; 

Giinth. Rept. B. I, p. 98 ; Theob. Cat. p. 70 ; Blanf. Zool. E. 

Persia, p. 395 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 35(3. 
Ophiomorus tridactylus, Boukng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 394. 

{Snout wedge-shaped, -with angularly projecting labial edge ; 
mouth inferior. Nostril close to the rostral, which is large and 
nearly reaches the posterior border of the supranasals ; a small 
anterior and a larger second loreal, the latter usually coalesced with 
the prsefrontal on each side ; frontonasal rather large, one half or 
two thirds the length of the frontal ; latter as broad as long or 
slightly broader ; 3 or 4 very small supraoculars ; no supraciliaries ; 
a prasocular ; interparietal as long as broad, as long as the frontal 
or slightly shorter ; frontoparietals small ; parietals band-like, 
narrow ; a pair of nuchals, in contact with the interparietal ; first 
and second upper labials smallest, in contact with the nasal, fifth 
much larger than the four anterior together. Ear hidden. Two 
azygos postmentals. Body much elongate, with angular latero- 
ventral edge, with two pairs of short tridactyle limbs ; the posterior 
limbs proportionately much more developed than the anterior, and a 
little longer than the distance between the fore limb and the anterior 
corner of the eye. 22 scales round the body, those of the back and 
of the two median ventral series narrower than the others. Two 
slightly enlarged praanals. Tail shorter than head and body, 
cyclotetragonal at the base, compressed and pointed at the end. 
Cream-coloured, uniform or with longitudinal series of brown dots 
on the back ; a more or less distinct brown streak passing through 
the eye. 

From snout to vent 3*75 inches ; tail 2*2. 

Hob. Punjab, Sind, Cutch, Afghanistan, Eastern Persia. Burrows 
in the sand. 

260. Ophiomorus blanfordii. 

Zygnidopsis brevipes (non Blanf. 1874 ),j Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 

1879, p. 128. 
Ophiomorus blanfordii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 395, pi. xxxiii, fig. 1. 

Snout wedge-shaped, with angularly projecting labial edge. 
Nostril close to the rostral ; supranasals forming a long suture ; 
two loreals, first largest and in contact with the third and fourth 
upper labials ; frontonasal moderate, not half as long as the frontal ; 
praBfrontals longer than broad, widely separated ; frontal slightly 
longer than broad ; four supraoculars, first and second in contact 
with the praefrontal ; two supraciliaries, behind the first supra- 
ocular ; frontoparietals much smaller than praefrontals ; interparietal 
as long as broad, a little shorter than the frontal ; parietals narrow, 
band-like ; no nuchals ; first and second labials in contact with the 
nasal, fifth largest, fifth and sixth below the eye. Ear hidden. 
Two azygos postmentals. Body much elongate, with angular latero- 



CHALCIDES. 223 

ventral edge, with two pairs of short limbs, the anterior tetradactylc, 
the posterior tridactyle ; the hind limb proportionally more developed 
than the anterior, a little longer than the distance between the fore 
limb and the anterior corner of the eye, and contained 3if times 
in the distance from the fore limb. 20 scales round the body, 
subec[ual. Two enlarged prseanals. Tail a little shorter than 
head and body, ending in a point. Cream-coloured, each dorsal 
scale with 'a central brown dot ; the dots form two lines on the middle 
of the back and a dark band on each side, beginning from the nostril 
and passing through the eye ; the two vertebral lines unite into a 
streak on the middle of the head. 

Prom snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 2-8. 

Hob. Southern coast of Persia or Baluchistan ? The exact locality 
uncertain. 



Genus CHALCIDES, 
Laurenti, Syn. Kept. p. 64, 1768. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate, 
which is toothless. Teeth conical or with obtuse crowns. Lower 
eyelid with an undivided transparent disk. Ear more or less dis- 
tinct. Nostril pierced between the rostral and a very small nasal 




Fig. (>U. Upper and side views of head of Chalcidcs occllatus. 

in an eruargiuation of the former shield ; supranasals present ; pra3- 
frontals and frontoparietals absent. Body much elongate ; limbs 
short or rudimentary. 

Distribution. South Europe ; Africa north of the equator ; South- 
western Asia, from Syria and Arabia to Sind. 11 species are 
known. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Ear-opeuing present, limbs moderate C. ocellatus, p. 224. 

No ear-opening, limbs very small C. pentadactylus, p. 224. 



SCINCID^. 



261. Chalcides ocellatus. 

Lacerta ocellata, Forsk. Hist. Anim. p. 13. 

Seps (Gongylus) ocellatus, Blanf. Zool. E. Pers. p. 395 ; Slum Zool. 

Sind, p. 357. 
Chalcides ocellatus, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 400. 

Snout obtuse, scarcely projecting beyond the labial margin ; eyes 
moderate; ear-opening much larger than the nostril, subtriangular 
or subquadrangular. Nostril pierced just above the suture between 
the rostral and the first labial : a postnasal, in contact with the first 
and second labials ; suprauasals distinct ; frontal longer than broad ; 
usually the fifth labial entering the orbit. Sides of belly rounded. 
Scales smooth or feebly striated, 28 to 34 (to 40 in specimens from 
Morocco) round the middle of the body. Limbs short but well 
developed and pentadactyle ; the length of the hind limb is usually 
less than the distance from the end of the snout to the fore limb, 
and enters 3^ to 4| times in the length from snout to vent. Tail 
shorter than head and body. Olive or brown above, with black 
spots, each bearing a central white dot or longitudinal shaft ; 
lower parts white. 

From snout to vent 5| inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. North and North-east Africa, islands of the Mediterranean, 
Syria, Arabia, Persia. Recorded from Sind by Murray. 



262. Chalcides pentadactylus. 

Sphenocephalus ? pentadactylus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 
1870, pi. i. 

The description and figure published by Beddome, from a single 
specimen preserved in the Madras Museum, indicate a Lizard 
closely allied to the North-African, Arabian, and Syrian G. sepoides, 
Audouin, with which it is possibly identical. The original de- 
scription is as follows, the names in square brackets being added by 
me: 

" The anterior legs minute and fitting into a groove ; fingers 
five, the third slightly longer than the fourth, first and fifth very 
small ; posterior legs well formed ; toes five, the fourth longer than 
the third, the fifth very small ; form slender, four and a quarter 
inches long, as thick as a goose-quill, two thirds cylindrical, flat, 
and laterally angled beneath as far as the vent ; the body and tail 
covered with small smooth lustrous hexagonal scales, with a median 
row of broader subcaudals ; upper lip covering the mouth ; eyes 
minute, surrounded by small scales ; no external trace of ears ; 
nostrils in small single shields let into the posterior side of the 
rostral, with a small postnasal behind each, and two large shields 
in the loreal region behind the postnasal and the eye ; rostral 
square behind, a single pra)frontal narrow and a parallelogram in 
shape [the united supranasals] ; postfrontal [prsefrontal] single, 
six-sided ; vertical [frontal] broader behind ; occipitals [parietaJs] 



SEPOPHIS. 225 

rounded behind, with a small shield [interparietal] between them, 
which is let into the posterior base of the vertical ; five plates 
(some divided) over the eye, and between it and the vertical and 
postfrontal ; upper labials 8-9, the fourth and fifth below the eye, 
some large shields over the posterior ones ; the distance between 
the axils of the fore and hind limbs is a little more than 1| inch ; 
colour of a uniform dark brown ; hind limbs a little more than 
hall' an inch long; fore limbs very slender, and not quite a quarter 
iuch long." 

Hub. On the sandy banks of the Kuddle Poondy, a tidal river 
near Beypore. 

Genus SEPOPHIS, 
Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the inediau line of the palate, 
which is toothless. Teeth conical. Eye small ; lower eyelid scaly. 





Fig. (51. Upper and side views of head of tiepophis punctatus. 

Ear-opening distinct, minute. Nostril pierced between the rostral, 
the first labial, and a supranasal ; two frontals ; no praefrontals ; 
froutoparietals present. Body much elongate ; limbs absent. 
A single species. 

263. Sepophis punctatus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xlii. 

Sepsophis punctatus, Bedd. Madras Jouni. Med. Sci. 1870 ; Bouleny. 
Cat. Liz. iii, p. 423, pi. xxxvii, fig. 2. 

8nout obtuse, scarcely projecting beyond the labial margin ; 
supranasals forming a median suture and in contact with the first 
and second upper labials ; 4 azygos shields on the upper surface of 
the head, first 3 broader than long, first (the frontonasal) largest, 
second a little smaller than third, fourth smallest ; 4 supraoculars, 
first and second in contact with the first frontal ; 6 supraciliaries ; 
f rontoparietals separated ; parietals narrow ; fourth upper labial 
entering the orbit. 20 scales round the middle of the body. Prse- 
anals scarcely enlarged. A bud-like rudiment of the fore limb 
externally. Tail as long as head and body. Cream-coloured ; 

Q 



226 SCINCIDJE. 

sides blackish brown ; two series of dark brown spots or dots 
along the back. 

Prom snout to vent 4*25 inches. 

Hob. Golgonda Hills, near Vizagapatain, 3000 i'eet, and Gorge 
Hills, Godavari, 2000 feet. 

Genus CHALCIDOSEPS, 

Boulenger, Cat. Liz. iii, p. 423, 1887. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate, 
which is toothless. Teeth conical. Eye small ; lower eyelid scaly. 
Ear-opening distinct, minute. Nostril pierced in the rostral, close 





Fig. 62. Upper and side views of head of Chakidoseps thwaitesii. 

to the posterior border ; no supranasals ; pnefrontals and fronto- 
parietals absent. Body much elongate ; limbs very short, tetra- 
dactyle. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

2G4. Chalcidoseps thwaitesii. 

Nessia thwaitesii, GiintJi. A. M. N. H. (4) ix, 1872, p. 80 ; T/tcob. 

Cat. p. 68. 
Chalcidoseps thwaitesii, Bouleny.Cat. Liz. iii, p. 423, pl.xxxviii, fig. 1. 

Snout obtuse, scarcely projecting beyond the labial margin ; 
frontonasal broader than long, broader than the frontal and about 
half as long ; the latter longer than broad, angularly emarginate on 
each side by the first supraocular ; 5 supraoculars ; 7 supraciliaries ; 
interparietal triangular, narrower than the frontal and half as long ; 
parietals forming a suture behind the interparietal ; a pair of 
uuchals and a pair of temporals broader the parietals ; second 
upper labial largest, third entering the orbit. 24 scales round the 
middle of the body. Prrcanals not enlarged. Digits very short. 
Tail half as long as head and body. Brown above, yellowish 
below, each scale with darker centre. 

From snout to vent 2-6 inches; tail 1'3. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

Genus ACONTIAS, 

Cuvier, Regne An. ii, p. 60, 1817. 

Palatine bones not meeting on the median line of the palate, 



ACONTIAS. 227 

which is toothless. Teeth couical. Eye small, with transparent 
lower eyelid ; upper eyelid not developed. Ear hidden or just dis- 
tinguishable. Nostril pierced in the large rostral shield, with the 





Fig. 63. Upper and side views of head of Acontias layardii. 

posterior border of which it is connected by a long straight hori- 
zontal suture ; no supranasals ; no praefrontals or frontoparietals. 
Body much elongate ; limbs rudimentary or absent. 

Distribution. South Africa, Madagascar, Ceylon. 9 species are 
known. 

Synopsis of Ceylonese Species. 

A. luterpavietal broader than the frontal. 

a. Limbs present, tridactyle A. burtonii, p. 227. 

b. Limbs present, bud-like A. monodactijlus, p. 228. 

c. Limbs absent A. layardii, p. 228. 

B. Interparietal narrower than the frontal ; 

bud-like rudiments of hind liinbs A. sarasinontin, p. 228. 

265. Acontias burtonii. 

Nessia burtonii, Gray, Ann. JN 7 . H. ii, 1839, p. 336 ; Kelaart, Prodi: 

ii, p. 11 ; Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 97 ; Theob. Cat. p. 68. 
Acontias burtouii, Bouleng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 425. 

Head conical ; snout long, pointed, projecting ; ear-opening dis- 
tinct, minute ; rostral covering about one-third of the snout ; mental 
moderate ; frontonasal longer than the rostral and slightly shorter 
than the frontal ; the latter shield about as broad as long, angularly 
emargiuate on each side by the first supraocular ; 4 supraoculars ; 
supraciliaries ; interparietal nearly as long as the frontal and a 
little broader ; parietals narrow ; loreal and first upper labial very 
long, much longer than the rostral ; second labial entering the 
orbit. 24 scales round the middle of the body, equal. Both pairs 
of limbs present, minute, tridactyle, clawed. Praeanal scales not 
or scarcely enlarged. Length of the tail contained about 1| times 
in that of the head and body. Brown, lighter beneath, each scale 
edged with darker. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 1'8. 

Hab. Ceylon. 



228 

266. Acontias monodactylus. 

Evesia monodactylus, Gray, Ann. N. H. ii, 1839, p. 336. 
Nessia monodactyla, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 97 ; Theob. Cat. p. 68. 
Acontias monodactylus, Bouleny. Cat. Liz. in, p. 425. 

Snout shorter than in the preceding, more obtuse ; ear-opening 
distinct, minute ; rostral covering nearly half the snout ; mental 
moderate ; frontonasal a little shorter than the rostral, shorter than 
the frontal ; the latter shield as long as broad or a little broader 
than long, angularly emarginate on each side by the first supra- 
ocular ; 3 supraoculars ; 6 supraciliaries ; interparietal nearly as 
long as the frontal and a little broader ; parietals narrow : loreal 
and first upper labial scarcely longer than the rostral ; second labial 
entering the orbit. 24 scales round the middle of the body, equal. 
Both pairs of Limbs represented by undivided, bud-like rudiments. 
Prseanal scales not enlarged. Length of tail one-third of the total. 
Brown, lighter beneath, each scale edged with darker. 

From snout to vent 3-5 inches ; tail 1'6. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

267. Acontias layardii. 

Acoutias layardi, Kelaart, Prodr. ii, p. 12 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. 1. p. 96 ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 67 ; Boukng. Cat. Liz. iii, p. 426. 

Head conical ; snout acuminate, projecting ; ear hidden ; rostral 
covering not quite half the snout ; mental moderate ; frontonasal 
as long as the rostral, slightly shorter than the frontal ; the latter 
shield about as broad as long, angularly euiargiuate on each side 
by the first supraocular ; 3 supraoculars ; 6 supraciliaries ; inter- 
parietal nearly as long as the frontal and a little broader ; parietals 
narrow ; loreal and first labial a little longer than the rostral ; 
second labial entering the orbit. 22 scales round the middle of 
the body, equal. Limbs absent. Praeanal scales not enlarged. 
Length of tail about one-third of the total. Brown, each scale 
edged with darker. 

From snout to vent 3 inches ; tail 1-3. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

268. Acontias sarasinorum. 

Acontias sarasinorum, F. Miillei; Verh. Nat. Ges. Basel, viii, 1889, 
p. 702, pi. x. 

Head conical ; snout obtuse, prominent ; ear-opening distinct, 
but very minute ; rostral covering not quite half the snout ; mental 
moderate ; frontonasal shorter than the rostral or the frontal ; the 
latter shield a little broader than long, angularly emargiuate on each 
side by the first supraocular ; 4 supraoculars ; interparietal trian- 
gular, equilateral, much narrower than the frontal; parietals narrow ; 
2 loreals, together as long as the first labial, which is shorter than 
the rostral ; second and third labials entering the orbit. 24 (22 ?) 
scales round the middle of the body. Bud-like rudiments of hind 
limbs. Praeanal scales not enlarged. Length of tail about one- 
third of the total. Pale brown, each scale edged with darker. 

Total length 5-5 inches ; tail 1-9. 

Hab. Ceylon. I have not seen this newly described Acontias. 



DIBAM1DA 1 . 



229 



Family VIII. DIBAMID.E. 

Tongue short, bifid posteriorly, pointed, undivided in front, 
covered with curved lamellae or plicae. Teeth small, pointed, hooked, 
none on palate. Skull compact ; no interorbital septum ; no 
columella cranii ; no arches ; no infraorbital foramen ; praemaxillary 
double. Fore limbs absent ; the hind pair represented, in the male, 
by a pair of flaps on the sides of the anal opening ; no rudiments of 
the sternal apparatus. Body vermiform, covered with cycloid im- 
bricate scales. No osteodermal plates. Eyes concealed under the 
skin. Xo ear-opening. No prseanal pores. 

A single genus and a single species, ranging from the Nicobars 
to New Guinea. 





Fig. 64. Upper and side views of head of Dibamvs nova-guinea. 





Fig. 65. Anal region of Dibamus nova-guinea, a. Female, b. Male. 
I. Rudimentary limbs. 



Genus DIBAMUS, 
Dum. & Bibr. Erp. Gen. v, p. 833, 1839. 

Snout normally covered by three large shields, viz. the rostral, 
and a labial on each side, which, however, may fuse into a single 



230 CHAM^LEONTIDJE. 

shield. Nostril pierced in the rostral, with a straight horizontal 
suture behind it. Limbs totally absent in the female, the hind 
pair represented in the male by two flap-like rudiments. 

269. Dibamns novse-guinese. 

Dibamus novse-guineje, Diim. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. v, p. 834 ; Bouleng. 

Cat. Liz. 'ill, p. 435. 

Rliinophidion nicobaricurn, Steindaclm. Novara, Kept. p. 53. 
Typhloscincus nicobaricus, Steind. 1. c. p. 04, pi. iii, figs. 6-8. 
Dibamus nicobaricus, Stoliczlta, J. A. S. B. xhi, 1873, p. 168 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 69 ; Boukny. 1. c. 

Snout conical, obtuse, slightly projecting. 4 enlarged shields on 
the head besides the rostral and labials, viz. a frontal, an iuterparie- 
tal, and an ocular on each side ; interparietal shield largest ; eye 
scarcely distinguishable through the ocular ; a narrow, elongate, 
trapezoidal mental ; a very large sublabial on each side. Scales 
equal, 22 to 26 round the middle of the body. Prseanal scales 
very small. Tail very short, obtuse. Uniform purplish-brown. 

Total length 6-5 inches. 

Hob. Nicobars, Sumatra, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea. 



Suborder II. RHIPTOGLOSSA. 

External nasal openings bounded by the maxillary and the pne- 
frontal, the nasal bones being excluded from their border ; vomer 
single ; pterygoids not reaching quadrate. No clavicles or inter- 
clavicle, though the limbs are well developed. Digits united 
in two bundles, forming a grasping organ. Tongue cylindrical, 
extremely extensile and projectile, sheathed at the base, club-shaped 
and viscose at the end, with an exceedingly elongate glossohyal 
bone. 

A single family. 

Family I. CHAM^ELEONTID^. 

The head usually forms a bony casque, ornamented with crests or 
tubercles. The interorbital septum is present. PraDmaxillary ex- 
tremely small, edentulous ; orbit bony all round, the pra?- and post- 
frontals often joining to form a supraorbital roof ; a pair of supra- 
nasal fontanelles, bordered by the nasals, the praefrontals, and the 
frontal ; the latter bone single ; " parietal " foramen, if present, 
pierced in the frontal ; parietal single, often much narrowed and 
compressed, forming a crest, and meeting posteriorly the extremities 
of the squamosals. In some species the parietals in the adult are 
much expanded and form a bony slab. Dentition acrodont ; teeth 



CHAM^LEONTID^ 1 . 



231 



compressed, triangular, more or less distinctly tricuspid. Palate 
toothless. Eye large, covered by a thick granular lid pierced with 
a small central opening for the pupil. No tympanum. Body 
compressed ; neck very short. Vertebrae proccelian. Abdominal 
ribs present. Limbs long, raising the body. Digits arranged in 




Fig. C6. Head of Chamaekon calcamtus, with projected tongue. 

bundles of 2 and 3 ; in the hand, the inner bundle is formed of three, 
the outer of two digits ; it is the reverse in the foot. Tail pre- 
hensile. Head and body covered with granules or tubercles. 




Kg. t>7. Hand of Cka/tiutleon calcuratus. 



Physiologically as well as anatomically, Chameleons stand by 
themselves among Eeptiles, as is evidenced by the mobility and inde- 
pendent action of their eyes, the projectility of their tongue, the 
slow and deliberate movements of their limbs. The changeable 
hue of the skin, first noticed in them, is a psculiarity shared by 
many other lizards, and especially by Calotes. 



232 OPHIDIA. 

Some 55 species are known, arranged in three genera. About half 
of the species occur in Madagascar and neighbouring islands, the 
other half chiefly in Africa ; the common Chameleon is Mediterra- 
nean ; a species inhabits Socotra, another South Arabia, and a third 
India and Ceylon. 

Genus CHAMELEON, 
Laurenti, Syn. Kept. p. 45, 1768. 

Claws simple ; scales on soles smooth. Tail at least as long as 
the body. 

270. Chamaeleon calcaratus. 

Chainaeleon calcaratus, Merrem, 7Vw. p. 102; Bouleny. Cat. Liz, 

iii, p. 445, pi. xxxix, %. 2. 
Chamaeleon zeylonicus (non Lour.). Jerdoii. J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, 

p. 466. 
Chameleon vulgaris (non Daiul.}, Gilnth. Kept. S. I. p. 162 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 120. 

Casque much elevated posteriorly, with strong curved parietal 
crest ; the distance between the commissure of the mouth and the 
extremity of the casque equals or nearly equals the distance between 
the end of the snout and the hinder extremity of the mandible ; no 
rostral appendages ; a strong lateral crest, not reaching the end of 
the parietal crest ; an indication of a dermal occipital lobe on each 
side, not reaching the parietal crest. ?u> enlarged tubercles on the 
body ; a feebly serrated dorsal crest ; a series of conical tubercles 
form a very distinct crest along the throat and belly. Male with a 
tarsal process or spur. Tail longer than head and body. Gular- 
ventral crest white ; commissure of the mouth white. 

From snout to vent 7 inches ; tail 8. 

Hal. Wooded districts of Peninsular India south of the Gangetic 
plain, and Ceylon. 



Suborder III. OPHIDIA. 

The most characteristic peculiarity of Ophidians as compared to 
Lacertians is the absence of solid union between the rarni of the 
mandible, the two halves being connected in front by an elastic 
ligament ; a structure which allows the animal to dilate its mouth 
and swallow a prey larger than the buccal orifice would otherwise 
admit. In most Snakes (Boidce, Colulridte, Viperida;), the bones 
of the upper jaw and of the palate are likewise mobile, thus 
allowing a dilatation of the gape to an extraordinary degree. There 
are no movable eyelids : the lid extends as a transparent disk 
over the eyeball, and its outer layer is cast off periodically in a 



OP1ILDIA. 233 

single piece with the rest of the epidermis. No Snakes have an 
ear-opening. The tongue is smooth, bifid, and retractile into a 
basal sheath. Limbs are absent, and the animal moves by lateral 
undulations. 

The primary division of Ophidians into poisonous and non- 
poisonous must be regarded as unscientific ; and, although adopted 
almost generally, it is in so far incorrect that a number of forms 
(OmgQuxjlypha) usually ranked as harmless are really poisonous, 
although their bite may be without effect on man and large animals. 
Experiments recently made on Ccelopeltis, a genus allied to Psammo- 
phis *, and Dryophisf, have shown that these snakes are poisonous, 
and that they paralyze their small prey before deglutition. It is 
probable that all Snakes with grooved teeth will prove to be 
poisonous, to a greater or less degree, as it is clear, a priori, that 
these grooved fangs are not without a function. I have therefore 
abandoned this physiological character in dividing the Snakes into 
families. Poisonous as well as harmless forms are arranged under 
Colubridw. All Viperidw are poisonous. 

The poison-gland is situated on each side above the upper jaw, 
below and behind the eye, and in some Elapoid forms even extends 
far back along each side of the body. This gland communicates 
by a duct with the poison-fangs, which are enlarged, channelled or 
" perforated " teeth. The difference between channelled and per- 
forated fangs is but one of degree, and the term " perforated " is 
anatomically incorrect. In both these types, the structure of the 
teeth is essentially the same ; they are folded over so as to form a 
duct to carry the poisonous secretion ; when the edges meet and 
coalesce, a perforated fang is formed, when they merely approach 
each other, the channelled form results. 

A general desire is felt by those not well acquainted with Snakes 
to be able to distinguish at a glance between harmless and 
poisonous forms. To meet this requirement, various criteria have 
been proposed by authors, none of which, however, are satisfactory. 
It is well to state at once that there is no sure method of dis- 
tinguishing the two kinds by external characters ; except, of course, 
by a knowledge of the various forms. And even then, a cursory 
examination is not always sufficient, since there is, in some cases, a 
striking resemblance between Snakes of totally different affinities, 
by which even specialists may be at first deceived. In short, 
nothing but an examination of the dentition can afford positive 
information as to the poisonous or non-poisonous nature of an 
unknown Snake. 

About 1500 species of Snakes are known. They may be arranged 
in nine families, all represented in India, and defined in the fol- 
lowing synopsis. 



* Peracca & Deregibus, Arch. Ital. Biol. v, 1884, p. 108. 
t Vaillant, Mem. Cent, SOP. Philom. 1888, p. 44. 



234 



TYPHLOPIDJE 



1. Typhlopidae, p. 234. 



2. Glauconiidae, p. 242. 



Sync>2>sis of the Families. 

A. No transpalatine; pterygoids not ex- 

tending to quadrate or mandible ; no 
supratemporal ; prsefrontals forming a 
suture with nasals ; coronoid present ; 
vestiges of pelvic arch. 
a. Maxillary vertical, loosely attached, 

toothed; mandible edentulous; a 

single pelvic bone 

l>. Maxillary bordering mouth, forming 

a suture with praemaxillary, prse- 

frontal, and frontal, toothless'; lower 

jaw toothed ; pubis and ischium 

present, latter forming a symphysis . 

B. Transpalatine present ; both jaws 

toothed. 

a. Coronoid present ; prsefrontals forming 

a suture with nasals. 
a'. Vestiges of hind limbs ; supratem- 
poral present. 

a". Supratemporal large, suspend- 
ing the quadrate 3. Boidae, p. 244. 

b". Supratemporal small,intercalated 

in the cranial wall 4. Dysiidae, p. 249. 

b'. No vestiges of limbs; supratem- 
poral absent 5. Uropeltidae, p. 251 

b. Coronoid absent ; supratemporal pre- 

sent, suspending the quadrate. 
ft '. Maxillary horizontal ; pterygoids 

reaching quadrate or mandible. 
ft". Preefrontal bones forming a 

suture with nasals 

b". Prsefrontals notformiug a suture 

with nasals 

b'. Maxillary horizontal, converging 
posteriorly toward palatines ; pte- 
rygoids not reaching quadrate or ur . 

mandible 8. Amblycephalidas, 

c'. Maxillary vertically erectile, per- 
pendicular to transpalatine; ptery- 
goids reaching quadrate or man- 
dible 9. Viperidae, p. 417. 



0. Xenopeltidse, p. 27"). 
7. Colubridas, p. 277. 

[p. 414. 



Family I. TYPHLOPIDAE. 

Cranial bones solidly united ; no transpalatine ; pterygoids not 
extending to mandible ; no snpratemporal ; praefrontals forming a 
suture with nasals ; maxillary vertical, loosely attached, with a 
few teeth ; no teeth on palate. Mandible edentulous ; coronoid 
bone present. Vestiges of pelvis, reduced to a single bone on 
each side. Body covered with uniform cycloid scales ; eyes under 
the shields. 



TYPIILOPS. 



235 



Small worm-like Snakes leading a subterranean life. The number 
of species known is very great, nearly a hundred, constituting four 





-pro 



A R 

Fig. 68. Skull of Typhlops diardi. 

A. Upper view. B. Lower view. 



ar. Articular. 
bo. Basioccipital. 
bp. Basisphenoid. 
cor. Coronoid. 
d. Dentary. 
eo. Exoccipital. 


/. Frontal. 
m. Maxillary. 
. Nasal. 
p. Parietal. 
pm. Procmaxillary. 
prf. PrasfrontaL 


pro. Prootic. 
pt. Pterygoid. 
q. Quadrate. 
so. Supraoccipital. 
tit. Turbinal. 
v. Vomer. 



genera, of which but one is represented in India and its depen- 
dencies. They are found all over the hotter parts of the globe. 
Oviparous : eggs very large, elongate, few in number. 





B 

Fig. 69. Head of Typhlops braminus. 

A. Upper view. B. Side view. 
To illustrate the nomenclature of the shields. 
/'. Frontal. ,>. Ocular. prf. Prosfrontal. 

ip. Interparietal. p. Parietal. r. Kostral. 

I. Labial. no. Praeocular. ,o. Supraocular. 

n. Nasal. 



Genus TYPHLOPS, 

Schneider, Hist. Amph. ii, p. 339, 1801. 

Head with large shields ; nostril in a single or divided nasal. 
Tail extremely short. 

Distribution. Southern Asia, borders of the Mediterranean, 
Africa, Australia, Central and South America, and "West Indies. 
13 species are known from India and its dependencies. 



2<5D TTPIILOPIDjE. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Snout rounded ; nostrils lateral. 

. No subocular, ocular in contact with 

3rd and 4th labials. 
a'. Nasal completely divided into two. 
a", 18 or 20 scales round body. 

. Anterior nasal in contact with 
prseocular ; posterior nasal sepa- 
rated from its fellow by prse- 

froutal T. bramimis, p. 236. 

ft. Anterior nasal separated from 
preeocular by posterior nasal, 
which forms a suture with its 

fellow on upper surface of head . 7'. beddomii, p. 237. 
b". 22 scales round body. 

a. Upper part of rostral about -| 

width of head T. leucomelas, p. 237. 

/3. Upper part of rostral hardly i 

width of head T. jerdoni, p. 238. 

b'. Nasal nearly completely divided ; 24 

or 26 scales round body. 
a". No pits under snout. 

o. Upper part of rostral hardly | 

width of head T. oatesii, p. 238. 

/3. Upper part of rostral about 

width of head T. diardi, p. 238. 

b". A pair of pits under snout T. bothriorhynchus, p. 239. 

c'. Nasal semidivided. 

a. ]8 scales round body T. porrectus, p. 240. 

/3. 22 scales round body ; tail more 

than twice as long as broad .... 7'. theobdldianus, p. 240. 
b. A subocular, separating ocular from 
3rd labial ; nasal completely divided ; 
18 scales round body. 

'. Ocular in contact with 4th labial . . T. mirus, p. 240. 
//. Ocular separated from labials by 2 

suboeulars T. andumanensis, p. 241. 

B. Snout rounded ; nostrils inferior ; nasal 

semidivided ; 22 scales round body .... T. temdcollis, p. 241. 
0. Snout pointed and hooked, with sharp 
horizontal edge and inferior nostrils ; 
latter touching rostral ; 28 to 36 scales 
round body T. acutus, p. 241. 

271. Typhlops braminus. 

littssell, Ind. Serp. \, pi. xliii. 

Eryx brain inus, Daud. Kept, vii, p. 279. 

Typhlops braminus, Cuv. Reyne. An. 2nd ed. ii, p. 73 ; Dum. Sf Bibr. 

.Erp. Gen. vi, p. 309 ; Cantor, J. A. 8. B. xvi, 1847, p. 899; Jan, 

Icon. Ophid. p. 12, 1. 3, pis. iv & v, fig. 16 ; Giinth. Eept. B. I. 

p. 175, pi. xvi, fig. i ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 370; 

Stolickza, J. A. 8. B. xl, 1871, p. 425 ; Theob. Cat. p. 125 : Murray, 

Zool. 8ind, p. 374. 

Typhlops tenuis (non Salv.~), Giinth. Eept. B. I. p. 176, pi. xvi, fig. C. 
Typhlops pammeces, Giint/i. op. cit. p. 444 ; Theob. Cat. p. 125. 



TYPHLOPS. 237 

Snout round and moderately projecting; nostrils lateral. Rostral 
narrow, its upper portion hardly one third the width of the head, 
not extending quite to the level of the eyes ; nostril between two 
nasals, the anterior (or lower) of which is in contact with the prse- 
ocular ; the latter shield nearly as large as the ocular ; eye distinct ; 
pnefrontal, frontal, supraoculars, and parietals a little larger than 
the scales on the body ; praef rental in contact with the rostral ; 4 
upper labials. Diameter of body 33 to 5o times iu the total 
length ; tail a little longer than broad, ending in a spine. 20 scales 
round the body. Brown or blackish above, lighter beneath ; snout, 
anal region, and end of tail usually whitish. 

Total length 7 inches. 

Nab. This is the commonest species, distributed all over India 
and its dependencies. Its range extends to Southern China, the 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, Arabia, Africa south of the 
Equator, Madagascar, and the Islands of the Indian Ocean. Found 
occasionally in large numbers in decayed wood. 

272. Typhlops beddomii. 

Snout rounded and moderately prominent ; nostrils lateral, 
llostral narrow, its upper portion hardly one third the width of the 
head, not extending to the level of the eyes ; nostril between two 
nasals, the anterior (or lower) of whicli is in contact with the first 
and second labials, the upper forming a suture behind the rostral ; 
a pi'scocular, nearly as large as the ocular : eye distinct; upper 
head-shields a little larger than the scales on the body ; 4 upper 
labials. Diameter of body 20 to 40 times in the total length ; tail 
a little longer than broad, not ending in a spine, the terminal scale 
obtusely conical. 18 scales round the body. Brown above, lighter 
beneath ; usually a more or less distinct darker vertebral line ; 
end of snout and chin, and anal region, whitish. 

Total length 5 inches. 

Hub. This species has a rather wide distribution in the hills of 
the Indian Peninsula, Col. Beddome having collected specimens in 
the Kimedy Hills (Vizagapatam district) and in the Auaimalai and 
Travancore Hills, between 2000 and 5000 feet 

273. Typhlops leucomelas. 

Snout rounded and moderately projecting ; nostrils lateral, 
liostral narrow, its upper portion about one third the width of the 
head, extending to between the eyes; nostril between two nasals, 
the autei'ior of which is in contact with the first and second labials 
and extends to the upper surface of the head ; a pricocular, nearly 
as large as the ocular ; eye distinct ; upper head-scales a little- 
larger than the scales on the body ; 4 upper labials. Diameter of 
body 32 times in the total length ; tail slightly longer than broad, 
ending in a point. 22 scales round the body. Blackish brown 
above, pure white beneath. 

Total length 5 inches. 



238 TTPHLOPID^:. 

Hal. A single specimen was found by Col. Beddome on the 
Haycock Mountain (2000 ft.) in Ceylon, 40 miles from Point de 
Galle. 

274. Typhlops jerdoni. 

Snout rounded and moderately projecting ; nostrils lateral. 
Kostral very narrow, its upper portion hardly one fourth the width 
of the head, extending to the level of the eyes ; nostril between 
two nasals, the anterior of which is in contact with the first and 
second labials and extends to the upper surface of the head ; a 
praeocular, nearly as large as the ocular ; eye distinct ; supraoculars 
and parietals much larger than the scales on the body ; 4 upper 
labials. Diameter of body 37 to 46 times in the total length ; 
tail a little longer than broad, ending in a spine. 22 scales round 
the body. Brown above, lighter beneath : end of snout, anal 
region, and lower surface of tail whitish. 

Total length 9 inches. 

Nab. Three specimens were obtained in the Khiisi Hills and 
presented to the British Museum by the late Mr. T. C. Jerdoii. 

275. Typhlops oatesii. 

Snout rounded and moderately projecting ; nostrils lateral, 
llostral very narrow, its upper portion hardly one fourth the width 
of the head, extending to the level of the eyes ; nasal nearly com- 
pletely divided, the cleft proceeding from the second labial; a 
praiocular, a little smaller than the ocular ; eye distinct ; upper 
head-scales a little larger than the scales on the body ; 4 upper 
labials. Diameter of body 31 to 33 times in the total length ; 
tail as long as broad or broader than long, ending in a spine. 24 
scales round the body. Yellowish, with confluent brown spots 
corresponding to the series of scales and forming longitudinal lines 
which are broader than the interspaces. 

Total length 8 inches. 

Hob. Three specimens, from Table Island, Cocos group, were 
presented to the British Museum by Mr. E. "W". Gates. 



270. Typhlops diardi. 

Typhlops diardi, &7<fa/. Abbild. p. 39; Dmn. $ liibr. Erp. Gen. vi. 

'p. 300; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 19, 1. 3, pis. iv, v, tig. 10. 
Argyrophis horsfieldii, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 137. 
Tvphlops striolatus, Peters, MB. Ak. fieri. 1861, p. 922; Giinth. 

' Rept. B. 1. p. 174 ; Theob. Cat. p. 122. 
Typhlops horsfieldii, Giinth. op. cit. p. 173. pi. xvi, tig. E ; Stoliczka. 

J. A. S. . xl, 1871, p. 423 ; Theob. Cat. p. 121. 
Typhlops baraianus, Stoliczka, P. A. S. E. 1872, p. 144. 

Snout rounded and strongly projecting ; nostrils lateral. Eos- 
tral narrow, its upper portion about one third the width of the 



TYPHLOPS. 239 

head, extending to between the eyes ; nasal nearly completely 
divided, the cleft proceeding from the second labial ; a prseocular, 
nearly as large as the ocular ; eye distinct ; prref rental and frontal 




Pig. 7U. Typhlops diardi. 

usually scarcely larger than the scales on the body, supraoculars 
and parietals broader; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body 29 
to 34 times in the total length ; tail as long as broad or broader 
than long, ending in a spine. 24 to 20 scales round the body. 
Olive-brown above, each scale with a more or less distinct light 
transverse streak ; lower parts pale brownish or yellowish. 

Total length 17 inches. 

Hab. Bengal, Sikhim, Khtisi Hills, Assam, Burma, Cochin China. 

277. Typhlops bothriorhynchus. 

Typhlops bothriorhyncliu?, G'tinth. Kept. B. I. p. 174, pi. xvi, tig. G ; 
Anders, P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 108 : 8tdicska, J. A. .$'. B. \\, 1871, ]>. 4i*4 ; 
TAeob. Cat. p. 12'2. 

Snout rounded and strongly projecting; nostrils lateral; a 
rounded concavity on each side below the nostrils, and two others, 
less marked, on the third labial and on the side of the rostral. 
Rostral narrow, its upper portion about one third the width of the 
head, extending to between the eyes ; nasal nearly completely 
divided, the cleft proceeding from the second labial and passing 
through the subuarial pit ; a praeocular, nearly as large as the 
ocular ; eyes distinct ; upper head-scales a little larger than the 
scales on the body; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body 30 times 
in the total length ; tail about as long as broad, ending in a spine. 
24 scales round the body. Dark brown above, paler beneath. 

Total length 10 inches. 

Hab. Northern India (Hardwar, N. W. P. ; Graro Hills, Assam) 
and Malay Peninsula. 



240 TYPHLOPID;E. 



278. Typhlops porrectus. 

Typhlops tennis (turn Salt;), Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 10, 1. o, pis. iv, v, 

'tig. 13. 
Typhlops porrectus, Stoliczka, J.A.S.B. xl, 1871, p. 420, pi. xxv, 

'tigs. 1-4; Tlienb. Cat. p. 124; Blanf. '2nd York. Miss., Rept. 

p. 21 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 374. 

Snout round and moderately projecting ; nostrils lateral. Ros- 
tral narrow, its upper portion about one third the width of the 
head, not extending quite to the level of the eyes, which are very 
indistinct ; nasal semidivided, the cleft extending from the second 
labial to the nostril; prseocular present, nearly as large as the 
ocular; upper head-scales a little larger than the scales on the 
body; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body 70 to 90 times in the 
total length ; tail a little longer than broad, ending in a spine. 
18 scales round the body. Brown above, paler beneath ; snout, 
chin, and lower surface of tail white. 

Total length 8-5 inches. 

Hub. Himalayas, Northern India, from Sind to Bengal, Deccan. 

279. Typhlops theobaldianus. 

Typhlops theobaldianus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871 , p. 429, pi. xxv, 
tigs. 5-8; Theob. Cat. p. 123. 

Snout round and strongly projecting ; nostrils lateral. Rostral 
considerably more than one third (nearly half; the width of the 
head, reaching very far back on the top of the head ; nasal semi- 
divided, the cleft extending from the second labial to the nostril ; 
a prrcocular, nearly as large as the ocular ; eye very indistinct ; 
pra^frontal very slightly longer than frontal ; 4 upper labials. 
Diameter of body about 70 times in the total length ; tail nearly 
thrice as long as broad, terminating in an obtuse point, without 
spine. 22 scales round the body. Greyish brown, slightly paler 
below. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Hab. The single specimen known, which 1 have not seen, is, 
according to Stoliczka, in all probability from India, but without 
any specified locality. 

280. Typhlops mirus. 

Typhlops minis, Jan. Icon. Ophid. p. 9, 1. 1, pis. v, vi, tig. 7; Giint/i. 
Rept. B. 1. p. 170, pi. xvi, fig. H ; Tht-ob. Cat. p. 120. 

Snout round and moderately prominent; nostrils lateral. Ros- 
tral broad, about half the width of the head ; nostril between two 
nasals, the anterior of which is small and in contact with the first 
and second labials ; a prrcocular, nearly as large as the ocular, 
which is in contact with the fourth labial ; a subocular, separating 



TYPHLOPS. 241 

the prseocular and the ocular from the second and third labials ; 
eye indistinct ; upper head-scales a little larger than the scales on 
the body ; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body 43 to 60 times in 
the total length ; tail a little longer than broad, ending obtusely, 
without spine. 18 scales round the body. Brown above, snout 
and lower parts yellowish. 

Total length 5-5 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

281. Typhlops andamanensis. 

Typhlops aiidamanensis, Stolicska, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 428, pi. xxv, 
figs. 9-12 ; TJieob. Cat. p. 124. 

Snout round, moderately prominent; nostrils lateral. Width 
of rostral above about one third the width of the head; nostril 
between two nasals, the anterior of which is small and in contact 
with the first and second labials ; a supraocular, nearly as large as 
the ocular ; both the latter shields separated from the labials by a 
pair of suboculars ; eye indistinct ; upper head-scales scarcely 
enlarged; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body about 40 times in 
the total length ; tail twice as long as broad, very obtuse and termi- 
nating in a minute point. 18 scales round the body. General 
colour above shining deep brownish black, the base of the scales 
being somewhat dull black ; sides viuaceous, paler on the lower 
parts, which are throughout checkered with white ; mouth and the 
tail below, including the tip, also mostly white. 

Total length about 6-5 inches. 

Hab. Andaman Islands. Known from a single specimen, which 
1 have not seen. 

282. Typhlops tennicollis. 

Ouychocephalus (Opkthalinidion) tenuicollis, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 

1864, p 272, pi.-, fig- 2. 
Typhlops tenuicollis, Tfieob. Cat. p. 123. 

Snout round and moderately projecting ; nostrils inferior. 
Eostral broad, its upper portion more than half as broad as the 
head ; nasal semidivided, the cleft proceeding from the second 
labial ; a praocular, about as large as the ocular ; eye not distin- 
guishable ; praefrontal and frontal very broad, broader than the 
ocular and parietal ; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body 65 times 
in the total length ; tail as long as broad, terminal scute obtusely 
conical. 22 scales round the body. Olive-brown above, yellowisji 
beneath. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Said to be from the Himalayas. Unknown to me. 

283. Typhlops acutus. 

Onychocephalus acutus, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vi, p. 333 ; Gunth. 
Rept. B. 1. p. 177, pi. xvi, fig. A; Theob. Cat. p. 126. 

B 



242 



GLATJCONIID.E. 



Typhlops russellii (non Schleff.), Gray, Cat. Liz.-p. 132. 
Onyckocephalus westermanni, Liitk. Kjobenhavn, Vidensk. Meddel. 

1862, p. 306, pi. i, fig. 5. 
Typhlops excipiens, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 9, pi. i, fig. 5. 

Snout pointed and hooked, with sharp horizontal edge and 
inferior nostrils. Eostral very large, extending posteriorly far 
beyond the level of the eyes ; nostril close to rostral ; nasal 
extending over the eye, in contact with and nearly as broad as the 
ocular ; a praeocular and a subocular ; eye distinguishable ; 
praefrontal and supraoculars much broader than the scales on the 
body ; 4 upper labials. Diameter of body 40 to 60 times in the 
total length ; tail as long as broad, or shorter, terminating in a 
spine. 28 to 34 scales round the middle of the body, 30 to 36 
anteriorly. Pale brown above, each scale with or without a yellow- 
ish transverse streak ; yellowish beneath. 

Total length 2 feet. 

Hob. Southern India and Dec-can. 



Family II. GLAUCONIID^. 

Cranial bones solidly united ; no transpalatine ; pterygoids not 




Fig. 71. Glauconia (after Peters). 

A. "Upper view of skull. B. Side view of skull. C. Lower view of pelvis. 

ar. Articular. / (C). Femur. pt. Pterygoid. 

bo. Basioceipital. il. Ilium. pm. Pramaxillary. 

bp. Basisphenoid. is. Ischium. prf. Praifrontal. 

cor. Coronoid. m. Maxillary. pro. Prootic. 

d. Dentary. n. Nasal. pu. Pubis. 

co. Exoccipital. p. Parietal. g. Quadrate. 

/ (A, B). Frontal. pi. Palatine. so. Supraoccipital. 



GLATJCONIA. 243 

extending to inaudible ; no suprateinporal ; praefrontals forming a 
suture with uasals; maxillary bordering the mouth, forming a 
suture with the praemaxillary, praefroutal, and frontal, toothless ; 
no teeth on palate. Lower jaw toothed ; coronoid bone present. 





A. .D 

Fig. 72. Head of Glamonia blanfordii. 

A. Upper view. B. Side view. 

/. Frontal. o. Ocular. pto. Postocular. 

ip. Interparietal. p. Parietal. r. Eostral. 

I. Labial. prf. Proefrontal. so. Bupraocular. 

. Nasal. 

Pelvis present, consisting of ilium, pubis, and ischium ; the latter 
forming a ventral symphysis; a rudimentary femur. Body covered 
with uniform cycloid scales ; eye under the shields. 

Small worm-like Snakes, resembling the TypTilopidos in general 
appearance and habits. A single genus, with about 15 species, of 
which one occurs in Sind. 

Genus GLAUCONIA*, 
Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 139, 1845. 

Head with large shields. Prseanal scales enlarged. Tail very 
short. 

Distribution. Africa, South-western Asia, America. 

284. Glauconia blanfordii. 

Suout rounded ; supraocular present, small ; rostral nearly twice 
as broad as the nasals, reaching nearly to the level of the eyes ; nasal 
completely divided into two ; ocular bordering the lip, between two 
labials. Diameter of body 60 to 70 times in the total length, 
length of tail 12 to 14 times. 14 scales round the body. Pale 
brownish. 

Total length 9| inches. 

Hob. Sind. Five specimens are in the British Museum ; they 
had been referred by Peters (cf. Giinther, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 501) to 
Stenostoma macrorhynchus, Jan, which is, however, a very different 
species. 

* Stenostoma, auct. Both the names Stcnostoma, Wagler, and Cafodon, Duin. 
& Bibr., are preoccupied in Zoology. 



244 



BOIDJE. 



Family III. BOID^E. 

Maxillaries, palatines, and pterygoids movable ; transpulatine 
present ; pterygoids extending to quadrate or mandible ; supra- 
temporal present, attached scale-like to the crauial walls, suspending 
quadrate; prsef rentals forming a suture with nasals. Mandible 
with corouoid bone' Teeth in jaws and on palate. Vestiges of 
pelvis, formed of four elements, viz. ilium, pubis, ischium, and 
femur ; the latter usually terminating in a claw-like spur visible 
on each side of the vent. 




Fig. 73. Skull of Python retieulattig. 
A. Upper view. B. Lower view. 



cu/ff. Angular. 
dr. Articular. 
bo. Basioccipital. 
bp. Basisphenoid. 
c.a. Columella auris. 
cor. Coronoid. 
d. Dentary. 
co. Exoccipilal. 


/. Frontal. 
ni. Maxillary. 
n. Nasal. 
p. Parietal. 
pi. Palatine. 
pal. Prannaxillary. 
prf. Pnefrontal . 
pro. Prootic. 


pt. Pterygoid. 
ptf. Postfrontal. 
q. Quadrate. 
>. Supraoccipital. 
soi'. Supraorbital. 
>>t. Supratemporal. 
tp. Transpalatine. 
c. Vomer. 



This family, which includes the largest JSnakes, is represented 
all over the hotter parts of the globe. It may be divided into 
three subfamilies : 

1. Pythonince. Prseinaxillary teeth and supraorbital bone present. 

2. Ghondropythonince. No prsemaxillary teeth; a supraorbital 
bone. 

3. Boince. No praemaxillary teeth ; no supraorbital bone. 
The first and third 'are represented in India. 



PYTHOJf. 245 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

I. Pythoninee. Teeth in praemaxillary bone ; a supra- 

orbital bone ; subcaudals in two TOWS. [p. 245. 

Head with large shields ; a mental groove .... PYTHON, 

II. Boince. Praemaxillary bone toothless ; no supraorbital 

bone ; subcaudals in a single row. [p. 246. 

Head covered with small scales; no mental groove. GONGYLOPHIS, 
Head covered with small scales; a mental groove. EBYX, p. 247. 

Genus PYTHON, 

Daudiii,Hist, Kept, v, p. 226 (part.), 1803. 

Anterior maxillary and mandibulary teeth very long. Head 
with large symmetrical shields ; rostral, anterior upper labials and 
anterior and posterior lower labials with pits. Eye small, with 
vertical pupil. Scales very small, smooth. Tail prehensile ; 
subcaudals in two rows. 




Fig. 74. Head of Python molnrus. 

Pythons, or Rock-Snakes, are, like other Boidte, oviparous; and 
the curious fact that the female incubates her eggs by coiling herself 
round them has been repeatedly observed in menageries. Snakes 
of this genus are nocturnal ; they live on trees near the water, which 
they frequently enter, and they feed on mammals and birds. 

Seven species of Python are known, four from Africa and three 
from Asia. The latter may be distinguished as follows : 
Four anterior upper labials pitted ; 60-75 scales 

across the body; 297-330 ventrals; 82-102 

subcaudals P. reticulatus, p. 246. 

Two anterior upper labials pitted ; 60-7-5 scales 

across the body; 242-265 ventrals; 60-72 

subcaudals P. molurus, p. 246. 

Two anterior upper labials pitted ; 53-55 scales 

across the body; 160-175 veutrals; 28-32 

subcaudals P. curtus. 



246 BOID^E. 

P. curtus, Hubrecht, with which P. breitensteini, Steind., is 
probably identical, is only known from Sumatra, Borneo, and 
Singapore. 

285. Python reticulatus. 

Boa reticulata, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 264, 

Python schneideri, Me.rr. Tent. p. 89. 

Python reticulatus, Gray, Zool Misc. p. 44 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. 

vi, p. 426 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 902 ; Gitnth. Kept. B. 

I. p. 330 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 97, 1. 8, pi. vi ; Stoh'czka, J. A. 8. B. 

xxxix, p. 205 ; Theob. Cat. p. 205. 

13 upper labials, four anterior pitted, seventh entering the eye ; 
21 to 23 lower labials; frontal usually not divided by a longitudinal 
suture ; two prse- and three or four post-oculars. Scales in 60 to 75 
rows. Ventrals 297-330 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 82-102. Light 
yellowish or brown above, ornate with large circular or rhomboidal 
blackish markings ; a median black line along the head ; lower 
parts yellowish, with small brown spots on the sides. 

Beaches a length of 30 feet. 

Hob. Burma, Nicobars, Malay Peninsula an d Archipelago. 

286. Python molurus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pis. xxii-xxiv and xxxix. 

Coluber molurus, Linn. S. N. i, p. 387. 

Python molurus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 44 ; Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. Gen. 
vi, p. 417 ; Gimth. Rept. B. I. p. 331 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 96, 1. 8, 
pi. ii ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 205 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 206; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, p. 127. 

11 to 13 upper labials, two anterior pitted, seventh entering the 
eye, if not separated by a series of suboculars ; 17 or 18 lower 
labials ; frontal longitudinally divided ; two prse- and three or four 
postoculars. Scales in 60 to 75 rows. Ventrals 242-265 ; anal 
entire ; subcaudals 60-72. Greyish brown or yellowish above, 
with a dorsal series of large elongate subquadrangular reddish- 
brown black-edged spots and on each side a series of smaller spots ; 
a lance-shaped brown marking on the head and nape ; a lateral 
brown band passing through the eye and a brown vertical bar 
below the eye ; lower parts yellowish, sides brown-spotted. 

Grows to 20 feet, or more, but usually not exceeding about 12. 

flab. Peninsular India, Rajputana, and Bengal to the foot of 
the Himalayas ; rare in the Malay Peninsula and Java, and in 
Ceylon. Haly (Rep. Coll. Snakes Colombo Mus. 1886, p. 14) says 
specimens of 10 feet or more were procurable in the Cinnamon 
Gardens only ten years ago, but they seem to have become extinct 
with the extension of the city of Colombo. 

Genus GONGYLOPHIS, 

Wagler, Syst. Amph. p. 192, 1830. 

Anterior maxillary and mandibulary teeth a little longer than 



EBTX. 247 

the posterior. Head covered with small scales. No mental groove. 
Eye very small, with vertical pupil. Scales very small, keeled. 
Tail very short, slightly prehensile : subcaudals simple. 
A single species. 

287. Gongylophis conicus. 

Rtissell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. iv. 

Boa conica, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 268, id. Denkschr. Munch. 

Acad. vii, 1821, p. 119, pi. vi, fig. 2. 
Gongylophis conicus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 45 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

p. 333 ; Theob. Cat. p. 207 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 386. 
Eryx conicus, Dum. 8," Bibr. Erp. Gn. vi, p. 470 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 

p. 73, 1. 4, pi. iii. 




Fig. 75. Gongylophis conicus. 

Eostral about twice as broad as deep, feebly prominent, not 
keeled ; only the nasals and internasals enlarged, the rest of the 
head covered with small obtusely keeled scales ; 8 to 10 scales 
from eye to eye across the forehead; 10 to 15 scales round the 
eye, which is separated from the labials by one or two rows of 
scales ; 1 2 to 14 upper labials. Scales tubercularly keeled ; the 
keels very strong on the tail, in 40 to 47 rows. Ventrals 168-176 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 17-24. Tail tapering to a point. Yellowish 
or brownish grey, with a broad zigzag band or series of dark brown 
black-edged spots along the back ; lower parts uniform white. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 2 inches. 

Hob. India, from Sind to Bengal and the Anaimallai Hills. Feeds 
on mice ; a specimen I kept alive showed a fierce temper. 

Genus EEYX, 

Daudin, Hist. Kept, vii, p. 251 (part.), 1803. 
Anterior maxillary and rnandibulary teeth a little longer than 



248 BOID.E. 

the posterior. Head covered with small scales ; a mental groove. 
Eye very small, with vertical pupil. Scales very small, smooth or 
keeled. Tail very short, not or but very slightly prehensile ; sub- 
caudals simple. 




Fig. 76. Head of Eryxjohnii. 

Distribution. The five or six species of this genus occur in the 
arid sandy regions of Southern Asia and North Africa. 

288. Eryxjohnii. 

Boa johnii, Russell, Ind, Serp. ii, p. 18, pi. xvi, and pi. xvii, fig. 1. 

Eryx johuii, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vi, p. 458 ; Glinth. Rejyt. B. I. 
p. 334 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 71, 1. 4, pi. i, fig. 1 ; Stolickza, 
P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 84 ; Theob. Cat. p. 207 ; Murray, Zool. Stud, 
p. 385. 

Rostral large and broad, with angular horizontal edge ; two 
pairs of small shields behind the rostral ; six to nine scales from 
eye to eye across the forehead ; ten or eleven scales round the 
eye, which is separated from the labials by one or two rows of 
scales ; 10 to 12 upper labials. Scales slightly keeled, in 51 to 65 
rows. Ventrals 194-210 ; anal single ; subcaudals 26-36. Tail 
very blunt, rounded at the end. Sandy grey, reddish, or pale 
brown above, uniform or with more or less distinct blackish trans- 
verse bands, these bauds usually distinct on the tail ; belly brown, 
or spotted with blackish ; young often pale coral-red. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches ; tail 3 inches. 

Hob. Sandy tracts of Central and Southern India, the Punjab, 
Cutch, and Sind. Nocturnal ; feeding on worms and small mam- 
mals. Commonly kept bv snake-charmers. 



ILTSIIDJE. 



249 



Family IV. ILYSIID.E. 

Cranial bones solidly united ; transpalatine present ; pterygoids 
extending to quadrate ; suprateniporal very small and wedged in 
between the adjacent bones ; quadrate very short ; proofrontals 
forming a suture with nasals. Mandible with coronoid bone. 
Teeth in jaws and on palate. Vestiges of pelvis, formed of three 
or four elements, as in the Boidiv, and terminating in a claw-like 
spur usually distinguishable on each side of the vent. 

This family forms a passage from the Boi(l(i> to the Uropeltidce, 
agreeing with the latter in the physiognomy and scaling, with 
the former in the presence of vestiges of pelvis, whilst the sknll 
is exactly intermediate. 

Only two genera are known, the South- American Ilysia and 
the East-Indian Oylvndropkis. 



jam 




ar. Articular. 
bo. Basioccipital. 
cor. Coronoicl. 
d. Deutary. 
eo. Exoccipital. 
f. Frontal. 



Fig. 77. Skull of Cylmdrophis ntfus. 

m. Maxillary. pt. Pterygoid. 

q. Quadrate. 



n. Nasal. 

p. Parietal. 
pm. Pryemaxillary. 
prf. Prrefrontal. 
pro. Prootic. 



so. Supraoccipital. 
st. Supratemporal. 
tp. Transspalatine. 



Genus CYLINDROPHIS, 

Wagler, Icon. Amph., 1828. 

Teeth moderate, subequal, 10 to 12 in each maxillary ; none in 
praem axillary. Head not distinct from neck ; eye very small, with 
round or vertically subelliptical pupil, distinct from the neighbouring 
shields ; a mental groove ; head with large symmetrical shields * ; 



* For the terms applied to the shields of the head, see fig. 87, p. 278. 



250 ILTSHD^E. 

nostril in a single nasal, which forms a suture with its fellow 
behind the rostral ; no loreal or praeocular ; a small postocular. 
Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, in 19 or 21 rows ; ventrals feebly 
enlarged. Tail extremely short and blunt. 

Burrowing snakes, only occasionally found above ground. Feeding 
on insects, worms, and small mammals. Ovoviviparous. 




Fig. 78. Head of Cylindrophis nifus. 

Synopsis of the Species, 

A. Diameter of eye | to |- its distance from 

nostril ; interocular width more than length 

of snout C. . rufiifi, p. 250. 

B. Diameter of eye | to its distance from 

nostril ; interocular width equal to length of 

snout. 

a. Parietals at least as large as frontal C. maculatus, p. 251 . 

l>. Parietals smaller than frontal C. lineatus. 

C. Iweahts, Blanf., is only known from Singapore. 

289. Cylindrophis rufus. 

Anguis ruffa, Law: Syn. Kept. p. 71. 

Anguis scytale, Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, p. 81, pis. xxvii, xxviii. 
Cylindrophis resplendens, Wagl. Icon. Amph. pi. v, fig. 1. 
Cylindrophis melanotus. Wagl. I. c. (annot.) ; Durn. Sf Bibr. Erp. 
Gtn. ^ p. 592. 



L'ROPELTIDJE. 251 

Cylindrophis rufa, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 46 ; Dum. 8f Bibr. t. c. 
p. 595 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 900 ; Gilnth. Kept. B. I. 
p. 179; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 56, 1. 9, pi. iv, figs. 1, 2; Theob. Cat. 
p. 127. 

Diameter of the eye about half or two fifths its distance from the 
nostril. The distance between the eyes greater than the length of 
the snout. Frontal at least as large as the supraoculars, larger than 
the parietals, at least as long as its distance from the rostral. Six 
upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye. Scales in 19 or 
21 rows. Yentrals not twice as large as the contiguous scales, 
185-245; anal divided ; stibcaudals 5-10. Brown or black above, 
with or without alternating light cross-bands : belly white with 
transverse black bands or spots, or black with transverse white 
bands ; lower surface of tail bright vermilion during life. 

Total length 2 feet 5 inches. 

Hab. Burma and Cochin China to the Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. 

290. Cylindrophis maculatus. 

Anguis uiaculata, Linn. Syst. Jfat. i, p. 391 ; Russell, Ind. Serj). ii, 

p. 33, pi. xxix. 
Cylindrophis maculata, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 46 ; Dum. 8f Bibr. Erp. 

Gen. vi, p. 597 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 179 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 

p. 56, 1. 9, pi. iv, fig. 3 ; Theob. Cat. p. 127. 

Diameter of the eye one third to one fourth its distance from 
the nostril. The distance between the eyes equals the length of 
the snout. Frontal usually a little smaller than the supraocular 
or parietal ; six upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye. 
Scales in 19 or 21 rows. Yentrals not twice as large as the 
contiguous scales, 189-201 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 4-6. Above 
with black network enclosing two series of large reddish-brown 
spots along the back ; lower parts white, variegated with black. 

Total length 1 foot 2 inches. 

Hab. Cevlon. 



Family V. UROPELTID.E. 

Cranial bones solidly united ; transpalatine present ; pterygoid 
not extending to quadrate or mandible ; no supratemporal ; quad- 
rate very small ; praefrontals forming a suture with nasals. Man- 
dible with coronoid bone. Both jaws toothed, teeth small and few ; 
palate toothless*. 

Head small and not distinct from neck ; eye small or very small, 
with round pupil. Body cylindrical, rigid ; tail very short. Size 



* Peters has recorded the presence of palatine teeth in Melanophidium and 
Platyptecfriiriis, but I fail to detect any in the British Museum specimens. 



252 



UROPELTID.E. 



Distribution. This family is restricted to the mountains of Ceylon 
and those of Peninsular India, from the Bombay hills on the west 
and the Jeypore (Vizagapatam) hills on the east, southwards, or to 
the heavy forests at the immediate foot of the mountains. 



pm, 





ar. Articular. 
bo. Basioccipital. 
bp. Basispheuoid. 
cor. Coronoid. 
d. Dentary. 
eo. Exoccipital. 



Fig. 79. Skull of SUybura grandis. 
A. Upper view. B. Side view. 

/. Frontal. prf. Prsefrontal. 



Maxillary. 
Nasal. 
Parietal. 
Pterygoid. 



pm. PramaxiJlary. 



pro. Prootic. 

q. Quadrate. 

so. Supraoccipital. 

sp. Splenial. 

tp. Transpalatine. 



The Uropeltidce are burrowing reptiles, hence the name " Earth- 
snakes " by which they are generally known ; they are often 
dug up about coffee- and tea-estates. Colonel Beddome, to whom 
science is indebted for the discovery of the great majority of the 
known species, obtained most of his specimens from under logs and 
large stones in the forests ; but some are also found on the grass- 
land at high elevations, and during the rainy season individuals 
are not unfrequeutly found about the roads. They are ovovivi- 
parous, and live almost entirely upon earth-worms. Many are 
beautifully coloured with red and yellow when alive ; and the 
black forms are remarkable for their iridescence, which is only 
equalled by that of Xenopeltis unicolor and some smooth-scaled 
Scinks. 

The following names in Jerdon's Catalogue (J. A. S. B. xxii, 
1854, p. 527) refer, in all probability, to snakes of this family ; 
but the definition of these species renders their recognition 
impossible, and deprives such names, in the absence of type 
specimens, of any possible claim to priority : 

CyliwlropTiis eurticeps, Cyliwlroplns mavroseells, Pilidion ? mon- 
tantim, Uropeltis affinis, Xenopeltis'? trivirr/fttus. All from the 
Nilgiris. 



mOPELTIS. 



253 



Synopsis of the Genera. 

A. Eye ill the ocular shield ; fourth labial 

in contact with the parietal. 
(i. No mental groove. 

a. No supraocular shield. 

a". Tail obliquely truncated, ending 
in a large, rugose, circular or 

oval, flat shield UROPELTIS, p. 253. 

b" '. Tail ending in a large convex 

rugose shield, which is neither 

truncated nor spinose at end . . RHIXOPHIS, p. 254. 

c". Terminal caudal scute small, 

square at the end or bicuspid, 

the points side by side SILYBURA, p. 257. 

d". Tail compressed, the terminal 

scute with two superposed, single [p. 270. 

or bifid points PSEUDOPLKCTRURUS, 

b'. A supraocular shield PLECTRURUS, p. 270. 

b. A median groove along chin BfBLANOPHIDIUM, p. 272. 

B. Eye distinct from surrounding shields; 

a temporal shield separates fourth labial 

from parietal PLATYPLBCTBUBU8, p. 273. 



Genus UROPELTIS, 

Cuvier, Itegne An., 2nd ed., ii, p. 76 (part.), 1820. 
Eye in Ihe ocular shield. No mental groove. 



No supraocular 




Fig. 80. Uropeltis graiidis. 
Upper surface of tail and upper and side views of head. 

110 temporal. Tail obliquely truncated, ending in a large, rugose, 
circular or oval, flat shield. 
Distribution. Ceylon. 



254 UBOPELTID.E. 

291. Uropeltis grandis. 

Uropeltis philippiiius, Cue. Riiyne An., 2nd ed., ii, p. 76 ; Dum. Sf 
Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii. p. 161, pi. lix, tig. 2 ; Peters, Uropelt. p. 20 ; 
Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 46, 1. 9, pi. ii, f. 1. 

Uropeltis graudis, Keluart, Prodr. ii, p. 15 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 188 ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 132 ; Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 9. 

Uropeltis saffragamus, Kelaart, 1. c. p. 15. 

Uropeltis pardalis, Kelaart, 1. c. p. 16. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral convex, much produced pos- 
teriorly, nearly as long as the frontal; nasals forming a suture 
behind the rostral. Diameter of body about one twentieth of the 
total length. 19 scales round the middle of the body, 23 behind 
the head. Ventrals not twice as large as the contiguous scales, 
129-147 ; subcaudals 6-9. Caudal disk longer than the shielded 
part of the head. Dark brown or blackish above, with or without 
yellow spots ; yellow beneath, with or without dark brown spots. 

Total length 18 inches. The largest species of the family. 

ffab. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 



Genus RHINOPHIS, 
Heniprich, Grundr. d. Naturg. p. 119, 1829. 

Eye in the ocular shield. No mental groove. No supraocular ; 
no temporal. Tail ending in a large convex rugose shield, which 
is neither truncated nor spinose at the end. In all the species the 
nasals are separated by the rostral. 

Of the six species, five are from Ceylon and one from Southern 
India. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

A. Caudal shield as long as shielded part of 
head. 

a. Rostral strongly keeled, half as long as 

shielded part of head. 
'. Diameter of body 37 to 39 times in total 

length; ventrals 217-223 JR. o.vt/rkynchus, p. 255. 

b'. Diameter of body 47 to 49 times in total 

length ; ventrals 236-246 R. punctatus, p. 255. 

b. Rostral not half as long as shielded part of 



a'. Diameter of body 24 to 34 times in total 

length ; ventrals 153-172 ; 17 scales 

round middle of body R. planiceps, p. 255. 

I '. Diameter of body 26 to 30 times in total 

length; ventrals 190-204; 17 scales 

round middle of body R. trevelyanus, p. 256. 

c'. Diameter of body 30 to 38 times in total 

length; ventrals 182-214; 15 scales 

round middle of body R. sanyuineus, p. 256. 

B. Caudal shield much shorter than shielded 

part of head R. blythii, p. 256. 



Typklops 
Ixhiuohi 



BHINOPHIS. 255 

292. Rhinophis oxyrhynclras. 

oxyrhynchus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 341. 
Ixhiuophis oxyrhyncluis, Hempr. Grundr. d. Natury. p. 119; Dutn. 

$ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 156 ; Peters, Uropelt. p. 9, pi. ii, fig. 1 ; 

Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 184 ; Theob. Cat. p. 128 ; Beddome, A. M. 

N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 5. 

Dapatnaya lankadivana, Kelaart, Prodr. ii, p. 16. 
Mytilia unimaculata, Gray, P.Z.S. 1858, p. 264, fig. 4. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral compressed, keeled above, halt' 
as long as the shielded part of the head, separating the nasals ; 
frontal not longer than broad. Diameter of body 37 to 39 times 
in the total length. 17 to 19 scales round the middle of the body, 
19 to 21 behind the head. Yeutrals only a little larger than the 
contiguous scales, 217-223; subcaudals 5-7. Caudal disk about 
as long as the shielded part of the head. Uniform brown, each 
scale with a lighter margin ; some yellow markings about the tail. 

Total length 17 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 



293. Ehinopliis punctatus. 

Rhinophis punctatus, Mull, in Tiedem. Zeitschr. f. Physiol. iv. 1832, 
p. 248 ; bum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 157 ; Peters, Uropelt. p. 12, 
pi. ii, fig. 3 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 184; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 48, 

. 1. 9, pi. ii, fig. 5 ; Theob. Cat. p. 128 ; Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) 
xvii, 1886, p. 6. 

Very closely allied to the preceding ; differs in the more slender 
body, the diameter of which is contained 47 to 49 times in the 
total length, in the more numerous ventral s (236-246), and in 
coloration. Yellowish, each scale with a black spot ; the scales of 
the series adjoining the vertebral without spot. 

Total length 15 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 

294. Rhinophis planiceps. 

Typhlops philipphms, Cuv. Reyne An. 2nd ed., ii, p. 74. 

Rhinophis pliilippinus, Mull, in Tiedem. Zeitschr. f. Physiol. iv, 1832, 

p. 249 ; Bum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 154, pi. lix, tig. 1 ; Peters, 

Uropelt. p. 15 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 184 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 46, 

1. 9, pi. ii, tig. '2. 
Rhinophis planiceps, Peters, op. cit. p. 17, pi. i, fig 9 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 129 ; Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 6. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral obtusely keeled above, about two 
fifths the length of the shielded part of the head, separating the 
nasals ; frontal usually longer than broad. Diameter of body 24 
to 34 times in the total length. 17 scales round the middle of the 
body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals only a little larger than the 
contiguous scales, 152172 ; subcaudals 3-6. Caudal disk about 



256 UBOPELTID.E. 

as long as the shielded part of the head. Uniform brown, each 
scale with a lighter margin ; sometimes a yellowish blotch near 
the head or on the anal region. 

Total length 101 inches. 

ffab. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 

295. Rhinophis trevelyanus. 

Dapatnaya trevelyana, Kelaart, Prodi: ii, p. 17. 

Mytilia gen-ai-di, Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, pp. 58 & 263, pi. xiii. 

Rhinophis honiolepis (Hempr.), Peters, Uropelt. p. 14, pi. ii, fig. 2 ; 

Jan, Icon. Ophid. p. 48, 1. 9, pi. ii. fig. 4. 
Rhhiophis trevelyanus. Gilntli. Rept. Ii. I. p. 185 ; Theob. Cat. p. 129; 

Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 188G, p. 7. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral obtusely keeled above, about two 
fifths the length of the shielded part of the head ; frontal usually 
longer than broad. Diameter of body 26 to 30 times in the total 
length. 17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the 
head. Ventrals only a little larger than the contiguous scales, 
J 90-204 ; subcaudals 3-6. Caudal disk as long as the shielded 
part of the head. Blackish brown above; yellow beneath, each 
scale with a black spot ; a series of triangular yellow spots along 
each side of the body. 

Total length 11 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 

296. Rhinophis sanguineus. 

Rhinoplris sauguineus, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 227 ; Giinth. Rvpt. 

B. I. p. 186, pi. xvii, fig. A ; Theob. Cat. p. 130; Beddome, A. M. 

N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 8. 
Rhinophis microlepis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 227, pi. xxvi,fig. 2. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral obtusely keeled above, about one 
third the length of the shielded part of the head ; frontal longer 
than broad. Diameter of body 30-38 times in the total length. 
15 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. 
Ventrals nearly twice as large as the contiguous scales, 182-214 ; 
subcaudals 5-10. Caudal disk as long as the shielded part of the 
head ; subcaudal and praeanal scales pluricariuate in the male. 
Bluish black above, with or without small light spots ; belly and 
three or four outer series of scales bright red spotted with black ; 
caudal shield black, with a red band on each side and sometimes a 
median one. 

Total length 16 inches. 

Hob. Western Ghats of Southern India (Wynaad 3000-4000 
feet, forests near Palghat, Anairnalais, TinneveUy, and Travaucore 
Ghats). 

297. Rhinophis blythii. 

Rhinophis blythii, Kelaart, Prodr. ii, p. 14; Peters, Uropelt. p. 17; 
Beddome, A. M. N. H. (6) xvii, 1886, p. 8. 



SILYBPRA. 



257 



Mytilia templetonii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 263. 
Rhinophia blythii, part., Giinih. Kept. B. I. p. 186 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 1^0. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral very slightly compressed, about 
oue third the length of the shielded part of the head ; frontal 
longer than broad. Diameter of body 22 to 32 times in the total 
length. 17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the 
head. Ventrals only a little larger than the contiguous scales, 
148-162; subcaudals 4-7. Caudal disk one half or three fifths 
the length of the shielded part of tho head ; some of the distal 
caudal scales with faint traces of keels. Dark brown ; sides with 
vertical yellow spots or a festooned or zigzag band along the 
anterior half of the body ; a yellow ring round the base of the tail. 

Total length 15 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 



Genus SILYBURA, 
Gray, Oat. Liz. p. 142, 1845. 

Eye in the ocular shield. No mental groove. No supraocular ; 
no temporal. Tail conical or obliquely truncated, terminating in a 




Fig. 8l.Silybura brevis. 
Upper view of tail, and upper and side views of head. 

small scute which is square at the end or bicuspid, with the points 
side by side. 

Distribution. Peninsular India ; one species in Ceylon. 



258 UBOPELTIDjE. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

A. 19 scales round middle of body. 

a. Upper surface of tail convex. 

'. ] 98-218 ventrals ; diameter of body 30 

to 40 times in total length S. yrandis, p. 261. 

V. 163-178 ventrals ; diameter of body 23 

to 30 times in total length S. niym, p. 263. 

b. Tail with a flat disk of strongly keeled 

scales ; 203-230 ventrals ; diameter of 

body 34 to 40 times in total length 8. bmughami, p. 264. 

B. 17 scales round middle of body. 

a. Rostral entirely separating nasals. 

'. 141-166 ventrals ; diameter of body 22 
to 31 times in total length; eye" not 

half length of ocular ' S. melanogaster, p. 260. 

b'. 170-180 ventrals ; diameter of body 30 
to 38 times in total length ; eye half 

length of ocular S. pulneyensis, p. 260. 

ft. Nasals in contact behind the rostral. 
a'. Eye not half length of ocular shield. 
a". Portion of rostral seen from above 
as long as its distance from frontal, 
or shorter ; snout obtuse. 
a. Tail round or slightly compressed ; 
upper caudal scales distinctly 
keeled ; terminal scute without 
distinct points ; 151-180 ven- 
trals ; diameter of body 25 to 33 

times in the total length S. petersii, p. 261. 

ft. Tail round or slightly compressed ; 

upper caudal scales smooth or 

faintly keeled ; terminal scute 

very small and bicuspid. 

a'. 154-165 ventrals ; diameter of 

body 27 to 35 times in total 

length S. maculata, p. 261. 

ft'. 174-188 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 32 to 38 times in total 

length S. liui-a, p. 262. 

y. Tail with a flat disk of strongly 
keeled scales ; 165-172 ventrals ; 
diameter of body 30 to 33 times 

in total length S. rubrolineata, p. 266. 

b". Portion of rostral visible from above 
longer than its distance from fron- 
tal; upper caudal scales strongly 
keeled. 

a. Rostral not more than one third 
the length of shielded part of 
head. 

a'. 193-234 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 30 to 46 times in total 
length; eye hardly one third 

length of ocular S. ocellata, p. 262. 

ft'. 184-195 ventrals ; diameter of 



SILYBUBA. 259 

body 30 to 35 times in total 
length; eye more than one 

third length of ocular S. nitida, p. 263. 

y. 144-172 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 25 to 32 times in total 

length 8. ellioti, p. 265. 

13. Rostral compressed, keeled above, 
at least two fifths length of 
shielded part of head ; snout 
acutely pointed. 

a'. 150-168 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 26 to 32 times in total 

length ; caudal disk quite flat. S. dindigalensis, p. 264. 
ft'. 213 ventrals ; diameter of body 
38 times in total length ; ros- 
tral half length of shielded 

part of head S. macrorhynchus, p. 264. 

y'. 180-188 ventrals j diameter of 
body 33 to 40 times in total 

length S. beddomii, p, 265. 

b' ', Eye half length of ocular, or more ; 

snout obtuse. 

a". Portion of rostral seen from above 
longer than its distance from 
frontal. 

a. 144-157 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 28 to 38 times in total 
length ; rostral one third 
length of shielded part of head. S. phipsonii, p. 266. 
/3. 139-153 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 25 to 32 times in total 
length ; rostral not quite one 
third length of shielded part 

of head S. myhendra, p. 267. 

b". Portion of rostral visible from above 
as long as its distance from 
frontal. 

a. 142-150 ventrals ; diameter of 
body 30 to 32 times in total 

length S. madurensis, p. 267. 

ft. 127-133 ventrals; diameter of 
body 25 to 33 times in total 

length S. rubromaculata, p. 268. 

c". Portion of rostral visible from above 
shorter than its distance from 
frontal. 

a. 128-130 ventrals; diameter of 
body 26 or 27 times in total 
length ; eye half length of 

ocular S. arcticeps, p. 268. 

ft. 122-146 ventrals; diameter of 
body 21 to 29 times in total 
length ; eye rather more than 

half length of ocular S. brevis, p. 268. 

C. 15 scales round the middle of the body ; 
128-140 ventrals ; diameter of body 24 to 

29 times in total length 8. macrolepis, p. 269. 

82 



260 UKOPELTIDJi. 

298. Silybura melanogaster. 

Mytilia (Civalia) uielanogaster, Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 264, tig. 5. 
Plectrurus ceylonicus, Peters, MB. Ak. Bcrl. 1859, p. 388. 
Rhiuophis melanogaster, Peters, Uropelt. p. 18, pi. ii, tig. 4 ; Jan, 

Icon. Ophid. p. 47, 1. 9, pi. ii, tig. 4. 
Rhiuophis blythii, part., Gi'mth. Kept. B. I. p. 186; Theob. Cat. 

p. 130. 
Silybura melanogaster, Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 20. 

Snout pointed ; rostral about one third tbe length of the shielded 
part of the head, the portion visible from above longer than its 
distance from the frontal, entirely separating the nasals ; frontal 
longer than broad. Eye small, not half the length of the ocular 
shield. Diameter of body 22 to 31 times in the total length. 
Scales in 17 rows round the middle of the body, 19 behind the 
head. Ventrals but little larger than the contiguous scales, 141- 
166; subcaudals 6-10. Tail round or slightly compressed, the 
terminal scute with two small spines ; caudal scales with very faint 
keels. Dark brown, with yellow spots more or less confluent into 
a lateral band ; some young specimens yellow, each scale of the 
upper surface, chin, and tail with a dark brown spot. 

Total length 10-5 inches. 

Hab. Ceylon (Central Provinces). 



299. Silybura pulneyensis. 

Plectrurus pulneyensis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 228, pi. xxv, 

fig. 2. 
Rhinophis pulneyensis, Giinth. llept. B. I, p. 187, pi. xvii, fig. C ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 131. 

Silybura wood-masoni, Theob. op. cit. p. 135. 
Silybura guentheri, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 801 ; id. A. M. N. H. 

(5) xvii, 1886, p. 23. 
Silybura pulneyensis, Beddome, t. c. p. 23. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral about one fourth the length of 
the shielded part of the head, longer than its distance from the 
frontal, entirely separating the nasals ; frontal longer than broad. 
Eye half the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 30 to 38 
. times in the total length. 17 scales round the middle of the body, 
19 behind the head. Ventrals about twice as large as the contigu- 
ous scales, 170-180 ; subcaudals 6-13. Tail somewhat compressed, 
the terminal scute with two small points ; usually some of the 
terminal scales with faint keels. Brown, with a few minute 
yellow specks on the back ; a yellow lateral band anteriorly ; belly 
with large yellow, usually alternating, spots or cross bands, rarely 
uniform yellow, 

Total length 15 inches. 

Hab. Palni and Cumbum Hills, Madura district, 5000-7000 
feet. 



SILYBUBA. 261 

300. Silybura grandis. 

Rhinophis grandis, Beddome, Madras Journ. Mcd. Sc. 1867 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 131. 
Silybura grandis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (4') i, 1868, p. 414; Beddome, 

A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 11. 

Snout pointed ; rostral one third or one fourth the length of 
the shielded part of the head, longer than its distance from the 
frontal, sometimes separating the nasals ; frontal longer than 
broad. Eye very small, not half the length of the ocular. Diameter 
of body 30 to 40 times in the total length. Scales in 19 rows 
round the middle of the body, 21 behind the head. Ventrals about 
twice as large as the contiguous scales, 198-218 ; posterior ven- 
trals pluricarinate in the male ; subcaudals 6-12. Tail round or 
slightly compressed, the terminal scute with two small spines ; 
caudal scales more or less strongly pluricariuate. Dark violet ; 
belly with alternating large yellow spots or cross bands. 

Total length 19 inches. 

Hab. Anaimalai Hills, 4000-4700 feet. 

301. Silybura petersii. 

Silybura petersi, Beddome. P. Z. S. 1878, p. 154; id. A. M. N. H. 
(5) xvii, 1886, p. 22. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral hardly one fourth the length 
of the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above 
shorter than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; 
frontal longer than broad. Eye small, not half the length of the 
ocular. Diameter of bodv 25 to 33 times in the total length. 17 
scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals 
about twice as large as the contiguous scales, 151180 ; subcaudals 
6-11. Tail round or slightly compressed, the terminal upper 
scales more or less distinctly pluricarinate ; the terminal scute 
with a transverse ridge, without distinct points. Brown, with or 
without yellowish dots above ; belly with small irregular yellowish 
spots ; no yellow band on the side of the tail. 

Total length 7'5 inches. 

Hab. Anaimalai Hills, 4000-4700 feet. 

302. Silybura maculata. 

Silybura maculata, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 154 j id. A. M. N. H. 
(5) xvii, 1886, p. 22. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral about one fourth the length of the shielded 
part of the head, the portion visible from above as long as its 
distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal longer than 
broad. Eye small, not half the length of the ocular. Diameter 
of body 27 to 35 times in the total length. 17 scales round the 
middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals nearly twice 
as large as the contiguous scales, 154-165; subcaudals 8-13. 
Tail rounded or a little compressed ; scales smooth or a few of 
the terminals faintly keeled ; terminal scute very small, bicuspid. 



Dark brown or black, with several deep red blotches along the 
sides of the anterior portion of the trunk and about the tail, 
rarely also along the whole of the body. 

Total length 15 inches. 

Hab. Anaimalai Hills, 6000 to 7000 feet. 

303. Silybura liura. 

Silybura liura, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 228, pi. xxxi, fig. B ; 
Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 18. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral about one third the length of 
the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above as 
long as its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal 
longer than broad. Eye small, not half the length of the ocular. 
Diameter of body 32 to 38 times in the total length. 17 scales 
round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Yeutrals twice 
as broad as the contiguous scales, 174-188 ; subcaudals 8-12. 
Tail round or slightlv compressed, the terminal scute very small 
and bicuspid ; caudal scales smooth or with very faint keels. 
Purplish brown above, each scale edged with darker, with trans- 
verse series of small yellow, black-edged ocelli ; sides and lower 
parts with large alternating black and yellow spots or cross bands. 

Total length 13 inches. 

Hab. Tiunevelly and Madura Hills, 3000-5000 feet. 



304. Silybura ocellata. 

Silybura ocellata, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 226, and Madras Journ. 

Med. Sc. 1863 ; Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 190, pi. xvii, fig. E ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 133; Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 17. 
Silybura ochracea, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 801 ; id. A. M. N. H. 

(5) xvii, p. 17. 
Silybura dupeni, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 801. 




. 



Fig. 82. Silybura ocellata. 

Snout pointed ; rostral about one fourth the length ot the 
shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above longer 



SILTBUKA. 263 

than its distance from the frontal ; nasals forming a suture behind 
the rostral ; frontal usually longer than broad. Eye very small, 
hardly one third the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 30 to 
46 times in the total length. 17 scales round the middle of the 
body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals about twice as large as the 
contiguous scales, 193-234; subcaudals 6-11. Tail round or 
slightly flattened, the terminal scute with two small points ; scales 
on the upper surface of the tail strongly pluricarinate. Yellowish 
or brown above, usually with transverse series of small yellow 
black-edged ocelli ; belly brown, with large yellow spots or cross 
bands, or yellow, mottled or blotched with brown. 

Total length 20 inches. 

Hal. Nilgiri, Anairaalai, and Tinnevelly Hills, 2000-4500 feet. 

305. Silybura nigra. 

Silybura melauogaster, G until. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 227, pi. xxxi,ng. A. 
Silybura nigra, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 154 ; id. A. M. N. If. (5) 
xvii, 1886, p. 12. 

Snout pointed ; rostral one third to two fifths the length of the 
shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above longer 
than its distance from the frontal, sometimes separating the nasals ; 
frontal a little longer than broad. Eye small, not half the length 
of the ocular. Diameter of body 23 to 30 times in the total length. 
Scales in 19 rows round the middle of the body, as well as behind 
the head. Ventrals about twice as large as the contiguous scales, 
163-178 ; subcaudals 6-11. Tail rounded, the terminal scute 
with two small points ; upper caudal scales more or less strongly 
pluricarinate. Blackish or dark violet, above with transverse series 
of small round yellow spots or ocelli ; a lateral series of large yellow 
spots, which may be confluent into a band. 

Total length 11 inches. 

Hab. Palni, Anaimalai, Madura and Tinnevelly Hills, 4000-5000 
feet. 

306. Silybura nitida. 

Silybura nitida, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 154 ; id. A. M. N. H. (5) 
xvii, 1886, p. 19. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral about one third the length of 
the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above longer 
than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal 
longer than broad. Eye small, not half the length of the ocular. 
Diameter of body 30 to 35 times in the total length. 17 scales 
round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals twice 
as broad as the contiguous scales, 184-195; subcaudals 5-11. 
Tail round or slightly flattened above, the terminal scales strongly 
pluricarinate ; the terminal scute with a transverse ridge and two 
more or less distinct points. Black, beneath with distant large 
yellow spots, which usually alternate but sometimes meet to form 
cross bands. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Hab, Anaimalai Hills, 4000-5000 feet. 



264 UBOPELTID^E. 

. 307. Silybura dindigalensis. 

Silybura dindigalensis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 167; id. A. M. N. H. 
(5) vii, 1886, p. 13. 

Snout acutely pointed; rostral compressed, about two fifths the 
length of the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from 
above much longer than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in 
contact behind the rostral ; frontal longer than broad. Eye very 
small, not half the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 26 to 
32 times in the total length. 17 scales round the middle of the 
body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals twice as broad as the con- 
tiguous scales, 156-168 ; subcaudals 5-10. Tail obliquely trun- 
cated, flat above, with strongly pluricarinate scales ; terminal scute 
with a transverse ridge and two more or less distinct points. Yel- 
lowish above, the scales edged with darker, with small dark brown 
spots; belly dark brown with yellow spots or irregular coss bars ; 
a yellow streak on the lips, continued along each side of the neck. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Hab. Sirumalai Hills, Madura district, 4000-5000 feet. 

i 308. Silybura brougham!. 

Silybura broughami, Beddome. P. Z. S. 1878. p. 800 ; id. A. M. N. H. 

(5)xvii, 1886, p. 11. 
Silybura levingii, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 801. 

Snout acutely pointed ; rostral compressed, obtusely keeled 
above, about two fifths the length of the shielded part of the head, 
the portion visible from above much longer than its distance from 
the frontal ; nasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontal as broad 
as long, or slightly longer than broad. Eye very small, not half 
the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 34 to 40 times in the 
total length. 19 scales round the middle of the body as well as 
behind the head. Ventrals not twice as broad as the contiguous 
scales, 203-230 ; subcaudals 7-10. Tail obliquely truncated, flat 
above, with strongly pluricarinate scales ; terminal scute bicuspid. 
Brown above, with more or less distinct transverse series of small 
yellow, black-edged ocelli ; sides with a series of large yellow spots ; 
ventrals dark brown. 

Total length 16-5 inches. 

Hal. Sirumalai and Lower Palni Hills, 4000-5500 feet. 

309. Silybura macrorhynchus. 

Silybura macrorhyncha, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 167; id. A. M. 
N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 10. 

Snout acutely pointed, much produced ; rostral strongly com- 
pressed, keeled above, half the length of the shielded part of the 
head ; nasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontal as broad as 
long. Eye very small, not one third the length of the ocular. 
.Diameter of body 38 times in the total length. 17 scales round 
the middle of the body and 19 behind the head. Ventrals not 



SILTBFBA. 265 

quite twice as large as the contiguous scales, 213 ; subcaudals 6 
( $ ). End of tail subtruncated, the rugose part small and rather 
flat, the scales with 3 to 5 strong keels ; terminal scute bicuspid. 
Upper parts uniform brown, lower parts mixed with yellow ; a 
yellow streak from the mouth along each side of the neck ; a yellow 
streak on each side of the lower surface of the tail, connected with 
its fellow by a cross bar on the anal region. 

Total length '22-5 inches. 

A single specimen is known, obtained above Ponachi, in the 
Anaimalais, at an altitude of 4000 feet. 



310. Silybura beddomii. 

Silybura beddomei, Giinth. A. M. N. II. (3) ix, 1862, p. 60 ; id. 

Rept. B. I. p. 190, pi. xvii, fig. F ; Theob. Cat. p. 133. 
Silybura ellioti, part., Beddome, A. M. N. II. (5) xvii, 188G, p. 20. 

Snout acutely pointed, much produced ; rostral strongly com- 
pressed, keeled above, two fifths the length of the shielded part of 
the head ; nasals in contact behind the rostral ; frontal longer than 
broad. Eye very small, not half the length of the ocular. Diam- 
eter of body 33 to 40 times in the total length. 17 scales round 
the middle of body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals not twice as 
large as the contiguous scales, 180-188; subcaudals 6-7 ($). 
End of tail subtruncated, convex or somewhat flattened above, the 
scales with 3 to 5 strong keels ; terminal scute with a transverse 
ridge and two more or less distinct points. Brown, lower parts 
mixed with yellow ; a yellow streak on each side of the neck ; a 
yellow band across the anal region, none on the sides of the tail. 

Total length 11 inches. 

Nab. Anaimalai Hills. 



311. Silybura ellioti. 

Siluboura ceylonicus, Gray, Cat. Liz. p. 142. 

Siloboura ellioti, Gray, P. Z. 8. 1858, p. 262. 

Silybura ellioti, Peters, Uropelt. p. 21 ; Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 228. 

Coloburus ceylanicus, Jan, Icon. Oplud. 9, pi. ii, fig. 6. 

Silybura ellioti, part., Giinth. Eept. B. I. p. 190 ; Theob. Cut. p. 133 ; 

Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 20. 
Silybura punctata, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 229. 
Silybura beddomii, part., Giinth. 1. c. p. 228. 

Snout pointed ; rostral about one third the length of the shielded 
part of the head, the portion visible from above longer than its 
distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact behind the rostral ; 
frontal longer than broad. Eye very small, not half the length of 
the ocular. Diameter of body 25 to 32 times in the total length. 
17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Ven- 
trals nearly twice as large as the contiguous scales, 144-172 ; 
subcaudals 6-10. End of tail convex or somewhat flattened above ; 
upper caudal scales with 3 to 6 strong keels ; terminal scute with a 



26 <> UKOPELTID^. 

transverse ridge and two more or less distinct points. Dark brown, 
uniform or with yellow dots above and small yellow spots below, 
a more or less distinct yellow line on each side of the neck ; a 
yellow band on each side of the tail, connected with its fellow by 
a transverse bar across the anal region. 

Total length 9-5 inches. 

ffab. This is the only species found in the Eastern hills of the 
peninsula of India. It is recorded from the Jeypore Hills (Viza- 
gapatam district) and the Golgonda Hills. It is also known from 
the Western Ghats ; Palni Hills, Anaimalais, Balarangams. 



312. Silybura phipsonii. 

Silybura ellioti, part., Giinth. Kept. B. I, p. 190 ; Theob. Cat. p. 133 ; 

Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 20. 
Silybura ceylonica, part., Giinth. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 228. 
Silybura ph'ipsonii, Mason, A. M. N. H. (6) i, 1888, p. 184. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral one third the length of the 
shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above longer 
than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact behind the 
rostral ; frontal longer than broad. Eye rather more than half 
the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 28 to 38 times in the 
total length. Scales in 17 rows round the middle of the body, in 
17 or 19 round the neck. Ventrals nearly twice as large as the 
contiguous scales, 144-157; subcaudals 7-12. End of tail flat 
above, obliquely truncated, with strongly bi-, tri- or quadricarinate 
scales ; terminal scute with a transverse ridge and two more or less 
distinct points. Brown, uniform or with yellowish dots above ; 
a more or less marked short yellow streak on each side, from the 
commissure of the mouth ; a yellow band on each side of the tail, 
connected with its fellow by a transverse bar across the anal 
region. 

Total length 11 inches. 

Hob. Bombay Ghats, North Canara, and Mysore (Balarangam 
Hills). 

313. Silybura rubrolineata. 

Silybura rubrolineata, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 228 ; Beddome, A. M. 
N. H. (5) xvii, 1880, p. 14. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral about one fourth the length 
of the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from 
above as long as its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; 
frontal as broad as long or slightly longer than broad. Eye small, 
not half the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 30 to 33 times 
in the total length. 17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 
behind the head. Ventrals twice as broad as the contiguous 
scales, 165-172 ; subcaudals 6-8. End of tail flat above, obliquely 
truncated, with strongly bi- or tricarinate scales ; terminal scute 



SILYBTJEA. 267 

\\ith a transverse ridge but no points. Blackish bro\vi), with a 
more or less marked bright red band along each side. 

Total length 16 inches. 

Hob. Travancore and Anairnalai Hills. 

314. Silybura myhendrse. 

Silybura uilgherriensis, var. myheudrse, Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) 
xvii, 1886, p. 15. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral not quite one third the length of the 
shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above a little 
longer than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal 
slightly longer than broad. Eye more than half the length of the 
ocular. Diameter of body 25 to 32 times in the total length. 17 
scales round the middle ot' the body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals 
at least twice as broad as the contiguous scales, 139-153; sub- 
caudals 7. Tail obliquely truncated, flat above, with strongly bi- 
or tricarinate scales ; terminal scute with a transverse ridge, indis- 
tinctly biscuspid. Dark purplish brown above, each scale with a 
crescentic yellowish posterior border ; 3 or 4 or more dark trans- 
verse blotches behind the bead, or along the whole length of the 
body, alternating and narrowing towards the belly ; lower parts 
yellowish, with purplish-black spots. 

Total length 13'5 inches ; Mr. Mason possesses a specimen 18 
inches long. 

Hab. A single specimen is in the British Museum, the type, 
obtained by Col. Beddome on Myhendra Mountain, South Tra- 
vancore. I have examined a second specimen, with the black 
cross bauds continued along the whole length of the body, belong- 
ing to Mr. Gr. E. Mason, who received it with t\vo others from near 
Mankompu, Punyat Hills, Travancore, about 3000 feet elevation. 

315. Silybura madurensis. 

Silybura madureusis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 802. 
Silybura nilgherriensis, vars. arcticeps, part., et picta, Beddome, A. M. 
N. H. (5) xvii, 1880, p. 16. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral about one fourth the length of 
the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above as 
long as its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal 
longer tham broad. Eye measuring about half the length of the 
ocular. Diameter of body 30 to 32 times in the total length. 17 
scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Ventrals 
twice as large as the contiguous scales, 142-150 ; subcaudals 8-9. 
End of tail flat above, obliquely truncated, with strongly bi-, tri-, or 
quadricarinate scales ; terminal scute with a transverse ridge and two 
points. Black above, uniform or closely spotted with yellow ; 
belly orange, with alternating large black spots or cross bands ; 
lower surface of tail black in the middle, orange on the sides. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Hab. North Travancore and Cumbum Hills, Madura district. 



268 TJKOPELTID^:. 

316. Silybura rubromaculata. 

Silybura rubromaculata, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. ] 807 ; 
Gilnth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 229 ; Theob. Cat. p. 135 ; Beddome, A. M. 
N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 14. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral a little more than one fourth the length 
of the shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above as 
long as its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal a 
little longer than broad. Eye half or somewhat more than half 
the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 25 to 33 times in the 
total length. 17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind 
the head. Ventrals twice as broad as the contiguous scales, 
127-136; subcaudals 8-10. End of tail flat above, obliquely 
truncated, with strongly bi- or tricarinate scales ; terminal scute 
with a transverse ridge and two more or less distinct points. Dark 
olive-brown, uniform above ; lower parts variegated with yellow 
and red ; some red blotches on each side of the anterior pai-t of 
the body, and one on each side of the tail near the vent. 

Total length 13-5 inches. 

Hab. Anaimalai Hills, 4000-4700 feet. 

317. Silybura arcticeps. 

Silybura arcticeps, Gilnth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 229, fig. 
Silvbura uilghemensis, var. arcticeps, part., Beddome, A. M. N. H. 
(5) xvii, 1886, p. 16. 

Snout obtusely pointed ; rostral about one fifth the length of the 
shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above measuring 
about half its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal 
mucb longer than broad. Eye measuring hardly half the length 
of the ocular. Diameter of body 26 or 27 times in the total length. 
17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. Ven- 
trals nearly twice as large as the contiguous scales, 128-130 ; 
subcaudals 8. End of tail nearly flat above, obliquely truncated, 
with strongly bi- or tricarinate scales ; terminal scute with a 
transverse ridge and two more or less distinct points. Brown above, 
with small yellowish dots ; yellow beneath, with large black spots 
or cross bands. 

Total length 8 inches. 

Hab. Tinnevelly Hills ,3000- 40 00 feet. 

318. Silybura brevis. 

Uropeltis ceylanicus, Cuv. Reyne An. 2nd ed. ii, p. 76 ; Cocteau, in 

Guer. Mag. Zool. 1833, cl. iii, pi. ii. 

Coloburus ceylanicus, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 164, pi. lix, 
. 3. 



Siloboura ceylonica, Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 262. 
Silybura ceylanica, Peters, Urope.lt. p. 21. 
Silybura cevlanica, part., Peter*, MB. Ak. Berl 1861, p 
P. Z. S. 1875, p. 228. 



SILYBUBA. 269 

Silybura brevis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix, 180-', p. 50 ; id. Kept. 

B. I. p. 192, pi. xvii, fig. D ; id. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 229 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 134. 
Silybura shortii, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 225, pi. xxv, fig. 1 ; 

Giinth. Ecpt. B. I. p. 191, pi. xvii, tig. G ; Theob. 1. c. p. 134. 
Silvbura nilglierriensis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 226, pi. xxvi, fig. 1 ; 

"id. A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 14. 
Silvbura bicatenata, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 191, pi. xvii, fig. II ; id. 

P. Z. S. 187-5, p. 229 ; TJieob. Cat. p. 134. 
Silvbura ellioti, part., Giinth. II. cc. pp. 190, 228 ; Theob. I. c. p. 133 ; 

Beddome, A. M. X. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 20. 
Silvbura nilglierriensis, vars. shortii, aunulata, Beddome, I. c. p. 15. 

Snout rounded ; rostral hardly one fourth the length of the 
shielded part of the head, the portion visible from above shorter 
than its distance from the frontal; nasals in contact; frontal a 
little longer than broad. Eye rather more than half the length of 
the ocular. Diameter of body 21 to 29 times in the total length. 
17 scales round the middle of the body, 19 behind the head. 
Yentrals twice as large as the contiguous scales, 122-146 ; sub- 
caudals 8-12. End of tail flat above, obliquely truncated, with 
strongly bi- tri- or quadricarinate scales; terminal scute with a 
transverse ridge and two more or less distinct points. Brown or 
blackish brown above, with or without yellowish spots or cross 
bands, or a yellow lateral band ; belly yellowish, with or without 
dark brown spots, or entirely brown ; lower surface of tail brown 
or black in the middle, yellow on the sides. 

Total length 18 inches. 

Hab. Wynaad, Nilgiri, Anaimalai, and Shevaroy Hills, 3000- 
7000 feet. 

319. Silybura macrolepis. 

Silybura macrolepis, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1861, p. 904; Giinth. 
Kept. B. 2. p. 189, pi. xvii, fig. B ; Theob. Cat. p. 132 ; Beddome, 
A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 24. 

Snout rounded ; rostral not one fourth the length of the shielded 
part of the head, the portion visible from above shorter than its 
distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal as broad as 
long or slightly longer than broad. Eye more than half the length 
of the ocular. Diameter of body 24 to 29 times in the total length. 
15 scales round the middle of the body, 17 behind the head. 
Yentrals twice as large as the contiguous scales, 128-140 ; subcati- 
dals 7-9. End of tail flat above, obliquely truncated, with strongly 
tricarinate scales ; terminal scute with a transverse ridge and two 
points. Black or dark purplish brown, each scale with a lighter 
edge ; a short but broad yellow band on the lips and sides of neck, 
continued as a series of two to five large spots ; a yellow band 
along each side of the tail. 

Total length 12 inches. 

Hab. Bombay Hills. 



270 



Genus PSEUDOPLECTRURUS. 



Eye in the ocular shield. No mental groove. No supraocular ; 
110 temporal. Tail compressed, with the terminal scute compressed 
and with two superposed, simple or bifid points. 

Distribution. Southern India. 



320. Pseudoplectrurus canaricus. 

Silybura canarica, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870. 
Plectrurus canaricus, Gilnth. P. Z. 8. 1875, p. 229 ; Theob. Cat. p. 137 ; 
Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 27. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral hardly one fourth the length of the shielded 
part of the head, the portion visible from above shorter than its 
distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal longer than 
broad. Eye not half the length of the ocular. Diameter of body 
32 to 43 times in the total length. 15 scales round the middle of 
the body, 19 behind the head. Yeutrals not twice as large as 
the contiguous scales, 172-188 ; subcaudals 6-13. Upper caudal 
scales smooth or feebly pluricarinate. Brownish violet, each scale 
usually paler in the centre ; with or without yellow spots on the 
back ; lips yellow ; some yellow blotches on each side of the anterior 
part of the body ; lower surface of tail yellow, with or without a 
black median streak. 

Total length 17 inches. 

Hob. Mountains of South Canara, 6000-6200 feet. 



Genus PLECTRURUS, 
Dum. & Bibr. Erp. G&i. vii, p. 166, 1854. 

Eye in the ocular shield. No mental groove. A supraocular ; 
no temporal. Tail compressed, with the terminal scute compressed 
and with two superposed, simple, bifid or trifid points. 

Distribution. Southern India. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

A. Eye not quite half length of ocular shield ; term- 

inal caudal scute with two superposed simple 
points. 

a. Ventrals 152-165 P. perrotdi, p. 271. 

b. Ventrals 180 P. davisonii, p. 271. 

B. Eye half length of ocular ; terminal caudal scute 

with two superposed bi- or tricuspid transverse 

ridges. 

. Ventrals not twice as broad as contiguous scales. P.yuentheri } 'p.271. 
b. Ventrals twice as broad as contiguous scales . . P. aureus, p. 272. 



PLBCTEURUS. 271 



321. Plectrurus perroteti. 

Plectrurus perroteti, Dum. 8f Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 107, pi. lix, %. 4 ; 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 265 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 193 ; Jan, Icon. 
Ophid. 9, pi. ii, fig. 7 ; Theob. Cat. p. 136 ; Beddome, A. M. N. H. 
(5) xvii, 1886, p. 25. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral small, the portion visible from above shorter 
than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; frontal longer 
than broad. Eye hardly half the length of the ocular shield. 
Diameter of body 30 to 38 times in the total length. 15 scales 
round the middle of the body, 17 behind the head. Ventrals not 
quite twice as large as the contiguous scales, 152-165 ; subcaudals 
7-12. Caudal scales more or less distinctly pluricarinate ; terminal 
scute with two superposed single points. Brown or purplish, 
uniform, or each scale with darker edges. 

Total length 13 inches. 

Hab. Nilgiri and Anaiinalai Hills, 4000-8UOO feet. 



322. Plectrurus davisonii. 

Plectrurus davidsonii, Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1880, p. 25. 

This may eventually have to be united with P. perroteti, from 
which it differs in the somewhat more elongate body (39 times the 
diameter), the higher number of ventrals (180) and the brighter 
coloration ; yellow, each scale edged with purple. 

Total length 17 inches. 

A single female specimen was obtained in the Anaiinalais, at an 
altitude of 4700 feet, by Mr. W. Davisou. 



323. Plectrurus guentheri. 

Plectrurus guentheri, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 228, pi. xxvii ; 
Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 193 ; Thcob. Cat. p. 136 5 Beddome, A. M. N. H. 
(5) xvii, 1886, p. 26. 

Snout obtuse; rostral small, the portion visible from above 
shorter than its distance from the frontal ; nasals in contact ; 
frontal longer than broad. Eye half the length of the ocular. 
Diameter of body 36 to 42 times in the total length. 15 scales 
round the middle of the body, 17 behind the head. Ventrals 
not twice as large as the contiguous scales, 171-175 ; subcaudals 
10-12 ( d ) Caudal scales pluricarinate ; terminal scute with two 
superposed bi- or tricuspid transverse ridges. Bright reddish 
purple above, this colour descending as triangular markings on the 
sides, which, like the belly, are yellow; the triangular markings 
sometimes extending across the belly. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Hab. Walaghat, below Sispara, western side of the N ilgiri Hills, 
3500-4000 feet. 



272 

324. Plectrurus aureus. 

Plectrurus aureus, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 182 ; id. A. M. N. H. 
(5) xvii, 1886, p. 26. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, the only structural difference 
being found in the ventrals, which are a little broader, viz. twice 
as broad as the contiguous scales. Diameter of body 3944 times 
in the total length. Ventrals 164-177; subcaudals 8-12. Of a 
brilliant golden colour, brighter beneath ; the scales edged with, 
violet, with or without a few irregular narrow violet-black cross- 
bars on the back ; the belly much ornamented with violet-black 
cross-bauds or alternating spots. 

Total length 16 inches. 

Hab. Chambra Hill, Wynaad, 4500-6000 feet. 

Genus MELANOPHIDIUM, 
Giiuther, Kept. Brit. Ind. p. 193, 1804. 

Eye in the ocular shield. A median groove along the chin. 
No supraocular; no temporal. Tail cylindrical or slightly com- 
pressed, the terminal scute pointed or with one or two vertical 
ridges. 

Distribution. Southern India. 

Synopsis of the Species. 
A. Length of frontal equal to its distance from 

end of snout. 
. Suture between ocular and frontal more than 

one third length of latter shield M. wynadcnsc, p. 272. 

b. Suture between ocular and frontal less than 

one third length of latter shield M. piinctatum, p. 273. 

13. Length of frontal exceeds its distance from end 
of snout ; suture between ocular and frontal 
less than one third length of latter shield . . M. bilineatmii, p. 273. 

325. Melanophidium wynadense. 

Plectrurus wynandensis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 228. 
Melanophidium wynandense, Giinth. Kept. B. 1. p. 194, pi. xvii, fig. I ; 
Thcob. Cat. p. 138 ; Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 30. 

Suoiit rounded ; rostral small, just visible from above ; frontal 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout; suture between 
the ocular and the frontal more than one third the length of the 
latter shield. Eye very small. Diameter of body 44 to 48 times 
in the total length. 15 scales round the middle of the body, 17 
or 19 behind the head. Ventrals rather more than twice the 
size of the contiguous scales, 176-185; subcaudals 10-15. Black, 
beautifully iridescent, uniform or with large yellow spots on the 
belly. 

Total length 18 inches. 

Hob. Near Manantoddy, Wynaad, 3000-5000 feet, 



PLATYPLECTRURUS. 273 



326. Melanophidium punctatum. 

Melanophidium punctatum, Bcddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1871 ; 
Gunth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 230, pi. xxxii, fig. B ; Theob. Cat. p. 139 ; 
L'eddome, A. M. N. II. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 31, 

Snout rounded; rostral small, just visible from above ; frontal 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout ; suture between 
the ocular and the frontal less than one third the length of the 
latter shield. Eye very small. Diameter of body 42 to 48 times 
in the total length. 15 scales round the middle of the body, 17 
behind the head. Ventrals rather more than twice as broad as the 
contiguous scales, 184-198 ; subcaudals 15-18. Black above, 
beautifully iridescent; veutrals and the two lower series of scales 
on each side with a broad white border. 

Total length 20 inches. 

Hub. Travancore Hills, 4000-4500 feet, 



Melaiiopludium biliueatuin, Beddome. Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1870; 
Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 230, pi. xxxii, fig. A ; 



327. Melanophidium bilineatuin. 

irn 

Theob. Cat.?. 138; 
Beddome, A. M. N. H. (o) xvii, 1886, p. 30. 

Snout rounded; rostral small, just visible from above ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout ; suture between 
the ocular and the frontal less than one third the length of the 
latter shield. Eye very small. Diameter of body 40 to 50 times 
in the total length. 15 scales round the middle of the body, 17 or 
19 behind the head. Ventrals rather more than twice as broad as 
the contiguous scales, 188-200 ; subcaudals 15-17. Black, beauti- 
fully iridescent ; a broad yellow band, with or without a series of 
black dots, along each side, from the lips to the tail, where it 
unites with its fellow on the under surface. 

Total length 14 1 inches. 

Hub. Peria Peak and Tirrhioot Peak, Wynaad, 4000 feet. 



Genus PLATYPLECTRURUS, 

Giintlier, A. M. N. IT. (4) i, 1868, p. 414. 

Eye distinct from the neigh- 
bouring shields, of moderate 
size. A supraocular and a 
temporal. Tail cylindrical or 
slightly compressed, the ter- 
minal scute pointed or with a 
' transverse ridge. 

Fig. 83.Platyplectrurus trilincatus. Distribution. Southern India. 
Upper and side views of head. 





274 FEOPELTID^. 



Sywpsis of the Species. 

Snout broadly rounded; supraoculars longer 

than preefrontals : 163-175 ventrals P. trilincatm, p. 274. 

Snout broadly rounded; supraoculars as long 

as prsefrontals ; 150-175 ventrals P. madurensis, p. 274. 

Snout obtuse ; supraoculars as long as or shorter 

than praefrontals ; 120-150 ventrals P. sanyuineus, p. 274, 



328. Platyplectrurus trilineatus. 

Plectrurus trilineatus, Beddome, Madras Journ, Med. Sc. 1807, 

p. 14, fig. ; Theob. Cat. p. 137. 
Platyplectrurus trilineatus, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (4) i, 1868, p. 413 ; 

Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 32. 
Platyplectrurus bilineatus, Beddome, I. c. p. 33. 

Snout broadly rounded ; rostral small, just visible from above ; 
frontal longer than broad; supraocular much larger than the eye, 
longer tban the praefrontals ; temporal two thirds or three fifths the 
length of the parietals. Diameter of body 37 to 50 times in the 
total length. 15 scales round the middle of the body, 17 behind 
the bead. Ventrals nearly twice as broad as the contiguous scales, 
163-175; subcaudals 8-16. Caudal scales smooth or a few of 
the terminal ones inconspicuously bi- or tricariuate ; terminal scute 
with a transverse ridge -which is hardly distinct in the female. 
Adult reddish brown or brick-red above, with three continuous or 
interrupted black longitudinal lines ; young (P. bilineatus, Bedd.) 
dark brown or black above, with two yellowish dorsal bands ; 
yellowish below, each scale with a brown dot. 

Total length 16 inches. 

Hob. Anaimalai Hills, 4000-4700 feet. 



329. Platyplectrurus madurensis. 

Platyplectrurus ruadurensis, Beddome. P. Z. S. 1877. p. 107 ; id. 
A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 33. 

Very closely allied to the preceding, but head-shields rather 
shorter and supraocular not longer than the prsefrontals. Dia- 
meter of body 38 to 42 times in the total length. Ventrals 158-175, 
subcaudals 10-15. Above a nacreous purplish brown ; veutrals and 
the two adjoining series of scales on each side white in the centre, 
purplish brown on the borders. 

Total length 14 inches. 

Halt. Palni and Travancore Hills, 4000-6000 feet. 

330. Platyplectrurus sauguineus. 

Plectrurus sanguineus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1867, p. 14, 

fig. ; Theob. Cat. p. 136. 
Platyplectrurus hewstoni, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 701. 



275 



Wectrurus scabricauda, Theob. Cat. p. 136. 

Teretrurus sanguineus, Beddome, A. M. N. H. (5) xvii, 1886, p. 28. 

Teretrurus travancoricus, JBeddome, 1. c. p. 29. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral small, just visible from above ; frontal 
longer than broad ; supraocular not or scarcely larger than the 
eye, as long as the prsef rentals or shorter; temporal about 
half the length of the parietals. Diameter of body 22 to 28 times 
in the total length. 15 scales round the middle of the body, 17 
behind the head. Ventrals nearly twice as broad as the contiguous 
scales, 120-150 ; subcaudals 5-9. Caudal scales smooth or faintly 
keeled in the female ; all the caudals and the last ventrals more or 
less distinctly pluricariuate in the males ; tail ending in a simple, 
compressed point. Brown or purplish red above ; belly red, uni- 
form or more or less blotched with black. 

Total length 9 inches. 

Hub. Wynaad, Anaimalais, Travancore, 3000-4700 feet. 



Family VI. XENOPELTID.E. 

Cranial bones solidly united ; transpalatine present ; pterygoid 
extending to quadrate; supratemporal present, suspending quadrate; 
prasfroutals forming a suture with nasals. Mandible without 
corouoid bone. Teeth in jaws, palate, and praernaxillary. 

A single genus. 




Fig. 84. Upper view of skull of Xenupeltis unicoloi 



ung. Angular. 
nr. Articular. 
bo. Basioccipital. 

d. Dentary. 
eo. Exoccipital. 

/. Frontal. 



m. Maxillarv. 

. Nasal. 

p. Parietal. 
pin. Proemaxilhi 
prf. Prsefrontal. 
pro. Prootic. 



q. Quadrate. 
yo. Supraoccipital. 
sf. Supratemporal 
tp. Transpalatine. 



276 XENOPELTID^E. 

Genus XENOPELTIS, 

Reinwardt, in Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 564. 

Teeth small, equal, closely set, and very numerous (4 on each 
side of the praem axillary, 33-38 in each maxillary, 35 or 36 in 
each ramus of the mandible). Dentary bone attached loosely 
to the apex of the articular and movable on it. Head not 





Fig. 85. Head of Xeiwydtls 

distinct from neck ; eye small, with vertically elliptic pupil. 
Nostril between two small nasals ; frontal in contact with a 
large azygous occipital shield, which is in the middle between four 
parietals. A mental groove. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, in 
15 rows : ventrals large ; tail short, subcaudals in two rows. 
A single species. 

331. Xenopeltis unicolor. 

Xenopeltis unicolor, Reinw. in Bole, Isis, 1827, p. 564; Cantor, 
J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 901 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 28 ; 
Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 180 ; Jan, Icon. OpMd. 9, pi. v ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 140. 

Head much depressed, snout rounded ; frontal as long as its 
distance from the rostral ; supraocular small, smaller than the 
upper postocular ; a single large prseocular or loreal shield ; 2 post- 
oculars, upper largest ; 8 upper labials, first in contact with the 
internasal, fourth and fifth entering the eye : a pair of very small 
chin-shields, in contact with the 3 anterior lower labials. Scales 
in 15 rows. Ventrals 166-193 ; anal divided; subcaudals 26-31. 
Black or brown above, highly iridescent, scales with lighter edges, 
Avhite beneath ; head whitish in the young. 

Total length 3 feet 4 inches ; tail 4 inches. 

Sab. Burma, Indo-China, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago; 
also Trichinopoly, S. India. 

A snake of fierce habits, feeding on small mammals. 



COLUBBID.E. 



277 



Family VII. COLUBRID^E. 

Facial bones movable; transpalatine present ; pterygoid extending 
to mandible or quadrate ; suprateinporal present, attached scale-like 
to the skull and suspending quadrate ; maxillary horizontal, not 
movable perpendicularly to the transpalatine. Mandible without 
coronoid bone. Both jaws toothed. 

This large family, containing the bulk of the Ophidia, may be 
divided into three parallel series : 

A. AGLYPHA. All the teeth solid, not grooved. Harmless. 

B. OPISTHOGKLYPHA. One or more of the posterior maxillary 

teeth grooved. Suspected, or poisonous to a slight degree. 

C. PEOTEEOGLYPHA. Anterior maxillary teeth grooved or 

perforated. Poisonous. 

In each of these series we have a more or less perfect repetition 
of forms, due to adaptation to the various modes of life. 



j>rrv 




Fig. 86. Skull of Tropidonotus piscator. 
A. Upper view. B. Side view. 



at: Articular. 
c.a. Columella auris. 
d. Dentarv. 
/. Frontal. 
/. Maxillarv. 
. Nasal. ' 


p. Parietal. 
pi. Palatine. 
put. Prajmaxillary. 
prf. Praefrontal. 
pro. Prootic. 
pt. Pterygoid. 


ptf. Postfrontal. 
q. Quadrate. 
so. Supraoccipital. 
st. Suprateinporal. 
tp. Transpalatine. 
vo. Vomer. 



278 



COLUBRIDJE. 



Synopsis of the Subfamilies represented in the Indian Fauna. 

Series A. AGLYPHA. 

Postfrontal bone not produced "over the su- 

praorbital region ; scales imbricate CCXLUBBIN^E, p. 279. 

Postfrontal bone produced over the supra- 
orbital region ; scales not imbricate .... ACROOHORDIX.S:, p. 354 

Series B. OPISTHOGLYPHA. 

Nostrils lateral DIPSADIXJE, p. 356. 

Nostrils on the upper surface of the head. . HOMALOPSIN.S:, p. 372. 

Series C. PROTEROGLYPHA. 

Tail round, caudal hypapophyses short .... ELAPINJE, p. 382. 
Tail compressed, caudal hypapophyses long. HYDHOPHIIN.S:, p. 393. 




Fig. 87. Three views of head of Zamenis ventrimaculatus, to explain the 
terminology of the head-shields. 



cs. Chin-shields (anterior), m. Mental. 
cs'. Chin-shields (posterior), n. Nasal. 

/. Frontal. p. Parietal. 

in. Internasal. pf. Prsefrontal. 

/. Loreal. pro. Pracocular. 

fa. Upper labial. pfo. Postocular. 

la'. Lower labial. r. Eostral. 



xl?. Subocular. 
so. Supraocular. 
/. Temporals (first row). 
t'. Temporals (second row). 
v. First ventral. 



COLTTBKIDJE. 



279 



Series A. A GLYPH A. 



Subfamily I. COLUBRIN^E. 

Postfrontal bone not produced over the supratemporal region. 
Scales imbricate. Head-shields and ventrals large. 



Si/nopsis of Indian Genera *. 

A. Terrestrial or arboreal Snakes, with the 
hypapophyses developed only on the 
anterior half of the vertebral column, 
and the nasal bones at least as large as 
the praefrontals. 

a. Posterior border of ventral shields with- 
out lateral notch. 

'. Anterior mandibular teeth longer 
than the posterior ; eye small or 
rather small. 

a". No internasal or temporal shields. CALAMARIA, p. 281. 
b". One or two internasals ; temporals 

present. 

a. Posterior maxillary teeth a little 

longer than the anterior ; pupil 

vertically subelliptic ; suo- 

caudals in two rows. 

a'. A loreal and a prreocular . . 

ft'. No loreal or prseocular .... 

ft. Maxillary teeth equal in length ; 

pupil round: subcaudals single. 

a.' Scales smooth 

ft'. Scales keeled HAPLOCERCCS, p. 290. 

y. Anterior maxillary teeth en- 
larged; pupil vertically elliptic. LYCOPOX, p. 291. 
b'. Mandibular teeth subequal in 
length, maxillary teeth equal, or 
posterior largest. 
a". Eye very small, with round pupil ; 

tail very short 

b". Eye with vertically elliptic pupil ; 

tail long. 
a. Eye large ; ventrals strongly 

keeled '. HYDROPHOBUS, p. 297. 

ft. Eye small ; ventrals not keeled. PSEFDOCYCLOPHIS, p. 299. 
y. Eye moderate ; nostril an oblique 

slit between two nasals LYTORHYNCHCS, p. 322. 



TRACHISCHIUM, p. 284. 

BlA'THIA, p. 287. 



ASPIDUBA, p. 288. 



XYI.OPHIS, p. 283. 



* Through the kind mediation of Mr. W. L. Sclater I have obtained from 
the Trustees of the Indian Museum communication of the types of Theobald's 
Falconeria benyalensis and Cadmus cuneifonnis. The former is a North- 
American Snake, Conoccphalus striatulus, the latter a South -African, CoroneUa 



280 



COLUBRIDjE. 



e". Eye rather small, moderate or 



a. Maxillary teeth few ( to 12), 
very strongly enlarged pos- 
teriorly ; eye rather small; 
rostral shield large. 

a'. Pterygoids toothed 

/3'. Pteiygoids toothless 

ft. 12 or more teeth in each max- 
illary, increasing in size pos- 
teriorly. 

a'. Body moderate, not com- 
pressed ; no subocular ; eye 

rather small 

ft'. Body slender ; a subocular 
below the prajocular ; longi- 
tudinal rows of scales in odd 

numbers 

y'. Body slender; longitudinal 
rows of scales in even 

numbers 

y. 15 or more teeth in each max- 
illary, subequal in length, 
a'. 40 to GO teeth in each max- 
illary ; -scales in 17 rows . . 
/3'. 13 to 30 teeth in each max- 
illary. 

a". Scales in 15 to 19 rows, 
without apical pits, verte- 

brals not enlarged 

ft". Scales in 19 to 27 rows, 
with apical pits, verte- 

brals not enlarged 

y' 1 . Scales in 17 rows, without 
apical pits, of vertebral 

row enlarged 

1>, Posterior border of ventral shields with 
a notch on each side corresponding to 
a suture-like lateral keel ; scales in 
13 or 15 rows. 

'. Maxillary teeth equal in length ; 

scales of vertebral row enlarged . . 

&'. Anterior maxillary teeth longest; 

vertebral scales not enlarged .... 

B. Aquatic or seniiaquatic Snakes, with the 

hypapophyses developed throughout the 

vertebral column, and very small nasal 

bones. Scales usually keeled. 

a. Posterior maxillary teeth longest. 

'. Scales on the anterior part of the 

body disposed obliquely, narrow 

and much imbricate 

//. Scales forming straight longitudinal 
series ; two internasals 



SIMOTES, p. 300. 

OlJfJODON, p. 317. 



COHONELLA, p. 308. 

ZAMENIS, p. 323. 
ZAOCYS, p. 329. 

POLYODOXTOPHIS, p. 301. 

ABL.ABES, p. 304. 
COLUBEB, p. 330. 
XENELAPHIS, p. 336. 



DENDROPHIS, p. 337. 
DENDREL APHIS, p. 339. 



PSEUDOXEXODON, p. 340. 

TROPIDONOTUS, p. 341 . 



CALAMABTA. 



281 



c'. A single internasal; nostril in a 

semidivided nasal HELICOPS, p. 352. 

6. Maxillary teeth subequal ; nostril in a 

single nasal XENOCHBOPHIS, p. 353. 




Fig. 88. Scaling of body of Dendrophis pictiis, showing the enlarged verte- 
bral scales (8), the apical pit* on the oblique dorsal scales, and the lateral 
keel along the ventral shields (i-). 

Genus CALAMARIA, 
Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 519. 

Maxillary teeth 8 to 11, subequal; anterior mandibular teeth a 
little longer than the posterior. Head not distinct from neck ; 




Fig. 89. Head of Calamaria pavimentata. 

eye small, with round pupil ; nostril pierced in a very small nasal ; 
no loreal ; no internasals ; prseocular present or absent ; no 



* The apical pit is a minute impression near the extremity of the scale ; 
these pits may be disposed in pairs. The character derived from the presence 
or absence of the apical pits appears to me of about the same systematic import- 
ance as the presence or absence of a keel on the dorsal scales, or the division 
or non-division of the subcaudal shields. In some cases it may aid in defining 
a natural genus, in others it breaks down as a generic character. 



282 COLUBRIDJE. 

temporals, the parietals in contact with the labials. Body cylin- 
drical, rigid; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 13 rows; tail 
short, subcaudals in two rows. 

A genus of about thirty species, ranging from Assam (?), Burma, 
and Southern China to the Malay Archipelago, where they are 
most abundant in Java, Sumatra, and Borneo. Small snakes, 
usually found concealed under stones or fallen trees. 



of Indian and Burmese Species. 

Subcaudals 13-27 C. pavimentata, p. 282. 

Subcaudals 41 C. catenata, p. 282. 

332. Calamaria pavimentata. 

Calamaria pavimentata, Dum. $ Sibr. Erp. Gin. vii, p. 71 ; Jan. 

Icon. Ophid. 10, pi. i, %. 9. 
Calamaria quadriinaculata, Dum. SfBibr. t. c. p. 73 ; Jan. L c. fio- 10 ; 

Gilnth.Eept. B. /.p. 197. 
Calamaria siamensis, Gunth. I. c. p. 196; Theob. Cat. p. 140. 

Eostral as deep as broad, well visible from above ; frontal longer 
than broad, shorter than the parietals, twice to twice and a half 
as broad as the supraocular ; one pne- and one postocular ; four 
upper labials, second and fourth largest, second and third entering 
the eye ; first pair of lower labials forming a suture behind the 
mental ; two pairs of chin-shields, in contact with each other. 
Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 140-182; anal entire; subcaudals 
13-27. Tail pointed. Reddish brown above, with five dark 
longitudinal lines or series of spots; nape dark brown, separated 
from the back by a yellow collar ; a pair of yellow spots at the 
base and another at the end of the tail ; lower parts uniform 
yellowish, with a dark line along the tail in the Burmese and Javan 
specimens, obscured with brown mottlings or brown with lighter 
borders in the var. siamensis. 

Total length 12-5 inches ; tail 0-6. 

Hob. Burma (Toungngoo, Bangoon), Siam, Cochinchina, Canton, 
Java. 

333. Calamaria ? catenata. 

Calamaria catenata, Bh/tJi, J. A. 8. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 287; Theob. 
Cat. p. 141. 

Frontal almost as large as the parietals. Scales in 13 rows. 
Ventrals 187 ; subcaudals 41. Predominant colour dusky above, 
formed by minute black specks upon a pale ground-tint ; below pale 
buff and marked with lateral series of square black spots ; four 
black lines throughout above, the upper bordering a pale medial 
streak, which is simple upon the tail, but along the body forms a 
concatenation of elongate oval spots ; an imperfect whitish-buff 
collar, and similar marks before and behind the eye. 

Total length 17 inches ; tail 2|. 

Hab. This species, of which I have not seen any specimens, was 
described from Assam. I refer it with doubt to this genus. 



Genus XYLOPHIS, 
Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 576 *. 

Maxillary teeth 20 to 25, small, equal ; mandibular teeth equal. 
Head not distinct from neck ; eye small, with ronnd pupil ; nostril 




Fig. 90. Head of Xylophis perroteti. 

pierced between two small nasals ; a pair of small internasals ; a 
loreal ; no praeocular. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, without 
apical pits, in 13 or 15 rows ; tail short, subcaudals in two rows. 
Distribution. Two species, from the hills of Southern India. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

Scales in 13 rows ; supraocular larger than post- 
ocular X. perroteti, p. 283. 

Scales in 15 rows ; supraocular not larger than [p. 284. 

postocular X. stenorhynchus, 

334. Xylophis perroteti. 

Platypteryx perroteti, Dion. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 501 ; Jan, Icon. 
Ophid. 12, pi. i, fig. 1. 

Rhabdosorna microcephalum, Gilnth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 12. 

Geophis microcephalus, Giinth. Rejrt. B. I. p. 200, pi. xviii, fig. A ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 142. 

Bostral small, deeper than broad, just visible from above; suture 
between the interuasals one third to one half the length of that 
between the praefrontals ; frontal as long as broad or slightly longer 
than broad, nearly as long as its distance from the end of the snout 
and two thirds or three fifths the length of the parietals ; supra- 
ocular small, but yet much larger than the single postocular ; 
loreal much elongate and usually entering the eye ; in some 
specimens, however, the prsefrontal forms a short suture with 
the third labial, in front of the eye ; six upper labials, third 
and fourth entering the eye, first very small, fifth largest ; tem- 
porals 1 + 2; four lower labials in contact with the chin-shields, 
which are very large and in contact with the mental ; no posterior 
chin-shields. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 130-147 ; anal single ; 

* The name Platypteryx, Duin. & Bibr. (1854), is preoccupied (Laspeyres, 1803). 



284 



COLTJBKID.E. 



subcaudals 17-38. Brown above, spotted with black, or with more 
or less distinct black longitudinal bands ; sometimes an ill-defined 
yellow collar ; lips black and yellow ; lower surface black and 
white, or grey spotted with black, or nearly uniform brownish 
black. 

Total length 25 inches ; tail 1-5. 

Hal. Hills of Southern India up to 5900 feet, 

335. Xylophis stenorhynchus. 

Geophis stenorhynchus, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 230. 
Xylophis indicus, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 576. 

Eostral small, deeper than broad, well visible from above ; suture 
between the internasals about one third the length of that between 
the praef rentals ; frontal as long as broad or slightly longer than 
broad, nearly as long as its distance from the end of the snout, and 
a little shorter than the parietals ; suture between the latter shields 
much shorter than the frontal ; supraocular very small, not larger 
than the single postocular ; loreal much elongate, entering the eye ; 
temporals 1 +2 ; 5 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye, 
first very small, fif ^i largest ; 4 lower labials in contact wdth the 
chin-shields, which are very large and in contact with the mental ; 
no posterior chin-shields. Scales in 15 rows. Venlrals 120-131 ; 
anal single ; subcaudals 17-31. Dark brown above, uniform or 
with three rather indistinct darker longitudinal lines, and a yellow- 
ish collar ; lower surface uniform dark brown. 

Total length 9 inches ; tail 8-1. 

ffab. Travancore and Madura Hills (5000 feet). 

Grenus TRACHISCHIUM, 

Giinther, Cat. Col. Sn. p. 30, 1858. 

Maxillary teeth 18 to 20, anterior 
shortest ; posterior mandibular 
teeth shorter than the anterior. 
Head not distinct from neck ; eye 
small, with vertically subelliptic 
pupil ; nostril between two very 
smaU nasals ; head-shields normal, 
prsefrontals sometimes united. 
Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, 
without apical pits, in 13 or 15 
rows ; tail short ; subcaudals in 
two rows. 

Distribution. Eastern Himalayas 
and Khasi Hills. 

Four or five species are known, all 
of small size. Their correct position 
in the system is evidently near 

Fig. 91.-Head and dentition Xylophis and RracTiyorrhos, with 
of Trachischiumfuscum. which they have much in common. 





TEACHISCHIUM. 



Synopsis of the Species. 

A. Scales iu 13 rows, those of the ischiadic region 
keeled in the males. 

a. Praefrontal shield usually undivided ; one 

postocular ; 150 ventrals or more T. fuscum, p. 285. 

b. Preefrontal shield usually undivided ; one 

postocular : 134-145 ventrals T. yuentheri, p. 285. 

c. Two prsef rentals ; two postoculars T. tenuiceps, p. 280. 

13. Scales in 15 rows, all smooth. 

a. Sixth upper labial largest T. monticola, p. 28(5. 

b. Last three upper labials sub equal T. rubriventcr, p. 286. 



336. Trachischium fuscum. 

Calamaria fusca andC. obscm'o-striata, Blyth, J. A' 8. B. xxiii. 1854, 

p. 288. 

Trachischium rugosuui, Giinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 30. 
Trachischium fuscum, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 161 ; Theob. Cat. 

Rept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 45 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 171 ; 

Theob. Cat, p. 144. 
Ablabes fuscus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p.22p._ ^ lK 

Kostral as broad as deep or a little deeper than broad, visible 
from above ; siiture between the internasals very short ; prsefrontal 
usually single ; frontal longer than its distance from the end of the 
snout, two thirds or three fourths the length of the parietals ; 
loreal longer than deep ; one prse- and one postocular ; temporals 
1 + 2; 6 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye, first 
smallest, sixth largest ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields small. Scales in 13 rows ; 
those on the sides of the anal and basicaudal regions obtusely keeled 
in the male. Ventrals 150-162 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 33-42. 
Dark brown or black above and below, with or without more or less 
indistinct lighter longitudinal streaks above. 

Total length 20 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas (3000-7000 feet), very common in Sik- 
him ; Khasi Hills ; Eangoon ? (Blyth). 

337. Trachischium guentheri. 

Trachischium obscuro-striatum (non Blyth), Giinth. P. Z. S. 1860, 
p. 161. 

Rostral as broad as deep or a little deeper than broad, visible 
from above ; suture between the iuternasals very short ; prae- 
frontal usually single ; frontal longer than its distance from the 
end of the snout, two thirds the length of the parietals ; loreal 
longer than deep ; one pra3- and one postocular ; temporals 1+2 ; 
6 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye, first smallest, 
sixth largest; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields; posterior -oV^i-shields small. Scales in 13 rows; male 



28b COLUBHIDjE. 

with keeled scales in the anal and basicaudal regions. Ventrals 
132-145 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 33-38. Dark brown above, 
with indistinct lighter and darker longitudinal streaks ; yellowish 
beneath, uniform or scantily mottled with brown. 

Total length 11 inches ; tail 1-4. 

Hob. Sikhim. 

338. Trachischium tenuiceps. 

Calamaria teuuiceps, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 288. 
Ablabes tenuiceps, Giinth. Kept. B. L p. 224 ; Theob. Cat. p. 154. 

Eostral a little broader than deep, visible from above ; suture 
between the internasals about two thirds the length of that between 
the prsefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the end of 
the snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than 
deep ; one praeocular ; two postoculars; temporals 1 + 1 or 1 + 2; 
6 upper labials, third aud fourth entering the eye, first smallest, 
sixth largest ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are a little longer than the posterior. Scales in 13 
rows ; male with keeled scales iu the anal and basicaudal regions. 
Ventrals 134-138; anal divided; subcaudals 34-39. Blackish 
above, yellowish beneath. 

Total length 14 inches ; tail 2. 

Hdb. Eastern Himalayas. 

339. Trachischium monticola. 

Calamaria monticola, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 50. 

Cyclophis monticola, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 232 ; Theob. Cat. p. 158. 

Ablabes albi venter, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 231. 

Eostral deeper than broad, visible from above : suture between 
the internasals about half as long as that between the praef rentals ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep ; one praeocular ; two 
postoculars, rarely one; temporals 1 + 1; 6 upper labials, third 
and fourth entering the eye, first smallest, sixth largest ; 4 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little 
longer than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 113- 
135 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 28-34 (44, Cantor). Dark brown 
above, with two more or less distinct pale brown longitudinal 
bands edged on each side with a black line: yellowish below; 
young with an interrupted yellow collar. 

Total length 9 inches ; tail 1-2. 

Hob. Darjeeling, Naga Hills, Assam. 

340. Trachischium ? ruforiventer. 
Cyclophis rubriventer, Jet-don, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 80 ; Theob. Cat. 

One prae- and two postoculars ; 6 upper labials, the last three 



BLYTHIA. 287 

subequal inside; temporals 1 + 1. Scales in 15 rows. Veiitrals 
127-135; subcaudals 33-38. Brown, with a pale lateral band 
from the eye to the tip of the tail ; below this, a mottled brown 
and yellowish band ; chin, throat, and anterior part of neck 
yellow, the rest of the lower parts red. 

Total length 7'75 inches ; tail 1'25. 

Hob. Khasi Hills. (Unknown to me.) 



Genus BLYTHIA, 
Theobald, Cat, Kept. As. Soc. Mua. p. 44, 1868. 

Maxillary teeth about 20, anterior shortest ; posterior maiidi- 
bular teeth much shorter than the anterior. Head not distinct 
from neck ; eye small, with vertically subelliptic pupil ; nostril 





Fig. 92. Head of Blythia retieidata. 

between two very small nasals and the first labial ; no loreal or prae- 
ocular. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 
13 rows ; tail short ; subcaudals in two rows. 

A single species, from the Khasi Hills. 

This genus is nearly equally related to Trachischitim and Aspi- 
dura. 

341. Blythia reticulata. 

Calarnaria reticulata, Bh/th, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 287. 
Blvthia reticulata, Theob. Cat. Rent. As. Soc. Mm. p. 44 ; id. Cat. 
p. 142. 

Bostral about as broad as deep, visible from above ; suture 
between the internasals one half to two thirds as long as that 
between the pra3frontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the 
end of the snout, about two thirds the length of the parietals ; one 
postocular and one elongate temporal ; 6 upper labials, third and 



20 COLUBBID^E. 

fourth entering the eye, first smallest, sixth largest ; 4 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin- 
shields small. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 127-150; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 19-29. Blackish brown above and below, 
the lateral scales and the veutrals edged with lighter. 

Total length 16-5 inches; tail 1-65. 

Hob. Khasi Hills. 



Genus ASPIDURA, 
Wagler, Syst. Amph. p. 191, 1830. 

Maxillary teeth about 20, small, equal; posterior maudibular 
teeth a little shorter than the anterior. Head not distinct from 
neck ; eye small, with round pupil ; nostril between two very small 





Fig. 93. Head of Aspiditra brachyorrhvt. 

nasals and the first labial ; no loreal ; a single internasal : prao- 
ocular present or absent. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, 
without apical pits, in 15 or 17 rows ; tail short ; subcaudals simple. 
Distribution. Ceylon. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

A. Scales in 17 rows. 

a. Both postoculars in contact with parietal ; 

ventrals 125-150. 
a'. A prseocular ; supraocular more than 

half length of frontal A. brachyorrlws, p. 289. 

b'. No praeocular ; supraocular not half 

length of frontal A. cupii, p. 289. 

b, Ouly upper postocular in contact with 

parietal; ventrals 106-111 A. yuentften, p. 290. 

B. Scales in 15 rows A. trachyprocta, p. 290. 



342. Aspidura brachyorrhos. 

Scytale brackyorrhos, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 517. 
Aspidura scytale, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. G4n. vii, p. 128. 

Col. Sn. p. 14. 
r. 2. 

Cat. p. 142. 

Bostral small, deeper than broad, scarcely visible from above ; 
frontal a little longer than its distance from the end of the snout, 
two thirds the length of the parietals ; supraocular more than 
half the length of the frontal ; prsefrontals in contact with the 
second and third upper labials, separated from the eye by a prae- 
ocular; two postoculars, lower the larger, both in contact with 
the parietal; temporals 1 + 2; 6 upper labials, first smallest, sixth 
largest, fourth entering the eye; 4 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields; posterior chin-shields small and scale- 
like. Scales in 17 rows, all perfectly smooth. Ventrals 139 
154 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 27-38. Pale yellowish or reddish 
brown above, with four more or less indistinct darker longitudinal 
streaks and a vertebral series of blackish dots ; an oblique blackish 
cross-band on each side of the nape; belly uniform yellowish, 
tail more or less abundantly freckled with brown. 

Total length 14-5 inches; tail 1-65. 

Hab. Ceylon ; found only in the mountains. 



343. Aspidura copii. 

Aspidura copii, Gilnth. Sept. B. I. p. 203, pi. xviii, fig. E ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 143. 

Kostral small, deeper than broad, not visible from above ; frontal 
a little longer than its distance from the end of the snout, three 
fifths the length of the parietals ; supraocular very small, not half 
the length of the frontal ; praefrontals in contact with the second, 
third, and fourth upper labials and with the eye ; no prseocular ; 
two postoculars, lower the larger, both in contact with the parietal ; 
temporals 1 + 2 ; 6 upper labials, first smallest, sixth largest, 
fourth entering the eye; 4 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields (which, in the type specimen, happen to be 
divided into two pairs) ; posterior chin-shields small and scale-like. 
Scales in 17 rows, those on the sides of the anal region and on the 
tail keeled in the male. Ventrals 125-150 ; anal undivided ; 
subcaudals 20-33. Brown above, with two longitudinal series of 
large, black, pale-edged spots ; an oblique, black cross-band on 
each side of the nape : lower surface yellowish, spotted or freckled 
with brown. 

Total length 16-5 inches ; tail 2-8. 

Hob. Ceylon (Districts of Dimbola and Dickoya, 4000-5000 
feet). 



290 COLTJBBIDjE. 

344. Aspidura guentheri. 
Aspidura guentheri, Ferguson, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 819. 

Rostral small, deeper than broad, not visible from above ; 
frontal as long as or slightly longer than its distance from the end 
of the snout, two thirds the length of the parietals ; supraocular 
about half the length of the frontal ; prsefrontals in contact with 
the second and third upper labials, entering the eye ; a prseocular ; 
two postoculars, only the upper in contact with the parietal; 
temporals 1 + 2; 6 upper labials, first and second very small, sixth 
largest, fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields small and scale- 
like. Scales in 17 rows, all perfectly smooth. Ventrals 101-117 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 19-27. Dark brown above and below, 
back with four longitudinal series of blackish dots; head paler 
above ; a yellow nuchal collar, interrupted in the middle and 
bordered with blackish posteriorly. 

Total length 6 inches ; tail 0-75. 

Hob. Ceylon (near the coast). 

345. Aspidura trachyprocta. 

Aspidura trachyprocta, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 75 ; Giinth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 203, pi. xviii, fig. F ; Tlieob. Cat. p. 143. 
Aspidura scytale, part., Jan, Icon. Ophid. 13, pi. ii, figs. 1 & 3. 

Eostral small, deeper than broad, not visible from above ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, about two 
thirds the length of the parietals ; supraoculars more than half 
the length of the frontal ; prsefrontals in contact with the eye and 
with the second and third upper labials, separated from the fourth 
by a small prseocular ; two postoculars, lower largest, both in 
contact with the parietal; temporals 1 + 2; 6 upper labials, first 
and second very small, sixth largest, fourth entering the eye ; 4 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior 
chin-shields small and scale-like. Scales in 15 rows, tubercularly 
keeled on the anal and caudal regions. Ventrals 120-147 ; anal 
entire ; subcaudals 13-25. Brown or blackish above, with longi- 
tudinal series of small darker spots and a dark lateral streak, 
which are more distinct in the young ; lower surface blackish, or 
yellowish spotted with black. 

Total length 15 inches ; tail 1. 

Hob. Ceylon (in the mountains). 

Genus HAPLOCERCUS, 
Guiither, Cat. Col. Sn. p. 14, 1858. 

Maxillary teeth about 10, moderately large, subequal ; posterior 
mandibular teeth a little shorter than the anterior. Head not 
distinct from neck ; eye rather small, with round pupil ; nostril 
between two small nasals and the first labial ; no loreal ; a single 



LTCODON. 



291 



internasal. Body cylindrical ; scales keeled, in 17 rows, without 
apical pits ; subcaudals single. 

Distribution. Ceylon. A single species. 

346. Haplocercus ceylonensis. 

Haplocercus ceylonensis. Giinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 15 ; id. Eept. B. I. 

p. 204, pi. xviii, fig. G. 

Aspidura carinata, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 13, pi. i, fig. 5. 
Aspidura ceylonensis, Theob. Cat. p. 143. 

Eostral a little deeper than broad, not visible from above ; 
frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout, three 
fifths the length of the parietals ; prsefrontals in contact with the 
second and third upper labials ; one prae- and two postoculars ; 
temporals 1 + 2; 7 upper labials, fourth, or third and fourth, 
entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields small, scale-like. Scales 
elongate, smooth on the nape, moderately keeled on the anterior 
half of the back, sharply keeled on the posterior half and on the 
tail. Ventrals 177-207 ; anal single ; subcaudals 42-56. Brown 
above, with a black vertebral line, and, on each side, a series of 
small black spots ; an oblique yellowish, black-edged band on each 
side of the nape ; lower surface uniform yellowish. 

Total length 17-5 inches ; tail 2'3. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



Genus LYCODON, 



Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 981. 





Fig. 94. Head and dentition of 
Lycodon aullcus. 



Anterior maxillary teeth en- 
larged, the third or fourth fang- 
like and followed by a tooth- 
less space; anterior mandibular 
teeth enlarged. Head not or 
but slightly distinct from neck, 
more or less depressed ; eye small 
or moderate, with vertically 
elliptic pupil ; head-shields nor- 
mal. Body more or less elongate, 
cylindrical or slightly com- 
pressed ; scales smooth or keeled, 
in 17 or 19 rows, with apical 
pits ; ventrals with or without a 
lateral keel; subcaudals single 
or double. 

Distribution. East Indies, 
Southern China, Japan, New 
G-uinea. About 20 species are 
known. They feed almost ex- 
clusively on Scincoids and Tachy- 
dromus. 



292 COLUBEID^E. 

Synopsis of Iiidian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Scales smooth, in 17 rows ; subcaudals usually in 

two rows. 

a. Ventrals not augulate ; snout not spatulate ; 

anal divided. 

a f . 8 upper labials L. striatus, p. 292. 

b'. 9 or 10 upper labials L. jam, p. 292. 

b. Ventrals laterally angulate. 

'. Two loreals ; snout not spatulate ; anal entire ; [p. 293. 

eye rather large L. anamallensis, 

b'. One loreal; snout broad, much depressed, 

spatulate. [p. 293. 

a". Anal entire L. travancoricus, 

b". Anal divided L. aulicus, p. 294. 

c'. No loreal L. atropurpurem, 

B. Scales keeled. [p. 294. 

a. Scales in 17 rows. [p. 295. 
a'. Posterior chin-shields shorter than anterior . L. septentrionalis, 
b'. Posterior chin-shields longer than anterior. . L.fasciatus, 

b. Scales in 19 rows. [p. 295. 
a'. Subcaudals in two rows ; only scales of the 

9 dorsal rows keeled * L. yanimiei, p. 296. 

b'. Subcaudals single ; scales strongly keeled . . , cartau,p.296. 

347. Lycodon striatus. 

Russell, Lid. Serj). i, pi. xvi. 

Coluber striatus, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 527. 

Lycodon striatus, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 318 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, 1870, p. 200 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 187 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 199 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 384. 

Snout much depressed, slightly projecting; eye rather small. 
llostral much broader than long, just visible from above ; inter- 
uasals much shorter than the praefrontals ; frontal as long as its 
distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals or a 
little shorter ; loreal elongate, not entering the eye ; one prseocular ; 
two postoculars ; temporals small, 1 + 2 or 2 + 2 or 2+3; eight 
upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye; 4 or 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
usually longer than the posterior. Scales smooth, in 17 rows. 
Yentrals 153-178, not augulate laterally ; anal divided; subcaudals 
42-62, in two rows. Dark brown or black above, with white trans- 
verse spots or cross-bands, which are widely separated anteriorly ; 
sides lineolated \\ith white, with a black spot corresponding to each 
white cross-band ; upper lip and lower surface uniform white. 

Total length 17 inches ; tail 3. 

Hab. From Siud, the Punjab, the North-Western Provinces, and 
the hills below Simla to Southern India. 

348. Lycodon jara. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xiv. 
Coluber jara, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 525. 



LYCODON. 293 

Coluber bipunctatus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 52. 

Lycodon jara, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 110; Stoliczka, J.A.S.B. 

xl, 1871, p. 442 ; Theob. Cat. p. 200. 
Leptorhytaon jara, Gilnth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 205 ; id. Kept. B. I. 

p. 321. 
Lycophidion bipunctatum, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1863, p. 403. 

Snout much depressed ; eye rather small. Eostral much broader 
than long, just visible from above ; internasals much shorter than 
the prsofrontals ; frontal as long as or a little shorter than its dis- 
tance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; 
loreal elongate, not entering the eye ; one praeocular ; two post- 
oculars ; temporals small, 1 + 2 ; 9 or 10 upper labials, third, fourth, 
and fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the posterior. Scales 
smooth, in 17 rows. Ventrals 167-175, not angulate laterally; 
anal divided ; subcaudals 56-63, in two rows. Brown above, each 
scale with two white dots or short longitudinal lines ; labials white ; 
usually a white collar ; lower surface uniform while. 

Total length 16 inches ; tail 275. 

Hob. Granjam, Bengal to base of Himalayas, Assam, Pegu ; Anai- 
malai Hills according to Giinther. 

349. Lycodon anamallensis. 
Lycodon anamallensis, Giinth. Eept. B. I. p..318 ; Theob. Cat. p. 200. 

Snout moderately depressed ; eye rather large. Eostral much 
broader than long, just visible from above ; internasals much 
shorter than pra3frontals ; frontal as long as its distance from the 
end of the snout, slightly shorter than the parietals ; two loreals ; 
one prseocular in contact with the frontal ; two postoculars ; tem- 
porals small, scale-like, 2 + 3; 9 upper labials, third, fourth, and 
fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are longer than the posterior. Scales smooth, 
in 17 rows. Ventrals 202, obtusely angulate laterally ; anal un- 
divided ; subcaudals 74, in two rows. Brown above, with narrow 
white, black-edged cross-bands ; labials white, each with a brown 
spot ; lower parts uniform white. 

Total length 20 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hob. Anaimalai Hills, S. India. A single specimen is known. 

350. Lycodon travancoricus. 

Cercaspis travancoricus, Beddome, Madras Joum. Med. Sc. 1870 ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 201. 

Snout much depressed, with swollen lips, subspatulate ; eye 
rather small. Eostral much broader than long, hardly visible from 
above ; internasals much shorter than the pra3frontals ; frontal as 
long as its distance from the end of the snout, or a little longer, 
a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal elongate, rarely entering 



294 COLTTBRIB^. 

the eye ; one praeocular, usually in contact with the frontal ; two 
postoculars ; temporals small, scale-like, 2 + 3 or 3+3; 9 upper 
labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer 
than the posterior. Scales smooth, in 17 rows. Ventrals 178- 
202, obtusely angulate laterally ; anal undivided ; subcaudals 
usually in two rows, sometimes simple*, 66-76. Coloration very 
similar to that of L. striatus, viz., dark brown or black above, with 
white cross-bands and white lineolations on the sides, and uniform 
white below ; but the upper lip is brown, or white spotted with 
brown. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 5 inches. 

Hob. Travancore Hills (5000 feet), Anaimalai (4700 feet), Nilgiri 
(5900 feet). 

351. Lycodon aulicus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xxxix. 

Coluber aulicus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 381. 

Lycodon aulicus, Boie, Isis, 1826, p. 981 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

id. Zool. Rec. 1870, p. 75 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 36, pi. iv, 

Theob. Cat. p. 199; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 383. 
Lycodon aulicus, part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 915. 
Tytleria hypsirhinoides, Theob. Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. 1808, p. 66. 

Snout much depressed, with swollen lips, spatulate in the adult ; 
eye rather small. Eostral much broader than long, just visible 
from above ; internasals much shorter than the praifrontals ; 
frontal usually shorter than its distance from the end of the snout 
or than the parietals ; loreal elongate, not entering the eye ; one 
prseocular, usually in contact with the frontal ; two postoculars ; 
temporals small, scale-like, 2 + 3 or 3+3; 9 upper labials, third, 
fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the posterior. 
Scales smooth, in 17 rows. Ventrals 183-209, obtusely angulate 
laterally ; anal divided ; subcaudals 57-77, in two rows. Color- 
ation variable ; uniform brown above, or with white transverse 
bands, or with white reticulation ; upper lip uniform white, or with 
brown spots ; lower parts uniform white. 

Total length 25 inches ; tail 4. 

Hab. India and Ceylon, Himalayas, Burma, Siam, Malay Penin- 
sula, Java, Philippines, Timor. A common snake in India. 

352. Lycodon atropurpureus. 

Lycodon atropurpureus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 50. 
Tetragonosoma atropurpureum, Giinth, Rept. B, I. p. 321 ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 200. 



* Out of 15 specimens examined, 11 have all the subcaudals paired; two 
have them in part simple (4|-gl ; 50} fl) ; and two have them all simple. Col. 
Beddome mentions another specimen with 28||1. 



LYCODON. 295 

No loreal, the prsefrontals in contact with the labials ; one prae- 
and two postoculars ; upper labials 9, the fourth and fifth (and 
perhaps the third) entering the eye. Ventrals 257 ; subcaudals 
91. Deep purple, marbled with white and black ; beneath pearl- 
coloured. 

Hob. Mergui. 

This species is only known from Cantor's very short diagnosis, 
and Giinther's notes taken from a drawing of the type specimen. 

353. Lycodon septentrionalis. 
Ophites septentrionalis, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 233. 

Snout moderately depressed, not spatulate ; eye rather small. 
Eostral much broader than deep, visible from above ; internasals 
much shorter than the praefrontals ; frontal slightly longer than 
broad, as long as its distance from the end of the snout, shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal small, elongate, not entering the eye ; 
one pra3- and two postoculars; temporals 2+3 ; Supper labials, 
third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the 
posterior. Scales in 17 rows, those of seven middle rows feebly 
keeled. Ventrals 214, angulate laterally ; anal entire ; subcaudals 
83, in two rows. Black above and on the sides, with narrow 
whitish transverse bands, forming complete annuli on the tail, the 
lower surface of which is dark brown ; belly whitish, with a few 
scattered small brown spots posteriorly. 

Total length 3 feet * ; tail 8 inches. 

Hob. The exact habitat of this species is not known, but is pro- 
bably the Himalayas or the Khasi Hills. The single specimen 
known was obtained by Dr. Jerdon during his last journey through 
the northern parts of India. 

354. Lycodon fasciatns. 

Ophites fasciatus, Anders. An, Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 827, pi. Ixxviii, 
fig. 1. 

Head flat, snout rather spatulate ; eye small. Frontal nearly as 
broad as long ; loreal long and tapering to a point posteriorly, and 
entering the eye ; one praocular ; two postoculars ; temporals 
2+3; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye: 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- shields, which are 
much shorter than the posterior; 17 rows of feebly keeled scales, 
the keels becoming more pronounced posteriorly. Ventrals 213 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 90, in two rows. Body encircled by 
broad purplish-black bands separated by reddish intervals about 
half their breadth ; the first black band does not encircle the 
neck ; upper labials yellowish with dusky sutures. 

* " 83 indies long " in Dr. Gunther's description is eyidently a misprint for 
" 33 inches long." 



296 COLTJBBIDjE. 

Total length 21 inches ; tail 4-3. 

Hob. Ponsee, "Western Yunnan (Anderson} ; a second specimen 
was obtained in the Kakhyen Hills by M. Tea. 

355. Lycodon gammiei. 
Ophites gammiei, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 130. 

Head flat; eye small. Body slender, compressed. Kostral 
about as broad as high ; internasals much smaller than the prse- 
frontals ; frontal very little longer than broad, with convex sides ; 
loreal small, elongate ; one praeocular ; two postoculars ; temporals 
irregular; 8 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth entering the 
eye ; two elongate chin-shields of about equal length, the anterior 
in contact with 5 lower labials. Scales in 19 rows, the nine 
dorsal rows keeled, five rows at each side smooth. Ventrals 214, 
bluntly angulate at the sides ; anal entire ; subcaudals 101 pairs. 
Body surrounded by alternating dusky and light rings with very 
irregular crooked margins ; head above dusky olivaceous with pale 
spots in the middle of most of the shields ; an imperfect pale 
collar behind the head ; lower surface of head and neck whitish. 

Total length 31-5 inches ; tail 7. 

Hab. Sikhhn. 

Known from a single example, which I have not seen. 

356. Lycodon carinatns. 

Hurria carinata, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool. Veryl. Anat. p. 95. 

Lycodon carinatus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 109, pi. iv, figs. 6 & 7. 

Cercaspis carinatus, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 390 ; Gtinth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 324 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 36, pi. vi, fig. 1 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 201. 

Snout much depressed, broad but not spatulate ; eye rather 
small. Rostral much broader than deep, A'isible from above ; inter- 
nasals much shorter than the prafrontals ; frontal slightly longer 
than broad, as long as its distance from the end of the snout, 
shorter than the parietals ; loreal elongate, not entering the eye ; 
one pras- and two postoculars; temporals 2 + 3; 9 upper labials, 
third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the posterior. 
Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled. Ventrals 188-195, angulate 
laterally ; anal entire ; subcaudals 53-64, in a single row. Black, 
encircled by white rings which are broader on the belly than on 
the back ; these annuli are broader in the young, the back of the 
head of which is white. 

Total length 26 inches ; tail 5. 

Hab. Ceylon. 



HYDROPHOBTJS. 297 

The following species rests only upon Cantor's diagnosis : 
LYCODON STJBFUSCUS, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 50. 
" Light brown ; yellowish white beneath. Ventrals 245 ; sub- 
caudals 78." 



HUEEIAH SANGTJIVENTER, Cantor, t. c. p. 52, is also probably a 
Lycodon. 

" Claret-purple above, with metallic lustre ; blood-coloured 
beneath. Ventrals 207 ; subcaudals 99, the 14 anterior of which 
are entire." See Giinther, Rept. B. I. p. 222, fig. 

Valley of Nepal. 

Genus HYDROPHOBUS, 

Giinth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix, 1862, p. 127 *. 

Maxillary teeth 8 to 10, increasing in size posteriorly ; anterior 
mandibular teeth a little longer than the posterior. Head 
distinct from neck, much depressed ; eye moderate or rather large, 
with vertically elliptical pupil ; head-shields normal, but preeoculars 
sometimes absent and the loreal usually enters the eye. Body 





Fig. 95. Head of Hydrophobus nympha, 

slender, slightly compressed ; scales smooth, in 13 or 15 rows, 
with apical pits ; ventrals strongly keeled on each side ; subcaudals 
in two rows. 

This East-Indian genus, allied to Lycodon, comprises five species, 
three of which are described here. The two others are H. suban- 
nulatus, D. & B. (NympTiophidium maculatum, Gthr.), from 
Sumatra and Singapore, and //. muelleri, D. & B., from the 
Philippines. 



* The name Odontonms, Dura. & Bihr. (1854), is preoccupied (Kirbv, 1837). 



COLUBRIDJE. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

Scales in 13 rows ; one or two pneoculars H. nympha, p. 298. 

Scales in 15 rows ; one prseocular H. gracilis, p. 298. 

Scales in 13 rows ; no prjeocular H. davisonii, p. 299. 

357. Hydrophobus nympha. 

Russell, I)ul. Scrp. i, pis. xxxvi, xxxvii. 

Coluber nympha, Baud. Rept. vi, p. 244, pi. Ixxv, fig. 1. 

Lycodon nympba, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 522. 

Odontomus nympha, Dum. # Bibr. E>-p. Gen. vii, p. 450 ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 233 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 38, pi. v, fig. 2 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 160. 
Hydrophobus semifasciatus, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix, 1862, p. 127, 

pi. ix, fig. 6. 

Odontomus semifasciatus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 234 ; Theob. I. c. 
Odontomus nympha, var. ceylonensis, F. Mull. Verb. nat. Ges. Basel. 

viii, 1887, p. 269. 

Eostral not twice as broad as deep, visible from above ; nasal 
entire or divided ; suture between the internasals usually as long 
as that between the praef rentals, or a little shorter ; frontal longer 
than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal longer than deep, usually entering the eye ; one 
or two prseoculars ; two postoculars ; temporals 2+ 2 or 2 +3; 7 
(exceptionally 8 or 6) upper labials, third and fourth entering the 
eye ; 3 or 4 labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
are longer than the posterior. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 200- 
243; anal divided; subcaudals 71-88. Whitish, with or witbout 
small brown spots, and with large elliptic dark brown or black 
spots much longer than the interspaces between them; a large 
brown spot nearly covers the upper surface of the head, and is 
separated from the first dorsal spot by a narrow white occipital 
band ; upper lip and lower parts uniform white. 

Total length 18 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hob. Southern India and Ceylon. 

358. Hydrophobus gracilis. 

Odontomus gracilis, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 234 ; Theob. Cat. p. 1GO. 
Odontomus fergusonii, Haly, Taprobanian, iii, 1888, p. 51. 

Rostral twice as broad as deep, just visible from above ; nasal 
semi divided ; suture between the internasals as long as that 
between the prsefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the 
end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than 
deep, entering the eye, separated from the supraocular by a small 
prseocular; two postoculars; temporals 2 + 3; 7 upper labials, 
third and fourth entering tbe eye ; 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are longer than the posterior. 
Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 200-234; anal entire; subcaudals 
75-83. Whitish, each scale brown in the centre, with large 



PSEUDOCYCLOPHIS. 299 

dark brown spots separated by narrower interspaces; these brown 
spots much shorter, roundish, on the hinder part of the body ; 
head dark brown above, separated from the first dorsal spot by a 
narrow white collar ; upper lip and lower parts uniform white.' 

Total length 21 inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. Anaimalai Hills ; Ceylon; Waltair,Vi7,agapatara, according 
to Elliott. 

359. Hydrophobus davisonii. 

Ulupe davisonii, Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlvii, 1878, p. 128; id. P. Z. S. 
1881, p. 221 ; Soettff. Ber. Offenb. Ver. Naturk. 1888, p. 55. 

Eostral not twice as broad as deep, visible from above ; nasal 
undivided ; suture between the internasals as long as that between 
the praefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the end of the 
snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep, enter- 
ing the eye ; no prseocular ; one or two postoculars ; temporals 
1 + 2 (or 2 + 2); seven upper labials, third and fourth entering the 
eye ; four lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
which are longer than the posterior. Scales in 1 3 rows. Ventrals 
235-265 ; subcaudals 91-108. Above with dark brown or black 
elongate spots separated by white or pale brown narrower inter- 
spaces ; on the hinder half of the body the brown spots become 
smaller or may be broken up ; snout brown, connected with the 
first dorsal brown spot by a longitudinal brown band, the rest of 
the head being whitish ; lower parts whitish, tail mottled with 
brown. 

Total length 26-5 inches ; tail 6. 

Hob. Tenasserim, Siam, Cochin China. 

Genus PSEUDOCYCLOPHIS*, 

Boettger, Zool. Anz. 1888, p. 262. 

Maxillary teeth 10 to 14, small and subequal ; mandibular teeth 
subequal. Head much depressed, not distinct from neck ; eye 
small, with vertically elliptical pupil. Body much elongate, cylin- 
drical ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 15 or 17 rows ; 
ventrals not keeled ; subcaudals in two rows. 

Four species belong to this genus, three of which occur in India ; 
the fourth (P. persicus, And.) is known from Persia. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Nostril pierced in an undivided nasal ; internasals 

longer than praefrontals ; scales in 15 rows P. walteri, p. 300. 

Nasal semidivided ; prsefrontals longer than inter- 
nasals ; scales in 17 rows P. olivaceus, p. 300. 

Nasal semidivided ; internasal and prsefrontal single ; 

scales in 17 rows P. bicolor, p. 300. 

* The name Grotea, Theob. (1868), is preoccupied (Cress. 1864). 



300 COLUBRIDJE. 

360. Pseudocyclophis waiter!. 

Pseudocyclophis walteri, Boettg. Zool. Anz. 1888, p. 262, and Zool. 
Jahrb. iii, 1888, p. 922, pi. xxxiv, fig. 1. 

Head much depressed ; eye small. Eostral broader than deep, 
visible from above ; nostril pierced in a single nasal ; suture 
between the internasals longer than that between the praefrontals ; 
frontal a little longer than broad, nearly twice as broad as the 
supraocular, as long as its distance from the end of the snout, and 
much shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep (if 
present) ; one prse- and one postocvdar ; temporals 1 + 1 ; 7 upper 
labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little longer 
than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 211-231 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 78-82. Pale olive or reddish above, anteriorly 
with obsolete black transverse lines, posteriorly uniform ; lower 
parts white. 

Total length 18 inches ; tail 4-25. 

Hob. Becently described from the Persian-Transcaspian frontier; 
a specimen was obtained by Mr. Blanford in the Kohistan division 
of the Karachi Collectorate, Sind, and presented by him to the 
British Museum. 

361. Pseudocyclophis olivaceus. 

Ablabes olivaceus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1863 ; Gilnth. 
Rept. B. I. p. 227 ; Theob. Cat. p. 155. 

Head much depressed ; eye very small. Rostral large, twice 
as broad as deep, visible from above; nasal divided below the 
nostril ; suture between the internasals shorter than that between 
the praefrontals ; frontal only a little if at all longer than broad, 
three or four times as broad as the supraocular, much longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout and a little shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal longer than deep ; two prae- and two postoculars ; 
temporals 1 + 1 ; 5 upper labials, third entering the eye, fifth very 
large ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields nearly as long as the anterior, separated 
from each other by two scales. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 
206-215; anal divided; subcaudals 68-73. Dull olive-green above 
and below, with four longitudinal series of small black spots on 
the back. 

Total length 21 inches ; tail 3*75. 

Hob. Manantoddy, "Wynaad. 

362. Pseudocyclophis bicolor. 

Calamaria bicolor, BlytJi, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 289. 

Ablates bicolor, Giinth. JRept. B. I. p. 226 ; Anders. An. Zool Res. 

Yunnan, p. 809. 
Grotea bicolor. Theob. Cat. Rent. As. Soc. Mtts. 1868, p. 45 ; id. Cat. 

p. 145. 



POLYODONTOPHIS. 



301 



Head much depressed; eye very small. Eostral large, more 
than twice as broad as deep, just visible from above ; nasal divided 
below the nostril ; internasal single, as long as or a little shorter 
than the likewise single praefrontal ; frontal as broad as long, as long 
as its distance from the end of the snout, two thirds the length of 
the parietals ; supraocular very small ; loreal as long as deep ; one 
prseocular ; two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 1 ; 5 upper labials, the 
upper angle of the third entering the eye, fifth very large ; 3 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are not 
longer than the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 199-213 ; 
anal divided ; subcaudals 58-77. Blackish brown above, brownish 
white below. 

Total length 24 inches, tail 5. 

Hob. Khasi Hills, Assam, Yunnan. 



Genus POLYODONTOPHIS*. 

Teeth very numerous and closely set, equal in si/e, 30 to 50 in 
each maxillary. Deutary bone loosely attached to the articular, 
free posteriori v t. Head short, not or but slightly distinct from 
neck ; eye rather small, with round pupil ; head-shields normal. 




Fig. 9<3. Head and dentition of Polyodontaphis collaris. 

Body cylindrical, elongate ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 
17 or 19 rows ; ventrals not angulate laterally ; tail moderate or 
long ; subcaudals in two rows. 

This very natural genus includes 9 species : four from India, 
Ceylon, Burma, and Southern China, described below ; one from 
Siam and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, P. melanocephalus, 
Gray (=ornatu$, Jan), of which Ablabes yeminatus> Schleg., and 

* The name Enicognathm, Dum. & Bibr. (1854), is preoccupied (G-. E. Gray, 
1840). 

t As in Xenopeltis (see fig. 84, p. 275), in which the teeth are likewise very 
numerous and closely set. 



302 COLTJBEIDjE. 

A. flaviceps, Gthr., are colour varieties ; one from Madagascar, 
P. rhodoyaster, Schleg. ( = Coronella torquata, Blgr.) ; one from the 
Comoro Is., P. comorensis, Ptrs. ; and two from Central America, 
P. annulatus, D. & B., and sumichrasti, Bocourt. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Upper border of rostral shield just visible 

from above. 

a. Subcaudals 100 or more ; 10 upper labials ; 

parietal not in contact with lower post- 
ocular P. collaris, p. 302. 

b. Subcaudals less than 80; 9 or 10 upper 

labials; parietal in contact with both 

postoculars P. subpundatus, p. 303. 

c. Subcaudals less than 80; 7 or 8 upper 

labials; parietal in contact with both 

postoculars P. Sagittarius, p. 303. 

B. Portion of rostral visible from above mea- 

suring two fifths its distance from frontal ; 
subcaudals less than 80; 9 or 10 upper 
labials P. bistrigatus, p. 304. 

363. Polyodontophis collaris. 

Psammophis collaris, Gray, A. N. M. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 390. 
Ablabes collaris, Gi'mth. Rept. B. I. p. 228 ; Stoltclcza, J. A. 8. B. xl, 

1871, p. 430 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 171 ; Theob. Cat. p. 156 ; 

Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, Rept. p. 810. 
Ablabes chinensis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (6) iv, 1889, p. 220. 

Kostral twice as broad as deep, just visible from above ; suture 
between the internasals shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long 
as the parietals or shorter ; loreal as long as or a little longer 
than deep ; one prseocular ; two postoculars, only the upper in 
contact with the parietal ; temporals 1 (or 2) +2 ; 9 or 10 upper 
labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the 
posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 159-190 ; anal divided ; 
subcaudals 102-131. Brown above, vertebral region greyish, 
usually with a series of small round black spots ; head with small 
black spots or vermiculations above, and two black cross-bands, 
one across the posterior part of the frontal and supraoculars, the 
other across the occiput ; a large black nuchal spot or cross-band, 
bordered with yellow posteriorly ; a black line from the nostril to 
the nuchal spot, passing through the eye, bordering the white 
black-dotted upper lip. Lower parts yellowish, each ventral with 
an outer black spot or streak, which may be confluent on the 
posterior part of the body ; anterior ventrals with a pair of median 
dots in addition. 

Total length 29 inches ; tail 9'5. 

Hob. Himalayas (to 10,000 feet, and as far west as Simla), Assam, 
Arrakan, Upper Burma, S. China. 



POLYODONTOPHIS. 6Q6 

364. Polyodontophis subpunctatus. 

Oligodon subpuuctatuni, Dum. fy Bibr, Erp. Gen. vii, p. 58 ; Jan, 

Icon. Of hid. 48, pi. i, fig. 4 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 208 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 147. 

Enicognathus melanocephalus, part., Dum. 8f Bibr. t. c. p. 330. 
Calamaria sagittaria (non Cant.}, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, 

p. 528. 
Oligodon spinse-punctatus, Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. ii, 1862, 

p. 40 ; Giinth. I. c. ; Theob. 1. c. p. 149 ; F. Mutter, Verh. not. Ges. 

Basel, viii, 1887, p. 262. 
Enicognathus huniberti, Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. ii, 1863, 

p. 275 ; id. Icon. Ophid. 16, pi. iv, fig. 1. 
Ablabes huniberti, Giinth. 1. c. p. 228 ; Theob. I. c. p. 156 ; Blanf. 

J.A. S.B. xlviii, 1879, p. 115. 

Eostral nearly twice as broad as deep ; suture between the inter- 
nasals a little shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the 
parietals or a little shorter ; loreal longer than deep ; one prse- 
ocular; two postoculars, both in contact with the parietal; 
temporals 1 (or 2) +2 ; 9 or 10 upper labials, fifth and sixth, or 
fourth, fifth, and sixth, entering the eye ; eighth upper labial usually 
excluded from the labial margin, simulating a lower anterior 
temporal ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
the first usually separated from its fellow by the mental ; posterior 
chin-shields a little longer than the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. 
Ventrals 151-220 (240, Blanford) ; anal divided; subcaudals 
47-76. Pale brown above, with a vertebral series of small round 
black spots ; usually a more or less distinct dark lateral line or 
series of dots ; head and nape dark brown or black ; lips, canthus 
rostralis, a transverse line between the eyes, and two broad cross- 
bands, one in front and one behind the nape, yellow ; the dark 
colour often extending along the median line, bisecting the yellow 
collar ; lower surfaces yellow, each shield with a black dot near its 
outer border. 

From snout to vent 17 inches ; tail 3'75. 

Hob. India (Calcutta, Manbhoom, Ellore, Malabar) and Ceylon. 

365. Polyodontophis Sagittarius. 

Calamaria sagittaria, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 49 : id. J. A. S. B. xvi, 

1847, p. 911. 
Enicognathus grayi, Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. ii, 1863, p. 274 ; id. 

Icon. Ophid. 16, pi. iii, fig. 3. 

Enicoguathus braconnieri, Jan, II. cc. p. 275, & fig. 4. 
Ablabes Sagittarius, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 227 ; Theob. Cat. p. 155. 

Eostral not twice as broad as deep ; suture between the inter- 
nasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal longer 
than its distance from the end of the snout, snorter than the 
parietals ; loreal small and longer than deep, or absent ; one prae- 
ocular, two postoculars, both in contact with the parietal; 
temporals 1 + 1 or 1 + 2+1; 7 or 8 upper labials, third and fourth 



304 COLUBBID-i:. 

or fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are about as large as the 
posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 205-228; anal divided: 
subcaudals 56-70. Yellowish or pale brown above ; sides brown 
or grey, separated from the pale dorsal region by a black line ; a 
vertebral series of minute black dots ; head and nape dark brown 
or black, forehead marbled with yellow, and with a large elongate 
oval patch of yellow on each side of the back of the head ; the 
black nuchal spot more or less distinctly bordered with yellow 
behind. Lower surfaces yellow, with a black dot at the outer 
extremity of each ventral. 

Total length 11 inches; tail 2-3. 

Hob. Tirhoot in Bengal, Assam, Piuang (also Kaiigra, West 
Himalayas, according to Schlagintweit). 

366. Polyodontophis bistrigatus. 

Ablabes bistrigatus, Gilnth.A. M. N. H. (4) i, 1868, p. 417 ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 155 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, Kept. p. 811. 

Jiostral not twice as broad as long, the portion visible from above 
measuring two fifths its distance from the frontal ; suture between 
the internasals shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than 
the parietals ; loreal as long as deep or longer than deep ; one prae- 
ocular ; two postoculars, both in contact with the parietal ; tem- 
porals 1 (or 2) +2; 10 upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth 
entering the eye ; eighth upper labial usually excluded from the 
labial margin, assuming the position of a lower anterior temporal ; 
4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
as long as the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 184-186 ; 
anal divided; subcaudals 73-75. Back ruddy brown, with a 
vertebral series of black dots ; head and nape black, emitting a 
black band running on each side of the body and tail ; a yellow 
band on each side of the head, sending off a hook on each supra- 
ciliary shield, and a pair of yellow spots on the nape. Lower 
surfaces uniform yellow. 

Total length 12 inches ; tail 3-25. 

Hob. Burma (Pegu and Prome). 

Genus ABLABES *, 
Dum. & Bibr. Erp. G<5n. vii, p. 304 (part.), 1854. 

Maxillary teeth small, equal, 15 to 30 ; mandibular teeth sub- 
equal. Head short, not or scarcely distinct from neck ; eye rather 
small or moderate, with round pupil ; head-shields usually normal. 
Body cylindrical ; scales smooth (or very feebly keeled), in 13 to 

* Coronella baliodira, Schleg., is taken as the type of the genus as here re- 
stricted. 



ABLABES. 305 

23 rows, without apical pits ; ventrals not augulate laterally ; tail 
moderate or long ; subcaudals in two rows. 

Distribution. South-eastern Asia. Terrestrial or subarboreal. 

Cyclophis catenatus and C. (Chlorophis) oldhami, Theob. Cat. 
Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, pp. 49, 50, described as from near Simla, 
are South-African Snakes, viz. Homalosoma lutrLv, L., and AJicetulla 
hoployaster, Grthr. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A.. Eye measuring more than half length of 
snout. 

a. Nasal shield single, united with loreal; 

scales in 15 rows A. calamaria, p. 305. 

b. Nasal divided or semidivided. 

'. Scales in 13 rows A. scriptus, p. 305. 

b'. Scales in 15 rows. 

a". 7 upper labials A.frenatits, p. 306. 

b". 8 upper labials A. dories, p. 30(3. 

B. Eye not more than half length of snout. 

. Scales in 15 rows A. rappii, p. 307. 

b. Scales in 17 rows A. nicobanensis, p. 307. 

c. Scales in 19 rows A. porphyraceus, p. 308. 



367. Ablabes calamaria. 

Cycluphis calauiaria, Giinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 250 ; id. Rept. B. I. 

p. 231, pi. xvii, tig. K ; Theob. Cat. p. 158. 
Homalosoma balioluui, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 13, pi. iv, fig. 4. 
Oyclophis nasalis, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 231, pi. xvii, tig. M ; Theob. 

1. c. p. 158. 

Rostral broader than deep, visible from above j nasal single and 
united with the loreal ; suture between the internasals as long as that 
between the praefroutals or shorter ; frontal longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, slightly shorter than the parietals ; one 
praocular (rarely two) ; two postoculars, only the upper in contact 
with the parietal; temporals 1 + 2 ; 7 upper labials, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are larger than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. 
Veutrals 130-154 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 64-76. Pale brown 
above, with or without two more or less distinct black longitudinal 
lines ; lower parts uniform yellowish. 

Total length 16 inches ; tail 4-25. 

Hob, Ceylon, Madras Presidency, Bombay. 



368. Ablabes scriptus. 

Ablabes scriptus, Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 18U8, p. 42 ; id. Cat. 
Eept. As. Soc. Mns. 18(38, p. 49 ; id. Cat. p. 154. 

X 



306 COLUBBID^E. 

" Closely allied to A. baliodirus. Scales iu 13 rows. Prseocular 
one ; postoculars two, small ; loreal very small, much smaller than 
postocular; prsefrontals broader than long; upper labials 8, the 
third, fourth, and fifth entering the orbit ; a long narrow temporal, 
forming a suture with both postoculars and the sixth and seventh 
labials ; seventh labial largest, more than twice as broad as the 
temporal ; two pairs of chin-shields, the hiuder rather larger than 
the other, first in contact with 4 labials ; lower labials 7, fifth 
largest. Colour above brown ; a few black dots on either side of 
spine on the front part of the trunk ; a black mark under the eye, 
followed by a white upright border involving the postoculars ; a 
black-bordered white patch on the last upper labial, and a white 
collar on the nape. Beneath white." 

Hab. Martaban. 

3G9. Ablabes frenatus. 

Dipsas monticola (non Cant.}, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 204. 
Cyclophis frenatus, Giinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 120 ; id. Rept. B. I. 

p. 230, pi. xix, fig. J; Jerdon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 80 ; Anders. 

P. Z. S. 1871, p. 188 ; Theob. Cat. p. 157. 

Eostral broader than deep, visible from above ; nasal divided or 
semidivided ; eye rather large, three fourths the length of the snout ; 
suture between the internasals shorter than that between the prse- 
frontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, 
about two thirds the length of the parietals ; loreal small, as long 
as deep or a little longer ; one prseocular ; two postoculars, only the 
upper in contact with the parietal; temporals 1 + 2, rarely 2 + 2 ; 
upper labials 7, third and fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little shorter 
than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 151-163 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 87-96. Olive above, the scales on the anterior 
part of the body black-edged ; a broad black band from the eye to 
the nape, gradually narrowing and disappearing on the anterior 
fourth of the body ; four light longitudinal narrow lines more or less 
distinct on the front half of the body; lower surface uniform 
yellow. 

Total length 27 inches ; tail 8. 

Hab. Khasi Hills ; Assam. The habitat " Mesopotamia and 
Afghanistan " appears to me very doubtful. 

370. Ablabes dorise. 

Cyclophiop doriae, Boideny. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) vi, 1888, p. 590, 
pi. vi, fig. 1. 

Snout convex, profile curved from the frontal region to the lip ; 
rostral as deep as broad, visible from above ; nostril between two 
nasals ; internasals a little shorter than the praefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal small, a little longer than deep ; a large prseocular, 



ABLABES. 307 

usually with a second, very small, below ; two or three postoculars ; 
temporals 1 +2, or 2+2 ; upper labials 8, fourth and fifth entering 
the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields about half as large as the anterior. Scales 
in 15 rows. Ventrals 173-187 ; anal undivided ; subcaudals 77- 
80. Uniform green above, white below, the green colour extending 
on to the ends of the ventrals. 

Total length 35 inches ; tail 8. 

Hab. Kakhyen Hills. 



371. Ablabes rappii. 

Ablabes rappii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 154, pi. xxvi, fig. B ; id. 

Rept. B. 1. p. 225 j Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 171 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 154. 
Ablabe8 owenii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 155, pi. xxvi, fig. A. 

Kostral twice as broad as deep, just visible from above ; nostril 
between two nasals ; suture between the internasals a little shorter 
than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal slightly shorter than 
its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal as long as deep or a little longer than deep ; one 
praeocular ; two postoculars, only the upper in contact with the 
parietal ; temporals 1 + 1 ; upper labials 6, third and fourth enter- 
ing the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which equal or a little exceed the posterior in length. 
Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 178-195 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
60-75. Brown above, with a broad dark collar and a double series 
of transverse dark spots on the anterior part of the body; these 
markings most distinct in the young. Lower parts uniform 
yellowish. 

Total length 18 inches ; tail 4-5. 

Hab. Himalayas from Simla to Darjeeliug. 

372. Ablabes nicobariensis. 

Ablabes nicobariensis, Stoliczka, J.A.S.B* xxxix, 1870, p. 184, 
pi. xi, fig. 1 5 Theob. Cat. p. 157. 

Kostral low, wide, not reaching the top of the head ; nostril 
between two nasals ; iuternasals about half the size of the prae- 
frontals ; frontal somewhat larger than the supraoculars ; parietals 
about one fourth larger than the frontal, in contact with both post- 
oculars ; loreal united with the postnasal ; one prae- and two post- 
oculars ; temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 7, third and fourth enter- 
ing the eye ; both pairs of chin-shields subequal in size. Scales in 
17 rows. Ventrals 189 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 87. Anterior 
half of the body reddish brown above, posterior blackish grey ; 
head above blackish, the three first labials with yellow spots ; a 
short broad yellow streak from behind and below the eye posteriorly 
to the angle of the mouth ; a black collar, margined on both sides 
with an interrupted yellow baud, of which the anterior is the most 

x2 



308 COLUBEIDJ:. 

distinct ; an indistinct series of blackish-grey dorsal spots, almost 
forming a dark undulating baud ; sides marbled and freckled black- 
ish grey, this colour being separated from the upper brown one by 
a series of closely set black spots which are partially conspicuous 
on the posterior part of the body ; chin dusky ; lo\ver parts yellow 
with a vermilion tinge, each ventral with a large black spot near 
its outer extremity. (Stoliczka.) 

Total length lf'5 inches ; tail 4-25. 

Hal. Camorta, Nicobars. 

373. Ablabes porphyraceus. 

Coluber pornliyraceus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 51 ; G'unth. Kept. E. 
I. p. 239, pi. xx, fig. J ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 172 ; T/ieob. Cat. 
p. 163; Anders. An. Zuol. Res. Yunnan, p. 812; Hitbrecht, Mid- 
den-Sumatra, Kept. pi. , fig. 1. 

Psarnniophis nigrofasciatus, Cantor, 1. c. p. 53. 

Coronella calliceplialus, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853. p. 3UO ; 
Slyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1855, p. 289. 

fSuout more than twice as long as the eye, which is rather small ; 
rostral nearly twice as broad as deep, visible from above ; nostril 
between two nasals ; suture between the interuasals shorter than 
that between the pnufroutals ; frontal broad, as long as or a little 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than 
the parietals ; loreal rather small, longer than deep ; a large pra?- 
ocular ; two postoculars, both in contact with the parietal : tem- 
porals 1 + 2 ; upper labials 8, fourth and fifth entering the eye; 
4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
are longer than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows. A'entrals 192- 
215 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 52-76. Pale reddish brown above, 
with dark brown black-edged cross-bands ; a black streak along the 
middle of the head, and another on each side, from the eye to the 
first transverse band ; posterior part of body and tail with two 
longitudinal black lines, in addition to the cross-bands ; lower parts 
uniform yellow. 

Total length 30 inohe* ; tail 5- 5. 

Hob. Easter n Himalayas, hills of Assam, Northern Burma, Yun- 
nan, Sumatra. 

Genus CORONELLA, 
Laurenti, Syn. Kept. p. 84, 17GS. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 16, increasing in size posteriorly; mandi- 
bular teeth subequal. Head short, scarcely distinct from neck ; eye 
rather small, with round pupil ; head-shields normal. Body cylin- 
drical ; scales smooth, in 19 to 25 rows, with apical pits ; ventrals 
rounded ; tail moderate; subcaudals in two rows. 

This genus is distributed over Europe, Western Asia, Africa, 
and America. One Indian species is referred to it. The Coronelhe 
are fierce snakes of terrestrial habits, feeding on lizards and snakes. 



The Snake described by Griinther as Coronella oriental/it (Kept. 
B. I. p. 236) is a South-American Liophis, L. \_Ablabes~] pio-purans, 
D. & B., the type of which (no. 3638) I have recently examined in 
the Paris Museum. 

374. Coronella brachyura. 

Zameuis brachyurus, Giinth. A. M. N. II. (3) xviii, I860, p. 27, pi. vi. 
fig. A ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 372: Antler*. P. /. *. 
1871, p. 170; ThffA. Cat.?. 171. 

Kostral broader than deep, visible from above ; suture between 
the internasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep; one pneocular; two 
postoculars ; temporals 2+2; eight upper labials, fourth and 
fifth entering the eye ; five lower labials in contact with the an- 
terior chin-shields, which are slightly longer than the posterior ; 
the latter widely separated from each other by three series of scales. 
Scales in 23 rows. Ventrals 213-223 ; anal undivided ; subcaudals 
43-53. Olive-brown above, with rather indistinct light variegations 
on the anterior half of the body ; lower surface whitish. 

Total length 17 inches ; tail 2-2. 

Hub. Deccaii ; the type specimen is from Poona ; a second speci- 
men was obtained by Mr. Blanford near Wun, in South-eastern 
Berar. 



Genus SIMOTES, 
DIIIH. X- P.ibr. Krp. (Jen. vii, p. 024, 18~>4. 

Maxillary teeth 8 to 12, posterior very strongly enlarged and 
compressed ; mandibular teeth subequal. Head short, not distinct 
from neck ; eye rather small, with round pupil ; head-shields 




fitijihi ''-' '" 



Fig. 97. Head and dentition of Simotes albocincttis. 

usually normal, rostral large. Body cylindrical ; scales smooth 
(or feebly keeled), in 13 to 21 rows, with or without apical pits ; 
ventrals rounded or obtusely keeled laterally ; tail short or mode- 
rate ; subcaudals in two rows. 



310 COLrBRIDjE. 

Distribution. Southern China, East Indian Continent and Archi- 
pelago. About 20 species are known. Closely allied to Coronella, 
from which this genus is distinguished by the shorter maxillary 
with more strongly enlarged posterior teeth. Habits terrestrial; 
species of Simotes feed on li/ards and snakes, and are of a fierce 
disposition. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Anal entire. 

a. 19 or 21 series of scales. 

a'. Two superposed anterior temporals; 
usually a subocular between 3rd and 4th 
upper labials ; 4th and 5th labials enter- 
ing the eye. 
a". Four internasals; ventrals not an- 

gulate laterally S. splmdidus, p. 310. 

b". Two internasals ; ventrals angulate 

laterally . . S. cyclunu, p. 31 1. 

b'. A single anterior temporal ; 3rd and 4th 

labials entering the eye S. albocinctus, p. 312. 

b. 17 series of scales. 

'. 4th and 5th upper labials entering the 

eye ; a single anterior temporal & violaceus, p. 312. 

b'. 3rd and 4th upper labials entering the 
eye ; 2 superposed anterior tem- 
porals , S. octolineatus, p. .'13. 

B. Anal divided. 

o. 17 series of scales. 

a'. Subcaudals more than 40. 

". Nostril between two nasals ; 3rd and 

4th upper labials entering the eye .... S. amensis, p. 314. 
b". Nasal undivided ; 4th and 5th labials 

entering eye S. beddomii, p. 314. 

b', Subcaudals less than 40. 

a". Loreal longer than posterior nasal S. theobaldi, p. 315. 

b", Loreal notlonger than posteriornasal . . S. cruentatus, p. 315. 

b. 15 series of scales S. torquatus, p. 316. 

c. 13 series of scales S. planiceps, p. 316. 



375. Simotes splendidm 
Simotes splendidus, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 231, pi. xxxiii. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as its 
distance from the frontal ; each of the internasals broken up into 
two shields, there being four small shields in a transverse series ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, slightly 
longer than the parietals ; loreal deeper than long ; praeocular 
single, with a small subocular below, between the third and fourth 
labials; 2 or 3 postoculars ; temporals 2+3; upper labials 8, 
fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with 



SIMOTES. 311 

the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields about two thirds the 
length of the anterior. Scales in 21 rows. Ventrals 193 ; anal 
undivided ; subcaudals 41. Cream-colour, with sixteen large 
brown black-edged spots above, longer than the interspaces between 
them ; these spots indented in front and behind, and with at least 
a trace of a yellowish median line ; the anterior spot is produced 
angularly to the posterior border of the frontal ; the rest of the 
upper surface of the head speckled with dark brown : tail with a 
yellow vertebral line ; an irregular series of small blackish spots 
along each abdominal edge, the lower surface being otherwise 
immaculate. 

Total length 22 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hal). "Wynaad. A single specimen is known. 



376. Simotes cyclurus. 

Coronella cyclura, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 50. 

Simotes bicatenatus, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 217 ; Theob. Joum. Linn. 

Soc. x, 1868, p. 40 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 430 ; Anders. 

P. Z. S. 1871, p. 170 ; Theob. Cat. p. 152. 
Simotes fasciolatus, Gilnth. 1. c. p. 218, pi. xx, fig. B. 
. Simotes cochinchinensis, Giinth. I. c. p. 219, pi. xx, fig. C. 
? Simotes obscurus, Theob. Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mm. 1868, p. 48. 
? Simotes crassus, Theob. 1. c. p. 48. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above nearly as long 
as its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals 
shorter than that between the prasfrontals ; frontal as long as 
its distance from the end of the snout or a little shorter, and as 
long as the parietals ; loreal as long as deep, or a little deeper than 
long ; prseocular single, usually with a small subocular below, be- 
tween the third and fourth labials ; two postoculars ; temporals 
2+2 ; normally 8 upper labials, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 
4, rarely 3, lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields one half or two thirds the length of the an- 
terior. Scales in 19 or 21 rows. Ventrals 156-210, angulate 
laterally ; anal undivided ; subcaudals 38-48. Pale brown or grey- 
ish above, usually with four darker brown longitudinal bands, the 
median pair separated by the vertebral series of scales ; antero- 
lateral border of some of the scales frequently black ; markings on 
the head as in S. albocinctus ; lower surface yellowish, sometimes 
uniform, usually with squarish brown spots on each side below the 
angle of the ventrals ; these blotches may be subconfluent or form 
two chain-like series ; subcaudals unspotted or with a few small 
scattered dots. 

Total length 28 inches ; tail 4. 

Hub. Bengal and Assam, to the foot of the Himalayas ; Burma 
to the Kakhyen Hills and Tenasserim, Siam, Cochin China, and 
Southern China. 



312 COLTJBRIDjE. 

377. Simotes albocinctns *. 

CoroneUa albocincta, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 50. 

Xenodon purpurascens. part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 914 ; 

Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxih, 1854, p. 289. 

CoroneUa puncticulatus, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 389. 
Simotes punctulatus, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 217 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 

1871, p. 169 ; Theob. Cat. p. 152. 

Simotes albocinctus, part., Giinth. I. c. p. 218 ; Theob. I. c. p. 153. 
Simotes amabilis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (4) i, 1868, p. 416, pi. xvii, 

fig. A ; Theob. I c. p. 153. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above shorter than 
its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals shorter 
than that between the praefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; loreal as long as 
deep or a little longer, seldom united with the pra>f rental ; pneocular 
single or (rarely) divided into two; two postoculars ; temporals 
1+2; normally 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye : 
4, rarelv 5, lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields about two thirds the length of the anterior. 
Scales in 19 rows. Ventrals 177-205 ; anal undivided ; subcaudals 
53-69. Brown or brick-red above ; head yellowish with a dark 
brown or black-edged red crescentic band across the forehead to 
below each eye, sometimes interrupted in the middle, an oblique 
one on each side from the parietal to behind the angle of the mouth, 
and a chevron-shaped one from the frontal to the nape, sometimes 
with a detached round spot in front. In the typical form, described 
by Cantor and by Gray, the upper parts are unspotted, with 27 to 
30 (or 34) light black-edged bands two scales wide, separated by 
5 to 8 series of scales ; in the young specimen (type of S. amabilis) 
these bands are similar but in increased number, vi/. 55, and only 
3 or 4 scales apart. Other specimens are dotted and spotted with 
dark brown, the largest spots transversely elliptical and forming a 
dorsal series, or roundish and arranged in pairs ; or more or less 
irregular narrow blackish cross-bands may be present. Lower sur- 
face yellowish or coralline-red, more or less spotted or marbled 
with black ; in some specimens the black spots are small, squarish, 
far apart, and confined to the sides, whilst in others the black 
predominates on the belly; or the ventrals may be alternately 
black and yellow. 

Total length 32 inches ; tail 5. 

Hob. Eastern and Central Himalayas (to 4000 feet) ; Assam ; 
Khasi and Arrakau Hills. 

378. Simotes violaceus. 

CoroneUa violacea, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 50. 
Simotes ciuereus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 215. 
Simotes swinhonis, Gtinth. 1. c. p. 215, pi. xx, fig. E. 



* Kimotes a-Jbocincfvs, Duni. & Bibr. Erp. Gen. 18")4=:* < >. jmrpurasccns. Scbleg. 



SIMOTES. 313 

Simotes multifasciatus, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 12, pi. iv, fig. 2. 
Simotes semifasciatus, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 16 ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 151. 

Xasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as its 
distance from the frontal or a little shorter ; suture between the 
internasals usually shorter than that between the praefrontals ; 
frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout, as long 
as the parietals ; loreal usually longer than deep ; prseocular single, 
usually with a small subocular below, between the third and fourth 
labials ; one or two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; upper labials 8, 
fourth and fifth entering tho eve ; 3 or 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields one half or 
less than one half the si/e of the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. 
Yentrals 160-1 80 (196); anal undivided ; subcaudals 34-39. Pale 
brown, purplish or reddish above ; markings on the head very in- 
distinct ; some specimens (/S ( . dnerem) uniform above and below ; 
others (*S'. miiltifasciatus, S. semifasciatus^ with more or less distinct, 
narrow, broken, blackish cross-bands above, and squarish brown 
blotches below ; a specimen from Tenasserim in the British Museum 
is intermediate between the two varieties. 

Total length 30 inches ; tail 3. 

Hab. Kungpore, Bengal; Jxaga Hills, Assam; Tenasserim, 
Camboja, Southern China. 



379. Simotes octolineatus. 

Russell, Lid. Serp. ii, pi. xxxviii. 
Klaps octolineatus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 209. 
Simotes octoliueatus, Dum. $ Sibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 6->4, pi. Ixxxii, 
fig. 3 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 12, pi. v, fig. 1. 

Xasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above a little shorter 
than its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals 
nearly as long as that between the prrefrontals ; frontal longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep ; prseocular single ; two postoculars ; tem- 
porals 2 + "2 ; upper labials 6, third and fourth entering the eye ; 
4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior 
chin-shields about two thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 
17 rows. Ventrals 165-197; anal undivided ; subcaudals 51-61. 
Yellow with six black longitudinal stripes, or black with five yellow 
longitudinal lines which are much narrower than the interspaces 
between them ; head yellow, the two median dorsal bands meeting 
on the frontal.; a black crescentic cross-baud anteriorly, passing 
through the eyes, and an oblique band on each side from the parietal 
shield to below the angle of the mouth. Lower surface uniform 
or with a series of black spots on each side of the ventrals, some- 
times confluent into a line. 

Total length 27 inches : tail 4. 



314 COLTTBRLDjE. 

Hab. Java,, Borneo, Sumatra, and Malay Peninsula; a single 
young specimen was obtained by Col. Beddome in the Anaimalai 
Hills. 



380. Simotes arnensis. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pis. xxxv & xxxviii. 

Coluber arnensis, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 526. 

Coluber msselius, Daud. Rept. vi, p. 395, pi. Ixxvi, fig. 2. 

Coluber inonticolus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 52. 

Simotes russelii, Dum. # Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 628 ; Jan, Icon. 

OpkicL 11, pi. vi, fig. 1 ; Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 213 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 150. 
Simotes albiventer, Gunth. Rqrt. B. 1. p. 214, pi. xx, fig. D ; Theob. 

1. c. p. 149. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as its 
distance from the frontal or a little shorter ; suture between the 
internasals usually nearly as long as that between the pratfrontals ; 
frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little 
shorter, and a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal, if distinct, 
longer than deep, frequently united with the praef rental ; praDocular 
single; two postoculars ; temporals 1+2; upper labials 7, third 
and fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields one half or two thirds 
the length of the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals angulate 
laterally, 170-202 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 41-59. Pale brown 
or orange above, with well-defined black cross-bands, which vary 
in number and in width according to individuals, and may be edged 
with white ; an angular or transverse black band between the eyes, 
another behind, with the apex on the frontal, and a third on the 
nape. Lower surface uniform yellowish, rarely spotted with 
brown or with a brown posterior border to the ventrals. 

Total length 24 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hal. India and Ceylon, northwards to Nepal and the Himalayas, 
where it has been recorded from an altitude of 4100 feet. 



381. Simotes beddomii. 

Nasal undivided ; rostral comparatively small, the portion seen 
from above much shorter than its distance from the frontal ; suture 
between the internasals much shorter than that between the pree- 
frontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, 
a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep ; praD- 
ocular single; two postoculars; temporals 1+2; upper labials 8, 
fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields; posterior chin-shields about two 
thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 
167-168; anal divided; subcaudals 43-46. Brown above, with 
three light longitudinal lines, intersected by dark brown transverse 
spots or lines ; head with well-marked dark brown markings, viz. a 



SIMOTES. 315 

crescentic baud anteriorly, passing through the eyes, and a chevron- 
shaped band behind, the apex on the frontal; each of the four 
anterior labials with a brown spot ; a dark brown nuchal spot, 
angular anteriorly, divided behind by the light vertebral line. 
Lower surface yellowish, with very few, scattered, small brown 
spots ; tail immaculate. 

Total length 1.3 inches ; tail 2. 

Hab. Wynaad. Two specimens, obtained by Col. Beddome. 
Allied to S. tlieobaldi, Gthr., which it resembles strikingly in 
coloration. 



382. Simotes theobaldi. 

Simotes theobaldi, Gimth. A. M. N. H. (4) i, 1808, p. 417 ; TJieob. 
Cat. p. 152. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above shorter than 
its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals much 
shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal a little longer 
than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than 
the parietals ; loreal twice as long as deep, longer than the posterior 
nasal; praeocular single ; two postoculars ; temporals 1+2 ; upper 
labials 8, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields about 
two thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ven- 
trals 174-179 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 35. Brown above, with 
three light longitudinal lines between which are transverse blackish 
bars: head with well-marked dark markings, viz. a crescentic band 
anteriorly, passing through the eyes, and a chevron-shaped band 
behind, the apex on the frontal ; a large blackish nuchal spot, 
partly divided by the light vertebral line. Lower surface yellowish, 
with or without square black spots ; tail immaculate. 

Total length 15 inches ; tail 1-25. 

Hab. Pegu, Upper Burma. 



383. Simotes craentatus. 

Simotes cruentatus, Gunth. A.M.N. H. (4) i, 1868, p. 417; Theob. 
Joum. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 41 ; id. Cat. p. 151 ; Stoliczka, P. A. 
S.B. 1872, p. 145. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above shorter than 
its distance from the frontal, suture between the internasals much 
shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal as long as its 
distance from the endof the snout, slightly shorter than the parietals ; 
loreal longer than deep, but shorter than in the preceding species ; 
praeocular single ; two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 
8, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with 
the anteriorchiu-shields ; posterior chin-shields about two thirds the 
length of the anterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 148-167; anal 



316 COLUBRIDJE. 

divided ; subcaudals 30-37. Brown above, with four more or less 
distinct darker longitudinal lines ; symmetrical dark markings on 
head rather indistinct in the adult, an oblique spot below the eye and 
a large patch on the occiput being distinguishable. Lower surface 
yellowish (coral-red in life) with square black spots ; base of tail 
with a large black spot. 

Total length 14 inches ; tail 1'75. 

ffab. Pegu. 

384. Simotes torquatus. 

Simotes torqnalu.*, Bouleng. Ann. Mux. Genor. (2) vi, 1888. p. 507, 
pi. v, fig. 1. 

Nasal undivided ; portion of rostral seen from above shorter 
than its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals 
shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal longer than its 
distance from the end of the snout and a little shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal usually a little longer than deep ; one prae- and 
two postoculars; temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 7, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields ; posterior chin-shields about two thirds the size of the 
anterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 150-159 ; anal divided ; 
subcaudals 27-34. Grey-brown above, with four rather indistinct 
darker longitudinal streaks, replaced in the young by series of 
small blackish spots ; upper surface of head with sometimes very 
indistinct symmetrical markings ; a large dark brown (black in 
the young) spot below the eye, and a broad band of the same 
colour across the occiput, behind the parietal shields ; lower parts 
white, usually with some black quadrangular spots on the posterior 
ventrals. 

Total length 11*5 inches; tail 1-5. 

If ah. Bh.imo, Burma. 



385. Simotes planiceps. 

Simotes plauiceps, Bouleny. Ann. Mas. Genor. (2) vi, 1888, p. 597, 
pi. v, fig. 2. 

Head much depressed; nasal undivided ; rostral very much pro- 
duced posteriorly, entirely separating the internasals and wedged 
in between the praefrontals ; frontal elongate, longer than its dis- 
tance from the end of the snout and than the parietals ; loreal 
longer than deep ; one prae- and two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 1 ; 
upper labials 5, third entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields hardly half 
as large as the anterior. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 132 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 27. Pale brown above, with small oblique 
black markings occupying the anterior outer border of some of the 
scales ; a black cross-band on the occiput, behind the parietals ; 
upper lip yellow, with an oblique black streak below the eye, 
crossing the suture between the third and fourth upper labials : 



OLIGODON. 317 

lower parts pinkish, with square black spots mostly arranged in 
pairs. 

Total length 5 inches ; tail O6. 

Hab. Minhla, Burma. Known from a single specimen. 

Genus OLIGODON. 

J3oie, Isis, 1827, p. oil). 

Characters of the preceding genus, but maxillary teeth fewer 
still (6 to 8), and no pterygoid teeth, the palate being entirely 
edentulous or with two or three teeth on each palatine. Scales in 
15 or 17 rows. 

Distribution, 17 species are knowii, viz. nine from India and 
Ceylon, seven from the Malay Archipelago, and one (pliyodon 
\_llomaiosoma~\ inelunocephalus, Jan) from Syria and the Siuaitic 
Peninsula. 

Synopsis of Indian and Ccylomsc Species, 
A. Scales in 17 rows ; no loreal shield. 

. Portion of rostral seen from above as 
long as its distance from frontal or a 
little shorter ; latter shield as long a.s 
parietals O. i-cnustttg, p. 317. 

b. Portion of rostral seen from above as 

long as its distance from frontal, which 

is shorter than parietals O. tracancoricus, p. 318. 

c. Portion of rostral seen from above much 

shorter than its distance from frontal 0. ajfinis, p. 318. 
13. Scales in 15 rows. 

a. No iuternasals O. brevicauda, p. 319. 

b. A pair of internasals. 

a. A single postocular O. dorsulis, p. 319. 

b'. Two postoculars. 
". Ventrals not more than 100 ; sub- 

caudals not more than 35. 
a. Portion of rostral seen from above 
hardly half as long as its dis- 
tance from frontal O. tvmpletonii, p. 320. 

(4. Portion of rostral seen from above 
measuring about two thirds its 

distance from frontal O. sublincatus, p. 320. 

y. Portion of rostral seen from above 
as long as its distance from 

frontal O. cllioti, p. 321. 

b". Yentrals 158 or more; subcaudals 

more than 35 O. mbyriseus, p. 321. 

386. Oligodon venustus. 

Xenodon vemistum, JcnL J. A. S. B. xxii, 18-33, p. 528. 
Simotes venustus, Gihith. Kept. B. 2. p. 213 ; id. A. M. X. 11. (4) 
i, 1868, p. 410 ; Theob. Cat. p. 150. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as 
its distance from the frontal or a little shorter ; suture between 
the iuternasals shorter than that between the prajfrontals ; frontal 



318 COLUBKID.T;. 

longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the 
parietals ; no loreal, the posterior nasal sometimes forming a 
suture with the prseocular ; praaocular single ; two postoculars ; 
temporals 1+2; usually 7 (rarely 6) upper labials, third aud 
fourth entering the eye, sixth frequently excluded from the labial 
border and taking the position of a lower anterior temporal ; 4 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- shields ; posterior 
chin-shields one half to two thirds the length of the anterior. 
Scales in 17 rows. Yentrals 143-162; anal divided; subcaudals 
28-36. Pale brown or greyish above, with a series of paired large 
oval or rhomboidal blackish spots edged with yellowish, which are 
usually united mesially ; a large, more irregular spot, below each 
dorsal spot ; head-markings consisting of a cresceiitic anterior 
cross-band, passing through the eye, an oblique baud on each side, 
from the parietal to below the angle of the mouth, and a broad 
angular baud on the nape, top of head frequently with black vermi- 
culations. Lower surface black and yellow, the two colours in 
nearly equal proportions, except under the tail, where the yellow 
predominates, or where sometimes black spots are entirely wanting. 

Total length 19 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hob. "Western parts of the Madras Presidency ; this species 
occurs in the Nilgiris up to 7000 feet. 

387. Oligodon travancoricus. 
Oligodou travaiicoricuin, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 685. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as its 
distance from the frontal; suture between the internasals 
shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; 
no loreal, the posterior nasal forming a suture with the praeocular ; 
prseocular single : two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 
7, third and fourth entering the eye, sixth excluded from the labial 
margin ; 3 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields two thirds the length of the anterior. Scales 
in 17 rows. Ventrals 145 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 37. Greyish 
above, with 25 black, white-edged cross-bands on the body, and 
five pairs of spots on the tail; three broad black white-edged 
transverse bands on the head, viz., a frontal, an occipital, and a nu- 
chal, connected longitudinally on the median line ; a small white spot 
in the middle between the parietals. Lower surface white with 
large square black spots. 

Total length 9-5 inches ; tail 1-5. 

Hob. The single known specimen is from the Tinnevelly Hills, 
3000 feet. 

388. Oligodon affinis. 

Oligodon affinis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix, 1862, p. 58 ; id. Rept. 
B. 1. p. 209, pi. xix, fig. B ; Theob. Cat. p. 149. 



OLIGODOX. 319 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above half as long 
as its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals as 
long as that between the praefrontals, or a little shorter ; frontal 
much longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long as 
the parietals ; no loreal, the posterior nasal sometimes forming a 
suture with the prseocular ; prsoocular single ; two postoculars ; 
temporals 1+2, or 1 + 1 + 2; upper labials 7, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields ; posterior chin-shields about two thirds the length of the 
anterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 129-142 ; anal divided ; 
subcaudals 25-36. Brown above, with more or less distinct darker 
cross-lines ; head with dark symmetrical transverse markings, which 
are usually connected by a median longitudinal streak. Lower 
surface white (in spirit) with square black spots, both colours 
being distributed in nearly equal proportion. 

Total length 13 inches tail 2. 

Hob. Anaimalai Hills. 



389. Oligodon brevicauda. 

Oligodou brevicauda, G'dnth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix, 1862, p. 58 ; id. 
Kept. B. 1, p. 211, pi. xix, fig. A ; Theob. Cat. p. 148. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above longer than 
its distance from the frontal ; no internasals ; frontal longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; no 
loreal, the posterior nasal forming a suture with the prseocular ; 
prseocular single ; two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; upper labials 
7, third and fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields; posterior chin-shields about two thirds 
the length of the anterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 173195; 
anal divided ; subcaudals 25-29. Brown above, with a light verte- 
bral baud, most marked posteriorly, bordered on each side by a dark 
brown or black baud ; a black narrow streak along each side ; a 
rhomboidal dark spot on the frontal, confluent with a broad crescentic 
transverse band anteriorly, which passes through the eyes ; a dark 
band from behind the eye to the angle of the mouth ; a large dark 
nuchal spot. Lower surface red, with large quadrangular or 
transverse black spots ; tail without, or with only a few, black 
spots. 

Total length 18-5 inches ; tail 2. 

Hob. Anaimalai Hills. 



390. Oligodon dorsalis. 

Elaps dorsalis, Oray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxv, fig. 1. 
Oligodon dorsalis, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 210; Anders. P. Z. IS. 1871, 
p. 108 ; Theob. Cat. p. 148. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above shorter than 
its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals as 



6X0 COLL T BRIDJE. 

long as that, between the pnefroutals or shorter: frontal longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep ; prseocular single ; postocular single ; tem- 
porals 1+2; upper labials 7, third and fourth entering the eye; 4 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior 
chin-shields about two thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 
15 rows. Ventrals 174-177(188) ; anal divided; subcaudals (37) 
47-51. Brown above, with a yellowish vertebral streak, on each 
side of which is a series of small black spots ; a black lateral 
streak ; a large subtriaugular blackish spot on the forehead, 
connected with a very large occipital spot by a longitudinal streak 
ou the frontal. Lower surface black and yellow (in spirit), the 
black predominating on the belly, the yellow on the tail. 

Total length 14 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hal. Khasi HiUs. 

391. Oligodon templetonii. 

Oligodou templetonii, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix. 18(32, p. 57, id. 
Kept. B. 1. p. 200, pi. six, fig. C ; Theob. Cat. p. 147. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above hardly hull' as 
long as its distance from the frontal ; suture between the inter- 
nasals longer than that between the pnefrontals ; frontal much 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the 
parietals ; loreal longer than deep, entering the eye ; prseocular 
single; two postoculars ; temporals 1+2; upper labials 7, third 
and fourth entering the eye, sixth excluded from the labial 
border ; 3 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields about two thirds the length of the anterior. 
Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 135 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 31. 
Brown above, with a yellowish vertebral streak, which becomes 
more distinct on the tail, and is crossed by about 18 narrow dark 
brown bands ; head-markings very indistinct except an oblique band 
below the eye ; lower surface white with square black spots, both 
colours being distributed in nearly equal proportion. 

Total length 10-5 inches ; tail 1'5. 

Nab. Ceylon. 

392. Oligodon sublineatus. 

Oligodon 8iiblineatu8, Dum. & Bihr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 57 ; Giinth. 
Kept. B. I. p. 200; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 48, pi. i, fig. 2 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 147. 

Xasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above shorter than 
its distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals 
nearly as long as that between the praefroutals ; frontal longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals, or 
slightly longer ; loreal as long as deep, or a little longer, rarely 
absent ; prseocular single ; two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; 
upper labials 7, third and fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials 



OLIGODOtf. 321 

in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields 
about two thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 15 rows. 
Ventrals 136-159 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 26-35. Pale brown 
above, some of the scales edged with dark brown ; frequently a 
more or less regular series of paired dark brown dorsal spots ; 
head with dark brown markings; an angular transverse band 
anteriorly, passing through the eyes ; a longitudinal band from the 
middle of the frontal to a little beyond the parietals, and a large 
spot on each side of the nape ; the longitudinal band and the nuchal 
.spots sometimes confluent. Lower surface yellowish, with three 
longitudinal series of small dark brown spots, the lateral series 
often confluent into a line. 

Total length 10 inches ; tail 1-25. 

Hob. Ceylon. 

393. Oligodon ellioti. 

Oligodou elliotti, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 207, pi. xix, tig. G ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 146. 

Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as its 
distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals as long 
as that between the praefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; loreal as long 
as deep ; prseocular single; two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2; 
upper labials 7, third and fourth entering the eye ; 3 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields 
about two thirds the length of the anterior. Scales in 15 rows. 
Ventrals 152 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 29. Brown above, with a 
median series of large rhombic black spots, on each side of which 
is a small spot separated by a whitish border ; head with black 
markings, viz. an angular baud across the forehead, passing through 
the eyes, and a second behind, with the apex on the frontal, 
descending to below the angle of the mouth, and confluent with a 
large nuchal spot ; the latter bands connected across the throat by 
an angular, interrupted, narrow black band. Lower surface 
whitish, unspotted. 

Total length 11 inches; tail 1-3. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



Oligodon subgriseus, Dum. 8f Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 59; Giinth. 
Rept. B. 1. p. 207, pi. xix, tig. F ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 48, pi. 
Theob. Cat. p. 146; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, p. 114. 



394. Oligodon subgriseus. 

um. 8f Bibr. Erp. Get 
xix, tig. F ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 4~8, pi. i. fig. 3 ; 
lanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, p. 114. 
Siinotes binotatus, Dum. fy Bibr. t. c. p. 630 ; Jan, Icon. 11, pi. vi, 

fig. 3 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 214 ; Theob. Cat. p. 150. 
Xenodon dubiuui, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 528. 
Oligodon spilonotus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 207, pi. xix, fig. E ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 146. 

Oligodon fasciatus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 208, pi. xix, fig. D ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 147. 

Y 



322 



COLUBKID.E. 



Nasal divided ; portion of rostral seen from above as long as, 
or a little shorter than, its distance from the frontal ; suture between 
the internasals usually shorter than that between the prsof rentals ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of snout, as long as 
the parietals ; loreal about as long as deep ; prseocular single ; two 
postoculars; temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 7, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; 3 or 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields one half to two thirds the length 
of the anterior. Scales in 15 rows. Yeutrals angulate laterally, 
160-218 ; anal usually divided ; subcaudals 38-56. Brown above, 
with a series of large rhomboidal dai-k spots or transverse bauds, 
or pairs of spots, with or without a more or less distinct vertebral 
line ; head with dark markings, viz. a cresceutic baud across the 
forehead, through the eyes, to the fourth and fifth labials, a band, 
widening posteriorly, from the parietals or from the frontal to the 
angle of the mouth, and a large spot, bifid posteriorly, from the 
frontal to the nape. Lower surface immaculate or with small 
brown spots or dots on each side. 

Total length 19 inches ; tail 2'5. 

Hob. From Sind and Bengal to Southern India and Ceylon. 



Genus LYTORHYNCHUS, 

Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1802, p. 272. 

Maxillary teeth to 9, posterior much longer than anterior ; 
mandibular teeth subequal. Head slightly distinct from neck, with 
cuneiform projecting snout; eye moderate, pupil vertically elliptical ; 





Fig. 98. Head of Lytorhynchus paradoxus. 

rostral large, four-sided, projecting, concave inferiorly ; nostril 
(fig. 98, n) an oblique slit between two nasals. Body elongate, cylin- 



323 



drical ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 19 rows ; ventrals 
obtusely angulate laterally ; tail moderate ; subcaudals in two rows. 
Distribution. Three species are known : L. diadema, D. & B., 
ranging from Algeria to Persia ; L. ridyeivayi, Blgr., from Afghani- 
stan and Turkestan ; and L. pamdoxus, Gthr., from Siud. Desert 
snakes, adapted for burrowing in the sand. 



395. Lytorhynchus paradoxus. 

Acoutiopkis paradoxa, Oilnth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 232, fig. ; Murray, 
A. M. N. H, (5) xiv, 1884, p. 110. 

Snout long and acutely pointed ; rostral with a lateral cleft ; 
suture between the interuasals shorter than that between the prse- 
frontals and shorter than the upper part of the rostral ; frontal 
nearly as long as its distance from the end of the snout, as long as 
the parietals : supraocular narrow ; three praeoculars ; two post- 
oculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3 ; upper labials 8, fifth entering the 
eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
are shorter^but much broader than the 'posterior. Scales in 19 rows. 
Veutrals slightly angulate laterally, 169-175 ; anal divided ; sub- 
caudals -10-53. Cream-colour above, with a dorsal series of trans- 
verse brown spots and a less distinct lateral series of smaller spots 
on each side ; a large rhomboidal brown spot on the back of the 
head, and a brown band behind the eye ; lower parts white. 

Total length 14 inches ; tail 2-3. 

Hab. Sind. 



Genus ZAMENIS, 
Wagler, Syst. Ainph. p. 188, 1830. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 20, increasing in size posteriorly ; inaii- 
dibular teeth subequal. Head elongate, distinct from neck ; eye 
moderate or large, with round pupil; head- shields normal, with 
one or more suboculars. Body elongate, cylindrical ; scales smooth 
or feebly keeled, with apical pits, in 15 to 31 rows; ventrals 
rounded or with an obtuse lateral keel ; tail long ; subcaudals 
divided. 

Distribution. Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The species 
number about 20. As their name implies, these snakes are mostly 
of fierce disposition, though not always, Z. ventrimaculatus and 
especially Z. diadema being the reverse ; they are terrestrial or 
subarboreal and feed principally on mammals and birds. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Posterior chin-shields in contact anteriorly. 

a. Scales in 15 rows ; veutrals 162-177 .,,.., 7j. korros, p. 324. 

b. Scales in 17 rows ; veutrals 190-208 Z. mucosus, p. 324. 

Y2 



324 COLUBRIDJE. 

B. Posterior chin-shields separated from each other. 

a. Scales in 19 rows. 

a'. Two labials enter eye; veutrals 199-211 : [p. 325. 

subcaudals 82-119 Z. ventritnaculatus, 

b'. Two labials enter eye ; ventrals 214-255 , 

subcaudals 124-140 Z. ladacemis, p. 326. 

c'. A subocular separates the eye from the 
sixth labial; ventrals 193-212; sub- 
caudals 85-110 Z. karelinii, p. 326. 

b. Scales in 21 or 23 rows ; two labials enter eye. 

a'. 9 upper labials ; subcaudals more than 100. Z. yracilis, p. 327. 
b'. 8 upper labials; subcaudals less than 100. Z. fasciolatus, p. 327. 

c. Scales in 23 to 31 rows ; eye separated from 

labials by a series of subocular s. 
a'. Rostral as deep as broad or a little broader 

than deep Z. diadema, p. 328. 

V. Rostral much deeper than broad, wedged in 

far between the internasals Z. urenarius, p. 329. 

396. Zamenis korros. 

Coluber korros, ScMeg. Phys. Scrp. ii, p. 139 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. 

xvi, 1847, p. 921. 
Coryphodon korros, Dum. < Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 186; Jan, Icon. 

OpMd. 24, pi. iv, tig. 2. 
Ptyas korros, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1800, p. 563 ; Giinth. Kept. 

B. I. p. 250 ; Theob. Cat. p. 169 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, 

p. 816. 

Snout obtuse, slightly projecting ; eye large ; rostral a little 
broader than long, visible from above ; suture between the inter- 
nasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal as long 
as its distance from the end of the snout or a little longer, and as 
long as the parietals ; usually two or three loreals ; one large prae- 
ocular, with a small subocular below ; two postoculars ; temporals 
2+2; 8 upper labials, fourth and fifth entering the eye; 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
shorter than the posterior; latter in contact anteriorly. Scales 
smooth, or feebly keeled on the posterior part of the back in the 
adult, in 15 rows. Ventrals 162-177; anal divided; subcaudals 
129-145. Brownish or olive above, the scales on the posterior 
part of the body and on the tail edged with black ; lower surface 
uniform yellow ; young with transverse series of roundish pearl- 
coloured spots, forming cross-bands. 

Total length 5 feet ; tail 2 feet. 

Hab. From the Sikhim Himalayas through Assam to Upper 
Burma, Western Yunnan, Southern China and Siam, through 
Arrakan and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Java. 



397. Zamenis mncosns. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xxxiv, and ii, pi. xviii, fig. 2. 
Coluber mucosus, Linn. S. N. i, p. 388. 
Coluber dhumna, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 51. 



ZAMENIB. 325 

Coryphodon blumenbachii, Dum. 8? Bibr. Erp. Gin, vii, p. 184 ; Jan, 

Icon. Ophid. 24, pi. iii, figs. 2-4. 

Leptophis trifrenatus, Hallow. Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 503. 
Ptyas mucosus, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 563; Giinth. Revt. 

'B. I. p. 249 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 185 ; Blanf. 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 372 ; Theob. Cat. p. 168 ; Anders. An. 

Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 815 ; Boettg. Zool. Jahrb. iii, 1888, p. 931. 

Snout obtuse, slightly projecting ; eye large ; rostral a little 
broader than deep, visible from above ; suture between the inter- 
nasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal as long 
as its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals or 
slightly shorter ; usually three loreals ; one large praeocular, with 
a small subocular below; two postoculars; temporals 2+2; 8 
upper labials, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than 
the posterior ; the latter in contact anteriorly. Scales more or less 
strongly keeled on the posterior part of the back, in 17 rows. 
Ventrals 190-208 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 95-135. Brown 
above, frequently with more or less distinct black cross-bands on 
the posterior part of the body and on the tail ; young usually with 
light cross- bands on the front half of the body. Lower surface 
yellowish ; the posterior ventral and the caudal shields may be 
edged with black. 

The largest specimen in the British Museum is 6 feet long, the 
tail measuring 1^ foot. Mr. Blanf ord records one 7 feet 7 inches 
long. This is commonly known in India as the rat-snake ; dliamin 
in Hindi. 

Hob. India and Ceylon, Afghanistan, Burma, Southern China, 
Siam, Malay Peninsula, Java. 

398. Zamenis ventrimaculatus. 

Coluber ventromaculatus, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxx, fig. 1. 
Coluber chesnei, Martin, P. Z. S. 1838, p. 81. 
Coluber diadema (non Schleg.), Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 291. 
Platyceps semifasciatus, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxix, 1860, p. 114. 
Zarnenis ventrimaculatus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 253 ; Stoliczka, P. 

A. S. B. 1872, p. 82 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xliv, 1875, p. 208 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 169 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 378. 
Zamenis persicus, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 23, pi. ii, fig. 1. 
Coluber (Platyceps) semifasciatus, Theob. Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. 

1868, p. 52. 
Compsosoma semifasciata, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 188. 

pi. xi, fig. 2 ; Theob. Cat. p. 164. 
Zamenis ventrimaculatus, part., Blanf. Zool. E. Pers. p. 414. 

Snout obtuse, feebly projecting ; rostral as deep as broad or a 
little broader than deep, hollowed out beneath ; the portion of the 
rostral visible from above not so long as half its distance from the 
frontal ; suture between the internasals as long as that between 
the prsefrontals or a little shorter ; frontal as long as its distance 
from the end of the snout or slightly longer, shorter than the parie- 
tals ; loreal usually not longer than deep ; one praeocular, with a 
small subocular below ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2+3 ; 



326 

9 upper labials, fifth and sixth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin- 
shields as long as or longer than the anterior and separated by two 
series of scales. Scales perfectly smooth, in 19 rows. Ventrals 
199-211; anal divided; subcaudals 82-119. Greyish or olive 
above, usually with more or less marked transverse dark bars which 
are narrower than the interspaces between them ; a series of black 
spots on each side of the belly ; a black oblique streak boloAv the 
eye and another on the temple. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 9 inches. 

Hal. From the Euphrates through Persia, Afghanistan, and 
Baluchistan to Kashmir, the Punjab, Sind, Cutch, and Bombay. 



399. Zamenis ladacensis. 

Zamenis ladaceusis, Anders. J.A. 8. S. xl, 1871, p. 16. 
Zamenis ventrimaculatus, part,, Stoh'czJca, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 130 : 
Btanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. 414. 

This snake, which I think it advisable to distinguish specifically 
from Z. ventrimaculatus, is recognizable by its slender form and 
greater number of ventrals (214 to 255) and subcaudals (124 to 
140 *). In its other structural characters it agrees with Z. ventri- 
maculatus. Anterior part of body with dark cross-bands which 
are very close together ; these disappear, or are replaced by spots 
posteriorly ; some specimens uniform greyish olive. 

ffab. The "Western Himalayas (Ladak, Gilgit), and also in Persia, 
Arabia, Syria, and Egypt. In the latter country there also occurs 
the allied Z. florulentus, Schleg. (21 rows of scales ; ventrals 201- 
228 : subcaudals 89-98) ; but all the Arabian specimens I have 
seen (Midian, Aden, Muscat) belong to the present species. 



400. Zamenis karelinii. 

Coluber (Tyria) karelinii, Brandt, Bull. Ac. St. Pttei-sb. iii, 1838, 

p. 243. 
Zamenis karelinii, Strmich, Mm. Ac. St. Petersb. xxi, No. 4, p. 1 10, 

pi. iii. 

Zamenis ventrimaculatus, part., Blanf. Zool. E. Persia, p. 414. 
Zamenis ventrimaculatus, var. karelinii, Boetty. Zool. Jahrb. iii, 1888. 

p. 928. 

Snout more or less pointed, projecting, with sharp canthus and 
nearly vertical lores ; rostral as deep as broad, deeply hollowed out 
beneath, the portion visible from above nearly half as long as its 
distance from the frontal ; suture between the internasals nearly 
as long as that between the praef rentals ; frontal as long as its dis- 
tance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; 

* The tail of the type specimen, described by Anderson, is probably muti- 
lated. 



ZAMENIS. 327 

oreal as deep as long or a little deeper than long ; one praeocular, 
with a small subocular below ; two postoculars, with a larger sub- 
ocular below- rarely a third subocular completely separates the 
eye from the labials; temporals 2 + 3; 9 upper labials, fifth 
normally entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields longer than 
the anterior, but extremely narrow and separated from each other 
by two or three series of scales. Scales perfectly smooth, in 19 
rows. Ventrals angulate laterally, 193-212 ; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 85-110. Yellowish or pale grey above, with a dorsal series 
of transverse black spots or cross-bands, between each pair of which 
there is a black lateral spot extending on to the outer border of the 
ventrals ; a black spot below the eye and another on the temple ; 
lower parts white. 

Total length 2 feet 5 inches ; tail 7'5 inches. 

Hah. Turkestan, North-eastern Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan. 

401. Zamenis gracilis. 

Zameuis gracilis, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (3) ix, 1862, p. 125 ; id. Rept. 
B. I. p. 254, pi. xxi, fig. II ; Theob. Cat. p. 170 ; Murray, Zool. 
Sind, p. 378. 

Snout obtuse ; rostral nearly as deep as broad, just visible from 
above ; suture between the internasals a little shorter than that 
between the prsefrontals ; frontal slightly longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, nearly as long as the occipitals ; loreal 
nearly as deep as long ; one prseocular, with a small subocular 
below; two postoculars ; temporals 2+2; 9 upper labials, fifth 
and sixth entering the eye; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin- shields ; posterior chin- shields as long as or 
longer than the anterior, separated anteriorly by two scales. Scales 
smooth, in 21 rows. Veutr-als angulate laterally, 213-228 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 118-121. Yellowish above, with a series of 
large round brawn spots edged with black, separated by narrow 
interspaces ; these spots become more indistinct on the posterior 

,rt of the body ; a black cross-band on the snout and three angu- 
ar dark brown black-edged bands on the head, the anterior between 
the eye, the posterior extending on to the nape ; lower parts yel- 
lowish, with an irregular series of black spots on each side. 

Total length 33 inches ; tail 10. 

Jfab. Deccan and Sind. 

402. Zamenis fasciolatus. 

Russell, Ind. Serj>. i, pi. xxi. 

Coluber fasciolatus, Shair, Zool. iii, p. 528 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 

1847, p. 910. 

Coluber curvirostrw, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 51. 
Zamenis fasciolatup, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 254, pi. xxi, %. F : 

Stoliczka, J.A.S. B. xl, 1871, p. 431 ; Theob. Cat. p. 170. 

Snout obtuse, curved and prominent ; rostral large, broader than 



pa 

l:ir 



328 COLUBBID.E. 

deep, the portion visible from above more than half its distance 
from the frontal ; suture between the internasals as long as that 
between the prsefrontals or a little shorter; frontal nearly as 
long as its distance from the end of the snout, or as the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep or longer than deep; one praBocular, usually 
with a small subocular below"; two or three postoculars ; temporals 
2 + 2 or 2+3; upper labials 8, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 
4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; 
posterior chin-shields nearly as long as the anterior, .separated from 
each other by two or three series of scales. Scales smooth, in 21 
or 23 rows. ' Ventrals 197-225 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 73-88. 
Yellowish or brownish olive above, with narrow white, brown, and 
black variegated cross bands oil the anterior half of the tody : 
these bands may entirely disappear in the adult : lower parts uni- 
form yellowish. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 8-5 inches. 

Hob. Madras Presidency, Bengal, Province "Wellesley (Malay 
Peninsula). 

403. Zamenis diadema. 

Rmsell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xxx ; Geoffroy, Descr. Egypt e, pi. viii, 

fig. 1. 

Coluber diadema, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 148. 
Coluber Clifford!!, Schleg. I. c. p. 163, pi. vi, figs. 13 & 14. 
Periops parallelus, Dtim. fy Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 678 ; Jan, Icon. 

Ophid. 20, pi ii. 
Zamenis cliffordii, Gi'mtli. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 104; BlanfonL P. Z. S. 

1881, p. 679. 
Zamenis diadema, Giinth. Kept. B. 1. p. 252, pi. xxi, fig. G : Anders. 

P. Z. S. 1871, p. 174 ; Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 82 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 171; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii,' 1879, p. 325; Mwray, 

Zool. Sind, p. 377. 

Eostral as deep as broad or a little broader than deep, visible 
from above ; prsefrontals usually broken up into several shields, 
there being frequently three transverse series of shields between 
the rostral and the frontal ; frontal as long as or slightly shorter 
than its distance from the end of the snout, and usually shorter 
than the parietals ; loreals three to five ; two to four (rarely one) 
prseoculars, and three or four postoculars ; a series of suboculars 
separate the labials from the eye ; temporals small and numerous, 
scale-like ; 10 to 13 upper labials ; 5 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are nearly as long as the posterior. 
Scales usually more or less obtusely keeled, in 23 to 31 rows. 
Ventrals usually obtusely angulate laterally, 210-278 ; anal entire ; 
subcaudals 65-110. Pale buff or sandy grey above, with more or 
less marked dark spots, of which the median usually form a series 
of rhombs ; lower parts white, rarely with small blackish spots. A 
variety (atrice^)s, Fischer) occurs in Northern India, which is re- 
markable for having the head entirely or partially black above, and 
the body irregularly spotted or blotched with black. 

Total length 6 feet ; tail 13-5 inches. 



ZAOCYS. 329 

Hub. North-West Provinces, Eajputana, Sind, Punjab, and 
Kashmir, northwards to Turkestan and westwards to the Algerian 
Sahara. 

404. Zamenis arenarius. 

Very closely allied to Z. diadema, but distinguished by the much 
larger rostral, which is considerably deeper than broad and wedged 
in far between the iuternasals ; the portion of the rostral visible 
from above measures two thirds its distance from the frontal. 
Three or four prsrfrontals in a transverse row ; frontal nearly as 
long as ils distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the 
parietals; three or four loreals; two praxxmlars, three postoculars, 
and three suboculars separating the eye from the labials ; temporals 
small, scale-like ; 10 upper labials ; 5 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. 
Scales obtusely keeled, in 25 to 27 rows. Veutrals riot angulate 
laterally. Cream-colour or pale buff with darker spots disposed 
quincuncially, and a longitudinal streak on each side of the nape ; 
lower parts uniform white. 

The two specimens at hand consist each merely of the head and 
anterior part of the body, but indicate a snake four feet long. 
One is from Karachi, presented by Mr. J. A. Murray; the other, 
labelled Sind, was found in the collection presented to the British 
Museum by the late Mr. F. Day. 

Genus ZAOCYS, 
Cope, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1860, p. 563. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 20, increasing in size posteriorly ; mandi- 
bular teeth subequal. Head elongate, distinct from neck ; eye 
rather large, with round pupil ; head-shields normal, with a sub- 
ocular beneath the praeocular. Body elongate, compressed ; scales 
smooth or keeled, with apical pits, in 14 or 16 rows ; ventrals 
rounded ; tail long ; subcaudals divided. 

Distribution. Southern China, Himalayas and Khasi Hills, Upper 
Burma, Malay Peninsula, Borneo. Four species are distin- 
guished. 

405. Zaocys nigromarginatus. 

Coluber nigromarginatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 290. 
Zaocys nigromarginatus, Giinth, Kept. B. I. p. 257, pi. xxii, tig. B : 

Theob. Cat. p. 172. 
Coryphodon dhumnades (wo;/ Cant.), Jan, Icon. Opkid. 24, pi. iv, 

fig. 1. 

Eostral broader than deep, visible from above ; suture between 
the internasals shorter than that between the pra3frontals ; frontal 
as long as or a little shorter than its distance from the end of the 
snout or than the parietals ; loreal a little longer than deep ; one 
praeocular, with a subocular beneath, wedged in between the third 
and fourth upper labials ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 ; upper 



330 COLUBRIDJE. 

labials 8, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials ill 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 16 rows, the four or six median rows keeled. 
Ventrals 193-205; anal divided; subcaudals 123-137. Green 
above, scales black-edged ; yellowish green below ; two broad deep- 
black bands along each side of the tail, advancing forwards on the 
trunk to its middle third in adult specimens, and nearly to the 
head in young ones ; the two upper bands separated from each 
other by the joining halves of the two vertebral series of scales. 

Total length 7 feet (grows to 9) ; tail 2 feet. 

Hnb. Himalayas (4000 to 7100 feet), Khasi Hills, and Kakhyen 
Hills, Upper Burma. 

Genus COLUBER *, 

Linn. Syat. Xat, i, p. 375 (part,), 1766; Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 125, 
1837. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 22, subequal in size ; mandibular teeth 
subequal. Head distinct from neck, elongate ; eye moderate, with 
round pupil ; head-shields normal. Body elongate, feebly com- 
pressed; scales smooth or keeled, with apical pits, in 19 to 27 
rows ; ventrals usually with a more or less marked lateral keel ; 
subcaudals double. 

A large genus, distributed over the greater part of Europe, Asia, 
and Xorth and Tropical America. Habits arboreal or subarboreal ; 
fierce, and feeding chiefly on small mammals and birds. 




Fig. 99. Head of Coluber Jiodgsoiiii. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 
A. Scales smooth or feebly keeled ; ventrals 

without well-marked lateral keel. 
. Anal usually single. 

a'. Scales in 23 to 27 rows C. helena, p. 331. 

V. Scales in 19 or 21 rows C. reticulari*, p. 332. 

* Includes Elaphis, Cdlopeltis, Cynophis, Compsosoma, Spi/otes, and Gony- 
osoma. The species referred to G&nyosoma stand in the same relation to Elaphis 
and Compsosoma as the green AUabes (CyclopJiis), Dijmis, or Trimercsurns to 
the other species of those genera. 



COLUBER. 331 

b. Anal usually divided; scales in 23 or 25 

rows. 

a'. Rostral as deep as broad ; normally 8 
upper labials, 4th and oth entering eye ; 

subcaudals 79-90 C. hodgsmdi, p. 332. 

V. Rostral broader than deep; normally 9 
upper labials, 5th and 6th entering eye ; 
subcaudals 90-107 C. tetu'ttnu, p. 333. 

B. Scales strongly keeled on hinder part of back, 

in 19 or 21 rows ; ventrals with an obtuse 

lateral keel. 

a'. Outer caudal scales without trace of keel. C. rctdiatus, p. 333. 
/>'. All the caudal scales keeled C. melantinis, p. 334. 

C. Scales smooth or feebly keeled; ventrals with 

well-marked lateral keel : colour uniform 

green. 

a'. Scales in 19 rows; loreal present C. prastnus, p. 334. 

//. Scales in 19 rows ; no loreal C. frcnatus, p. 335. 

c'. Scales in 25 or 27 rows C. o.rycephalm, p. 335. 



406. Coluber helena. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xxxii. 

Coluber helena, Daud. Kept, vi, p. 277. 

Cynophis bistrigatus, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) iv, 1849, p. 246. 

Plagiodon helena, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 170 ; Jan, Icon. 

Ophid. 20, pi. iv, fig. 1. 

Herpetodryas malabaricus, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1854, p. 530. 
Cynophis helena, Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 247 ; TAeob. Cat. p. 167 ; 

Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, p. 125 ; Murray, Zool. Siml, 

p. 376. 
Cynophis malabaricus, Gitnth. Kept. B. 1. p. 248, pi. xxi, fig. A ; 

' Theob. I. c. p. 167. 
? Coluber nuthalli, Theob. Cat. Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 51 ; id. 

Cat. p. 164. 
Cynophis malabarensis, var. carinata, F. Milller, Verh. not. Ges. 

Basel, vi. 1878, p. 671. 

Rostral a little broader than deep, visible from above; suture 
between the internasals much shorter than that between the 
prsefrontals ; frontal as long as its distance from the end of the 
snout, shorter than the parietals; loreal somewhat longer than 
deep; one large praeocular; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 
2 + 3; 9 (exceptionally 10 or 11) upper labials, fifth and sixth, or 
fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye; 5 or 6 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin- shields, which are as long as or a 
little longer than the posterior. Scales in 23 to 27 rows, smooth, 
or feebly keeled on the posterior part of the body and on the tail. 
Ventrals 220-205 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 75-94. Young pale 
brown above, with black cross bands, each enclosing four to six 
white ocelli ; adult darker brown, with transverse series of squarish 
black spots, or with more or less distinct traces of the livery of the 
young ; a vertical black streak below the eye, and an oblique one 



332 COLFBEID-S. 

behind the eye ; some specimens have a white, black-edged collar, 
others two black longitudinal streaks on the head ; others, again, 
are intermediate in this respect. Lower parts yellowish, with or 
without a few small black spots, sometimes with a more or less 
distinct festooned marking on each side. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 10 inches. 

Hob. Sind, Rajputana, Cutch, Bombay, and Madras Presi- 
dencies ; Ceylon. 

407. Coluber reticularis. 

Coluber reticularis, Cantor, P. Z. 8. 1839, p. 51. 
Compsosoma reticulare, Giinth. Rent. B. I. p. 245, pi. xxi, fig. D; 
Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 172; Theob. Cat. p. 166. 

Eostral as deep as broad or a little broader than deep, visible 
from above; suture between the internasals much shorter than 
that between the praefrontals ; frontal as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout or a little shorter, as long as the parietals or 
a little shorter ; loreal longer than deep ; one large praeocular, often 
with a small subocular below ; two (exceptionally three) postocu- 
lars; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3; upper labials 8, fourth and fifth 
entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are as long as the posterior or a little longer. 
Scales in 19 or 21 rows, feebly keeled on the posterior part of the 
body. Ventrals 213-232 ; anal usually undivided ; subcaudals 
65-76. Brown above, darker behind, anteriorly with squarish 
dark brown spots, posteriorly with more or less distinct light 
cross bands ; head uniform pale brown ; lower surface yellowish, 
spotted with brown or black, or nearly uniform dark brown. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 9 inches. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas (3000-4000 feet), Khasi and Garo 
Hills. 

408. Coluber hodgsonii. 

Spilotes hodgsonii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 150, pi. xxvii. 
Compsosoma hodgsonii, Gunth. Eept. B. I. p. 246; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xxxix, 1870, p. 189, and xl, 1871, p. 430 ; Theob. Cat. p. 166. 

Eostral as deep as broad, visible from above; suture between 
the internasals much shorter than that between the praefrontals ; 
frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little 
shorter, shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep, often 
united with the praefrontal ; one large praeocular (a small sub- 
ocular below the prseocular rarely present) ; two postoculars ; 
temporals 2+2 or 2 + 3; normally 8 upper labials, fourth and 
fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior or a little longer. 
Scales in 23 rows, feebly keeled on the posterior part of the body. 
Ventrals 233-246; anal divided; subcaudals 79-90. Brownish 
olive above, most of the scales black-edged ; young with blackish 



COLUBEK. 333 

cross bauds ; lower parts yellowish, the outer part of the margin 
of each ventral shield blackish. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 9 inches. 

Htib. Himalayas, from Ladak to Sikhim. 

409. Coluber tseniurus. 

Elaphis taeniurus, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1860, p. 565 ; Giinth. Rept. 

B. 1. p. 242 ; Strauch, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. xxi, No. 4, p. 103 ; 

Botdeng. A. M. N. H. (5) xix, 1887, p. 170. 
Elaphis yunnanensis, Anders, An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 813. 
Elaphis grabowskyi, Fischer, Arch. f. Nat. 1885, p. 59, pi. iv, tig. 3. 

Kostral broader than deep, visible from above ; suture between 
the interuasals much shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; 
frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little 
shorter, as long as or a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal 
longer than deep ; one large prseocular, usually with a small sub- 
ocular below it ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2+3 ; usually 
9 upper labials, fifth and sixth entering the eye ; 5 or 6 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long 
as the posterior or a little longer. Scales in 23 or 25 rows, 
dorsals feebly keeled. Ventrals 230-284 ; anal usually divided ; 
subcaudals 90-107. Grey-brown or olive above, head and nape 
uniform ; a black stripe on each side of the head, passing through 
the eye ; anterior half of back with black transverse lines or net- 
work, posterior portion with a pale vertebral stripe between two 
broad black ones ; belly yellowish anteriorly, greyish behind ; 
a black stripe along each side of the posterior part of the belly 
and along each side of the tail, separated fi'om the upper lateral 
stripe by a whitish streak. 

Grows to 5 1 feet, the tail measuring one foot. 

Hab. This snake has an extremely wide range, being on record 
from Mantchuria, China, Darjeeling, Cochin China, Siam, Borneo, 
and Sumatra. 

410. Coluber radiatus. 

Russell, 2nd. tterj). ii, pi. xlii. 

Coluber radiatus, Schley. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 135, pi. v, tigs. 5, (5 ; 

Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 920. 
Coluber quadrifasciatus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 51. 
Tropidonotus quinque, Cantor, 1. c. p. 54. 
Compsosoma radiatum, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 2U2 ; Giinth. 

Sept. B. I. p. 243 ; 2X006. Cat. p. 16-5 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res. 

Yunnan, p. 815. 

liostral broader than deep, visible from above ; suture between 
the internasals shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little shorter, 
shorter than the parietals ; loreal usually longer than deep ; one 
large prseocular ; two postoculars ; temporals usually 2 + 2; 8 or 
9 upper labials, third to fifth, or fourth and fifth, or fourth to sixth 



334 COLUBBID^E. 

entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. Scales in 19 or 
21 rows, more or less strongly keeled on the posterior half of the 
body, the outer series without trace of a keel. Ventrals with an 
obtuse lateral keel, 224-242 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 85-100. 
Yellowish brown above, with one or two black bands oil each side 
of the anterior half of the back, the lower band usually broken up ; 
a black line across the occiput ; three black lines radiating from 
the eye ; lower parts uniform yellow. 

Total length 5 feet ; tail 1 foot. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Burma, Cochin China, Malay 
Peninsula, Java, Sumatra. 

411. Coluber melanurus. 

Coluber melanurus, Schley. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 141, pi. v, figs. 11 & 12. 
Compsosoma melanurum, JJum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 299 ; 

Giinth. Sept. Ji. I. p. 244; Stolicska, J. A. S.U. xxxix, 1870, 

p. 188; Theob. Cat, p. 165. 
Elaphis melanurus, Jan, Icon. Oplrid. 21, pi. iv, fig. 1, and pi. v, 

fig. 1. 

Kostral broader than deep, visible from above : suture between 
the internasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little longer, 
shorter than the parietals ; lor-eal not longer than deep ; one large 
prseocular; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2; upper labials 9, 
fourth to sixth entering the eye ; 5 or 6 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. 
Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled ; all the caudal scales keeled. 
Ventrals with an obtuse lateral keel, 193-230 ; anal entire ; sub- 
caudals 89-109. Pale brown anteriorly, with a yellow, black-edged 
vertebral band, which becomes gradually more and more indistinct 
towards the hinder part of the body, which, like the tail, is dark 
brown or black ; a series of black spots on each side of the anterior 
part of the body, of ocelli with bright yellow centre in the young ; 
some adults are nearly uniform blackish brown ; a black streak 
below the eye, another from the eye to the commissure of the 
jaws, and a third along the temple and neck. 

Total length 5 feet ; tail 1 foot 3 inches. 

Hub. Tenasserim, Andaman*, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

412. Coluber prasinus. 

Coluber prasinus, lilyth, J. A. 8. L'. xxiii, 1854, p. 291. 
Gonyosoma gramineum, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 294, pi. xxiii, tig. D ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 190 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res, Yunnan, p. 824. 

Kostral a little broader than deep, just visible from above ; 
suture between the internasals a little shorter than that between 
the prsefrontals ; frontal as long as its distance from the end of 
the snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal square or longer than 



COLUBER. 335 

deep; one or two praeoculars ; temporals 1+2 or 2 + 2; upper 
labials 9, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; o lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the 
posterior or a little longer. Scales in 19 rows, the 9 to 11 middle 
rows feebly keeled in the adult, smooth in the young. Ventrals 
with a lateral keel, 198 to 206 ; anal entire or divided ; subcaudals 
100-107. Uniform bright green above ; upper lip and lower sur- 
face yellowish or greenish white. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 9 inches. 

Hab. Khasi Hills, Assam, Upper Burma. 

Except in its coloration this snake agrees so closely with C, 
radiatus and melanurus that 1 cannot regard it as geuerically 
distinct, and still less refer it to a different family. 



413. Coluber frenatns. 

Herpetrodvyas frenatus, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 390. 
Goiiyosoma freuatum, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 295 ; Thcob. Cat. p. 190. 

Snout subacurniiiate, twice as long as the eye, obliquely truncated 
and projecting. Kostral a little broader than deep, hardly visible 
from above ; suture between the internasals much shorter than 
that between the prajfrontals ; frontal as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; no loreal, prse- 
f rental in contact with the labials ; one large prseocular ; two post- 
oculars; temporals 2+2 or 2 + 3; 9 (or 8) upper labials, fourth, 
fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. Scales 
in ] 9 rows, dorsals faintly keeled. Ventrals with a lateral keel, 
203-204; anal divided; subcaudals 120-121. Uniform bright 
green above ; a black streak along each side of the head, passing 
through the eye ; upper lip and lower parts pale green, ventral 
keel whitish. 

Total length 2 feet 9 inches ; tail 9-5 inches. 

Hab, Khasi Hills. 



414. Coluber oxycephalus. 

Coluber oxycephaltis, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 537. 

Herpetodryas oxycephalus, Schleg. P/n/s. Serp. ii, p. Ib9, pi. vii, figs, 

8 & 9 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 927. 
Alopecophis clialybeus, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) iv, 1849, p. 247. 
Gonyosoma oxycephulum, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 213 ; 

Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 294 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 31, pi. i ; StoKczka, 

J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 193, and xlii, 1873, p. 123; Theob. 

Cat. p. 189. 

Snout subacuniiuate, more than twice as long as the eye, obliquely 
truncated and projecting. Eostral nearly as deep as broad, just 
visible from above ; suture between the interuasals much shorter 
than that between the praef rentals ; frontal as long as its distance 



666 COLTJBRID2E. 

from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; 
loreal very elongate; one large praeocular; two postoculars ; 
temporals 2 + 3 ; 9 or 10 upper labials, two of which (fifth and 
sixth or sixth and seventh) enter the eye ; 6 lower labials in con- 
tact with the anterior chin-shields, which are much longer than 
the posterior. Scales in 25 or 27 rows, smooth or faintly keeled. 
Ventrals with a lateral keel, 236-263 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
138-149. Bright green above, the scales usually finely edged 
with black, pale green below ; a blackish streak along each side of 
the head, passing through the eye ; tail usually yellowish brown. 

Total length 7 feet 8 inches ;' tail 19 inches. ' 

Hab. Tenasserim, Andamans, Nicobars, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. Dr. Stoliczka, who observed this snake in the forests 
of the Andamans, says it is generally seen on bushes near brackish- 
water creeks, and is always ready to take to the water. 

Genus XENEL APHIS, 

Gunther, Kept. B. I. p. 250, 1864. 

Teeth subequal in size, 22 to 25 in each maxillary. Head 
moderately elongate, distinct from neck ; eye moderate, with round 
pupil ; head-shields normal, with a subocular below the pnieocular. 
Body elongate, cylindrical ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 17 
rows, the vertebral row enlarged and six-sided. Ventrals rounded ; 
tail long ; subcaudals in two rows. 

Only one species. 

415. Xenelaphis hexagonotus. 

Coluber liexahouotus, Cantor, J.A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 921. 
Coryphodon sublutescens, Dum. Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 187. 
Xenelaphis hexahonotus, Git-nth. ILept. B. 1. p. 258, pi. xxi, fig. C. 
Ptyas hexagonotus, Theob. Cat. p. 168. 

Rostral broader than deep, visible from above ; suture between 
the internasals nearly as long as that between the prsefroutals ; 
frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout, a little 
shorter than the parietals ; loreal nearly as long as deep ; one 
praeocular, with a rather large subocular below, wedged in between 
the third and fourth upper labials ; two postoculars, with a large 
subocular below, separating the eye from the fifth and sixth labials ; 
a third subocular occasionally present, separating the eye altogether 
from the labials ; temporals 2 + 2 ; normally 8 upper labials, fourth 
entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. Scales in 17 rows, 
smooth. Ventrals 185-198 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 140-179. 
Brown above, with black cross bands, which become indistinct 
with age, on the anterior half of the body, old specimens showing 
mere traces of the outer ends of these bands ; lower parts uniform 
yellowish. 

Total length 5| feet; tail 2 feet. 

Hab. Arrakan, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Java. 



DENDEOPHIS. 337 

Genus DENDROPHIS, 

Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 520. 

Maxillary teeth 25 to 30, subequal in size ; anterior manclibular 
teeth longest. Head distinct from neck, elongate ; eye large, with 
round pupil; head-shields normal. Body elongate, compressed; 
scales smooth, with apical pits, in 13 or 15 rows, disposed 
obliquely, those of the median row enlarged (see fig. 88, p. 281) ; 
ventrals with suture-like lateral keel and a notch on each side 
corresponding to the keel ; subcaudals in two rows. 

Distribution. About ten species are known, from the East Indies 
and Northern Australia. Habits essentially arboreal. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Scales in 15 rows. 

a. Eye extremely large, as long as its 

distance from rostral shield D. yrandoculis, p. 337. 

b. Distance between eye and rostral ex- 

ceeds diameter of eye. 
a'. One loreal ; two or three labials 

enter eye D. pictus, p. 337. 

b'. One loreal ; a single labial enters 

eye ; vertebral scales very little 

enlarged D. subocularis, p. 338. 

c. Two loreals ; two labials enter the 

eye D. bifrenalis, p. 338. 

B. Scales in 13 rows D. caudolineolatus, p. 339. 

416. Dendrophis grandoculis. 

Eye extremely large, as long as its distance from the rostral. 
Rostral much broader than long, visible from above, its upper bor- 
der nearly straight ; suture between the internasals as long as that 
between the prafrontals or a little louger ; frontal as long as its 
distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; loreal 
elongate; one prse- and two postoculars ; temporals 2+2; upper 
labials 9, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than 
the posterior. Scales in 15 rows, vertebrals nearly as large as the 
outer row. Ventrals 174-176; anal divided; subcaudals 117. 
Olive-brown above, with irregular small black blotches ; eye bor- 
dered with whitish ; lower parts pale olive. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 13| inches. 

Hob. This species was discovered by Col. Beddome in the 
Travancore and Tinnevelly bills, between 2000 and 3000 feet, and 
in the Canoot Ghat, Wynaad, at 2500 feet. 

417. Dendrophis pictus. 

Bttsscll, 2nd. Serp. ii, pis. xxv, & xxvi. 

Coluber pictus, Gmel. Syst. Nat.i, p. 1116. 

Dendrophis picta, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 530 ; Dvm. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. 



338 COLUBKIDJE. 

vii, p. 197 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 297 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, 1870, p. 193 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 32, pi. i ; Theob. Cat. p. 190. 
Abfetula bellii, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxx, fig. 2. 
Dendrophis boil, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 63. 
Leptopbis pictus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 930. 
Dendrophis picta, var. audamanensis. Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 184. 
Dendrophis picta, part., Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 824. 

Eye as long as its distance from the nostril. Kostral broader 
than long, visible from above, upper border forming an obtuse 
angle ; suture between the interuasals as long as that between 
the praefrontals or a little longer ; frontal as long as its distance 
from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals or shorter ; 
loreal elongate ; one praocular ; two or three postoculars ; tem- 
porals 2+2; 9 or 10 upper labials (rarely 8), fifth and sixth, or 
fourth, fifth, and sixth, entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior. 
Scales in 15 rows, vertebrals at least as large as outer row. Ven- 
trals 167-205 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 110-150. Olive or bronze 
brown above, sometimes with a yellow vertebral band on the front 
part of the trunk ; outer row of scales yellowish, between two 
more or less marked dark streaks ; a black streak on each side of the 
head passing through the eye ; upper lip yellow ; lower parts uniform 
yellowish or pale greenish. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 14 inches. 

Hob. A widely distributed species, extending from Peninsular 
India and Ceylon through Bengal, Burma, and Siam to the Malay 
Peninsula and Archipelago. 

418. Dendrophis subocularis. 

Dendrophis pieta, part., Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 824. 
Dendrophis subocularis, Bouleng. Ann. Mus. Genom, (2) vi, 1838, 
p. 600, pi. vi, fig. 2. 

Differs from D. pictus in having only 8 upper labials, of which 
the fifth is the largest and alone borders the eye ; in the scales of 
the vertebral row being but very feebly enlarged and smaller than 
those of the outer row ; and in the smaller number of catidals. 
Yentrals 167-177 ; subcaudals 74-105. 

Hob. Bhamo, Upper Burma. 

419. Dendrophis bifrenalis. 
Dendrophis picta, var. c, Giinth. Cat. Col. $n. p. 149. 

Head more elongate than in D. pictus parietals longer than the 
frontal ; two loreals ; 9 upper labials, fifth and sixth entering the 
eye. Scales in 15 rows, vertebrals larger than outer row. Yen- 
trals 154-171; anal divided; subcaudals 144-155. Coloration 
like D. pictus, but the whole side of the veutrals above the later al 
keel dark olive like the back. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches ; tail 14-5 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon. Three specimens are in the British Museum. 



DENDEEL APHIS. 339 

420. Dendrophis caudolineolatus. 

Dendrophis caudolineolatus, Gilnth. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 506, pi. xl, fig. 1. 
Dendrophis gregorii, Haly, Taprobanian, iii, 1888, p. 51. 

Eye as long as its distance from the nostril. Eostral broader 
than long, visible from above, upper border forming an obtuse 
angle ; suture between the internasals a little shorter than that 
between the prsefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the 
end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; loreal elongate ; one 
pracocular; two postoculars ; temporals 1+2 or 2 + 1; 8 or 9 
upper labials, fourth and fifth, or fifth and sixth, entering the eye; 
4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 13 rows, vertebrals as 
large as outer row. Ventrals 149-161 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
124-128. Bronzy olive above, anteriorly with oblique narrow 
black streaks ; tail with four more or less distinct black lines, one 
above, one along the inner edges of the subcaudals, and one on 
each side ; a black temporal streak ; lower surfaces greenish white. 

Total length 2 feet 1 inch ; tail 9 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



Genus DENDRELAPHIS. 

Maxillary teeth 18 to 20, anterior longest anterior mandibular 
teeth longest. Head distinct from neck, elongate ; eye large, with 
round pupil; head-shields normal. Body elongate, feebly com- 
pressed ; scales smooth, in 13 rows, disposed obliquely, with apical 
pits ; ventrals with suture-like lateral keel, and a notch on each 
side corresponding to the keel ; subcaudals in two rows. 

The type species occurs in Southern India and the Malay Penin- 
sula and Archipelago. A second species is from the Philippines, 
D, terrificus, Peters (D. philippinensis, Gthr.). 

Of mixed arboreal and terrestrial habits. 

421. Dendrelaphis caudolineatus. 

Alitetula caudoliueata, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxi. 
Leptophis caudalineatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 932. 
Dendrophis octolineata, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 201 ; Jan, 

Icon. Ophid. 32, pi. ii, fig. 1. 
Dendrophis caudolineata, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 297 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 194, & xlii, 1873, p. 123. 

Snout scarcely longer than the eye. Eostral a little broader 
than deep, visible from above ; suture between the internasals as 
long as or a little shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal elongate ; one prae- and two postoculars ; 
temporals 2 + 2; 9 upper labials, fifth and sixth entering the eye; 
5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
shorter than the posterior. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 176- 

z2 



340 

188; anal divided; subcaudals 100-112. Light brownish bronze 
or greenish yellow above, the scales with black edges forming more 
or less regular longitudinal lines ; a yellowish lateral streak edged 
above and below by a black band, the lower of which extends on 
to the outer edge of the ventrals ; lips and lower surfaces pale 
metallic citrine, the tail with a black median line. 

Total length 5 feet ; tail 1 foot 3 inches. 

Hob. Mergui, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Celebes; 
specimens were also obtained in the Wynaad by Col. Beddome. 

This very unusual geographical distribution is not unparalleled, 
as we meet with the same in Simotes octolineatus. Special affinity 
between the Malay and South-Indian fauna is also exhibited in the 
lizards of the genera Draco and Liolepis. 



Genus PSEUDOXENODON. 

Maxillary teeth 20 to 25, increasing in size posteriorly, the two 
last abruptly enlarged ; mandibular teeth subequal. Head distinct 
from neck, which is dilatable ; eye large, with round pupil ; head- 
shields normal. Body moderately elongate, cylindrical ; scales on 
the anterior part of the body disposed obliquely, narrow and much 
imbricate, in 17 or 19 rows ; dorsals keeled, without apical pits ; 
ventrals rounded ; subcaudals in two rows. 

This new genus is distinguished from Tropidonotus by its oblique 
scales, and from Xenodon, Boie (type X. severm, L.), by its longer 
maxillary with much more numerous teeth. Besides P. macrops, 
it embraces the South-Chinese Tropidonotus dorsalis, Grthr., and the 
Javan Xenodon inornatus, Boie. 

422. Pseudoxenodon macrops. 

Tropidonotus macrops, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1855, p. 296 ; Gimth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 263 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 436 ; Theob. 

Cat. p. 174. 

Xenodon macrophthalmus, part., Gilnth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 58. 
Tropidonotus macrophthalmus, part., Gilnth. Itept. B. I. p. 262, 

pi. xxii, fig. C. 

Tropidonotus macrophthalmus, Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 177. 
Tropidonotus sikkimensis, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 17. 

Eye large, its diameter more than its distance from the nostril ; 
rostral just visible from above ; suture between the internasals 
shorter than that between the prafrontals ; frontal slightly shorter 
than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parie- 
tals ; loreal as long as deep or deeper than long ; one pra3ocular ; 
three postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2; 8 upper labials, fourth and 
fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the an- 
terior chin-shields, which are a little shorter than the posterior. 
Scales more or less strongly keeled, in 19 rows anteriorly, in 17 on 
the middle of the body. Ventrals 160-173 ; anal divided ; sub- 
caudals 60-75. Brown or olive above, with or without a dorsal 



TROPIDONOTUS. 341 

series of reddish-brown or orange spots, and a dorso-Iateral series 
of black spots ; a more or less distinct chevron-shaped dark mark- 
ing, pointing forwards, may be present on the nape ; anterior part 
of belly with large quadrangular blackish-brown spots, posterior 
part and lower side of the tail clouded with brown. 

Total length 39 inches ; tail 7. 

Hab. Eastern Himalayas (4000 feet), Khasi Hills, Kakhyen Hills, 
and Pegu Hills. 

This snake is remarkable for its dilatable neck, with the scaling 
very similar to that of a Cobra, for which, Dr. Giinther says, it is 
frequently taken. 



Genus TKOPIDONOTUS, 
Kuhl, in F&ussac, Bull. Sc. Nat. ii, 1824, p. 81 ; Boie. Isis, 1827, p. 518. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 22, posterior longest ; mandibular teeth 
subequal. Head distinct from neck ; eye moderate or rather large, 





Fig. 100. Head of Tropidonotits piscator. 

with round pupil ; head-shields normal. Body more or less elon- 
gate, cylindrical ; scales keeled, rarely smooth, in 15 to 29 rows, 
with or without apical pits ; ventrals rounded ; subcaudals in two 
rows. 

A large genus, distributed over the greater part of the Northern 
Hemisphere, together with the Malayan and Papuasiau Islands, 
and North Australia ; the bulk of the species inhabiting the East 
Indies and North America. Many of these snakes are aquatic 
in their habits, and the majority feed on batrachians and fishes ; 
some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. 



342 COLUBKIDjE. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. 19 rows of scales. 

a. Internasals broadly truncated anteriorly, 

trapezoid. 

'. Scales faintly or feebly keeled ; 3 la- 
bials entering the eye. 

a". 154-168 ventrals ; 96-122 subcaudals. T. modestus, p. 343. 
b". 177-235 ventrals ; 75-107 subcaudals. T. plati/ceps, p. 343. 
I'. Scales strongly keeled. 

a". Eye moderate, diameter (in adults) 
nearly equalling distance from nos- 
tril ; 3 labials entering eye. 
a. Scales of outer vow smooth. 

a'. 150-154 ventrals ; 80-100 sub- 
caudals T. khasiensis, p. 344. 

ft'. 131-150 ventrals; 65-75 sub- 
caudals , T. Icddomii, p. 344. 

ft. Scales of outer row keeled; 160- 

175 ventrals ; 73-95 subcaudals. . T. parallel, p. 345. 
b". Eye large ; scales of outer row keeled ; 
3 labials entering eye. 

a. Two anterior temporals T. chrysargns, p. 345. 

ft. One anterior temporal T. niyrocinctus, p. 346. 

c". Eye rather large, diameter exceeding 
distance from nostril ; scales of outer 
row smooth or very feebly keeled. 
a. Two labials entering eye. 

a'. 133-141 ventrals ; 48-54 subcau- 
dals T. ceylonensis, p. 346. 

ft'. 158-170 ventrals; 79-90 subcau- 
dals 2\ Idmalayanus, p. 347. 

ft. Three labials entering eye. 

a'. Frontal shorter than parietals ; 
132-166 ventrals; 68-87 sub- 
caudals T. subminiatns, p. 347. 

ft'. Frontal as long as parietals ; 134 - 

142 ventrals ; 80-92 subcaudals. T. monticola, p. 348. 

b. Internasals much narrowed anteriorly, 

subtriangular ; frontal longer than dis- 
tance from end of snout, as long as parie- 
tals or slightly shorter. 
'. Two or three labials entering eye. 
a". Scales of outer row smooth ; normally 
a single anterior temporal, and 3 

labials entering eye T. stolatus, p. 348. 

b''. Scales of outer row smooth ; nor- 
mally 2 anterior temporals, and 2 

labials entering eye . . . , T. piscator, p. 349. 

c". Scales of outer row keeled ; a single 
anterior temporal ; 3 labials entering 

eye T. bellulus, p. 350. 

b'. A single labial entering eye ; 2 anterior [p. 350. 

temporals T. sancti-johannis, 

B. 17 rows of scales, smooth or faintly keeled. . T. punctulatus, p. 350. 

C. 23-27 rows of scales T. plumbicolor, p. 351. 



TEOPIDONOTUS. 343 

423. Tropidonotus modestus. 

Tropidonotus modestus, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 232 ; Anders. An. 
Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 817. 

Eye rather small ; rostral just visible from above ; suture 
between the internasals as long as that between the'praefrontals or a 
little shorter ; frontal longer than its distance from the end of the 
snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep ; one 
prseocular (or two); two or three postoculars ; temporals 1 + 1 
(1+2 or 2 + 2) ; upper labials 9, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering 
the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows, feebly 
keeled. Ventrals 154-168; anal divided ; subcaudals 96-122. 
Olive-brown above, with small black spots, and a more or less 
distinct series of small yellowish spots, or a yellowish band, along 
each side of the back ; sutures between the labials black ; lower 
surfaces yellowish, with a series of blackish spots on each side of 
the ventrals, or yellowish in the middle and blackish on the sides, 
or nearly entirely blackish. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 7 inches. 

Hal. Khasi Hills and Western Yunnan. 

424. Tropidonotus platyceps. 

Tropidonotus platyceps, Blyth,J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 297 ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 264, pi. xxii, fig. D ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

1870, pt. 2, p. 191; Anders. P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 176; Theob. Cat. 

p. 174. 
Herpetoreas sieboldii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 156 ; id, Rept. B. 1. 

p. 257 ; Theob. Cat, Rept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 54 ; id. Cat. 

p. 172. _ 
Zamenis himalayanus, Steindachner, Sitsb. zool.-bot, Ges. Wien, xvii, 

1867, p. 513, pi. xiii, figs. 1/2, 3. 

Eye moderate ; rostral just visible from above ; suture between 
the internasals as long as that between the praefrontals or shorter ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal longer than deep ; one pra3ocular (some- 
times divided) ; two or three postoculars ; temporals 1 + 1, or 1 +2, 
or 2+2 ; upper labials 8, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 
4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
which are much shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows 
faintly or feebly keeled. 177-235 ventrals ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
75-107. Olive-brown above, with small black spots ; frequently 
two black parallel lines or an elliptic marking on the nape ; a 
light, black-edged streak on each side of the head, or a black line 
from eye to gape; belly yellowish, with or without blackish dots ; 
frequently a black line or series of elongate blackish spots along 
each side of the belly ; lower surface of tail frequently mottled with 
blackish; throat sometimes black. In life, a coral-red band is 
said to run along the ends of the ventrals. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 9 inches. 



344 COLUBMD^. 

Hub. Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam (up to 10,000 feet) and 
Khasi Hills. 

This very variable species connects Tropidonotus with Zamenis. 
The keels on the scales are sometimes, especially in females, wanting 
throughout the greater part of the body. 

425. Tropidonotus khasiensis. 

Eye moderate ; its diameter not more than its distance from the 
nostril ; rostral just visible from above ; suture between the inter- 
nasals as long as that between the prsefrontals ; frontal slightly 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than 
the parietals ; loreal as long as deep or a little longer than deep ; 
one or two praeoculars ; three postoculars ; temporals 1 -f 1 ; upper 
labials 9 normally, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows, rather strongly 
keeled, the outer row smooth. 150-154 ventrals ; anal divided ; 
subcaudals 80-100. Pale brown above, some of the scales edged 
with darker ; head with more or less distinct yellowish dots or ver- 
miculations ; labials yellow in the middle and dark brown on the 
borders ; an oblique yellow streak edged with dark brown on each 
side of the nape, forming the continuation of the series of yellow 
labial spots ; ventrals and subcaudals yellowish, with an interrupted 
brown streak or series of spots along each side. 

Total length 23 inches ; tail 7-5. 

Hob. Khasi Hills. 

426. Tropidonotus beddomii. 

Spilotes vittatus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1863. 

Tropidonotus beddomii, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 269, pi. xxii, fig. E ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 176. 

Eye moderate, its diameter in the adult equalling its distance 
from the nostril ; rostral just visible from above ; suture between 
the internasals as long as that between the praefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep or deeper than long ; one 
prseocular ; three (rarely two) postoculars ; temporals 1 + 1 or 1 +2 ; 
upper labials 8 or 9, third, fourth, and fifth, or fourth, fifth, and 
sixth, entering the eye; 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 
rows, rather strongly keeled, the outer, however, perfectly smooth. 
Ventrals 131-150 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 65-75. Brown above ; 
a series of yellow spots, each between two black spots or short 
transverse bands, along each side of the back ; upper labials yel- 
lowish with black sutures ; a yellow, black-edged, oblique streak 
from the eye to the gape ; a yellow band across the nape, behind 
the parietals, becoming indistinct with age ; belly white, closely 
dotted with brown on the sides. 
Total length 20 inches ; tail 5. 
Hob. Wynaad, Nilgiris, Anaimalais (4700 feet). 



TROPIDONOTUS. 345 

427. Tropidonotus parallelus. 

Tropidonotus dipsas (non Blyth), Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, 
p. 819. 

Eye moderate, its diameter nearly equal to its distance from the 
nostril ; rostral just visible from above ; suture between the inter- 
nasals as long as that between the praefrontals ; frontal longer than 
its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep ; one or two (or three) prseoculars ; three 
postoculars; temporals 1 + 1, 1+2, or 2 + 2; upper labials 8 nor- 
mally, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled, those of the outer 
row more or less distinctly keeled. Ventrals 163-172 (160-175, 
Anderson) anal divided; subcaudals 73-86 (95, Anderson). Olive- 
brown above, the scales edged with blackish, with two yellowish, 
black-edged dorsal bands running along the back and tail ; a short 
yellow longitudinal streak behind the occiput ; a black streak from 
the eye to the commissure of the mouth ; labials yellow; ventrals 
and subcaudals uniform yellow, or with a black dot on each side. 

Total length 22 inches ; tail 5. 

Hob. Sikhim, Khasi Hills, hills of Upper Burma and Yunnan. 

428. Tropidonotus chrysargus. 

Tropidonotus chrysargus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 312, pi. xii, figs. 6 

Tropidonotus junceus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 940; Giinth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 268, pi. xxii, no-. F ; StoKcska, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, 

pt. 2, p. 434 ; Tkeob. Cat. p. 176. 

Leptophis albomaculatus, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 541. 
Amphiesnia chrysargum, Dum. < Bibr. t. c. p. 739. 
Tropidonotus dipsas, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 297. 
? Tropidonotus zebrinus, Blyth, t. c. p. 295; Theob. t. c. p. 173. 
Amphiesma platyceps, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 29, pi. ii, fig. 1. 

Eye large, its diameter exceeding its distance from the nostril ; 
rostral just visible from above ; suture between the internasals as 
long as that between the praefrontals or a little shorter ; frontal as 
long as its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal nearly as deep as long ; one or two praeoculars, 
three postoculars ; temporals 2+2 or 2+3 ; upper labials 9 or 8, 
fourth, fifth, and sixth, or third, fourth, and fifth, entering the eye ; 
5 or 6 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled, 
those of the outer row distinctly keeled. Ventrals 143-169 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 60-92. Brownish or olive-green above, with 
a series of yellow spots or short transverse bars along each side of the 
back ; young with black spots and cross bars, which become indis- 
tinct with age ; upper lip white, with the sutures between the 
labials black, the white colour extending as an angular or crescentic 
marking on the nape ; belly yellowish, with or without blackish 
dots and with a more or less distinct series of small black spots 
along each side. 



346 COLTJBEID^;. 

Total length 2| feet ; tail 7'5 inches. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas (3000-6000 feet), Assam, Burma, 
Southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, and Sumatra. 
Appears to be everywhere chiefly a mountain form. 

429. Tropidonotus nigrocinctns. 

Tropidonotus nigrocinctus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, 1856, p. 717 ; 
Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 269; Theob. Cat. p. 175. 

Eye large, its diameter exceeding its distance from the nostril ; 
rostral just visible from above ; suture between the internasals a 
little shorter than that between the praefroutals ; frontal a little 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout and a little 
shorter than the parietals ; loreal slightly longer than deep ; one 
or two prseoculars ; three postoculars; temporals 1 + 2; upper 
labials 9, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little shorter 
than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled, the outer 
row distinctly keeled. VentralslSo 160; anal divided; subcaudals 
81-89. Olive-grey above, green towards the head, with narrow 
transverse black streaks ; an oblique black streak below the eye, 
another behind the eye, and a third on each side of the neck ; lower 
parts yellowish, dotted with brown posteriorly. 

Total length 26 inches ; tail 7. 

Hub. Pegu and Tenasserim. 

430. Tropidonotus ceylonensis. 

Tropidonotus chrysargus, var. ceylouensis, Giinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 71. 
Tropidonotus ceylonensis, Gi'mth. Kept. B. I. p. 268, pi. xxii. fig. G ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 178. 

Eye rather large, its diameter a little exceeding its distance from 
the nostril ; rostral just visible from above ; suture between the 
internasals a little shorter than that between the praBfrontals ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long 
as the parietals ; loreal as deep as long ; two praoculars ; three 
postoculars; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3; upper labials 8 normally, 
fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior. 
Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled, the outer row smooth or faintly 
keeled. Ventrals 133-141 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 48-54. 
Olive-brown above, with black cross bands and a series of large 
yellow black-edged ocelli along each side of the back ; these mark- 
ings less distinct in the adult ; lips white ; a black band on each 
side of the head behind the eye ; a black band on each side of the 
nape, converging towards its fellow posteriorly, the space between 
them yellow in the young ; belly uniform yellowish, or powdered 
with brown posteriorly. 

Total length 18 inches ; tail 3-5. 

Hob. Ceylon. 



TEOPIDONOTUS. 347 

431. Tropidonotus snfominiatns. 

Tropidonotus subminiatus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 313; Giinth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 265 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 177 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. S. xl, 1871, pt. 2. p. 434, pi. xxvi, fig. 3; Theob. Cat. p. 177 ; 

Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 822. 
Amphiesma subminiatum, Dum. < Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 734 ; Jan, 

Icon. Ophid. 29, pi. i, fig. 3. 

Eye rather large, its diameter a little exceeding its distance from 
the nostril ; rostral just visible from above ; suture between the 
internasals shorter than that between the praefrontals ; frontal as 
long as its distance from the end of snout or a little longer, shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep or deeper than long ; one 
prseocular; three postoculars ; temporals 2 -f 2 or 2 + 3; upper labials 
8 normally, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little shorter 
than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled, those of the 
outer row smooth. Ventrals 132-166 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
68-87.' Brownish, greyish olive, or olive-green above, adult uniform 
or with black and yellow reticulations; neck often tinged with 
bright vermilion ; a dorso-lateral series of light spots may be 
present ; a black oblique spot below the eye, on a white ground ; 
young with a jet-black cross band on the nape, bordered with 
yellow posteriorly ; belly yellowish ; frequently a black dot on the 
outer end of each ventral shield. 

Total length 3| feet ; tail 10 inches. 

Hob. From Sikhim, Assam, Burma, and Southern China to the 
Malay Peninsula and Java. This is a common species, chiefly 
inhabiting hilly country, though rarely found above 3000 or 4000 
feet. 

432. Tropidonotus himalayanus. 

Xenodon niacrophthalmus, part., Giinlh. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 58. 
Tropidonotus macrophthalmus, part., Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 262. 
Tropidonotus himalayanus, Giinth. op. cit. p. 26o, pi. xxii, fig. II ; 

Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 178 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, 

p. 434 ; Theob. Cat. p. 178. 

Agrees very closely in structure and in colour with T. subminiatus, 
from which it is distinguished by having two labials only (normally 
fourth and fifth) entering the eye, and by the presence of a yellow 
or orange collar separating the head from the black nuchal spot. 
Sometimes a single anterior temporal, more frequently two. Ven- 
trals 158-170 ; subcaudals 79-90. 

Total length 2 feet 9 inches ; tail 8 inches. 

Hob. Himalayas (Nepal and Sikhim) and Assam Hills. Dr. 
Stoliczka observes that this species is not common in Sikhim and 
that it is mostly confined to the lower valleys, rarely going up to or 
above 5000 feet. 



348 COLUBKIDjE. 

433. Tropidonotus monticola. 

Tropidonotus monticola, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 530; 
Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 267 ; Theob. Cat. p. 178. 

Eye large, its diameter more than its distance from the nostril ; 
rostral just visible from above : suture between the internasals 
shorter than that between the prsefrontals ; frontal considerably 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the 
parietals ; loreal as long as deep, or deeper than long ; one prse- 
ocular; three postoculars ; temporals 2+2 ; upper labials 8, third, 
fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are a little shorter than the posterior. 
Scales in 19 rows, strongly keeled, the outer row smooth or feebly 
keeled. Ventrals 134-142 ; anal divided; subcaudals 80-92. Green 
above, with black cross bands divided on eacli side by a pale spot ; 
a white line across the head behind the eyes and a white dot on 
each side of the frontal ; prse- and postoculars and labials 3 to 6, 
white ; lower parts white. 

Total length 18 inches ; tail 5-5. 

Hab. South Canara, Wynaad, Anaimalai Hills. 




Fig. 101 . Tropidonotus stolatus. 

434. Tropidonotus stolatus. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. i, pi. x, and ii, pis. xv B & xix. 

Coluber stolatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. \, p. 379. 

Tropidonotus stolatus, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 535; Scliley. Phys. Serp. 

ii, p. 317; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 937 ; Giinth. Rept. 

B.I. p. 266; Theob. Cat. p. 177; Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, 

p. 816; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 379. 
Amphiesma stolatum, Dum. $ Bilr. Erp. Gfn. vii, p. 727. 



TBOPIDONOTUS. 349 

Eye moderate, as long as its distance from the nostril in the 
adult ; rostral just visible from above ; internasals much narrowed 
anteriorly, subtriangular with the anterior angle truncated, nearly 
as long as the praefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from 
the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; loreal as long as deep 
or deeper than long; one praeocular, three postoculars; temporals 
1 + 1 or 1+2 ; upper labials 8 normally, third, fourth, and fifth 
entering the eye ; 5 or 6 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 19 
rows, strongly keeled, outer row perfectly smooth. Ventrals 125- 
161 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 50-85. Greenish or brownish 
olive, with black spots or reticulated cross bars intersected by two 
yellow longitudinal bands which are best marked posteriorly ; prse- 
and postoculars yellowish ; lower surfaces white, usually with a 
black spot on each side of each ventral ; nape red during the 
breeding-season. 

Total length 2 feet 3 inches ; tail 7 inches. 

Hub. A common species all over India and Ceylon, extending to 
Sind ; specimens were collected by Mr. Davison in the Nilgiris at 
an altitude of 5900 feet. Occurs also in Burma and the Malay 
Peninsula, and in Southern China. 



435. Tropidonotus piscator. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pis. xx, xxviii, xxxiii, and ii, pis. iii, xiv, xv A. 

Hydras piscator, Schneid. Hist. Amph. i, p. 247. 

Coluber rectangulus, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxii, figs. 4-7. 

Tropidonotus piscator, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 535. 

Tropidonotus quincunciatus, Schley. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 307, pi. xii, 

tigs. 4 o ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 592; Giinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 260 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 27, pi. i ; StoKcska, J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 190, and xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 431, pi. xxvi, 

fig. 1 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 371 ; T/ieob. Cat. 

p. 175 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 821 ; Murray, Zool. 

Sind, p. 379. 
Tropidonotus umbratus, Schley. t. c. p. 309 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 

1847, p. 936. 

Tropidonotus tytleri, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii, 1863, p. 88. 
Tropidonotus striolatus, Theob. Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, 

p. 55. 

Eye rather small, shorter than its distance from the nostril in 
the adult ; rostral visible from above : interuasals much narrowed 
anteriorly, subtriangular with the anterior angle truncated, as long 
as the prsefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from the end 
of the snout, as long as the parietals or a little shorter ; loreal 
nearly as long as deep ; one praeocular ; three (rarely four) post- 
oculars ; temporals 2+2 or 2+3 ; upper labials 9 normally, fourth 
and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin- shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales 
in 19 rows, strongly keeled, outer rows smooth. Ventrals 125- 
158 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 64-90. Coloration very variable, 



350 COLUBEIDJE. 

consisting of dark spots arranged quincuncially and often separated 
by a whitish network, or of black longitudinal bands on a pale 
ground, or of dark cross bands, with or without whitish spots, &c. 
&c.; two oblique black streaks, one below and the other behind the 
eye, are nearly constant ; lower parts white, with or without black 
margins to the shields. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 1 foot. 

Hob. Pound in or near rivers and pools all over India and 
Ceylon, Burma and Southern China to the Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. 

436. Tropidonotus bellulus. 

Tropidouotus bellulus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 43i>, 
pi. xxvi, fig. 2 ; Theob. Cat. p. 17G. 

This species, which is unknown to me, is based on a single young 
specimen, allied to T. pismtor, but differing in the following 
characters : Internasals less pointed, slightly longer than the 
praefrontals ; fourth, fifth, and sixth labials entering the eye ; 
temporals 1 + 2. All the scales sharply keeled. Yentrals 140 ; 
subcaudals 63. Olive-brown above, with two longitudinal series of 
black dots along the back ; sides of neck with transverse yellowish 
bars ; pra3- and postoculars yellow ; labials black-edged ; ventrals 
and subcaudals greenish or dull white, with deep black edges. 

Total length 16-5 inches ; tail 5. 

Hob. Hills between Prome and Toungngoo, Pegu. 

437. Tropidonotus sancti-johannis. 

Diameter of the eye a little less than its distance from the 
nostril; rostral visible from above; internasals much narrowed 
anteriorly, snbtriangular with the anterior angle truncated, as long 
as the prsefrontals : frontal longer than its distance from the end of 
the snout, nearly as long as the parietals ; loreal slightly longer than 
deep; one prseocular ; three postoculars; temporals 2+2; upper 
labials 9, fourth entering the eye, fifth very small, triangular, 
wedged in between the fourth and sixth ; 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin- shields, which are much shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 19 rows, dorsals rather feebly keeled, the two 
or three outer rows smooth. Ventrals 158 ; anal divided ; subcau- 
dals 85. Uniform olive above, whitish inferiorly. 

Total length 16 inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. A single specimen was obtained in Kashmir by Sir O. B. 
St. John, and presented to the British Museum. 

438. Tropidonotus punctulatus. 

Tropidonotus punctulatus, Giinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 247 ; id. A. M. N. 

H. (4) i, 1868, p. 420 ; id. Zool. Rec. 1870, p. 74 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 173. 
Fowlea peg-uensis, Theob. Cat. Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 57. 



TROPIDONOTUS. 351 

Eye rather small, its diameter a little less than its distance from 
the end of the snout ; rostral visible from above, forming a narrow 
suture with the internasals, which are much narrowed anteriorly 
and nearly as long as the prasfrontals ; frontal longer than its 
distance from the end of the snout, nearly as long as the parietals ; 
loreal as long as deep ; one prseocular : two or three postoculars ; 
temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3; 9 (exceptionally 10) upper labials, fourth 
and fifth (or fifth and sixth) entering the eye; 5 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 17 rows, smooth or faintly keeled. Ventrals 
142-154 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 62-83. Brown or black above, 
with small pale markings or dots ; two outer rows of scales, the 
ventrals and subcaudals yellowish with dark margins ; upper lip 
uniform yellowish ; frequently a light, curved longitudinal streak 
on each side of the nape. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 6 inches. 

Hob. Pegu. 



439. Tropidonotus plumbicolor. 

Tropidouotus plumbicolor, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 54 ; G'unth. Rept. 

E. I. p. 272 ; id. Zool. Rec. 1865, p. 154 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 438 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 176 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 179 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 380. 
Xenodon viridis, Dum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 763. 
Trigonocephalus ellioti, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1854, p. 523. 
Amphiesnia bracliyurum, Jan, Elenco, p. 73; id. Arch. Zool. Anat. 

Phys. iii, 1865, p. 237, and Icon. Oplnd. 29, pi. iii, fig. 2. 
Halys elliotti, Theob. Cat. p. 225. 

Habit stout, viperine. Eye moderate ; rostral just visible from 
above ; suture between the internasals as long as that between 
the praefrontals or a little shorter ; frontal as long as its distance 
from the end of the snout or a little longer, as long as the parietals 
or a little shorter ; loreal as long as deep or deeper, sometimes 
entering the eye ; two praeoculars, three or four postoculars ; 
temporals 2 + 3 or 4; upper labials 7, third and fourth entering 
the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales strongly 
keeled, in 23 to 27 rows. Ventrals 144-160 ; anal usually divided; 
subcaudals 35-50. Dull green above, uniform or with traces of 
black markings ; young with a large chevron-shaped black mark on 
the nape and occiput, the point on the frontal shield bordered 
posteriorly with bright yellow ; a black band from the eye to the 
angle of the mouth, and more or less regular transverse black spots 
or bands on the body ; belly blackish, or yellowish with or without 
brown spots. 

Total length 2| feet ; tail 3-5 inches. 

Hob. India; not uncommon in the Madras and Bombay 
Presidencies and Ceylon. A large specimen was obtained, at an 
altitude of 4700 feet, in the Anaimalai Hills by Mr. W. Davison. 



352 

The following species, unknown to me, appears to be insufficiently 
characterized : 

TROPIDONOTUS ANGUSTICEPS, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1855, 
p. 295. 

Head narrow, not broader than the neck ; two to four prse- and 
four or five postoculars. Ventrals 167-172 ; subcaudals 57-67. 
Plumbeous above, uniformly spotted with black ; below whitish, 
more or less varigated with black on the hinder half ; a V-like 
mark on the nape, with the apex towards the occiput, becoming 
obsolete in adults. 

Total length 41 inches ; tail 8'5. 

Hub, Assam and Arrakan. 



Genus HELICOPS, 
Wagler, Syst. Amph. p. 170, 1830. 

Maxillary teeth about 20, posterior largest ; maudibular teeth 
subequal. Head slightly distinct from neck ; eye moderate or 
rather small, with round pupil ; nostrils directed upwards, in a 
semidivided nasal ; a single internasal. Body rather stout, cylin- 
drical ; scales keeled, in 19 to 23 rows, without apical pits; veutrals 
rounded ; subcaudals in two rows. 

With the exception of the following, the species of this genus 
inhabit Tropical America. Habits aquatic ; feeding on batrachians 
and fishes. 

440. Helicops schistosus. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. ii, pi. iv. 

Coluber schistosus, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 132. 

Tropidonotus schistosus, Sclikg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 319 ; Cantor, J. A, 

S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 938 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 596. 
Tropidonotus mcestus and T. turgens, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 54. 
Atretium schistosum, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 273 ; Theob. Cat. p. 179. 
Helicops schistosus, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 28, pi. ii, fig. 3. 
Atretium schistosum, var. yunnanensis, Anders. An. Zool. Res. 

Yunnan, p. 822. 

Eye moderate ; rostral just visible from above, forming a narrow 
suture with the internasal ; frontal much longer than its distance 
from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal deeper 
than long ; one prseocular ; two or three postoculars ; temporals 
2 + 2; upper labials 8 or 9, third and fourth or fourth and fifth 
entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which'are shorter than the posterior. Scales more or 
less distinctly keeled, in 19 rows. Ventrals 129-151 ; anal divided; 
subcaudals 55-85. Olive-brown above, uniform or with two 
series of small black spots along the back ; a more or less distinct 
dark lateral streak; upper lip, outer row of scales, and lower 
surfaces yellowish. 

Total length 2| feet ; tail 7 inches 



XENOCHROPHIS. 353 

Hob. Southern India and Ceylon, Bengal, Burma, Yunnan, 
Malay Peninsula. 

Cantor says this species is very fierce, and has the power of 
flattening and laterally expanding the skin of the anterior part of 
the body, like the Cobra, but in a much slighter degree. 

Genus XENOCHROPHIS, 
Gunther, Rept. Brit. Ind. p. 273, 1864. 

Maxillary teeth about 20, subequal ; anterior mandibular teeth 
longest. Head slightly distinct from neck ; eye moderate, with 
round pupil ; head-shields normal, but nostril in the upper part of 




Fig. 102. Head of Xenochrophis cerasogaster. 

a single nasal. Body moderately elongate, cylindrical ; scales 
keeled, in 19 rows, without apical pits ; ventrals rounded ; sub- 
caudals in two rows. 
A single species. 

441. Xenochrophis cerasogaster. 

Psammophis cerasogaster, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 52. 
Tropidonotus cerasogaster, Cantor, J.A. 8. B. xvi, 1847, p. 939. 
Xenochrophis cerasogaster, Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 274 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 180. 

Head narrow, elongate, with angular canthus rostralis and 
slightly concave lores; eye moderate or rather small. Rostral 
once and one third to twice as broad as long ; suture between the 
internasals nearly as long as that between the prafrontals ; frontal 
much longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as long 
as the parietals ; lorealas long as deep or a little longer than deep; 
one praeocular; two or three postoculars and one or two sub- 
oculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2+3 ; upper labials 9, fourth (rarely 
fifth) entering the eye ; 5 or 6 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior or a little 
shorter. Scales strongly keeled, in 19 rows. Ventrals 140-151 ; 

2A 



354 

anal divided ; subcaudals 60-79. Brown above, with or without 
darker spots and with a more or less distinct paler dorso-lateral 
band ; lower parts cherry-red to purplish black, with a yellow baud 
011 each side extending from the lips to the end of the tail. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 5'5 inches. 

Hob. From Bengal, Assam, and the Khasi Hills to the Malay 
Peninsula. 

Like Psammodynastes pulveruletitus, this Snake has a repulsive 
expression ; it is said to be of very fierce habits. 



Subfamily II. ACROCHORDIN^. 

Postfrontal bone produced over the supraorbital region. Scales 
not imbricate. 

This group contains five genera : three with well-developed ven- 
tral shields, viz. Stoliczkaia, Jerd. (Khasi Hills), Xenodermus, Eeinh. 
(Java and Sumatra), and Noihopsis, Cope (Isthmus of Darien); 
two without ventrals, viz. Acrochordus, Hornst. (Malay Peninsula 
and Archipelago), and Chersydrus, Cuv. 

The two Indian genera are distinguished as follows : 

Head and belly shielded STOLICZKAIA, p. 3->4. 

Head and belly covered with small scales. . . . CHERSYDHUS, p. 355. 



Genus STOLICZKAIA, 
Jeidon, P. A. S. B. 1870, p. 81. 





Fig. 103. Head of Stoliczkaia khasiensis. 

Teeth small, subequal, about 14 in each maxillary. Head 
distinct from neck, covered with large shields ; nostrils directed 
forwards ; eye small, with round pupil. Body slender^ compressed ; 
scales elliptical, strongly keeled, increasing in size towards the 



CflEBSYDEUS. 355 

ventrals, which are well developed ; tail long, with single sub- 
caudal s. 

This genus is allied to Xenodermus, Eeinh., but differs in the 
equal dorsal scales and the presence of large symmetrical shields 
ou the upper surface of the head. A single species. 

442. Stoliczkaia khasiensis. 

Stoliczkia khasiensis, Jerdon. P. A. 8. S. 1870. p. 81 ; Theob. Cut. 
p. 205. 

Eostral extremely small ; a pair of small iuternasals ; a pair of 
very large praefrontals ; frontal broader than long and shorter than 
the prajfrontals ; supraocular very narrow ; parietals nearly twice 
as long as the frontal; nostril in a single nasal; a loreal; a 
large prseocular and two postoculars ; upper labials 8, fifth and 
sixth entering the eye, eighth much elongate; temporals small, 
scale-like ; a single pair of small chin-shields, in contact with 3 
lower labials. Scales in 30 rows, dorsals separated by naked skin, 
laterals larger and juxtaposed. Ventrals 210; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 115. Purplish brown above; three or four outer rows of 
scales and ventrals white with brown edges. 

Total length 26-5 inches ; tail 7'5. 

Hub. Khasi Hills. A single specimen is known, and no obser- 
vations were made on its habits. 



Genus CHERSYDRUS, 

Cuvier, Regne Animal, ii, p. 75, 1817. 

Teeth moderately large, subequal, about 12 in each maxillary. 
Head not distinct from neck, small, covered with small juxtaposed 
scales ; nostrils close together on the top of the snout ; eye very 
small, with vertically subelliptic pupil. Body compressed, stout ; 
scales very small, rhomboidal, with a short tubercle-like keel, 
spinose on the belly ; no ventrals ; a fold of the skin running 
along the median line of the abdomen ; tail short, compressed, 
prehensile, scaled like the body. 

A single species. 

Chersydrus is the Aglyphous representative of the Hydrophids, 
with which it agrees in its mode of life and general appearance. 

443. Chersydrus granulatus. 

Hydrus granulatus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. i, p. 243. 

Acrochordus fasciatus, Shaiv, Zool. iii, p. 576, pi. cxxxj Schleg. 

rhys. Serp. ii, p. 429, pi. xiv, figs. 14-16. 
Chersydrus fasciatus, Cuv. Regne An. 2nd ed. ii, p. 98; Dum. # 

Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 41. 

Acrochordus gramilatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 906. 
Chersvdrus granulatus, Guni/i. Reft. . I. p. 336; Theob. Cat. 

p. 186. 

2A2 



356 COLTJBRIDJ3. 

About 100 scales round the middle of the body, dorsals largest. 
Dark olive or blackish, with pale cross bands or annuli, which may 
become indistinct in the adult. 

Total length 3 feet 4 inches ; tail 4 inches. 




Fig. 104. Chersydrus granulatus. 

Hob. Mouths of rivers and coasts of Southern India, Burma, 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, and New Guinea. This snake 
never leaves the water and occurs miles out at sea ; it is viviparous 
and feeds on fish. 



Series B. OPIS THOGL YPH A. 

Posterior maxillary teeth grooved. 

Subfamily III. DIPSAD1N.E. 

Nostrils lateral. Terrestrial or arboreal. 
Represented in every part of the world. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Genera. 

A. Posterior border of ventral shields with- 
out lateral notch. 

a. Only posterior grooved fangs of maxilla 
enlarged ; scales of vertebral row en- 
larged ; pupil vertically elliptical. 
a'. Head very distinct from neck DIPSAS, p. 357. 



DIPSAS. 357 

b'. Head scarcely distiuct from neck; 

cesophageal teeth ELACHISTODON, p. 362. 

b. Some of the solid maxillary teeth en- 
larged, fang-like. 

a'. Pupil vertically elliptic PSAMMODYNASTES, p. 363. 

b'. Pupil round ; loreal shield much elon- 
gate PSAMMOPHIS, p. 365. 

c'. Pupil horizontal DBYOPHIS, p. 367. 

B. Posterior border of ventral shields with a 
lateral notch corresponding to a suture- 
like lateral keel CHRYSOPELEA, p. 371. 

Genus DIPSAS, 
Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 548. 

Maxillary teeth 10 to 12, subequal in size, followed by two or 
three grooved fangs ; anterior mandibular teeth longest. Head 
very distinct from neck ; eye moderate or large, with vertically 





Fig. 105. Head of Dipsas trigonata. 

elliptic pupil ; head-shields normal ; posterior nasal more or less 
deeply concave. Body elongate, more or less compressed ; scales 
smooth, in 17 to 27 rows, vertebral row enlarged ; tail moderate 
or long ; subcaudals in two rows. 

A genus of about 20 species, found in Southern Asia, Papuasia, 
North Australia, and Africa. Terrestrial or arboreal, feeding on 
mammals, birds, and lizards. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth 
but little larger than posterior ; scales in 
17 to 21 rows. 
a. Vertebral scales feebly enlarged. 

a'. 3 labials entering eye ; one prseocular . D. trigonata, p. 358. 
b'. 2 labials entering eye ; 3 praeoculars . . D. barmsii, p. 359. 



358 COLUBEIDJE. 

b. Vertebral scales much enlarged, nearly as 

broad as long in middle of body. 
a'. Prseocular reaching upper surface of 

head D. ceylonensis, p. 359. 

b'. Prseocular not reaching upper surface 
of head. 

a". Scales in 21 rows D. gokovl, p. 300. 

b". Scales in 17 or 19 rows D. multimaculata, p. 360. 

B. Anterior palatine teeth but little longer 

than posterior ; anterior mandibular teeth 
considerably larger than posterior ; scales 
in 17 to 21 rows, vertebrals much en- 
larged but longer than broad in middle of 
body. 

a. Prseocular not reaching upper surface of 

head D. hexagonotus, p. 301. 

b. Preeocular reaching upper surface of head ; 

uniform green above D. cyanca, p. 301. 

C. Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth con- 

siderably larger than the others ; scales 

in 25 or 27 rows D.forstenii, p. 362. 



444. Dipsas trigonata. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xv. 

Coluber trigonatus, Schneid. in Bechst. Uebers. Lac&p. iv, p. 156. 

Dipsas trigonata, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 549 ; Dum. # Bibr. rp. Gtn. 
vii, p. 1130 ; Giinth. Jlept. B. I. p. 312 : Jan, Icon. Ophid, 38, pi. iii, 
fig. 2; Theob. Cat. p. 196 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, pt. 2, 1879, 
p. 131 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 383. 

Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth scarcely larger than the 
posterior. Eye as long as its distance from the nostril ; rostral 
broader than deep ; internasals shorter than the praefrontals ; 
frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, shorter 
than the parietals ; lorealas long as deep or deeper than long; one 
prseocular, not extending to the upper surface of the head ; two 
postoculars; temporals 2 + 3 ; upper labials 8, third, fourth, and 
fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are about as long as the posterior. 
Body moderately compressed ; scales in 21 (rarely 19) rows, dis- 
posed obliquely, vertebrals very feebly enlarged. Ventrals 229-269 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 79-92. Yellowish olive or pale grey above, 
with a white black-edged zigzag band along the back ; head with 
two brown bands edged with black, diverging posteriorly ; belly 
white, with or without a series of small brown spots along each 
side. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 7 inches. 

Hob. India generally, Western Himalayas, and Baluchistan. 
This species is more terrestrial than its congeners and is found in 
arid tracts in Baluchistan and Sind ; it bears a considerable resem- 
blance in general shape and colour to Echis carinata, which has 
nearly the same distribution in India. 



DIPSAS. 359 

445. Dipsas barnesii. 

Dipsas barnesii, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 506, pi. xl, fig. 2 ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 195. 

Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth scarcely larger than the 
posterior. Eye large, as long as the snout. Rostral as deep as 
broad ; internasals much shorter than the prsefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal a little longer than deep ; three prse- 
and two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 3 or 2 + 3; upper labials 8, 
fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are nearly as long as the posterior. 
Body strongly compressed ; scales in 19 rows, scarcely oblique, 
vertebrals very feebly enlarged. Ventrals 220 ; anal entire ; sub- 
caudals 99. Grey-brown above, with lighter black-edged trans- 
verse spots ; a series of black spots along each side, near the ven- 
trals ; a blackish band behind the eye ; labial sutures blackish ; 
lower parts whitish, powdered with brown. 

Total length 22 inches ; tail 5. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

446. Dipsas ceylonensis. 

Dipsadomorphus ceylonensis, Gunth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 176. 

Dipsas multifasciata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1860, p. 114; StoKczka, 

J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 199, pi. xi, fig. 6, and xl, 1871, 

pt. 2, p. 440. 
Dipsas ceylonensis, Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 314, pi. xxiii, fig. 15 ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 196. 

Dipsas hexagonata, part., Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 185. 
Dipsas nuchalis, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 233. 

Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth scarcely larger than the 
posterior. Eye shorter than the snout. Eostral a little broader 
than deep ; internasals shorter than the praefrontals ; frontal 
longer than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal square or deeper than long ; one or two 
praeoculars, reaching the upper surface of the head ; two post- 
oculars ; temporals small, scale-like, 2 + 3 or 3 + 3 ; upper labials 
8, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in con- 
tact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the 
posterior. Body strongly compressed ; scales in 19 or 21 rows, 
not very oblique ; scales of the vertebral row much enlarged, in 
the middle of the body nearly as broad as long. Ventrals 214-249 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 90-117. Brown or greyish above, with 1 " 
a series of blackish transverse spots or bands ; nape with a black- 
ish blotch, or three blackish longitudinal streaks, or a transverse 
bar ; a more or less distinct brown streak from the eye to the angle 
of the mouth ; lower parts yellowish, dotted with brown, usually 
with a lateral series of brown spots. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 10 inches. 

Hab. Western Himalayas, hills of the west coast of India ; 
Ceylon. 



360 COLUBRID^E. 

447. Dipsas gokool. 

Dipsas gokool, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxiii, fig. 1 ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 818 ; Theob. Cat. p. 197. 
Dipsas cynodon, part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 924. 

Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth scarcely larger than the 
posterior. Eye moderate, as long as its distance from the nostril. 
Rostral a little broader than deep ; internasals much shorter 
than the praefrontals ; frontal longer than its distance from 
the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal deeper 
than long ; one or two prseoculars, not extending to the upper 
surface of the head; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 3; upper 
labials 8, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye; 4 or 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
a little longer than the posterior. Body strongly compressed ; 
scales in 21 rows, disposed obliquely ; scales of the vertebral row 
strongly enlarged, in the middle of the body nearly as broad as 
long. Ventrals 224-225 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 87-94. Yel- 
lowish brown above ; head with an arrow-shaped brown, black- 
edged mark, longitudinally divided into two ; a black streak on 
each side of the head, passing through the eye ; a yellowish verte- 
bral streak ; a series of erect Y-shaped marks on each side of the 
body ; lower parts yellowish, with a series of brown spots along 
each side. 

Total length 2 feet 8 inches ; tail 7 inches. 

Hob. A rare snake, hitherto recorded from Bengal, Assam, and 
Pinang. 



Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xxiii. 

Dipsas multimaculata, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 2Go, pi. xi, figs. 4 & 

5 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 923 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. 

Gen. vii, p. 1139 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 311 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 

38, pi. iii, fig. 3 ; Theob. Cat. p. 194. 

Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth scarcely larger than 
the posterior. Eye a little shorter than the snout. Rostral a 
little broader than deep ; internasals much shorter than the prso- 
frontals ; frontal as long as its distance from the end of the snout 
or a little longer, shorter than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep 
or deeper than long ; one praeocular, not extending to the upper 
surface of the head; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2+3 ; 
upper labials 8, third, fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long 
as the posterior or a little shorter. Body strongly compressed ; 
scales in 17 or 19 rows, disposed obliquely ; scales of the vertebral 
row strongly enlarged, in the middle of the body nearly as broad 
as long. Ventrals 202-235; anal entire: subcaudals 80-106. 
Grey-brown above, with two alternating series of roundish dark 



DIPSAS. 361 

brown spots, and two other series of smaller spots lower down on 
the sides ; two blackish bands on the head, diverging posteriorly ; 
a blackish streak from the eye to the angle of the mouth ; lower 
parts whitish, marbled or spotted with brown, and with a series of 
brown spots along each side. 

Total length 2| feet ; tail 6 inches. 

Hob. Burma, Southern China, Siam, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago ; common in Pegu. 

449. Dipsas hexagonotus. 

Dipsas hexagonotus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, 1856, p. 360 ; Stoliczka, 
J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 198, pi. xi, fig. 4, and xl, 1871, 
pt. 2, p. 439 ; Theob. Cat. p. 195. 

Dipsas ochraceus, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (4) i, 1868, p. 425; Theob. J. 
Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 53 ; id. Cat. p. 196. 

Dipsas hexagonata, part., Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 185. 

Anterior palatine teeth scarcely larger than the posterior ; an- 
terior maudibular teeth considerably larger than the posterior. 
Eye shorter than the snout. Eostral broader than deep ; inter- 
nasals a little shorter than the prafrontals ; frontal as long as its 
distance from the end of the snout, considerably shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal as long as deep or deeper than long ; one prse- 
ocular, not reaching the upper surface of the head ; two post- 
oculars ; temporals 2+3; upper labials 8 (rarely 9), third, fourth, 
and fifth (or fourth, fifth, and sixth) entering the eye ; 4 or 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
as long as the posterior or a little shorter. Body strongly 
compressed ; scales in 19 or 21 rows, disposed obliquely ; scales of 
the vertebral row strongly enlarged, but longer than broad except 
on the posterior part of the body. Ventrals 218-250 ; anal 
entire ; subcaudals 94-140. Dusky grey, reddish, or ochraceous 
above, uniform or with ill-defined blackish transverse lines ; a 
more or less distinct brown streak from eye to gape ; lower parts 
yellow, uniform or clouded with pale brownish in the young. 

Total length 3| feet ; tail 8 inches. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas (to 4000 feet), Bengal, Burma, 
Andamans. 

450. Dipsas cyanea. 

Triglyphodon cyaneum, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1079. 
Dipsas nigromarginata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1855, p. 294. 
Dipsas bubalina*, Giinth. Eept. B. I. p. 311, pi. xxiv, fig. E; 
Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 441 ; Theob. Cat. p. 197. 

Anterior palatine teeth scarcely larger than the posterior ; 
anterior mandibular teeth considerably larger than the posterior. 
Eye shorter than the snout ; rostral nearly as deep as broad ; 
internasals a little shorter than the prsefrontals ; frontal as long as 

* This specific name, derived from Klein, Tent. Herp. p. 21, 1755, is inad- 
missible, and its application to the present snake is doubtful. 



362 COLUBEID^. 

its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; 
one praeocular, extending to the upper surface of the head ; two 
postoculars ; temporals 2+3 or 3+3; upper labials 8, third, 
fourth, and fifth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are about as long as the posterior. 
Body strongly compressed ; scales in 21 rows, disposed obliquely ; 
scales of the vertebral row considerably enlarged but longer than 
broad, except on the posterior part of the body. Ventrals 249-252 ; 
anal entire; subcaudals 124-133. Uniform green above, the skin 
between the scales black ; uniform greenish yellow below. 

Total length 4| feet ; tail 13 inches. 

Hab. Assam, Cachar, and Sikhim. 



451. Dipsas forstenii. 

i, p. 

Dipsas" forsteni, Glinth. Rept. B. I. ~p. 309 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 187 ; Stolteka, J. A. S. B. xl, pt. 2, 1871, p. 439 ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 198. 

Anterior palatine and mandibular teeth considerably larger than 
the others. Eye about as long as its distance from the nostril ; 
rostral broader than deep ; internasals much shorter than the prse- 
frontals ; frontal nearly as long as its distance from the end of 
the snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal square or deeper than 
long ; one prseocular, extending to the upper surface of the head ; 
two or three postoculars ; temporals very small and numerous ; 
8 to 11 upper labials, third, fourth, and fifth, or fourth, fifth, and 
sixth, entering the eye ; 3 or 4 lower labials in contact with the 
anterior chin-shields, which are about as long as the posterior. 
Body compressed ; scales in 25 or 27 rows, disposed obliquely, 
vertebral row feebly enlarged. Ventrals 259-270 ; anal entire ; 
subcaudals 106-131. Brown above, with more or less regular 
angular black cross bars, with or without white spots between 
them ; a black band from the frontal shield to the nape and 
another on each side behind the eye; lower parts white, uniform 
or spotted with brown. 

Total length 4 feet 10 inches ; tail 1 foot. 

Hab. Bengal, base of Himalayas in Sikhim, Bnndelkhand, Bom- 
bay Ghats, Anaimalai Hills, Ceylon. 

Genus ELACHISTODON, 
Eeinhardt, Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Fork 1863, p. 206. 

Teeth few and extremely minute, with a pair of posterior 
maxillary grooved fangs. A series of oesophageal teeth. Head 
scarcely distinct from neck ; eye rather small, with A'ertically 
elliptic pupil ; head-shields normal ; posterior nasal deeply con- 
cave. Body elongate, somewhat compressed. Scales smooth, in 
15 rows, vertebral row enlarged. Subcaudals in two rows. 



PSAMMODYNASTES. 363 

As in the African genus Dasypeltis, each of the anterior vertebrae 
nas the hypapophysis or inferior process much elongate, tooth-like, 
capped with enamel and penetrating the walls of the oesophagus. 
It has been observed that the African snakes feed on eggs, which 
are broken in passing along this series of processes, and having 
arrived so far downwards in the gullet that the mouth can be 
closed, none of the contents are lost. The same is doubtless the 
case with Elachistodon. 



p. 206, pi. , figs. 1-5 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 444 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 
5 . 207 



452. Elachistodon westermanni. 

Elachistodon westermanni, Reinh. Overs. Dansk. Vid.Selsk.Forh. 1863, 
p. 206, pi. , figs. 1-5 ; Giinth. Rept. B. 
xliv, 1875, p. 207 ; Theob. Cat, p. 162. 

Rostral twice as broad as deep, just reaching the upper surface 
of the head ; internasals and praefrontals subequal in size ; frontal 
rather longer than broad, as long as its distance from the end of 
the snout, shorter than the parietals ; loreal small, longer than 
deep, entering the eye ; a small prseocular above the loreal ; two 
postoculars ; two very long temporals ; 6 or 7 upper labials, 
third and fourth entering the eye ; 3 pairs of large chin-shields. 
Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 210-217 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 
59-65. Brown above, with a yellowish vertebral band ; a yellowish 
band commences on the snout and runs along each side of the 
head to the temporals and the angle of the mouth ; an angular 
yellowish cross band on the nape ; lower parts yellowish. 

Total length 31 inches ; tail 4'5. 

Hab. A very rare snake, only two specimens being known, 
which I have not seen. The type was obtained at Eungpore, and 
the specimen described by Blanford at Purneah, both in Bengal. 

Genus PSAMMODYNASTES, 
Gunther, Cat. Col. Sn. p. 140, 1858. 

Maxillary teeth 9 or 10, second or third much elongate and fang- 
like, followed by a short interspace, last grooved ; anterior mandi- 
bular teeth large, posterior small. Head moderate, distinct from 
neck, with angular canthus rostralis ; eye rather large, with verti- 
cally elliptical pupil ; nostril in a single nasal. Body moderate ; 
scales smooth, without apical pits, in 17 or 19 rows; ventrals 
rounded ; tail rather short; subcaudals in two rows. 

Only two species are known ; the second, P. pictus, Gtbr. 
(canjunctus, Ptrs.), inhabits Borneo and Sumatra. 

453. Psammodynastes ptdvernlentus. 

Psammophis pulverulenta, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 547. 
Dipsas ferrugmea, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 53. 



364 COLUBRIDvE. 

Psammodynastes pulverulentus, Oiinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 140 ; id. 

Kept. B. I. p. 292 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 183 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 188. 
Lycodon bairdi, Steinduchn. Novara, Rept. p. 90. 

Snout short, somewhat turned up in the adult, with sharp can- 
thus rostralis and projecting supraciliary edge ; rostral broader 
than long, scarcely visible from above ; nostril in the middle of an 
undivided nasal ; internasals much shorter than the praefrontals ; 
frontal much longer than its distance from the end of the snout, 




Fig. 106. Head of Psammodynastes pulverulent 



a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal about as long as deep, 
often transversely divided into two ; one or two prae- and two or 
three postoculars ; temporals 2+3 ; upper labials 8, third, fourth, 
and sometimes fifth entering the eye ; 3 lower labials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are followed by two smaller pairs. 
Scales in 17 (rarely 19) rows. Ventrals 146-175 ; anal entire ; 
subcaudals 45-65. Dark brown or ochraceous above, with or 
without small darker and lighter spots ; head with symmetrical 
longitudinal markings ; a more or less distinct dark streak on each 
side of the head, passing through the eye ; usually a dark brown 
band along each side ; lower parts powdered with brown, and 
with dark brown spots or longitudinal lines. 

Total length 20 inches ; tail 3'5. 

Hob. Eastern Himalayas, Khasi and Assam Hills, Burma and 
Cochin China to the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

As observed by Giinther, this snake has a repulsive aspect : its 
dark, undefined colours, short and thick head, and swollen lips, 
caused by the large hidden fangs, give it the appearance of a 
Viperine snake, for which it is often mistaken. 



PSAMMOPHIS. 



365 



PSAMMOPHIS, 



Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 521. 




Fig. 107. Head and dentition of 
Psamnwphis condaiiarus. 



Maxillary teeth 10 to 13, one 
or two in the middle much en- 
larged, fang-like, and preceded 
and followed by an interspace, 
the two posterior grooved ; 
anterior mandibular teeth long, 
posterior small. Head elon- 
gate, distinct from neck, with 
angular canthus rostralis ; eye 
rather large, with round pupil. 
Body elongate, cylindrical ; 
scales smooth, in 15 or 17 
rows, \vith apical pits ; veutrals 
rounded or obtusely augulate 
laterally ; tail long ; subcaudals 
in two rows. 

Distribution. 9 or 10 species 
are known, from Africa and 
Southern Asia. Chiefly sand- 
snakes, but also found on low 
bushes. Feed principally on 
Lizards. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

A. Prseocular forming a suture with the frontal. P. leithii, p. 365. 

B. Prseocular not reaching the frontal. 

a. Praefrontals much shorter than the frontal . P. condanarus, p. 366. 

b. Pnefrontals nearly as long as the frontal . . P. lonyifrons, p. 366. 



454. Psammophis leithii. 

Psammophis leithii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 505, pi. xxxix ; Stoliczka, 
P.A.S. B. 1872, p. 83 ; Blanf. Zool E. Pers. p. 421 ; Theob. Cat. 
p. 188 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 382. 

Psammophis sindanus, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 83. 

Psammophis condanarus (non Merr.), Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, 
pt. 2, p. 126. 

Bostral broader than deep, visible from above ; nostril between 
two or three shields, the posterior nasal being frequently divided 
into two ; internasals about half the length of the praefrontals ; 
frontal very narrow, longer than its distance from the end of the 
snout, nearly as long as the parietals ; loreal about twice as long as 
deep ; prseocular single, in contact with the frontal ; two post- 
oculars ; temporals 1-f 2 or 2 + 2 ; upper labials 8 or 9, fourth and 



366 COLUBKIDjE. 

fifth or fifth and sixth entering the eye ; 5 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 177-188; anal usually 
entire; subcaudals 82-138. Pale greyish or yellowish above, with 
black dots or four longitudinal brown bauds which are usually 
edged with black, the outer passing through the eyes ; lower parts 
white, uniform or spotted or marked with grey or olive in the 
middle, with or without a dark lateral line or series of dots. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches ; tail 1 foot. 

Hub. Sind, Eajputaua, Cutch, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Persia, 
and east coast of Arabia. 



455. PsammopMs condanarus. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. i, pi. xxvii. 

Coluber condanarus, Merr. Tent. p. 107. 

Leptophis ? bellii, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 529. 

Psammophis condanarus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1854, p. 293 ; 

Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 291 ; Moliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, 

p. 196, and xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 438; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 182; 

Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 83 ; Theob. Cat. p. 187 ; Murray, 

Zool. Sind, p. 382. 

Psammophis indicus, Beddome, Madras Jown. Med. Sc. 1863. 
Phayrea isabellina, Theob. Cat. Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 51. 
Psammophis sibilans, var. quadrilineata, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 34, pi. iii, 

fig. 1. 

Rostral as deep as broad, visible from above ; nasal divided or 
semidivided ; internasals rather more than half the length of the 
praefrontals ; frontal very narrow, as long as or longer than its 
distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; loreal 
about twice as long as deep ; prsocular single, not extending to 
the frontal; two postoculars ; temporals 1+2 or 1 + 3, rarely 
2+3; upper labials 8, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long 
as the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Ventrals 156-182 ; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 75-90. Pale olive-brown, with two pairs of 
more or less distinct dark bands each two scales wide ; these bands, 
the lower of which passes through the eye, often black-edged ; 
upper lip and lower parts uniform yellowish, with a dark line along 
each side of the ventrals and subcaudals. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 9 inches. 

Hub. This species has hitherto only been recorded from the 
Punjab, Cutch, the North-West Provinces, Simla, Bengal, the 
Kurnool district, and Pegu. 



456. Psammophis longifrons. 

Rostral as deep as broad, visible from above ; nostril between 
the anterior and two superposed posterior nasals ; internasals 



DRYOPHIS. 367 

hardly half as long as the prsefrcmtals, which are only a little 
shorter than the frontal ; the latter shield very narrow, shorter than 
its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than the 
parietals ; loreal slightly more than twice as long as deep ; prae- 
ocnlar single, not extending to the frontal ; two postoculars ; tem- 

})orals 2+3 ; upper labials 8, fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 5 
ower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are as 
long as the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Olive above ; head with 
symmetrical undulating black lines ; scales on the vertebral line 
with broad black margins ; uniform white beneath. 

Hab. Only the head and neck of a specimen which must have been 
about four feet long have been preserved by Col. Beddome, who 
obtained this snake in the Cuddapah Hills. 



Genus DRYOPHIS, 
Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 520. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 15, one or two in the middle much enlarged, 
fang-like, and followed by an interspace, the two posterior grooved ; 
of the mandibular teeth the third or fourth is largest, fang-like, 
the posterior small. Head elongate, distinct from neck, with an- 
gular canthus rostralis and concave lores ; eye rather large, with 
horizontal pupil ; nostril in the posterior part of a single nasal ; 
frontal narrow, more or less bell-shaped. Body much elongate 
and compressed ; scales smooth, without apical pits, in 15 rows, 
disposed obliquely, vertebral row slightly enlarged ; ventrals 
rounded ; tail long ; subcaudals in two rows. 

Of this genus of Tree-snakes, only seven or eight species are 
known, all from the East Indies. 



Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species. 

A. Snout without dermal appendage. 

a. Ventral shields less than 200. 

a'. One postocular ; no loreal ; subcaudals 

70-82 D. perroteti, p. 368. 

b'. 2 postoculars ; 1 or 2 loreals ; subcau- 
dals 90-105 D. dispar, p. 368. 

c'. 2 poatoculars ; 3 or 4 loreals ; subcau- 
dals 120-151 D. fronticinctus, p. 368. 

b. Ventrals more than 200 ; subcaudals more 

than 150 D. jrrasinus, p. 369. 

B. Snout ending in a dermal appendage ; no 

loreal. 

a. Rostral appendage formed entirely by the 

rostral _ D. mycterixans, p. 370. 

b. Rostral appendage covered with small 

scales above D. puheruh-ntus, p. 371. 



3(58 COLUBRID^. 

457. Dryophis perroteti. 

Psammophis perroteti, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 899. 
Leptophis ? canarensis, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 530. 
Dryiophis tropidococcyx, Gilnth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 157. 
Tropidococcyx perroteti, Gilnth. A. M. N. H. (3) vi, 1860, p. 428, 

pi. vii, figs. 5-7; id. Rept. B. I. p. 301. 
Dryophis perroteti, Jan, Elenco, p. 89 ; Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1868 

p. 452 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 33, pi. v, fig. 2. 
Tragops perroteti, Theob. Cat. p. 191. 

Snout obtusely pointed and projecting, without dermal appendage, 
not quite twice as long as the eye. No loreal, internasals and 
praefrontals in contact with the labials ; frontal longer than its 
distance from the end of the snout, as long as the parietals ; one 
praaocular, in contact with the frontal ; one postocular ; temporals 
1 +2 or 2+2 ; 8 (rarely 9) upper labials, fourth and fifth entering 
the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
which are as long as the posterior. Scales in 15 rows, those on 
sacral region keeled. Ventrals 138-140 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
70-82. Bright green above ; yellowish or pale green beneath, with 
a green lateral line. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 5-5 inches. 

Hob. North Canara and Nilgiris. 

458. Dryophis dispar. 

Tragops dispar, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 303, pi. xxiii, fig. A ; Theob. 
Cat. p. 192. 

Snout pointed and projecting, without dermal appendage, not 
quite twice as long as the eye. Internasals and praefroutals usually 
in contact with the labials ; one or tw o small loreals ; frontal as 
long as its distance from the end of the snout or longer, as long as 
the parietals ; one prseocular, in contact with the frontal, with one 
or two suboculars below ; two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2-+3 ; 
upper labials 8, fifth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior or 
a little shorter. Scales in 15 rows, those of the sacral region more 
or less distinctly keeled. Ventrals 142-151 ; anal divided ; sub- 
caudals 90105. Bright green or bronzy olive above, the skin 
between the scales black ; pale green or pale olive beneath, with 
a yellow line on each side. 
'Total length 26 inches ; tail 7'5. 

Hah. Anaimalai Hills, S. India. 

459. Dryophis fronticinctus. 

Dryophis fronticincta, Gilnth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 158. 

Tragops fronticinctus, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 304, pi. xxiii, fig. E ; 

Theob. Journ. Linn. Soc. x, 18C8, p. 52 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

1870, pt. 2, p. 197 ; Theob. Cat. p. 192. 
Tragops javanicus (non Stemd.), Gilnth. A. M. N. H. (4) i, 1868, 

p. 424 ; Theob. 1. c. p. 193. 



DBYOPHIS. 389 

Snout pointed and projecting, without dermal appendage, measur- 
ing about twice the diameter of the eye. Nasals usually forming 
a suture behind the rostral ; frontal as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, as long as the parietals or a little longer ; 
usually two superposed pairs of loreals ; two prseoculars, upper 
usually in contact with the frontal ; two postoculars ; temporals 

2 + 2 or 2 + 3 ; upper labials 7 or 8, fifth or sixth entering the eye ; 

3 or 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which 
are much shorter than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows, those on 
sacral region keeled. Ventrals 190-195 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 
120151. Bright green, olive, or bronze-brown above ; pale green 
or olive beneath, with a white or black and white lateral streak. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 1 foot. 

Hob. Pegu and Arrakan. Stoliczka says this is a true brackish- 
water species ; he found it abundant on the bushes between tide- 
marks near the mouth of the Moulmein river. It is as often seen 
diving and swimming in the water as climbing up a high bush or 
tree and hiding itself in the green foliage. It always takes refuge 
in the water when attacked. According to Theobald's observation, 
it is ovoviviparous. 

460. Dryophis prasinus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xxiy. 

Dryophis prasinus, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 545 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 33, 

pi. v, fig. 1. 

Dryinus prasinus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 928. 
Tragops prasinus, Dum. Sf Bibr. Erp. G&n. vii, p. 824 ; Gilnth. Kept. 

B. I. p. 303; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 185 ; Theob. Cat. p. 191. 

Snout acuminate, projecting, without dermal appendage, rather 
more than twice as long as the e}~e. Internasals usually in contact 
with the labials ; one to four small loreals between the prrefrontal 
and the labials ; frontal as long as its distance from the end of the 
snout or a little longer, a little longer than the parietals ; one 
praeocular, in contact with the frontal ; two postoculars ; temporals 
2+2 or 3+3, rarely 1+2; upper labials 9, fourth, fifth, and 
sixth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior 
chin-shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 15 
rows, usually faintly keeled on sacral region. Ventrals 203-234 ; 
anal divided ; subcaudals 167-203. Bright green, pale olive, or 
grey-brown, with a yellow line along each side of the lower parts ; 
interstitial skin of the neck black and white. 

Total length 5 feet ; tail 2 feet. 

Hub. Eastern Himalayas (1500-3000 feet), Khasi and other 
Assam hills, Burma, Cochinchiua, Malay Peninsula and Archi- 
pelago. Cantor says this species is exceedingly common in the 
Malayan forests, both in the hills and valleys, preying upon small 
birds, arboreal lizards, frogs, and in early age upon insects. The 
very young ones are as gentle as those of a more advanced age are 
ferocious. Like the preceding species, it is ovoviviparous. 

2s 



370 



COLUBBIDjE. 



461. Dryophis mycterizans. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pis. xii & xiii. 

Coluber mycterizans, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 9, pi. Ixxxi, fig. 1. 

Dryinus nasutus, Merr. Tent. p. 136 ; Dum. # Bibr. Erp. G6n. vii, 



Dryophis nasuta, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 246, pi. x, figs. 1-5 ; Jem, 

Icon. Ophid. 32, pi. v, fig. 2. 
Passerita mycterizans, Gray, Ann. Phil, x, 1825, p. 208; Giinth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 305 ; Theob. Cat. p. 193. 
Dryinus fuscus, Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. G6n. vii, p. 812. 

Snout pointed, terminating in a dermal appendage, which is 
shorter than the eye and formed entirely by the rostral ; the length 
of the snout, without the appendage, about twice the diameter of 
the eye or rather more. No loreal ; internasals and prrefrontals 
in contact with the labials ; frontal as long as its distance from the 
rostral or a little longer, as long as the parietals or a little longer ; 




Fig. 108. Dryophis mycteriza'ns. 

two praeoculars and a small subocular (or one prseocular and two 
suboculars), upper prseocular in contact with the frontal ; two 
postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 or 2 + 2 ; upper labials 8, fifth entering 
the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, 
which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 
172-188; anal divided; subcaudals 140-166. Bright green or 
pale brownish, the interstitial skin between the scales black and 



CHBYSOPELEA. 371 

white on the anterior part of the body, which appears striped when 
distended ; a yellow line along each side of the lower surface. 

Total length 5 feet ; tail 2. 

Hob. Ceylon, Southern India, Deccan, Northern Circars, Bengal, 
Khiisi Hills, Burma. A very gentle snake, generally found on 
bushes or high grass. 

462. Dryophis pulverulentus. 

Dryinus pulverulentus, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 812. 
Dryophis pulverulentus, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 32, pi. v, fig. 1. 
Passerita purpurascens, Gi'mlh. Kent. Ii. I. p. 300. pi. xxiii, fi>. F ; 
Theob. Cat.?. 194. 

Snout pointed, terminating in a dermal appendage which is 
longer than the eye, formed below by the rostral, and covered above 
with numerous small scales or warts ; the length of the snout, 
without the dermal appendage, more than twice the diameter of 
the eye. Nasals in contact behind the rostral appendage, or nar- 
rowly separated ; no loreal ; intemasals and prsefrontals in contact 
with the labials ; frontal as long as its distance from the nasals, as 
long as the parietals or a little longer ; two prseoculars, with one 
subocular below, the upper prseocular in contact with the frontal ; 
two postoculars; temporals 2 + 3 or 2 + 2; upper labials 8, fifth 
entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are shorter than the posterior. Scales in 15 rows. 
Yentrals 182-194 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 154-173. Greyish, 
powdered with brown, with blackish transverse spots above ; a dark 
brown rhomboidal spot on the upper surface of the head, and a 
brown band on each side, passing through the eye. 

Total length 5 feet 10 inches ; tail 2 feet 4 inches. 

Hal. Ceylon and Anaimalai Hills (2000 feet). 

Genus CHRYSOPELEA, 
Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 520. 

Maxillary teeth 20, subequal, the last three longer and grooved ; 
anterior mandibular teeth longest. Head distinct from neck, 
elongate ; eye rather large, with round pupil ; head-shields normal. 
Body elongate, compressed ; scales smooth, equal, in 15 or 17 rows, 
with apical pits ; ventrals with suture-like lateral keel and a notch 
on each side corresponding to the keel. Tail long ; subcaudals in 
two rows. 

Distribution. East Indies. Two or three species are known, one 
of which occurs in India, Ceylon, and Burma. 



463. Chrysopelea ornata. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. ii. 

Coluber ornatus, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 477. 

2B2 



372 COLUBEID^E. 



"lot. p. 191 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 
Chrysopelea paradisi, Boie, 1. c. p. 647. 
Leptophis ornatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 934. 

Snout much depressed, squarely truncated. Bostral broader 
than long, visible from above ; internasals nearly as long as the 
prsefrontals, but much narrower : frontal bell-shaped, nearly as 
long as its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the 
parietals or slightly shorter ; loreal small and elongate ; one prae- 
and two postoculars; temporals 2 + 2; upper labials 9 or 10, fifth 
and sixth, or fourth, fifth, and sixth, entering the eye ; 5 lower 
labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are a little 
shorter than the posterior. Scales smooth or faintly keeled, in 17 
rows. Ventrals 204-236 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 118-138. 
Varies greatly in colour ; the following principal varieties occur in 
British India : 

a. Black aboA'e, each scale with a round greenish-yellow spot ; 
these spots larger (coral-red in life) on the back, resembling a 
series of tetrapetalous flowers ; ventrals greenish yellow, edged 
with black (Anaimalai Hills and Malay Peninsula). 

b. Greenish yellow, lineolated, each scale with a black median 
streak, and more or less distinct black cross bands ; ventrals 
yellow, with a small black spot on each side (Khasi Hills, 
Burma, Anaimalais). 

c. Like the preceding, but with a series of large coral-red or 
orange blotches along the back (Ceylon). 

d. Pale olive above, with black transverse bars ; a small black 
spot on the side of each ventral (Ceylon). 

All the specimens have the head black with yellow cross bars. 

Total length 4| feet ; tail 14 inches. 

Hob. Ceylon, Anaimalai Hills, Bengal, Khasi Hills, Assam, 
Burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

This snake is found as well on the ground between grass as on 
low bushes and trees. It feeds almost exclusively on Geckos, and 
is of gentle disposition. 



Subfamily IV. HOMALOPSIN.E. 

Thoroughly aquatic Opisthoglypha with the nostrils on the upper 
surface of the snout. Hypapophyses developed throughout the 
vertebral column. 

The range of this subfamily appears to be restricted to Southern 
China, the East Indies, Papuasia, and Xorth Australia. Of the 
nine genera, 7 occur within the limits of the Indian Fauna, the 
two others being restricted to Siam (Herpeton, Lacep.) and Borneo 
(Homalophis, Ptrs.) respectively. The young are brought forth 
alive in the water. 



HOMALOPSIS. 



373 



of Indian, Geylonese, and Burmese Genera. 

A. Nasals in contact. 

a. Scales keeled. 

'. Parietal shields well developed HOHAXOPSIS, p. 373. 

V . Occiput covered with scales CEBBEKUS, p. 374. 

b. Scales smooth HYPSIEHINA, p. 375. 

13. Nasals separated by an interuasal. 

a. Ventrala smooth. 

'. Body stout, not compressed ; no loreal . . FOEDONIA, p. 378. 
b'. Body elongate, not compressed ; loreal 

present GEEAEDIA, p. 379. 

c. Body very elongate, compressed CANTOEIA, p. 380. 

b. Veutrals with two sharp keels HIPISTES, p. 381. 

Genus HOMALOPSIS, 

Kuhl, in Ferussac, Bull. Sc. Nat. ii, 1824, p. 81 (part.). 

Maxillary teeth 12, followed by two grooved fangs. Head dis- 
tinct from neck ; eye small, with vertically elliptical pupil ; head- 
shields large ; nasals in contact behind the rostral, semidivided, the 




Fig. 109. Head of Humalo-psis buccata. 

cleft extending from the nostril to the first labial ; iuternasal single 
or divided ; loreal present. Body stout, cylindrical ; scales dis- 
tinctly striated and keeled, in 37 to 47 rows, without apical pits ; 
ventrals well developed, not keeled ; tail moderate ; subcaudais in 
two rows. 

A single species. 



374 COLUBEID^. 

404. Homalopsis buccata. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xxxiii. 

Coluber buccatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 377. 

Homalopsis buccata, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 337, pi. xiii, figs. 1-3 ; 

Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 943 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. 

vii, p. 968 ; Giinth. Kept. Ii. I. p. 285 ; Theob. Cat. p. 185. 
Ilomalopsis hardwickii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 05. 
Homalopsis semizonata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv, 1855, p. 187. 
Pythonia seraizonata, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii, 1859, p. 297. 

Frontal usually broken up into several shields, not much broader 
than the supraocular ; parietals short ; loreal sometimes divided 
into two ; one or two prse- and two postoculars ; 1 to 3 suboculars 
sometimes present ; temporals small, scale-like ; upper labials 10 
to 12, fifth or sixth usually entering the eye ; two or three pairs 
of chin-shields in a transverse row, inner in contact with the 3 
first lower labials. Scales in 37 to 47 rows. Ventrals 160-171 ; 
anal divided ; subcaudals 70-85. Above with broad transverse 
dark brown, black-edged cross bands separated by narrow pale 
brown interspaces, which are whitish in the young ; head pale, 
with a triangular or V-shaped dark brown mark on the snout, a 
A-shaped mark on the vertex, and a dark brown band on each 
side, beginning in front of the eye and passing through it ; belly 
whitish, with a series of dark brown spots along each side ; tail 
brown-spotted beneath. 

Total length 3| feet ; tail 9 inches. 

Hab. Pegu, Tenasserim, Camboja, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Borneo, Java. 

According to Cantor, this snake inhabits small streams, tanks, 
and flooded fields, is of gentle disposition, sluggish in its movements, 
and very awkward on dry land. 

Genus CERBERUS, 
Cuvier, Regne Animal, 2nd ed. ii, p. 81, ]829. 

Maxillary teeth 12 to 16, followed by two grooved fangs. Head 
small, not distinct from neck ; eye small, ^ith vertically elliptical 
pupil ; snout covered with shields, occiput with scales ; nasals 
semidivided, the cleft extending from the nostril to the first labial, 
in contact behind the rostral ; two small internasals (rarely united) ; 
loreal present. Body stout, cylindrical ; scales strongly keeled, in 
21 to 25 rows, without apical pits ; ventrals well developed, not 
keeled; tail moderate, slightly compressed; subcaudals in two 
rows *. 

A single species. 

465. Cerberus rhynchops. 

Rmsell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xvii, and ii, pi. xl. 
Hydrus rhynchops, Schneid. Hist. Amph. i, p. 240. 



* Occasionally partly single, according to Cuvier. 



HYPSIBHINA. 375 

Cerberus cinereus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 54. 
Hornalopsis australis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 65. 
Hoinalopsis rhynchops, Cantor, J. A. 8. B. xvi, 1847, p. 941. 
Cerberus acutus, unicolor, and australis, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 65. 
Cerberus boaeformis, Dum. ty Bibr. Erp. G6n. vii, p. 978. 
Cerberus rhyncliops, Gilntli. Kept. B. I. p. 279 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 
1871, p. 179 ; Theob. Cat. p. 185 ; Murray, Zool Sind, p. 381. 

Bosfcral nearly as deep as broad ; eye between five or six shields, 
viz. a supraocular, a praeocular, two or three suboculars, and a 
postocular ; 9 or 10 upper labials, posterior transversely divided ; 
4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior 
chin-shields smaller and wedged in between the anterior and the 
labials. Scales strongly keeled, in 21 to 25 rows. Ventrals 
132-156 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 49-72. Grey, olive, or blackish 
above, with more or less distinct black cross bars ; sometimes a 
more or less distinct white lateral baud ; lower parts whitish, with 
large black blotches or cross bars. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches ; tail 7 inches. 

Hcib. India, extending west to the Indus, and Ceylon, Burma, 
Indo-China, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, New Guinea, north 
coast oil Australia. This snake lives in the mud on the banks of 
large rivers and estuaries, and on the sea-coast, having the power of 
accommodating itself to fresh and salt water. It feeds on fish, and 
is very gentle. 

Genus HYPSIRHINA, 

Wagler, Syst. Aniph. p. 169, 1830. 





Fig. 110. Head of Ht/psirhina plumbea. 

Maxillary teeth 10 to 15, followed by two grooved fangs. Head 
not or but slightly distinct from neck ; eye small, with vertically 



376 COLTTBRIDJE. 

elliptical pupil ; head-shields large ; nasal semidivided, the cleft 
extending from the nostril to the first labial, in contact behind the 
rostral ; interuasal single or divided ; loreal present. Body stout, 
cylindrical ; scales smooth, in 19 to 31 rows, without apical pits ; 
tail moderate ; subcaudals in two rows. 

Distribution. Seven or eight species are known, from the East 
Indies and Southern China. Four occur in India and Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species. 

Scales in 19 rows //. plumbea, p. 370. 

Scales in 21 rows II. enhydris, p. 376. 

Scales in 25 rows H. blunfordii, p. 377. 

Scales in 20 or 31 rows //. sieboldii, p. 377. 

466. Hypsirhina plumbea. 

Honialopsis plumbea, Bole. Isis. 1827, p. 560; Cantor, J. A. 8. B. 

xvi, 1847, p. 943. 

Hypsirhina hardwickii, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxvii, iig. 1 . 
Ilypsirhina plumbea, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 66 ; Gitnt/i. Kept. B. I. 

p. 280 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 30, pi. v, fig. 2 ; Thcob. Cat. p. 182. < 
Eurostus pluinbeus, Dion. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 955, pi. Ixxxiv, 

fig. 2. 

Rostral much broader than deep ; internasal single ; frontal 
much longer than broad, as long as its distance from the end of the 
snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; loreal as long as deep or 
deeper than long ; one prae- and two postoculars ; temporals 1 -f 2 ; 
upper labials 8, fourth or fourth and fifth entering the eye ; 4 or 5 
lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
larger than the posterior. Scales in 19 rows. Veutrals 120-134 ; 
anal divided ; subcaudals 29-40. Brownish or greyish olive above, 
uniform or with a vertebral series of small black spots : upper lip 
and lower parts white, usually with a black line along the middle 
of the tail. 

Total length 15 inches ; tail 3. 

Hob. Burma, Southern China, Indo-Chiua, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. 

467. Hypsirhina enhydris. 

Itussdl, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xxx. 

Hydra? enhydris, Schneid. Hist. Ainpft. i, p. 245. 

Honialopsis olivaceus, Cantor, P. Z.S. 1839, p. 55. 

Hypsirhina trilineata, bilineata, and furcata, Gray, Zool. Misc. 

'p. 66. 

Hoiualopsis enliydris, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 946. 
Hypsirhina enhydris, Dum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 946 ; GiintJi. 

Rept. B. I. p. 281, pi. xxii, fig. K; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 30, pi. iii, 

fig. 2, & pi. v, fig. 1 ; Theob. Cat. p. 183. 

Kostral much broader than deep ; internasal single ; frontal 
nearly twice as long as broad, as long as its distance from the end 



HTPIESHINA. 377 

of the snout or shorter, as long as the parietals ; loreal as long as 
dee]) or a little longer ; one prae- and two postoculars ; temporals 
1 + 2; 8 upper labials, fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are shorter than the 
posterior. Scales in 21 rows. Ventrals 159-169; anal divided ; 
subcaudals 60-73. Brownish or olive above, with or without two 
light longitudinal bauds ; lower parts whitish, with a black line 
along each side of the ventrals, and usually a median black line or 
series of black dots. 

Total length 2 feet 2 inches ; tail 5 inches. 

Hob. Bengal, Southern India and Ceylou, Burma, Southern 
China, Cochin China, Siam, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

According to Cantor, numbers of this species may be seen in 
rivers as well as in irrigated fields and estuai'ies, preying upon 
fishes, which, however, they refuse in a state of captivity. They 
are of timid and peaceful habits. 

468. Hypsirhina blanfordii. 

Hypsirlima maculata (non D. $ B.), Blanf. J. A. & 13. xlviii, 1879, 

p. 130. 
Hypsirhina inaculosa, Blanf. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 226. 

Head short, with broad, square, truncated snout ; interuasal 
single, nearly as long as broad ; frontal fully twice as long as 
broad, a little shorter than the parietals ; oue pne- and two post- 
oculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; upper labials 8, fourth entering the eye ; 
only one pair of large chin-shields, the posterior pair scarcely 
exceeding the adjoining scales in size. Scales in 25 rows. 
Ventrals 125 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 45. Colour blackish 
ashy, with a row of large, irregular-shaped black spots down the 
back, and another rather less in size, but each spot including 
several scales, down each side ; a blackish band down the margins 
of the ventrals, caused by the dark edges of the shields and of the 
first row of scales on each side. 

Total length 12 inches ; tail T75. 

Hub. Pegu, probably in the neighbourhood of Bassein. A single 
specimen is known, which I have not been able to examine. 



469. Hypsirhina sieboldii. 

Hoinalopsis sieboldii, Sclileg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 349, pi. xiii, figs. 4 & 

5 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 945. 
Ferauia sieboldii, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 67 ; Gilnth. Sept. B. I. p. 284 ; 

Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 180 ; Theob. Cat. p. 184 ; Murray, J. 

Bomb. N. H. Soc. i, 1886, p. 219. 

Trigonurus sieboldii, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gn. vii, p. 960. 
Hypsirhina sieboldii, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 30, pi. iv, fig. 2. 
Feranoides jamneetica, CarUeyle, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 1869, p. 196. 

Eostral nearly as deep as broad ; two internasals ; frontal as 
long as its distance from the end of the snout, as long as the 



378 COLTJBEIDuE. 

parietals ; loreal as long as deep or a little deeper than loiig ; one 
prseocular, sometimes with a small subocular below ; two post- 
oculars; temporals small, 1 + 2; upper labials 7 or 8, fourth 
entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields ; posterior chin-shields very small. Scales in 29 or 31 
rows. Ventrals 147-156 ; anal divided ; stibcaudals 48-56. 
Whitish or pale brown above, with dark brown, black-edged 
elliptical or rhomboidal transverse spots broader than their inter- 
spaces ; a series of round spots on each side, alternating with the 
dorsal spots ; head with three dark brown longitudinal bands, 
confluent between the eyes ; lower parts white, checkered with 
black. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 4 inches. 

Hub. A rare snake, hitherto recorded from Bombay, Agra, 
Bengal, Pegu, and the Province Wellesley. 

Genus FORDONIA, 
Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 67, 1842. 

Maxillary teeth 7 or 8, followed by two small grooved fangs. 
Head small, not distinct from neck ; eye very small, with vertically 
elliptical pupil ; head-shields large ; nostril in an undivided or 
semidivided nasal ; a single internasal, separating the nasals ; no 
loreal. Body stout, cylindrical ; scales smooth, in 25 to 29 rows, 
without apical pits ; ventrals well developed, not keeled ; tail short, 
subcaudals all or part in two rows. 

A single species. 

470. Fordonia leucobalia. 

Hoiualopsis leucobalia, Schley. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 345, pi. xiii, figs. 8 
& 9 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 949, pi. xl, fig. 5. 

Fordonia unicolor, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 77 ; Giinth. Kept. E. 1. p. 277 ; 
Theob. Cat. p. 182. 

Hemiodontus leucobalia, Dutn. fy Bibr. Erj). Gen. vii, p. 884; Jan, 
Icon. Ophid. 28, pi. vi, fig. 1. 

Herniodontus chalybaeus *, Jim, I. c. pi. vi, fig. 3. 

Fordonia bicolor, Theob. J. Linn. Soc. x, 1808, p. 56; id. CW.p. 181. 

Frontal as long as broad or a little longer than broad, longer 
than its distance from the end of the snout, a little shorter than 
the parietals; one prae- and two postoculars; temporals 1+3; 
upper labials 5, third entering the eye ; 3 lower labials in contact 
with the anterior chin-shields, which are small and a little larger 
than the posterior. Scales in 25 to 29 rows. Ventrals 130-156, 
last frequently divided ; anal divided ; subcaudals 26 to 41. 
Blackish or brown above, with (F. leucobalia) or without (F. uni- 
color) lighter spots, or brown with small black spots (F. bicolor), or 
yellow with black spots ; lower parts yellowish. 

* Founded on a specimen in which the internasal is abnormally absent. 



GEBABDIA. 379 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 4-5 inches. 

Hob. Eivers and coasts of Pegu, the Nicobars, the Malay 
Peninsula and Archipelago, Sumatra, Java, Cochinchina, New 
Guinea, and the north coast of Australia. At Pinang, Cantor 
says, it is numerous not only in fresh water and estuaries, but iii 
the sea at some distance from the shore, where it is sometimes 
taken in fishing-nets. It is of sluggish, not fierce habits, and 
feeds upon fishes and crustaceans. 



Genus GERARDIA, 

Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 77, 1849. 

Maxillary teeth 10, followed by two small grooved fangs. Head 
small, not distinct from neck ; eye small, with vertically subellip- 
tical pupil ; head-shields large ; nostril in the middle of an undi- 
vided nasal ; a single internasal, separating the nasals ; loreal 
present. Body elongate, cylindrical ; scales smooth, in 17 rows, 
without apical pits ; ventrals well developed, not keeled ; tail 
moderate ; subcaudals in two rows. 

A single species. 

471. Gerardia prevostiana. 

Coluber (llomalopsis) prevostianus, JEyd. $ Gerv. in Gucr. Ma;/. 

Zool. Cl. iii, 1837, p. 5, pi. xv ; iid. Voy. Favorite, v, Zool. p. 70, 

pi. xxix. 
Gerarda bicolor, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 77 ; Gilnth. A. M. N. H. (4) i, 

1868, p. 421; Theob. Cat.y. 180. 
Campylodon prevostiammi, 2)um. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 964 ; 

Jan, Icon. Ophid. 30, pi. vi, fig. 3 ; F. Miiller, Verh. nat. Ges. 

Basel, vii, 1885, p. 700. 
Heleophis flavescens, F. Miiller, t. c. 1884, p. 286, pi. v, fig. 2. 

Frontal a little longer than broad, shorter than its distance from 
the end of the snout, or than the parietala ; loreal slightly longer 
than deep, a little smaller than the nasal ; one prse- and two post- 
oculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; upper labials 8, fourth entering the eye ; 
4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
much larger than the posterior. Scales in 17 rows. Yentrals 146- 
158 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 31-34. Uniform dark olive above ; 
three outer rows of scales whitish ; upper lip white, rostral dark 
oliA'e ; ventrals and subcaudals whitish, with dark edges. 

Total length 16 inches ; tail 2. 

Hob. Pegu *. 

* Theobald adds Ceylon to the habitat of this species, on the authority of 
Ferguson ; but on referring to the source of his information, viz. Ferguson's 
' Eeptile Fauna of Ceylon,' a tract published for private distribution (Colombo, 
1887), all we find is this : " Gerarda bicolor, Gray. A single specimen from 
the Asiatic Society Museum, but I question if it be a Ceylon Snake." The fact 



380 COLTJBRIDjE. 

Genus CANTORIA, 
Girard, Proc. Ac. Pkilad, 1857, p. 182. 

Teii or eleven teeth in each maxillary, last longest and grooved. 
Head small, not distinct from neck; eye very small, with vertically 
subelliptical pupil ; head-shields large ; nostril in a seniidivided 
nasal, the cleft of which extends to the prsefrontal ; a single inter- 





Fig. 111. Head of Cantoria ciolacca. 

nasal, separating the nasals ; loreal present. Body very elongate, 
slightly compressed ; scales smooth, in 19 rows, without apical pits ; 
veutrals well developed, not keeled ; tail moderate ; subcaudals in 
two rows. 

A single species. 

472. Cantoria violacea. 

Cantoria violacea, Girard, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1857, p. 182 ; id. U. S. 

Explor. Exped., Herp. p. 156, pi. xi, figs. 7-10 ; Cope, Proc. Ac. 

Philad. 18(56, p. 312 ; Liitk. Tid. Meddel. 1866, p. 151. 
Hydrodipsas elapiformis, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1859, p. 270, pi., 

fig. 1. 

Cantoria elongata, Gi'mth. Rept. B. I. p. 277. 
Hemiodontus elapiformis, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 28, pi. vi, fig. 2. 
Cantoria elapiformis, Gi'mth. Zool. Rec. 1868, p. 124. 
Cantoria dayaua, Stoliczku, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 208, 

pi. xi, fig. 5 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 178; Theob. Cat. p. 181. 

Frontal a little longer than broad, shorter than its distance from 
the end of the snout or than the parietals ; eye between four shields, 

that Eydoux's Coluber prevostianus was described together with the Ceylonese 
Uropeltis phllippinus as from Manilla would suggest the possibility of the former 
having likewise been obtained from Ceylon ; however, there is no evidence of 
this being the case, and Pegu remains the only authenticated habitat. Theobald's 
specimens were obtained from the Bassein River. 



HTPISTES. 381 

a prseocular, a supraocular, a postocular, and a subocular ; loreal 
longer than deep ; one elongate anterior temporal, in contact with 
the postocular and the subocular ; 5 upper labials ; 3 lower labials 
in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are not longer than 
the posterior. Scales in 19 rows. Ventrals 266-278 ; anal divided ; 
subcaudals 56-64. Blackish above, with white transverse bands, 
which widen towards the abdomen ; these bands are very narrow 
in the typical form, wider in the var. day ana, but constantly much 
narrower than the black interspaces ; some white spots on the 
head ; lower parts white, with greyish spots, the continuation of 
the dorsal cross bands ; these bands may form complete rings on 
the tail. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 4 inches. 

Hab. Singapore, Borneo, and mouth of the Moulin ein Eiver, 
where a single specimen was caught by Dr. Stoliczka in brackish 
water. The latter differs somewhat in coloration, having the white 
bands considerably broader ; but as it agrees absolutely in structure 
with the typical form, I cannot regard it as more than a colour 
variety. A second specimen from an unknown locality, agreeing 
with Dr. Stoliczka's description in every respect, is in the British 
Museum. 

Genus HIPISTES, 

Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 77, 1849. 

Maxillary teeth 8 or 9, followed by two small grooved fangs. 
Head small, not distinct from neck ; lower border of rostral not 
notched ; eye extremely small, with vertically elliptical pupil ; head- 
shields small, parietals broken up into numerous shields ; nostril a 




Fig. 11-'. Head of Hipis 

transverse slit between two nasals; a single internasal, separating the 
nasals ; a loreal. Body elongate, slightly compressed ; scales 
smooth, in 35 to 42 rows, juxtaposed or subimbricate, without 
apical pits; ventrals narrow, with two sharp keels; tail short, 
feebly compressed ; subcaudals in two rows. 
A single species. 



382 COLUBBID.S. 

473. Hipistes hydrinus. 

Homalopsis hydrina, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 951, pi. xl, 

fig. 4. 

Bitia hydroides and Hipistes fasciatus, Gray, Cat. Sn. pp. 63, 78. 
Hipistes hydrinus, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 287, pi. xxiv, fig. II ; Sto- 

liczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 207 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, 

p. 181 ; Theob. Cat. p. 184. 

Eostral as deep as broad ; frontal narrow, twice as long as broad, 
as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little longer ; 
eye between four shields, viz. a supraocular, a prseocular, a sub- 
ocular, and a small postocular ; 7 upper labials ; 5 lower labials in 
contact with the anterior chin-shields ; posterior chin-shields ex- 
tremely small. Scales in 35 to 42 rows. Ventrals 153-165; anal 
divided ; subcaudals 22-35. Pale grey or brownish above, with 
black cross bands as broad as the interspaces between them or 
narrower ; lower parts white. 

Total length 19 inches ; tail 2. 

Hub. This is the most Hydrophid-like of the Homalopsids. Of 
the three specimens obsen-ed by Cantor, two were captured in 
fishing-stakes placed in the sea off the shores of Keddah, the third 
was washed on shore by the waves on the coast of Pinang. Stoliczka 
found it very common at the mouth of the Moulmein River ; and, 
according to Theobald, it is largely captured in company with 
great numbers of Hydrophids in the sluice-nets (or creels) in the 
Bassein River below Gnaputau. It lives almost entirely upon fish. 



Series C. PROTEROGLYPHA. 
Anterior maxillary teeth grooved. Poisonous. 

Subfamily V. ELAPIN^]. 

Terrestrial or arboreal. Tail cylindrical. 

These snakes inhabit Asia, Africa, and America, and form the 
bulk of the Ophidian fauna of Australia. 

Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Genera. 

A. No solid maxillary teeth ; scales equal. 

. Poison-gland not extending along the 

body CALLOPHIS, p. 383. 

b. Poison-gland extending along each side 

of the anterior third of the body ADENIOPHIS, p. 386. 

B. Poison-fang followed by one or more solid 

teeth. 

a. Neck not dilatable ; vertebral scales en- 

larged BUNGAEUS, p, 387. 

b. Neck dilatable ; vertebral scales not en- 

larged NAIA, p. 390. 



CALLOPHIS. 003 

Genus CALLOPHIS, 
Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. ii, 1834 (name only) ; Giinth. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 81. 

Poison-fangs with a distinct groove anteriorly ; no solid maxil- 
lary teeth. Head not distinct from neck, with large shields ; no 
loreal. Eye small, with round pupil. Body cylindrical, slender. 
Scales smooth, equal, in 13 rows. Tail short ; subcaudals in 
pairs. 





Fig. 113. Head of Callophis macclettandii. 

Distribution. East Indies, Southern China, and Japan. Seven 
species are known, five of which occur in India and Burma. 

This genus differs from the South- African and Tropical- American 
Elaps in the presence of a groove along the entire length of the 
maxillary fangs and in having postfrontal bones. It is completely 
connected with Bunyarus through Hemibungarus, Peters, in which 
a solid tooth is present behind the poison-fangs. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Species. 

A. One prse- and two postoculars. 

a. Six upper labials C. trimaculatus, p. 384. 

b. Seven upper labials. 

a'. A single temporal shield ; anterior 
chin-shields in contact with 4 or 5 
lower labials. 

a". Subcaudals 21-32 C. maeitliceps, p. 384. 

b". Subcaudals 33-44 C. niyrescens, p. 384. 

b'. Temporals 1+1 ; anterior chin- 
shields in contact with 3 labials . . C. macclellandii, p. 385. 

B. No prseocular; one postocular C. bibronii, p. 386. 



384 COLUBBID.E. 

474. Callophis trimaculatus. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. i, pi. viii. 

Vipera trimaculata, Daud. Rept. vi, p. 25. 

Coluber melanurus, Shaio, Zool. iii, p. 552. 

Elaps melanurus, Jerd. J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 522. 

Callophis trimaculatus, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 83, pi. xvi, fig. E ; 

id. Rept. B. I. p. 350 ; Theob. Cat. p. 212 ; Phipson, J. Bomb. X. 

H. Soc. ii. 1887, p. 248. 

Eostral nearly as deep as broad ; frontal as long as its distance 
from the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals ; one 
prse- and two postoculars ; a single temporal ; 6 upper labials, 
third and fourth entering the eye ; two pairs of subequal chin- 
shields, the anterior in contact with 3 or 4 labials. Scales in 13 
rows. Ventrals 258-274 ; anal divided ; subcandals 24-35. 
Light bay above, each scale with a brown dot ; sometimes a fine 
dark vertebral line; head and nape black, with a yellow spot 
on each side of the occiput ; lower parts uniform red ; tail with 
two black rings. 

Total length 13 inches ; tail 1 inch. 

Hob. Tenasserim, Bengal ?, Jalna (Deccan), Bombay, Southern 
India. 

475. Callophis maculiceps. 

Elaps melanurus (non Shaw), Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847. p. 1027, 

pi. xl, fig. 6. 

Elaps maculiceps, Gunth. Cat. Col. Stt. p. 232. 
Callophis maculiceps, Gunth. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 84, pi. xvi, fig. D : id. 

Rept. B. I. p. 351 ; Theob. Cat. p. 213. 

Eostral broader than long ; frontal as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals ; one prse- 
and two postoculars ; a single temporal ; 7 upper labials, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; two pairs of subequal chin-shields, the 
anterior in contact with 4 or 5 labials. Scales in 13 rows. Ven- 
trals 205-247 ; anal divided ; subcaudals 21-32. Light bay above, 
with a distinct series of black dots along each side of the back ; 
head and nape black, with one or two yellow bands on each side ; 
lower parts red ; tail with two black rings. 

Total length 19 inches ; tail 1 inch 4 lines. 

Hab. Malay Peninsula, Tenasserim, Pegu, Cochinchina. 

476. Callophis nigrescens. 

Callophis nigrescens, Gunth. A. M. N. II. (3) ix, 1802, p. 131 ; id. 

Rept. B. I. p. 351, pi. xxiv, fig. F ; Throb. Cat. p. 213 ; Phipson, 

J. Bomb. N. H. Sue. ii, 1887, p. 248. 

? Elaps malabaricus, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1853, p. 522. 
Callophis concinnus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 18(53. 
Callophis pentalineatus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1871 : 

Theob. Cat. p. 214. 



CALLOP11IS. 385 

Rostral broader thau long ; frontal as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals ; one prae- 
and two postoculars ; a single temporal ; 7 upper labials, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; anterior chin-shields as long as the pos- 
terior or a little shorter, in contact with four labials. Scales in 13 
rows. Ventrals 232-251 ; anal usually divided; subcaudals 33-44. 
This species comprises four principal colour varieties, which are 
connected by insensible gradations ; in all the head and nape are 
black, with an oblique yellow band, sometimes broken up into spots, 
on each side from the parietals to behind the angle of the mouth, 
and the upper Up is yellow in front of and behind the eye ; lower 
parts uniform red. 

A. Dark purplish brown above, with three or five longitudinal 

series of black, light-edged spots. 

B. The spots confluent and forming three longitudinal black 

bands edged with whitish. 

C. As in the preceding, but the black bands without light 

edges. 

D. Pale reddish brown or red above, with five black longitudinal 

bands. 

Total length 3| feet ; tail 4-5 inches. 

Hob. Bombay Hills (Karwar), Wynaad, Nilgiris, Anaiuialai and 
Travaucore Hills, 4000-6000 feet. 

477. Callophis macclellandii. 

Elaps macclellandii, Reinh. Cede. Journ. N. H. iv, 1844, p. 532 : id. 

Vidensk. Meddel. 18GO, p. 247. 

Elaps personatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, 1855, p. 298. 
Elaps univirgatus, Gilnth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 231. 
Callophis univirgatus, Gilnth. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 83, pi. xvii. 
Callophis macclellandii, Giinth. P. Z. 8. 1801, p. 219; id. Rept. B. I. 

p. 349 ; Theob. Cat. p. 214. 
Callophis annularis, Giinth. Rept. B, I. p. 350, pi. xxiv, fig. J* ; 

Theob. I. c. p. 212. 

Rostral broader than long ; frontal as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout or a little longer, as long as the parietals ; 
one prae- and two postoculars ; temporals 1 -j- 1 ; upper labials 7, 
third and fourth entering the eye ; two pairs of small subequal 
chin-shields, anterior in contact with 3 labials. Scales in 13 rows. 
Ventrals 182-224; anal divided; subcaudals 25-34. Reddish 
brown above, with regular, equidistant, black, light-edged trans- 
verse bars or rings ; belly yellowish, with black cross bands or 
quadrangular spots. A variety from Nepal and Darjeeling (6 V . 
univiryata, Gthr.) is distinguished by the presence of a black verte- 
bral line ; the transverse bars are replaced by transverse spots or 
are altogether absent. 

Total length 26 inches ; tail 2'3. 

Hab. Nepal, Sikhim, Assam, Burma, Southern China. 

* An anomalous specimen with six labials on one side. 

2c 



386 COLUBBID^E. 



478. Callophis bibronii. 

Elaps bibroni, Jan, Rev. et Mag. Zool. x, 1858, p. 526 ; id. Icon. Ophid. 

43, pi. ii, fig. 1. 

Elaps cerasinus, Beddome, P. Z. 8. 1864, p. 179. 
Callophis cerasinus, Beddome, Madras Journ. Med. Sc. 1867, p. 16, 

pi. ii, fig. 5 5 Theob. Cat. p. 213. 

Eostral broader than long ; frontal nearly as long as its distance 
from the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals ; no 
praeocular ; praefrontal in contact with the third labial ; one very 
small postocular ; temporals 1 + 1 ; upper labials 7, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; first lower labial much elongate, forming 
a long suture with its fellow ; anterior chin-shields small, much 
shorter than the posterior, in contact with the third and fourth 
labials. Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 222-226 ; anal entire ; sub- 
caudals 27-34. Cherry-red, with black transverse bands above, 
which are sometimes continuous across the belly ; in some specimens 
the back is of a dark purplish brown ; anterior part of head black 
above. 

Total length 25 inches ; tail 2. 

Hab. Wynaad, 3000 feet. 

Genus ADENIOPHIS, 

Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1871, p. 578. 

Characters of Callophis, except that the poison-glands, instead 
of being confined to the temporal region, extend along each side 
of the body for about one third of its length, gradually thickening 
and terminating in front of the heart with club-shaped ends. The 
presence of this gland may be detected without dissecting the 
animal, by the thickening of the cardiac region in the second third 
of the body, the heart being shifted further back than in other 
snakes, owing to the extension of the glands. 

Experiments on the action of the poison of Adeniophis are much 
to be desired. 

Only two species are known, viz. A. intestinalis, Laur., comprising 
several colour varieties, which have received special binomials 
recorded below under the synonymy of the species, and A. bivir- 
yatus, Boie (flaviceps, Cant., quadrivirgatus, Jan, tetratcenia, Blkr.), 
which inhabits the Malay Archipelago and Pinang. 

479. Adeniophis intestinalis. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. ii, pi. xix. 

Aspis intestinalis, Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 106. 

Elaps furcatus, Schneid, Hist. Amph. ii, p. 303 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. 

Gen. vii, p.- 1228 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 43, pi. i, fig. 3. 
Maticora lineata, Gray, III. 2nd. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxvi, figs. 4, 5. 
Ebips intestinalis, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1028. 
Elaps trilineatus, Dum. $ Bibr. t. c. p. 1227. 



UUNUABUS. 387 

Callophis intestinalis, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 82, pi. xvi ; id. Kept. 
B. I. p. 348 ; Meyer, MB. Ak. Berl. 18G9, p. 204, pis. i & ii ; Sto- 
liczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 212 ; Theob. Cat. p. 211. 

Adeniophis nigrotaeniatus, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1871, p. 578. 

Callophis macclellandii (non Reinh.), Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. x. 

Frontal longer than its distance from the end of the snout, as 
long as the parietals or a little shorter ; one pra3- and two post- 
oculars ; temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 6, third and fourth enter- 
ing the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin- 
shields, which are as long as the posterior or a little longer. 
Scales in 13 rows. Ventrals 223-273; anal entire; subcaudals 
15-28. The Burmese and Malay specimens belong to a variety 
(Uneata, Gray) which is brown above with a yellowish (red ?) 
vertebral line edged with black, and a light, black- edged line 
along each side ; belly with alternate yellow and black cross 
bands. 

Total length 2 feet; tail 1| inch. 

Hob. Burma, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Giiuther 
mentions a specimen from Malwa, Central India. 



Genus BUNGARUS, 
Daudin, Hist. Kept. v. p. 263, 1803. 

Poison-fangs with a distinct groove anteriorly, followed by one 
to three small solid teeth. Head not distinct from neck, with 
large shields ; no loreal. Eye small, with round pupil. Scales 
smooth, in 13 or 15 rows; vertebral row enlarged, hexagonal. Tail 
moderate or short ; subcaudals in a single or double row. 

Distribution. East Indies and Southern China. Of the eight 
known species, five are found in India and Ceylon. 

The " Bungarums " are thoroughly terrestrial ; their bite is very 
dangerous. They feed chiefly on small mammals, lizards, and 
snakes. 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Ventral scales much enlarged, broader than 

long. 

. Subcaudals single. 

a'. A dorsal ridge ; tail ending very ob- 
tusely; anterior temporal shield scarce- 
ly longer than deep B. fasciatus, p. 388. 

V. No dorsal ridge ; tail tapering to a point ; 
anterior temporal much longer than 
deep. 

a". Frontal little longer than broad .... B. ceylunicus, p. 388. 
b". Frontal much longer than broad . . B. cwuleus, p. 388. 
b. Subcaudals in pairs, or "only a few of the 

anterior single B. bunyaroides, p. 89. 

B. Vertebral scales feebly enlarged B. lividus, p. 389. 

2c2 



388 COLUBKIDjE. 

480. Bungarus fasciatus. 

Russell, Intl. Serp. i, pi. iii. 

Pseudoboa fasciata, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 283. 

Bungarus annularis, Daud. Rept. v, p. 265, pi. Ixv ; Dum. fy it- . 

Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1209 ; Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 791 ; Jan, Icon. 

Ophid. 44, pi. ii, fig. 3. 
Bungarus fasciatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1034 ; Giinth. 

Rept. B. I. p. 343 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. ix ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 216. 

Eostral much broader than deep, visible from above ; frontal 
longer than broad, as long as or longer than its distance from the 
end of the snout, as long as or a little shorter than the parietals ; 
one prse- and two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2, anterior scarcely 
longer than deep ; 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering the 
eye ; two pairs of short, subequal chin-shields. An obtuse keel 
or ridge along the back and tail, the latter ending very obtusely. 
Scales in 15 rows, vertebrals much enlarged, broader than long. 
Ventrals 200-234 ; anal entire ; subcaudals single, 32-39. Bright 
yellow, with black annuli as broad as the interspaces between 
them or broader : a black band, widening behind, on the head 
and nape, beginning between the eyes ; snout brown. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 5 inches. Grows to 6 feet or more. 

Hab. Bengal, Southern India, Assam, Burma, Southern China, 
Iiido-China, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java. The " Baj-samp " 
of Northern India. 

481. Bungarus ceylonicus. 

Bungarus ceylonicus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 344 ; Theob. Cat. p. 216. 

Eostral a little broader than deep, just visible from above ; 
frontal a little longer than broad, as long as its distance from the 
end of the snout or a little shorter, much shorter than the 
parietals; one prae- and two postoculars; temporals 1 + 2 ; upper 
labials 7, third and fourth entering the eye ; two pairs of short, 
subequal chin-shields, the anterior in contact with 3 labials. Scales 
in 15 rows; vertebrals much enlarged, broader than long. Ventrals 
224-235 ; anal entire ; subcaudals single, 35-40. Black, with 
whitish annuli which may be very indistinct or broken up into 
spots on the back in the adult ; lower parts uniform white in the 
young. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches ; tail 4 inches. 

Hub. Ceylon; and, according to Theobald, Southern India 
(Palamcottah). 

482. Bungarus cseruleus. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. i, pi. i. 

Pseudoboa cserulea, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 284. 
Pseudoboa krait, Schneid. 1. c. p. 288. 

Bungarus can-uleus, Daud. Rept. v, p. 270 ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. 
vii, p. 1273; Stoliczka, J. A. S. #.xxxix, 1870, p. 209; Jan, Icon. 



BUNGAEUS. 389 

Ophid. 44, pi. iii, figs. 2 & 3 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. x ; Murray, 

Zool. Slnd, p. 387. 

Bungarus candidus, Cantor, J. A. 8. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1034. 
Bungarus arcuatus, Dum. $ Bibr. t. c. p. 1272. 
Bungarus caeruleus, part., Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 343 ; Theob. Cat. 

p. 215. 

Eostral broader than deep, visible from above ; frontal longer 
than broad, as long as its distance from the end of the snout, 
shorter than the parietals ; one prse- and two postoculars ; tem- 
porals 1 + 1 or 1+2; upper labials 7, third and fourth entering 
the eye ; two pairs of subequal chin-shields, anterior in contact 
with 3 labials. Scales in 15 rows ; vertebrals much enlarged, 
broader than long on the hinder half of the body. Ventrals 200- 
220; anal entire; subcaudals 40-51. Dark brown or bluish- 
black above, with narrow transverse white streaks, or with small 
white spots ; lower parts uniform white. 

Total length 3 feet 2 inches ; tail 5 inches. Grows to 4| feet. 

Sab. This species, called " Krait " in Northern India, is common 
all over India, and very destructive of life ; it is rare in Burma. 



483. Bungarus oungaroides. 

Elaps bungaroides, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 33. 

Xenurelaps bungaroides, Giinth. jRejit. B. I. p. 345 ; Jerdon, P. A. S. 

B. 1870, p. 82 ; Theob. Cat. p. 215 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 

1879, pt. 2, p. 131. 

Eostral a little broader than deep, just visible from above ; 
frontal a little longer than broad, longer than its distance from the 
end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; one prae- and two 
postoculars; temporals 1+2; upper labials 7, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; two pairs of short, subequal chin-shields, the 
anterior in contact with 3 labials. Scales in 15 rows ; vertebrals 
much enlarged, broader than long on the hinder half of the 
body. Ventrals 220-237; anal entire; subcaudals 44-51, all 
in pairs, or a few of the anterior single. Black, with white 
(yellow ?) transverse lines, the anterior angular and pointing for- 
wards ; these lines widen beneath, forming broad bands across the 
belly ; a yellow line across the snout, and a curved one on each 
side, from the frontal shield to behind the angle of the mouth ; a 
third from the postoculars to the lip. 

Total length 32 inches ; tail 4. 

Hob. A rare snake, known from the Khasi Hills and Darjeeling 
(6800 feet). 

484. Bungarus lividus. 

Bunparus lividus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 32 : id. J. A. S. B. xvi, 

1847, p. 1034. 
Bungarus cseruleus, part., Giinth. Eept. B. I. p. 343 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 

1871, p. 189 j Theob. Cat. p. 215. 



390 COLUBRTD*;. 

Rostral nearly as deep as broad, visible from above ; frontal 
longer than broad, as long as its distance from the end of the 
snout, shorter than the parietals ; one prse- and two postoculars : 
temporals 1 + 2; upper labials 7, third and fourth entering the 
eye; two pairs of chin-shields, anterior longest and in contact 
with 3 labials. Scales in 15 rows ; vertebrals but feebly enlarged 
and not broader tban long. Ventrals 212-225 ; anal entire ; 
subcaudals single, 37-56. Uniform black or brown above ; upper 
lip white ; lower parts white or pale brown. 

Total length 3 feet ; tail 4 inches. 

Hob. Assam. 

Genus NAIA, 

Laurenti, Syn. Kept. p. 90, 1768. 

Poison-fangs with a distinct groove anteriorly, followed by one 
to three small solid teeth. Head distinct from neck, with large 
shields ; no loreal. Eye rather small, with round pupil. Neck 
dilatable. Body cylindrical ; scales disposed obliquely, smooth, in 
15 or more rows. Tail moderate ; subcaudals in a single or double 





Fig. 114. Head of Naia bungarus. 

Distribution. Africa and Southern Asia. Oviparous. Terrestrial, 
but often ascending trees, and readily entering the water. 

Six or seven species may be distinguished, of which three occur 
in the Indian Region : 

A. No large shields behind parietals. 

a. 23-27 scales across neck, 19-23 across 

middle of body ; suhcaudals 49-75, all in 

pairs N. tripudians, p. 391. 

b. 19-23 scales across neck, 17 across middle 

of body ; subcaudals 43-52, some of the [(Java & Borneo), 

anterior frequently single N, sputalrir, Reinw. 



391 



B. A 



L pair of large shields behind parietals ; 19- 
21 scales across neck, 15 across middle of 
body ; subcaudals 80-107, anterior usually 
single N. bungarus, p. 392. 

485. Naia tripudians. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. i, pis. v & vi, and ii, pi. i. 

Coluber naia, Linn. Syst. Nat. i. p. 382. 

Naia lutescens, Laur. Syn. Kept. p. 91 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 

1847, p. 1038. 
Naia tripudiaus, Merr. Tent. p. 147 ; Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pla. 

Ixxvii-lxxix ; Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. G6n. vii, p. 1293 ; Glinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 338 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 8. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 211 ; 

Fayrer, Thanatoph. pis. i-vi ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 45, pi. i, fig 1 . 3; 

Theob. Cat. p. 208 ; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 1, 1881, p. 241 ; Murray, 

Zool. Sind, p. 387 ; Boettg. Zool. Jahrb. iii, 1888, j). 943. 
Tomyris oxiana, Eichw. Zool. Spec, iii, p. 171, and Faun. Casp.-Cauc. 

p. 130, pi. xx. 

Naia larvata, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 32. 
Naia atra, Cantor, A. M. N. H. ix, 1842, p. 482. 
Naia oxiana, Strauch, Bull. St. Petersb. xiii, 1868, p. 87 ; Boukng. 

Tr. Linn. Soc. (2) v, 1889, p. 103, pi. xi, fig. 2. 




Fig. 115. Naia tripudians. 
Eostral a little broader than deep, visible from above ; inter- 



392 COLUBBIDJE. 

nasal in contact with the praeocular ; frontal as long as its distance 
from the rostral or a little longer, much shorter than the parietals ; 
one prseocular ; three (rarely two) postoculars; temporals 2 + 3 or 
2 + 4; upper labials 7, third deepest, seventh longest, third and 
fourth entering the eye ; 4 lower labials in contact with the ante- 
rior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. 23 to 27 
scales across the "neck," 19 to 23 across the middle of the 
body. Ventrals 170-206 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 49-75. The 
colour varies extremely : upper parts greyish, brown, or black, 
with or without a spectacle- or loop-shaped black light-edged 
marking on the neck, or with light spots or cross bands on the 
body; whitish, brown, or blackish beneath, sometimes with black 
cross bands on the anterior part of the body. 

The largest specimen in the British Museum measures 6 feet 
4 inches, the tail one foot. 

The Cobra or Naga is the best known and most deadly snake of 
India. Its habit of expanding the neck when irritated gives it a 
most peculiar appearance, with which everyone interested in 
natural history is familiar. It is the snake usually exhibited by 
Snake-charmers. It is found all over India and Ceylon, Burma, 
the Andamans, Southern China, Indo-China, and the Malay Penin- 
sula and Archipelago ; in the Himalayas it extends to an altitude 
of 8000 feet ; to the west it ranges to Afghanistan, North-eastern 
Persia and Southern Turkestan, as far as the eastern coast of the 
Caspian Sea. 

486. Naia bungarus. 

Naia bungarus, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 476, pi. xvii, figs. 8 & 9 ; 

Schleg. 8f Mull. Verh. Ovcrz. JBez. Nederl. 2nd., Kept. p. 71, pi. x. 
Hamadryas hannah, Cantor, As. Res. xix, 1836, p. 87, pis. x-xii. 
Haraadryas ophiophagus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1838, p. 73, 1839, p. 32 ; 

id. J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1037. 

Naia vittata, Elliot, Madras Journ. L. S. xi, 1840, p. 39, pi. i. 
Trimeresurus ophiophagus, part., Dum. Sf Bibr, Erp. Gen- vii, 

p. 1245. 

Hamadryas elaps, G'tinth. Cat. Col. Sn. p. 219*. 
Trimeresurus bungarus, Jan, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1859, p. 129; id. 

Icon. Ophid. 44, pi. iv. 
Ophiophagus elaps, Giinth. Rept. E. I. p. 341 ; Anders. P. Z. 8. 1871, 

p. 188 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 210, pi. xi, 

fig. 7 ; Fai/rer, Thanatoph. pis. vii viii. 
Naja elaps, Theob. Cat. p. 209. 

Rostral much broader than deep, visible from above ; internasal 
separated from the praeocular ; frontal nearly as long as its 
distance from the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals, 
which are followed by a pair of large shields ; one praeocular 
(rarely two) ; three postoculars ; temporals 2+2 ; upper labials 7, 
third deepest, seventh longest,. third and fourth entering the eye ; 

* Naia elaps, Schleg., = Diemenia ikahcka, Lesson, as pointed out by Jan 
in 1859, and again in 1878 by Peters and Doriu. 



HYDROPHIIKjE. 6U6 

4 lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields, which are 
as long as the posterior or a little longer. 19 or 21 scales across 
the neck, 15 across the middle of the body. Ventrals 215-262 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 80-117, the anterior usually single. 
Yellowish brown, or olive, with more or less marked dark cross 
bands ; young usually black, with yellow rings on the body and 
yellow cross bands on the head, sometimes covered above with 
light spots and with whitish black-edged ventral and subcaudal 
shields. 

The largest specimen in the British Museum measures 13 feet, 
the tail being about one fifth the total length. 

From its larger size and fiercer habits this snake is still 
more dangerous than the Cobra ; it is fortunately less common. 
It inhabits Southern India, Orissa, Bengal, Assam, Burma, the 
Andamans, Siara, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo, Sumatra, 
and the Philippines. It feeds principally on snakes. 



Subfamily VI. HYDB-OPHIIN^E. 

Marine. Tail strongly compressed, with the neural spines and 
hypapophyses very much developed. 

Sea-snakes are easily recognized by their strongly compressed 
oar-shaped tail. "With the exception of Platurus, which in many 
respects approaches the Elapince, they never leave the water. 
They are viviparous. Their home is essentially the coasts of the 
Indian Ocean and the tropical parts of the Western Pacific, from 
the Persian Gulf to New Guinea and North Australia ; one 
species, however (Hydi-us platurus), ranges from "West and South 
Africa to the western coast of tropical America, as far north as 
Japan and Peter the Great Bay, Manchuria, and as far south as 
New Zealand. 

Of the nine genera, six occur on the Indian and Burmese 
coasts. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese Genera. 

A. Only the poison-fangs are grooved. 

a. Mental shield triangular ; no mental groove. 
a'. Nostrils lateral; maxillary bone much 
shorter than transpalatine ; a single small 
solid maxillary tooth (Fig. 116, A.) ; ven- 
tral shields large PLATURUS, p. 394. 

b'. Nostrils on top of snout 

a". Maxillary slightly longer than transpala- 
tine ; 2 to 5 solid teeth on each maxil- 
lary (Fig. 116, .) ; body short ; snout 

short ENHYDRIS, p. 396. 

A". Maxillary much longer than transpala- 
tine ; 7 or 8 solid teeth on each maxil- 
lary (Fig. 116, C.) ; body short; snout 

long HYDRUS, p. 397. 

c". Maxillary much longer than transpala- 
tine ; 7 to 18 solid teeth on each maxillary HyrROPHis, p. 398. 



394 



COLUBKIDjE. 



b. Mental shield narrow, elongate, partly con- 
cealed in a deep groove in the lower jaw ; 
maxillary a little longer than transpalatine, 

with 4 solid teeth ENHYDBINA, p. 405 

B. Poison-fangs followed by 4 to 10 solid maxil- 
lary teeth, which are grooved anteriorly DISTIRA, p. 407. 






Fig. 116. Views of right maxillo-palatal arch. 

A. Platurus. B. Enhydris. C. Hydrus. 

m. Maxillary, pi. Palatine, pt. Pterygoid. tp. Trauspalatine. 

Genus PLATURUS, 
Daudin, Hist. Kept, vii, p. 223, 1803. 

Maxillary very short, with a pair of large grooved fangs followed 
by a single very small solid tooth. Head-shields normal ; nasals 




Fig. 117. Head of Platurus laticattdatus. 

lateral. Scales smooth and imbricate. Ventrals and subcaudals 
large. 

Distribution. Eastern parts of the Indian Ocean and West Pacific. 

This genus approaches the Elapince (Bungarus and CullopJiis) 
in the shape of the skull, the scaling of the head and body, and 



PLA.TITRPS. 395 

the general appearance. In fact, nothing but the shape of the 
tail would prevent Pkitwrus being placed close to Bungarus and 
Callophis. Species of Platurus are not so absolutely aquatic as the 
other Hydrophids, and there are several records of specimens found 
at some distance from water. In a recent note on Snakes from 
Sumatra, Dr. van Lidth de Jeude mentions that a specimen of 
P. colubrinus was captured by Dr. Hagen in the forests of Serdang 
at a distance from the sea of nearly a day's journey. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

A. No ventral keel. 

. No azygous shield on snout ; scales in 

19 rows P. laticaudatus, p. 395. 

b. An azygous shield between preefrontals ; 

scales in 21-25 rows P. colubrinus, p. 395. 

B. A keel along posterior half of belly P. schistorhynchus. 

P. scJiistorhynchus, Gtbr. (H. colubrinus, Schleg. Faun. Japon., 
Rept. pi. x), is known from the Chinese Sea and the Western 
Pacific, but has not been recorded from the coasts of India or 
Burma. 

487. Platurus laticaudatus. 

Coluber laticaudatus, Linn. Mus. Ad. Frid. pi. xvi, fig. 1 ; id. Syst. 

Nat. i, p. 383. 

Laticaudata scutata, Laur. Syn. Rept. p. 109. 
Platurus fasciatus, part., Daud. Rept. vii, p. 226 ; Dum. 8f Bibr. Erp. 

Gen. vii, p. 1321. 
Platurus fischeri, Jan, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1859, p. 149 ; Giinth. Rept. 

B. I. p. 356, pi. xxv, fig. A ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 189 ; Fayrer, 

Thanatoph. pi. xix ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 40, pi. i, fig. 2. 
Platurus affinis, Anders. 1. c. p. 190. 
Platurus laticaudatus, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl 1877, p. 417. 

No azygous shields on the snout ; one prae- and two postoculars 
7 or 8 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; temporals 
1 + 2. Scales in 19 rows. Ventrals not keeled, 220-240 ; sub- 
caudals 25-45. Olive above, yellowish beneath, with black annuli 
which are as broad as the interspaces between them or broader. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches. 

Hob. From the Bay of Bengal and the Chinese Sea to Polynesia. 

488. Platurus colubrinus. 

Hydrus colubrinus, Schneid. Hist. Amph. i, p. 238. 

Platurus fasciatus, part., Daud. Rept. vii, p. 226, pi. Ixxxv, fig. 1 ; 

Dum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1321. 
Laticauda scutata, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1046. 
Platurus fasciatus, Jan, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1859, p. 149, and Icon. 

Ophid. 40, pi. i,fig. 1. 

Platurus scutatus, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 356. 
Platurus colubrinus, Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 1877, p. 418. 



396 COLUBRIDJE. 

An azygous shield between the prsefrontals, and sometimes one 
or two between the internasals ; one prse- and two postoculars ; 
6 or 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; temporals 
1 + 2 or 2 + 2. Scales in 21-25 rows. Ventrals not keeled, 
195-240 ; subcaudals 30-45. Olive above, yellowish below, with 
black annuli which are as wide as the interspaces between them 
or narrower. 

Total length 5 feet. 

Hob. Same as the preceding. According to observations recently 
made in Japan, this snake does not bite. 

Genus ENHYDRIS, 
Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. p. 140, 1820. 

Maxillary short, about as long as the transpalatine, with a pair 
of large grooved fangs followed, after a considerable interval, by 
two to four small solid teeth. Nostrils superior; nasal shields in 
contact with each other; head-shields large. Body short and 
stout. All the scales hexagonal or squarish and juxtaposed. 
Ventrals very feebly developed, if at all distinct. 

Only two species : 

Parietals broken up into small shields E. curtus, p. 396. 

Parietals large E. hardwickii, p. 397. 

489. Enhydris curtus. 

Hydrus curtus, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 502. 

Enhydris cmtus, Men: Tent. p. 140. 

Hydrophis propinquus, Jan, Jtev. et Mag. Zool. 1859, p. 151, and 

Icon. Ophid. 41, pi. i, fig. 2. 
Hydrophis curta, Giinth. Rapt. E. I. p. 379; Fayrer, Thanatoph. 

pi. xxiv; Stoliczka, P.A.S. B. 1872, p. 91 ; Murray. Zool. Sind. 

p. 395. 

Parietals broken up into small shields ; one prse- and one or 
two postoculars ; two or three superposed anterior temporals ; 7 
upper labials, fourth, or third and fourth, entering the eye; chin- 
shields very small, and separated by scales, or quite indistinct. 
30 to 38 scales round the anterior part of the body, 33 to 42 round 
the middle, with a very feebly-developed tubercle or short keel ; 
the scales on the lower surface, in the male, with a very strong 
spinose tubercle. Ventrals distinct in the anterior half of the 
body, with two spinose tubercles in the male, 150-200*. Above 
with dark transverse bands, broadest in the middle ; these bands 
are usually very dark, nearly black, but in some old specimens 
rather indistinct ; end of tail black. 

Total length 2| feet. 

Hob. Coasts of India and Ceylon. 

* As remarked by Stoliczka in this species, and by Boettger in the following, 
he males have fewer scales than the females. 



397 



490. Enhydris hardwickii. 

Lapemis hardwickii, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. ii, pi. Ixxxvii, fig. 2. 
Hydrophis pelamidoides, Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 512, pL'xviii, figs. 
16 & 17 ; Dum. * Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1345 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 



Lapemis loreatus, Gray, A. M. N. H. xi, 1843, p. 46. 

Hydrophis (Pelamis) pelamidoides, Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Ilamb. 

iii, 1856, p. 64, pi. iii. * 

Hydrophis problematicus, Jan, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1859, p. 150. 
Hydrophis hardwickii Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 380, pi. xxv, fig. W. 
Hydrophis loreata, Gilnth op. cit. p. 380 ; Boettg. Zool Anz. 1888, 

p. 390. 

Hydrophis fayreriana, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 19. 
Hydrophis abbreviatus and H. brevis, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 40, pi. iv, 

fig. 2, & pi. v, fig. 2. 

Parietals large ; one prte- and one to three postoculars ; a loreal 
sometimes present ; two or three superposed anterior temporals ; 
seven upper labials, fourth, or third and fourth, entering the eye ; 
chin-shields very small and separated by scales, or quite indistinct. 
25 to 33 scales round the anterior part of the body, 34 to 37 round 
the middle of the body, with tubercles as in the preceding species. 
Veutrals usually very indistinct, 135-200. Coloration as in the 
preceding, but the dark bauds often forming complete rings round 
the body. 

Total length 2| feet. 

Hob. From the Bay of Bengal to the Chinese Sea and the coast 
of New Guinea. 



Genus HYDRTTS, 
Schneider, Hist. Amph. i, p. 233 (part.), 1799. 

Maxillary much longer than transpalatine ; poison-fangs short, 
followed, after a short interval, by seven or eight solid teeth. 
Snout long ; nostrils superior ; nasal shields in contact with each 
other ; head-shields large. Body short. All the scales hexagonal 
or squarish, and juxtaposed. No distinct veutrals. 

Only one species. 

491. Hydrus platurus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. \, pi. xli. 

Anguis platura, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 391. 

Hydrus bicolor, Schneid. Hist. Amph. i, p. 242 ; Cantor, J. A. S. B. 

xvi, 1847, p. 1056. 
Pelamis bicolor, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 366, pi. Ixxxix ; Dum. $ Bibr. 

Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1335; Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 382; Fayrer, 

Thanatoph. pi. xvii ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 397. 
Pelamis ornata, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 43. 
Hydrophis bicolor, Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. iii, 1856, p. 61 ; 

Jan, Icon. Ophid. 40, pis. ii & iii. 
Pelamis platurus, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 92. 



398 COLUBKIDuE. 

Frontal large, at least as long as the snout or the parietals ; one 
prae- and two or three postoculars ; temporals small and numerous ; 
7 or 8 upper labials, fourth, or fourth and fifth, entering the eye ; 
chin-shields small or indistinct. 45 to 57 scales round the body, 
smooth in the females and young, with one, two, or three small 
tubercles in the male. Yellowish, with black cross bands or sym- 
metrical spots, or uniform black above and yellow beneath, with 
or without black spots; tail yellowish, ^ith black spots or cross 
bands. 

Total length 3 feet. 

Hob. This is the most widely distributed Sea-Snake, being found 
throughout the Indian Ocean and the Tropical or Subtropical 
Pacific ; the extreme points from which it is recorded being the 
Persian Gulf, the Cape of Good Hope, the Japanese Sea, Posiette 
Bay, New Zealand, the west coast of Central America, and 
Guayaquil. 



Genus HYDROPHIS, 
Daudin, Hist. Kept, vii, p. 372, 1803. 

Maxillary much longer than transpalatine ; poison-fangs large, 
followed by a series of seven to eighteen solid teeth. Head small ; 
nostrils superior ; nasal shields in contact with each other ; head- 





Fig. 118. Head of Hydraphis gracilis. 

shields large. Body long, often very slender anteriorly. Scales 
on the anterior part of the body imbricate. Ventrals more or less 
distinct, small. 

About 20 species are known. 



HYDEOPHIS. ,'J99 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. Two superposed anterior temporals. 

a. 32 scales round neck, 47 round middle 

of body ; frontal as long as its distance 

from rostral H. schistosus, p. 399. 

b. 35-38 scales round neck, 48-50 round 

middle of body ; frontal shorter than its 

distance from rostral H. ccerulescens, p. 400. 

c. 27-29 scales round neck, 39 round middle 

of body ; scales all imbricate H. niyrocinctus, p. 400. 

d. 25-27 scales round neck, 35 round middle 

of body ; scales on hinder half of body 

juxtaposed H. mamillaris, p. 401. 

B. A single anterior temporal. 
. All the scales imbricate. 

a'. 29 to 33 scales round middle of body. 

a". 28-29 scales round neck H. spiralis, p. 401. 

b". 21 scales round neck; posterior chin- 
shields separated by scales H. latifasciatus, p. 401. 

c". 19-23 scales round neck ; posterior 
chin-shields in contact with each 

other H. coronatus, p. 402. 

b'. 40 to 50 scales round middle of body. 
a". 33-35 scales round neck; frontal 

shorter than its distance from rostral. H. torquatus, p. 402. 
b". 34-40 scales round neck ; frontal as 

long as its distance from rostral H. obscurus, p. 403. 

c". 25-31 scales round neck ; frontal as 

long as its distance from rostral . . H. fasciatus, p. 404. 
b. Scales on posterior half of body hexagonal 

and juxtaposed. 

a '. 19-21 scales round neck, 29-33 round 
middle of body ; rostral as deep as 

broad H. yracilis, p. 404. 

b '. 23-25 scales round neck, 41 round 
middle of body ; rostral deeper than 
broad H. cantoris, p. 405. 



492. Hyd.ropb.is schistosus. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. ii, pi. x. 
Hydrophis schistosus, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 386. 

Hydrophis nigra, Anders. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 399 j Fayrer, Thanatoph. 
pi. xxv. 

Head moderate ; body moderately elongate. Eostral broader 
than deep; nasals about as long as the frontal, more than twice as 
long as the suture between the praefrontals ; frontal slightly longer 
than broad, shorter than the parietals ; one prae- and one post- 
ocular ; 7 upper labials, second largest, third and fourth entering 
the eye ; two superposed anterior temporals ; two pairs of subequal 
chin-shields, posterior separated by one scale ; 32 scales round the 
neck, 47 round the middle of the body ; scales elongate, rhom- 



400 COLUBEIBA\ 

boidal, smooth or feebly keeled, feebly imbricate anteriorly, juxta- 
posed posteriorly. Ventrals distinct anteriorly, 235 (-306). Uni- 
form blackish. 

Total length 3 feet. 

Hub. Bengal and Cuttack coasts. 



493. HydropMs caerulescens. 

Hydrus caerulescens, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 561. 
Enhydris caerulescens, Merr. Tent. p. 140. 

Hydrophis caerulescens, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 62 ; Gilnth. Rent. B. I. 
p. 3(35, pi. xxv, fig. C. 

Head very small; anterior part of body very slender, its dia- 
meter about one third the depth of the posterior part. Eostral 
broader than deep ; frontal longer than broad, shorter than its 
distance from the rostral, much shorter than the parietals ; one 
prse- and one postocular ; two superposed anterior temporals ; 7 
upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; chin-shields very 
small, posterior pair separated by scales. 35 to 38 scales round 
the neck, 48 to 50 round the middle of the body ; scales rhom- 
boidal, imbricate, with a strong short keel, Ventrals distinct 
throughout, 294-309. Grey above, with black cross bands, 
broader on the back, which form complete rings, or are interrupted 
on the belly ; head uniform black. 

Total length 2 feet. 

Hob. Bombay coast, Bay of Bengal, Straits of Malacca. 



494. Hydrophis nigrocinctus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. vi. 

Hydrophis nigrocinctus, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 380 ; Dum. fy Bibr. Erp. 

Gen. vii, p. 1350 (part.); Giintii. Rept. B.I. p. 368, pi. xxv, 

fig. L ; Fayrer, TJianatoph. pi. xxv. 

Head small ; anterior part of body slender, its diameter about 
two fifths the depth of the posterior part. Eostral broader than 
deep ; nasals shorter than the frontal, about twice as long as the 
suture between the prsefrontals ; frontal longer than broad, as long 
as its distance from the end of the snout, shorter than the 
parietals ; one prae- and one or two postoculars ; a small loreal 
sometimes present ; 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering the 
eye, second and fourth largest; two superposed anterior temporals; 
two pairs of subequal chin-shields, posterior separated by scale?. 
27 or 29 scales round the neck, 39 round the middle of the body ; 
scales imbricate, rhombic, keeled. Ventrals distinct, but feebly 
enlarged, 317-331. Pale olive above, yellowish beneath, with 
black annuli, which are broadest on the back. 

Total length 40 inches. 

Hob. Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca. 



IIYDROPHIS. 401 

495, Hydrophis mamillaris. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. xliv. 

Annuls mamillaris, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 340. 

Hydrophis fasciata (non Schn.), Gilnth. Rept. B. /. p. 374, pi. xxv, 

flg.Q. 

Head very small ; anterior part of body very slender, its diameter 
about one third the depth of the posterior part. Hostral broader 
than deep ; frontal longer than broad, as long as its distance from 
the end of the snout, a little shorter than the parietals ; one prae- 
aud two postoculars ; 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering 
the eye ; two superposed anterior temporals ; two pairs of chin- 
shields, in contact with each other. 25 to 27 scales round the 
neck, 35 round the middle of the body ; scales rhomboidal and 
imbricate on the neck, hexagonal and juxtaposed ou the body, with 
a tubercle or short keel. Ventrals distinct throughout, 287-316. 
Black, with yellowish annuli, which are interrupted on the belly. 

Total length 26 inches. 

Hab. I have examined two specimens : one from the Vizagapatam 
coast, the other from Bombay. 

406. Hydrophis spiralis. 

Hydrus spiralis, Shmo, Zool. iii, p. 564, pi. cxxy. 
Hydrophis melanurus, War/I. Icon. Amph. pi. iii. 
Hydrophis spiralis, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 54 ; Gilnth. Rept. B. 1. p. 300, 

pi. xxv, fig. D ; Anders. P. Z. 8. 1872, p. 397 ; Murray, Zool. Slncl, 

p. 390. 
Hydrophis nigrocinctiiti, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 41, pi. ii, tig. 2. 

Head rather small ; body moderately elongate. Eostral broader 
than deep ; frontal longer than broad, as long as its distance from 
the rostral, a little shorter than the parietals ; one prse- and one 
postocular ; a single anterior temporal, descending to the labial 
border ; 6 or 7 upper labials, second largest, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; two pairs of subequal chin-shields, in contact. 
28 or 29 scales round the neck, 33 to 35 round the middle of the 
body ; scales imbricate, smooth in the young, with a central 
tubercle in the adult. Ventrals distinct, but feebly enlarged, 
310-320. Olive above, yellowish beneath, with black rings con- 
nected by a black ventral band in the young ; a more or less dis- 
tinct series of round black dorsal spots between the rings ; head 
black above, with a horseshoe-shaped yellow mark, the convexity 
of which rests on the prsefrontal shields ; end of tail black. 

Total length 6 feet (Giinther). I have only seen young specimens. 

Hab. Indian Ocean ; Anderson received specimens from the 
Cuttack coast, and Murray records the species from the Siud and 
Cutch coasts. 

497. Hydrophis latifasciatus. 

Hydrophis latifasciata, Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 372, pi. xxv, tig. T ; 
Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, pt. 2, p. 132. 

2D 



402 COLTJBRID^;. 

Head small ; anterior part of body slender, its diameter about 
one third the depth of the posterior part. Kostral broader than 
deep ; nasals slightly longer than the frontal, more than twice as 
long as the suture between the prrefrontals ; frontal small, longer 
than broad, much shorter than the parietals, or than its distance 
from the rostral; one prse- and one postocular ; prsef rental in con- 
tact with the second labial ; 6 upper labials, second largest, third 
and fourth entering the eye ; a single, large anterior temporal ; 
two pairs of chin-shields, posterior separated by scales. 21 scales 
round the neck, 33 round the middle of the body ; scales imbricate 
and keeled. Ventrals distinct, but feebly enlarged, 322. Dark 
olive, sides with vertical yellowish bars ; these bars continuous 
across the neck. 

Total length 29 inches. 

Hob. Mergui; a single specimen. Blanford records a second 
from Pegu. 

498. Hydrophis coronatus. 

Hydrophis coronata, G'imth. Kept. B. I. p. 372, pi. xxv, fig. M ; 
Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 192 : Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xxvi. 

Head very small, narrow ; body long, extremely slender an- 
teriorly *. Kostral broader than deep ; frontal small, longer than 
broad, hardly as long as its distance from the rostral ; one pra3- 
and one postocular ; a single anterior temporal, descending to the 
labial border ; 6 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; 
two pairs of chin-shields, in contact with each other. 19 to 23 
scales round the neck, 29 to 33 round the middle of the body ; all 
the scales rhomboidal and imbricate, dorsals with a keel, laterals 
with a central tubercle. Ventrals hardly distinct, 321-337. Head 
and neck blackish or dark green, the former with a horseshoe- 
shaped yellow mark above, the convexity on the snout, the latter 
with regular yellow cross bands or rings ; body likewise with yellow 
cross bands or rings, which may be interrupted on the back. 

Total length 3 feet. 

Sab. Coast of Bengal. I have examined two specimens (the 
types), male and female ; a fine female is figured by Fayrer. 

499. Hydrophis torquatus. 

Hydrophis nigrociucta, part., Schlet/. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 500, pi. xviii, 

tigs. 11 & 12. 

Hydras nigrocinctus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1049. 
Hydrophis torquata, Gilnth, Eept. B. I. p. 369, pi. xxv, fig. H. 

* As in H. obscurus and other species, the neck is proportionally much more 
slender in the female than in the male, as may be seen by the following mea- 
surements of the two type specimens : 

(5 . Total length 2 feet 1 in. ; diameter of neck 0'25 inch ; greatest depth of 
body 0'8 inch. 

$. Total length 3 feet; diameter of neck O25 inch; greatest depth of 
body 1-3 inches. 



HYDROPIIIS. 403 

Head small ; anterior part of body slender, its diameter about 
one third the depth of the posterior part. Rostral broader than 
deep ; nasals longer than the frontal, at least twice as long as the 
suture between the praefrontals ; frontal small, as long as broad or 
a little longer than broad, shorter than its distance from the rostral, 
much shorter than the parietals ; one prae- and one postocular ; 
praefrontal in contact with the second labial ; 6 or 7 upper labials, 
second largest, thiixl and fourth entering the eye ; a single, large 
anterior temporal ; two pairs of subequal chin-shields, in contact 
with each other. 33 or 35 scales round the neck, 43 or 45 round 
the middle of the body ; scales imbricate and keeled. Ventrals 
distinct, but feebly enlarged, 283-285. Pale greyish olive, with 
blackish cross bands tapering on the sides. 

Total length 23 inches. 

Hab. Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca. 



500. Hydrophis obscurus. 

Mussell, Ind. Serp. ii, pis. vii ($ ) & viii ( J). 

Hydrophis obscurus, Daud. Rept. vii, p. 375. 

Hydrophis cloris, Daud. t. c. p. 377, pi. xc. 

Hydrophis stricticollis, G'tinth. Rept. B. I. p. 376, pi. xxv, fig. E ; 

Anders. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 397 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xxviii ; 

Gilnth. A. M. N. H. (4) ix, 1872, p. 33 ; Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 

1872, p. 858. 

Head very small ; body very long, extremely slender anteriorly. 
Rostral broader than deep ; frontal longer than broad, as long as 
its distance from the rostral or the end of the snout ; one prae- and 
one postocular ; a single anterior temporal ; 7 or 8 upper labials, 
second largest, third and fourth entering the eye ; two pairs of 
chin-shields, posterior smallest and usually separated by scales. 
34 to 40 scales round the neck, 45 to 50 round the middle of the 
body ; scales rhomboidal, imbricate, feebly keeled in the female, 
strongly in the male, the keels often broken up into tubercles. 
Ventrals very feebly enlarged, longer than broad under the neck, 
bicarinate in the male, 332-438. Olive or dark green above, with 
yellowish cross bars, which form complete rings round the slender 
part of the body ; on the other two thirds of the body these bands 
are interrupted on the back ; a yellow spot on the snout and a 
yellow streak on each side of the upper surface of the head ; young 
with blackish rings. 

Total length 3 feet 11 inches. 

Hab. Russell's female specimen was obtained in the Sunderbans ; 
an almost identical specimen, presented to the British Museum by 
Sir J. Fayrer, is from the same district. Peters records the species 
from Madras, and Theobald obtained specimens on the coast of 



2D2 



404 COLTTBBID.E. 

50 1. Hydrophis fasciatus. 

Hydras fasciatus, Schntid. Hist. Amph. i, p. 240. 

Hydrophis gracilis, part., Schleg. P/ii/s. Serp. ii, p. 507 ; Dam. 4" 

*Bibr. vii, P. 1352; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 41, pi. iv, fig. 2. 
Hydrophis chloris (non Daud.), G'tinth. Sept. B. I. p. 370; Anders. 

P. Z. S. 1871, p. 191, and 1872, p. 396 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. 

pi. xxvii ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 392. 
Aturia lindsayi, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 61. 
Hydrophis lindsayi, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 50 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 371 ; 

Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 191, and 1872, p. 393; Murray, Zool. 

Sind, p. 392. 
Hydrophis atriceps, Giinth. R;p'. B. I. p. 371, pi. xxv, fig. I. 

Head very small; body long, extremely slender anteriorly*. 
Eostral nearly as deep as broad ; frontal longer than broad, as 
long as its distance from the rostral ; one prae- and one or two 
postoculars ; a single anterior temporal, followed by a second equally 
large : 6 or 7 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; 
two pairs of small chin-shields, in contact with each other. 25 to 
31 scales round the neck, 40 to 48 round the middle of the body ; 
all the scales rhomboidal and imbricate, on the iieck smooth, on 
the body with a small tubercle or short keel. Yentrals feebly 
enlarged, 345-500. Head and neck black, the latter with yellowish 
cross bands ; body pale, with black cross bauds or annuli, which 
are broadest on the back. 

Total length 3 feet 3 inches. 

Hab. From the coast of India to Siam and the Indian 
Archipelago. 

502. Hydrophis gracilis. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xiii (male). 

Hydrus gracilis, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 560. 

Thalassophis microcephala, Schmidt, Abh. Natunc. Hamb. ii, 

2e Abth. 1852, p. 78, pi. ii. 

Hydropliis gracilis, part., Dum. Sf Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1352. 
Hvdrophis microcephala, Dum. $ Bibr. t. c. p. 1356 ; Jan, Icon. 

'Ophid. 41, pi. v, fig. 2. 
Hydrophis gracilis, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. ,"73 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, 

"p. 395. 
Hydropbis guentheri (non Theob.), Murray, I. c. p. 396, pi. . 

Head very small, narrow ; body long, extremely slender ante- 
riorly. Snout strongly projecting bayond the lower jaw ; rostral 
as deep as broad ; frontal very small, longer than broad, hardly as 
long as its distance from the rostral ; one prse- and one postocular ; 
a single anterior temporal, followed by a second equally large 
shield ; 6 upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye ; two 
pairs of small chin-shields in contact with each other. 1 9 to 21 

* See footnote under H. coronatus (p. 402). The specimens naiued H. chloris 
by Dr. Gunther are females, those named H. lindsayi and atriceps are mostly 
(six specimens out of seven) males. 



EXIIYDBIXA. 405 

scales round the neck, 29 to 33 round the middle of the body ; 
scales smooth, rhomboidal and imbricate anteriorly, elsewhere 
hexagonal, juxtaposed, each with two or more tubercles, which 
are feeble in the female and very strong in the male. Yentrals 
distinct only anteriorly, very feebly enlarged, 225-294. Bluish 
black or greyish olive above in the adult, with more or less distinct 
lighter cross bauds anteriorly. Young with the head and neck 
black, the latter region with light transverse bands ; body with 
rhombic black cross bands continued on to the belly, or sub- 
interrupted on the sides, or black with a series of elliptical vertical 
whitish spots on each side. 

Total length 3 feet. 

ffab. From the Persian Gulf and the Makran coast, along the 
coasts of India and Burma to the Indian Archipelago. 

503. Hydrophis cantoris. 

Hydrus gracilis, part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1051. 
Hvdrophis cantoris, GiintJi. Sept. B. I. p. 374, pi. xxv, fig. U ; Anders. 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 192 ; Boettger, Ber. Senck. Ges. 1889, p. 304. 

Head very small, narrow ; body long, extremely slender an- 
teriorly. Rostral considerably deeper than broad ; frontal small, 
louger than broad, hardly as long as its distance from the rostral ; one 
pra>and one postocular ; a single anterior temporal, followed by a 
second equally large shield; 6 upper labials, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; two pairs of small chin-shields, in contact with 
each other. 23 to 25 scales round the neck, 41 round the middle 
of the body; scales smooth, rhomboidal and imbricate anteriorly, 
elsewhere hexagonal, juxtaposed, each with two or three tubercles 
one before the other. Ventrals hardly enlarged, 41 2-456. Body 
dark olive or blackish anteriorly, with yellowish cross bands above : 
posterior part of body olive above, yellowish on the sides ; tail 
with olive vertical bars ; a blackish streak along the belly. 

Total length 4 feet. 

Hab. The type specimen is from Pinang. Others have been 
obtained from the mouth of the Hooghly, Ganjam, and Madras. 



Genus ENHYDRINA, 
Gray, Cat. Snakes, p. 47, 1849. 

Maxillary a little longer than transpalatine, with a pair of large 
grooved fangs, followed by four solid teeth. Nostrils superior: 
nasals in contact with each other ; head-shields large ; mental 
narrow, partly concealed in a deep symphysial groove. Body 
moderately elongate; scales imbricate. Ventrals distinct, very 
small. 

A single species. 



406 COLTJBRIDjE. 

504. Enhydrina valakadien. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xi. 

Hydras valakadyn, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 554. 

Polyodontes annulatus, Lesson, in Belany. Voy. Ind. Or., Rept. p. 325, 

pi. iv. 
Hydrophis schistosa (non DauiL), Schky. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 00, 

pi. xviii, figs. 1-3: Dmn. & Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1344; Jan. 

Icon. Ophid. 41, pi. ii, fig. 1. 

Hydrophis bengalensis and H. subfasciata, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 02. 
Hydrus schistosus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1053. 
Enhydrina bengalensis, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 48 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. 

p. 381 ; Fayrer, Thanatopli. pi. xviii ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 390. 
Enhydrina valakadyen, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 48; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 

xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 213, and P. A. 8. B. 1872, p. 91. 
Enhydrina schistosa, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, /. c. ; Anders 

P. Z. S. 1871, p. 193. 
Hydrophis fasciatus, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 41, pi. iii, fig. 2. 




$. Enhydrina valakadien. 



Bostral deeper than broad; frontal small, longer than broad, 
shorter than its distance from the end of the snout or than the 
parietals ; one prse- and one or two postoculars ; 7 or 8 upper 
labials, fourth or third and fourth entering the eye; usually 
a single anterior temporal ; chin-shields small or indistinct. 40 
to 60 scales round the neck, 50 to 70 round the middle of the 
body ; scales feebly imbricate, with a small tubercle or short keel, 
which is stronger in the males. Ventrals very slightly enlarged, 



DISTIEA. 407 

284314. Young olive or grey above, with black transverse bands, 
broadest in the middle and tapering to a point on the sides ; in 
the adult these bands are usually less distinct, some specimens 
being uniform dark grey above ; sides and lower parts whitish. 

Total length 4 feet. 

Hub. From the Persian Gulf, along the coasts of India and 
Burma to the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. 



Genus DISTIRA, 
Lace-pede, Ann. du Mus. iv, 1804, p. 210 *. 

Maxillary longer than transpalatine ; poison-fangs large, followed 
by four to ten solid teeth which are grooved anteriorly. Head 
moderate or rather small ; nostrils superior ; nasal shields in 
contact with each other ; head- shields large. Body more or less 
elongate ; scales on the anterior part of the body imbricate. 
Ventrals usually more or less distinct, small. 

We know about 14 species. 

Synopsis of Indian, Oeylonese, and Burmese Species. 

A. All the scales strongly imbricate; the 
ventrals usually in pairs and pointed, except 
quite anteriorly ; no chin-shields ; 39-47 
scales round neck, 48-53 round middle of 

body D. stokesti, p. 408. 

B. Scales on body feebly imbricate, or jux ta- 



rt. Frontal shield longer than broad. 

'. Two pairs of chin-shields, in contact on 
middle line, or posterior separated by 
a single scale. 
a". A single large anterior temporal ; 

scales on body imbricate, 
a. 15-17 scales round neck, 19-21 

round middle of body D. jerdonii, p. 408. 

/3. 27-31 scales round neck, 32 35 

round middle of body D. robusta, p. 409. 

y. 38 scales round neck D. tnberculata, p. 409. 

h". Two or three superposed anterior 

temporals. 
a. Scales on body imbricate. 

a'. 27-33 scales round neck, 39-43 

round middle of body D. cyanocincta, p. 410. 

/3'. 26 or 27 scales round neck, 48 or 

49 round middle of body D. bituberculata, p. 411. 

ft. Scales on body juxtaposed. 30- 
33 scales round neck, 43-47 round 
middle of body D. lapemidoides, p. 412. 

* Type: D. major, Shaw (=Hydrus major, part., Shaw, Distdra doliata, 
Lacep., Hydrophis mentalix, Gray, Disteira dumerilii, Jan). 



408 

b'. Second pair of chin-shields, if distinct, 
separated by . several scales ; 35-42 
scales round neck, 40-50 round middle 

of body D. ornata, p. 411. 

b. Frontal shield as broad as long ; anterior 

ventrals comparatively very broad .... D. viperina, p. 413. 

505. Distira stokesii. 

Ilydrus major, part., Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 558 ; Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 58. 
Hydrus stokesii, Gray, in Stofos, Australia, i, p. 502, pi. iii. 
Hydrophis schizopholis. Schmidt, Abh. Nalitnr. Hamb. i, 1846, 

p. 166, pi. xv ; Dum. $ Bil>r, Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1357. 
Ilydrus anuulatus, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 50. 
Astrotia schizopholis, Fischer, Abh. Natimr. Hamb. iii, 1856, p. 38; 

Jan, Icon. Ophifl. 39, pi. iii. 
Hydrophis stokesii, Gunth. Rept. B. I. p. 363. 

? Hydrophis guentheri, Theob. Cat. Kept. As. Soc. Mm. 1868, p. 60. 
? Hydrcphis granosa, Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 190. 
Hydrophis guttata, Murray, J. Bomb. N. H. Soc. ii, 1887, p. 33. 

Head moderate ; body stout. Eostral as deep as broad ; nasals 
shorter than the frontal, more than twice as long as the suture 
between the praefrontals ; frontal longer than broad, as long as or 
slightly longer than its distance from the rostral ; one prae- and 
two postoculars ; 9 or 10 upper labials, fourth, fifth, and sixth 
entering the eye, if not divided to form a series of suboculars ; two 
or three superposed anterior temporals ; no chin-shields. 39 to 47 
scales round the neck, 48 to 53 round the middle of the body ; 
scales much imbricate, pointed, keeled, the keel frequently broken 
up into two tubercles. Ventrals usually distinct only quite 
anteriorly, further back in pairs and not larger than the adjoining 
scales ; 240-267. Yellowish or pale brownish, with broad black 
dorsal cross bands, or with complete black annuli. 

Total length 5 feet. 

Hub. Erom the Makran coast and the Chinese Sea to the North 
coast of Australia. 

506. Distira jerdonii. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xii. 

Hvdrus nigrocinctus, var.. Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1050, 

'pi. xl, fig. 8. 

Kerilia jerdonii, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 57. 
Hydrus canton, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 1854, p. 526. 
Hydrophis jerdonii, Gunth. Sept. B. I. p. 362, pi. xxv, fig. B; 

'Andtrs. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 190; Fayrer, Tlianatoph. pi. xx. 

Head short, snout declivous and rather pointed ; body mode- 
rately elongate. Eostral as deep as broad ; nasals shorter than 
the frontal, more than twice as long as the suture between the 
praefrontals ; frontal longer than broad, nearly as long as its dis- 
tance from the end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; one 
prae- and one postocular ; 5 upper labials, third and fourth entering 
the eye ; a single large anterior temporal, descending to the labial 



DISTIBA. 409 

margin. 15 or 17 scales round the neck, 19 or 21 round the 
middle of the body ; scales broader than long, slightly imbricate, 
strongly keeled. Ventrals distinct, but feebly enlarged, more or 
less distinctly bituberculate, 224-238. Olive above, yellowish 
beneath, with black cross bands which form complete rings in 
young and half-grown specimens ; a black spot may be present 
between each pair of annuli. 

Total length 35 inches. 

Hfib. Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca. 

507. Distira robusta. 

Hydrophis nigrocincta, part., Schleg. Phys. Serp. ii, p. ~>05, pi. xviii, 

figs. 8-10. 
Hydrophis nigrocincta (non Daud.\ Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. 

iii, 1856, p. 40, pi. i. 
Hydrophis robusta, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 304 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. 

pi. xxi; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 394. 
Hydrophis rappii, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 41, pi. iv, fig. 1. 
Hydrophis temporalis, Blanf. P. Z. S. 1881, p. 080, fig. 
Hydrophis bishopii, Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 391, pi. . 

Head moderate ; body moderately elongate. Eostral broader 
than deep ; nasals shorter than the frontal, about twice as long as 
the suture between the praefrontals ; frontal much longer than 
broad, as long as its distance from the end of the snout, shorter 
than the parietals ; one pr- and one or two postoculars ; 7 upper 
labials, second largest, third and fourth, or third, fourth, and fifth, 
entering the eye ; a single large anterior temporal, descending to 
the labial margin; two pairs of subequal chin -shields, in contact 
on the middle line. 27 to 31 scales round the neck, 32 to 35 
round the middle of the body ; scales rhomboidal and subimbricate, 
smooth or each with a more or less distinct central tubercle or 
short obtuse keel. Ventrals distinct throughout, smooth or 
bitubercular, 310-372. Greenish yellow above, dorsal scales with 
black margins, with black cross bands or aunuli, which are 
narrower than the interspaces between them; sides and lower 
parts yellowish ; end of tail black. 

Total length 6 feet. 

Hob. Persian Gulf and coasts of India, Burma, and the Malay 
Archipelago. 

508. Distira tuberculata. 

Hydrophis tuberculata, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, t p. 18; 
Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 393. 

Head moderate ; neck not very slender. Eostral broader than 
deep ; head-shields studded with minute granules ; fourth and fifth 
labials below the eye ; one prae- and two postoculars ; anterior 
temporal large and almost entering the labial margin; two pairs 
of large square chin-shields in contact with each other. 38 rows 
of slightly imbricate scales round the neck, each with two 



410 COLUBEIDJ;. 

prominent tubercles, one before the other. Ventrals 321, small, 
irregular; each ventral with several minute tubercles on either 
side. Body encircled by black bands, broadest and blackest on the 
back; ground-colour olive-yellow above, bright gamboge-yellow 
below. 

Total length 4 feet. 

Hob. Tidal streams, Calcutta. Specimens from the Persian 
Gulf and Karachi are referred to this species by Murray. This 
snake is unknown to me, and the above is an abstract of Ander- 
son's description. 

509. Distira cyanocincta. 

Russell, 2nd. Serp. ii, pi. ix. 

Hydrophis cyanocinctus, Daud. Sept. vii, p. 383 ; Giinih. Kept. B. 

~I. p. 367 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xxiii ; Peters, MB. Ak. Berl. 

1872, p. 852, pi. i, tig. 2: Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 301; Boettg. 

Bar. Offeiib. Ver. 1888, p. 89, and Zool. Anz. 1888, p. 396. 
Leioselasma striata, Lacep. Ann. Mus. iv, 1804, pp. 198, 210, pi. Ivii, 

tig. 1. 
Hydrophis striata, ScMeg. Faun. Japon., Kept. p. 89, pi. vii; id. 

Phys. Serp. ii, p. 502, pi. xviii, tigs. 4 & 5. 
Hydrophis sublsevis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 62. 
Hydrophis subannulata, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 54. 
Hvdrophis aspera, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 55 ; Gil-nth. 1. c. p. 365. 
Hydrus striatus, Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, p. 1047. 
Hydrophis striatus, part., Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. p. 1347. 
Hydrophis westermanni, Jaw, Icon. Ophid. 39, pi. v, fig. 1. 
Hydrophis taprohanica, Haly, Taprobanian, ii, 1887, p. 107. 

Head moderate ; body elongate. Eostral slightly broader than 
deep ; nasals shorter than the frontal, twice, or rather more than 
twice, as long as the suture between the prsef rontals ; frontal much 
longer than broad, as long as its distance from the end of the 
snout or a little shorter, shorter than the parietals ; one prae- and 
two postoculars; 7 or 8 upper labials, second largest, third and 
fourth, or third, fourth, and fifth, entering the eye ; two super- 
posed anterior temporals : two pairs of subequal chin-shields, in 
contact on the middle line, or posterior pair separated by one 
scale. 27 to 33 scales round the neck, 39 to 43 round the middle 
of the body ; scales rhomboidal and subimbricate, with a short keel, 
which is very strong and broken up into two or three tubercles in 
adult males. Ventrals distinct throughout, smooth or with two or 
more tubercles, 300-426. Greenish olive above, with black cross 
bars or anuuli, broadest on the back, and sometimes joined by a 
black band running along the belly. 

Total length 6 feet. 

Hob. Persian Gulf and coasts of India to the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and China and Japan. One of the commonest species in 
India. 



DISTIRA. 411 

510. Distira bituberculata. 

Hydrophis bituberculatus, Peters, MB. Al: Berl. 1872, p. 855, 
pi. ii, fig. 2. 

Very closely allied to D. lapemidoides, but scales imbricate, with 
the keels mostly broken up into two tubercles ; 26 or 27 scales 
round the neck, 48 or 49 round the deepest part of the body. 
Ventrals distinct, 278. Dark brown above, yellowish on the sides 
and beneath, the skin between the scales black. 

Total length 3 feet 8 inches. 

Hob. Colombo ; a single specimen in the Berlin Museum. 

511. Distira ornata. 

Aturia ornata, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 61, and Cat. Sn. p. 45. 
Hydrophis ocellata,'<7/-a/, Cat. Sn. p. 53 ; Giinth. Rept.B. I. p. 378, 

pi. xxv, fig. P. 

Chitulia inornata, Gray, Cut. Sn. p. 50. 
Thalassophis schlegelii, Schmidt, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. ii, 2e Abth. 

1852, p. 83, pi. v. 

Hydrophis striatus, part., Dttm. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1347. 
Hydrophis schlegelii, Fischer, Abh. Natunv. Hamb. iii, 1856, p. 50 ; 

Jan, Icon. Ophid. 40, pi. vi, fig. 1. 

Hydrophis lajvis, Liitk. Tidensk. Meddel 1862, p. 309, pi. i, fig. 6. 
Hydrophis ornata, Giinth. Sept. B. I. p. 376, pi. xxv/fig. V ; Boettg. 

Zool. Anz. 1888, p. 397. 

Hydrophis ellioti, Giinth. I c. p. 377, pi. xxv, fig. N. 
Hydrophis striatus, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 40, pi. v, fig. 1. 

Head moderate; body moderately elongate. Eostral broader 
than deep ; nasals shorter than the frontal, two or three times as 
long as the suture between the praefrontals ; frontal longer than 
broad, as long as its distance from the end of the snout or a little 
longer, shorter than the parietals ; one prae- and two or three 
postoculars ; 7 or 8 upper labials, second largest, third and fourth 
entering the eye ; two or three superposed anterior temporals ; an- 
terior chin-shields in contact, posterior chin-shields, if distinct, 
separated by two or three scales. 35 to 42 scales round the neck, 
40 to 50 round the middle of the body ; scales juxtaposed and 
hexagonal in the middle of the body, feebly imbricate anteriorly, 
smooth in the young, with a central tubercle or short keel in the 
adult. Ventrals distinct, but feebly enlarged, 252-300. Young 
with blackish cross bands, tapering on the sides, and with one or 
more lateral series of roundish dark spots ; these bands may become 
confluent in some specimens, which are uniform blackish olive 
above and white beneath. 
Total length 4 feet. 

Hob. From the Persian Gulf and the coasts of India and Ceylon 
to New Guinea and North Australia. 

HYDROPHIS CRASSICOLLIS, Anders. J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 19, 
and Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xxii, which is known to me from the 



412 COLTJBRID.E. 

description and figure only, appears to be very closely related to, if 
not identical with, D. ornata. It is described as follows : 

" Head hardly distinct from the neck. Neck and body of nearly 
equal girth throughout. Bound neck 2" 2'", round middle of body 
2'' 9'". Body elongate. 34 series of scales round the neck, 40 round 
the middle of the body. Scales almost smooth on the neck and an- 
terior third of the body ; two feeble keel-like tubercles, one before 
the other, very obscure, but more strongly developed on the two 
posterior thirds ; ventrals twice the size of the adjoining scales, 
quite smooth, broken up here and there on the posterior five eighths 
of the body. Two pairs of anal shields, the central pair of moderate 
size, elongate, the external pair very large. The vertical is point- 
edly linguate. One prse- and two postoculars. The third, fourth, 
and fifth labials enter the orbit on one side, but only the third and 
fourth on the opposite side, the fifth being transversely divided 
into two shields which do not reach quite as high as the orbital 
margin. Two pairs of large chin-shields, the anterior pair quad- 
rangular and the posterior pair rather elongated. Olive-yellow 
above, yellowish on the sides and under surface ; 62 broad black 
bands on the back, contracting to a point on the sides, but prolonged 
very indistinctly on to the sides and ventral aspect, when they ex- 
pand as a large blackish spot. Near the tail the dorsal bands become 
connected together, and their continuations on the ventral aspect 
follow a similar arrangement. Six black rings on the tail, confluent 
below ; the latter third entirely black." 

Total length 4| feet. 

Hob. Hooghly, below Calcutta. 

512. Distira lapemidoides. 

Aturia lapemoides, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 46. 

Hydrophis lapemoides. Griinth. Kept, B. I. p. 375; Blanf. J. A. S. B. 

xlviii, 1879, p. 132. 

Hydrophis holdsworthii, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (4) ix, 1872, p. 33. 
Hydropis stewartii, Anders. P. Z. S. 1872, p. 399 ; Fayrer, Thanat. 

pi. xxiv ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 390. 
Hvdrophis dayanus, Stoliczka, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 89 ; Murray, 

'Zool. Sind, p. 393. 

Head rather small ; body elongate, slender anteriorly ; diameter 
of neck two fifths to one third the greatest depth. Eostral slightly 
broader than deep ; nasals shorter than the frontal, more than 
twice as long as the suture between the praefrontals ; frontal much 
longer than broad, as long as its distance from the end of the snout 
or a little shorter, shorter than the parietals ; one prse- and two 
postoculars ; upper labials 8, second largest, third and fourth en- 
tering the eye ; two or three superposed anterior temporals ; two 
pairs of subequal chin-shields, in contact, or posterior separated by 
one scale. 30 to 33 scales round the neck, 43 to 47 round the middle 
of the body ; scales rhomboidal and subimbricate on the neck, hex- 
agonal and juxtaposed on the body, of young smooth, of adult 



DISTIKA. 413 

female with a feeble tubercle or keel, of adult male with a strong 
spiuose tubercle. Ventrals distinct throughout, 320-387. Youag 
greyish olive above, white beneath, with complete black rings which 
are broadest on the back ; head black, with an angular yellow 
(vermilion) band above, the apex on the snout ; tail black, with 
whitish vertical bands at the base. In the adult the bands become 
more obsolete and are not continued across the body, and the head 
is uniform olive-brown. 

Total length 3 feet. 

Hub. Coasts of Baluchistan, India, and Ceylon. 

1 regard H. lapemoides as the young, H. stewartii as the adult 
female, and H. Jioldsworthii as the fully developed male of one and 
the same species. 

513. Distira viperina. 

Thalassupliis viperiua, Schmidt, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. ii, 2e Abth. 

1852, p. 79, pi iii. 

Disteira prsescutata, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1331*. 
Hydrophis doliata, Fischer, Abh. Naturw. Hamb. iii, 1856, p. 5(3. 
? Hydrophis obscurus (non Daitd.), Jan, Rev. et May. Zool. 1859, 

pi 151 ; id. Icon. Ophid. 40, pi. vi, tig. 2. 
Hydrophis viperina, Giinth. Kept. B. I. p. 378 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1872, 

p. 400. 

Hydrophis jayakari, Bouleny. A. M. N. H. (5) xx, 1887, p. 408. 
Hydrophis plunibea, Murray, Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc. ii, 1887, p. 34. 

Head rather small ; body moderately elongate, rather slender 
anteriorly. Rostral as deep as broad ; nasals as long as or a little 
shorter than the frontal; suture between the praefrontals very 
short; frontal as broad as long, as long as its distance from the 
rostral or end of the snout, shorter than the parietals ; one or two 
prse- and one or two postoculars ; 7 or 8 upper labials, second largest, 
fourth or third and fourth entering the eye ; one or two anterior 
temporals ; two pairs of chin- shields, in contact with each other, 
posterior longer. 27 to 29 scales round the neck, 37 to 43 round 
the middle of the body ; scales juxtaposed, obtusely keeled. Yen- 
trals large anteriorly, bituberculate in the male, 237-267. Slaty 
grey above, with rhomboidal transverse black spots, white or pink 
on the sides and beneath ; some specimeus uniform dark grey 
above ; in the young, the black spots are continued down the sides 
of the body ; end of tail black. 

Total length 3 feet. 

Hob. From the Persian Gulf and the Makraii coast, round the 
coasts of India and Burma to Java, Hong Kong, and Hainan. 



* I have examined the type specimen in the Paris Museum. 



414 



AMBLYCEPHALID.E. 



Family VIII. AMBLYCEPHALIDvE. 

Facial bones movable ; transpalatine present ; pterygoid short, 
not extending to quadrate or mandible ; supratemporal present, 
small ; maxillary horizontal, converging posteriorly towards pala- 
tines. Mandible without coronoid bone. Both jaws toothed ; 
teeth all solid. 

Externally, these snakes are distinguished from the Dipsadine 
Colubridcv, to which they bear some resemblance, by the absence of 
a mental groove. The mouth is susceptible of but slight expansion, 
the snakes of this group feeding upon small prey. The large size 
of the eye and the vertical pupil indicate nocturnal habits. 

The AmUycephalidce are represented in the East Indies (Ambly- 
cephalus, Haplopelturd) and in Tropical America (Dipsadomorus, 
Leptof/nathus). 

Genus AMBLYCEPHALUS, 

Kuhl, in Ferussac, Bull. Sc. Nat. ii, 1824, p. 81 ; Boie, Isis, 1827, 
p. 519* 

Maxillary teeth few, small, without grooved fangs ; anterior 
mandibular teeth longest. Head distinct from neck, with short, 




Fig. 120. Head of Amblycephalus monticola. 



* Type: A. loevis. 



AMBLYCEPHALUS. 415 

broad snout ; eye moderate and with vertically elliptical pupil ; 
head-shields large. Body moderate or slender, compressed ; scales 
smooth or feebly keeled, in 15 rows, without pits ; ventrals 
rounded; tail moderate or short, prehensile; subcaudals ill two 
rows. 

Distribution. This genus includes eight species, inhabiting South- 
ern China, Burma, the Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Cochinchina, 
Siam, the Malay Peninsula, and the Malay Archipelago. They are 
nocturnal and feed on insects. 

Synopsis of Indian and Burmese tipecies. 

A. Scales of vertebral row enlarged; a single 

shield between nasal and eye, which rests on 
one or more labials. 

a. Frontal longer than broad ; ventrals 188- 

194 ; subcaudals 70-87 A. monticola, p. 415. 

b. Frontal as broad as long ; ventrals 150-176 ; 

subcaudals 34-46 A. lavis, p. 415. 

B. Scales of vertebral row not enlarged; loreal 

and prajocular distinct ; eye separated from 
labials by one or more suboculars. 

a. One prseocular, one postocular, and one sub- 

ocular A. andersonii, p. 416. 

b. Two prseoculars, one postocular, and one sub- 

ocular A. modestus, p. 416. 

c. One praeocular, one postocular, and 3 or more 

suboculars A. macularius, p. 416. 

514. Amblycephalus monticola. 

Dipsas monticola, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 53. 

Pareas monticola, Giinth. Sept. B. I. p. 327 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, 
p. 188 ; Theob. Cat. p. 203. 

Internasals not quite half as long as the prefrontals ; latter 
entering the eye ; frontal a little longer than broad, a little shorter 
than the parietals ; loreal entering the eye ; a small prseocular 
below the loreal ; two postoculars; temporals 2 + 3 ; upper labials 
7, fourth or fourth and fifth entering the eye ; three pairs of large 
chin-shields. Scales in 15 rows, smooth ; vertebrals enlarged, hex- 
agonal. Ventrals 188-194 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 70-87. 
Brown above, with vertical blackish bars on the sides ; a black line 
from above the eye to the nape, and another from behind the eye 
to the angle of the mouth ; yellowish below, dotted with brown. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 5| inches. 

Hab. Eastern Himalayas, Khasi and Naga Hills. 

515. Amblycephalus laevis. 

Amblycephalus leevis, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 620. 

Pareas Ia3vis, Dum. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 442 ; Giinth. Kept. 

B. I. p. 328; Theob. Cat. p. 203. 
Leptoguathus laevis, Jan, Icon. Ophid. 37, pi. vi, fig. 4. 



416 AMBLYCEPHALID.E. 

Internasals small, about one third the length of the preef rentals ; 
the latter entering the eye, between the praeocular and the supra- 
ocular; frontal as broad as long, two thirds the length of the 
parietals ; supraocular very small ; no praeocular ; loreal entering 
the eye ; one or two postoculars ; temporals 2 + 2; upper labials 6, 
third and fourth, or third, fourth, and fifth, entering the eye, sixth 
very long ; three pairs of large chin-shields. Scales in 15 rows, 
smooth; vertebrals slightly enlarged. A r entrals 150-176; anal 
entire ; subcaudals 3446. Brown above, with irregular transverse 
blackish cross bands ; lower parts brownish or yellowish, with 
transverse brown spots on the sides. 

Total length 16 inches ; tail 3. 

Hub. Java, Borneo, and Malacca. This species is said to occur 
also in the Khasi Hills, a statement which may be due to confusion 
with the allied A. monticola. 

516. Amblycephalus andersonii. 

Pareas audersonii, Boulcng. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) vi, 1888, p. 601, 
pi. v, fig. 3. 

Internasals small, about one third the length of the praefrontals ; 
the latter entering the eye, between the prseocular and the supra- 
ocular ; frontal slightly longer than broad, two thirds the length of 
the parietals ; supraocular moderate, not quite half the width of 
frontal ; a small loreal ; a praeocular, a postocular, and a band-like 
subocular, excluding the labials from the eye; temporals 2+3; 
upper labials 7, seventh very long ; three pairs of large chin- 
shields. Scales in 15 rows, dorsals feebly keeled. Ventrals 
153-155 ; anal single ; subcaudals 38-46. Dark brown above, 
with distant small black spots with a white dot ; labial region 
spotted black and white ; lower parts white, with closely- set 
squarish black spots. 

Total length 14 inches ; tail 2. 

Hob. Upper Burma (Bhamo, and Kakhyen Hills). 

517. Amblycephalus modestus. 

Pareaa modestus, Theob. Joum. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 55 ; id. Cat. 
p. 204. 

Internasals small ; praafrontals large, entering the eye ; supra- 
ocular small ; loreal moderate ; pra>oculars two, very small ; 
postocular one, very small ; a band-like subocular, excluding the 
labials from the orbit ; two anterior temporals ; 7 upper labials, 
seventh very long ; three pairs of large chin-shields. Scales in 15 
rows, dorsals faintly keeled. Colour above uniform brown ; below 
pale yellowish. 

Hob. Pegu. Unknown to me. 

518. Amblycephalus macularius. 

Pareas macularius, Theob. Joum. Linn. Soc. x, 1868, p. 54. 
Pareas berdmorii, Theob. Cat. Sept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 63. 
Pareas niargaritophorus (non Jan), Theob. Cat. p. 203. 



VIPERTDvB. 



IT 



Internasals about half the length of the praefrontals ; the latter 
entering the eye, between the prsoocular and the supraocular ; 
frontal longer than broad, a little shorter than the parietals : 
supraocular moderate, nearly half the width of the frontal ; a small 
loreal ; one praeocular, one postocular, and three or more snb- 
ocnlars, excluding the labials from the eye; temporals 2 + 2; 
upper labials 7, seventh very large ; three pairs of large chin- 
shields. Scales in 15 rows, dorsals faintly keeled. Ventrals 164 ; 
anal entire; subcaudals 51. Pale brown or reddish brown above, 
with transverse series of dark brown nnd white spots ; lower parts 
brownish white, spotted with brown. 

Total length 16 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hob. Tenasserim. 



Family IX. VIPERID.E. 

Facial bones movable ; transpalatine present ; pterygoid ex- 
tending to mandible ; supratemporal present, attached scale-like to 
the skull and supporting the quadrate ; maxillary short and thick, 
movable perpendicularly to the transpalatine, and bearing a pair of 
large canaliculate fangs. Mandible without coronoid bone, armed 
with solid teeth. 




Fig. 121. Skull of Trimercsnnis gramiwius. 
A. Upper view. B. Side view. 



ar. Articular. 
bo. Basioceipital. 
ca. Columella auris. 

d. Pentary. 
eo. Exocciuital. 

/. Frontal. 



m. Maxillary. 
n. Nasal. 
p. Parietal. 
pf. Poiaon-fang. 
pm. Praemaxillary. 
prf. Praefr.jnt.al. 



pro. Prootic. 

pt. Pterygoid. 
ptf. Postf'rontal. 

q. Quadrate. 

st. Supratemporal. 

tp. Transpalatine. 
2E 



418 VIPEEID^. 

All the snakes of this family are poisonous, and some kinds are 
amongst the most deadly kuown. Of the Indian forms, Vipera 
russellii is, after the Cobra, the most dangerous poisonous snake ; 
next comes the little Eclds carinata, which is also highly poisonous, 
though less dangerous to man on account of its small size. The 
Indian Trimeresuri have comparatively much smaller poison- 
glands, and it has been repeatedly ascertained that their bite does 
not produce death in man and large animals. The Viperidce are 
semi-nocturnal, all having the pupil vertically elliptical, and, as far 
as ascertained, their young are brought forth alive. 

The Viperidw are divided into two very distinct subfamilies : the 
Vipers proper, Viperince, and the Pit-Vipers, Crotalince, the latter 
being distinguished by the presence of a deep pit on each side of 
the snout, between the eye and the nostril. The physiological 
significance of this pit is still unknown. The Viperince are 
confined to the Old World, and most abundant in Africa. The 
Crotalince, of which the Rattle-Snakes are the type genus, are 
American (ranging from the United States to Patagonia) and 
Asiatic. 



Synopsis of the Subfamilies and Indian and Burmese Genera. 

A. No loreal pit : Viperina. 

a. Head with large symmetrical shields .... AZEMIOPS, p. 418. 

b. Upper surface of head covered with scales 

or small shields. 
a'. Lateral series of scales running in 

straight longitudinal lines VIPEHA, p. 419. 

b'. Lateral scales disposed obliquely ; sub- 

caudals in a single row ECHIS, p. 421. 

B. A deep pit between the nostril and the eye : Crotalina>. 

a. Head with large symmetrical shields ANCISTRODON, p. 423. 

b. Upper surface of head covered with scales TRIMERESUHUS, p. 425. 



Subfamily I. VIPERIN^E. 

G-enus AZEMIOPS, 
Boulenger, Ann. Mus. Geneva, (2) vi, 1888, p. 602. 

Head with large symmetrical shields ; loreal shield present. 
Scales smooth, in 17 rows. Subcaudals in two rows. 

Only one species, which strikingly resembles a harmless Coln- 
broid in external appearance. 



519. Azemiops feae. 
lenff. Ann. Mus. Geno 

Head elliptical, snout short and broad ; rostral broader than 



Azemiops fese, Bouleng. Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) vi. 1888, p. 603, 
pi. vii. 



VIPEBA. 419 




oculars ; two subequal postoculars ; two large superposed anterior 
temporals, the upper alone in contact with the postoculars ; 6 upper 
labials, third entering the orbit, first and second smallest, fourth and 
fifth largest ; 7 lower labials, first large and forming a long suture 




Fig. 122. Head of Azemiops fea. Upper and lower view. 

with its fellow, second small ; a pair of short chin-shields. Dorsal 
scales equal, smooth, in 17 longitudinal series. Ventrals 180 ; 
anal single ; subcaudals 42. Blackish above, the scales being dark 
grey in the centre and black on the borders, with 15 transverse 
white bands, one scale wide, some of which are disconnected in 
the middle and alternate with those on the other side ; upper 
surface of head, from the prsefrontals, black, with a yellow median 
line, which is very narrow anteriorly and widens posteriorly, 
ending on the neck on the eleventh transverse series of scales ; 
end of snout and sides of head yellow ; a blackish streak from 
below the eye to the lower horder of the fourth upper labial ; 
another from the postoculars to the upper border of the sixth 
labial. Lower parts olive-grey, with some small lighter spots ; 
chin and throat variegated with yellow. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 3-5 inches. 

Hob. Kakhyen Hills, Upper Burma. A single specimen is 
known. 



Genus VIPERA, 
Laurenti, Syn. Kept. p. 99, 1768. 

Upper surface of head covered with scales or small shields. 
Scales keeled, in 21 to 38 straight longitudinal rows. Subcaudals 
in two rows. 

Distribution. This genus, which comprises about 20 species, ranges 
over the whole of Africa (but not Madagascar), Europe, Northern, 
Central, and South-Western Asia, and is represented in India by a 
single species ; a second species reaches the eastern limit of its 
distribution in Baluchistan, Afghanistan, and Kashmir. 

2E2 



420 



VIFERTPjE. 



These two species are distinguished as follows : 

Ilostral .as deep as broad ; scales in 27-31 rows .... V. rutaelln, p. 420. 
liostral a little broader than deep ; scales in 23-27 rows V, lebetina, p. 421 . 



520. Vipera rnssellii. 

Russett, Ind. Scrp. i, pi. vii, and ii, pi. xxxii. 

Coluber russellii, Shaw, Nat. Miscell. viii, pi. ccxci. 

Vipera elegans, Daud. Rept. vi, p. 124, pi. Ixxiii ; Jan, Icon. Opliid. 

45, pi. vi, fig. 2. 

Echidna elegans, Merr. Tent. p. 163 ; Dum. # Bibr. vii, p. 1435. 
Paboia russellii, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 24 ; Giinth. Rept. B. I. p. 390 ; 

Sfoliczka, J. A. S. 13. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 220; Fatjrer, Thana- 

toph. pi. xi ; T/ieob. Cat. p. 217 ; Anders. An. Zool. Res. Yunnan, 

p. 833. 
Vipera russellii, Strauch, Mem. Ac. St. Petersb. 7, xiv, no. G, Syn. 

Viper, p. 85. 

Snout obtuse ; nostrils very large, between three shields ; rostral 
about as deep as broad ; a narrow supraocular shield ; upper 
surface of head covered with small imbricate, strongly keeled scales, 
in 6 to 8 longitudinal series between the supraoculars ; three or 







Fig. 123. Vipera russellii. 

four series of scales between the eye and the labials ; 11 or 12 
upper labials, fourth largest. Scales sharply keeled, in 27 to 
31 rows. Ventrals 163-172; anal entire; subcaudals 45-60. 



ECIIIS. 421 

Pale brown above, with three longitudinal series of black, light- 
edged rings ; in some specimens, however, these elegant markings 
are replaced by faint dark spots ; in the young, these black rings 
encircle dark reddish-brown spots, and those of the vertebral 
series are in contact with one another ; lower parts yellowish 
white, uniform or with crescentic small black spots. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 7 inches. 

Hab. India, Ceylon, Burma, and Siam. In the Himalayas this 
viper reaches up to 5000 feet in the Kulu Valley, and up to 
0000 feet in Cashmir. It is also recorded from Sumatra and Java, 
but upon somewhat doubtful data. 

Vipera russellii is one of the most deadly snakes of India. It 
is of sluggish habits and will frequently not move out of the way 
on the approach of a man. 

521. Vipera lebetina. 

Coluber lebetinus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 378 ; Forskftl, Dcscr. Anim. 

p. 13. 
Vipera lebetina, Dand. Rept. vi, p. 137 ; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 4G, pi. vi, 

fig. 1. 
Vipera obtusa, Dvriyubsky, Essay, Nat. Hist. Russ. Emp. (Russian), 

1832, p. 30 ; Blanf. Zool. E. Pers. p. 428 ; id. 2nd Yark. Miss., 

Rept. p. 24. 

Vipera euphratica, Martin, P. Z. S. 1838, p. 82. 
Echidua mauritaiiica, Guic/ienot, Explor. Sc. Alg., Rept. p. 24, pi. iii. 

Snout obtuse ; nostrils large, between three shields ; rostral a 
little broader than deep ; a narrow supraocular shield is present or 
absent ; upper surface of head covered with small imbricate strongly 
keeled scales, 9 to 12 across the forehead, from eye to eye ; three 
or four series of scales between the eye and the labials ; three or four 
scales in a line from the posterior nasal to the eye ; 10 to 12 upper 
labials, fourth usually largest. Scales strongly keeled, in 23 to 
27 rows. Veutrals 154-180 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 42-48. 
Pale grey-brown above, with darker spots or cross bands, which 
are distinct in the young, but feebly marked or absent in the adults ; 
lower parts whitish, powdered with grey. 

Total length 5 feet. 

Hab. North Africa and South-western Asia, from Algeria and 
Cyprus (also the Greek island Milo) to Northern Baluchistan 
(Quetta), Afghanistan, and Kashmir. 



Genus ECHIS, 
Merrem, Tent. Syst. Amph. p. 149, 1820. 

Upper surface of head covered with scales. Scales keeled, in 
25 to 35 rows, the laterals disposed obliquely. Subcaudals in a 
single row. 

Two species are known, the second, E. colomta, Gthr., inhabiting 
Arabia and Palestine. 



422 

522. Echis carinata. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. ii ; Geoffr. Descr. Egypte, pi. vii, fig. 1. 

Pseudoboa carinata, Schneid. Hist. Amph. ii, p. 285. 

Echis carinata, Merr. Tent. p. 149; Dunn. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, 

p. 1448, pi. Ixxxi bis, fig. 3 ; Giinth. llept. B. 1. p. 397 ; Fayrer, 

Thanatoph. pi. xii : Anders. P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 196 ; Blanf. Zool. E. 

Pars. p. 430; Theob. Cat. p. 218; Blanf. J. A. S. B. xlviii, 1879, 

pt. 2, p. 116 ; Murray, Zool. Sind, p. 388, pi. . 
Echis arenicola, Boie, Isis, 1827, p. 558. 

Head distinct from neck ; snout very short and rounded ; nostril 
between three shields ; head covered with small keeled scales, 
among which an enlarged supraocular is sometimes present ; 10 to 
15 scales across the forehead, from eye to eye ; two series of scales 
between the eye and the labials ; 11 or 12 upper labials, fourth 
usually largest. Scales strongly keeled, the keel on the lateral 
scales serrated, saw-like ; 25 to 29 scales round the anterior part 
of the body, 29 to 35 round the middle. Veutrals 138-185 ; anal 




Fig. 124. Scales of Echis carinata. 

entire ; subcaudals 21-40. Pale buff, greyish, reddish, or pale 
brown above, with three series of whitish spots edged with dark 
brown ; a zigzag dark brown band may run along each side ; a 
cruciform or yk- shaped, whitish, dark -edged marking on the head ; 
lower parts whitish, uniform or with brown dots. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 2-5 inches. 

Hob. The desert sandy districts of North Africa, South-Western 
Asia, and India. Blanford records the exceptional occurrence of 
this species between Durnagudem and Ellore, in thin forest, the 
soil of which is, however, very sandy. It appears to be found, 
though rarely, in South-western Bengal, but it is common in the 
North-west Provinces, the Central Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, and 
Cutch ; and it occurs as far south as the Carnatic. It is also said 
to be common in parts of the Concan, south of Bombay. This 
small viper is very fierce and aggressive, and Sir J. Payrer's 
experiments have shown its poison to be very active, killing a fowl 
in about two minutes, and a dog in about four hours. 



ANCISXKODON. 423 

Dr. Anderson was the first to notice that this viper makes a 
curious, prolonged, almost hissing sound by rubbing the folds of 
the sides of its body against one another. This sound is produced 
by friction between the serrated keels of the lateral scales, which, as 
noticed and figured above, are disposed obliquely with their tips 
directed downwards and backwards ; the noise can even be pro- 
duced after the death of the animal by twisting the body and 
thus rubbing or rasping these little saws against one another. A 
similar arrangement of the scales is found in the African genera 
Da&ypeltis and Cerastes. 



Subfamily II. CROTALIN^. 

Genus ANCISTRODON, 

ralisot de Beauvois, Tr. Am. Philos. Soc. iv. 1799, p. 381. 

Head with large symmetrical shields above. Tail ending in a 
point ; subcaudal shields in two rows in the Asiatic species *. 

North and Central America and Asia. 9 or 10 species are known. 
Terrestrial. 





Fig. 125. Head of Ancistrodon himalayanus. 

Two species in India : 

Two pairs of large shields on the snout A. himalayanus, p. 424. 

Upper surface of snout covered with small 

shields A - fypnale, p. 424. 

* A ft'W of the shields may be single. 



424 VIPERIDJE. 

523. Ancistrodon himalayanus. 

llalys bimalayanus, Gilnth. Kept. B. I. p. 393, pi. xxiv, fig. A ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, p. 226; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, 

p. 196, and 1872, p. 401 ; Fayrer, Thanutoph. pi. xvi ; Thcob. Cat. 

p. 225 ; Blunf. Zool. 2nd Yark. Miss., Rejyt. p. 24. 
Trigonocepbalus bloruhoffii (non Boie), Jan, Icon. Ophid. 46, pi. v, 

figs. 4, 6. 

Snout hardly turned up, with sharp canthus rostralis ; rostral 
as deep as broad or a little broader than deep ; a pair of praefrontals, 
and a pair of internasals in contact with each other; two post- 
oculars, upper small, lower descending to below the eye, which it 
sometimes entirely separates from the labials ; 5 to 7 upper labials, 
none entering the loreal pit, the penultimate very large, formed by 
fusion with the lower temporals. Scales sharply keeled, in 21 or 
23 rows. Yentrals 144-166 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 35-51 pairs. 
Brown, with black spots or transverse bands ; sometimes with a 
light vertebral band with dark festooned borders ; a black, light- 
edged band from the eye to the angle of the mouth ; lower parts 
dark brown or variegated with black and white. 

Total length 34 inches. 

Hob. Very common all over the North-western Himalayas, 
especially between 5000 and 8000 feet, and ascending even to 10,000 
feet ; also recorded from Sikhim, and specimens in the British 
Museum are stated to have been collected by Jerdon in the KLasi 
Hills. 

524. Ancistrodon hypnale. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. ii, pi. xxii. 

? Coluber nepa, Law: Syst. Kept. p. 97. 

Copbias hypnale, Merr. Tent. p. 155. 

Trigonocepbalus hypnale, Schlea. Phys. Serp. ii, p. 550, pi. xx, figs. 6 & 

7; Drnn. $ Bibr. Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1498; Jan, Icon. Ophid. 46, 

pi. v, figs. 2, 3. 

Trmiesurus ceylonensis, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 49. 
Trigonocephalus zara, Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 15. 
Hypnale nepa, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1859, p. 335 ; Giinth. Kept. 

B. I. p. 394 ; Fayrtr, Thanatoph. pi. xvii ; Tlieob. Cat. p. 226. 
Hypnale affinis, Anders. J.A. S. B. xl, 1871, pt. 2, p. 20. 

Snout more or less turned up at the end, with sharp canthus 
rostralis ; rostral as deep as broad or deeper than broad ; upper 
surface of snout covered with small shields, which are often irregu- 
lar and scale-like ; one or two postoculars and one or two suboculars ; 
7 or 8 upper labials, second entering the loreal pit, none entering 
the eye. Scales more or less distinctly keeled, in 17 or 19 rows. 
Ventrals 140-155 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 31-45 pairs. Colora- 
tion very variable : upper parts brown, yellowish, or greyish, 
uniform, or with blackish-brown alternating spots or cross bands, 
frequently with small deep black spots disposed in pairs ; sides of 
head usually dark brown, edged above with a fine whitish line ; 



TRIMEBESURTJS. 



425 



sometimes a white black-edged longitudinal streak on each side of 
the neck ; belly more or less closely powdered with dark brown. 

Total length 19 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hob. The " Karawala " is found in Ceylon and in the "Western 
Ghats of India as far north as Bombay. Its bite is said to be but 
exceptionally fatal to man. 



Genus TRIMERESURUS, 

Lac^pede, Ann. du Mus. iv, 1804, pp. 196, 209 (part.). 

Head covered with scales above. Tail often prehensile, ending 
in a point ; subcaudal shields in two rows in the Asiatic species. 




Fig. 126. Head of Trimeresurus monticola. 

Distribution. East Indies, Southern China, and Loo Choo Islands*, 
Tropical America. About 25 species are known. 

This genus includes terrestrial and arboreal species, but the two 
divisions are so insensibly blended as to render their distinction 
almost impossible. 



T. flavoviridis, Hallow. ( = T. riukianus, Hilgend.). 



426 



Synopsis of Indian, Ceylonese, and Burmese Species. 



A. Scales in 21 or 23 rows ; 5 to 11 scales in a 

transverse series between supraoculars ; tail 
not prehensile. 
. Supraoculars large, separated by 5 to 8 series 

of scales ; scales feebly keeled .......... T. monticola, p. 426. 

b. Supraoculars small, sometimes broken up, 

separated by 8 to 11 series of scales ; scales 

feebly keeled ........................ T. strigatus, p. 427. 

c. Supraoculars large; scales strongly keeled. . T. jerdonii, p. 427. 

B. Scales in 25 to 31 rows ; 12 to 16 scales in a 

transverse series between the supraoculars ; 
tail slightly prehensile. 

a. Ventrals 200-218; subcaudals 76-92 ; scales [p. J2S. 

strongly keeled, in 25 or 27 rows ........ T. mucrosyuamatus, 

b. Ventrals 174- 184; subcaudals 55-76 ; scales 

rather feebly keeled, in 27 to 31 rows ____ T. cantoris, p. 428. 

c. Ventrals 160-182 ; subcaudals 53-75 ; scales [p. 429. 

strongly keeled, in 25 or 27 rows ........ T.purpureomaculattis, 

C. Scales in 13 to 23 rows ; tail prehensile. 

n. 7 to 13 scales in a transverse series between 

supraoculars ; scales in 19 to 23 rows. 

'. Subcaudals 53-75 ; temporal scales smooth. T. yramineus, p. 429. 

V. Subcaudals 44-58 ; temporal scales ob- [p. 430. 

tusely keeled ...................... T. anamaltensis, 

b. 4 or 5 scales in a transverse series between 

supraoculars ; scales in 17 or 19 rows ; last [p. 431. 

ventral shield notched or divided ........ T. triyonocephalus, 

c. Upper head-scales very large, shield-like; 

scales in 13 or 15 rows ............... , T. macrvlepig, p. 431. 

525. Trimeresurus monticola. 

Farias maculata, Gray. A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 392 (nee Gray, 

1842). 
Trimeresurus monticola, Gilntli. Rept. B. I. p. 388, pi. xxiv, fig. B ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xl, 1871, p. 445 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xv ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 220; Anders. An. Zool. lies. Yunnan, p. 832, 

pi. Ixxvi, figs. 4 & 5. 
Trimeresurus convictus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, 

n. 224, pi. xii, fig. 1 ; Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 196. 
Trimeresuius monticola, part, Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 194. 

Snout very short ; eye very small. Kostral as deep as broad ; 
upper head-scales small, subimbricate, smooth ; supraocular large, 
more than twice the size of the eye ; internasals separated from 
each other by one to three scales, rarely in contact; 5 to 8 scales 
on a transverse line between the supraoculars ; 3 or 4 rows of scales 
between the eye and the labials ; 8 or 9 upper labials, second usually 
forming the anterior border of the loreal pit; temporal scales smooth. 
Scales feebly keeled, in some specimens almost smooth, in 21 to 23 
rows. Ventrals 132156 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 21-57 pairs. 
Brown or yellowish above, with one or two dorsal series of large 
squarish dark brown spots and a lateral series of smaller spots ; 



TRIMEEESUBUS. 427 

head dark brown above, pale or yellowish on the sides, with a dark 
brown temporal streak ; lower parts whitish, spotted or powdered 
with brown. 

Total length 2 feet ; tail 3'5 inches. 

Hub. This species is known from the Central and Eastern Hima- 
layas, from 2000 to 8000 feet, and the hills of Assam, Upper 
Burma, and Yunnan ; Muleyit, Teuasserim, 4500 feet (Beddome) 
Penaug (Stoliczka) ; Singapore. 

526. Triineresurus strigatus. 

Trimeresurus strigatus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 49 ; id. Cat. Sn. p. 10 ; 

Giinth. Kept. B. 1. p. 389, pi. xxiv, fig. I) ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. 

pi. xvi ; Theob. Cat. p. 224. 
Trigonocephalus (Cophias) neelgherrieusis, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii, 

1854, p. 524. 

Rostral broader than deep; upper head-scales small, smooth, 
juxtaposed ; supraocular small, sometimes broken up ; no enlarged 
internasals ; 8 to 11 scales on a line between the supraoculars ; 
two or three small postoculars and a subocular, which is separated 
from the labials by one or two series of scales ; the shield forming 
the anterior border of the loreal pit distinct from the second labial ; 
9 or 10 upper labials. Scales feebly keeled, in 21 rows. Veu- 
trals 136-145 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 31-49 pairs. Brown 
above, with dark brown spots, those of the median series often 
confluent into a zigzag band ; a more or less distinct Q-shaped 
light marking on the nape ; a dark temporal band; belly whitish, 
spotted or marbled with grey or black ; end of tail 'yellow or 
reddish. 

Total length 19 inches ; tail 2-5. 

Hab. From the Bombay hills to the Anaimalais and Kilgiris, 
where this snake reaches an altitude of 6000 feet. 



527. Trimeresurus jerdonii. 

Trimeresurus jerdonii, Giinth. P. Z. S. 1875, p. 233, pi. xxxiv. 
Trimeresurus xanthomelas, Giinth. A. M. N. H. (6) iv, 1889, p. 221. 

Eostral as deep as broad or a little deeper than broad ; upper 
head- scales very small, smooth, juxtaposed; supraoculars large, 
larger than the eye ; one or more scales between the internasals, 
7 to 9 on a line between the supraoculars ; one or two small post- 
oculars and a subocular, which is usually separated from the fourth 
labial by a series of small scales ; 7 upper labials, second forming 
the anterior border of the loreal pit ; a series of large temporals 
above the labials. Scales strongly keeled, in 21 or 23 rows. Ven- 
trals 164-187 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 42-67 pairs. Greenish 
yellow or olive above, mixed with black ; a dorsal series of trans- 
verse rhornboidal reddish-brown spots edged with black; head 
black above, with symmetrical yellow markings ; upper lip yellow, 



428 VIPEBIDJE. 

with one or more black spots, that on the second labial being con- 
stant ; belly yellow, more or less profusely spotted or marbled 
with black. 

Total length 31 inches ; tail 5. 

Hab. Khasi Hills. This species has recently been rediscovered 
at Ichang, on the Yang-tse-Kiang. 

528. Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus. 

Trigonocephalus mucrosquamatus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 32. 
Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus, Giinth. Rept. B. 1. p. 390 ; Swinhoc, 
P. Z. S. 1870, p. 411, pi. xxxi ; Theob. Cat. p. 224. 

Rostral slightly broader than deep ; upper head-scales extremely 
small, granular, smooth or obtusely keeled ; supraocular narrow ; 
3 scales between the internasals, 14 or 15 on a line between the 
supraoculars ; 4 or 5 minute postoculars and a subocular, which 
is separated from the labials by two or three series of scales ; 
10 or 11 upper labials, second forming the anterior border of the 
loreal pit. Scales strongly keeled, in 25 or 27 rows. Ventrals 
200-214(218); anal entire; subcaudals 76-92 pairs. Brownish 
grey above, with a dorsal series of large blackish spots and a lateral 
series of smaller ones ; a blackish streak from the eye to the angle 
of the mouth ; lower parts brownish, spotted with white. 

Total length 3 feet 5 inches ; tail 8*6 inches. 

Hab. Naga Hills, Assam ; Formosa. The above description is 
taken from specimens from the latter locality. 

529. Trimeresurus cantoris. 

Trigonocephalus cantori, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xv, 18G4, p. 377. 
Trimereaurus viridis, var. cautori, Blyth, J. A. 8. B. xxix, 1800, 

p. 110. 
Trinieresurus labialis, Steindachn. Numra. Rept. p. 8(5, pi. iii, figs. 1 

& 2 ; Theob. Cat. p. 221. 
Trimeresurus cantoris, StoKczka,J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 222, 

pi. xii, figs. 3 & 4 ; TJieob. 1. c. p. 222. 

Eostral as deep as broad ; upper head-scales very small, smooth, 
almost granular ; supraocular shield distinct, narrow, sometimes 
divided into two ; usually one or two scales between the inter- 
nasals, 16 on a line between the supraoculars ; two small post- 
oculars and a subocular, which is separated from the fourth and 
following labials by two or three rows of scales ; 13 upper labials, 
first confluent with nasal, second forming the anterior border of 
the loreal pit, fourth largest; temporals small, feebly keeled. 
Scales rather feebly keeled, in 27 to 31 rows. Ventrals 174-184 ; 
anal entire ; subcaudals 55-76 pairs. Pale brown or dull green 
above, with small dark spots ; a whitish streak along the outer 
series of scales ; whitish or greenish beneath, uniform or with the 
base of the ventrals dark ashy or blackish. 

Total length 4 feet ; tail 6-5 inches. 

Hab. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 



TRIMEHESITRUS. 429 

530. Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus. 
Tripfonocephalus purpureomaculatus, Gray, III. Ind. Zool. i, pi. Ixxxi 

Trirneresimis purpureus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 48(1842); Gilnth. 

Kept. B. I. p. 387. 

Trimesurus cannatus, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 48. 
Tiijronocephalus puniceus (non Reimo.), Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, 

p. 1043. 

Cryptelytrops carinatus, Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. 1859, p. 340. 
Trimeresurus porphyracous, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxix, 1861, p. Ill ; 

Theob. J. Linn. Soc. x, 1868,' p. 64 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 

1870, pt. 2, p. 218; Theob. Cat. p. 222. 
Trimeresurus andersonii, Theob. Cat. Kept. As. Soc. Mus. 1868, p. 75 ; 

Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 216, and xl, 1871, 

p. 443 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xv ; Theob. Cat. p. 224. 
Trimeresurus obscurus, Theob. Cat. Rept. As. Soc. Mm. p. 76. 
Trimeresurus monticola, part., Anders. P. Z. S. 1871, p. 194. 

Bostral as deep as broad ; upper head-scales very small, juxta- 
posed, convex, or obtusely keeled ; supraocular very narrow, some- 
times broken up ; internasals small, separated from each other by 
one or two scales ; 12 to 15 scales on a transverse line between 
the supraoculars ; two or three small postoculars and a subocular, 
which is separated from the labials by two or three series of scales ; 
11 to 13 upper labials, the fourth and succeeding small, the first 
usually fused with the nasal, the second (usually) forming the an- 
terior border of the loreal pit ; temporal scales keeled. Scales 
strongly keeled, in 25 or 27 rows. Ventrals 160-170 (182) ; anal 
entire ; subcaudals 5575 pairs. Dark purplish brown above, 
uniform or variegated with pale green ; flanks usually pale green 
or spotted with pale green, or with a series of pale spots on the 
outer series of scales ; olive or greenish white below, uniform or 
spotted with black. 

Total length 3 feet 2 inches ; tail 6 inches. 

Hub. Malay Peninsula, Mergui, Andamans and Nicobars. 

Var. Tricolor. 

Trimesurus bicolor, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1842, p. 392. 
Trimeresurus carinatus, Griinth. Rept. B. I. p. 386 ; Stoliczka, J. A . 

S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 217 ; Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xiii ; 

Theob. Cat. p. 221. 

Uniform grass-green above, with or without a series of whitish 
spots along the outer series of scales; uniform greenish white 
beneath. 

JJab. Himalayas, Bengal, Assam, Burma, Sumatra. 

531. Trimeresurus gramineus. 

Russell, Ind. Serp. i, pi. ix, ii, pi. xx. 
Coluber gramineus, Shaw, Zool. iii, p. 420. 
Vipera viridis, Daud. Rept. vi, p. 112. 



430 VIPERID^E. 

Trimeresurus viridis, Lacep. Ann. Mus. iv, 1804, p. 209, pi. Ivi, 

fig. 2 ; Gray, Cat. Sn. p. 7 ; id. A. M. N. H. (>) xii, Irf-M, 

p. 391. 

Trigonocephalus erythrurus, Cantor, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 81. 
Trimesurus albolabris, Gray, Zool. Misc. p. 48. 
Trigonocephalus gramineus, part., Cantor, J. A. S. B. xvi, 1847, 

p. 1040. 

Trimesurus elegans, Gray, A. M. N. H. (2) xii, 1853, p. 391. 
Bothrops viridis,-Z>Mm. Bibt: Erp. Gen. vii, p. 1512. 
Trimeresurus gramineus, Gilnth. Rept. B. I. p. 385 ; Stoliczka, J. A. 

S. B. xxxix, 1870, pt. 2, p. 216; Anders. P. Z. 8. 1871, p. 194; 

Theob. Cat. p. 219 ; Anders. Ann. Zool. Res. Yunnan, p. 828. 
Trimeresurus erythrurus, Giinth. 1. c. p. 386 ; Stoliczka, I. c. p. 217 ; 

Fayrer, Thanatoph. pi. xiv ; Theob. Cat. p. 220. 
Trimeresurus nmtabilis, Stoliczka, I. c. p. 219, pi. xii, tig. 5 ; Theob. 

I. c. p. 223. 

Rostral as deep as broad or broader than deep ; upper head- 
scales small, smooth, imbricate ; supraocular shield narrow, rarely 
broken up ; internasals in contact or separated by one or two 
scales ; 8 to 13 scales on a line between the supraoculars ; usually 
one or two, rarely three, series of scales between the subocular and 
the labials ; 9 to 12 upper labials, second usually forming the an- 
terior border of the loreal pit, third largest ; temporal scales smooth. 
Scales more or less distinctly keeled, in 21 (rarely 19 or 23) rows. 
Ventrals 145-175 ; anal entire ; subcaudals 53-75. Upper parts 
usually bright green, rarely yellowish, greyish, or purplish brown, 
with or without black, brown, or reddish spots ; usually a light, 
white, yellow, or red streak along the outer row of scales ; end 
of tail frequently yellow or red ; lower parts green, yellow, or 
whitish. 

Total length 2| feet ; tail 5-5 inches. 

Hub. Southern China, Sikhim, Bengal, Assam, Burma, Cochin- 
China, Siam, Andamans and Nicobars, Malay Peninsula and 
Archipelago. 

532. Trimeresurus anamallensis. 

? Trigonocephalus (Cophias) malabaricus, Jerdon, J. A. S. B. xxii. 

1854, p. 523. 

? Trigonocephalus (Cophias) wardii, Jerdon, I. c.