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^•^ ^•^3 2.^.5' C^^\) 

l^arbarlr College lltrrarg 


Mrs. Anna Louisa Moring, 


Received Sept. 15, 1890. 














jvr«Bnti.«r '. •oi 



This work is an abridged recast, of several English 
books of travel, through the regions of the Danube, and 
the Adriatic, for the countries being contiguous, a desire 
has been more than once expressed to the author, to 
see them fused into one continuous narrative. Since the 
last of these works appeared, important events have 
occurred; a revolution in Servia, a war in Italy, and an 
agitation in Hungary, but the career of the author as an 
active political writer having terminated, he leaves to 
subsequent travellers and historians all the events that 
have occurred since the Crimean war. At the same time 
he does not think, that the work in its present state, will 
prove of less value, as there is an interest, attaching to 
those regions of the Danube and the Adriatic, not likely 
to pass away, for some generations at least. And every 
thing relating to general history, ethnology, topography, 
maimers and customs, the economical conditions that 
spring from national character, and the archaeology, that 


alternately illumines, and is explained by the landmarks of 
history, has been carefully revised, so as to render the 
present as much a work of reference, as the form of a 
book of travels allows. 




Chapter i. Syria to Bel^ade 1 

Chapteb II. Belgrade 10 

Chapter hi. A sketch of Servian history ' 16 

Chapter iv. Life and letters in Belgrade 31 

Chapter v. Shabatz and the banks of the Save 42 

Chapter vi. The vale of the Drina 59 

Chapter vii. The upper Morava 76 

Chapter viii. The Bosniac borders 86 

Chapter ix. Eastern Servia 100 

Chapter x. The population of Servia *. . . HI 


Chapter i. First view of Croatia 118 

Chapter ii. First view of Dalmatia 136 

Chapter hi. Sebenico 143 

Chapter iv. The Dalmatian Archipelago 154 

Chapter v. Cattaro 168 

Chapter vi. Montenegro 177 

Chapter vii. Montenegrine history 186 

Chapter viii. Ragusa 203 

Chapter ix. History of Ragusa 218 

Chapter x. Ragusan science and literature 231 

Chapter xi. Environs of Ragusa 241 

Chapter xii. Public institutions of Ragusa 248 

Chapter xiii. The Narenta 257 

Chapter xiv. The Palace of Diocletian 272 

Chapter xv. History of Spalato 281 

Chapter xvi. Society in Spalato 291 



Chapter xvii. Literature and antiquities in Spalato 303 

Chapter XVIII. The Dalmatian highlands 320 

Chapter xix. Moral, social, and political condition of the Morlack 339 

Chapter xx. Zara and its environs 346 

Chapter xxi. Society of Zara and its revolutions 364 

Chapter xxii. The Croat military frontier 378 

Chapter xxiii. The back-woods of Croatia 393 

Chapter xxiv. Zengg the capital of the Uskoks 398 

Chapter xxv. Fiume and Trieste 406 

Chapter xxvi. Oriental Art in Venice 414 

Chapter xxvii. Styria 427 

. BOOK I. 

S E K V I A. 



It was after several years' residence in Egypt and 
Syria, that I embarked for Turkey in Europe, in one of 
those comfortable, but not showy Austrian steamers, that 
ply along the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean. 

Our first station was at Rhodes, where I felt as if an 
enchanter had waved his wand ; in reading of the wondrous 
world of the ancients, one feels a desire to get a peep 
at Rome before its destruction by barbarian hordes. A 
leap backwards of half this period is what one seems to 
make at Rhodes, a perfectly preserved city and fortress 
of the middle ages. Here has been none of the Vandalism 
of Vauban, Cohorn, and those mechanical-pated fellows, 
who, with their Dutch dyke-looking- parapets, made such 
havoc of donjons and picturesque turrets in Europe. 
Here is every variety of mediaeval battlement; so perfect 
is the illusion, that one wonders the warder's horn should 
be mute, and the walls devoid of bowman, knight, and 

Two more delightful days of steaming among the Greek 
Islands now followed. The heat was moderate, the motion 
Paton. I. 1 


gentle, the sea was liquid lapis lazuli, and the hundred- 
tinted islets around us, wrought their accustomed spell. 
Surely there is something in climate which creates per- 
manent abodes of art! The Mediterranean, with its hydro- 
graphical configuration, excluding from its great pen- 
insulas the extremes of heat and cold, seems destined to 
nourish the most exquisite sentiment of the Beautiful. 
Those brilliant or softly graduated tints invite the palette, 
and the graces of the mind, shining through lineaments 
thorough-bred from generation to generation, invites the 
sculptor to transfer to marble grace of contour and ele- 
vation of expression. But let us not envy the balmy 
South. The Germanic or northern element, if less sus- 
ceptible of the beautiful, is more masculine, better balanced, 
less in extremes. It was this race that struck down the 
Roman empire, that peoples America and Australia, and 
rules India; and more than any other on the face of the 
globe, superadds Patient Effort and Invincible Perseverance, 
to whatever genius the Almighty has given it, in Art, 
Science and Literature. 

The most remarkable of our fellow passengers was an 
American Presbyterian clergyman, with furibond dilated 
nostril and a terrific frown. 

**You must lose Canada," said he to me one day, ab- 
ruptly, "ay, and Bermuda into the bargain." 

"I think you had better round off your acquisitions 
with a few odd West India Islands." 

"We have stomach enough for that too." 

"I hear you have been to Jerusalem." 

"Yes; I went to recover my voice, which I lost; for 
I have one of the largest congregations in Boston." 

"But, my good friend, you breathe nothing but war 
and conquest." 

"The fact is, war is as unavoidable as thunder and 
lightning ; the atmosphere must be cleared from time to time." 

"Were you ever a soldier?" 

"^'o; I was in the American navy. Many a day I was 
after John Bull on the shores of Newfoundland." 


"After John Bull?" 

'*Ye8, Sir, sweating after him: I delight in energy; 
give me the man who will shoulder a millstone, if need be." 

** The capture of Canada, Bermuda, and a few odd West 
India Islands, would certainly give scope for your energy. 
This would be taking the bull by the horns." 

"Swinging him by the tail, say I." 

The burlesque vigour of his illustrations sometimes 
ran to anti-climax. One day, he talked of something (if 
I recollect right, the electric telegraph), moving with the 
rapidity of a flash of lightning, with a pair of spurs 
clapped into it. 

. In spite of all this ultra-national bluster, we found him 
to be 4 very good sort of man, having nothing of the 
bear but the skin, and in the test of the quarantine 
arrangements, the least selfish of the party. 

One day he passed from politics to religion. "I am 
fond of fun," said he, "I think it is the sign of a clear 
conscience. My life has been spent among sailors. I have 
begun with many a blue jacket hail-fellow-well-met in my 
own rough way, and have ended in weaning him from 
wicked courses. None of your gloomy religion for me. 
When 1 see a man whose religion makes him melancholy, 
and averse from gaiety, I tell him his god must be my 

The originality of this gentleman's intellect and man- 
ners, led me subsequently to make farther inquiry; and 
I find one of his sermons reported by a recent traveller, 
who, after stating that his oratory made a deep im- 
pression on the congregation of the Sailors' chapel in 
Boston, who sat with their eyes, ears, and mouths open, 
as if spellbound in listening to him, thus continues: "He 
describes a ship at sea, bound for the port of Heaven, 
when the man at the head sung out, 'Rocks ahead!' 
'Port the helm,' cried the mate. 'Ay, ay, sir,' was the 
answer ; the ship obeyed , and stood upon a tack. But in 
two minutes more, the lead indicated a shoal. The man 
on the out-look sung out, 'Sandbreaks and breakers 



ahead!' The captain was now called, and the mate gave 
his opinion; but sail where they could, the lead and the 
eye showed nothing but dangers all around, — sand-banks, 
coral reefs, sunken rocks, and dangerous coasts. The 
chart showed them clearly enough where the port of 
Heaven lay; there was no doubt about its latitude and 
longitude: but they all sung out, that it was impossible 
to reach it; there was no fair way to get to it. My 
friends, it was the devil who blew up that sand-bank, and 
sunk those rocks, and set the coral insects to work; his 
object was to prevent that ship from ever getting to 
Heaven, to wreck it on its way, and to make prize of 
the whole crew for slaves for ever. But just as evei:y 
soul was seized with consternation, and almost in despair, 
a tight little schooner hove in sight; she was cruizing 
about, with one Jesus, a pilot, on board. The captain 
hailed him, and he answered that he knew a fair way to 
the port in question. He pointed out to them an opening 
in the rocks, which the largest ship might beat through, 
with a channel so deep, that the lead could never reach 
to the bottom, and the passage was land-locked the whole 
way, so that the wind might veer round to every point 
in the compass, and blow hurricanes from them all, ard 
yet it could never raise a dangerous sea in that channel. 
What did the crew of that distressed ship do, when Jesus 
showed them his chart, and gave them all the bearings? 
They laughed at him, and threw his chart back in his 
face. He find a channel where they could not! Im- 
possible; and on they sailed in their own course, and 
every one of them perished." 

As for Constantinople, I refer all readers to the in- 
dustry and accuracy of Mr. White, who might justly have 
terminated his volumes with the Oriental epistolary phrase, 
"What more can I write?" Mr. White is not a mere 
sentence balancer, but belongs to the guild of bona fide 
Oriental travellers. 

In summer, all Pera is on the Bosphorus ; so I jumped 
into a caique, and rowed up to Buyukdere. On the 


threshold of the villa of the British embassy, I met A , 

the prince of attaches, who led me to a beautiful little 
kiosk, on the extremity of a garden, and there installed 
me in his fairy abode of four small rooms, which embraced 
a view like that of Isola Bella on Lake Maggiore; herie 
books, the piano, the narghile, and the parterre of flowers, 
relieved the drudgery of his Eastern diplomacy. Lord 

N , Mr. H , and Mr. T , the other attaches, 

lived in a house at the other end of the garden. 

I here spent a week of delightful repose. The morn- 
ings were occupied ad lihitum, the gentlemen of the 
embassy being overwhelmed with business. At four 
o'clock dinner was usually served in the airy vestibule of 
the embassy villa, and with the occasional accession of 
other members of the diplomatic corps we usually formed 
a large party. A couple of hours before sunset a caique, 
which from its size might have been the galley of a doge, 

was in waiting, and Lady C sometimes took us to 

a favourite wooded hill or bower-grown creek in the 
Paradise-like environs, while a small musical party in the 
evening terminated each day. 

From the Bosphorus I proceeded to Varna in Bulgaria, 
but how different are the features of Slavic Turkey, from 
those of the Arabic provinces in which I so long resided. 
The flat roofs, the measured pace of the camel, the half- 
naked negro, the uncouth Bedouin, the cloudless heavens, 
the tawny earth, and the meagre apology for turf, are 
exchanged for ricketty wooden houses with coarse tiling, 
laid in such a way as to eschew the monotony of straight 
lines; strings of primitive waggons drawn by buffaloes, 
and driven by. Bulgarians with black woolly caps, real 
genuine grass growing on the downs outside the walls, 
and a rattling blast from the Black Sea, more welcome 
than all the balmy spices of Arabia, for it reminded me 
that I was once more in Europe, and must befit my 
costume to her ruder airs. This was indeed the north of 
the Balkan, and I must needs pull out my pea-jacket. 
How I relished those winds, waves, clouds, and grey 


skies ! They reminded me of English nature and Dutch 
art. The Nore, the Downs, the Frith of Forth, and sundry 
dormant Backhuysens, re-awoke to my fancy. 

The moral interest too was different. In Egypt or 
Syria, where whole cycles of civilization lie entombed, we 
interrogate the past; here in Bulgaria the past is nothing, 
and we vainly interrogate the future. 

Having subsequently seen Varna, Shumla, Rustschuk 
and Widdin, under circumstances of more stirring interest, 
I shall say nothing of them at the present time. At the 
last mentioned town, I was introduced to a historical 
character. Hussein Pasha, the celebrated destroyer of the 
Janissaries, whose bloody feat forms one of the great land- 
marks of the modern history of the Ottoman Empire. 
He appeared to be verging on eighty, and, afflicted with 
gout, was sitting in the corner of the divan at his ease, 
in the old Turkish ample costume. The white beard, the 
dress of the Pasha, the rich, but faded carpet which 
covered the floor, the roof of elaborate, but dingy wooden 
arabesque, were all in perfect keeping, and the dubious 
light of two thick wax-candles, rising two or three feet 
from the floor, but seemed to bring out the picture, which 
carried me back, a generation at least, to the Pasha of 
the old school. Hussein smoked a narghile of dark red 
Bohemian cut crystal, while my introductor Mr. Petronie- 
vitch and myself were supplied with pipes, profusely 
mounted with diamonds. 

It is clear ly the perfection of the art, and instruments 
of war, arising from the general advance of civilization, 
that lies at the root of the extinction of the Feudal 
Principle and the crushing of the Military Factions and 
Aristocracies of modern times. A more perfect instru- 
ment of power being in the hands of the Sovereign, local 
Oligarchies have no longer the same chance in the con- 
flict. But while a large part* of Asia still remains Feudal, 
the Ottoman Empire, from its vicinity to Europe, has in 
this century been fully drawn within the centralizing 
vortex. The trouble Mahomed Ali gave the Porte, arose 


from his having earlier and more promptly than Mahmoud, 
carried out the unfeudalizing process against Mamelukes, 
Druses and all and sundry below him, while he himself 
remained the one great and dangerous Feudatory of the 

The destruction of the Janissaries by Hussein may be 
called the first of the great steps taken by the govern- 
ment of Constantinople to walk in the road of the other 
long since centralized Monarchies of Europe, and Mahmoud, 
if I may be pardoned the bull, untied the Gordian Knot 
in old eastern fashion by cutting it. The period of re- 
bellious Pashas successftiUy defying the Porte, such as 
Pasvan, Oglou, whose capital was this very Widdin, and 
Daoud Pasha of Bagdad seems to have passed away as 
well as that of the hereditary Feudal Chiefs scattered all 
over the Empire — the Dereh Beys of Asia-Minor, the 
Nobles of Bosnia, the Chiefs of Albania and Kurdistan, 
and the Emirs and hereditary Sheikhs of Syria have all 
been made to feel that the centralization and unfeudali- 
zation of the European Monarchies is in course of transfer 
to the Ottoman Empire. 

Those vast alternate surges of scattered Townships 
and Principalities, disfigured by Anarchy, but compatible 
with much individual and national liberty — and lai^e cen- 
tralized Monarchies, characterized by overgrown Capitals, 
standing armies, an advanced material civilization, and a 
diminution of political freedom, seem to be as inevitable 
as the cycles observable in the external Universe. No 
law seems to be absolute in the political government of 
the human race, for not only are laws relative to national 
temperament (for in&tance, the above remarks would only 
apply partially to the Saxon Races), but they are also 
relative to vast cycles, in which the transformation seems 
as remarkable as that of caterpillar or silk-worm. Aristotle 
described the multitude of scattered communities which 
the legions of Rome subsequently fused into one vast 
Empire. Tacitus wrote during the completest period of 
centralized tyranny, but as M. Guizot says, Rome began 


with towns, and returned to towns again. The towns 
are again become Monarchies, and the Ottoman Empire 
has been the last to exchange the feudal for the cen- 
tralized form. 

The Saxon races we leave out of the question. 

Pursuing my journey I approached the Iron Gates. 

New Orsova, one of the few remaining retreats of the 
Turks in Servia, is built on an island, and with its frail 
houses of yawning rafters looks very old. Old Orsova, 
opposite which we now arrived, looked quite new, and 
bore the true Grerman type of formal white-washed houses, 
and high sharp ridged roofs, which called up forthwith the 
image of a dining-hall, where, punctually as the village- 
clock strikes the hour of twelve, a fairhaired, fat, red- 
faced landlord, serves up the soup, the rindfleisch, the 
zuspeise, and the other dishes of the holy Roman empire 
to the Platzmajor, the HauptzoUamtdirector, the Kanzlei- 
director, the Concepist, the ProtocoUist, and hoc genus 

After a night passed in the quarantine, I removed to 
the inn, and punctually as the clock struck half past 
twelve, the very party my imagination conjured up as- 
sembled to discuss the mehlspeise in the stencilled parlour 
of the Hirsch. 

Favoured by the most beautiful weather, I started in 
a sort of caleche for Dreucova. The excellent new macad- 
amized road was as smooth as a bowling-green, and only a 
lively companion was wanting to complete the exhilaration 
of my spirits. 

My fair fellow-traveller was an enormously stout 
Wallachian matron, on her way to Vienna, to see her 
daughter, who was then receiving her education at a 
boarding-school. I spoke no Wallachian, she spoke nothing 
but Wallachian; so our conversation was carried on by 
my attempting to make myself understood alternately by 
the Italian, and the Spanish forms of Latin. 

"Z7wa bella campagna,^' said I, as we drove out Orsova. 

^^Bella, bella?^^ said the lady, evidently puzzled. 


So I said, ^'HermosaV 

^^Ah! formosa; formosa prate,^^ repeated the lady 
evidently understanding that I meant a fine country. 

^^Deunde venut?^^ Whence have you come? 

"Const^ntinopolis ; " and so on we went, supposing that 
we understood each other, she supplying me with new 
forms of bastard Latin words, and adding with a smile, 
Bomaniy or Wallachian, as the language and people of 
Wallachia are called by themselves. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that the Wallachians and a small people in Switzer- 
land, are the only descendants of the Romans, that still 
designate their language as that of the ancient mistress 
of the world. 

As I rolled along, the fascinations of nature got the 
better of my gallantry; the discourse flagged, and then 
dropped, for I found myself in the midst of the noblest 
river scenery I had ever beheld, certainly far surpassing 
that of the Rhine, and Upper Danube. To the gloom and 
grandeur of natural portals, formed of lofty precipitous 
rocks, succeeds the open smiling valley, the verdant 
meadows, and the distant wooded hills, with all the soft 
and varied hues of autumn. Here we appear to be driving 
up the avenues of an English park; yonder, where the 
mountain sinks sheer into the river, the road must find 
its way along an open gallery, with a roof .weighing 
millions of tons, projecting from the mountain above. 

After sunset we arrived at Dreucova, and next morning 
went on board the steamer, which conveyed me up the 
Danube to Semlin. The lower town of Semlin is, from 
the exhalations on the banks of the river, frightfully in- 
salubrious, but the cemetery enjoys a high and airy 
situation. The people in the town die off with great 
rapidity; but, to compensate for this, the dead are said 
to be in a highly satisfactory state of preservation. 




Few travellers arriving from central Europe, fail to 
record the striking impression made upon them, by the 
descent of the Danube, on their first visit to Belgrade, 
quiet sombre bureaucratic Ofen with the noisy, bustling 
movement-loving new city, which has sprung up, as it 
were by enchantment on the opposite side of the water 
and the long and graceful quay, form, as it were, a fine 
peristrephic panorama, as the vessel wheels round, and, 
prow downwards, commences her voyage for the vast 
and curious East, while the Danubian tourist bids a dizzy 
farewell to this last snug little centre of European civili- 
zation. We hurry downwards towards the frontiers of 
Turkey, but nature smiles not. — We have on our left the 
dreary steppe of central Hungary, and on our right the low 
distant hills of Baranya. This is not the Danube of Passau, 
and Lintz, and Molk, and Theben. But now the Drave 
pours her broad waters into the great artery. The right 
shore soon becomes somewhat bolder, and agreeably wooded 
hills enliven the prospect. This little mountain chain is 
the celebrated Frusca Gora, the stronghold of the Servian 
language, literature, and nationality on the Austrian side 
of the Save. This region determinates, and sinks into a 
low point of land, at the confluence of the Danube with 
this, one of the largest of all its tributaries, where the 
waters remain for a space distinct, the Danube faithfully 
retaining its brown muddy character, while the Save, in 
juxta position, shows itself dark yet somewhat limpid. 

The rock of Belgrade crowned by battlements, and 
flanked by some crumbling Minarets, becomes more 
distinct as we approach. Large embrasures, shghtly elevated 
above the water's edge, indicate the intention to com- 
mand all water approaches to the town, and above grass- 
grown and moss-covered fortifications, crowned by red- 
tiled, rickety Turkish houses, look most unlike the magni- 


ficent towers to which one has been accustomed in the 
last scene of the siege of Belgrade. 

But when the traveller arrives from Turkey itself, the 
impression is considerably different, and the numerous 
traces which I have seen of the desolation of this fine 
Empire, were effaced from my recollection, at Belgrade. 
Here all was life and activity. It was at the period of 
my first visit, in 1839, quite an oriental town; but now 
the haughty parvenu spire of the cathedral throws into 
shade the minarets of the mosques, graceful even in decay. 
Many of the bazaar-shops have been fronted and glazed. The 
oriental dress has become much rarer ; and houses several 
stories high, in the German fashion, are springing up 

Ascending the spire of the cathedral , we have a pano- 
ramic view of the town and environs. The fortress of 
Belgrade, jutting out exactly at the point of confluence 
of the rivers, has the town behind it. The Servian, or 
principal quarter slopes down to the Save; the Turkish 
quarter to the Danube. I might compare Belgrade to a 
sea-turtle, the head of which is represented by the fortress, 
the back of the neck by the esplanade or Ealai Meidan, 
the right flank by the Turkish quarter, the left by the 
Servian, and the ridge of the back by the street running 
from the esplanade to the gate of Constantinople. In the 
town itself, you see distinctly divided from each other, 
the military force of the sovereign power, within the 
Citadel, the decadent remainder of the civil moslem popu- 
lation, in a crumbling quarter, and the ascendency of the 
Christian Servian element, represented by wide spreading 
streets, all of the German type. The open square in tiie 
centre of the town, forms the line of demarcation between 
the crescent and the cross. On the one side several large 
and good houses have been constructed by the wealthiest 
senators, in the German manner, with flaring new white 
walls and bright green shutter-blinds. On the other side 
is a mosque, and dead old garden walls, with walnut trees 
and Levantine roofs peeping up behind them. Look on 


this picture, and you have a type of all domestic archi- 
tecture, lying between you and the snow-fenced huts of 
Lapland; cast your eyes over the way, and imagination 
wings lightly to the sweet south with its myrtles, citrons, 
marbled steps and fragrance-bearing gales. 

The environs contain the materials of a good pano- 
rama. Looking westward, we see the Save, winding its 
way from the woods of Topshider; the Servian shore is 
abrupt, the Austrian flat, and subject to inundation; the 
prospect on the north-west being closed in by the dim 
dark line of the Frusca Gora, or *'Wooded Mountain," 
which forms the backbone of Slavonia, and is the high 
wooded region between the Save and the Drave. North- 
wards are the spires of Semlin, rising up from the 
Danube, which here resumes its easterly course; while 
south and east stretch the Turkish quarter, which I have 
been describing. The greater part of the town is under 
the government of the Servian Prefect of Belgrade, but 
the castle and the Turkish town is under the Pasha. One 
day I accompanied the British Consul General on a visit 
to the Pasha in the citadel, which we reached by crossing 
the glacis or neck of land that connects the castle with 
the town. This place forms the pleasantest evening lounge 
in the vicinity of Belgrade; for on the one side is an 
extensive view of the Turkish town, and the Danube 
wending its way down to Semendria; on the other is the 
Save, its steep bank piled with street upon street, and 
the hills beyond them sloping away to the Bosniac 

The ramparts are in good condition; and the first 
object that strikes a stranger on entering are six iron 
spikes, on which, in the time of the first revolution, the 
heads of Servians used to be stuck. Milosh once saved 
his own head from this elevation by his characteristic 
astuteness. During his alliance with the Turks in 1814, 
(or 1815,) he had large pecuniary transactions with the 
Pasha, for he was the medium through whom the people 
paid their tribute. Five heads grinned from five spikes 


as he entered the castle, and he comprehended that the 
sixth was reserved for him; the last head set up being 
that of Glavash, a leader, who, like himself, was then 
supporting the government: so he immediately took care 
to make the Pasha understand that he was about to set 
out on a tour in the country, to raise some money for 
the vizierial strong-box. "Pek eiu," said Soliman Pasha, 
thinking to catch him next time, and get the money at 
the same time; so Milosh was allowed to depart; but 
knowing that if he returned spike the sixth would not 
wait long for its head, he at once raised the district of 
Rudnick, and ended the terrible war which had been 
begun, under much less favourable auspices, by the more 
valiant but less astute Kara Georg. 

We passed a second draw-bridge, and found ourselves 
in the interior of the fortress. A large square was formed 
by ruinous buildings. Extensive barracks were window- 
less and tenantless, but the mosque and the Pasha's Konak 
were in good order. We were ushered into an audience- 
room of great extent, with a low carved roof and some 
old-fashioned furniture, the divan being in the corner, 
and the windows looking over the precipice to the Danube 
below. Hafiz Pasha, the same who commanded at the 
battle of Nezib, was about fifty-five, and a gentleman in 
air and manner, with a grey beard. In course of con- 
versation he told me that he was a Circassian. He asked 
me about my travels: and with reference to Syria said, 
"Land operations through Kurdistan against Mehemet Ali 
were absurd. I suggested an attack by sea, while a land 
force should make a diversion by Antioch, but 1 was 
^opposed." After the usual pipes and coffee we took our 

Hafiz Pasha's political relations were necessarily of a 
very restricted character, as he rules only the few Turks 
remaining in Servia; that is to say, a few thousands in 
Belgrade and Ushitza, a few hundreds in Shabatz Sokol 
and the island of Orsova. He represents the suzerainety 
of the Porte over the Christian population, without having 


any thing to do with the details of administration. His 
income, like that of other mushirs or pashas of three tails, 
is 8000Z. per annum. Hafiz Pasha, if not a successful 
general, was at all events a brave and honourable man, 
and his character for justice made him highly respected. 
One of his predecessors, who was at Belgrade on my first 
visit there in 1839, was a man of another stamp, — the 
notorious Youssouf Pasha, who sold Varna during the 
Russian war. The re-employment of such an individual 
is a characteristic illustration of Eastern manners. 

I now entered the region of gardens and villas, which, 
previous to the revolution of Kara Georg, was occupied 
principally by Turks. Passing down a shady lane, my 
attention was arrested by a rotten moss-grown garden door, 
at the sight of which memory leaped backwards for four 
or five years. Here I had spent a happy forenoon with 

Colonel H , and the physician of the former Pasha, 

an old Hanoverian, who, as surgeon to a British regiment 
had gone through all the fatigues of the Peninsular war. 
1 pushed open the door, and there, completely secluded 
from the bustle of the town, and the view of the stranger, 
grew the vegetation as luxuriant as ever, relieving with 
its dark green firame the clear white of the numerous 
domes and minarets of the Turkish quarter, and the 
broad-bosomed Danube which filled up the centre of the 
picture; but the house and stable, which had resounded 
with the good-humoured laugh of the master, and the 
neighing of the well-fed little stud (for horse-flesh was the 
weak side of our Esculapius), were tenantless, ruinous, and 
silent. The doctor had died in the interval at Widdin, 
in the service of Hussein Pasha. ^ 

If we examine the population in detail, we find it 
perfectly to correspond with those salient architectural 
characteristics, to which we have alluded. No sooner do 
you set foot on the quay, than you see, that the Turks, 
are here a disinherited race. The Caput mortuum, instead 
of the human face divine. There are the turbans and the 
minarets, but you feel that Stamboul is far off, and that 


the representative of the Padishah is cabined, cribbed and 
confined, within the precincts of an old Austrian fortress. 
The Turkish population of th^ town, has sunk into extreme 
poverty, and they have become literally " hewers of wood 
and drawei's of water", the better class, keeping up their 
position by making good sales of houses and shops, in 
consequence of the enhanced value of building ground, 
in short, on the high road to ruin, by consuming their 
capital; and as to those that remain, one sees, that they 
are composed of rafters, knocked carelessly together, and 
looking, as if the first strong gust of wind would send 
them smack over the water into Hungary, without the 
formality of a quarantine. Not so a singular looking street, 
composed of the ruins of ornamented houses in the im- 
posing, but too elaborate style of architecture, which was 
in vogue in Vienna, during the life of Charles the Sixth, 
and which was a corruption of the style de Louis Quatorze. 
These buildings were half way up concealed from view 
by common old bazaar shops. This was the "Lange Gasse," 
or main street of the German town during the Austrian 
occupation of twenty-two years, from 1717 to 1739. Most 
of these houses were built with great solidity, and many 
still have the stucco ornaments that distinguish this style. 
The walls of the palace of Prince Eugene are still standing 
complete, but the court-yard is filled up with rubbish, at 
least six feet high, and what were formerly the rooms of 
the ground-floor have become almost cellars. The edifice 
is called to this day, ^^ Princeps KonakJ'^ This mixture 
of the coarse, but picturesque features of oriental life, with 
the dilapidated stateliness of architectural remains of the 
first part of the eighteenth century, of the style, and during 
the period, when Vanbrugh, with flowing full-bottomed 
wig, created similar edifices in our own island, has some- 
thing in it so quaint and unexpected, as vividly to arrest 
the attention of the archseologic lounger to whom every 
transformation of ornament calls up a phase of by-gone 
history — the battle won, which seats a new, or unseats an 
old dynasty, or the wider cycle of hostilities, which ends 


the life of a nation; a new race, budding forth, and growing 
in power out of the prostration and corruption of a pre- 
decessor that lives only in history. The Empire of the East 
fell before the middle aged Kingdom of Servia. This in its 
turn was absorbed in the Ottoman Empire, Servia again, 
seemed added permanently by Eugene, to the dominions of 
the House of Habsburg. But the German element, which 
has taken firm and seemingly ineradicable root, in the 
Banat and Transsylvania, was not destined to similar 
endurance in Servia, and after a brief Turkish domination, 
of three quarters of a century, the native Servian element 
comes again to the surface. 



The Servians, known in Europe from the seventh 
century, at which period they migrated from the Car- 
pathians to the Danube, were in the twelfth century di- 
vided into petty states. 

*'Le premier Boi fut un soldat heureux." 

Keman the First, who lived near the present Novi- 
bazar, first cemented these scattered principalities into a 
united monarchy. He assumed the double eagle as the 
insignium of his dignity, and considered the archangel 
Michael as the patron saint of his family. He was brave 
in battle, cunning in politics, and the convent of Studenitza 
is a splendid monument of his love of the arts. Here he 
died, and was buried in 1195. 

Servia and Bosnia were, at this remote period, the 
debatable territory between the churches of Rome and 
Constantinople, so divided was opinion at that time even 
in Servia Proper, where now a Roman Catholic community 
is not to be found, that two out of the three sons of this 
prince were inclined to the Latin ritual 


Stephan, the son of Neman, ultimately held by the 
Greek Church, and was crowned by his brother Sava, 
Greek Archbishop of Servia. The Chronicles of Daniel 
tell that "he was led to the altar, anointed with oil, clad 
in purple, and the archbishop, placing the crown on his 
head, cried aloud three times, 'Long live Stephan the first 
crowned King and Autocrat of Servia,' on which all the 
assembled magnates and people cried, ^nogo lietoV (many 

The Servian kingdom was gradually extended under 
his successors, and attained its climax under Stephan 
Dushan, sumamed the Powerful, who was, according to 
all contemporary accounts, of tall stature and a comman- 
ding kingly presence. He began his reign in the year 
1336, and in the course of the four following years, over- 
ran nearly the whole of what is now called Turkey in 
Europe; and having besieged the Emperor Andronicus in 
Thessalonica, compelled him to cede Albania and Macedonia. 
Prisrend, in the former province, was selected as the ca- 
pital; the pompous honorary charges and frivolous cere- 
monial of the Greek emperors were introduced at his court, 
and the short-lived national order of the Knights of 
St. Stephan was instituted by him in 1346. 

He then turned his arms northwards, and defeated 
Louis of Hungary in several engagements. He was pre- 
paring to invade Thrace, and attempt the conquest of 
Constantinople, in 1356, with eighty thousand men, but 
death cut him off in the midst of his career. 

The brilliant victories of Stephan Dushan were a mis- 
fortune to Christendom. They shattered the Greek empire, 
the last feeble bulwark of Europe, and paved the way for 
those ultimate successes of the Asiatic conquerors, which 
a timely union of strength might have prevented. Stephan 
Dushan conquered, butdid not consolidate : and his scourg- 
ing wars were insufficiently balanced by the advantage 
of the code of laws to which he gave his name. 

His son Urosh, being a weak and incapable prince, 
was murdered by one of the generals of the army, and 
Patok. I. 2 


thus ended the Neman dynasty, after having subsisted 212 
years, and produced eight kings and two emperors. The 
crown now devolved on Knes, or Prince Lasar, a connexion 
of the house of Neman, who was crowned Czar, but is 
more generally called Knes Lasar. Of all the ancient rulers 
oi the country, his memory is held the dearest by the 
Servians of the present doy. He appears to have been a 
pious and generous prince, and at the same time to have 
been a brave but unsuccessful general. 

Amurath, the Ottoman Sultan, who had already taken 
all Roumelia, south of the Balkan, now resolved to pass 
these mountains, and invade Servia Proper; but, to make 
sure of success, secretly offered the crown to Wuk Bran- 
kovich, a Servian chief, as a reward for his treachery to 

Wuk caught at the bait, and when the armies were in 
sight of each other, accused Milosh Kobilich, the son-in- 
law of Lasar, of being a traitor. On the night before the 
battle, Lasar assembled all knights and nobles to decide 
the matter between Wuk and Milosh. Lasar then took a 
silver cup of wine, handed it over to Milosh, and said, 
"Take this cup of wine from my hand and drink it" 
Milosh drank it, in token of his fidelity, and said, **Now 
there is no time for disputing. To-morrow I will prove 
that my accuser is a calumniator, and that I am a faithful 
subject of my prince and father-in-law." 

Milosh then embraced the plan of assassinating Amu- 
rath in his tent, and taking with him two stout youths, 
secretly left the Servian camp, and presented himself at 
the Turkish lines, with his lance reversed, as a sign of 
desertion. Arrived at the tent of Amurath, he knelt down, 
and, pretending to kiss the hand of the Sultan, drew forth 
his dagger, and stabbed him in the body, from which 
wound Amurath died. Hence the usage of the Ottomans 
not to permit strangers to approach the Sultan, otherwise 
than with their arms held by attendants. 

The celebrated battle of Kossovo then took place. The 
wing commanded by Wuk gave way, he being the first 


to retreat. The division commanded by Lasar held fast 
for some time, and, at length, yielded to the superior force 
of the Turks. Lasar himself lost his life in the battle, and 
thus ended the Servian monarchy on the 15th of June. 1389. 

The state of Servia, previous to its subjugation by the 
Turks, appears to have been strikingly analogous to that 
of the other feudal monarchies of Europe; the revenue 
being derived mostly from crown lands, the military service 
of the nobles being considered an equivalent for the tenure 
of their possessions. Society consisted of ecclesiastics, 
nobles, knights, gentlemen, and peasants. A citizen class 
seldom or never figures on the scene. Its merchants were 
foreigners, Byzantines, Venetians, or Ragusans, and history 
speaks of no Bruges or Augsburg in Servia, Bosnia, or 

The religion of the state was that of the oriental 
churck; the secular head of which was not' the patriarch 
of Constantinople; but, as is now the case in Russia, the 
emperor himself, assisted by a synod, at the head of which 
was the patriarch of Servia and its dependencies. 

The first article of the code of Stephan Dushan runs 
thus : '* Care must be taken of the Christian religion, the 
holy churches, the convents, and the ecclesiastics." And 
elsewhere, with reference to the Latin heresy, as it was 
called, "the Orthodox Czar" was bound to use the most 
vigorous means for its extirpation ; those who resisted were 
to be put to death. 

At the death of a noble, his arms belonged by right 
to the Czar; but his dresses, gold and silver plate, precious 
stones, and gilt girdles fell to his male children, whom 
failing, to the daughters. If a noble insulted another 
noble, he paid a fine ; if a gentleman insulted a noble, he 
was flogged. 

The laity were called "dressers in white:" hence one 
must conclude that light coloured dresses were used by 
the people, and black by the clergy. Beards were worn 
and held sacred : plucking the beard of a noble was pun- 
ished by the loss of the right hand. 



Rape was punished with cutting off the nose of the 
man; the girl received at the same time a third of the 
man's fortune, as a compensation. Seduction, if not fol- 
lowed by marriage, was expiated by a pound of gold, if 
the party were rich; half a pound of gold, if the party 
were in mediocre circumstances ; and cutting off the nose 
if the party were poor. 

If a woman's husband were absent at the wars, she 
must wait ten years for his return, or for news of him. 
If she got sure news of his death, she must wait a year 
before marrying again. Otherwise a second marriage was 
considered adultery. 

Great protection was afforded to friendly merchants, 
who were mostly Venetians. All lords of manors were 
enjoined to give them hospitality, and were responsible for 
losses sustained by robbery within their jurisdiction. The 
lessees of the gold and silver mines of Servia, as well as the 
workmen of the state mint, were also Venetians ; and on 
looking through Professor Shafarik's collection, I found 
all the coins closely resembling in die those of Venice. 
Saint Stephan is seen giving to the king of the day the 
banner of Servia, in the same way as Saint Mark gives 
the banner of the republic of Venice to the Doge, as seen 
on the old coins of that state. 

The process of embalming was carried to high per- 
fection, for the mummy of the canonized Knes Lasar is to 
be seen to this day. I made a pilgrimage some years ago 
to Vrdnik, a retired monastery in the Frusca Gora, where 
his mummy is preserved with the most religious care, in 
the church, exposed to the atmosphere. It is, of course, 
shrunk, shrivelled, and of a dark brown colour, bedecked 
with an antique embroidered mantle, said to be the same 
worn at the battle of Kossovo. The fingers were covered 
with the most costly rings, no doubt since added. 

It appears that the Roman practice of burning the 
dead, (probably preserved by the Tsinsars, the descendants 
of the colonists in Macedonia,) was not uncommon, for any 
village in which such an act took place was subject to fine. 


If there be Moslems in secret to this day in Anda- 
lusia, and if there were worshippers of Odin and Thor 
till lately on the shores of the Baltic, may not some secret 
votaries of Jupiter and Mars have lingered among the 
recesses of the Balkan, for centuries after Christianity 
had shed its light over Europe? 

The Servian monarchy having terminated more than 
half a century before the invention of printing, and most 
of the manuscripts of the period having been destroyed, 
or dispersed during the long Turkish occupation, very 
little is known of the literature of this period except the 
annals of Servia, by Archbishop Daniel, the original manu- 
script of which is now in the Hiliendar monastery of Mount 
Atbos. The language used was the old Slaavic, now a 
dead language, but used to this day as the vehicle of 
divine service in all Greco-Slaavic communities from the 
Adriatic to the utmost confines of Russia, and the parent 
of all the modern varieties of the Southern and Eastern 
Slaavic languages 

The Turkish conquest was followed by the gradual dis- 
persion or disappearance of the native nobility of Servia, 
the last of whom, the Brankovitch, lived as despots in the 
castle of Semendria, up to the beginning of the eighteenth 
century ; so that at this moment scarcely a single re- . 
presentative of the old stock is to be found ^ 

The nobility of Bosnia, occupying the middle region 
between the sphere of the Eastern and Western churches, 
were in a state of religious indifference, although nominally 
Catholic ; and in order to preserve their lands and influence, 
accepted Islamism en masse; they and the Albanians being 
the only instances, in all the wars of the Moslems, of a 
European nobility embracing the Mohamedan faith in & 
body. Chance might have given the Bosniacs a leader of 
energy and military talents. In that case, these men, 

' The last of the Brankovitch line wrote a history of Servia; bat 
the most valuable portion of the matter is to be found in Baiich, a 
tubft«qaent historical writer. 


instead of now wearing turbans in their grim feudal castles, 
might, frizzed and perfumed, be waltzing in pumps; and 
Shakespeare and Mozart might now be delighting the citizens 
assembled in the Theatre Royal Seraievo! 

The period preceding the second siege of Vienna was 
the spring-tide of Islam conquest. After this event, in 
1684, began the ebb. Hungary was lost to the Porte, and 
six years afterwards thirty-seven thousand Servian families 
emigrated into that kingdom; this first led the way to 
contact with the civilization of Germany : and in the atten- 
dance on the Austrian schools by the youth of the Servian 
nation during the eighteenth century, were sown the seeds 
of the now budding civilization of the principality. 

Servia Proper, for a short time wrested from the Porte 
by the victories of Prince Eugene, again became a part 
of the dominions of the Sultan. But a turbulent militia 
overawed the government and tyrannized over the Rayahs. 
Pasvan Oglou and his bands at Widdin were, at the end 
of the last century, in open revolt against the Porte. Other 
chiefs had followed his example; and for the first time 
the Divan thought of associating Christian Rayahs with 
the spahis, to put down these rebels, who had organized 
a system which savoured more of brigandage than of 
. government. They frequently used the holiday dresses of 
the peasants as horse-cloths, interrupted the divine service 
of the Christian Rayahs, and gratified their licentious 
appetites unrestrained. 

The Dahis, as these brigand-chiefs were called, resolved 
to anticipate the approaching struggle by a massacre of 
the most influential Christians. This atrocious massacre 
was carried out with indescribable horrors. In the dead 
of the night a party of Dahis Cavasses would surround 
a house, drive open gates and doors with sledge-hammers ; 
the awakened and affrighted inmates would rush to the 
windows, and seeing the court-yard filled with armed men 
with dark lanterns, the shrieks of women and children 
were added to the confusion; and the unhappy father was 
often murdered with the half-naked females of his family 


clinging to his neck, but unable to save him. The rest 
of the population looked on with silent stupefaction: but 
Kara Georg, a peasant, born at Topola about the year 1767^ 
getting timely information that his name was in the list 
of the doomed, fled into the woods, and gradually organized 
a formidable armed force. 

His efiPorts were every where successful. In the name 
of the Porte he combated the Dahis, who had usurped 
local authority, in defiance of the Pasha of Belgrade. The 
Divan, little anticipating the ultimate issue of the struggle 
in Senria, was at first delighted at the success of Kara 
Georg; but soon saw with consternation that the rising 
of the Servian peasants grew into a formidable rebellion, 
and ordered the Pashas of Bosnia and Scodra to assemble 
all their disposable forces, and invade Servia. Between 
forty and fifty thousand Bosniacs burst into Servia on the 
west, in the spring of 1806, cutting to pieces all who re- 
fused to receive Turkish authority. 

Kara Geoi^ undauntedly met the storm ; witii amazing 
rapidity he marched into the west of Servia, cut up in 
detail several detached bodies of Turks, being here much 
favoured by the broken ground, and put to death several 
village-elders who had submitted to them. The Turks then 
retired to Shabatz; and Kara Georg at the head of only 
seven thousand foot and two thousand horse, in all nine 
thousand men, took up a position at an hour's distance, 
and threw up trenches. The following is the account 
which Wuk Stephanovitch gives of this engagement. 

"The Turks demanded the delivery of the Servia arms. 
The Servians answered, *Come and take them.' On two suc- 
cessive mornings the Turks came out of Shabatz and stormed 
the breast-work which the Servians had thrown up, but 
without effect. They then sent this message to the Servians : 
'You have held good for two days; but we will try it 
again with all our force, and then see whether we give 
up the country to the Drina, or whether we drive you to 

"In the night before the decisive battle (August, 1806,) 

24 • BOOK I. 8ERVIA. 

Kara Georg. sent his cavalry round into a wood, with orders 
to fall on the enemy's flank as soon as the first shot 
should be fired. 

*' To the infantry within the breastworks he gave orders 
that they should not fire until the Turks were so close 
that every shot might tell. By break of day the Seraskier 
with his whole army poured out of his camp at Shabatz, 
the bravest Beys of Bosnia bearing their banners in the 
van. The Servians waited patiently until they came close, 
and then opening fire did deadly execution. The standard- 
bearers fell, confusion ensued, and the Servian cavalry 
issuing fi:om the wood at the same time that Kara Georg 
passed the breastworks at the head of the infantry, the 
defence was changed into an attack; and the rout of the 
Turks was complete. The Seraskier Kullin was killed, as 
well as Sinan Pasha, and several other chiefs. The rest 
of the Turkish army was cut up in the woods, and all the 
country as far as the Drina evacuated by them. • 

The Porte saw with astonishment the total failure of 
its schemes for the re-conquest of Servia, resolved to 
temporize, and agreed to allow them a local and national 
government with a reduction of tribute; but previous 
to the ratification of the agreement withdrew its consent 
to the fortresses going into the hands of Christian Rayahs ; 
on which Kara Georg resolved to seize Belgrade by 

Before daybreak on the 12th of December, 1806, a 
Greek Albanian named Konda, who had been in the 
Turkish service, and knew Belgrade well, but now fought 
in the Christian ranks, accompanied by six Servians, passed 
the ditch and palisades that surrounded the city of Bel- 
grade, at a point between two posts so as not to be seen, 
and proceeding to one of the gates, fell upon the guard, 
which defended itself well. Four of the Servians were 
killed ; but the Turks being at length overpowered, Konda 
and the two remaining Servians broke open the gate with 
an axe, on which a corps of Servians rushed in. The 
Turks being attracted to this point, Kara Georg passed 


the ditch at another place with a large force. After a 
sanguinary engagement in the streets, and the conflagration 
of many houses, the windows of which served as em- 
brasures to the Turks, victory declared for the Chi-istians, 
and the Turks took refuge in the citadel. 

The Servians, now in possession of the town, resolved 
to starve the Turks out of the fortress ; and having occupied 
a flat island at the confluence of the Save and the Danube, 
were enabled to intercept their provisions; on which the 
Pasha capitulated and embarked for Widdin. 

The succeeding years were passed in the vicissitudes 
of a guerilla warfare, neither party obtaining any marked 
success; and an auxiliary corps of Russians assisted in 
preventing the Turks from making the re-conquest of 

Baron, subsequently Marshal Diebitch, on a confidential 
mission from the Russian government in Servia during the 
years 1810, 1811, writes as follows*: 

"George Petrovitch, to whom the Turks have given 
the surname of Kara or Black, is an important character. 
His countenance shows a greatness of mind, which is not 
to be mistaken; and when we take into consideration the 
times, circumstances, and the impossibility of his having 
received an education, we must admit that he has a mind 
of a masculine and commanding order. The imi)utation 
of cruelty and bloodthirstiness appears to be unjust. When 
the country was without the shadow of a constitution, and 
when he commanded an unorganized and uncultivated na- 
tion, he w^as compelled to be severe ; he dared not vacillate 
or relax his discipline: but now that there are courts of 
law, and legal forms, he hands every case over to the 
regular tribunals. 

"He has very little to say for himself, and is rude in 
his manners ; but his judgments in civil affairs are promptly 

1 The original is now in the possession of the Servian government, 
and I was permitted to peruse it; but although interesting, it is too 
long for insertion. 


and soundly formed, and to great address he joins un- 
wearied industry. As a soldier, there is but one opinion 
of his talents, bravery, and enduring firmness." 

Kara Georg was now a Russian lieutenant-general, and 
exercised an almost unlimited power in Servia; the re- 
volution, after a struggle of eight years, appeared to be 
successful, but the momentous events then passing in 
Europe, completely altered the aspect of affairs. Russia 
in 1812, on the approach of the countless legions of Na- 
poleon, precipitately concluded the treaty of Bucharest, 
the eighth article of which formally assured a separate 
administration to the Servians. 

Next year, however, was fatal to Kara Georg. In 1813, 
the vigour of the Ottoman empire, undivided by exertions 
for the prosecution of the Russian war, was now concen- 
trated on the resubjugation of Servia. A general panic 
seemed to seize the nation ; and Kara Georg and his com- 
panions in arms sought a retreat on the Austrian territory, 
and thence passed into Wallachia. In 1814, three hundred 
Christians were impaled at Belgrade by the Pasha, and 
every valley in Servia presented the spectacle of infuriated 
Turkish spahis, avenging on the Servians the blood, exile, 
and confiscation of the ten preceding years. 

At this period Milosh Obrenovitch appears prominently 
on the political tapis. He spent his youth in herding the 
famed swine of Servia; and during the revolution was 
employed by Kara Georg to watch the passes of the Balkan, 
lest the Servians should be taken aback by troops from 
Albania and Bosnia. He now saw that a favourable con- 
juncture had come for his advancement from the position 
of chieftain to that of chief; he therefore lost no time in 
making terms with the Turks, offering to collect the tribute, 
to serve them faithfully, and to aid them in the re-subju- 
gation of the people: he was, therefore, loaded ^^'ith 
caresses by the Turks as a faithful subject of the Porte- 
His offers were at once accepted; and he now displayed 
singular activity in the extirpation of all the other popular 
chiefs, who still held out in the woods and fastnesses, and 


sent their heads to the Pasha; but the decapitation of Glavash, 
who was, like himself, supporting the government, showed 
that when he had accomplished the ends of Soliman Pasha 
his own turn would come ; he therefore employed the ruse 
described in page 12, made his escape, and, convinced 
that it was impossible ever to come to terms with Soliman 
Pasha, raised the standard of open revolt. The people, 
grown desperate through the ill-treatment of the spahis, who 
had returned, responded to his call, and rose in a body. 
The scenes of 1804-5-6, were about to be renewed; but 
the Porte quickly made up its mind to treat with Milosh, 
who behaved, during this campaign, with great bravery, 
and was generally successful. Milosh consequently came 
to Belgrade, made his submission, in the name of the 
nation, to Marashly Ali Pasha, the governor of Belgrade, 
and was reinstated as tribute-collector for the Porte ; and 
the war of mutual extermination was ended by the Turks 
retaining all the castles, as stipulated in the eighth article 
of the treaty of Bucharest. 

Many of the chiefs, impatient at the speedy submission 
of Milosh, wished to fight the matter out, and Kara Georg, 
in order to give effect to their plans, landed in Servia. 
Milosh pretended to be friendly to his designs, but secretly 
betrayed his place of concealment to the governor, whose 
men broke into the cottage where he slept, and put him 
to death. Thus ended the brave and unfortunate Kara 
Geoi^, who was, no doubt, a rebel against his sovereign, 
the Sultan, and, according to Turkish law, deserving of 
death ; but this base act of treachery, on the part of Milosh, 
who was not the less a rebel, is justly considered as a 
stain on his character. 

M. Boue, who made the acquaintance of Milosh in 1836, 
gives a short account of him. 

"Milosh rose early to the sound of military music, and 
then went to his open gallery, where he smoked a pipe, 
and entered on the business of the day. Although able 
neither to read, write, nor sign his name, he could dictate 
and correct despatches ; and in the evening he caused the 



articles in the Journal des Debuts, the Constitutionnel 
and the Augsburg Gazette, to be translated to him. 

The Belgrade chief of police ^ having offended Milosh 
by the boldness of his language, and having joined the 
detractors of the prince at a critical moment, although he 
owed everything to him, Milosh ordered his head to be 
struck off. Fortunately his brother Prince levren met the 
people charged with the bloody commission; he blamed 
them, and wished to hinder the deed: and knowing that 
the police director was already on his way to Belgrade 
from Posharevatz, where he had been staying, he asked 
the momkes to return another way, saying they had 
missed him. The police director thus arrived at Bel- 
grade, was overwhelmed with reproaches by Milosh, and 

A young man having r3fused to marry one of his 
cast-off mistresses, he was enlisted in the army, but after 
some months submitted to his fate. 

He used to raise to places, in the Turkish fashion, 
men who were unprepared by their studies for them. One 
of his cooks became a colonel. Another colonel had been 
a merry-andrew. Having once received a good medical 
advice from his butler, he told him that nature in- 
tended him for a doctor, and sent him to study medicine 
under Dr. Cunibert. 

When Milosh sent his meat to market, all other sales 
were stopped, until he had sold off his own at a higher 
price than that current, on the ground of the meat being 

The prince considered all land in Servia to belong 
to him, and perpetually wished to appropriate any property 
that seemed better than his own, fixing his own price, 
which was sometimes below the value, which the proprietor 
dared not refiise to take, whatever labour had been be- 
stowed on it. At Kragujevatz, he prevented the completion 

* M. Bou6, in giving this anecdote, calls him "Newspaper Editor '* 
this is a mistake. 


of the house of M. Kaditchevitch, because some statues 
of wood, and ornaments, which were not to be found in 
hie own palace, were in the plan. An almanack having 
been printed, with a portrait of his niece Auka, he caused 
all the copies to be given back by the subscribers, and the 
portraits cut out." 

There can be no doubt, that, after the miserable end 
of Kara Georg, and the violent revolutionary wars, an 
unhmited dictatorship was the best regimen for the resto- 
ration of order. Milosh was, therefore, many years at the 
head of affairs of Servia before symptoms of opposition 
appeared. Allowances are certainly to be made for him; 
he had seen no government but the old Turkish regime, 
and had no notion of any other way of governing but by 
decapitation and confiscation. But this system, which was 
all very well for a prince of the fifteenth century, ex- 
hausted the patience of the new generation, many of whom 
were bred at the Austrian universities. Without seeking 
for democratic institutions, for which Servia is totally 
unfit, they loudly demanded written laws, which should 
remove life and property from the domain of individual 
caprice, and which, without affecting the suzerainty of the 
Porte, should bring Servia within the sphere of European 
institutions. They murmured at Milosh making a colossal 
fortune out of the administration of the principality, while 
he rendered no account of his intromissions, either to the 
Saltan or to the people, and seized lands and houses 
merely because he took a fancy to them \ Hence arose 
the national party in Servia, which included nearly all 
the opulent and educated classes ; which is not surprising, 

* It is very true that the preient Prince of Servia does not possess 
anjthing like the power which Milosh wielded; he cannot hang a man 
ap at the first pear-tree : but it is a mistake on the part of the liberals 
of France and England, to suppose that the revolutions which ex- 
delled Milosh and Michael were democratic. There has been no 
tnrxung upside down of ,the social pyramid ; and in the absence of a 
lt«reditary aristocracy, the wealthiest and most influential persons 
in Servia, such as Bessavatz, Simitch, Garashanin, Ac. supported 
the election of Alexander Kara Oeorgevitch. 


since his rule was so stringent that he would allow no 
carriage but his own to be seen in the streets of Belgrade -. 
and, on his fall, so many orders were sent to the coach- 
makers of Pesth, that trade was brisk for all the summer- 

The details of the debates of the period would exhaust 
the reader's patience. I shall, therefore, at once proceed 
to the summing up. 

1st. In the nine years' revolt of Kara Georg nearly 
the whole sedentary Turkish population disappeared from 
Servia, and the Ottoman power became, according to their 
own expression, assassiz (foundationless). 

2nd. The eighth article of the treaty of Bucharest, 
concluded by Russia with the Porte, which remained a 
dead letter, was followed by the fifth article in the treaty 
of Akerman, formally securing the Servians a separate 

3rd, The consummate skill with which Milosh played 
his fast and loose game with the Porte, had the same 
consequences as the above, and ultimately led to 

4th. The formal act of the Sultan constituting Servia 
a tributary principality to the Porte, in a Hatti Sherif, 
of the 22nd November, 1830. 

5th. From this period, up to the end of 1838, was 
the hard struggle between Milosh, seeking for absolute 
power, supported by the peasantry of Rudnik, his native 
district, and the "Primates," as the heads of the national 
party are called, seeking for a habeas-corpus act and a 
legislative assembly. 

Milosh was in 1838 forcibly expelled from Servia; and 
his son Michael having been hkewise set aside in 1842, 
and the son of Kara Georg selected by the sublime Porte 
and the people of Servia, against the views of Russia, the 
long-debated "Servian Question" arose, which received a 
satisfactory solution by the return of Wucics and Petro- 
nievitch, the exiled supports of Kara Georgevitch, through 
the mediation of the Earl of Aberdeen. 

Kara Georgevitch does not possess the political and 
military talents of his father, but he has been unswerving 


in his attachment to his legitimate Sovereign, the Sultan. 
The recent revolution, through which he fell, and was 
replaced by Milosh, is not "within the scope of the present 
work, which, designedly avoids the topics of the day, in 
order to treat more fiiUy the general history and per- 
manent Geography of these Danubian and Adriatic regions. 



There were no formal levees or receptions at the palace 
of Prince Alexander, except on his own fete day. Once 
or twice a year he entertained at dinner the Pasha, the 
ministers, and the foreign consuls-general. In the winter, 
ihe prince gave one or two balls. 

One of the former species of entertainments took place 
during my stay, and I received the prince's invitation. At 
the appointed day, I found the avenue to the residence 
tbronged with people who were Hstening to the band that 
played in the court-yard; and on arriving at the top of 
the stairs, was led by an officer in a blue uniform, who 
•eemed to direct the ceremonies of the day, into the saloon, 
in which I had, on my arrival in Belgrade, paid my re- 
ipects to the prince, which might be pronounced the fac- 
simile of the drawing-room of a Hungarian nobleman ; the 
parqaet was inlaid and polished, the chairs and sofas 
covered with crimson and white satin damask, which is 
to mmsaal luxury in these regions, the roof admirably 
punted in subdued colours, in the best Vienna style. 
High white porcelain urn-like stoves heated the suite of 

The company had that picturesque variety of character 
And costume which every traveller deUghts in. The prince, 
• mnscular middle-sized dark-complexioned man, of about 


thirty-five, with a serious composed air, wore a plain blue 
military uniform. The princess wore the graceful native 
Servian costume. The Pasha wore the Nizam dress, and 
the Nishan Iftihar; the foreign agents wore their em- 
broidered uniforms. The archbishop's head was covered 
with his black velvet cap, a large enamelled cross hung 
by a massive gold chain from his neck, and the six feet 
four inches high Garashanin, minister of the interior, con- 
versed with Stojan Simitch, the president of the senate, 
one of the few Servians in high office, who retains his old 
Turkish costume, and has a frame that reminds one of 
the Famese Hercules. Then what a medley of languages ; 
Servian, German, Russian, Turkish, and French, all in 
full buzz! 

We proceeded to the dining-room, where the cuisine 
was in every respect in the German manner. When the 
dessert appeared, the prince rose with a creaming glass 
of champagne in his hand, and proposed the health of 
the Sultan, which was acknowledged by the Pasha. The 
Pasha and the Princess were toasted in turn. The enter- 
tainment, which commenced at one o'clock, was prolonged 
to an advanced period of the afternoon, and closed with 
coffee, liqueurs, and chibouques in the drawing-room; the 
princess and the ladies having previously withdrawn to 
the private apartments. 

Kara Georgevitch means son of Kara Georg, his father's 
name having been Georg Petrovitch, or son of Peter; 
this manner of naming being common to all the southern 
Slaaves, except the Croats and Dalmatians. This is the 
opposite of the Arabic custom, which confers on a father 
the title of parent of his eldest son, as Abou-Selim, Abou- 
Hassan, &c. while his own name is dropped by his friends 
and family. 

The Prince's household appointments were about 
jf 20,000 sterling, and, making allowance for the difference 
of provisions, servants' wages, horse keep, &c. was equal 
to about j( 35,000 steiiing in England, which was not a 
large sum for a principality of the size of Servia. 


The senate consisted of twenty-one individuals, four of 
whom were ministers. The senators were not elected by 
the people, bntwere named by the prince, and formed an 
oligarchy composed of the wealthiest and most influential 
persons. They held their offices for life; they must be 
at least thirty-five years, and possess landed property. 

M. Petronievitch, the minister for foreign a£Ba,irs, and 
director of the private chancery of the Prince, was un- 
questionably the most remarkable public character in Servia 
j^vioQs to the recent revolutions. He passed some time 
in a commercial house at Trieste, which gave him a know- 
ledge of Italian ; and the bustle of a sea-port first enlarged 
his views. Nine years of his life were passed at Con- 
stantinople as a hostage for the Servian nation, guaran- 
teeing the non-renewal of the revolt; no slight act of 
devotion, when one considers that the obligations of the 
contracting parties reposed rather on expediency than on 
moral principles. Here he made the acquaintance of all 
the leading personages at the Ottoman Porte, and learned 
colloquial Turkish in perfection. Petronievitch was astute 
by education and position, but he had a good heart and 
a capacious intellect, and his defects belonged not to the 
man, but to education and circumstances. Most travellers 
traced in his countenance a resemblance to the busts and 
portraits of Fox. 

In the course of a very tortuous political career, he 
has kept the advancement and civilization of Servia steadily 
in view, and has always shown himself regardless of sordid 
gain. He was one of the very few public men in Servia, 
in whom public spirit triumphed over the Oriental alle- 
giance to self^ and this disinterestedness was, in spite of 
\6% defects, the secret of his popularity. 

The commander of the military force was M. Wucics, 
who was also minister of the interior, a man of great 
personal courage; and although unacquainted with the 
tactics of European warfare, said to possess high capacity 
for Uie command of an irregular force. He possessed 
great energy of character, and was firee from the taint of 
Patoit. I. 3 

34 BOOK 1. SSBYIil. 

venality ; but be was at the same time somewhat proud and 
vindictive. His predecessor in the ministry of the interior 
was M. Ilia Grarashanin, the rising man in Seryia. Sound 
practical sense, and unimpeachable integrity, without a 
shade of intrigue, distinguish this senator. 

The standing army is a mere skeleton. The reason of 
this is obvious. Servia forms part of one great empire, 
and adjoins two otjiers; therefore, the largest disciplined 
force that she might bring into the field, in the event of 
hostilities, could make no impression for offensive objects; 
while for defensive purposes, the countless riiemen, taking 
advantage of the difficult nature of the country, are amply 

Let the Servians thank their stars that their avmy is 
a skeleton. May the pen rapidly supersede the sword, 
and a council-board be established, to which strong and 
weak are equally amenable. May this diplomarchy ulti- 
mately compass the ends of the earth, and every war be 
reckoned a civil war, an arch-high*treason against con- 
federate hemispheres! 

The portfolios of justice and finance are usually in 
the hands of men of business-habits, who mix little in 

The courts of law have something of the promptitude 
of oriental justice, without its flagrant venality. The 
salaries of the judges are small. M. Hadsehitch, who 
framed the code of laws, had £ 700 sterHng per annum. 

The criminal code is founded on that of Austria. The 
civil code is a localized modification of the Code NapoUan. 
The first translation of the latter code was almost literal, 
and made without relerence to the manners and historical 
antecedents of Servia: some of the blunders in it were 
laughable: — Hypotheque was translated as if it had been 
Apotheke^ and made out to be a depot of drugs! 

The people prefer short viva voce procedure, and 
dislike documents. It is remarked, that when a man is 
supposed to be in the right, ha wishes to carry on his 
own suit; when he has a bad case, he resorts to a lawyer. 


The ecclesiastical affairs of this department occupy a 
considerable portion of the minister's attention. 

In consequence of the wars which Stephan Dushan, 
the Servian emperor, carried on against the Greeks in the 
fourteenth century, he made the archbishop of Servia in- 
dependent of the patriarch of Constantinople, who, in 
turn, excommunicated Stephan and his nominee. This 
independence continued up to the year 1765, at which 
period, in consequence of the repeated encouragement 
given by the patriarchs of Servia to revolts against the 
Turkish authority, the nation was again subjected to the 
immediate spiritual jurisdiction of Constanlinople. Wufc 
Stephanovitch gives the following anecdote, illustrative of 
Ae abuses which existed in the selection of the superior 
clergy from this time, and up to the Servian revolution, 
all the charges being sold to the highest bidder, or given 
to courtiers, destitute of religion, and often of common 

In 1797, a Greek priest came to Orsova, complaining 
that he had not funds sufficient to enable him to arrive 
at his destination. A collection was made for him; but 
instead of going to the place he pretended to be boun^ 
for, he passed over to the island of New Orsova, amf 
entered, in a military capacity, the service of the local 
governor, and became a petty chief of irregular T4irkish 
troops. He then became a salt inspector; and the com- 
mandant wishing to get rid of him, asked what he could 
do for him; on which he begged to be made Archbishops 
of Belgrade! This modest request not being o©mi)lied' 
with, the Turkish commandant sent him to Sofia, with a 
recommendation to the Grand Vizier to appoint him ta 
that see; but the vacancy had already been filled up by 
a priest of Nissa, who had been interpreter to the Vizier, 
and who no sooner seated himself, than he commenced 
a system of the most odious exactions." 

In the time of Kara Georg, the Patriarchate of Con^ 
stantinople was not recognized, and the Archbishop of 
Carlovitz in Hungary was looked up to as the spiritual 



head of the nation; but after the treaty of Adrianople, 
the Servian government, on paying a peppercorn tribute 
to the Patriarch of Constantinople, was admitted to have 
the exclusive direction of its ecclesiastical affairs. The 
Archbishop's salary is 800 Z. per annum, and that of his 
three Bishops about half as n^uch. 

The finances of Servia were in good condition, llie 
greater part of the revenue being produced by the poresa, 
which is paid by all heads of families, from the time of 
their marriage to their sixtieth year, and, in fact, includes 
nearly all the adult population ; for, as is the case in most 
eastern countfies, nearly every man marries eariy. The 
bachelors pay a separate tax. Some of the other items 
in the budget are curious: under the head of "Interest 
of a hundred thousand ducats lent by the government to 
the people at six per cent." we find a sum of fourteen 
thousand four hundred dollars. Not only has Servia no 
public debt, but she lends money. Interest is high in 
Servia; not because there is a want of capital, but because 
there are no means of investment. The consequence is 
that the immense savings of the peasantry are hoarded in 
the earth. A father of a family dies, or in extremis is 
speechless, and unable to reveal the spot; thus large sums 
are annually lost to Servia. The favourite speculation in 
the capital is the building of houses. 

The largest gipsy colonies are to be found on this 
part of the Danube, in Servia, in Wallachia, and in the 
Banat. The tax on the gipsies in Servia amounts to more 
than six thousand dollars. They are under a separate 
jurisdiction, but have the choice of remaining nomade, or 
settling; in the latter case they are fiscally classed wiih 
the SeiTians. Some settled gipsies are peasants, but for 
the most part smiths. Both settled and nomade gipsies, 
are alike remarkable for their musical talents. Having 
fought with great bravery during the war of emancipation, 
they are not so despised in Servia as in some other 

For produce of the state forests, appears a very 


insignificant sum. The interior of Servia being so thickly 
wooded, eyerj Servian is allowed to cut as much timber 
M he likes. The last item in the budget sounds singularly 
enough: the produce of sales of stray cattle, which are 
first delivered up to the captain of the district, who 
makes the seizure publicly, and then hands them over to 
the judge for sale, if there be no claimant within a 
given time. 

On passing to the town the politician views with inter- 
est the transitional state of society: but the student of 
manners finds nothing salient, picturesque, or remarkable ; 
every thing is verging to German routine. If you meet 
a young man in any department, and ask what he does; 
he tells you that he is a Concepist or Protocollist. 

In the public offices, the paper is atrociously coarse, 
being something like that with which parcels are wrapped 
up in England; and sand is used instead of blotting paper. 
They commence business early in the morning, at eight 
o'clock, and go on till twelve, at which hour every body 
goes to the mid-day meal. They commence again at four 
o'clock, and terminate at seven, which is the hour of 
supper. The reason of this is, that almost every body 
takes a siesta. 

The public offices throughout the interior of Servia 
are plain houses, with white-washed walls, deal desks, 
shelves, and presses, but having been recently built, have 
generally a respectable appearance. The Chancery of 
State and Sepate house are also quite new constructions, 
close to the palace; but in the country, a Natchalnik 
transacts a great deal of business iu his own house. 

Servia contains within itself the forms of the East and 
the West, as separately and distinctly as possible. See a 
Natchalnik in the back woods squatted on his divan, with 
his enormous trowsers, smoking his pipe, and listening to 
the contents of a paper, which his secretary, crouching 
and kneeling on the carpet, reads to him, and you have 
the Bey, the Eaimacam, or the Mutsellim before you. See 
M. Petronievitch scribbling in his cabinet, and you have 


the Furstlicher Haits-Hof-Staats- und Confermz- Minister 
of the meridian of Saxe or Hesse. 

Servia being an agricultural country, and not possessing 
a sea-port, there does not exist an influential, mercantile, 
or capitalist class per se. Greeks, Jews, and Tsinsars form 
a considerable proportion of those engaged in the foreign 

In Belgrade, the best tradesmen are Germans, or Servi- 
ans, who have learned their business at Pesth, or Temeswar ; 
but nearly all the retailers are Servians. 

The Turks in Belgrade are nearly all of a very poor 
class, and follow the humblest occupations. The river 
navigation causes many hands to be employed in boating; 
and it always seemed to me that the proportion of the 
turbans on the river exceeded that of the Christian 
short fez. Most of the porters on the quay of Belgrade 
are Turks in their turbans, which gives the landing-place, 
on arrival from Semlin, a more Oriental look than the 
Moslem population of the town (warrants. From the cir- 
cumstance of trucks being nearly unknown in this country, 
these Turkish porters carry weights that would astonish 
an Englishman, and show great address in balancing and 
dividing heavy weights among them. 

Most of the barbers in Belgrade are Turks, and have 
that superior dexterity which distinguishes their craft in the 
east. There are also Christian barbers; but the Moslems 
are in greater force. I never saw any Servian sliave 
himself; nearly all resort to the barber. Even the Christian 
barbers, in imitation of the Oriental fashion, shave the 
straggling edges of the eye-broA^*8, and with pincers tug 
out the small hairs of the nostrils. 

Moslem boatmen, porters, barbers, &c. serve Christians 
and all and sundry. But in addition to these there is a 
sort of bazaar in the Turkish quarter, occupied by trades- 
people, who subsist almost exclusively by the wants of 
their co-religionists living in the quarter, as well as of 
the Turkish garrison in the fortress. The only one of 
this class who frequented me, was the public writer, who 


had several aBHstants ; he was not a native of Belgrade, 
but a Bulgarian Turk from Temovo. He drew up petitions 
to the Pasha in due form, and, moreover, engraved seals 
very neatly, flis assistants, when not engaged in either 
of these occupations, copied Korans for sale. His own 
luffidwriting was excellent, and he knew all the styles, 
Arab, Deewanee, Persian, Eeka, &c. What keeps him 
mostly in my mind, was the delight with which he entered 
into, and illustrated, the proverbs at the end of M. Joubert's 
grammar, which the secretary of the Russian Consul general 
bad lent him. Some of the proverbs are so applicable 
to Oriental manners, that I hope the reader will excuse 
the digression. 

^^Eiss the hand thou hast not been able to cut." 
"Hide thy friend's name from thine enemy." 
"Eat and drink with thy friend; never buy and sell 
with him." 

"This is a fast day, said the cat, seeing the liver she 
could not get at." 

"Of three things one — Power, gold, or quit the town." 
**The candle does not light its base." 
"The orphan cuts his own navel-string," &c. 
In the whole range of the Slaavic family there is no 
nation possessing so extensive a collection of excellent 
popular poetry. The romantic beauty of the region which 
they inhabit, the relics of a wild mythology, which, in its 
general features, has some resemblance to that of Greece 
and Scandinavia,— the adventurous character of the popula- 
tion, the vicissitudes of guerilla warfare, and a hundred 
^cturesqae incidents which are lost to the muses when 
war is carried on on a large scale by standing armies, are 
■fl given in a dialect, which, for musical sweetness, is to 
other Slavonic tongues - what the Italian is to the lan- 
guages of Western Europe. And those who take an interest 
in this subject, I have great pleasure in recommending a 
perusal of "Servian popular Poetry," by the accomplished 
and intelligent Dr., now Sir John, Bowring. 

The poet of the last generation was Milutinovitch, 


who has been sometimes called, ^Hhe Ossian of the Bal- 
kan", a most modest and intelligent man, with whom I 
had a great deal of intercourse. He was bom in the last 
years of the eighteenth century, and haying been in great 
poverty, he was enabled to print his poems out of a sum 
which a young surgeon had destined for his own support 
at a University in order to obtain his degree. This 
sacrifice, for such it may truly have been called, was com- 
pared by Milutinovitch to the subject of one of the wildest 
and strangest legends of Bulgaria, although by no means 
in accordance with nature and good taste, and which runs 
as follows: 

" The day departed, and the stranger came, as the moon 
rose on the silver snow. 'Welcome,' said the poor Lasar 
to the stranger; *Luibitza, light the faggot, and prepare 
the supper.' 

"Luibitza answered: *The forest is wide, and the lighted 
faggot burns bright, but where is the supper? Have we 
not fasted since yesterday?' 

"Shame and confusion smote the heart of poor Lasar. 

" *Art thou a Bulgarian,' said the stranger, * and settest 
not food before thy guest?' 

"Poor Lasar looked in the cupboard, and looked in 
the garret, nor crumb, nor onion, were found in either. 
Shame and confusion smote the heart of poor Lasar. 

"*Here is fat and fair flesh,' said the stranger, pointing 
to Janko, the curly-haired boy. Luibitza shrieked and fell. 
* Never,' said Lasar, 'shall it be said that a Bulgarian was 
wanting to his guest.' He seized a hatchet, and Janko 
was slaughtered as a lamb. Ah, who can describe the 
supper of the stranger! 

''Lasar fell into a deep sleep, and at midnight he 
heard the stranger cry aloud, 'Arise, Lasar, for 1 am the 
Lord thy God; the hospitality of Bulgaria is untarnished. 
Thy son Janko is restored to life, and thy stores are 

"Long lived the rich Lasar, the fair Luibitza, and the 
curly-haired Janko." 


In imitation of more populous cities, Belgrade has also 
a "Literary Society," for the formation of a complete 
dictionary of the language, and the encouragement of 
popular literature. I could not help smiling at the thirteenth 
statute of the society, which determines that the seal 
should represent an uncultivated field, with the rising 
sun shining on a monument, on which the arms of Servia 
are carved. 

The fine arts are necessarily at a very low ebb in 
Servia. The useful being so imperfect,, the ornamental 
scarcely exists at all. The pictures in the churches are 
mostly in the Byzantine manner, in which deep browns 
and dark reds are relieved with gilding, while the subjects 
are characterized by such extravagancies as one sees in 
the pictures of the early German painters, a school which 
undoubtedly took its rise from the importations of Byzantine 
pictures at Venice, and their expedition thence across the 
Alps. At present everything artistic in Servia bears a 
coarse German impress, such as for instance the pictures 
in the cathedral of Belgrade. 

Thus has civilization performed one of her great 
evolutions. The light that set on the Thracian Bosphorus 
rose in the opposite direction from the land of the once 
barbarous Germans, and now feebly re-illumines the modem 

The history, antiquities and geology of Servia have 
now begun to be studied by the younger generation, for 
Belgrade now possesses a college for higher education, 
with a geological and antiquarian Museum, including a 
Byzantine and Servian numismatic collection, and an 
interesting national relic — the first banner of Kara Georg, 
which is in red silk, and bears the emblem of the Cross, 
with the inscription, "Jesus Christ conquers." 




I now began a journey through the mterior of Servia: 
some persons recommended my hiring a Turkish Araba; 
but as this is practicable only on the regularly constructed 
roads, I should have lost the sight of the most picturesque 
regions, or been compelled to take my chance of getting 
horses, and leaving my baggage behind. To avoid this 
inconvenience, I resolved to perform the whole journey 
on horseback. 

The government showed me every attention, and 
orders were sent by the minister of the interior to all 
governors, vice-governors, and employes, enjoining them 
to furnish me with every assistance, and communicate 
whatever information I might desire; to which, as the 
reader will see in the sequel, the fullest effect was given 
by Uiose individuals. 

. The immediate object of my first journey was Shabatz, 
the second town in Servia, which is situated further up 
the Save than Belgrade, and is thus close upon the 
frontier of Bosnia. We consequently had the river oa 
our right hand all the way. After five hours' travelling, 
the mountains, which hung back as long as we were in the 
vicinity of Belgrade, now approached, and draped in forest 
green, looked down on the winding Save and the pinguid 
flats of the Slavonian frontier. Just before the sun set, 
we wound by a circuitous road to an eminence which 
projected promontory-like into the river's course. Threa 
rude crosses were planted on a steep, not unworthy the 
columnar harmony of Greciim marble. 

When it was quite dark, we arrived at the Colubara, 
and passed the ferry which, during the long Servian 
revolution, was always considered a post of importance, as 
commanding a communication between Shabatz and the 
capital. An old man accompanied us, who was returning 
to his native place on the frontiers of Bosnia, having gone 


to welcome Wucics and Petronievitch. He amused me 
by asking me "if the king of my country lived in a strong 
castle?" I answered, "No, we have a queen, whose 
strength is in ihe love of all her subjects." Indeed, it is 
impossible to travel in the interior of Turkey without 
having the mind perpetually carried back to the middle 
ages by a thousand quaint remarks and circumstances, 
inseparable &om the moral and political constitution of 
a half civilized empire. 

From Palesh we started with' fine weather for Skela, 
through a beautifully wooded park, some fields being 
here and there inclosed with wattling. Skela is a new 
ferry on the Save, to facilitate the communication with 
Austria. Near here are redoubts, where Kara Georg, the 
father of ihe reigning prince, held out during the disasters 
of 1813, until all the women and children were transferred 
ia safety to the Austrian territory. Here we met a very 
pretty girl, who, in answer to the salute of my fellow- 
travellers, bent herself almost to the earth. On asking 
the reason, 1 was told that she was a bride, whom custom 
compels, for a stated period, to make this humble re- 

We then came to the Skela, and seeing a large house 
within an enclosure, I asked what it was, and was told 
that it was the reconciliation-house, {primiritelnj ^sud,) 
a court of first instance, in which cases are decided by 
the village elders, without expense to the litigants, and 
beyond which suits are seldom carried to the higher 
courts. There is throughout all the interior of Servia a 
stout opposition to the nascent lawyer class in Belgrade. 
As it began to rain we entered a tavern, and ordered a 
fowl to be roasted. A booby, with idiocy mariced on his 
countenance, was lounging about the door, and when our 
mid-day meal was done 1 ordered the man to give him 
a glass o£ sKvovitsa, as plum brandy is called. He then 
came forward, trembling, as if about to receive sentence 
of death, and taking off his greasy fez, said, "J drink to 
our prince Kara Georgovich, and to the progress and 


enlightenment of the nation." J looked with astonishment 
at the torn, wretched habiliments of this idiot swineherd. 
He was too stupid to entertain these sentiments himself; 
but this trifling circumstance was the feather which in- 
dicated how the wind blew. The Servians are by no 
means a nation of talkers ; they are a serious people ; and 
if the determination to rise were not in the minds of the 
people, it would not be on the lips of the baboon-visaged 
oaf of an insignificant hamlet. 

The rain now began to pour in torrents, so to make 
the most of it, we ordered another magnum of strong 
red wine, and procured from the neighbourhood a blind 
fiddler, who had acquired a local reputation. His instru- 
ment, the favourite one of Servia, is styled a goosely, 
being a testudo-formed viol; no doubt a relic of the 
antique, for the Servian monarchy derived all its arts from 
the Greeks of the Lower Empire. But the musical enter- 
tainment, in spite of the magnum of wine, and the jovial 
challenges of our fellow traveller from the Drina, threw 
me into a species of melancholy. The voice of the 
minstrel, and the tone of the instrument, were soft and 
melodious, but so profoundly plaintive as to be painfuL 
The song described the struggle of Osman Bairactar with 
Michael, a Servian chief, and, as it was explained to me, 
called up successive images of a war of extermination, 
with its pyramids of ghastly trunkless heads, and fields 
of charcoal, to mark the site of some peaceful village, 
amid the blaze of which its inhabitants had wandered to 
an eternal home in the snows and trackless woods of 
the Balkan. I again ordered the horses, although it still 
rained, and set forth, the road being close to the river, 
at one part of which a fleet of decked boats were moored. 
I perceived that they were all navigated by Bosniac 
Moslems, one of whom, smoking his pipe under cover, 
wore the green turban of a Shereef ; they were all loaded 
with raw produce, intended for sale at Belgrade or Semhn. 

The rain increasing, we took shelter in a wretched 
khan, with a mud floor, and a fire of logs blazing in the 


centre, the smoke escaping as it best could by the front 
and back doors. Gipsies and Servian peasants sat round 
it in a large circle ; the former being at once recognizable, 
not only from their darker skins, but from their traits 
being finer than those of the Servian peasantry. The 
gipsies fought bravely against the Turks under Kara 
Georg,* and are now for the most part settled, although 
politically separated from the rest of the community, and 
Uving under their own responsible head; but, as in other 
countries, they prefer horse dealing and smithes work to 
other trades. As there was no chance of the storm 
abating, I resolved to pass the night here on discovering 
that there was a separate room, which our host said he 
occasionally unlocked, for the better order of travellers. 

Next morning, on waking, the sweet chirp of a bird, 
gently echoed in the adjoining woods, announced that the 
storm had ceased, and nature resumed her wonted calm. 
On arising, I went to the door, and the unclouded efful- 
gence of dawn bursting through the dripping boughs and 
rain-bespangled leaves, seemed to realize the golden tree 
of the garden of the Abbassides. The road from this 
point to Shabatz was one continuous avenue of stately 
oaks — nature's noblest order of sylvan architecture; at 
some places, gently rising to views of the winding Save, 
with sun, sky, and freshening breeze to quicken the sen- 
sations, or falling into the dell, where the stream, darkly 
pellucid, murmured under the sombre foliage. 

The road, as we approached Shabatz, proved to be 
macadamized in a certain fashion: a deep trench was 
dug on each side; stakes about a foot and a half high, 
interlaced with wicker-work, were stuck into the ground 
within the trench, and the road was then filled up with 

I entered Shabatz by a wide street, paved in some 
places with wood. The bazaars are all open, and Shabatz 
looks like a good town in Bulgaria. I saw very few 
shops with glazed fronts and counters in the European 


I alighted at the principal khan, which had attoched 
to it just such a cafe and billiard table as on£ sees in 
country towns in Hungary. How odd I to see the Servians, 
who here all wear the old Turkish costume, except the 
turban — immersed in the tactics of carambolage, dipping 
most un-orientally around the table, balancing themselyefl 
on one leg, enveloped in enormous inexf^ressiblesr, and 
bending low, to catch the choicest hits. 

Surrendering our horses to the care of the khan 
keeper, I proceeded to the konak, or govenunejit hoQte, 
to present my letters. This proved to be a large building, 
in the style of Constantinople, which, with its line of bow 
windows, and kiosk-fashioned rooms, surmounted with 
j»>ojecting roofs, might have passed muster on the 

On entering, I was ushered into the office of the 
collector, to await his arrival^ and, at a first glance, might 
have supposed myself in a formal Austrian kanzley. 

There were the flat desks, the strong boxes, and the 
shelves of coarse foolscap ; but a pile of long chibouques^ 
and a young man, with a slight Northumbrian burr, and 
Servian dress, showed that I was on the right bank of 
the Save. 

The collector now made his appearance, a roundly- 
built, serious, burgomaster-looking personage^ who appeared 
as if one of Yander Heist's portraits had stepped out of 
the canvass, so closely does the present Servian dress 
resemble that of Holland in the seventeenth century, in 
all but the hat. 

Having read the letter, he cleared his threat with a 
loud hem, and then said with great deliberation, ^Gospody 
Ilia Garashanin informs me that having seen many countries, 
you also wish to see Servia, and that I am to show you 
whatever you desire to see, and obey whatever you choose 
to command ; and now you are my guest while you remain 
here. Go you, Simo, to the khan," continued the collector, 
addressing a tall momk or paudour, who, armed to thfi 
teeth, stood with his hands crossed at the door, ^^and get 


the gentleman's baggage taken to my house.-^I hope," 
added he, "you will be pleased with Shabatz; but you 
moat not be critical, for we are still a rude people." 

AuTflOB. ^Childhood must precede manhood; that is 
the order of nature." 

CdXECTOB- "Ay, ay, our birth was slow, and painful; 
S^rvia^ as you say, is yet a child." 

AuTHOB. "Yes, but a stout, chubby, healthy child." 

A gleam of satis&^tion produced a thaw of the col- 
lector's ice-bound visage, and, descending to the street, 
I accompanied him until we arrived at a house two 
stories high, which we entered by a wide new wooden 
gate, and then mounting a staircase, scrupulously clean, 
were shown into his principal room, which was sur- 
rounded by a divan a la Turque; but it had no carpet, 
Bo we went straight in witii our boots on. A German 
chest of drawers was in one corner ; the walls were plain 
white-washed, and so was a stove about six feet high; 
the only ornament of the room was a small snake mould- 
ing in the centre of the roof. 

"We are still somewhat rude and un-European in 
Shabats^" said Gospody Ninitch, for such was the name 
in which the collector rejoiced. 

'indeed," said I, sitting at my ease on the divan, 
there is no room for criticism. The Turks now-a-days 
take some things trom Europe; but Europe might do 
worse than adopt the divan more extensively ; for, believe 
me, to an arriving traveller it is the greatest of all 

Here the servants entered with chibouques. ^I cer* 
tainly Uiink," said he, "that no one would smoke a cigar 
who could smoke a chibouque." 

^And no man would sit on an oak chair who could 
•it on a divan:" so the Gospody smiled and transferred 
kis ample person to the still ampler divan. 

The barber now entered ; for in the hurry of departure 
I had forgotten part of my toilette apparatus : but it was 
evident ^at I was the first Frank who had ever been 


under his razor; for when his operations were finished, 
he seized my comb, and began to comb my whiskers 
backwards, as if they had formed part of a Mussuknan's 
beard. When I thought I was done with him, I resumed 
* the conversation, but was speedily interrupted by -some- 
thing like a loud box on the ear, and, turning round my 
head, perceived that the cause of this sensation was the 
barber having, in his finishing touch, stuck an ivory ear- 
pick against my tympanum; but, calling for a wa8h4iand 
basin, I begged to be relieved from all farther ministrations; 
so putting half a zwanziger on the face of the round 
pocket mirror which he proffered to me, he departed 
with a "iS^'^o^ow," or, "God be with you." 

The collector now accompanied me on a walk through 
the Servian town, and emerging on a wide space, we 
discovered the fortress of Shabatz, which is t^e quarter 
in which the remaining Turks live, presenting a line of 
irregular trenches, of battered appearance, scarcely raised 
above the level of the surrounding country. The space 
between the town and the fortress is called the Shabatdco 
Polje, and in the time of the civil war was the scene of 
fierce combats. When the Save overflows in spring, it is 
generally under water. 

Crossing a ruinous wooden bridge over a wet ditch, 
we saw a rusty unserviceable brass cannon, which assumed 
the prerogative of commanding the entrance. To the 
left, a citadel of four bastions, connected by a curtain, 
was all but a ruin. 

As we entered, a cafe, with bare walls and a few 
shabby Turks smoking in it, completed, along with the 
dirty street, a picture characteristic of the fallen fortunes 
of Islam in Servia. 

^^ There comes the cadi," said the collector, and I looked 
out for an individual with turban of fine texture, decent 
robes, and venerable appearance; but a man of gigantic 
stature, and rude aspect, wearing a grey peasant's turban, 
welcomed us with cordiality. We followed him down the 
street, and sometimes crossing the mud on pieces of 


wood, sometimes "patting one's foot in it," we readied 
a savagQ-looking timber kiosk, and, mounting a ladder^ 
seated ourselves on the window ledge. 

There, flowed the Save in all its peaceftil smoothness; 
looking out of the window, I perceived that the high 
rampart, on whieh the kiosk was constructed, was built 
at a distance of thirty or forty yards from the water, 
and that the intervenidg space was covered with boats, 
hauled up high and dry, and animated with the process 
of building and repairing the barges employed in the 
river trade. The kiosk, in which we were sitting, was 
a species of cafe^ and it being Ramadan time, we were 
presented with sherbet by a kahwagi, who, to judge by 
his look, was a eunuch. I was afterwards told that the 
Turks remaining in the fortified town are so poor, that 
they had not a decent room to show me into. 

A Turk, about fifty years of age, now entered. His 
habiliments were somewhere between decent and shabby 
genteel, and his voice and manners had that distinguished 
gentleness which wins — because it feels — its way. This 
was the Disdar Aga,. the last ijelio of the wealthy Turks 
of the place: for before the Servian revolution Shabate 
had its twenty thousand Osmanlis ; and a tract of gardens 
on the other side of the Po^*6, was pointed out as having 
been covered with the villas of the wealthy, which were 
subsequently burnt down. 

Our conversation was restricted to a few general ob- 
servations, as other persons were present, but the Disdar 
Aga promised to call on me on the following day. I was 
asked if I had been iii Seraievo K I answered in the 
negative, but added, "I have heard so much of Seraievoj 
that I desire ardently to see it. But I am afraid of the 
Haiducks." " 

^ The capital of Bosnia, a large and beautiful city, which is often 
called the Damasctts of the North. 

^ In this part of Turkey in Europe robbers, as well as rebels, are 
called Haiducks: like the caterans of the Highlands of Scotland, they 
▼ere merely held to be persons at war with the authority: and in the* 
Patow. I. 4 


Cabi. '^And not without reason ; for Sendevo, with its 
deHcioug gardens, must be seen in summer, in winter 
the roads are free from rhaiducks, because they camiot 
hold Out in the snow: but then Seraievo, having lost the 
verdure and foliage of its environs, ceases to be attractive, 
except in its bazaars, for they are without an equal.'' 

AuTHOB. "I always thought that the finest baiaar of 
Turkey in Europe, was that of Adrianople." 

Cabi. ^^Ay, but not equal to Seraievo; when you see 
the Bosniacs, in their cleanly apparel and splendid ams 
walking down the bazaar, you might think yourself in 
the serai of a sultan; then all the esnafiB are in tbeir 
divisions like regiments of Nizam." 

The Disdar Aga now accompanied me to the gale^ 
and bidding me farewell, with graceful urbanity, re-entered 
the bastioned miniature citadel in which he lived almost 
alone. The history of this individual is singular: his 
family was cut to pieces in the dreadful scenes of 1806; 
and, when a mere boy, he found himself a prisoner in 
the Servian camp. Being thus without protectors, he was 
adopted by Luka Lasarevjtch, the valiant lieutenant of 
]Kara Georg, iuid baptized as a Christian with Uie name 
of John, but having been reclaimed by the Turks on the 
re-conquest of Servia in 1813, he returned to the fidtk 
of his fathers. 

We now returned into the town, and there sat the 
same Luka Lasarevitch, now a merchant and town coun- 
cillor, at the door of his warehouse, an octogenarian, 
with thirteen wounds on his body. 

Going home, I asked the collector if the Aga and 
Luka were still friends. "To this very day," siud he, 
*^ notwithstanding the difference of religion, the Aga looks 
upon Luka as his father, and Luka looks upon the Aga 
as his son." To those who have lived in other parts of 
Turkey this account must appear v^ry curious. I found that 

ServJAn revolation, patriots, rebels, and robbers, were confounded in 
he common term of Hai^u^^* 


the Aga wfts m higlily respected by the Christians as by 
the Turks, for his strictly honourable character. 

We now paid a visit to the Arch-priest, lowan Paulo- 
vitch, a self-taught ecclesiastic: the room in which he 
received xta was filled with books, mostly Servian; but I 
I)epceived maoog them German translations. On asking 
him if he had heard any thing of English literature, he 
showed me translations into German of Shakspeare, 
Young's Night Thoughts, and a novel of Bulwer. The 
Greek secular dlergy marry; and in the course of con- 
versation it came out that his son was one of the young 
Servians sent by the government to study mining-en- 
gineering, at Schemnitz, in Hungary. The Church of the 
Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul, in which he officiates, 
was built in 1828. I remarked that it had only a wooden 
bell tower, which had been afterwards erected in the 
church jnxd; no belfry existing in the building itself 
The reason of this is, that, up to the period mentioned, 
the Servians were unaccustomed to have bells sounded. 

Our host provided most ample fSare for supper, pre- 
ceded by a glass of slivovitsa. We began with soup, 
rendered sfightly acid with lemon juice, then came fowl, 
stewed with turnips and sugar. This was followed by 
pudding of almonds, raisins, and pancake. Roast capon 
brought up the rear. A white wine of the country was 
served during supper, but along with dessert we had a 
good red wine of Kegotin, served in Bohemian coloured 
glasses. I have been thus minute on the subject of food, 
for the dinners I ate at Belgrade I do not count as 
Servian, having been all in the German fashion. 

The wife of the collector sat at dinner, but at the 
foot of the table; a position characteristic of that of women 
in Servia — midway between the graceful precedence of 
Europe and the contemptuous exclusion of the East. 

After hand-washing, we returned to the divan, and 
while pipes and coffee were handed round, a noise in the 
court yard denoted a visiter, and a middle-aged man, 
with embroidered clothes, and silver-mounted pistols in 



his girdle, entered. This was the Natchalnik, or locail 
governor, who had come from his own village, two hours 
off, to pay .his visit; he was accompanied by the two 
captains under his command, one of whom was a military 
dandy. His ample girdle was richly embroidered, out of 
which projected silver-mounted old fashioned pistols. . His 
crimson shaksheers were also richly embroidered, and the 
comer of a gilt flowered cambric pocket handkerchief 
showed itself at his breast. His companion wore a differaat 
aspect, with large features, dusky in tint as those of a 
gipsy, and dressed in plain coarse blue clothes. He was 
presented to me as a man who had grown from boyhood 
to manhood to the tune of the whistling bullets of Kara 
Georg and his Turkish opponents. After the usual salu- 
tations, the Natchalnik began — 

" We have heard that Gospody Wellington has received 
from the English nation an estate for his distinguished 

AuTHOB. "That is true; but the presentation took 
place a great many years ago." 

Natch. "What is the age of Gospody Wellington?" 

AuTHOE. "About seventy-five. ' He was bom in 1769, 
the year in which Napoleon and Mohammed AU first saw 
the light." 

Natch. ^'That was a moment when nature had her 
sleeves tucked up. I think our Kara Georg must ftlso 
have been bom about that time." Well, God grant that 
Gospody Wellington's sons, and his sons' sons, may render 
as great services to the nation." 

Our conversation was prolonged to a late hour in the 
evening, in which a variety of anecdotes were related of 
the ingenious methods employed by Milosh to fill his 
coffers as rapidly as possible. 

Mine host, taking a candle, then led me to my bedroom, 
a small carpeted apartment, with a German bed; the 
coverlet was of green satin, quilted, and the sheets were 
clean and fragrant ; and I observed, that they were striped 
with an alternate fine and coarse woof. 


The fatigaes of travelling procured me a sound sleep. 
I rose refreshed, and proceeded into the divan. The 
hostess then came forward, and before I could perceive, 
or prevent her object, she kissed my hand. "Kako se 
spavali; Dobro?" — "How have you slept? I hope you are 
refreshed," and other kindly inquiries followed on, while 
she^ took from the hand of an attendant a silver salver, 
on which was a glass of slivovitsa, a plate of rose mar- 
malade, and a large Bohemian cut crystal globular goblet 
of water, the contents of which, along with a chibouque, 
were the prelude to breakfast, which consisted of coffee 
and toast, and instead of milk we had rich boiled kaimak, 
as Turkish clotted cream is called. 

I have always been surprised to find that this un- 
doubted luxury, which is to be found in every town in 
Turkey, should be unknown throughout the greater part 
of Europe. After comfortably smoking another chibouque, 
and chatting about Shabatz and the Shabatzians, the 
collector informed me that the time was come for re- 
turning the visit of the Natchalnik, and paying that of 
the Bishop. 

The Natchalnik received us in the Konak of Gospody 
lefrem, the brother of Miiosh, and our interview was in 
no respect different from a usual Turkish visit. We then 
descended to the street; the sun an hour before its 
meridian shone brightly, but the centre of the broad 
street was very muddy, from the late rain; so we picked 
our steps with some care, until we arrived in the vicinity 
of the bridge, when I perceived the eunuch-looking coffee- 
keeper navigating the slough, accompanied by a Mussul- 
man in a red checked shawl turban.— "Here is a man that 
wishes to make your acquaintance," said Eunuch-face. — 
**I heard you were paying visits yesterday in the Turkish 
quarter," said the strange figure, saluting me. I returned 
the salute, and addressed him in Arabic; he answered in 
a strong Egyptian accent. However, as the depth of the 
surrounding mud, and the glare of the sun, rendered a 
further colloquy somewhat inconvenient, we postponed 


our meeting until the evening. On our way to the Bishop, 
I asked the collector what that man was doing there. 

CoLLECTOB. ^'His history is a singular one. You 
yesterday saw a Turk, who was baptized, and then re- 
turned to Islamism. This is a Servian, who turned Turk 
thirty years ago, and now wishes to be a Christian agaiok. 
He has passed most of that time in the distant parts of 
Turkey, and has children grown up and settled therei 
He has come to me secretly, and declares his desire to 
be a Christian again; but he is afraid the Turks will 
kill him." 

Aua?HOB. "Has he been long here?" 

Collector. "Two months. He went first into the 
Turkish town; and having incurred their suspicions, he 
left them, and has now taken up his quarters in the 
khan, with a couple of horses and a servant." 

Author. "What does he do?" 

Collector. "He pretends to be a doctor, and cures 
the people; but he generally exacts a considerable sum 
before prescribing, and he has had disputes with people 
who say that they are not healed so quickly as they 

Author. "Do you think he is sinc«:e in wishing to 
be a Christian again?" 

Collector. "God knows. What can one think of a 
man who has changed his religion, but that no de- 
pendence can be placed on him? The Turks are shy 
of him." 

On our way homewards we called at a house which con- 
tained portraits of Kara Georg, Milosh, Michael, Alexander, 
and other personages who have figured in Servian history. 
I was much amused with that of Milosh, which was 
painted in oil, altogether without chiaro scuro; but his 
decorations, button holes, and even a large mole on hia 
cheek, were done with the most painful minuteness. In 
his left hand he held a scroll, on which was inscribed 
Uatav, or Constitution, his right hand was pai*tly doubled 
k la finger post; it pointed significantly to the said 


scroll^ the fore-finger being adorned with a large diamond 

On arriving at the collector's house, I found Uie Aga 
anaiting me. This man inspired me with great interest. 
I looked iq>on him^ residing in his lone tower, the last 
of a once wealthy and powerful race now steeped in 
poverty, as a 9rrt of master of Ravenswood in a Wolf's 
crag. At first he was ceremonious; but on learning that 
I had lived long in the interior of society in Damascus 
and Aleppo, and finding that the interest with which he 
inspired me was real and not assumed, he became ex- 
pansive without lapsing into familiarity, and told me hie tale. 

When I spoke of the renegade, he pretended not to 
know whom I meant; but I saw, by a slight unconscious 
wink of his eye, that knowing him too well, he wished to 
see and hear no more of him. As he was rising to take 
leave, a step was heard creaking on the stairs, smd on 
tomxng in the direction of the door, I saw the red and 
white diecked turban of the renegade emerging from the 
banister; but no sooner did he perceive the Aga, than, 
taming round again, down went the red checked turban 
out of sight. 

When the Aga was gone, the collector gave ine a 
significant look, and, knocking the ashes out of his pipe 
into a plate on the floor, said, ^'Changed times, changed 
times, poor fellow ; his salary is only 250 piastres a month, 
and his rdations.used to be little kings in Shabatz; but 
the other fellows in the Turkish quarter, although so 
wretchedly poor that they have scarcely bread to eat, are 
as proud and insolent as ever." 

Author. "What is the reason of that?" 

Collector. "Because they are so near the Bosniac 
frontier, where there is a large Moslem population. The 
Moslems of Shabatz pay no taxes, either to the Servian 
government or the sultan, for they are accounted Bedif, 
or Militia, for which they receive a ducat a year from 
the sultan, as a returning fee. The Christian peasants 
here are very rich; some of them have ten and twenty 


thousand dacais buried under the earth; but these haof 
poverished Bosniacs in the fortress are as proud and 
insolent as ever." 

AuTHOB. '^You say Bosniacs! Are thej not Turks?" 

Collector. ^'No, the only Turks here are the Aga 
and the Cadi; all ihe rest are Bosniacs, the descendants 
of men of our own race and language, who on the Turkish 
invasion accepted Islamism, but retained the language, 
and many CSiristian customs, such as saints' days, Ghnstian 
names, and in most cases monogamy." 

AuTHOB. ''That is very curious; then, perluqps, as 
they are not full Moslems, they may be more tolerant of 

CoLLECTOB. "The very reverse. The Bosniac Christiaos 
are not half so well off as the Bulgarians, who have to 
deal with ihe real Turks. The arch-priest will be here 
to dinner, and he will be able to give you some account 
of the Bosniac Christians. But Bosnia is a beautifol 
country; how do you intend to proceed from here?" 

AuiHOB. ''I intend to go to Yallievo and Ushitza." 

CoLLECTOB. '^He that leaves Servia without seeing 
Sokol, has seen nothing." 

AuTHOB. "What is to be seen at Sokol?" 

CoLLECTOB. "The most wonderful place in the wcHrld, 
a perfect eagle's eyrie. A whole town and castle built 
on the capital of a column of rock." 

AuTHOB. "But I did not contemplate going there; 
so I must change my route: I took no letters for that 

CoLLECTOB. "Leave all that to me; you will first go 
to Losnitza, on the banks of the Drina, and I will despatch 
a messenger to-night, apprising the authorities of your 
approach. When you have seen Sokol, you will admit 
that it was worth the journey." 

The renegade having seen the Aga clear oS, now came 
to pay his visit, and the normal good-nature of the 
collector procured him a tolerant welcome. When we 
were left alone, the renegade began by abusing the 


Moslems in the fortress as a set of scoundrels. "I could 
not live an hour longer among such rascals," said he, 
"and I am now in the khan with my servant and a 
couple of horses, where you must come and see me. 
I will g^ve you as good a pipe of Djebel tobacco as ever 
you smoked." 

Author. "You must excuse me, I must set out on 
my travels to-morrow. You were in Egypt, I believe." 

Rbnboade. '•! was long there; my two sons, and a 
married dau^ter, are in Cairo to this day." 

Author. " What do they do ? " 

REN£O^AJ>B, *^My daughter is married, and I taught 
my sons all I know of medicine, and they practise it in 
the old way." 

Author. "Where did you study?" 

RBNEeADB^ (tossing his head and smihng). "Here, and 
there, and everywhere. I am no Hekim Bashi ; but I have 
an ointment that heals all bruises and sores in an in- 
credibly short space of time." 

He gave a most unsatisfactory account of his return 
to Turkey in Europe; first to Bosnia, or Herzegovina, 
where he was, or pretended to be, physician to Husreff 
Mehmed Pasha, and then to Seraievo. When we spoke 
of Hafiz Pasha, of Belgrade, he said, "1 know him well, 
but he does not know me; I recollect him at Carpout 
and Diarbecr before the battle of Nisib, when he had 
thirty or forty pashas under him. He could shoot at a 
mark, or ride, with the youngest man in the army." 

The collector now re-entered with the Natchalnik and 
his captains, and the renegade took his leave, I regretting 
that I had not seen more of him; for a true recital of 
his adventures must have made an amusing chapter. 

"Here is the captain, who is to escort you to Ushitza," 
said the Natchalnik, pointing to a muscular man at his 
left. ''He will take you safe and sound." 

Author. "I see he is a stout fellow. I would rather 
have him for a friend than meet him as an enemy. He 
has the face of an honest man, too." 

58 BOOK I. 8KETI*. 

Natchautik. ^I wamnt yon as Mife in Iub cnako^, 
as if yoa were in that of Gospody Wenington." 

AuTHOB. ''Ton may rest assured thttt if I wen in 
the custody oi the Duke of WelfingUm, I dioiild sot 
reckon myself very safe. One of his offices is to take 
care of a tower, in which the Queen locks up traitorous 
sul>iect8. Did you nerer hear of the Tower of Loadon?" 

Natchaliok. "No; all we know of London ia the 
wonderful bridge that goes under the water, whevs an 
army can pass from one side to the other, wlule the 
fleet lies anchored over their heads.** 

The Natchafaiik now bid me iarewell, and I gUTO my 
rendezvous to the captain for next morning. Dunng the 
discussion of dinner, the arch-priest gave us an iUnstratkn 
of Bosniac fanaticism: A few months ago a church at 
Belina was about to be opened, whidi had been a full 
year in course of building, by virtue of a Firman of the 
Sultan; the Moslems murmuring, but doing nottiing. 
When finished, the Bishop wrait to consecrate it; hut two 
hours after sunset^ an immense mob of Moslems, armed 
with pickaxes and shovels, rased it to the ground, haTing 
first taken the Gross and Gospels and thrown them inte 
a latrina. The Bishop complained to the Mutsellim, who 
imprisoned one or two of them, exacted a fine, which he 
put in his own pocket, and let them out next day; the 
ruins of the Church remain f«i statu ^[uo. 

Kext morning, on awaking, all the house was in a 
bustle: the sun shone brightly on the green satin ooveriet 
of my bed, and a tap at the door announced the collector, 
who entered in his dressing gown with the apparatus of 
brandy and sweetmeats, and joined his favourable augury 
to mine for the day's journey. 

"You will have a rare journey," said the collector; 
"the country is a garden, the weather is clear, and neither 
hot nor cold. The nearer you get to Bosnia, the more 
beautiful is the landscape." 

We each drank a thimbleful of slirovitsa, he to my 
prosperous journey, while I proposed health and long hfe 


to bim; but, as the sequel showed, ^nomme propose, et 
Ditu dispose.^ After breakfast, I bade Madame Ninitch 
adien, and deaceiided to the coixrt*yard, where two car* 
liages o£ the collector awaited us, our horses being 
attached behind. 

Littie did the collector suppose, that within a month 
from ibis he would be in the other world. The Obreno- 
vich pcurty, anxious to reinstate themselves in power, 
secretly fiimished themselves with thirty-four or thirty- 
fire hnbsar uniforms at Pesth, bought horses, and having 
bribed the Austrian frontier guard, passed the Save with 
a trumpeter about a month after this period, and entering 
Shabats, stated that a revolution had broken out at 
Belgrade, that prince Kara Georgevitch was murdered, 
and Michael proclaimed, with the support of the cabinets 
of Europe t The inhabitants knew not what to believe^ 
and allowed the detachment to ride through the town. 
Arrived at the govemment^house, the collector issued 
from the x>orch, to ask what they wanted, and received 
for answer a pistol-shot, which stretched him dead on the 
spot. The soi-disant Austrian hussars subsequently at^ 
tempted to raise the country, but, failing in this, were 
nearly all taken and executed. 



Through the richest land, forming part of the ancient 
banat of Matchva, which was in the earlier periods of 
Servian and Hungarian history so often a source of con- 
flict and contention, we approached distant grey hills, 
which gradually rose from the horizon, and, losing their 
indistinctness, revealed a chain most charmingly accidented. 
Thick turf covered the pasture lands; the old oak and 


the tender sapling diversified the plain. Some deads 
hang on the horizon, whose delicate lilac and fawn tints^ 
forming a harmonizing contrast with the deep ^deep blue 
of the heavens, showed the transparency of the atmosphere, 
and brought healthful elevation of spirits. Even the 
brutes bespoke the harmony of creation; for, singtilar 
to say, we saw several crows perched on the backs of swine! 

Towards evening, we entered a region of cottages 
among gardens inclosed by bushes, trees, and verdant 
fences, with the rural quiet and cleanliness of an finglisfa 
village in the last century, lighted up by an Italian sonset. 
Having crossed the little bridge, a pandour, who was 
sitting under the willows, rose, came forward, and, tousling 
his hat, presented the Natchalnik's compliments, and said 
that he was instructed to conduct me to his kouse. 
Losnitza is situated on the last undulation of the Grutchtevo 
range, as the mountains we had all day kept in view were 
called. So leaving the town on our left, we struck into 
a secluded path, which wound up the hill, and ki ten 
minutes we dismounted at a house having the air of a 
Turkish villa, which overlooked the surrounding country, 
and was entered by an enclosed court-yard with high waUs. 

The Natchalnik of Losnitza was a grey-headed tall 
gaunt figure, who spoke very little; but as the Bosniac 
frontier is subject to troubles, he had been selected for 
his great personal courage, for he had served under Kara 
Georg from 1804. ^ 

Natchalnik. "It is not an easy matter to keep things 
straight; the population on this side is all organized, so 
as to concentrate eight thousand men in a few hours. 
The Bosniacs are all armed; and as the two populations 

' Servia is divided into seventeen provinces, eaeh governed by 
a Natchalnik, whose duty it is to keep order and report to tl&t 
minister of war and interior. He has of coarse no control over the 
legal courts of law attached to each provincial government; he has 
a Cashier and a Secretary, and each province is divided into GantoKii 
(Bres), over each of which a captain rales. The average population 
of a province is 50,000 souls, and there are generally three Cantons 
in A province, which are governed by captains. 


detest each otber cordially, and are separated only by 
the Drina, the public tranquillity often incurs great 
danger: but whenever a crisis is at hand I mount my 
horse and go to Mahmoud Pasha at Zwomik; and the 
afiBftir is generally quietly settled with a cup of coffee." 

AuTHOB. ''As the Arabs say^ the burning of a little 
tobacco saves the burning of a great deal of powder. 
What is the population of Zwomik?" 

Natcbalkik. "About twelve or fifteen thousand; the 
place has fallen o|P; it had formerly between thirty and 
forty thousand souls." 

AuTHOB. "Have you had any disputes lately?" 

Natchaxnik. '*Why, yes; Great Zwornik is on the 
Bosniao side of the Drina; but Little Zwornik on the 
Servian side is also held by Moslems. Not long ago the 
men of Little Zwornik wished to extend their domain; 
but I planted six hundred men in a wood^ and then rode 
down alone and warned them off. They treated me con- 
temptuously; But as soon as they saw the six hundred 
men issuing from the wood they gave up the point: and 
Mahmoud Pasha admitted I was right; but he had been 
afraid to risk his popularity by preventive measures." 

The aelamlik of the Natchalnik was comfortably car- 
peted and fitted up, but no trace of European furniture 
was to be seen. The rooms of the collector at Shabatz 
still smacked of the vicinity to Austria ; but here we were 
with the natives. Dinner was preceded by cheese, onions, 
and slivovitsa as a rinfresco, and our beds were impro- 
vised in the Turkish manner by mattrasses, sheets, and 
coverlets, laid on tiie divans. 

Next morning, on waking, I went into the kiosk to 
enjoy the cool fresh air, the incipient sunshine, and the 
noble prospect; the banat of Matohva which we had 
yesterday traversed, stretched away to the westward, an. 
ocean of verdure and ripe yellow fruits. 

"Where is the Drina?" said I to our host. 

"Look downwards," said he; "you see that line of 
poplars and willows; there flows the Drina, hid from view: 


the steep gardens and wooded hills that abruptly rise &oul 
the other bank are in Bosnia." 

The town doctor now entered, a middle-aged man, 
who had been partly educated in Dalmatia, and conse- 
quently spoke Italian; he told us that his salary was f 40 
a year; and that in consequence of the extreme cheapness 
of provisions he managed to live as well in iMs place as 
he could on the Adriatic for treble the sum. 

0<her persons, mostly employes, now came to flee us, 
and we descended to the town. The bazaar was open and 
paved with stone; but except its extreme clesnliness, it 
was not in the least different from those one sees in Bul- 
garia and other parts of Turkey in Europe. Up to 1835 
many Turics hved in Losnitza; but at that time i^ej al 
removed to Bosnia ; the mosque still remtdns, and is used 
as a grain magazine. A mud fort crowns the ^rminence, 
having been thrown up during the wars of Kara Georg, 
and mi^t still be serviceable in case of hostile operations. 

Before going to Sokol the Natchalnik persuaded me 
to take a Highland ramble into the Gutchevo range, and 
first visit Tronosha, a large convent three hours off in 
the woods, which was to be on the following dey tiie 
rendezvous of all the surrounding peasantry, in their holy- 
day dresses, in order to celebrate the .festival of con- 

At the appointed hour our host appeared, having donned 
his best clothes, which were covered with gold embroidery. 
His sabre and pistols were no less rich and curious, and 
he mounted a horse worth at least sixty or seventy pounds 
sterling. Several other notables of Losnitza, simSariy 
broidered and accoutred, and mounted on caracoling horses, 
accompanied us. 

Ascending rapidly, we were soon lost in the woods, 
catching only now and then a view of the golden plain 
through the dark green oaks and pines. For full three 
hours our little party dashed up hill and down dale, 
through the most majestic forests, delightful to the gaze, 
but unrelieved by a patch of cultivation, till we came to 


a height coTered vath loose rodcs and pasture. "There 
is Tronosha," said the Natchalnik, palling up, and pointing 
to a tiering white spire and slender column of blue 
smoke that rose from a cul-de-sac formed by the o^^site 
hills, which, like the woods we had traversed, wore such 
a shaggy and umbrageous dn^ery, that with a slight trans- 
position, I could exclaim, "Si lupus essem, noUem alibi 
qoam in Servid lupus essel" A steep descent brought 
OS to feome meadows on which cows were grazing by the 
side of a n^id etream, and I felt the open space a relief 
tfter the gloom of the endless forest. 

Grossing the stream, we struck into the sylvan cul-de- 
sac, «&d arrived in a few minutes at an edifice with strong 
walls, towers, and posterns, that looked more like a se* 
eluded and fortified manor-house in the seventeenth century 
than a convent; for in more troubled times, such establish- 
menta, though tolerated by the old Turkish government, 
were often subject to the unwelcome visits of minor 

A fine old monk, with a powerful voice, welcomed the 
^ Natchalnik at the gate, and putting his hand on his left 
I breast, said to me, **Dobro doohe Gospody!" (Welcome, 
I master!) 

We then, according to the custom of the country, went 

{ into the chapel, and, kneeling down, said our thanks- 

I giving for safe arrival. I remarked, on taking a turn 

' throttgh the chapel and examining it minutely, that the 

pictures were all in the old Byzantine style — crimson- 

C^ed saints looking up to golden skies. 

Oossing the court, I looked about me, and perceived 
that the cloister was a gallery, with wooden beams sup- 
porting the roof, running round three sides of the build- 
ing, 1^6 basement being built in stone, at one part of 
which a hollowed tree shoved in an aperture formed a 
t^n^ for a stream of clear cool water. The Igoumen, 
or superior, received us at the foot of the wooden staircase 
whidi ascended to the gallery. He was a sleek middle- 
ifped man, with a new silk gown, and seemed delighted at 


my arrival in this secluded spot, and taking me by the 
hand, led me to a sort of seat placed in a prominent part 
of the gallery, which seemed to correspond with the makad 
of Saracenic architecture. 

No sooner had the Igoumen gone to superintend the 
arrangements of the evening, than a shabbily dressed 
filthy priest, of such sinister aspect, that, to use a common 
phrase, '^his looks would have hanged him," now came 
up, and in a fulsome eulogy welcomed me to the conyenl 
He related how he had been born in Syrmium, and had 
been thirteen years in Bosnia; but I suspected that some 
screw was loose, acd on making inquiry found that he 
had been sent to this retired convent in consequence of 
incorrigible drunkenness. The Igoumen now returned, and 
gave the clerical Lunipacivagabundus such a look that be 
skulked off on the instant. 

After coffee, sweetmeats, &c., we passed through the 
yard, and piercing the postern gate, unexpectedly came 
upon a most animated scene. A green glade that ran up 
to the foot of the hill was covered with the preparations 
for the approaching festivities — wood was splitting, fires 
lighting, fifty or sixty sheep were spitted, pyramids of 
bread, dishes of all sorts and sizes, and jars of wine in 
wicker baskets were mingled with throat-cut fowls, lying 
on the banks of the stream side by side with pigs at their 
last squeak. 

Dinner was served in the refectory to about twenty 
individuals, including the monks and our party. The 
Igoumen drank to the health of the prince, and then of 
Wucics and Petronievitch, declaring that thanks were due 
to God and those European powers who had brought 
about their return. The shabby priest, with the gallows 
look, then sang a song of his own composition, on their 
return. Not being able to understand it, I asked my 
neighbour what he thought of the song. "Why," said he, 
"the lay is worthy of the minstrel — doggrel and dis- 
sonance.^' Some old national songs were sung, and I again 
asked my neighbour for a criticism on the poetry. "That 


last song," said he, *4s like a river that flows easily and 
naturally from one beautifal valley to another." 

In the evening we went out, and the countless fires 
lighting up the lofty oaks had a most pleasing effect 
The sheep were by this time cut up, and lying in frag- 
ments, around which the supper parties were seated cross- 
legged. Other peasants danced slowly, in a circle, to the 
drone of the somniferous Servian bagpipe. 

When 1 went to bed, the assembled peasantry were in 
the full tide of merriment, but without excess. The only 
person somewhat the worse of the bottle was the thread- 
bare priest with the gallows look. 

I fell asleep with a low confused murmur of droning 
bagpiges, jingling drinking cups, occasional laughter, and 
other noises. A solemn swelling chorus of countless voices 
gently interrupted my slumbers — the room was filled with 
light, and the sun on high was beginning to begild an 
irregular parallelogram in the wainscot, when I started 
up, and drew on my clothes. Going out to the makad^ 
I perceived yesterday's assembly of merry-making peasants 
quadrupled in number, and all dressed in their holyday 
costume, thickset on their knees down the avenue to the 
church, and following a noble old hymn. I went out of 
the postern, and, helping myself with the grasp of trunks 
of trees, and bared roots and bushes, clambered up one of 
the sides of the hollow, and attaining a clear space, looked 
down on the singular scene. The whole pit of this theatre of 
verdure appeared covered with a carpet of white and 
crimson, for such were the prevailing colours of the rustic 
costumes. When I thought of the trackless solitude of 
the sylvan ridges round me, 1 seemed to witness one of 
the early communions of Christianity, in those ages when 
incense ascended to the Olympic deities in gorgeous 
temples, while praise to the true God rose from the haunts 
of the wolf, the lonely cavern, or the subterranean vault. 

When church service was over I examined the dresses 
more minutely. The upper tunic of the women was a 
species of surtout of undyed cloth, bordered with a design 
Paton. I. 5 


of red cloth of a finer description. The stockings in goIout 
and texture resembled those of Persia, but were gfenerally 
embroidered at the ankle with gold and silver thread. 
After the mid-day meal we descended, accompaiiied by 
the monks. The lately crowded court-yard was silent and 
empty. "What," said I, "all dispersed already?" The 
supeHor smiled, and said nothing. On going out of the 
gate, I paused in a of state slight emotion. The whole 
assembled peasantry were marshalled in two > rows, and 
standing uncovered in solemn silence, so as to make a , 
living avenue to the bridge. 

The Igoumen then publicly expressed the pleasure my 
visit had given to the people, and in their name thanked 
me, and wished me a prosperous journey, repeatinig a 
phrase I had heard before: "God be praised that Servia 
has at length seen the day that strangers come firom a&r 
to see and know the people!" 

I took off my fez, and said, *^Do you know, Father 
Igoumen, what has given me the most pleasure in the 
course of my visit?" 

Igoumbn. "I can scarcely guess." 

Author. "I have seen a large assembly of peasani^, 
and not a trace of poverty, vice, or misery; the best 
proof that both the civil and ecclesiastical authorities do 
their duty." 

The Igoumen, smiling with satisfaction, made a short 
speech to the people. I mounted my horse; the convent 
bells began to toll as I waved my hand to the assembly, 
and "Sretnj poot!" (a prosperous journey!) burst from a 
thousand tongues. The scene was so moving that I could 
scarcely refrain a tear. Clapping spurs to my horse I can* 
tered over the bridge and gave him his will of tho bridle 
till the steepness of the ascent compelled a slower pace. 

Words fail me to describe the beauty of the road from 
Tronosha to Krupena. The heights and distances, without 
being alpine in reality, were sufficiently so to an eye un- 
practised in measuring scenery of the highest class; bat 
in all the sofber enchantments nature had revelled in pro* 


digality. The gloom of the oak forest was relieved and 
broken by a hundred plantations of every variety of tre« 
that the clis^te would bear, and every hue, from tba 
sombre evergreen to the early suspicions of the yellow le«f 
of autumn. Even the tops of the mountains were free 
from sterility, for they were capped with green as bright, 
with trees as lofty, and with pasture as rich, as that of 
the valleys below. 

The people, too, were very different from the inhab* 
itants of Belgrade, v^ere^political intrigue, and want of 
the confidence which sincerity inspires, paralyze social 
intercourse. But the men of the back-woods, neither poor 
nor barbarous, delighted me by the patriarchal simplicity of 
their manners, and the poetic originality of their language* 
Even in gayer moments 1 seemed to witness the sweet 
comedy of nature, in which man is ludicrous from bis 
pecuharities, but "is not yet ridiculous from the affectations 
and assumptions of artificial life." 

Half-way to Krupena we reposed at a brook, where 
the . carpets were laid out and We smoked a pipe. A 
curious illustration occurred here of the abundance of 
wood in Servia. A boy, after leading a horse into the 
brook, tugged the halter and led the unwilling horse out 
of the stream again. ^Let him drink, let him drink his 
fill," said a woman; "if every thing else must be paid 
with gold, at least wood and water cost nothing." 

Mounting our horses again, we were met by six troopers 
bearing the compliments of the captain of Krupena, who 
was awaiting us with twenty-two or three irregular cavalry 
on an eminence. We both dismounted and went through 
the ceremony of public complimenting, both evidently 
enjoying the scene ; he the visit of an illustrious stranger, 
and I the formality of a military reception. I took him 
by the hand, made a turn across the gi^ass, cast a non- 
chalant look on his troop, and condescended to express 
my approbation of their martial bearing ; they were men 
of rude and energetic aspect, very fairiy mounted. After 
a little further chat and compliment we remounted ; and 


I perceived Krupena at the distance of about a mile, in 
the middle of a little plain surrounded by gardens; but 
the neighbouring hills were here and there bare of 

Some of the troopers in front sang a sort of chorus, and 
now and then a fellow to show off his horse, would ride a la 
djereed, and instead of flinging a dart, would fire his 
pistols. Others joined us, and our party was swelled to 
a considerable cavalcade as we entered the village, where 
the peasants were drawn up in a row to receive me. 

Their captain then led the way up the stairs of his 
house to a chardak, or wooden balcony, on which was a 
table laid out with flowers. The elders of the village now 
came separately, and had some conversation: the priest 
on entering laid a melon on the table, a usual method of 
showing civility in this part of the country. One of the 
attendant crowd was a man from Montenegro, who said 
he was a house-painter. He related that he was employed 
by Mahinoud Pasha, of Zwornik, to paint one of the rooms 
in his house; when he had half accomplished his task, 
the dispute about the domain of Little Zwornik arose, on 
which he and his companion, a German, were thrown into 
prison, being accused of being a Servian captain in dis- 
guise. They were subsequently liberated, but shot at ; the 
ball going through the leg of the narrator. This is another 
instance of the intense hatred the Servians and the Bosniac 
Moslems bear to each other. It must be remarked, that 
the Christians, in relating a tale, usually make the most of it 

The last dish of our dinner was a roast lamb, served 
on a large circular wooden board, the head being split in 
twain, and laid on the top of the pyramid of dismembered 
parts. We had another jovial evening, in which the wine- 
cup was plied freely, but not to an extravagant excess, 
and the usual toasts and speeches were drunk and made. 
Even in returning to rest, I had not yet done with the 
pleasing testimonies of welcome. On entering the bed- 
chamber, I found many fresh and fragrant flowers inserted 
in the chinks of the wainscot. 


Krupena wasr originally exclusively a Moslem town, 
and a part of the old bazaar remains. The original in- 
habitants, who escaped the sword, went either to Sokol 
or into Bosnia. The hodgia, or Moslem schoolmaster, 
being on some business at Krupena, came in the morning 
to see us. His dress was nearly all in white, and his legs 
bare from the knee. He told me that the Vayvode of 
Soko had a curious mental malady. Having lately lost a 
son, a daughter, and a grandson, he could no longer 
smoke^ for when his servant entered with a pipe, he 
imagined he saw his children burning in the tobacco. 

During the whole day we toiled upwards, through 
woods and wilds of a chiracter more rocky than that of 
the previous day, and on attaining the ridge of the Gut- 
chevo range, I looked down with astonishment on Soko, 
which, though lying at our feet, was yet perched on a 
lone fantastic crag, which exactly suited the description 
of the collector of Shabatz, — "a city and castle built on 
the capital of a column of rock." Beyond it was a range 
of mountains further in Bosnia ; further on, another outline, 
and then another, and another. I at once felt that, as a 
tourist, I had broken fresh ground, that I was seeing scenes 
of grandeur unknown to the English public. It was long 
since I had sketched. I instinctively seized my book, but 
threw it away in despair, and, yielding to the rapture of 
the moment, allowed my eyes to mount step after step of 
this Alpine ladder. 

We now, by a narrow, steep, and winding path cut 
on the face of a precipice, descended to Soko, and passing 
through a rotting wooden bazaar, entered a wretched khan, 
and ascending a sort of staircase, were shown into a room 
with dusty mustabahs ; a greasy old cushion, with the flock 
protruding through its cover, was laid down for me, but 
I, with polite excuses, preferred the bare board to this odious 
flea-hive. The more I declined the cushion, the more pressing 
became the khan-keeper that I should carry away with me 
some reminiscence of Soko. Finding that his upholstery 
was not appreciated, the khan-keeper went to the other 


end of the apartment, and began to make a fire for cofFee ; 
for this being Ramadan time, all the fires were out, and 
most of the people were asleep. Meanwhile the captain 
sent for the Disdar Aga. I offered to go into the citadel* 
and pay him a visit, but the captain said, ^Tou have no 
idea how suspicious these people are: even now they are 
forming all sorts of conjectures as to the object of your 
visit; we must, therefore, take them quietly in their "own 
way, and do nothing to alarm them. In a few minutes the 
Disdar Aga will be here ; you can then judge, by the temper 
he is in, of the length of your stay, and the extent to which 
you wish to carry your curiosity." 

I admitted that the captain was spealduig sense, and 
waited patiently till the Aga made his appearance. 

Footsteps were heard on the staircase, and the Mut- 
sellim entered, — a Turk, about forty-five years of age, who 
looked cross, as most men are when called from a sound 
sleep. His fez was round as a wool-bag, and looked as 
if he had stuffed a shawl into it before putting it on, and 
his face and eyes had something of the old Ugrtan or 
Tartar look. He was accompanied by a Bosniac, who was 
very proud and insolent in his demeanour. After the 
usual compliments, I said, '*I have seen some countries 
and cities, but no place so curious as Soko. I left Bel* 
grade on a tour through the interior, not knowing of 
its existence. Otherwise I would have asked letters of 
Hafiz Pasha to you : for, intending to go to Nish, he gave 
me a letter to the Pasha there. But the people of this 
country having advised me not to miss the wonder of 
Servia, I have come, seduced by the account of its beauty, 
not doubting of your good reception of strangers: " on 
which I took out the letter of Hafiz Pasha, the direction 
of which he read, and then he said, in a husky voice 
which became his cross look, — 

'4 do not understand your speech; if you have seen 
Belgrade, you must find Soko contemptible. As for your 
seeing the citadel, it is impossible; for the key is with 


the Disdar Aga, and he is asleep, and even if you were 
to get in, tkere is nothing to be seen." 

After some further conversation, in the course of 
which I saw that it would be better not to attempt ^^to 
catch the Tartar^" I restricted myself to taking a survey 
of the town. Contiiiuing our walk in the same direction 
as that by which we entered, we completed the threading 
of the bazaar, which was truly abominable, and arrived 
at the gate of the citadel, which was open; so that the 
story of the key and the slumbers of the Disdar Aga was 
aU fiidg^. I looked in, but did not ent^. There are no 
new works, and it is a castle such as those one sees on 
the Rhine; but its extraordinary position renders it im- 
pregnable in a country impHacticable for artillery. Al- 
though blockaded in the time of the Revolution* and the 
Moslem garrison reduced to only seven men, it never was 
taken by the Servians; although Belgrade, Ushitza, and 
all the other castles, h«d fallen into their hands. Close 
to the castle is a mosque in wood, with a minaret of 
wood, although the finest stone imaginable is in abundance 
all around. The Mutsellim opened the door, and showed 
me the interior, with blank walls and a faded carpet, 
opposite the Moharrem. He would not allow me to go 
up the nuinaret, evidently afraid I would peep over into 
the castle. 

Retaraeing our steps I perceived a needle-shaped rock 
that overlooked the abyss under the fortress^ so taking 
off my boots, I scraihbled up and attained the pinnacle ; 
but the view was so fearful, that, afraid of getting dizzy, 
I turned to descend, but found it a much more dangerous 
affur than the ascent; at length by the assistance of Paul 
I got down to the Mutsellim, who was sitting impatiently on 
a piece of rock, wondering at the unaccountable English- 
man. I asked him what he supposed to be the height of 
the rock on which the citadel was built, aboVe the level 
of the valley below. 

"What do I know of engineering?" said he, taking me 
out of hearing: "I confess I do not understand your object. 


I hear that on the road you have been making inquiries 
as to the state of Bosnia : what interest can England have 
in raising disturbances in that country?" 

'^The same interest that she has in producing political 
disorder in one of the provinces of the moon. In Aleppo, 
too, I recollect standing at the 6««b-el-Na8r, attempting to 
spell out an inscription recording its erection, and I was 
grossly insulted and called a Mehendis (engineer); but you 
seem a man of more sense and discernment." 

"Well, you are evidently not a chaphun. There is 
nothing more to be seen in Soko. Had it not been Ra- 
madan we should have treated you better, be your in- 
tentions good or bad. I wish you a pleasant journey; and 
if you wish to arrive at Liubovia before night^fall the 
sooner you set out the better, for the roads are not safe 
after dark." 

We now descended by paths like staircases cut in the 
rocks to the valley below. Paul dismounted in a fright from 
his horse and led her down ; but long practice of riding in 
the Druse country had given me an easy indifference to roads 
that would have appalled me before my residence there. 
When we got a little way along the valley, I looked baek, 
and the view from below was, in a different style, as re- 
markable as that from above. Soko looked like a little 
castle of Edinburhg placed in the clouds, and a precipice 
on the other side of the valley presented a perpendicular 
stature of not less than five hundred feet. 

A few hours' travelling through the narrow valley of 
the Bogatschitza brought us to the bank of the Drina, 
where, leaving the up-heaved monuments of a chaotie 
world, we bade adieu to the Tremendous, and again sainted 
the Beautiful. 

The Save is the largest tributary of the Danube, and 
the Drina is the largest tributary of the Save, but it it 
not navigable; no river scenery, however, can possibly be 
prettier than that of the Drina; as in the case of the 
Upper Danube from Linz to Vienna, the river winds be- 
tween precipitous banks tufted with wood, but it was tame 


after the thrilling enchantments of Soko. At one place a 
Roman causeway ran along the river, and we were told 
that a Roman bridge crossed a tributary of the Drina in 
tiiis neighbourhood, which to this day bears the name of 
Latinski Tiupria, or Latin bridge. 

At liubovia the hills receded, and the valley was about 
half a mile wide, consisting of fine meadow land with 
thinly scattered oaks, athwart which the evening sun poured 
its golden floods, suggesting pleasing images of abundance 
without effort. This part of Servia is a wilderness, if you 
will, so scant is it of inhabitants, so free from any thing like 
inclosores, or fields, farms, labourers, gardens or gardeners ; 
and yet it is, and looks a garden in one place, a trim English 
lawn and park in another: you almost say to yourself, 
"The man or house cannot be far off: what lovely and 
extensive grounds, where can the hall or castle be hid?" 

Liubovia is the quarantine station on the high road 
from Belgrade to Seraievo. A line of buildings, parlatorio, 
magazines, and lodging-houses, faced the river. The 
director would fain have me pass the night, but the cap- 
tain of Derlatcha had received notice of our advent, and 
we were obliged to push on, and rested only for coffee 
and pipes. The director was a Servian from the Austrian 
tide of the Danube, and spoke German. He told me that 
three thousand individuals per annum performed quaran- 
tine, passing from Bosnia to Soko and Belgrade, and that 
the principal imports were hides, chesnuts, zinc, and iron 
manufactures from the town of Seraievo. On the opposite 
bank of the river was a wooden Bosniac guard-housa 

Remounting our horses after sunset, we continued along 
the Drina, now dubiously illuminated by the chill pallor 
of the rising moon, while hill and dale resounded with 
the songs of our men. No sooner had one finished an 
old metrical legend of the days of Stephan and Lasar, 
than another began a lay of Kara Georg, the "William 
Tell" of these mountains. Sometimes when we came to 
a good echo the pistols were fired off; at one place the 
noise had aroused a peasant, who came running across 

74 BOOK I. 8«BVIA. 

the grass to the road crying out, "the night ia adrancing: 
go no further, but tarry with me : the stranger will haire 
a plain supper and a hard couch, but a hearty Welcome." 
We thanked him for his proffer, but held on. 

At about ten o'clock we entered a thick dark wood, 
and after an ascent of a quarter of an hour emerged upon 
a fine open lawn in front of a large house with lights 
gleaming in the windows. The ripple of the Drina was 
no longer audible, but we saw it at some distance below 
us, like a cuirass of polished steel. As we entered the 
inclosure we found the house in a bustle. The captain, a 
tall strong corpulent man of about forty years of age, 
came forward and welcomed me. 

"I almost despaired of your coming to-night,*' said 
he; "for on this ticklish frontier it is always safer to 
terminate one's journey by sunset. The rogues pass so 
easily from one side of the water to the other, that it is 
difficult to clear the country of them." 

He then led me into the house, and going through a 
passage, entered a square room of larger dimensions than 
is usual in the rural parts of Serria. A good Turkey 
carpet covered the upper part of the room, which was 
fenced round by cushions placed against the wall, but not 
raised above the level of the floor. The wall of the lower 
end of the room had a row of strong wooden pegs, on 
which were hung the hereditary and holyday clothes of 
the family, for males and females. Furs, velvets, gold 
embroidery, and silver mounted Bosniac pistols, guns, and 
carbines elaborately ornamented. 

The captain now presented me to his wife, who came 
from the Austrian side of the Save, and spoke GermaiL 
She seemed a trim methodical housewife, as the order of 
her domestic arrangements clearly showed. Another female 
was about four and twenty, when the lines of thinking 
begin to mingle with those of early youth. Her features 
too were by no means classical or regular, and yet she 
had some of that superhuman charm which Raphael some- 
times infused into his female figures, as in the St. Ce- 


cilia, 90 as to remind me of the highest characteristic of 
expression — "a spirit scarcely disguised enough in the 

Next day, the father of the captain made his appearance. 
The same old man, whom I had met at Palesh, and who 
had asked me, "if the king of my comitry lived in a 
strong castle?" We dined at mid-day by fine weather, 
the windows of the principal apartments being thrown 
open, so as to have the view of the valley, which was 
here nearly as wide as at Liubovia, but with broken 
ground. For the first time since leaving Belgrade we 
dined, not at an European table, but squatted round a 
sofra, a foot high, in the Eastern manner, although we ate 
with knives and forks, but long habit had accustomed me 
to the posture. 

Our host, the captain, never having seen Ushitza, of- 
fered to accompany me thither; so we started early in 
the afternoon, having the Drina still on our right, and 
Bosniae villages, from time to time visible, and pretty to 
look at, but I should hope somewhat cleaner than Soko. 
On arrival at Bashevitza the elders of the village stood in 
a row to receive us close to the house of conciliation. 
1 perceived a mosque near this place, and asked if it was 
employed for any purpose. **No," said the captain, "it 
is empty. The Turks prayed in it, after their own fashion, 
to that God who is their's and ours ; and the house of God 
should not be made a grain magazine, as in many other 
Turkish villages scattered throughout Servia." At this place 
a number of wild ducks were visible, perched on rocks in 
the Drina, but were very shy; only once did one of our 
men get within shot, which missed; his gun being an 
old Turkish one, like most of the arms in this country, 
which are sometimes as dangerous to the marksman as to 
the mark. 

Leaving the basin of the Drina, we descended to that 
of the Morava by a steep road, until we came to beauti- 
fully rich meadows, which are called the Ushitkza Luka, 
or meadows, which are to this day a debatable ground 


for the Moslem inhabitants of Ushitza, and the Servian 
villages in the neighbourhood. From here to Ushitza the 
road is paved, but by whom we could not learn. The 
stones were not large enough to warrant the belief of its 
being a Roman causeway, and it is probably a relic of 
the Servian empire. * 



Before entering Ushitza we had a fair prospect of it 
from a gentle eminence. A castle, in the style of the 
middle ages, mosque minarets, and a church spire, rose 
above other objects; each memorializing the three distinct 
periods of Servian history: the old feudal monarchy, the 
Turkish occupation, and the new principality. We entered 
the bazaars, which were rotting and ruinous, the air in- 
fected with the loathsome vapours of dunghills and their 
putrescent carcases, tanpits with green hides, horns, and 
offal: here and there a hideous old rat showed its head 
at some crevice in the boards, to complete the picture of 
impurity and desolation'. 

Strange to say, after this ordeal we put up at an 
excellent khan, the best we had seen in Servia, being a 
mixture of the German Wirthshaus, and the Italian osteria, 
kept by a Dalmatian, who had lived twelve years at Scutari 
in Albania. His upper room was very neatly furnished 
and new carpeted. 

In the afternoon we went to pay a visit to the Vay- 

■ After seeing Ushitza, the captain, who aooompanied me, retomed 
to his family, at Derlatoha, and, I lament to say, that at this plae« b« 
was attacked by the robbers, who, in summer, lurk in the thiok woods 
on the two frontiers. The captain galloped off, but his two serrantt 
were killed on the spot. 


vode, who lived among gardens in the upper town, out 
of the vtench of the bazaars. Arrived at the house, 
we mounted a few ruined steps, and passing through a 
little garden fenced with wooden paling, were shown into 
a little carpeted kiosk, where coffee and pipes were pre- 
sented, but not partaken of by the Turks present, it being 
still Ramadan. The Vayvode was an elderly man, with a 
white turban and a green benish, having weak eyes, and 
a slight hesitation in his speech; but civil and good- 
natured, without any of the absurd suspicions of the 
Matsellim of Soko. He at once granted me permission 
to see the castle, with the remark, "Your seeing it can 
do us no good and no harm. Belgrade castle is like a 
bazaar, any one can go out and in that likes." In the 
course of conversation he told us that Ushitza is the prin- 
cipal remaining settlement of the Moslems in Servia; their 
nomber here amounting to three thousand five hundred, 
while there are only six hundred Servians, making alto- 
gether a population of somewhat more than four thousand 
souls. The Yayvode himself spoke Turkish on this occa- 
sion; but the usual language at Soko is Bosniac (the same 
ss Servian). 

We now took our leave of the Vayvode, and continued 
ncending the same street, composed of low one-storied 
booses, covered with irregular tiles, and inclosed with 
high wooden palings to secure as much privacy as possible 
for the harems. The pahngs and gardens ceased; and on 
s terrace built on an open space stood a mosque, sur- 
roonded by a few trees; not cypresses, for the ,climate 
scarce allows of them, but those of the forests we had 
passed. The portico was shattered to fragments, and 
remained as it was at the close of the revolution. Close 
by is a Turbieh or saint's tomb, but nobody could tell me 
u> whom or at what period it was erected. 

Within a little inclosed garden I espied a strangely 
dressed figure, a dark-coloured Dervish, with long glossy 
Uack hair. He proved to be a Persian, who had travelled 
^•11 over the East. Without the conical hat of his order, 


the Dervish would have made a fine study for a Keapoliian 
brigand; but his manners were easy, and his converaation 
plausible, like those of his countrymen, whidi form at 
wide a contrast to the silent hauteur of the- Tuck, and 
the rude fanaticism of the Bosniac, as can well be imagined. 
His servant, a withered baboon-looking little fellow, in the 
same dress, now made his appearance and presented ooffee. 
and the Dervish cut some flowers, and presented each 
of us with one. 

The Muezzin now looked at his watch, and g^ave me 
a wink, expressive of the approach of the time for evening 
prayer; so I followed him into the church, ^diick had 
bare white-washed walls with nothing to remark; and 
then taking my hand, he led me up the dark cuid dismal 
spiral staircase to the top of the minaret; on emerging 
on the balcony of which, we had a general view of the 
town and environs. 

Ushitza lies in a narrow valley surrounded by moun* 
tains. The Dietina, a tributary of the Morava, k^iversee 
the town, and is crossed by two elegantly proportioned, 
but somewhat ruinous, bridges. The principal object in 
the landscape is the castle, built on a picturesque jagged 
eminence, separated from the precipitous mountains to the 
south only by a deep gully, through which the Dietina 
struggles into the valley. The stagnation of the art of 
war in Turkey has preserved it nearly as it must have 
been some centuries ago. In £urope, feudal castles are 
complete ruins ; in a country such as this, where contests 
are of a guerilla character, they are neglected, but neither 
destroyed nor totally abandoned. The centre space in the 
valley is occupied by the town itself, which shows great 
gaps; whole streets which stood here before the Servian 
revolution, have been turned into orchards. The general 
view is pleasing enough; for the castle, although not so 
picturesque as that of Sokol, affords fine materials for a 
picture; but the white- washed Servian church, the feo 
simile of every one in Hungary, rather detracts from the 
external interest of the view. 


In the evening the Vayvode sent a message by his 
pandour, to say that he would pay me a visit along with 
the Agas of the town, who, six in number, shortly after- 
wards came. It being now evening, they had no objection 
to smoke; and as they sat round the room they related 
wondrous things of Ushitza towards the close of the last 
century, which being the entrepot between Servia and 
Bosnia, had a great trade, and contained then twelve 
thousand houses, or about sixty thousand inhabitants; so 
I easily accounted for the gaps in the middle of the town. 
The Vayvode complained bitterly of the inconvenicncies 
to which the quarantine subjected them in restricting the 
free communication vdth the neighbouring province; but 
he admitted that the late substitution of a quarantine of 
twenty-four hours, for one of ten days as formerly, was 
a great alleviation; '^but even this," added ihe Vayvode, 
"^ a hindrance: when there was no quarantine, Ushitza 
was every Monday frequented by thousands of Bosniacs, 
whom even twenty-four hours' quarantine deter." 

I asked him if the people understood Turkish or Arabic, 
and if preaching was held. He answered, that only he 
and a few of the Agas imderstood Turkish, — that the 
Mollah was a deeply-read man, who said the prayers in 
the mosque in Arabic, as i^ customary every where; but 
that there was no preaching, since the people only knew 
their prayers in Arabic, but could not understand a ser- 
mon, and spoke nothing but Bosniac. I think that some- 
body told me that Vaaz, or preaching, is held in the 
Bosniac language at Seraievo. But my memory fails me 
in certainty on this point. 

After a pleasant chat of about an hour they went 
awey. Our beds were, as Mr. Pepys says, "good, but lousy." 

Next day the Vayvode arrived with a large company 
of Moslems, and we proceeded on foot to see the castle^ 
our road being mostly through those gardens, on which 
the old town stood, and following the side of the river, 
U> the spot where the high banks almost close in, so as 
to form a gorge. We ascended a winding path, and 


entered the gate, which formed the outlet of a long, 
gloomy, and solidly built passage. 

A group of armed militiamen received us as we en- 
tered, and on regaining the daylight within the walls, we 
saw nothing but the usual spectacle of crumbling crenel- 
lated towers, abandoned houses, rotten planks, and un- 
serviceable dismounted brass guns. The donjon, or keep, 
was built on a detached rock, connected by an old wooden 
bridge. The gate was strengthened with heavy nails, and 
closed by a couple of enormous old fashioned padlockp. 
The Yayvode gave us a hint not to ask a sight of the 
interior, by stating that it was only opened at the period 
of inspection of the Imperial Commissioner. The bridge 
which overlooked the romantic gorge, — the rocks here 
rising precipitately from both sides of the Dietina, — seemed 
the favourite lounge of the garrison, for a little kiosk of 
rude planks had been knocked up; carpets were laid out; 
the Vayvode invited us to repose a little after out steep 
ascent; pipes and coffee were produced. 

I remarked that the castle must have suffered severely 
in the revolution. 

"This very place," said the Yayvode, "was the scene 
of the severest conflict. The Turks had twenty-one guns, 
and the Servians seven. So many were killed, that that 
bank was filled up with dead bodies." 

"I remember it well," said a toothless, lisping old 
Turk, with bare brown legs, and large feet stuck in a 
pair of new red shining slippers: "that oval tower has 
not been opened for a long time. If any one were to 
go in, his head would be cut off by an invisible hangiar." 
I smiled, but was immediately assured by several by- 
standers that it was a positive fact! Our party, swelled 
by fresh additions, all well armed, that made us look like 
a large body of Haiducks going on a marauding expedition, 
now issued by a gate in the castle, opposite to that by 
which I entered, and began to toil up the hill that over- 
looks Ushitza, in order to have a bird's-eye view of the 
whole town and valley. On our way up, the Natchalnik 


told me, that although long resident here, he had never 
seen the interior of the castle, and that I was the first 
Christian to whom its gates had been opened since the 

On leaving Ushitza, the Natchalnik accompanied me 
with a cavalcade of twenty or thirty Christians, a few 
miles out of the town. The afternoon was beautiful; the 
road lay through hilly ground, and after two hours' riding, 
we saw Poshega in the middle of a wide level plain; after 
descending to which, we crossed the Scrapesh by an elegant 
bridge of sixteen arches, and entering the village, put 
up at a miserable khan, although Poshega is the embryo 
of a town symmetrically and geometrically laid out. Twelve 
years ago a Turk wounded a Servian in the streets of 
Ushitza, in a quarrel about some trifling matter. The 
Servian pulled out a pistol, and shot the Turk dead on 
the spot. Both nations seized their arms, and rushing 
out of the houses, a, bloody afiray took place, several 
being left dead on the spot. The Servians, feeling their 
numerical inferiority, now transplanted themselves to the 
little hamlet of Poshega, which is in a finer plain than 
that of Ushitza; but the colony does not appear to prosper, 
for most of the Servians have since returned to Ushitza. 
Continuing our way down the rich valley of the Morava, 
which is here several miles wide, and might contain ten 
times the present population, we arrived at Csatsak, which 
{MTOved to be as symmetrically laid out as Poshega. Csatsak 
is old and new, but the old Turkish town has disappeared, 
and the new Servian Csatsak is still a foetus. The plan 
on which all these new places are constructed is simple, 
and consists of a circular or square market place, with 
bazaar shops in the Turkish manner, and straight streets 
diverging from them. I put up at the khan, and then 
went to the Natchalnik's house to deliver my letter. Going 
through green lanes, we at length stopped at a high 
wooden paling, overtopped with rose and other bushes 
Entering, we found ourselves on a smooth carpet of turf, 
and opposite a pretty rural cottage, somewhat in the style 
Paton. I. 6 

82 BOOK 1. 8ERTIA. 

of a citizen's villa in thie environs of London. The Natchalnik 
was not at home, but was gracefully represented by hit 
young wife, a l^ir specimen of the beauty of Csatsak; an^ 
presently the Deputy and the Judge came to see «S. A dark- 
complexioned, good-natured looking man, between thirty and 
forty, now entered, with an European air, German trowj^rs 
and waistcoat, but a Turkish riding cloak. " There comes 
the doctor," said the lady, and the figure with the Turkish 
riding cloak thus announced himself: — 

Doctor. **F bin a' Wiener." 

Author. "Grratulire: dass iss a' lustige Stadt." 

Doctor. "Glaub'ns mir, lust'ger als Gsatsak." 

Author. "I' glaub's." 

The Judge, a sedate, elderly, and slightly dorpulent 
man, asked me what route I had pursued, and intended 
to pursue. 1 informed him of the particulars of my jonnvey, 
and added that I intended to follow the valley of the 
Morava to its confluence with the Danube. "The good 
folks of Belgrade do not travel for their pleasure, and 
could give me little information ; therefore, I have chalked 
out my route from the study of the map.** 

"You have gone out of your way to see Soko," said 
he; "you may as well extend your tour to Noribaeaar, 
and the Kopaunik. You are fond of maps: go te the 
peak of the Kopaunik, and you will see all Servia rolled 
out before you from Bosnia to Bulgaria, and from the 
Balkan to the Danube; not a map, or a copy, but the 

"The temptation is irresistible. — My mind is made up 
to follow your advice." 

We now went in a body, and paid our visit to the 
Bishop of Csatsak, who lives in the finest house in the 
place ; a large well-built villa, on a slight eminence within 
a grassy inclosure. The Bishop received us in an open 
kiosk, on the first floor, fitted all round with cushions, 
and commanding a fine view of the hills which indoee 
the plain of the Morava. The thick woods and the pre* 
cipitous rocks, which impart rugged beauty to the valley 


of the Drina, we here unknown ; the eye wanders over 
a rich yellow clwanpaign, to hills which were too distant 
to present distinct details, but Taguely grey and beautiful 
in the transparent atmosphere of a Servian early autumn. 

The Bishop was a fine specimen of the Church mili- 
tant, — a stout fiery man of sixty, in full-furred robes, and 
a black veHet cap. His energetic denunciations of the 
appropriations of 'Milosh, had for many years procured 
him the enmity of that remarkable individual ; but he was 
now in the full tide of popularity. 

His questions referred principally to the state of parties 
in England, and I could not help thinking that his philo- 
sophy must have been something like that of the American 
parson in the quarantine at Smyrna, who thought that 
fierce combats and contests were as necessary to clear the 
moral atmosphere, as thunder and lightning to purify the 
visible heavens. We now took leave of the Bishop, and 
went homewards, for there had been several candidates for 
entertaining me ; but I decided for the jovial doctor, who 
lived in the house that was formerly occupied by Jovan 
Obrenovitch, the youngest and favourite brother of Milosh. 

Next morning, as early as six o'clock, I was aroused 
by the announcem^it that the Natchalnik had returned 
from the country, and was waiting to see me. On rising, 
I found him to be a plain, simple Servian of the old 
school; he informed me that this being a saint's day,, the 
Bishop would not commence mass until I was arrived. 
"What?" thought I to myself, "does the Bishop think 
that these obstreperous Britons are all of the Greek re- 
ligion." The doctor thought that I should not go; "for," 
said he, "whoever wishes to exercise the virtue of patience 
may do so in a Greek mass or a Hungarian law-suit!" 
But ihe Natchalnik decided for going; and I, always ready 
to conform to the custom of the country, accompanied him. 

The cathedral church was a most ancient edifice of 
Byzantine architecture, which had been first a church, and 
then a mosque, and then a church again. The honey-eombs 
and stalactite ornaments in the comers, as weU as a marble 



stone in the floor, adorned with geometrical arabesqaes, 
showed its services to Islamism. But the pictures of the 
Cruciflxion, and the figures of the priests, reminded me 
that I was in a Christian temple. 

The Bishop, in pontificalibus, was dressed in a crimson 
velvet and white satin dress, embroidered in gold, and 
as he sat in his chair, with mitre on head, and crosier in 
hand, looked, with his white bushf beard, an imposing 
representative of spiritual authority. 

A priest was consecrated on the occasion; but the service 
was so long, (full two hours and a half,) that 7 was &- 
tigued with the endless bowings and motions, and thought 
more than once of the benevolent wish of the doctor, to see 
me preserved from a Greek mass and a Hungarian law- 
suit; but the singing was good, simple, massive, and 
antique in colouring. At t^e close of the service, thin 
wax tapers were presented to t^e congregation, which 
each of them lighted. After which they advanced and 
kissed the Cross and Gospels, which were covered with 
most minute silver and gold filagree work. 

We now went to take farewell of the Bi^op, whom 
we found, as yesterday, in the kiosk, with a fresh set of 
fur robes, and looking as superb as ever, with a largre aad 
splendid ring on his forefinger. 

^ If you had not come during a fast," g^wled he, with 
as good-humoured a smile as could be expected from so 
formidable a personage, ^^ I would have given you a dinner. 
The English, I know, fight well at sea; but I do not 
know if they like salt fish." 

A story is related of this Bishop, that on the occasion 
of some former traveller rising to depart, he asked, •*Are 
your pistols in good order?" On the traveller answering 
in the aifirmative, the Bishop rejoined, "Well, now you 
may depart with my blessing!" 

Csatsak, although the seat of a Bishop and a Natchal- 
nik, is only a village, and is insignificant when one thinks 
of the magnificent plain in which it stands. At every 
step I made in this country I thought of the noble field 


which it offers for a system of colonization congenial to 
the feelings, and subservient to the interests of the present 

We now journeyed to Karanovatz, where we arrived 
after sunset, and proceeded in the dark up a paved 
street, till we saw on our left a caft, with lights gleaming 
through the windows, and a crowd of people, some inside, 
some outside, sipping their coffee. An individual, who 
announced himself as the captain of Karanovatz, stepped 
forward, accompanied by others, and conducted me to his 
house. Scarcely had I sat down on his divan when two 
handmaidens entered, one of them bearing a large basin 
in her hand. 

"My guest," said the captain, "you must be fatigued 
with your ride. This house is your's. Suppose yourself 
at home in the country beyond the sea." 

"What," said I, looking to the handmaidens, "supper 
already! You have divined my arrival to a minute." 

"Oh, no; we must put you at your ease before supper 
time; it is warm water." 

So the handmaidens advanced, and while one pulled 
off my socks, I lolling luxuriously on the divan, and 
smoking my pipe, the other washed my feet with water, 
tepid to a degree, and then dried them. With these 
ag^eable sensations still soothing me, coffee was brought 
by tiie lady of the house, on a very pretty service ; and I 
could not help admitting that there was less roughing in 
Servian travel than I expected. 

After supper, the parish priest came in, a middle-aged 

Author. "Do you remember the Turkish period at 

Priest. "No; 1 came here only lately. My native 
place is Wuchitem, on the borders of a large lake in the 
High Balkan ; but, in common with many of the Christian 
inhabitants, I was obliged to emigrate last year." 

Author. "For what reason?" 

Priest. " A horde of Albanians, from fifteen to twenty 

86 BOOK I. 8EBV1A. 

thousand in number, burst from the Pashalic of Scodra 
upon the peaceful inhabitants of the Pashalic of Vrania, 
committing the greatest horrors, burning down villages, 
and putting the inhabitants to the torture, in order to 
get money, and dishonouring all the handsomest women. 
The Porte sent a large force, disarmed the rascals, and 
sent the leaders to the galleys ; but I and my people find 
ourselves so well here that we feel little temptation to 

The grand exploit in the life of our host was a caravan 
journey to Salom'ki, where he had the satisfaction of 
seeing the sea, a circumstance which distinguished him, 
not only from the good folks of Karanovatz, but from 
most of his countrymen in general. 



We again started after mid-day, with the captain and 
his momkes, and, proceeding through meadows, arrived 
at Zhitchka Jicha. This is an ancient Servian conv^it, 
of Byzantine architecture, where seven kings of Servia 
were crowned, a door being broken into the wall for the 
entrance of each sovereign, and built up again on his 
departure. It is situated on a rising ground, just where 
the river Ybar enters the plain of Karanovatz. The 
environs are beautiful. The hills are of moderate height, 
covered with verdure and foliage; only campaniles were 
wanting to the illusion of my being in Italy, somewhere 
about Verona or Yicenza, where the last picturesque un- 
dulations of the Alps meet the bountiful alli^via of the 
Po. Quitting the valley of the Morava, we struck south- 
wards into the highlands. Here the scene changed; the 
valley of the Ybar became narrow, the vegetation scanty; 


and at evening, we arrived at a tent made of thick matted 
branches of trees, which had been strewn for us vrith 
fireth hay. The elders of Magletch, a hamlet an hour off, 
came with an offer of their services, in case they were 

The sun set; and a bright crackling fire of withered 
branches of pine, mingling its light ^ith the rays of the 
moon in the clear chill of a September evening, threw 
a wild and unworldly pallor over the sterile scene of our 
bivouac, and the uncouth figures of the elders. They 
offered me a supper ; but contenting myself witli a roasted 
head of Indian com, and rolling my cloak and pea jacket 
about me, I fell asleep : but felt so cold that, at two 
o^clock, I roused the encampment, sounded to horse, and, 
in a few minutes, was again mounting the steep paths 
that lead to Studenitza. 

Day gradually dawned, and the scene became wilder 
and wilder; not a chalet was to be seen, for the ruined 
castle of Magletch on its lone crag betokened nothing 
of humanity. Tall cedars replaced the oak and the beech, 
the scanty herbage was covered with hoar-frost. The 
clear brooks murmured chillingly down the unshaded 
gulliesy and a grand line of sterile peaks to the South 
showed me that I was approaching the back-bone of the 
Balkan. All on a sudden I found the path overlooking 
a valley, with a few cocks of hay on a narrow meadow; 
and another turn of the road showed me the lines of a 
ByzanUne edifice with a graceful dome, sheltered in a 
wood from the chilling winter blasts of this highland 
region. Descending, and crossing the stream, we now 
proceeded up to the eminence on which the convent was 
placed, and I perceived thick walls and stout turrets, 
which bade a sturdy defiance to all hostile intentions, 
except such as might be supported by artillery. 

On dismounting and entering the wicket, I found myself 
in an extensive court, one side of which was formed by 
a newly built crescent-shaped cloister; the other by a line 
of irregular out-houses with wooden stairs, char^Qcks and 


other picturesque but fragile appendages of Turldsh 
domestic architecture. 

Between these pigeon-holes and the new, substaniiid, 
but mean-looking cloister, on the other side, rose the 
church of polished white marble, a splendid specimen of 
pure Byzantine architecture, if I dare apply such an ad- 
jective to that fantastic middle manner, which succeeded 
to the style of the fourth century, and was subsequently 
re-cast by Christians and Moslems into what are called 
the Gothic and Saracenic. 

A fat, feeble-voiced, lymphatic-faced Superior, leaning 
on a long staff, received us; but the conversation was 
all on one side, for ^^Blagodarim,'*^ (I thank you,) was all 
that I could get out of him. After reposing a little in 
the parlour, I came out to view the church again, and 
expressed my pleasure at seeing so fair an edifice in the 
midst of such a wilderness. ■ 

The Superior slowly raised his eyebrows, looked first 
at the church, then at me, and relapsed into a frowning 
interrogative stupor; at last, suddenly rekindling as if he 
had comprehended my meaning, added **Blagodari9n^ 
(I thank you). A shrewd young man, from a village a 
few miles off, now came forward just as the Superior^ 
courage pricked him on to ask if there were any con- 
vents in my country; "Very few,** said I. 

"But there are," said the young pert Servian, "a gpreal 
many schools and colleges where useful sciences are 
taught to the young, and hospitals, where active pfaysiciaiis 
cure diseases." 

This was meant as a cut to the reverend Famiente. 
He looked blank, but evidently wanted the boldness and 
ingenuity to frame an answer to this redoutable innovator. 
At last he gaped at me to help him out of the dilemma. 

"I should be sorry," said I, "if any tiling were to 
happen to this convent. It is a most interesting and 
beautiful monument of the ancient kingdom of Servia; 
I hope it will be preserved and honourably kept up to 
a late period." 


""BlcLgodcwim,^ (I am obliged to you,) said the Superior, 
pleased at the Grordian knot being loosed, and then 
relapsed into his atrophy, without moving a muscle of 
his countenance. 

I now examined the church ; the details of the archi- 
tecture showed that it had suffered severely from the 
Turks. The curiously twisted pillars of the outer door 
were sadly chipped, while noseless angels, and fearfully 
mutilated lions guarded the inner portal. Passing through 
a vestibule, we saw the remains of the font, which must 
have been magnificent; and, covered with a cupola, the 
stumps of the white marble columns which support it are 
still visible; high on the wall is a piece of sculpture, 
supposed to represent St. George. 

Entering the church, I saw on the right the tomb of 
St. Simeon, the sainted king of Servia; beside it hung 
his banner with the half-moon on it, the insignium of 
the South Slavonic nation from the dawn of heraldry. 
Near the altar was the body of his son, St. Stephen, the 
patron saint of Servia. Those who accompanied us paid 
little attention to the architecture of the chtirch, but burst 
into raptures at the sight of the carved wood of the 
screen, which had been most minutely and elaborately 
cut by Tsinsars (as the Macedonian Latins are called to 
this day). 

Close to the church is a chapel with the following 
inscription : 

"I, Stephen Urosh, servant of God, great grandson of 
Saint Simeon and son of the great king Urosh, king of 
all the Servian lands and coasts, built this temple in 
honour of the holy and just Joachim and Anna, 1314. 
Whoever destroys this temple of Christ be accursed of 
God and of me a sinner." 

Thirty-five churches in this district, mostly in ruins, 
attest the piety of the Neman dynasty. The convent of 
Studenitza was built towards the end of the twelfth 
century, by the first of the dynasty. The old Cloister of 
the convent was burnt down by the Turks. The new 

90 BOOK X. 8BRVU. 

cloister wcui built in 1839. In fact it is a wonder tjiat so 
fine a monument as the church should have been pre- 
served at all. 

There is a total want of arable land in this part of 
Servia, and the pasture is neither good nor abundant; 
but the Ybar is the most celebrated of all the streams 
of Servia for large quantities of trout. 

Next day we continued our route direct South, through 
scenery of the same rugged and sterile description aa that 
we had passed on the way hither. How different from 
the velvet verdure and woodland music of the Gutchevo 
and the Drina! At one place on the bank oi the Ybar 
there was room for only a led horse, by a passage cut 
in the rock. This place bears the name of Demir Kapu, 
or Iron Gate. In the evening we arrived at the frontier 
quarantine, called Raska, which is situated at two hours' 
distance from Novibazar. 

In the midst of an amphitheatre of hills destitute of 
vegetation, which appeared low from the valley, aHhougk 
they must have been high enough above the level of the 
sea, was such a busy scene as one may find in the back 
settlements of Eastern Russia. Within an extensive in- 
closure of high palings was a heterogeneous mass of new 
buildings, some unfinished, and resounding with the saw, 
the plane, and the hatchet; others in possession of the 
employes in their uniforms; others again devoted to 
the safe keeping of the well-armed caravans, which 
bring their cordovans, oils, and cottons, from Saloniki, 
through Macedonia, and over the Balkan, to the gates of 

On dismounting, the Director, a thin elderly man, 
with a modest and pleasing manner, told me in German 
that he was a native of the Austrian side of the Save, 
and had been attached to the quarantine at Semlin; that 
ke had joined the quarantine service, with the permission 
of his government, and after having directed various 
other establishments, was now occupied in organi^ng 
this new point. 


The traiteur of the quarantine gave us for dinner a 
very &ir pillafif, as well as roast and boiled fowl; and 
going outside to our bench, in front of the finished 
buildings, I began to smoke. A slightly built and rather 
genteel-looking man, with a braided surtout, and a piece 
of ribbon at his button-hole, was sitting on the step of 
the next door, and wished me good evening in German. 
I asked him who he was, and he told me that he was a 
Pole, and had been a major in the Russian service, but 
was compelled to quit it in consequence of a duel. 

I asked him if he was content with his present con- 
dition, and he answered, ^^ Indeed, I am not; I am per- 
fectly miserable, and sometimes think of returning to 
Biissia, coute qui co^te. — My salary is i^ 20 sterling a year, 
and every thing is dear here; for there is no village, but 
an artificial settlement; and I have neither books nor 
European society. I can hold out pretty well now, for 
the weather is fine ; but I assure you that in winter, when 
the snow is on the ground, it exhausts my patience.'^ We 
now took a turn down the inclosure to his house, which 
was the ground-floor of the guard-house. Here was a bed 
on wooden boards, a single chair and table, without any 
other furniture. 

The Director, obliging me, made up a bed for me in 
his own house, since the only resource at the traiteur's 
would have been my own carpet and pillow. 

Next day we were all afoot at an early hour, in order 
to pay a visit to Novibazar. In order to obviate the per- 
formance of quarantine on our return, I took an officer 
of the establishment, and a couple of men, with me, who 
in the Levant are called Guardiani; but h^e the German 
word Ueber-reiter, or over-rider, was adopted. 

We continued along the river Raska for about an 
hour, and iheu descried a line of wooden palings going 
1^ hill and down dale, at right angles with the course 
we were holding. This was the frontier of the principality 
of Servia, and here began the direct rule of the Sultan 
and the Pashalic of Bosnia. At the guard-house half a 


dozen Momkes, with old fashioued Albanian guns, pre- 
sented arms. 

After half an hour's riding, the valley became wider, 
and we passed through meadow lands, cultivated by 
Moslem Bosniacs in their white turbans; and two hours 
further, entered a fertile circular plain, about a mile and 
a half in diameter, surrounded by low hills, which bad a 
chalky look, in the midst of which rose the minarets and 
bastions of the town and castle of Noribazar. Numerous 
gipsy tents covered the plain, and at one of them, a 
withered old gipsy woman, with white dishevelled hair 
hanging down on each side of her burnt umber fiace, cried 
out in a rage, "See how the Royal Servian people now- 
a-days have the audacity to enter Novibazar on horse- 
back," alluding to the ancient custom of Christians not 
being permitted to ride on horseback in a town. ^ 

On entering, I perceived the houses to be of a most 
forbidding aspect, being built of mud, with only a base 
of bricks, extending about three feet from the ground. 
None of the windows were glazed; this being the first 
town of this part of Turkey in Europe that I had seen 
in such a plight. The over-rider stopped at a large 
stable-looking building, which was the khan of the plaee. 
Near the door were some bare wooden benches, on which 
some Moslems, including the khan-keeper, were reposing. 
The horses were foddered at the other extremity, and a 
fire burned in the middle of the floor, the smoke escaping 
by the doors. We now sent our letter to Youssouf Bey, 
the governor, but word was brought back that he was in 
the harem. 

We now sallied forth to view the town. The castle^ 
which occupies the centre, is on a slight eminence, and 
flanked with eight bastions ; it contains no regular troops, 
but merely some redif, or militia. Besides one small 
well-built stone mosque, there is nothing else to remark 
in the place. Some of the bazaar shops seemed tolerably 

' Most of the gipsies here profess Islamism. 


well famished; but the place is, on the whole, miserable 
and filthy in the extreme. The total number of mosques 
is seventeen. 

The afternoon being now advanced, I went to call 
upon the Mutsellim. His konak was situated in a solitary 
street, close to the fields. Going through an archway, 
we found ourselves in the court of a house of two stories. 
The ground-floor was the prison, with small windows and 
grated wooden bars. Above was an open corridor, on 
which the apartments of the Bey opened. Two rusty, 
old fashioned cannons were in the middle of the court. 
Two wretched-looking men, and a woman, detained for 
theft, occupied one of the cells. They asked us if we 
knew where somebody, with an unpronounceable name, 
had gone. But not having had the honour of knowing 
any body of the light-fingered profession, we could give 
no satisfactory information on the subject. 

The Momke, whom we had asked after the governor, 
now re-descended the rickety steps, and announced that 
the Bey was still asleep; so I walked out, but in the 
course of our ramble learned that he was afraid to see 
us, on account of the fanatics in the town ; for, from the 
immediate vicinity of this place to Servia, the inhabitants 
entertain a stronger hatred of Christians than is usual in 
the other parts of Turkey, where commerce, and the 
presence of Frank influences, cause appearances to be 
respected. But the people here recollected only of one 
party of Franks ever visiting the town. ^ 

We now sauntered into the fields; and seeing the 
cemetery, which promised from its elevation to afford a 
good general view of the town, we ascended, and were sorry 
to see so really pleasing a situation abused by filth, in- 
dolence, and barbarism. 

The castle was on the elevated centre of the town; 
and the towns loping on all sides down to the gardens, was 
as nearly as possible in the centre of the plain. When 

' I presume Messrs. Bou.6 and party. 

04 BOOK I. SfeBVIA. 

we had sufficiently examined the carved stone kaonks and 
turbans on the tomb stones, we re-descended towards tlM 
town. A savage-looking Bosniac now started up from 
behind a low out-house, and trembling with rage and 
fanaticism began to abuse us: *^ Giaours, kafirs, c^iesl I 
know what you have come for. Do you expect to see 
your cross planted some day on the castle?" 

The old story, thought I to myself; the fellow takes 
me for a military engineer, exhausting the resources of mj 
art in a plan for the reduction of the redoubtable fortress 
and city of Novibazar. 

"Take care how you insult an h(mourable gentleman," 
said the over-rider; "we will complain to the Bey." 

"What do we oare for tiie Bey?" said the feUow, 
laughing in the exuberance of his impudence. I now 
stopped, looked him full in the face, and asked him coolly 
what he wanted. 

"I will show you that when you get into the baeaar," 
and then he suddenly bolted down a lane out of sight. 

A Christian, who had been hanging on at a short 
distance, came up and said — 

"I advise you to take yourself out of the dost m 
quickly as possible. The whole town is in a state of 
alarm; and unless you are prepared for reedstanoe, some- 
thing serious may happen: for the fellows here are aU 
wild Arnaouts, and do not understand travelling Franks.'* 

"Your advice is a good one; I am obliged to you for 
the hint, and I will attend to it." 

Had there been a Pasha or consul in the place, I would 
have got the fellow punished for his insolence: but 
knowing that our small party was no match for armed 
fanatics, and that there was nothing more to be Been in 
the place, we avoided the bazaar, and went round by a 
side street, paid our khan bill ^ and, mounting our horses, 
trotted rapidly out of the town, for fear of a stray shot; 

' The Austrian zwanziger goes here for only three piastres; 
Servia it goes for five. 


but the over-rider on getting clear of the suburbs instead 
of relaxing got into a gallop. 

"Halt," cried I, "we are clear of the rascals, and 
fairly out of town;" and coming up to the eminence 
crowned with the Giurgeve Stupovi, on which was a 
church, said to have been built by Stephen Dushan the 
Powerful, I resolved to ascend, and got the over-rider to 
go 80 far; but some Bosniacs in a field warned us off 
wi^ menacing gestures. The over-rider said, "For God's 
sake let us go straight home. If I go back to Novibazar 
my life may" be taken." 

Not wishing to bring the poor fellow into trouble, 
I gave up the project, and* returned to the quarantine. 

Novibazar, which is about ten hours distant from the 
territory of Montenegro, and thrice that distance from 
Scutari, is, politically speaking, in the Pashalic of Bosnia. 
The Servian or Bosniac language here ceases to be the 
preponderating language, smd the Albanian begins and 
stretches southward to Epirus. But through all the 
Pashalic of Scutari, Servian is much spoken. 

Colonel Hodges, her Britannic Majesty's first consul- 
general in Servia, a gentleman of great activity and in- 
telligence, from the lau^ble desire to procure the establish- 
ment of an entrepot for British manufactures in the 
interior, got a certain chieftain of a clan Vassoevitch, 
named British vice-consul at Novibazar. From this man's 
influence, there can be no doubt that had he stuck to 
trade he might have proved useful; but, inflated with 
ranity, he irritated the fanaticism of the Bosniacs, by 
Betting himself up as a little Christian potentate. As a 
necessary consequence, he was obliged to fly for his life, 
and his house was burned to the ground. The Vassoevitch 
clan have from time immemorial occupied certain mountains 
near Novibazar, and pretend, or pretended, to complete 
independence of the Porte, like the Montenegrines. 

A middle-aged, showily dressed man, presented himself 
as the captain who was to conduct me to the top of the 
Kopaunik. His clerk was a fat, knock-kneed, fellow, with 

96 BOOK '• 8BBVIA. 

a red face, a short neck, a low forehead, and bashj eye* 
brows and mustachios, as fair as those of a Norwegian; 
to add to his droll appearance, one of his eyes was 
bandaged up. 

We now crossed the Ybar, and ascending for hours 
through open pasture lands, arrived at some rocks inter- 
spersed with stunded ilex. 

A gentle wind skimmed the white straggling clouds 
from the blue sky. Warmer and warmer grew the sunlit 
valleys ; wider and wider grew the prospect as we ascended. 
Balkan after Balkan rose on the distant horizon. Ever 
and anon I paused and looked round with delight; but 
before reaching the summit I* tantalized myself with a few 
hundred yards of ascent, to treasure the glories in store 
for the pause, the turn, and the view. When, at lengdi, 
I stood on the highest peak; the prospect was literally 
gorgeous. Servia lay rolled out at my feet. There was 
the field of Kossovo, where Amurath defeated Lasar and 
entombed the ancient empire of Servia. I mused an 
instant on this great landmark of European history, and 
following the finger of an old peasant, who accompanied 
us, 1 looked eastwai'ds, and saw Deligrad — the scene of 
one of the bloodiest fights that preceded the resurrection 
of Servia as a principality. The Morava glistened in its 
wide valley like a silver thread in a carpet of green, 
beyond which the dark mountains of Kudnik rose to the 
north, while the frontiers of Bosnia, Albania, Macedonia, 
and Bulgaria walled in the prospect. 

^^ This is the whole world," said the peasant, who stood 
by me. 

I myself thought, that if an artist wished for a land- 
scape as the scene of Satan taking up our Saviour into 
a high mountair. he could find none more appropriate 
than this. The Kopaunik is not lofty; not much above 
six thousand English feet above the level of the sea. But 
it is so placed in the Servian basin, that the eye embraces 
the whole breadth from Bosnia to Bulgaria, and very 
nearly the whole length from Macedonia to Hungary. 


I now thanked the captain for his trouble, bade him 
adieu, and, with a guide, descended the north eastern 
slope of the mountain. The declivity was rapid, but thick 
turf assured us a safe footing. Towards night-fall we 
entered a region interspersed with trees, and came to a 
miserable hamlet of shepherds, where we were fain to put 
up in a hut. This was the humblest habitation we had 
entered in Servia. It was built of logs of wood and 
wattling. A fire burned in the middle of the floor, the 
smoke of which, finding no vent but the door, tried our 
eyes severely, and had covered the roof with a brilliant jet. 

Hay being laid in a corner, my carpet and pillow were 
spread out on it; but sleep was impossible from the fleas. 
At length, the sheer fatigue of combating them threw me 
towards morning into a slumber; and, on awaking, I 
looked up, and saw a couple of armed men crouching 
over the glowing embers of the fire. These were the 
Bolouk Bashi and Pandour, sent by the Natchalnik of 
Krushevatz to conduct us to that town. 

We now descended the Grashevatzka river to Bruss, 
with low hills on each side, covered with grass, and partly 
wooded. Bruss is prettily situated on a rising ground, at 
the confluence of two tributaries of the Morava. It has 
a little bazaar opening on a lawn, where the captain of 
Zhupa had come to meet me. After coffee, we again 
mounted, and proceeded to Zhupa. Here the aspect of 
the country changed; the verdant hills became chalky, 
and covered with vineyards, which, before the fall of the 
empire, were celebrated. To this day tradition points out 
a cedar and some vines, planted by Militza, the consort 
of Lasar. 

The vine-dressers all stood in a row to receive us. 
A carpet had been placed under an oak, by the side of 
the river, and a round low table in the middle of it was 
soon covered with soup, sheeps' kidneys, and a fat capon, 
roasted to a minute, preceded by onions and cheese, as 
a rinfresco, and followed by choice grapes and clotted 
cream, as a dessert. 
Patok. I. 7 


"I think," said I to the entertainer, as I shook the 
crumbs out of my napkin, and took the first whiff of my 
chibouque, "that if Stephan Dushan's chief cook were to 
rise from the grave, he could not give us better fare." 

Captain. " God sends us good provender, good pasture, 
good flocks and herds, good corn and fruits, and wood 
and water. The land is rich, the climate is excellent; 
but we are often in political troubles." 

Author. ** These recent affairs are trifles, and you are 
too young to recollect the revolution of Kara Georg." 

Captain. "Yes, I am; but do you see that Bolouk 
Bashi who accompanied you hither; his history is a droll 
illustration of past times. Simo Slivovats is* a brave soldier, 
but, although a Servian, has two wives." 

Author. "Is he a Moslem?" 

Captain. "Not at all. In the time of Kara Georg he 
was an active guerilla fighter, and took prisoner a Turk 
called SidiMengia, whose life he spared. In the year 1813, 
when Servia was temporarily re-conquer6d by the Turks, 
the same Sidi Mengia returned to Zhupa, and said, * Where 
is the brave Servian who saved my life?' The Bolouk 
Bashi being found, he said to him, ^My friend, you 
deserve another wife for your generosity.' *I cannot 
marry two wives,' said Simo; *my religion forbids it.' But 
the handsomest woman in the country being sought out, 
Sidi Mengia sent a message to the priest of the place, 
ordering him to marry Simo to the young woman. The 
priest refused ; but Sidi Mengia sent a second threatening 
message; so the priest married the couple. The two 
wives live together to this day in the house of Simo 
at Zhupa. The archbishop, since the departure of the 
Turks, has repeatedly called on Simo to repudiate his 
second wife; but the principal obstacle is the first wiffe, 
who looks upon the second as a sort of sister: under 
these anomalous circumstances, Simo was under a sort 
of excommunication, until he made a fashion of re- 
pudiating the second wife, by the first adopting her as 
a sister." 


The captain, who was an intelligent modest man, would 
fain have kept me till next day ; but I felt anxious to get 
to Alexinatz ; and on arrival at a hill called Vrbnitzkobrdo, 
the vale of the Morava again opened upon us in all its 
beauty and fertility, in the midst of which lay Krushevatz, 
wMch was the last metropolis of the Servian empire; and 
even now scarce can fancy picture to itself a nobler site 
for an internal capital. Situated half-way between the 
source and the mouth of the Morava, the plain has breadth 
enough for swelling zones of suburbs, suburban villas, 
gardens, fields, and villages. 

A shattered gate-way and ruined walls, are all that 
now ronain of the once extensive palace of Knes Lasar 
Czar Serbski; but the chapel is as perfect as it was when 
it occupied the centre of the imperial quadrangle. It is 
a curious monument of the period, in a Byzantine sort of 
style; but not for a moment to be compared in beauty 
to the church of Studenitza. Above one of the doors is 
carved the double eagle, the insignium of empire. The 
great solidity of this edifice recommended it to the Turks 
as an arsenal; hence its careful preservation. The late 
Servian governor had the Vandalism to whitewash the 
exterior, so that at a distance it looks like a vulgar parish 
church. Within is a great deal of gilding and bad paint- 
ing; pity that the late governor did not whitewash the 
inside instead of the out. The Natchalnik told me, that 
under the whitewash fine bricks were disposed in diamond 
figures between the stones. This antique principle of 
tesselation, applied by the Byzantines to perpendicular 
walls, and occasionally adopted and varied ad infinitum 
by the Saracens, is magnificently illustrated in the upper 
exterior of the ducal palace of Venice. 




The Natchalnik was the Nimrod of his district, and 
had made arrangements to treat me to a grand hunt of 
bears and boars on the Jastrabatz, with a coaple of 
hundred peasants to beat the woods ; but the rain poured, 
the wind blew, my sport was spoiled, and I missed ma- 
terials for a chapter. Thankful was I, however, that the 
elements had spared me during the journey in the hlHs, 
and that we were in snug quarters during the bad weather. 
A day later I should have been caught in the peasant's 
chimneyless-hut at the foot of the Balkan, and then should 
have roughed it in earnest. 

When the weather settled, I was again in motion, 
ascending that branch of the Morava which comes from 
Nissa. There was nothing to remark in this part of Servia, 
which proved to be the least interesting part of our route, 
being wanting as well in boldness of outline as in luxuriant 

On approaching a khan, at a short distance from Alezi- 
natz, I perceived an individual whom I guessed to be 
the captain of the place, along with a Britannic-looking 

figure in a Polish frock. This was Captain W , t 

queen's messenger of the new school. 

While we were drinking a cup of coffee, a Turidsh 
Bin Bashi came upon his way to Belgrade from the army 
of Roumelia at Ealkendel; he told us that the Pasha of 
Nish had gone with all his force to Procupli to disarm 
the Amaouts. I very naturally took out the map to learn 
where Procupli was; on which the Bin Bashi asked me 
if I was a military engineer! "That boy will be the death 
of me! "-so nobody but military engineers are permitted 
to look at maps. 

For a month I had seen or heard nothing of Europe 
and Europeans except the doctor at Csatsak, and his sage 
maxims about Greek masses and Hungarian law-suits. I 


therefore made prize of the captain, who was an intelligent 
man, with an abundance of fresh political chit-chat. For- 
merly Foreign-Office messengers were the cast-oflf butlers 
and valets of secretaries of state. For some time back 
tbey have been taken from the half-pay list and the edu- 
cated classes. One or two can boast of very fair literary 
attaiinments; and a man who once a year spends a few 
weeks in all the principal capitals of Europe, from Madrid 
to St. Petersburg and Constantinople, necessarily picks up 
a great knowledge of the world. 

On arriving at Alexinatz, a good English dinner await- 
ed U8 at the konak of the queen's messenger. There was 
moreover, a small library, with which the temporary 
occupants of the konak killed the month's interval be- 
tween arrival and departure. 

Next day I visited the quarantine buildings with the 
inspector; they are all new, and erected in the Austrian 
manner. The number of those who purge their quarantine 
is about fourteen thousand individuals per annum, being 
mostly Bulgarians who wander into Servia at harvest time, 
and place at the disposal of the haughty, warlike, and 
somewhat indolent Servians their more humble and la- 
borious services. A village of three hundred houses, a 
church, and a national school, have sprung up within the 
last few years at this point. The imports from Roumelia 
and Bulgaria are mostly Cordovan leather; the exports, 
Austrian manufactures, which pass through Servia. 

When the new macadamized road from Belgrade to 
this point is finished, there can be no doubt that the 
trade will increase. The possible effect of which is, that 
the British manufactures, which are sold at the fairs of 
Transbalkan Bulgaria, may be subject to greater com- 
petition. After spending a few days at Alexinatz, I started 
with post horses for Tiupria, as the horse I had ridden 
had been so severely galled, that I was obliged to send 
him to Belgrade. 

The Natchalnik Tiupria having got up a party, we pro- 
ceeded in light cars of the country to Ravanitza, a con- 


vent two or three hours off in the mountainB to the east- 
ward. The country was gently undulating, cultivated, and 
mostly inclosed, the roads not bad, and the etisemhle such 
as English landscapes were represented to be half a cen- 
tury ago. When we approached Ravanitza we were again 
lost in the forest. Ascending by the side of a mountain- 
rill,, the woods opened, and the convent rose in an amphi- 
theatre at the foot of an abrupt rocky mountain; a pleasing 
spot, but wanting the grandeur and beauty of the sites 
on the Bosniac frontier. 

The superior was a tall, polite, middle-aged man. "I 
expected you long ago," said he; *'the Archbishop advised 
me of your arrival : but we thought something might have 
happened, or that you had missed us." 

"I prolonged my tour," said I, "beyond the limits of 
my original project. The circumstance of this convent 
having been the burial-place of Knes Lasar, was a sof^ent 
motive for my on no account missing a sight of it." 

The superior now led us into the refectory, where a 
long table had been laid out for dinner, for with the 
number of Tiuprians, as well as the monks of this con- 
vent, and some from the neighbouring convent of Manasia, 
we mustered a very numerous and very gay party. The 
wine was excellent; and I could not help thinking with 
the jovial Abbot of Quimper: 

**Quand nos joyeux verres 
Se font d^B le matin, 
Tout le jour, mes frferes, 
Devient un festin." 

So after the usual toasts due to the powers that be, 
the superior proposed my health in a very long harangue. 
Before I had time to reply, the party broke into a beauti- 
ful hymn for longevity. I assured them that I was unworthy 
of such an honour, but could not help remarking that 
this hymn "for many years" immediately after the drink- 
ing of a health, was one of the most striking and beauti- 
ful customs I had noticed in Servia. 

In the afternoon we made a survey of the convent 


and church, which were built by Knes Lasar, and sur- 
rounded by a wall and seven towers. 

The church, like all the other edifices of this de- 
scription, is Byzantine; but being built of stone, wants 
the refinement which shone in the sculptures and marbles 
of Studenitza. I remarked, however, that the cupolas were 
admirably proportioned and most harmoniously disposed. 
Before entering I looked above the door, and perceived 
that the double eagles carved there are reversed. Xnatead 
of having body to body, and mngs and beaks pointed 
outwards, as in the arms of Austria and Bussia, the 
bodies are separated, ^nd beak looks inward to beak. 

On entering we were shown the dififerent vessels, one 
of which is a splendid cup, presented by Peter the Great, 
and several of the same description from the empress 
Catharine, some in gold, silver, and steel; others in gold, 
silver, and bronze. 

The body of Knes Lasar, after having been for some 
time hid, warS buried here in 1394, remained till 1684, 
at which period it was taken over to Virdnik in Syrmium, 
where it remains to this day. 

In the qool of the evening the superior took me to 
a spring of clear delicious water, gushing from rocks 
environed with trees. A boy with a large crystal goblet, 
dashed it into the clear lymph, and presented it to me. 
The superior fell into eulogy of his favourite Valclusa, 
and I drank not only this but several glasses, with cir- 
cumstantial criticisms on its excellence; so that the su- 
perior seemed delighted at my having rendered such ample 
justice to the water he so loudly praised. Entre noits, 
—the excellence of his wine, and the toasts that we had 
drunk to the health of innumerable loyal and virtuous 
individuals, rendered me a greater amateur of water - 
bibbing than usual. 

After some time we returned, and saw a lamb roasting 
for supper in the open air ; a hole being dug in the 
earth, chopped vine-twigs are burnt below it, the crimson 
glow of which soon roasts the lamb, and imparts a par- 

104 BOOK I. 8SRVIA. 

ticular fragrance to the flesk. After supper we went out 
in the mild dark evening to a mount, where a bonfire 
blazed and glared on the high square tower of the eon- 
vent, and cushions were laid for chibouques and coffee. 
The not unpleasing drone of bagpipes resounded through 
the woods, and a number of Bulgarians executed their 
national dance in a circle, taking hold of each other's 
girdle, and keeping time with the greatest exactness 

Next day, accompanied by the doctor, and a portion 
of the party of yesterday, we proceeded to the convent of 
Manasia, five hours off; our journey being mostly through 
forests, with the most wretched roads. Sometimes we had 
to cross streams of considerable depth; at other places 
the oaks, arching over head, almost excluded the light: 
at length, on doubling a precipitous promontory of rock, 
a wide open valley burst upon us, at the extremity of 
which we saw the donjons and crenellated towers of a 
perfect feudal castle surrounding and fencing in the domes 
of an antique church. Again I say, that those who wish 
to see the castellated monuments of the middle ages just 
as they were left by the builders, mast come to this 
country. With us in old Europe, they are either modern- 
ized or in ruins, and in many of them every tower and 
gate reflects the taste of a separate period ; some edifices 
showing a grotesque progress from Gothic to Italian, and 
from Italian to Roman a la Louis Quinze: a succession 
which corresponds with the portraits within doors, which 
begin with coats of mail, or padded velvet, and end with 
bag-wigs and shoebuckles. But here, at Manasia, 

''The battle towers, the donjon keep, 
The loophole grates, where captives weep. 
The flanking walls that round it sweep, 
In yellow lustre shone;" 

and we were carried back to the year of our Lord 1400; 
for this castle and church were built by Stephan, Despot 
of Servia, the son of Knes Lasar. Stephan, instead of 
being "the Czar of all the Servian lands and coasts," 


became a mere hospodar, who must do as he was bid by 
his masters, the Turks. 

Manasia being entirely secluded from the world, the 
monastic establishment was of a humbler and simpler 
nature than that of Ravanitza, and the monks, good honest 
men, but mere peasants in cowls. 

After dinner, a strong broad-faced monk, whom I re- 
cognized as having been of the company at Ravanitza, 
called for a bumper, and began in a solemn matter-of- 
fact way, the following speech : " You are a great traveller in 
our eyes ; for none of us ever went fmi;her than Syrmium. 
The greatest traveller of your country that we know of 
was that wonderful navigator, Robinson Crusoe, of York, 
who, poor man, met with many and great difficulties, but 
at length, by the blessing of God, was restored to his 
native country, his family, and his friends. We trust that 
the Almighty will guard over you, and that you will 
never, in the course of your voyages and travels, be thrown- 
like him on a desert island; and now we drink your 
health, and long life to you." When the toast was drunk, 
I thanked the company, but added that from the revo- 
lutions in locomotion, I ran a far greater chance now-a- 
days of being blown out of a steam-boat, or smashed to 
pieces on a railway. 

From the rocks above Manasia is one of the most re- 
markable echoes I ever heard ; at the distance of sixty or 
seventy yards from one of the towers the slightest whisper 
is rendered with the most amusing exactness. 

From Manasia we went to Miliva, where the peasantry 
were standing in a row, by the side of a rustic tent, made 
of branches of trees. Grapes, roast fowl, &c. were laid 
out for us; but thanking them for their proffered hos- 
pitality, we passed on. From this place the road to 
Svilainitza is level, the country fertile, and more populous 
than we had seen any where else in Servia. At some 
places the villagers had prepared bouquets; at another 
place a school, of fifty or sixty children, was drawn up in 
the street, and sang a hymn of welcome. 


At Svilainitza the people would not allow me to go 
any further; and we were conducted to the chateau of 
M. Ressavatz, the wealthiest man in Servia. This villa is 
the fac simile of the new ones in the banat of Temesvar, 
having the rooms papered, a luxury in Seryia, where the 
most of the rooms, even in good houses, are merely size- 

Svilainitza is remarkable, as the only place in Servia 
where silk is cultivated to any extent, the Ressavatz family 
having paid especial attention to it. In fact, Svilainitza 
means the place of silk. 

From Svilainitza, we next morning started for Poshare- 
vatz, or Passarovitz, by an excellent macadamized road, 
through a country richly cultivated and interspersed with 
lofty oaks. I arrived at mid-day, and was taken to the 
house of M. Tutsakovitch, the president of the court of 
appeal, who had expected us on the preceding evening. 
He was quite a man of the world, having studied jurisr 
prudence in the Austrian Universities. The outer chamber, 
or hall of his house, was ranged with shining pewter 
plates in the olden manner, and his best room was furr 
nished in the best German style. 

In a few minutes M. Ressavatz, the Natchalnik, came, 
a serious but friendly man, with an eye that bespoke loai 
expansive intellect. 

"This part of Servia," said I, "is Ressavatz qua^ Res- 
savatz la. We last night slept at your brother's house, 
at Svilainitza, which is the only chateau I have seen in 
Servia ; and to-day the rapid and agreeable journey I made 
hither was due to the macadamized road, which, I am 
told, you were the means of constructing." 

The Natchalnik bowed, and the president said, "This 
road originated entirely with M. Ressavatz, who went 
through a world of trouble before he could get the pea- 
santry of the intervening villages to lend their assistance. 
Great was the first opposition to the novelty; but now 
the people are all delighted at being able to drive in 
winter without sinking up to their horses' knees in mud.^ 


We now proceeded to view the government buildings, 
which are all new and in good order, being somewhat 
more extensive than those elsewhere; for Posharevatz, 
besides having ninety thousand inhabitants in its own 
nahie,^ or government, is a sort of judicial capital for 
Eastern Servia. The principal edifice is a barrack, but the 
regular troops were at this time all at Shabatz. The 
president showed me through the court of appeal. Most 
of the apartments were occupied with clerks, and fitted 
up with shelves for registers. The court of justice was 
an apartment larger than the rest, without a raised bench, 
having merely a long table, covered with a green cloth, 
at one end of which was a crucifix and Gospels, for the 
taking of oaths, and the seats for the president and 

We then went to the billiard-room with the Natchal- 
nik, and played a couple of games, both of which I lost, 
although the Natchalnik, from sheer politeness, played 
badly ; and at sunset we returned to the president's house, 
where a large party was assembled to dinner. We then 
adjourned to the comfortable inner apartment, where, as 
the chill of autumn was beginning to creep over us, we 
found a blazing fire ; and the president having made some 
punch, the best amateurs of Posharevatz sang their best 
songs, which pleased me somewhat, for my ears had gra- 
dually been broken into the habits of the Servian muse. 
Being pressed myself to sing an English national song, I 
gratified their curiosity with "God save the Queen," and 
"Rule Britannia"! 

The soil at Posharevatz is remarkably rich, the greasy 
humus being from fifteen to twenty-five feet thick, and 
consequently able to nourish the noblest forest trees. In 
the. Banat, which is the granary of the Austrian empire, 
trees grow well for fifteen, twenty, or twenty-five years. 

' Xahie ia a Turkish word, and meant ^'district." The original 
word means '' direction^^^ and is applied to winds, and the point of 
the compass." 

108 BOOK I. 8ERVIA. 

and then die away. The cause of this is, that the earth, 
although rich, is only from three to six feet thick, with 
sand or cold clay below; thus as soon as the roots de- 
scend to the substrata, in which they find no nourishment, 
rottenness appears on the top branches, and gradually 

At Krushevitza, not very far from Pasharevatz, is a 
cave, which is, I am told, entered with difficulty, into the 
basin of which water gradually flows at intervals, and 
then disappears, as the doctor of the place (a Saxon) told 
me, with an extraordinary noise resembling the molar 
rumble of railway travelling. This spring is called Potai- 
nitza, or the mysterious waters. 

Posharevatz, miscalled Passarowitz, is historically re- 
markable, as the place where Prince Eugene, in 1718, 
after his brilliant victories of the previous year, including 
the capture of Belgrade, signed, with the Turks, the 
treaty which gave back to the house of Austria not only 
the whole of Hungary, but added great part of Servia 
and Little Wallachia, as far as the Aluta. With this period 
began the Austrian rule in Servia, and at this time the 
French fashioned Lange Gasse of Belgrade rose amid the 
swelhng domes and pointed minarets of the white eagle's 
nest J Several quaint incidents had recalled this period 
during my tour. For instance, at Manasia, I saw rudely 
engi-aven on the church wall,— 

Wolfgang Zastoff, 

Kaiserlicher Forst-Meister im Maidan. 

Den 1. Aug. 1721. 

Semendria is three hours' ride from Posharevatz; the 
road crosses the Morava, and every where the country is 
fertile, populous, and well cultivated. Innumerable massive 
turrets, mellowed by the sun of a clear autumn, and rising 
from wide rolling waters, announced my approach to the 
shores of the Danube. I seemed entering one of those 
fabled strongholds, with which the early Italian artists 

' In Servian, Belgrade is called Beograd, ''white city ;"— poetically, 
"white eaglets nest." 


adorned their landscapes. If Semendria be not the most 
picturesque of the Servian castles of the elder period, it 
is certainly by far the most extensive of them. Nay, it 
is colossal. The rampart next the Danube has been shorn 
of its fair proportions, so as to make it suit the modem 
art of war. Looking at Semendria from one of the three 
land sides, you have a castle of Ercole di Ferrara; looking 
at it from the water, you have the boulevard of a Van 
der Meulen. 

The Natchalnik accompanied me in a visit to the for- 
tress, protected from accident by a couple of soldiers; for 
the castle of Semendria is still, like that of Shabatz, in 
the hands of a few Turkish spahis and their families. We 
found several armed Moslems at the gate; but they did 
not allow the Servians to pass, with the exception of the 
Natchalnik and another man. "This is new," said he; 
"I never knew them to be so wary and suspicious be- 
fore." We now found ourselves within the walls of the 
fortress. A shabby wooden cafe was opposite to us; a 
mosque of the same material rose with its worm-eaten 
carpentry to our right. 

Mean huts, with patches of garden ground, filled up 
the space inclosed by the gorgeous ramparts and massive 
towers of Semendria. The ftirther we walked the nobler 
appeared the last relic of the dotage of old feudal Servia. 
In one of the towers next the Danube is a sculptured 
Roman tombstone. One graceful figure points to a sar- 
cophagus, close to which a female sits in tears; in a word, 
a remnant of the antique — of that harmony which dies 
not away, but swells on the finer organs of perception. 
^^Eski, Eshi, Very old," said the Disdar Aga, who 
accompanied me. 

"It is Roman," said I. 

^^Eoumgi?^^ said he, thinking I meant Greek. 
"No, Latinski" ^aid a third, which is the name usually 
given to Boman remains. 

As at Soko and Ushitza, I was not permitted to enter 
the inner citadel; so, returning to the gate, where we 

110 BOOK I. 8EEVIA. 

were rejoined by the soldiers, we went to the fourth 
tower, on the left of the Stamboul Kapu, and looking up, 
we saw inserted and forming part of the wall, a large 
stone, on which was cut, in hctsso rilievo, a figoro of 
Europa reposing on a bull. A few simple lines bespoke 
the careless hardihood of antique art. 

The castle of Semendria was built in 1432, by the 
Brankovitch, who succeeded the family of Knes Lasar as 
despots, or native rulers of Servia, under the Turks; and 
the construction of this enormous pile was permitted by 
their masters, under the pretext of the strengthening of 
Servia against the Hungarians. The last of these despots 
of Servia was George Brankovitch, the historian, who 
passed over to Austria, was raised to the dignity of a 
count ; and after being kept many years as a state prisoner, 
suspected of secret correspondence with the Turks, died 
at Eger, in Bohemia, in 1711. The legitimate Branko- 
vitch line is now extinct. ^ 

Leaving the fortress, we returned to the Natchalnik's 
house. I was struck with the size, beauty, and flavour of 
the grapes here; I have no where tasted such delicious 
fruit of this description. "Groja Smederevsko" are cele- 
brated through all Servia, and ought to make excellent 

The road from Semendria to Belgrade skirts the Da- 
nube, across which one sees the plains of the Banat and 
military frontier. The only place of any consequence on 
that side of the river is Pancsova, the sight of which re- 
minded me of a conversation I had there some years ago. 

The major of the town, after swallowing countless 
boxes of Morrison's pills, died in the belief that he had 
not begun to take them soon enough. The consumption 
of these drugs at that time almost surpassed belief. There 
was scarcely a sickly or hypochondriac person, from the 
Hill of Presburg to the Iron Gates, who had not taken 

• One of the representatives of the ancient imperial family is the 
Earl of Devon, for Urosh the Great married Helen of Oourtenay. 


large quantities of tkem. Being curious to know the cause 
of this extensive consumption, I asked for an explanation. 

The Anglo-mania is no where stronger than in this 
part of the 'world. Whatever comes from England, be it 
CJongreve rockets, or vegetable pills, must needs be perfect. 
Dr. Morrison is indebted to his high office for the enor- 
mous consumption of his drugs. It is clear that the presi- 
dent of the British College must be a man in the enjoy- 
ment of the esteem of the government and the faculty 
of medicine; and his title is a passport to his pills in 
foreign countries." 

I laughed heartily, and explained that the British 
College of Health, and the College of Physicians, were 
not identical. 

The road from this point to Belgrade presents no 
particular interest. Half an hour from the city I crossed 
the celebrated trenches of Marshal Laudohn ; and rumbling 
through a long cavernous gateway, called the Stamboul 
Kapousi, or gate of Constantinople, again found myself in 
Belgrade, thankM for the past, and congratulating myself 
on the circumstances of my trip. I had seen a state of 
patriarchal manners, the prominent features of which will 
be at no distant time rolled flat and smooth, by the 
pressure of old Europe, and the salient angles of which 
will soon disappear. 



The Servians are a remarkably tall and robust race 
of men ; in form and feature they bespeak strength of 
body and energy of mind: but one seldom sees that 
thorough-bred look, which, so frequently found in the 
poorest peasants of Italy and Greece, shows that the de- 


scendants of the most polite of tlie ancients, although 
disinherited of dominion, have not lost the corporeal 
attributes of nobility. But the women of Servia I think 
very pretty. In body they are not so well shaped as the 
Grreek women; but their complexions are fine, the hair 
generally black and glossy, and their head-dress particu- 
larly graceful. Not being addicted to the bath, like other 
eastern women, they prolong their beauty beyond the 
average climacteric ; and their houses, with rooms opening 
on a court-yard and small garden, are favourable to health 
and beauty. They are not exposed to the elements as 
the men; nor are they cooped up within four walls, like 
many eastern women, without a sufficient circulation 
of air. 

Through all the interior of Servia, the female is reckoned 
an inferior being, and fit only to be the plaything of youth 
and the nurse of old age. This peculiarity of manners 
has not sprung from the four centuries of Turkish occu- 
pation, but appears to have been inherent in old Slaavic 
manners, and such as we read of in Russia, a very few 
generations ago; but as the European standard is now 
rapidly adopted at Belgrade, there can be little doubt 
that it will thence, in the course of time, spread over 
all Servia. 

The character of the Servian closely resembles that 
of the Scottish Highlander. He is brave in battle, highly 
hospitable; delights in simple and plaintive music and 
poetry, his favourite instruments being the bagpipe and 
fiddle: but unlike the Greek he shows little aptitude for 
trade; and unlike the Bulgarian, he is very lazy in agri- 
cultural operations. All this corresponds with the Scottish 
Celtic character ; and without absolute dishonesty, a certain 
low cunning in the prosecution of his material interests 
completes the parallel. 

The old customs of Servia are rapidly disappearing 
under the pressure of laws and European institutions. 
Many of these could not have existed except in a society 
in which might made right. One of these was the vow 


of eternal brotherhood and friendship between two indi- 
viduals; a treaty offensive, to assist each other in the 
diffienlt passages of life. This bond is considered sacred 
and indissoluble. Frequently remarkable instances of it 
are found in the wars of Kara Georg. But now that 
regular guarantees for the security of life and property 
exist, the custom appears to have fallen into desuetude. 
These confederacies in the dual state, as in Servia, or mul- 
tiple, as in the clan system of Scotland and Albania, are 
always strongest in turbulent times and regions \ 

Another of the old customs of Servia was sufficiently 
characteristic of its lawless state. Abduction of females 
was common. Sometimes a young man would collect a 
party of his companions, break into a village, and carry 
off a maiden. To prevent re-capture they generally went 
into the woods, where the nuptial knot was tied by a 
priest nolens volens. Then commenced the negotiation 
for a reconciliation with the parents, which was generally 
successful; as in many instances the female had been the 
secret lover of the young man, and the other villagers 
used to add their persuasion, in order to bring about a 
pacific solution. But if the relations of the girl made a 
legal afiair of it, the young woman was asked if it was 
by her own will that she was taken away; and if she 
made the admission then a reconciliation took place: if 
not, those concerned in the abduction were fined. Kara 
Georg put a stop to this by proclamation, punishing the 
author of an abduction with death, the priest with dis- 
missal, and the assistants with the bastinado. 

The Haiducks, or outlawed robbers, who during the 
first quarter of the present century infested the woods of 
Servia, resembled the CatCFans of the Highlands of Scot- 
land, being as much rebels as robbers, and imagined that 
in setting authority at defiance they were not acting dis- 
honourably, but combating for a principle of independence. 

* The most perfect confederacy of this description is that of the 
Drases, which has stood the test of eight centuries, and in its secret 
organization is complete beyond any thing attained by freemasonry. 

Patow. I. 8 


They robbed only the rich Moslems, and were often gene- 
rous to the poor. Thus robbery and rebellion being 
confounded, the termHaiduck is not considered opprobrious; 
and several old Servians have confessed to me that they had 
been Haiducks in their youth. I am sure that the ad- 
ventures of a Servian Rob Roy might form the materials 
of a stirring Romance. There are many Haiducks still in 
Bosnia, Herzegovina, and on the western Balkan; but the 
race in Servia is extinct, and plunder is the only object 
of the few robbers who now infest the woods in the west 
of Servia. 

Such are the customs that have just disappeared; but 
many national peculiarities still remain. At Christmas, 
for instance, every peasant goes to the woods, and cuts 
down a young oak ; as soon as he returns home, which is 
in the twilight, he says to the assembled family, ^'A happy 
Christmas eve to the house;" on which a male of the 
family scatters a little grain on the ground and answers, 
**God be gracious to you, our happy and honoured father.^' 
The housewife then lays the young oak on the fire, to 
which are thrown a few nuts and a little straw, and the 
evening ends in merriment 

Next day, after divine service, the family assemble 
around the dinner table, each bearing a lighted candle; 
and they say aloud, ^^ Christ is bom: let us honour Christ 
and his birth." The usual Christmas drink is hot wine 
mixed with honey. They have also the custom of First 
Foot. This personage is selected beforehand, under the 
idea that he will bring luck with him for the ensuing 
year. On entering the First Foot says, "Christ is bom ! " 
and receives for answer, "Yes, he is boml" while the 
First Foot scatters a few grains of com on the floor. He 
then advances and stirs up the wood on the fire, so that 
it crackles and emits sparks; on which the First Foot 
says, "As many sparks so many cattle, so many horses, 
so many goats, so many sheep, so many boars, so many 
bee hives, and so much luck and prosperity." He then 
throws a httle money into the ashes, or hangs some hemp 


on the door; and Christmas ends with presents and fes- 

At Easter, they amnse themselves with the game of 
breaking hard-boiled eggs, having first examined those of 
an opponent to see that they are not filled with wax. 
From this time until Ascension day the common formula 
of greeting is "Christ has arisen!" to which answer is 
made, "Yes; he has truly arisen or ascended!" And on 
the second Monday after Easter the graves of dead re- 
lations are visited. 

One of the superstitious customs of Servia is that of 
the Dodola. When a long drought has taken place, a 
handsome yoimg woman is stripped, and so dressed up 
with grass, flowers, cabbage and other leaves, that her 
fece is scarcely visible ; she then, in company with several 
girls of twelve or fifteen years of age, goes from house 
to house singing a song, the burden of which is a wish 
for rain. It is then the custom of the mistress of the 
house at which the Dodola is stopped to throw a little 
water on her. This custom used also to be kept up in 
the Servian districts of Hungary, but has been forbidden 
by the priests. 

Upon the whole, it must be admitted, that the pea- 
santry of Servia have drawn a high prize in the lottery 
of existence. Abject want and pauperism is nearly un- 
known. In fact, from the great abundance of excellent 
land, every man with ordinary industry can support his 
wife and family, and have a large surplus. The peasant 
has no landlord but the Sultan, who receives a fixed 
tribute from the Servian government, and does not inter- 
fere with the internal administration. The father of a 
family, after having contributed a maocimum tax of six 
dollars per annum, is sole master of the surplus; so that 
in fact the taxes are almost nominal, and the rent a mere 
peppercorn ; the whole amounting on an avarege to about 
four shillings and sixpence per caput per annum. 

A very small proportion of the whole soil of Servia 
is cultivated. Some say only one sixth, others only one 



eighth ; and even the present mode of cultivaticHi scarcely 
differs from that which prevails in other parts of Turkey. 
The reason is obvious : if the present production of Servia 
became insufficient for the subsistence of the population, 
they have only to take in waste lands; and improved 
processes of agriculture will remain unheeded, until the 
population begins to press on the limits of the means of 
subsistance; a consummation not likely to be brought 
about for many generations to come. 

Although situated to the south of Hungary, the climate 
and productions are altogether northern. I never saw an 
olive-tree in Servia, although plentiful in the correspond- 
ing latitudes of France and Italy (43«— 44« SC); but both 
sorts of melons are abundant, although from want of cnl- 
vation not nearly so good as those of Hungary. The 
same may be said of all other fruits except the grapes 
of Semendria, which I believe are equal to any in the 
world. The Servians seem to have in general very little taste 
for gardening, much less in fact than the Turks, in conse- 
quence perhaps of the unsurpassed beauty and luxuriance 
of nature. The fruit-tree which seems to be the most 
common in Servia is the plum, from which the ordinary 
brandy of the country is made. Almost every village has 
a plantation of this tree in .its vicinity. Vegetables are 
tolerably abundant in some parts of the interior of Servia^ 
but Belgrade is very badly supplied. There seems to be 
no kitchen gardens in the environs; at least I saw none. 
Most of the vegetables as well as milk come from Semlin. 

The harvest in August is the period of merriment. - 
All Servian peasants assist each other in getting in the^ 
grain as soon as it is ready, without fee or reward; the 
cultivator providing entertainment for his laborious guests. 
In the vale of the Lower Morava, where there is less 
pasture and more com, this is not sufficient and hired 
Bulgarians assist. 

The innumerable swine which are reared in the vast 
forests of the interior, at no expense to the inhabitants, 
are the great staple of Servian product and export. In 


districts where acome abound, they fatten to an incon- 
ceivable size. They are first pushed swimming across the 
Save, as a substitute for quarantine, and then driven to 
Pesth and Vienna by easy stages ; latterly large quantities 
have been sent up the Danube in boats towed by steam. 

Another extensive trade in this part of the world is 
m leeches. Turkey in Europe, being for the most part 
uncultivated, is covered with ponds and marshes, where 
leeches are found in abundance. In consequence of the 
extensive use now made of these reptiles, in preference 
to ihB old practice of the laiicet, the price, has tisen ; and 
the European sdurce being exhausted, Turkey swarms with 
Frenchmen engaged in this traffic, ^omlin and Belgrade 
are the entrepots of this trade. They have a singular 
I^uraseology ; and it is amusing to hear them talk of their 
^'marchandises mortes." One company had established a 
series of relays and reservoirs, into which the leeches were 
deposited, refreshed, and again put in motion; as the 
journey for a great distance, without such refreshment, 
usually proves fatal. 

The steam navigation on the Danube has been of in- 
cakmlable benefit to Servia; it renders the principality 
aocesnble to the rest of Europe, and Europe easily acces- 
sible to Servia. The steam navigation of the Save had 
likewise given a degree of animation to these lower regions, 
which was little dreamt of a few years ago. The Save is 
the greatest of all the tributaries of the Danube, and is 
oniliterruptedly navigable for steamers a distance of two 
hundred miles. This river is the natural canal for the 
eonnexion of Servia and the Banat with the Adriatic. 

BOOK 11. 




A precise definition of the territories inhabited by the 
lUyrian nations is not easy ; an approximative delimitatiim, 
for perspicuity's sake, is, therefore, all that I venture on. 
K the reader cast his eyes to the eastern frontiers of 
Tyrol, the river Drave is seen to enter Illyria; paaaing 
eastwards, to separate Croatia and Slavonia from Hnngary 
Proper ; and then to fall into the Danube, which continues 
its course onwards to the Black Sea. A few degrees 
farther south of this water-way is seen the Balkan chain, 
which stretches from Montenegro, on the Adriatic, to a 
point in the Black Sea between Varna and the Bay of 
Bourgas. The space between these water-ways in the 
north and the mountain-range in the south is the prin- 
cipal seat of the Blyrian nation ; that is to say, Bnlgaria, 
Servia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Illyria, 
Croatia, and Slavonia. To these distinctly defined settle- 
ments may be added a considerable Illyrian or Bulgarian 
population to the south of the Balkan, extending through 


the greater part of Macedonia ; and to the north of the 
Danube and the Drave, three Hungarian counties, Bacs, 
Torontal, and Baranya, have, taken together, a majority 
of niyrian population. 

Having concluded what I had to say on Servia, — which 
although emancipated from direct civil Ottoman rule is 
still a fief of the Ottoman sceptre, still in military occu- 
pation of the Sultan, and therefore still an integral part 
of the Ottoman Empire, — I now proceed to give some 
account of several of the most westerly portions of the 
lllyrian territory ;— Croatia, which during so many centuries 
was associated with Hungary;— Dalmatia, which so long 
belonged to the Republic of Venice, and Montenegro, 
a mountain Republic, the supremacy over which has been 
80 long claimed by Turkey. 

To begin with Croatia, we may remark, that, while 
the Save has its source in the Carinthian Alps, close to 
the Kingdom of Venice, and has Slavonia and Bosnia for 
its lower basin, just before its confluence with the Danube 
at Belgrade, — the central part of the valley, with Agram 
for its capital, ils called Croatia, a country more undulated 
than Hungary in general, but less serried with precipitous 
mountains than the Alpine region to the west. 

This part of our work is therefore a familiar description 
of the countries to the north and east of the Adriatic. 
The work was undertaken at the suggestion of the late 
truly estimable Sir Robert Gordon, her Majesty's Am- 
bassador at the Court of Vienna, in his private and un- 
official capacity, as a promoter of all those departments 
of literature which familiarise the reader with a knowledge 
of the trade akd resources of foreign parts; and this in 
a manner so obliging and advantageous, as no student of 
political and commercial geography, aiixious to add to 
the range of his previous experiences, would willingly 
neglect or decline. It was his wish that I should 
^ve a general view of the material resources of the 
Austrian empire; i therefore began with a visit to the 
Austrian ports on the shores of the Adriatic; but the ab- 


normal state of trade, and the revolutions that have oc* 
curred, rendering it doubtful how far I should make my 
work a commercial one, and the progress of eventa in 
Croatia (involving considerations of the most momentous 
importance), having created a demand for information on 
that country, the desire to fill up this vacuum afibrded 
me a convenient and fitting opportunity for laying befbre 
the public the results of studies on the interests of Great 
Britain in the Austrian and Ottoman empires oommenced 
many years anterior to my tour on the Adriatic. 

When I first began these studies in 183$, Great Britain 
had just concluded a commercial treaty with Austria^ and 
was on the very worst terms with Russia relative to the 
affairs of the East; and, after a visit to Hungary in the 
following year, I came to the conclusion that the only 
counterpoise to Russia was a united and powerful Austria; 
that a house divided against itself must fall; and that 
Austria and Hungary at loggerheads left Russia uncon- 
trolled mistress of the destinies of the lower Danube. 
1 considered the cultivation of the Magyar language and 
literature by the Magyar nation to be a legal and laudable 
movement, but the attempt of the Ultra-Magyar faction 
to substitute universally that nationaUty for the anci^it 
and numerically stronger Slaavic nationalities, by their 
extirpation in the nineteenth century, to be a gross and 
revolting abuse of power, which must sooner or later 
recoil on themselves. Magyarism I considered a solid and 
valid element of Hungarian prosperity; Ultra-Magyarism 
a windbag, which must necessarily collapse. 

I passed through Agram at a most interesting period^ 
that of the fermentation of the Croat question immediately 
before the revolution of 1848, and was so struck with the 
importance of the crisis then in embryo, that althoogh 
bound for the Adriatic coast, I suspended my journey in 
order to complete my information on the nationalities of 
Hungary, which during several years had been the subject 
which I had studied with a most eager and persevering 


In ord^r to understand tiie origin of the question, we 
must remind the reader that the Magyars, an Asiatic 
tribe, who in 883 burst into Pannonia from, the eastward, 
could not subjugate the Groats, who had a race of valiant 
kings of their own; but in 1102, some years after the 
death of the last king of the house of Croatia, the act of 
onion took place in a pacific manner; and in the thir- 
teenth century, when the Magyars were completely 
vanquished by the Tartars, it was the bravery of the 
Croat provinces that alone opposed a barrier to these 
savage hordes. By the Turkish victory of 1526, at Mohacs, 
both nations were involved in a common ruin. The Magyars 
conducted themselves with unavailing courage and braver j^, 
but they stood not a whit more successfully than the 
Servian Empire had done ; and the reconquest of Hungary, 
in 1684, was a result of the iEailure of the siege of Vienna 
and ,th€ victory of the arms of Sobieski; while, in the 
succeeding century, the further progress was due to the 
splendid victories of Prince Eugene of Savoy, backed by 
the whole resources of the Emperor of Germany. 

As regards the interior of Hungary, the eighteenth 
century was, for the most part, pacific, and a gradual in- 
filtration of German civilisation took place; the Latin^ 
language being used as that of the Diet and public bu- 
siness, while German was the language of society. A rich 
national literature of the previous century kept the Illyrian 
language in full bloom; but the Magyar had fallen into 
such voluntary desuetude, that, without a literature, it 
necessarily ceased to be the language of the nobility, and, 
up to the year 1825, its cultivation was a matter of mere 
antiquarian curiosity. At length, forth starts Goimt 
Secheniy to arouse the Hungarians from their slumbers. 
No one doubts his excellent intentions: steam on the 
Danube, roads, and bridges, are all the noblest monu- 
ments of his patriotism; but his idea of making Magyars 
of all the nations of Hungary, nearly a thousand years 
after they settled on the Danube, was the most unhappy 
project that ever entered into the brain of a statesman^ 


Agram wag one of the chief centres of resistance of the 
non Magyar-nations. I shall therefore in this chapter 
describe its external aspect, reserving a fuller treatment 
of this great historical question until my tour through 
Hungary immediately after the close of the great revo* 
lutionary war, as described in the third division of my 
Danubian and Adriatic researches under the title of "The 
Goth and the Hun." 

The locality of Agram is in that pleasant region where 
the mountains and the plains meet, being situated on the 
last wooded slopes of the hilly district of Zagoria, before 
it is lost in the level and fertile plain of the Save. The 
town itself is divided into three parts, quite distinct from 
each other. The upper town crowns a hill, or abrupt 
table-land, called Medved, or "the Bear," the streets of 
which are well built, and inhabited by the aristocracy of 
Croatia, and it is therefore the fashionable quarter. 
Terraces, high over all the roofs of the lower town, with 
palisaded walks planted with poplars, form an agreeable 
promenade round this upper town; commanding on one 
side a view of the whole breadth of the valley of the 
Save, with the river, a couple of miles off, glistening at 
intervals, or winding unseen through the rich plain of 
fertile fields and villages, diversified with parks and rand 
residences, and the hills of the Turkish frontier visible in 
the distance. On the promenade on the other side of Hhit 
upper town, the eye is attracted upwards to a bold line 
of hills, their ridges fringed with expanding oak or 
tapering pine, the intervals of their slopes seamed with 
deep gullies, and the solitary hut of the goatherd op the 
woodsman replacing the towns and the villages of the 

The most important edifice in the upper town is tiie 
Government House, where the Diets are held, entitied 
"Comitia Regnorum Croatiae et Slavonise," and which are 
opened by a speech of the Ban, who exercises in the 
socia regna the functions of viceroy; but the rank of 
Ban is technically that of doge or duke (ditx)\ and in 


the kingdom of Hungary he yields precedence to the 
Palatine and Judex curiae, being therefore the third per- 
sonage in the realm. The proceedings of all affairs were 
in a sort of legal dog^latin; but the Diet of 1848 wisely 
adopted the national language. On entering the police- 
office to present my passport, I saw the door marked 
** Conclave Politii;" and the commissary, opening my 
passport, said to the clerk, as he examined my signale- 
ment and the various visas, "Anglus—Grsecia — Alexandria — 
Mehercle, totam terram peregrinavit!" continued he, 
looking at me as if I had come from the antipodes. 

"Wo gehen Sie hin?" 

"Nach Zara." 

"Perfecte Germanice loquitur," &c. 

Much handsomer as an edifice than the Government 
House, is the so-called "Narodne Domo," the national 
casino, or club-house, founded for the same objects as the 
Casino of Pesth — the general advancement of the nation. 
It is a very elegant new structure, in the Palladian style 
of architecture ; the front facing the interior of the upper 
town, and the back windows overlooking one of the pro- 
menades with a wide prospect. The lower rooms are 
divided into a museum and the committee-rooms of the 
Agricultural Society; the former includes specimens of 
the flora and mineralogy of Croatia, the innumerable pon- 
derous folios having been the life-long occupation of a 
botanical Dean of Agram. The numismatic collection is 
also extensive, including many Roman-Illyrian coins, with 
the star and crescent, emblematic of the worship of 
Leliva, the goddess of night in the ancient Illyrian mytho- 
logy. These emblems were long supposed not to remount 
higher than the seventh century; but Gaj and others, in 
the profundity of their erudition or height of their 
enthusiasm, trace their existence to the pre-Roman period. 

The rooms of the Agricultural Society present nothing 
worthy of being remarked by the eye ; but I cannot help 
wishing every prosperity to attend their efforts. In Pesth, 
the favourite scheme of the Magyars was to create an 


industry by resolntioiiB to paichase only natiTe 
factores. This was no doubt patariotically enough intended, 
but the Croats have wisely avoided any imitation of sndi 
chimeras, feeling that the only method of eleyating Croatia 
was to follow the coarse chalked ont for her by the 
Almighty in his disposition of the dements of labour. 
With an iron-bound coast, and scantily endowed inland 
with coal and iron, the development of Groat nationali^ 
would receive little help from such schemes; and, possess- 
ing the rich plains of the Save, which in some pteees 
yield wheat scarcely inferior to that of the Banat, it is 
more particularly to the improvement of agricnltare that 
their attention is directed by model implements, essays 
on the most approved processes, and a model-£Burm set 
a-going by the Bishop, who is president of the agricoltural 
section of the Narodne Domo, — all tending to a 
much needed; for a few years ago the implements 
of the rudest description; agricultural chemistry was mi- 
known; and, instead of a rotation of crops, the land lay 
fallow for years, and being sown, was then so imperfectly 
turned over again by the plough, that the birds ate half 
the seed. 

The upper floor is for the club-rooms, where elefven 
Slaavic and the same number of German newspapers mrt 
taken in, the principal one of which is the Ilirska NaradM 
Novine, or Ulyrian National News, then edited by Mr. Li»- 
dovich Gaj, who has since paid the debt of nature. It 
was printed in Roman instead of Gyrillian letters, and 
was well conducted, Mr. Graj being a man of great talent 
and erudition, and of charming conversation and manners. 

Passing from politics to literature, we find the prindpel 
organ in Croatia to be a well-conducted quarterly review, 
called KolOy or, translated, "The Cycle; a Review of 
Literature, Art, and national Life;" and, as my readers 
may be curious to know its contents, I subjoin a list of 
its articles: 

Beview of the History of Styria, a.d. 800—1122. 

A Po«m on the Fall or Conquest of Bosnia by the Tnrka. 


An Account of th« Vindolin Code of Laws (th« aeeond Slaarlc 

code known, being that of an Istrian republic, jl.d. 1280.) 
Becent Publications in the Bohemian language. 

I>o. do. Russian do. 

Bo. do. Polish do. 

Bo. do. Illyrian do. 

Publications on Slaavic subjects in non-Slaavic languages. 
An Essay on the Elements of Criticism. 

The lowef town has a totally different aspect from the 
upper ; many of the houses are old and shabby, and the public 
streets and the squares are not well paved; or, at all events, 
while walking is a cleanly process in the upper town, the 
mud dries much more slowly below. In the promenades of 
the upper town you meet only the last fashions from 
Vienna; but in the lower regions on a market-day, you 
walk ftom slough to slough, while the cattle is lowing 
about your ears, and the peasantry vociferating. But all 
has a strong local colour about it, well worth the shoe- 
blacking expended. The country people wear broad- 
brimmed hats and long boots, the cocked hat (ad ires 
mgulos) having gone out of the fashion. The dresses 
are of undyed woollen cloth, of a light grey or dark 
brown colour; the upper tunic, kept on not by buttons 
but frogs, generally of a cnmson colour. 

The horses and cattle were for the most part poor, 
as a necessary consequence of bad rotations of crops, and 
want of sufficient hay and clover. Sometimes horses are 
left to shift for themselves all winter out of doors, and 
they pick up a wonderful knack of scenting out herbage 
even when snow is on the ground. But the swine, 
poultry, and game, are excellent, being less dependent on 
the ingenuity of man than on the bounty of God. One 
might almost include swine under the head of game, for 
they live in the woods; and swine-poaching lower down 
the Save is an irregular trade, practised by men who 
would be ashamed of civic theft. The poacher has Indian 
corn-grains on his hat-brims, and passes by a herd of 
swine shaking his head. A sow may in this way be se- 
duced from a herd, until it is at a secure distant and 
convenient place deep in the woods, w^hen a blow with 


an axe renders unnecessary all further shaking of the 
peasant's head. 

The principal inn or hotel of Agram, the Kaiser von 
Oesterreich, is in the lower town, in a new street at the 
entrance from the Vienna road. It is one of the best 
inns in Hungary, though inferior to the good hotels in 
Pesth ; nevertheless, good taste might have spared a printed 
decalogue suspended from the wall of the dining-room, 
which ran somewhat thus: 

<' 1. Thou shalt have no other landlord but the landlord of thii 

hotel, Ac. Ac. Ac. 
" 10. Thou Bhalt not covet his household, nor whisper nonteoM 

in the ears of the chambermaid," Ac. 

Adjoining the lower town, which is called HarmicMOf 
from the Custom-house, is the Abbey town, called Opato^ 
vina, in which is situated the cathedral and episcoptl 
palace; the former a gem that at once transports as to 
middle age. It is of a mixed character, the front being 
Byzantine of the eleventh century, with its crowd of 
small columns of a red-coloured marble-like stone, while 
the body of the cathedral is of lofty and capacious dimen- 
sions, but in the. Gothic style; but many of the tombe 
and altar-pieces of the beginning of the seventeenth 
century are renaissantissime, as our neighbours across 
the Channel say. 

Several fine old carved choirs have disappeared, iot 
the defunct Bishop was a sad white-washing Vandal, who 
ought to have been an inspector of barracks or poor- 
houses; but the present incumbent has pursued restoration 
in the right spirit. The great eastern window has been 
recently renewed with painted glass — a magnificent spe- 
cimen of the reviving Munich school; and a charming 
glimpse of middle-age life seemed offered to me as I 
gazed on those kneeling kings, with cuisses of mail and 
mantles of purple, on whom the light of heaven appeared 
to stream through cerulean skies and topaz halos. 

The Bishop of Agram is a high and puissant prinoe, 
his income being very little short of 30,000?.; that is to 


say, the second episcopate in Hungary quoad emolument; 
but he made a most charitable use of his fortune, having 
given a sum of 15,0007. to found an institution for sisters of 
charity. This edifice, lately built, occupies a prominent 
position in the lower town, and includes within its walls 
a hospital for poor women, and school for poor female 
children, as well as the dormitories and church of the 
consisterhood. I visited the establishment, and found it 
to be a model of roomy airiness and cleanly propriety; 
the rooms of the sisters being more comfortable than 
those of a convent^ but without mundane ornament or 
superfluity. On seeing the hospital of the sick sisters, 
I could not help remembering the naivete of the Indian 
neophyte, who says to the Jesuit, 'Tou have told me all 
about St. Bonaventure, and I know his history quite well; 
but you have forgotten to enlighten me on the nature and 
life of Christ." The Catholicism of Croatia is actively 
benevolent, and the prevention of poverty and crime is 
the object of the constant and praiseworthy solicitude 
of the clergy; but the Bible is unknown to the mass of 
the people. What, then, are we to say to such modern 
lithographic prints as I saw on the walls of this hospital? 
^The dead restored to life through the prayers of 
St, Vincent de PauV* And surely the bilocation of 
Liguori is not more wonderful than another— "Dwrm^r 
Mass said by St Vincent de Paulj one soul meets another 
in the form of two red halW^ 

The episcopal palace still has the castellated round 
towers of middle age; but a flower-garden replaces the 
moat, the curtain has been pierced with modern windows, 
and the principal apartment of the palace is the ball- 
room, fitted up in the style of Louis Quinze, in which, 
daring the carnival, the Bishop ^equently assembles the 
beau monde of Agram to the inspiriting sounds of Strauss 
and Lanner. The Bishop, although forbidden by his cloth 
to enter the temple of Hymen himself, is peculiarly 
benignant to the votaries of that pleasant deity; and it 


is remarked that more matches are made up at the Bishop'* 
halls than under any other circumstances. 

There is a German and Dlyrian theatre in winter; but 
no theatrical performance took place during my stay. 
They have also one opera in the IHyrian language, which 
was got up hy amateurs, with a chorus of fifty penons, 
and performed several times. My visit being in the earlier 
part of autumn, most of the amateurs were scattered ; but, 
in a small musical party, I had an opportunity of hearing 
a selection from it which pleased me. In the vocal parts, 
an unconscious reminiscence of modem Italian fayourites 
was scarcely to be avoided; but the overture shewed a 
certain maestna highly creditable to Croatia. 

In the way of summer amusement, the great resonree 
is the Bishop's English park, half an hour's drive distant 
from Agram. Here a wide-spread forest of oaks, extending 
several miles in all directions, has been pierced with 
excellent drives, always terminating in some architectnr*] 

In the environs of Agram I met a travelling journey- 
man watchmaker, a middle-sized, middle-aged man, with 
piercing intelligent eyes; and not^athstanding his con- 
dition, his German was in the highest degree fluent and 
eloquent. He noticed that I was a stranger; and asking 
me what countryman I was, declared, on learning the soil 
of which I was a native, that the great objeet of his 
desire was to see London, the world-city, or city of the 
world (Wettstadt). 

"London," said he, with inconceivable volubility, "is 
the Rome and Athens of the watchmaker, where he can 
study and leam. Your Swiss watchmaker has a good 
taste. Your Vienna watchmaker works cheap; but the 
English watchmaker is a true artist. The Swiss makes 
only a small part of a watch in the factory style, to bi» 
afterxvards put together; the Englishman makes a watch 
from the beginning to the end: the object of the Swiss 
is, to get the greatest quantity through his hands; the 
object of the Englishman is, not quantity but quality: he 


ldT08.4he watch, for it is all his own work; h^ has a 
tondertiess for it, beoaase ke has the responsifoility of its 
going well or ill. Then the buyer and wearer lores and 
geta aittached to a well-goii^ watch, as he does to a good 
picture or a £Edthful servant, — he appreciates it as a work 
of art, he hourly feek its advantage, and thus creates an 
attadiment for an English watch which he can never 
feel for the most light, elegant, and showy Geneva watch: 
it ia just the difference between a faithless mistress and 
a £aithfal wi^e. The celebrated school of Demnark is an 
o&hoot of the high school of London, and the world- 
renowned Gryorgenson of CopenlMgen studied in London; 
be is a(n honour to the profession; and if a watch be 
given him to r^»air, he insists on taking out all the 
doubtful works, at no matter what expense, or returning 
it to the owner untouched." 

On hearing such grandiloquence, what less could I say, 
than express a hope that if a Royal Academy of watch- 
making were instituted, he might speak the inaugural 
address? • 

Previous to the March revolution, the Magyars, pos- 
sessing a vast majority in the Diet, occupied constitutional 
ground of such strength, that, whatever equity and hu- 
inanity might say for several of the subject races of 
Hungary, law was clearly with the Magyars; and the 
Croats were the only race having peseta conventa to 
shew for their pretensions. But no sooner did the 
March revolution take place in Vienna, than the re- 
pui^an party in the Diet of Pesth, headed by Ludwig 
Kossuth, not only got the upper hand of the conser- 
vatives, but threw Count Secheniy and the monarchical 
reformers fairly overboard; from one step to another, 
orected themselves into a Frendi Convention; and, by 
passing the most important laws without either the 
signature of the Monarch or the valid concurrence of the 
Upper Chamber, or Table of Magnates, created a de fcteto 
republic, and voluntarily abandoned that strong consti- 
tutional ground, &om which, although they could not 

Pat ON. I. 9 


treat the Croatfi as a conquered nation, yet could defy 
national devdopment on the part of the Servian; Wallachiaii, 
and Slovack nations of Hungary. 

The proceedings of the Comitia Eegnarum at Agram 
afforded a complete contrast to the progress of affiurs at 
Pesth. The more Kossuth resiled from the CoxKtitutioii 
and consolidated his conventional dictatorship, the more 
Jellachich and the Comitia Eegnorutn adhered to the 
Pragmatic Sanction of last century, which irreivocably 
united Croatia with the possessor of Styria, Garinthia, and 

The principle for which the Croats contended gradually 
became better understood beyond the limits of Hungary, 
and is, I am persuaded, the only one compatible with the 
interests of such a diversity of nations as now form the 
component parts of the Austrian Empire. This pxinciple 
was, that each race should enjoy constitutional liberty, 
and a national administration within its own ethnographical 
circle; but that there ought to be one, and only one, 
responsible Ministry in Vienna, to make peace and to 
make war, to direct armies, and to receive ambassadors. 
On no other basis are we to hope for either the seoority 
of the throne, or the contentment of these diversified po» 
pulations. By no other process can Austria be at once 
various and united — like the stellar universe, each body 
revolving in its own orbit, and all synallagmatic, all ac- 
cording in a harmonious whole. Justice will thus be 
rendered to the Slaavic and Roman races, and no ii^ustice 
to either German or Magyar ; while political morality and 
political expediency remain, as they always are, perfectly 

Carlstadt is situated in a perfectly level and richly 
cultivated plain, uncommanded by any heights; so that 
at a distance it looks like a Flemish town, with its church^ 
spire overlooking its bastions, curtains, and alleys of 
trees. During the hostilities between Austria and Turkey, 
it used to be the bulwark of Croatia against that angle 
of the Ottoman empire which is called the Trockene 


Grenze, or dry frontier. For, commanding the passage 
of the Cnlpa, the whole line from Carlstadt to Semlin is 
a distinctly defined line of defence. 

Baron Paumgarten, the commandant, having had the 
obliging courtesy to be my cicerone, I passed an interesting 
forenoon in looking through the place when on my way 
to Dafanatia. The baron was a fine hearty veteran, who 
had slashed through the war of liberation with credit and 
honour, and being still, although a septuagenarian, in 
the possession of health, strength, and intellectual vigour, 
had to see that the key of Croatia caught no rust from 
desuetude ; for considerably more than half a century has 
elapsed since Sultan and Emperor have exchanged hostile 
visits to each other's territory. 

At the end of the High-street, which was mostly built 
in the last century in the German manner, we came upon 
the gate of the town next the river Culpa, which, seen 
from the inside, has, with its little round towers, a baronial- 
castle look, strongly contrasting with the modem angles 
and parapets of the fortifications; and the worthy com- 
mandant informed me that it was a relic of the old walls 
built in 1575. Just before we turned aside to ascend 
the rampart, a soldier's servant passed,^ and the comman- 
dant stopped him and asked him how his master was. 
^A bisserl hesser: a trifle better, your honour," answered 
the man, touching his hat, and on he passed. "There is 
no hope for that man's master, poor fellow," said he to 
me as we climbed the parapet. "Morrison's vegetable 
pills have cured him of a slight indigestion, leaving a 
chronic cramp in the stomach in its place. Your English 
Malthusian theory of population is a very false one, my 
good friend: so soon as there is any danger of over- 
population, a great man starts up to set the balance right 
again — Attila, Ghenghis Khan, Napoleon, but last and 
greatest of all, Morrison." 

We now found ourselves on the ramparts, and enjoyed 
a pleasing view over a wide champaign country. As we 
continued our round I perceived a large suburb to be 



built entirely of wood; and on asking if there were not 
a danger of fire, was answered that the proprietors of 
these houses had built them on the condition that if an 
enemy appeared they were to be burnt or torn down 
at a moment's notice, so as to have a clear defensive 
glacis. It seems that,, on account of the active trade 
and navigation of the place, the wants of the town have 
outgrown the ramparts; so that houses that were to 
be bought during the French war for 300 Z. now sell 
for 1000 Z. 

Passing angle after angle of the works, we arrived at 
the gate of Fiume, (which, unlike his fellow at the other 
end of the town, was in the modem style, protected by 
an outwork,) and descending from the banquette to the 
terre pleine, and passing outwards, found ourselves in 
a turf plain, covered with horses and oxen, and peasantry 
engaged in the business of the market. A gipsy, with 
broad-brimmed hat, frieze jacket, and sandals, was shewing 
a poor miserable grey horse to a group of Croat- peasants. 
The gipsy lent the motion of his body towards a fair 
start, and with a sharp dig of the spur into the flank, 
unseen by the peasants, would fain have got a decent 
canter out of the poor animal; but although the tttl 
shewed spice, the motion of the horse was very far from 
corresponding with the elasticity of the rider, and like an 
unsuccessful mesmerist, he began to assign reasons, and 
the peasantry to laugh and to joke. 

We then re-entered the town, and turning to the lefk 
came upon the banks of the Culpa, which was covered 
with the long narrow boats which bring the com of the 
Banat to Carlstadt, whence it is conveyed to Fiume by 
the celebrated Maria Louisa road, which was completed 
in 1812. The beating of a drum being heard from 
amidst a group of bystanders a short distance off, I 
went forward, and found this to be an auction. A seller 
pays a florin to the magistrate, the town-drummer pro- 
ceeds to the spot, and at the third rub-a-dub the article 
is sold. 

oha:pteb I. FIRST ,tmw ov Croatia. 138 

We then went to the public square, one side of which 
was recognisable as (Braridl or fiscal by the regularity of its 
construction, and its sentries and sentry-boxes of black 
and brown alternate stripes. The edifice in question was 
the barracks and armoury from which all the western 
frontier is supplied. Here we saw the waffensaal, or 
armoury, with thirty thousand stand of arms. There was 
a lofty altar with columns and connecting festoons of 
barrels, locks, bayonets, and ramrods, all of the most in- 
genious architecture. Along with these modem arms was 
a collection of armour taken from time to time from 
Bosniac knights — halbex*ts, battle-axes, and shields; such 
fearful lances as glistened in the galleys of a Tintoretto, 
and such blunderbusses as one sees clouding, with life- 
like smoke, the battle-pieces of a Bourgignon, in that 
picturesque middle period when chivalry had scarce ended, 
and modem discipline had scarce begun. 

"You talk of history," said the commandant: "there 
is an arm that has a historical association ; the old equip* 
ment of Trenck's pandours." I examined the piece, taken 
from a pile of the same sort, and found it to be some- 
what between a modern musket and a carbine. It was 
with these weapons that his fearless pandours, recruited 
in Croatia and Slavonia, mostly in the environs of his 
own estates at Pakratz, carried the renown of their 
bravery to the banks of the Rhine and the Moldau, but 
more particularly in Alsace, where, imagining that all over 
the Rhine was as fair plunder as over the Save among 
the Bosniac Turks, they terrified the peasantry by their 
excesses, until the severe examples made by Trenck in- 
fused a better spirit into them. As the Alsatians 
complained that Maria Theresa should make war vriik 
such wild people, Trenck answered, "that they were 
indeed rather rough subjects, and that he had brought 
them to France to teach' them polished manners;" 
which, with the frequent assistance of the provost- 
marshal, he certainly did; the Alsatians wondering to 
see the condemned pandours coolly smoking their pipes 


even while the hangman was putting the rope about 
their necks. 

The estates of Pakratz, Pletemicza, Bristowacs, and 
several others, producing, in the middle of last century, 
6000?. sterUng per annum, were given to the Trenck 
family by the Emperor after the siege of Vienna and 
liberation of Hungary, in 1683-4; and on the death of 
the pandour colonel fell to the renowned Baron Frederick 
Trenck, who, in his memoirs, relates how he was ruined 
with Hungarian law-suits after escaping &om the chains 
and dungeons of Frederick the Great. These memoirs, 
published in Paris some years before the first Revolution, 
made, according to pleasantly prattling Grimm, even in 
his days, "une sensation prodigieuse;" and even now are 
not yet banished from the circulating library, which dis- 
penses me from the task of repeating the well-known ad- 
ventures of either Francis and his Croat pandours, or 
Frederick and his law-suits. Liberated, honoured, and 
pensioned, he thus writes in his old age: ^Safe am I 
arrived in heaven, a weather-beaten but experienced ship- 
man, enabled to indicate the hidden rocks and quicksands 
of this life's perturbed shores; often have I struck, often 
been wrecked, but never foundered. Possible, though 
little probable, are future storms." 

Alas, poor Trenck, a greater whirlpool than ever man 
saw was brewing its huge vortex to sink thee with many 
a prouder craft! The career of Trenck had been a dra- 
matic one; but the denouement was never dreamt of by 
either the autobiographer himself, or any of the philo- 
sophic men of quality who supped and epigrammatised 
on the eve of the great convulsion; and Trenck, who 
played a conspicuous part in the age of Frederick and 
Maria Theresa, became an unseen supernumerary in the 
catastrophe of the Revolution. 

On the 7th Thermidor of the year 2 of the Republic, 
a man of gigantic stature, six feet and a half high at 
least, appeared before the revolutionary tribunal, charged 
with being a secret agent of the King of Prussia. This 


was Trenck,.theQ verging on his seyentieth year. '*You 
are acoased^" said President Hermann, <* of being implicated 
in the conspiracy of the despots of Europe against the 
freedom of the French nation. A letter has been inter- 
cepted in which you express yourself in the most equivocal 
terms on the recent events." 

"It is false," said Trenck "There," continued he, 
holding .up his wrists, "are the scars of my fetters: I have 
for some time had no dealings with the great who treated 
me so shamefully. I dare you to repeat the accusation." 

This made some impression on the President ; so after 
a pause he said: "But you were in correspondence with 
the Emperor Joseph." 

"I was," saidTrenck; "but that was long ago. Allow ' 
me to explain — " 

"It is nearly twelve," said Fouquier Tinville, "and 
before four o'clock fourteen cases must be decided. 
There is no time to lose." 

"No time to lose!" said Trenck, scornfully; "do you 
call hearing the defence of an innocent man losing 
time?' I was for more than ten years loaded with chains, 
when a fortunate chance relieved me; and feeling my 
restored liberty to be an unspeakable blessing, I resolved 
to be a useful member of society. I married the daughter 
of the burgomaster of Aix-la*€hapelle ; and devoted myself 
to trade, military science, and literature. During the 
years 1774, 5, 6, and 7, I travelled in France and England, 
and gained the friendship of the great Franklin, the man 
of Spartan virtue; but the death of the great Maria 

"Take care," said Fouquier Tinville, "how you pro- 
nounce the eulogy of crowned heads in the sanctuary of 

"After the death of the great Maria Theresa," said 
Trenck, with emphasis, "I returned to the Danube, and 
built my farm-house. Yes, the man whom you accuse of 
being an aristocrat was the friend of Franklin, and followed 
the plough in the plain of Zwerbach. Since 1791 I have 

186 BOOK n. mamjL^sDB and islands or ins ▲dsiatic. 

liyed in Parjs, and devoted myself to the publieation of 
works of utility. If I have frequented the <tliibs, it k 
because, as a foreigner, I ooold have had no influenoe." 

Fouquier Tinville then declared him to be not onl]^ 
an aristocrat, but to have taken part, in th^ mutiny of the 
prison of St. Lazare. To which Trenck vainly answwredf 
that for an innocent prisoner to deliver himself from 
durance vile was in sisict accordance with the pniieij^e 
of revolution. His hour had come; the guillotine gaped 
for his neck, and on the same evening Trenck met his 



The Alps and the Apennines of Italy, as well as the 
Parnassus of Greece) are all parts of one and the same 
range of mountains. The chain begins in Calabria, laid 
for a space keeps nearer to the Adriatic than to th* 
Netg^olitan waters; but at San Marino crosses over to 
the Gulf of Genoa, and sweeping round Piedmont, 
the name of the Alps; then, running eastwards, 
down the other side of the Adriatic, and so onvaidi 
through Albania and Greece, till it terminates m the 
iEgean at the marbled steep of Cape Sunium. 

The modem and Slaavic name of theBe Ilfyriaa Alps, 
that run down the east of the Adriatic — sometimes ts^ 
preaching and sometimes receding from the sea-shore-^ 
the VeUehitch, These mountains form the western limit 
of Croatia and Bosnia. 

The narrow sUipe of territory, three hundred milei^ in 
length, intervening between the VeUebitdi and the Adxiatie, 
is Dahnatia^ the country of which we propose to treat uA 

imAFTESL n, vaai tibw of i^aimatul, 1S7 

the fint xBfltanoe. We may therefor^ pronoonoe it to be 
Gisalpine, its c^mate ftnd produistions resembling those of 
italy. Hie Switzerhtfid of Croatia, which forms the second 
divisioii of oar «iibjoct, is Transalpine; and although in- 
habited by the same Slaavic race as^Dalmatia, its climate 
dd productions are norliitem, and the physical geography 
of the Wo cotrntriee has nodiing in common. 

It was at Oarlstadt in Hungary, that I took my place 
in tbe weekly diligence tiiat runs from Vienna to Zara, 
<iie capital of Dalmatia. As we aj^roached the Adriatic, 
even 1^ most tmobservant traveller must have perceived 
that we were in the vicinity of a southern region. The 
peasants wore the classic sandal. In the midst of the 
^Etces of Slaavic form, those with the regular features, 
which are the rule in Italy and the exception to the north 
of the Alps, grew more frequent. Fresh Zara fttiits were 
presented at a hedge beer-house; and so strong grew this 
feeling before crossing the last mountain-ric^e, that I even 
fancied that all the birds flew to the southwards. 

At length, just before dawn, on the third morning 
after leavmg Carlstadt, 1 woke up in the diligence, which 
had stopped to change horses at the post-house on the 
t(^ of the Yellebitch; my limbs were benumbed with 
Qold, in spite of greatcoat and lined cloak, and a keen 
wind saluted me as I stepped out of the carriage in deep 
snow. The chill, clear, starry heavens enabled me to see 
that I had gained ihe summit of a pass bordered with 
pines and surmounted with pinnacles of rock ; and a square 
VLock of stone on my left attracting my attention, I held 
the lantern to it, and read on one side, "Croatia," and 
on the reverse, "Dalmatia." I felt myself on the threshold 
of a new and interesting field of study; and the foretaste 
of novel scenes and strange manners renewed the illusions 
of youthful travel. Seeing a dall red charcoal-fire 
gleaming through the window of a hut on my right, in 
which sat a watch of frontier guards, I entered and warmed 
myself, the conductor preferring to make the descent by 


As I re-entered the coach, the blue diamond-atadded 
night had disappeared; and as the dawn approached, the 
silver icicles glistened on the dark-green branches of the 
mountain-pines. As we traversed the summit of the ridge, 
one snowy peak after another was lighted up with the 
break of day; and a turn of the road at length bringing 
us to that side of the Yellebitch which fronted the AdriatiCi 
Dalmatia, in all her peculiarity, lay stretched before me. 
Here was no descent of long narrow valleys, as in Italj. 
To the eye, the transition from the world of the North 
to the world of the South was immediate. Like the 
traveller who, after the painful gyrations of a high tower, 
emerges from darkness to the bird's-eye view of a new 
and curious city, I had the whole space, from the hill- 
tops to the distant islands, before me at a single glanee. 
A long, deep gash in the land, parallel with the mountain, 
was the Canal of the Morlacks, a gulf of the sea, like a 
wide river flowing between its banks. Zara, Bencorati, 
Nona, — plain and mountain, city and sea, — were all before 
me. The sun rose apace; the mist cleared away from 
the distant island capes ; the snow died a lingering death 
as we sunk to the temperature of the genial Adiiatie; 
and the wind, combated as a bitter enemy an hoar ago, 
was invited as a friend. Yesterday morning, on awaking, 
the carriage-wheels were rattling over a road crii^ed with 
hard frost; and the pointed spire of a Croatian churdi 
rose, clear and distinct, out of the grey and crimsoa 
distance. Obrovazzo, a small town, to which we now 
descended, had the campanile of the south of the Alpt; 
and in the domestic architecture of the town I at once 
recognised the Venetian character: here the charm was 
not that of mere novelty, but recognition of the featores 
of an old friend, recalling days of enjoyment mingled 
with instruction. 

But the greatest curiosity was the road by which I 
had effected my descent. The Yellebitch, instead of 
sloping down to the coast, breaks off with an abruptness 
that borders on the precipitous, and must have tasked 


the energies of the most scientific road-maker. With the 
experience of the Simplon, the St. Gotha, and the others 
leading over the Alps, the Yellebitch is the' most perfect 
of all, and, viewed from below the road, appears like a 
gigantic staircase cut in the face of a rock. On^ great 
blank in the landscape to which we descended was a 
scantiness of vegetation: the air was warm, the colours 
clear, lurilliant, and southern; but the scattered figs and 
olives, the red earth mingled with rock, and the starved 
ahmbbery, formed a counterpoise that told me not to 
forget my native verdure-clad north. 

Obrovazzo is situated on the lips of a yawning land- 
cradE, through which a Rhine or Danube would have 
space enough to flow; but the intense green of the 
motionless waters shews that there is more of salt sea than 
of fresbi water to float those barques that lay along the quay. 

Nothing in Christian Europe is so picturesque as the 
Dalmatian peasant's dress; for he wears not the trousers 
or pantaloons and round hat of Austria or Hungary, but 
a dress analogous to that of the old Turk. Tall, muscular, 
and vigorous, with red fez on his head, and huge pistols 
in his belt, we recognise the Slaav of the Adriatic, — the 
brother of the Servian in blood, in language, and also, to 
a considerable extent, in religion ; but while the varnish 
of civilisation in Servia is German and new, here it is 
much older, and has come from Venice. The graceful 
dialect which Goldoni has immortalised is as indigenous 
in the Roman races of Dalmatia as in Venice; and the 
High Street of Obrovazzo looks like a dry alley in one 
of the islands of the Lagoon, or of some of those neigh- 
bouring villages of terra firma with which the pencil of 
Canaletti has so charmingly fSamiliarised us. 

But, before we proceed further, let us pause to trace 
the antecedents of this curious social marriage that carries 
the mind alternately from the heights of the Balkan to 
the mouths of the Brenta. 

A dark mist hangs over the nationality of Dalmatia 
previous to the Roman conquest by Augustus; but it is 


probable that the language was Thracian,— that is to say, 
the parent of that dialect which formerly covered a greater 
part of the countries between the Black and the Adriatic 
seas; a dialect which, related to the Greek, Roman, afid 
Slaavic languages, had something of them all. 

The pre-Roman period appears to have been one of 
free republics; and from the mountainous nature of tiie 
territory and the unruly spirit of the people, it was long 
before Dalmatia was completely subjugated to the Romaa 
power. It was in the sixth year of the Christian er% cm 
the occasion of the levying of recruits to the legiooB 
destined for Germany, that the whole coast rose to shake 
off the yoke of Imperial Rome. "The Roman dominitm," 
said Bato, the leader of the revolt, "is insupportable to 
the people of Illyria. To the loss of our fortunes and 
liberties we must add that of the blood of our children, 
dearer to our hearts than either. Up, then, lUyriAns! 
and, remembering our ancient freedom, let us prefer an 
honourable death to the servitude of Rome." 

The contest was maintamed with vigour for many 
years; at length Germanicus and Tiberius snccessfblly 
suppressed the revolt, and a large Roman colonisation 
gave a new character to the east of the Adriatic. 

The introduction of Christianity forms the next great 
event in the history of Dalmatia ; and the advent of Paul, 
who had been preceded by Titus, is thus recorded by 
himself: "Through mighty signs and wonders, by the 
power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and 
round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the 
Gopsel of Christ." > There can be no doubt Uiat Dalmatia 
was one of the first countries that embraced Christianity; 
and in the time of Diocletian a majority were Christians. 
In no province of the Roman dominions were the per- 
secutions of that Emperor more severe than in his own ; 
and in 303 all the Christian Bishops of Dalmalaa were 

* Rom. XV. 19. 


To the yicisBitndes of the reigns of ConfitaBtine and 
Mian aucceeded the penuanent establishment of Christianity; 
md in the year 400 we find St. Jerome, an Ulyrian by 
fairth^ organising the hierarchy oyer all the highlands and 
idands of Dalmatia; and so on to his death in 420. But 
the political fabric of the empire was tottering to its fali 
Dalmaiia lying out of the way of the main armies of 
Attila snd the invaders, was at first less exposed than 
Italy; but several irruptions of the Slaavs from the Car- 
pathians took place in the fifth and sixth centuries; and 
ia liie beginning of the seventh century, the Avars, an 
Asiatic race, pouring in a mass over Dalmatia, joined the 
mthless lust of destruction to the cupidity of wealth. But 
tbe Avars were in their turn subdued by the Croats, who 
have proved, permanent seltlers; and with the final de- 
stmctioD of £i»daurus and Salona, the principal Roman 
dtiea^ and the subjugation of the whole coast, commences 
the modem history of Dalmatia, and the final adoption of 
the Groat language and nationality, although the Latin 
kognage, in a vulgar £orm, lingered in Kagusa and Zara 
to the eleventh century. 

A patriarchal Slaavic state was now constituted, governed 
by Bans and Zhupans. The nominal sovereignty of Con- 
stantinople was acknowledged; but in matters of faith 
Dalmatia remained true to the authority of the West, and 
recdred from Rome, and not from Constantinople, her 
tpiritnal conductors. At length, in 970, Duke Dircislaav 
first received the ensigns of royalty from the Emperor 
Basil, and Croatia and Dalmatia henceforth became a 

On the death of Zwonomir, the last native king, in 
1190, the Croats and Dalmatians, unable to agree among 
themselves on the choice of a successor, and fearing the 
rising ambition of Venice, turned for protection rather to 
the vigorous kingdom of Hungary than to Constantinople — 
that lean and slippered pantaloon of the great Roman 
empire, once so robust in arms and august in magistracy; 
and thence Hungary and Croatia became socia regna. 


But the Hungarian Government was of an entirely Asiatic 
character; they encamped, but did not colonise; the 
tribute was collected, and the country governed; but 
except a few remains of feudal castles, and a few charters 
generously endowing the Church, there is little in Dalmatia 
to record their existence. 

Quite different was the impress of Venice on Dalmatia. 
Long and bloody were her contests with Hungary for its 
possession. It was on the walls of Zara, in 1346, that 
Marino Faliero earned his laurels by the most daring 
assault in the annals of the kingdom, and opened ioat 
himself the avenue to that exercise of the highest powers 
of the state, and experience of the last vengeance of the 
law, which leaves a blank in the portrait gallery of the 
Ducal Palace of Venice, but has furnished an immortal 
picture to the pencil of a Byron. Every where the arts 
of Venice followed in the trace of her arms. In the 
public monuments, as well as in the domestic architeetore, 
and even in the strongholds of the coast, constmeted 
by Sammicheli, we admire the taste and genius of the 
artist combined with the skill of the engineer. 

Dalmatia remained Venetian to the expiry of that 
republic in 1797, and, after various vicissitudes, is now 
an integral part of the Austrian Empire. But as the 
bird's-eye prospect from the summits of the Vellelnteh is 
incompatible with the examination of minute olgects, so 
the review of so wide an expanse of history has excluded 
individual detail; but as we advance on our joum^ our 
historical sketches must expand in proportion to our 
nearer acquaintance with the scenes we describe. 

CHAFFXR in. 8BBBNIC0. 143 



The first place of any importance, proceeding sonth- 
wards, is Sebenico; and after making the necessary ar- 
rangements, and getting the requisite information, I hired 
a carriage conjointly with another person proceeding 
thither. An excellent Macadamised road carries the 
trayeller to Scardona; but, how dreary the landscape! 
For many a long mile the footstep of some later Attila 
seemed to have left its withering impress on these plains. 
Some districts were stony; others, like the Campagna of 
Rome, were a desert less by nature than the ruin or 
neglect of man. The villages are few and far between. 
Here and there the shell of a vast feudal castle, or the 
broken arches of the great Roman aqueduct, fifby miles 
in length, that conveyed the waters of the distant Kerka 
to the ancient Zara (Jadera), shed a melancholy splendour 
on the desolate scene. Across these plains the Avars 
spread like locusts, on the too mature fruits of Roman 
culture. In times nearer our own, when the mountains 
and the interior were held by the Turks, and the coasts 
by Yenice, these plains became the debateable land, which, 
once depopulated, have never since known the hum of 
industry. Giambattista Giustiniano, visiting this very tract 
in 1552, tells us that the territory formerly furnished oil 
in quantity sufficient not only for Zara, but all Dalmatia ; 
but the olive-trees being cut down in the Turkish war, 
and the earth dried up, even the necessary oil was im- 
ported from Apulia, and the inhabited villages reduced 
in number from 280 to 85, some of which had no more 
than five or six houses. 

As we approach Scardona, the road descends, and the 
landscape begins to smile. A brook brawls at our side; 
detached huts are annexed to enclosed patches of ground; 
olives, at first scarce and scanty, thicken apace, and are 


succeeded by a noble grove of lofty umbrageous mul- 
berries. A green meadow, and red ploughed land, at 
length become mingled with gardens, and then the village 
itself opens to our view; and, strange paradox I although 
about to embark on an inlet of the sea, we feel like 
mariners arriving in port after a monotonoius voyage. 

A stout boat, with four rowers, conveyed me to Sebeoioo, 
the lofty Cathedral, towering above the other hooses, 
being visible long before we landed at the quay, whence 
my baggage was carried up steep and narrow streete to 
the Albergo dei Pellegrini, or Inn of the Pilgrimei, said 
to be the best in Sebenico. Having been at Jerosalem, 
I felt myself qualified to enter; but a certificate of having 
visited the holy places was not demanded— even tbe 
pilgrim's staff is dispensed with. The mere scrip, con- 
taining a few florins, is the only appendage which tbe 
hospitable landlord expects his pilgrims not to leave 
behind them. The street in which the inn is situated it 
about fifteen feet wide, paved with small causeway stones, 
somewhat smooth and slippery. The houses, like thoee 
of the rest of the town, were tall, so as to be comprised 
within the old Venetian wall, the present population of 
the place being 5000. My bedroom, on the first floor, 
was high and airy, and the floor was paved with large 
square red bricks. A broad bed, unlike those coffins 
which pass by that name in Germany, waa covered by 
a clean white flowered counterpane, but the ohest of 
drawers and chairs seemed to have been imported from 
the Seven Dials of London. The eating-room was a long 
low dark apartment on the ground floor, with a covered 
table in the middle. The dinner-hour was one o'clock; 
and after sunset, the waiter no sooner lighted the lamps, 
than he wished me good evening. The hour of sapper 
(eight or nine o^clock) brought several townspeople, who 
used the inn as a restaurant; and the bill of fare had its 
own native hue, abounding in fish. Tunny, sturgeon, 
palameda, and many others considered as delicacies in the 
north, are here abundant. 


My carriage companion wacK of the company; a inan of 
taJ] stature, boldly chiselled features, sunburnt complexion, 
independent bearing, and a Venetian accent — a true Dal- 
matian — a Servian bagpipe attuned to an Italian aria. 
He had experienced vicissitudes in trade, shipping, and 
farming, and I found him intelligent and communicative. 

^Dahnatia, my good sir,'^ said he, ^^and England are 
antipodes. In England, thirteen men ms^e one pin; here, 
one man must do thirteen different things. My trade is 
a bad encyclopedia — a little of every thing, and nothing 
good. Dalmatia, sir, has the best air and water in the 
world, but is rather deficient in com and vegetables. 
As for politics, we enjoy complete security for our pro- 
perty; but there is one thing wanting to our happiness, 
and that is the possession of something worth securing. 
We will never prosper till we get those countries behind 
th^re;" holding his thumb in the direction of Bosnia. 
^^ Dalmatia, sir, is a mere stripe of sea-coast, a face without 
a head." 

"But," said I, "surely you must admit that Austria 
could never get Bosnia without disturbing all Europe — 
without breaking in upon the Ottoman Empire, and giving 
others a bad example." 

" Ah I there you come with your balance of power, and 
think nothing of our Christian brethren in that country. 
Austria has only to give the word, and every Dalmatian 
is ready to shoulder his musket, and strike down the 
barriers that separate us." 

I mention this, because it is so current a sentiment 
among the mass of the people in Dalmatia, that I have 
heard almost the same words from twenty others. Another 
of the company had made several journeys into Bosnia 
some years ago, when travelling was less secure than 
now, and one of his anecdotes reminded me of a well- 
known adventure in Gil Bias, 

One of the polite robbers, to avoid unnecessary strife, 
laid his cloak in the middle of the road on the approach 
of a traveller, and, according to the custom of the country, 
Patov. l 10 


awaited a donation, well armed as a stimulus to Mberality; 
but our Dalmatian wae not to be oau^t so OMily. 
Pulling up bis horse, he laid his hand on & pistol in his 
holster, and thus addressed him: ^Unhajjpy mendioant, 1 
pity your condition; you are able to work and be rich, 
and yet prefer idleness and the prospect of being impaled. 
Charity is a duty incumbent on Turk and Clufistian, and 
I am most happy to give you what you deserve." So^ 
nstead of taking a ducat out of his purse, ke took a 
eaden bullet fronl his pouch, and dropping it on ihe 
cloak, remained, that if applied by the rogue to himsd^ 
it would save him being hanged. The robber was aston- 
ished; and the Dalmatian, executing a caraool, lest he 
should pay him back in the coin he had giTcn, canteMi 
on out of sight 

Next day was deroted to seeing the town ; and follow- 
ing the street to the piazza, I found myself aA the gatfr 
of the Cathedral, whose dome had formed so jMromineAt 
an object during my passage in the boat. Commenced in 
1443, and completed in 1536, the discrepancy of the style 
of the basement and superstructure — of the close of the 
middle age and the beginning of the cinque cento-^-ftfibrd 
room for criticism; but altogether it is one of the meet 
extraordinary structures I ever saw in any country. The 
peculiar style of Lombardy predominates. The lower 
part is overlaid with ornament ; and two detestable statues 
of Adam and Eve, standing on each side of the great 
entrance, look like caricatures of the Apollo Belvedere 
and the Venus de Medicis. 

But the interior is truly grand, not so much in mere 
dimension as in effefct. The boldest of arches, springing 
from the lightest and airiest of Gotho-Saracenic columns, 
attract by their harmony and surprise by tiieir hardihood ; 
and the cupola rising high in the air, and enthroned oa 
the keystones of the lofty arch of the transept, has sa 
awful simplicity, congenial to the purposes of a sacred 
structure. The roof of the nave is a mastei^iece of 
technical ingenuity, being a semi-c}^inder composed of 

OHAPTEB m. ssB^aoo. 147 

^t ^agstones, some of them twelve .£eet in lengdi, the 
edges fitting into each other with knees and angles, the 
whole forming an nnadoroed vault, but so unusual in 
effect that the spectator, on a superficial view, fears that 
if one gave way the whole might fall in; but the architect 
charged with ihe repairs of the Cathedral, having shewn 
me the sections of the edifice, assured me that, aerial as 
the roof might seem, it had a chance of lasting as long 
as any part of the Cathedral. On referring to the ground 
plan, I found that, like many of the moB(|ues of Cairo, 
it was not a parallelogram ; so that the architects must 
have been, like the «arly painters of Italy, more skilled 
than schooled, and knew more of the practice of a work- 
shop than the theories of an academy. Spalatino was the 
name of the principal architect, and the building cost, 
from first to last, 80,000 gold ducats. 

The port of Sebenico is so excellent that a frigate of 
considerable tonnage can lie almost close to the quay, 
the entrance to the gulf being by a narrow slit, the com- 
mand of which appeared so important tp the Venetians 
that Sammicheli, their great military architect, constructed 
at the narrowest part the Fort of San Nicolo, which is 
considered his masterpiece in fortification. Close to the 
Cathedral is the office of the Prsetor or Chief Magistrate 
of the place, whither I proceeded to get an order to see 
the fort. A curious case was going on on my arrival; 
the Preetor was giving strict orders to a subordinate to 
embark for some place on the coast, and eicamine the 
bottom of a Greek barque which had been stranded. 
When he was gone, we had some talk about the trade of 
the place, and the Prsetor informed us that the Trieste 
Boderwriters have lost so much money by -Greek barratry, 
that every case of wreck is now subject to a most rigorous 
examination. "Only last year," ^ded the Prwtor, "a Greek 
captain, to make sure of the secrecy of his crew, caused 
each to take a turn at tlie auger which was to sink the 
ship; but the underwriters having found out that, before 
leaving Constantinople, the greater part of the cai^o had 



been sold at hal^ price in the bazaars of that capital, an 
inquisition took place, the crew were apprehended, and 
the affair ended in their condemnation.'^ 

I now embarked in a boat, and was rowed for about 
half an hour in smooth water to the mouth of the gulf 
of which the Fort of San Nicolo is a sort of padlock. As 
we approached, I recognised the architecture of the gate to 
resemble that of Sant' Andrea at the entrance of ihe 
Lagoon, and is surmounted by a huge lion, with the in- 
scription : " Pcuc tihi Marce Evangelista meus.^^ Within 
the gate is the rilievo of a Doric colonnade, and in the 
intercolumniations the arms of Venice, Dalmatia, and 
Sebenico — Dalmatia having three crowned lions' heads (on 
an azure field), and Sebenico three bunches of grapes, 
surmounted by three doves. The date of the construction 
of the fort was marked 1546, or twenty-five years after 
the invasion of Dalmatia by Soliman the Magnificent. 
Mere description can give no idea of the strength of the 
bomb-proof galleries and casemates with embrasures it 
fleur cTeau, The vaults are of brick, and so high that a 
fresh current of air can be maintained in the hottoit 
cannonade ; and the officer in command informed me that 
there are to this day no galleries in the Austrian Empire 
of the same magnificence and solidity. 

When almost every inch of the main land of Dalmatia 
was in the power of the Turks, Sebenico, with its secure 
port and impregnable fortress, had a military importance 
of which the single company of artillery which now forms 
its garrison can give no idea. In the earlier part of the 
16th century, the terror and renown of the Turkish power 
was at its grand climacteric. To use a European image, 
Selim had added the tiara of the Caliphate to the laurels 
of the victor. In the reign of Soliman, the tide of victory 
rolled onward; Dalmatia was invaded; Hungary annihilated; 
and melancholy would have been the appearance of the 
Grand Turk in the Italy of Titian and Michael Angelo, 
then in all the effulgence of the cinque cento. But the 
maritime genius of Venice, and the military power of 


Germany, proved the effectual bulwarkrtf Europe. Frpm 
15*21 to the middle of the 17th century, Venice could 
boast of no secure possession in Dalmatia out of the is- 
lands and the walls of Zara, and some other towns of 
the coast. In August 1647, a century after the construction 
of Fort San Nicolo, the Pasha of Bosnia, pouring an army 
of 30,000 men into the lowlands, attempted the capture 
of Sebenico and its forts; but it was so well defended 
by the 6000 Venetians and German mercenaries of the 
garrison, that after twenty-six day's cannonade the Pasha 
was obliged to retire, supplies having been easily thrown 
in by sea, owing to the power of the Queen of the Adri- 
atic in her own domain ; and with this repulse began the 
gradual deliverance of Dalmatia from Turkish rule. 

If the skill and science of a Sammicheli strengthened 
and adorned Dalmatia, Venice derived no slight advantage 
from the hardy mariners with which these coasts supplied 
her, and with which her galleys were manned in Lepanto, 
and in her other triumphs. The **Riva dei Schiavoni," 
or "Bankside of the Slaavs," marks to this day the quay 
that was frequented by the barques of Dalmatia and 
Quamero. When Henry the Third of France was on his 
way from Poland to Paris, on the death of Charles the 
Ninth, the chronicles of the day tell us that, in the pageants 
given in his honour at Venice, he was rowed by ." Schia- 
ro»t." Nor was it the mere thews and sinews of strong 
men that the coast produced. Andrea Schiavoni, a native 
of Sebenico, stands very near the highest rank in the 
Venetian school, and to this day Sebenico is proud of 
having given him birth. He was bred a house-painter, 
but caught the inspiration of the golden age of Venice; 
and if he had not the tumultuous movement and astound- 
ing dramatic force of Tintoretto, or the vast genius of 
Paul Veronese, which was strongest and clearest in 
oi>erations of the utmost magnitude and complication, yet 
he had much of the classic propriety of Titian, and in 
the soothing gradations of ruddy flesh and crimson robes, 
his touch shews that mixture of sharpness and smoothness 

150 BOOK n. HiaHLAlfDa and islands of the ADRIATIC. 

which our own Sir Joshua, speaking of a widely different 
genius, calls the perfection of handling. Barbarigo, Mo- 
cenigo, Gradenigo, and many other illustrious Yenetian 
families, are of Slaavic extraction — the igo corresponding 
with the Slaavic ic^ ; and even the name of Venice itself is 
Slaavic, being the City of the Veneti or Wends, the latter 
the Gothic name for all the Slaavic nations. 

In our own times, Sebenico has given birth to Tom- 
maseo, a philosopher and philologist of a high reputation ; 
but his career belongs rather to Italy than to Dalmatia. 
He has latterly begun to turn more of his attention to 
his native country. His usual residence is Venice, where 
he has taken a prominent part in the political revolutions 
of the year 1848. 

The course of the river Eerka — of which the inlet 
of the sea at Sebenico may be called the estuary^ 
is short but sublime. Rising in the chain of the Velle- 
bitch, close to the three frontiers of Croatia, Bosnia, 
and Dalmatia, it is less a river than a series of lakes, 
connected with each other by a succession of the most 
graceful cascades, as if it were the giant staircase of 
a mountain-piling Titan. The last and most beautifol, 
though not the loftiest, of those cataracts is only two 
hours from Sebenico, and, with the lake above it, formed 
a most interesting day's excursion. The landscape through 
which the road passes is of the most singular description. 
After ascending a hill, I found myself on a wide-spread- 
ing table-land of barren rock, with every where deep 
cracks in the soil, and reminding me of the descriptions 
of the surface of the moon. The valleys and beds of 
the rivers were so far below the level of the tableland as 
to be generally invisible. In ninety-nine landscapes out 
of a hundred, the accidents of the soil are mountains 
rising out of plains, like alto or basso rilievo; here yon 
have intaglio of a level surface on the grandest scale. 

The widest and most irregular furrow was that of the 
lake above the fall of the Kerka, to which I first pro- 
ceeded, and, dismissing my horse as unsafe in 00 pre- 


cipitoQB a descent, I scrambled down a» well as I could 
by a oarrow gulley without a blade of grass, down which 
a streamlet bubUed between white chalk-rocks, until the 
blue lake gradually opened out before us; and on a cape 
and cornice of a campanile shewing itself above the 
ffloontain-side on our right, the gentleman who obligingly 
accompanied ma drew my attention to it as the oonvent 
and island of Yis^ovatz, or ^Hhe place of hanging." Leap- 
ing down as agilely as the ground would allow, we 
reached the point where the brook entered the lake; but 
here a little wood masked our view; and passing under 
the treea^ we ca^e out upon a rude jetty of stones jnpo- 
jecting into ihe lake. From a huge rock, split asunder, 
and forming a sort of gateway, the Kerka entered the 
lake, in the midst of which rose the httle island of Yisso- 
TttXy its okuroh and convent, based with verdant turf and 
surrounded with fullgrown trees, with the high slender 
can^fMinile crowning the whole group of objects that formed 
the oentre of the picture. 

My companion then applied his two hands trumpet- 
wise to his mouth, and shouting aloud, the signal was 
answered by the peal of a bell from the convent-tower, 
and a boat was seen to put o£f from a little creek under 
a wide-spreading tree. On its arriving at our jetty, we em- 
barked, were pulled across to the dark shady creek in the 
island, and ascending the bank of turf, we came to a terrace 
in front of the church, the door of which bore the date 1690. 

The Superior, a good-humoured, round-faced man, 
past middle age, shewed us the place. A church, 
with bad copies of the Venetian school, and a garden 
Burroanded by the blue waters of the lake, were soon 
•een through. The Roman name of this bower-grown 
isle, in its lake of sterile cli£Es, was Petralba, or the 
White Rook; but, in the lapse of centuries, the deposits 
of alluvial floods had given the island, in common with 
the margin of the lake, a thick layer of soil; and, in the 
troublous times that preceded the expulsion of the Turks 
from Dalmatia, its isolation promised an illusive security 


to the inmates of the convent that from time immemorial 
had resided there; but an incident ih&t occurred in the 
seventeenth century changed its name to the Dlyrian one 
of Yissovatz, or the Place of Hanging; and thereby, as 
the reader may well suppose, hangs a tale. In the hos- 
tilities that followed the war of 1644 between the TuriEs 
and Venetians, this island was in the midst of the ope- 
rations ; and a wide-spreading tree was pointed out as the 
relic of modem martyrology, which caused its change of 
name. In 1646 the Turks landed here; and of seren 
monks then resident, six were hanged, the seventh having 
escaped by hiding himself in the chimney. Hence Petralba 
became Vissovatz, or the Place of Hanging; and the 
succeeding war of 1684 having freed Lower Balmatia of 
the Turics, the greater part of the modem buildings were 
constructed towards the close of the seventeenth centory. 
There is very little ground besides what the convent 
covers; and as we stood under the trees, while the tun 
sparkled on the waters, a monk, with a pale, anziona, and 
melancholy expression, looked so pensively on the ground, 
and smiled from time to time to himself so innocent^, 
that I could not help thinking of him: 

" When to myself I act and smile, 
With pleasing thoughts the time begoile, 
By a brook-side, or wood so green, 
Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, — 
A thousand pleasures do me bless. 
And crown my soul with happiness. 

All my joys besides are folly ; 

None so sweet as melancholy.*' BuBTOir. 

We fell into discourse of the hanging of the priests; 
and the monk, leaving off his quaint alternations of allegro 
and penseroso, broke forth into ardent and vehement 
ejaculations on the sufferings of the Catholic Church, and 
asked me how many Christians were in England. I an- 
swered, twenty-seven millions— two thirds Protestants, and 
one third Catholics. On which he gave a sigh, and said: 
''That is the doing of Henry the Apostate^a traitor to 
the Church — dreadfril!— a whole nation fell from grace for 

COAPTBB in. 8BBBNIC0. 1'53 

iu8 fleshly lusts! This service was rendered to the devil 
for a woman! — And what good news from thence ?^^ said 
he; '*we hear that the heretics incline to return to the 
right road." Feeling no disposition to enter into a con- 
versation, I gave a vague answer; when, my companion 
giving him a hint that I was a Protestant, he dropped 
the conversation. 

We now entered the convent-boat, which took us, by 
a romantic passage of about an hour's rowing, to the end 
of the lake, just above where the Kerka rushes over the 
precipice. The vicinity of the fall, the column of spray 
rising in the rays of the afternoon sun, and the roar of 
the river dashing and resounding, made me rather nervous 
lest the boat should approach too near; but long prac- 
tice had enabled the boatmen to know precisely the point 
at which they must stop and disembark. We now walked 
along a ledge of the mountain ; and just above the column 
of spray the lake ceased, and became a number of rivulets, 
flowing between green banks and trees, uniting, for the 
most part, just before the brow of the precipice, and then, 
with tremendous roar, bursting over the rocks, not in 
one unbroken sheet over a sheer precipice, but dashing 
from shelf to shelf down forty or fifty feet. Many mills 
are built immediately below the falls, but few were 
working. The unusual mass of water had caused appre- 
hensions to be entertained during the previous night 
that the whole of the buildings might be swept away; 
the rains of some days before having been followed by 
some late heat, which had melted much of the snows of 
Oie Yellebitch. 

Below the falls the water is sufficiently deep for large 
coast-boats from Zara, which were loading with flour at 
the mills. Here we were hailed by the men of a boat 
we had hired to meet us, and embarking in it, we followed 
the course of the river down a lane of high rocks, in 
which a road was attempted to be cut at the base of the 
cliffs, but stopped short of Scardona half way, the rocks 
in some places overhanging the Kerka. After about a 


nule the avenue opened, and we found oursdves once 
XQore in the wide inlet or estuary on which Scardona and 
Sebenico are situated. 



The Dalmatian archipelago forms an interesting and 
important part of the study of the tourist; and extending 
all the way from Arbe, near Istria, to Ragusa, interveiMB 
almost every where between the mainland and the open 
Adriatic. From the insecure navigation and the numeroiiB 
land-locked anchorages, from the productive fisheries and 
the milder climate, and, lastly, from the reciprocal wants 
of the Highlander and Islander, has arisen that tarn ior 
maritime employment and maritime enterprise whieh makes 
the Dalmatian perhaps the best sailor in the Mediteivanean, 
uniting the practical seamanship of the Greek with iike 
science of Italy and the north. 

At six o'clock on a rainy morning I descended the 
narrow steep street of Sebenico to the quay where tke 
steamer was about to start. A crowd of common people, 
in their wide trousers and red caps, looked on, mingled 
with citizens in the European costume; for the visits of 
the steamer are the grand landmarks of existence on these 
secluded shores. As the bell rang, we quitted the basin 
of Sebenico; and passing under the embrasures of Fort 
San Nicolo, saw around us a small cluster of islands, 
close to which is a coral fishery, which produces fourteen 
or fifteen hundred pounds a year, the necklaces made of 
which are annually sold at the fair of Sinigagha. Our 
course lay southwards, and I once more found myself in 
the open Adriatic. Clouds drifting from the soatii, and 


occa»ional rain, darkened the prospect; the current being 
aiBo against us, and the steamer not a very powerful one, 
we advanced slowly to the Punto della Planea, a head- 
land between Sebenico and Spalato. 

The operation of the currents and winds of the Adriatic 
is 80 uniform as to admit of description in a few words. 
The currents usually set in &om the eastern mouth of 
the sea, and running &om Corfu along the coast of Al- 
bania and Dalmatia, sweep round from Trieste to Venice, 
and then run down past Ancona and Manfredonia to the 
Mediterranean again. It is this tendency which has en- 
enmbered the port of Venice with the large alluvial de- 
pottts of the rivers of Friuli, and has rendered that of 
Bavenna high and dry inland. A curious instance of the 
waywardness of the Adriatic occurred some years ago. A 
dyer, from Chioggia, near Venice, named Girolamo Fon- 
tanel having settled at Zara, died of an indigestion of 
iah, and was buried in the cemetery there, which over- 
hangs the sea. In the year 1827, a great storm having 
arisen, a part of the cemetery was swept away; and, 
itnuige to say, the coffin of Girolamo was carried round 
to Chioggia, picked up by the Chioggians, and the earth 
that gave him birth gave him final burial. 

In summer the prevalent wind on the coast of Dal- 
Batia is the mistral, or north-west wind, which moderates 
the excessive heat of that season; and the Roman con- 
itractuig his marine villa was not more anxious to catch 
the eephyr than the Dalmatian to obtain a good exposure 
to the north-west breezes of the Adriatic: 

"O' a* the airts the wind can blaw, 
I dearlj lo*e the west." 

in winter the mistral gives place to a cycle, which 
begins with a few days of scirocco, bringing warmth, 
ekmds, and rain, succeeded by three days of bora, or north 
vind, marked by clear stmshine, and accompanied by 
cMUy, bracing air, from the peaks of Vellebitch. When 
this bora, or north wind, has blown itself out, it is sue- 


ceeded by soiDe days of calm, delightful weather, like an 
English September, to be again succeeded by the clouds 
and rain of the south. The enervating African scirocco 
is also occasionally felt in spring, but, of course, not to 
near the same extent as in Sicily and Greece. 

. We anchored during the night at Spalato, where I 
passed some pleasant months before leaving Dalmaida ; and 
next day, at noon, we arrived at Lesina, a narrow island, 
forty miles long, which derived its importance from haTing 
been the principal station of the Venetian fleet during 
the palmy days of the Republic. Pleasing and prepos- 
sessing is the name of Lesina to the ear, and not \e» 
pleasing is her aspect to the eye. The town, with 2000 
inhabitants, is at the bottom of a little bay, entirely soir- 
rounded with mountains, which rise so abruptly as only 
to leave a narrow space for the town and quay. At the 
steamer dropped anchor, I felt myself once more in the south. 
A few days ago, on the passes of the Yellebitch, a great- 
coat was welcome; here the air was mild, the steep hills 
all around were covered with aloes, and the boats that 
swarmed up the ship-side carried men who sold white 
purses made of the fine cordage of the aloe-fibre. The 
slender palm-branches hung over the garden-walls that 
skirted the bay, and the carob-trees rising among the rocks 
carried my mind to the nobler slopes of Lebanon. 

Nor were the sensations raised by art on landing in 
Lesina less novel and agreeable than those of external 
nature. A citizen of the soil of factories and railways, 
where utility is too often divorced from elegance, I was 
delighted to find in a mere arsenal and depot of marine 
stores a public piazza, such as would do honour to an 
European capital. In a nook of the hills is this square, 
composed of Venetian Gothic houses ; and as dreams mingle 
distant times and places, the sight of Lesina called up 
to my fancy some captain of a galley asleep on the wide 
waters, whose memory, enfranchised from the control of 
his judgment, might mingle in one picture the rocky isks 


of the Levant with the home of his fathers in the Lagoon 
of Venice. 

Prominent among all the edifices of Lesina, and facing 
the 8eiE^ is the Loggia, or place of municipal council, by 
Sammicheli; worthy of the age of Palladio and Sansovino. 
These loggie are simple porticos of extended front, with 
columns intervening between the openings, so as to look, 
on a smaller scale, like a concatenation of triumphal arches. 
Being without doors and windows, the inmates were pro- 
tected from the summer's sun, but not from the winter's 
eold. Li this loggia of Dalmatia a peasant may see the 
permanent causes of the organic inferiority of the north 
to the south in architecture. Comfort is unattainable 
without subdivision, and subdivision is the bane of noble 
architecture: the lightness and elegance of this master- 
performance was obtained at a sacrifice of comfort to the 
municipal assembly of Lesina during several months of 
the year. 

The sight of a remarkable public building necessarily 
suggests inquiry into the objects for which it was con- 
structed ; and as the stately majesty of Roman architecture, 
after its declension into the grotesque irregularities of the 
Lower Empire, was revived by the great Venetian archi- 
tects, the recomposition, on pre-existing principles, of the 
social edifice, after the prostration of the empire of the 
West, is a topic of the highest interest to the student of 
Dalmatia. While the highlands, after the great irruptions 
of the fifth and seventh centuries, became Slaavic, the coast- 
towns and the islands— retaining a corruption of the Latin 
language up to the tenth and beginning of the eleventh cen- 
tury — rose, like the Italian republics, from the mean vices of 
polished slavery to the bloody turbulence of rude liberty. The 
factions of a Florence, a Ferrara, a Padua, a Verona, and 
a Mantua, in contradistinction to the cumbrous feudal 
"empire of the Romans," as it was called, were reflected 
in the municipalities of a Lesina, as compared with the 
semibarbarous sovereignty over the main land by the 
kings of Croatia. 


Trau and Sebenico were the favourite residences of 
those Terpimirs and Crescimirs to whom the modem 
Croats look back as their national sovereigns. Their 
military force was formidable; and, according to the By- 
zantine writers, amounted to 60,000 horse, 100,000 infmtrj, 
and 4700 marine troops, embarked in 180 galleys. A 
nominal tribute of 200 gold Bysants per annom wum an- 
nually paid to the Greek emperor; but in the eleventh 
century a crown, sceptre, cup, and sword, were reoeived 
fi'om the renowned Gregory VII. The Pope was acknow- 
ledged as the dispenser of kingdoms, and the sum hitherto 
paid to Constantinople was henceforward remitted to the 
Court of Rome. The royal household corresponded ii 
barbaric magnificence to the military resources, and was 
headed by the Postelnik, or great chamberlain ; the Vokr, 
or master of the cow-stall, being the only dignity not 
found in modem European households. The greater pro- 
vinces were governed by Bans— a title that survives to thsi 
day in the Ban of Croatia, the Lieutenant of the Emperor 
of Austria, as king of tiie soda regno of Hungary asd 
Croatia; and the smaller districts by Zhupans, a title 
which remained to distinguish the heads of certain oon- 
fratemities of terra firma down to the government of 
Balmatia by Napoleon. 

The forms of the tribunals were simple; the procedure 
being verbal, and right of appeal allowed— which was 
claimed by the discontented litigant throwing his hat down 
on the ground — the Curia of the King and Bakes forming 
the last instance; biit the general framework of society 
was feudal and monarchical. 

In the islands, not only the language but tbe forms 
of the municipal government of the Romans are reeogm- 
sable, although on paper they were held in fief by 'Wioos 
Croat nobles. While in Gaul, and in other parts of the 
quondam empire, between the fifth and the twelfth cen- 
turies the Curial institutions become fainter and funter, 
and succumb to feudal neighbours, in the islands of Dal- 
matia they remain in full vigour; and in perusing the 


municipality of Lesina (collected by a Russian lawyer, whom, 
as he states in his preface, pulmonary disease had drawn 
to Yenioe), I am reminded of the words of Guizot: "Thus 
at the fall of the Roman empire we find again the same 
&ct that was observable at its commencement, the pre- 
dominance of the feudal form and spirit. The Roman 
world returned to its first condition; towns had formed 
it; it was dissdived, but the towns remained." 

When the Ytenetians extended themselves in the Adria* 
tic, and subjugated the quasi independent municipalities 
of the eoaiit, they found institutions analogous to their 
own, both legitimate descendants of the Roman system; 
and the local immunities, privileges, and peculiarities, 
remained for the most part intact. A Venetian senator, 
with the titte of Gonte, assisted by a Captain, Gamer- 
lengo, and Chancellor, took the place of the elective 
Rector; but the loggia still resounded with the delibera- 
tions of the patrician members of the so-called community. 

Cattalinich informs us that this general council of the 
nobles included all the order arrived at the age of sixteen; 
but a marriage with a plebeian deprived the offspring of 
vote and deliberation, unices the wealth of the party, or 
some other consideration, procured a new inscription in 
their ranks, which was in the power of the nobles by a 
plurality of votes. Up to the fall of the Republic, these 
patricians claimed a voice in the decision of civil and 
criminal cases; .but political liberty, at first a reality, 
became in progress of time the shadow of a shade. 

In mere externals, gravity and decorum marked their 
public assemblies; the Gonte, or Count, appeared in state 
robes, and the nobles in their habits of ceremony, of 
which the sword was an essential part; and in festivals, 
imagination can scarce conceive a nobler subject for a 
picture of the Venetian school, which preferred splendid 
still-life to the commotions of passion, ^ than the loggia 
of Lesina; its firee open porticos basking in ihe noon-day 

^ I speak generally. Into how many unpretending pieces has Gior- 
giove poured tiie elixir of an almost Baffaellesque expression! 


sun; pale senators, with scar-furrowed brows, bronzed on 
a Cyprus or a Candia shore; the sumptuous robes and 
bright cuirasses all gleaming in the limpid shadows of its 
further recesses. 

Casting our eyes to the south, we see a little island, 
which, during the last war, was the scene of many im- 
portant transactions of the navy of Great Britain. When 
the Republic of Venice fell in 1797, Dalmatia, detesting 
the religious and political principles of France, opened 
all her gates to Austria; but after the battle of Austerlits, 
being ceded to Napoleon by the stipulations of the treaty 
of Presburg, Lissa, the island in question, with a fine 
harbour, became one of the principal stations of the 
cruisers of England — a depot of manufactures, whioh, in 
spite of the Berlin and Milan decrees, forced their way 
through Bosnia to the heart of Germany — an entrenched 
camp which galled the sight of the legions victorious on 
land. The population of Lissa rose between the years 18(y8 
and 1811 from four to twelve thousand, and a miserable 
island of Dalmatia was rapidly adopting the dress, the 
language, and the convivial manners of an English port 
The islanders, previously poor fishermen, were now rolling 
in sudden wealth; and a swarm of boats brought provisions 
from the innumerable sounds and creeks of the main land, 
and carried back the cloths of Manchester and Leeds, and 
the metals of Sheffield and Birmingham. To capture sneh 
a seat of hostile enterprise became, therefore, a favourite 
project of the naval authorities of Venice and Ancona, 
now integral parts of the French Empire. An expedition 
was fitted out in the latter port, and the time being chosen 
when no English force was in Lissa, Commodore Dubour- 
dieu suddenly left Ancona with the Italian squadron, and 
on the 22d October, 1810, presented himself with five 
frigates and two corvettes off Lissa, all hoisting English 
colours, and having a battalion of infantry on board. 
Owing to this deception, the port was entered peaceably, 
and the troops landed. No resistance was offered by the 
privateers, or attempt made at escape by the merchant- 


ships. In six or serein hours, sixty-four vessels were burned, 
moet of them b^ing loaded; several valuable ships with 
cargos were made prize of; and the same night all the 
troops re-embarked, and Commodore Dubourdieu was in 
full sail for Aacona again. And what had caused his 
haste? On that very afternoon a boat with three fishemen 
had entered the harbour, bringing him the intelligence 
that Captain Hoste, the British commander, was looking 
out for :him, and might be immediately expected. 

But Ltssa was too important a point not to be worthy 
of permanent possession to France ; and in the spring a 
new expedition was prepared to annihilate the British 
squadron and effectually occupy Lissa. This French force 
consisted of four frigates of 44 guns, two corvettes of 
32 guns, and three sloops, with 700 infantry on board. 
That of Captain Hoste, off Lesina, consisted of the Amphion, 
32; the Active, 38; the Cerberus, 32; and Volage, of 22; 
or 880 Britons to 2500 French and Italians. What's in 
a name? Wonders. With such appalling odds against 
him, the gallant Hoste felt that something was necessary 
to produce a moral effect in so critical a moment; and 
the telegraphic word, "Remember Nelson! " thrilled through 
every heart, while prolonged cheers echoed from deck to 
deck of the Uttle squadron: 

Close to the eastern shore of Lissa, the Amphion, 
Captain Hoste, with the Active, Volage, and Cerberus in 
close order, awajited the enemy, who bore down from the 
north-east. Dubourdieu, in the Favorite, led the van ; and 
marking the Amphion, which lay next the shore, for hi» 
own, he prepared to board her, while his other frigates 
and small craft might make easy work of the Active, the 
Yolage, and the Cerberus. A crowd of seamen and marines 
thronged the forecastle of the French vessel (Favorite). 
Dubourdieu himself stood forward to direct and encourage 
his men; and so close was the Favorite to the Amphion, 
that eager expectation could be read on the countenances 
of the men. The grappling tackle was ready, the cutlass 
was drawn, and the pike was prepared; but just when a 
Patoh. I. 11 


few yards separated the two ships, off went a fiTO-aiid-*- 
half-inch howitzer with 760 musket-balls from the quartsP' 
deck of the Amphion; and as if Death in his own penon 
had swept his scythe from gunwale to gunwale, Dubourdien 
and his boarders were prostrate in an instant Foiled in 
the attempt, the Captain of the French frigate, who now took 
the command, attempted to pass round between the Amphion 
and the shore, and thus place Hoste between two fires; but 
so nicely and narrowly had the Amphion chosen her position, 
that the Favorite got ashore in the attempt, and wfti thus 
in a great measure hors de combat. This important in* 
cident gave such a turn to the struggle as the Froich 
never recovered; but the odds being still agaiast the 
English, the contest was prolonged for several hours. The 
British squadron now stood on the larboard tack; wheB 
the Cerberus, in wearing, got her rudder choked by ^ 
shot, which caused a delay; but the action oontraned. 
Captain Hoste, in the Amphion, being now galled by the 
fire of the Flore, 44^ and the Bellona, 32, closed with the 
former, and in a few minutes the Flore struck; bvt having 
received by mistake some shots of the Bellona, Jf\ai6k 
were intended for and went past the Amphion after sbi 
had struck, an officer took her ensign, and, holdiBg ii 
over the tafirel, threw it into the sea. Hoste now oroesed 
to the Bellona, and compelled her also to strike at noon, 
just three hours after the action began; but no 
was this accomplished, than the Flore, belying her 
render, was seen crowding sail to escape, pursuit by the 
Amphion being by this time impossible, her fbresMtfe 
threatening to fiill, and h^r sails and rigging rendered 
unserviceable from the cross-fires she had sustained. The 
rest of the Gallo- Venetian squadron, upon this, attempted 
to escape; but the British Active, pursuing the Venetiui 
Corona, compelled her also to strike, in a running fight, 
at half-past two in the afternoon; thus terminating one 
of the most gallant actions on record. Three 44*gan fin- 
gates, including the escaped Flore, and a 32-gun corvette 
having struck to the British squadron. 


Litsa thencefortli became to the end of the war an 
Englifiii posBesflion. Colonel Robertson was civil and mili- 
tary governor. Twelve native* formed a legislative and 
judicial ooancil. A small fort was constructed, and the 
towers to this day bear the names of Wellington, Bentinck, 
and Robertson. 

Five honrs from Lesina is Cnrzola, the most beautifol 
of all the islands of Dafanatia; approached by a natural 
canal formed by the iriand on one side and the peninsula 
of Sabioncello on the other, a sort of Bosphorus on a 
grander and ruder scale, with steep mountains on both 
sides, every creek and headland covered with waving woods 
and verdant shrubbery. As we approach the town of 
Curzola, eadi zone is marked by its appropriate colour: 
the warm brown of cultivation basks at the water's edge; 
the wooded region rises above ; and a waving line of grey 
bare rocks crests the whole. 

Turning the last headland, we saw the town of Curzola 
before us in the form of a triangle or pyramid, edged by 
some of those huge old round towers which the modem 
art of war has rendered obsolete, the campanile of the 
ex-cathedral forming the appropriate apex. At the land- 
ing-|^ce, and just outside the walls, is the loggia, an 
edifice very inferior to that of Lesina as seen from with- 
out; but the prospect seen through its columns by those 
within, gave the Curzolans a council-chamber painted by 
Nature herself in her happiest mood. The massive towers 
and walls were built in 1420; but the gate was, as the 
inscription tells us, erected in 1643 by a scion of the 
house of Grimani, he being then Proveditop-general at 

Grimani! thought I to myself, as I recollected the 
palace of that name from the Grand Canal, and I again 
stept back to look at it; but the profuse ornaments of 
the sei cento with which it was covered, shewed that the 
age of Balthasar Longhena had followed that of Sam- 
micheli — and had extended its influence into the following 



The town of Curzola is regularly built; a street runs 
up to the Piazza, and down on the other side, all the 
other streets being at right angles. On one side of the 
Piazza, in the elevated centre of the tpwn, is the Palace 
of the Venetian Governors; and on the other is the ex- 
Cathedral, with mediocre pictures, and a Turkish .bannon- 
ball embedded in the wall since an attack on the town 
in 1571. Curzola was formeriy the seat of a Bishop; but 
Dalmatia, which, under the Venetians, had thirteen epit- 
copal sees, has now only six. 

Close by is the palace of a certain Signer Amim, the 
principal landed proprietor of Curzola, to which I was 
taken by a gentleman of the town to whom I was re* 
commended. The palace itself, of Venetian Gothic^ ia 
sadly dilapidated; but such an edifice as a Contarini or 
a Gradenigo might have dwelt in. A superb bronae 
knocker, representing a Hercules swinging two lions by 
their tails, adorned the door; and entering the courtyard, 
the marble draw-well, on which was cut three pears, tbe 
arms of the family, and the minutely fretted windows of 
the crumbling halls, reminded me that Curzola had tot 
years supplied the timber for the wooden walla of Veniee, 
and had been another favourite station of her fleets. 
Signer Amieri, a polite gentleman, with white neckcloth 
and broad-brimmed hat, did the honours with the courtesy 
of the old schooL 

"These three pears you see on the wall," said he, 
"are the arms of my family. Perussich was our name, 
when, in the earlier part of the fifteenth century, my 
ancestors built this palace; so that, you see, I am a Dal* 
matian. All the family, fathers, sons, and brothers, uaed 
to serve in the fleets of the Republic; but the hero of 
our race was Amiero Perussich, whose statue you see 
there, who fought, bled, and died at the siege of Candia, 
whose memory was honoured by the Republic, and whose 
surviving family was liberally pensioned; so his name 
became the name of our race. We became Amieri, and 
ceased to be Perussich." 


I spoke of tke kiiod«r, as lema riaMe fer iti flue as 
for its beao^; and obaerTed, that it woaid be raiher 
hazardous to put so tonptiBir » pieee of rt rfw on a London 
door; «o, geing to the door again, he^ with a smile of 
^oyment, lifted tlie head of one of the bons. and letting 
it whack against the door, so as to make the court ring 
again, he reanmed: ^I ha^e been offered its weight in 
silver; but we have no fears of thieres in Cnraola: if 
I lock it np in my cabinet, 1 cease to enjoy the nse of 
it. If yon are corioiM on soch matters,*^ added he, '*come 
here;" and, leading me throagh a dark passage to his 
library, he riiewed me an antiqne inkstand and sand-box, 
in the form of hounds scratching their ears, and Tsurious 
other articles said to be real antiques. 

Thanking Ihe old gentleman for his attentions, we 
retraced our steps, and saw in the wall of the house 
opposite a relic of middle-age manners — a large iron ring, 
which, being grasped by a criminal, gave him immunity 
from arrest. 

The sobborgo, or suburb of Curzola without the walls, 
is kept alive by ship-building; and being situated on the 
neck of land that connects the town with the island, it 
has wharfs to both bays. The boats of Curzola are still 
renowned on the Adriatic; and all those of the Company 
of the Austrian Lloyds are built here. Timber and labour 
are both cheap, and vegetation is rapid; for no sooner is 
a wood thinned than it grows again with great rapidity. 

Here I saw some of the Amazons of the opposite pen- 
insula of Sabioncello selling produce, — tall, stroug women, 
with masculine features, and a high head-dress of straw, 
with a brown flounce. 

All the husbands are absent at sea, and the women 
do most of the rustic work — plough, harrow, and thrash; 
and their villages are composed almost solely of women, 
old men, and boys. The women have consequently most 
robust bodies, and a resolute virile temperament: so that 
Dr. Menis, the learned proto-medicus of Zara, believes 
that the fable of the Amazons must have arisen ft*om a 


community living under similar conditioni; ^ioSence of 
their goods and chattels being occasionally necesaary during 
the absence of t^eir husbands. 

This maritime turn is of no new date ; for Gurzola waf 
a PhcBnician colony, and objects have been repeatedly 
found with the strange claw-character of this wonderful 
people. The rest of the history of the island is alto 
maritime. In the tenth century it belonged to the £Euiio«f 
pirates' nest of the neighbouring Narenta, and in 997 
came under Venetian protection; and its Yeneto-municipal 
statute is said to be the oldest in Dalmatia. In tiiis neigh- 
bourhood, Genoa, in 1268, measured her strength sacceeafiiUy 
with Venice, and taught her great rival such a lesaon of 
humiliation as she never received either before or siiice; 
but the victory of Chioggia again made Venice the mistrefls 
of the Mediterranean. In the Turkish wars the Gursolaiis 
bore their part gallantly. When the town was besieged 
in 1571 by Uluch Ali, viceroy of Algiers, even women 
and children took part in the defence; and having com* 
pelled him to retire, the word fedeUssima^ or most faith- 
ful, was, by decree of the Senate, applied to Gorsola in 
all documents. 

Passing the suburb, I found myself in the country; and 
never did I see such luxuriant and variegated ahrubboiy. 
The fragrant myrtle perfumed the air; and the contrait 
in the colours of the vegetation, the beauty of the flowera* 
and the novelty of the fruits, made Cunsola look like one 
great conservatory, with its blossoms uncovered to perpe- 
tual spring. The improbabilities of romance were reaUaed; 
and I seemed to tread one of those isles unseen by human 
eye, where some fair benignant spirit dwelt in a aeoloded 
world of bloom and verdure. Half-an-hour o£^ on a high 
conical eminence, is the ruined convent of Saint Anthon^i 
approached by a straight flight of steps the best part of 
a quarter of a mile in steep ascent, bordered on each aide 
by a lofty avenue of cypresses: planted one hundred and 
eighty years ago, they are now in their full growth and 
majesty. I stood entranced at the foot of the st^w, and 


enjoyed, at the extreme top of the thick rerdure-fenced 
vista, a ruisftd arch, pictoresquely delineated against the 
blue tkj. When I completed the ascent, and looked baok- 
wardi, my admiration increased on seeing the aznre creek, 
the yellow buhrarks of Cm'zola, and the towering ridges 
of the Gppoaite mountains, enframed by this noble avenue, 
every tree of which rose to the height of the highest ship- 
masts. Higher op, on a point of rook, no longer in the 
line of avenue, but commanding a general view, the whole 
region of indented creeks and rugged coasts, town and 
suburbs, with swelling dome and tower-knit battlements, 
and the unruffled waters, asleep amidst the slopes of the 
canal, — formed a prospect so lovely, that Curzola might 
be called the Emerald Isle of the Adriatic. 

Next day I took a ramble into the country^ and found 
the population of the island exhibit, in their dresses, 
houses, and demeanour, a great superiority to what I had 
seen between Zara and Sebenico. I compared the cha- 
racter of the Servian to that of the Scottish Highlander; 
but the «oiK^>ari8on, however striking as regards the main- 
land, becomes a contrast when we treat of the insular 
population. Unlike the Hebrides of Great Britain, which, 
by their remoteness from the metropolis, are the last to 
receive the lights of civilisation, the islands of Dalmatia 
owe much of their culture to the nearer vicinity of Venice, 
and the move extensive use of the Italian language, with 
its humanising results on all classes of the population; but 
above all, to their sea-girt security, which retained the coasts 
and islands as an integral part of the European family, when 
moat of ihe terra firma was in possession of the Turks. 

If we pursue the results of these diverging political 
fortunes to the actual condition of the two great divisions 
of Dalmatia, we find that, of the iOO,000 inhabitants of 
the kingdom, 80/)00, or one-fifth, live on the islands ; but 
while the population of the terra firma is 104 per square 
mile, that of the islands is 1S3. The difference of the 
climate also causes a great contrast in the productions. 
On the terra firma, 13 per cent of the whole soil is culti- 


yated with grain ; and of the islands, only 3 per cent. But 
in the case of vines and olives, the advantage is on tbe 
side of the milder climate; and while only 5 per cent of 
the terra firma is subject to this culture, the vines and 
olives cover 18 per cent of the area of the islands. The 
total uncultivated land of the terra firma is 82 per cent; 
that of the islands, 79. With a generally poorer soil, the 
advantage in favour of the islands is incontrovertible: the 
cultivation of the terra firma being capable of both ex- 
tension and improvement;, that of the islands, of improve- 
ment, but not of extension. 



It was on a bright sunlit afternoon, in the first days 
of December, that the steamer entered the Booca, every 
inch of ihie deck being covered with riflemen. At the 
eight of this gulf, so celebrated for its natural beauty, the 
wish of many a long revolving year was fiilfilled. GasotH, 
in his own quiet way, on arrival at Cattaro, breaks out 
with enthusiasm: ^How imposing a spectacle is the cascade 
of the Kerka! how sublime an edifice is the temple of 
Sebenicol" and then, after a long list, he adds, <' bat most 
delicious of all is the canal of Gattaro!" And well might 
he give it the preference over every other scene of natural 
beauty in this province. The Bocca di Cattaro has all the 
appearance of an Italian lake embosomed in Alps, with 
the difference that the lake is composed of salt water 
instead of fresh, and is on a level and commanioftthig 
with the sea, so as to form not only a secure harbour cf 
an extent to contain all the navies of Europe, and a depth 
to admit of three-deckers lying close to its shores, but 
possessing a beauty worthy to be compared to that of 

OKAVTBR V. CA9TAB0. - - ^ }69 

Lebanon riting from the waters of Djoani, or Naples herself, 
with all her enchantments. From Gastei Nuovo at the en- 
tranee, to Gattaro at the extremity, the whole of the gulf is 
hned with Tillages and isolated villas arising out of the 
water's edge. Ridt* vine, citron, and olive-grounds slope 
rapidly upwards to a considerable distance ; and above t^e 
line of vegetation, taremendous bare rocks tower suddenly 
and preeipitously up to an Alpine height, till they are 
crowned en the landward side by the peaks of Montenegro. 

In a climate that looks across the Adriatic to the 
temperate coasts of Apulia, the fall of the year had laid 
her impress lightly on the brows of the surrounding 
mountains! a yellow tdne on the hanging woods began 
to mingle with the deep-green olives; the Bocca was no 
longer in the heyday of verdure, but, like a well-preserved 
beauty, in all the pleasantness of early autumn, while the 
crimson of an unclouded sunset invested her barest sum- 
mits with its subdued splendour. Half way to Gattaro 
(for the passage is long and winding) the lake grows 
narrow, to little more than the space between the iron 
gates on the Danube; and we cleave the rended precipices 
agam to enter -another wide inland basin. As the steamer 
swiftly advanced up the smooth, land-girt waters, every 
soul was on deck to catch a new turn in the magic pano- 
rama. Ever and anon a shot, fired from a point of land 
or fishing-hamlet, signalised a party of sharpshooters on 
piqnet; and 'some sad air of Bellini, played by the band, 
fioated aca*oss ihe waters in sweet responses to the distant 

It was night when we dropt anchor off Gattaro, the 
forms of the mountains being faintly visible, but enough 
to shew me that I was at the bottom of a kettle or 
caldron. Lights twinkled in the windows of the town, 
and the glare of torches at the quay was reflected in the 
water by long streaks, of trembling yellow; a hubbub of 
boats was at our larbord; and the deck crowded, with 
boats disembarking, made a scene of rather dismal no- 
velty. On landing, the customs' officers searched my 


baggage minutely, as I had come from the islands; the 
facility which their coasts afford to the smuggler being • 
pretext for an unavailing rigour at the ports of the main- 
land, a topic to which we will recur in the course of our 
survey of the mistaken policy which presides at the finan* 
cial legislation of DaUnatia. 

Conducted to the only hotel of the town, I found it 
to be miserable; for Cattaro is the ultiwia 2%ti28 of the 
Austrian empire. The few travellers that ascend to Mon- 
tenegro are insufficient to maintain a comfortable inn, and 
I was fortunate in getting a room, for the crowding of 
troops had made quarters very scarce. Next morning 
after breakfast, a man of jobs and commissions presented 
himself in the last stage of shabby genteel, and making 
me a profound bow, asked me if I ¥ras an Englishman, 
and I admitted that I was. 

"This town," said he, bowing again profoundly, **is a 
place of very great taste for the arts, sir; of first-rale 
taste; and if you want a large room, sir, I think I can 
get you one." 

"A large room!" said I, somewhat surprised; ^if yo« 
suppose I am either a singer or a picture-dealer, yon are 
under a mistake." 

^' A singer or a picture-dealer," continued he, plausibly; 
" that is horridly low ; I see there is some mistake, for I 
was informed that you were a fire-eater." 

The hallucination seemed so whimsical, that I could 
not avoid humouring it. "What would you say," said 1, 
<Ho an advertisement of this sort: The British Wiard 
and Fire-Eater, desirous of having the hdnour of appearing 
before the pubUc of Cattaro, has abandoned his engage- 
ments at Paris and London, &c. &c.?" 

"Magnifico ! " said he; <*and if you need a check-4iakir, 
I am your most obedient humble servant." 

" Now tell me," said I, " who told you I was a fire-eater?'' 

'^I knew it at once, sir," said he, with a knowing wink, 
"when that servant informed me that you could drink 
boiling water, and make water boil without fire." 


In a state of mystification, which the reader can more 
easily suppose than I can describe, the servant of the 
hotel being called in, I asked her what water I had boiled 
without a firlB; and siie immediately pointed out a bottle 
of Seidlitz powders which stood on the chest of drawers, 
on which I repeated the wonderful experiment of adding 
c(^d water to a little powder. As it fizzed up in ike 
glass, the servant called out, delighted beyond measure, 
in a hodge-podge of Illyrian and Italian, ^Goapodine P(h 
vwlof, boUe senza fuocoP^ '^Oh Lord, it boils without 
fire! it boils without fire!" But the commissions, stud3ring 
kit « moment, brightened up wiUi the ardour of discovery, 
and pronouncing it to be ^'•una medieina,*^ looked at the 
poor waitress so that she went out of the room. 

Finding that the only necromancy I contemplated was 
a trip to Montenegro, the commissioner, begging my 
pardon, and not to be foiled of a job, at once promoted 
me from plain Mister to Excellency, and then ran on 
with all the volubility of his tribe: *^Ah, sir, you belong 
to the first nation of ihe world; a free nation, sir. You 
must see Albania, too ; just like England, for all the world. 
A man does what he chooses — ^nothing like freedom. And 
if a man gives yon any insolence, just whistle a bullet 
through his gizzard; nobody says anything — just like 

A wonderful nation! Now, when a Dalmatian has no 
numey, he stays at home; when an Englishman wants to 
save money, he goes abroad. I know your Excellency is 
not one of that sort; but economy is not a bad thing; and 
let me advise you to be on your guard i^^st all those 
plausible impostors and cheats that are on the out-look 
for travellers, and prey upon their credulity. You will 
pay double for every thing in Montenegro, if you have 
not some honest man who knows the country. Now I, 
for instance, know Montenegro well, and to serve an 
Englishman would do any thing for him from sunrise to 
sunset, and from sunset to sunrise strain." 

"I will see," said I. 


"Well, notwithstanding my good wishes, your Ex- 
cellency is impatient. I am sure the loan of a fiorm or 
two would not inconvenience you? You doubt again; 
well, then, a zwanziger, to make my market." 

When the zwanziger was given, there came a supple- 
mentary request for due gotti, two drops of rosolio te 
wet his whistle. A quarter of an hour scarcely had elapsed 
before he came back, smelling of the liquor, and annomie'' 
ing, with irradiate countenance, that he had explained to 
the police my intention to proceed to Montenegro, ttad 
Spontaneously asked for permission, &c., which called fbrtk 
on my part a specimen of that national freedom of speeok 
which he admired rather in the abstract than in tlw appli- 
cation, and which kept his officiousness within bounds 
during the rest of my stay. 

'^What sort of a place is Oattaro?" was a questioB 
which I had one day addressed to the captain of tlw 
steamer after dinner. " There is Cattaro," said he to me, 
pointing to the grounds at the bottom of his coffee-cttpu 
'^ The sun sets behind the mountains at mid-day," continued 
he, with facetious exaggeration; ^^and the mountain above 
threatens to fall over and cover the town." I bad left 
the hotel but a very short way, when I found the pkuM 
to be almost what the captain had told me. At the ex* 
tremity of the basin of Cattaro is situated the town, re- 
gularly fortified. A quay fronts the basin, and a plantation 
of poplars, rising with the masts of the vessels, under 
which the Bocchese, in their almost Turkish ooetume, 
prosecuted their business, produced a novelty of offset 
which one seldom sees on the beaten tracks of the tooriei; 
and looking down the basin which I had traversed yeeter- 
day eviening, a cluster of villas with their red roofs are 
seen shining among the thickly planted gardens that cover 
the promontory stretching into the water. If we paM 
from the front to the back of the town, the rooka rise 
up perpendicularly behind the last street; so thai the 
traveller, standing in the piazza in front of the churoh. 


is obliged to strain his neck in looking up to the battle- 
ments of the fort that sormounts the place. 

In the interior of the tbwn I was agreeably disap- 
pointed in finding it to be a very different place from 
what I had anticipated. So close to Montenegro, where 
a row of Turkish skulls, on spikes, formed until lately a 
conspicuous ornament of the capital of the most insub- 
ordinate population of the Ottoman empire, I had a notion 
of its being a miserable place ; but here was still in every 
street and edifice the same Italiim st»np: a solid, well- 
bnilt Oatiiedral, of hewn stone, better than ninety-nine out 
of a hundred churches in England ; several public piazzas ; 
and a fine picturesque old tower as a guard-house, with 
ihe usual Venetian lion, which will last a thousand years, 
unless some earthquake should shake down that uneasy- 
looking lump of mountain, and bray the town, lion and 
all, to infinitesimal atoms. 

The dress of the coast-towns of Dalmatia is entirely 
European; that of Cattaro, as I have already stated, has 
more of the Oriental than of the European, black Hessian 
boots being added to a Turkish costume, with a very 
small fez* 

In summer, the high mountains, excluding the north- 
west breeze, render Cattaro a place of stifling heat; and 
in winter, the clouds, breaking against the mountains, make 
it very rainy. The days preceding my departure for Mon- 
tenegro were marked by a perfect storm of rain; for not 
only did the water pour from above, but in various places 
streams of clear water gushed up from below through 
the crevices of the pavement — a symptom of the over- 
hang-ng rocks being pervious to springs. The Bocchese, 
instead of carrying umbrellas, go about with black woollen- 
hooded cloaks, which are as thick as a blanket, and hard 
and heavy like felt. I ventured out with an umbrella; 
and, wrapt up in a cloak, proceeded out at the gate, in 
order to see a stream gushing from the mountain. A rare 
spectacle wa» it to see the spring come out from the 


earth at the foot of a precipice, a ready formed river, 
twenty feet wide, and filtered as clear a» oiyBtal. The 
last geological revolution of Dalmatia has left the Velle- 
bitch a very loose and incoherent mass of limestone, for 
in several other places we have the same phenomeiion. 
The river that waters the plain of Licca, in Croatia, loses 
itself in an immense hollow, and mingles its wftters iritfa 
the Adriatic, after traversing a mountain chain 4000 feet 
hi^. Nothing could be more dismal than the rocks all 
around, the peak of every mountain enveloped in miet; 
and along with the damp we had a close, wsrm atmo- 
sphere, with the thermometer ranging between 60^ and 
80^, and thus for several days: but with a north wind 
came complete clearness and perspicuity of the atmo- 
sphere; and the sunshine on a Gothic balcony and fretted 
balustrade, with an orange-tree on the opposite side of 
the street, its golden fruit protruding over the wall, made 
as charming a piece of colour as a painter of local nature 
could desire. 

Cattaro, called Dekatera by Constantine Porphyry* 
genitus, was successively under the protection of tbe Greek 
emperors and Servian and Hungarian monarcMea, hot 
became Venetian in 1420, preserving its municipal privileges 
and being governed by a Venetian, with the title of Ei^ 
traordinario, under the Proveditor-genend of Zara. From 
this time up to the fall of the Republic, it was under the 
banner of St. Mark. Austrian from 1797 to 1806^ the 
decisive victory of Austerlitz, and the peace of IV ee b nrg y 
handed it over to the French empire. But Russia ooeld 
view with no complacency the port of Montemegro, in 
which she exercised so large an influence, and which waa 
so important a space in the chess-board of Europeea 
Turkey, occupied by France, then the ally of the Porte. 
The fleets of Russia, aided by a fierce undisciplined band 
of Montenegrines, offered a vigorous hut ineffectual resiBi- 
ance to the French occupation. They advanced ae fiur 
as Ragusa, and burned its suburbs; but Marshal Marmont, 


at the head of 9000 well^lisciplined troops, gave battle 
fii to the Gomfoiiied force of the Montenegrines and a small 
kj body of Rnssiaiis; and having gained a decided victory 
on the 1st of October, 1806, at the Sittorina, on the Bocoa 
di Cattaro, the submission of the rest of the province 
quickly followed, and Russia, at the treaty of Tilsit, 
recognised the French possession of this part of the 

Cattaro and its district has been since the last Anstrian 
oocapation one of the four circles of Dalmatia, the smallest 
in extent and population, but the most difficult to manage 
of all the four, from the neighbourhood of Montenegro. 
The population of the town is 4000, and there is a great 
deal of capital in the place ; for the Bocchese are excellent 
niknri, and although there is nothing behind Cattaro but 
the rocka of Motttenegro^ this hardy and industrious people 
poaeeas upwards of one hundred and fifty vessels of long 
course. The products and profits of the Antilles and 
Brazils have built these neat villas, and laid out those 
gardens, that make the Bocca look like an Italian lake; 
and it was the well^fiUed plate-chests and the strong boxes 
that tempted the hunger and rapine of the nightly bands ; 
for the Bocchese, like the Turic, must see his property in 
the solid— a ship, a house, or the clinking cash «- and 
would not trast the paper ^ the Bank of England. 

There was a great deal of unpleasant agitation in 
Cattaro during my stay, in consequence of the nightly 
incursiom of these desperados. Twice during the three 
or four days of my stay at Cattaro they attempted to rob 
houses o|i the Bocca; but the alarm being suddenly given 
to the detachments of Rifles, they drew ofif, though not 
without an exchange of shots. These marauders were not 
Montenegrines^ but a mixed band of Herzegovinians from 
QnhcfvOy who shared their plunder with the Aga there; 
for on these three frontiers order is kept with difficulty, 
passage from one to the other being easy, and the autho- 
rity of the Porte in Herzegovina quite nominal. The 


Government of Montenegro, in the absence of the Yltr' 
dika,- co-operated with the Austrian Government of Gattarv 
to repress the depredations ; but when hunger has a share 
in stimulating outrage, Governments can do very little in. 
a wild mountainous country like this. 

Cattaro, being strongly fortified, could resist any force 
the Montenegrines could bring against it, if hoetilitiet 
should ever unfortunately break out between these moun- 
taineers and the Austrian Government; but the situation 
of the garrison being at the foot of the mountain would 
become very unpleasant, and confine them to the town 
and Castle. This did occur in 1809 during the Frenoh 
occupation. Some Montenegrines were drinking in tlie 
town, and two Italian soldiers, probably also in liquor, 
entering the wine-shop, one of them, either in saroam 
or familiarity, took hold of one of the Montenegrinea by 
the moustache, which they regard as almost saerilege. 
The Montenegrine drew his pistol, and discharged it in 
the face of the soldier; but the ball missing him, and 
other comrades coming to the assistance of the soldieri 
they wounded the Montenegrines with sabres. Bat the 
quarrel did not end there. On the succeeding days the 
heights above Cattaro were covered with Montenegrinea, 
all armed, who infested the approaches, and broke up the 
roads the French had formed; so that the people of Cat* 
taro, knowing the exciteable race they had to deal with, 
scarce dared to venture out of the town; but the ofificen 
continued to dine at a sort of rustic casino a short way 
firom the gate, the front door of which opened on the 
road, and the back door on a small garden. The Mon- 
tenegrines, determined to glut their vengeance, made up 
a party of nine or ten men, the half of whom presented 
themselves at the road, while the other half, eacaladiBg 
the garden-wall, entered by the back door; and, aa tlie 
officers sat at dinner, fired their muskets at them, and 
fied. Five ofBcers and a surgeon fell on the oocaaigo; 
and this produced such an effect on the French Comman- 


dant, that he immediately sought a conference with the 
Archbishop, and the afBeiir ended in a convention, greatly 
to the satisfaction of the citizens of Cattaro, who, during 
all the affair, durst not stir beyond the gates of the town.^ 



Learning that a Dalmatian Dugald Dalgetty, in the 
employ of the Vladika, was in Cattaro, I was advised to 
take advantage of his return to Cetigne, as I should not 
only gain in security, but have the advantage of referring 
for information as I went along to a person well acquainted 
with the localities. In ordinary times there is not a sha- 
dow of danger between Cattaro and Cetigne, and the 
Montenegrine is as harmless as a wolf in midsummer; but 
pinch him sorely with hunger, and any thing is welcome 
to his fangs ; so that I thought it on all accounts safer to 
go in company. 

My rendezvous was at the hour of eight, at the Mon- 
tenegrine Bazaar, outside the gate of Cattaro. Here a 
mde roo^ supported on pilasters of rubble-work, and an 
avenue of trees, just at the foot of one of those tremen- 
dous precipices around Cattaro, was the place where the 
Montenegrines gave their eels from the Lake of Scutari, 
their skins, and their other products, for the salt, the oil, 
and the few coarse manufactures and colonials which they 
need. The shaggy brown mare of the trooper was capar- 
isoned in the Turkish way, with a high cantled cloth 
saddle, and a silver chain forming part of the bridle. 
Instead of the long Oriental robes of yesterday, in which 
I was introduced to him, he wore a short crimson jacket, 

' VialUt de Sommi^res. 
Patoh. I. 12 


lined with sable, a silver-hilted sword being hnng from 
his shoulder; while our attendants carried long Albanian 
rifles, their small butts covered with mothei^o'-peari, and 
the men with coarse frieze dresses, tattered sandals, 
weatherbeaten faces, and long uncombed locks falling over 
their necks. 

We now began the ascent of the celebrated ladder of 
Cattaro, to which the ladder of Tyre is a joke, being the 
most remarkable road I ever ascended. The Vellebitch 
is a curious road for carriages; but to ascend a face of 
rock 4000 feet high, and very little out of the perpen- 
dicular, was certainly a trial to the nerves. There could 
not be less than fifty zigzags, one over the other, and, 
seen from above, the road looks like a coil of ropos. At 
we passed one tower of the fortress after another, the 
whole region of Cattaro was seen as from a balloon; tlM 
ships were visible only by their decks; and I do not 
overstrain description when I say that, arrived at the top, 
although we were very little out of the perpendicnlar 
above Cattaro, the human figures on the bright yellow 
gravelled quay were such faint black specs that the naked 
eye could scarce perceive them ; so that the independence 
of Montenegro ceases to be a riddle to whomBoever as* 
cends this road. When standing on the 'quay of Cattaro, 
how high and gloom-engendering seem those monntainf 
on the other side of the gulf, as seen from below. I now 
look down upon their crests, and dilate sight and sense 
by casting my eyes beyond them upon the wide bine sheet 
of the Adriatic, the height of the line where sky meels 
sea shewing how loftily I am placed. 

My hired nag was none of the best, and I complained 
of not being able to keep up with the officer; but the 
dirty savage with the long locks who walked by my nda 
told me, in a brutal sarcastic sort of way, that ''as I had 
paid the zwanzigers, I had only to hew them out of the 
horse again;" and suiting the action to the word, with 
an inharmonious wheezing laugh, he gave the nag such a 
jog with his rifle, that I cast a nervous glance over the 


parapet to the Toofe of Cattaro. Happily there wae not 
80 much mettle in the butt of my horse as metal in the 
barrel of the rifle; so I resolved to be on good terms 
with the poor hack, and not to hew my zwanzigers out 
of him again. 

Arrived safely at the top of the ladder, I was no longer 
in Austria, but in Montenegro; and, crossing a short 
plateau destitute of a blade of grass and surmounting 
another ridge, found myself looking dovrn on a sort of 
ponch-bowl, the bottom of which was a perfectly level 
circular plain of rich carefully cultivated land, an oasis in 
this wilderness of rocks. A rude khan is in the middle 
of the plain, and a keg of newly moulded and shining 
bullets was the only symptom visible of entertainment for 
man and horse; but on alighting, the landlord produced 
acme bread, cheese, and wine, and we passed on to 
Niegush. Here the dogs came out upon us in such force, 
and with such a ferocious demeanor, that, forgetting my 
resohition not to hew the zwanzigers out of my horse, I 
laid on the lash; but Rosinante knowing no doubt from 
experience that their bark was worse than their bite, took 
a sounder and more judicious view of the subject, and 
treated my whip with the same imperturbability as he 
had done the jog of the Montenegrine gun. 

Niegash is called the only town in Montenegro; but 
in the worst parts of Turkey I never saw any thing to 
equal the poverty and misery of both habitations and in- 
habitants. It is impossible to conceive a greater contrast 
than between a Servian and Montenegrine village. Here 
all the inhabitants had clothes of frieze, resembling closely 
those of Bulgaria, but instead of the woolly caps, many of 
them wore black skull-caps, and wide trousers and tights 
from the knee to the ankle; those who lounged about 
having a strookah, which is like the Turkish cloak, but 
of a dirty white colour, and the pile inwards so long, 
eoarse, and shag^, as to be like the fleece of a sheep. 
The necks and breasts of the men were bare, and all wore 
miseral^e sandals. Each male wore arms, the waist-belt, 



like that of an Albanian, shewing a bundle of pistols and 
dirks, which brought to mind the old heraldic motto, 
"Aye ready:" so predominant, indeed, is the idea of the 
soldier over that of the citizen, that even when a child 
is baptised, pistols are put to the infant's mouth to kiss, 
and then laid in the cradle beside him; and one of the 
favourite toasts drunk on the occasion is, **May he never 
die in his bed." The dress of the women was of dirty 
white cloth; and in cut, its family likeness to the old 
costume of Servia is recognisable; but the details are 
coarser, and shew a poorer and more barbarous people. 

While the officer transacted some business, I made an 
exploratory tour through the village, which is the seat 
of the clan Petrovich, from which the Yladika descends, 
and the family mansion of whom is a house built in the 
European style, only to form a greater contrast to the 
miserable Montenegrine cabins around it. The village is 
not in the centre of the plain, but built on the slope of 
the hill, so that not an inch of cultivable soil is covered. 
Like the Druse villages, it is easily defensible, one rod 
rising above the other, and the bare rock is the best pari 
of the pavement. 

A man with the front part of his head shaved, and 
wearing a small black skull-cap, came out of one of the 
houses and invited me to enter. Chimneys not being in 
fashion in Montenegro, the door proved a cheap and 
nasty substitute; and notwithstanding my curiosity to see 
a Montenegrine hut, the smoke and darkness visible, and 
the fleas contingent, made me pause a moment; but in 
1 went. A puff of smoke rolling' out at that moment 
fastened on my eyelids, and I advanced groping, winking, 
and coughing, to the great laughter of the urchins inside, 
which was no sooner heard by a cow on the other side 
of the watling that divided the bipeds from the quadra- 
peds, than she began to low. A dog, very like a little 
bear, now awoke from the hearthstone, and began to 
bark in a way that savoured very little of the honest joy 
of hospitality. At length I perceived a little square stone, 


on whicli I sat down; my enthusiasm for the patriarchal 
manners of the Montenegrines being as much damped as 
the handk^chief which I from time to time applied to 
my eyes. 

At length, when a cold blast of air drove the smoke 
out of the door at which the cattle entered, I looked 
about me, and saw that the cottage was large, and divided 
into three distinct compartments ; one for my own specieSj 
the next for cattle, and one for sheep beyond it; the 
separation being formed of a rude crate or basket-work, 
witii square apertures, so that a bucket or any thing else 
might be handed from the one to the other. Like the 
Noah's Ark or Nativity of the older Flemish painters, a 
sunbeam darted through a hole on smoked rafters and 
an old chest, and the cattle were seen in the dim depths 
of the recess. 

We now remounted, and began the ascent of the last 
crest of the chain; every scrap of earth preserved in the 
hill-side being carefully cleared of stones and fenced 
round. Higher up was a wood, having, like the inhabi- 
tants, all the signs of the niggardly penury of nature; 
soon every trace of vegetation ceased, the road was a 
faint track in the rocks, and an eagle, screaming from 
cliff to cliff, was the only object that invaded the mono- 
tony of our way; but on gaining the spot where the 
waters parted, the prospect that spread out before us 
seemed boundless. The lake of Scutari, the farther ex- 
tremity of which was forty miles distant, was easy of ob- 
servation from so commanding an elevation; the rich 
lands on its nearer borders, with their microscopic di- 
visions, were like the tissues of tartan as given by a 
Daguerreotype; and immediately at my feet was Cetigne, 
its little verdant plain surrounded with a rampart of rocks ; 
— the whole mountain a cloud-capped tower of Nature's 
sturdiest building. 

My strength and spirits seemed to rise with the 
purity of the air, which was very sensible after breathing 
the atmosphere of Cattaro, which is close in consequence of 


its confined situation. M. Vialla de Sommieres, who lived 
six years as French Resident in this neighbourhood, in 
a memoir on Montenegro, makes a statement so extra* 
ordinary concerning the effects of the climate on the 
longevity of the inhabitants, as to throw somewhat of 
discredit on his account. He mentions that at Schieclich 
he ifiet with a man who had lived to see the sixtb 
generation of his family: the old man himself being 
117 years of age; his son, 100; his grandson, nearly 82; 
his great grandson had attained his 60th year: the son 
of the latter was 43; his son, 21; and his grandchild, 
2 years of age. Very wonderful , if true ! 

At sunset we arrived at Cetigne, the capital, which is 
not a town, but merely a fortified convent, on the slope 
of a hill, surrounded by scattered houses; and under 
which, in the plain, is the large new Government-house, 
which is styled in Cattaro the Palazzo del Yladika, or 
Archiepiscopal Palace. The inn is newly built, and better 
than I expected; for up-stairs I found a clean room, 
furnished in the European manner, with a good bed for 
the convenience of travellers coming from Cattaro; the 
lower floor being a sort of khan for the people of the 

While dinner was getting ready, I entered into conTer- 
sation with the people down-stairs, consisting of a Christian 
merchant from Scutari, and several powder-manufacturers 
emigrated from Albania, and carrying on their trade here. 
The merchant of Scutari was a very sedate, respectable- 
looking man; and the company, including the landlord, 
were joking him on his supposed wealth, the merchant 
protesting, like Isaac of York, that it was quite untruet 
and a most calumnious imputation on him. He appealed 
to me as to whether he looked like a man of wealth; 
and I declared that his aspect was so respectable, that if 
I was a haydook (robber), I would assassinate him in* 
stantly. The merchant gaped at me with astonishment; 
and, raising his eyelids, looked at me from head to foott 
as if I might be a haydook disguised as an Englishman, 


The keen mountain air and the sharp exercise enabled 
me to sleep soundly; and next morning the officer ixk 
whose compuny I had come, shewed me the lions of 
Cetigne, regretting that the greatest one, the Vkdika 
himself, was not visible in his den, being then in Vienna. 
We went first to the old Convent, which resembles a 
castle of the seventeenth century, surmounted by a round 
antique-looking watchtower, with a number of poles, on 
which, until very lately, the trunkless heads of Turks used 
to stand in grim array; but the civilising tendencies of 
the presetnt Yladika have suggested the cessation of so 
useless an act of barbarism. 

We now entered the convent; and on the second floor 
iound the Archimandiite in his room. He is the second 
of the Yladika in spiritual matters, but his dress had few 
symptoms of the ecclesiastic ; and I repeatedly met priests 
in Montenegro whom I could not have recognised if their 
condition had not been made known to me, as they wore 
the usual dress and arms of civilians. They reminded me 
of Friar Tuck, who wore his canonicals at service, and 
sported a long bow and short doublet when out a-field. 
The Archimandrite, a man of pleasing modest manners, 
opening a chest, displayed to us the surplices and pon* 
tificalia of satin embroidered with gold, which are in- 
variably received from Russia as a coronation-present 
after the accession of each Emperor. 

Nothing could be plainer or humbler than the fur- 
niture of the room, the principal object of which was a 
small library. The dialect of Montenegro differs slightly 
from that of Servia, and has a small sprinkling of Italian 
words, in some respect analogous to that which juxta- 
position has introduced of German into the dialects of 
the Save, the Drave, and the Danube; but the written 
language of Belgrade, and the profane books printed by 
the prince's typographer, are considered as the standards 
by the few who can read. The books of Divine service 
are all of old Slaavic, printed in and imported from 
Russia. On the same floor is the schoolroom, with thirty- 


two urchins in drab clothes and close-clipped heads, who 
are taught reading, writing, ciphering, geography, and 
history, by a native of the Illyrian part of Hungary. 

The Archimandrite then conducted us to the church, 
which has a mummy, in a gaudy dress, with crimson velvet 
shoes, laid out on a bier, and forming the mortal remains 
of the Vladika Peter, the predecessor and uncle of the 
present Archbishop, the veneration for whose memory 
greatly contributed to the power of the present incumbent. 
For fifty-three years, that is to say, firom 1777 to 1830, 
he ruled by the mild sway of pious precept and virtaous 
example ; and dying in the last-mentioned year, his nephew, 
the present Vladika, when only eighteen years of age, 
became spiritual head of the mountain. Seven years after 
death his body was found incorrupt; and a canon of the 
synod of Moscow declared him to be a saint. 

All the other parts of the establishment are of the 
most primitive kind; a circular space for thrashing com, 
of the exact circumference of the great bell of Moscow; 
beehives of hollowed trunks of trees, and every thing 
betokening such a state of manners as might have existed 
in our own country in feudal times. An old wooden door 
on the ground-floor met our view, being the stable of 
the Vladika, containing a milk-white Arab, presented to 
him by the Pasha of Bosnia; a new iron door beside it 
was that of the powder-magazine, an imprudent position, 
for if the convent took fire from above, an explosion, 
such as would level the whole edifice, would be the in- 
fallible result. 

A hundred yards off is the new Government House, 
built by the present Vladika ; and going thither, we found 
a billiard-room, to combine pleasure and business, in 
which the Senate was then sitting. The brother of the 
Vladika was seated at the upper end of the room on a 
black leather easy chair, smoking a pipe. A large portrait 
of Peter the Great, in oil ; a smaller one of Kara Georgre ; 
and prints of Byron and Napoleon, hung firom the vralls. 
There was no bar, as in the Houses of Lords and Com- 


mons; Imt a billiard-table, on which the Yladika is said 
to be a first-rate performer, separated the upper from the 
lower end of ihe apartment A Senate, of coarse, ought 
not to be without the ushers of the black and white rod ; 
I aceordingly saw, in a comer, a bundle of these insignia^ 
but on observing their ends marked with chalk, I con- 
cluded that they belonged to the billiard establishment. 
An appeal case was going on, and a gigantic broad- 
shouldered man, with his belt full of pistols, was pleading 
his cause with great animation. It appeared that he was 
a priest; that his parishioners owed him each ten okas of 
grain per annum, but this year could not pay him; and 
the President decided that he should remit as much as 
possible on the score of the bad times, but that he should 
keep an account, and be repaid at a more prosperous 
season. The senators sat all round the room, each man 
being armed, and the discussions often extremely vociferous. 
There are no written laws in Montenegro, and there 
is no venality as in the Turkish courts of justice; but 
they lean somewhat to the side of the most warlike 
litigant, so that it may be said that club-law has not yet 

When the case was decided, I was shewn the bedroom 
of the Vladika, the furniture of which consisted of an Italian 
bed, a black leather sofa, a toilette-table, an enormous 
iron strong box; and above was its necessary concomitant, 
a long row of pegs for sabres and loaded pistols, one of 
which, with a crimson velvet scabbard, having been that 
of Kara George. Suspended from a ribbon near the bed 
was the medal which the Yladika gives to those who 
distinguish themselves in their conflicts with the Turks, 
on which are stamped the ancient arms of Montenegro, 
a double Eagle and Lion, with the inscription, *^Viera 
zwohoda za hrabrost^^ — Civil and religious liberty (is the 
reward) of valour. On our return to the billiard-room, 
tea was served in the Russian manner, with rum instead 
of milk, along with pipes of Turkish tobacco ; after which 
we took our leave. 


A heavy fall of snow during the night haying put a 
stop to all prospect of farther travel in Montenegro^ the 
succeeding days were devoted to conversation on the 
state and prospects of the territory^ and a reperusal ol 
some historical notices I had collected on the mountain.^ 



Identified with Servia in blood, language, and religion, 
Montenegro was an important fief of that ill-£Kted empire^ 
the feudal constitution of which I have already described, 
and the rude magnificence of which reflected neither the 
refinement nor the corruption of the Liower empire. To 
this day the heroes of Servia are those of Montenegra 
Speak to them of the valour of Dashan the Powerful, and 
their breasts glow with national pride and martial ardour; 
speak to them feelingly of the woes and virtues of LsMr, 
the last of their kings, and their sympathies are at onee 

Balsa, Prince of Montenegro, was the son-in-kw of 
Lasar, who, by the loss of the battle of K088OV0 in 1386, 
and his own life at the same time, enabled the Turks to 
become the masters of Servia. His grandson Stephen wm 
the friend and ally of Scanderbeg; bat on the death of 
this hero the debased nobles of Albania, in order to 
preserve their lands, acknowledged Turkish supremacy, and 
embraced Islamism. Bosnia presented the same spectacle; 
Montenegro alone, in the latter half of the fifteenth century, 
rose, like Ararat, amid the overwhelming floods of Is- 

i The best account of Montenegro is that of Wok Stephaaowiteli* 
who furnished Professor Banke with the materials for his Hittorp of 
the Sereian Revolution. The works of Ami Boa4 and Gnticn Robert 
must also be mentioned with praise. 


lasmism. Ivan Gzemojevich, the great grandson of Balsa, 
leaving the environs of the Lake of Scutari, where his 
paternal castle was fiitoated, fixed himself m those in- 
accessible fastnesses. Surrounding himself with his Bedth- 
fill followers, every man swore on the Testament to die 
rather than yield, and dishonour, worse than a thousand 
deaths, was the reward of the man who retreated: dressed 
in a female garb, he was thrust, with ignominy, from the 
ranks of his own sex. 

But this hero's character was not without its blots; 
and the charge which critics might bring against the 
author oi Ma/rmion for making his hero guilty of forgery, 
is shewn, on closer acquaintance with history, to be quite 
consistent with the chivalry of the middle ages, however 
uncongenial to the morals or manners of a modem gentle- 
man. One of the most beautiful metrical legends of Mon- 
tenegro describes his conduct in the marriage of his son 
with a fair Venetian thus: 

^'The Dark John writes to the Doge of the great 
Venice: *Lord of the waters, thou hast the sweetest of 
roses, and I the fairest of lilies. Let the rose and the 
lily be joined in the garland of Hymen.' The renown of 
the Dark John has filled the great Venice, and the Doge 
exults at the prospect of the alliance of his daughter with 
the house of Montenegro. John brings the rich gifts to 
^e City of the Sea; he sits in the seat of honour, and 
says, ^If there be any of i^ the invited guests a fairer 
youth than my son, let the affianced be sundered.' The 
I^oge gives him a golden apple, ^ and the Dark John 
departs rejoicing. 

''But a few months revolve, and the hideous small- 
pox covers the fair face of Stephen; his youthful beauty 
flies, like the flowers of spring in a storm of hail: when 
the guests assemble to depart for the marriage in Venice, 
all are fairer than the unhappy Stephen. The mother 
reproaches the Dark John with his ambition of an alliance 

1 In old Slaavic manners the symbol and accompatiiment of 


with the Latins, and ihe marriage-project is abandoned 
by him in his anger. 

"The seasons went and came; Stephen thinks no more 
of his bride ; when lo t a ship crosses the waters, and thus 
writes the Doge to the Dark John: *When a meadow is 
enclosed it is scythed, or surrendered to others, that its 
herbage become not the prey of the summer's heat or 
the winter's snow. The affianced bride must be married 
or abandoned.' 

"The Dark John assembles the flower of his youth, 
each clad in the richest garments; and he exclaims, in 
the pride of his nation, *The Latins wo^k wonders in 
metals, and weave fine stuffs, but they have not the 
haughty brow and martial gait of the free men of the 
Black Mountain.' He then makes known his straits to 
the assembly; and the ftdr Obrenovo Djuro, Prince of 
Antivari, is chosen to counterfeit Stephen, who, resulting 
at first, at length consents, on condition of receiving and 
keeping the marriage-gifls ; so they all depart amid the 
salvoes of the two great cannon, Kervio and Selenko, that 
have not the like of them in Turkey, or in the aeren 
kingdoms of the Franks. 

"The dance is heard for a week in the palace of the 
Doge. The Prince of Antivari receives from him the 
kiss and the golden apple of marriage ; but fftireat of all 
the gifts was a shirt of tissue of gold, as fine as the silk 
of the Indies, with a serpent embroidered on it, whose 
eye was a diamond of such brightness as to illumine with 
its light the darkness of the nuptial chamber; the three 
years' working of which had dried up the eyes of the 

^Who shall paint the horror of the fair Venetian on 
arriving at the Black Mountain, and finding herself the 
victim of a fraud? 'Thy face,' said she to her tponae, 
'will be as black in the day of judgment as it is now 
red with shame and confusion.' But the Prince of AntiTari 
having refused to surrender the golden shirt, a bloody 
combat ensued, in which he yielded his last breath, and 

cmLBTJSa, vn. momtbnsgbinb histpbt. 189 

Stephen carried his bride to his home on the Lake of 

In the legends the bridegroom is, according to some, 
entitled Stephen ; in others, George ; and in others, Masd- 
mos; but the various versions agree in the main facts, 
therefore we must conclude that the story is true. One 
is apt to smile at the heroics about superiority to the 
Latins, and to think that, in the record of a piece of 
imposture worthy of Lazarillo de Tormez or Ali Misry el 
Zeibuek, instead of * haughty brow' we ought to read 
bronze-visaged efibrontery; but as these worthy people 
lived to be contemporaries of the age which recognised 
Pope Alexander YI. as Vicegerent of God upon earth, we 
must conclude that Grreeks and Latins had neither of 
them much superiority to boast. 

Montenegro stood firm for a while; but the dynasty 
of Czemojevich ultimately succumbed. The two grand- 
sons, pressed on the one side by Venetian, on the other 
by Turkish, influences, exchanged the manly independence 
of their grandfather for the ambiguities of expediency. 
One brother, embracing Islamism, served in the armies of 
the Saltan to the shores of the Tigris; and the other, 
professing Christianity, governed Montenegro; and, tired 
of resistance to so overwhelming a power as that of 
Turkey, spent his last days at Venice, in tranquil retire- 
ment, in the beginning of the sixteenth century ; and from 
that time spiritual and temporal power were united in 
the Archbishop. 

When Soliman the Magnificent girt on the sword of 
empire all Europe quaked again. In 1523 Cetigne was 
burned, and all the strongholds stormed by the Turks, 
under the Pasha of Scutari. The events of the reign of 
Soliman are remarkable; but if we look to the resolute 
character of the Montenegrine, and the almost inaccessible 
nature of these rocky fastnesses, there is, perhaps, no 
circumstance in the reign of this wonderful man that is 
more indicative of the pitch of military power to which 
his nation had arrived in the sixteenth century, than the 


conquest of the small, but far from insignifioant, Arch- 
bishopric of Montenegro. 

A period of dark doubt and despair now followed in 
the mountain; and as Islamism consolidated itself in the 
neighbouring kingdoms of Bosnia and Albania, numben 
were converted in the Mountain itself. I have often 
wondered how a nobility that pretended to chivalry could 
so easily turn Turk ; but the marriage of the son of Black 
John shews that these chevaliers had not much honour 
to lose. In the fifteenth century both the Latin and 
Greek uniforms of Christianity were evidently worn out; 
and the very same rottenness that made Slaavic Bosnia 
embrace Islamism without much murmuring, caused John 
Huss and Jerome of Prague (both Slaavs) to begin the 
complete religious refitting and reforming of Europe — one 
half accepting Protestantism, the other half retaining the 
old Boman uniform. Now as the consolidation of the 
Turkish power in Europe arose jfrom the possession of 
Bosnia, that great bastion of mountains which jnte so 
close on Germany, we may say that, altogeilier, the Slaavs, 
as destroyers of Rome (under Genseric), reformers of 
Rome, and renegades of Rome, have played a most con- 
spicuous part in the history of the world. 

In the seventeenth century the conquest of Dafanatia 
by Venice, of Hungary by the Imperialists, and the train 
of events which preceded the treaty of Carlowiti, in 
1696, gave general courage to the Christians: in that year 
Daniel Petrovich, of Kiegush, became Archbishop; and 
from that time the spiritual power was hereditary in hii 
family, with an adequate political influence little short of 
temporal supremacy. Going under a guarantee of the 
Pasha of Scutari to consecrate a church, the Yladika was 
seized, in violation of his plighted word, and only re- 
deemed from prison by a large sum, painfully collected 
by the faithful people of Montenegro. 

He appears to have been of a character not only 
energetic and ambitious, but astute, and regardless of 
blood; and resolving to make a clean sweep of lalainism, 


he selected a long dark Christmas night, the snow lying 
on the ground, when, by his orders and arrangements, 
a general massacre of the Moslems of Montenegro took 
place, and immediate baptism became the only means of 
escape. The Turks have since repeatedly penetrated to 
Montenegro, but have never maintained their ground; for 
here, as the French remarked in Spain, a small army is 
beaten, a lai:ge one dies of hunger. 

Before the Turkish conquest of Montenegro, the vicinity 
of the Iti^an municipalities of the Adriatic, the com- 
munication with the sea, then open by way of Antivari, 
but above all, the contact with Venice, appeared to have 
kept Montenegro within the European family; but when 
all these counlarieB were overrun by the Turks, their con- 
dition underwent an organic change, and, circumscribed 
to their rocks, a ruder barbarism was unavoidable in a 
people hourly menaced with extermination. Always strangers 
to commerce, they had retrograded from agriculture and 
feudalism to the more primitive state of the warrior- 
shepherd and the republican member of a savage horde; 
and if we must condemn that Mai Christmas night, in 
which deat^ or bi^tlsm was offered to the Moslems of 
Montenegro, let us at least admire that constant love of 
independence, and that firm adherence to their own faith, 
which form so noble a contrast to the ignominious 
renegation of Christianity by the degenerate nobles of 
Bosnia and Albania. 

Europe in the eighteenth century seemed not to know 
that such a spot as Montenegro existed; and Montenegro 
was equally ignorant of the world beyond the Lake of 
Scutari and the hills of Herzegovina. The reader may 
recollect a story in Gibbon's Decline of a priest who 
presented himself in Flanders as the Emperor Baldwin 
escaped from Constantinople, and, for some time, found 
his tale generally believed. The history of Montenegro 
in the last century presents a curious parallel to this 
circumstance. About the year 1760, a young soldier, of 
the name of Stephen Mali, belonging to the Banal Grenze, 


a portion of the Austrian military frontier, began to 
excite the attention of his officers by His laziness, his 
low cunning, and his inclination for falsehood. The 
severe military duty of watching the cordon was yeiy 
painful, and he was suspected of being both a spy and a 
smuggler; and being likely to come in for some ptinith- 
ment, he took advantage of a dark night, and deserted. 
Whether he went through Bosnia or through Dalmatia, 
then in the power of Yenice, I have not been ^ble to 
learn; but some years afterwards we find him in the 
district of the Pastrovich, between Cattaro and Antivari, 
as a servant to a man who was a sort of doctor. From 
him he learned something of the methods of ouiing by 
simples, and did a little in that way for himself; but bis 
practice was to administer bread-pills, with nothing in 
them. The plausibility of Stephen infused into his master 
a high idea of him; and Stephen being a remarkably 
quick reader of character, saw his master's simplicity and 
credulity, and, tired of being in the humble and sub- 
ordinate character of a servant, was resolved to make 
one spring from the bottom to the top of the social 
ladder; so he told his master that he was no more 
Stephen Mali than the man in the moon, and no less a 
personage than Peter III. of Russia, travelling in disgnise; 
that he wished to see the world a little longer, and then, 
having profited by the experience of strange cities and 
countries, and varieties of customs, he would return to 
his own dominions, and leaving behind him the chafi^ and 
carrying with him the com, the seed might spring np in 
time to come to the strengthening of the state, and the 
honour of his own name. 

The romantic history of Peter the Great living at 
Saardam as a shipwright being not more wonderAil than 
true, was a constant theme of admiration among those 
simple people, and they thought that for a sovereign to 
travel in strict incognito was not only proper but customary; 
so his master went down upon his knees, kissed his hand, 
and begged his pardon for having a few days before 


been furiously out of temper with him and cursed him. 
Stephen, with* the most natural air of clemency in the 
world, told him to think no more of the matter, for he 
had too many faults of that sort hanging heavy on his 
own oonscience, having once given his own Grand Chamber- 
lain a cuff on the ear for a cobweb which he discovered 
in his bedroom. 

Not long afterwards a marriage took place in the 
Mountain, and Stej^en and his master were of the party, 
at which there was a great deal of eating, drinking, and 
merriment, and, according to the custom of the country, 
none of that distance between master and man which 
exists in the west of Europe; and in the midst of the 
feast, when Stephen was about to raise a cup to his lips 
and drink, his master rose, and, with the greatest respect, 
took off his cap: this caused great surprise among the 
guests; and when the thing came to be explained, some 
believed, and some disbelieved; but the report spread all 
round the country that Peter III. was travelling incognito. 
The Archbishop Sabas being then (1767) very old and 
infirm, and his coadjutor and successor, who managed 
the affairs, being absent on a journey, Peter now fixed 
himself in Montenegro, and was looked up to as the 
Czar, and his authority in civil affairs became more than 
paramount to that of the Vladika. The Turkish authorities, 
on certain intelligence from Constantinople, pronounced 
him to be an impostor; but this very circumstance, and 
the hatred they bore the Turks, riveted the belief that 
he must be the man himself. But that which more than 
all the rest consolidated his power, was, that the Mon- 
tenegrines, seeing the ferment in the minds of the Christian 
Rayahs in Herzegovina and Albania, thought that some 
great event was to happen, which should liberate them 
from the Turkish yoke. The Venetian Count or Estra- 
ordinario in Cattaro was equally astonished at the extent 
to which the story got credence; and every thing said 
against the pretended emperor was set down to political 
hatred and jealousy. At last the court of Russia, to un- 
Paton. I. 13 


deceive the people, sent Prinoe Dolgorouki to Monteuegro, 
properly accredited to the Archbishop, who assembled all 
the people, and declared him to be an impostor. Stephen 
was therefore placed under arrest, and taken to the upper 
floor of the convent. The door being left open, he sat 
in a corner, while his old admirers still thronged in and 
conversed with him; the Archbishop and Dolgorouki, on 
the ground-floor, thinking the whole business about to be 
concluded. But Stephen^s resources were not at an end. 
Calling one of the most influential men, to speak a few 
words with him in private, he said, "There is the key of 
my box; go to the convent of Sermnitza, open it, and 
take the money in it. Leave Montenegro immediately, 
and go to Russia; and after telling my futhful people 
how I have been betrayed by my own subject, bring back 
the principal men of the empire to deliver me from Dol- 
gorouki, who you see, traitor though he be, lodges me 
over his head, and does not dare to put me below him." 
This man, to give his wife a reason for his absence, told 
her the story, ei^joining the utmost secrecy; but she told 
the matter, in confidence, to some female friend. It was 
believed more firmly than ever; Dolgorouki left the 
Mountain branded as an impostor, and Stephen, once 
more a great man, assured every body that the Paschalics 
of Scutari and Ipek were the righteous appendages of 

The Turks now seriously amazed at the attitude of 
Montenegro, and at the illusions of their own Rayahs, 
the whole forces of the Pashas of Scutari, Bosnia, and 
Roumelia were put in motion to coerce Montenegro ; but 
in the autumn, just as the Turks were about to penetrate 
to Cetigne, in consequence of the ammunition of the 
Montenegrines having failed them, a flash of lightning 
blew all the Turkish powder-reserves into the air, and, 
the bad weather of autumn coming on, the campaign 
ended without effect. But Stephen always fought shy, 
and in the wars shewed more cunning than physical 
courage, which gradually undermined his influences; and 


his Greek servant being bribed by the Pasha of Scutari, 
took advantage of -his being confined to his room from 
havlBg accidentally burned his eyes with gunpowder, and 
cut his throat, probably whilst he slept. The Greek then, 
saying to the people outside that they were not to disturb 
him till called, as he had put something to his eyes that 
would require his being let alone, made the best of his 
way in the direction of the lake of Scutari; but some 
time elapsing without Stephen beeing seen, suspicion was 
excited, among the suite, and, opening the door, they 
found him weltering in his own blood. 

The rule of Stephen lasted between three and four 
years, and ought to find a place in every book of popular 
delusions and impostures. It is evident that, with good 
education, a good position, and above all, with common 
honesty, Stephen would have been a historical character. 
His knowledge of human nature in its strength and 
weakness must have been prodigious; and, like Hakem, 
the mad caliph of Cairo, he kept so strict an observance 
of the laws of meum and tuum, that a sum of money 
placed on the public road would remain there untouched 
and unstolen. 

The blessings of civilisation are still strange to Mon- 
tenegro ; but a great diminution of the previous barbarism 
is due to the exertions of the Vladika Peter, who entered 
on his functions in 1777, and died in 1830. He was of 
a thin habit of body, with intellectual features, and great 
natural sagacity. His political and religious influence was, 
during that period, almost unbounded; but he lived in 
times when very little could be done for the improve- 
ment of the people. The barbarism of the exterminating 
wars which were perpetually carried on with the Turks, — 
and which even shewed itself in the most painful manner 
by the useless conflagration of the suburbs of Kagusa 
when that republic, opening its gates to the troops of 
Napoleon, was invaded by the joint forces of Russia and 
Montenegro, — was a great obstacle to his designs, which 
compriged the improvement of agriculture, and the abolition 



of hereditary feuds (called Kerverina) between native 
Montenegrines. He had himself a great taste for agricul- 
ture and gardening, and made many experiments at 
Cetigne; but from the barren nature of the soil of Mon- 
tenegro generally, it is much to be doubted if any ad- 
vantage has resulted from them. In the extirpation of 
that hereditary revenge which desolated the Mountain he 
was much more successful; and the partial abolition of 
this barbarous custom laid the foundation of the greater 
order which now exists in Montenegro. To be able duly 
to appreciate the value of this reform, we must cast our 
eyes to the state in which things existed during the 
earlier part of his Vladikaship. 

The laws of Stephan Dushan, the Servian emperor (the 
Justinian of the southern Slaavs), being founded on the 
Old rather than the New Testament, it is not surprising 
that in a country such as Montenegro the doctrine of an 
eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, should have 
resisted the efforts of previous Vladikas to extirpate it. 
Like the feuds of the Highlands of Scotland, such enmities 
have been known to last for generations between one 
family and another, one village and another, and even 
between branches of the same family. The law of Mon- 
tenegro was literally the lex talionis, the law of reta- 
liation ; the bloody vestments of the murdered father have 
been shewn to the children arrived at puberty, by the 
mother herself, to inspirit them to revenge; and as every 
vice propagates itself, other revenges follow. If the first 
culprit were punished, the evil would be less; but all 
the other members of his family or tribe are equally ob- 
noxious to the aggrieved party. In many cases, the 
circumstance of being an innocent member of such an 
obnoxious family has cost a man his life ; and in Albania 
feuds of whole villages, with the burning of crops, and 
the massacre of tens or hundreds, have arisen from a single 

To remedy the evil, courts of compensation were 
called, and the blood redeemed with money; but this was 


a very golemn affair, and a hundred and thirty-two ducats, 
four Austrian zwanzigers, and a Turkish parah, or about 
sixty pounds sterling, was the ransom for a death, and 
about half that sum for an eye and a limb. The cere- 
monies of reconciliation were very curious. The judge was 
always a stranger, generally a priest, and the expenses 
of the court being settled beforehand, the judge took all 
the arms from the parties, and never returned them until 
all claims were settled. In the case of feuds of families, 
the murderer presented himself on his knees, with the 
pistol or other arm hung round his neck, and begged 
pardon in the name of God and St. John. If the avenging 
party raised him and embraced him, he was pardoned; 
and sometimes the avenging relations stood godfather for 
the child of the offender. At each treaty of peace the 
Turkish parah was cut in two, and tied to the written 
treaty; and an entertainment, at the expense of the 
offender, closed the feud. Even in the Austrian territory 
amusing arrears of insult or injury were brought up for 
settlement; and, in spite of Austrian laws, these courts 
of reconciliation were held, until lately, in the circle of 
Cattaro, quite independently of Austrian local authority. 
In the territory of the Pastrovich, a savage tribe in 
Austrian Albania, one village demanded of another fifty 
ducats for an insult that one of their women had received 
from some Venetian soldiers, in the time of that Republic, 
through the supineness or pusillanimity of the village in 
question, and an old man of seventy being referred to, 
related that he had heard the matter stated in his youth; 
but how the dispute was settled does not appear. 

The Vladika Peter died in October 1830, having as- 
sembled all the chiefs round his deathbed, and adjured 
them to live in harmony with each other, which they 
promised in the most solemn manner; and his nephew, 
then a youth of eighteen years of age, succeeded to his 
functions and authority, having, with a rapidity exceeding 
that of the days of the Medici, passed through the grades 
between layman and archbishop in the course of a few 


months: so that nepotism in the family of Petrovich has 
now received the sanction of use and wont for a full 
century and a half. An influential lay family in the 
Mountain, a principal member of which claimed the title 
of civil governor, as an equipoise to the influence of the 
Petrovich family, was compelled to depose its pretensions. 

The young Vladika was of gigantic stature, probably 
six feet three or four inches high ; for although I did not 
see him in Montenegro, I had an opportunity of a short 
conversation with him subsequently at Spalato, when on 
his return to Montenegro from Vienna. He spoke, besides 
his own language, French, Italian, and German; had a 
great thirst for knowledge, and a great taste for literature; 
and, although thrown into political affairs at a very early 
age, yet acquitted himself with great energy and ability. 
In 1831, soon after his accession, he created a senate, which 
was thenceforth not only a council of deliberation, but a 
court of justice; and organised a small revenue, which, 
with nine thousand ducats annually received from Russia, 
not only covers the annual expense, but enables him, it is 
said, to save a considerable sum against a rainy day. 
During the distress of 1846 he sent several ship-loads of 
grain, and each family received such a supply as, in many 
instances, preserved them from starvation. 

In no respect were the humane exertions of the Vladika 
more laudable than in his persevering exertions to follow 
out the views of his uncle relative to the Kerverina, or 
the vengeance for bloodshed; and he seized every re- 
markable occasion for enforcing upon the people his 
dymg wishes. When the body of the deceased prelate 
was found intact (no doubt after having been embalmed), 
he issued to them the following pastoral address: 


"On the 18th of this month, being St. Luke's day, we 

have opened the tomb of your and our late Archbishop, 

and have found his body in a blessed sleep, and in a 

state of incorrupt preservation. We therefore announce 


to you this aaspicions event, that you may return thanks 
to Almighty God for it. When alive, he was our de- 
fender, and ready to lay down his life for us. Let us 
hope that, after death, this saint and servant of God will 
intercede for us his children. Pious Christians, do you 
remember his last words, recommending you to live in 
concord and harmony? These holy words made a deep 
impression on you before his sanctification was made 
manifest; but now that you see with your own eyes that 
he is holy and intact, rest assured that the enemy of 
concord and harmony will find St. Peter (Petrovich) a for- 
midable foe both in this world and the next; but if any 
one feel a secret disquietude, in consequence of vindictive 
feelings, let him seek a reconciliation with the object of 
his hatred, and he will thus render himself pleasing to 
God and St. Peter. » 

"Desiring you all good, I remain, 

The Bishop of Moktenbobo akd Bbdo. 
"5^. Luke^s Day, in Cetigne, 1834." 

But the most singular of all the productions of this 
Vladika was a tragedy called The Serpent of the Mountain, 
which he has written on the subject of the massacre and 
expulsion of the Turks by the first Vladika Daniel, at the 
close of the seventeenth century, of which I give a short 
soliloquy literally translated. 

''Archbishop Daniel speaks 'with himself. 

"Satan ftnd seven furies! there goes the Turk, with 
torches in each hand, and serpents for his hair ; the Koran 
inspires him, and the accursed race devastates the whole 
earth. But for the Franks, he would have possessed all 
the shores of the Arab Sea. A dream of hell crowned 
the Ottoman. Europe, these are sad guests ! Byzantium 
is no more. She was the inheritance of the young 

1 The opinions which every Protestant must entertain on the 
subject of certain matters in this address are so obvious, as to render 
comment on my part quite unnecessary. 


Theodora. The star of black veDgeance was on the 
ascendant; Paleologus called in the Turk to bury Greece 
and Servia in one tomb; Gertuco and Brankovich share 
his guilt. As a flock of birds eat grains, Axnurath swal- 
lowed Servia, Bajazet Bosnia, Mohammed the Greek 
Empire, and the two Solomans {sic) Africa and Cjrprus; 
each took his grains: the great globe itself would be too 
small for those that are insatiable.'' ^ 

A literal translation such as this, like a coat worn 
inside out, may raise a smile; but I was told by those 
who have perused the original manuscript, that it abounds 
in robust language, and in abundance of metaphor, that 
sometimes rises to genius; though occasionally disfigured 
with such conceits as were in vogue among our own 
Elkanah Settles in the seventeenth century. 

At a very early age the Yladika shewed the readiness 
of his wit in practical affairs. In 1832 the lineal descendant 
and representative of the house of Czernojevich, the 
Christian princes of Montenegro, was Boushatli Mustapa, 
hereditary Pasha of Scutari, then in rebellion against the 
Porte. When he was subdued by the forces of the Sultan, 
and sent to Constantinople a prisoner, the grand vizier 
Mehemet Reshid Pasha summoned the Yladika to sub- 
mission, offering to give him, in due form, the Berat, or 
diploma of the Sultan. The Vladika, then a youth of 
twenty, answered laconically, ^^ That so Ipng as Montenegro 
was independent, a Berat constituting him ruler was 
useless; and that if Montenegro were conquered and sub- 
dued, the Berat was a mockery." Eight thousand men, 
partly regulars, and partly Albanians, were sent to make 
the Vladika eat in his words; but the victorious troops 
that had wrested the pashalic of Scutari from the Moslem 
descendant of Ivan Czernojevich found the subjugation 
of the flef of his ancestors a hopeless task, and, being 
easily beaten, abandoned the project. 

^ For a selection of translations I am indebted to the Abbate 
Francheschi of Zara, one of the best Slaavists in Dalmatia. 


But a petty warfare is almost constantly going on on 
the borders of the Lake of Scutari, and the forays of the 
mountaineers resemble those of a Rob Roy. Forty or 
fifty of them surprise cattle, sheep, and fowls ; and Moslem 
Albanians defending themselves, the Montenegrine often 
pays the forfeit of his life. It never strikes the Monte- 
negrine that this is immoral, the taking of the blood of 
a Moslem being in his eyes not only lawful but laudable ; 
and a mother will often reproach her laggard son, by 
contrasting his remaining at home with their father, who 
killed such and such a number of Turks. The result of 
this is, that all the debateable land is cultivated by men 
armed to the teeth; and, by tacit consent, these savages, 
who in general spare neither life nor possession, seldom 
bum standing crops, and respect female chastity. But 
robberies or theft within the Montenegrine territory are 
rare. When an execution does take place, it has all the 
singularity of the rest of their manners. Representatives 
of all the forty tribes assemble with loaded guns, and the 
criminal, with his hands bound behind him, has a short 
space to run, when all fire upon him, and he is generally 
despatched ; but instances have been known of his getting 
off with a wound. 

The great obstacle to order is the vicinity of several 
frontiers. The Albanian Christian can take refuge in 
Montenegro, the Albanian Moslem can take refuge in 
Herzegovina, which is only nominally under the Porte. 
The Dalmatian flies into Herzegovina or Montenegro ; and 
even the Montenegrine, in consequence of the vicinity of 
Herzegovina and Albania, knows that the government 
dare not be very severe with him. A curious conjuncture 
happened during my stay in those parts. The districts 
of Piperi and Kooch, which are the most easterly and 
farthest from the Adriatic, had, in consequence of the 
failure of the harvest, sent their elders to the Pasha 
of Scutari, and professed their acknowledgment of the 
superiority of the Porte. On arrival at Scutari, the 
deputies were invested with red cloaks, and last, not least. 



received a donative; but when I talked of the matter 
with these Cetignotes, they laughed, and said, "Wait till 
the first good harvest, and you will see that we have not 
lost, and the Porte has not gained, a single goat's 

With regard to the southern side of the Moontain:, 
which slopes down to Austrian Albania, the Montenegrines 
desire a port on the Adriatic above all things, as it is so 
very near; but it is not so easy to intersect a narrow 
stripe of Austrian territory as to defend the Mountain. 
Contrary to the better judgment of the Vladika (who was 
a politic man with all his energy, and knew that he 
could not simultaneously bid defiance to Austria and the 
Porte), the mountaineers on the western side attacked 
the Austrian posts in 1839; and, after several smart 
skirmishes, the idea of a Montenegrine port on the 
Adriatic was at once negatived by an act of delimitation 
under the mediation of Russia. 

In conclusion, Montenegro has the elements of a rude 
independence, but not of prosperity, or rapidly progressive 
civilisation; with a population of little more than one 
hundred and ten thousand souls, her part Toost ever 
remain a subordinate one in the history of the Adriaiie. 
The undisciplined courage, adequate to the defence of 
their rocks, is incapable of withstanding any regular force 
beyond the limits of the Mountain; and the deeds sung 
by their bards are mere episodes in a barbarous warfare. 
Without either fertile plains or access to the seai the 
humanising influences of commerce and agriculture must 
remain dormant and inoperative; but it is not to be 
denied that in the event of any general rising in Turkey 
in Europe against the power of the Porte, the Montene* 
grines are capable of making a powerful diversion, and 
of offering to the rebels a secure asylum for a time in 
their mountain fortress. 




Ragusa is situated on the southern side of a small 
isthmus, but the port is only for the galleys of the middle 
ages. Half a mile off, on the northern side of the isthmus, 
is the Gulf of Gravosa, which is the port of the vessels 
of long course. Like Cattaro, it is a land-locked anchorage, 
where a fleet of three-deckers are safe from the accidents 
of the sea. Cattaro is sublime, but Gravosa is beautiful. 
No towering mountains in the distance, but a steep 
accidented shore ; along which is scattered a profusion of 
Italian villas, and that peculiar tone of landscape and 
vegetation which is seen in Gaeta and Castelamare, but 
which no minuteness of description can convey to the 
fireside traveller. The sun had not yet risen above the 
mountains, but every object was, from the sharpness of 
the air, delineated with a most unusual clearness. A keen, 
cold bora blew from the land, which, from time to time, 
made a shudder to creep through my frame despite my 
cloak. The dark blue crystal waters, the red-tiled villas 
all round, the green cypresses and olives shaking and 
bending with the breeze, and the bare embrowned hills 
above all, seemed to exhale that rarified atmosphere which 
one sees above the expiring ashes of charcoal. 

I landed, and getting porters to convey my luggage, 
for no carriage was to be seen, followed them up the 
narrow valley at the end of the bay by an excellent road, 
until I arrived at the top of the hill, from which the 
walls of the venerable Ragusa were clearly visible — but 
what lofty and solid masonry, having in some places sixty 
and seventy feet of sheer upright construction! — and the 
angle next the land, and overlooked by the hill above, 
fortified by an enormous round tower, a most picturesque 
relic of the interval between the rude middle ages and 
the modem art of fortificationu After entering a pon- 
derous gate, I found myself in the high street of Ragusa, 


called by themselves Stradone, the like of which is not 
to be seen in all Dalmatia for width and excellence of 
its construction. Not far from the gate is the hotel Alia 
Corona, where I got a good room, and was treated with 
great civility; but in all other respects it was deficient 
in the comforts and conveniences of even a tolerable 
hotel. Being the only one in the town, I removed to 
private lodgings in the house of a respectable widow lady, 
whose father had, some forty years before, been consul 
of the Eepublic of Ragusa at Smyrna. 

After a day devoted to delivering letters and paying 
visits, I began to look about me. Ragusa is situated upon 
a narrow space that intervenes between a high chain of 
hills and the sea ; and standing on the outer side of the 
city, next the sea, its domes and campaniles, seen against 
the mountain side, have a most picturesque effect; but 
this position causes it to be intolerably hot in midsummer. 
The space on which the city is built being so small, the 
houses are lofty, and the streets in general narrow, but 
clean and well paved; and in no city of so small a size 
have I seen so many elegant edifices congregated together; 
so that I felt myself in a charming Italian capital of the 
second class. Even the lUyrian language, of which, I 
confess, I know comparatively little, is so soft and musical 
that the illusion is kept up ; and the only word I quarrel 
with is the name of the town itself, Dubrovnik, which 
even the glory cast round it by the native muses cannot 
reconcile to my ears. All the houses are of solid stone, 
and of the shops in the streets the only one that struck 
me was that of an apothecary in the Stradone, which was 
ranged all around with a splendid set of Faenza gallipots 
of the Cinque Cento, painted in a curious manner, and 
formerly belonging to the laboratory of the Rector of the 
Republic. The sight of these flowers of art blushing 
unseen in such an out-of-the-way comer of the world 
would, if known, set all Wardour Street by the ears. 

The appearance of the population is a complete con- 
trast to that of Cattaro. Several erect old aristocratic- 


looking figures moving about shew that this city has been 
long a seat of culture; and the toilets of the fair part of 
the creation, with a complete absence of finery, shewed 
a taste and elegance that was unmistakeable, — albeit under- 
stood, using the modes of Europe. But in the market- 
place, at the foot of a high flight of stairs leading up to 
a Jesuits' church, was a crowd of the peasantry in the 
neighbourhood. A tall ruddy-faced man, fi'om Brenno, 
with red bonnet, loose brown jacket, and wide breeches, 
with game hung over his shoulder, talks to a dame who 
holds in her hand a large green cabbage, — a subject for 
a modem Mieries : he is full of natural ease and politeness, 
and is a complete contrast to the rude Morlack boor 
whom ^e saw at Obrovazzo, on our first entrance into 

In most other towns one gets readily to the open 
quay; not so in the wall-girt Ragusa. A single archway 
opens to the port, where I found only a few vessels of 
moderate tonnage, in consequence of its diminutive size. 
A fine large trabacolo had just landed a cargo of New- 
foundland cod and stock-fish from Trieste for the ap- 
proaching Greek fasts, and was about to take back the 
famed oil of Kagusa and the delicious anchovies of the 
coast for the gourmands of the north. At the entrance 
of the port, in a niche of the rampart, is the statue of 
St. Blasius, or San Biagio, as he is called in Italian, the 
patron saint of Ragusa. Tradition says, that, on several 
occasions, he caught balls sent against the town in the 
palms of his hands, and sent them back to the enemy. 
Tempests too have been repelled by the same legerdemain. 
After such feats it will not surprise the reader that 
Appendini, the chronicler of Ragusa, says, "Nothing can 
be more reasonable and just than the devotion of the 
Ragusans to this saint, for his patronage has proved most 
prompt and efficacious in a thousand private and public 

The Piazza behind the port is, beyond all comparison, 
the most attractive part of. the town. Ragusa is the 


place where the union of Slaavic and Italian has been 
consummated. The language, the nationality, and the 
manners of the mass of the people, are lUyrian, but 
lUyrian conjugated with Italy's happiest moods and tenses 
of embellishment. Servia and her woods call up little of 
the past, and the Servian awaits a great futurity. Ragusa, 
in the seventeenth century, from her taste, her learning, 
her science, her wealth, her commerce, and the long roll 
of illustrious men she produced in every walk of life, 
earned the title of the Slaavic Athens. Wealth, commerce, 
science, and population, have melted away, but the outward 
city still remains to nourish the patriotism of the Ragosan. 

As the Venetian, standing on the Piazzetta of his 
capital, reads the history of the great Republic in the 
monuments around him, so the concentration of edifices 
of various styles forming the Piazza of Ragusa records, 
on an humbler scale of architecture, the glorious ante- 
cedents of this meritorious Republic. The Dogana, or 
Custom-house, an extensive pile of Gothic architectare 
without, and like an Oriental Khan within, carries the 
mind to the period when the factories of the Republic 
of Ragusa, with separate and independent jurisdictions, 
were spread over all Turkey in Europe; when Constan- 
tinople was as yet unconquered by Mohammed 11.; when 
Ragusa, the weak but determined opponent of Venice, 
was in high favour at the court of Adrianople, and boasted 
those capitulations with the Porte, which were the germs 
of modern consular jurisdiction. 

There too is the palace of the Rector of the ex-republic, 
one of those fine edifices on the eve of the Cinque Cento; 
those massive Roman arches, those curious middle-aged 
sculptures, that spirit of Gothic detail haunting the revival 
of the forms of antiquity, render it a most picturesque 
and original edifice; and denote the transition of taste, 
when the beauties of antique art were perceived and 
admired, but approached without confidence or experience. * 

' This edifice was founded aft«r the conflagration of the old Senate- 
house in 1435, and completed about the year 1452. 


Here sat the Rector in grave council, or animated debate, 
received ambassadors, represented the state, and devised 
those wise measures which preserved this little common- 
wealth unscathed by the misfortunes of the surrounding 
provinces, from the dark ages up to the first years of 
the present century. 

Under the colonnade of the palace is the great gate 
of cast bronze, its rivets and knockers the ne plus ultra 
of florid elaboration; and beyond the deep shadows of 
the vaulted entrance is seen the courtyard, witii a flood 
of light falling on a green bronze bust of a figure with 
a peaked Charles I. beard, in the dress of the earlier part 
of the seventeenth century, with the pedestal inscribed: 




He was one of the merchant princes of Ragusa, who 
left 200,000 gold zechins for charitable uses invested in 
the bank of San Giorgio in Genoa; but on looking closer 
we perceived the skull slightly concave, and another face 
of the pedestal containing the inscription : 



— a forcible memento of the fierce earthquake of that 
year, which buried all but the strongest edifices, and 
consigned nearly half of the population of the city to 

Beside the palace is one of those architectural incidents 
which abound in Italy, but are rarely seen in the imitative 
countries of the north of Europe, where the greater 
efibrts of southern art are alone copied. The guard-house 
presents a lofty portal, flanked with columns, and in the 
centre of the pediment is the colossal head of Orlando, 
in casque and plume, frowning over all the Piazza. 
Above is the Torre del Oroloflio, or belfry, crowned with 
an open cupola; and by a^d^nanical device two bronze 


figures, the size of life, armed cap a pie, strike the bell 
with maces at the evolution of each hour. Such coignes 
of fancy shew that art in Ragusa came from wUhin, as 
well as from without. 

Inferior in architectural interest is the cathedral built 
after the earthquake, in what the northerns call the style 
of Louis Quatorze. But the history of the original found- 
ation of the edifice had to me an unexpected interest in 
its connexion with the fate and fortunes of the lion- 
hearted Richard of England. On the island of CShroma, 
opposite the town, Richard was shipwrecked on his return 
from the Holy Land. A church was begun from the 
funds which he endowed, out of gratitude for his deli- 
verance, which, augmented in time, withstood the elements 
for five centuries, but succumbed in that dread hour when 
mountains were shaken to their foundations. 

General Reiche, then commanding in Ragusa, haying 
had the kindness to ask his Platz Lieutenant to shew me 
round the walls and military establishments, I went next 
morning to his office. 

Accompanied by a sergeant carrying a great bnnch 
of keys, we now began our journey in cold clear sunshine, 
and about a hundred yards off, the man opening a door 
in the wall, we entered and went up a high flight of steps, 
and then another flight, and then another, and at length stood 
on the parapet. The walls of Ragusa have no resemblance to 
a modern fortification, with bastions and fosses ma^nng 
a mathematical figure; but are those of a rock-built city, 
being of enormous height, thickness, and solidity, rising 
irregularly, from the irregularities of the locality, inter- 
spersed with great towers, and looking just like one of 
those cities one sees in the prints of old Bibles. Looking 
over the rampart, I saw the sea playing against the base 
of the rock; looking outwards, I saw the clear expanse 
of the Adriatic in the intensest of blue, the bare bold 
promontories of the coast to the south and the north 
jutting into the sea, and the intervening recesses filled with 
vegetation. If I turned frosn the sea to the town at my 

CHAPTER Vni. RAGtrSA. 209 

feet, I saw an irregalar surface of reddish-tiled and yellow- 
walled houses, with green Venetian blinds, from out of 
which rose a couple of blue lead cupolas, and the edifices 
of the Piazza. 

We now continued the tour of the walls, the sea far 
below us on our left, and the streets of the town also 
fiff below us on our right ; but soon we came to a large 
building on an elevation within the walls, no longer below 
us, but on the same level: this was the barracks, con- 
taining 1200 Hungarians, the garrison of the town; so 
we entered to see the establishment. . A thin cake of ice 
was on a little pool in the courtyard, which, from the 
high building, the sun could not reach, and the sergeant 
said that it was the first that had been seen for twelve 
years, which speaks for the mildness of the climate. 
Ascending a wide whitewashed staircase, we came to the 
barrack-room, a long . gallery, furnished on each side with 
beds, above each of which was a shelf containing the 
knapsack, the hat, and the odds and ends of the soldier, 
and in the middle was a long black board for teaching 
reading and writing. It was the dinner-hour, and I had, 
just before entering, seen across the roofs of the houses 
the two mechanical figures in bronze strike their hammers 
twelve times on the bell of the Torre del Orologio, an* 
nouncing the hour of mid-day. Each man had a basin 
of soup, a plate of boiled beef and vegetables, and his 
loaf of bread; and on tasting the soup, I pronounced it 
sufficiently strong and nourishing. 

When we went down stairs we found ourselves on the 
rampart again, and, ascending an outside flight of steps, 
I saw some red jackets hanging out to be aired on the 
wall, and some uncouth dark-looking men in undress 
standing about. The uniform of the Hungarian regiment 
being white, with sky-blue light trousers, I asked what 
these red ones could be, and was informed that they 
belonged to the men I saw, who were the gypsy musicians 
of the regiment; so I entered into conversation with the 
sergeant about them, and i* told me in answer to a 
Patok. I. 14 


question, that if they had any religion of their own, they 
must keep it a secret, for they are entered as Catholics, 
and attend Mass with the other soldiers. Their talent 
and aptitude for music is unquestionable; and before I 
left Bagusa I spent a most agreeable hour at the lodgings 
of the officer who takes charge of the music here, — for 
the regular band of the regiment, consisting of forty per- 
formers, was at Zara, and this was only a subordinate 
division, — but although they played several opera airs, it 
was evident that their favourite style was the walti. 

Continuing our walk, we now went down, inside a 
long flight of steps, to the level of the town, and entered 
the canteen, in which were two soldiers drinking beer. 
A tall Moll Flagon looking woman was standing at the 
counter, with bottles, glasses, keys, and stores of pipe-clay, 
which shewed that that article came out of the twopence 
a day. The woman looked alarmed at seeing an officer 
and a stranger enter with the two sergeants with keys 
(for the other one carried the keys of the prison), and 
the two poor men drinking their beer were equally flur- 
ried, and rising up, stood mechanically in a row, aa if 
about to be marched off handcuffed ; but it was soon seen 
that our motive was curiosity. From the canteen we 
went to the barrack-prison, which was a dark apartment, 
and as we entered found the prisoners plucking spairowa 
for dinner, with all the feathers scattered on the floor. 
They were fourteen in number, and stood up in a row, 
some fettered, and some not; as the garrison was alto- 
gether 1400 strong, the prisoners formed one per cent; 
the usual offences being petty thefts from their comradet, 
and insolence to their superiors. The rest of our prome- 
nade offered no circumstance worthy of a notice. 

The society of Ragusa is very agreeable to a stranger, 
who does not enter into the petty jealousies of old no- 
bility or parvenu. Some of the best families, in spite of 
their long pedigrees, are not in a more prosperous con- 
dition than the Hidalgo of Gil Bias; but several, having 
preserved their entailed estates from dispersion during 


the French occupation, are in easy circumstances. One 
of the more fortunate of these families is distinguished 
by a refined literary taste; and their old Italian library, 
with Aldine and other editions, Latin as well as vulgar, 
was not more interesting than their assiduous attentions 
were agreeable. 

We found ourselves in the grounds of a fine old- 
&shioned Italian villa, laid out by the Counts of Gozze, 
the descendants of the founders of the aristocracy in the 
tenth century, the representative of which, to whom 
Mr. B. presented me, did the honours. Quite close to the 
sea was the villa, an ancient edifice; and between it and 
the village above were the gardens of thick high laurel 
alleys, cut into straight lines, still in their full foliage, 
through which the setting sun occasionally succeeded in 
shooting a golden dart that trembled with the breeze on 
the inner thickets: suddenly the rushing of water was 
heard, and an open space shewed an extensive Italian 
fountain, to which the water was conveyed on arches, 
and where a colossal statue of Neptune, with moss-crowned 
head, and tended by moss-clad nymphs, recorded the taste 
and opulence of the by-gone Eagusa. "It was after a 
voyage to Rome that these gardens were laid out, in 1525," 
said the Count, "and that stout oak was planted." "And 
this garden-monger," thought I to myself, "may have stood 
at the easel of Kaffaelle himself, and seen with his own 
eyes the genius of Angelo crowning with vaulted dome 
the substruction of a Bramante." Leaving the moss-grown 
statues, and the dripping aqueduct, we re-entered the 
villa. In a large hall, on the first floor of which was a 
tesselated pavement as a floor, and around the walls antique 
mirrors, were the full-length portraits of the successors 
of the garden-fancier, most potent, grave, and reverend 
signors, in Mechlin frills and black satin. The Coimt 
presented me to his mother, in whom, to my great plea- 
sure, I found an Englishwoman long absent from the 
land of her birth, and speaking Illyrian and Italian almost 
as her mother-tongue, but sUll preserving the unembar- 



rassed dignity of her native race. Mutual seemed the 
pleasure of meeting in this strange, sequestered, antiquated 
spot. A fair exchange is no robbery, and the accounts 
of her terrors of Ragusan earthquakes were not more 
painfully interesting to me, than my accounts of modem 
London seemed to unsettle all the landmarks of her un- 
married days. 

A complete contrast to the antique air of the vilk of 
the founders of the patriciate of Ragusa, is that of my 
worthy friend, Count Giorgi. There is always something 
about these Ragusan houses that bears reference to some 
period of European history. In the drawing-rooms of the 
Palazzo Giorgi, I no longer recognised the Ragusa of the 
cinque cento, with its marble floors and its faded ceilmgs, 
with copies of the Venetian school of painting; nor yet 
the Ragusa of last century, with every ornament or table* 
leg carved, and bulged a la Louis Quime\ here the 
straight lines, the yellow satin walls, and the fingid Greek 
mythological ornaments, proclaim the upholstery of the 
French empire. Rector Giorgi, the last president of the 
Ragusan Republic, became a Count of the French empire^ 
and, residing at Paris, acquired French tastes; and his 
son, a septuagenarian, has still the thoroughly French 
manner, and felicity of expression of that sprightly nation, 
when conversing of the strange historic scenes and aooi* 
dents of his youth. The Giorgi family was one of the 
most illustrious of Ragusa; and the Count shewed me the 
red cross of Genoa in their arms, which commemorates 
a curious circumstance. Matteo Giorgi commanded the 
Ragusan galleys which accompanied the Grenoese in their 
expedition against Venice, in 1378; and the loss of the 
battle of Chioggia was attributed to Doria refusing the 
advice of Giorgi as to the dispositions to be taken. In 
token of this, the Republic allowed the family to have 
the cross of Genoa in their arms. 

Of those salient angles of domestic economy which 
are to be remarked in Servia, and which are essential 
accessories of a knowledge of physical and political 


geography, my note -book contains few traces. The 
dinner-parties at the palace of the civil Grovernor, 
and the mansion of the General in command of the 
district, were in no respect different from those of well- 
ordered hospitable mansions in European capitals. At a 
dinner given by the Bishop there was a brilliant improvi- 
sation between each brindisi of champagne, by the rising 
poet of Ragusa, Dan Marco Ealugera, the professor of philo- 
sophy in the Lyceum of the city. All the grand themes 
of the day, not forgetting Britannia, were brought in with 
a felicity and a mastery of versification that reminded me 
of the happiest moments of Pistrucci. 

With still more local colour was a dinner preceding 
a marriage at the house of Signor R., one of the most 
Idnd-hearted men whom I had known during my tour, 
and who was one of a party with which I had made 
a moonlight visit to the ruins of the suburbs. We were 
received on the first stage in a drawing-room, the floor 
of which was paved with slabs of black and white marble, 
abont a foot square, which appears cold to an English- 
man, but custom makes the Ragusans feel no regret for 
the absence of the snug carpet and the cheerful fire; in 
other respects the furniture was Italian. Italian was also 
the language spoken, as I am too weak in Ulyrian to 
rastain a regular conversation. Each of the ladies dandled 
a varnished earthen-ware pot of charcoal on the knee, 
with which they warmed themselves, and which they 
carried about even in rising, and never quitted. Ragusa 
18 as remarkable as Venice for the beauty of the feir sex; 
they have all dark complexions, and the mixture of Roman 
with Ulyrian blood is evidently so considerable, that the 
contour of the Ragusan in general is scarcely to be 
distinguished from that of the Italian. 

Instead of going down stairs to dinner, we went to an 
upper chamber, not very luminous, as the bright red plaster 
and green Venetian blinds of the opposite side of the 
street were not many yards off. The narrow streets of 
the Christian south and Moslem east are well suited to a 


hot climate, and a legacy of the contracted species of 
construction common among the ancients; the greater 
wideness of the northern style being probably a result of 
the formation of towns out of the straggling isolation of 
old German villages. Our dinner was as a dinner on the 
eve of a marriage should be, more gay and good-homoored 
than formal. The Pilaff, the famous Bottarga of the neigh- 
bouring Albania, and a variety of other dishes, were all 
indicative of the geographical position of Ragusa; and, 
according to local custom, the health of the bride and 
bridegroom were drunk in Malmsey. 

Several of the old customs of Ragusa have fallen into 
desuetude since the French and Austrian occupations. In 
marriage, for instance, the parents invariably decided on 
the husband that a young lady was to have. From twelve 
years of age she was secluded from all intercourse with 
the world ; when the papa had found a suitable match, he 
said, "My dear, you ought to marry such and such a one; 
to-day let us go and sign the contract;" and without 
more ado the cameriera produced her bonnet and veil, 
and the old gentleman offering his arm, the young lady, 
with emotions of apprehension or curiosity to see her 
partner for life, went to get the preliminaries of the nuptial 
knot adjusted: but if Signora Rosina had a Lindoro, then 
a series of domestic persecutions commenced, and a con- 
vent was the alternative of a marriage of convenience. 

The old society of Ragusa was not without some other 
local peculiarities which are worthy of notice. 

With the ease, elegance, and opulence of the eigh- 
teenth century was mingled a frivolity of manners which 
did not escape the satiric pen of the ruder and homelier 
Dalmatian, and a few pages have ftirnished me with a 
sketch, wherein a slight deduction must be made for the 
jealousy of Ragusa, from which the neighbouring Dalmatian 
is not to this very day altogether free. * 

' This is a picture of a class existing in the last century, and 
alludes to no individual. 


"The Countess sat in her drawing-room on her birth- 
day awaiting visitors; what intoxication in her patches 
and high-heeled shoes! She has the very last fashions 
from Venice and Naples; and a universal coquetry coil- 
soles her for the marriage of convenience which she made 
witii the old Count. That plausible disciple of Loyola, 
who is her confessor, is said to have a powerful quiet 
influence over her; and as she receives, with undisguised 
pleasure, the flatteries of that elegant young man who 
has just entered, there is a latent hostility between them. 
What a bow the dandy makes her and all the company 
around! you would swear that he had learned his manners 
at Versailles, except that he betrays too unskifully the 
fartdve glances which he, from time to time, casts at the 
large mirror to admire his own attitudinising, and the 
graceful disposition of his dangling sword. 

"The mob of Ragusan fashionables now crowds up stairs; 
and among them two plebeians enter the room; Solomon 
the Jew broker (whose name stands between the wind 
and the Count's nobility ^ as owner of the ships in which 
he has the chief share) enters, and placing a bouquet on 
the table, salutes the lady, and retires forthwith. The 
other is a rustic priest, brother of the footman Giacomo, 
and in his younger days began by household offices, but 
was subsequently brought up to kill two dogs with one 
bone — to be the parish priest and chaplain, and at the 
same time steward of the Count's estate. 

"The mingling of voices as a sedan chair is set down 
tells of another visitor, and Monsignore the Archbishop 
of Bagusa is announced. This lofty personage is much 
less formidable on a nearer view ; nothing can exceed the 
courtesy of his address, or the pliability of his manners. 
He must be a foreigner, according to the laws of the 
Bepublic, and his salary is only a hundred zecchins a 
year; but for all that, he lives in good archiepis- 
copal style; for he has to beg from time to time dona- 

* In a sketch like this, only a free translation would be understood. 


tions from the senate, and the political powers that be 
are thus guaranteed against spiritual ambition. What a 
kind salutation the Archbishop gives the Jesuit, became 
the senate rules the Archbishop, the Count rales the 
senate by his influence, the Countess rules the Count, and 
the Jesuit rules the Countess. As for the poor fribble, 
he counts for nothing." 

Occasional balls and the opera for a couple of montiiB 
are the entertainments of winter. A few literary friends 
used to assemble nightly at the house of Count Z^ who 
is a fanatico for English literature ; and at the town- 
house of my fair fellow^countrywoman. Countess Gozxe, I 
had an opportunity of seeing a Ragusan ball. Our orches- 
tra was the dingy gypsies of the Hungarian regiment; 
but better dancing music I never would desire; the accen- 
tuation of the waltz phrases was so marked that the 
dullest ear must have caught the emphasis and danced 
in time. The charm of the waltz is surely in part owing 
to its contrast with the absurd modem method of dancing 
a quadrille; nay, not dancing, but monotonous marching, 
as if the effect of music and beauty was to set a man 
half asleep. The dances of Spain and the Monferino of 
Italy enable the dancer to correspond to the transport 
of good music, without going to the opposite extreme of 
stage gesture; but now custom compels the natural impulse 
of music to be painfully subdued. 

The honours were done with exquisite grace by the 
fair hostess, but nothing was worthy of remark as peculiar 
or national. 

The theatre gave me little satisfaction, being small, 
and badly lighted. The three principal singers were 
passable, considering the place, but the scenery wae be- 
low par. Chi dura vince, "He that endures conquers," 
— a sound moral, — but set to music by Ricci, had not 
much to be boasted of, either in the way of sound or 
sense; the baked meats of defunct predecessors hamg 
coldly furnished forth his marriage of music with verse. 
I confess that except Chiara di Bosenberg, I have never 


been able to sit out an opera of this composer, for half- 
a-dozen pleasing movements cannot float a whole evening 
of commonplaces. 

While the moon was shining with unwonted bright- 
ness, three Ragusans entered my room, — Don Marco K., 
Signor R^ and Signer B. 

** We have our renowned Ra^usan moonlight," said the 
first of these gentlemen, "which you will find neither in 
Venice, in Rome, nor in Milan; and we propose to take 
you a turn up the hill to show you the town under a 
new aspect." These worthy gentlemen having heard so 
much of the fogs of England, thought to procure me a 
moonlight view such as I never had seen before, so I 
thankfully accepted; but, in good truth, I believe there 
is nothing in the world comparable to the mosque of 
MoycBd in Cairo, when seen by the light of the full 

As we went out at the northern gate we found our- 
selves in the alley of trees, gently ascending to a rising 
ground that juts out from the line of mountains behind 
the town, and, after a short way, we turned to the right? 
up a narrow lane, enclosed by high garden-walls, and 
then, ascending some broken steps, found ourselves on the 
brow of the mount, from which we overlooked the town 
and environs, — a strange picturesque confusion of towers, 
cupolas, and housetops, rising in their pale green high 
lights and impenetrable shadows. A wall had partly concealed 
the view in the other direction, and, to my surprise, on 
proceeding a little farther along the pathway, I saw before 
me such a noble villa as one might behold in the environs 
of Rome. Above the basement were the large Palladian 
windows of the Gran Piano, and a great alcove was paved 
with slabs of marble; but the interior was a complete 
ruin: hemlock and nightshade grew where nobles and 
senators had feasted, the spacious tesselated terraces over- 
looked a garden choked with weeds, around which pillars 
of a Byzantine style of architecture supported the rotten 
trellis of a shady walk; confusion and desolation were 


all around. Farther on, another villa told the same tale 
of taste and elegance that had passed away: arbotin, 
terraces, kiosks, marble pavements, sculptures, all wreck 
and ruin. At first I thought I was in the midst of the 
havoc of the great earthquake; but as every wall was 
standing, and every cornice without even a gutta awaat- 
ing, I found that this was the Pille, the town of ruins, 
— the mountain slope, on which every great family of 
Ragusa had a summer villa, — which was destroyed l^ 
the Montenegrines in 1806, and shewed, on a small scale, 
in what way the great Roman empire must have fared at 
the hands of Hun, Goth, and Vandal. 

While these gentlemen conversed of various landmarics 
in the history of Ragusa previous to this catastrophe, I 
listened with silent interest to every word that fell; — tiie 
solemn hour, and the desolate scene, the silver beams of 
the moon, and the charming current of discourse, sufiFdsed 
a pleasing melancholy over the mind never to be forgotteii ; 
and, more than all that I had seen, stimulated me to 
inquire into the past history of this interesting Bepublia 
The following rough sketch is the result of an 
perusal of the native historians. 



The exact year of the foundation of Ragusa is obscure, 
but it is probably between the years 639 and 656, the 
first of these being marked by a partial destruction of 
the neighbouring Epidaurus by the Avars, and the second 
by the total ruin of this city by the Croats. Thus we 
begin with an analogy to Venice. Roman fugitives seek 
refuge in a rock separated from the mainland by a narrow 


passage. ^ The men of Padua fly from the Tartar Attila; 
and the men of Epidauras, two hundred years later, fly 
from the Avars and the Croats. Croat, a dialect of the 
Slaavic language, became the language of the new colony 
in the course of time; but as no man in Britain can 
tell in what proportion his blood belongs to the races 
that have successively conquered or been conquered, so 
no man in Ragusa can remount to a Roman or a Car- , 
pathian origin. ^ 

The Croats, conquering the Romans, are in turn sub- 
dued by Christianity, and these barbarians occupying all 
the interior of the country, the animosity between them 
and the Romans abated after their pacific settlement, and 
Ragusa became one of innumerable municipalities into 
which the shattered fragments of the empire reconstituted 
themselves on the coast; while freedom, and the security 
of an insular rock, create commerce. So far the parallel 
holds with Venice; but while a large part of the leve 
terra firma of Roman Italy was in time subjugated to the 
men of the Lagoon, the precipitous steeps and fierce 
bravery of the inhabitants circumscribed the territory of 
Ragusa to a few leagues of the coast. 

The chosen protectors of the city were Saints Sergius 
and Bacchus; but a curious incident in the fortunes of 
the city caused them to change it to Saint Blasius, or 
San Biagio. 

Thjp Venetians, in 791, frequented these seas for the 
purpose of rooting out the pirates of the neighbouring 
Narenta, who infested the Adriatic, and coveting the 
security and convenience of the position of Ragusa, sought 

* In Bagusa the space between the island and the mainland must 
hare been a very narrow one, for it was entirely filled up, and is now 
built upon. 

* Sarmatian, Syrmian, Serbian, Servian, are all different forms of 
the same word, of whi^h the root seems to be Serb or Serp. Groat, 
or Ghrobat, is derived from Crapat, the name of the mountainous 
region between the present Hungary and Poland, which still bears 
the name of Carpathian in the western dialects of Europe. 


to subjugate it to their authority; but its strength being 
beyond their force, they attempted its possession by stra- 
tagem. A numerous fleet of galleys was seen from the 
towers of Ragusa coming from the north, the alarm passed 
from battlement to battlement, and the town was in a 
state of readiness : but while a part of the fleet andiored 
in Gravosa, to the north of the island on which Ragusa 
^ was built, the other drew up under the island of La 
Chroma to the south; and the Venetian commander, land- 
ing with his officers in a pacific manner, gave out that 
he was bound for the seas of the Levant, and only wanted 
water and provisions. Suspicion was allayed, the Venetians 
went and came between the north gate leading to Gravosa, 
and the south gate opening on the small port; but a 
priest named Stoico, having by some means overheard, or 
got intelligence of, the design of the Venetians to assault 
the town in the dead of the following night, gave in- 
formation to the Government; and no sooner were the 
gates closed at sunset, than every Ragusan was at his 
post, and the attack awaited with breathless expectation. 
The first hour of the night passed without alarm; but 
after midnight the warder on the tower above the Post- 
ierna perceived the galleys at the island getting under 
weigh, and suddenly bearing up to the southern port. Scar- 
cely was the alarm passed, and preparation made to receive 
them, when a large body of the men of the other fleet in 
Gravosa suddenly landed, and silently ascending the steep 
hill to the north of Ragusa, expected to scale the walls 
and enter the city; but what was their surprise, on reach- 
ing the brow of the hill, to find themselves vigorously 
assaulted by a large body of Ragusans, and driven down 
the hill to the boats with great slaughter. The diversion 
to the north having completely failed, the Ragusans re- 
entered the city, and found that the Venetians, dismayed 
at seeing all the southern wall lined with armed men, 
who poured a torrent of stones and heavy beams on the 
assailants, had, struck with a panic, retired to their galleys. 
Indescribable was the joy of the Ragusans, as dawn 


crimsoned the peaks of Yellebitch, to see the discomfited 
galleys bearing out to ihe Adriatic. 

The priest, to draw the veil of mystery over the dubious 
means by which he had got intelligence of the design, 
declared that it had been revealed to him by St. Blasius; 
and, warm emotions of gratitude mingling with the super- 
stition of the age, Blasius was declared the protector and 
advocate of the city. 

Ragusa still nominally belonged to the Greek empire; 
for although the court of Constantinople was too feeble to 
rule them directly, yet the great anxiety to escape from 
the domination of Venice kept up amicable relations with 
Constantinople. In the year 1001 we find a treaty of 
peace and friendship made between Venice and Ragusa, 
by which the Venetians were annually to give the Ragusans 
fourteen yards of scarlet cloth, and an armed galley, in 
token of perpetual amity, and the Ragusans to return the 
compliment with two white horses, three barrels of Ribola 
wine, and an armed galley. 

From this treaty the prosperity of Ragusa may be 
dated; and while Venice rose to the commerce of the 
Eastern world, Ragusa became the emporium of the Slaavic 
countries to the north and the south of the Balkan. A 
citizen of the name of Gozze now founded the Patrician 
order of the city as at present constituted. Talent and 
popularity distinguished his youth; authority exercised his 
manhood; jealousy, the ingratitude of those whom he 
fostered, and exclusion from power, embittered his age; 
hence the laconic and afiecting heraldic motto which is 
seen on the arms of his descendants to this very day, 
Constitmt, rexit, luget; "he founded, he ruled, and he 
grieves." The territory of Ragusa had been hitherto con- 
fined to their rock ; but Stephen, king of Dalmatia in 1050, 
going to the church of St. Stephen's within the town, 
to fulfil a vow made during a grievous sickness, was re- 
ceived with great honour, and made a donation to the 
Ragusans of twenty-two miles of coast, including the 
delicious valleys of Breno and Ombla. 


But those idyllian landscapes conferred no military or 
political power; and we find in the subsequent part of 
the history of Ragusa that it was by a skilful diplomacy 
and politic alliances that they sought to redress the balance 
of territorial disadvantage, and avert the domination of 
Venice, which, without military occupation, persisted in 
asserting a right of sovereignty, ^a claim preferred by the 
Venetian, and repelled by the Hagusan historians for the 
last three centuries. So early as 1370 we find the Ra- 
gusans seeking the alliance of the Turks, now advanced 
from the slopes of the Altai to the Sea of Marmora. 
Their ambassadors were graciously received at Broussa; 
for five hundred zechins a year Orchan promiaied them 
every commercial privilege and protection ; and this early 
recurrence to the Grand Turk laid the foundation of those 
relations which subsequently preserved Ragusa from the 
fate of Servia and Albania, and equally assured her against 
dependence on Venice, when fire, sword, and the Koran, 
were carried over all the lands of Illyria. 

But she had many moments of dark doubt and un- 
certainty. Mohammed II., after the conquest of Constan- 
tinople, the kingdom of Bosnia, and the neighbouring 
provinces, turned towards the Adriatic, and, unmindful of 
the ancient treaties between his ancestors and Ragusa^ 
demanded possession of all the territory except the mere 
city. Terror and apprehension spread through all ranks; 
but the Council prudently got out of the dilemma, by 
stating that they were resolved to place the territory at 
his disposition, and at the same time to consign the city 
to the King of Hungary. An answer sagaciously calculated 
to the point of possibility, diverted the conqueror of Con- 
stantinople from his design; and the fear of a Hungarian 
thorn in the side of his newly acquired kingdom, relieved 
Ragusa, which henceforth became the asylum of all the 
disinherited nobles and princes of the surrounding provinces 
who refused to embrace Islainism. But with t^e multitude 
it was not the dexterity of the Council, or the politic 
moderation of Mohammed U., that had saved the city, bat 


the quiet interposition of St. Blasius, who, standing before 
the horse of the Turk, caused it three times to stumble, 
and, warned by the omen, the conqueror desisted from 
his invasion. 

The wars which the Venetians in the next two centuries 
carried on with the Turks greatly increased the trade of 
the neutral Ragusa; and in the middle of the seventeenth 
century she had reached the apex of her wealth and splen- 
dour: her ships swarmed in the Mediterranean, and in- 
numerable charitable institutions, and magnificent endow- 
ments to the Church, the nobles, and the plebeian confra- 
ternities of St. Lazarus, attest her great wealth; and while 
Venice devoted herself to the arts of painting and archi- 
tecture, her humbler neighbour shone in the realms of 
literature with a splendour which the lapse of two centuries 
has little abated. 

But in the midst of honour without, and content and 
prosperity within, a tremendous catastrophe covered with 
destruction this devoted city. At half-past eight o'clock 
on the morning of the sixth of April, 1667, a violent 
shock of earthquake threw down all but the most solid 
houses, and in an instant six thousand persons, or one- 
fifth of the whole population of the town, was buried in 
the ruins. The sea was so violently agitated that vessels 
anchored in deep water knocked their keels against the 
ground, and several of the lofty cliffs around Ragusa were 
split up from top to bottom. The Rector, or President 
of the Republic, Simon Ghetaldi, and several other senators, 
were waiting, and just about to commence the sittings of 
the Council, when they were engulphed, as was also an 
unhappy Dutch ambassador, with a suite of thirty persons, 
on his way to the court of Constantinople, whither he was 
accredited. A whole seminary of children was enveloped 
in the ruins, and one of the persons extricated in a wounded 
condition describes their heart-rending cries for water; 
complaints unheard, and unrelieved, by those above ground. 
The Archbishop being on the first floor of his house, with 
great presence of mind leapt out of the window, and got 


off with a sprained foot, and limping to Grayosa, found 
the road all covered with masses of rock thrown down 
from the mountain above. Even in my own walks to the 
south of Eagusa, a thick solid mass of wall, which held 
together in its prostrate state, and hung just over a steep 
declivity, made such an impression On me, after reading 
the detailed accounts of this calamity, that my mind at 
once reverted to the sublime image of Mohammed, ^And 
what shall make thee understand how terrible the striking 
will be: on that day men shall be like moths scattered 
abroad, and the mountains shall become like carded wool 
of various colours driven by the wind." 

Fire and rapine added to the disorder; for as the 
earthquake took place in the morning, many fires were 
lighted to prepare the mid-day meal, and while many were 
extinguished in the crash of superincumbent walls, others 
by ventilation, and contact with timbers, caused an extensiye 
conflagration, and the exertions to prevent the fire from 
approaching the three powder-magazines, delayed the ex- 
cavation of human beings. To add to the distress of the 
unhappy city, the Morlacks of the surrounding conntiyt 
unappalled by the calamity, commenced an indiscriminate 
plunder of all valuables; but through the determined 
energy of two men, Nicola Bona and Marino Gaboga, order 
was restored, and the peasants terrified; and even on the 
third day some human beings were extricated alime firom 
the ruins. 

The life of Marino Caboga is one of the most romantio 
that can well be imagined. Bom in 1630, he was edu- 
cated in Ragusa, but spent his youth in thoughtless dia- 
sipation; till, discovering the malversation of his fandM 
by a relation in whom he hud too readily confided, a law- 
suit which followed was pleaded before the Senate, in 
which the law-suits of the nobles were decided. His re- 
lation, to make up his cause, reproached Caboga with bit 
disorderly life, and threw doubts on his honour. In the 
youthful fire of five-and-twenty Caboga drew his sword 
and stabbed his aspersor dead on the spot, and a has^ 


flight to the asylum of the Franciscan church saved his 
life, but not his tiberty Confined for life in the prison 
of the state, his only companion was a Latin Bible; and 
verses written by his own hand, expressive of the most 
profound penitence, were seen for years afterwards on the 
walls. In the earthquake the soUdity of his prison was 
his preservation, but the door was completely blocked up, 
and with great presence of mind he stripped off his shirt, 
and putting it on the point of a stick, inserted it through 
the bars as a signal, and was liberated. In the confusion 
of the scene he might have escaped, but he devoted 
himself to extricate the living and dying, and displayed 
such an energy in restraining the plundering Morlacks, 
and driving them by force out of the city, that on the 
third day he presented himself to the remnant of the 
Council in their deliberations, with feelings alternating 
between doubt and hope. No sooner had he, with a 
penitent look, presented himself at the Raveline, when a 
senator pronouncing him dishonoured and incapable of 
sitting, he was about to retrace his steps ; but the common 
calamity had softened all hearts, and approbation of his 
services was declared by a majority of those present, who 
re-admitted him to his rank and honours. 

The severe school of adversity formed Caboga, and in 
the solitude of prison he had stored up the temperament 
which leads to great things — that diffidence of prosperity 
which makes a man ask his inmost self when the wheel 
will turn, and that indifference to difficulty and opposition, . 
which has caused some to call patience the highest effort 
of courage. For ten years he laboured unremittingly in the 
reconstruction of the city, and the repair of the tattered ele- 
ments of social order. All Europe expressed sympathy with 
the Ragusans for their losses; but on the rapid restoration 
of the city through the exertions of Caboga, the Grand 
Vizier of the Ottoman empire, Cara Mustapha, a deadly 
hater of all Christians, expressed the utmost jealousy and 
displeasure, and setting aside the capitulations of Ragusa 
Patoh. I. 15 


with tile Porte, sent a claim for 35,000 dollars of customs 
revenue, on the pretence of Ragusa having been an inte- 
gral part of the immediate dominions of the Porte, as a 
pretext for the annexation of the city to the empire. 

On the 8th of August, 1677, Caboga arrived at Con- 
stantinople, to attempt the aversion of the storm that 
was menacing his native land. The Grand Vizier, struck 
with the capacity he shewed in the arts of persuasion, and 
acquainted with his resources in active life, resolved to 
deprive his country of so able a head and hand, and on 
the 13th of December following he was thrown into prison, 
where he remained several years, having languislied out 
the latter part of the time in the dungeons of Baba Giafar, 
lying on the humid ground. When asked if he consented 
to make a transfer of Ragusa to the Porte, he boldly 
answered that **he was sent to serve, and not to betray 
his country;" and through the means of a Jew he secretly 
wrote to the Senate, animating them to hold out to the 
last, and, regardless of his own fate, expressing his only 
anxiety that his young children should receive a sound 
religious education. Cara Mustapha meanwhile, in 1683, 
went to thunder at the gates of Vienna with 300,000 men; 
but while Caboga sat in the dungeons of Constantinople, 
Stahrenberg in Vienna saw, from the high tower of 
St. Stephen's, the legions of Poland led by the gallant 
Sobieski, approaching to relieve the city. Germany was 
saved, Cara Mustapha, the enemy of Ragusa, defeated, and 
soon after beheaded ; and Caboga, being liberated, returned 
to Ragusa. As he approached the city, every knoll, villa, 
and house-top, was covered with an admiring, almost 
adoring people; every bell in Ragusa rang a merry peal, 
and the Rector and Senate, in full robes, went out of the 
city to give a cordial welcome to the wonderfiU Marino 
Caboga. His lineal descendant and representative, Coui^ 
Bernard Caboga, is, while I write, a distinguished officer, 
and high in the Austrian army, having attained the rank 
of Feld-marechal Lieutenant; and to this very day, the 
letters of Marino Caboga, the spontaneous effusions of a 


warm heart, have a value in the eyes of his family which 
surpasses that of all treasures of art or wealth. 

When the earthquake took place, and the Kector, with 
many of the Senators, were swallowed up in the ruins, 
necessity obliged the exclusive nobility of Eagusa to make 
room for a certain number of persons in possession of 
simple citizenship in the ranks of the Senate; but so 
extravagant was the aristocratic spirit, that up to the 
period of the fall^ of the Republic in our own century, the 
distinction between the nobility whose patents dated be- 
fore and after 1667, was always kept up by exclusive 
marriages, ihe parties taking their names from the pre- 
tensions of the universities of Spain and France, the old 
nobility calling themselves Salamanchese, and denominat- 
ing the new senatorial families Sorbonnese. 

The first Council of the Republic was called the Gran 
Gonsiglio, or Consiglio Maggiore, consisting of all the 
nobles that had completed their eighteenth year; their 
characters being registered in a book called Specchio, or 
the Mirror. The sovereignty resided in them, the President 
of the Republic bearing the name of Rector, but holding 
his office only a month at a time, from the fear of here- 
ditary or dictatorial power; nevertheless in practice it 
often happened that an individual, from his talents and 
influence, while never omitting the formality of election, 
virtually exercised the supreme power the greater part of 
his life. 

The legislative body was the second Council or Senate, 
of forty-five members, composed principally of the superior 
magistrates and of&cers of the government, who had also 
some of the functions of an executive body, such as the 
nomination of ambassadors and consuls by election. 

The third Council was the Consiglio Minore, composed 
of seven senators and the Rector, and was the really 
working committee for the despatch of business; thus, the 
features of the Ragusan constitution were a sovereign 
constituent assembly, a legislative senate, and a minor 
council executive of the orders of the senate. The Rector 



lived during the month in the palace with princely pomp ; 
his habitual dress was of red silk, with a black stole over 
the left shoulder ; and the nobles up to the end of the 
eighteenth century wore black gowns and wigs. They 
possessed nearly all the land, the most lucrative offioes, 
and the control of large funds which had been bequeathed 
by patriotic and charitable individuals for useful or chari- 
table purposes; and as the ^misera contribnens plebs' had 
no voice in state afBsiirs, each patrician had, like those of 
Rome, a long suite of clients and dependents, whom thqr 
protected for pecuniary considerations. 

The first years of the French war were in recent times 
the most prosperous for Ragusa. The flag of San Biagio 
being neutral, the Republic became one of the chief cairien 
of the Mediterranean. The Continental blockade was the 
life of Ragusa; and before the rise of Lissa the manu- 
factures of England, excluded from the ports of France, 
Italy, Holland, and Germany, found their way to the centre 
of Europe through Saloniki and Ragusa. But this state, 
which had managed the Turks so skilfully, which had 
survived the Greek and Servian empires as well as the 
Republic of Venice, was unable to stand upright in the 
terrible contest which included the extremities of Europe 
in its sphere. The philanthropic republicans of Frmoe 
offered to fraternise with all other republics; and we shall 
see that Napoleon, with the Imperial Crown on his head, 
did not despise the small Republic of Ragusa. 

The battle of Austerlitz, and the consequent treaty oi 
Presburg, having compelled Austria to hand over Dal- 
matia to France, Ragusa was put in a novel dilemma. 
Cattaro held by the Venetians against the Turks, was 
alw^ays accessible to Venice, which was a naval power. 
But while France held the land, England and Russia held 
the sea ; and while France was marching her troops froni 
Austerlitz to Dalmatia, eleven Russian sail of the Kne 
entered the Bocca di Cattaro, and landed 6000 men. As 
5000 Frenchmen under Marshal Mohtor marched soatk- 
wards, and took pacific possession, one after another, of 


the fortresses of Dalmatia, the Bussians pressed the sena- 
tors of Kagusa to allow them to occupy their city, as it 
was an important fortress, — thus anticipating France might 
block the further progress to Cattaro, as the reader will 
see by an examination of the map that there is no way 
from Dalmatia to Cattaro but through Ragusa. Marshal 
Molitor was equally abundant in friendly professions, press- 
ing instances, and solemn pledges, to respect the integrity 
of the Republic, in his passage to Cattaro. Ragusa felt 
herself without the power of causing her neutrality to be 
respected, and long and anxious were the debates that 

" Dear as this land is to me," said Count John Caboga, 
"consecrated as it is to our affections by its venerable in- 
stittttionjs, its wise laws, and the memory of illustrious 
ancestors, it will henceforth cease to deserve the name 
ci ptUria, if its independence be subverted. With our 
large fleet of merchantmen, let us embark our wives and 
our children, our state treasures and our laws, and ask 
of the Sultan an island in the Archipelago, which may 
become a new Epidaurus, and the sanctuary of our time- 
honoured institutions." 

Serious as the dilemma was, the senators were un- 
prepared for so desperate a remedy. A large m^ority 
were for opening the gates to Russia; but the echoes of 
Ansterlitz had scarce died away, and such an act would 
have at once exposed them to the vengeance of Napoleon, 
then in the zenith of his lawless ambition and military 
power. So the occupation of the city was assigned to 
the French under General Lauriston. No sooner did this 
take place than the Russian force moved to the siege of 
Uie city, and unhappily for Ragusa a barbarous and un- 
disciplined horde of Montenegrines accompanied the regular 
Rnasian troops ; and such a scene of horror had not been 
•een since the Huns and the Avars swept round Aquileia. 
The environs were studded thickly with villas, the results 
of a long prosperity; and the inhuman scenes of rapine 
with which the wars of the Montenegrines with the Turks 


were accompanied were transferred to these abodes of 
ease and luxury. Accustomed to the poverty of their 
own mountains, these invaders could scarce believe their 
own eyes when, passing Ragusa Vecchia, the smiling 
villas and well-filled store-houses of Breno Ombla and 
Pille were presented to their cupidity, and the siege of 
Ragusa commenced by the burning and plundering of the 
villas, involving the irretrievable loss of above half a 
million sterling. 

The city was in the utmost straits; General Molitor, 
who had advanced within a few days' march of Ragusa, 
made an appeal to the Dalmatians to rise and expel the 
Russians and Montenegrines, which met with a feeble 
response, for only three hundred men joined his standard; 
but a stratagem made up for his deficiency of numbers. 
A letter, seemingly confidential, was despatched to General 
Lauriston in Ragusa, announcing his proximate arrival 
to raise the siege with such a force of Dalmatians as 
must overwhelm Russians and Montenegrines ; which letter 
was, as intended by Molitor, intercepted and believed by 
the besieging Russians. With his force thinly scattered, 
to make up a show, Molitor now advanced towards Ragusa, 
and turning the Montenegrine position in the valley be- 
hind, threatened to surround the Russians who occupied 
the summit of the hill between him and the city; but 
seeing the risk of this, the Russians retreated back towards 
the Bocca di Cattaro, and the city was relieved. 

The French, reinforced by 4000 or 5000 men, were 
now commanded in chief by General Marmont, the newly 
appointed civil and military Governor of Dalmatia, who, 
with ^00 sabres and bayonets, boldly advanced to the 
gulf of Cattaro, and, defeating the Russians and Mon- 
tenegrines again at the Sutorina with great loss, and the 
battle of Friedland taking place in 1807, followed by the 
treaty of Tilsit, France was lefb in undisputed possession 
of the coast, as we have already stated under the head 
of Cattaro. 

Freed from Russians and Montenegrines, Napoleon 


soon forgot the pledges of neutrality given by his lieute- 
nants; and in January, 1808, as the senators met, an adjutant 
of General Marmont announced to them that the indepen- 
dence of Ragusa had ceased to exist, and that all ad- 
ministrative functions had devolved on the French com- 
mander. Thus ended the Republic of Ragusa: after a 
municipal existence that filled up the whole period from 
the fall of the empire of the West to the nineteenth 
century ; and a virtual independence that, in spite of con- 
flicting claims for nominal superiority by the Byzantine 
Caesars and the Venetian Republic, had been preserved in 
the same pohtical forms for eight centuries. 



As Bohemia, forming an ethnogrs^hical peninsula in 
Germany, is and was, the most advanced of all the Slaavic 
nations of central Europe, so Ragusa evidently owes her 
civilisation to her position on the shores of the Adriatic, 
opposite, and of easy access to, the Italian peninsula. The 
Slaavic Athens was the name which Ragusa acquired in 
the seventeenth century, but surely the Ferrara of a hundred 
years previous comes within the limits of a juster parallel. 
As the rudest blast of winter and the coolest breeze of 
nnnmer come from the west, so the elastic vigour of 
Ariosio, and the smoothness, the elegance, and complete- 
ness of Tasso, seem to mingle their alternate inspirations 
in the genius of Gondola. 

Marino Ghetaldi, surnamed the Demon of Mathematics, 
had a high European reputation in the seventeenth 


century, and the memorials of him are brought home to 
the traveller, both in town and country. 

It was on one of the finest days of the faithful month 
of January, so called from the number of calm days in it 
which follow the blasts of late autumn, and precede the 
still ruder ones of February and March, that Don Mapoo 
and myself entered a boat at the quay near San Biagio, 
and were rowed across the bay to a lofty cavern south- 
wards of Ragusa. Not a breath of air was in motion, and 
an English September seemed to usher in the new year 
of Ragusa; the Adriatic ebbed and flowed among the 
fragments of rocks in the gentlest of whispers; a veil of 
golden gauze trembling on the dark roof of the cavern, 
and reflecting the sunlight playing on the sea, was the 
only ocular evidence of its motion; while the depths of 
the cavern gave back each stroke of the great bell of the 
city tolling solemnly across the tranquil waters. 

It was in the first years of the seventeenth century, 
when Bacon and Shakespeare were completing the Cy- 
clopean foundations of English science and literature, that 
a man in middle age, with sharp visage, and those pene- 
trating eyes which make the stranger curious to know 
their owner's fate and fortunes, surmounted by the 
broad-brimmed peaked hat of the period, might be seen 
in this cave. Strange instruments surround him; thej 
shew that the age of alchemy is gone, and that of sound 
experiment commenced. Marino Ghetaldi, the individual 
in question (1566-1627), was one of the first astrono- 
mers and natural philosophers in Europe; his Promotu$ 
Archimedes shewed a dim perception of the coming dis- 
coveries of Newton ; and it certainly was Ghetaldi, and not 
Des Cartes, who first applied algebra to geometry. He 
spent six years in travels through Europe; at Venioey 
Paolo Sarpi called him ^'Angelo di costumi, e demonio 
in matematica — an angel in manners, and a demon in 
mathematics," in allusion to his attainments and that 
modesty which is generally inseparable from true greatness ; 
and he confesses in his Promotus, "Malim scire quam 


nosci, discere quam docere." So high was his reputation, 
that the magistrates of Louvain in Flanders pressed him 
bo be professor of mathematics in their university, when 
It was to Antwerp as the Padua of that northern Venice. 
But Ghetaldi had studied and travelled for Ragusa: 
^Pataia non quia magna sed sua" was the small but 
K>werfdl magnet which re-attracted him to the shores of 
Jie Adriatic. Here, in cool grot, undisturbed by the hum 
)f the city commerce, he pursued his experiments. Strange 
md improbable traditions still exist of his having been 
iddicted to magic, and more than one Ragusan captain 
ittributed tempestuous weather to the incantations of the 
cavern; even the fishermen, for ages after his death, never 
[Missed without an appeal to San Biagio against the machi- 
oations of the mysterious cavern. 

At one side of the cave a dark recess, about three feet 
leep, with which the sea-water communicates, was the 
l)ath of Ghetaldi, and all around on the rocks is the 
beautiful Adiantum, (Capillus Veneris,) with jet black stem 
md fine small green leaf. At one side of the cave, next 
the sea, is a staircase cut in the rock, and Don Marco 
[as the professor was usually called) informed me that it 
wtkB in communication with the villa above. A door, 
ilmost rotten with sea-air and water, barred the passage ; 
imt Don Marco, applying his hands to his mouth, shouted 
iloud, so that the rock-vault echoed again, and in a 
xdnute a servant-girl was seen descending the stairs to 
he door, which she opened. Passing over slippery rocks, 
we got within the door, and, ascending the steps, wound 
round the rock that flanked the entrance to the cave, and 
found that we had gained a narrow terrace in front of a 
nlla overhanging an abrupt precipice, and looking straight 
across to Ragusa, with its round towers and high ramparts. 
Don Marco, who seemed to know every body, ushered 
oae into the parlour of the little villa of Ghetaldi, where 
[>ictures somewhat in the Bolognese school were hanging 
&rom the walls. Madame S., the spouse of a descendant 
>f the co-heiress of Ghetaldi, now entered, and received 


US with Ragusan courtesy. She regretted that his por^ 
trait, which had adorned the room, had been taken to 
her town-house ; but Don Marco and myself joined in a 
prayer to see it restored to its true position. 

From the revolutions of science the works of Ghetaldi 
are unread and forgotten, but his name blooms fresh in 
the memory of the Ragusans; and a large slab of pavement 
in the Dominican church, with three fleur-de-lis and two 
stars, is still regarded with veneration, as covering hit 

The name of Boscovich stands deservedly high among 
the mathematicians and astronomers of the eighteeniii 
century, and in 1759 he visited London, and had a brilliant 
reception from the Royal Society, of which the Earl of 
Macclesfield was then president. Both these authors wrote 
in Latin and Italian, and the name of the first confers 
high honour on Ragusa ; but, from the progress of science, 
their works are unread or forgotten. 

Cervario Tuberone, Cerva, and others, have distingaislied 
themselves in the historic line, and when public attention 
becomes generally awakened, as it must in time be, to 
the past and present condition of the countries to the 
east of the Adriatic, their works will be again sought 
after ; but it is in poetry that the genius of Rag^usa shines 
forth with its brightest lustre. The biography and criticism 
of Zamagna Giorgi and many others, fills a closely printed 
quarto of Appendini, including several good female dra- 
matic writers ; but to do justice to all w^ould have detained 
me longer in Ragusa than I could spare time for; I 
therefore fixed my attention on Gondola, the epic poety 
the principal figure of the group, and from a variety of 
published lives, and the criticisms of modern Ragusans, 
I will attempt **to place a fading chaplet on his eternal 
shrine." In consequence of his having written in Illyrian, 
he does not enjoy a European name; but, after the lapse 
of more than two centuries, he is still read with rapture 
through all the lands of lUyria. The poetry of Servia is 
mostly lyric, but Ragusa, on the shores of the AdnatiO) 


could scarcely escape the influence of the more majestic 
plans and performances of Italian genius. 

Gondola was bom in Ragusa on the 8th of January, 
1588, when Philip of Spain was preparing his Invincible 
Armada for the invasion of England, and was educated 
by the Jesuits. At twenty years of age he devoted himself 
to the study of the law, and at thirty married a daughter 
of the house of Sorgo. The Illyrian dramas of Dorsich, 
Nale, and others, were then the favourite literature of 
Ragusa, and GagliufS thinks that, had the Ragusans per* 
severed, they might have risen to the celebrity of the 
Spanish theatre ; but the beauty of the Aminta and the 
Pastor Fido entirely turned the public taste. The fa- 
vourite reading of Gondola was the Gerusalemme of Tasso ; 
his first youthful essays were pastoral dramas of no extra- 
ordinary merit, nor was it without a great deal of con- 
sideration that he undertook an epic poem. 

The choice of Gondola's subject seems, to our age, a 
strange one, if viewed without reference to the political 
situation of Ragusa, in the very century in which the 
Turks were the most hated, and in which our own Waller 
wrote his." Presage of the Downfall of the Turkish Empire." 
Gondola enthusiastically takes for his hero, Osman, who 
became sultan in 1618, and after a variety of wars and 
amours, is imprisoned and beheaded. It was, therefore, 
entirely the events of the day that supplied Gondola with 
his matter. The Porte, in the zenith of her military and 
political power, was, although the enemy of all Europe, 
then the protectress of Ragusa against Venice ; and Osman, 
the antipathy of Christendom, is a daring hero in the eyes 
of the patriotic Ragusan. . 

The war with Poland in 1621, the captivity of Korewsky 
as hostage in Constantinople, the disguise of his wife as 
a Hungarian boy to deliver him, the condition of all these 
countries, and a variety of episodes and adventures, con- 
cluding with the death of the Sultan, form the staple of 
the work. Thus while Milton's subject was too vaguely 
remote from the daily existence of the poet, that of Gon- 


dola was too near; and party-spirit, rather than strict 
historic justice, inspires the portrait of the hero. The same 
objection of the introduction of contemporary subjects 
may apply to Dante, only he was not a spectator of the 
action of his poem, but part and parcel of it ; and as his 
vengeance flashes from page to page, and his music thon- 
ders from canto to canto, we feel ourselves, after five 
centuries and a half, living in the world of Guelph and 
Ghibelline, loving with Dante's loves, and hating with 
Dante's hates. The adventures of Osman in the political 
history of Turkey fail to awaken our interest; but as the 
balm of the Egyptian preserved the humblest of remains 
to the wonder of a hundred ages, while the bones of a 
true hero moulder unknown, so the poetry of Gondola 
will preserve the events of Osman's life when greater 
names are forgotten. 

Gondola died in 1638, at fifty-one years of age; two 
of his sons fought in the Thirty-years' War under WaDen- 
stein, and the youngest died in 168*2 in the supreme office of 
Rector of the Republic, The male line is extinct, but I 
had the pleasure of making the acquaintance of his re- 
presentative and namesake in the female line, i^io has a 
good unincumbered estate, and has lately been made a 
baron by the emperor. 

The finest passage in the work, according to some, is 
the entrance of the ambassador of the Sultan into the 
palace of Warsaw, where he sees, to his shame and sur- 
prise, woven on the walls, a tapestry representing the 
defeat of his master at the battle of Koezim; according 
to others, the lamentations and reflections of Osman in 
prison. I am not a sufficient master of Illyrian to be 
able to decide the matter myself; the piece I have selected 
is the Episode of Suncianitza, the daughter of the deposed 
Lord of Servia. A translation of a translation, like a print 
after a print, may convey the outlines, but cannot pretend 
to the touch and colour of the original. 

'^ The chief of the black eunuchs of the Sultan entered 
the city of Semendria, where he hoped to find the daughter 


Glaibedrag, the Mr and the young Snncianitza. She is 
of the illustrions family of the despots of Servia, the 
apple of the eye, the light of her blind father. He is the 
nephew of the nephews of Geoi^e and Jerina; his power 
hath passed away, but his deeds and his conduct are those 
of a prince. Bib old age leans on the staff that was once 
the sceptre of his fathers, his kingdom is the narrow 
meadow, his subjects are the bleating sheep, his hounds 
are his guards, and shepherds are his courtiers and allies. 
His twelve sons have fallen before the sharp sword of the 
Osmanli ; and his eyes flowed with tears until the springs 
of vision dried up. He is the trunk of the tree whose 
branches have been scattered by the tempest; he would 
have perished amid his sobs had he not lived on the voice 
of his •daughter. 

"This fountain of life is the fair young Suncianitza, 
whose virtue has been blown with the trumpet of fame; 
and the fruits of this one branch are the only hope of the 
iather. But the virginity of that maid is consecrated to 
the Almighty. The old man perceives it with grief, and 
assembles the youth of Bulgaria to wake her soft desires. 
The rustic games, and the accents of music, mingled with 
the dance of the shepherds, and the flower-crowned maids . 
The language of courtesy is held while they sit on the 
meadow, and the echoes are charmed with the pipe and 
the tabor ; the maidens lose their lustre at the appearance 
of Suncianitza, like the stars of night at the blushing 
dawn; the zephyrs play with her blonde tresses, and her 
step in the dance is the subtle enchantment. 

"The sight of the chief of the black eunuchs suddenly 
ends the games; he sought the fair Suncianitza for the 
harem of his master. A thrill of terror froze every heart; 
the flowers dropt from the hand of Suncianitza, and, mute 
as a statue, she hid her visage in her hands; but the 
cunning slave, masking his design, said mildly, <Let 
fear and trouble end, cease neither the dance nor the 
song; all I desire is peace, and the continuance of the 


" * Wise and good father,' said the black, *may the Most 
High give thee the light of thy countenance. Tell me, 
who were thy ancestors? Were they of the royal race, 
and who dispossessed them?' The old man, troubled in 
spirit, answered, *The remembrance of past grandeur is 
bitter; what avails illustrious birth in obscurity and 
poverty?' He told his sad tale, and with a voice of sorrow 
added, *A11 that remains to me is my cherished daughter 
— my only consolation.' The chief of the eunuchs drew 
a golden veil from his girdle, approached SuncianitKa, and 
giving it with respect, said, 'Great is thy happiness, 
noble daughter, thou art now the spouse of the Sultan 
of the world.' 

"Thrilled with horror, Suncianitza was about to fiedl; 
but the mutes approached, and the fair one was torn from 
her father, struggling like a dove in the talons of a vulture. 
The blind Gluibedrag tore the white hair from his head. 

"'Cruel Fate,' said the frenzied grey-beard, 'to make 
a shepherd of the sons of princes, to snatch from me my 
sons and my only daughter! Where art thou, njy love? 
let the blind old man but hear thy voice. inexorable 
Death, why have you left me in the land of the living?' 

"But Suncianitza, carried far away, heard not his 
accents of grief; tears filled her eyes, or terror froze her 
heart. * Whither am I dragged from the arms of a father? 
Ah! who will calm his troubles, and assuage his grief? 
Come, father, let thy flowing tears soften their obdurate 
hearts; may thy grey hairs drive violence far away.' 

"'Virgin, thou hast wept enough,' said the eunuch, 
who had sought the fairest beauties of Egypt, Bosnia, and 
the land of the Dukes (Herzegovina), leaving disconsolate 
mothers, and bringing with him the daughters of the 
noble, the fair in person, and those endowed with mental 
qualifications, who all now approach the city of empire. 

"The Sultan entered at the same time, and the agas 
presented to him the female slaves in the seraglio. Ranged 
in the form of a half moon, the like had never been seen 
in all the world. The perfect beauties of the palace were 


like the spring flowers of the forest united in the garden; 
one stole softly on the senses, the other dazzled like 
the noontide sun; sweetly smiled the one, noble was the 
gait of the other; but Suncianitza outshone them all by 
the lustre of her charms, but her brow was pale with 
modesty and virtue. 

"*Open thy mind,' said the Sultan, *and confide in 
Osman, who can calm thy grief.' Suncianitza, raising her 
thoughts to God, asked His succour to soften the heart 
of the Sultan, and offer on the altar of the Most High 
the lily of her virginity. 

"* Powerful and glorious Sultan,' said Suncianitza, 'thy 
words embolden me to bare my breast. I am the only 
daughter of a father blind with grief for the loss of twelve 
sons; I alone stand between him and the tomb: the 
cherished daughter has been torn from his embrace; like 
the plant whose last root fails, death and annihilation are 
inevitable. Oh, father! what hand shall close thy eyes, or 
honour thy remains with the ceremonies of the tomb? 
By Mahommed thy prophet, and Ahmed thy fether, let 
the daughter rejoin the parent, and glory surround thy 

"An icy silence followed the speech of Suncianitza, and 
uncertainty reigned in the heart of the Sultan. To lose 
the flower of his seraglio, or act with the harshness of a 
barbarian, was the dilemma in which he was placed; but 
virtue triumphed. *HowI' said he, 'ought I to govern 
others, and not know how to govern myself? Thy trouble 
is ended, noble girl: my heart is moved, and the favour 
is granted. My desire is to reign in the hearts of man- 
kind by love and justice; thy affection is most lovely in 
misfortune, as the rays of the sun that vanquish in the 
struggle with the mists, and long live your father to 
enjoy your society.' 

"Thus spoke the Sultan: but Suncianitza can scarcely 
believe the reality of her liberty, as the mariner, after the 
long and stormy night, mistrusts the rays of dawn that 
shew him the wished-for haven. Throwing herself at the 


feet of the Sultan, she cried in a transport: 'Great and 
magnanimous sovereign, a movement of thy lips hath 
breathed youth and strength into the body of a dying old 
man : more valiant than the conquerors of kingdoms, thou 
hast vanquished thyself. Noble and generous action, time 
and distance will take nothing from its glory.' 

"The Sultan, opening his treasures, hung a erplendid 
necklace around the throat of Suncianitza, at once the 
ornament of her beauty and the memorial of his magni- 

"The slaves that brought her as a prisoner, returned 
with her as guards and servants to the door of the blind 


Oh, magic arts, that deep in hidden bowels 

Of molten chaos find the statue^s grace, 
By plan dirine, or nervous wielded trowels. 

Raise the harmonious colonnade apace, 

Or o'er the arid plain expanding trace 
The long arcade that slakes the thirsty town 

With crystal lymph from gelid mountain font;— 
But structures lapse, as time rolls on, 
And even capitals fall into dark oblivion. 

Far there the knell of desolation toll'd, 
And empire vanished like a baseless vision: 

Fierce o'er the land barbaric surges roU'd; — 
Avar and Roman, in their dire collision, 
Soon made a waste of what had been Elysisn. 

Down, thundering crashed the stately fanet. 
Erst built with mathematical precision; 

Now a mere heap of labyrinthine lanes, 

To mock the student of antiquity's remains. 

The fractured image leaves no seeds 

To blossom into posthumous renown; 
Highest emprise of victors' mightiest deeds, 

The transient glitter of a fragile crown. 

Or power to freeze a kingdom with a trowu. 
Not so Kagusa's bard, whose tuneful lyre. 

Resounding sweet from Save to Drave, 
Forbids Illyrian nations to expire, 
Vibrates immortal airs to kindle patriot fire. 




The coasts and islands to the south of Ragusa are full 
of historic interest and romantic beauty, and two little 
trips, in which the accomplished and erudite Professor 
Ealugera acted the obliging cicerone, afforded me some 
of the pleasantest days I passed in the Adriatic. 

Don Marco ordered the men to row us to La 
Chroma, a small island about a mile from the cave, 
which seemed to be entirely covered with wood and 
shrubbery, and without any habitation, except a small 
modem fort which crowned the top of the hill. Other 
islands lay to the south, and, on asking their names, I 
found that they were called Marcana and Bobara (St. Mark 
and St. Barbara). *'They are mere rocks," said Don Marco, 
'•fit for sea-fowl, and not fit for a man, unless he be a 
passionate fowler; and yet they have often played an im- 
portant part in the ecclesiastical history of Ragusa." 

••' You church-men are not generally fond of bleak barren 
positions. The clergy have capital taste for landscape- 
gardening in general. You see that Benedictine convent 
at the extremity of the bay, how snugly sheltered under 
the point of land, with plenty of vegetation and a fine 

"They are both Turkish islands," said Don Marco, 
"in the diocese of Trebigne; and whenever the Ragusan 
Archbishops wished to escape dependence on the senate, 
they used to hold their councils here in security." 

We soon rounded the wooded point of the island, and 
found ourselves in a little bay, beyond which was a level 
plain of turf between a wood of pines and the hill on which 
the fort was built; and in the most sheltered part of this 
Httie valley was a ruined convent, and a church of a period 
much anterior, and evidently of Byzantine form. This was 
the island and monastery of La Chroma, at which Richard 
Pato*. I. 16 


Cceur de Lion landed on his return from the Holy Land. 
It appears that the tempest off Albania must have been 
most violent, and Richard made a vow to erect a temple 
to the Virgin in the first place of his landing. Present- 
ing himself to the monks, he declared his design to 
build a church there, for which he gave, or would give, 
100,000 nummi argentei. No sooner did the rector hear 
of Richard's arrival, then he went with the senate to con- 
gratulate him on his escape, and offer him the hospitality 
of Ragusa, which Richard accepted along with '^magnifioent 
spectacles;" but the rector begged him to write to the 
Pope, to commute the locality of his votive offering from 
the island to the city of Ragusa itself, the cathedral of 
which was small and inconvenient ; to which Richard con- 
sented, on the condition that, every second of Febroary, 
being the Purification of the Virgin, the superior and 
monks of the convent of La Chroma would be allowed 
to celebrate the mysteries of that festival. It appears, 
however, that in the sixteenth century the Archbishop 
wished to resist this right, and a hot dispute was the 
consequence, which led to a research of the archives, and 
the right of the monks was confirmed by a curious decree 
of the rector and senate. This privilege they retained 
till 1667, when the earthquake threw down both the 
cathedral of Richard and a great part of the convent of 
La Chroma. 

The illustrious author of Ivanhoe had perhaps never 
heard of this island, but it might well have furnished a 
splendid chapter to this great inventor: a tempest-tost 
King of England landing from Palestine; the monks giving 
hospitality to a stranger, to find that their guest is a king, 
and the taker of Acre ; and the senate crossing in all the 
pomp of middle-age magnificence to welcome the valiant 
chevalier and crusading king. 

'^Do you know," said Don Marco, as we walked amid 
the sequestered foliage, ^Hhat for us Britannia is a poesia; 
her whole history, down to Victoria, is an epic poem." 

"Many people on the continent," said I, " maintain that^ 


having arrived at her full growth, she must soon begin 
to decay." 

^^Niente affatto] not a bit of it," answered the professor; 
"if she has not extended her branches she has been grow- 
ing at the roots ; if the conquests of this generation have 
not been so extensive as former ones, her mercantile navy, 
the root of all her power, has increased; a nation that 
perpetually wars with the elements needs never fear the 
corrosion of a long peace." 

Leaving La Chroma, we now rode some miles to the 
southwards, and, passing a bluff point, a new prospect 
opened on us; a beach of yellow sand, glistening with 
white pebbles in the unclouded sun, skirted a bay, which 
formed a graceful semicircle. The precipitous mountains 
fell away inland, and broken but richly cultivated ground, 
interspersed with vines, olives, pastures, and occasional 
oak-trees, intervened between the bluff point we had passed, 
and the promontory of Epidaurus, some miles ahead. This 
was the renowned bay of St. Hilary, not less celebrated 
in the annals of Christianity than the bay of St. George 
in Syria, where the dragon was killed. Three hundred 
and sixty-five years after Christ, St. Hilary landed in this 
bay, and defied and vanquished by miraculous power, 
according to tradition, a terrible serpent that infested the 
coast; the serpent being of the family of Sfc. George, that 
is to say, no other than the Greek mythology, whose 
death-rattle sounded in the fourth century through all the 
Roman world. Titus and St. Paul first preached the 
Gospel in Illyria, St. Hilary followed in their footsteps, 
and St. Jerome, a native of Dalmatia, completed the work, 
and speaks with enthusiasm of the reputation for piety 
which Hilary had left in the whole region; but, in writ- 
ing the life of his predecessor, he might surely have spared 
08 the miracle of the serpent, and the restraining of 
the threatening sea during the apostacy of Julian. 

In the middle of the bay is the village of St. Hilary (St. 
Ilarione) with a few boats drawn upon the beach, but without 
the unpleasant odours, the ill-dressed children, and the untidy 



houses of a fishing village ; behind it is the plain of Breno, 
the agricultural garden of the east of the Adriatic. OmUa 
is a wild, highland loch, fitter for a country-house than 
the labours of agriculture ; but here, every nook is fenced 
and cultivated, so that the traveller might think himself 
in the environs of an Italian capital. The olive-trees and 
all the other products shewed at once the traces of that 
superior culture which makes the berry the largest and 
fattest of the coast, even surpassing that of the opposite 
Gallipoli. The aspect of the peasantry fully corresponded 
with the appearance of nature ; instead of the drunken, 
patched misery of Dalmatia, the men were aU coarsely but 
tidily and decently dressed. The women, although stinbumt, 
had clear healthy complexions, that shewed the purity of the 
air and the results of an orderly material existence. Alto- 
gether I was delighted to find, in so distant a part of 
Europe, a region that in every respect might vie with its 
centres, with one exception; the vicinity of the Turks 
had led the Ragusan republic to the policy of haying no 
roads practicable for artillery. 

We had not walked above half an hour along the plain, 
when I saw approaching a middle-aged man, with broad- 
brimmed hat, and a collar of white Yuen turned down 
over a stock studded with little blue beads, and wearing 
black knee-breeches and silver buckles in his shoes. 
This was the clergy man of Breno, the friend of Don 
Marco, who had come to meet us, and conducted 
us to the parsonage, a neat new house, on a rising ground 
a quarter of a mile off, embosomed in cypresses. He 
apologised for the roads as contrasted with the new 
ones that had lately been made in various parts of Dal- 
matia, and mentioned an old local proverb, **Deus fecit 
Brenam, vias autem ejus diabolus." 

The parsonage-house was a small new stone building; 
the folding doors being of iron, studded with bolts, like 
a prison entrance. Don Marco joked him on his pre- 
cautions; but the clergyman reminded him that he was 
the banker of the savings of the parish, and that a few 


desperadoes might be tempted to rob the whole parish, 
and cut his own throat ; for they were \^athin a few miles 
of the Turkish frontier. During dinner the conversation 
fell on the comparative morality of the Ragusan peasant 
and the Dalmatian, which possessed much interest for 
me, because the clergy are best acquainted with the 
condition of he peasantry. Both the Ragusans and 
the Dalmatians are very poor in money; for a woman 
of Breno will carry a load of firewood six miles to gain 
fourpence. The peasant of the environs of Zara, the capital 
of Dalmatia, will walk the same distance to sell a parr 
of fowls for a shilling; but instead of taking home the 
money to his wife, he never leaves the Piazza delP Erbe 
until the half of it be squandered in liquor or disorder. 

The landed proprietor of Ragusa deals more easily 
with the peasant than the landlord of Dalmatia. In Breno, 
the countryman, instead of farming the land, divides the 
produce with the landlord. When corn-lands are good 
and productive, the landlord on giving the seed receives 
the half of the produce. If the peasant furnish the seed, 
and the land be easily worked, the landlord receives a 
third ; but if the land be poor and inconveniently worked, 
he receives only a. fourth, or perhaps less. In Dalmatia 
the peasantry are lazy and vindictive, not so in the terri- 
tory of Ragusa ; here every scrap of manure on the roads 
is carefully picked up, and put round the trunks of the 
olives. The cultivators are mild and fair spoken ; but the 
proprietor must look very sharply after the division of 
the spoil, otherwise he will find himself short of his due. 
The best property is that of olives ; and instead of florins, 
such and such a landlord is said to be worth so many 
barrels of oil a year. Permanent absenteeism is almost 
impossible. A proprietor wished to let his lands, and live 
at Venice, but he could not find a middle-man or farmer 
of adequate capital and character, willing to give him a 
certainty, except at a great sacrifice. 

I found that tile-draining, subsoil-ploughing, and other 
processes, were unknown, for the enemy to be combated 


is the long droughts of summer; the territory of Ragusa 
suffering, in a minor degree, from the dryness of the 
neighbouring Dalmatia. In the middle ages all the sea- 
ward slope of the Vellebitch was covered with wood, mul- 
berries below, and pines above; which not only retained 
the soil on the slopes by the reticulation of their roots, 
but, attracting and retaining the moisture, caused the rains 
to be more frequent, and the running streams to be more 
copious even in the heat of summer. But the Turkish 
war ruined Dalmatia, and the Venetian policy was to keep 
the people dependent on the Republic for subsistence. 
Paolo Sarpi, in his report on Dalmatia, in the capacity of 
Consultatore, shews his narrow bigotry, by openly avow- 
ing that this kingdom, with its robust population, must 
be kept needy in order to remain in subjection; hence 
the inhuman extirpation of the mulberries, and the pro- 
hibition of the silk culture, a most iinpious interference 
with the part assigned by Nature to Dalmatia in the terri- 
torial division of labour. This was not the fault of Venice 
alone, but pervaded the colonial policy of all other nations 
— of Spain and America, as well as of the Dutch in the 
Spice Islands, and from which the history of our own 
settlements in India and America shews that we were 
not free. 

In a calm pleasant evening we returned to the village 
of St. Hilary, which we examined more in detail ; the habi- 
tations are scattered among thickgrown gardens, and 
mills in motion; a stream dashing over a low precipice, 
and glistening in the evening sun, loses itself for a short 
way under the willows, planes, and poplars, and reappearing, 
fretted with its combat with the mill-wheel, intersects the 
yellow beach, and mingles its spent force vrith the ripple 
of the bay. Here we embarked for Ragusa Vecchia, at 
the southern extremity of the bay, where the hills again 
approach close to the sea. The port is small, and the 
modem town of Ragusa Vecchia is a mere village, form- 
ing a wretched contrast to the magnificence of Epidaurus, 
which covered the neighbourhood. 


The inn was humble, bat cleanly; and, after supper, 
we went to the cafe, and had some chat with the people 
there assembled. Every Tillage in Dalmatia has just such 
a small cafe. A female stands at a counter, on which 
are large bottles of brandy and maraschino, and a brass 
lamp of oliveoil; three or four small black walnut tables 
have each a tallow candle, at which are seated the prin- 
cipal peofde of the place playing at cards, and half of them 
smoking, so that the den is rather obscure. The talk is 
quite local, such as, '^ Why does the Pasha of Herzegovina 
impose such illegal duties on goods from Ragusa?*^ *^How 
is oil selling at Trieste?" ^'Such and such a one made 
a bad speculation to Bari, on the Neapolitan coast, with 
his lugger;" and a great deal about the production of 
particular fields, and whether they are highly or modera- 
tely rated in the Catasto. ^ 

Next morning we took a survey of Epidaurus, of which 
only mounds remain ; but wherever the earth is excavated, 
foundations of houses, fragments of tombs, sections of 
columns, and mutilated statuary are found. Encheleian 
Illyria, of which Epidaurus was subsequently the chief 
city, was the scene of the adventures of Cadmus, after his 
flight from Thebes; and the city itself, founded by the 
Greeks, became, in due time, a Roman colony, in which 
Esculapius was the special object of veneration in the 
principal temple of the city. To this day, one of the 
capitals of the colonnade of the palace of the government 
in Ragusa, represents a scene, in alto relievo, of the god 
seated, with a species of mitre on his head, and a flowing 
beard; a book being open on his knee, and instruments 
of pharmacy and chemistry around him, taken from the 
ruins of Epidaurus. ^ 

^ The register of the Government, which fixes the value of the 
fluctuating tithes by an average of years. 

' Epidaurus was twice sacked by the Avars, in 625 and 639, and at 
length totally destroyed, 656, by the Groats. The antiquities of this 
part of Illyria have been fully described by Appendini in his Notizie^ 
Bagusa, 1803. 




After a cursory survey of the site of Epidaurus, I re- 
turned to Ragusa, to make farther inquiry into the ad- 
ventures of the lion-hearted Richard; and went first to 
a local antiquary of my acquaintance. 

Passing through the Corso, or main street, I turned 
off, and began to ascend one of the steep breakneck lanes 
that lead to the wall on the mountain side of the town, 
where no carriage can move, and even a loaded mule 
could with difficulty ascend such an acclivity, and at length 
got to the Mincietto, a sturdy crenellated tower of the 
fifteenth century, which overlooks the town. Here was 
the house of the bibliomaniac, and in a low dark room, 
which smelt of mouldy books, in their dingy vellum bind- 
ings, were tomes and manuscripts, having reference to 
Ragusa, thick piled on the shelves all around. Prints of 
the most celebrated Ragusan authors were hung here and 
there; and prominent in the room was the picture of a 
brig owned by his father during the Ragusan neutrality 
of the last war, the Madonna del Rosario, with the dark 
blue flag of the Republic, bordered with white, and, in 
the middle of it, the figure of San Biagio in full canoni- 
cals. Our man of books had been Neapolitan vice-consul 
in Ragusa, in the days of Murat; but, with the changes 
of time, became a clerk in the tribunal or court of 

*'That recalls to me old days," said he, pointing to 
the Madonna del Rosario; "when the flag of the Republic 
of Ragusa, being neutral, was the carrier of the Medi- 
terranean; every quay covered with merchandise, every 
house full of gold ; but then subsequently we paid for it 
with our mishaps and adventures. Coming from Malta 
to Ragusa, when the French occupied the Republic, I was 
seized, when off the coast of Albania, and suffered "a long 
imprisonment at Scutari." 


ifter stating my wants and wishes to tho antiquary, 
lie directed me to the neighbouring Franciscan Convent, 
88 his own collection did not go so far back, — one of the 
monks of which- is the greatest bibliophile of Ragusa. 
The convent is a lofty, simple Gothic edifice, in front of 
which is a very large and elegant circular basin of water, 
with dragons and cornices elaborately carved, after a design 
by Onofrio Giordiani, of the first half of the fifteenth 
century, which is the receptacle of the water that prin- 
cipally supplies Ragusa, brought in an aqueduct a distance 
of no less than nine miles from the vale of Gianchetto. 
Within the convent was a large quadrangular cloister, 
with the slender double columns of the style of the Lower 
Empire, surrounding a garden of myrtle and citron, just 
as in the Levant. A third style, seen in the interior of 
the church, was the least attractive of all three, having 
stucco mouldings of the middle of last century, with their 
pear-shaped lines of beauty jostling each other to confusion. 
Through a wide magnificent gallery I was led to the 
cell of the padre, where I saw that a convent in Dalmatia 
is just the reverse of a London house. In our foggy 
climate even the houses of the rich are mean in exterior, 
with narrow staircases, where two persons can scarce 
pass, but comfort reigns in every apartment ; here, on the 
contrary, a good edifice and a superb corridor, and a 
miserable little cell of bare whitewashed walls. The padre, 
a fresh, hale old man, past seventy, with a grey head 
and a ruddy complexion, sat at a small table on a black- 
leatber chair. A crucifix stood in front of him, and old 
books, coffee apparatus, prints, and thumbed Missals, were 
all heaped together in the narrowest space. 

"Every information I possess," said Padre Giurich, "is 
at your service; I remember my Lord Guildford, who 
came here a great many years ago, he who founded the 
University of Corfu, and took a great interest in Ragusa. 
You English are always spreading knowledge and getting 
information ; but we, like a set of fools and traitors, have 
dispersed our own stores. The Dominicans, filled with 


avarice and meanness, were the first, when the French 
came, to sell away tlieir magnificent library. A precioui 
librai*y, containing all that could have interested yon in 
Ragusa; bat, actum est, it is gone. Bat there is Cerva 
at your service," continued the padre, pointing to a long 
range of volumes on a shelf in the celL 

llie Franciscan taking me to be a helhio libroruu 
like himself, recommended such a course of reading on 
the middle ages of Ragusa, as would have taken six 
months at least; but some extracts made for me by Don 
Marco, before my departure, will be sufficient for my 
purpose. Philip de Diversis de Quartigianis, writing in 
1440, describes the old cathedral, built at the expense of 
Richard Coeur de Lion, as follows: 

^^The Cathedral of Ragusa is a temple of hewn stone, 
of regular architecture, surrounded with a balastrade and 
columns ; easy access to within, and a pleasant walk without 
The colonnade is half the height of the church, and has a 
frieze of animals cut in stone; the roof is of lead; and within 
are three aisles, the middle one sustained with thick and 
lofty columns. The grand altar in the middle has a magni- 
ficent canopy, supported by four columns. A carious pulpit, 
on four pillars, is remarkable for its ingenuity and artifice. 
The pavement is of variegated marbles, and the walls adorned 
with representations from the deeds described in the Old 
and New Testaments. The windows are of coloured glass, 
nor must we omit to admire the baptismal font." 

The subsequent adventures of Richard are comparatively 
well known. It is positively stated in the chronicles of 
Zara, that it was at that city that he disembarked, and 
commenced m disguise his journey to Vienna, no doubt 
through Croatia. He arrived safely at a hostelry in the 
Erdberg, and on a Sunday morning, giving a piece of 
gold to the mistress to buy fowls, suspicion was excited, 
and led to his imprisonment. 

The old cathedral of Richard Coiur de Lion was 
thrown down by the earthquake in 1667; a year after 
Old St. Paul's of London was burned. The new cathedral 


was completed by Angelo Bianchi in 1713, the year of 
the completion of Saint PauPs. The only relic of the 
old sacrislay is the Reliquary, which is truly splendid. 
Within a high iron gate, in a dark apartment, lighted by 
day with lamps and candles, is such a quantity of dead 
men's bones set in gold and jewels, as does not certainly 
exist in all Europe. A part of a skull, encompassed with 
gold filagree-work, is called the head of St. Blasius, and 
looks more like a goblet of Benvenuto Cellini than the 
iknll of a bishop: it is stated by Cerva to have been 
brought to Ragusa from Greece in 1026. His arms, the 
left one brought from Venice in 1346, and the right one 
given by Tomas Palelogus, despot of the Peloponnesus in 
1459, are, along with the relics of convents and churches 
in Bosnia, and skulls and arms of other saints and heroes, 
lU shining in the most precious middle-age goldsmith- 
cnft Nor are they few in number, but at least forty or 
fifty pieces; and I think it probable that some of them 
most have been of the first centuries of the Christian era, 
Dalmatia and Illyria having embraced Christianity at so 
early a period. The curious extracts Gibbon gives about 
ihe horror of the later Pagans at the salting and pre- 
serving of the heads of the first martyrs, recurred with 
great force to my memory, as I looked around and saw 
the disjecta membra of mummies glistening by the glare 
of the lamps, as if they were arms and legs cased in 
armour of gold enamel. For the historian of subsequent 
periods, this collection has a moral interest far beyond 
the art of the goldsmith ; for it was after the conversion 
of Bosnia, Albania, and Herzegovina to Islamism, that 
Ragnsa became the asylum of the Christian element; and 
the nobility of character and energy they displayed in 
never delivering up to the vengeance of their more power- 
ful neighbours those princes or nobles who sought refuge 
within the precincts of the city, is a subject of honourable 
pride in the breast of every Ragusan. 

In the body of the church the most venerated object 
is the pelican altar, containing a representation of a pelican 


feeding her young with her blood, a symbol of the 
redemption of mankind by the blood of Christ. Pelicaiu 
abound in the lower Narenta, and I am writing thia 
present book with the large pen of a Narenta pelican. 

The Ragusans have throughout with great tenacity 
adhered to the Church of Rome ; and the Synod of Basle, 
in 1433, in a permission to them to trade freely with in- 
fidels and schismatics (Turks and Greeks), passed a brilliant 
eulogium on their fidelity, for it would appear that their 
political connexion with the Sultans had previously caused 
some umbrage. Scarce had the surrounding provinces 
turned Turk when the Reformation broke out in all its 
fury in Germany, flourished at Ferrara, and, notwith- 
standing the silence of the Ragusan writers on the sab- 
ject, I was assured that in the middle of the sixteenth 
century a majority of the youth entertained the principles 
of the Reformation, and the peace of the Republic was 
seriously menaced. One of the absurd Catholic traditions 
of the town is, that fifteen young men of the first families 
having, during the reform struggle, refused to salute the 
Host in the street, were next day found dead; and to 
this day, at Stagno, is shewn a place in which a Protestant 
was immured alive. He is supposed to have been a Sorgo, 
for the accounts of the period were carefully suppressed; 
but I was present at a hot and long dispute that took 
place on this subject— a representative of the Sorgo family 
declaring, with inexpressible horror, that the heretic was 
a Caboga. 

Ragusa succeeded to Epidaurus as an Archiepiscopsl 
see, and continued so during all the Republic, always 
contesting with Spalato the primacy of the Littorale or 
coast of Illyria; but at present it is simply a Bishopric. 
The present incumbent, a man of distinguished courtly 
manners, and clear active intellect, debarred by his pro- 
fession from meddling directly in civil or political affairs, 
is working out a laudable political end, by means within 
his legitimate sphere, and is so judicious a patriot as to 
deserve some mention of his proceedings. 


There is now-a-days no Gondola or Boscovich in this 
city, but a great readiness and capacity for instruction. 
The nobility, up to the fall of the Republic, were in easy 
and opulent circumstances; but after their fleet of three 
hundred merchantmen was burned or taken, and the 
Republic merged in the French empire, those who had 
not landed property, but lived on the profits of shipping 
(held ostensibly by a Jew broker), or enjoyed lucrative 
offices, found themselves in a new and painful position. 
The citizens have the resources of trade, but the prejudices 
of the aristocracy against trading openly are too strong 
to be overcome. The Dalmatian is quite different from 
the Ragusan; he has a generous heart, but is rude, un^ 
cultivated, and spendthrift; and the remedy for this is a 
more efficient system of public instruction than that which 

Each city of Dalmatia has its own sphere of action. 
Zara, nearest to Austria, is the military capital ; Spalato is 
the seat of the trade of Bosnia; but Ragusa, from its literary 
tastes, cultivated manners, and the cheapness of living, ought 
to be the seat of a regular university for the formation 
of members of the liberal professions, as well as the 
civilians and clergy, who might in time effect an educational 
revolution on all the coast, from Istria to Albania, — in 
ihort, it is by becoming a university, and a seat of 
learning, that Ragusa is most likely to prosper. The 
Bishop has perfectly understood this question. A Dal- 
matian by birth, he is sensible of the defects of his fellow- 
coontrymen, of their many excellent native qualities which 
lie dormant or are misdirected, and of the necessity of 
a more enlightened class of rural clergy, as well as of 
the advantage of enabling the rising generation of Ragusa 
to have superior instruction on the spot. He is sensible 
of the great capacity of this people for intellectual pursuits, 
and has earnestly applied himself to reahse the local 
funds for this excellent object. 

The foundations of the Republic for educational or 
charitable purposes were opulent; but no sooner did the 


French invasion spread over the land, than a general 
scramble took place. The large libraries of the coUegoi 
of the Jesuits and Dominicans were sold and dispersed, 
and the fands of the charitable and educational institntioni 
were appropriated by those who had the care of them. 
There are, however, fragments of these endowmenti 
scattered about. The present Bishop has pat an end to 
the usufruct of these by individuals, and has consolidated 
them so as to found a Lyceum or Philosophical Institatioiii 
which promises well. 

A visit to the embryo Institution was the occupation 
of an interesting forenoon. Besides the usual clasB-roomg, 
with the apparatus of Natural Philosophy, there is a library, 
which has begun with three thousand volumes of private 
donations. Here I found, among other works, a Moliere 
in Illyrian, as his plays used to be acted a centuiy.and 
a half ago; and I cannot close this chapter without 
acknowledging the kind attentions as well as valuable in- 
formation which I have received on various subjects, fipom 
the Bishop, and from Don Marco Kalugera, who, by hia 
profound and extensive erudition, is the ornament of the 

Ragusa always maintained a traffic with Earopean 
Turkey, as much from its geographical position as from 
the political relations existing with the Porte. The enemy 
of Venice and the ally of Genoa was protected by the 
Porte ; and it was the privileges of separate jurisdiction 
and right of worship in the great cities of the region now 
called European Turkey, that were the types of the 
present anomalous position of the subjects of foreign 
powers in the dominions of the Sultan. In Belgrade, 
Roustchouk, Silistria, Adrianople, and Sofia, were so-called 
Ragusan colonies, or, in our own commercial languagei 
factories, in which the consul exercised civil and criminal 
jurisdiction, even before the conquest of Constaatinople 
by Mohammed II. 

The Ragusan ambassador at the Porte was therefore 
an important personage for the Republic; and the laat 


dragoman of the last legation still lived when I was in 
Sagusa, in the enjoyment of a green old age. He was 
an enthusiastic oriental scholar, and even carried com- 
plaisance so far as to give me a little dancing-party, in 
which the waltz, gliding on the marble pavement, reminded 
me of the Levant. He had been brought up as a jeune 
de langues in the time of the Republic, and last saw 
Constantinople in 1805 ; but in consequence of the friendly 
relations that always existed between Ragusa and the 
Porte, he was a Turcophile of the heartiest sort. 

Ragusa is still the port of Herzegovina, whence its 
raw products are exported, and whither its manufactures 
are imported; and one day he took me to see the Turkish 
bazaar outside the town, which is sequestered, for sanatory 
reasons, off the main southern road, by two stone fences 
breast high, which permit commerce and conversation 
without contact; and the excellent macadamised road to 
Herzegovina is seen forming a red-brown zigzag line on 
the face of the hill above. A thick grove of trees planted 
within the enclosure gives a convenient coolness in the 
heat of summer; but in January it was leafless; and on 
the other side of the barrier mules were loading and 
nnloading, while bags of wool and grain were being 
weighed and delivered. The Moslem merchants and dealers 
from Herzegovina sat smoking on stone benches within, 
coolly ordering their servants to bring this bale or that 
bde, while the Greeks of Ragusa outside were full of 
agility, and perpetually on the move to turn a penny. 
The Moslem beyond the barrier, whether he bought or 
sold, acted the master; the Greek on this side, whether 
he bought produce of the Moslem, or sold him manu- 
£actures, seemed his servant. 

*<A happy morning, Hadgi,^' said our Ragusan orientalist 
to a well-dressed Herzegovinian, who, to use our own 
slang, had got a touch of the tar-brush in his face; ^'here 
is a friend of mine who has been lately in Egypt;" so 
we fell a talking, and he told me that his father was 
from the Soudan (country of the upper Nile), and having 


come to Bosnia with a x^asha, whose name I have forgot, 
had married a white Bosniac woman, and that he himself 
was born in Trebigne, and had been four yean in 
Alexandria, in the house of a Bosniac merchant, and wat 
now in trade there. In the midst of our discdurse, op 
came a man, with a bag, to pay the Hadgi money owiBg 
him, which was all counted out in ducats and Anstriin 
zwanzigers, which are now the favourite coin of Bagpua; 
and whilst they were telling the money, Mr. B. informed 
me that all the accounts of the State of Ragnea were 
kept in Turkish piastres up to the French inyasion, 
in 1809. 

Without entering further into unimportant details, 
I will state briefly how Ragusa stands with reference to 
trade. Ever since the destruction of her mercantile navj, 
in consequence of the French occupation, Ragusa has 
ceased to possess any maritime importance in the Adriatic. 
Once exclude a place from trade for a few years, and 
disperse its capital, and it is very difficult to restore it 
again ; commerce being so curiously capricious, abandoning 
with great unwillingness unfavourable positions that exist 
for ages on the momentum of some former impulse, and 
often unaccountably and pertinaciously refusing to oocnpj 
positions that appear favourable. But if an nnfayoiinible 
position be abandoned, it is very difficult to bring about 
a reaction. 

One of the drawbacks to the town can scarcely be 
remedied; the old port under the walls was sufficiently 
large for the galleys of the middle ages, but unfit for 
vessels of long course. After the great earthquake it 
was proposed to build the new city at Gravosa; but the 
circumstance of the solid walls of the old town remaining 
almost uninjured, determined the re-edification on the 
old spot. Now that lofty ramparts, in the style of the 
middle ages, are of no value, this resolution is regretted; 
as Gravosa, which could contain all the largest ships of 
the Adriatic, is a mile off, and this undoubtedly keeps 
down the value of house-property in the town. 


With a university and no Customs tariff, I think that 
Ragusa might bloom forth anew, if the inhabitants chose 
to second these measures by putting forth their own 
energies. It was by self-reliance that their forefathers laid 
the foundation of that wealth which is passed away. It 
is by the same qualities that the Greeks of Herzegovina, 
now established in Ragusa, have almost a monopoly ai 
the internal trade. And it is by accommodating their 
position to their means that they have any chance of re- 
trieving their past splendour.* 

In Hie mean time, it is an unquestionable advantage 
for the whole coast, that the Steam Navigation of the 
Austrian Lloyd's Company now extends along all the Eastern 
shore of the Adriatic. 



The steamers from Trieste have been a great advantage 
for Dalmatia; but in reality they have produced a very 
slight addition to the knowledge of the interior. Few 
travellers can resist preferring the towns visited on the 
coast, with the conveniences of a well-fumished cabin, 
books, society, and a good table, to the fatigues of a 
journey on the Turkish borders, where roads and inns 
are scarce and bad. It is for this reason that the coast 
of Dalmatia from Ragusa to Spalato is almost entirely 
unknown to modem tourists, although the Delta of the 
Narenta is, without exception, that part of the coast in 
which Nature has poured out her territorial wealth with 
a liberality which equals, if it does not surpass, that of 
the plains on the opposite coast of Apulia; but it is, at 

* The population of Ragusa at the time of the earthquake was 
»,ono, now «000. 
Patos. I. 17 


the same time, the most uncultivated and the most mi- 
healthy spot in Dalmatia. 

The Ragusans speak of the Delta of the Narenta just 
as the Romans spoke of the Pontine marshes before they 
were drained. When I talked of going there, they shook 
their heads, and shrugged their shoulders, as if I were 
going into a plague-hospital; and one said, that if I caught 
the fever, I might never have the pleasure of smelling a 
London fog again. But the words of an English book- 
seller recurred to my mind: "A traveller and a writer of 
travels di£fer; the former loses his way if he go out of 
the beaten track, the latter loses his time if he remain 
in it, and can never go astray when he has turned his 
back on the high road." I therefore resolved to see the 
Narenta; and meeting at the house of a friend the prin- 
cipal merchant and agriculturist of the Delta, he declared 
that the climate was better than that of Ragusa, and that 
he was always ill in the city, and never well again until 
he got back to the Narenta. I then recounted this anecdote 
in glee to the Ragusans, who answered, that if a frog 
were taken out of a marsh, he was unwell until thro¥m 
in the water again; but the Narentan concluded, that 
England, being a country of perpetual fog, must be all 
marsh, and decided that I ought to go with him just to 
revive me with something akin to my native air. The 
Ragusans having asked him whether the fogs of the 
Narenta had ever produced a Gondola, or a Marino 
Ghetaldi, he felt himself put on his mettle for a genius 
that might do honour to his birth-place; but he could 
only recollect a brave admiral of their galleys, and as he 
was defeated by the Venetians, and hanged for pinu^, 
the debaters felt indisposed to allow the claims of his 
beloved Narenta. 

It was just as the drum was beating the retreat at 
seven o'clock that I started from Ragusa. For the last 
time I traversed the High Street of this friendly town, 
with its dim lamps and scanty thoroughfare, and ascending 
to the house of the kind-hearted R., where the Narentan 


was awaiting me, I took farewell of the family, and went 
out at the gate of the Pille. Count Giorgi, Don Marco, 
and some other friends, accompanied me a short way, and 
it was with the most pleasing recollections of agreeable 
studies, and the greatest personal attentions, that I took 
leave of those kind-hearted people. Arrived at Gravosa, 
we got into a small boat, and were rowed out to a coaster 
lying at anchor in the middle of the harbour, which had 
conveyed to Eagusa a quantity of raw produce from the 
Narenta, via the Isthmus, and was now returning with 
town conveniences to that quarter. It was pitch dark, 
therefore the best thing I could do was, to go down to 
the cabin ; where, making up my mattress and pillow, and 
putting on a fez, and covering myself with my cloak, 
I was soon fast asleep. 

Next morning, the light penetrating through the 
interstices of the hatches, called me on deck, and I found 
that we were in the Gulf of Stagno, smooth as a pond, 
the sunshine clear and bright, and the hiUs on each side 
rising rapidly from the water's edge. Every where, as at 
Curzola, the most beautiful flowering shrubs, that seemed 
to take no note of either February or July, covered all 
the slopes, leaving an almost imperceptible rim of red 
gravel next the water. The boat moved slowly, and 
perceiving a road cut on my right parallel to the Gulf^ 
I landed, and seemed to take a delicious morning walk 
in the park of a millionnaire, whose mania was the collection 
of the choicest evergreen shrubbery. 

But the view fell oflf as we came to Stagno, a walled 
town at the head of the Gulf, hemmed in by mountains, 
80 as to prevent the circulation of the air. The stagnant 
salt water has a dead look of coarse clouded green glass, 
and a broad belt of mud and marsh intervening between 
this water and the massive walls of the town created in 
me an antipathy to the place ; but a jetty comes out into 
deep water, and here we landed ; and my companion, 
a plain, blunt, honest man, with a good practical know- 
ledge of the country, — a much better quality than historical 



erudition for a rough expedition like this, — so managed, 
that, before half an hour had elapsed, bag and baggage 
were all packed on mules and sent o£f to the other side 
of the isthmus that separates Sabioncello from the mam 
land of Dalmatia. 

The interior of the town presents no object of interest; 
the walls, gates, and houses are of solid masonry, and 
the inhabitants of a most sickly appearance. Entering 
the cafe to get some breakfast, while the Narentan went 
about his business, in came a man, who went up to the 
bar, and drank off a large glass of brandy without 
winking his eyes: whereon I began to ask him some 
questions about the place, and he abused the fever, for 
its egotism. 

"This is a terrible place, sir," said he; "we have no 
fresh air in summer; and the fever is so selfish as not 
only to be an enemy to health, but will allow no other 
disease to exist in the place but itself." Having seen me 
on the jetty with the Narentan, he then said, "I suppose^ 
as you are an Englishman, you are in search of raw 
materials." 1 confessed that I was, and he asked me 
where I sold them. I answered, in Paternoster Row, and 
other places; but he answered, that he had never heard 
of that port. He then asked me if business was good; 
and I complained there was too much competition to 
allow high profits. "Ah, I understand," said he, "no 
doubt a porto Franco; the great men carry all before 
them, and a man who does business on a small scale 
cannot exist at all." 

The Narentan now entered the cafe, and we soon 
started on foot to follow the baggage across the isthmus; 
the ground rising gently to a ridge, from which we 
looked down on a gulf, or angle of sea formed by the 
peninsula of Sabioncello on the west, and on the east by 
the mainland. It is this nook which supplies Ragusa with 
its famous oysters; and it is supposed that the vicinity 
of the Narenta is the cause of theii* fatness and 


We now embarked in a boat, and made for the Delta : 
the peninsula on oar left covered with woods and villages 
perched high in the mountains, surrounded with patches 
of cultivated land; the main land on our right utterly 
bare, barren, and rocky. About eight miles on we came 
to the Bay of Klek, where the territory of the ex-Republic 
of Eagusa ended, and where a morsel of Turkish land 
oomes down to the bay, — a monument of Ragusan hatred, — 
having been ceded to the Porte for the purpose of pre- 
venting Venice from being the limitrophe of her little 
neighbour . 

As we advanced down the Gulf, it widened to a con- 
siderable breadth, — Sabioncello, still high, and draped in 
forest, but a bluff point, and a rocky island, marked the 
termination of the hill ridge of the main land. A great 
break was visible, and the low reed-covered coast of the 
Delta was seen a-head to our right. At length, within 
an hour of sunset, we found ourselves at the mouth of 
the left branch of the Narenta, with the landscape just 
like that of the Po below Ferrara; and leaving the sea- 
green water of the Gulf, we now steered right up into 
the river, which was red, turbid, and charged with soil, 
and we found ourselves between low flat banks overgrown 
with reeds, over the tops of which we saw a wide amphi- 
theatre of grey distant rocks. An entire willow, root and 
branch, undersapped, and fallen from some bank, floated 
past us; gim-shots were heard, some faint and distant, 
others from the immediate neighbourhood, and the 
quantity of game was truly prodigious; more particularly 
coveys of wild ducks, pattering, clattering, and scattering 
the water in their course across the river. 

The water here is six months mixed, and six months 
fresh. In winter and spring, when the Bora blows, and 
the rain falls, or the snow melts, the impetuosity of the 
fall volume of water from above keeps it fresh; but in 
summer, while the river is low, and the north-west wind 
accumulates the waste water in the Gulf, the water is 
very salt. 


After an hour's rowing, the reeds ceased, the ground 
became more solid, and an artificial bank on our left not 
only restrained the river, but formed a road; so we all 
disembarked, and getting up on it, I saw Fort Opus, the 
chief place of the district, about three or four miles off, 
and some of the land of the Delta laid out in vines and 
meadows, but, like the Dutch Polders, much under water. 
Fort Opus is at the apex of the Delta, or just where the 
waters separate; but the left branch, which we ascended, 
has much less water than the right branch, which is 
navigable for vessels of several hundred tons, and was 
ascended in a steamer by the King of Saxony on his 
visit to Dalmatia. 

It was black night before we arrived at Fort Opus, 
having got into the boat again for fear we should, in the 
dark, fall into a quagmire. The gun-shots had entirely 
ceased^ but such a chorus of frogs resounded through the 
air as I never heard before. At length we landed, and 
our Narentan led the way through a short street to his 
own house, which had solid foundations, and uninhabited 
lower rooms, as the whole town is from time to time 
under water, with boats sailing through the streets, or 
lying under the first-floor windows. Having shewn me to 
my bedroom, we then adjourned to his parlour, a long 
room with stencilled or papered walls, a new chest of 
drawers covered with gilt coffee-cups, and rush- bottomed 
sofas; here his family was brought in, — his wife, his 
brother, and brother's \sdfe, and the aged grandmother, 
all full of curiosity and kindness, for Fort Opus is not 
much troubled with strangers. His brother kept a uni- 
Tersal store, supplying the whole country, and spoke 
Italian, but the females of the establishment knew only 
lUyrian. Feeling rather damp and chilly in their fine 
lugubrious room, I asked where was their usual place of 
sitting, and they confessed that it was by the kitchen 
hearth; so I immediately proposed adjourning there, but 
instead of going down stairs, we all followed up to the 
garret with black smoked rafters. A large stone hearth 


jutted out into the middle of the floor; old benches were 
placed on each side for the farm overseers and upper 
servants, and in the front was a bench of a better sort 
for the family. Large fagots blazed away on the hearth, 
a large turkey turned on the spit for supper, and, at the 
ferther end of the hearth, two cats and two pointers 
shewed themselves sensible of the comfort of the ingleside. 
The men rose with the gaping jaws of wonder as I entered, 
not understanding how I could leave the room they con- 
sidered so fine for a smoky kitchen; but I made them 
sit down again, and as I asked one by one his name, the 
daily employment of each formed the amusement of the 
evening. I found that the severe distress and hunger of 
the other districts of Dalmatia were here unknown; they 
did not depend upon the potato crops; and if a man 
has only cash enough for a single musket-charge, he has 
only to shoot a duck or a pair of francalins and he fares 
sumptuously. How different is the world of yesterday 
from the world of to-day. In Ragusa, elegant town-life; 
here, roughing it in the country ; yonder, polished poverty ; 
here, patriarchal plenty. On retiring to rest I found my 
bed to be a broad one of carved walnut-wood; and the 
mosquito curtains shewed that these insects must be 
rather troublesome in summer. 

Next morning I went out with the Narentan to take 
a view of the place; which proved to be a straggling 
village of 800 inhabitants, its position at the diffluence of 
the Narenta corresponding in its own petty way with 
the Batan el Btikur, or cow's chest, at the apex of the 
Delta of the Nile; a circumstance which recommended 
it to the Venetians, at it is thus accessible from the sea, 
and separated from the rest of the land by the two arms 
of the Narenta. The fortifications no longer exist; and 
a row of enormous mulberries, some with trunks fifteen 
feet in circumference, shew the great depth and excellence 
of the soil. We then went and paid a visit to the Praetor 
of the district, an active and energetic man, who has 
been of great service to the people. The water used to 


be very bad, but he has constructed a curiotis cistern; it 
spreads out on the top, so as to catch the rain-water, and 
has Roman statues and funereal monuments in the walla. 
With the filters of Egypt nothing could be better than 
the water of the Narenta; but as it passes through Mostar, 
a filthy Turkish town, the capital of Herzegovina, eight 
hours higher, they have an antipathy to it. There were 
no mills in the Narenta before his arrival, and, strange to say, 
the inhabitants got their com ground within the Turkish 
frontier until he erected mills. In the immediate environs 
of the town was a large mulberry-nursery which he had 
planted, and in which the prisoners of the prsetorahip 
were working; the principal purchaser of these mnlberry- 
shoots being the Pasha of Herzegovina, who has plante4 
many thousands on his lands. 

We crossed in a boat to the left bank of the river, 
where a hill projected, crowned by a round fort^ whither 
we ascended, and took a general view of the valley. The 
distant hills to the north-eastward that separated Bosnia 
from Herzegovina were white with snow. Nearer me, just 
where the river issued from Herzegovina, and meanders 
through the plain, was the village of Metcovich, with a baiaar 
of exchange with the Turks. The hill that encloses the valley 
were perfectly barren, there being no medium between the 
rich and neglected soil of the plain and the sterility of the 
hills around. Looking down towards the gulf, the delta, 
enclosed by the two branches of the river, was spread oat 
as on a map ; Fort Opus, with its gardens, vineyards, and 
mulberry-nurseries, looked like a civilised spot; nearer the 
sea, sheets of water were mingled with patches of cultivated 
land, but lower down all was abandoned to wild fowl; 
beyond this, a narrow stripe of sea was visible, and the bold 
range of the Sabioncello limited the prospect to the west 

The Narenta was, in the time of the Lower Empire, 
a nest of pirates, who infested the Adriatic, and were 
extiiT)ated by the Doge Orseolo, and a large Venetian 
force, in 991; for such was their power, that not only 
Venice, but many of the small states of the Adriatic, 


paid them tribute. From this time, up to the twelfth 
century, when the district became a part of the kingdom 
of Hungary, they governed themselves by a species of 
olig^chical constitution, the leading family being that of 
the Vladimirs or Vladimirovich, one branch of whom was 
for several generations on the throne of Bulgaria; sub- 
sequently Christopher, king of Bosnia, was also of this 
race, and, except the Nemanje, it would be difficult to 
name one more illustrious between the Adriatic and the 
Black Sea. The Turkish invasion was a great blow to 
them; but, in 1646, John Vladimirovich drove them out, 
and handed over the territory to the Venetian Republic, 
which founded the mud- walled Fort Opus in 1685, just 
after the eventful siege of Vienna, and the expulsion of 
the Turks from Hungary. 

The renowned race of Vladimirovich still lingers in 
the place: and though in poverty, and fallen to the con- 
dition of peasants, they still carefully preserve the title- 
deeds of their lands in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and other 
documents authenticating their lineage. Musing on the 
past splendour of this race, I asked the Narentan to get 
me a sight of one of its scions, and the head of the family 
was at once sent for. I sat by the fire as he entered, 
and found him to be about forty-five years of age, of 
middle stature, with a greasy red cap on his head, and 
rude sandals on his feet. A row of pins and darning* 
needles stuck in a blue jacket, like that of a sailor, at 
first disposed me to smile; but as he timidly kissed my 
hand, my mind turned to the words of Gondola: "His 
kingdom is the narrow meadow, and his lieges are the 
bleating sheep." 

Next day, the Preetor and the Narentan going on 
business to Metcovich, the bazaar on the Turkish frontier, 
I accompanied them thither. Crossing the river, we found 
saddled horses, and mounting them, proceeded along the 
bank above the diffluence, the rich undrained land stretch- 
ing away to oiu* right and left. Half an hour up is a 
strong tower or keep, called the "Torre di Norin," or 


tower of Narona, often alternately taken by Turks and 
Venetians, and, on the evacuation of Dalmatia by the 
French, the last place to surrender. The comiBandant 
haying at length expended his ammunition, went off in 
the night into Turkey to avoid becoming a prisoner. 
Farther up, on the left, was Vido, the Narona of the 
Romans, but now a heap of mounds and ruins; the 
statues and domestic utensils frequently . found there, 
however, shew, by their elegance and excellence, that the 
population, cultivation, and civilisation, must have equalled 
that of the best towns in Italy itself. What the substratmn 
of the population of Illyria really was, no one seems able 
to say with certainty, as the long list of classical names, 
recognised to be essentially Slaavic, seems to justify a 
theory of the lUyrians being Thracian. Gaj, and many 
other most erudite Slaavists, maintain that the irruptions 
of the Croats from the Carpathians in the fifth and seventh 
centuries, were later invasions of a Romanised but ab- 
original Slaavic country. 

Metcovich, the last place on the frontier, is situated 
on a steep hill, stretching out into the plain, and is very 
badly built, the bouses being roofed with unhewn flagstones, 
placed on each other like slates; while the streets con- 
necting the different parts of the village are cut into 
staircases, in consequence of the steepness of the hill: 
but, from its position, it is healthier than Fort Opus, and 
a small part of the plain being drained and planted, shews 
what a magnificent region this might be, if it were all 
systematically rendered fit for cultivation. The best house 
of the place was that of the Syndic, who had married 
the sister of my host of Fort Opus about a month before; 
and the furniture and dinner-service was fresh, new, and 
homely, such as one might expect of a hone3naioon house- 
hold on the Narenta. 

We now embarked in a boat, and rowed up the river 
to the bazaar. A ditch of about ten feet wide, crossing 
the valley from hill to hill, formed the boundary between 
he two empires that for so many years had battled every 


inch of ground from the Julian Alps to the plains of 
Wallachia. On the Austrian side of the boundary were 
the offices, and on the Turkish a wall, with slides like 
coffins for the exchange of commodities. The Sirdar, a 
tall, wiry old soldier, now marshalled up the frontier- 
guard in a row, while the Praetor inspected them; and 
they looked just like Turkish irregulars, all wearing frieze 
robes, with the fez, and a belt of pistols and dirks. 

The Sirdar made a long speech to the Praetor, requesting 
a new roof to the guard-house, but he decided that the 
old one should be repaired. We then had some talk about 
the place, and were informed that this part of the valley 
is occasionally infested with wolves, who come down from 
the upper country ; but the animals understand the business 
of defensive war in their own way just as well as the 
Sirdar and his pandours: the oxen form a circle, with 
the calves within, and gore outwards; while the horses 
join their heads inwards, and kick outwards in a ring. 

Metcovich is seven hours distant from Mostar, the 
capital of Herzegovina, the principal item of sale to the 
Turks being salt ; but it is evident that if the climate 
were better, it is well situated for trade, having easy 
access to the sea, and a valley road to Mostar, instead of 
one up hill and down dale, as from Ragusa. Dalmatia 
being a narrow stripe of land intervening between Turkey 
and the Adriatic, cannot do without the trade of the 
interior, and the Bosniacs, unable to communicate con- 
veniently with the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, or the 
Adriatic, are compelled to resort to Dalmatia; and all 
along the frontier, at every twenty or thirty miles, there 
is a bazaar and quarantine establishment, as here. Previous 
to 1814, the caravans travelled freely down to any of the 
ports on the coast; but a terrible plague having in that 
year desolated Macarsca and other places, the trade became 
confined to the bazaars on the frontier, to the great loss, 
damage, and decadence of all the small towns on the 
coast, which ceased to enjoy the privilege of a caravan 
guarded by health officers; but Spalato and Ragusa have 


in latter years had a restoration of this privilege. Thus, 
however much Christian Dalmatia and Moslem Bosnia maj 
hate each other, they cannot do without each other. 
Cool mountainous Bosnia needs the oil of hot Dalmatia, 
and dry Dalmatia needs in her turn the cattle of the 
verdant Bosniac pastures. Inland Bosnia needs the colonials 
and manufactures of maritime Dalmatia, and poor Dal- 
matia needs the corn of the rich alluvial valleys of 
Bosnia. But one has only to look at this valley of the 
Narenta, and see that Dalmatia is infinitely more de- 
pendent on Bosnia than she ought to be. The snipe, the 
pelican, and the wild duck, occupy territories which, 
with a moderate expenditure of capital, might be of 
immense benefit to the kingdom; and although Dalmatia 
produces corn for only three months' consumption, this 
very territory, which ought to be the first cultivated, 
remains the last. 

The Narenta is the most considerable of all the rivers 
that flow into the east of the Adriatic, from Friuli to 
Greece; its course is not extended in comparison with 
that of other rivers, but it collects all the waters of Her- 
zegovina, and in the rainy season deposits the rich homos 
in these fertile plains. The attention of the Government 
seems at length to have been drawn to the advantages 
likely to be derived from the drainage and coltivation of 
this district, for which two methods present themselves. 
The first is the so-called honificazione per aedimentOf which 
arbitrarily regulates the direction of the river during the 
rains, when the water is full of alluvial matter, and then 
spreads them over the marshy land, and, restraining the 
sediment within fixed bounds, produces a slow spontaneous 
rise of the soil; the other method is the usual drainage 
by ditches and canals. The first of these methods is 
certainly the most complete, but as it could scarcely be 
effected under an expense of a million and a half of 
florins, the other plan seems the more feasible; for al- 
though by canalisation a considerable amount of surface 
would be lost for cultivation, yet a commencement can 


be made with a few thousand florins, and the accumulating 
revenues of the first years would gradually furnish the 
funds to complete the whole. There is another circumstance 
worthy of notice that recommends the latter plan; it is 
the silk culture that must form the future mine of wealth 
of the Narenta, and the mulberry not only produces a 
large quantity of leaves when planted on the ridge edging 
a river or canal, but their roots, interlacing themselves in 
the embankment, are the best preservatives of the labours 
of drainage. 

What, then, is the best official machinery for effecting 
this object, civil or military? I confess that 1 lean to the 
latter, under the actual circumstances of the Austrian 
empire. As a general rule, it is better for parties having 
a personal interest in such undertakings to accomplish 
them, than a bureaucratic Government I am willing to 
admit that what I have seen of the Praetor of Fort Opus 
(if he had funds) is against my own theory; but in the 
simplicity and directness of a military administration, the 
activity of the individuals in the subordinate details could 
be more easily harmonised with a comprehensive general 
plan. What is to prevent the Government from getting 
a body of prisoners to commence immediately digging 
a few canals, and making the beginning, and then settling 
a military colony? On the Save and the Danube, where 
the soil is rich, the military colonists are well off; but in 
the Banal regiments, which constitute the Switzerland of 
Croatia, this romantic region (which we will visit with 
the reader before we are done), although worthy of the 
pencil of a Salvata Rosa, can barely feed the population, 
and the officer is often compelled to order a man to his 
turn of duty, when he knows that he cannot be well 
spared from the laborious cultivation of an ungrateful 
soil. The wide Atlantic separates the Highlands of Scot- 
land from the rich alluvia of Upper Canada; but here is 
a robust mountain population scraping the scanty soil in 
the wild woods, rocks, and mountains of Croatia, while, 
within a few days' march of them, the rich alluvial de- 


posits of the Narenta accumulate with the useless rapidity 
of a miser's hoard. 

The climate at present is so bad that it deserves notice. 
Along with the heat of summer, and the humidity of 
winter, the mephitic vapours arising from the large earth- 
enriching deposits of putrefied animal and vegetable 
matter are most injurious to human life; the most healthy 
suffer from sluggish digestion, and obstinate liver com- 
plaints arise from the imperfect oxygenisation of the air; 
so that last year, in Fort Opus, in a population <rf 
680 souls, the deaths were 58, and the births 30, while 
the average deaths in the corresponding latitudes of 
southern Europe are 35 per thousand. The deadly fevers 
commence in August, and the deaths usually take place 
in November and December; before, therefore, a colony 
be settled, a few preliminary canals ought to be cut hj 
the convicts of the mihtary frontier, to avert the evil 
effects of the insalubrity of the climate. 

I embarked for Spalato in a large trabacolo, or lugger; 
a stiff southerly breeze filling the large latine mainsail, 
and impelling us forward at a rapid rate. A moderate 
sea was running, isolated clouds chequered the heavens, 
and the coast on our right rose from the water's edge, 
with the dark green of the olive-plantations next lie 
water, the red and brown of the rocks above, and, superior 
to all, the crests of the mountain-chain still draped in 
snowy white. Here, as I sat in the hatchway, and the 
boat scudded along, with the eddies of foam boiling astern, 
I felt all the exhilaration which the rapid motion, the 
changeful scene, and the unconscious passage of headland 
after headland, could scarce fail to produce. Forty or 
fifty miles of the coast were distinctly visible; an Alpine 
wall overlooking the green sea, its gloomy shades broken 
with brilliant patches of sunshine, revealing mountain and 
flood, terraced vine, and eyrie village, in that agitated 
mood of nature which vacillates between smiling calm 
and frowning storm. As we advance, the scenery changes 
in character; the chain sinks into moderate ridges, in 


their intervals affording glimpses of fertile and verdant 
plains, in which the spires of village churches mingle with 
lofty trees, and the snow-peaks, though still visible, are 
some miles inland. 

A white tower, like an obelisk, seen against a grey 
cloud, well up the coast, was pointed out to me by the 
brown finger of the helmsman, with the single word, 
"Spalato." This was the tall campanile of the temple 
cathedral; and though the mast nodded^ and the canvas 
strained with the breeze, impatience possessed me, until, 
rounding the point of the mole, one of those grand 
harbour prospects spread out before me which peculiarly 
exercised the pencil of Claude. The palace of Diocletian, 
with a long and imposing array of pillars and arches, 
rose from the water, mingled with the swelling sails of 
vessels arriving and departing; the gardens and villas of 
the environs curved round in a bay ; while the empurpled 
isles of the Archipelago, some miles distant, lay like blocks 
of porphyry on the horizon, and completed the panorama. 

As we arrived between one and two o'clock, which is 
the dinner-hour of the Customs officers, I sat on the deck 
of the trabacolo in a state of great impatience : the harbour 
was full of these vessels, too large to be called boats, 
and too small to be called ships. One large one next us 
had several Turks on board, with blue-checked turbans 
and scarlet robes, who proved to be Bosniacs* They had 
brought manufactured goods from Trieste, which they 
were taking home with them. A new stone quay, about 
forty yards broad, intervenes between the water and the 
palace of Diocletian; and it is only by looking closely 
that you can perceive it to be one uniform edifice, and 
not a row of houses fronting the quay. It is an inhabited 
ruin; the grand gallery, or crypto-porticus, has all its 
interstices built up, with here a green Venetian blind, 
there a pole on which clothes are drying; here you dis- 
cover the archivolts and columns, there they are obliterated 
by middle-age battlements, or modern house-building. 
The original stages are not adhered to: it was two lofty 


floors, HOW you see three and four floors, with the modem 
windows AYithin the old shell ; the basement of the front 
is obscured with shops, but here and there an open space 
shews the grand massive old Roman masonry, the joiningi 
as clear, and the parallelograms as perfect, as in the list 
years of the third century. 

A boat, very little larger than a coffln, took me from 
the trabacolo to the quay; and my baggage being paned, 
I got into lodgings which a friend had engaged for me, 
as I designed Spalato to be my head-quarters in Dal- 
matia. My rooms were situated in the centre of the 
palace, for one-third of the population of Spalato Irm 
within the walls of this grand edifice. 



Before I ascend to the description of this noble ruin, 
or descend to the description of my own adventures, let 
me first give the reader a general prospect of the town 
and its environs. Spalato is situated on a peninsula, m 
the form of a spear-blade, or oblong hand mirror, that 
intervenes between the Gulf of Salona and the Adriatic. 
It is placed on the outer shore of the peninsula that looks 
to the sea; and at a quarter of an hour's distance on the 
inner side of the peninsula, the spectator, after passing 
a slight ridge, sees before him the Gulf of Salona, the 
shores of which form the noblest part of the whole land: 
for beyond the smooth wide waters of the bay he observes 
a rich broad band of smiling villages and gardens, dotted, 
at regular distances, with Venetian castles, beyond which 
rises the rugged mountain-chain of Caprarius; and as the 
fairest races come of mixed breeds, this locking of water 
in the embrace of land has produced such beauty as ii 
nowhere else to be found in Dalmatia. 


The town itself is a parallelogram, the length of which 
is double its breadth, or, in other words, two squares in 
juxtaposition; one of which is delineated by the shell or 
outward walls of the palace, and the other by a mass of 
streets to the westward, in the middle of which is the 
largest open space in the town, called the Piazza dei 
Signori, but of irregular medieval and modern archi- 
tecture, — the ex-palace of the Venetian Count, or Governor, 
which is the present guard-house, being mingled with 
meaner houses. Most of the streets leading to or from 
this square are dark and narrow, of an average breadth 
of ten feet; one, called the Galle Larga, or broad street, 
leading to the quay, is certainly not twenty feet broad. 
At the eastern side of this square is the western gate of 
the palace, the Porta Ferrea, still almost perfect, a magni- 
ficent vaulted entrance, with a horreum, or gallery above, 
used as a chapel. 

The interior of the palace is so choked up with narrow 
streets and edifices huddled together, that when I first 
passed under the vault of the Porta Ferrea, and plunged 
into its labyrinths, I was disappointed; but moving on- 
wards to the heart of the mass, I suddenly found myself 
in the Piazza of the temple, and all that I had heard and 
read of the glories of Spalato burst upon me instantaneously. 
Never shall I forget that moment, — no drudgery of local 
research has been able to deaden its impression. Athens, 
Rome, and Thebes, I had seen in ruins, — here the majesty 
of imperial antiquity conveyed august illusions of con- 
temporaneous existence. Of the Peristyle, which forms 
three sides of the piazza in which I stood, not one of its 
columns of rose granite was displaced. On my left, the 
Temple of Jupiter, with the shell internally and externally 
almost as perfect as when the architect rested from his 
labours, was guarded by one of those eternal Sphynxes 
which the Nile sent forth over all the Roman empire, to 
remind the world of the birth-place of architecture. 

As nations in their material and intellectual civilisation 
experience the phases of slow growth, vigorous climax, 
Patow. I. 18 


declension, and subjugation by some stronger element, so 
architecture seems to have performed the same extensive 
cycle. Rude massive grandeur, that loses half its due 
effect by ignorance of the principles of proportion, is 
the characteristic of the earlier efforts in £gypt ; centmies 
later the beau ideal is discovered and realised in Grreece, 
and the Parthenon boasts of the highest effort of the 
graceAil in architecture. Majestic was the character of 
Boman architecture, with much of the utility and variety 
that sprang from the boundless wealth and power of the 
mistress of the world. In the Byzantine we see the down- 
ward progress of taste, and in the Gothic, its final dis- 
ruption, and reformation on a principle diametrically 
opposite to that of classical architecture. The ornament 
is no longer subordinate to the general design, — the design 
seems to be struck off so as to show the ornament to 
most advantage. Standing at Westminster, on the shores 
of the Thames, I gaze with admiration on that extended 
pile which is so consonant to the past history of our 
great Fatherland. I sympathise with the old English 
architecture, but I feel the subordination of the Northern 
to the classical style, from its want of simplicity, that 
irresistible postulate of the sublime and beautifiiL Began 
in 286, and completed in 301, the impression produced 
by this remarkable palace in Spalato is Boman — essentially 
Boman, of a late, but still of a fine period, — after the 
last lustres of the golden age, and marking the fiunt be- 
ginning of the end. 

The bases of my studies were the ground-plans and 
elevations of the palace, as restored by A.dams, in hv 
excellent work on the ruins of the palace of Diocletian 
at Spalato. Adams was not only an accomplished anti- 
quary, but a most able architect, and only an architect 
of great skill could have produced such a work. Gassas, 
the author of the Voyage Pittoresque en DalmatU, 
flippantly tells his readers that Adams had seen every 
thing with the cold egotism of his nation, and very coolly 
transfers to his own pages Adams's invaluable Spalato 


Restored without the slightest acknowledgment. Without 
Adams all is confusion, for in consequence of the modem 
erections subsequent to his visit in the middle of the 
last century, no living architect could clearly make out 
the plan; but the comparison of the plans and sections 
of his Spalato Bestored with the existing^emains, enables 
every traveller to have a fair idea of what the palace 
may have been. 

At the outset we are struck with the enormous extent 
of the palace, which is not less than nine acres and a 
half; so that even Constantine Porphyrogenitus speaks of 
it with admiration, as one of the greatest edifices then 
extant. In the time of Diocletian, his great retinue and 
a prsptorian cohort could be lodged with convenience in 
it Sixteen towers gave strength and even elegance to 
the edifice, of which the largest were those at the four 
comers. The back of the edifice looked to the north- 
east, or land-side, and here was the principal entrance, 
the Porta Aurea, or golden gate, which led to the Peri- 
ityliam, or great court of granite columns ; and the cross 
street, which intersected the principal passage at right 
angles, was terminated at each end by gates — the 
(me, the Porta Ferrea, or gate of iron, the other, the 
Porta -ZEnea, or gate of brass, which are so-called to 
thia day. 

This Peristylium, or court of granite columns, was 
flanked by two temples; the greater of Jupiter, and the 
smaller of Esculapius; the former, a lofty octagon, was 
ascended by a stair of fifteen steps; an uneven number 
being generally used in the temples of the ancients, that, 
beginning to move with the right foot, they might, of 
eourse, place it first upon the uppermost step in order 
to enter the temple ; a form which was accounted respect- 
M in approaching the Deity. 

From the Peristylium, or court of granite columns 
tbe Roman entered the principal inhabited part of the 
palace: first was the Portions, of Corinthian order; then 
the circular dome-crowned Vestibulum, with the Lares 



and Penates ; then the Atrium, or quadrangular hall (98 by 
45), with its arms and trophies, dedicated to ancestiy; and 
last of all, the Crypto-porticus, or grand gallery, looking 
to the south-west, thus facing the sea, and forming a noble 
promenade of 515 feet in length, in which, during the 
heat of summer or inclemency of winter, the Emperor 
could take exercise. This Crypto-porticus was the principal 
feature of the palace ; and the well-known taste of Diocletian 
leads us to suppose that the choicest statuary and paintings 
of the old world must have adorned its walls. The relics 
of Pompeii give some idea of the daring fancy in orna- 
ment, the harmonising contrasts in colour, and the con- 
summate skill in tesselation employed in the domeetie 
architecture of the ancients: and if we relieve these 
splendours with the latent fascination in the unpretending 
forms of Greek statuary, how puny is the utmost magni- 
ficence of Versailles compared with the dwelling of the 
retired Roman! 

But to return to matters of fact. Adams, with tlte 
eye of an architect, remarks, with great aptitude, — **Ili 
from the centre of the Crypto-porticus (or grand galleiy ■ 
facing the sea), we look back to those parts of the palaee ' 
which we have already passed through, we may observe ' 
a striking instance of that gradation from less to grrea t efi < 
of which some connoisseurs are so fond, and which they I 
distinguish by the name of a climax in architecture. The I 
Vestibulum is larger and more lofty than the Portme; I 
the Atrium much exceeds the grandeur of the YestiboIiiB; 4 
and the Crypto-porticus may well be the last step in raoh i 
a climax, since it extended no less than 517 fSeet. We k 
may likewise observe a remarkable diversity of iorm^ •• \ 
well as of dimensions, in these apartments which we hvre i\ 
already viewed; and the same thing is conspicnone in | 
other parts of the palace. This was a circumstance to '^ 
which the ancients were extremely attentive, and it eeemi j^ 
to have had a happy effect, as it introduced into their a 
buildings a variety, which if it doth not constitute beantjt jj 
at least greatly heightens it; whereas modem architectsi -i 


by paying too little regard to the example of the ancients 
in this point, are apt to fatigue us with a dull succession 
of similar apartments." 

Such was the Palace of Diocletian! what now remains 
of the edifice? The shell or outer wall; of which the best 
preserved part is the grand gallery facing the sea, and 
the rest of which is visible in a more or less shattered 
condition on the other three sides; for Spalato, like its 
contemporary Baalbec, being used as a fortification, the 
rough stone and mortar of the middle-age battlements 
surmount in many places the massive normal masonry of 
the Roman Empire. The Porta Aurea, or golden g^te, 
still occupies the centre of the land side, but is a sad 
ruin ; the arch built up, and the earth of a garden with 
its vegetables growing on a level so that the lower half 
is under earth. Within the town, fragments of Roman 
architecture are scattered thick enough, but so obscured 
and mingled with modem houses as to present a mass 
of confusion. 

But while science can scarce identify the disjecta 
membra of the edifice, religious veneration has embalmed 
the core for the admiration of distant ages. The Peristylium 
is now the Piazza del Duomo ; the temple of Jupiter is 
the cathedral of Spalato ; and the temple of Esculapius 
has become the baptistery. The Cathedral is the best 
preserved edifice I ever saw, not even excepting the 
Pantheon of Rome. Of the body of the edifice not a 
single stone has been displaced, except an opening for 
light; for like other Roman temples it was merely the dark 
dwelling of a God. 

The campanile, which is at the same time a sort of 
propylon to the edifice, is (maugre some lions and griffins 
in the lowest taste of the Lower Empire), the lightest 
and airiest thing imagination can conceive, and transcends 
in elegance every other similar edifice in Italy. It was 
built by Nicolo Teverde, a common mason of Spalato, in 
1416, out of columns and sculptures supplied by the ruins 
of Salona, and is an admirable effort of native ingenuity, 

278 BOOK n. mOHLAimS and I8I.Ain>8 OV THB AmUATlC, 

but interferes with the classic character of the vidnity. 
The pulpit-doors and font of the cathedral would mike 
any Gothic church admired, from their tracery and middle- 
age knick-knackery; but are miserably mean in soch a 
place. With all these deductions, the noble octagon of 
Diocletian predominates and oyerwhelms. To that strange 
spell of unique curiosity and interest with which the 
trayeller first walks up the streets of Pompeii, is added 
the real presence of an undilapidated structure, worthy of 
the fame of the greatest of the late emperors. '^Among 
the innumerable monuments of architecture constmcted 
by .the Romans," says Gibbon, ^how many have escaped 
the notice of history, how few haye resisted the ravages 
of time and barbarism !" — He that seeks the few must go 
to Spalato.^ 

> Gibbon, in his account of the Palace of Diocletian, he«it«tM 
between the distinct testimony of Adams, a professed architect, and 
the Abbate Fortis, who, talking of the '*rozzezza del tcalpeiio," erideatly 
confounds the rough rilievi intended to be seen in the semi-obscnrHy 
of the temple with those exposed to full light; and aereral oUier 
writers, including the late ingenious Mr. Oally Knight, consider tiie 
architecture of Spalato to be debased, because the PeriBtylium is aa 
abandonment of the horizontal architrave, and hecaase the romid 
stilted arch is found in all the subsequent corruptions of the Boaanes- 
que and Byzantine styles. In these conclusions I cannot coineids, 
not merely because it is noble and simple, and therefore, apart firoa 
all school-canons, has an intrinsic right to he classic, hat beoaase it 
seems to me that these gentlemen have not drawn a proper distinctlott 
between a corrujprio /I and a legitimate 9ariWy of principles already ezistiBg 
in Boman architecture. The architects of the Peristylinm of Bpalato did 
not interfere with the proportions of the column ; they only combined the 
already invented arch with the column in its recognised proportioai; 
hence the curcadCy one of the finest features of Italian arohiteetare. 
The round stilted arch demands a very bold cornice to achieve the 
horizontal principle, and this we find at Spalato fully comprehended ; 
but these architects have their talent and ingenuity made responsible 
for many corruptions which followed them; for instance, the chnron, 
multiplied ad nauseam in Norman architecture, is in its simple stats 
at Spalato not only not meretricious, but chaste and pleasing. The 
only part of Spalato that shows a symptom of the period of transitioa 
being proximate, is the Porta Aurea, a beautiful object of its kind, of 
which Mr. Gkally Knight was reminded in the palace of Tbeodozie at 
Bavenna; bnt what an interval between the plans of Bpalato in SMi 
and the sixth century 1 

Boman architecture was inseparably associated with the ftligloa 
of the Bomans ; hence its subversion in the reign of Ooniirtaiitiwe. The 


Diocletian, in spite of the prejudices caused by his 
persecution of the Christians, was certainly one of the 
most remarkable of the Roman emperors. Born in Salona, 
the capital of Dalmatia, or in Dioclea, a neighbouring 
village, of humble parentage, — for his father is supposed 
to have been a scribe, — his valour as a private soldier, 
his merit through the successive gradations that led to 
the command of the Imperial Guards, and that mastery 
which a well-balanced character gives over men's minds, at 
length procured him the acclamations of the army as 
Imperator. As coming events cast their shadows before, 
one of these omens of his splendid fortunes has been 
recorded by his historians, as illustrative of that instinct 
of future greatness so common in extraordinary men. 
When with the armies in Gaul, he lodged with a Druid, 
and being reproached by him for his spare diet, he 
answered, **I will be more luxurious when I am an 
emperor." The Druid answered, "You will be an emperor 
when you have killed a boar (aper)." The death of Aper 
by the hands of Diocletian, for having been concerned in 
the death of his predecessor, the Emperor Numerian, has 
furnished a fulfilment of the supposed second sight of 
the Celtic seer. 

It was on the 15th of October, 284 after Christ, that 
Diocletian was elected emperor, and a month afterwards 
made his entry into Nicomedia, where he passed most of 
his time while he held the reins of empire. Having 
associated Maximian Augustus in the supreme power, he 
ggsigned him Italy, Gaul, Spain, and Africa, while he 
himself ruled the Eastern world. In 286 he revisited his 
native Dalmatia ; the cloak and sword of the soldier, with 
which he had left Salona, were now the purple and 
sceptre ; and in the month of April or May of that year 

adaptation of the Basilica, the abandonment of the temple principle, 
and the decline of taste in the fourth oentuiy, were an nnavoidable 
result of the all-absorbing disonssions of graver and more important 
matters; but all the third century, in mj humble opinion, may fairly 
be considered within the Boman-olassic period. 


he laid the foundation of that vast edifice which we have 
described, and which seems at first to have been destined 
for the residence of his mother. 

During all this time the armies of Borne were com- 
bating with enemies at its extremities; but still better to 
hold the machine together, Diocletian again increased the 
partners of the empire by the creation of two more 
Ceesars, Galerius and Constantino Chlorus, and, to secure 
their attachment, caused them to repudiate their wives. 
Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian, then became the wife 
of Galerius; and after a ten years' reign Diocletian went 
to Rome to celebrate the decennial anniversary of his 
elevation, when almost divine honours were rendered to 
the man who, by the vigour and prudence of his rule, 
had restored the empire to its pristine splendour. 

In 295 we again find him visiting his native Salonti 
and extirpating by the most violent means the Ghristiaa 
religion. The political unity of the empire had been the 
object of those military achievements which procured him 
the supreme power, and its religious unity seems to have 
appeared to him an equally essential object in his civil 
government. In 302, after a conference with Galerius in 
Nicomedia, were issued those edicts which proved so 
terrible to the Church ; the temples of Christ were destroyed; 
the Scriptures were ordered to be burned; and it was io 
the midst of the massacres of the martyrs and the fell 
of churches that Diocletian celebrated the twentieth anni- 
versary of his reign. 

A sUght insanity, consequent on a physical malady, 
at length induced Diocletian to abdicate the supreme 
power; and it was at the urgent solicitations, nay perhaps 
the menaces, of Galerius, that he at length gave up the 
throne. "Senex languidus lacrymabundus fiat, inqnit, Bk 
hoc placet." Lactantius (cap. xvii.) tells the sad tale of 
his descent from power. Returned to Salona, he fixed hit 
residence in the palace he had built, but appears even in 
his retreat to have preserved the government of DalmatML 
There are various accounts of his death, but the most 


probable is, that, suffering extreme pain, he accelerated 
his end with poison. 

The character which Gibbon has given him is marked 
by that elegance of composition which had become his 
second nature, and that discrimination which only a la- 
borious digestion of all the known facts of his reign could 
enable him to exercise. "His abilities were useful rather 
than splendid ; a vigorous mind, improved by the experience 
and study of mankind ; dexterity and application in busi- 
ness; a judicious mixture of liberality and economy, of 
mildness and rigour; profound dissimulation, under the 
disguise of military frankness; steadiness tO pursue his 
ends; flexibility to vary his means; and, above all, the 
great art of submitting his own passions, as well as those 
of others, to the interest of his ambition, and of colour- 
ing his ambition with the most specious pretences of 
justice and public utility. Like Augustus, Diocletian may 
be considered as the founder of a new empire." 



In 639, the neighbouring Salona, the Roman capital 
of Dalmatia, was destroyed by the Avars; and as the 
history of Ragusa begins on the destruction of Epi- 
daurus, so that of modem Spalato (a palatio) begins 
when the miserable fugitives from Salona, who bad 
taken refuge in the various islands, returned partly 
to the mainland, and at the instigation of a venerable 
man called Severus, who lived close to the palace (which 
had become since the death of Diocletian an edifice of 
the state), took up their residence within its walls. Those 
who were rich enough constructed their own houses, the 


middle classes occupied the towers, and the poor liyed in 
the crypts, so that the palace became both a small toim 
and a fortress ; and no situation could be more commodious, 
for they had an easy escape to the sea by the Porta Ar- 
gentea. The archiepiscopal rights of Salona were traitt- 
ferred in 680 to the temple of Jupiter, which had become 
a Christian church, dedicated to St. Doimo. But two 
centuries of fear and barbarism succeeded the defltmction 
of Salona, and preceded the establishment of feudalism hj 
Charlemagne and the Franks. The final baptism of the 
Croats, in 832, was the event of all others that gave rest 
to Christian Dalmatia; the Church, ¥rith its spiritual terron, 
subdued the fierceness of barbarism with a success which 
physical force could never have attained; and, in course 
of time, the kings of Croatia and Dalmatia became the 
most generous endowers of the Church of Spalato. 

Then began the long wars between the Venetians and 
Hungarians, with their vicissitudes ; the inhabitants ei^oying 
municipal privileges, and always having their patrician 
assemblies ; until at length, in 1420, Spalato became finally 
Venetian. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the 
palatial town, although often in imminent danger from the 
Turks, who held the heights of Caprarius, was defended 
by the Republic with success, inconsequence of its inaritime 
position; and the walls, which, up to the tenth century, 
had been almost in their original condition, were g^radnally 
reduced to the huge pile of ruins which excites our sor^ 
prise and regret. 

It was in the zenith of Venetian power that Spalato, 
like the islands, adopted the domestic architecture of the 
metropolis, which, mingled with the still extensile relios 
of the Roman period, gives Spalato a distinct stamp of 
its own. In the time of the Hungarians, they contented 
themselves with making the palace the fortress, by build- 
ing up all the crypto-porticus and crenellating the oomice. 
The Venetians built a regular fortification outside, with 
artillery ; while, within the town, the doorways and windows 
we admire so much were adopted in the houses of the 


wealthier classes. Many Roman names of families still 
existing in the town are a proof that much of the blood 
of the inhabitants mu|it be Salonitan; but the Croat 
royalty in the neighbouring Trau and Sebenico and 
the readiness with which the Papal See granted the 
Slaavic liturgy to the Bishop of Nona and others, gave 
a deep root to Illyrian, which became the language of the 
people; though Italian being the language of the Venetian 
Governor, it was confirmed as that of the upper classes 
of society. 

The eighteenth century, from the treaty of Passarovitz 
in 1718, when the great Turkish war was ended, down 
to the French Revolution, passed off in tranquillity, mer- 
riment, and masquerading ; but this explosion, which shook 
all Europe, was felt here in its full force. The Dalma- 
tians being not only sincere but bigoted Catholics, the 
mass of the people viewed the principles of the French 
Revolution with the greatest horror, and the success of 
the first campaign of Napoleon and the fall of the Venetian 
Republic with dismay. But a certain part of the reading 
classes was tinctured with the French encyclopsedism of 
the eighteenth century; and as, in natural machinery, 
the revolution of a wheel in one direction impels the 
cogs it meets with to describe the opposite circle, the 
mob in France, who plundered and massacred on the 
pretext of aristocracy and priestercraft, found a counter- 
part in Dalmatia, where imminent danger menaced the 
purse and person of every man whom the populace 
suspected of being a free-thinker, or denominated a 

On the approach of Napoleon to Venice in 1797, all 
Dalmatia was in motion to assist the Republic, and 12,000 
men were raised and despatched to the metropolis; but 
on the abdication of the Doge, and in order to facilitate 
the introduction of the French troops into Venice, the 
Dalmatians were re-embarked and transported back to 
Zara, to the surprise and discontent of the nation; and 
the Proveditor-General Andrea Qnerini directed them to 


their proviDcial head-quarters, with orders to each chief 
to send them home to the villages on the deUvery and 
deposit of their arms in the public arsenals. '^ But these 
soldiers," says Cattalinich, ^brought back with them the 
germs of discord and revolution; and in times when men 
of all classes sought their individual elevation on the rain 
of existing social order, an evil genius did not Ml to 
appear in this weak province. Accordingly, on the 15th 
June, 1797, being the festival of Corpus Domini, a mani- 
festo in niyrian was circulated, without author's or printer's 
name, or the place of publication ; and on that day the 
hydra of anarchy and disorder raised her head.'* 


"Glorious nation! You possess two noble virtues,— 
the one, valour in action; the other, sincerity of word. 
For your valour all fear you; for your truth all esteem 
and court you. Keep, then, these virtues which are the 
honour and glory of .your name. Glorious nation 1 You 
have hitherto been in allegiance to the most serene Doge 
of Venice, to whom you spontaneously dedicated yourself 
that he might govern and direct you according to justice 
and the law of Jesus Christ, and preserve you in the 
Catholic faith. You have faithfully served your Doge and 
all councillors; and although you defended their dignity, 
they have indignantly driven you from Venice, and be- 
trayed you. The Doge has abdicated, the Signoria is 
annihilated, the image of St. Mark trampled under foot) 
the law subverted, and in their place have been put Ja- 
cobins and Jews, who wish you to unite with them. A 
fine thing, truly 1 those that have betrayed you count you 
to be fools. Glorious nation! Remember your honour, 
and know that the Jews are the enemies of your faith 
and the destroyers of your religion," &c. &c. 

The Venetian Republic being remodelled on French 
principles, the importance of fraternising with the 
energetic and hardy population of Dalmatia was soon 
apparent; and commissioners were sent with pamphlets 


and a printing-press to Zara, to assert the rights of man 
and the French doctrines of liberalism in politics and 
religion; but finding the impression made by this address, 
which was circulated throu^ all Dalmatia, and that the 
popular current was running with great force in the 
opposite direction, they prudently returned to Venice, to 
give an account of the failure of their mission, and thus 
escaped the fate of Basville. 

The fury of the mob now vented itself through all 
Dalmatia on those, who were obnoxious to them, and no- 
where with greater violence than in Spalato. During several 
days previous to the I5th of June, there was a strong 
feehng among the people against a Colonel Mattutinovich 
of the territorial force, who had commanded the militia 
of the district in Venice, and re-conducted them to their 
homes. He was a meritorious officer, of handsome person; 
and his only fault was the rigorous discipline he had main- 
tained. His friends, hearing the menaces of the people, 
and foreseeing an explosion, entreated him to remove 
for a short time, until the blast blew itself out; but, 
conscious of no crime, he resolved to encounter it; and 
having barricaded his quarters, remained there with his 
family and a servant, and intrepidly awaited the popular 

At an early hour in the morning, a crowd of Morlacks 
presented themselves oppbsite the house of Nicolo Barozzi, 
the Venetian Count (the officer, and not the title, is here 
meant), hallooing for arms and ammunition, to attack the 
colonel in his fortified house. The Count did all in his 
power to dissuade them ; but seeing that his own personal 
safety might be compromised, he with dastardly facility 
gave them the keys of the magazine of military stores; 
and the populace, providing themselves with muskets, 
ammunition, and a cannon, attacked the dwelling of the 
colonel, who defended himself by keeping up an active 
fire from the windows, his wife and servant reloading the 
muskets as fast as he fired them. A peasant of the Borgo 
being shot dead, their indignation knew no bounds ; scaling 


the walls, they entered the house by the roof^ and pene- 
trated to the room where the colonel stood with a drawn 
sabre to repel attack; overpowered by numbers, he was 
stabbed in several places with knives. His faithful wifiB 
and brave servant were now cut in pieces; and being 
himself decapitated, his head was stuck on a pike, paraded 
through the city, and put on the top of the flag-stafF in 
the Piazza dei Signori. 

The heroism of the nurse is worthy of mention. She 
held in her arms the six-months old infant of the mihappy 
colonel, and attempted to escape with it through the crowd. 
A brutal Morlack summoned her to throw it on the grround, 
that he might transfix it without injury to the nurse; 
"No," said she, "I will perish before a hair of the in- 
fant's head be touched." On this the Morlack, raising his 
cutlass, attempted the life of the infant; but the nurse 
raising her arm to parry the blow, four of her fingers 
were severed from her hand, and taking to flighty all 
bleeding as she was, the life of the child was saved. 

The houses of the Jews were then menaced, but the 
clergy, much to their honour, stepped forward and inter- 
vened to preserve order. The commandant of Gastel Sns- 
suratz, on the gulf of Salona, in which was a small garrison, 
hearing of what had happened in Spalato to Mattutinovich, 
took flight, supposing that he would find security at the 
altar of the neighbouring church of Castel Yecchio; and 
although a mob of Morlacks surrounded the village, the 
people of the place refused to deliver him up; bat on 
being assured that the altar would not be profaned, they 
dragged him out, delivered him to the populace, apd he 
was taken down to the water-side and shot. 

The principal citizens now seeing that their lives and 
properties were menaced, met in council, elected Baroiii 
the Venetian Count as the Rector, and instead of the 
standard of St. Mark, hoisted the flag of Austria; and in 
a month afterwards, the Austrian troops having arrived, 
Te Deum was sung in the cathedral, and the Anstrian 
general. Baron Rukavina, ascending the choir, asked the 


assembled throng if they would swear fealty and allegiance 
to the Emperor Francis, to which the assembly answered 
" Ochemo^'' We will. Thus did the flag of Austria float 
till 1806, when, by the treaty of Presburg, Dalmatia was 
handed over to Napoleon. 

But the appearance of a Eussian fleet in the Adriatic, 
operating upon the Slaavic and anti-Gallican feelings of 
the population, produced not only the scenes which we 
have already described at Cattaro and Ragusa, but a 
general rising of the inhabitants of the district immediately 
to the south-east of Spalato. The Poglitsa, as the terri- 
tory is called, had a constitution of its own, which 
rendered it a small republic under Venetian protection; 
and although not having more than four thousand in- 
habitants, they made a determined stand against the French 
occupation; but being defeated, their villages were burned 
and decimated with appalling rigour; and an inquisition 
having been erected in Spalato, during two months, monks, 
citizens, and peasants, were brought in prisoners to the 
number of three hundred, and confined in the lazaretto. 
Many were condemned to death; and a first batch of 
thirteen being ordered for execution, with confiscation of 
their property, were pardoned by Marmont, General-in- 
chief, who thus at once established his popularity. Spalato 
was his favourite residence during the French occupation ; 
and having taken down a part of the old Venetian forti- 
fications, an open space next the sea is pointed out, on 
which he proposed to erect a palace or government house 
for the whole of Dalmatia. But the subsequent well-known 
events rendered his plans abortive; and since 1813 Spa- 
lato has been the chief city of a circle of the Austrian 

Dalmatia has had three governments within little more 
than the last half century, each distinguished by advan- 
tages and defects peculiar to itself. The Venetian govern- 
ment partook of the nature of the metropolitan institutions ; 
political discussions were carefully prohibited, but the 
extreme courtesy of the men she sent to Dalmatia took 


off the edge of this rigour. The public works were dis- 
tinguished by great elegance ; the full reins were giyen to 
amusements; and all local influence was in the hands of 
the privileged classes. In 1770, every seventy-fifih soul 
was a monk or priest, every ninety-first a noble, * and 
the Morlack was ruled with a rod of iron. 

There is nothing to remark in the Austrian govern- 
ment from 1797, when the Venetian Republic feU, to 1806, 
when Dalmatia became French. Incessantly occupied with 
the great European struggle in Germany and Italy, no 
feature of the period stands out for particular observation. 
The French occupation from that time to 1813 was a 
military despotism of great energy and intelligence, but 
partook more of the efforts of febrile, than of cool heaUliy 
strength. A public work was constructed, or a village 
decimated, with equal celerity. Marmont was individually 
popular, but the French system was the object of general 

The spirit of Austria m Dalmatia is cuiionsly distinct 
from that of the previous governments; her public worin 
are {greatly inferior in artistic elegance to those of tlie 
Venetian period, but they are of a very useful character. 
Roads of the most admirable construction are gradually 
intersecting the province in all directions ; a comprehenave 
scheme of national education has been introduced, whidt 
in spite of the indifference of the Morlack, must produce 
valuable results a generation hence. The government, 
although absolute in theory during my stay, was in practice 
very mild and studious of public opinion. The gpreat maaa 
of the people is sincerely attached to the house of Ana- 
tria; and the late changes in Vienna will add nothing to 
the liberty of speech which they previously possessed. 
The laws were administered with justice and impartiality; 
but there was an unnecessary amount of formahty in 
every procedure, which caused a greater number of 

' When I was in Dalmatia, there were only 3u3 persona, wUh a 
popnlation of above 400,000, who had patents of nobility or gurtiUty. 


civilians to be employed in the public offices than the 
wants of the country demanded. The province being well 
aflFected, the legion of police-spies that flourished in Milan 
and other cities indisposed to Austria was here unknown ; 
but the censorship of the press was behind the spirit of 
the age. Constituted as Austria was with such a diver- 
sity of nationalities, I have never believed that Lombards 
would be content to sit in a Vienna parliament; but with 
free trade, and municipal institutions, I am firmly per- 
suaded that she would have withstood the shock of re- 

Dalmatia is under a system of customs-duties distinct 
from that of Austria. The principal imports are colonials 
from Trieste, manufactures of England and Germany from 
the same port, grain and cattle mostly from Bosnia, and 
salt from Sicily. The exports are oil, the best of which 
is made at Ragusa (for the ordinary Dalmatian oil is of 
poor quality), wine, mostly from the islands, and brandy 
from Spalato, sent to Venice and Croatia, anchovies to 
the fair of Sinigaglia, Turkish hides to Trieste, besides 
smaller articles, such as fine woods from Curzola, and 
dmonds from Zara. 

In a detailed article on this subject which I contributed 
to the Augsburg Gazette, as the best vehicle for moving 
the Vienna bureaucracy in the matter, I proposed an in- 
discriminate duty of seven and a half per cent; but, on 
mature consideration, I think that a total abandonment 
of all customs -duties in Dalmatia would be the best 

All the other branches of the revenue must infallibly 
gain by whatever may cause an influx of capital into the 
kingdom. One great want of the province is the non- 
existence of some money market or bank, at which capital 
could be borrowed, on good security, for the drainage or 
cultivation of waste lands. By the present laws, all interest 
above five per cent is illegal; but the real market value 
of capital in Dalmatia is not less than eight or ten per 
cent; the consequence is, that this most valuable of all 

paton. I. 19 


the levers of national improvement is in the hands of a 
set of low usurers. This is an unhappy instance of the 
desire of uniformity with the rest of the empire, where 
the conditions of material existence are so different. An 
individual willing to pay the fair market worth of capital, 
for either trading or agricultural purposes, cannot get 
it, because he must pay not only the eight or ten per 
cent, but a surplusage, to insure the lender against the 
irregularity of the transaction. 

Commerce and agriculture are inseparably connected; 
whoever has travelled through this province must feel 
that free-trade is the readiest lever of prosperity, and that 
its effect in raising the ports of the coasts wonld be 
immediate ; and it is probable that Spalato, with its noble 
harbour, or the Gulf of Salona, and its position at the 
point where the caravan-roads abut on the Adriatic, would 
become the emporium of the manufactures and coloniali 
of the countries inland, instead of being merely, as at 
present, the landing-place of goods brought in luggers 
from Trieste, to be sent in transit to the interior. The 
principal merchants are at Seraievo and Travnik; and 
Trieste being so far distant, they would prefer coming 
more frequently to Spalato, if they could serve their torn 
there, and supply themselves to their content; for al- 
though Fiume cannot vegetate as an emporium, from 
its vicinity to Trieste, Spalato is so much farther 
down the Adriatic, and has so distinct a destiny, that 
the Bosniacs would desire nothing better than to have 
an emporium in their vicinity. The establishment oi 
a couple of annual fairs, in the first instance, would be an 
encouragement at once to parties at a distance to make 
up cargoes direct for Spalato, and would draw down the 
resources of the interior to a ready market. If the coun- 
tries behind were poor, like Dalmatia, I should feel len 
sanguine; but they are overflowing with milk and honey. 
Austria holds the ports: let Dalmatia have her full awing 
of trade and navigation, and let the laws be framed in 
unison with the palpable designs and intentions of the 


Almighty in this part of his creation; and instead 
of being, as she has hitherto been, a burden on the 
Austrian treasury, Dalmatia might become a flourishing 



The Spalatines have not in general the polished manners 
and illustrious pedigrees of the Ragusans; but they are, 
nevertheless, a kind, social, cordial people, vnth no small 
stock of mother wit. Arriving in the height of the carnival, 
I found myself at the wrong time for commercial statistics 
or serious studies, and therefore at once surrendered myself 
to the frivolities of the season. If a morning visit engages 
me, I probably enter through a doorway of the fourteenth 
and fifteenth century into a sort of Gothic translation of 
a Cairo house; a hollow capital of a column forms the 
mouth of the never-failing well; a high staircase, with 
some of the sculptured stone balustrades missing, leads to 
a folding-door, which is opened by a rope passing through 
the floors above to the latch, which is drawn up; when 
a servant's voice calls out, in a Venetian accent, "Chi 
gxe?" (Who is there?) and, passing several rooms paved 
with brick, you come to the drawing-room, with a floor of 
battuto, where the lady of the house does- the honours with 
much grace. And what forms the subject of conversation? 
Music, promenades, the angry scirocco, the golden remi- 
niscences of a carnival passed at Venice, and a little 
scandal. "Ah, signer," said a lady to me, "in a little 
place like this, where there is a scarcity of positive amuse- 
ment, except in carnival, we cannot avoid making up for 
it by a little fun at the scrapes of our acquaintance." 



A short way from the quay, but not within the palace, 
is the Piazza Milesi, a small irregular open space, one side 
of which is formed by a couple of black middle-age donjons, 
or keeps, and on the other side of which is a Yenetian 
palazzo, one of the very few edifices in Spalato that de- 
serve the name. This is the Casino; the grand piano, or 
principal floor of which has a large ball-room, with lustres, 
decorations, and side apartments, as reading and coffee- 
rooms; and, having received invitations to the balls, I 
turned day into night for nearly a week, having always 
found it best to view men and manners in the way that 
the inhabitants themselves present them to the stranger. 

The rooms were well lighted, and well attended by 
the rank, beauty, and fashion of Spalato, as the court 
chronicles would say; and it was altogether the most 
showy affair I had seen in Dalmatia. The company, some 
in fancy costumes, others in plain ball-dress, began to 
assemble about nine. Among the earlier arriTals of the 
brilliant and unique assemblage, I recognised the Devil, 
by his mystic crown, and jet-black face; his sable mi^jeBty 
wore the costume of his own dominions, being bright 
crimson, mingled with black. The frivolous port of the 
company seemed to be particularly delighted witk his 
insinuating address, and report says that he seldom missed 
being present at a masqued ball. Not long after his en- 
trance came two unhappy female captives, with their gol- 
den chains ; but the malicious people around them dedared 
that they were impostors, their object being to lead cap- 
tive the lords of the creation. I myself was a grare 
Moslem, resisting every innovation except wine and 

The dance enlivened, and the laugh went roimd; bat 
as the company consisted of the families of the members 
of the Casino, not the slightest carnival-license was visiUe* 
A much droller affair was a monferino, or ball of the 
humbler classes, next evening, to which I went, as I was 
told that it afforded a good opportunity of seeing the 
people. About the hour of eight, I went to a caf(§ in the 


Calle Larga, where tradespeople and Bosniac Christians, 
in their turbans, were playing at dominos. On entering, 
I heard a sound of a waltz of Strauss, and shuffling of 
feet over head; and going up an abrupt breakneck stair, 
I paid eight pence to a money-taker in his sentry-box, 
wrapt up in a dreadnought-coat, to keep off the air. 

A crystal chandelier, that had done duty for a century 
at least, lighted an oblong ball-room, with a couple of 
mirrors, covered with fly-marks, in faded gilt frames; and 
at the extremity of the room was such a band of music 
as the immortal Hogarth might have depicted. The bull- 
necked, ruffian-looking trumpeter, with pufied cheeks and 
swimming eyes, wore a sailor's jacket; and, from time to 
time, wetted his whistle with a phial of brandy. The 
lantern-jawed, bald-headed violoncello wore large spectacles 
and shabby black clothes. 

Not a woman was to be seen without a masque, which 
is according to a statute for the limitation of revels 
published by the police, and sealed and exhibited in a 
prominent part of the hall. There are no character cos- 
tumes, but all are in dominos; and the fair part of the 
company evidently belongs to the class which the French 
call "grisettes." Should any thing superior to the grisette 
dress appear, the roha fina is suspected to be no better 
than it ought to be. The master of the ceremonies wore 
a sort of court-dress of the last century; which, in all 
probability, figured in the anti-chamber of some Italian 
court, then passed to the wardrobe of a theatre. He smelt 
strongly of rum, and was all the night shouting and hectoring. 

After a wretched man, in regimentals, had watered the 
floor with a tin pan, in which a couple of small holes 
had been bored, a fat figure, with a countenance which 
bore a considerable resemblance to that of a bulldog, came 
skipping in, like Figaro, and began to sing in a cracked voice : 

** Largo al factotum della cittji, — ^Largo, 
La, la, la, Ac. 
La fetta comincia, la notte ^ gi4 pr«ato. 
La, la, la, Ac." 


This was not a singer acting the barber, but a real barber 
of the town mimicking an opera-singer with great comic 

When the barber was going on with his buffoonery, 
to which the bulldog countenance lent considerable effect, 
a noise was heard at the other end of the room, accom- 
panied by a female's screams, hissing, and laughter; when 
all of a sudden, a black pointer-dog rushed terror-struck 
under the sofa, and, pursued from side, occasionally sought 
refuge under the petticoats of a masque: at lengrdi the 
master of the ceremonies, aided by the lieutenant-colonel 
who had been watering the floor, got hold of him by the 
neck, and ejected him from the room. 

The quay being close at hand, I went down to the 
marine promenade; the sun had not yet risen, the morn- 
ing was calm and mild, and I enjoyed the fresh air after 
the close atmosphere of the ball-room. The busy indus- 
trious Morlacks were already a-foot. The distant isles to 
the west were still in something of grey obscurity of 
dawn ; and as each dark crystal wave came rolling to my 
feet, I felt the strange fascination that the sea prodooes 
just before sunrise ; but a luminous space increasing abore 
the palace, shewed that sunrise was at hand, and I was 
tempted to prolong my walk to the end of the quay, and 
ascend the hill that overlooks the town; for, although in 
my masquerading dress, I excited no surprise in oamiTsl 
time. Following a narrow road between two low walls, 
I at length found myself above the level of the roofs; 
and a resplendent rim of gold on the snowy peaks of 
Caprarius made me hasten my pace to an elevated rock 
above me. Spalato lay at my feet; the smoke of the early 
housewife's fagot, slowly rising in long grey spiral columns, 
adorned rather than polluted the air; and snch strange 
mixtures of construction as the town presented, is, I be- 
lieve, not to be seen on all the Adriatic. The capitals of 
the Peristylium were just visible in the midst of the mass 
of irregular red tiles and ruined towers. Above all rose 
the Campanile, column on column and order above order, 


which is lost to the spectator in town, but here looks 
grand and majestic. 

After so much gaiety and fatigue, I descended the 
hill to the palace, which was still silent, except in its 
ground-floor, where the mean cofifee and dram shop in- 
vited the ragged Morlack to spend his farthing. As I 
viewed the august pile in its miserable decay, and thought 
of its master and maker, the words of the Arab poet came 
to my remembrance: "This is all that remains of the lord 
of men, whom the haughty kings feared, and the stubborn 
troops obeyed ; who numbered a thousand thousand bridles 
on the neighing steeds, and whose wealth was beyond 
the science of numbers ; but death removed him from the 
mansions of grandeur to the abode of contempt." 

At twelve o'clock on the last evening, the carnival is 
supposed to be dead; but a very singular malady seemed 
to have seized the clock of the Casino, as if the carnival 
would not give up the ghost without a struggle. The 
minute-hand, several times silently approaching the fatal 
twelve, was seen mysteriously to rally, and the pulsations 
of the waltz to beat with redoubled animation ; but Lent, 
the heir-at-law, at length impatient at the longevity of 
his predecessor, would wait no longer, and the carnival 
was buried in due form. The folding-doors at the extre- 
mity of the ball-room were seen to open, and out issued 
a procession — a coffin, winding-sheet, and tapers being 
paraded round the room to a solemn funeral dirge; and 
thus ended the saturnalia of Spalato for the season. 

On a similar occasion, at Curzola, a gross practical 
joke was perpetrated on a boatman, who had given some 
offence by his rudeness. His boat was hired to carry a 
person near death to the care of a physician at Zara; 
and a little before midnight a litter was conveyed with 
great care to the boat, and instructions given not to dis- 
turb the person until morning. The trabacolo proceeded 
on the voyage ; and next morning the captain went below 
with a salutation: "How are you? I hope you feel your- 
self passable," &c. No answer. "Per Bacco, e morto!" 


(he is dead!) And approachmg, and lifting up the theei^ 
he found a straw figure with an inscription on its breast: 
''The Carnival, near death at eleven o'clock, and dead 
outright at twelve." 

As great distress existed in the mountain dieiricts, 
from a failure of the crop during the previous year, the 
poor creatures flocked down to the town from the villages, 
where the provisions were consumed. £very day at two 
o'clock, which is the dinner-hour, the doors of the principal 
inhabitants are crowded with miserable famished figures 
waiting for the remnants of the servants' meals. The 
Bishop and clergy were most active; and charity sermons 
were preached in the cathedral by a Capuchin monk, whieh 
drew a large congregation and collection. 

At the hour of eleven, the bell of the cathedral sum- 
moned the Spalatines to hear the priest, and I acoom-. 
panied the Abbate to the gateway. In order to have a 
better hearing of the sermon, I ascended to a wooden 
gallery just under the Corinthian capitals of the temple, 
which support the solid dome ; and while I was gaang 
on the basreliefs of the frieze, which represents chubby in- 
fants gambolling with lions, and leading war-ohariots to 
battle, a buzz was heard, and a Capuchin friar, of about 
forty years of age, with mild, regular features, and dressed 
in the coarse brown habit of his order, with his oowl 
hanging over his back and a white rope round his waist, 
was seen ascending a marble pulpit, elevated above the 
pavement by tiny columns, of that light fantaetio order 
which may be called Goto-Venetian ; the little capitals 
having more of the intricate arts of a perriwig, than the 
simple nature of an acanthus. The church was now cram- 
med full ; and the sermon was preached in the usual style 
such as ''Wealth and poverty are essential elements in onr 
social state, and the gradations of society are necetsaiy 
to the beauty of the whole edifice. Let not the rich 
exult, let not the poor repine; the only real wealth is 
virtue. (0 thou holy and blessed Virgin Maria," continued 
the monk, joining his hands, and looking upwards, ''may 


thy intercessions procure us that wealth that passeth not 
away.) The mysterious, but doubtless deserved castigation 
of the Almighty has fallen on Dalmatia, and afflicted us 
with famine and poverty; and I here present myself to 
you, rich people, as the advocate of the poorer members 
of our human family. Open your ears and purses, you 
men of lands, houses, and strong boxes; remember that 
the interests of the poor are inseparable from those of 
the rich. Let the sufferings of the poor be ever present 
to your mind. When you daily see the rags hanging 
about the emaciated members, remember the cause, and 
think of the remedy. Kemember that the charitable hand 
in the hour of need cures the diseases of a body to which 
he belongs; that the whole machinery of society goes 
easier for it; and that every, obolo given is an investment 
that brings a rich return in this world, and a richer in 
tlie next. 

"What emotion of the soul is nobler than the spon- 
taneous effusion of charity? (0 thou Charity, most sublime 
of human qualities ; thou bright pearl in the crown of 
virtue! — inestimable .margarita, do fill our hearts in this 
dread hour.) I shall be told that much of the unhappiness 
of the poor has been from their own disorders: true; but, 
nevertheless, let the balm of charity heal the wound. 
Open your stores, you rich; if you hesitate, look here" 
(pointing to a crucifix of wood that slanted three or four 
feet above the pulpit). " There was the greatest sacrifice ; 
Christ shed his own blood to save sinners: what were 
all the sacrifices ever made compared to this I And you, 
poor, do not torment or annoy the rich with your soli- 
citations. Having received the alms given you, rest content. 
Never despair, never neglect labour until the last moment. 
(And now, thou blessed Virgin, most holy Mary, abandon 
OS not in the hour of need, and let our humble prayers 
and supplications ascend to the Almighty, Ac.)" 

The lottery and the accademia for the poor now be- 
came the talk of the town; and the first young ladies of 
Spalato came forward to sing, as only the families of the 


members of the Casino were to be admitted. The manage- 
ment enrolled me in their list, and I felt some doubt 
about singring before 200 people ; but on an occasion like 
this, every one must contribute his little, be it ever so 

Accompanying Carrara to the Calle C, we stopped at 
the palace of Count C, after whose fiamily the street is 
named. It had the noble dimensions and solidity of a 
Venetian palace ; but being built in the eighteenth century, 
the want of the taste and elegance of the elder period was 
visible. But how such a good house should be built in a nar- 
row street, about twelve feet wide, one could with difficulty 
comprehend, if it were not dictated by the heat of the 
climate, and as a preservation against the glare of the sun. 
When we got up stairs, we were shewn into a grand palatial 
hall, with one of those superb old Venetian mirrors, which 
really do more for the appearance of a drawing-room than 
any thing else (unfaded tapestry and pietra commessa 
always excepted) ; and off this was the study of the Count, 
who is a very able political economist, and gave me a 
great deal of valuable information on the condition of 
Dalmatia, which I need not repeat now, but which jusiated 
me in making up my mind on many points that the 
reader will find discussed before I have done with him. 

From the account he gave of the spendthrift and 
vindictive character of the peasant, the position of the 
landed proprietor in Dalmatia is any thing but enviable. 
There need be no misery in Dalmatia, even in bad y^ara, 
if the cultivation of the mulberry were promoted, the soil 
and climate adapting themselves so admirably to that 
plant ; and the Count gave me a description of an attempt 
to introduce it on his property with every prospect of 
success ; but the peasantry soon set their faces against it, 
and the experiment ended by several hundred young trees 
being cut down or plucked up in one night. 

The worthy Count now took me with him to the dwelling 
of his niece, who was prima donna assoluta of the dilettanti of 
Spalato, with whom it was arranged that I should sing a dnet 


at the accademia. There was some idea of having a complete 
performance of Ernani, but, for want of the accessories, 
it was found impossible. We then proceeded to the Calle 
dei Gesuiti, the houses of which are built in the thick 
Roman wall that looks to the landward side of the town ; 
and the long, dark, and dismal vaulted passage of which 
look like the streets of an Eastern city. Here the Count 
knocked, and, on the door being opened, we were shewn 
up stairs into a drawing-room, which, instead of looking 
into the Calle dei Gesuiti, opened on a garden with the 
country beyond it. The tender green herbage of early 
spring was spread out before us, but the high peaks of 
Caprarius had still a pure white crown of snow. The 
family then appeared, to whom it is not necessary that 
I should introduce the reader. A Venetian education does 
not confer blue-stocking erudition; but in the generous 
emotions of justice and pity, in good sense and unaffected 
happy wit, whom shall we put before them? 

The duet Donna, chi set was pitched upon; and our 
first rehearsals were at the house of the accomplished 
Count Leonardo D., who has celebrated the annual joust- 
ing at Sign, in the mountains, by a graceful poem. Here 
I found, one evening, a large party assembled, the two 
drawing-rooms being thrown into one, at the end of 
which was the Maestro V., presiding at the pianoforte; 
and I saw, in miniature, the worrying that a musical 
director or theatrical manager is subject to. One found 
his part too high; another too low; a third wished to 
keep his piece, but needed certain notes pointed to avoid 
a shrillness; and there was no small degree of amusing 
jealousy, as to who should have the most effective pieces 
to sing. The Maestro being accustomed to deal with 
various tempers, was just like a minister at a levee, who 
grants nothing, yet sends the solicitors away in good 
humour. To one who objected to a piece, he replied, 
"You are mistaken in supposing that you will not be 
effective. It is a capo d' opera of " (naming a cele- 
brated singer), "and your voice is of precisely the same 


compass." A smile of content played upon the features 
of the person, who made no more objections ; and V. gave 
me a wink, as much as to say, that objection is settled 
for ever. 

The rehearsal was then proceeded with, and consisted 
mostly of pieces of Verdi; for the Italians take the last 
operas, as the mass of our readers in a circulating library 
take the last romances, of the season. No people are so 
unacquainted with the old established standards aa those 
who go nightly to the opera in Italy or the Italianised 
provinces; to hear the productions of Cimarosa, Paer, 
Spontini, and many of the best of Rossini, one most go 
to the north of the Alps. Novelty, then, good or bad, 
is the first condition, — a condition fulfilled too frequently 
only in appearance; for how often can one say of these 
ephemera that die in Italy, and can't live out of it, ^Quel 
eh? e nuovo non e huono, e quel cK^ h btwno nan h 

When the evening of the accademia came, I dressed 
myself, proceeded to the Casino, and, by the instmctioiis 
of the conductor, went round to the billiard-room, which 
served as a sort of green-room, and in which the dilettanti 
were all assembled. One practised a cadenza, another 
hummed an air, a third mimicked the conductor, with a 
roll of music for a baton, and the loud buss of the 
assembly awaiting the music came through to us as a 
signal that the room was full. But when my turn came 
for entering the brilliantly-illuminated hall, and I saw all 
those rows of benches with the mammas and the misses 
in their fine clothes, ready for criticism, and the gentlemen 
all thick packed behind them, I began to feel a little 
qualmish ; but seeing the president standing at a doorway 
on my right, wearing a black skull-cap to keep oflf the 
air, and his white locks hanging down his temples and 
framing his good-humoured joyous visage, I took cooragef 
and, in the character of Nabuchodonosor, shouted for my 
guards as loudly as my rusty barytone voice would allow 
me. So soon as my fair companion got to that grand 


passage, ^Ah delV amhita gloria,^'* I felt no more fear; 
the clear continuous volume of soprano voice which she 
poured forth, and the animation with which the whole 
was given, electrified the audience, and drew down thun- 
ders of applause. Next to the soprano, I most admired 
the contralto, a daughter of the comptroller of finance of 
the circle; and altogether, for the amateurs of a provincial 
capital, it was a surprising performance. Then came the 
tombola, or lottery; the proceeds of which were added to 
the other charities, and distributed to the poor. 

Lent closed with the ceremonies of Holy Week in the 
temple-cathedral; its darkness illuminated with so many 
wax tapers, that the sculptures, intended by Diocletian's 
architect to be seen by twilight, looked rough and unshapen. 
One of the evening sermons I attended was not preached 
by the Capuchin monk, but by another priest. The pith 
of his sermon lay in a history of the parts of the body 
of Mary Magdalene ; the eyes that had allured men looked 
on the cross, the long hair that had attracted their ad- 
miration dried our Saviour's feet, and so on, with nose, 
ears, hands, feet, &c. 

From the dome crown of the temple the music had a 
grand effect ; and after the service, going up the narrow 
winding back staircase to the choir, I congratulated the 
Maestro V. on the beauty of the choruses, and compli- 
mented him on his drilling ; but he modestly declared that 
the sweet voices were owing to a large platter of anchovies, 
and eleven quartuccios of wine which had been discussed 
by the singers before commencing; deploring the un- 
fortunate circumstance of a horn lying by. A mouse 
having formed a snug nest there, and founded a numerous 
family of mouselings in the hollow, fully accounted for 
the refusal of that instrument to give forth any sound 
until an action of summons and ejectment had taken place. 
While we were talking, a loud rustling and crackling noise 
was heard, as if the choir was about to tumble down. 
This was a beating of many sticks against each other, 
called "the flogging of Barabbas," and is a relic of the 


mysteries of the middle ages. Various efforts have been 
made to abolish these symbolic acts, which are so con- 
trary to our Protestant notions; but the populace is al- 
ways discontented with their omission. 

My intercourse with many persons here has shewn me 
that religious duties are with them not a mere series of 
blanks in the passport to that undiscovered country firom 
whose bourne no traveller returns, which are to be filled 
according to a mechanical routine, but an all-pervading 
principle. With the poorer classes, however, there are 
the most incontestable proofs of the contrary; instances 
are known of a man murdering another on a fast-day, 
and loathing flesh as grossly sinful; and a procession, of 
which I was a witness, shewed me instances of penance 
which one never sees except in superstitious countries. 

It was after sunset, on Good Friday, for during all 
the Holy Week there were daily services in the temple- 
cathedral, that I formed part of the crowd in the Piazza 
del Tempio. The sky was clear and star-stud; all the 
windows overlooking the Piazza were illuminated; ranges 
of men, clad in white, stood each with a thick wax torch 
in hand ready to move in procession ; and the moon shin- 
ing through the Corinthian colonnade, athwart the sphynx, 
glistened on the bayonets of the troops which were to 
form part of the procession. At length the Bishop, pre- 
ceded by boys bearing censers, was seen to advance under 
a canopy borne by four nobili, or gentlemen, and descend 
the steps, after which the whole procession was put in 
motion. The most remarkable sight was that of the 
penitential sinners, who, dressed in black, masked, and 
barefooted, carried on their shoulders heavy wooden crosses, 
of such weight and thickness of beam as might have been 
used in the time of the Romans. All round the town 
went the procession, and returned to the same spot, some 
of the penitents, with their hands tied to the exteemitiei 
of the heavy cross-beams, bending and groaning under 
their burdens; but all so veiled and masked, that no one 
could tell who or what they were. 


The festivities and hospitalities of Easter enabled me 
to see more of the domestic manners of the nation. The 
Easter-lamb, roasted whole, is served with wild asparagus 
of a peculiarly strong and bitter flavour. The wines are 
all native Dalmatian; curious old family silver gear adorned 
the table; and toasts and anecdotes of days of yore and 
bime-honoured Dalmatian heroes, all seasoned with native 
proverbs,, had a strong national character which delighted 
oae. I found a collection of these proverbs in a native 
magazine; said I presume a few may not be out of place. 

<<He that is prodigal of thanks is avaricious of gra- 

"When the wolf is fatigued, even his tail is heavy." 

^He that seeks to act gloriously must not act dex- 

"When you steal another man's hen, tie your own by 
the leg." 

"Every onp praises the rose while it gives a pleasant 

" When misfortunes come, pause not to weep, but hasten 
to change." 

"The heads fullest of brains are often the most liable 
to extravagance." 

" Choose your wife by your ears rathei* than your eyes." 



The Abbate Carrara, now no more, was an accomplished 
classical scholar, and profoundly erudite on all that relates 
to Dalmatia, he was at the same time professor of theology 
in the Episcopal Seminary of Spalato. Animated by a 


noble ambition, he had been most actiye in the excavation 
of the ruins of Spalato; and had been named Gonservstor 
of the Antiquities, and published a variety of works on 
the history and topography of Dalmatia. A crowd of 
jealous scribblers and pamphleteers attempted to write 
him down, and even some of the clergy, enyioos of his 
success out of his profession, disliked him; but he ms 
one of those bold, enterprising characters that no opporition 
can frighten or labour deter. I had made his acquain- 
tance, before leaving Vienna, at the house - of the ac- 
complished Baron Hugel, and, on arriving at Spalato, I 
felt great pleasure in renewing it. During above two 
months that I spent in Spalato, many of my evemngB were 
passed at the Guvno, or Garret, a private literary dub, 
where a few literati used to assemble, and disciin the 
books and styles of the day, but without malice. 

Signer C, a limb of the law, who succeeded to a small 
estate a great many years ago, wisely gave up being 
advocate, and devoted his whole time to literature. He 
never wrote any poem himself, comic, epic, or pastoral; 
but he could not exist except in the society of snoh books 
as the censor of Zara allowed, and such critics and poe- 
tasters as Spalato can produce. Our place of meeting 
was the study of the worthy C, at the top of the house. 
He was in the enjoyment of a green old age, and had the 
heartiest and most good-natured laugh I ever {leard.' The 
perpetual secretary of the club was Signer M.; and one 
would suppose that a club which needed a secretaiy had 
transactions, but, to tell the truth, the only transaction 
I ever saw was the serving of coffee or the lighting of 
pipes; for this practice, so abhorred in England, is in 
general use in Damatia. Being also poet and improvisa- 
tore, however, the secretary was often in requisition. V., 
the Maestro di Cappella of the cathedral, a native of Pa- 
dua, of sound musical attainments, with a pale countoiancc 
and extremely modest manners, was a most acute oritie in 
the Italian school of music; and this gave a variety to the 
discussions and transactions that proved agreeable. One 


or two others were free of the club, but these were the 

It was on a dark cold night in February when Carrara 
called at my lodgings to introduce me to the Guvno. 
Spalato is much colder than Ragusa, and for several days 
the thermometer was, in the morning and evening, four 
degrees of Reaumur below zero. Protected by the narrow 
streets, we got to the gate of San Cypriano at the back 
of the town ; and on passing a comer of the bastion, a keen 
Bora, mingled with sleet, made me wrap my cloak closely 
about me. Most of the fortifications on the sea-side were 
taken down by Marshal Marmont; but those on the land- 
side still remain, the large stones shebang that the ruins 
of the palace must have supplied the materials for con- 
struction. Just where a small suburb ended and the country 
began was a villa within a wall, the residence of the 
president; and being shewn up stairs to the top of the 
house, we found ourselves in the study of Signer C, a long 
room, with bookcases and a confusion of manuscripts and 
papers. Two shining brass lamps, about a foot high, 
lifted by a handle at the top, and supplied with olive oil, 
lighted ihe apartment; but the charm of a blazing hearth, 
which, in our own ruder clime, makes us as willing for 
winter as for summer, is here unknown, and all wore 
their cloaks and hats. From the heat of summer, all 
windows and doors are open to the drafts of wind, and, 
to prevent catching cold, almost all wear either a hat or 
cap within doors. In paying visits, except ladies be present, 
you are always begged to keep your hat on; and I have 
at least fifty times been obliged to say that I felt a hat 
disagreeable in a room. 

The president gave me a hearty shake of the hand, 
and, after ordering coffee and pipes, told me that a fellow- 
citizen of mine was in the room, who was dressed in the 
Italian feshion; I looked from face to face, not knowing 
who it could be; when, leading me up to a bookcase, he 
shewed me an Italian translation of Robertson's works, 
and, breaking out into eulogy, called him the greatest 
Paton. I. 20 


master of historical narration in any language. "Every 
body," said he, **ha8 been reading Cesare Cantu's Univenl 
History, but 1 lost my fancy for him when I found that 
he slighted Robertson." I expected Gibbon to stand hi^ 
as he deserved ; for, to say nothing of his astounding 
variety of erudition, his grand, sonorous periods are akin 
to the musical 'ampullation of Italian prose; but found 
that his weak point,— the treatment of the countries be- 
tween the Adriatic and the Black Sea, — was too palp(Btble 
to a learned Dalmatian. * 

^'But do not think the less of your great historian," 
said the president, with generous emphasis ; *^ my objection 
is like that of a man looking on a wonderful panorama, 
who should cavil at the drawing of his own villa." 

Our discourse fell on the great distress in the moun* 
tains. A house high up having been snowed in, and their 
provisions exhausted, three persons had died; and varioui 
schemes were fallen on for getting up a subscription. At 
length an accademia had been determined on, or concert 
by the members of the Casino, and we came to talk of 
music; on which Y., with the pale face and modest man- 
ners, made some observations which led to a muaioal con- 
versation, for the president was also a violinist. Bossini 
was considered to be heatthy, with a boiling over of 
animal spirits, — like a Scott or a Paul Veronese, gushing 
with irresistible spontaneity; Bellini, fragile in miod and 
body, but with gossamer nerves of the most delate tex- 
ture ; and in his conduct of a piece, with such a conception 
of grace and tenderness as never was excelled. The French 
music of Herold and others was objected to for want of 
that long period (lungho periodo) which characterises 
the Italian manner. But this is evidently all custom; for 
Beethoven has the most unaccountably strange trantitioii% 
but full of a magic beauty all their ovm. The prendent) 
as a violinist, knew and delighted in the quartette of 

* The ChronicleB of Archbishop Daniel, and the works of Bnnluh 
vich, Baitch, aud others, were not in an accessible shape when GibbwB 
composed his history. 


Mozart, and others of the Grermau school; but when I 
spoke of II Don Giovanni and Robert le Diahle, — those 
tapestries, which unite the forms of Italian melody with 
the consummate weaver-craft . of Germany, — I found no 
resonance to my enthusiasm. 

But moat interesting of all were the discussions ou 
the lives and writings of the native authors. Zara has 
been for centuries the political capital of Dalmatia; because, 
being an island fortress, the possession of this city has 
been considered decisive of the rest of the kingdom ; but 
Spalato is, and always has been, the moral capital of Dal- 
matia; «nd until 1829, the temple of Jupiter was the 
archiepiscopal cathedral of the Primate of this kingdom, 
in the cultivation of poHte literature the Spalatine is much 
behind the Ragusan; but a certain robust vigour, cou- 
t^enial to the unruly character of the Morlack, and con- 
trasting with the elegance of the Ragusan, is clearly dis^ 
cemible in the lives and writings of the eminent men of 

Of St. Jerome I say nothing, his biography being so 
weU known to every student of Church history. The 
Herodotus of modem Dalmatia was the Archdeacon Thomas, 
who wrote, in the twelfth century, the first and fullest 
history and description of his country, and rectified the 
numerous errors of Constantine Porphyrogeiiitus. Then 
came Marcus Marulus, the ancestor of our secretary, who 
was bom in 1450, studied at Padua, lived in Spalato, and, 
with a Europesm reputation, left more than twenty works, 
in the Italian, Dlyrian, and Latin languages, on archaeology, 
history, morals, and poetry. Carrara, in his Uomini II- 
lustrt di Spalato, calls him the second glory of Dalmatia, 
St. Jerome being the first. His principal work was a 
poem, caUed the Davidiad; and Ariosto, with the exag- 
geration of Italian imagination, subsequently callod him 
"il divino Marulo;" but for myself, having no relish for 
Catholic dogmatic theology of the fifteenth century, with 
whicli all his works are strongly tinctured, I take his 
fame on credit. His temporal circumstances must have 



Leen easy, and even opulent, to judge from his house, 
which has descended to our secretary by inheritance; but 
it is dilapidated and uninhabited. 

The most eccentric genius in the literary history of 
Dalmatia was Mark Antonio de Dominis, whose tife and 
death make a romantic drama. He was Archbishop of 
Spalato from 1602 to 1616; and in the plague of 1607 
distinguished himself by a humanity and courage worthy 
of Carlo Borromeo. Full of original genius, he was the 
first to discover the colours of the iris; and l^ewton, in 
his Optics, admits him to have been the discoverer. Thus 
Marino Ghetaldi preceded Des Cartes in the application 
of algebra to geometry, and a Dalmatian in the optical 
discoveries claimed for him. But De Dominis was hot 
and violent in his temper; and the altar of the cathedral 
of Spalato is to this day a curious monument of his 
spiritual pride and mechanical genius : it shews the singular 
optical delusion of the tabernacle above the altar being 
held by two angels on the points of their fingers. Unable 
to understand how the points of the fingers of two statues 
could support so enormous a weight, it was explained 
to me, that the centre of gravity was, -by a certain in- 
clination, reposed in the bodies of the angels. And what 
circumstances had induced this elevation of the tabernacle? 
Being at war with his own chapter, they accused him of 
placing his episcopal chair several steps too high, being 
above the level of the tabernacle. De Dominis, in order 
to avoid yielding to his chapter by taking his chair down 
a step, raised the tabernacle above the altar, as it now 

His chapter subsequently accused him of heretical 
opinions, on which he went to Venice, and thence, secretly, 
to London ; where the cathedral of St. Paul'* presented 
the extraordinary spectacle of the Archbishop of Spalato 
renouncing the errors of Popery, and embracing the re- 
formed faith. He then published in London his celebrated 
work, De Bepuhlica EcclesiasHca: but the results of his 
own doctrines in the puritanical sectaries, and probably 


disappointment at not receiving a high dignity in the 
English Church, disgusted him; he therefore negotiated his 
return to Italy and re-entry into the Church of Home, 
under the protection of Gregory XV., who was his per- 
sonal firiend; but on the death of this Pope, De Dominis 
was accused by the Inquisition of correspondence with 
the heretics, and being thrown into the castle of St. Angelo, 
perished there by poison in 1625. 

Lucius of Trau, an excellent historian, and author of 
Be Regno BdlmaticB et Croatia, Amsterdam, 1668, then 
followed ; and was succeeded by others, the last of whom 
was Cattalinich, who died during my residence at Spalato, 
to the universal regret of his countrymen. His work, in 
four volumes, is a history of Dalmatia from the earliest 
times down to 1815; and is the only modern book that 
pretends to the dignity and continuity of that style of 

It would appear that some practical acquaintance with 
public business is essential to a good historian. Macchia- 
velli as secretary, Sarpi as consultatore, and other Italian 
writers of this class, were much employed in political 
affairs. Gibbon learned his notions of war from militia 
soldiering, and had, besides, parliamentary and official 
experience. Robertson, in the position of a minister of 
the Kirk of Scotland,' seems, at first sight, to have had 
a less favourable chance of experience in political motives 
and springs of action; but during all the latter part of 
his career, he was the acknowledged leader of the moderate 
party in the assemblies and presbyteries of the Kirk, and 
had an opportunity of treating in miniature the same pas- 
sions he would have had to deal with had he been the 
first minister of a great monarchy. ' 

The opportunities of Cattalinich were as varied as his 
provincial opportunities allowed. Born in the memorable 
year 1769, at Castel Nuovo di Trau, and being destined 
for the clerical profession, he studied theology, first at 
Spalato, and then at Rome ; but the prospects of advance- 
ment in that profession being very doubtful after the 


French Revelation and the invasion of Italy, he torned 
from theology to law; and, in 1806, was made "giudice," 
or jnstice of the peace. Another change, however, took 
place thi*ee years afterwards in his destiny, and he entered 
on his military career, during which he was, in 1812, chef 
d'escadron of Napoleon's French-Ulyrian cavaliy; in 1813 
he was in France with his regiment, and on the Anatritn 
occupation in 1814, when Illyria and Dalmatia fell away 
from France, was advanced to the rank of major; but a 
few years afterwards he was pensioned, in consequence of 
a mental malady, and after a restoration of his reason, 
being in want of occupation, he undertook the history oi 
his country, being a good classical and Illyrian scholar. 
But Cattalinich, although, upon the whole, trostworthy, is 
ntterly unacquainted with the art of narration, and that 
sort of perspective, which, preserving a due proportion 
between the principal transactions and the background of 
the canvas, produces an attractive picture of each period. 
There they are, — kings, queens, and warriors, with their 
deeds and dates; but you discover no favoorite of the 
historian; and no hero around whom he could have 
grouped the subordinate characters, wearing the moral 
costumes of each age. But I should be imgratefnl, if I 
were to deny the general utility of the work, and even 
its interest to a native Dalmatian, "who would find attrac- 
tion in names, topics, and events, not likely to fix the 
attention of a stranger. 

It was not long after my introduction to the (iuyno, 
that, at the comer of a street in Spalato, I heard the 
words, "Poor Cattalinich dead!" The same evening, I 
heard at the club that his funeral was to be a national 
solemnity of interest; and I resolved to be a spectator.' 

"You are a member of the Guvno, and must be a 
mourner," said the President. "You are the only Enghsh- 
man in Spalato, and you must represent the literature of 
your country at the grave of Cattalinich." In vain I pro- 
tested that, if any of our critics heard of such a thing, 
I should be quizzed unmercifully ; but the President having 


put it to the Tote, a minute to this effect was made by 
the secretary; and I had no escape. 

On the morning of the Mineral, a loud rap was heard 
at my room-door, with the words " Otto botti, 8 o'clock ;" 
and our gaunt old Meg Merrilies-looking servant, who, 
from the first moment, had assumed a mastery over all 
my domestic affairs, opening the door, cried out, "Get uj) !" 
It was indeed high time to be on foot; and when I had 
dressed, I went to breakfast to the Cafe del Duomo, to 
the left of the steps leading up to the cathedral, which is 
fre(](tiented by the clergy, where I hear all the gossip, and 
many an instructive hint. The other cafe, on the Piazza 
dei Signori, is frequented by the officers, and is the more 
fashionable of the two ; but the officers, although very 
good fellows, are here to-day and away to-morrow; I 
therefore prefer the clergy, for they know the country 
better than any other class. Scarce had I been seated, 
when one of the priests brought in a Morlack woman 
almost famishing and fainting with hunger, and ordered 
her a glass of sweet wine, while each gave her a kreutzer 
or two. "Immense misery this year," said the clergyman; 
'Hhese poor people have sold all their beasts; the Lord 
knows where they are to get seed from for the next har- 
vest, and the Turks have forbid the export of grain from 
Bosnia. Carestia, cospetto di Dio, carestiaJ^ 

^^Carestia, cospetto delta MadontKky^'^ said I. 

"Come, come, no irreverence," said the priest, taking, 
off his broad -brimmed hat; ^^ cospetto delta Madonna 
(visage of the Madonna) is an expression not to be used." 

"I confess myself in the wrong," said 1; "for the Bible 
says. Swear not at all; but you yourself led the way with 
^cospetto di Dio'' (visage of God). Come, fair play is a 
jewel, reverendissimo." 

The priest abruptly took out his snuff-box to offer me 
a pinch: and as we changed the conversation to some 
other topic, I could not help thinking on the force of 
habit which should make the "visage of the Virgin" a 
greater oath than the "visage of God," 


The Piazza began gradually to fill with company; and 
as our talk turned on literature, two windows on the 
opposite side of the square were pointed out to me, as 
those of a room inhabited by another of those strange 
geniuses at war with society, Ugo Foscolo, who, although 
born in Zante, studied in the episcopal seminary in Spalato, 
in 1787. 

At length the coffin appeared, covered with a black 
velvet pall; the arms and chako were placed above the 
bier, and the cliaplet of laurel and elegies, some printed 
and some written, were fastened by Carrara to the sldrtB 
of the pall, and marked the mixed character of soldier 
and historian. These symbols of modem southern life, 
frivolous though they appear to our northern phlegm; 
remind one of the departed grace of classic antiquity. 

The procession now started, and was very brilliant, 
for all the officers were in full uniform ; those of the 
Hungarian regiment with bright blue, trimmed somewhat 
too profusely with silver, and the band playing the m^ 
lancholy air by which Ninetta is led to execution in the 
Gazza Ladra. When we got down to the quay, we found 
ourselves in the clear sunshine, with a firesh breeze blow- 
ing, ^and the water all in motion, each green wave with 
a silver crest The Morlacks, in order to see the sights 
and do honour to the national historian, were close ranged . 
up along the quay, in their red caps and pictnresqne 
dresses. All the windows of the front of the palace, firom 
tower to tower, were crowded with females; and as the 
hum of attention shot with almost electric rapidity through 
the forest of broken pilasters, I saw the shadow of the 
public life of Rome, the majesty of architecture, and the 
thrill of assembled humanity. 

The cemetery was out on a point of land beyond the 
bay; and the way was long, and so windy, that our cloaki 
blew hke pennons, and one after another of the odee was 
disengaged off the pall. When we got out to the oemeteiy, 
service was read, the volleys were fired, military honoun 
were paid, and then ended the bodily career of Cattalinich. 


Spring had now unfolded all her attractions. The 
snow had melted away from Caprarius, the gardens were 
covered with bloom and verdure, and the whole prospect 
of land and sea had acquired that warmth of tone, that 
brilliancy of colour, and perspicuity of the atmosphere, 
that belong only to the south. When I took my walks, 
with a north-west air that scarce deserved the name of 
wind, and gently stirred the tender leaves, I used to hum 
to myself some reminiscence of sweet Bellini, and, looking 
up into the profound azure of the heavens, felt a sort of 
beatitude, such as no poetry or painting ever produced 
in me. 

The ruins of Salona and its charming gulf now engaged 
my attention. The remains of the once flourishing capital 
of the Dalmatia of the Romans, situated in the fairest 
portion of the whole land, transported me again in imagin- 
ation to the hours I had passed at Tivoli, Pompeii, and 
all those delicious places which enable Italy to combine 
more instruction with pleasure than any other country. 
Even Egypt herself must yield the palm to Italy; for 
however wonderful her ancient monuments and Saracenic 
architecture, however singular her physical geography, 
and however strange the world of Cairo, of which Mr. Lane 
may be called the Columbus, Egypt is seen with surprise, 
Italy is dwelt in with delight. 

On the destruction of Delminio by Cornelius Scipio 
Nasica, in the second Dalmatian war, Salona became the 
chief city of the province; and its inhabitants enjoying 
the rights of Roman citizenship, its political and maritime 
importance as capital and chief naval station, not less than 
the amenity of its situation, rendered it the most desirable 
residence of the coast, and there the arts followed the 
arms of Rome as naturally as those of Venice in sub- 
bequent times found an echo in all the chief cities of Dal- 
matia. To Augustus and Tiberius, Salona was indebted 
for those roads which connected her with all the surround- 
ing provinces, and to Diocletian for the culmination of 
her splendour. Constantine Porphyrogenitus , with his 


fondness for sweeping assertion, states that the city was 
entirely renewed by him, and that its size was half that 
of Constantinople; we may therefore conclade that many 
of its edifices were rebuilt by Diocletian, and that it was 
one of the most populous of the Roman provincial capitals. 
Wealth, ease, and elegance, had their abode in this part 
of the Adriatic, which well earned the title of Dalmatia 
Felix; and though the city declined before its faU, and 
an irruption of Slaavic hordes took place in the fifth cen- 
tury, it lay out of the way of Attila and the other des- 
troyers of Rome. But in the fatal year 639 it was taken 
and destroyed by the Avars, and Spalato and the islands 
became the refuge of the Salonitans. 

When the arts revived in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, the zeal of exploration gradually extended itself 
to Dalmatia, and the amphitheatre and other edifices being 
discovered, Gian Giorgio Calergi made a plan of Salona 
by order of the Venetian senate in 1672; but it bore no 
resemblance to the reality. In 1821 the late £inperor 
Francis, who took a great interest in Dalmatia, ordered 
the excavation of Salona and Pola, after his visit to this 
kingdom; and laboiious excavations were made in search 
of statues in many places, which were filled up again if 
they promised np result. This went on until Professor 
Carrara perceived that it was putting the cart before the 
horse, and that the only mode of getting at a satisfactory 
result was the actual excavation of the base of the circiiit 
of the town, so that the gates as well as the true peri- 
meter being laid bare, no room might be left for con- 
jecture or speculation, but the task of a plan reduced to 
the simple labour of the geometer, while the gates thti 
opened on the principal streets were the proper starting- 
places for further excavations. In spite of a great detl 
of opposition, he succeeded in getting some funds firom 
the government; and the whole circuit of the town being 
now laid bare, what was taken for a gate turns oat to 
be a space between two towers, and the true perimeter 


and gates being ascertained, all further operations may 
be proceeded with satisfactorily. 

On one of the beautiful mornings of spring, while await- 
ing a more advanced season for my mountain trip, I 
visited Salona, accompanied by Professor Carrara, who 
had been all along my obliging and instructive cicerone 
in Spalato. The distance is about three miles; and as 
the members of the club were afterwards to dine and 
spend the afternoon at Salona, we proceeded thither on 
foot, as the road is good, and the country delightful. After 
about half a mile of gentle ascent, we found ourselves on 
the backbone of the peninsula, and by a slow descent we 
gradually approached the upper end of the gulf, which is 
here attenuated to a narrow stripe of water, into which 
a river flows; and standing on a bridge not far from its 
entrance into the gulf, the broad meadows, with the flocks 
cropping the fresh luxuriant grass, conjoined with the 
abundant wood and water, made us forget the sterile and 
rocky character of Dalmatia, and remember the spring. 

Omnia tunc florent, tunc est nova temporis Atas, 
Et nova de gravido palmite gemma tnmet, 

Et modo formatis amicitur yitibns arboa, 
Prodit et in summum seminis herba solum, 

Et tepidum voluoris concentibus aera mulcent, 
Ludit et in pratis luxuriatque pecus. 

The river, clear and deep, passed rapidly under the 
arch on which we stood, and mingled its waters with the 
gulf a hundred yards below us ; the wide expanse of which 
was seen stretching away to the west, the high hill above 
Spalato shutting it out from the Adriatic. As I leant my 
elbows on the parapet, and looked down into the dark 
pools of the river, with their eddies of fresh water, and 
the subaqueous pennons of verdant weed which trembled 
in the stream, I asked Carrara to spur my lagging memory 
with a classical reminiscence, and he at once gave the 
couplet of Lucan: 

Qua maris Adriaci longas ferit unda Salonas, 
Et tepidiun in molles aephyros excurrit lader. 


Crossing the bridge, we walked a few hundred yards 
along a road bordered with poplars and other trees, and 
entered the straggling modem village of Salona. The inn 
of the place, where we rested a brief quarter of an hour, 
and drank a cup of Salonitan wine, had quite the modem 
Roman air. In front of the door was a verandah of dried 
leaves, through which flakes of sunlight fell on a large 
marble senatorial-looking statue lying on its face, the bade 
of which formed the bench, on which sat a maiden with 
a distaff, and a peasant with sandals, closely resembling 
those of the Roman citizen, whose reversed effigy recalled 
the ancient world to the mind of the traveller; while a 
miserable little daub of a figure firing at a covey of birds 
was the sign of the inn, "Al famoso Cacciatore," or the 
famous huntsman. 

Fragments of sculpture were irregularly imbedded in 
the walls of most of the old houses; and I was much 
pleased to see that Carrara had induced the adoption of 
a more elegant collocation of those inserted in the new. 
For instance, symmetrical fragments were disposed on each 
side of a door, or formed the soles of a row of windows 
just like the pale bas-reliefs with which Mieris, Geriiard 
Douw, and other Dutch painters, used to bring out the 
hardy greens of vegetables or of drapery. 

The ancient city rises gradually upwards to a con- 
sidfrable height, so that the northern wall is very much 
higher than the southern part of the city which skirts the 
river ; and the sea and the city has something of the form 
of a truncated cone, the wider base to the eastward being 
an extension of the original city, which was connected by 
a large internal gate. We first proceeded to the north- 
east angle of the town, for the purpose of following the 
excavation of the walls. Here are the remains of the 
ancient gate leading by the Via Grabiniana to Andetriuni 
or Andertium ; and here we find all the accustomed solidity 
of Roman masonry. Continuing our circuit, we perceive 
that the city nmst have been defended with rectangular 
towers of unequal size, some with a front as narrow M 


twelve feet, others forty or fifty, and one even ninety- 
eight feet. One may wonder how a battering aries could 
affect snch a solid construction ; but a comer-atone indented, 
and partly displaced, by an aries, shews that by extruding 
an important corner-stone the whole superincumbent 
masonry easily falls; hence the value attached to the 
"comer-stone," as we find in the Scriptures. The most of 
the Eoman towers are not in their original quadrangular 
state, but pentagonal, a triangle being added to the rect- 
angle, so as to present the rude embryo of the modem 
bastion, thus: 

this addition being, from the inferiority of the masonry, 
evidently not Roman, but barbaric. The older construc- 
tion is all of large square blocks of stone ; one that I saw 
in a tower was not less than ten feet long. In the bar- 
baric masonry , the shell is regularly built of small 
stones, and the interior filled up with unhewn stones and 

One of the most interesting objects in the northern 
part of the city near the wall is the excavation of a bath, 
which shews that the modem oriental bath is essentially 
the same as that of the ancients. If I had not known 
that I was treading the ruins of Salona, I could have 
supposed myself to be standing in the remains of a Turkish 
or Arab bath; the reservoir in the centre had its lead 
pipe for the conveyance of hot water, in which the whole 
body could be plunged ; the floor was of polished marble ; 
the pillars that supported the roof of oriental alabaster; 
and in one of the lateral cabinets the mosaic was preserved 
as intact as when laid down. 


Not far from the bath is the great gate which con- 
nected the old with the new town, excavated and kid 
bare down to the pavement; which latter, as at Pompeii, 
is marked with the parallel wheel-ruts; the flags being 
larger and much more dilapidated. This shews that 
Pompeii was covered when the cities of the empire were 
still prosperous, Salona when in decadence. The aqueduct 
that supplied the town with water passed over the gate; 
and a curious phenomenon is here visible. A leak in the 
channel of the aqueduct has in course of time formed t 
stalactite as thick as the trunk of an old oak. 

The amphitheatre, in the form of an ellipse, one hundred 
and twenty-six feet long, is at the extreme north-west 
angle of the town, and is in good preservation; the en- 
trance is paved with stones ten feet by four, and a dia- 
mond-formed stone grate still remains on a level with 
the arena, which afforded a view of the amphitheatre 
without danger of juxtaposition with the animals. It 
appears to have been climate that dictated to the andenti 
their extensive use of stone ; the rude temperature accom- 
panying the civilisation of the north of Europe a;ppe$n 
to have brought iron into more extensive use. Nothing 
can be fitter for resisting heat than their solid walla; but 
the nice shutting of doors and windows, so ^aaential to 
the north, was probably as unknown to the Romans at to 
the modem Dalmatians. In Spalato or Ragusa you tee a 
house with masonry worthy of a handsome fortune^ and 
not a latch on a door or window which would not be 
unworthy of a hovel in the north of £urope. 

The vomitories and gradations still shew distinctly what 
the amphitheatre was ; but the circumstance of the greater 
])art of the wall being at the same time the wall of the 
town, may account for no particular architectural orna- 
ment in the elevation. 

To the westward of Salona is a remnant of an immenee 
construction, the origin or destination of which is quite 
unknown to the local antiquaries; a cyclopean wall of 
regular (][uadri lateral stones, each from eight to sixteen 


feet in length. At first sight I imagined that it must 
have been the foundation of a temple; but as it extends 
five hundred and eighty paces in length, 1 soon saw the 
fallacy of this opinion. 

On our return to the village we found the secretary 
and music-master, but no president, although the time of 
meeting had arrived; so we sauntered along the road 
towards the bridge, and saw the rotund form and good- 
humoured face of the worthy old man descending slowly 
to the bridge, with his broad-brimmed hat off, and wiping 
his brow with his handkerchief. This was the longest 
walk he had indulged in for some time. He had sat down 
10 rest, a Morlack maiden had given him a glass of water, 
and we joked him on Venus making him forget his alle- 
^ance to Bacchus; so he gave us a Latin quotation, 
which I have forgotten (for he was an excellent classical 
scholar), and we retraced our steps to the upper chamber 
of the "Famous Fowler," where, with an ample repast, 
more than one amphora of good Salonitan wine was drunk, 
and the hours passed delightfully in society endeared to 
me by so many qualities of the head and heart. 

A leisurely walk back to the town amid the shades 
of evening terminated my trip to Salona; and next day 
I went with fresh zest to the new museum of antiquities, 
for the most part dug out of the ruins I had seen, which 
is situated in Spalato, close to the Porta iEnea, or Grate 
of Brass. The collection of domestic utensils is varied 
and curious. The lamination of crystal vases, supposed 
to be a Venetian invention, is shewn to have been familiar 
to the Romans. Playing dice, closely resembling those 
now in use, 

"Si damnosa senem juvat alea, ludit et hsexes 

distaves of ivory, and numerous other domestic utensils 
of the same character as those to be seen in the museum 
of Naples, are visible. Much of the sculpture is mediocre, 
shewing the decline or provincial rudeness of art, though 


an Apollo and a Venus Victrix are worthy of a place in 
any European collection; but from some of the other 
fragments it is evident that a camera oscena will be needed 
in Spalato, as well as in Naples. 



At length the hour came when I was to quit Spalato, 
as mountain travelling was not only unlikely to be attended 
with inclement weather, but bore every promise of being 
agreeable. I had no intention of crossing the high inland 
chains of Bosnia, for which a more advanced season is 
requisite. Carrara and other kind friends accompanied 
me to Salona, where, after a simple repast at oiir old 
haunt of the "Famous Fowler," a few toasts were drunk 
to the hope of meeting again, and I took farewell of 
those kind friends with whom I had passed so many 
happy and instructive hours. It was on the comer tower 
of Salona that we exchanged our last adieu; and, as I 
looked back out of the carriage, with my eyes suffused 
with tears, I saw the little band, with their handkerchiefs 
tied to their sticks, waving me a prosperous journey. 

Often, on standing on the hill above Spalato, I had 
cast my eyes across the gulf of Salona to the snowy 
heights of Caprarius. longing to plunge into the heart of 
the Highlands of Dalmatia, and penetrate to those fast- 
nesses of antiquated manners, of which I had heard such 
curious accounts; and as the carriage slowly ascended 
the steep zig-zag road above Salona, the feeling that the 
hour of accomplishment was at hand reconciled me to 
the lively regret I felt at quitting Spalato and its kind 


After a long and tedious ascent, a break in the chain 
was seen above me, and in the intervening space a castle, 
situated on a point of rock that commanded the pass over 
the mountain. This was Clissa, retained by the Turks 
from 1521, while the Venetians scarce dared to go out 
of Spalato, and considered of the greatest importance 
from its commanding position; but at length taken, in 
1647, by the valour of Leonardo Foscolo, the Venetian 
general. The view from the platform that looks to the 
Adriatic is truly stupendous. Dalmatia Felix, with its 
groves and rills, is at the feet of the spectator; the 
spearhead-shaped peninsula of Spalato shoots between the 
placid gulf of Salona and the dancing Adriatic. A con- 
fusion of sea and land, jutting cape and indented bay, 
form the Archipelago that fills up all the space to the 
distant western horizon. The campanile of Spalato, tapering 
like a tiny needle, appeared a mere speck in the realised 
chart that expanded itself to my view, and reminded me 
of what an eye-sore it had been to the Turks for above 
120 years. 

This proud and valiant nation held in its iron grasp 
all the lands from the Caspian to the Adriatic, save and 
except a few narrow townships scattered along this coast 
of Dalmatia, accessible to Venetian galleys. Often, when 
the voice of the Muezzin of this fortress of Clissa calling 
to prayer sounded at even-tide, was it said that this 
haughty campanile would give forth the summons to the 
worship of their only God; and, with the Moslem world 
at their back, well might Spalato seem contemptible from 
this commanding height: but the wished-for hour never 
came; and in 1647, yielding to the valour of Foscolo, the 
garrison surrendered on condition of a free passage to 
Bosnia without their arms. A thousand souls, men, women, 
i>nd children, saw this fair prospect for the last time ; and 
scarce had they passed out of the gate between a double 
file of Venetian soldiers and infuriated Dalmatians, when 
the latter, shamefully disregarding the articles of capitu- 
lation, commenced an indiscriminate massacre of the un- 
Patoh. I. 21 


armed Turks. Foscolo, touched in the tenderest point of 
honour, flew to anus; but a half of those unhappy beings 
had already fallen a sacrifice. The rest got to Livno, 
where a family to this day takes the surname of Clissa 

After seeing the fortress, the Turkish character of 
which has disappeared in unpicturesque modem forti- 
fications, I re-entered the carriage, and, turning my back 
on the coast, found myself rapidly traversing the plateau 
of Caprarius. The yellow gravel of an excellent smooth 
road formed a distinct line on a wide table-land of blue- 
grey porous rocks. I had left Salona basking in the 
mildness of approaching summer; here the chill, clear air, 
although exhilarating to the spirits, reminded me that I 
had thrown off my winter costume in too great a hurry. 
Not a tree was to be seen ; and before me was the higher 
snowy rampart of the Prolog of Bosnia, but separated 
from me by the unseen and deeply depressed valley of 
the Cetigne, which formed a sort of colossal ha-ha to the 
Bosniac rampart. As I approached the edge of the table- 
land, and saw the beginning of the cultivation on the 
opposite side of the great valley, I repeatedly rose in the 
carriage, curious to see the aspect of inland Dalmatia. 
Of the coast I had seen to my heart's content; bat in a 
district of a new character, I felt as if about to enter a 
new country altogether. It was, however, a much longer 
affair than I expected; for what seems near in moimtein 
scenery, may be, after all, a long way off. Wrapt in my 
cloak, I read a chapter of the "Pickwick Papers;** and 
was almost angry with the fellow who drove me, for ab- 
stracting my attention from these delicite literairiie. 
Pointing to the valley of the Cetigne, which we now 
overlooked, I saw a blue lake, of oval shape, filling up a 
considerable part of the valley below me, formed by the 
river, which here spread out so as to form a lake, for 
the most part bordered by green pasture-lands. On the 
opposite side of the valley, at the distance of four or 
five miles, the Prolog, which separates Bosnia from Dal* 


matia, rose majestically far above the level on which I 
stood; the snowy crest ranging far and wide, and pretty 
to look at, but undesirable for a nearer acquaintance at 
so early a season. A few miles down the valley the lake 
ceases^ and the river is confined between approximating hills. 

Sign, the town to which I was going, was at the 
upper part of the lake, situated on an irre^uiar eminence, 
with cultivated fields and meadow-lands sloping down to 
the waters; and the horses, feeling the approach to their 
night's quarters, could scarce be restrained in the descent. 

As we entered the town, the last rays of the sun were 
gilding the ruins of the castle on an abrupt rock that 
rose in the middle of the town, and, the labours of the 
day being ended, the work-people were returning to their 
ho mes. But the figure that most caught my attention was 
a man on his abdomen moving along the road like a 
reptile. The coachman told me that he had some years 
ago lost his way on the Prolog, and, being out two days 
and nights in the snow, his hands and feet had dropped 
oS. The town, as we drove up its main street, had a 
mixed character. Good Italian houses were mingled 
with old Slaavic ones of rude construction; one of the 
best of the former being the inn, which was the cafe of 
the village, and had an unexpectedly prepossessing air of 
cleanliness. The walls were fresh painted, a new billiard* 
table stood in the middle of the floor, the bar had its 
neat ranges of liqueurs in their square-bodied and long* 
necked bottles, and my bedroom up stairs was the best 
1 had had in Dalmatia, without any symptoms of picturesque 
semi-barbarism. The landlord, an elderly gentlemanly 
man in a green short jacket, pulled off a fur cap, and, 
addressing me in choice French, with an easy half- 
l^atronising deference, which I never expected to see in 
a Dalmatian Boniface, informed me that in his youth he 
had made a competency as contractor for the English 
fleet at Lissa (of course he never smuggled), and having 
bought a farm at his native Sign, he kept the cafe for 
his own amusement. 



Bosnia, that terra incognita, had furnished a treasure 
trove of 4000 medals and Roman coins to a person who 
had no notion of their numismatic value ; and the Podestli 
having, from his commercial relations, been enabled to 
purchase them, had arranged them so as to be easy of 
inspection. They were valuable, being mostly consular; 
some of a very remote date, others of silver, with the 
unsullied frost of fresh coinage. One, struck after the 
assassination of Caesar, had a head circumscribed Marcos 
Brutus Imperator, and on the reverse a cap of liberty 
between two daggers, with the memorable words, *'Ide8 
of March." The symbols of the Roman consular fionilies 
were full of variety; the handsome Apollo head of the 
Calpurnia family, the elephant car of the Metella, the 
sea-horses of the Crepereia, and many others. 

I then took an inspection of the town, and soon saw 
that the landlord and Podesta, with their Frank dress, 
were colonists in a strange country. Being market-day, 
the Piazza, an open space between the church and a 
convent-wall, at the end of a sort of bazaar of shops, 
was crowded with the true Morlacks from the neigh- 
bouring villages, who were all Christians, but all wore, 
as nearly as possible, the old Turkish costume of the 
last century, except the kaouk. Corresponding to the 
prints of the Turkish dress as they appeared in books in 
the beginning of this century, they looked exactly like 
the Turk as he used to be represented on the stage. 
They are in person a tall, rude, robust, and somewhat 
savage race of men; all armed, even in the market-place; 
some with pistols, others with dirks. These they are 
allowed to retain; as, in case of a war with Turkey, 
Dalmatia is much more exposed to Bosnia than Bosnia 
to Dalmatia, the latter being a higher and more rugged 
country. On their head is the fez, surrounded by the 
ample folds of a white-and-blue cotton turban; they are 
very fond of a red colour in their clothes; and all wear 
sandals with a sole of raw bulPs-hide, but strapped on 
with cordage instead of goat-skin ties, as in old times. 


The women wear shoes, and the men to this day consider 
shoes eflfeminate. In Dalmatia, in the last century, people 
used to say that every thing could be found in Venice, 
just as people say in England that every thing can be 
found in London ; but a pleasant story is told of a Morlack 
declaring this to be a popular falsehood, for he had sought 
over all Venice, and could not find a pair of sandals, 
although they were for sale in the meanest village of his 
own country. 

The rooted antipathy to change, which is the principal 
trait in the character of the Morlack, shews itself in 
nothing so much as the antipathy to the Frank costume. 
The civilisation of Venice varnished the coast, but re- 
mained only skin deep; and when a man threw off the 
native costume, he was considered as a sort of traitor to 
his nationality. Lovrich, a native of Sign, who wrote a 
refutation of the errors of the Abbate Fortis, gives a 
translation of a droll poem, expressing the lamentation of 
the Morlack for those of their chiefs who Italianised 
themselves— thus, 

"There are certain Dalmatian Voyvodes, 
Who, scarce arrived on the Italian shore, 
Italianise themselves, and blush to he called Slaavs; 
They cut their natural pig-tails and clap on a wig, 
A hat replaces the turban. 

They are in a hurry to shave their moustaches, 
And cast aside their silks and scarlets; 
They despise embroidery, fine boots, and silver buttons. 
And then, O Godl they clap on a coat 
Which is slit in two behind.''* 

Such is their idea of the garb of civilised man. Some 
years ago the most contemptuous expression for a Frank 
was, Lazmani rastrixem perkna: "the man with the slit 

Talking of buttons of gold and silver, these Bosniacs 
and Dalmatians are very fond of them. They are a sort 
of investment in case of need; and a man getting short 

* Lovrich, p. 117. 


of cash cuts a button off his coat, and sells it. This 
passion for buttons led to a curious circumstance during 
my visit to Dalmatia. A man in Bosnia left a silver cup 
mounted with precious stones to the Church, and the 
heirs, respecting his will, handed over the cup to the 

Greek Bishop of , in Bosnia. Shortly afterwards, the 

nephew of the Bishop was seen with a new shining stock 
of silver buttons on his gala coat, upon which the flock 
demanded a sight of the silver cup, in order to convince 
themselves that it had not transmigrated to the coat of 
the nephew. But it appeared that the Bishop, unlike 
Sylvester Daggerwood, not having a soul above buttons, 
had melted the cup, keeping the jewels to himself, and 
giving his nephew the silver. The case was trying at 
Constantinople, but how it ended I know not 

Stalls of commodities were in rows along the convent- 
wall, and all characteristic of the people; fresh sandals, 
pyramids of flints for their pistols, rough copper bells 
for sheep and goats, besides other paraphernalia of a 
warlike and primitive people. Seeing a construction like 
a fountain with four spouts, I was amused to see com 
instead of water flow out of one of them; and, going 
behind it, I ascended three or four steps, and found on 
the platform four semi-globular troughs, of di£ferent 
measures, scooped out of blocks of marble, which being 
filled, and a plug drawn out, the com \a all measured by 
a public officer, so as to prevent fi:aud. I remarked that 
most of the buyers and sellers were men somewhat ad- 
vanced in years; but this is easily explained by the fact, 
that the families keep together after their sons are married, 
and a Stareschin, or Elder, is the manager of the fiunily 
concerns. So that the social existence of the Morlacks 
is literally patriarchal. 

Sign is a thriving place of above 2000 inhabitants, and 
subsists principally on the trade of the Bosniac oarayant, 
those good new houses having been built since 1814. 
Seraievo and Travnik are the principal cities of Bosnia; 
the former the largest, with a population of 80,000 in- 


habitants; the latter the capital, and the residence of the 
Pasha. As Ragusa is the port of Herzegovina, Spalato 
is the port of those two cities; and in 1578 the lazaretto 
of Spalato was built, to enable caravans to come down to 
the coast, and then sell the produce and buy the manu- 
factures of Venice. But the terrible plague of 1814 put 
a stop to the caravans. The trade was restricted to the 
bazaar up in the Prolog, of which Sign is the nearest 
market-town. The manufactures of England are bought 
by the merchants of Bosnia in Trieste; and the Podesta 
and some others have a principal part of their income 
from the expedition of these goods in transit. But on 
the 21st November, 1844, the caravan was re-established 
direct to Spalato, guarded, of course, by health-officers; 
and the event was considered so important, that all the 
population, headed by the authorities, went out of the 
town several miles to meet it, with the most joyous de- 
monstrations of welcome. This circumstance, however, 
by placing the merchant of Bosnia in communication with 
the coast, has filled the middle-men of Sign with ap- 
prehensions, although not much difference had been felt 
up to the time of my visit. 

In the evening I had highly instructive chat with the 
Podesta, M. Bulian, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
the Morlack character. He told me that the great obstacle 
to improvement was their obstinate antipathy to change. 
The environs of Sign are rich pasture-lands badly drained ; 
and, under the idea that the best agricultural system for 
such land was that of Holland, he got the best implements 
imported from that country, procured the best works on 
agriculture, and, being the largest landed proprietor of 
the place, set to work with his new system of drainage 
and culture, and, in a few years, added largely to the 
annual product of his estate. All the Morlacks around 
him saw the advantage with their eyes open, but not one 
imitated the example. They said, "We do as our fore- 
fathers have done from generation to generation, and we 
have no desire to depart from their usages." 


The ground on which Sign is built rises gradually 
from the edge of the lake formed by the Cetigne, a short 
way oflf, to the foot of an abrupt rock, on which are the 
ruins of the Castle of Sign, and to which I ascended by 
a rugged path from behind. It was just such a feudal 
castle as one sees scattered all about this country, ap- 
proached only on one side, where a deep cut under the 
landward wall separated it from the rest of the hill ; while, 
from the breaks in the rampart that overhung the pre- 
cipice, I looked down on the red spots on the crowns of 
the heads of the turbaned Morlacks below me. 

If I were to recount the legends of all such castles in 
Dalmatia as are related by the local topographers and 
annalists, I should soon swell my volumes to an unwieldy 
bulk; but the siege of Sign is commemorated by the 
jousting I mentioned in my account of Spalato. These 
Turkish wars have knit the past history and political 
geography of Dalmatia so closely together, that it may 
be as well, for perspicuity's sake, to recall to the reader 
that, from 1521, when Soliman's troops conquered Dal- 
matia, to the war of 1644, the possessions of Venice were 
confined to the islands and a few towns on the coast 
Then followed the liberation of the Narenta, Macarsca, 
and, most important of all, of Clissa, the key of the 
Highlands ; the latter an event so considerable, that couriers 
were despatched from Venice to the principal Courts of 
Christendom with the intelligence. At length, in 1669, 
peace was patched up between the Sultan and the Republic, 
and a certain Nani being named by the Doge to draw a 
frontier-line in common with the Turkish commissioners, 
the space conceded to the RepubUc was marked by t 
boundary called Lima Nani, and is termed to this day, 
in the books of the land register, the Vecchio Acquisto, 
or Old Acquisition. 

The defeat of the Turks at the second siege of Vienna 
in 1684, with the assistance of the gallant Sobieski, and tht 
subsequent evacuation of Hungary, having had an immense 
moral effect on the Adriatic, we then find the Venetians 


adyancing with success into the heart of the Highlands; 
and Knin, Sign, and other important places having been 
taken by General Cornaro, a new line was drawn after 
the treaty of Carlo vitz in 1696, by the Proveditor General 
Mocenigo, and the Idnea Mocenigo embraces the so-called 
Nuovo Acquisto, or New Acquisition. 

In the next war, which terminated with the treaty of 
Passarovitz in 1718, in which Eugene gained his splendid 
successes at Peterwardein and Belgrade, Venice came badly 
off; the Morea was lost to Turkey in 1715, and at the 
treaty she was insufficiently compensated by a nan^ow 
stripe of territory lying next to Herzegovina, of which 
Imoschi is the principal town, and which is called the Ac- 
quisto Nuovissimo, or Newest Acquisition. 

The whole of the district I am describing is in the 
New Acquisition, and therefore was in Venetian possession 
since 1696, but was again in great danger. In the summer 
of 1715 the Turks burst like a torrent from the im- 
pregnable fastnesses of the Prolog, designing to repossess 
themselves of the New Acquisition, and the district of 
Sign was occupied with 40,000 men, and the castle in- 
vested. But the resistance made by a gallant scion of 
the house of Balbi and the garrison was successful. As 
at Saragossa, the priests, with the crucifix in one hand and 
a sword in the other, helped to repel the attack; one of 
these, by name Stephen, a Franciscan priest, was killed 
in the act of pointing a cannon. On the 14th of August 
the Turkish commander made his last furious assault, and 
grey crumbling masonry peeping up among the grass is 
pointed out as the spot where the partisans of the 
Crescent and the Cross met pike to pike and sabre to 
sabre; but towards three in the afternoon, Mohammed 
Pasha, despairing of success, withdrew his troops. 

The country-people, seeing the large Turkish host 
depart, supposed that a miracle must have been wrought, 
otherwise how could a small garrison have resisted so 
successfully? and popular opinion ascribed the victory to 
the presence of an image in a church; but a violent 


dispute in the Turkish camp between the Albanians and 
Bosniacs is supposed to have marred their co-operation. 
The jousting which commemorates the event, and 
forms the subject of Count Leonardo Dudan's poem, takes 
place at the entrance of the town, and is sometimes 
attended by 10,000 people. Wooden stands are erected 
along each side of the career and hung with carpets, and 
trees and shrubs placed in the ground seem to form an 
avenue. The jousting opens with a procession, in which 
the arms and dresses are of the antique national fuhion, 
after which the judges take their places on the BcafiFolds 
appointed for them. Each j ouster, who must be a native 
of the district of Sign, has a heron's feather and a flower 
on his fez, a lance in his hand, and is attended by his 
squire. The ring to be pierced is formed thus: — 

Advancing at full gallop, he attempts to ring the 
lance: the centre eye, if entered, counts three points; the 
barred space below, two points; and the unbarred space 
above, one point. Each jouster has three courses, the 
largest number of points gained conferring victory, for 
which he receives a hundred-florin prize, and treats the 
Morlacks with an entertainment afterwards. 

From Sign I went to the baths of Veriioca, five hoars 
higher up the valley of the Getigne, which in the months 
of July and August are, from their mineral waters and 
cool picturesque situation, the popular Spa of those I^Mi- 
latines and Ragusans whose circumstances allow them to 
go thither. The valley is from a mile to two miles wide, 


and the character of the scenery entirely diflferent from 
that with which I had hitherto associated Dalmatia in 
my mind. Instead of the olive, the aloe, and carob, were 
the saplings of the north, the white bud of the thorn, 
the verdant grassy slopes, and the clear Cetigne murmuring 
its winding way over the dark-brown pebbles, while the 
birds, in chorus, whistled a joyous welcome to the genial 
spring. Winter shewed himself no longer, except by the 
snowy cornice that topped the Prolog, which continued on 
my right to be the wall that separated me from Bosnia; 
and every now and then a Customs revenue officer, armed 
with a long gun, and asking my name, and the object 
of my journey, reminded me of my vicinity to the 

The people, if better dressed than the peasantry of the 
north of Europe, were infinitely worse lodged and ap- 
pointed. The agricultural utensils are of the rudest 
description; the houses are square cabins, with a frame- 
work of wooden beams, and built up with shapeless stones, 
joined by cement of cow-dung and ashes; most of them 
have a chimney; and in those I saw, the cattle and hu- 
manity were not intended to be under the same roof, as 
in Montenegro. The floor is the bare earth; the roofs 
are quite black with the smoke, and take on a jetty lustre 
that looks better than any abortive attempt at white- 
washing. The furniture consists of a few low three-legged 
stools, beds of blankets without sheets, a large chest or 
two, a low round table, and earthen-ware dishes for food, 
with wooden spoons. Fire-insurance is unknown; and 
when a man's house is burned, all the country side has 
a pride in assisting him to rebuild it', his neighbours offer 
him hospitality till he be replaced, and on the completion 
of the house, all bring their offerings of utensils and 
provisions; so that a fire is seldom a loss. 

Lovrich mentions the curious circumstance, that in 
the earlier half of the eighteenth century it was common 
to dwell in wooden huts that ran upon wheels, as shewing 
their descent from the ancient Scythians. Thus Horace: 


''Gampestres melius Bcythse, 
Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domos, 
Vivunt et rigidi Getse." 

This is possible ; but I suspect that this mobility of chattels 
may have arisen from the apprehensions, vicissitudes, and 
uncertainties of the Turkish wars in the two previous 

Yerlicca has a pleasing situation, but is not half the 
size of Sign; and I put up at the boarding-house of the 
water-drinkers, there being no regular inn. A gravel road 
led out of the town, down a slope, to a dark wooded 
angle between two mountains; and in this nook, at the 
extremity of an alley of trees, was a wall, breast-big^ 
forming a circular enclosure, within which were stone 
benches, and without, well-grown shady planes. Here 
were the principal people of the place, playing bowls. 

I then proceeded to taste the water; and going out 
of the circle, descended a few stone steps to the wall, 
where three sources gushed out into a basin facing the 
landscape of broken ground, with undulating pastures and 
willows straggling by the side of the brook in which ihe 
waters were conveyed away. A sharp Morlack urchin* 
who had been picking up the bowls, held a tumbler to 
a source ; and as he presented it, glistening and dropping 
like quicksilver, one might have imagined it to be a 
figure of Gerhard Douw in a landscape by Wynanta. The 
water is largely impregnated with magnesia, but is almost 

Instead of returning to the town by the alley, we made 
a detour to the other side of the town, and, as we ap- 
proached, perceived a large assemblage of male and 
female Morlacks, enjoying themselves witii music and 
dancing. The dance, which the women performed in a 
circle, is called the Kolo ; it is the national Qlyrian amuse- 
ment, and probably a legitimate descendant of the Pyrrhic 
dance. The sexes were not mingled; and the females 
taking each other^s hands, made a slow perpetual rounds 
rising and falling, without any other figure, their head" 


dresses jingling with zwanzigers, quarter-dollars, and' old 
Turkish pieces. The spring pasturage, and the large sub- 
scriptions and gifts, had materially alleviated the distress 
arising from the dearth; but whether from their being a 
great deal in the open air and exposed to the sun, or 
from the sufferings of the past winter, I did not see 
much female beauty. 

The music they made was a slow, droning, humming 
chorus ; and without the circle, and seated on a low piece 
of wall, was a man playing the gusly, or Dlyrian violon- 
cello. The sound is not unpleasing. Like oriental music, 
it appears at first hearing to the European to have no 
beauty in it; but custom soon reconciles the ear, and at 
length we prefer it to hearing no music at all. The airs 
usually played on the gusly are monotonous, because they 
are confined to the repetition of a few bars, but they 
have a profound plaintiveness that induces melancholy. 
Of all instruments, the violoncello is the most touching 
in solo, and the most resembling the human bass voice; 
80 these airs being all in the minor key, the sounds have 
an effect on the human ear which resembles that of low 
wails and lamentations. 

There being no company at that season at the waters, 
I now prepared to visit the wonderful caves of Dinara, 
and then cross over to the basin of the upper Kerka, the 
lowest fall of which I have already described. I there- 
fore hired stout, well-shod pack-horses, and an active 
guide; and next morning early, leaving the high road ^ 
my left, I ascended to the visible source of the river; 
the high peak of the Dinara, another mountain of the 
Yellibitch, that separates Bosnia and Dalmatia, serving as 
a direction. In about a couple of hours we arrived at a 
circular plain, about a mile in diameter, where several 
streams that flowed through the meadow formed the 
Cetigne by their junction. Under a dark-coloured rock 
were deep blue basins, boiling up like a caldron; these 
were the visible sources of that Cetigne which a few 
months before I had seen entering the Adriatic at Almissa. 


Above the rocks from which the sonrces issued rose the 
mass of Dinara, its ribs bare, and its peak square and 
precipitous. There is something invariably pleaaing hi a 
river-source; the virgin lymph in clearness and beaaty, 
filtered by Nature herself, comes to the light in a fountain 
scooped out by the same hand, and as yet uncontaminated 
with the impurities of cities ; the remoteness and •oliiode 
of its origin adds to the peculiar charm. 

My guide now, applying his hands to his mouth, gave 
a loud holla, and four wild, uncouth-looking men weie 
seen descending a bushy hillock from a cottage, holding 
torches of pines in their hands; leaving our hones, we 
went up a sterile waterless valley till we came to a hole 
in the rock not larger than would admit one person; and 
one of the Morlacks, of tall stature, dofBng his greasy 
red cap, took out of it a flint and steel, and striking a 
light, he entered the cave, and, taking his hand, I followed. 
The others then lighted their pitch-pine torches until they 
blazed up, and following several turnings, windings, and 
descents, I perceived that I was in a natural hall, of 
which curious stalactites were the columns, with the freeh 
pendicles glistening and gleaming. The ground was Uack 
from the pine-torch smoke, which first fastened on the 
roof, and then dropped off again. The fantastic shapes 
the stalactites take are endless ; and the successive chambers 
have all names from the resemblance of their rocks to 
various objects, one being the chamber of the Bull, another 
of the Tomb, and so on. 

I was bewildered as I walked further and further, for 
the caverns are certainly many miles in extent. To these 
chambers, with a comparatively level ground, succeeds a 
chaos of up-heaved rocks and dark abysses, which compel 
the traveller to grasp firmly the arm of his guide, for 
assistance in progress and safety from danger, while the 
flicker of the pines is almost lost in the surrounding 
gloom. Not a sound is heard but the echo of our voices 
and the melancholy drop of the moisture that in darknen 


has slowly reared those columns and fretted those crypts 
of nature. 

These caves have never, I believe, been fully explored; 
and Lovrich says that he was informed, by persons who 
had attempted to go to their furthest extremity, that to 
go and to come would be a day's journey. In the midst 
of the cavern is a considerable river, which glides through 
these dark recesses, and is unquestionably the invisible 
source of the waters which form the Cetigne. As before 
remarked, the whole coast-chain abounds with those sub* 
terranean rivers, and the &culty of vision being useless to 
the fish that dwell in these gloomy recesses, nature leaves 
them unprovided with the organ ; thus the eyeless Proteus 
of niyria, found also in the caves of the United States, 
is one of the most remarkable curiositiee of natural 

I now retraced my steps, and again found myself in 
the welcome light of day ; and mounting my horse, ascended 
to the broad barrier that separates the valley of the 
Cetigne from that of the Eerka, and which may be called 
the roof of a portion of those dark chambers to which 
I penetrated. The Dinara, 5669 Italian, or about 
6000 English feet above the level of the sea, was on my 
right, and a continuation of the Caprarius on my left. 
There is no sharp ridge separating the two valleys, but 
a table-land almost devoid of vegetation ; and as I looked 
up to the Dinara, which presents a face of 4000 feet of 
root very little out of the perpendicular, the thougittL 
often struck me that a huge section had been rende# 
from its front by some great convulsion of nature, and 
falling over the whole breadth of the valley, had provided 
a roof to the caves I had visited. 

The sun had set before I left the fall; and journeying 
along a boggy road, often overflowed by the river, Knin 
at length presented itself, with the lights gleaming under 
a high isolated rocky fortress. The inn was miserable in 
the extreme: a dirty-looking landlord stood at a bar of 
liquors; and deal-tables and benches occupied the middle 


of a dingy room on the ground floor with .bare walk 
The landlord was the barber of the place, and eyidenUy 
had not shaved himself for a month, probably on the 
same principle that a working tailor is generally out" at 
the elbows, or the apothecary a homoeopathiat in bis 
own case. At one comer of the apartment a ladder was 
seen to lead up to a trap-door; and taking a dirty olive- 
oil lamp, the landlord led the way up stairs, which had 
a somewhat more promising aspect; and having ordered 
clean sheets, I slept soundly after so long and fatiguing 
a day; but next morning exchanged my quarters for a 
German lodging-house, where I found much more clean- 
liness and comfort. 

Kjiin is marked on all the old maps in much larger 
letters than Sign, and formerly was the most important 
inland provincial town in Dalmatia, being the first place 
on the old road that entered Dalmatia from Croatia; and 
when the French held both kingdoms, Enin had always 
a considerable garrison, being considered by Marmont as 
an important strategical point. But from the moment 
that the new road was carried to Zara, direct over the 
precipices of the Vellibitch, above Obrovazzo, and steamers 
began to ply between Trieste and the towns of the coast, 
it has remained quite out of the way of the world, and 
is a mere shell of what it was, the principal families having 
all emigrated. 

Next morning the weather was as fine as on the previous 
4bky; and I proceeded along the main street of the town 
to the house of Dr. P , to whom I had been recom- 
mended as a person of great local experience, having 
lived so many years at Enin. I found him to be a most 
intelligent and obliging man, and regretting that the 
best years of his life had been spent out of the world in 
a place like Knin, with no resources. He plied me with 
questions about England, — which I always have found 
an unerring symptom of profitable and pleasurable ac^ 
quaintance ; and his conversation, although invariably that 
of a gentleman and a man of education, was indicative 


of the seclusion of Knin. He was firmly and conscientiously 
persuaded that the advantage of the new direct road over 
the Vellibitch did not repay the cost of the undertaking. 
He shewed a good taste for music; and opening his 
piano-forte, indulged in an operatic excursion, which 
shewed that the music and taste of Knin was like every 
thing else about the place, a generation old at least. He 
had heard nothing of Nabuco or Emani ; but truly I was 
not displeased to renew acquaintance with the earlier 
operas of Rossini ; and as the careless inimitable beauties 
came thick and three fold with the unconscious pro- 
digality of genius, my mind reverted to the memorable 
years 1812 and 1813, in which L'Inganno FeUee and 
Tancredi revealed a new creative genius. 

The town, which we now sauntered through, exhibits 
signs of decay, and its situation is at the very foot of 
the castle-rock, and intervening between it and the river 
Eerka. Herons abound as much on this upper part of 
the Kerka as pelicans do at the Narenta. Calling at the 
house of a gentleman in the place, we found a beautiful 
newly killed heron lying on the table. Of all plumes, 
that of this bird is certainly the most beautiful, from its 
fineness, whiteness, and elasticity, and in old times used 
to be an essential ornament of the head-dress of the Bans 
and Zhupans of Croatia and Dalmatia. 

We then ascended by steep viaducts to the Castle over 
head, from which we had a general view of town and 
country : the chain of the Vellibitch bounded the prosp%i|| 
to the north-east, and this part of it was the point who^ 
the frontiers of transalpine Bosnia, and Croatia, and 
cisalpine Dalmatia, all meet together. At the foot of the 
mountain, the fall of the Kerka, which I had seen on the 
previous evening, was distinctly visible : and the perpetual 
motion of its white sheet of foam looked in the miniature 
of distance like those curious little imitations of mill- 
streams in German clocks. 

Going round to a bastion that hung over the river, 
just where it quitted the town, we found the surgeon of 

PA.TON. I. 22 


the garrison digging for his amusement among a few beds 
of flowers and vegetables, and from time to time tossiiif 
the weeds over the parapet. It was fearfully diazy to lock 
down; and the two doctors entering into conversatioii, 
I learned that in autumn the hospital is ftill of patienti) 
owing to the fevers arising from the river overflowing its 
banks and heat following; but, as at the Narenta, tibtrs 
was much less misery among the common people than 
elsewhere. In winter the climate of Knin is ixmek ooldtf 
than is usual in Dalmatia, for the town itself, on the 
bank of the river, is, although so near the Adriatic, 
900 feet above the level of that sea, and, moreover, quite 
close to the Yellibitch, so that a winter never passes 
without snow, and frost continues for sometimes three 
weeks at a time together. 

Not far from Knin is Demis, where I saw more ex- 
tensive ruins of the Turkish occupation of Dalmatia than 
any where else; it is situated on a high bank, over- 
looking a level, fertile, well-cultivated plain, and appears 
at a distance like a straggling Turkish town, every house 
with its walled garden. A mosque had the minaret tom 
down; and a campanile being reared in its place, it had 
become the parish church; and the key being procured, 
I entered it, and saw a change that had an odd effect 
An altar-piece and crucifix veiled the mihrab or holy 
niche of the mosque, and Allah Hy had given place to 
Ave Maria. The honey-comb and stalactite ornaments in 
the corners still remained; and I was amused at seeing 
Aat they had struck the fancy of the last house-painter 
that had decorated the church; for, no doubt ignoraat 
of the original character of the ornaments, he had carried 
an imitation of them all round the church. 

The present Demis is only a large village, but the 
Turkish town must have been a place of ten or fifteen 
thousand inhabitants. As I walked onwards, a konak was 
unroofed, grass growing on its pavement, and the oasDe 
that terminated the hill was a heap of ruins. One solitary 
minaret, without its mosque, rising on the brow of thA 


hill, had sudi a melancholy monumental air, that I ex- 
perienced a transient feeling of pity for the colonists of 
the Crescent, intruders though they were. What a dread 
hour, when the rapine of their fathers was visited on the 
unoffending descendants ; when the settlement of a century 
and a half must be abandoned; when the mother and her 
tender babe must seek a new home, and eyes dim with 
age and te^rs take a last lingering look of the abode 6^ 
youth and happiness! 



The Morlack himself is the greatest curiosity in the 
whole land: he is inured to a hardy life from infancy, 
the new-born child being allowed to be in its swaddling 
clothes and to cry or be quiet at discretion, while the 
mother attends to the household offices regardless of the 
infantine humours which are a source of such disquiet ta 
the civilised matrons of the towns. There is no set time 
of weaning, the milk being continued to the next pregnancy ; 
and if none succeed, the child may suck for several year^. 
As the children grow up, they are allowed to gttmbol om 
the floor of the hut, and to find their legs and learn tj^ 
wal^ by themselves ; in short, the Morlack principle is tb^ 
allow the man to grow as the beast of the forest, strong, 
healthy, an,d savage, averse frOm every labour, and un- 
tamed by any discipline. The consequence is, that in 
the statistical tables of crime in the Austrian monarchy, 
the Morlack occupies the lowest position; and in the 
courts of law at Zara there are three hundred cases a year 
of damage and injury done through vindietiveness alone, 
where the perpetrator derives no personal advantage from 
his crime. But his daring gallantry is incontestable ; and 



his rough breeding, a hereditary military spirit handed 
down to him from the Turkish wars, the high opinion 
Napoleon had of his Dlyrian regiments, and many other 
circumstances, lead me to believe that the Morlack is the 
best soldier and the worst citizen in the Austrian empire. 

Their food is simple, consisting of milk, in the varioiu 
preparations of which they shew some art; bread, not of 
the oven, but flat cakes baked on a smooth stone; and 
a meal-porridge, with butter, for which, on fast-days, they 
substitute oil or chopped garlic. Like the peasantry of 
France and Italy, they make an immoderate use of garlic; 
but the frogs, which are eaten by the Venetians and 
Lombards, are an object of horror to the Morlack. When 
a festival comes round, pigs and poultry are roasted, or 
a sheep killed; and they eat to repletion, and drink 
brandy to inebriation. The Morlack is generally in misery 
from his dissipations of income; but if a Saint's-day come 
round, although he has scarce bread to eat, a feast must 
be provided with the profusion and extravagance of the 
£ast, rather than the reasonable hospitality of Europe. 
On an average, no family has more than a few florins 
ready money; and to provide for the Saint's-day, grain 
or sheep are carried to Sebenico, which is the port of 
this district, to procure the means; followed by unaToid- 
able misery. Those who have no agricultural produce, 
borrow money at usurious interest, and when unable to 
pay, keep sending propitiatory gifts to the creditors to 
keep off the evil day; thus their substance diminishes, 
and the debt remains intact. 

There is still much of the distinctive peculiarity of the 
southern Slaav in the Morlack: he is, in fact, the Servian 
of the Adriatic, but far inferior to the Servian proper. 
While the latter bums for modern civilisation and ad- 
vancement, the Morlack has still a rooted antipatlgr to 
modern European usages. The vengeance of blood is 
rare, yet does not appear to be entirely extirpated; run- 
away marriages in the old Servian manner sometimes take 
place, though with the previous consent of the parents of 


the bridegroom, in order to secure the brid^ a peaceable 
existence. But the position of women among the Morlacks 
corresponds somewhat to that of their sisters in Servia; 
the husbands being indisposed to concede a European 
position to the wife. 

There is very little romance in the courtship. In- 
quiries are made as to the disposition of the maiden, on 
the principle of their own proverb, "Choose your wife 
by your ears rather than your eyes;" inquiries even go 
to an amusing length, such as the household qualities of 
the mother, even to the question of the soundness of her 
bodily constitution, and the quantity of milk she could 
give to her own children. When the male and his friends 
are satisfied with the maiden, the parents of the latter 
also satisfy themselves of the position of the lover, and 
then the father of the girl gives an entertainment, at 
which the maiden acts as waitress; and when each guest 
has drunk three times, the head of the friends of the 
suitor offers her a glass of wine, and her acceptance is 
a sign that her parents consent. The suitor then pops 
the question by giving her an apple with a gold zechin 
stuck in it; which, if she accepts and presents to her 
father, corresponds to the tender affirmation of the 
courtship of civilised Europe. A great hubbub and con- 
fusion attends the bride to the church, all the people 
being in gala costume; and after the benediction, they 
return to the house of the spouse ; when the father-in-law 
comes out to receive the daughter-in-law, bringing with 
him a child of the house to kiss, and even a neighbour's 
child to fulfil the ceremony, if there be none in the 
house. The rest of the day is spent in feasting; and on 
the following morning at day-break, the bridal companions 
present themselves at the nuptial couch, and offer the 
newly-married couple a refreshment of hot meal-porridge 
with wine. 

Superstition is the natural companion of ignorance, 
and we find the Morlack full of portentous signs and 
astrological inferences; the most ordinary customs of 

342 BOOK U. HI€hHLAin>B AKD ifil^ANBS 09 ^18 ABBIATIC. 

cattle and domestic animaLs are supposed to have some 
reference to the accidents of meteorology. From the 
croaking of a frog, or the position of cattle and sheep, 
are drawn prognostics of rain; and the eueceiBful weather- 
prophet is supposed to owe his gift, not to experience 
and observation, but to higher inspiration. Hail is supposed 
to be scattered by witches who dwell in the dark clouds ; 
and thunder is the rolling of the wheels of El^h^s chariot 
while he is taking an airing in heaven. Famine, whidi 
often desolates the country, is supposed to be a giant, 
sometimes visible and sometimes invisible, that roams 
through the world. 

If astrology be cultivated, the same cannot be said of 
astronomy, for their science consists in the belief that 
there were formerly no less than three suns ; two of them 
were swallowed by a great serpent, and only one has 
remained. Even now, the Dalmatian summer is not very 
cool, but it must have been then more warm than com- 
fortable ; and what would become of us if the fire-eater 
should take a fancy to the sun that remains! 

They are great believers in the influences of good and 
bad geniuses — a relic of old Slaavic mythology; and so 
late as the last century, the priests were often called on 
to exorcise devils which had lodged themselTOs in men. 
Lovrich gives a droll case of a Morlack who was seised 
with diabolical contortions, and believed to be possessed 
of a devil. A friar began to exorcise him, and, with the 
assistance of all the saints, to expel the devil; bot the 
man having merely eaten and drunk to excess, the demon 
disappeared by a sudden fit of sickness; and the priest, 
forgetting his cloth, gave way to a violent fit of anger, 
while the Morlack, relieved of his demon, rose np and 
walked away home. Another superstition is the belief in 
sorcery ; but it must be adnutted that it is losing ground. 
In some remote houses the tail of a wolf or a oow is 
still used as a protection against enchantment, and is 
probably a relic of the Roman custom of the wolTs head 
fixed on doors for the same purpose. Even the echo is 


supposed to be a mocking spirit, and is not considered 
a human voice. 

In every district or pretura there is a government 
surgeon, generally a licentiate of Padua; but it is often 
not easy to persuade the people to take medicine; and 
in the remote villages, they are still strongly prejudiced 
in favour of their own drugs, of which the chief is a 
purgative of brandy with a little gunpowder mixed with 
it. Even mole's faeces figure in the strange catalogue 
of their simples. But their great forte is bone-setting, 
in which mechanical tact appears to be so much more 
important than mere science. Instances have been known 
of persons suffering excruciating pain from slipped limbs, 
which, having defied the skill of licensed surgeons, have 
been subsequently replaced by the mere handicraft of an 
uninstructed Morlack.^ 

Many schools have been opened by the present govern- 
ment, which have done good, but are very far from pre- 
senting any thing like a really satisfactory result on the 
progress of the population, and I suspect that generations 

^ I have been mueh edified in my acquaintance with Dalmatia by 
the perusal of a very able manuscript by Dr. Menes, Proto Medicus at 
Zara, the principal part of which are the medicostatistical returns. 

Tlie population of Dalmatia in 1814, after the fall of Kapoleon, 
was 310,267; in 184^, 400,777; and in 1847, 428,000; the increase being 
every year progressive, except 1819 and 1829, the breaks being in con- 
sequence of the contagious fevers following the bad nourishment of 
the previous years, wine and oil having both failed. The best proof 
of the excellence of the climate is the fact, that the average of deaths 
is only one in forty-eight individuals; and calculating from 1830 to 
1840, the dominions of the ills that flesh is heir to in Dalmatia are 
divided as follows : 

One human being in 51 lost his life by ordinary disease. 

1157 , 

, endemic 


, epidemic , 


, small-poflc. 


, suicide. 


, hydrophobia. 


, murder. 


, accidents. 

Thus the climate of maritime Illyria, the scene of the delicious 
Twelfth Night, is not so unhealthy as the names of Sir Andrew 
Aguecheek and Sir Toby Beloh would lead us to euppoee. 


may elapse before the Morlack is civilised. The great 
obstacles to education and improvement seem to be, not 
only an obstinate antipathy on the part of the people 
themselves to change, but the political oircumstances of 
the country, arising from their vicinity to Bosnia. Thii 
prevents the government from disarming the population. 
No measure would tend so effectually to the ciyilisation 
of the people as a general disarming; but with all Bosnia 
and Herzegovina nominally and not really subject to the 
Porte, and all armed, I must confess that a general dis- 
arming in Dalmatia would be rather a perilous measure. 
Another great obstacle to civilisationf in the most literal 
acceptation of the word, is the dispersion of the popu- 
lation in remote groups of houses, too small to have a 
schoolmaster. This rudeness and uncouthness of the 
Morlack is only to be combated in one way, and that is, 
by imprinting a mercantile character on the population, 
as far as can be done by enactment. 

Let the Morlack, therefore, retain his arms and his 
rude military organisation, but let there be a total 
abolition of the Customs' duties in Dalmatia, and the 
prosperity of all the little towns on the coast would be 
the infallible result of such a measure. It would bring 
a greater fusion of the two populations, and consequently 
greater facilities for education. Many points of resemblance 
to the Servian suggest themselves, from community of 
language, race, and even manners ; but in one circumstance 
the comparison is untenable. The Servian patriarch, from 
his great territorial wealth, has the easy means of sending 
his son to a Hungarian or Austrian university, or at 
least to his own gymnasium; but the miserable Morlack, 
scooping a wretched mountain soil, is from hand to mouth. 
It is, therefore, free-trade alone which can make Dalmatia 

The Heyducks, or brigands, of whom Lovrich in the 
last century gave such a formidable account, have qmte 
disappeared from Dalmatia; these were gentlemen of the 
road of a superior description, who prided themselTes 4» 


doing their business in a genteeler manner than the 
common thief: like Robin Hood's men, they robbed the 
rich, and let the poor man pass. They considered a rich 
Bosniac Moslem to be fair game, and infested the two 
frontiers; but were most formidable on the Turkish side. 
The race, however, has been long extinct: tliough a few 
real miserable robbers occasionally skulk about, and are 
called Malviventi, or people of an ill life. These consist 
of Morlacks who have fled from justice, or deserters. As 
they never sleep twice in one place, and as the country 
is thinly peopled, and every Morlack offers such hospitality 
as he possesses to all strangers, known or unknown, they 
can vegetate in this way for weeks and months together, 
but are always caught at last. Several instances have been 
known of such people taking advantage of the vicinity of 
the Turkish frontier, and turning Moeleras; but it is 
curious to observe, that in many instances the bad treat- 
ment they experience, or remorse of conscience, impels 
them to return, although with the certainty of being again 
in the hands of civil or military justice; while in other 
cases the same propensities to crime which have made 
them fly from Dalmatia drive them into it again. 

A great many are of the Greek rite; and for many 
years the so-called United Greek Church, corresponding 
to the Greek Catholics of the Levant, who acknowledge 
the supremacy of the Pope, but retain their own liturgy, 
and much of their own discipline, made great progress. 
Most of the United Greeks became in the second generation 
pure Romanists; but this proselytism has been much on 
the wane for some years. Riots of the Greeks took 
place, and in several instances blood was shed; till the 
government prudently admonished the Catholic clergy to 
let alone the work of proselytism. 

If I were to judge of the Catholic clergy by the 
specimens I have known best, such as the Bishop of 
Ragusa, the Abbate Carrara, and Professor Kalugera, I 
should rate them very high; but a large proportion of 
the rural clergy are badly fitted to advance the moral and 


even a suspicion of clumsiness, it is admirably saited to 
the character of a fortified town. 

Passing through its resounding vault, I entered the 
town, and put up at the Tre Mori, Calle del Tintori, the 
only decent hotel in Zara. A sign of three Moors' heads 
dangled from a bar of iron over the door; and going 
through a passage on the ground-floor, I found myself in 
a square court-yard, with a few lofby trees, the houses 
built round it being very high; for the Zaratines, restndned 
by the fortifications from spreading the town outwards, 
build their houses a story higher than elsewhere in Dal- 
matia. A long outside stair within the court led up to 
the door on the first floor; on the right was the dining 
saloon, and on the left the kitchen, in which stood the 
landlord, who was also cook, with a very red, Bardolph 
countenance, and clad all in white. He had a carving 
knife in his right hand, and swearing a whole round of 
oaths at the waiter, who stood shrug^ng his shoulders 
and casting his eyes up to the door-lintel in resignation. 
No sooner did the couple see a stranger, than the land- 
lord stopped short, and threw down the knife; both 
coming forward, the landlord all smiles, and the waiter 

'^This is a small Venice," said I, as we ascended the 
stairs to my room. 

'*A very small Venice indeed, sir," said the landlord; 
**a Venice without St. Marco and the Palaezo Ducale.'' 
The room I was shewn into was newly stencilled, it had 
no carpet, and at the head of the bed was a oruciflx and 
some holy pictures. In our northern clime, front windows 
are usually luminous, and back ones dark ; here in Zara, 
the back window looked on the tops of the trees waving 
lightly in the maestral, with the clear sky beyond them, 
but the front window looked into the narrow Galle dei 
Tintori, eight feet wide, the bright crimson plaster of 
the opposite house partly pealed off, and an elegant balcony, 
with a fanciful balustrade of the sixteenth or seventeenth 
century, looking more shaky than safe to stand upon. 


distance of a few miles, and a few hundred feet below 
the level I was traversing, was the canal of Zara, a sound 
of the sea separated from the main Adriatic by two long 
parallel narrow stripes of islands; and although the 
environs of the city are far from being attractive, yet the 
villas and gardens dotted on both sides of the Sound, and 
the capital itself (originally a peninsula, and now an 
artificial island), rising out of the bright blue waters, and 
fenced all round with bastions and curtains, surmounted 
by alleys of trees, were a welcome sight after the mono* 
tonous glare of the rocky soil around me. At length the 
road brought me to the edge of the Sound itself; and as 
I heard the gentle ripple of the waters, and saw the 
tremor of the bright noon-day sun on the Adriatic, I felt 
all the pleasure of renewing acquaintance with an old 
friend in his most cheei*ful humour. 

Traversing the outworks, I found myself at the so- 
called gate of Terra Firma; but the country car I had 
hired from Bencovatz, after dismissing my mountain 
horses, was blocked up for foil five minutes from the 
throng of peasants with their carts and cars; for the town 
of Zara can contain no more than the six or seven 
thousand inhabitants within the walls, and as the rayon 
of the fortification must also be clear, the real population 
strictly belonging to the capital is scattered in the villages 
of the Sound to the amount of twenty or thirty thousand. 
The only gate to the land is this Porta di Terra Fii'ma, 
which overlooks the draw-bridge that spans an artificial 
cut, rendering the oval peninsula of Zara an island; so 
that, like mice and rats, the people of Zara always go 
out and in at the same hole. But truly such a hole as 
any city in the world might be proud of. The Porta di 
Terra Firma is another work of Sammicheli, that looks 
as if the genius or patriotism of the architect intended 
those of the Republic to last as long as humanity has a 
lease of time. It was built by Gian Girolamo Sammicheli 
in 1543, after a design of his uncle, Michele, of a sort 
of Doric architecture. Robust and pcmderous, without 


even a suspicion of clumsiness, it is admirably suited to 
the character of a fortified town. 

Passing through its resounding vault, I entered the 
town, and put up at the Tre Mori, Calle dei Tintori, the 
only decent hotel in Zara. A sign of three Moors' heads 
dangled from a bar of iron over the door; and going 
through a passage on the ground-floor, I found myself in 
a square court-yard, with a few lofty trees, the houses 
built round it being very high; for the Zaratines, restrained 
by the fortifications from spreading the town outwards, 
build their houses a story higher than elsewhere in Dal- 
matia. A long outside stair within the court led up to 
the door on the first floor; on the right was the dining 
saloon, and on the left the kitchen, in which stood the 
landlord, who was also cook, with a very red, Bardolph 
countenance, and clad all in white. He had a carving 
knife in his right hand, and swearing a whole round of 
oaths at the waiter, who stood shrugging his shonlders 
and casting his eyes up to the door-lintel in resignation. 
No sooner did the couple see a stranger, than the land- 
lord stopped short, and threw down the knife; both 
coming forward, the landlord all smiles, and the waiter 

**This is a small Venice," said I, as we ascended the 
stairs to my room. 

**A very small Venice indeed, sir," said the landlord; 
**a Venice without St. Marco and the Palaszo Duoak.** 
The room I was shewn into was newly stencilled, it had 
no carpet, and at the head of the bed was a cruciflx and 
some holy pictures. In our northern clime, front windows 
are usually luminous, and back ones dark; here in Zara, 
the back window looked on the tops of the trees waving 
lightly in the maestral, with the clear sky beyond them, 
but the front window looked into the narrow Calle dei 
Tintori, eight feet wide, the bright crimson plaster of 
the opposite house partly pealed off, and an elegant balcony, 
with a fanciful balustrade of the sixteenth or seventeenth 
century, looking more shaky than safe to stand upon. 


After chasging my dress, I proceeded on my visiting. 
But before I introduce the reader to the people, let me 
say something of the town itself. Zara is a small oval 
island, one end of which touches the land, and, in fact, 
it was originally a peninsula, till rendered an island. 
Three main streets traverse it lengthways, and the others 
at right angles; all very narrow, and most of them im- 
practicable for carriages; but being lined with well-filled 
shops, and a good foot-pavement of flags stretching across 
from house to house, walking in the town is very pleasant, 
especially in hot weather (for in May the thermometer 
was for some days at 80 <^ in the shade), in consequence 
of the narrowness and coolness of the streets, and the 
absence of the noise and inconvenience of carriages. 

Not far from the gate of Terra Firma is the principal 
public square, the Piazza dei Signori, smaller in size 
than that of Spalato, but far more neat and elegant. On 
one side is a Loggia, of the school of Sammicheli, con- 
structed in 1565 It is simpler than the Loggia of Lesina, 
but its proportions are perfect. I spent six weeks in 
Zara, and there was scarce a day in which I could resist 
the seduction of standing in the middle of the Piazza, 
and deriving pleasure from the contemplation of its 
lineaments, and feeling that, if they were reproduced on 
a larger scale in some frequented European capital, the 
edifice would become one of the most renowned in the 
world. On the opposite side of the square is the guard- 
house, constructed three years before, in 1562, with a 
pyramidal elevation and niches for statues, producing an 
effect so abominable, that one might almost take it for 
the abortion of some English architect of the reign of 
George the Second. 

The Piazza itself being paved with flags, and impervious 
to carriages, is a favourite lounge of the upper classes, 
and is therefore well named the Piazza dei Signori. When 
I passed through Zara in autumn, all the doors and 
windows were shut, and the inmates wrapped in their 
ample blue 'mantles. In May, all wore white trousers, 


from the early and excessive heat ; the doors and windows 
of the shops and cafes in the streets gave way to cortains^ 
agitated with the maestral, which blows refreshinglj fjnm. 
the north-west ; a high screen of blue cloth drawn acroM 
the Piazza excluded the glare of the sun that played 
fiercely on the flags; and ice became in general demand. 

Here, in the Casino, you find the prim, clean-shaTen 
Austrian officer, reading the Allgemeine Zeitung; or the 
young native noble, wearing monstachios^ grave in man- 
ners, and Uterary and philosophical in his tastes, is ponng 
over the Journal des Debate ; while down stairs is Count 
Carpe Diem, a genteel figure of the old school, with in- 
comparably easy and attractive manners. Light-hearted 
as a school-boy, he remembers, with a sigh, how mnck 
gayer the carnivals used to be forty years ago ; he misses 
no play; and has just been enlivening his faculties with 
a long morning at dominos; he is now skimming throngfa 
the Gazzetta of Venice, making his remurks aloud, while 
the wealthy maraschino-maker beside him is alternately 
immersed in the Austrian Lloyd's Journal, or plunged 
in a brown study on the last rise of sugars in Trieste. 

But a far more animated scene is that presented \ff 
the Piazza Marina, a few streets off. Here are monumenti 
shewiug Zara to have been a place of importance long 
before the banner of St. Mark floated from her battle- 
ments. We are here just within the high rampart, whicb 
forms one side of an irregular square, filled with a motley 
crew of peasants, fishermen, and sailors, shouting in the 
ardour of brandy or bargaining, or perhaps of both. An 
elegant archway pierces the rampart, through which one 
sees the harbour, crowded with coasting vessels. This iv 
the Porta Marina. The arch is genuine Roman; and ihe 
modem Zaratine still uses the same issue to his trabacolo 
from Venice or Trieste, as the Roman used for his gaUeyv 
when Jadera was the capital of Libumia. The foundation 
of Jadera or Zara is said to go back to ten centariee 
before Christ; but it is beyond our purpose to travel bo 
fiir back. It is enough to know that it was a flourithing 


Roman colony, and, besides this gate^ has other remains 
of the Roman town. In the Lower Empire^ Zara was 
called Diodora; and close to the gate is a very curious 
relic of the period of the Greek emperors — the Church 
of San Grisogono, of the ninth century, which is the 
oldest church now extant in Zara, and, on that account, 
historically interesting; but constructed in the very lowest 
depth of the architectural corruption of the Lower Empire, 
the pillars twisted like screws, and the body of the church 
barbarous in its sculptures, without a single reminisceikce 
of the classic frieze, or a single foreboding of the coming 
elegance of the Gothic period. 

Passing under the archway, I found myself outside the 
boulevard or rampart, and standing on a quay crowded 
with sailors and porters, with broad shoulders, brawny 
legs, and sun-burnt faces. Here one sees the harbour t-o 
be formed by the narrow nook between the artificial island 
and the mainland; and looking a few hundred yard« 
across the water, one sees the outworks on the mainland, 
the stony-fig and almond gardens rising beyond them, 
and, in the extreme distance, the high range of the 
Vellibitch, with the very highest peaks now denuded of 
snow. The harbour itself is shallow, and vessels of above 
three hundred tons cannot enter, but n>ust lie on the 
other side of the town in the open sound; yet there is a 
surprising number of small coasting vessels; and could 
Austria only adopt a different system of Customs, their 
number might be considerably increased. The principal 
trade of 2^ra is the import of manufactures from Trieste, 
:md the export of marasdiino, anchovies, almonds, and 
other productions peculiar to the district. Returning to 
pass under the archway, I found that the gate was Roman 
only when viewed from the interior of the boulevard, and 
that the outward fagade was Venetian, with an inscription 
eommeni orating the renowned battle of Lepanto in 1571. 

At the other side of the town is the market-place, or 
Piazza delle Erbe, of quite a different character from the 
Piazza Marina. Instead of looking to the narrow harbour 


and the broad open sound of Zara, with the narrow is- 
land of Ugliano a few miles off. The Piazza delle Erbe 
is the favourite resort of the country people; inatead of 
a tempting display of gloves and cravats, or female finery, 
as in the environs of the Piazza dei Signori, yoa have 
here the cheap shop of the common people, the general 
store of the countryman, the coil of new ropes, the pile 
of macaroni, and the needful of a rural household. The 
quarter is the humblest in Zara, both in houses and 
population; but in the middle of the square rises a lofty 
antique column of marble, the solitary remains of a 
Roman temple, which, to judge by its existing proportions, 
must have far exceeded in extent and magnifioenoe any 
edifice now remaining in Zara. Opinion is divided as to 
whether it was dedicated to Juno Augusta, or Diana^ 
probably the former. 

Here you seldom see a man of the middle class; but 
there goes a well-dressed, substantial-looking woman, 
wearing no bonnet, but her black glossy locks glistening 
in the sun. This is a padrona di casa, or housewife, who 
has been making her market ; and is followed by a brown 
Morlack girl as her servant, with the vegetables she has 
been cheapening with that Albanian herb-woman from the 
village of Erizzo. Close by is the noisy dramshop, out 
of which reels a peasant of the Gontado of Zara, the 
most malicious and disorderly of all the peasantry of 
Dalmatia, joining the vicious dissipation of the town to 
the savage obstinacy and revenge of the mountain Moriack. 
With his inveterate drunkenness and improvidence, he is 
always a beggar; and, as in some deluded parts of Ire- 
land, the improving landlord is regarded as his enemy. 
In the hour of distress every circumstance of soil, climate, 
or social condition, gets the credit of being the cause; 
except the real root of all evil, his utter neglect of in- 
dustry and economy. 

Between the Porta Marina and the Piazza delle Erbe 
I have just described, is the cathedral; of Lombard archi- 
tecture, as the term is understood in Tuscany, built in 


the years immediately following the conquest of Con- 
stantinople in 1202, by the French and Venetian Cru- 
saders. A tradition exists that a Roman temple stood 
on the spot, and that it was consecrated as a Christian 
church ; the first authentic account of the previous edifice 
being given by ConstantinePorphyrogenitus in the beginning 
of the tenth century, who praises the columns, the marble 
pavements, and the pictures, which were considered ancient 
in his time. By what accident it was ruined does not 
appear; the present edifice is built of a very excellent 
quality of freestone, of close texture and tawny mellow 
colour, uninjured by the six centuries that have elapsed 
since its construction. Above the great gates are stone 
figures of saints and kings in alto-relievo, of the size of 
life, minutely and elaborately chiselled, but the com- 
position in the most barbarous taste, as grotesque as old 
German wood-work, without its quaint vitality. At the 
other end of the church is the campanile, begun in 1496, 
of a florid Lombard Gothic style, and causing our regret 
that it had not been carried aloft to its full height; for 
Zara is deticient in a few domes or campaniles to bristle 
over the roofs and fortifications. 

The cathedral is dedicated to St. Anastasia, a pious 
female who lived in the third century. Her parents, 
Prsetestatus and Fausta, had the position of Roman 
citizens; and Grisogono imbued her with Christianity, 
notwithstanding the opposition of her husband, who was 
an Olympic idolator. In the celebrated persecution in the 
time of Diocletian, she was one of those who was accused 
before Florus, prefect of Illyricum, and after imprison- 
ment, was burned alive on the island of Palmaria. Thus 
much is considered authentic; but after a leap to the 
ninth century, we find the Emperor Nicephorus making 
a present of her ashes to the city of Zara. The protection 
of St. Peter is forthwith declined, and the cathedral is 
supposed to possess the identical ashes of the funeral 
pile of the island of Palmaria. 
Patow. I. 23 


On the 5th of January, 1669, a serious riot took place. 
After the benediction, it was usual to let fly a dove in 
the church, to express the descent of the Holy Ghost at 
the baptism of Christ ; but a prelate, who appears to have 
thought that the cause of religion was in no way advanced 
by such clap-traps, caused the flight of the pigeon to be 
omitted; when such a tumult and hissing occurred, that 
the practice was resumed, and continued to an advanced 
period in the eighteenth century. 

The disadvantage of Zara as a residence, in consequence 
of being shut in by fortifications, is much alleviated by 
the circumstance of the rampart being made an agreeable 
promenade, high over the town within and the water 
without, in many places planted with alleys of trees, and 
at one angle of the bastions, near the gate of Terra 
Firma, having a small but most agreeable garden. The 
immediate environs of Zara being sterile and uninteresting, 
it is evident that the town took its origin from the port, 
which was large enough for Roman galleys, and has 
maintained its title to be the capital from its insular 
security. The present fortifications are Venetian, of the 
sixteenth century, by Sammicheli's nephew; and nothing 
remains of the old defences, where Marino FaJiero earned 
his laurels (1346), but a pentagonal tower ninety feet 
high, which flanked the old gate of Terra Firma, and, in 
consequence of an extended horn-work erected beyond it, 
is now fairly within the town. 

The environs being so sterile, I greatly preferred the 
walk round the fortifications to going out in the dusty 
roads of the Ten-a Firma, from the variety of scene not 
less than the fine gravel walking. To the shade and 
solitude of the garden succeeds the bustle of the harbour, 
and a wide view across the territory of Zara. Looking 
over the inward parapet to the town, one sees the narrow 
streets crowded with people; and in a retired nook, a 
fagade of a Roman temple, almost perfect, which is the 
entrance to the barracks. As we proceed onward, about 
the hour of two p.m., we meet half the town taking a 


constitutional walk before dinner; at the further end of 
the oval or egg-formed town, we find stone benches; and 
having left the view of the harbour behind us, we seat 
ourselves, and look along the sound, bordered by the 
mainland and the islands, with a narrow rim of villas ai^d 
gardens at their feet. Returning by the other side of the 
town, the promenader has a view of the sound that runs 
to the southwards, the placid waters of which are a mirror 
to the sun; but the reflection of its rays on the parapet 
being rather inconvenient, I retrace my steps by the 
shady side of the rampart; or, descending one of the 
staircases to the level of the town, find my way to the 
Three Moors' Heads, through the narrowest and darkest 
lanes I can find. ^ 

What a contrast between the eastern and the western 
shores of the Adriatic, which are separated by so short 
a distance, that on a clear day the peak of Gran Sasso 
d'ltalia, the highest of the Apennines, may be seen from 
some of the out-lying islands of Dalmatia! On the other 
side, no ports of any consequence, except Ancona and 
Brindisi; on this side the ports are innumerable. Yonder, 
few or no islands; here, a whole archipelago. The is- 
lands of Zara form a distinct group, stretching from 
Sebenico to the Gulf of Quarnero, and have the peculiarity 
of being two parallel ridges of high ground, here and 
there broken by inlets and passages, but still preserving 
the character of two chains of mountains, parallel to 
each other and the coast; the water between the mainland 
and the first chain of islands being called the Canale di 

■ Although domeetic architecture in Zara is Venetian, it is not so 
easy to define the ecclesiastical style. Both San Grisogono and the 
Cathedral belong to that style of round architecture which was in 
vogue in Italy between the Ravennese of the sixth century and the 
introduction of the pointed style from the north of the Alps; and if 
I might be allowed to coin an expression, I would call it Barbaric 
Romanesque, a style of which our own Saxon is the rudest translation, 
and the Cathedral of Pisa the highest and most beautiful form, and 
of which the round early Lombard, with its clerestory and wheel-of- 
fortune windows, is only a variety. 



Zara, and the sound intervening between the two parallel 
chains of islands being called the Canale di Mezzo. 

One festival-day I went with a large party of friends 
on a trip to Ugliano, the island opposite Zara, and filled 
up the interval to dinner-time with sauntering about the 
fields and conversing with the people. It is impossible 
not to be sensible of the enormous difference which the 
insular security during the Turkish wars has made. If 
I had not heard the sounds of the same language, I should 
have thought them a different people. All the fields are 
fenced; and venerable trees, at pleasant spots, cast their 
wide and welcome shades to invite a moment of repose. 
The islander is provident, from a hereditw^y consciousness 
that all he saves he can keep. The Morlack, driven to 
desperation in the Turkish wars, knew not what an hour 
might bring forth. For more than two centuries subject 
to rapine and injustice, he begot habits of disorder that 
have never been eradicated. "To-day let us eat, drink, 
and be merry ; for to-morrow we die," is a sentiment that 
has survived the wars a century and a half. 

The fishing of tunny and anchovies is a great resouroe 
to the islanders of the Sound ; and a very curious lawsuit 
was at that time pending before the tribunals, which was 
the topic of much conversation. A great shoal of tunny, 
worth 400?., was discovered by the fishermen of Cale, 
pursued into the Creek of Sestrugn, and there enclosed 
and taken; on which the commune of Sestrugn claimed 
a large portion of the haul as belonging to their territory. 
The fishermen of Cale said, "No; the shoal was discovered 
on the open Adriatic, and pursued into your bay and 
taken with our nets, otherwise nothing at all would haye 
been captured." The case being unforeseen by the civil 
code, and no precedents having occurred in the present 
generation, great curiosity hung on the result; but how 
it ended I have not heard. 

One of the villas had been lent to our party for the 
pic-nic; and after a most social day, we re-embarked. 
There being no moon, it was quite dark; but the water 


being smooth, and our party being about a dozen in 
number, one chorus after another kept time to the splash 
of the oars, until we again landed at the boat-jetty of 
the gate of Terra Firma. 

Count Borelli having given me a hospitable invitation 
to accompany him for a few days to his estates, I had 
an opportunity of seeing something of country life in the 
Contado of Zara, and of visiting one of the most celebrated 
castles of Dalmatia, in the vicinity of which an old 
Turkish caravanserai and mosque have been changed into 
his country residence. We made two easy stages of it; 
first, to a villa a few hours off, and * next day to the castle. 
The route to the first lay along the shore of the sound 
of Zara going southwards; the water on our right as 
smooth as if it formed part of an Italian lake, and fenced 
in from the outer Adriatic by the double chain of is- 
lands. The first village we passed on our left, a quarter 
of an hour from the gate of Terra Firma, it not Dal* 
matian but Albanian, and is called Borgo Erizzo. At the 
beginning of the last century, Vincenzo Zmajevich, who 
had been formerly Catholic Archbishop of Antivari, re- 
ceived a colony of Catholic Albanians who were flying 
from Moslem rule; and at his instance Nicolo Erizzo, 
proveditor-general, established them here in 1726, where 
they have a few kitchen-gardens that help to supply the 
town. Their houses are just constructed as those in 
Albania; they still speak the Albanian language; and 
although within a short walk of Zara, which is as neat 
a little capital as any in Europe, they preserve to this day 
the filth and barbarism of the mother province. 

For some distance after leaving Zara, the Terra Firma 
on our left was barren; but as we advanced, the downs 
were gradually covered with that luxuriance of shrubbery 
which I had seen at Curzola; the villages were thickly 
scattered on both shores of the Sound; and the further 
we removed from the capital, the more smiling and 
cheerful became the prospect. The Terra Firma which 
we traversed sloped gradually from the waters; but the 


chain of islands preserved the character of a range of 
high hills, with a very narrow base between their ribs 
and the waters of the Sound. On our left were occasional 
remains of Trajan's aqueduct, from the Kerka to Zara; 
and so superhuman did a chain of arches fifty miles in 
length appear to the early Croat invaders, that they 
called it the Vilenska Zeed, or Wall of the Vilas, — the 
elves or spirits of old Slaavic mythology, — which name 
it retains to this day. 

As the shades of evening approached, the scene grew 
softer and softer. The western sun had sunk behind the 
islands, leaving a luminous halo on the ridges of the hills 
of Pasman, which vaguely reflected itself on the tranquil 
Sound. All was gentleness and beauty; even the waters 
of the Sound rose and fell in a low measured cadence, 
that soothingly harmonised with the tone of the scene. 

As we came in sight of San Filippo, the coachman 
could scarcely restrain his horses; and seven was striking 
on the village-clock as I gave my hand to the Countess, 
and we entered a summer villa facing the Sound, which, 
with its white painted columns and green blinds, looked 
so very smart, as to put the other houses of the village 
sadly out of countenance. There were no pleasure-grounds, 
properly so called ; but all within doors shewed freshness, 
nicety, and comfort, as far as it is understood in an 
Italian climate. The only object beuig, apparently, a good 
position projecting on the Sound (a Roman traditionary 
custom, and not a bad one), when we got up stairs, the 
view from the window of the drawing-room, opening like 
three sides of a lantern, up and dovsn the Sound, was 
better than any that could have been found in the seclusion 
of a park; and when we returned from supper, we stood 
at the windows amusing ourselves with the tunny boats 
moving slowly along, the seductive torches glaring in the 
blackness of night, and the dark figure of the harpooner 
with his trident uplifted ready to strike the deluded fish. 

The carriage was left at San Filippo; and next day 
we started for Vrana in a jaunting-car drawn by three 


strong horses', for we now left the Sound behind us, and 
by a rough country road crossed over inland. The good 
soil extended a very short way from the shore; and here, 
1 saw some tender olive-twigs growing from their trunks, 
which had been cut off a couple of feet from the ground. 
It appears that, some years before, certain mal vivenii, 
or outlawed Morlacks, had demanded twenty dollars of 
the cultivator; and being refused, had cut down his olives. 
This is by no means a rare occurrence; and notwithstanding 
some good traits in the character of the Morlack, his 
vindictiveness and disposition to agrarian outrage bear 
too unhappy a resemblance to what we daily read of in 
Ireland. After mounting a moderate acclivity, we crossed 
a low broad bridge of barren stony land ; then descending 
again, saw the Lake of Vrana ; and six or eight miles off, 
at the other end of the waters, the ruined castle and 
modern residence, forming a few yellow specks in the wide 
expanse of green grass and blue lake; in fact, the scene 
looked more like a new polder in old Zealand, or on the 
shores of the Zuyder Zee, than a scene in Dalmatia. It 
was of the richest land imaginable, but in want of drainage ; 
the snowy-white plumes of the heron glistened in the 
long green grass, and the fowler or falconer had endless 
sport ; but it was lamentable to see such a valuable soil 
lost for want of capital to drain it. The property was, 
altogether, fifty-eight miles in circumference, and was 
granted to the ancestors of the Count for services rendered 
to the Venetian government; but the shallow lake covering 
such an extent of groimd, the net revenue was under 
1000/. sterling a year; or, taking the proportion of the 
value of commodities, not more than 2000?. a year in 
England. The worst of the matter was, that through 
some error of taking the levels, a canal cut to the Sound, 
with a view of draining off the water, was, through this 
blunder, rendered the means of letting in a larger 
quantity of salt water. It is evident that, in such a 
case as this, by shutting the canal next the lake, and 
treating it as a Dutch polder, a single powerful steam- 


engine would soon empty it, and decuple the income of 
the estate. 

After making a wide detour by the lake, we approached 
Vrana; and on a gentle eminence was the old extensive 
castle, which had been blown up, masses of cohering wall 
six or eight feet thick being tumbled down into the fosse; 
and at a short distance below it, the modem residence, 
a large straggling building surrounded with trees and 
outhouses. The jaunting-car was driven into the court- 
yard through a pointed archway; and on looking around, 
it was evident that the edifice had been originally either 
a khan or a convent of Derviches, built by Moslem piety ; " 
and some disproportionate large stones in the wall shewed 
that the masons must have appropriated the fragments of 
some Roman edifice to their purpose. The mosque itself 
was in ruins; but side-cells of the cloister, whether used 
by Derviches or travellers, had become the household 
offices; and in the midst of the court was an abundant 
fountain of water, now long divorced from the ablutions 
of prayer. Opposite the archway by which we entered 
was an iron gate; and beyond it, the garden, in deep 
shady luxuriance, which, with the well-constructed but 
now dilapidated arcades, had a strange sequestered quaint- 
ness, that, if depicted by the masterhand that threw oflF 
Tully Veolen, would have made a striking opening to a 
romance of Dalmatian life. 

Ascending the staircase, I perceived the windows to 
be more modern, with stone flags placed across from one 
side to the other, and with horizontal loop-holes, so as 
to allow the parties within to defend the house with 
musketry in case of need; for in the last century a Turkish 
visit was by no means an impossible event. The hall on 
the first floor had good but old-fashioned Venetian fur- 
niture; and prominent on the wall was a framed and 
printed copy of the grant for services rendered to the 
Republic, and beside it a bird's-eye survey of the 
property, with the inscription, "Pianta ossia disegno 
delle pertinenze di Urana, ricercate e concesse in fevdo 


nobile e gentil col titolo di Conte al fidel Francesco 
Bordli," &c. 

The Count shewed me to my apartment, telling me 
that it had the reputation of being haunted by hobgoblins, 
and that there was not a Morlack in Vrana who would 
pass a night there, as the devil had appeared several 
times in a red dress; but that the King of Saxony had, 
a short time before, occupied it, on a visit to Vrana, and 
had been in no way troubled. I looked round the haunted 
chamber, but could perceive nothing peculiar; no arras 
trembled, no painted portrait stepped out of its frame or 
altered its expression of countenance; but looking about, 
I perceived a dark cabinet between the walls of the front 
and back rooms, which opened with a door disguised as 
that of a cupboard; and, examining it more closely, I per- 
ceived at once that it was the hiding«hole without which 
no Oriental house is constructed. I was amused with 
observing that its original designation was unknown to 
the Count, some generations of piping peace having 
brought it into oblivion and desuetude; and I have no 
doubt that some true tale of hiding was the origin of the 
fable of the haunting. 

Our party consisted of, besides the Count and Countess^ 
a clergyman of the neighbourhood, in the dress of -the 
old school, with cocked-hat, knee-breeches and buckles'; 
and the chief civil engineer, on a tour of inspection of 
roads and bridges, — a remarkably intelligent man, who 
had been an officer of the line in his younger days, and 
fought at Leipsic; but having a turn for mathematics, had 
shewn great activity in the Vellibitch road, and became 
the engineer of the circle of Zara. We conversed of 
railways and many other things; and it is evident that 
there is no chance of Dalmatia having them for years to 
come, from the thin population, the enormous fissures and 
cracks to be bridged, and the rivalry of the sea in 
cheapness, the kingdom being so long and narrow. The 
Count, whose favourite study was political economy, was 
well acquainted, not only with the modem authors 091 


that science, but with the original Neapolitan school of 
tlie seventeenth century. Tlie Countess was a most ac- 
complished person, with a voice and style such as many 
a prima donna would envy; and the delightful freemasonry 
that exists among musical dilettanti, when their lines do 
not jostle, gave a charming variety to the conversation. 
But most of all we delighted to dwell on the great and 
beautiful literature of old Italy; Dante and Petrarca; and 
the rousing thunder or Lydian measures in which the 
overture of modern song was composed. Even their prose 
writers demanded our admiration. Annibale Caro, the 
prince of letter-writers; Giorgio Vasari, the Boswell of 
art, whose book we read with such avidity, although apt 
to laugh at the author; and so on through the long list 
to C'esare Cantu, whose Universal History I see adopted 
as a standard in e>(ery good library in Dalmatia. 

Next day, the engineer having started for Bencovats 
at daybreak, we devoted the forenoon to excursions. 
Westwards were the meadows, sloping down the lake; 
but in the opposite direction was a narrow valley, shut 
in by rocks, through which came the stream that watered 
Vrana, and thither we ascended in the morning, just be- 
fore the heat of the day began. After a pleasant walk, 
we came to the end of the valley, where we found a 
tunnel cut in the rock, through which the stream entered 
the open ground; and on our flanking the hill above it, 
we saw a sloping fissure, twenty or thirty feet wide, down 
which we scrambled to a large natural hall, at one aide 
of which clear river-water issued from a dark opening 
into a large trough of rock below, and then passed 
through the tunnel into the open valley. From the heat 
and light of day, we suddenly found ourselves in coolness 
and gloom; the sunlight glistened from above throu^ 
the shrubs that surrounded the fissure, and was reflected 
downwards to the dark green creeping plants that, in 
graceful festoons, overhung the sombre crystal pooL A 
graceful recumbent water-nymph, with features obliterated 
by Turkish violence, or the irresistible hand of time and 


humidity, was cut out of the rock ; and, coupled with the 
fact of the large stones in the mansion, made me more 
than ever think that a Roman city must have existed in 
the neighbourhood: a point, however, which my restriction 
to the middle-age and modern relations of Dalmatia, pre- 
vented me from investigating. Close to the nymph was 
a high-sterned Venetian galley rudely engraven, with the 
date 19. Marzo, 1477; recording, no doubt, the visit of 
the crew of some argosy, before the valley had received 
its Turkish masters; nay, more than one of the party 
might, in his younger years, have seen in the Hippodrome 
the last occupant of the throne of Constantine. 

Next day we visited a village. A good part of the 
marshy meadow had been trenched all round; it then 
formed a square enclosed space, and not only kept the 
dwellings dry, but was a certain defence against intrusion 
of any sort. The houses and the peasantry were just 
what I had seen elsewere. The Count was an improving 
landlord, as far as the ground already cleared; but he 
told me the same tale of the obstinate resistance of the 
Morlack to lay aside his slovenly improvident habits, his 
readiness to revenge, and his slowness to adopt the most 
palpable improvements in agriculture. We then saw a 
young almond-plantation, on drier ground, the tree of 
which, with the dense small bright green foliage, is one 
of the pleasantest to the eye; and the quality of the 
Zara almond is said to be equal to any in the Mediter- 
ranean. The route by which I returned to Zara being 
the same as that by which I had come, offered no fresh 
cause for observation. 

I see, that Count Borelli has been named by the Em- 
peror (1860) consulting member of the enlarged Council 
of the Empire for Dalmatia. A more enlightened political 
economist is not to be found in the whole Kingdom of 




I paid a visit to the Governor, to thank him for the 
handsome reception and instructive information which his 
letters had procured me ; and shortly afterwards I received 
an invitation to dine with him and his amiable lady at 
the vice-regal palace, formerly the residence of the Prove- 
ditor-General. It is a very large and extremely inelegant 
edifice, but in the best situation in the town. On one 
side is a small open space, with an antique column of the 
same size as at the Piazza delle Erbe, and on the other 
side is the public garden, crowned with a meant and Bel- 
videre, in which the cactus and laurel rise from verdant turf, 
and where we have what is nowhere else visible in Zara, that 
subdued beauty which we may call amenity. The guard, 
belonging to a Hungarian regiment, with white coats and 
sky-blue pantaloons, were at the entrance to the palace 
(which formed a quadrangle, one half devoted to the 
Chancery, the other to the residence of the Governor); 
and after getting through several ante-rooms of extensive 
dimensions, with inlaid wooden floors, but with very little 
furniture, I was ushered into the drawing-room of his 
Excellency, fitted up in modern style. 

The Governor of Dalmatia, Feld-Marechal Lieutenant 
Turrsky, was a frank, fiery old soldier, who had made his 
first acquaintance with these provinces in the stirring 
times that preceded the general peace, and asked me 
particularly after the fate and fortunes of sundry English 
officers he had known at Lissa. I had sometimes heard 
the choice of a military man for a governor of Dalmatia 
criticised, as if a civilian were preferable; but, as far as 
I have been able to see, without justice. The example of 
England in her colonies shews that military men arc well 
suited for the government of exceptional countries; since 
the command., of an army or a regiment is one of the best 
schools for the acquisition of that practical acquaintance 


with human nature which is the most important part of 
all government. For the technicalities of law a lawyer is 
indispensable; for the details of finance a man of cyphers; 
but for a general view of the whole of the administration 
of a province composed of an unruly population, lying 
close to the most unruly province of the Ottoman empire, 
an experienced military man is certainly one of the best 

The state apartments, which adjoin this modem draw- 
ing-room, are large. The grand Gonsiglio has no Doges, 
but portraits of the Emperors Francis and Ferdinand in 
their coronation-robes ; a long table covered w^ith a green 
cloth occupied the centre. "Here," said the Governor, 
"the weal and woe of Dalmatia are deliberated upon.*' 
The Council consists of eight individuals, one of whom 
is Baron Ghetaldi, a great grand-nephew of the renowned 
Marino Ghetaldi; and when I subsequently made his ac- 
quaintance, I did not scruple to tell him the pleasure it 
gave nie to find the representative of so great a genius, 
after the lapse of two centuries, sitting in the high places 
of lUyricum. As the conversation grew animated, I found 
in the Governor, what I had often remarked in successful 
men, a variety of talents and experiences; and, what I 
least expected in an old soldier, a great taste for middle- 
age history, one of the results of which he shewed me 
after dinner. This was a collection of manuscript volumes 
containing— as far as the Ubrary of Vienna could afford 
the mMerials — the ancestors, male and female, of the House 
of Austria; the labour, with its comments, of several 
years' leisure. Being traced through females and males, 
the variety of blood was truly curious. To say notlung 
of the Henri Quatres and Charles the Fifths, there were 
the Mary Stuarts, the Lucrezia Borgias, and the Catherine 
de Medicis; and then their ancestors again, Hamiltons, 
Anguses, Lennoxes, Atholes, Estes, 8caligeri, Yiscontii, 
and Gonzagas. 

We sat down to dinner at two o'clock, and dispersed 
after coffee at five, thus leaving the evening elear for 


promenade, visits, or the theatre. Each nation in Zara 
preserves its pecnliar customs; the Germans shewing 
attention to a stranger by these mid-day dinners, the 
natives by small conversaziones and musical parties. 

Zara being a place of legal appeals and political busi- 
ness, there is less of art and literature than at Spalato 
and Ragusa; but the mixture of both renders it quite as 
interesting to a traveller who occupies himself with the 
modem relations. At the head of the first was Chief 
Justice Borghetti, a profound jurist, and a man of a remark- 
able range of information in politics and general literatore; 
who lived in a singularly constructed house, a Venetian 
palace of Palladian architecture, but in a shabby street, 
little more than six or eight feet wide, and conseqaently 
dark, with the fine fagade perfectly useless. He informed 
me that he had lately seen a manuscript copy of the 
laws of Stephen Dushan, the Servian Emperor, in the hands 
of a Dalmatian peasant, — a great bibliographic cnriosity. 
The appeals of all Dalmatia being carried' to Zara, the 
limbs of the law are rather numerous in proportion to 
the population, and the principal advocates soon get rich. 
The pleadings being not viva voce, but in writing, the 
avvocato is more an attorney than an advocate, as we 
understand it. 

1 find an extract from my private journal as follows: 
" 10th June. To-day went by appointment to Count Begfna, 
who was to take me to the great advocate." Count Begnt 
belongs to one of the few surviving Hungarian families in 
Dalmatia, but, of course, is completely Italianised; his 
house, instead of being locked up in a narrow street, is 
approached through a large garden in the very middle 
of the town, where so little room is to spare; and the 
trees and statues seen through the iron grated door 
have a pleasant but most unusual effect on the passengers. 
The lawyer lives not far off, and every thing wore the air 
of prosperous business, clerks vn*iting, clients waiting 
turn, &c. After the first generalities, the Legale expressed 
great alarm at any prospect of changing the appeal coort 


to Trieste, or the capital to Spalato, and the arguments 
pro and con were briefly discussed. Spalato is the natural 
capital of Dalmatia, from its being more in the middle of 
the kingdom, from having a good port, and from being 
at the termination of the great commercial road into 
Bosnia; and lastly, from the general amenity of the 
environs. On the other hand, the Zaratines assert, that 
the value of house-property in this town would experience 
a great depreciation from the change, and the handsome 
new houses recently built would prove ruinous speculations ; 
that if it is not in the centre of Dalmatia, it is nearer 
Trieste than Vienna ; and lastly, that it is a fortified town, 
and secured from immediate danger. Having surrendered 
to the Allies in 1813, the fortress of Zara was held in 
light esteem in Vienna, and an order was made for spend- 
ing no more money on the works ; but an engineer officer, 
named Shilling, was of a different opinion, and agitated 
the subject so much and so frequently, that he was found 
troublesome, and told he would be pensioned if he per- 
severed in the matter. The pertinacious officer said 
nothing, but continuing his studies in private, at length 
fell upon a note from Napoleon to Marmont, placing great 
stress on Zara; and the case being again taken into con- 
sideration, the fortifications are to be kept up. The general 
opinion of military men is, that it is not easily defensible 
if attacked by both sea and land ; but the fall of Zara has 
so great a moral effect on the population of the province, 
as to leave no alternative between total destruction of 
the fortifications, or rendering them of the first efficiency. 
I had often discussed this matter with the Spalatines; 
but they obviated this objection by mentioning that Spa- 
lato, being situated on a peninsula, could be rendered 
secure by traversing lines from the Gulf of Salona to the 
outer Adriatic. In short, there is a great deal to be said 
on both sides of the question. 

Slaavic literature is not so much cultivated in Zara as 
elsewhere in Dalmatia. One literary periodical, the "Zora 
Dalmatinska," although ably conducted, scarcely vegetates 


on tbis Latin soil. The superior classes have the Italian and 
German periodicals, and the educated Morlacks are few in 
number. The editor, one of my most pleasant and useful ac- 
quaintances, was Professor of Midwifery in the Lyceum, and 
a native of Spalato. He lived in the corner house of the Piazza 
dei Signori, and had espoused a scion of the house of the 
Cornaro family of Venice. He disapproved of the Bohemian 
spelling that had been adopted by Gaj and the learned lUy- 
rians in Croatia ; and in his Zora he is guided in the spelling 
by the Ragusans, and by an Illyrian copy of the Gospels, in his 
own library, in Gothic characters, printed at Venice by Ber- 
nardino Spalatino, as the title-page says, in 1495 — thus an 
incunabulum. We used occasionally to spend the evening at 
the house of a Bohemian officer of the garrison, also of great 
erudition, who had married a highly informed Milanese lady. 
But his enthusiastic Slaavism entertained me ; for instance, 
he made out that Slaavic was the original language in which 
God spoke to the world. In vain I urged that it must have 
been Arabic, the language of Abraham, as Adam must mean 
"man." He maintained that it was Odam, " Oh, come,'' &c. 
Zara cannot, like Ragusa, boast of a long line of men 
of science and literature. The historian Davila (whose 
book is described by Clarendon to have been Hampden's 
favourite study) was for some time military governor of 
the town. In his biographical memoirs it is said, that 
after 1620, he, being then in the Venetian military service, 
went to Zara, taking his wife and children with him. 
There is extant a letter to his nephew, Pier Antonio 
Davila, asking him to provide an able tutor for his children, 
who were at that time under the care of the Archdeacon 
of the cathedral— "a sufficient man," said he, **but miioh 
occupied with his own clerical functions." Of the native 
Zaratine literati none have a European, and only one an 
Italian, reputation, — Giandomenco Stratico, a writer bom 
in 1732, died 1799. He wrote poetry, criticism, and theo- 
logy; and was a hot opponent of the French encyclo* 
paedism of the eighteenth century. He was, in 1760, at 
the personal instance of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, made 


professor of Greek literature and biblical criticism in the 
University at Sienna, and rose to be Bishop of Istria. 

The amusements in Zara are, the promenade in the 
public garden, -where the band plays on Sundays and holi- 
days. Here the fair sex shew off their finery, and ices 
and lemonades are discussed. The ordinary public amuse- 
ment is the theatre; in winter an operatic company, and 
in summer a comedy. Most of the pieces given during 
my stay were translations from French vaudevilles; that 
incomparable school, which, without the pretensions of 
high comedy or high tragedy, contents itself with holding 
the mirror up to nature — French nature, to be sure, which 
is a hot-house or conservatory ; but no fault of the mirror, 
which is fidelity itself I confess I did not enjoy them 
here; for only French light comedians understand that 
business now-a-days ; but when a good comedy of Goldoni 
was played, it invariably proved satisfactory. 

The principal manufactory in Zara is that of mara- 
schino — the liqueur made from the marasca, or black 
cherry, which is grown mostly in the neighbourhood of 
Almissa, between Spalato and Macarsca. Bordeaux is not 
more famous for its wines than Zara for its liqueurs, and 
in the manufacture of them they surpass all other places. 
I visited these distilleries one day, and found them to 
have nearly all the same appearance: a low ground-floor, 
opening on a little back garden; large coppers of the 
liqueur closely covered, so as to exclude air; the shelves 
filled with various-coloured rosolj ; the Portogallo, or orange, 
clear as amber; and the delicious Garofalo, or clove, the 
prince of liqueurs. Spanish wax was boiling in a pot 
over a brazier, and the corkcfd bottles, being reversed, are 
dipped in it, and sealed with the name of the firm. The 
fruit is picked and skinned in June and July. Drioli and 
some of the houses pretend to have secrets for mixing 
the proportions, which are transmitted to the women of the 
family from generation to generation ; but, in truth, it is 
like the secret of the protean Jean Maria Farina, of Cologne, 
the true secret being the possession of adequate capital and 
Paton. I. 24 


a curreut sale. The best maraschino is that of Drioli, 
Luxardo, and Kreglianovich. The maraschino of the first 
of these is reckoned by the native Dalmatians as the best 
of all, but it is dear. Luxardo makes good maraschino, 
and has a large sale; the maraschino of Kreglianovich is 
very good in quality, and moderate in price, but not strong 
enough for the English and Russian taste; for while the 
Sicilians. prefer weak and sweet maraschino, a more power- 
ful liqueur is requisite for the English, Dutch, and Bussian. 
There are, altogether, about a dozen distilleries in the 
town; and several of the proprietors have noade hand- 
some fortunes. 

In Spalato we have classical antiquity; in Ragosa, 
classical Slaavism ; in the Highlands, romantic Slaavism; 
but Zara, having been the seat of the proveditor-general 
of Dalmatia for four centuries preceding the fall of the 
republic, became of all the cities of the coast the most 
thoroughly impregnated with the Venetian element. When 
Epidaurus and Salona were destroyed, and the middle-age 
kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia covered all the country, 
the Slaavic element remained foreign to Zara, and it in- 
variably preserved its character of Roman Dalmatia. Zara 
has been under Roman, Constantinopolitan, Crusading- 
Latin, Hungarian, Venetian, French, and Austrian role; 
but the key of Dalmatia was never under Slaavic inati- 
tutions, although surrounded by them. ' 

In the time of the Romans, Jadera, as Zara was called, 
was the capital of Libumia, and famed for the vigour and 
number of its maritime population ; a natural consequence 
of the hydrographical configuration of this part of the 
Adriatic, scattered amid cr^ eks and bays. And looking 
over a collection of strange prints from ancient pictures 
relating to Zara, I found what appeared at first si^t to 
be a steamer laden with oxen ; but this was simply a ship 

' That is to say, unless the aboriginal inhabitantB of DaJnati* wei« 
Slaavs, which Gaj and many erudite men maintain, in opposition to 
the theory that the language of the antique Dalmatians was « parant 
of the modem Albanian. 


with paddle-wheels, worked by their performing a perpe- 
tual circle on the deck. The remains of antiquity lead us 
to conclude that it was an elegant provincial capital, wiih. 
at least one temple of large and elegant proportions, one 
of the columns being still standing on the Piazza delle 
Erbe, and the other in the Piazza San Simeone; but the 
most perfect relic of ancient Jadera is the fagade of the 
present barracks, which, with the exception of one column, 
is uninjured, and supposed to be the temple of Diana. 
It is just what one expects in a Roman provincial capital, 
elegance shewing itself on a small scale; the doorway 
being in the most florid style of ornament, but all the 
rest of the fagade of the severest simplicity. 

On the fall of the Empire of the West, Zara became 
a sort of republic, using the Latin language, but under 
the feeble protection of the Greek emperors; and so late 
as this year 986, in the reign of the Emperor Basil, we 
find Majus Prior of Zara styling himself Pro-consul of 
Dalmatia. The peninsular situation of the town, which 
has preserved to it a sort of metropolitan pre-eminence 
from the time of the Romans to our own age, has also 
rendered it a perpetual object of contest, and the sieges 
it has sustained have been so numerous as almost to 
confuse the reader in the perusal of Kreglianovich, who is 
the best authority on the history of Zara. After the fall of 
the Slaavic kingdom of Croatia and Daknatia, Coloman, 
king of Hungary, besieged and took Zara, in 1105, and 
from that time to 1499, when Zara became definitively 
Venetian, the struggle between the great republic and the 
kings of Hungary for its possession was unceasing. The 
study of the Zaratines was, always to preserve their in- 
dependence through the reciprocal jealousy of these two 
nations ; but, having pretensions to maritime power them- 
selves, they leant to the Hungarian rather than the Venetian 
interest, and the stronger the Venetian power became, 
the more jealous and apprehensive were they of the great 
republic. The trade of Zara with the Levant was exten- 
sive; and, during my stay there, I was shewn the mari- 



time and commercial code of the municipality, dating firom 
the twelfth century, the details of which bear evidence 
of the necessities of the trade having compelled the erection 
of a tribunal expressly for maritime and commercial 

The two most celebrated sieges were those of 1203 
and 1346. In the first of these, Dandolo, on his way to 
the Latin conquest of Constantinople, made himself master 
of the city for the Venetian republic. The French had, 
in 1202, arrived in numbers at Venice, to embark on the 
crusade undertaken by the Venetians,, and the latter in- 
sisted on beginning with driving the Hungarians from 
Zara. The French demurred to attacking a Christian king 
for objects purely Venetian ; but the capture of Zara being 
made a sme qua nm\ by Venice, who disposed, or rather 
held, the whole means of transport, it was agreed to; and, 
on the 10th of November, 1202, the Zaratines and Han- 
garians were astonished at beholding the whole sound 
covered with Venetian galleys, and manned with an im- 
posing array of the flower of the chivalry of Europe. 
Next day Dandolo broke the chain that stretched acron 
the harbour, and Zara, being invested on all sides, in five 
days capitulated. The autumn being well advanced, the 
crusaders resolved to remain there all the winter; bnt no 
sooner did the Pope hear of the siege than the thunders 
of the Vatican were about to be fulminated on those who 
diverted the armies of Christendom from crusading pur- 
poses; when, to mitigate Papal wrath, Dandolo and the 
Latins, including Montferrat, and Baldwin, earl of Flan- 
ders, caused the rebuilding of the cathedral on the site 
of the dilapidated Roman temple. Such is the origin of 
the present cathedral. But no sooner was Dandolo well 
involved in the establishment of the Latin emperors of 
Constantinople, than the Zaratines again received their 
virtual independence and nominal subjection to Hungary. 

The other celebrated siege of the city was that of 
1346, when Marino Faliero made prize of it for the re- 
public in the teeth of a large Hungarian army, who lost 


7000 killed on the occasion: but the Zaratines were far 
from being contented to submit; and one of the most 
curious coins in the collection of Count Borelli is a silver 
piece, with seven hydra heads, representing seven rebellions, 
which the Venetians, in the wantonness of power, wished 
to substitute for the impress of the old arms of Zara, which 
were a knight armed cap-d-pied. 

Zara was in the meridian of its middle-age splendour 
about the year 1403, when the crown of Hungary was 
disputed by Sigismund, then king in possession, and Ladis- 
laus, king of Naples, claimant as son of Charles of Durazzo, 
and supported by a powerful party of Hungarian magnates. 
He arrived on the 9th of July in the harbour of Zara, 
with a fleet of ships, with many knights, with abundant 
provisions, and last, not least, with an apostolic legate to 
support the temporal with the spiritual power. Two days 
afterguards, a deputation of Hungarian magnates and bish- 
ops entered by the gate of Terra Firraa, and, on the 
2d of August, in the church of San Grisogono, he was 
crowned king of Hungary, in presence of two Austrian 
archdukes, and a concourse of Hungarian, Bosniac, Nea- 
politan, and Dalmatian nobility. A distribution of titles 
followed, one of which was Duke of Spalato, to Hervoje, 
a powerful warrior of the period. 

But the royal aspirant was unable to stand his ground 
in Hungary; and, nothing remaining to him in 1409 but 
the mere city of Zara, and some other minor places, he 
sold all his possessions in Dalmatia to Venice for one 
hundred thousand ducats, and went back to Naples. On 
the 30th of July, four Venetian proveditors came to take 
final possession, accompanied by a large body of troops 
as a garrison. No sooner, however, did the Neapolitan 
garrison get notice to quit, than they resolved tQ kill the 
goose to get at the golden eggs at once; and commenc- 
ing a general sack of the city, accompanied with blood- 
shed, on the approach of the four proveditors, seized the 
principal inhabitants and took them on board their own 
Neapolitan galleys, expecting to extract further sums as 


their ransom. But the Venetians, who had now arrived, 
threatened to sink every galley if the prisoners were not 
set on shore; upon which the Neapolitans, being reluc- 
tantly obhged to comply, departed for their own coast. 

Next day the proveditors, making their public entry 
into Zara, were received by the citizens and the confirater- 
nities bearing their banners, the procession headed by the 
Archbishop; and in memory of the occasion, the 31st of 
July ever afterwards was a festival, accompanied by the 
strange license, that on that day, and for a week pre- 
viously, no debtor could be arrested, and those in hiding 
were allowed the liberty of the town without molestatioii. 
This matter settled, twelve citizens of Zara were deputed 
to go to Venice to offer their homage to the head of the 
republic, and on the 5th of September they were received 
by the Doge Steno, in solemn audience, in the hall of the 
Maggior Consiglio of the Ducal Palace. There it was 
agreed to bury all past animosities, and from being the 
most obstinately opposed to Venice, Zara became, in 
course of time, in the expression of their own addresses, 
most attached (attaccatissima) to the great republic. 

Zara then became a flourishing commercial city until 
the year 1461, when the Terra Firma being overrun by 
the Turks, and the country laid waste with fire and sword* 
the olives were cut down and the villages abandoned in 
the course of the eleven incursions successively made by 
them. Despair and apprehension succeeded, and from 
1521 it almost appeared that the settlement of the Turks 
ill Dalmatia was to be perpetual ; but the capture of Zara, 
often attempted by them, was never achieved. 

A few extracts from the chronicles of the period shew . 
what Zara was in the sixteenth century. Giambattiita 
Giustiniano, on a tour of inspection through Dalmatia in 
1552, writes thus: 

^'The circuit of Zara is a mile and a quarter, and the 
position of the town is naturally very strong, being on 
three sides surrounded by the sea, so as to be almost 
impregnable. At the mouth of the harbour a boom runs 


across two thirds of it, and the other third is secured by 
a chain, which is guarded night and day, and opened and 
shut as occasion requires. The population is most de- 
voted to the interests of the (Venetian) Signoria, and the 
noble families are seventeen in number (the names follow, 
only one of which, Gliubavatz, is Slaavic). These nobles 
live most cordially together, and form a council of seventy 
persons (sic), who live, speak, and dress in the Italian 
manner, which probably comes from the frequenting 
of strangers, Venetian nobles, proveditors, captains, so- 
pracomiti, and others. The people all speak the lingua 
Franca, but have Slaavic usages; they do not sit in the 
Council of Nobles, but have a chapter in which they 
discuss their interests, and this has some revenue; but 
most of them live by traffic and manual occupations. The 
population of the town is 6536 souls, of which 1389 are 
militia, for defensive purposes." 

Nothing could exceed the anxiety of the Zaratines 
during the great naval struggle between the Venetians 
and the Turks in 1571, when the fleet destined to conquer 
at Lepanto put in at Zara on its way from Venice thither. 
In the Bafnmentatore of the ingenious Ferrari Cupilli, 
are the following extracts from the journals of eye-wit- 

"Giralomo Zane, Captain-General of the Venetian ar- 
mada, arrived at Zara on the 13th April, and remained 
to the 12th June; but being unable td maintain so many 
people, he started for Corfu, Zara having suffered so 
severely; for the Turks were making continual incursions 
in the Contado, carrying off cattle, cutting down com, 
and destroying and burning; so that people scarce dared 
to go out of the town without running the risk of an 
ambuscade. The cavalry often made sorties from the 
town, accompanied by sufficient infantry, but difficulty of 
subsistence always compelled them to return. It is true 
that bread, biscuit," and other {Mrovisions came in large 
quantity from Apulia, the March (ofAncona), and Venice; 
but from the town being crammed full of people, and the 


insafficient nourishment, an epidemic disease broke out, 
and, on the 12th June, Zane and his seventy galleys set 
off for Corfu, where he arrived on the 21st.". 

The renowned battle of Lepanto took place on the 
7th October following, Pietro Bortolazzi, who commanded 
the Zara galleys, having nobly distingnished himself; but 
bravest of all the Dalmatian galleys were the seven of 
Trau, which lost the greater part of their crew in the 
thickest of the fight. The most intense anxiety prevailed 
as to the result of the war. Dalmatia having suffered 
more severely than any other country, the Adriatic was 
infested with Barbary and Turkish pirates ; and the towns 
of the coast were full of families, who, instead of lands 
broad and wide, possessed mere parchment titles. Every 
city had done its utmost to fit out galleys, and every 
sail looming in the southern sound was an event to bring 
the whole town in a buzz of speculation to the land- 

At length, on the 16th, several large galleys were des- 
cried from the Torre di Bovo d'Antona; as they ap- 
proached Zara, the walls were covered with anxious gproups; 
and on the joyful news being at length authenticated, the 
joy was inexpressible; it seemed the turning of the terrible 
tide, — the first symptom of the receding of the waters of 
an overwhelming deluge; the inhabitants embraced each 
other with tears of joy in the open streets, and the roar 
of 109 pieces of artillery kept time to the ding-dong of 
every bell in the town. During the three days, processions 
and diversions took place, and the victory was commemo- 
rated by the inscription on the Porta San Grisogono 
which we have already alluded to. 

The reader already knows how the new and the newest 
acquisitions were added to Dalmatia. The treaty of Passft- 
rovitz, in 1718, having at length freed the land from 
Turkish rule, the Proveditor-General was henceforth more 
a man of pomp and pleasure than a stout warrior; he 
usually belonged to one of the first families of Venice, 
and the proveditorship, which lasted three years, was 


generally considered a resource for those grandees who 
needed to recruit their domestic finances. The forms of 
a Vice-Ducal Court were kept up, and he lived in much 
splendour, sitting on a throne in both church and palace. 
The income of the three years was from 80,000 to 100,000 
gold zechins, and the half was usually considered sufficient 
for his expenses. 

Zara being his residence as long as the republic lasted, 
the vicinity to Venice, and the foreigners who from time 
to time settled in it, made it a sort of suburb of the 
capital, and gave it a polish of manners and a taste for 
the arts which might be placed beside that of Kagusa; 
but the extreme jealousy of the Venetian government, 
which prevented conversation on political affairs, or the 
agitation of plans for the amelioration of the people, was 
not equally favourable to the intellectual development of 
the Zaratines. There was considerable elegance in private 
life and in domestic architecture, the Palazzo Fenzi and 
some others being worthy of the environs of the Rialto; 
but the framework of society had all that superfluity 
of the privileged classes, which was a characteristic 
of the 18th century. This crowd of far niente priests 
and nobles did absolutely nothing for the education 
and the elevation of the people; not from jealousy or 
design, but simply from that love of ease and pleasure 
which marked the last century all over Europe. In the 
midst of their gaieties, the French Revolution and the 
invasion of Venice came like a clap of thunder on the 
Zaratines, and opened up an entirely new phase in the 
history of the town. 

Andrea Querini, the last of the proveditors, having 
invited Austria to occupy Dalmatia, Zara was garrisoned 
by the Imperialists from 1797 to 1806; when, by virtue 
of the stipulations of the treaty of Presburg, it became 
a French fortress, and, from various causes, experienced 
a decline of prosperity. The abolition of the law of entail 
was probably no disadvantage to Dalmatia at large, but 
the principal properties were then divided, and the aris- 


tocracy fell into decay. This was called the svincolo, or 
unbinding, and the properties being once dispersed, the 
aristocracy has never recovered its former position. Zara 
had no longer its Proveditor or Governor-General. Mar- 
mont's headquarters being generally at Spalato, clearly a 
better and more advantageous position for Dalmatia in 
general, but not to the profit of Zara; and last, not least, 
the continental system of Napoleon was a great disadvan- 
tage, for if trade was not prevented altogether, it was 
attended with all the evils and inconveniences of eontra- 

At length the eventful year 1813 arrived. Napoleon, 
unwisely rejecting the terms of mediation proposed by 
Austria, went to Leipsic to be ruined, and an Austrian 
force of Croats descending from the Vellibitch, laid siege 
to Zara by land, while two English frigates blockaded it 
by sea ; and landing some artillery taken from Fort Nicolo 
of Sebenico, threw up batteries on the side of Terra 
Firma. This, Cattalinich asserts, is the only occasion on 
which British troops operated on the mainland of Dal- 
matia. In spite of the natural strength of Zara, the g^al- 
lantry of the besiegers and the discontents of the garrison 
(principally composed also of Croats) brought about a 
capitulation; and the cause of Napoleon verging on the 
desperate, the other places on the coast quickly surren- 
dered. The solitary tower of the Narenta was, as vre 
have already said, the last place that submitted to Austria. 



My original intention was to have confined myself to the 
Austrian ports on the Adriatic, and to have embarked by 
the steamer from Zara to the islands of the golf of Qnar- 


nero, and thence to Fiume; but in Zara I was advised 
that the land journey would enable me, with a moderate 
additional sacrifice of time, to see the Highlands of Croatia, 
one of the most romantic regions in Europe, and entirely 
unknown to most readers. The Governor of Dalmatia,.on 
my making known my intention, with spontaneous kindness 
offered me letters to the officers of the districts I was 
about to visit, which is entirely in the miUtary frontier. 
He had been, in his younger days, a colonel of the Ogulin 
regiment, and still took a strong personal interest in the 
welfare of the land and the people. 

As the region in question is elevated, it was not advis- 
able to attempt the journey before the month of June. 
May was ending in a glow of heat; and an aide-de-camp 
of the Governor and an officer of the garrison having got 
a few days' leave of absence, we made up a pleasant party 
to Gospich, the nearest regimental district on the other 
side of the Vellibitch. 

On the 24th of May, at four o'clock in the afternoon, 
I went to the palace, and took leave of the kind circle 
from which I had received so many attentions. The dili- 
gence having called for us, we rattled out of the Porta 
di Terra Firma, and found ourselves on the high-road to 
Obrovazzo, the ground quite parched up with the prema- 
ture heats, and even the dust preferable to closed win- 

This was the same road as that by which I had first 
come to Zara; we arrived in time for a late supper at 
Obrovazzo; and shortly after re-entering the carriage, 1 
fell asleep, awoke in the morning as the horses were 
dragging the carriage up the last zigzags of this wonder- 
ful road, and soon found myself at that very pillar where, 
six months before, I had made my first acquaintance with 
Dalmatia. Seldom had six months of my life passed so 
instructively and amusingly; and if I have not succeeded 
in infusing into the reader an interest in its peculiarities, 
the shortcoming lies with the writer, and certainly not 
with the land that he visited. 


Here, when I passed in winter, I saw nothing but 
snow and icicles, and welcomed Dalmatia, with its mild 
southern air, in the gloomy month of November; now, 
equally pleasing were my sensations on leaving the atmo- 
sphere of the fig, the olive, and the bare, parched rocks, 
and finding myself in the land of wide-spreading forests 
and open brakes of firm verdant turf, sloping down to 
the plains of Licca, on which the early dew glistened in 
the rising sun. 

While the horses were changing, we went into the 
post-house ; and, entering into conversation with the post- 
master, he gave us a sad account of the condition of the 
plains. of Licca, to which we were now descending; the 
crops of the previous year having failed, they had con- 
sumed in many places even their seed-corn and potatoes. 
The post-house and village being a few yards to the east 
of the pillar, is, consequently, in Croatia, and not in Dal- 
matia ; the language of the people is still Illyrian, the very 
same language I heard through all Dalmatia, in Servia, in 
Bulgaria, and on the heights of Montenegro ; but the vanush 
of civilisation here ceased to be Italian, and here I heard 
the first German again. While we were chatting, I per- 
ceived a carbine hanging from the wall which had not an 
Austrian cut, and looking closer, found it to be a me- 
mento of the French empire, being marked, ''Manu&ctme 
Imperiale de Charleville." 

How different might the destinies of the French nation 
and language have been, had Napoleon, instead of burying 
a million of men in Spain and Bussia, turned his power 
to the basins of the Save and the Danube I Lower Bosnia, 
Slavonia, the Banat, and Servia, communicating with the 
ex-territories of Venice through Croatia, might have re- 
ceived a horde of military settlers, that would have given 
a French impress to Illyria. By offering temptations to 
Austria in some other quarter, the thing could have been 
done by force or fraud more easily than a conqaest of 
Spain or Bussia. It must often have rolled throng the 
brain of this wholesale kingdom-monger. Fortunately for 


humanity, affairs took another turn; for had there been 
in him a will to it, doubtless there would have been a 
way. The holding of provinces so inconveniently situated 
for France as those on the other side of the Adriatic, and 
the number of Croatians sent to France to receive a 
French military education, and some of whom I met in 
these provinces, seemed to indicate that, if the military 
power of Russia had been broken (for every body knew 
that conquest with a view to occupation was impossible), 
the basin of the Save would in all probability have been 
the next sphere of his boundless ambition. 

The pillar at the pass being about 3400 feet English 
above the gulf of Morlackia which laves the feet of the 
mountain, and the plain of Licca, to which I was now 
descending inland, being 1700 feet above the level of the 
sea, the descent was about the half of the previous ascent 
from Dalmatia. As we rolled downwards, the verdant 
Korth, smiling in her summer attire, welcomed us with 
all the attractions of her own style of beauty. I no longer 
recognised the Croatia of November; the birds whistled 
their softest notes; the air was fragrant with the moun^ 
tain flora, and mild with the early summer; the bee buzzed 
in the open sunshine ; the sound of unseen rushing waters 
echoed through the deep shades; and a few patches of 
snow, seen in the rocky recesses of the Vellibitch, and 
caught at glimpses from the open p^rts of the road, were 
all that remained of grim winter. The night and morning 
seemed a week; so totally different in character is the 
Dalmatian from the Croatian side of the Vellibitch. 

Croatia has been, as a kingdom, associated with Hungary 
since 1190; and the provincial or constitutional part of 
it, which lies to the northward, is divided into counties, 
and sends members to the Diet; but this division I am 
now entering upon, intervening between the north-west 
comer of Turkey in Europe and the Adriatic, is governed 
by a military administration which took its origin in the 
wars of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, 
and, developed as an offensive and defensive system daring 


the long struggles with the Porte, subsists to this day. 
There is no landed aristocracy in the country; the King 
of Hungary is the only landlord; the peasantry pay no 
rent, and scarcely any taxes, but in lieu thereof maintain 
a military force in proportion to each family. A house 
with three sons furnishes a soldier; five sons, two soldiers; 
and 80 on ; nourished by the family, but receiving uniform, 
arms, and accoutrements from the government. The active 
service is from twenty to twenty-three years of age; they 
are then enrolled in the reserve, and the district is divided 
geographically into regiments instead of counties; so that 
it is one vast camp, every soldier being a peasant, and 
every peasant a soldier. 

On arriving at the plain of Licca, the road proceeds 
parallel with the Vellibitch; but this chain, instead of 
being on my right, as it had been from Ragusa to Zara, 
was henceforth on my left, and intervened between me 
and the Adriatic. The plain itself, being pasture inter- 
mingled with plantation, is green and pleasant to the eye; 
but the soil is poor, and does not furnish provisions 
enough for the inhabitants. As we passed along, I saw 
that all the work in the fields was done by people in the 
ordinary costume of Croatia, which is a sort of cross- 
breed between the semi-oriental costume of the Dalmatians 
and that of the Hungarians ; but the officers, who, besides 
drilling the men, are land-bailiflfs and book-keepers, wore ' 
invariably an undress costume of dark-green faced with 
yellow. The villages have some resemblance to those of 
Servia, being formed of straggling houses, the kitchen- 
gardens and yard all fenced round with high wooden 
palings, so as to protect whatever stock they have from 
wolves in winter, which are very daring in this part of 
the country; but Gospich, the head-quarters of the regi- 
ment, at which we arrived in the forenoon, has quite the 
appearance of a small German town, with a church and 
pointed spire, and continuous houses forming some streets. 
None of the houses were in the Italian or Dalmatian style, 
with doorways flanked with twisted pillars and sormonnted 


by coats of arms cut in stone ; no shining floors of pounded 
marble and cement; but the inn where we put up had 
its low-roofed dining-room, its stencilled walls, and its 
wood floors, in which a corpulent offlcer was taking a 
long pull at a foaming glass tankard of beer, an^ then, 
having lighted a meerschaum pipe with a portable phos- 
phoric apparatus, resignied himself to the delights of a 
Dutch elysium. 

Colonel Reichenbach, who commanded the Licca re- 
giment, of which Gospich is the head-quarters, was absent 
at Graschatz that day, to devise the means of getting all 
the lands sown, and deficiencies supplied from Bosnia; for 
while Dalmatia and Croatia were af^cted with a failure 
of corn-crops and the potato rot, Bosnia was blessed with 
great abundance, and, had it not been for the resources 
of this fruitful province, their straits must have been much 
greater. One of the officers did the honours of Gospich, 
a Bohemian of highly polished manners. The social re- 
sources of Gospich were indeed few. The lieutenant, how- 
ever, had a piano in his rooms, and a library of the Ger- 
nam muses and literature. Schiller and Uhland, Beethoven, 
and Weber, filled up the gaps in the diversions of Gospich. 
I expressed agreeable surprise on seeing the piano. 
"What!" said he; ** could I be a Bohemian, and not have 
a feeling for song and music?" and, opening the instru- 
ment, a pleasant musical excursion succeeded to the con- 
versation on my trip thither. What an f^ccomplished people 
these Bohemians are ! Besides being well acquainted with 
their own professions, civil or military, your Bohemian has 
often half-a-dozen other acquirements, which would make 
him an accomplished man in the west of Europe— thinking 
at the same time very little of the matter. There are frequent 
instances of Bohemians knowing three, or four languages, 
and playing four or five instruments, and yet being very &r 
from unusual Bohemians. Altogether, they seem to be one 
of the ablest races of the Austrian monarchy; a probable 
result of the mixture of blood, by which the defects of the 
German and Slaavic character are reciprocally corrected. 


Gospich is situated in the midst of the plain of Licca, 
which is about thirty miles long, and six or eight broad, 
and takes its name from the river which waters the plain. 
This river, running through the middle of the town, 
plunges into a subterranean hollow; and, passing through 
the dark unfathomed caves of the Vellibitch, re-appean 
on the other side, near St. George, to flow in tranquillity 
into the Adriatic ; a peculiarity in many of the rivers on 
this coast, which the Slaavic bards compare to the entrance 
to the ocean of eternity, through the valley of the shadow 
of death. Most of the plain is in pasture, with very little 
com or other crops; but close to the town is a large 
forest of oaks, the open glades of which are the favourite 
promenade of the officers and their families. 

On the next Sunday I had an opportunity of seeing 
the men of Gospich in their uniforms at church. They 
are a race having the thews and sinews of giants, and the 
physical courage of heroes; one of the last deaths in the 
regiment was that of a veteran seven feet high, and eighty- 
six years of age. They are not only brave, but most 
affectionate in all their immediate domestic relations. When 
they are ordered on service, either abroad, or to some 
other part of the monarchy, it is impossible to form the 
men in regular marching order, as the whole village, men, 
women, and children, go with the company a day's journey, 
and then take leave with loud wails and tears. Their 
return after an absence offers a contrast equally joyous 
and violent. Like the Morlack, they are excessively head- 
strong and difficult to manage; but there being no land- 
lords, and all the land being apportioned to the actual 
cultivators, there are no agrarian outrages, as in Dalmatia ; 
murders among themselves, however, from revenge, are 
by no means rare occurrences. The majority are Catholics, 
but are excessively superstitious ; and priestcraft flourishes 
to an extent that even an enlightened Catholic must dis- 
approve. A circumstance occurred in the course of my 
tour through Croatia, which seems strange in the nine- 
teenth century. The long drought had created apprehen- 


sions of a second failure of crops, and the priest of a 
church had been strongly solicited to allow a procession 
for rain; but he refused resolutely, saying that it was a 
punishment for sins: at length, seeing the barometer fall, 
he forthwith ordered the procession; .and lo, a miracle! 
although not a cloud was visible at the procession, the 
sky w^as overcast on the same day, and down came the rain 
in torrents ; hence processions are as highly esteemed as ever. 

After church-service, I met the principal officers at 
dinner, at the house of the Colonel, who had returned 
from his tour, and who assured me that the hardest-worked 
colonel in the line, in time of peace, was an idler com- 
pared to what he had been, with the responsibility of a 
regiment of seventy-six thousand souls in the midst of a 
severe dearth. He stated that the purely military part 
of his duty was, from practice, comparatively easy; but, 
as the whole of the economical government of the regi- 
mental district lay upon him, it was a series of struggles 
and exertions which tasked the body and mind to the 
utmost strain. 

Most of the other officers were native Croats, and had 
something of the homeliness of the yeoman in their style, 
in consequence of not having the same advantages in 
seeing the world as the officers of the line; but they are 
kind-hearted, honest men, and, possessing the essential 
qualities of thorough knowledge of their duties, they im- 
prove on acquaintance. The officer of the line, who is a 
bird of passage, is a more attractive companion ; but there 
is no point of local relation on which the officer of the 
frontier is not generally able to inform the traveller to 
his heart's content. Instead of the great world, they live 
in a little world of their own; but that they know per- 
fectly. Being, from their profession, ultra-loyal to the 
government, and incapable of a subversive act or thought, 
they discussed with me, during the week I passed in Gos- 
pich, the advantages and defects of their system with the 
greatest freedom; and I propose to give these political 
results of my tour. 
Paton. I. 25 


The day of the officer of the frontier begins at four 
or five o'clock in the morning; and, from one duty to 
another, he is occupied till mid-day, when he dines; he 
finishes his business again at six or seven, and in the 
evening plays whist or tarocco, for small points, till supper- 
time. Comparatively few of the officers are married, from 
the obligation to lay in caution-money, as a set-off for a 
pension, in case of decease; so that a military dandy who 
lives only for parade, theatres, and society, would find it 
a monotonous existence; but those who relish agriculture 
and field-sports, who desire a fixed sphere of usefulness 
to their fellow-men, and have a thirst for labour (which 
habit makes as insatiable as any other passion), have ample 
means of gratifying their wishes in the military frontier. 

In the evening the band played on the little green plat 
between the church and the house of the Colonel, not 
with the tone of the grand bands of the line, but in a 
manner to please and satisfy any ear not painfully festi- 
dious. The pieces were either the airs of the last operas 
of Verdi, or the last waltzes of Strauss ; and I was agree- 
ably surprised to have a smack of our own country, in 
an air from Balfe's Falstaff. Just before leaving Vienna 
to commence my tour, I had been an auditor of the 
applause with which Mr. Balfe and his operas had been re- 
ceived on the scene of the greatest masters, and was 
amused by a bull, which almost betrayed a Milesian descent 
In the stall behind me sat a gentleman, who, before the 
overture of Zigeunerinn (Bohemian Girl), said to his neigh- 
bour: "This is the only Englishman whose music is good; 
and this Englishman it not an Englishman, but an Irish- 

When the weekly diligence passed, I took advantage 
of it ; and starting at two o'clock in the afternoon, arrived 
the same evening at Ottochatz, at about ten o'clod^'^-the 
road being mostly from one plain to another. The inn 
was newly opened; and I was shewn into a large hall, 
dimly lighted with a couple of thin tallow candles, which 
made darkness visible; the table-service was fresh, but 


every thing somewhat raw. Next morning, looking out 
of my window, I saw that Ottochatz was more pleasantly 
situated than Gospich. Before me stretched an esplanade 
covered with green turf, in the midst of which is a sort 
of Tivoli temple for a military band; all around were new 
regimental ofQces, as fresh and neat as paint could make 
them. Mingled with alleys of trees, and encircled at a 
moderate distance by an amphitheatre of hills, Ottochatz 
looked like a watering-place in a petty principality of Ger- 
many. A. few full-grown trees shaded my window, and 
under them were the peasants of the regiment occupied 
in the business of market-day; but instead of the semi- 
Turkish costume of the Dalmatian of Licca, here begins 
the broad-brimmed peasant's hat of Hungary. In Tyrol, 
the peaked hat of the sixteenth century has remained in 
the same shape since the days of Rudolf II. In Swabia, 
the peasants preserve unchanged to this day the costume 
of the middle of the eighteenth century, with the cocked 
hat. The Hungarian peasant's hat, like that of the Quaker, 
dates from the seventeenth century. 

I then went to present my letter to Colonel Mastrowich, 
who commanded the regiment of Ottochatz; and was shewn 
into a study with a Turkish divan, windows of stained 
glass, and all the symptoms of the abode of an arbiter 
elegantiarum. When the Colonel made his appearance, 
I was surprised to find on so rough a service as this, an 
officer who, by his distinguished mr and manners, at once 
stamped himself as a man that had lived in courts and 
the great world; but quite the reverse of frivolous is 
Colonel Mastrowich. A Dalmatian by birth, he had begun 
his career as an aide-de-camp to Prince Eugene Beau- 
harnais in Italy; and, endowed with restless activity, had 
planned and executed all those improvements which had 
given Ottochatz so advanced sun aspect. As he had lived 
fifteen years in Vienna, I asked him if he did not feel 
this an exile; but he assured me that there was no life 
that suited him so well as that of a colonel of a regiment 
on the frontier, who has a position of great independence, 



with heavy duties ; but, at the same time, has a power of 
following all impulse to improvement much greater than 
that of any colonel, or even general in the line. 

Next day being the festival of Corpus Domini, the re- 
giment was on full parade. Five altars were erected on 
the esplanade, and adorned with pine branches stuck in 
the ground. The troops presented a fine appearance, and 
one must have looked very narrowly to distinguish them 
from those of the line. After the service was a procession 
round to the several altars; the Colonel with his officers, 
and then the ladies of the colony, headed by the 
Frau Oberstinn, or Lady Coloneless, all in their regular 
order, the wives of the officers in places corresponding to 
the rank of their husbands ; then the reserve battalions in 
undress, and their females last of all. 

Nothing could exceed the kind ingenuity with which 
the Colonel and his amiable lady sought to render varied 
and agreeable the few days I passed at Ottochats. Baron 
Jellachich, since deceased, was of the party. He was of 
small stature, with an eye of fire, denoting high intelli- 
gence and iron energy; but withal, so frank and modest, 
as to recall Cardinal de Retz' characteristic of the great 
Marquis of Montrose, who reminded him of the heroes of 

Baron Jellachich was born on the 16th Oct., 1801, in 
the fortress of Peterwordein, and was the son of Field- 
Marshal Lieutenant Jellachich, who took so affecting a 
leave of the Illyrian regiments when this part of Croatia 
was handed over to Napoleon's kingdom of Illyria in 1806, 
after the battle of Austerlitz. With tears in his eyes, he 
said, that "he was persuaded that the Almighty reserved 
better days for Croatia." What would he have said, had 
he lived to see his son the principal agent in the re- 
generation of the Illyrian nation ; one of the most glorious 
events in the annals of the east of Europe? Young Jells* 
chich was educated in the Teresianum of Vienna, entered 
the Austrian army at eighteen years of age, and in 1831, 
when only a Captain, his talents were made known to 


Marshal Radetzky, at the great manoeuvres at Verona, 
when a camp was formed of 60,000 men there. After 
being for some time adjutant to Count Lilienberg, Governor 
of Dalmatia, he was, in 1842, made Colonel of the regi- 
ment of Glina, to the north-west of Ottochatz; but had soon 
afterwards a very unpleasant adventure, which made much 
noise at the time. 

The Bosniacs, or, strictly speaking, Turkish Croats, in 
his neighbourhood, had at various times crossed into the 
Austrian territory, and committed robbery; but the Aga 
of the district had given no satisfaction. On the next 
occasion of insult or depredation, the Baron knowing that 
a complaint to Vienna, followed by one to Constantinople, 
and back to Bosnia, would end in smoke, he, on his own 
responsibility, gave the alarm on the frontier, stormed the 
village, burnt the Aga's house, and, after many killed on 
both sides, retired. The Baron admitted to me that this 
was rather an undiplomatic proceeding; but maintained 
that it was the only sort of argument those people were 
capable of appreciating. 

Promoted successively to the ranks of major-general 
and field -marshal lieutenant, and having the military 
command-in-chief, as well as the civil office of Ban, he 
was the pillar of the lUyrian party in Hungary during the 
troubles. But we will say no more on this subject at 
this part of our narrative. 

It is in the terrors caused by the arms of Solyman, 
and the first siege of Vienna, that we are to look for 
the organisation of the military frontier, which, so far 
from being a modem institution, is, in fact, the only feudal 
one which has survived the unfeudalisation of all Europe. 
The holding of lands on military tenure is, since the 
erection of standing armies, a legal fiction : in the regions 
we have traversed it is not obsolete or fictitious, but a 
reality. When all Hungary was under Turkish dominion, 
it was in Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, that the system 
was established, in 1578, by a statute dated Bruck, and 
hence called by the well-known name of the Brucker- 


Libell; those very provinces in which Charlemagne had 
placed marquisses margraves, alias counts of the march 
or border, were, seven centuries later, organised by the 
House of Austria to protect the holy Roman Empire from 
the last and greatest Asiatic irruption; and the first system 
was, as nearly as possible, a counterpart of that of the 
Spahis on the other side of the Turkish fix)ntier. 

These corps, when mobilised, rendered the greatest 
services during the wars that preceded the treaties of 
Carlovitz and Passarovitz, in the end of the seventeenth 
and beginning of the eighteenth century; but, although 
daring in the presence of the enemy, they were very 
difficult to manage in peace; after the treaty of Carlovitz 
(1699), when Austria wished to introduce a system of 
taxation, Count Coronini, the imperial commissioner, was 
murdered in the church of Licca, and all the civil function- 
aries fied for a time out of the land; and subsequently 
Trenck's Pandours were regarded in bravery and barbarous 
ferocity like the Cossacks of our days : but before the end 
of the eighteenth century the whole frontier was brought 
into a state of the greatest discipline and efficiency, equal 
to that of any troops of the line. The campaign of 1809 
handed over this part of the military frontier to Napoleon; 
but their sympathies were not so easily transferred. With 
tears in their eyes they took leave of their commander, 
Marshal Jellachich, the father of the gentleman I have 
mentioned; and after the Moscow campaign, Croatia was 
one of the first provinces to return to Austria. 

The institution of the military frontier is. Communism 
excepted, on all hands allowed to be an admirable one, 
keeping a rude population in an orderly condition, and 
furnishing the state with excellent soldiers. By signals 
from hill to hill, the whole population, from Dalmatia to 
Moldavia, can be alarmed in a few hours, and at each 
head-quarters an effective force placed at the disposition 
of the commanding officer. 

At the beginning of the system, and for many generations, 
each farm had its family, which furnished a soldier or soldien 


to the state, according to the number of sons, in lieu of 
ground-rent and taxation; but in process of generations, 
the original single family spread out into several branches, 
of which the patriarch or oldest was the head and ruler, 
as well as holder of the land; and when the family or 
cluster of families grew numerous, the patriarch was often 
a tyrant, or, by some defect in the head or heart, in- 
capable of managing his descendants or collaterals to their 
satisfaction. These evils grew to such a head, that in 
the beginning of this century the necessity of a reform 
was evident; and at length, in the year 1807, the present 
organisation was adopted ; all persons of intelligence having 
been invited freely to offer their opinions, to propose 
plans, and to suggest remedies for abuses. Upwards of 
two hundred persons availed themselves of this privilege; 
and the result, in which the Archdukes Charles and Louis 
had the principal part, appears to have given general 
satisfaction. The main feature of it was, that the steward 
or manager was elected by the family — involving a change 
from the patriarchal household to one of liberty, equality, 
and fraternity. 

Forty years have now elapsed since the introduction 
of the new system; but the rose springs from the thorn, 
and the thorn from the rose; and while the judicial and 
military administration of the territory is excellent, the 
social system is totally destructive of harmony. The simple 
family of the last century, occupying a house and farm, 
is now often become a community, amounting to twenty, 
thirty, or forty individuals, the relationship between whom, 
through the lapse of several generations, is almost nominal. 
The younger and more active labourers have become further 
and further removed from each other in relationship and 
in sympathy; and this has developed all the evils of 

Ninety-nine officers out of a hundred think that Com- 
munism ought to be abolished; but the greatest caution 
ought to be used in dealing carelessly with the other 
parts of an institution that is of such value to the state 


The young soldiers at present work alternately at home 
and on military service, from twenty to twenty-three years 
of age; and the communities, from their number, have 
no difficulty in furnishing soldiers, who are fed by the 
house, and not by the state ; but if the lands were re- 
divided, a small family would, in many instances, find a 
difficulty in either sparing him from field-labour, or nourish- 
ing him out of the house. A field battalion, raised by 
conscription, including the whole population of a certain 
age, to be subsequently embodied in the reserve, would, 
by general opinion, render the frontier as a military in- 
stitution much more perfect; but it could not be ac- 
complished in small families without some pay and rations 
from the state. Here, then, lies the difficulty: the break- 
ing up of Communism, and sub-division into families, would 
increase the aggregate wealth from the fresh impulse to 
labour; but in small families, occupying a small piece of 
ground, it could not be carried out without a supply of 
money; and whence is the money to come from, without 
altering the relations of the frontier to the financial de- 

In order to give a satisfatory solution, I must draw 
the reader's attention to the physical geography of the 
whole military frontier. The highland part of Croatia is, 
as the reader knows, although picturesque to the eye, poor 
and unproductive; but following the Turkish frontier 
eastwards, we get into the valley of the Save, all along 
which nature has been bountiful of rich soil. As much, 
and even more, may be said of the Banat; for the sea, 
which, at a not very remote geological period, covered 
all Hungary, being drained by the rending of the rocks 
at the Iron Gates, the Banat of Temesvar is the alluvial 
sediment of the washings of the upper basin of the Danube. 
Thus the political uniformity of the military frontier system 
has produced the greatest inequality in the economical 
condition of the borderer. The severe cordon service of 
the dry frontier falls on six Croatian regiments, who are 
economically less able to bear it than the men of Slavdnia 


and the Banat, who have the Save and the Danube for a 
natural cordon. 

It is clear, therefore, that a reform ought to create two 
distinct systems, suited to the physical geography of each 
district. In the rich regiments, the character of the soldier, 
although not dispensed with, ought to be subordinate to that 
of the peasant, who might be allowed a more free scope for 
his labour, and subject to a moderate extra contribution; 
while in the mountainous districts an opposite course might 
be pursued. In short, nature points out in the most unmis- 
takeable manner that the territorial division of labour, 
which makes the Dalmatian a sailor, demands that the 
hardy borderer of the poor and unproductive Croatian 
regiments should be more of a soldier than a peasant, 
and the industrious German of the Banat more of a pea- 
sant than of a soldier. 



The Vellibitch overlooks the Adriatic; and parallel to 
it, but farther inland, is another chain, having various 
designations, which overlooks the valley of the Unna, a 
river which intersects the north-west corner of Turkey in 
Europe. Gospich and Ottochatz are situated on plains 
between these two ranges of mountains; but as all the 
waters of these places filter their subterraneous way through 
the Vellibitch, I was, in Ottochatz, still in the basin of 
the Adriatic ; but on the other side of the Plissevatz, as 
the second or inland parallel chain is called, we find the 
Unna flowing to the Save, and consequently to the Danube. 
The highlands I was about to cross had therefore an 
interest for the most stupid traveller, their ridges being the 
limit between the basins of the Black and the Adriatic Seas. 


Colonel Mastro^sach having, with the greatest kindness, 
requested a lieutenant of the regiment to accompany me 
to the cordon on the Turkish frontier (from which I 
could visit Bihacs, a picturesque Turkish town in the 
valley of the Unna), we started in a car of the country, 
at once struck eastwards into the mountains, and, rapidly 
ascending, arrived in three hours at Verovice, where, as 
there was no inn, we were welcomed by the captain of 
this district, whom we found in his office in all the in- 
tricacies of his duty. He led the way to his house, which 
was very prettily situated between a range of mountains; 
most of the houses straggling, and, as in Servia, built of 
wood, and each with its small yard of agricultural stock, 
embosomed in trees, and a wooden paling surrounding 
the whole establishment. The house of an officer in the 
country (for Verovice is country compared with Ottochatz) 
is usually of one story, whitewashed outside, the furniture 
within of walnut-wood, and every thing in a style of 
military cleanliness and complete absence of superfluity; 
except the officer be married, and then one sees the little 
knick-knacks, and the attempt to get up a sort of draw- 
ing-room, even in this sequestered part of Europe. 

The captain made his appearance with the key of his 
office dangling from his hand, having closed the labours 
of the day : he had no society whatever in the place, and 
to see a brother-officer must ride an hour or two; so he 
regularly read every word of the Augsburg Gazette; and 
his conversation reminded me of a remote country clergy- 
man in England or Scotland, somewhat rusty, but tempered 
with a kindly humour or earnestness, which made its way 
at once to the heart. As the evening advanced, I found 
Verovice to be sensibly cooler than Ottochatz, and was 
fain to sit with my cloak wrapped around me. I was 
assured that in winter, twelve and fifteen degrees (Reau- 
mur) of cold is usual, from the vicinity of Bosnia, which 
appears to be the coldest region in Europe of the same 
latitude. At an early hour the worthy captain shewed me to 
my room ; for we were to start for the lakes by peep of dawn. 


A long melgincholy cry of a bird echoing through the 
woods awoke me as the grey uncertain light was pene- 
trating into my little room; and presently in came the 
captain, with kind inquiries, and the intelligence of a fine 
day about to dawn : so, after a hasty cup of coffee and a 
pipe, the lieutenant and myself started in the car for the 
lakes. Our road was one of rapid winding ascent through 
a delightful varied country; at a moderate distance on 
each side were hills covered with pine-forests, interspersed 
with pasture-lands in the hollows. Although in the month 
of June, I felt severe cold at this time of the morning; 
but the sun had scarce risen before the temperature be- 
came agreeable. Soon the hills joined together narrower 
and narrower, until the pasture ceased, and we found 
ourselves in the deep gloom of a thick forest. We did 
not meet a living creature ; for, except a few wood-cutters' 
huts, there are no villages in this part of Croatia: but 
after some hours of ascent and descent, the sound of a 
saw-mill was heard, and we came upon one with a hamlet 
beside it, all miserably poor, as there is no good soil here. 
We then quitted the car, and sent it round by the road 
towards the Unna, while we, attended by a guide, might 
walk and boat it across the country. Further on, the 
forest opened, and we suddenly came upon the principal 
lake of Plissevatz; and having taken two men with us 
from the hamlet, we found in a nook two primitive boats 
or canoes, formed of two sections of the thick trunk of 
a tree scooped out in the middle, in the bottom of which 
each of us seated ourselves, and were rowed along to the 
other end of the lake, a distance of about three miles. 
The borders of it were abrupt, and entirely wooded down 
to the very water's edge, and so entirely sequestered, that 
not a house, a road, or a human being was visible; in 
short, such complete solitude, as to produce a sensation 
of pleasing novelty. It was now forenoon, with its warm 
sunshine, and the waters were so clear, that in some 
places I could see a bottom of at least five and twenty feet; 
a dark animal, which I took to be a bear, was seen among 


the trees; but on hearing the splash of the oars on the 
water, immediately absconded into the farther recesses of 
the thicket. At the other extremity of the lake we landed, 
and found a slope covered with wild strawberries, through 
which a river issued from the lake, and continuing for a 
quarter of an hour, broke abruptly off in a precipice, over 
which the river dashed in one unbroken sheet to a second 
lake, round which the hills were riven asunder in all the 
irregular beauty left by the war of the four elements, 
when the boundaries of each were unde^ned, and the 
long peace of the fair world we live in was as yet im- 
settled by the hand of Omnipotence. 

After a walk of six or eight miles through the woods, 
continually ascending, and often meeting with forest-trees 
of great size, we regained the road, and, waiting for the 
car, now remounted. In the course of the afternoon we 
arrived at the ridge between the two basins, and soon 
looked down on the wide valley of the Unna, stretching 
a breadth of six or eight miles, and marked longitudinally 
by two distinct lines ; to the eastward, the river serpenting 
through the plain — westwards, and nearer me, the cordon 
or frontier line, ditched and staked off with high palings, 
and connected at intervals with lookout houses, so as to 
form a line as traceable to the eye as the river itself. 
But a Chinese, placed by enchantment on the spot from 
which I overlooked the valley, must at once have con- 
cluded that two systems diametrically opposite to each 
other influenced the different sides of the cordon. Here 
the land was all subdivided and particoloured in fields; 
on the other side he might see just as much culture as to 
make the general neglect more visible. 

It is truly strange that in some districts of Europe 
not far from the valley of the Unna, men should be so 
densely packed together, and here the land should not 
be utilised to the extent of one-fourth of its fair suscepti- 
bilities. Surely the government of the Porte commits a 
serious error in not encouraging a free emigration from 
the crowded parts of Europe to the fertile regions of 


her vast dominions. The arts and sciences, instead of 
thinly varnishing the capital, would gradually pervade and 
strengthen the empire ; while the very diversity of nations, 
with their respective languages and religions, would be 
the surest guarantee against efforts to endanger her. supre- 

The road wound down between the hills to the level 
of the plain, both the dwellings and persons of the popu- 
lation shewing an existence under happier material con- 
ditions than those of the uplands. A few miles aheSid of 
us was Zavalje, the Austrian station, situated on a plateau 
that jutted out from the foot of the mountain, where we 
arrived at four o'clock. It was just as if nature herself 
had intended it to be a fortified camp ; for although level, 
and large enough to accommodate 50,000 men, it was 
raised every where forty or fifty feet above the valley; 
and opposite it, down in an island in the middle of the 
river, about a couple of miles off, was the Turkish town 
of Bihacs, with its minarets and middle-age fortifications 
rising out of the surrounding gardens; a position, from 
the width, natural wealth, and beauty of the valley, worthy 
of a great and populous capital. 

The house of the major to whom our letter was ad- 
dressed was somewhat in the style of a villa, surrounded 
by a small park; some former commandant, a generation 
or two ago, having amused himself by creating a shady 
grove and walks; and as the whole range of the valley, 
up and down, for a dozen miles, is seen under the trees, 
the position is a most agreeable one. A day's journey 
from here is another park, or wood, but certainly not in 
the English taste, having been planted by Marshal Loudon 
in the order of one of his battles— regiments of oaks and 
pines on perennial parade. Zavalje has no regular forti- 
fications, but a redoubt; and the regiment, in case of 
need, is alarmed by a rocket, which communicates with 
a peak of one of the hills above. 

The major, a most intelligent officer, then took me to 
look at the bazaar of exchange, or Rastell, as it is called 


— a quarter of a mile off, for the Austrian frontier does 
not go up to the Unna; and here I found far more meiv 
cantile activity than at Metcovich. A large octagonal 
building, capable of defence, was the dwelling of the 
various quarantine officers; and we visited the wife of 
the inspector, a native of Vienna, who sighed for a little 
more amusement than the Turkish frontier afforded. No 
strains of Strauss, or humours of Nestroy, to enliven the 
dulness of a long winter; a walk in the same garden, 
and a view of the same pretty valley of the Unna, was 
the toujour 8 perdrix of Zavalje. Behind this building 
was the square courtyard of the lazaretto; and under a 
roof, or verandah, was the barrier of the bazaar, a few 
feet high; on the other side of which was a crowd of 
Moslems, in small white turbans of a Barbary fashion, 
and quite unlike the ample folds of the Asiatic. They 
were weighing and exporting grain. The advantage of 
these bazaars is moral as well as material. Nothing 
can exceed the fanaticism and hatred of the two popu- 
lations on the opposite sides of the frontier; and if it 
were not for the ever-recurring necessity of communi- 
cation, and of mutual dependence, it would certainly be 
difficult for the two Governments to restrain them from 
more frequent collisions. 

On our return, we met the other officers of the station ; but 
the excessive fatigue of the day had so overpowered me, that 
I retired early, and recruited myself by a sound nighVs sleep. 



I now prepared to quit the Croatian Highlands, and 
cross the Vellibitch for the third and last time. The great 
and fertile valley of the Save and its tributaries communi- 
cates with the Adriatic by two roads, the Maria Louisa 
Strasse, which connects Carlstadt with Fiume; and the 


old Josephiner Strasse, which connects inland Croatia with 
the port of Zengg, or Segna, — the only place of any con- 
sequence between Fiume and Zara, which appears to be 
so little known, that I was unable to find a single book 
of travels, in any language, on this part of Europe. It 
was to Zengg, or Segna, that I now proceeded ; and having 
hired a small carriage, I fell into the Josephiner Strasse, 
at a hamlet called Xutaloqua (pronounced Zhootaloqua), 
about mid-day; rapidly ascended the eastern slope of the 
Vellibitch, to the head of the pass ; and on emerging from 
the passage of the summit, which was deeply cut in the 
rock, again found myself overlooking the sea. The road is 
narrower, and the descent more precipitous, than the one 
by which 1 crossed to and from Dalmatia; a wide plain 
spreads out at the top of the pass; and I said to a man 
on the road, that I thought this table-land must be de- 
lightfully cool in the month of July. ^'Gluhend heiss'^ 
(glowing hot), said he. Ottochatz is much cooler, al- 
though so much lower; here the air comes up from the 
bare, heated rocks next the sea; down in Ottochatz it is 
cooled by the masses of forest it passes over. Advancing 
to the brow of the precipice was a wide view of the 
Adriatic and Archipelago, similar in character, but different 
in detail, from the pass of the post-road above Zara. 
Zengg, at the foot of the hill, was scarcely visible; the 
space between the sea and the foot of the mountain being 
80 narrow. The islands opposite were Veglia and Cherso, 
and beyond them, the mountains of Istria; these islands 
no longer belonging to Dalmatia, but to the gulf of 
Quaruaro. 1 have often overlooked verdant plains from 
bare rocky heights; but it certainly was a novelty, to 
stand on a table-land, three thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, where all was verdure and foliage, and look 
down upon such an expanse of barren islands, which, but 
for the empurpled robe wherewith distance invested them, 
would have been far from attractive to the vision. 

In consequence of the climate here being moister than 
at Dalmatia, the forest does not stop at the top of the 


mountain, but extends a considerable way down the hill. 
Half way to Zengg is a fountain of black marble, with an 
inscription to Francis the First, and the water so cold, 
although in the month of June, that I could scarcely bear 
to plunge my hand in the trough. Close to it I perceived a 
villa and garden; and on inquiry found that it was that 
of Major Knesich of the Austrian engineers, who has had 
the direction of the public works in this part of Austria 
for twenty years. A recent excavation of some garden- 
ground shewed that a mass of human bones, several yards 
deep, had been lately exhumed. When the Turks, in the 
sixteenth century, gradually got possession of all these 
countries inland, Clissa, above Spalato, was the first place 
of refuge of the Christian fugitives, called in • Illyrian, 
Uskok; and on Clissa being taken by the Turks, Zengg 
(Italian, Segna) thenceforth became the stronghold of 
those resolute spirits who refused to submit to Turkish 
authority. But liberty grew to license; independence be- 
came piracy; those who escaped from the tyranny of 
the Turks of those days were, in course of time, the 
tyrants of the Adriatic; and favoured by the Emperor, as 
a thorn in the side of the Turks, they at length became 
so troublesome to the Venetians and their trade, as to 
cause a long and bloody war between the Republic and 
the Emperor, and Zengg became a robber-republic and a 
sort of Algiers of the Adriatic. The Turks repeatedly 
attempted to make themselves master of Zengg; and 
on this very spot, in 1654, they were totally defeated 
by the Uskoks, with the loss , as it is pretended, of three 
thousand slain ; hence the assemblage of dead men's bones. 
As I descended the last slopes of the mountain, Zengg 
appeared in sight, and is certainly the most miserable 
abode on the Adriatic; so that I suspect one must go to 
the parched rocks of Arabia for a parallel. It is on a 
narrow slip of land at the foot of the mountain; and the 
precipitous coast, as far as the eye can reach, north and 
south, is utterly and painfully sterile. In the middle of 
the town, on a small irregular public place, the jaunting- 


car drew up at the inn, kept by a German; I was shewn 
to a passable room, adorned with prints of St. Greorge 
and the Dragon, and the renowned Madame Todi, the 
great prima donna of the last century; and supper was 
served to me in a large ball-room, with lights rendering 
darkness truly visible. 

Next morning, I presented my letters to Major Knesich, 
who had the kindness to shew me the place. We went 
first to the harbour; and here I again found myself in 
the peculiar air of a port. Feluccas and their sails were 
seen in the offing; an Austrian brig-of-war lay at the 
extremity of the mole that ran out into the sea; barrel- 
hoops and squeezed lemons floated in the filthy water; 
and the reflected sun-light trembled on the black pitchy 
stern of a sloop at the quay. The range of houses, shops, 
and government-stores, facing the sea, are principally in 
a commonplace German style; for Zengg, being Croat, 
never formed a part of Venetian Dalmatia, and is totally 
devoid of Venetian embellishment. But although almost 
as dreary as Suez itself, it is a bustling, thriving, pros- 
perous place. What a contrast to Bihacs, with its green 
pastures, its bounteous soil, fragrant flowers, and sturdy 
oaks of centuries' growth ; but the town itself in ruin and 
desolation! Zengg, being a free port, furnishes salt and 
wine to the military frontier, receives in return grain, 
hides, and staves, and sends at least ten or twelve millions 
of the latter, principally to Oporto and Marseilles, which 
thence, after being well soaked with the wines of the Douro 
and the Rhone, spread over all the world. 

In the interior of the town, the only edifice worthy of 
remark is the ruinous palace of the Dukes of Deux Fonts, 
who, after the termination of the wars of the Guelphs and 
Gliibellines, resided here. It ultimately became a royal 
Hungarian borough, by patent of Matthias Corvinas, in 
1480; and in the two succeeding centuries acquired its 
bad notoriety on the Adriatic ; but since the re-conquest 
of Hungary by Austria in 1784, Zengg has ceased to be 
of the slightest historical and political importance. It is 
Paton. I. 26 


now a free community, like Semlin and other trading 
places in the military frontier ; that is to say, under mili- 
tary superior government, but the inhabitants lying under 
no universal conscription, as in the regimental districts. 
I was surprised to find no Italian element here among 
the common people ; and a still more curious circumstance 
is, that the descendants of many Italian and German 
settlers, although preserving their national names, are un- 
acquainted with either languages, and speak and think 
only lilyrian. The superior magistrate treats shipping 
affairs in Italian; judicial in German, as in the military 
frontier; and civic-economical aJBEairs in Groat. 

Zengg is the see of a Bishop, whose diocese includes 
Fiume and the highlands of Croatia. On being presented 
by the Major, he engaged us to dine next day. At the 
appointed hour, the prelate, who has the pohtest manners 
imaginable, received us in his summer-dress of black satin, 
faced with scarlet; and leading the way to his billard- 
room, proceeded to try my skill ; but it was soon evident 
that I had no chance with him in the practice of C€tnon 
law. The Bishop was said to be exemplary in his own 
life, and very strict with his clergy, more especially at 
Fiume, as, being a large town, it has more temptations 
than the rural districts. 

In course of conversation, I learned that the Bora, or 
north wind, blows occasionally with such violence as to 
sweep vessels in the port out to se^, overturn the heaving 
carriages, and render all locomotion impossible, for the 
strongest men are unable to walk from one end of the 
quay to the other while the Bora blows with violence. 
It is the custom of the principal inhabitants, on New- 
year's Day, to pay their respects to the Bishop; and al- 
though the episcopal palace is not more than two or 
three minutes' walk out of the Fiume gate, yet, on the 
Ist of January, 1847, not a soul dared to go near him, 
in consequence of the power of the Bora. It is presumed 
that the action of the sun on Africa causing powerful 
currents of cold air to blow from the north, the current 


drawn from France passes by the wide gate or entrance 
into the Mediterranean formed by Languedoc and Provence, 
flanked on the one side by the Alps, and on the other 
by the Pyrenees, and that this breadth of passage prevents 
excessive violence; but the current that comes down the 
Adriatic is drawn from the countries to the northward, 
and, compressed with great violence between a few pas- 
sages of the Vellibitch, acquires that irresistible force 
which is unknown elsewhere. The port of Zengg is a 
very bad one, being exposed to the southerly winds, which 
the government is attempting to remedy by a mole in 
course of construction; but, altogether, I saw no place 
on my tour so ill-favoured by nature in every possible 
way either for commerce or agriculture ; and its existence 
is solely owing to the necessity of some outlet for the 
sylvan district behind it. 

On the same evening I joined with a gentleman going • 
to Fiume in the hire of a carriage thither along the coast- 
road, which is as execrable as any one in Hungary. ^Nothing 
could be better than the roads crossing the Vellibitch; 
but this one, being very little frequented, and passing 
through a district almost devoid of population, was posi- 
tively dangerous. One bare headland after another pro- 
jected into the sea, and at each three or four miles was 
an interval in the most literal acceptation of the word — 
a small ravine, with a few stunted vines and olives, and a 
couple of houses. Sometimes the road rose high above 
the beach, protected from a precipice by a parapet; at 
other times we were on the sea-shore ; and a high ladder, 
fixed deeply like a ship's mast among stones, and pro- 
jecting over the water, was intended for fishing. A man 
went up to the top, and, watching when the fish came, 
spread out the net fringed with stones, which, rapidly 
sinking to the bottom, enclosed the fish; while the net 
hauled out held the fish as in a purse with the strings drawn. 

As we approach Novi, six hours from Zengg, the 
mountain springs asunder; and the cleft being too wide 
for a high bridge, the road is led down by a series of 



precipitate gyrations, our carriage wheels being tied, and 
we dismounting, in case of accidents. It was dark when 
we arrived at Novi, the inn of which is a real feudal 
castle, with crenellated towers and battlements; and had 
it been the scene of the well-known adventure of a true 
Don Quixote posterity would not have laughed at him as 
a madman. After so fatiguing a journey, we were in 
anticipation of a pleasant night's rest, but found a party 
of travellers that had taken the few beds to spare ; even a 
shake-down in the parlour or tap-room was out of the 
question, for it was already occupied by a band of Italian 
strollers, with hurdy-gurdies and white mice, resting 
from the labour of turning their little mill, not to mention 
a baboon, which sent forth a most unfragrant odour. 
So we had no resource but to make the best of our way 
to the carriage again, and recommenced a disagreeable 
journey in the worst, nay most unreasonable, humour 
imaginable. But sleep brought ofclivion of the darkness 
and unconsciousness of the jolting; and next morning, 
awaking at sunrise, the morning air of mid June was truly 
refreshing. Soon after, we arrived at Porto Re; a capa- 
cious and land-locked port, the largest ships of ihe line 
being able to anchor close to the quays. It was intended 
for an arsenal of the first class, by the Emperor Charles 
the Sixth, in the beginning of the last century; but on 
account of the violence of the Bora, it has been abandoned 
as a station of the Austrian navy, for Pola in Istria. The 
houses are built in the Frenchified German style of that 
period ; and the whole place has an air of ci-devant royalty 
and abandoned grandeur. . 

A middle-age castle, with round towers and moats, 
stands isolated on a slight eminence overlooking the port, 
and was one of the numerous residences of the Frangipan 
or Francopan family, who possessed in fee the whole of 
the territory I have recently described, from Licca to the 
environs of Fiume, as well as several islands opposite. 
Claiming a descent from one of the greatest families of 
Rome, with or without justice I know not, they enjoyed 


up to nearly the close of the seventeenth century a position 
little short of that of royalty; but entering into a con- 
spiracy against the Emperor Leopold, the head of the house 
was decapitated in 1671, in the environs of Vienna. One 
of the comer towers is shewn as the one in which the 
wife of Nadasdy overheard the deliberations of the con- 
spirators, and, having fled, shut herself up in a castle at 
some distance ; but an emissary of the conspirators having 
gained admittance on pretence of delivering her a letter, 
she was stabbed to the heart while engaged in its perusal. 
The present destination of the castle of Porto Re is that 
of a leper hospital; a form of this disease being com- 
mon in this part of Croatia, and, like the curious malady 
in the hair at Cracow, supposed to have risen from per- 
sonal uncleanliness. 

All the way from Zengg hither I found myself opposite 
the same island of Veglia, which was in the most glomy 
periods of the Turkish war a possession entirely devoted 
to the Frangipan dynasty; and a most singular circum- 
stance still recalls these relations. After the execution 
of Frangipan, the people of Veglia wore mourning; and 
the black habit having become perpetual and customary 
up to the present time, yellow is now the colour symbolical 
of mourning. 

Passing Buccari (a small town shut in the further comer 
of the large bay on which Porto Re is situated, and, like 
it, subject to severe blasts of Bora), the road ascended 
among vineyards, and emerging on the ridge, the sea view, 
no longer hemmed in by the island of Veglia, revealed 
to us the broad open gulf of Quamaro, beyond which 
Istria, hitherto seen in the dimmest distance, rose from 
the water's edge, thickly dotted with villages. Near the 
head of the gulf, Fiume itself was the centre of the picture, 
and expanding along the shore, and rising from the water 
so as to cover the brow of the hill, was, as £ar as mere 
beauty of situation is concerned, worthy of the first nrari- 
time position in the rising and hopeful kingdom of Hungary. 




Our journey had been a slow and tedious one; but the 
carriage at length deposited me at the hotel of the "King 
of Hungary," in the centre of the town; the windows of 
one side of the house opening on the gulf of Quamaro, and 
on the other on newly built streets. As I surveyed the 
fresh new furniture of my room, I felt the return to a 
more civilised existence. Days as barren of adventure 
as of discomfort; tea and toast, Galigncm^a Messenger, 
and frizzled waiter; for Novi, with its castellated inn and 
white mice, was the last of romantic misery that I saw 
in my tour. 

After arrival, our obliging Vice-Consul, Mr. Hill, had 
the kindness to shew me what was to be seen at Fiume. 
The town has two distinct aspects: the Citta Yecchia, on 
the hill, is quite old, and has a mean look ; the new town 
is built along the sea-side, and looks quite German, as if 
it were a suburb of Vienna; the houses being well built^ 
but monotonous, and devoid of any edifice worthy of ad- 
miration. The two casinos, the one of the nobles and 
military, the other of the merchants, are internally well 
fitted up, particularly the latter, which has been more 
recently built and more sumptuously furnished than the 
other. At the so-called Fiumara, where a river enters 
the gulf, the masts of the ships, the alleys of full-grown 
trees, and the fresh new houses facing the quay, remind 
the traveller of Rotterdam; but following the water-side 
inland, he finds, instead of a flat country and the Treck- 
skuyt, a gloomy wooded gorge; the precipices on each 
side filling up two-thirds of the perpendicular, and barely 
leaving room for the river, which turns a variety of 
mills, the principal being a large papermaking establish- 
ment of an English company, the most extensive of the 
kind in the Austrian empire; a short narrow canal pro- 
curing a fall of thirty feet of water. High over head is 


another castle of the Frangipans, who were the Marquises 
or Carabas of this country; for in many places I have 
asked, "Whose ruined castle is that?" and have always 
been answered, "Frangipan." This castle at present be- 
longs to the gallant and able Marshal Count Nugent. 
But a very small portion of it is inhabited ; and in a sort 
of modem temple is a museum of antiquities, consisting 
of sculpture, brought mostly from the kingdom of Naples, 
but repaired and put together in the most painfully unskil- 
ful manner. 

Fiume is a dot on the Adriatic; but my thoughts ex- 
pand to the limits of that ancient and glorious kingdom, 
the dormant wealth of which is daily subject to awaken- 
ing impulses. In equidistance from the pole to the equator, 
Hungary possesses in a fertile soil the first element of 
prosperity; for all Europe may be searched through 
without finding an alluvium superior to that which covers 
the Banat, and yields golden harvests with the slightest 
toil. All round her northern frontier, in a great semi- 
circle, the Carpathians protect from the chilling blasts of 
Poland those gentle eminences on which is gi'own the 
luscious Tokay and other vines of nearly equal worth, if 
not of equal note. The most voluminous water-way of 
Europe rolls through her very heart ; and in the mineral, 
not less than the vegetable kingdom, Hungary takes a 
rank of the first European importance. Amid all these 
bounties. Nature has been niggard in one important parti- 
cular: a cheap, easy, and convenient access to the sea is 
still a desideratum to the Hungarian. 

Fiume, the only considerable port of the kingdom of 
Hungary, has all the advantages of situation that belong 
to places situated on the head of seas or gulfs that go 
far into the land, and all the disadvantages of those places 
which are cut off from their resources by high mountains. 
The advantages of such places as Odessa and Marseilles, 
that communicate with the country behind them by, com- 
paratively speaking, level means, are immense; and this 
disproportion is likely to be still more increased by the 


substitution of railways for ordinary roads. The bafiiness 
of Venice is to be the warehouse of the countries to 
the west of the head of the Adriatic; that of Flume, to 
bring the products from the eastward: but, while all the 
valley of the Po lies open to the Venetian, and communi- 
cations by land and water offer every facility, the valleys 
of the Save and the Danube are cut off by the continuation 
of the Alps. The Save flows in the wrong direction for 
Fiume; and while the products of Wallachia and Bulgaria 
are borne easily and cheaply down to Galatz and Braila, 
the wheat of the Banat cannot compete in price with that 
of the Danubian ports, in consequence of those natural 
barriers which are interposed between Hungary and the sea. 
It was to abate this disadvantage that the Maria Louisa 
road was constructed, under the auspices of the Austrian 
military authorities — a truly noble work; but, being now 
in the hands of a private company, that looks rather to 
its own dividend than to the public benefit, the tolls are 
necessarily high ; and this, added to the great uncertainty 
of the navigation of the Save and the Culpa, has for an 
unavoidable consequence that Fiume, instead of pretend- 
ing to compete with Galatz and Braila as a European 
granary, is almost entirely restricted to the local resources 
of ship-building, for which the neighbouring mountainB 
afford the most excellent wood. During the great com-criais 
of 1846-7, while the merchants of Odessa made large for- 
tunes, those of Fiume exhausted the available stock in a 
few cargoes. One English house ordered a quantity of 
com from the Banat; but during the summer the water 
of the river navigation was deficient; and no sooner did 
the rains of autumn swell the stream, than the further 
progress of the boats containing the com was again re- 
tarded. Scarce had the river returned to its medium state, 
when winter set in; while the boats were frozen in the 
Save, the rats, attracted in shoals, consumed and damaged 
the corn ; and the cargo arrived in England in this state 
some time after prices had fallen. This authentic case 
speaks volumes on the evils produced by the want of 


proper communications in Hungary. But while the disad- 
vantage of the river-navigation is delay and uncertainty, 
that of the land-carriage by the road of Maria Louisa is 
expense. It is, therefore, a matter of anxious desire for 
the Fiumani that by a railway a better communication 
might be opened up with the interior of Hungary. But 
the difficulties are very great; the expense of cutting 
through the chain of Julian Alps would be enormohs ; and 
a railway from Sisseck, the point at which the Culpa flows 
into the Save, carried up the valley to near Laibach, so as 
to intersect the Trieste and Vienna line, would be cheap 
and advantageous to Hungary and Trieste, but most in- 
jurious to Fiume. The plan of Count Stephen Secheniy, 
the practical direction of whose patriotism forms a refresh- 
ing contrast to the bombast in which the ultra-Magyar 
party indulge, as detailed in a pamphlet, was a railway 
from Fiume to Pesth, with two great branches; one to 
the right, by Fiinf-Kirchen to Mohacs on the Danube, and 
another to the left, towards (Edenburg and Presburg. In 
every case a great expense and delay must be incurred. 
The principal present resource of Fiume is ship- 
building, for which the splendid forests of the Julian 
Alps afford the greatest facilities; not to mention the 
low price of labour, and the excellence of the workmen, 
the caulkers being equal to those of Messina. About 
twenty-five vessels of long course were building at the 
time of my visit, several of them being ordered for 
the ports of the Black Sea; the timber of Croatia 
being so much more durable than that of southern 

Russia. One day, Mr. P , the principal anchor-smith 

of the place, took me to one of the ship-building creeks 
of the neighbourhood. Our road was bordered with the 
gardens of the wealthy Fiumani; but as we approached, 
nothing was to be seen of the crowded squalor and un- 
pleasant odours so often combined with a ship-building 
neighbourhood in many ports. In a retired creek, sur- 
rounded with shrubbery that came down to the water's 
edge, the high hull resounded with the clink of hammw 


and the clack of mallet; while lofty plane-trees shaded 
the wood-yard, under which a clear cold crystal spring of 
water gushed from the neighbouring rock to the pebbled 
beach; so that I could scarce conceive a more delightlal 
spot for manual labour. The master was a rough, joDy, 
sailor- looking man; and on my remarking the agreeable 
situation, he said, ^'Agreeable enough in summer, for we 
are cool; but in winter, when the bora blows, you would 
think that stiff ship, high and dry on land, in dang^ of 
shipwreck on the coast of Veglia, over the water there." 

Ever since 1471, Fiume has belonged to the house of 
Habsburgh; and in 1530 received, from Charles V., muni- 
cipal institutions, consisting of a greater and smaller 
council of patricians, the former of fifty, the latter of 
twenty-five persons. In 1776, Maria Theresa incorporated 
this section of the coast of the Adriatic with the kingdom 
Hungary; but during the French Empire, Fiume formed 
a part of the French province of Illyria; and before 1849, 
being a part of constitutional Hungary (not of the military 
jfrontier), it sent two members to the Diet. 

The population of the town speaks indifferently Italian 
and Slaavic; the latter in the Croat, and partly in the 
Istrian, alias Garni clan, dialect. 

After a residence of a week at Fiume, I started fipom 
thence in the diligence for Trieste, the road bisecting the 
neck of the peninsula of Istria ; and in twelve hours was 
deposited in the post-office of that city. The traveller 
here feels himself no longer in a provincial atmosphere, 
but in one of the great centres of political action and 
commercial transaction. A broad quay, paved with large 
solid flags, enables the vessels in port to load and unload, 
with the utmost convenience, at the counting-houses and 
warehouses of the owners. Of all the ports I have seen, 
Trieste is the cleanest; there is no muddy river, there is 
no accumulation of filth; for the current from Dalmatia 
and Istria sweeps all the water round to Friuli All the 
quays are of recent and solid construction The busiett 
quarter has been entirely rebuilt; and one must plunge 


into the back-streets of the town to find a house of the 
last century, so rapidly and suddenly has Trieste risen 
up to be one of the first eraporia on the Mediterranean. 
There are few of the newly-built towns on the continent 
that can vie with Trieste in the substantial solidity and 
comfort of the private dwellings. What noble staircases, 
with their massive columns of polished granite rising above 
each other up to the fifth floor! 

Trieste has very little of antiquarian or artistic interest 
for the traveller, except a crumbling relic of a Roman 
arch in the old town; but the movement is striking, as 
contrasted with the quiet old places I had visited in other 
parts of the Adriatic. In Ragusa, we have the caducity 
of age; but Trieste is the youth, in a state of hope, of 
vigour, and with a destiny which is yet to be evolved. 
The streets are crowded with well-dressed, well-conditioned 
men, the rotundity of whose proportions indicate a dark 
den of wares in town, and a neat snug box and hanging- 
gardens in the environs. Then the young generation have, 
at first sight, a dandified air; but one soon sees the over- 
dressing and the over-doing of the fashion of the day; 
and the go-a-head precipitation with which they move 
through the streets, denotes at once the men whose business 
is not to waste time and money elegantly, but to turn 
both to the best advantage. No where, either on the 
Adriatic or in the Austrian Empire, is there a greater or 
more interesting variety of population than in Trieste; 
the Valais, in Switzerland, is the point where the Italian, 
the German, and the Swiss races all touch each other; 
and if I were asked for the tangent of Italian, German, 
and Slaavic, I would point to Trieste. Down at the port^ 
the strong contrasts of glaring sunshine and deep shadow, 
athwart which one sees, at the end of the street, the 
intense azure of the Adriatic; the currents of air, redolent 
of Bologna sausage and garlic, or strange spices ; and the 
almost universal use of the language of " SI ''—proclaim 
our vicinity to Italy. At the back of the town, just under 
the green uplands dotted with white villas, the dress and 


appearance of the people remind one of the vicinity to 
the lands broad and wide that stretch from the Alps to 
the Baltic. The old-fashioned rural German inn is there; 
not the Khine-land barrack hotel, but just as one sees it 
in the heart of Upper Austria, the court-yard filled with 
every sort of rural vehicle; the Hausknecht and Stall- 
knecht, in their long boots and blue aprons, speaking the 
broad dialect of the south-eastern provinces, a kind of 
Yorkshire to the classic language of the Schillers and 
Herders. Those Carniolan peasants, male and female, that 
throng the market-place, and people all the villages on 
those hills around, are Slaavs or Winds, and speak the 
same dialect as is heard in Istria, Garinthia, and lower 
Styria, which is different from Illyrian, although resembling 
it. Their temperament is melancholy, compared with the 
German and Italian ; but they are rather shy and diffident, 
than uncharitable and ungenerous; and doubtless some 
misunderstanding of the language gave rise to Goldsmith's 
lines : 

"Or onward where the rude Carinthian boor 
Against the houseless stranger shuts the door." 

The Tergesteum, or Exchange, in Trieste, is the centre 
of business, as well as the resort of the stranger and 
lounger; the Rialto of the east of the Adriatic, where 
merchants most do congregate. An immense new edifice, 
undistinguished by any remarkable external architecture, 
is situated on a triangular public place, near the port; 
internally, we find two wide spacious arcades, intersecting 
each other in the form of a Latin cross, which, covered 
with glass, is protected from rain and lighted from above. 
Here, at one o'clock, you meet every commerciai man in 
Trieste. What a loud hum of many steps and many 
voices! Those dark-complexioned men with mustachios, 
full of gesticulation, are Greeks striking a bargain; for 
this nation is in great force in Trieste, and exercises ft 
great influence. The German of the north is seen, with 
his round face, his blue eyes, and fair hair; and the Italiuiy 


with his regular features, glossy black hair, and pale com- 
plexion. Nor are the darker hues awanting; for a band 
of Arab sailors is seen entering, who look with surprise 
at a Frank bazaar. 

Trieste is a free port, with a population of 80,000 souls ; 
it has lately aspired to contest with Marseilles the pas- 
sage to India. It is the principal port of the Austrian 
empire; and, in the event of the adoption of the free- 
trade principle by that power, would become one of the 
most important cities of the world with reference to 
our mercantile interests. I presume there can be little 
doubt that, in the course of another generation, Egypt 
will cease to be the overland route for passengers from 
England to India, although it may secure the transit of 
goods. So soon as either Galatz, or any of the ports on 
the Black Sea, are connected by railway with Germany, 
the Tigris and the Persian Gulf must engage attention 
as a direct and preferable route for passengers; and when 
Turkey gets railways, as get them she must before a 
generation elapses, we shall doubtless see a railway con- 
nexion between the basin of the Tigris and the ports of 
the Black Sea. But, in the mean time, the Egyptian is 
the practised and practicable route; and there is no reason 
why Marseilles should not have competitors; for it is by 
a fair open competition between Marseilles and Trieste, 
that the Indian public is likely to be best served in the 
mean time. No sea can lie better for the Indian line than 
the Adriatic; since a straight line drawn from Alexandria 
to London would pass through the Gulf of Trieste ; while, 
in a military point of view, the route by the Adriatic in 
time of war with France — which, I hope, is a remote con- 
tingency — is preferable to that by Genoa, which is too 
near Toulon and the French ports, while the mouth of 
the Adriatic is protected by Corfu — an island at present 
somewhat out of the way, but a most valuable possession. 
And even in pacific times, I think that the Triestine, or 
Venetian, is .the more attractive route, from the variety 
of interesting cities that lie on the way of the traveller — 


Styria and Vienna, Milan and Switzerland, Tyrol and 
Munich, ad libitum. But so much has been already said 
to the public on these matters, that it would be tedious 
to discuss at further length the much-debated subject. 



Of all the islands of the Adriatic, none are ever so 
interesting as those of her quondam Queen; but what 
could I say, either in the way of personal narrative or of 
information, that would add to the common 'stock of 
knowledge on this interesting city? The Italian c-haracter 
and relations of Venice are all but thoroughly exhausted 
by the artist, the antiquary, and the topographer; but the 
traces of those connexions with the East that founded 
and fostered her fortunes up to a period long after the 
discovery of the passage by the Cape, open a wide and 
attractive field of inquiry, which I hope to see taken up 
by some competent individual who possesses the leisure 
to enter into the subject more satisfactorily than can be 
expected from a chapter in a book of travels. Twelve 
years had elapsed since 1 resided in Venice; and having 
during the previous winter examined the master-pieces of 
Saracenic architecture in Cairo, with Macrisi for my guide 
and instructor, I could scarce resist the temptation of 
re-visiting Venice for a few days, where old and rejected 
studies came back upon me with all their force, enhanced, 
as they were, by the recollection of Arab arts and Arab 
manners, which tinted with new and charming colours 
even the most insignificant objects. 

From the remotest times recorded in history, the ports 
of the great Indian continent were the depots of the 
spices which grew spontaneously on the islands to the 


eastward; and the Ganges, the Indus, and the Oxus, the 
rivers by which they found their way to the heart 
of Asia. Another portion of this costly merchandise 
was transported to Europe by the Red Sea and the 
Persian Gulf. Hence the so-called spices of Arabia were 
conveyed to Europe by galleys which touched at the 
coasts of that great peninsula on their passage from the 

''Every year, about the time of the summer solstice, 
a fleet of a hundred and twenty vessels sailed from Myos 
Hormos, a port of Egypt on the Red Sea. By the 
periodical assistance of the monsoons, they traversed the 
ocean in about forty days. The coast of Malabar, or the 
island of Ceylon, was the usual term of their navigation; 
and it was in those markets that the merchants from the 
more remote countries of Asia expected their arrival. 
The return of the fleet of Egypt was fixed to the months 
of December or January ; and as soon as their rich cargo 
had been transported, on the backs of camels, from the 
Red Sea to the Nile, and had descended that river as far 
as Alexandria, it was poured without delay into the 
capital of the empire." — (Gibbon^s Decline, vol. i.) 

Ostia, the seat of the traffic, was, in Pliny's time (as 
it would be now), ten days' sail from Alexandria; and 
we find that Alaric, on his arrival in Italy, was as anxious 
to secure that port, with the accumulated harvests of 
Africa, and the merchandise of Ormus and of Ind, as the, 
capital itself. As time rolled on, the marshes of Ravenna 
proved securer than the walls of Rome, or the moles of 
Ostia ; and Indian commerce is transferred from the mouths 
of the Tiber to the vicinage of the mouths of the Po. 
But while freedom, security, and enterprise create Venice, 
commerce languishes in Ravenna; and the sea-current 
which sweeps round the Gulf of Venice carries the alluvial 
accumulations of the Po southwards, and Venice, long 
before her glory, sees Ravenna high and dry, an inland town. 

The Empire of the West had crumbled to pieces, and 
that of the East was shaken to its foundations. The 


Arabs, guided by enthusiaBm alone, and with no otiier 
tastes than for horses and verses — the faris tou ahaer'^ 
spread over the eastern and southern shores of the Medi- 
terranean. Their religion forbids the imitative arts; but 
no sooner has the clangour of invasion ceased, than the 
antique element every where leavens the new. In Dftmascus, 
in Bagdad, in Corfu, in Cairoan, in Granada, in Cordova, 
and in Cairo, science, literature, and architecture all 
revive. The mere private library of the Caliph Mostanser 
contained 120,000 volumes. The library of the Medreseh 
of Tripoli, in Syria, previously to the Crusades, must have 
equalled that of Alexandria. The Greeks, Copts, and 
Syrians, subdued by the arms of the Arabs, saw their 
conquerors in turn quickly resubdued by the arts of the 
ancients, modified by Islamism; and the Turkish invasion 
of Egypt and Syria in 1517 — only a quarter of a century 
later than the fall of the Arab kingdom of Granada — was 
the overcast of a period which may be justly called the 
Indian summer of the civilisation of the ancients. 

A maritime and contemporary people such as the 
Venetians, carrying on their commerce with India through 
Arab countries, could scarcely escape a partial impress of 
the Arab mould; and this it is which makes Venice 
appear so original in a European point of view, and so 
interesting, though less original, to the Oriental student. 

There can be little doubt that the earliest good edifices 
of the Venetians were Byzantine ; but the fame and beauty 
of the Saracenic style soon swept all before it. The Ducal 
Palace, in which the Saracenic predominates, seems to 
have been constructed by Calendario in the middle of the 
fourteenth century, and to have been thus a contemporary 
of the mosque of Sultan Hassan in Cairo just after the 
two great Ealaous had added so many magnificent edifices 
to that capital: and surely the Arabic reconstruction of 
the elements of the sublime and beautiful in architecture^ 
after their dissolution in the Lower Empire, is immeasurably 
superior to that of the northern Gothic. The Arabs in 
their details shewed (excepting perhaps in Granada) len 


curious and elaborate tracery than the men of the north ; 
but with them it was always in subordination to some 
great feature either of the elevation or the interior, and 
always formed a harmonising contrast to some more simple 
part of an edifice, or a relief to the mere grandeur of 
its outline. This it is which has made the Ducal Palace 
the most beautiful edifice in the world. 

The old Piazza di San Marco, before it was burnt 
down, — as shewn in the large and curious picture of 
" Gentile Bellino" (a. d. 1496) at the Accademia,— was 
entirely Saracenic; so that the Piazza must have borne 
the closest resemblance to the court of a mosque. For 
it was then much smaller ; being narrower by the breadth 
of the campanile and something more. The archivolts 
formed a horse-shoe, the cornices were serrated, and even 
in the minutest particulars the Oriental style was imitated. 
For instance, in the friezes between the floors we see 
what at first sight appears to be the Stthts, or large 
Arabic "writing on the wall" of mosques; but as they 
could not, in a Christian country, write sentences from 
the Koran, we find, on looking closer, that the characters 
are figures of white camelopards (giraffes) on a red ground. 
These carry the mind to the East by more associations 
than one; for their long legs and tapering necks have 
quite the air of Sulus writing; and even in the colour of 
white and red we see the same combination still visible 
in almost every mosque of Cairo to this day. In the 
upper part of the Ducal Palace we find the same colours, 
which appear to have been fi^equent in Venice in the 
fifteenth century, as seen in Titian's large picture of the 
"Presentation of the Virgin;" and these appear to have 
taken their origin in the combination of bright red brick 
with polished white marble, as in the old pavement of 
the Piazza San Marco. 

After the Italian invasion of the cinque cento, and the 

different direction taken by Palladio, Sansovino, and Sam- 

micheli, Venice rapidly changed appearance. To such 

houses as are seen in Giovanni Mansueti and Vittore Car- 

Patos. I. 27 


paccio, succeeded the modern palazzo, with its balconies 
and pilasters. The change is not to be regretted as re- 
gards Venice in general; but I certainly think that the 
old Piazza di San Marco, with its Arabic colonnades, its 
serrated cornices, and its bright red pavement streaked 
with white marble, would have been more in unison with 
the Church and the Ducal Palace. 

St. Mark's is still the most oriental of all the edifices 
in Venice. Place an ignorant Cairene at the gate next 
the Piazza dei Leoni, and you would have some difficulty 
in persuading him that Venice was not the seat of a long 
and illustrious Saracenic occupation, and that San Marco 
is not a mosque abandoned to defilement by the anger of 
God or the pusillanimity of tho bearers of the banners of 
Islam. The crowd of domes, the innumerable costly pillars 
of all sorts, sizes, colours, and capitals, which have the 
air of having adorned successively the palaces of antiquity, 
the churches of the Lower Empire, and the mosques of 
the Saracens, at length stand in enduring commemoration 
of the millennium during which the Levant influenced the 
arts and exercised the arms of the great republic. £ven 
the turned wooden grates or window-frames above the 
great gates, are of the very patterns used to this day 
in Cairo, and which were, in the fifteenth century, all 

The original Merceria, with its pendant shutters, narrow 
crowded thoroughfare, and the wares of brilliant colour, 
must have had very much the air of a bazaar; which it 
has not lost even now. Cantar, rottalo, and other Venetian 
weights, are still the standards of quantity in the Levant; 
and in the name of Campo, applied to all the khans of 
Aleppo, we find a Venetian expression. There were several 
places in Venice in the form of a khan: one of which — 
the Campo St. Angelo — is still remaining. The principal 
one — Campo dei Mori, or Khan of the Moors, at Madonna 
del Orto — has been taken down; but I still observed the 
stone figure of a Bedouin leading a loaded camel, in alto- 
rilievo, on the wall next the canal. 


Several remarkable edifices of Saracenic architecture 
are yet visible on the Grand Canal, one of which is the 
Fondaco dei Turchi. There is, however, no connexion 
between its architecture and the subsequent destination 
which gave it its name. It is supposed to have been built 
in the twelfth or thirteenth century, when the Saracenic 
taste was in full prevalence; and extracts from documents 
which were shewn to me by Count Agostino Sagredo, 
the present accomplished president of the Academy of 
Fine Arts, shew that it was given by the republic to the 
Duke of Ferrara, after him passed through several hands 
to the Pesaro family, and in 1621 was let by them to the 
Turks. It is now in course of repair and restoration by 
the commune. The Palazzo Loredano, a peculiarly light 
and handsome specimen of Saracenic architecture, built 
since the invasion of the Italian style, and the celebrated 
Ca Doro, now the property of Taglioni, are both so well 
known as to require no further consideration. 

No painters caught the Oriental costume nearly so well as 
the Venetians ; who, through ambassadors, merchants, and 
slaves, had frequent opportunities of becoming acquainted 
with it. The Oriental air and manner are better seized 
in Tintoretto's great picture of "The Miracle of St. Mark, 
or a Slave liberated from Bondage," than in any picture 
that I have ever seen. The kaoucks were universally worn 
in the East in Tintoretto's time (and to very nearly our 
own age) ; but with this exception, the figures might now 
be alive in Cairo and Damascus without any one dis- 
covering any great peculiarity. Traces of the connexion 
with the East are constantly appearing in the Venetian 
])ictures. In Giovanni Mansueti's pictures we see segedies 
hung out of the windows ; the scarf of Titian's Maddalena 
IS evidently of Tripoli manufacture; and the "Supper in 
the House of Levi" — where Paul Veronese, that king of 
the kings of colour, is enthroned in all the dazzling 
splendour and gorgeous magnificence of his genius— has, 
for its principal figure, green velvet hose of a most curious 
arabesque pattern. 

27 * 


The use of high pattens, or stalking shoes, for the 
women, was common to both Venice and the East; and 
caused Evelyn to say that the Venetian dames were half 
flesh, half wood. The custom exists to this day in full 
force in Damascus, where the habit of wearing dyed or 
dried golden hair still lingers among some aged grand- 
mothers of the present generation. 

. If we pass from art to language, we find in the diaries 
of the Venetian Consuls in the Levant a large mixture of 
Arabic words. This shews that the Venetian merchants 
then insensibly mixed in their daily Italian conversation 
words which had become almost identified with their own 
language. For instance, such and such a functionary of 
Damascus is said to be mazool (degraded or dismissed), 
without further explanation. Hence the introduction of 
so many terms through the Venetians, which have taken 
a permanent place in the commercial dictionary of Europe. 
Such as tariff, the "notification;" magazine, the "stored 
up." In Spain, on the contrary, the traces of the Arab 
connexion shews itself mostly in proper names, sGch as 
Trafalgar (west coast) ; Alcantara (the bridge) ; and in 
offices, Alcayde, &c. 

The diaries of these Levant Consuls are a most valuable 
addition to the information already made public by Daru 
on the Eastern trade and relations of Venice; and I am 
indebted to the obliging kindness of Mr. Rawdon Brown 
for permission to make a few extracts in illustration of 
this part of my subject. Nowhere are there richer materials 
for completing the history of the transition from the 
middle ages to modern times, than in the archives and 
reliquaries of the great Venetian republic, whose ambas- 
sadors and consuls, — in the various countries of Europe 
and the East, on the shores of the Thames and on those 
of the Nile, amid the frivolous ceremonial of the ante- 
chambers of Madrid, or the blunt burghers of the Hanaa, — 
kept the Signoria most minutely informed of all trans* 
actions, political and commercial, down to those personal 
traits and details which enable the reader to transport 


himself to the time and place of writing. Mr. Brown has 
devoted himself to the task of extracting these notices, 
the Levantine folio of which I read with both pleasure 
and instruction; having, when in Aleppo, passed many a 
leisure hour in perusing the archives of our own factory 
in those days of yore, when from fifty to seventy British 
mercantile houses carried on the Indian trade in that 
once flourishing emporium. In this folio are the letters 
of those very Venetian consuls whose tombs I had seen 
in the Armenian convent of Aleppo (see Modem Syrians, 
chap. XXIII.): their sayings, their doings, their sufferings, 
and those artifices that reveal the cloven foot of the old 
Venetian police system. For lists are given of the friends 
and enemies of the republic, to which is appended the 
very naive recommendation: "We here remind you of 
them, so that in due season you may employ the friends 
and persecute the enemies to the best of your abilities." 

The names of the great Venetian families constantly 
occur. An Egyptian ambassador returns from Venice in 
the traffic galley of a Ser Luca Loredano; and beside 
the Aleppines we find Contarini's, Balbi's, and Prinli's, at 
Damascus. Several letters are from Cristofalo Moro, the 
Othello of Giraldi Cinthio and Shakspeare; but they are 
all on grain, good or bad harvests, chartering of ships, the 
season of the rains, &c.; and he is promoted in June 1508 
from the lieutenancy of Cyprus to the captaincy of 
Candia. ^ But the style of these Venetian merchant-princes 
is far from being vulgar and flat ; and one of the letters, 
on the death of a consul, might easily be paraphrased 
into sonorous Elizabethan iambics. 

On the 13th December, 1502, the Venetian senate re- 
ceived the following letter from the merchants of Damascus, 
narrating the death of the Consul Pietro Balbi: 

" On the 6th instant, coming the 7th, it pleased God 
to take from this vale of tears your Serenity's late servant, 
our magnifico the Consul, the Knight Messer Pietro Balbi, 

' His urms were mulberries*, hence perhaps the strawberry in 
Desdemona's handkerchief. 


who, neglecting his own private affairs, and dedicating 
himself to the most illustrious State, at length, after many 
public missions, domi forisque, borne with infinite patience 
(including even blows received from Casseron, the late 
Governor of this place, to the shame of this most insolent 
race, for love and preservation of the common weal, in 
the service of the most eminent Senate, and not without 
our most bitter displeasure), at a moment when he thought 
to return home and place himself at your Serenity's feet, 
did inexorable death seize him amongst these dogs, save 
that uhique pidvis et umbra sumus. We thus remaining 
without any magistrate, transact your Serenity's affiiirs 
and those of this factory by agreement in a body, in hopes 
of the speedy arrival of the Consul elect; and both Franks 
and Moors rejoice at the mission of the most worthy 
Ambassador (tiom the Venetian senate) to' the Sultan, 
lauding and extolling to the stars so divine an under- 
taking; so that we may now in truth say that our foul 
fortune has no longer strength; nay, that it must at any 
rate yield to your Serenity's most prudent thought." 

And "now, what news on theRialto?" quoth Salanio; 
not the Rialto of our day and of 1591, but the oldBialto 
of Shylock and Antonio, where merchants most did con- 
gregate. One might have said in these days of the Lagoon 
of Venice, what French writers have said of their Palais 
Royal, that all the highways of Europe abutted there. 
Every European— Frenchman, Briton, or Teuton — g^ing 
to the East, went as naturally to the Rialto, as his 
descendant would now go to Liverpool if he embarked 
for the New World. The mailed knight no longer went 
to break lance with the Moor when the Venetian trade 
was in its zenith, but the pilginmage to the holy places 
kept up a constant stream of passengers; and the Rialto 
was the locality where the galleys were advertised, as we 
see in full detail in Sanudo^s diaries. Of our countrymen, 
I only find one mentioned. 

"May 16th, 1508, a Scotch Bishop, dressed in a purple 
doublet, came into the College, accompanied by Ser 


Lorenzo Orio. He is lodged in Canareggio, and is come 
on his way to Jerusalem. He has two thousand ducats 
revenue; and, having entered the College, sat beside the 
Doge, and presented letters of credence to the Signory 
from his King and from the King of France. He delivered 
a Latin oration in praise of this state and of the Doge, 
and of his King's goodwill to the Signory. He then said 
he should make up his mind as to going by the Jaffa 

galley On the day of Ascension, the Doge went as usual 

in the Bucentaur to espouse and bless the sea, with the 
Ambassadors of France, Spain, Milan, and Ferrara, and 
the Scotch Bishop." But from the further accounts, he 
never returned to the land of cakes ; for in a list of dead 
at Jaffa, we find "that rich Scotch Bishop, the King's 
relation, who received so much honour from the Signory." 
Taking the total number of seamen employed in the 
foreign trade and navy of Venice (when at the maximum 
in the fifteenth century) at 35,000, we find her maritime 
population to have been much the same as that now 
strictly belonging to the port of London, or (writing from 
recollection) about a seventh of the total number of seamen 
belonging to the United Kingdom. The principal items 
of trade with Egypt appear to have been. Oriental manu- 
factures, pepper, cloves, cinnamon, nutmegs, mace, and 
incense ; mostly from, or rather through, Alexandria. The 
value of the argosies was very great. In August 1508, 
Ser Andrea Bandinier returning with three galleys from 
Alexandria, in a weak state of health, and dressed in 
black velvet, reported his voyage to the Signory; the 
value of their cargoes being 400,000 ducats, or 60,0007. 
sterling, per galley. So well might Salarino say to 

'•Your mind is tossing on the ocean, 
There, where your argosies with portly sail — 
Like signiors and rich burghers of the flood, 
Or, as it were, the pageants of the sea — 
Do overpeer the petty traffickers. 
That curtsey to them reverence 
As they fly by them with their woven wings." 


But the career of the consul, merchant, and mariner 
was one of constant struggle, danger, and difficulty, from 
the detestable nature of the government of the Mameluke 
Sultans of Egypt; and nearly as formidable as the stormft 

*' Scatter all the spicee on the stream, 
Enrobe the roaring waters with the silks," 

were the pride and insolence consequent on the recollection 
of the successful expulsion of the Franks from both Egypt 
and Syria, and the unspeakable evils of an elective military 
monarchy. The reader may remember the critical ob- 
servation of Gibbon, that the history of the Mameluke 
Sultans would have given Montesquieu, in his Grandeur 
et Decadence des Bomains, a juster parallel to the dis- 
orders of the succession to imperial power, than any tiling 
to be found in the modern history of Algiers; and we 
may well regret that the points of comparison did not 
seduce the author of the Decline to a short digression 
on a subject full of interest. An elective military 
monarchy, trampling on wise municipal institutions con- 
secrated by immemorial custom and the experience of 
ages; a succession of rude soldiers, from distant and 
barbarous countries, ruling a nation of polished slaves; 
reigns ushered in and ushered out by blood and venaUty^ 
with the intervals spent in the unbridled lusts of the 
palace, and the suppression of rebellions perennially 
renewed, — so that we are perpetually reminded of Gibbon's 
*' fleeting purple,"— such was the government with which 
the Venetians had to deal, and of which was holden that 
monopoly of the Alexandria trade which was the life's 
blood of the republic. The consul and merchants were 
often subject to the very worst treatment. In 1506, they 
were all brought in chains to Cairo, their strong boxes 
having been opened and resealed, and Sultan el Ghoary 
threatening to give some other nation the monopoly, his 
pretended grievance being, that the Venetians did not 



come in sufficient numbers, take a sufficient quantity of 
spices, and pay a sufficient price for them. 

But this brief method of getting at the golden egg is 
too palpably unjust; the Sultan sends an ambassador to 
Venice, to make up matters; and on this "the Signory 
ordered the nobles appointed to go dressed in scarlet as 
far as Lido, to receive and bring him with the galley to 
the Giudecca, to the dwelling prepared for him in the 
house of the late Ser Marco Pasqualigo; and the nobles 
went, the greater part Damascene and Alexandrian mer- 
chants, and thus did they greet him; and having got on 
board the galley, came by the Grand Canal to the Quay, 
where he disembarked. The house had been prepared in 
state, with a door-curtain of cloth-of-gold, and with a cloth- 
of-gold for his own gondola ; and his expenses were paid 
for, to account of the factory of Alexandria. The am- 
bassador is a Spaniard (Granada fell only fourteen years 
before), a trusty man and choleric, and of great ability; 
he is the Soldan's dragoman, and admiral ("ameer"?) of 
fifty lances. He complained of the Signory's not having 
come to meet him with the Bucentaur, and, moreover, 
that in the evening he was served off stone-ware. 

"On Sunday, in the morning, the barges were sent, 
with the patricians appointed dressed in silk and scarlet, 
the chief being Ser Pallo Trevisan, to Ca Pasqualigo, in 
the Giudecca, to bring Tangavardin, the Soldan's am- 
bassador, to audience. The Square (of St. Mark) was 
filled with persons to see him land, and he came preceded 
by twenty -two Moors, and thus he went to the Signory; 
the Doge quitted the platform, and came a little way to 
meet him, giving him good greeting; and he sat by the 
side of tlie Doge, to whom he spoke in Latin, that is to 
say, saluted him, knowing the language, and presented 
two Arabic papers, being a letter from the Soldan, 
addressed thus: 

"'Be this writing presented to the presence of the 
tribunal of the Doge, the gracious, honoured, prudent, 
most sage, feared, and famous, most worthy among lords, 


honour of Christians who adore the Gross; Doge of 
Venice built on the waters ; Doge of all liberality amongst 
the sons of baptism ; friend of kings and of saltans. May 
God preserve his state.' 

"And the Doge spoke him fair, and thus did. he return ; 
and those of the factory gave him 150 ducats for his 
expenses for a month, and a certain present of confections 
and wax. On the 27th, the Soldan's Ambassador went to 
dine with Messer Marco Malipiero, the commendator of 
Cyprus, accompanied by four of the principal persons of 
his suite; it was a stately banquet: and they afterwards 
went to the Nunnery of the Virgins, to hear them sing; 
and in the evening, at his dwelling, a pastoral eclogue 
was recited to him: so he had a great deal of amuse- 

The differences between the Venetians and the Snltan 
of Egypt were thus made up; but it appears that the 
diplomatic character of the Spanish Moor is not strong 
enough to protect him from popular insult, and he goes 
to request pardon for some rogues who had been put in 
prison for insulting him. At length we find advertite- 
ments on the Rialto for galleys to take back the Am- 
bassador and deputies ; and he takes his leave, accompanied 
by the Doge's trumpets along the Square and across to 
his house" in the Giudecca; he being dressed in gold 
brocade lined with sable, and his attendants in green 

The discovery of the passage by the Cape no doubt 
placed both Egypt and Syria, and consequently Venice, 
in a new and disadvantageous position. Joint jealousy of 
Portuguese independence of the overland transit made 
Venetians and Mamelukes draw together in anxious con- 
fabulation; and it is amusing to see how coming events 
cast their shadow before. A letter, dated London, 
30th January, 1504, is received, with the disagreeable in- 
telligence that letters had reached Silvan Capello, mention- 
ing that Hieronymo Pesaro, the captain of the Flanders 
galleys, had arrived at Falmouth, with three vessels; and 


that five Portuguese barks had already arrived there, with 
300 butts of spices, direct from Calicut. But so slowly 
are the channels of trade altered, that it was not until 
the development of the Dutch commerce, in the seven- 
teenth century, that the trade of Venice fell seriously off. 



On the untrodden fields to the east side of the Adriatic, 
I have detailed my journeys with minuteness; but as I 
return to the sphere of the ordinary tourist, I beg the 
reader to excuse my describing the gi'otto of Adelsberg, 
and other curiosities on the well-known route from Trieste 
to Gratz, the capital of Styria, whither I went after my 
return from Venice. 

It was on one of the beautiful days of the month of 
August, 1 847, that the locomotive slackened her pace and 
stopped at the station of Gratz, which is as like all other 
stations as one quay of a harbour is like another. The 
railway side of nature is new and amphibious, neither 
like a journey by land nor a voyage by water, but more 
of the latter than of the former. You arrive at your 
destination quite independently of accidents and undulations 
of territory; you catch glimpses of the land, but remain 
unfamiliar with persons and places; you cannot enter a 
town as you will, but are carried to the station, as the 
voyager cannot land where he lists, but must go to the 
regular port. When I stepped out on the dusty road, 
and saw around me the neat citizen's boxes with their 
little flower-gardens, all standing still, and not turning 
round and round like a floating island caught in a whirl- 
pool, I felt that I was arrived in Styria, which I could 


scarcely affirm till then, Gratz being the first port at 
which I descended. 

Gratz is a delicious summer residence; with the con- 
veniences of a town, and a vicinity to the wooded 
mountains which makes one feel as if in the Alps. The 
Mur, formed of the hundred trouting streams of Upper 
Styria, rushes impetuously through the town, and inter- 
sects it in two unequal halves. Close to the water, and 
separated by a single street, rises the Schlossberg, a 
rugged, isolated peak, formerly crowned by the castle, 
which must have originated the site of the town; no 
longer mantled with rampart and looped with embrasure, 
]&ut its slopes cut into pleasing walks, and ats summit 
discrowned of tower and keep. Such a glorious panorama 
is seen from thence that the fatigue of ascent is forgotten. 
The wide-scattered city, with its zone of the glacis, it the 
foreground of the view ; and beyond it are the verdant 
plains of the Mur, several miles in breadth, along which 
flies the grey vapour of the locomotive on the scarce 
visible railroad. From the wide plain all around rise 
the shaggy wooded acclivities; the hills, not in the 
thickness of forest, but broken into wide patches of 
pasture, with gardens hanging on their skirts, and the 
blue tapering spires of white rural churches peeping oat 
of the distant nooks and corners, so that the vale of the 
Mur looks like one great parkj bounded by an amphi- 
theatre of hills green to their very summits. No freeiing 
glacier arose to suggest images of solitude or sublimity. 
A white peak in the distance would have given that 
elevating tone to the landscape which alone belongs to 
the high Alps; but the whole reflected the moral, social, 
and political condition of Styria : pleasantness, cheerfulness, 
and animation, the bounty of God and the content of 
man ; the golden mean, for the sublime and the miserable 
were equally awanting. 

The town itself is well built, and has all the signs of 
comfort and prosperity; in the old central part one sees 
some of that grotesque ornament which smacks of German 


middle-age, and one or two noble palaces of a century or 
two ago, in which we read the vicinity to Italy and her 
arts. In the great square, two houses, not far from each 
other, put me in mind of Augsburg, with its faint weather- 
beaten frescoes and florid plaster-work. Around this old 
town is a broad glacis, with alleys of high venerable trees, 
which, in the hot days, offer a walk in all the depth and 
latitude of shade; and beyond it are the suburbs of tall 
new houses, their monotonous uniformity tempered by 
the beauty of the gardens around them. 

Most prominent among the public edifices of Gratz is 
the pompous Mausoleum of that Ferdinand the Second 
(obiit 1637), whose fanatical suppression of Protestantism 
was a principal cause of the bloodshed of the Thirty-years 
War; it is in the Italian style of the seventeenth century, 
but much overdone with heavy pediments and cornices. 
In the latter part of the sixteenth century, and up to 
1618, Gratz had all the lustre of the capital of a petty 
sovereignty, in which the revival of the arts in Italy found 
a certain echo ; and, as in Prague, one sees many of those 
ponderous doorways borne by a monstrous Hercules or 
Atlas on their shoulders, and such massive basements as 
Sammicheli excelled in. 

The honour of wearing the ducal hat of Styria dates 
from Rodolph of Habsburgh himself. Austria, Styria, 
Carinthia, and Camiola; these were the very embryo of 
that monarchy, the chequered fortunes of which have filled 
Europe with such various emotions; and on the death of 
the Emperor Mathias in 1619, without issue, the imperial 
throne was ascended by Ferdinand, then the head of the 
so-called Styrian line of the house of Habsburgh. Although 
Vienna became the capital, Ferdinand continued to take 
a strong interest in the embellishment of Gratz; but 
educated by the Jesuits, he renewed, on the Danube, the 
Elbe, and the Mur, the determination to annihilate Pro- 
testantism. Half of the rural districts of Styria, and 
three-fourths of the town population, had become Pro- 
testant under the toleration of his predecessor; but Fer- 


dinand was the Diocletian of the German empire. His 
talents were rather useful to the Catholic cause, than 
resplendent by genius, and firmly adhering to the old faith, 
he was personally mild and just; in his political religionism 
only, he was a gloomy bigot, and a cruel, persecuting 
tyrant. A high school of Protestantism in Gratz, which 
approached to the character of a university, was suppressed. 
Thousands of noble, gentle, and simple families wandered 
out of the land to escape penal statutes, and the Mur 
was sometimes reddened with Protestant blood. 

The only member of the house of Habsburgh in recent 
times connected with Styria, was the late Archduke John, 
to whom I had the honour of being presented shortly 
after my arrival, by M. Thienfeld. At the hour appointed, 
we found ourselves at his villa, in the environs of Gratz, 
just beyond the glacis; and passing the gate, where 
a couple of sentries was the only circumstance that 
distinguished his residence from that of a country 
gentleman, we entered a shrubbery of a few acres, 
scarcely deserving the name of a park, but every walk 
and parterre so trimly kept as to shew an English neatness 
unknown to the most of German villas. The house is 
newly built, with the wings lower than the body of the 
edifice; a taste much in vogue in England in the last 
century, to the damage of many a good residence. Although 
nothing could exceed the neatness of its appearance, this 
edifice was certainly not an exception to the rule. 

Being in the month of August, the weather was in- 
tensely hot, although early in the forenoon; and on 
being announced, we were conducted, through a little 
paradise of landscape-gardening, to the delightful coolness 
and welcome gloom of an arbour impervious to a single 
ray of the sun. Here we found the Archduke, with the 
Countess Brandhof, his consort by a left-handed marriage, 
and his son. Count Meran, an intelligent youth. There is 
no mistaking any member of the Tuscan branch of the. 
house of Habsburgh; never was there a family the 
numerous branches of which shew their lineage more 


legibly in their visages. 1 had never seen the Archduke 
before, but at once I recognised the same face which I 
had seen in a private carriage on the glacis, and whom 
I had made sure of being one of the Imperial family, so 
striking is his resemblance to the late Emperor and the 
Archduke Francis Charles, father of the present Emperor. 

Our conversation lasted half an hour; and the ex- 
pansive and unreserved nature of the observations of his 
Highness impose on me the greater obligation not to 
forget what is due to the position, personal and political, 
of a member of the reigning house; but I may say, that 
the whole of the political philosophy of the Archduke 
seemed to resolve itself into an opinion, that all con- 
servatism founded on class-legislation was like a house 
built upon sand. His Highness, as a matter of course, 
cautiously abstained from weighing in the scales the 
relative value of aristocracy and bureaucracy, feudalism 
or constitutionalism, as instruments of national steward- 
ship ; but, said he, " Whatever classes rise or fall, we may 
make sure of one fact, that the people always remain.'* 
And the Archduke has given, in his own mode of life, 
a practical illustration of the slight value he sets on those 
mere trappings of his station which are apart from its 
duties and responsibilities; and leaving to others the gaieties 
of Vienna, he led a life of agriculture and horticulture, 
of scientific and literary study, which is at once per- 
ceptible in his conversation. All princes that shew some 
intelligence are so extravagantly flattered and eulogised, 
that it is difficult for the public to have a clear idea of 
the natural relation in which they stand to other men; 
and I anticipated the ordinary conversation of a man of 
good capacity: but 1 confess that my brain was kept on 
the alert; and on several subjects to which I had devoted 
considerable attention, felt my immeasurable inferiority. 

The career of the Archduke John has been a remarkable 
one. Born in 1782, he was consequently sixty -six years of 
age. When a mere stripling, we find him opposed to 
the matured genius of Moreau, and commanding a large 


force; but the campaign of Hohenlinden was a disastroas 
one for Austria, and enough to discourage less ardent 
spirits than those of the Archduke. In the campaign of 
Austerlitz, we again find him in the Tyrol, organising the 
peasantry, and combining the activity with the patriotic 
courage of the Guerilla leader. In the career of this 
Prince we may read the spirit of Austria. If ever so 
overwhelmed by the irresistible shock of the genius and 
power, of Napoleon, she was ready to rise on her legs 
again, after a seeming prostration. The French g^ios 
blazes like one of their own wood-fagots ; the less brilliant 
character of the German nation has something of the 
enduring ardency of Dutch peat; while our own English 
genius, like our coal-fires, partakes, to a certain extent, 
of the best qualities of both, but more of the latter than 
of the former. 

The education of the Styrians, technical as well as 
literary, has warmly engaged the sympathies as well as 
the active exertions of the Archduke John; and in an 
institution founded by him, and called the Johannenmj 
we find all the advantages of science and literature con- 
centred, and placed within the easy reach of the middling 
and humbler classes. A palace of a defunct family wm 
purchased, and besides lecture-rooms and cabinets of 
natural history, it contains a large library and reading* 
room, in which I found a great variety of joumak. Grati, 
for families of moderate means, is a most desirable place 
of education; and this circumstance, conjoined with the 
beauty of the environs, has attracted to it several English 
families, who have fixed their residences here. 

The largest and most magnificent of the palaces in 
the town is that of the Counts of Attems, which is a truly 
noble edifice, built in the first years of the last century; 
and although somewhat florid, as dating from such a period, 
has still a harmony and a grand uniformity which we 
vainly seek in the edifices of Vanbrugh and the other 
English imitators of the style of Louis the Fourteenth. 
Internally the suite of rooms was quite in the style of 


the Grand Monarque, the apartments being almost as 
high as a couple of floors of an ordinary London house, 
and the broad tapestry of Brussels or the Gobelins covering 
the large spaces between the oak pilasters. In the upper 
suite of rooms was a picture-gallery of a very mixed 
character; much rubbish was marked as heir-loom; but 
other pictures were worthy of any collection. A portrait 
with the well-known lineaments of the Prussian Monarch 
was pompously mentioned by the servant who shewed the 
rooms, as ^'Friederich der Grosse, Kaiser von CEsterreich ;" 
which certainly was not so bad as the English house- 
keeper who described a Titian Doge of Venice, as a 
Dowager Venus. But the most curious portrait was that 
inscribed Campson Gauri, Re d'Egitto, that is to say, 
Canso el Ghoury, the last of the Circassian Sultans of 
Egypt (for Toman Bey does not count), whose name, to 
any one who has been in Cairo, is associated with the 
most picturesque part of that wonderful city. 

As I resided in Gratz in August and the beginning of 
September, the principal families were out of town; but 
they have particular days on which they receive friends; 
and the first of these entertainments to which I was taken 
by an obliging friend was that of Count Attems, the 
proprietor of the palace I have described. The villa, an 
ex- Jesuits' convent, was as plain an edifice as one could 
imagine: but the park, on the mountain-slopes to the 
east of Gratz, proved extensive; the trees of the avenue 
densely planted, so as to exclude the sun, and the number 
of dark walks and long vistas of verdant vaults shewing 
that the landscape-gardener had to deal with a warmer 
climate than that of England. Extensive lawns were here 
and there scattered about, unshadowed by a single tree; 
and again, regions of woods, so thick that the light could 
scarcely penetrate or grass grow. There was, therefore, 
to my eye, rather a want of open woods rising from a 
verdant turf; but the situation was delightful, and the 
higher knolls, overlooking the whole breadth of the Mur, 
Patov. I. 28 


with the town and precipitous Schlossberg, for the centre 
of the picture. 

The company consisted of about thirty persons, and 
included many historical names — Dietrichsteins, Auerspergs, 
Thurns, and others, who, in Styria and the neighbouring 
provinces, were the vanguard of affrighted Europe, when 
the incursions of Turkish cavalry came up to the very 
walls of Gratz, and kept them back by that very organ- 
isation of the military frontier which subsists to this day, 
with modifications suited to the modem art of war. What 
a power was Turkey then! Commanding at the cataracts 
of the Nile and the Persian Gulf, and sweeping all before 
her to the foot of the Styrian Alps. 

The conversation was mostly in French, which all 
spoke with almost native elegance; and, after promenade, 
a handsome collation was served by old, respectable- 
looking serving-men, in good but not gaudy liveries, and, 
combined with the tone of exquisite courtesy in the host, 
called forcibly to mind the representation of the chateau 
of M. le Marquis in the French novel of the eighteenth century. 

The nobility of Styria are, in point of antiquity of 
family, in the heraldic sense of the word, equal to any 
in the empire, but in wealth inferior to those of Hungary 
and Bohemia. The largest landed proprietor is Prince 
Lichtenstein, but his usual residence is in Moravia. The 
resident wealthy families have from five to ten thousand 
pounds sterling a year, although on paper their rent-rolls 
may look larger. One of the oldest families (Saurau) had 
just become extinct. The last of the family carried the 
excusable weakness of pride of birth to such a ridiculous 
extent, as to say that his family was an older one than 
that of Habsburgh. There being no walls in Austria un- 
provided with ears, this was repeated to the Emperor, 
Francis, who took no notice of it whatever, until the 
Count solicited an audience to ask a favour. When the 
suit was preferred, the Emperor answered, with great g^ee, 
" My dear Saurau, I am delighted to have it in my power, not 
only to grant your request, but to execute your wiihet 


by my own hand: for theSanraus have often senred the Habs- 
burghers, but the Habsburghers never served the Sauraus." 

In Gratz 1 made the acquaintance of General Count 
now Field Marshall Count Nugent, of English or Irish 
extraction. This venerable officer, enjoying the universal 
respect of the army, is one of the few remaining relics 
of the general officers of the last war. He first distinguished 
himself in the lines of Mentz in the last century, and in 
1810, 11, 1*2, and 13, was in perpetual motion. Now in 
London, in the confidence of the Prince Regent and 
Castlereagh; now at the head quarters of the Duke of 
Wellington in Spain; in Berlin, in secret communication 
with the latent anti-Gallican elements, which, when the 
hour came, broke forth with such fury. In Sicily, in 
Malta, and wherever a service could be rendered to the 
conimon cause of the liberation of Europe, Nngent was 
ready with his military and political experience. Having 
had his share in the dangers and rewards of 1814, he is 
now full of years and honours, and wields the baton of 
that dignity to which a Eugene of Savoy, a Daun, and 
a Loudon gave such lustre. 

On leaving my letters, he was suffering firom severe 
indisposition, but about a fortnight afterwards I received 
a note from him and his accomplished Countess, requesting 
me to meet at dinner some officers of the garrison. The 
Count, although the son of an Austrian General, and 
himself born in Bohemia, has not ceased to admire, love, 
and cherish the country of his ancestors, and her great 
men. I asked him what he considered the greatest action 
of the Duke of Wellington; and he answered, *'No man 
is a greater admirer of the military genius of the Duke 
of Wellington than myself, for out of heterogeneous 
elements he created as fine an ai*my as ever was in the 
world, and made it like one powerful body, impelled by 
one powerful mind; but I most admire the man, and the 
armour of uprightness, which rendered him quite indifferent 
to unpopularity, and by setting himself above popular 
opinion, ultimately secured its subjugation to him." 



The more I see of the Austrian officers, the more I 
like them. The various elements of which the monarchy 
is composed, which is an embarrassment to the statesman, 
is a gi'eat advantage to the soldier who wishes to form 
his mind. At one time living in the thick-set old cities 
of Italy, or the new fermenting elements of Hungary and 
Bohemia; at another, a spectator of the savage mountain 
manners of the Morlack, or the lifeless splendour of the 
capital; then with the Tyrolese on his native Alps, or 
among the Slaavs and Magyars of Hungary. 

The officers of the Austrian army have nothing of the 
aristocratic elegance of those in our own service; but, 
from all that I have heard, they are thoroughly and care- 
fully educated in their respective arms. The cavaliy 
officers are almost exclusively composed of scions of the 
higher classes; but in the infantry, much less regard is 
paid to aristocratic pretension ; and in the artillery, which 
is universally allowed to be the most distinguished branch 
of the Austrian army, protection is unknown, merit alone 
procures advancement. In all arms, the promotion of 
capable men from the ranks, although less systematic 
than in the armies of France, appears to be much more 
frequent than with us. But all is vain without strategic 
capacity in the chief command. The best machine is 
worthless in the hands of a Mack. 

The ordinary characteristics of town-life in Austria 
have been so frequently described, that it is scarcely 
requisite that I should say any thing of them here; the 
inns, theatres, shops, and l)eer-gardens of the people in 
Gratz having a family resemljlance to those of the other 
large towns of the Austrian Empire; but country-life in 
Styria is not unsuggestive of interesting observation. In 
Upper Styria, the traveller finds himself in the Austrian 
Switzerland, among the essentially German population, 
and in a region where the utmost beauty of natural 
scenery arrests his attention and excites his rapture; 
while in all the population there is a gaiety and in- 
dependence of manner, that forms a remarkable contrast 


to the graver and more melancholy temperament of the 
Wind, or Wend, of Lower Styria. In Bohemia, and in 
the Slaavic districts of Hungary, the Slaav has been 
awakened to a fiery consciousness of national existence; 
but in Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, the Winds have 
given the Germans very little trouble, and are not likely 
to do so, although they once formed a nation which 
covered the whole of the south-east of Germany, as many 
names of places denote, such as Vindobona (now Vienna), 
Gradetz (now Gratz), &c. &c. Their language still exists 
as a familiar, but not as a literary dialect; at least, the 
movement of a few young men in Carniola is a very feeble 
one; for while the Croatian regards all the Ragusan 
authors as his national classics, the Camiolan has no 
literature of any value that he can call his own; and 
while Bohemian literature and nationality fell from its 
high estate in the Thirty-years War, that of the Wind 
never rose at all, and is rather a matter of antiquarian 
speculation than of urgent vitality. 

The most interesting excursion which an Englishman 
can make, is that to the iron-mines in Upper Styria, 
which the railway renders easy of accomplishment. From 
the Bruck station I went in the omnibus to Leoben, the 
little town at which the convention of 1797 was signed 
between the victorious armies of France and the humbled 
legions of Austria; and next morning, through a most 
romantic valley on the eastern slope of the Styrian Alps, 
arrived at Vordenberg and Eisenerz, the Wolverhampton 
of the Austrian Empire ; but any thing more unlike the 
iron-districts of England cannot be conceived. Mr.DisraeU's 
graphic description of such a landscape in our own is- 
land—the coal-heaps ; the black cinder-soil ; and the rowt 
of st)oty cottages, inhabited by sooty human beings— re- 
curred by contrast vividly to my mind. Here the valley 
is so narrow as to remind one of the Bernese Oberland; on 
one side is a wall of rock, in the clefts of which scanty 
pines spring from patches of turf, in which the shy chamois 
is seen to skip about On the other side of the valley is 


a verdant expanse of pasture, athwart which one aeea 
peak after peak of pine-crowned hills, graduated in distance 
as a fairy scene in a theatre. Eisenerzl how can human 
pen describe thy enchantments! What fearful conyulsion 
of nature scattered to the four winds of heaven the rended 
Alps of Styria; and, in the long, long procession of 
revolving ejjochs, veiled the evidences of primeval havoc 
with velvet turf, and crystal brook, and azure lake! Over 
and above all, the bare crags of the PfafFenstein seem a 
vast corpse laid out on the mountain-top; head, breast, 
and up-turned feet are seen against the sky; and when 
the pale rays of the moon bleach these rocks, the wild 
tales of affrighted childhood recur to the fancy, and the 
monster of a fable seems to repose in monumental re- 
membrance of a world that passed away! 

Down in the valley is the village of Eisenerz, the blast- 
furnaces, with their high red roofs, giving life to the 
landscape. Nothing appears to offend the eye ; the stream 
that moves the machinery brawls downwards between the 
neat gardens ; even the cottages and cabbage-yards of the 
workmen have a settled, rural air; so that the miserable 
helotry of modern trade and manufacture never strikes you. 

I quartered myself on Saxon royalty at Eiseners; not 
with his Majesty in propria persona, but in the inn, 
Zum Konig von Sachsen, to the beer of which the people 
of the iron-mines and furnaces paid the most unmistakeable 
and oft-renewed marks of homage. How happy would 
royalty be, if it could count on such constant attachment 
as that which 1 saw devoted to the cream crown of the 
malt liquor! A bright fire gleamed from the kitchen into 
the vaulted entrance of the court-yard; and the public 
room was frequented by clerks of the mines, with one 
of whom I got into conversation, and found that the 
social and political feelings of Vordenberg and Eisenen, 
although so near each other, were quite difierent: Eisenen 
is bureaucratic, Vordenberg burgherly and industrial; 
Eisenerz is proud and poor, Vordenberg is rich and 
purse-proud. The bureaucrat of Eisenerz would fain tee 


the State buy every furnace in Vordenberg; the Vorden- 
bergers detest them for this feeling. The person with 
whom I was conversing being a sharp man, I asked him 
if he had been here all his life; and he answered, as 
nearly as possible, as follows: "0, no such thing! I have 
seen something of the world in my time. I was brought 
up at- the Institute of Krems, where every thing goes on 
as smooth, dull, and uniform as the wheels of a new- 
wound-up clock; and then afterwards I went to the mines 
of Schemnitz; but, Herr Jesus, what a contrast! fire and 
fury, what long oaths and long moustachios! Bassama 
Teremtete! And now, sir, I am royal and imperial clerk, 
thank God! My salary is not very large," continued he, 
w^th an air of mock humility, which was exquisitely 
comic; "but I have house, fuel, and candle, and am fi*ee 
from vicissitudes; so that 1 have only to take care not 
to cheat his Majesty the Kaiser out of a kreuzer, and 
then I should really need to exert a peculiar talent to 
get kicked out of my berth. — Nani, my dear! another 
glass of beer." 

" You seem to lead a happy and contented life," said I, 
"and to have a cheerful disposition." 

'^Nur liistig^ nur lustig; merry, but orderly, quite 
orderly. My philosophy is soon said: to deal with all 
men according to their humours;— with my equals friendly 
and civil; but if they seek to shew their airs, oh, then, 
Himmel sacrement! I am ready to kick out like a young 
stallion; — with inferiors kind, but strict; never miss 
punishing a fault, but meet repentance half way. As for 
superiors, you must not suppose I have never seen the 
beau monde. Every year I go to Ischl in the gay season 
for a few days— white gloves, sticking-plaster boots, dress- 
coat — Oludam, I kiss your hand' — *Herr Baron, your 
obedient servant.' — Thus wags the world with me ; and in 
fourteen years I am my own master, claim my pension, 
and then have nothing to do." 

"But without occupation, you will wish yourself back 
to the mines again." 


"Not 80 quick, Heir Englander; if 1 live to fourteen 
years hence, I can read or hunt the chamois; then there 
is music that remains your servant, and not your master, *- 
as avarice always does in age, for, believe me, even 
a grand duchess of Russia, when at Ischl, made me come 
to her drawing-room to tinkle my guitar, and ffodd our 
Styrian ditties. Nay, nay, in youth and manhood let my 
superiors choose my occupation; when I am old, let me 
determine quantity and quality for myself." 

In the midst of our discourse, the door opening, an 
itinerant harpist came in, and began to play and sing 
with a voice of small compass but some sweetness: 

" Bauschender Strom, brausender Bach, 
Du bist mein Lieblings-Aufenthalt." 

When the song had ended, a plate was produced to 
collect kreuzers, and up she went to one of the company 
with a most rubicund visage, and held out the plate ; but 
with the leer of a satyr, he caught her by tlie arm, and 
declared that he wanted to whisper something in her ear. 

"Well," said the girl coolly; "my ears are open." 

"But a secret, thou enchanting being," continued the 
Falstaff of Upper Styria, with a grin like the immortal 
frontispiece of Punch. 

"A secret! Ein Geheimniss! Doss du bist ein SpiU" 
huhe, das ist ja ga/r kein Geheinmiss?'* 

"You are in a bad humour," said the satyr; and patting 
a six-kreuzer piece of copper upon her plate, die con- 
tinued her round. When I had given her my mite, 
I asked her whence she came, and she answered, from 
Czaslau, in Bohemia ; that her present tour had lasted six 
weeks, and that she made four tours a-year, and returned 
to C-zaslau to see her family. 

In intellectual acuteness, the peasantry are in general 
much inferior to the Germans of the north; but whoever 
sets the qualities of the heart above those of the heatd 
must be charmed with the Styrian mountaineer. He hat 
an undoubted turn for drollery ; but mingled with his jovial 


good nature is a dogged obstinacy, which at once reveals 
the Gothic race. Anger shews itself not, as in Italy, with 
violent gesticulation, clenched fist, rolling eye, and ear- 
splitting strife; but the more provokingly does he ape 
the mild tone of civility, and assumes a sardonic grin, 
that is wormwood itself. When the Styrian peasant is 
in this "humour, he is as obstinate as a mule; hence he 
makes a tough, but not a dashing, brilliant soldier; and 
although I cannot approve of the way in which the Slaavs 
have been often dealt with, whether decimated for Pro- 
testantism by the bloody bigotry of Ferdinand the Second, 
or regarded as mere machines by Joseph, yet it is im- 
possible not to be convinced that, in all useful qualities, 
and for all practical ends, there is no sounder population 
in the monarchy than that of the Styrian Alps, who unite 
the vigour of the mountaineer with the material comfort 
of the inhabitants of the plains. 

The process of smelting ore is not one that requires 
describing to an English reader. Here, instead of mineral 
coal, charcoal is used; but the forests have been so 
thinned, and the demand for iron so great, that wood 
has risen. What a beautiful process smelting the ore is, 
when one stands in the dark, dismal furnace-cellar at the 
time the font is opened, and out gushes the liquid metal 
like the molten mid-day sun, shooting up countless diamond- 
sparks of the first water 1 There are three of these furnaces 
in Eisenerz worked by the State, and thirteen in Vorden- 
berg, two of which belonged to the late Archduke John, 
two to the town of Leoben, and the rest to private in- 
dividuals ; but they form a joint-stock company in all that 
regards ore and wood. As an incorporation, they possess 
large timber estates, and take care of their own poor. 

In Upper Styria we have Swiss scenery and mineral 
wealth. In the lowlands, agriculture takes the place of 
the latter; and the art of the landscape gardener is 
occasionally put in requisition to make up for the want 
of the bolder beauties of nature ; for if all Germany were 
explored throughout, the rural residences and parks of 


Styria might carry off the palm. In the last century the 
French taste was all the fashion in gardens, as well as 
in furniture; with the parterre, the geometrical walks, 
and statues of Olympic deities, of the heroic period of 
Louis Quinze, with the air and costume of baUet-dancers. 
Now the English taste has invaded parks, stables, and 
nurseries; and even some Styrian castles, such as Hiat of 
Eggenberg, near Gratz, have been spoiled by attempting 
to Anglify them; for the French garden is, after all, a 
very grand affair in a champaign country. 

In the English style, no park is admired more than 
that of Baron Mandell, twelve miles south of Grratz; and 
on receiving, along with Mr. B — , a highly accomplished 
and erudite English clergyman resident in Gratz, an in- 
vitation to pay a visit, we took a carriage, and struck 
into the country to the south, first across the level plain, 
and in about an hour and a half came to Dobbelbad, a 
watering-place of the citizens of Gratz, with the inn in 
the form of a temple. The landscape often reminded me 
of England, but wilder and prettier, with fewer enclosures, 
and much more wood; and at length, after up hill and 
down dale, we saw the schloss of the Baron in Uie 
distance, rising from the slope of a hill, and overlooking 
a wide plain with a wooded hill behind; just such as 
Mr. Allworthy's mansion must have appeared to the eye 
of Fielding. The schloss, or castle, formed a quadrangle, 
the ground-floor devoted entirely to servants, and the 
upper floor with the windows looking out in all directions 
on the park and gardens, and an open corridor, or gallery, 
paved with brick, running round the interior, from which 
the rooms opened. 

Baron Mandell and his amiable family gave us a 
Styrian welcome; and the rest of the morning passed in 
instructive conversation, for the provincial estates of Styria 
were soon to assemble for the discussion of the questions 
of the day. After dinner we descended to the garden; 
and, passing through a dark alley, we came suddenly on 
a Swiss cottage, overlooking a valley; every table, chair, 


and carved balcony as if it had come direct from Untersen. 
"j'his Swiss aspect was not strictly in unison with English 
landscape; but so distinguished a gardener as the Baron, 
like poets who set at naught critical rules, had still an 
appeal open to Nature herself. Here coffee was served; 
and when the heat of the day had somewhat abated, we 
pursued our walk, and were soon lost in the woods; not 
in impervious forest, but in clumps and groves ; even the 
distant walks kept in the trimmest order, and in a wide 
secluded meadow was as smooth a carpet of velvet grass 
as ever Dutch or English scythe mowed. 

The aspect of the peasantry and their famihes, their 
dresses and their dwellings, was equally pleasing, and 
shewed the signs of institutions based for a great number 
of years upon the comfort of the poor. I do not believe 
that any form of a general Constitution could ever have 
fused in a community of interests the Lombard and 
German. To adopt constitutional government, a previous 
exchange of her Polish and Italian provinces was in- 
dispensable; and how that was to be accomplished, no 
one could tell. But free-trade, a free press, and municipal 
institutions, were called for by the best friends of Austria 
long before the shock of the Revolution of 1848; and the 
want of them kept the most intelligent inhabitants of the 
towns and cities in a state of dissatisfaction. On the other 
hand, the government of the rural districts is entitled to 
our unqualified approbation, and was the real secret of 
the apparently unaccountable cohesion of the empire up 
to the last irresistible shock. Other governments have 
had the bayonets of the soldiery and the delations of the 
police spies, as well as Austria, and yet succumbed; but 
the defunct government of Austria took the precedence 
of all the great monarchies that I know of, in a disposition 
for the welfare of the great mass of the people, and pre- 
sented the extraordinary contradiction of being the most 
obstinately retrograde in political liberty and political 
economy, and the most forward with measures of social 


In order to make this understood, we must take % 
retrospective \'iew of political affairs. 

The first Carlo vingians might say, like Napoleon, 
''Ctift T anarchic que nous acorn detrontJ^ For ten 
centuries and more the feudal principle prevailed through 
most parts of Europe, and at the end of that period it 
fell down in France with a deafening crash. But a similar 
catastrophe, if not clearly foreseen, was at least systemati- 
cally anticipated by the Emperor Joseph. This remarkable 
man understood that, after the adoption of standing 
armies, feudalism was a form from which the vital principle 
had fled, and was therefore doomed to rottenness; and 
while Turgot and Malesherbes were soon dismissed and 
their intentions defeated, Joseph saw the abuses engendered 
by the privileged classes, abolished serfage, shut in- 
numerable convents; and, in fact, substituted for the 
j»rinciple of ari^itocracy, that of bureaucracy. Joseph com- 
mitted a capital error in putting the provincial estates 
altogether on the shelf, firom fear of the aristocratic 
principle again opposing him on plausible pretexts, and 
with a legal machine; but it cannot be denied that 
his reforms, sweeping though they were, rendered an 
immense service to Austria and to public order. He 
averted a bloody revolution ; and the fabric of feudalism, 
being taken to pieces by a strong hand, did not explode 
from below, as in France. 

The rural bureaucratic system, which Joseph substituted 
for feudalism, worked as follows up to the year 1848. 

The aristocracy and the landed proprietors were unable 
to avail themselves of their social superiority, as in some 
other more liberal countries, to follow their own in- 
clinations in differences with the peasantry. It was to 
the functionaries of the circle that the peasant had re- 
course, to counterbalance the disadvantages resulting from 
the inferiority of his position to that of the proprietor 
in the social scale ; and it was in the equitable arbitration 
of the differences between these two classes that we are 
to find the grand secret of the immense power which the 


defunct bureaucratic government wielded. There was not 
one law for the rich and another for the poor, as in 
many more liberal countries ; or if a doubt existed at all, 
it was always the peasant, and never the landlord, that 
had the benefit of it. 

And now it is high time to take farewell of the 
reader, and to quit provinces so suggestive of serious 
reflection. If Roman Dalmatia reminds us of a unity of 
the civilised world which was created by military des- 
potism, every tunnel through the Alps of Styria, every 
mile of fresh railway, must be regarded as a highway of 
progress to another unity of the European family, of 
which the bond will be neither the fear of a Proconsul 
and his legions, nor the name of a conquering race; but 
the divine precepts of Christianity, better comprehended 
in the ordering of international affairs. We have seen in 
Eagusa, how municipal authority and liberty grew out of 
the shattered remnants of the Roman Empire. In the 
subsequent crystallisation of the greater monarchies, we 
find in the European system a variety and an equipoise, 
a concomitant civilisation of balanced powers, which has 
rendered abortive even an approach to an universal 
monarchy, in imitation of ancient Rome and Austria, to 
which all Europe foreboded irretrievable destruction, un- 
submerged. There are few of the greater monarchies 
that have been stancher allies of the British Crown, 
whether in the days of a Marlborough or a Wellington, 
and in few of the greater monarchies of Europe is the 
desire for the English alliance less alloyed with jealousy 
of our maritime or oriental power than Austria. I there- 
fore hope she will weather the storm; but feelings of a 
higher order lead me to wish that, when the blast is 
over, she will lose no time in co-operating with the 
other powers in the erection of the unity of the European 
family into a permanent system by a diplomarchical con- 
stitution, that will make the infraction of a European 
treaty, by one or more powers, to belong as much to 
the past as the marauding of Norman barons in the 


middle ages. Let us all hope that the. hour may not be 
distant when a Congress of Review will, by a series of 
skilful exchanges, entwine the sympathies of the nations 
round the principle of legitimacy; and as Man himseli^ 
with his genius and his elevation, has succeeded to Uie 
platitude of amphibia, and may yield in turn his tenancy 
of earth to some more perfectly organised being, — that 
the time may come when even the unity of the European 
family may be the mere harbinger of a system that will 
encircle the globe; when a great book will be opened, 
and the territories of all kingdoms, principalities, and 
powers be registered therein; and anathema and anni- 
hilation be the inevitable doom of those whom military 
ambition may render the enemies of the human race. 


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