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XVII. 1849. 
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[ 501 ] 

XVI. Researches upon the Anatomy of the Pinnipedia. — (Part III.) Descriptive Anatomy 
of the Sea-lion (Otaria jubata). By James Murie, M.D., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c, 
late Prosector to the Society. 

Read December 6th, 1870. 

[Plates LXXV.-LXXXII.] 


I. The Skeleton and Cranial changes, p. 501. 
II. The Nervous System, p. 517. 

III. Sensory Apparatus, p. 534. 

IV. The Vascular System, p. 535. 

V. Hyolaryngeal and Respiratory Organs, p. 540. 
VI. The Digestive System, p. 553. 
VII. Urino-generative Organs, p. 567. 
VIII. Description of the Plates, p. 573. 

HAVING in the first part of this Memoir treated of the exterior, of the fleshy body, 
and of the ligaments knitting the osseous frame of the Sea-lion, it follows that I next 
take the skeleton into consideration. H. M. Ducrotay de Blainville, in his magnificent 
' Atlas of Osteography,' has figured the skeleton of our Otary, and that of the Walrus 
and the Common Seal ; but neither of the two former is placed in the peculiar and 
distinctive attitude these animals assume on land. For this reason I have refigured 
that of the Sea-lion, and added separate illustrations of each of the carpal and tarsal 
bones — a decided want in his great work. The series of crania figured by me I shall 
refer to en passant. 

I. The Skeleton and Cranial changes. 
1. The Skull. 

a. General aspects. — Seen in profile, the skull of the Society's young or nearly 
adult <$ specimen of Otaria jubata exhibits a remarkable flattening of the upper cranial 
surface ; the base of the cranium from this view also appears pretty level, and is nearly 
parallel with the horizontal plane of the vertex. From the nasals anteriorly the skull 
slopes considerably ; and posteriorly the occipital truncation is interrupted by the pro- 
jecting condyle. In old age, as subsequently to be shown, the skull of this species does 
not retain the above-mentioned features ; but these evidently hold good in a certain stage 
of growth. 

Three segments or regions are readily mapped off in this side-view. The first or 
naso-maxillary one occupies rather less than a third of the entire length of the cranium, 
and includes the nasal, the intermaxillary, the maxillary bone, and the teeth as far as 
the fourth premolar. The anterior or inner margin of the orbit bounds this segment 

vol. vin. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 a 


behind. The second, orbito-frontal or middle region is chiefly formed by the orbit 
itself. It embraces, moreover, a portion of the vacuity of the temporal fossa, externally 
is guarded by the malar arch, is bounded above by the frontal bone and supraorbital 
process, and below and within is defined by the pterygopalatine wall. Its length is 
almost an exact third of the long diameter of the cranium. 

These two anterior segments or provisional boundaries together comprise the facial 
region, which here bears a proportion to the entire length of the skull as 6 is to 10. 
The third, hinder and largest segment, the temporo-occipital, is nearly as deep as it is 
long, and it thus has a marked rectangular configuration. 

The upper cranial surface exhibits even more definitely the three regions just spoken 
of. That portion containing the brain is broad, and more particularly so at the exoc- 
cipitals. The frontals are deeply scooped out opposite the zygomatic arch ; and this 
narrowing contrasts with the prominent postorbital processes. Each malar arch has an 
external flattened aspect, and only slightly veers inwards anteriorly. At the maxillary 
bones the skull is narrower ; and quite in front these and the premaxillse form an un- 
evenly rounded muzzle; four bosses (see fig. 1) indicate the relative positions of the 
outer incisors and canine teeth. 

b. The Cranial Bones. — Anfractuous low ridges chiefly indicate the occipital elements, 
which otherwise are more or less coalesced. The basiocciput inferiorly is somewhat 
oblong in shape, and rather longer from before backwards than across ; the foramen 
magnum is nearly circular in figure. The condyles form, posterior to the opening, an 
inferior projecting and thickened semilune of bone; but the upper margin of the 
foramen magnum, composed of the inferior hinder border of the supraoccipital, is 
thin. A large exoccipital canal 1 , or condyloid foramen, pierces the bone just within 
the articulating surface. The supraoccipital forms a well-defined arch, bounded by a 
broad moderately raised lambdoidal crest. The surface of the supraocciput is very 
uneven, being marked mesially by a sharp crest, on either side of which are deep 
hollows for the nuchal muscles. 

The parietals are narrow, flat-topped, and short ; suturally they are firmly connected 
with each other, and interossified with the squamous portion of the temporals. The 
squamous element of the temporal bone is broad and flat. The mastoidal surface is 
rather prominently ridged just behind the external auditory meatus, or with a moderate- 
sized paramastoid process; rearwards it is sunk flat, and joins a narrow, scarcely appre- 
ciable paroccipital process. The tympanic bone is fair-sized, but not inflate. It is 
directed obliquely inwards, backwards, and downwards, ending in a sharp margin ; 
superficially (■/. e. inferiorly) it is broadly grooved and indented on its inner face. A 
slight ridge is all that indicates a styloid process ; but there is a short tooth-like cusp 
projecting forwards in front of the tympanic, and overlooking the carotid foramen. 
The glenoideum is narrow antero-posteriorly, but broad transversely, and moderately 
1 A term proposed by Mr. H. N. Turner, see P. Z. S. 1848, p. 75. 


scooped; the jugal extension is a tapering rod. The jugal bone is not very stout, 
though at its middle high, in an upward angle. Bifurcate in front, it forms a firm 
union with the maxillary retrovert process. 

A considerable part of the face or muzzle is taken up by the intermaxillary, so that, 
excepting the canine eminence, each maxillary chiefly outflanks the cheeks only. The 
basal segment of the maxilla rises high, is flatly convex, and of fair breadth. Behind, 
the canine eminence is deeply and widely grooved, where lie the thick infraorbital 
nerves and vessels. There is a small but distinct antorbital prominence. The max- 
illary orbital surface is moderate, and tolerably vertically concave forwards. The pala- 
' tine region of the maxillary is of fair breadth, and terminates in a long spear-shaped 
palatine strip guarding the palatine plates of the palate-bones almost to the posterior 
nares. Each premaxilla is flattish and truncate anteriorly towards the alveolus, and 
rises therefrom in a narrowing outspread arch enclosing the anterior nares. The narial 
orifice in front is heart-shaped, H inch deep and 1£ inch at its upper widest part. The 
upward strip of the premaxilla is inserted between the nasal and maxillary bone as a 
narrow wedge. The large turbinals are much convoluted and almost occlude the narial 
passages, but within the maxillary area. The vomer is in great part hidden, and has 
no connexion with the horizontal palatine plates. 

The nasals in some respects are like the premaxillaries in being wide below and 
narrow above. Each is 1-8 inch long, and about half an inch at widest or below. They 
are suturally connected nearly their whole length, posteriorly divaricating ; the forks 
fit into the frontal. One half of their outer margin abuts against the maxilla, the 
remainder in front lies upon the premaxilla. 

The frontal bones are peculiar from their length, postorbital processes, and great 
constriction behind these. Their upper surface is smooth and flat anteriorly, and widely 
convexly arched behind. Their orbital surfaces are of great length, considerably scooped 
out, and but moderately deep, a long vacuity existing between them and the maxillo- 

The palatine plates of the palate-bones, as has been noticed by many authors, are un- 
commonly long and broad — in this case fully 2J inches in antero-posterior, and above 
H inch in transverse diameter. Their hinder margins are transversely abrupt, and the 
posterior nares constricted. Laterally and exteriorly the palatine walls reach high, and 
present a great pterygo-sphenoidal surface. 

The basisphenoid is short, but wide. The pterygoid processes stout, and with a sharp 
recurved hamular process. The alisphenoids are fair-sized, distinguished by a square 
boss where they join the postfrontals. There seems, however, to be a large orbital 
plate : but this is mainly composed of the postfrontal ; for the orbito-sphenoidal area 
is very narrow and small. 

c. The Mandible. — The two halves of the inferior maxilla have no bony anchylosis, but 
are united to each other by synchondrosis. This separation is not merely the result of 



age ; for I find such symphysial cartilaginous union obtains, not only in the adult speci- 
mens of Otaria jubata, but even in undoubted old animals of the same species. Each 
body possesses a shallow curve, the concavity of which looks inwards ; and the halves 
together thus form a tongue-shaped arch, ending in front in the broadish deep sym- 
physis. Immediately beneath the well-marked incisor-fossa? and foramina, the edges of 
the symphysis pout forwards in a low but distinct median mental crest, some half an 
inch in vertical depth. Below this the rami gradually diverge from each other, inclining 
downwards and backwards as they each form a thickened posterior symphysial angle. 

The extreme length of the lower jaw measures 7*25 inches ; the greatest diameter 
(which is at the condyles) is 5-3 inches. 

A row of foramina as numerous as the molar teeth on the left side, and less by one on 
the right, occupy a line trending downwards from the alveolus, opposite the last molar, 
to below the middle of the bone, and anteriorly vertical between the first and second 
molar teeth. The most anterior of these is the largest, and may represent the mental 
foramen of Man ; but here, in the Sea-lion, the vascular supply is great, and accord- 
ingly supplied with an increased number of nutritious channels. A narrowing and 
thinning of the bone distinguishes or separates the body from the ramus ; this nearly 
median contraction has the effect of giving the side of the jaw a somewhat long and 
irregularly bordered figure-of-eight contour. At this narrowest part, just behind the 
last molar, there is a breadth or vertical depth of 1*2 inch, and a thickness of 0-4. 
From it the ramus commences, and very gradually widens, its thin coronoid lamina 
rising at an obtuse angle to the body. The angle, a flattened rhombic plate, is inflect, 
with a deepish emargination in front. The condyloid neck is compressed antero- 

d. Foramina of Lower Base 1 . — The anterior palatine are fissures of some magnitude. 
Marked postpalatine foramina do not obtain ; but instead a linear series of minute open- 
ings reach from opposite each penultimate tooth back to the end of the maxillary splint, 
in apposition with the lengthened palatal arch. There is an alisphenoid canal per- 
forating longitudinally the base of the pterygoid, and communicating with the spheno- 
orbitary region. A Vidian canal, admitting a fine bristle, can be traced along the inside 
of the pterygoid root. A fair-sized foramen ovale lies behind and outside the alisphe- 
noid canal ; and exterior to it is the postglenoid foramen. Directly posterior to the 
ovale, and in a somewhat irregular transverse recess, there are close together the lacerum 
medium, anterior opening of the carotic canal, hiatus Fallopii, and fissura Glasseri — the 
said recess, moreover, being surmounted posteriorly by the tubercle developed in front 
of the tympanic. The orifice of the meatus auditorius externus is sunk in a conical 
hollow between the mastoid eminence and the tympanic bulla, the large stylomastoid 
foramen beins situate close to its rear. Still further back, and more towards the 


1 Compare respectively the interesting researches on this subject in the Carnivora by H. N. Turner, as cited, 
and Prof. Flower, P. Z. 8. I860, p. 4 ; also Prof. Owen's pithy descriptive remarks on specimens in the Hun- 
terian Museum. 


median line, is the very great horseshoe-shaped jugular vacuity. At its fore border, 
partially hidden within the bone, is the entrance of the carotid canal, which pursues a 
course through the tympanic, opening, as aforesaid, at the lacerum medium. A shelf 
of bone divides the postcarotic foramen from the deeper-placed aquseductus cochleae. 
Lastly, to the rear, and a trifle within the jugular fossa, is the basal opening of the 
anterior condyloid foramen. 

e. Interior of the Skull. — As regards peculiarities in the form of this cavity, allusions 
will be found under the description of the encephalon ; here I confine my remarks to the 
osseous superficies and foramina. Laterally the walls of the calvarium are exceedingly 
thin — anteriorly, or in the frontal region, excessively thick and cancellous — occipitally 
equally porous but very moderate in thickness, and with capacious venous channels. 
The bony tentorial plate, necessarily broken on removal of the vertex, as displayed in 
fig. 10, is uneven, and pitted with minute and larger-sized foramina. The anfractuosi- 
ties of the canopy of the skull, and the irregular cerebral-pitting depressions are most 
unusually well marked ; and, moreover, innumerable minute and larger-sized foramina 
bear evidence of the great vascularity of the osseous structure. The longitudinal venous 
groove is very deep and well pronounced ; and so are the furrows lodging the meningeal 
arteries &c. 

The floor of the cavity (somewhat bluntly boat-shaped) possesses numerous irregu- 
larities and vacuities ; but the orbi to-frontal parietes are smoother and incline to the 
perpendicular. The olfactory fossae are narrow, high, and deep, the cribriform plates of 
the ethmoid assuming the vertical, with a retroverted spinous partition. Immediately 
behind the latter is a single low-arched perforation for the optic nerves, each nerve 
escaping into the back of the orbit through the orbito-sphenoid bone, the perforation 
drilling the median wall (fig. 5). Along the solid mid-basilar plane, successively from 
before backwards, the noteworthy points are: — adjoining the optic arch a transverse 
cleft, through non-ossification of praesphenoid suture ; a full broadish processus olivarius, 
comparatively deficient in mid clinoid processes ; a deeply excavated sella turcica, whose 
bayed front margin carries relatively large angular postclinoid processes ; a scooped basi- 
sphenoid lodging the pons Varolii ; to the rear of this, in the basioccipital, a great lop- 
sided hollow (possibly a vascular recess), chiefly to the left, though shown on the right 
in the reversed fig. 9. 

At the sides defined areas correspond to the orbito-parietal and temporal lobes of the 
cerebrum, whilst that which receives the cerebellum and lateral sinuses is markedly 
characterized by its depth, prominent nodular periotic, and large jugular orifice. 

Of other fissures and visible foramina, that agreeing with the lacerum anterius extends 
half an inch antero-posteriorly, an outer eaved bony plate partly overriding it ; a groove 
about another half inch leads back and outwards to a large foramen ovale, these and an 
inner adjoining space (in the fresh subject) being occupied by the Casserian ganglion and 
fifth-nerve divisions. What apparently answers to the lacerum medium (giving ingress 
to the internal carotid artery) and the foramen spinosum is a widish perforation and 



adjoining minute accessory tiny open fork, situate behind but to the inside of the ovale, 
and immediately in front of the periotic. The latter nodular bone dominantly projects, 
a concavity of the cerebellum at the flocculus resting thereon. Anteriorly the aquae- 
ductus Fallopii is barely visible in this view ; neither is the meatus auditorius interims, 
which looks towards the median line ; and the aquseductus vestibuli similarly occupies 
a recess on the posterior face. Below the last is the carotid canal, behind the large 
jugular perforation. An anterior condyloid foramen pierces the corner betwixt basi- 
and exoccipitals, running nearly vertically towards the jugular groove. 

For a description of the longitudinal vertical section of the aged skull, viz. that in 
PL LXXVIL fig. 22, I refer to Prof. Owen's notice in the Cat. Coll. Surg., specimen 
No. 3971. It is sufficient for my purpose to call attention to the great occipital crest, 
thickness of frontal, position of ethmoid and turbinals, maxillo-palatine cleft, and 
osseous tentorium, as all more fully pronounced in character than what obtains in 
younger skulls which, nevertheless, in other general respects agree. 

f. Sexual differences. — In a previous communication to this Society, I directed attention 
to certain visual distinctions extant between the male and female skulls of Otaria juhata, 
and gave figures of the same, hereunder reproduced. I was not then aware that Owen 
had commented on the same fact, and therefore now append his remarks in a footnote '. 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Palatal views of adult male (fig. 1) and female (tig. 2) skulls of Otaria jubata. To scale j nat. size. 

From P.Z. S. 1869, p. 103. 

1 "It differs from that of the male in its inferior size, but agrees with it in all essential or modifiable cha- 
racters. The more feeble bite and smaller temporal muscles have not required the elevation of the temporal 



They apply to the skull figured by me in PI. LXXVII. tigs. 16, 17, which is that 
numbered 39G8, Cat. Coll. Surg. Besides the points here displayed in palatal views, a 
comparison of the crania in the accompanying PI. LXXVII. further bears out state- 
ments concerning said differentiations l . 

g. Progressive Cranial changes. — Although writers previously had incidentally ad- 
verted to an alteration in the form of the skull with age in some of the Eared Seals, yet 
no one has so forcibly pointed this out as Dr. Gray 2 . In one of his papers on the 
Otariadce he justly remarks 3 : — "The skull of these animals changes so much in form 
as the animal arrives at adult and old age, that it is not always easy to determine the 
species by it, unless you have a series of them of different ages and states to compare." 
So much do the parietal crest and other osseous prominences shoot forth in the 
Sea-bear or Great Sea-lion of some travellers (Otaria jubata), that between young and 
old specimens changes as great and characteristic as obtain in the cranium of the 
Gorilla occur in them. 

In tracing the development of the skull of this species of Otaria, I have had the 
advantage of comparing side by side a large number of both sexes and various ages. I 
tabulated a series of proportional measurements of the relative growth of different 
regions, but refrain from introducing the table in this place. Instead I have illustrated. 
in Series PI. LXXVII., examples of five different stages of the development, to each of 
which I append remarks. My figures have been drawn to a uniform scale, quarter 
natural size ; I nevertheless subjoin, in inches and tenths, the absolute length, breadth, 
and height of each, for greater precision. 

Crania of Otaria jubata. 

1st stage. 

15 to 20 


2nd stage. 


3rd stage. 
d ad. (nearly), 

2 ad. 

4th stage, 
c? old. 

5th stage. 

6 very 


Nos. in Cat. Coll. Surg., except sp. 3rd column 

Greatest length, premaxilla to condyle 

Greatest breadth 

Greatest height, without mandible line cuttin 

E } 




3971 b. 






I L-0 


3971 a. 


3971 e. 



First stage. In the young skull of a few weeks old the brain-region is in prepon- 

ridges into a parietal crest, nor any considerable development of the occipital ridge. The boundary of the 
large mastoid is well shown in this skull, together with the share which the paroccipital takes in this rough 
muscular ridge external to the petrosal. The middle surface of the basioccipital is less carinate than in the 
male. The entry of the carotid canal in the petrosal is more distinct from the jugular vacuity. The broad 
superorbital processes of the frontal are less angular. The canines and external incisors of the upper jaw are 
smaller in comparison with the molars. The first and second incisors have bifid crowns. The angle of the 
lower jaw is produced and bent inwards more than in the male." 

1 I may also refer to a most valuable communication " On the Eared Seals," by Mr. J. A. Allen, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool. Camb. T. S. vol. ii. no. 1 (1870-71), wherein the author, with occasionally sweeping criticism, has 
most adroitly woven together many facts concerning sexual variation and changes of the skull in the Xorth- 
Pacific species. 

2 P. Z. S. 1859, p. 360, and Cat. of Seals and Whales in B. M. :; Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1868, i. 100. 


derance. It occupies about half the total length, the other half being divided betwixt 
the orbital region and the face proper or maxillo-premaxillary parts. The entire skull 
is low, broad, and flat on the top. Superiorly, from occiput to nasals, approaches an 
equal-sided triangle. The breadth of the mid frontals is not only relatively but abso- 
lutely a trifle greater than in the aged animal. On the other hand, the prefrontal pro- 
cesses scarcely extrude. The jugals have but slight arching. The occiput is altogether 
full, flat, and vertical ; the condyles project little. Premaxillse comparatively short and 
high ; spheno-orbital vacuity shallow, height proportionally great to length. Palate 
shallow and short. Basioccipital and sphenoid parts smooth, and all other processes 
small. Mandible with shallow shelving symphysis ; a wide ramal arch ; condyle short- 
necked and low-set. 

Second stage. In this cranium, authenticated as a yearling, there is a sensible change 
of cerebral to facial and prefrontal areas. Maxillae and premaxillae begin to lengthen. 
Mid frontals narrow relatively to increase of prefrontal processes. The brain-region 
becomes somewhat quadrangular; occiput rougher and begins to shoot backwards. 
Temporal groove deepens ; jugal arch increases. The permanent teeth in place give 
more character to the mouth ; lengthening and deepening of palate obvious ; the 
hamular processes approach. Eminences of spheno-occipital and other regions show 
indications of growth, but are not prominent. Condyles and coronoid processes of 
lower jaw exhibit a tendency to vertical elevation ; mental portion of symphysis inclined 
to become tuberose. 

Third stage. Face, orbito-frontal, and brain-division now bear more equal propor- 
tion ; that is, the two former have increased in a greater ratio than the latter. The 
mid frontals appear more scooped by reason of prefrontal development. By elongation 
of condyles and concomitant increase of basi- and exoccipitals, the occiput acquires a 
reverse obliquity to the first stage. The outline of the brain-cavity remains in abeyance, 
whilst temporal and occipital crests become apparent, though yet moderate. Mastoid 
and preoccipital eminences acquire a certain prominence. Orbito-jugal arch wider; 
premaxillse decidedly elongate. Teeth, especially canines, enlarged. Palatal grooving 
deepened, the pterygoid processes nearing, hence postnares less open. Muscular im- 
pressions on basioccipital well scooped, basiocciput turning upwards behind. Symphysis 
lengthened ; upward tilt of ascending ramus. In this stage sexual distinction becomes 
evident, although there is still considerable resemblance between them. 

Fourth stage. Here the changes become very notable. The excessive growth of the 
canines of the male produce rounder, fuller premaxillae. Brain-expansion is arrested. 
Mid-frontal width retrogrades, while prefrontal progresses. The jugal arch expands, 
its orbital segment deepens, its post upper angle rises ; the maxillary surface of orbit 
gets fuller. Parieto-occipital crests and processes acquire importance ; and this causes 
the after part of the top of the skull to be elevated and no longer smooth and broad. 
Moreover on each side, at the fronto-parietal suture, bony projections appear. Arching 


of palate and lengthening of pterygoids go on apace. The tympanic bones descend and 
become laterally compressed, whilst the carotic canal assumes a more vertical direction 
posteriorly. Meantime the basisphenoid shelves upwards and forwards, the paramastoids 
roughly bulging out. Growth of the occipital crest alters the back of the skull to a 
kind of trefoil outline. Increment of the teeth widens the premaxillary region and 
anterior nares. There is an upturning of the ascending ramus and an inflection of the 
angle. The bones altogether become more massive and rugose. 

Fifth stage. As the skull ripens to old age, particularly in the male, all the charac- 
teristic points of the fourth stage are carried out by excessive growth of processes, crests, 
and other superficial developments of bony lines, spicules, and nodules. The cavity of 
the eye looks forwards ; the space behind for the temporal and masseter muscles 
enlarging as fleshy bulk preponderates over cerebral character. 

It follows that all the aforesaid changes are an exact counterpart of what obtains in 
the Gorilla. In early youth the brain is functionally predominant. Then the teeth 
assume importance with a corresponding facial accession. Lastly, whereas brain-incre- 
ment is apparently arrested, the muscles of mastication, those of the throat and neck, 
indeed all connected with the head, and therefore involved in the organs of offence and 
defence, paramountly swell in bulk and strength ; nerves and blood-vessels augment 
proportionally. Thus from the featureless skull is evolved the rugged, immense, and 
terrible-looking carnivorous cranium peculiar to this and certain other genera of the 
Eared Seals '. 

2. Spinal Column and Thorax. 

a. Vertebrae. — Restricting myself to the Society's male specimen, its vertebral elements 
were as follows: — 7 cervical, 15 dorsal, 5 lumbar, 4 sacral, and 8 caudal; or a total of 
39 pieces. 

The cervicals are all large relatively, the largest of the series. The first 5 or 6 dorsal, 
from their greater spines and transverse processes, also seem large. The remainder of 
the dorsals decrease in size as regards height and breadth. The lumbar vertebra? appear 
of moderate size, the three hindermost being rather the stoutest. The 1st sacral is of 
fair size ; the remainder, with the caudal, form a graduated series, none of which are 
large. The spinal column (46 inches long) does not seem to hinge on any particular 
vertebra, all being equally movable by the thick cartilaginous intervertebral disks. 

The axis is the only cervical with a long spine. The first four retrovert neural spines 
of the dorsal are longest and subequal ; there is no other prominent spine behind. All 
the inferior processes of the cervical vertebrae, as De Blainville 2 has depicted, are stout 

1 See Allen, as cited, for the genera Eumetopias, Zalophus, and CaUorJiintis. Dr. Gray, also, in several com- 
munications to the Society's Proceedings, has shown cranial alterations in some rarer forms, since the present 
memoir was read. 

2 ' Oste'ographie,' plate vii. Atlas, part 2. 

vol. vin. — part ix. June, 1S74. 4 b 


but short. The dorsal vertebrae present no striking difference from those of Seals 
generally. Gradually narrowing, the dorsals merge into the lumbar vertebra?, which 
are likewise larger, but not specially characterized from other Phocine genera. In 
computing the presence of four sacral vertebrae, I am guided partly by the nervous dis- 
tribution and partly by the fact that the said number bears closest resemblance to each 
other of the series. Together they are distinguished by their raking neural arches and 
spines, subequal in length, and lying upon each other almost in an imbricated manner. 
The foremost has the largest body, the modified great flat-surfaced transverse processes 
forming a sacro-iliac synchondrosis, a facet of the second assisting. The bodies of the 
2nd, 3rd, and 4th are carinate, but, nevertheless, have not the depth of the 1st. The 
pedicles of their transverse processes are uncommonly squat, a retral bar, however, 
enclosing an intertransverse foramen. 

In our adult male animal under consideration, there are eight caudal vertebra? re- 
markably movable upon each other by the intervention of thick interarticular fibro- 
cartilaginous disks. The vertebra? diminish regularly from the first to the last, which 
is of very small size, and but incompletely ossified. The first two have each backwardly 
directed spinous processes. The third has two imperfectly formed thick laminar eleva- 
tions, but no spine. All three of these vertebra? have well-developed transverse 
processes. From the fourth to the eighth caudal element there are no spinous or 
transverse processes, slightly raised elevation of the bone alone representing these 

b. The Bibs. — Of the fifteen pairs of ribs, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd are the shortest, then 
follows the 15th. From the 4th backwards to the 9th and 10th, there is a gradual 
increase in length, from which they decrease as they go backwards. 

The subjoined Table gives the respective costal lengths in the young and adult 
animals. The measurements in each are from the angle to the costal tip : — 

Ribs. Young. Adult (Z.S.sp.). 

























Kibs. Young. Adult (Z.S.sp.). 






















The first rib has a stout roundish straight body, with a very slight antero-posterior 
compression. The neck, set almost at a right angle to the body of the rib, is thick, 
and markedly grooved in front and behind. The capitulum is of moderate size ; it 
articulates with the anterior part of the body of the first dorsal vertebra, barely im- 
pinging against the intervertebral cartilage. The prominent tubercle, and its articular 


facet, together nearly | an inch long, in this and the succeeding rib, shoot upwards 
nearly in the line of the axis of the body itself. Indeed these processes seem almost 
to form the true termination of the ribs, from which the neck and head proper seem 
but forked offsets. 

The second rib diverges slightly from the pattern of the first, inasmuch as it is rather 
longer, thinner, and possesses a wider sweep or curvature from the angle to the neck. 
There is just a perceptible indication of a bending backwards or semi-twist at the angle, 
but not the same flattening and bulging which obtains in the succeeding ribs. The 
scalene tuberosity, tolerably well marked in the first rib, is diminished and well-nigh 
obsolete on the second. 

The third, fourth, and fifth ribs are fashioned not unlike each other, and with but 
slight individual variation. They present different yet scarcely appreciable degrees of 
curvature and twist, the body altering in such a manner that what was the anterior 
surface in the first and second ribs becomes in them the outer flattened surface. 
Their sternal extremities are more compressed and elliptical in outline than the ribs in 
front or those immediately behind. The angles of the three ribs in question are better 
indicated than the others in the series, but none have it well pronounced. The fork- 
like head and elongated tubercle distinctive of the first two ribs undergoes a gradual 
change in the third, fourth, and fifth. The neck becomes vertically deeper, less con- 
stricted, and consequently appears shorter, although not in reality so. The tubercle 
diminishes in length, and its articular facet acquires a more backward direction. The 
anterior groove at the angle lessens from the third to the fifth. The enlarged capi- 
tulum of each assumes an obliquity of condition, and with a fore-and-aft articulating 
face abuts upon the posterior surface of the body of the vertebrae in advance and the 
anterior surface of its own numerical vertebra. From the sixth to the twelfth costal 
elements there is a very gradual progressive change in the amount of curvature, and in 
reduction of the tubercle. The differences between the intervening ribs will be best 
comprehended by comparing, say, the sixth with the twelfth, rather than attempting to 
describe the next to insensible modifications which the ribs seriatim undergo. 

The sixth rib, then, with similitude to the fifth, is long, of moderate breadth and 
thickness, narrowed and slightly triangular in transverse section about its middle, but 
flatter and compressed from within outwards, below. It joins the sternal cartilage by 
a truncated somewhat bulbous end. The outer surface from the angle downwards 
is plain and smooth, the front and hinder edges gently rounded. The unequal arch of 
the body is deepest at the angle. The latter is not protuberant but definable, the more 
readily so as the rib at this part as well as the neck and head is compressed antero- 
posteriorly. The tubercle is of fair size ; the neck and head large, but uniform in 
diameter. The most notable changes in the twelfth rib are little or no antero-posterior 
compression, no defined angle, the rib from one end to the other presenting a wide, 
low, regular arch. The head, neck, and tubercle have decreased in ratio, the division 



between them being less pronounced. The rib at the angle has lost the semi-twist 
possessed by the sixth ; but instead there is a more regular spiral, so that the outer 
surface has a somewhat backward inclination below. The sternal extremity is thinned. 
Surface within and without body biconvex, with sharp antero-posterior edges. 

The 13th, 14th, and 15th ribs have little or no distinction between head, neck, and 
tubercle; they are elliptical in their long diameter, weak, slightly concave in arch, 
the free extremities tapering. They all articulate, with but a single vertebral body. 
The zygapophysial articulating surface is on their inner sides. Instead of a convex 
angle there is a shallow concavity in its place, which is very slight in the 13th, a 
little more so in the 14th, and distinct in the 15th. 

c. Sternum. — De Blainville's representation of this bone ('Atlas,' i. ii. pi. vii.) 
calls for a few remarks on my part. These refer to the intersternal and superadded 
cartilaginous elements. As the above authority shows, there are eight sternal 
bones, the manubrium being prolonged beyond the first rib ; but the attached rib- 
cartilages are nine in number. In these respects the Society's specimen agrees. De 
Blainville's more aged animal and dry skeleton, however, have misled him — first, in 
assigning too limited an area for the intersternal cartilages ; secondly, in the abutment 
of the eighth and ninth sternal ribs against the seventh bone instead of behind 
it on the cartilage ; and, thirdly, in the xiphoid cartilage being narrow and straight, 
instead of spatulate. These omissions, through a defective skeleton, have to some 
extent been already rectified from the present specimen, by my friend Mr. Parker'. 
The manubrium has a flat dorsal and carinate ventral surface, the anterior broader 
segment terminating in a forwardly projecting blunt cartilage an inch long. The pos- 
terior segment is much narrower, stouter, and vertically deeper than the anterior 
portion. The second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth meso-sternal elements range about 
one size, and differ from each other chiefly as regards breadth and thickness. From 
being round, with bulbous extremities, they gradually alter, becoming broader, thinner, 
and flatter. The seventh piece is unlike the sixth in having an arched instead of trun- 
cate posterior extremity, the rounded edges thus giving greater space to the inter 
sternal cartilage, whereby, as aforesaid, the eighth and ninth sternal ribs join it. 

The " metosteon " of the xiphoid precisely resembles one of the phalanges of the 
manus, but is thinner ; the xipho-cartilage has a short narrow handle, ending in a broad 
rounded extremity, not quite pyriform, as Parker remarks, and certainly entirely 
different from De Blainville's figure. 

The several bones from the prse- to the xiphosternum measure respectively 2*8, T6, 
T4, 1*3, T4, T5, T9, 2*5 inches long. In a young female of the same species which I 
have had an opportunity of comparing, these bones had the following long diameters 

1 A Monograph of the Structure and Development of the Shoulder-girdle and Sternum in the Vertebrata 
(Kay Soc. 1S67), p. 21 0, pi. xxx. fig. 7. Witness also fig. 25, pi. lxxii. of pt. ii. of my own memoir. 


=2*0, 0*9, 1-0, 08, 0"8, 0*95, 1*1, 1-6. Thus these bones present the same relations 
as regards size in the young and older animal. It is not so, however, with the cartilages, 
which in the young Otary are each equal to half the length of the bone, but in the 
adult no more than a third. 

The sternal cartilages are thick, long, and flexible; but the last three are shorter 
than the others, and comparatively free. The first cartilage articulates with the prse- 
sternal bony facet. The second, third, and fourth are attached to the middle of the 
intersternal cartilages. The fifth, sixth, and seventh join the intersternal cartilages 
more obliquely, and are inserted chiefly into the hinder corners of the 4th, 5th, and 
6th sternal bones. The eighth cartilage is fixed to the rounded postero-outer border 
of the seventh bone ; the 9th to the middle of the cartilage. 

The cavity of the thorax and abdomen enclosed by the ribs, is long, deep, and narrow, 
according as the ribs are expanded or otherwise, heart-shaped, =22 inches long. The 
ribs either stand out or are flattened. This is chiefly permitted by the looseness of the 
cartilaginous and ligamentous union, also length and flexibility of the sternal cartilages. 

3. Bones of the Extremities. 

a. Pectoral Limb. — Scapula. This has not the arched or semilunar shape of the 
Common Seal, but is a broad irregularly trapezoidal thin bone. It measures in our 
specimen 6-5 inches from the glenoid head (the cartilage in situ) across to the middle 
vertebral or posterior border, and it is 8 inches in diameter between the superior and 
inferior angles. The spine is of moderate nearly uniform height, and possesses a 
downward slant, overarching very slightly the infraspinous fossa. It is carried onwards 
to within J an inch of the glenoid cavity, whence an acromion process rather broader 
than the spine itself reaches almost to the articular fossa. In the recent state a 
ligament converts this acromial arch into a foramen. The glenoidal cavity is shallow 
and more oval in shape than in Phoca vitulina. The neck is very short, broad, and 
stout. Only a rudiment of the coracoid process is present. The supraspinous fossa 
occupies the upper three fourths of the bone 1 . A slightly raised ridge proceeds from 
the upper third of the neck backwards and towards the superior angle, dividing the 
supraspinous fossa into two shallow concavities. The narrower, but deeper, infraspinous 
fossa has the oblique ridge and groove for the teres major distinctly marked. The 
space lodging the infraspinatus muscle is hollow, and not convex. 

Humerus. Figured in three different views by De Blainville {op. cit. pi. viii.), is 
short, stout, and peculiar-looking from the great development and prominent nature 
of the deltoid eminence. The greatest length of the bone in a straight line is 6 \ inches, 
being \ of an inch less than the radius, and If inch shorter than the ulna. The 

1 Vide Cuvier, ' Ossemens Fossiles,' torn. v. pt. i. p. 224, and De Blainville, op. cit. text, torn. ii. p. 23, Atlas,' 
vol. ii. pis. iii. & viii. 


axis of the three-faced shaft is nearly perpendicular, though at first sight it does not 
appear so, the deltoid projection giving it outwardly somewhat the contour of the 
letter S. The latter forms a thick anterior projecting and somewhat laterally com- 
pressed plate of bone extending from the root of the unusually greater tuberosity 
downwards, mesially, four fifths the length of the shaft. Head and neck sessile. Con- 
dyloid ridges short, but giving great lateral breadth to the lower half of shaft. Inner 
condyle most marked ; eminentia capitata and inner trochlear eminence the reverse. 
The further positions of the bones of the elbow-joint, and their singular gliding 
movements upon each other, I discussed when treating of the ligamentous system 
(consult pt. ii. vol. vii. p. 581). 

Ulna and Radius. Throughout the Pinnipedia the ulna is hatchet-shaped, altogether 
flattened, especially the olecranon (as the blade). Slight modifications distinguish 
the different families and genera (witness Cuvier and De Blainville's illustrations &c). 
In Otaria jubata the outer extensor surface of shaft is gently convex in its axes, the 
inner flexor is concave ; distal epiphysis conical. The even-surfaced greater sigmoid 
notch is almost vertical, with the exception of a small inferior projection ( = the coronoid 
process) upon which the inner knuckle of the humerus plays ; and on the radial side 
of this projection an oblique shallow concavity represents the lesser sigmoid notch. A 
widish inward scoop separates the humeral articulation from the top of the olecranon 
process, which latter, thinning, sweeps backwards, terminating in a dependent angular 
process. The radius has a well-defined neck, short but large and wide shallow head. 
From the upper third the roundish shaft widens and flattens to its massive lower 
extremity, 2^ inches broad, with thickness in proportion. 

Carpus, Metacarpus, and Phalanges. Of the seven carpal bones the amalgamated 
scapholunar is the most remarkable, on account of its great size and of its claiming the 
major share of the articular surface of the first row of bones. It is in opposition with 
all the bones of the second row, the cuneiform, and radius, in all six ; but it plays 
against these virtually by three faces. The radial is large and convex ; the face in con- 
tiguity with the os magnum and unciform is somewhat vertically scooped, a mesial ridge 
defining the province of each bone, whilst the cuneiform impinges against the posterior 
corner of the latter ; lastly, the trapezio-trapezoidal is extensive, rhomboidal-outlined, 
concave from without inwards, and convex from above downwards. It is this peculiar 
disposition of the latter, in unison with a certain oblique or excentric movement of the 
parts, which enables the animal to use its fore flipper on land as a foot ; for the proximal 
carpal row is then raised from the horizontal basal line, as in a great measure is the 
unciform. Thus the wedged-in magnum, the trapezoides, and the trapezium of the 
carpals form the base of support ; and that also accounts for the singular radial flop 
with which the manus is laid down in walking. According to the amount of bend of 
the wrist-joint, so does the cuneiform in a lesser or greater degree come into connexion 
with the bones. Its postero-outer face receives the pisiform and point of the ulna in a 


wide hollow ; the inner glides upon the radius ; a narrow comer of the anterior impinges 
against the scapholunar, its remainder articulating with the unciform ; and an outer facet 
partly accommodates the fifth metacarpal as the manus is twisted outwards. The 
pisiform is a small hean-shaped bone, its free end directed outwards, its attached end 
lying upon the epiphysis of the ulna and the cuneiform of the four articular surfaces 
presented by the trapezium ; that towards the second metacarpal is a mere corner facet. 
The trapezoidal is smaller than the trapezium, its palmar surface being very consider- 
ably narrowed. It just touches the third metacarpal, besides its ordinary facets for 
scaphoid, magnum, trapezium, and first metacarpal. The os magnum is the least-sized 
bone of the distal row, and, reversely from the last, has a narrow dorsal and broader 
palmar surface. It appears not to come into contact with the second metacarpal, and 
sinks in obliquely and below the scapholunar. Thus when the manus is planted on the 
ground the latter bone overrides it in great part. The unciform is about equal to the 
trapezoides in magnitude. It is surrounded by five bones, the fifth metacarpal more 
usually constituting its outer boundary. 

The metacarpals are of most unequal dimensions, that of the pollex being of inordi- 
nate proportions. The lengths from 1st to 5th are as follows: — 4-25, 3, 2-3, 2, and 
1-9 inch. The first is by far the broadest, thickest, and flattest; the third thinnest and 
roundest. The fifth differs from the fourth in being a wider bone. The proximal ends 
of the outer four are enlarged and tuberose ; the width of the innermost (first) subdues 
its otherwise bulky character. 

The phalanges, of normal number, bear a relation to the size of the metacarpals ; that 
is, the innermost is largest and longest, the fifth digit a trifle stronger though shorter 
than the fourth. The proximal phalanx of the thumb is powerful, its distal one a short 
flat figure of eight; respectively they are 3-9 and T5 inch long. The lengths of the 
remainder of the series are:— second digit 2-7, 2-2, 1 ; third digit 1-9, 1-6, 1 ; fourth 
digit 1-5, 0-8, 0.3; fifth digit 1-3, 0-3, 0-2 inch. The spatulate cartilages and that 
extraordinary one of the pollex, which form the digital extremities, I drew attention to 
and figured in my former anatomical contribution. 

b. Pelvic Limb. — Pelvis. The long axis of the entire pelvis is almost identical with 
that of the spinal column, and even in the strange attitude of walking it accords witli 
the lumbo-caudal region 1 . Ilio-pubic and ilio-ischial angles cannot be said to obtain. 
Each innominate bone approaches posteriorly so as to produce a long narrow V-shaped 
pelvis, and with such variation in the thickness of the bones that the brim is lozenge- 
shaped. The ischium and pubis are narrow bars uniting in a thin rounded plate the 
tuberosity, and enclosing a lengthened oval obturator foramen. Their acetabular ends 
thicken ; the acetabulum itself is large but not deep. The ilium is a broader strip of 
bone, slightly outturned anteriorly, its sacral border intumed, and with moderate sacro- 

1 Cuvier (I. c. p. 226) briefly distinguishes between the pelvis of the Earless and Eared Seals, a point which 
Allen in his paper (I. c. p. 27) with justice lays gi-eat stress on as characteristic of the two groups. 


iliac synchondrosis. Measurements: — Extreme pelvic length 7 - 3 inches, ilium 3*1, 
pubis 4-2, as is also ischium to mid-acetabulum ; the latter 1*3 long, anterior iliac 
angles 3-3 apart, mid iliac breadth or depth 1*2, line cutting acetabulum 1*7, mid 
ischio-pubal 1*3. Diameters of brim — conjugate 4*7, transverse 1*5, oblique 3'3. 
Diameters of outlet — antero-posterior T4, transverse 0*4. 

Femur and Patella. The former, at its upper end, has head and trochanteric 
eminence on a level simulating one another — and neither prominent, from the antero- 
posterior flattening and breadth of the short shaft. The intercondyloid fossa is shallow, 
the innermost knuckle largest, and both rather square in figure from being truncate 
below. Femur is 4 inches long. Patella small, rounded, and with a flat articular 

Tibia and Fibula. The straight rodlike fibula usually stands quite behind the tibia ; 
its narrowed shaft is sharply triangular. Head badly defined, smaller end more 
expanded. The tibia has a forward bend, a somewhat laterally compressed stoutish 
shaft, and subequally enlarged extremities. The articular end opposed to the femur is 
smooth and pretty equal-surfaced ; but it shelves downwards, backwards, and outwards. 
This posterior inclination is most serviceable, and, indeed, enables the femur to be bent 
on the lower limb at a very acute angle without depriving the muscles of their power 
of action in walking. Moreover, along with unusual freedom of the femur, it 
contributes to the limb being thrown back and up in a line with the tail as in the act 
of swimming. There is a short inner malleolus ; and the adjoining astragaloid face has 
double facets. Extreme length of tibia 8*2, of fibula 6*5 inches. 

Hind Foot. When the animal is on all fours the tarsal bones, of the normal number, 
offer perhaps less striking and fewer, but as singular points worthy of notico as the 
carpus. The entire sole (and not a segment of it) is laid on the ground plantigrade- 
fashion in walking. Both astragalus and calcaneum are low. Cuvier's words (I. c. 
p. 226), so applicable to Otaria jubata, will bear quotation. lie says : — " L'astragale 
des phoques est tres-extraordinaire, en ce qu'au lieu d'une poulie plus ou moins creuse 
dans son milieu il offre a la jambe une poulie convexe formee de deux faces, qui font 
ensemble un angle saillant comme un toit, et dont Tune repond au tibia, et l'autre, qui 
est plus grande, au perone. Cet os n'a pas seulement une apophyse en avant pour le 
scaphoide, mais il en a une autre en arriere terminee par une tuberosite et formant une 
sorte de talon interne, de maniere qu'en voyant l'astragale isole on croiroit que c'est le 
calcaneum." I may note more particularly of the present specimen that the horizon- 
tally ovoid fibular facet looks backwards and inwards, and there is a certain amount of 
the same obliquity apparent in its tibial concavo-convex facet. These dispositions 
concurrently adapt themselves to the peculiarities of tibia and fibula. The plantar 
surface of the os calcis is roughened and moderately convex ; the short calcaneal process 
seems to have an inward tilt. It is not altogether, as Cuvier observes, that the 
calcaneum is placed outside the astragalus, but rather that the two bones have a 


constricted X-position to one another, or together are semirotated, lying slanting 
inwards on their short axes. These anomalies have a most important bearing, inasmuch 
as mechanism for swimming and diving are concerned : and they well explain, religated 
with musculo-tendinous 1 accessories, how it is that the hind foot acts like a pivot on 
the heel when walking or running. It is in fact an adjustment of instrument for 
terraqueous locomotion. The awkward pedal defect colloquially known as " flat-footed " 
in man is a kind of first stage towards the Otary's condition, though through ligamen- 
tous rather than osseous conformation in his case. The Earless Seal's incapacity to use 
the hind foot on land depends more on the different proportion of femur to leg-bones, 
and lowered attachment of tegumentary caudal expansion, than to absolute difference 
in the construction of the bones forming the ankle-joint. In the Sea-lion the cuboid, 
naviculare, and entocuneiform are each fair-sized, the meso- and ectocuneiform small 
and very much laterally compressed, particularly the latter, which is indeed a diminu- 
tive bone. 

With respect to the metatarsals, the hallucial is longest and strongest, the fifth a 
shade less, the three intermediate much slenderer and a trifle shorter. Not taking into 
account apical cartilages, the bones of the digits terminate somewhat subequally — the 
first, however, being shortest, the fifth next, and the third by a grade the longest. It 
results that the three middle digits have altogether the longest phalangeal bones : but 
the proximal phalanx of the hallux is in itself decidedly the longer and stouter bone 
compared with the proximal of the other digits. The second, third, and fourth ungual 
projections are best marked. 

II. The Nervous System. 

1. Remarks on the Extraction of the Brain and Membranes. 
The strong fibrous pericranium having been divided, the bone of the cranial vault 
was carefully sawn through in a nearly horizontal line, extending on each side from the 
upper arch of the foramen magnum forwards, close to the postfrontal prominence. 
At the latter part the saw was again used vertically and transversely, so as to cut 
the anterior points of the horseshoe-shaped horizontal incision. When the calvarium 
had thus been loosened in its osseous circumference, it still remained firmly fixed by 
the bony tentorial lamella. This latter was then broken through by manoeuvring 
in a wriggling manner backwards and upwards, and the brain-pan removed. The 
great difference between the thick osseous protection afforded to the cerebral mass 
above, and the thin side walls, became strikingly evident on the calvarium being raised 
(see figs. 9 and 10). It would appear as if the powerful temporal and masseter muscles, 
besides being massive fleshy engines of mastication, must also, with their fatty and 

1 For corroborative testimony refer to the various paragraphs in pts. i. & ii. of these researches, on the 
Walrus and Sea-Lion. 

vol. vin. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 c 


cutaneous coverings, act as buffers to the delicate temporal walls, which, in some 
places, do not exceed a line in thickness. Thus, while the brain is provided against 
lateral concussions, the very utmost limit is given it as regards breadth, and this 
without diminishing the space necessary for the muscular apparatus, or increasing the 
width of the hinder portion of the head, which altogether is comparatively narrow 
and elongate. 

On the dura mater being longitudinally divided and laterally reflected, a sketch was 
made of the brain in situ. In this way the upper convolutions, sulci, and general rela- 
tion of parts previously to change of position were secured. After this the brain and a 
small portion of the upper part of the cord were carefully removed in the usual way, 
then weighed with the membranes, and preserved in spirit. 

The dura mater of the base being left within the cranium, and the calvarium replaced, 
an accurate model of the interior was obtained by filling the cavity with plastic mate- 
rial. From this a mould was formed, and, lastly, a plaster of Paris cast derived there- 
from. As is well known, the recent brain immediately on removal alters in shape ; and 
still more so, as Marshall 1 has accurately noted, does the preserved encephalon change 
remarkably in the relations of its parts. A photograph could not conveniently be taken 
at the moment. The figures here given, therefore (figs. 38, 39, & 40), of the lateral, 
upper, and basal views, are rigorously measured outlines, by my friend and artist Mr. 
Berjeau and myself, of the intercranial cast, filled in their details from the shrunken 
brain, corrected by the sketches made of the organ in its fresh condition. If not perfect 
counterparts, the figures will be found close approximations to the natural aspect of each 
view in question. The longitudinal and horizontal sections (PI. LXXIX. figs. 44, 45) 
are from the preserved hardened brain, very slightly modified by reference to a similarly 
divided soft intracranial model. 

It is but proper for me to express my sense of obligations to recent workers on cerebral 
anatomy, among whom more particularly may be mentioned Leuret 2 , Gratiolet 3 , Dareste 4 , 
Owen 5 , Huxley' 5 , Flower 7 , Marshall', Turner 9 , and Kolleston 10 . 

2. The Dura and Pia Mater. 

The most external fibrous cerebral envelope, the dura mater, is firm and of moderate 

thickness. Its upper surface is very irregularly indented, corresponding as it does to 

the greatly convoluted brain, and more particularly to the unequally hollowed and 

ridged bony vault. Minute vascular channels exist plentifully over the greater part of 

1 Nat. Hist. Review, 1861, p. 298. a Anat. Comp. d. Syst. Nerv. Paris, 1S3U-57. 

3 Mem. sur les Plis cereb. de l'Honinie &e. i Ann. So. Nat. 4th ser. iii. 1855, p. 73. 

s Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. i. 1833, " Cheetah ; " and his ' Anat. of Verteb.' vol. iii. &e. 

' Brain of Ateles, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 25U : his Hunterian Lectures, &c. 

7 Phil. Trans. 1852, p. 185. Trans. <fe Proc. Zool. Soc, various papers. 8 Phil. Trans. 1865, p. 501. 

5 Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. 1865-66, vol. v. p. 578, &c. 10 Nat. Hist. Review, 1861, p. 201. 


the superficies, especially at its hinder portion. The venous sinuses are prominent, and 
fit into the remarkably deep grooves already mentioned in the description of the interior 
of the cranium. There is a considerable thickening of the dura mater as it passes out 
of the foramen magnum backwards towards the spinal canal. Vascularity also distin- 
guishes the pia mater, otherwise of an ordinary character. 

3. The Brain. 

a. Its outward aspects and dimensions. — The general characteristic feature of the 
brain of Otaria, looked at on its upper surface, is its comparative squareness— in this 
respect differing from the more common ovoid form of mammals generally, as well as 
from the somewhat circular contour which it assumes in Phoea and particularly in 
Cetaceans. This quadrilateral configuration is chiefly produced by the abrupt trun- 
cation of the frontal and occipital lobes respectively, their outer corners being con- 
siderably angular, or but very moderately rounded. The lateral margins are deeply 
indented about their middles ; and the fronto-parietal portions are less prominent than 
the temporo-occipital ones ; nevertheless they, on the whole, still lend something to 
the general quadrilinear aspect of the entire encephalon. Notwithstanding what has 
been said, each cerebral hemisphere superiorly presents a reniform outline, the deeply 
indented Sylvian fissure being equivalent to the hilus, and the straight-edged longi- 
tudinal fissure to the dorsum. The olfactory bulbs are large, and mesially project 
considerably forwards. The posterior lobes of the cerebrum are tolerably equal in 
dimensions : the left may be slightly longer than the right ; but this was not clearly 
appreciable by measurement, though appearing so to the eye. 

Unlike some of the so-called higher forms of Carnivora, the posterior cerebral lobes 
all but overlap the cerebellum laterally, as Huxley has recorded is also the case in 
the allied genus Trichechus. The actual amount of backward projection of the outer 
cerebellar lobes is little more than OT inch. Mesially, however, the superior vermi- 
form and superior posterior lobes of the cerebellum are more exposed, have a 
triangular form IT inch long and 1-3 inch broad, and reach slightly further back than 
the external lobes. 

The cerebral convolutions are numerous and well developed, giving this upper sur- 
face quite a sinuous appearance. There is a certain amount of asymmetry between the 
halves ; but this shall be described hereafter. The brain is highest behind, or at the 
junction of the occipital with the parietal lobes; and from this it inclines downwards 
and forwards, as also more steeply outwards. 

Measured from the anterior extremity of the olfactory lobe backwards in a straight line 
to the most projecting part of the cerebellum, the total length is 4-6 inches. The dia- 
meter across the parietal lobes is 3-2 inches. The extreme longitudinal axis of each 
moiety of the cerebrum is 4 inches. The greatest transverse diameter of the brain, which 
is about the middle of the occipital lobes, is also about 4 inches. Thus the length of 



each hemisphere exactly corresponds to the breadth of both, taken at the hinder half of 
the brain. And although the frontal half is, as shown, somewhat narrower, yet the 
above measurements bring out what is the impression at first sight conveyed to the eye 
— namely, that the brain altogether approximates to an equal-sided figure. 

The lateral aspects are as remarkable as the superior one, and more clearly demon- 
strate the infracerebral position of the cerebellum. In this view the entire brain 
possesses somewhat of an oval shape, the anterior portion of the frontal cerebral lobe 
narrowing rather angularly, while the rounded, bulbous olfactory surface projects 
beyond ; and together they have considerable vertical depth. Each occipital lobe 
tapers backwards with a semicircular outline, the inferior border being the straighter 
of the two. The temporal lobe is broad, tolerably vertical, or only inclined moderately 
forward ; in front of it a wide and deep depression exists, the Sylvian fissure with its 
marginal convolution. As in the upper view, the hemispherical segment behind 
the aforesaid depression or constriction is seen, when viewed sideways, to be decidedly 
convex, the most protuberant point being the upper part of the temporal lobe ; but on 
the contrary the anterior or frontal segment is remarkably flat and perpendicular. A 
vacuity corresponding to the osseous elevation of the periotic occurs behind the temporal 
lobe and cerebellum, partially exposing the pons Varolii. 

The contour of the base of the brain agrees pretty well with its upper surface, The 
olfactory lobes are broadish and bulbous in front, narrower at their middles, and widen 
and flatten behind, as they divide in an arched manner into the short inner and longer 
external roots. The anterior segment, or orbital region, is flat. 

The Sylvian fissures are deep ; and behind them the temporal lobes form a well- 
marked arch, the keystone of which is the roots of the optic nerves. The optic com- 
missure is large and long, the nerves not separating from their single investing sheath 
till they arrive at the foramen opticum. 

The accompanying table represents a series of measurements of the Cerebrum and 
Cerebellum, corrected by the intracranial cast, with the ratios of the same. They cor- 
respond to what obtains in the (European) human brain, taking the latter as a standard 
of comparison in units — namely that given by Marshall, Phil. Trans, p. 554. I reserve 
comparisons and other remarks on the brain of the Pinnipedia for a future occasion, 
restricting this part of my i - esearches to anatomical description. 

(Otaria jubata <5.) 

Dimensions in inches. Ratio. 

((. Greatest breadth (viz. at the temporo-occipital lobes) 4*0 0'58 

b. Ditto length, antero-posteriorly 3-8 0*80 

c. Ditto height ditto ditto .2-9 0-64 

d. Length (or oblique height) of the orbital surface . 1-4 0-C0 


Dimensions in inches. Ratio. 

e. Greatest vertical depth of the frontoparietal lobe 

(i.e. in a line cutting the postero-parietal gyrus) 2*4 068 

* Ditto diameter at the frontal lobes (the point) . . 2"4 — 
** Ditto diameter at the posterior ascending parietal 

lobes " 3T — 

f. Length from the front of the middle lobe to hinder 

end of brain 2-5 0-52 

</. Cerebral radius, occipital 2'4 - 73 

h. Ditto, frontal 3-0 (HO 

i. Ditto, temporo-parietal 2 - 6 0*66 

j. Ditto, vertical 2-6 0-56 

k. Projection of the cerebrum beyond the cerebellum does not obtain. 


I. The greatest breadth 3 9 1-08 

to. Ditto, length 1*5 062 

n. Ditto, depth 1-8 1-28 

Measurements of several parts of the brain taken from the preserved specimen, with 
the ratios as in the preceding Table. 

Medulla oblongata, 

o. Greatest breadth 0-85 0.12 


Corpus callosum. 

p. Length (in a straight line) 1*5 0*48 

q. Average thickness 0*17 0*39 

Corpus striatum. 

r. Length of the visible part - 65 0*72 

s. Width of ditto 0-4 0-80 

Optic thalamus. 

t. Length of the visible part IT 0-84 

u. Width of ditto 0-4 0-80 

Pons Varolii. 

v. From the upper to the lower border 1*05 T05 

w. Thickness 0-8 0-50 

b. The Cerebral Lobes. — Of the five lobes of the cerebrum which most modern 

anatomists recognize in the mammalian brain generally, four are tolerably well defined 
in Otaria — the fifth or central lobe being much less so, if at all distinct. The 
frontal lobes are short, but of moderate breadth and height; their orbital surfaces 


possess considerable vertical depth, and incline obliquely downwards, with an aspect 
corresponding to that of the orbital plates. The parietal lobes are long from before 
backwards, and broad from below upwards, or are of considerable height. The Sylvian 
fissure gives them a sharp and deep line of demarcation behind and at their outer 
margin ; but in front they blend with the frontal lobes. Each temporal lobe, as seen 
on the base of the brain, has a long-elliptical form ; viewed laterally it appears shorter, 
but of medium thickness. The occipital lobes sweep round the truncated posterior 
hemispheres. Thus they have great proportional breadth, but, on the other hand, are 
shallow from above downwards, the cerebellum occupying much of the vertically deep 
occipital region. 

c. Clefts and sulci of Cerebrum, outer face. — In general pattern these and the gyri 
offer agreement with what obtains in the Common Seal (Phoca vitulina) as depicted 
by MM. Leuret and Gratiolet 1 . What may be considered distinctive between the 
Otariada? and Phocidse I shall not stop to inquire. In the nomenclature I follow as 
much as possible that applied to the human cerebrum, with only incidental comment 
on the counterpart of the smoother-brained Carnivora, e. g. Felidee. My descriptions 
refer only to the right cerebral half of my specimen, unless where otherwise expressed. 
With regard to the great longitudinal fissure or intercerebral cleft, it is of moderate 
depth, the opposite lips approximating rather closely for the anterior half, but di- 
varicating widely behind, thus exposing the vermiform process or middle lobe of the 
cerebellum. On gently separating the central hemispheres the corpus callosum becomes 
visible ; but the corpora quadrigemina are hidden by the anterior rostrum of the 
cerebellum (=incisura cerebelli anterior). 

Orbito-frontal fissures. — The inferior surface of the frontal lobe or supraorbital region 
is grooved by three parallel longitudinal sulci, which trend slightly inwards anteriorly. 
The outermost is shortest ; the innermost lodges the external root of the olfactory nerve. 
On the upper and outer surface of the same lobe the sulci are more irregular. The 
so-called crucial sulci of Carnivora 2 are appreciable, though relatively neither long nor 
deep. From each hemisphere they converge rearwards and together form a V-shaped 
figure, placed quite at the fore extremities of the great marginal convolutions. The 
presence of infero-frontal sulci is indicated by a couple of short transverse and oblique 
indents, situate outside and above the supraorbital angle. Curved midorbital sulci are 
better marked and in part continuous below and exteriorly with the antero-parietal 
fissure. The supraorbital are broken, somewhat radiate grooves, located in proximity 
and at right angles to the fore end of the great marginal gyri. 

Spheno-parietal fissures. — The well-defined Sylvian fissure forms a notable landmark 
equally on the base and outer superficies. It ascends vertically or with only a slightly 

1 Anat. Comp. Syst. Nerv. pi. 11. 

- Consult Leuret, " Phoca;' I. c. p. 392 ; Owen, " Cheetah," 7. c. ; and Flower, " Proteins," P. Z. S. 1869, 

p. 480. 


retrovert obliquity, the upper end nestling in a fork beneath the lobule of the supra- 
marginal convolution, which latter band-like gyrus forms its anterior lip. There 
appears, moreover, to be an additional long straight sulcus derived from the upright 
.Sylvian cleft. It strikes backwards and upwards, at an acute angle, starting about an 
inch above the brain's base. The relations of this to the temporal sulci &c. I shall 
presently have occasion to refer to, but take this occasion of mentioning that M. 
Gratiolet 1 , in the Green Monkey, and Prof. Turner 2 , in the Chimpanzee, both record an 
occasional backward offshoot from the primary Sylvian fissure. 

The latter anatomist has besides specially called attention, and given the name 
intra-parietaP, to a sinuous fissure of considerable length, which forms a line of 
demarcation betwixt the postparietal gyrus and the supramarginal with its lobule. 
A sulcus corresponding to this, and bearing identical relations to the said convolutions, 
can readily be traced in the brain of Otaria. It here springs just in front of the 
anterior or supramarginal lip of the Sylvian fissure, quite at the sphenoparietal base. 
Thence ascending laterally, it accompanies and bounds anteriorly and superiorly 
the much inflected supramarginal gyrus, its lobule, and the angular gyrus towards the 
upper temporal projection. Both in advance and to the rear of the lobule it exhibits 
secondary spurred grooves ; one of these with a semilunar sweep cuts into the turn of the 
ascending portion of the postparietal convolution. Posteriorly the intraparietal fissure 
ceases at a bridge connecting the angular gyrus with the postparietal lobule; but 
virtually it seems to go on to the supraoccipital region, in connexion with a sulcus 
equivalent to an external perpendicular fissure. 

At its commencement below, on the lateral aspect of the sphenoparietal lobule, the 
fissure of Rolando holds rather an indefinite position towards the intra- and antero- 
parietal sulci ; but about halfway up its windings are more easily followed. It first 
ascends perpendicularly, but in an /-shaped direction, to the fronto-parietal eminence. 
Thence, wheeling backwards, it constitutes a longitudinal midhemispherical fissure. 
The latter traverses the vertex to the occipital region; and what with an accessory 
frontal furrow in communication with an antero-parietal fissure, that of Rolando may be 
said to stretch the entire length of the summit hi a second lengthened /-shaped 
manner, with subsidiary curt incisions. 

Though the representative of the antero-parietal fissure is better distinguished at its 
spheno-orbital or subfrontal origin, yet as it mounts to the lateral and upper aspects 
of the hemisphere its actual course is only recognized by snatches. It appears, how- 
ever, by linear and stellate depressions, to wind round between the fronto-parietal areas, 
somewhat beyond the middle and top of the hemisphere. 

Temporo-occipital fissures.— On its inferior or basal aspect the temporal lobe is 
clearly furrowed by three main sulci. On its exterior these continue to run nearly 
1 Mem. Plis cerebraux, p. 29. 2 P. E. S. Edinb. vol. v. 1866, p. 583. 

3 Turner, I. c. p. 581 ; Brain of Common Seal, /. c. vol. ii. p. 392.^ 


parallel and equidistant from each other, being divided by single folds. Their course 
is only moderately sinuous, and throughout follows the long axis of the lobe — that is, 
have considerable upward tilt. Besides these a fourth sulcus, not ordinarily visible 
below, is met with laterally behind, or close to the occipital border. These fissures 
undoubtedly represent the three temporal ones recognized in man and the primates. 
The foremost, and possibly the one behind that, may be considered equivalent to the 
parallel or antero-temporal. The third or second and third may be regarded as mid- 
temporal ; and they both merge into, and become continuous with, what I have 
described as the long limb of the Sylvian fissure. The fourth sulcus divides the post- 
temporal from the inferior occipital gyrus ; it sweeps well round towards the upper 
back part of the hemisphere. As regards other occipital sulci I did not take accurate 

d. Convolutions of the outer face. — Frontal. — Under these come those situated below, 
or the orbital series. They are simple folds lengthwise to the long axis of the brain, and 
three in number, viz. external, middle, and internal. The inferior frontal gyrus almost 
appears to be a continuation upwards of the external orbital. It chiefly forms the 
outer front lower angle of the hemisphere, and comprises a somewhat vertical and 
transverse loop-shaped fold. The midfrontal stage has similarly an upright and bent 
division. The suprafrontal tier lies alongside the margin of the hemispherical fissure, 
constituting a zigzag convolution, which appears to go back well nigh to the middle of 
the brain. Both mid- and suprafrontal gyri are in continuity ; and each posteriorly 
joins the recurrent longitudinal folds of the first ascending parietal convolution. The 
short hammer-shaped crucial gyrus crops forwards on the inner anterior aspect of the 
suprafrontal convolution. 

Parietal gyri. — Three in number, each possessing an ascending plication, as obvious 
a longitudinally directed one, and folds which have a lobular character terminating 
towards the posterior summit of the hemisphere. The antero-parietal begins about the 
spheno-parietal region, where no clear line of demarcation separates it from the second 
ascending plication. At the outer fronto-parietal prominence separation becomes clearer, 
the antero-parietal passing upwards behind the midfrontal, and, as above stated, becomes 
involved with the latter and the suprafrontal gyri. At the suprafrontal prominence a 
double fold wends backwards; and this, the antero-parietal convolution in proximity to 
the great marginal gyrus, continues rearwards to the internal perpendicular fissure, in 
front of which it forms a kind of lobule indented by one or two secondary short sulci. 

The postparietal convolution, as it rises from the base, is a single broad smooth fold 
which, on the side of the lobe behind the infero-frontal gyrus, has a forward knee-like 
bend. It then sweeps obliquely towards the Sylvian fissure, goes upward and parallel 
to this ; and Avhere the supramarginal gyrus turns, it again bends anteriorly. Here, 
gaining the upper surface, it wheels backwards, presenting a broad mass and subsidiary 
grooves above the supramarginal lobule ; thence it continues to the occipital region, 


and forms a curved lobule, which joins that of the antero-parietal at the internal perpen- 
dicular fissure. It, moreover, is in continuity with the extremity of the angular gyrus. 

The third ascending parietal appears as a band sunk within the Sylvian fissure, and 
constitutes the anterior lip of the latter, or becomes what in man has been termed 
supramarginal. Its upper loop embraces the top of the upright Sylvian fissure, a 
descending wedge-shaped turn serving as a division between the latter sulcus and its 
long posterior branch. The continuation of the supramarginal gyrus and lobule is 
equivalent to the angular convolution, which bounded above by the intraparietal 
fissure, below by the 2nd Sylvian parallel fissure and temporal lobes, strikes obliquely 
upwards to the summit of the occipital region. A lobular expansion is manifest 
outside that of the postparietal, a narrow bridge connecting these, and another joining 
it to the posttemporal convolution.. 

Temporal and occipital gyri. — The anterotemporal is an inversely U-shaped fold. 
Its short upper limb sinks into the middle of the Sylvian fissure ; the longer lower limb 
curves forwards below the lobe, and partly bounds the Sylvian cleft behind. The middle 
temporal gyrus is a single sinuous S-shaped fold which above abruptly ends or dips into 
the post-Sylvian fissure. The posttemporal convolution goes parallel to the latter as 
far as the post-Sylvian sulcus, meantime exhibiting greater tortuosity. Above the mid- 
temporal it doubles or is transformed into a lobule which stretches up to the supra- 
occipital region and is there connected with the occipital gyri. As above mentioned, a 
narrow bridge unites the posttemporal to the angular gyrus, and breaks the upward 
continuity of the post-Sylvian fissure. 

An infraoccipital gyrus of a simple band-like character is well marked behind the 
posttemporal. Mid- and supraoccipital convolutions are less easily defined, or are 
represented by those post upper and inner strips which overhang the cerebellum and 
outwardly blend with the lobular terminations of the posttemporal and angular gyri. 

e. Sulci and Gyri of the inner face. — The great marginal convolution extends to 
about opposite the middle of the corpus callosum, has but moderate depth, and is 
broken into several lozenge-shaped folds by short secondary sulci. The calloso-marginal 
fissure is interrupted thrice by upward intrusive folds ; nevertheless it can be followed 
to nearly above the splenium. The convolution of the corpus callosum presents a 
lower straightish plication and upper diverticula. A posterior downward loop rounds 
the corpus callosum, forming a callosal lobule in proximity to the upward fold of the 
uncinate gyrus. A second loop above and in front of that mentioned reaches forwards 
and lies subjacent to a third and horizontal loop, representative of a quadrilateral 
lobule. This is bounded behind by a somewhat forward, shelving, internal, per- 
pendicular fissure, which dips into a fold or ridge leading to the relatively large internal 
occipital lobule. The latter lobule has a rounded exterior border approaching close to 
the occipital edge, a marginal occipital sulcus intervening, which sulcus has com- 
munication in front with the internal perpendicular fissure. Inferiorly the internal 

vol, viii. — part ix. June, 1S74. 4d 


occipital lobule divides the rearmost gyrus, bending round a backward spur of the 
collateral sulcus to blend with the lower occipital and temporal convolutions. The 
anterior division of the lobule proceeds by an inflexion to the calcarine gyrus. 
The collateral sulcus is deep and somewhat X-figured. Its two posterior furrows 
embrace the lower post-segment of the occipital lobule ; its two anterior similarly 
enclasp the posteriorly directed calcarine loop, but have a more horizontal plane ; and 
the lowermost is the longer. The calcarine sulcus is L-shaped : the lower backward 
limb courses between the calcarine and uncinate gyri ; the upright limb is prolonged be- 
tween the representatives of the uncinate, the internal occipital, and the callosal lobule. 
It meets the internal perpendicular fissure above, where a triradiate arrangement of the 
sulci obtains. What coincides with the calcarine gyrus is a prolongation of the extremity 
of the lower anterior limb of the occipital lobule. This fold, at first with a slight 
anterior bend, turns horizontally backwards, and again curves forwards in a parallel line 
below — that is, forms a loop becoming without division, or is continuous with the 
uncinate gyrus. This latter convolution widens somewhat in front, and sends up and 
round the cerebral cms the fold agreeing with the uncinate lobule. A well-defined dentate 
sulcus runs between the crus and the fore border of the dentate lobule. The upper 
border of the latter gyrus is in proximity to the duplicature of the callosal lobule, whilst 
a narrow wedge or horn slants upon the splenial knee of the corpus callosum. 

f. Folds and Furrows, left half of the Cerebrum.— 1 intimated there being a certain 
amount of asymmetry on the two sides of the brain ; and fig. 3S partially displays that 
want of harmony in the furrows and ridges With regard to the outer face of the left 
hemisphere, the more prominent and characteristic gyri and fissures as described on the 
right segment also obtain, the variations depending on minor duplications and incisions. 
For example, the Sylvian fissure has its perpendicular and oblique posteriorly directed one ; 
but the latter divaricates at the angular and posttemporal lobules and mounts towards 
the occiput, forming an island or separated fold of that between the external perpen- 
dicular fissures. Again, the mid-temporal gyrus seems to have a second division, or, 
rather, the anterior V-shaped knuckle of the posttemporal constitutes a descending 
isthmus alongside, and rivals the mid-temporal in size. The mid-frontal gyri are less 
sulcated; but the superofrontal has fully more indents and superficial sculpturing, 
rather than clearly defined induplications of gyrus. The lobule of the supramarginal 
convolution is fuller, the first vertical sulcus above and behind being insulated, the 
second deepened and, as it were, taking the place of the first. The anteroparietal 
gyrus has imperfect continuity with the postparietal at its commencement ; but the 
great longitudinal /-shaped fissure of Rolando clearly separates them above, as on the 
right half. The suprafrontal has a well-marked duplicature or loop where it joins the 
anteroparietal at the great marginal gyrus. The anteroparietal presents behind a 
trifurcate arrow-headed wedge ; and instead of a single continuous loop with outward 
turn to the internal perpendicular fissure, two longitudinal but obliquely directed folds 
connect it with the termination of postparietal and angular gyri. 


What for convenience of description I have termed lobules of the antero-, post- 
parietal, angular, and posttemporal gyri on the right face thus notably differ. Moreover 
it becomes a moot point whether in the area in question parts of these so-called lobules 
are not of a verity representatives of : ' plis de passage " of the French, " connecting" or 
" annectant" gyri of English authors, as found in man and monkeys. In MM. Leuret 
and Gratiolet's grouping of mammals according to brain-convolutions, they give the Seal 
a high place, and separate it from the Carnivora by the Edentata, Marsupialia, and 
Ruminantia. But some of the Ursidse lead towards the Pinnipedia in their gyral 
condition ; so that the series from the smoother, simpler-brained Felidse is really less 
interrupted than their arrangement would warrant 1 . 

g. Interior structures. — On removing a horizontal section, about half an inch in 
thickness at deepest, from the upper face of the left hemisphere, the so-called centrum 
ovale minus of Vicq d'Azyr was exposed. The white matter of the brain here presented 
an elongated and transversely narrowed surface, deeply indented externally by the sulci 
and convolutions, and somewhat less so internally by the fold bordering the interhemi- 
spherical fissure. In the preserved brain in which the section above described was 
made, the central substance was not pure white, but of a pale yellow hue, while the 
cortical grey matter had a fawn tinge, shading in some places insensibly into the 
yellowish centre. The darkness of the white matter, though in part clue to the brain 
having been soaked in spirit, was not entirely so produced ; for in the fresh condition I 
observed that the variation between the central and cortical substance was less marked 
than in a human subject of the Caucasian variety. The layer of grey matter had a 
relative depth of - 3 % of an inch ; and, excepting a limited area, there was little appre- 
ciable deviation between the different regions. 

A second, deeper horizontal slice laid open the lateral ventricle. This cavity, com- 
pared with the size of the brain, is large, and has a very marked /-shape. Its total 
length in a straight line is 2-2 inches ; but measured curvilinearly, the body of the 
lateral ventricle is IT inch long, the anterior cornu 0-6, and the posterior cornu 0-9 inch. 
As regards the relative position of the extremities of the lateral ventricle to those of the 
hemisphere, the posterior cornu approaches within 0-7 inch of the occipital lobe, the 
anterior cornu 08 inch from the anterior end of the frontal lobe. Thus the ventricle 
is situated nearly equidistant between the front and back ,of the cerebrum. 

The anterior cornu has an obtusely rounded boundary in front, and is a fossa of 
moderate depth. The corpus striatum is smooth-surfaced and slightly convex; it 
measures in the opened ventricle 065 inch antero-posteriorly, and 0-4 inch transversely. 
Proceeding from the foramen of Monro, the choroid plexus, as usual, traverses the 
lateral ventricle in an oblique direction, externally and behind dipping into the descend- 

1 The most admirable investigation of Frof. Gervais, " Mem. sur les Formes Ce'reb. propres aus Carniv. Viv. 
et Foss.," Nouv. Archiv. torn. vi. 1870, is well worthy of reference. Coming late to hand, I could not avail 
myself of its contents as I could have desired. 



ing cornu. The taenia semicircularis is hidden by the choroid plexus ; but when the 
latter is raised it appears to be well-developed though Hat. That portion of the 
thalamus opticus which is exposed in the lateral ventricle has a very elongated and 
acutely pointed diamond-shape, its greatest length being IT inch, and the extreme 
breadth 0-4 inch. Its outer posterior border is the highest part, from which the sur- 
face gently shallows inwards and forwards. 

In the horizontally opened ventricle, the middle or descending cornu is hidden. But 
on a vertical and transverse section being made behind the thalamus, through the 
temporal lobe, or the same parts opened up as is shown in fig. 4G, the middle cornu is 
observed to curve downwards perpendicularly, then forwards and inwards to the tip of 
the temporal lobe. This remarkably vertical descending cornu has a depth or length 
of T25 inch. The hippocampus major which forms the anterior wall is of considerable 
size. Its surface, at the vertical upper portion, is flattened behind, and with a narrow 
and compressed outer margin ; but as it extends inwards and forwards it becomes 
altogether more equally rounded and convex. Superficially it is smooth, and devoid of 
a pes hippocampi. The corpus fimbriatum and the continuation of the choroid plexus, 
both of fair size, lie in the deep sulcus in front, and are in great part concealed by the 
outstanding body of the hippocampus major. The posterior cornu stretches backwards 
and outwards with a very regular sweeping arch, and goes well back into the occipital 
lobe, terminating in a shallow tapering extremity. The eminentia collateralis is not 
distinctly defined ; but what appears to represent the outwardly bulging hippocampus 
minor has a length of 0'7 inch, and at widest is 0-3 to 0-4 broad. 

In the section under consideration, I measured the cerebrum, after the manner of 
Mr. Flower, with a view to compare the dimensions of the anterior and posterior 
regions. It yielded the following results: the front or anterior median region from 
the point of junction of the hippocampi is equal to 2T inches, whilst the posterior 
region from the same point is 1-55 inch long. This gives a proportion of 100 
to 74. 

In the longitudinal, median, vertical section of the brain, the divided corpus callosum 
is observed to occupy a nearly horizontal position slightly inclining downwards in front, 
or with a very little tendency to a flattened arch. Relatively to the size of this median 
face of the hemisphere it appears to be long and tolerably uniform in depth. The 
rounded anterior genu possesses no special increment, as obtains in the Primates, but is 
rather indented behind. The splenium or posterior fold, continuous with the fornix, is 
likewise deficient in breadth, and turns abruptly at right angles downwards. The ex- 
treme length of the corpus callosum in the preserved brain is 1*5 inch, its greatest 
thickness - 2 inch, and its least thickness 0T inch. The anterior commissure is remark- 
able on account of its diminutive size, having a circumference no greater than a pin's 
head. The pineal gland, on the other hand, is relatively large ; the corpora quadri- 
gemina intermediate as respects their volume. 


h. Basal Parts and Cerebellum.— A portion of the great marginal convolution appears 
between the outer and inner olfactory roots. The locus perforatus is narrow ; the cor- 
pora albicantia full but not unusually prominent. The pituitary body was not removed 
with the brain ; but I noted its dimension as being moderate. 

The pons Varolii has a somewhat elliptical outline, and seems not particularly elevated ; 
but the large roots of the 5th nerves may help to mask its real prominence. Otherwise 
it is thick or deep, and, indeed, within a trifle as large as that in the brain of the Bush- 
woman so ably described by Mr. Marshall (I. c. p. 523). The medulla oblongata like- 
wise is proportionally very wide, having a breadth absolutely as great as in the human 
brain above exemplified. Its pyramidal bodies are well-marked though low. 

Among the distinguishing peculiarities of the cerebellum of Otaria jubata are its 
great breadth and depth to its length, the fact that it is well nigh overlapped by the 
cerebral hemispheres behind, and the presence of a deepish excavation below and 
exterior to the flocculus. The entire organ on its three faces, upper, lower, and pos- 
terior, presents a semilunar contour. Its lateral hemispheres from behind are abruptly 
truncate; its base unequal but most pronounced rearwards; its top lightly arched, 
shelving sharply downwards and forwards. Hidden as it were under the eave of the 
cerebral mass, it ordinarily does not appear massive ; yet its proportional, and, in fact, 
actual size is very considerable. Compared with that of two races of man tabulated 
and treated of by the above author, it exhibits deficiency in length, surpasses in greatest 
depth, and is intermediate between that of the European and Bushwoman in breadth. 
In proportion, therefore, to magnitude of the entire brain, the Otary's cerebellum is 
exceptionally preponderant in volume. The superior vermiform process is long, narrow, 
and well-defined ; portions of it and the upper posterior lobes are uncovered by the 
cerebrum, as heretofore mentioned. The tonsil or amygdaloid lobe bears a narrow, com- 
pressed character. The pneumogastric lobe or flocculus is circumscribed, and, although 
raised much higher than the last, is not remarkably prominent or free. A most singular 
appearance of this lower basal aspect of the cerebellum is a large oval depression or 
hollow, which fits upon the periotic eminence on the posterior fossa of the interior of 
the cranium. This causes the anterior inferior and partly middle cerebellar lobe to be 
sunk, while from the flocculus backwards and outwards, with sweeping semilunar turn, 
a steeply raised bank, including a portion of the middle and post-inferior lobes, abruptly 
guards the rear of the base of the cerebellum. The said horn-like ridge widens out- 
wards, or is pyriform ; and from its projecting bulbous contour both exteriorly and pos- 
teriorly the massive breadth of cerebellum accrues, in spite of the very perpendicular- 
superficies of the hinder face. These peculiarities in shape are simply adaptations to 
the osseous case, and to the still more remarkable provision made for the great venous 
blood-channels situated in the region in question. 

i. Weight of the Brain.— My memorandum of the weight of the fresh brain and its 
membranes having been mislaid, I endeavoured to make good in part the omission 


when the specimen had been soaked and hardened in spirit, although I did not attempt 
to follow out the relations of cerebrum to cerebellum, pons, &c. The organ, minus its 
membranes, in its preserved condition, altogether weighed 9"45 ounces. If, as Mr. 
Marshall avers, the loss of weight in specimens of brains preserved in spirit averages -£± 
of their original weight (/. c. p. 506), this loss would, moreover, require to be added. 
We may estimate the deficiency in this instance as somewhere about 2 - 75 ounces. 
The latter, therefore, added to the former amount, yields a total brain mass=l2'20 

As recorded by me in a former section of this memoir (Pt. ii., p. 534), the weight of 
the entire carcass of the animal was 159 lbs. From these data, then, it follows that 
the ratio of the weight of the brain of the nearly adult male Sea-lion (O.julata) to that 
of its body is as 1 to 208. Such a calculation is virtually but an approximation to the 
truth ; still less can it be held up as a standard of relation in the species, though in 
other ways it may serve a useful purpose. 

4. The Nerves. Main Branches of Head and Limhs. 

a. Cranio-facial. — As in most of the Carnivora, the olfactory bulbs of Otaria are 
large. Seen from below, they are two elongate-pyriform, partially constricted bodies, 
in close apposition, and projecting more than i inch beyond the frontal lobes. In the 
lateral aspects each bulbous part of the nerve of smell appears as deep as it is pro- 
tuberant beyond the cerebral extremity ; and in this view their anterior truncation, 
slightly horizontal upper, and more shelving lower border are evident. The two 
roots of the first nerve are very unequal in length — the inner, which dips into and 
arises from the inter-hemispherical fissure, being short, and the outer broad, long and 

The large optic nerves, after a course from and round the thalamus, pass to the 
middle of the cerebral base in an almost transverse direction, being there nearly on a 
level with the inwardly pointed tip of the temporal lobe, and just in front of the tuber 
cinereum. Mesially they decussate, and form a remarkable long broad flat commissure 
(1 inch or more), which does not split into the right and left nerves of the eye until 
within the confluent optic foramina. 

The origin of the 5th or trifacial nerve is very large, and, with the Casserian ganglion, 
which fills the fossa on the side of the basisphenoid, truly massive. Both superior and 
inferior maxillary divisions are great cords. The most remarkable branches of the 
former are its infraorbital. These as they pass forwards from the sphenoidal region, 
constitute a broad and flattened bundle lying upon the palato-maxillary plinth. On 
emergence from the infraorbital foramen they proceed in thick funiculi chiefly to the 
muscular structures and roots of the vibrissae of the muzzle. In the face they are 
covered by the levator muscles of the nose and lips. The inferior maxillary division 
has both external and internal trunks. The magnitude of the inferior dental branch 


as it enters the mandibular canal is noteworthy, in agreement therefore with the 
vascular supply to the teeth-sockets and lower lip. 

The 6th and two branches of the 7th nerve are slender compared with the 5th, and 
the facial nerve barely as thick as the 3rd at its origin. 

The three nerves which together embrace Willis's 8th, spring distinctly separate from 
the medulla and cord. The pneumogastric is of very considerable calibre beyond its 
ganglion. Several pharyngo-laryngeal branches are distributed behind the hyoid, the 
superior laryngeal being of good size. It pierces the constrictor muscles along with the 
artery at the cleft or angle between the middle and inferior layers. The main trunk 
of the pneumogastric, as usual, proceeds to the thoracic cavity in company with the 
carotid artery and jugular vein. Pulmonary, cardiac, and gastric nerves are all remark- 
able on account of their magnitude, those to the stomach particularly so, — easily 
accounted for in an animal whose powers of rapid digestion are almost incredible. 

b. In Fore Limb. — Of the brachial plexus the external cutaneous nerve sends a sub- 
divided branch to the middle third of the belly of the biceps. Another sent off from 
the same point goes beneath that muscle, and, curving round the great aponeurotic 
tendon of the cephalo-humeral, pierces both bellies of the brachialis anticus. A nerve 
apparently connected with the above goes to the inner side, and supplies the lower- 
most triceps muscular head, and region above the elbow. 

The muscular spiral nerve is of great size ; at the middle of the humerus it winds 
round the shaft as usual, but in a very shallow and ill-defined groove. The nervous 
filaments are here broadly flattened, and lie between the bellies of the second and 
third triceps muscles. Nervous twigs supply each of these muscles ; one, longer than 
its neighbours, goes down to the olecranon between their fleshy fibres. As the nerve 
reaches the outer side of the arm, just above the condyloid ridge, it divides and sup- 
plies the supinator longus muscle on its outer surface, the extensor carpi radialis 
covering the nerves. Another large radial branch goes down to the under surface of 
the pronator radii teres muscle, thence towards the wrist on the pollicial aspect. 

The ulnar nerve passes round behind the internal condyle between it and the coronoid 
process, over the internal lateral ligament, and under cover of the internal anconeus. 
Below the joint it sends muscular branches to the flexor carpi ulnaris, and twigs to the 
upper head of the sublimis. The ulnar nerve continues on to the ulnar side of the 
wrist-joint, and there divides like the ulnar artery to the 5th and 4th digits. 

From the median nerve at the middle of the upper arm a twig is sent off, which 
partly goes to the flexor sublimis and partly to the adjoining muscles. Another lower 
branch supplies the pronator teres and flexor carpi radialis, piercing their bellies 
opposite the elbow-joint. Still lower (above the condyle) the anterior interosseus is 
derived. Then the main nerve, situate externally to the radial artery, continues down 
the middle of the forearm, sending twigs to the long flexors and ultimately (at the 
wrist) subdividing like the palmar artery. 


c. Of Loins and Hind Limb. — Lumbar plexus. Hidden entirely by the psoas muscle 
and not lying upon but issuing from behind the quadratus lumborum, the lumbar 
nerves partly are superimposed and partly dip beneath the iliacus, but, relatively to the 
sacral nerves, are small. 

The external cutaneous nerve sends filaments to the rectus femoris, vastus internus, 
and crureus, and passes down transversely over the thigh ; superficial to the pectineus 
and adductors longus and magnus it is distributed to the fascia and skin at the middle 
and inner side of the shaft of the tibia. 

The muscular branches of the femoral nerve in the groin are distributed to the 
crureus, vastus internus, and both divisious of the adductor longus and magnus. The 
femoral nerve accompanies the artery through the opening in the adductor magnus 
muscle. With regard to the obturator nerve, I include it with the sacral plexus, to 
which in this case it more properly belongs. 

Sacral Plexus. — This (with junction to lumbo-sacral) is composed of three large 
trunks, which emerge from as many of the anterior sacral foramina. The first of these 
trunks immediately on its exit sends off a branch which joins the posterior deep nerves ; 
the main trunk then goes backwards to opposite the next sacral foramen, where it 
splits into two nearly equal-sized branches: the shorter one (02 inch) unites with the 
second sacral nerve ; the longer one forms the obturator nerve, which proceeds under 
cover of the pelvic fascia to the anterior border of the obturator internus, and pierces 
it. The second sacral nerve is rather thicker than the first ; it unites with the third 
at the narrow portion of the pelvis, and there forms a thick single trunk, which passes 
through the great ischiatic notch. From each sacral nerve a small branch is sent 
inwards and backwards, which communicates through a ganglion impar with a twig 
from the sympathetic sacral nerves. The nerve is continued backwards from the gan- 
glion, and, with the other minute caudal twigs, supplies the muscles and viscera within 
the pelvis. 

As the sacral plexus passes round and out of the great ischiatic foramen (here consi- 
derably narrowed) it bears relation to the parts as follows : — From within outwards it 
lies upon the gemellus inferior, the hinder part of the quadratus femoris, the long 
adductors and the semimembranosus. Above or dorsally it is covered by the levator 
cauda? externus, the first and the second portions of the gluteus maximus, the sacro- 
peronaeus muscle, and the broad biceps. The gluteal artery and vein, as usual, accom- 
pany the nervous plexus. 

The lesser ischiatic nerve comes off at the outer border of the quadratus femoris, 
after traversing the great sacro-ischiatic notch with the great ischiatic nerve and vessels. 
It afterwards lies on the semitendinosus and on the surface of the soleus, being covered 
by the semimembranosus, the sacro-peronieus, and second portion of the biceps. It 
proceeds as far as the heel. 

The external popliteal or peroneal nerve proceeds in a slanting manner outwards and 


slightly backwards under the gluteus maximus secundus and upper portion of biceps to 
the peroneal margin of the soleus, where, dipping between it and the peroneus longus 
below the head of the fibula, it divides into several branches. The uppermost one, the 
anterior tibial, pierces the upper origin of the peroneus brevis muscle, and runs on the 
neck of the fibula in a shallow groove underneath the peroneus longus and the fibular 
origin of the extensor communis. It there subdivides, sending a twig to the knee-joint 
and to the extensor longus, a larger one outwards to the head of the tibialis anticus. 
and another to the extensor hallucis. 

The musculo-cutaneous nerve, or long branch of the above, goes down the leg deeply 
between the peroneus longus and extensor communis digitorum to the ankle-joint, 
where, just above the outer malleolus, it emerges, and is ultimately distributed to the 
dorsum of the foot. 

The internal popliteal nerve, the continuation of the largest cord, or the great ischiatic, 
leaves its neighbours at the middle of the fleshy belly of the quadratus femoris, and, 
pursuing a course backwards and downwards to the middle of the lower leg, divides 
into a number of branches on the inner or tibial side of the adductor ma°nus muscle. 
Thus, from the peculiar position of both the upper and lower part of the hind leg, it 
does not traverse the popliteal space, but becomes in a manner the posterior tibial, 
almost in what appears, on cursory inspection, to be the region of the groin, which here, 
however, is wrenched upwards, and so clothed with muscles as to be with difficulty 
recognizable. As the internal popliteal reaches the sacro-peronaeus muscle it sends a 
branch subdividing peripherally on the deep surface of the gastrocnemius. Another 
branch similarly divides and enters the semimembranosus &c. 

The posterior tibial nerve, of considerable size, passes downwards beneath the gastro- 
cnemius and upon the surface of the long flexors to the ankle, where its component 
parts, diverging, form the internal and external plantar nerves. The latter goes beneath 
the plantaris tendon as it reaches the sole of the foot, and sends muscular twigs to the 
abductor ossis metacarpi quinti, the abductor and flexor brevis minimi digiti. One 
branch, furthermore, goes to the outer side of the fourth digit, in company with the 
digital branch of the external plantar artery ; another branch goes between the fourth 
and fifth digits, splitting into an ulnar twig to the fifth, and a radial twig to the fourth 
digit, besides twigs to the short palmar muscles and lumbrici. The former (internal 
plantar) divides into two at the proximal end of the foot, the plantar artery running 
between. One nerve, the inner one, proceeds to near the distal end of the proximal 
phalanx, there splitting into two branches, one for the hallux, the other for the tibial 
side of the second digit. The second division of the internal plantar nerve is more 
medianly situated, and at the proximal extremity of the metatarsal bones divides — one 
branch subdividing into the ulnar and radial twigs of the second and third digits, the 
other branch similarly subdividing into the radial and ulnar twigs respectively of the 
third and fourth digits. 

vol. vm. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 e 


III. Sensory Apparatus. 

1. Organ of Vision. The Eye and its Appendages. 

In treating of the external characters generally, the peculiarities and appearances of 
the outward portions of the organ of vision have been described in Part ii. It here 
remains for me to take into consideration the contents of the orbit. The osseous 
orbital cavity, as has been shown, is deficient in its posterior bony marginal ring. 
This deficiency as regards the orbital contents, however, is made good by a bridge 
ot fibrous tissue stretching between the postorbital process of the frontal bone and the 
fronto-orbital spur of the malar bone, the fleshy fibres of the temporal muscle, more- 
over, materially strengthening this otherwise weak boundary. Circumferentially the 
eyeball and its muscles are well cushioned with fat ; but a small hemispherical separate 
mass surrounds the optic nerve and middle of the back of the eye. The latter portion 
doubtless relieves pressure on the optic nerve and vessels during contraction of the 
choanoid and other ocular muscles. 

a. Eyeball. — The globe of the eye is of good size in proportion to the body of the 
animal. It is not perfectly spherical, but slightly wider across than from before back- 
wards, the average diameter being about 1^ inch. The sclerotic is altogether remarkably 
dense and strong, and, as in the Earless Seals, of very unequal thickness. As in them, 
the middle portion or zone immediately behind the iris is thinnest, namely about a 
line deep, while in front, between this and the cornea, it increases to fully more than 
0-1 inch. Behind (PL LXX1X. fig. 49), the sclerotic bulges in a crescentic manner, 
both above and below the optic nerve. The portion above the nerve is slightly the 
longer and thicker of the two, being T08 inch thick at its middle, but only OT at 
the level of the optic nerve 1 . To the naked eye or with an inch lens, the sclerotic 
tunic in the preserved specimens is seen to be composed of an interlacement of 
fine white glistening fibro-elastic tissue, resembling that of a thick tendon. At its 
junction with the cornea the network-like arrangement ceases, the cornea itself 
appearing as a continuation of the outermost of these, but in a compact linear series. 
The cornea is nearly circular in outline, 1 inch in diameter, and ranging from -^ to ■£$ 
of an inch in thickness, the centre being the thinnest portion. It is only moderately 

The choroidal portion of the middle tunic is a thin uniform layer, very vascular, and 
with an abundance of dark pigment, overlain internally by a large iridescent tapetum. 
As Leydig has observed in Carnivora, the tapetum is composed of irregularly shaped 
cells and granular matter. 

In the live animal the pupil is subject to great variations of size and shape (as illus- 
1 rated by the previous diagrams); but in the dissected eye it is found to be pyri- 
form, the narrow end below. The so-called sphincter of the pupil is very distinct 

1 See Dr. Lightbody's remarks on these structures in Mammalia, Journal of Anat. Cambridge, 1867, i. p. 15. 


posteriorly, and about ■£$ of an inch wide. The fibres are not perfectly circular, but 
are seen to be derived from the radii of the dilator, and as they approach the pupil to 
interlace and proceed to the edge obliquely. The ciliary muscle is well developed. 
The venous meshwork constituting the canal of Schlem has considerable volume. 
The ciliary processes of the iris are between 90 and 100 in number. The crystalline 
lens, half an inch in diameter, is nearly spherical or with a very limited antero-posterior 
flattening. The capsule and suspensory ligament are both strong and well developed. 
The optic nerve pierces the eyeball 0*2 inch below its centre. 

b. Orbital Muscles. — Of these a retractor, or what may represent the levator palpebrse 
and tensor tarsi, is a broadish thin sheet in intimate union with the superior rectus ; 
it separates at the fore part of the eyeball, passes over the superior oblique, and then 
is lost among the circular fibres of the orbicularis palpebrarum. A few of its fasciculi 
join with the superior oblique and internal rectus. Four recti are present; and, as 
usual, the obliqui are two in number. The superior one of these is of moderate 
size, wanting in tendon and pulley, and fleshy almost to its ocular termination. It runs 
obliquely, as a broad band enclosed anteriorly between the rectus superior and 
palpebral retractor ; it then turns downwards, outwards, and forwards, to be inserted 
into the middle of the eyeball. At the latter attachment it is overridden by the in- 
ternal rectus, while it covers a slip of the choanoid muscle. The inferior oblique is 
thin and narrow, it is fixed into the globes of the eye, ^ of an inch below the superior 
oblique. The choanoid or retractor oculi muscle is split into four unequal-sized 
segments. The internal inferior one of these is the most delicate and separated slip. 
Its insertion is below the inferior oblique muscle, just behind it and the lobes of the 
Harderian gland. The upper inner slip is slightly thicker than the former ; it passes 
to the back of the globe, and behind the insertion of the superior oblique muscle. The 
two outer portions are much broader muscular sheets, and together in close approxi- 
mation cover the globe for a third of its posterior circumference. 

IV. The Vascular System. 
1. Cardiac Receptacle. 
When the muscular organ of the heart is fully distended, or, say, filled with plaster 
of Paris, it appears to be of great proportional bulk to the body ; more especially both 
auricles and the right ventricular cavity seem unusually large and protuberant. In the 
flaccid condition it is only of moderate dimensions, namely 6^ inches in longitudinal, 
and 5 inches in transverse diameter. The left ventricle measures 5 inches from its root 
to the apex. The form of the heart as a whole is flat, broad, and obtusely pointed, 
the apex, indeed, presenting a tendency to bifurcation. The median longitudinal and 
auricular furrows are shallow. The strong fibrous pericardial investment is attached to 
the aorta, 2 inches above its root on the right side, but considerably lower on the left. 



The right auricle is thin-walled and capacious, the large triangular appendix pro- 
truding well forward. There is no internal valve at the opening of the inferior vena 
cava ; but the aperture, nevertheless, may be influenced or diminished in circumference 
by what appears to be an oblique or spiral band of supernumerary fibres, situate near 
the orifice in question. The tuberculum Loweri is an unusually thick and deep free 
crescentic fold, such as must divert the current of the blood returned by the inferior 
cava. The fossa annulus ovalis is deep, but perfectly closed. The margins of the wide- 
mouthed coronary vein are thickened by an addition of fibro-elastic tissue ; the approxi- 
mation of which no doubt partially if not entirely closes the opening during contraction 
of the auricle. Delicate but numerous musculi pectinati are confined to the auricular 
appendix; otherwise the internal walls are smooth. The auriculo-ventricular opening 
has a diameter of 1^ inch. The right anterior segment of the tricuspid valve is by far 
the largest of the three. Its thick flat columna? carnese spring chiefly from the apical 
portion of both walls of the cavity ; and there is moreover a strong broad inter- 
twined transverse band, reaching from the median to the anterior Avail at their middles. 
The pulmonary veins, above eight in number, unite so as to pour the blood by four 
channels iuto the left auricle. This cavity is smaller-sized than the right ; and the only 
peculiarity possessed is a small semilunar valvular fold overarching the closed foramen 
i » vale. The lower thickened border of the obliterated foramen also exhibits traces of a 
similar fold. From these it may be inferred that during the fcetal condition the san- 
guineous current would be directed downwards into the auricle or even at times checked 
in its flow. The mitral and semilunar valves present nothing remarkable. 

2. Arterial Distribution. 

a. Aorta and branches to Neck and Head. 

Immediately above its commencement from the left ventricle, and having given off 
the coronary arteries, the aorta has a circumference of 4i inches ; its calibre continues 
about the same to the hollow of the arch. From the summit of the vessel and 5 inches 
distant from its origin, the innominate artery is given off; to the left of this, rather 
behind, but in close proximity, the left carotid is derived ; one tenth of an inch further 
to the left springs the wider left subclavian artery. Directly beneath this last, at the 
concavity of the arch towards its front edge, is the ductus arteriosus. Beyond the deri- 
vation of the above vessels, where the aorta bends downward, it narrows considerably ; 
und a few inches below, as the thoracic aorta, it is barely over 2 inches in circumference. 
Thus the arch presents a considerable relative dilatation to its descending trunk, as occurs 
in other Pinnipedia. 

The arteria innominata is I inch in length, and about 2 in girth ; it splits, as normally 
is the case in Man, into the right carotid and right subclavian, the latter being about 
twice as wide as the former. The common carotid artery of the right side of the neck 


proceeds forward with a usual course outside the trachea ; its subsequent distribution 
will be included with that of the left side, which it resembles. 

Common carotid and branches. — The left common carotid, as thick as a swan's quill, 
springs, as mentioned, from the middle and back part of the aortic arch, and crossing 
over the left bronchus continues alongside of the trachea for a distance of 9 inches, 
when it gives off the superior thyroid. This is a small branch, less than 2 inches 
long, which curves inwards below the internal jugular vein, opposite the posterior 
inferior angle of the cricoid cartilage, and splits into three branchlets. One of these 
runs down the surface of the oesophagus, and sends four short arched twigs to the 
diminutive thyroid body. The second passes deeply between the thyroid gland and the 
trachea, supplying the latter. The third divides immediately beyond its origin, a twig 
entering the upper end of the thyroid gland, another being sent to the outer side 
of the sterno-thyroid muscle as it lies on the cricoid cartilage. Besides, minute 
vascular twigs pierce the muscular wall of the oesophagus, and arc also freely distributed 
to the tissues intervening between the latter and the trachea, and also partly to the 
crico-thyroid and inferior constrictor muscles. The superior laryngeal artery is derived 
directly from the trunk of the common carotid, and is not a branch of the superior 
thyroid, as is more usually the case in Man. It leaves the common carotid about 
2 inches apart, or anterior to the superior thyroidal branch, and from the opposite side 
of the vessel. At its origin the superior laryngeal artery is placed upon the outer 
aspect of the thyro-hyoid muscle, and, crossing a portion of the inferior constrictor 
gains the interspace between that muscle and the middle constrictor, where it accom- 
panies the superior laryngeal nerve. The hindermost of the parotidean arteries is 
another small offshoot from the common carotid instead of the external carotid. It 
springs from the inner or lower side of its parent trunk, an inch distant from the 
superior laryngeal artery, and, running across the middle constrictor muscle, penetrates 
the parotid gland posteriorly and on its inner surface. The second and anterior 
parotidean twig is as long but scarcely so large as the posterior one ; it is derived 
from the angle of division of the common into internal and external carotids, as noted 

External carotid artery and its subdivisions. — The common carotid J of an inch 
beyond the first parotidean twig above described, just below and posterior to the 
osseous stylo-hyal and stylo-pharyngeus muscle, divides into two main trunks of equal 
calibre, the external and internal carotid arteries. At the angle where these divaricate 
several small arterial branches, muscular and glandular, are given off. The former 
supply the middle constrictor, stylo-pharyngeus and adjoining muscles ; the latter is the 
second parotidean twig mentioned above. 

The lingual artery, of moderate thickness, arises about an inch from the commence- 
ment of the external carotid, and, pursuing a course parallel with and crossed by the 
lingual nerve, supplies the tongue from its body to the tip. At first it lies on the superior 


constrictor, then on the hyoglossus muscle, giving branches to both. As it traverses 
the latter it is covered by the styloglossus muscle, then, dipping underneath both, it 
enters the substance of the tongue, distributing its branches to the genio-hyoglossus, 
lingualis, &c, while the main trunk of the artery corresponding to the ranine proceeds 
onwards to the frsenum, and inosculates with its fellow of the opposite side. 

The trunk of the external carotid beyond its lingual branch continues towards the 
cranium, and between the tympanic and condyloid eminence divides into several 
branches near each other. The facial artery traverses the groove of the mandibular 
angle under cover of the digastric muscle, and loops round the ramus, being freely 
distributed to the oral muscles. The occipital branch, diverging beneath the sterno- 
mastoid muscle near its paramastoid attachment, supplies the occipital parts, overlain, 
however, by the great sheet of the cephalo-humeral muscle. As to the temporal branch, 
which is comparatively small, it reaches the surface of the temporalis muscular layers 
in front of the outer flexible tube of the auditory apparatus. The internal maxillary 
artery is by far the most important of the ectocarotid divisions. In the emargination 
beneath the neck of the condyle at the rear of the pterygoid muscles it sends down a 
large inferior dental branch. The main vessel, thence continuing obliquely forwards 
and inwards, penetrates the alisphenoid canal at the root of the pterygoid. Anteriorly 
it pursues a course on the surface of the palatine arch ; and then it becomes the supe- 
rior maxillary accompanying the infraorbital plexus of nerves, its peripheral divisions 
being distributed to the parts around the mouth, muzzle, and nose. Within the large 
spheno-palatine and orbital space various muscular, superior dental, and nasal derivatives 
are sent off. The marginal vessels appear to enter the foramen lacerum medium ; but 
they may nevertheless find entrance to the cranial cavity by the interior minute cleft 
spoken of as representative of foramen spinosum. 

Internal carotid artery. — This strikes deeply backwards, and, rounding the internal 
groove of the tympanic in close relation to the jugular vein, traverses the canal of the 
periotic, crosses the foramen lacerum medium, lies in the carotid groove, and joins in the 
circle of Willis. 

Arteries of the base of the brain. — Within the spinal canal and previous to forming 
the basilar artery, two large anterior spinal arteries converge backwards into a single 
vessel of considerable magnitude, which becomes the anterior median artery of the cord. 

Much smaller-sized inferior cerebellar arteries are also derived from the front of the 
vertebral. The basilar artery is about 2 inches long, relatively large, and sends off, 
almost at right angles, the usual transverse, superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral 
branches. The two latter are situated rather widely apart. The " circle of Willis " is 
complete. The posterior communicating branches of the internal carotid are short and 
wide, with the internal carotid of but moderate size placed in their middle, and not so 
close to the anterior and middle cerebral as in the human brain. 

Subclavian trunks and branches derived therefrom. — The right subclavian artery, on 



leaving the innominata and common carotid, arches outwards, and at 1 J inch from these 
sends off from the upper side its first branch, the vertebral, a vessel of considerable 
thickness, almost equalling in this respect the common carotid. 

Fig. 3. 

Diagram of the arteries of the Base of the Brain. O.jubata. 

C. Internal carotid, severed close to posterior communi- 
cating vessel. B. Basilar. Y. Vertebral cut short. 
A M. Anterior median and a.sp. anterior spinal arteries. 
a.c. Anterior cerebral, m.c. Middle cerebral, 
Posterior communicating, p.e. Posterior cerebral, s.c. 
superior cerebellar, a.i.c. Anterior inferior cerebellar, 
and p.i.c. posterior inferior cerebellar arteries of left 
side. t. Transverse branch. 

The vertebral artery proceeds but a short way forwards between the scalenus anticus 
and longus colli muscles, then enters the foramen of the sixth, and continues within the 
channel formed by the remaining cervical foramina situated at the roots of their trans- 
verse processes. Emerging from the atloid vertebral foramen the artery winds round 
the root of the superior articular process, and passes through a second foramen in the 
atlas, which perforates the bone in front of the neural lamina ; thence it reaches the 
interior of the spinal canal, to unite with its fellow of the opposite side. 

The left subclavian artery has a calibre as great as the trunk of the innominata. 
It continues forwards and outwards towards the left, without branching, for 2 inches or 
rather more; then the internal mammary shoots from its pectoral border. Three 
quarters of an inch to the left of the internal mammary branch the subclavian trunk 
divides into three. The largest vascular channel is the continuation of the subclavian 
into the axillary. The upper smallest branch, but, moreover, relatively a large vessel, 
is the left vertebral artery, which here, with a rather longer course in the neck than 
the right vertebral, proceeds onwards to the skull as on the opposite side. The third 
division is of intermediate size, and springs somewhat from above and behind the sub- 
clavian trifurcation. It is equivalent to the thyroid axis, and through large transverse 


cervical and suprascapular branches distributes, as on the right side, a copious supply of 
blood to the great muscles of the neck, and those in front of and around the shoulder. 

b Arteries of the Pectoral Limb. 

Axillary artery. — The arbitrary divisions of the subclavian trunk and line of demar- 
cation between the axillary and brachial artery, which are useful in a surgical point of 
view in Man, here lose their significance from the absence of a clavicle and the altered 
condition of the parts. What may be regarded as the axillary artery is little more than 
one and a half inch long, though of considerable calibre. Several thoracic branches 
are distributed to the pectoral muscles and to the glands in the axilla. From 
a quarter to half an inch beyond where these diverge the main artery bifurcates into 
two equal-sized divisions — respectively the subscapular and brachial arteries. The 
former relatively large division gives off the circumflex arteries and many muscular 

The subscapular artery pierces the tissues at the root or origin of the subscapular^ 
muscle, and not far from the inner insertion of the episubscapularis muscle. After a 
short course it subdivides into three groups of branches which, respectively, are spread 
over the surface of the subscapulars muscle, corresponding to the areas of its trifid, fleshy 
segments. The dorsalis scapula?, a large branch, proceeds from the subscapular, opposite 
the neck of the scapula, and goes under the bone between the heads of the dorso-epitro- 
chlear and triceps, giving branches to these muscles near their origin, after which it joins 
in front the posterior scapular arteries which supply the parts round the joint. The 
posterior circumflex pierces the posterior margin of the second division of the triceps — 
namely, between its small tendinous scapular portion and that arising from the outer 
neck of the humerus. The anterior circumflex is small, and is distributed to the long 
portion of the episubscapularis muscle. 

Brachial artery. — Corresponding to the diminished length of the brachial region in 
Otaria, this artery is short ; moreover it is relatively small ; for the great sanguineous 
channels supplying the enormous muscular masses of the shoulder are derived higher 
up than the region in question. The artery is, as usual, accompanied and surrounded 
by the brachial plexus of nerves and large veins, maintaining a position to the inner 
side of the median nerve. 

The inferior profunda and the anastomatica magna appear to be derived from one 
offshoot, which comes from the brachial below its middle, and at half an inch distance 
divides into two. The upper branch, representing the former, pierces the small triceps 
muscle. The lower and longer branch, equivalent to the latter, also pierces the same 
division of the triceps; but just above or rather deeper than the internal anconeus, it 
dips deeply beneath the lower (short) triceps and sends a branchlet to the side of the 
joint behind the internal condyle, the main artery continuing round and above the 
olecranon to the external anconeus and neighbouring tissues. 


The ulnar artery. — From the main artery below the elbow-joint a short flange pro- 
ceeds ulnarwise, and at a quarter of an inch distance splits into three. One slants across 
the ulnar head of the flexor sublimis and goes down the arm as the ulnar artery to the 
wrist, there splitting into three small digital vessels. These three vessels are distributed 
to the fifth and fourth digits. The outer one, given off highest, runs along the ulnar 
side of the fifth digit ; the next goes a short way single and then divaricates, one branchlet 
supplying the radial side of the fifth digit, the other the ulnar side of the fourth digit. 

From the short trunk above spoken of the anterior ulnar recurrent diverges upwards 
toward the joint. The posterior ulnar recurrent is derived immediately below the 
above, and at an angle from the ulnar. It enters the substance of the flexor carpi 
ulnaris and the palmaris longus muscle. 

Radial artery. — This, the chief continuation of the brachial into the forearm, passes 
downwards over the biceps and brachialis anticus muscles in front of the inner condyle, 
and afterwards beneath the pronator radii teres and the flexor carpi radialis. In the 
forearm it is situated nearly in the middle of the broad radius, superficial to and partly 
on the ulnar side of the radial head of the conjoined flexor profundus and pollicis. The 
tendon of the palmaris longus secundus obliquely crosses the artery above the wrist- 
joint. Dipping beneath the superficial palmar fascia?, it then, at the proximal end of the 
metacarpals, splits into three divisions which form the main portion of the palmar arch. 
The largest pollicial branch crosses the radial side of the second metacarpal and sub- 
divides into two twigs which proceed respectively to the ulnar side of the pollex and 
radial side of the second digit. The second middle branch similarly subdivides into a 
couple of twigs, which run along the ulnar side of the second and radial side of the third 
digit. The third branch comes off the highest of the three, and, subdividing at the 
proximal end of the proximal phalanx, bifurcates, one twig going to the ulnar side of 
the third, and the other to the radial side of the fourth digit. This palmar arch is 
superficial to the nerves. 

Below the elbow and in the upper part of the forearm the radial sends off a recurrent 
branch, chiefly distributed to the muscles on the humerus and radial side of the joint. 
Other muscular branches are distributed in the forearm. 

Interosseous vessels. — Immediately below the derivation of the ulnar the common 
interosseous artery strikes off and is about half an inch long, it then splits into two 
branches. One of these, the posterior interosseous artery, dips between the radial 
and ulnar heads of the deep flexors above the oblique ligament. It is distributed to 
the pronator teres, extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis, &c. The second branch forms 
the anterior interosseous artery, from which, an inch below the commencement 
of the posterior interosseous artery, a muscular offshoot of moderate size diverges 
radially and goes to the long muscles of the radial side. A small branch, repre- 
senting the recurrent, goes upwards to the elbow-joint beneath the external lateral 

vol vm. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 f 


c. The Visceral Arteries. 

Bronchial, oesophageal, and intercostal vessels are duly given off within the thorax. 
Each and all of these are large ; but the latter do not form retia as in Cetacea. 

Small phrenic arteries which penetrate the muscular diaphragm come off from the 
abdominal aorta below and between the crura. About half an inch lower two dimi- 
nutive branches are also derived, one on either side of the aorta ; these go to supply the 
suprarenal bodies. 

The Cceliac axis, the first large trunk, proceeds from the abdominal aorta, half an 
inch below the last, or about one inch beyond the diaphragm. It has a large calibre, 
and is one and a half inch long. It ultimately splits into two equal-sized branches, that 
to the right being the hepatic, and that to the left consisting of a single stem furnishing 
the gastric, the splenic, and their branches. 

The single left branch derivative from the cceliac divaricates at about an inch from 
its origin. Its right division, that to which the name of gastric or coronary artery is 
applicable, proceeds along the lesser curvature for two inches or thereabouts, and then 
divides into a large anterior and as considerable-sized posterior vessel. Each of these 
pursues nearly the same course, but on opposite sides of the stomach. Their direction 
is straight, but oblique to the long diameter of the stomach, parallel with and to the 
cardiac side of the cleft of the lesser curvature. Both the anterior and the posterior 
coronary or gastric vessels subdivide into twenty or more branches, which are emitted 
at oblique or right angles on either side ; and these again, towards the greater curva- 
ture, subdivide into secondary and tertiary dichotomous branchlets. Thus the greater 
part of the surface of the stomach receives a vascular covering disposed in a series of 
dichotomous radii, which inosculate at the greater curvature with their fellows of the 
opposite side, and anastomose with branchlets of the oesophageal and splenic arteries. 

The large splenic artery is not tortuous as in Man, but sweeps in a curvilinear 
manner across the middle of the stomach, from the summit of the lesser to rather 
beyond the middle or towards the pyloric moiety of the greater curvature. A con- 
siderable-sized branch is given off from the top of the stomach ; and this, like one of 
the branches of the gastric, is directed towards the extremity of the viscus and there 
freely anastomoses with the oesophageal vessels. The vasa brevia belie their name, in- 
asmuch as here they are large long branches, some three or four in number. They 
proceed beneath the spleen towards the fundus and border of the great curvature, 
splitting dichotomously like the coronary, and, as before said, inosculating with them. 
The gastro-epiploica sinistra, or continuation of splenic, as usual, follows the curved 
outer border of the stomach to the pylorus, and joins the gastro-epiploica dextra. 

The hepatic trunk, one and a half inch from its derivation, sends off its hepatic 
branch. This lies on the surface of enlargement of the vena cava, and beneath the 
pancreas ; as it reaches the Spigelian lobe of the liver it splits into two main divisions, that 


to the left being slightly the larger one. The right hepatic division, three quarters of an 
inch from its origin, subdivides into two. One branch, directed outwards, supplies the 
first and second lobules to the right of the liver ; the other strikes more upwards and 
slightly to the left, being distributed to the third hepatic segment, viz. the right moiety 
of the cystic lobe. The left hepatic division is longer and straighter than the right, 
and furnishes several branchlets. About an inch and a half from its origin one or 
two small twigs are sent to the Spigelian lobe and what represents the transverse 
fissure. An inch beyond these a branchlet goes upwards, which gives offshoots to the 
minute lobule(*fig.72) and to the IV. or left half of the cystic lobe. The main left hepatic 
division proceeds onwards for above two inches, and splits into several terminal seg- 
ments distributed to the V. and VI. lobes, or left half of the liver. 

The cystic artery is a very long and narrow branch. It accompanies the cystic duct 
as far as the neck of the gall-bladder, where it penetrates the coats of that reservoir. In 
its course it lies to the left of the duct, and is superficial to the pancreas and hepatic 
artery. The arteries of the liver, excepting the cystic branch, have a position beneath 
the gall-ducts and above the veins and hepatic plexus of nerves. I observed a peculiarity 
in the first portion of the hepatic artery previous to its dividing into right and left 
branches. This consisted in its possessing a median septum, apparently produced by a 
splitting of the inner coat. I could not well satisfy myself, however, whether this 
might not have been the result of injection rather than a natural condition. 

The gastro-duodenal branch of the hepatic is of good size. About one inch from its 
commencement it gives short offshoots to the pancreas and first part of the small 
intestine, the latter distant two inches from the pylorus. Thence continuing beneath 
the duodenum it runs along the outer pyloric border of the stomach as the gastro- 
epiploica dextra, inosculating in the ordinary manner with the sinistral epiploic extre- 
mity of the splenic. 

The superior mesenteric artery springs from the abdominal aorta one and a quarter 
inch below the cceliac axis, has a calibre equal to that vessel, and indeed is relatively 
little inferior in size to the aorta itself, where they are divergent. In forming the 
mesenteric arch it is enclosed and hidden within a double, long, narrow, continuous strip of 
lymphatics, the mesenteric glands. The so-called vasa intestini tenuis are derived from 
the trunk of the mesenteric by about twenty very short but wide branches, which 
divide and subdivide into primary, secondary, and tertiary forks, ultimately ramifying 
on the intestinal surface. Of the named branches of the superior mesenteric artery the 
ileo-colic is well marked and of moderate size. 

The renal arteries, derived posteriorly, strike off opposite one another and at right 
angles to the aorta. They are each 2 inches long. 

The spermatic vessels and the inferior mesenteric trunk spring separately and to the 
rear of the preceding. Sigmoid and hsemorrhoidal branches of the latter obtain in well- 
defined arches ; and lymphatic glands lie towards the main vessel. 



d. Arteries of the Pelvic Limb. 

The distribution of these in most respects resembles what obtains in Phoca, slightly 
modified to correspond with the altered relations of the fleshy parts, agreeing therefore 
more closely with Trichechus, where also caudo-calcaneal bands knit the heel well to- 
wards the spinal termination. The continuation of the abdominal aorta upon the in- 
ferior aspect of the tail, arteria sacra media, is noteworthy chiefly on account of a plexus 
vasculosus coccygeus or so-called coccygeal gland. This structure is represented in the 
Otary by an elongated somewhat cylindrical, yellowish, glandular-looking body, almost 
an inch long and 02 broad. It is situate between the converging long median tendons 
of the pubo- and ilio-coccygeal muscles, and is covered in part by the junctional raphe 
of the levator ani. 

External iliac and tributaries. — The epigastric is a large artery, which underlying 
the external and internal oblique muscles upon the surface of the transversalis and out- 
side the rectus, traverses the abdominal parietes and forms a free inosculation with the 
equally capacious internal mammary. 

The femoral artery, of very moderate calibre, on leaving the ilium, crosses out- 
wards almost at a right angle from it, and in this way traverses the groin to the 
inner and here posterior edge of the femur. The artery, with its companion vein and 
nerves, have the following relations before penetrating the adductor magnus muscle. 
The psoas tendon is superficial to it ; the rectus femoris and sartorius lie anteriorly, 
the pectineus behind. These altogether form an elongated triangular space, the artery 
crossing this diagonally from before backwards. Deeply the vessel lies on the tendon 
of the iliacus, and then passes over the the adductor longus. At the lower third of 
the shaft of the femur it goes through a small opening in the upper border of the 
adductor magnus and reaches the posterior surface of the bone. 

The popliteal artery is very short, and, as usual, lies in the popliteal space ; but its 
relations nevertheless are different, as the hamstring muscles are shifted downwards and 
do not approach the knee-joint, while the gastrocnemius has but one inner broad 
head of origin. On the inner side, then, it is enclosed superficially by the adductor 
magnus, and deeply by the gastrocnemius, these two muscles stretching from the con- 
dyloid ridge of the femur to the head of the tibia. On the outer side is the remarkably 
low insertion of the obturator externus, the upper portion of the biceps femoris, and 
the soleus. Having reached the inner side of the head of the fibula, the popliteal di- 
vides into anterior and posterior tibial arteries. 

This last-mentioned vessel rests on the popliteus and tibialis posticus, the long hallu- 
cial and digital flexor muscles in part covering it to the turn of the heel. The internal 
plantar artery appears to be that which furnishes the digital branchlets, or what here 
represents the plantar arch. It results that the distribution of the plantar is uncom- 
monly like that of the palmar vessels. The innermost artery runs alongside the hallux 


to the distal end of the metatarsal, splits, and supplies the adjoining sides of the first and 
second toe. At the proximal end of the second metatarsal, what in Otaria is equiva- 
lent to the external plantar in Man, springs from it, then a little way on again divides, 
a third outer branch coming off still further on. These three bifurcate and give twigs 
to the second and third, the third and fourth, and the fourth and fifth toes respectively. 
The outside of the fifth toe receives a separate twig derived from the peroneal near the 

Internal Iliac. — Its divisions within the pelvis were not noted with sufficient exactness. 
One artery, however, has very unusual relations, if, as seems the case, it is the homo- 
logue of the sciatic and its derivative comes nervi ischiadici. This vessel, of considerable 
calibre, accompanies the sacral plexus through the sciatic foramen, and afterwards fol- 
lows the course of and bears relations similar to the lesser sciatic nerve, already de- 
scribed. It yields branches to the large lymphatic gland in the tibio-caudal space, to 
the semitendinosus, membranosus, sacro-peronseus, and other muscles of the back of the 
leg, and proceeds on to the outer ankle. 

3. The Venous Blood-channels. 

The veins derived from the interior of the cranium, the head, face, tongue, and fauces, 
combining, form the external and internal jugulars. Small veins come from the thyroid 
gland, the omohyoid, and neighbouring parts below the cricoid cartilage ; these unite 
into a common vein, which joins the internal jugular opposite the lower posterior 
extremity of the thyroid gland. 

The recurrent venous channels from the hind limbs and pelvis forming the posterior 
vena cava are of great calibre, and particularly so after receiving the renal veins. These 
latter emulgent veins are of unequal length, the left being the longer of the two : com- 
pared with the kidney itself, they are of inordinate capacity. 

The portal vein, on reaching the flat portion of the liver or bridge connecting the 
Spigelian and right lobes, divides into two great main trunks. The short one of these 
supplies the right or i lobe. The other, which is set at a wide angle from the last, 
proceeds upwards and to the left, sending off wide branches and smaller divisions to the 
several large lobes, viz. n, in, iv, v. Each branch is accompanied by a derivative twig 
from the hepatic artery ; the veins, however, are by very far the larger. 

By far the most remarkable point iu connexion with the venous system is the en- 
largement of the posterior vena cava or great hepatic sinuses so admirably depicted by 
Barkow ' in the Common Seal, Phoca vitulina, and similar to those of the Walrus. It 
is in fact but a simple expansion of the vena cava within the precincts of the liver, and 

1 Professor Barkow's magnificent illustrations of the vascular system contain several devoted to Phoca vita- 
lina, P. annellata, and Halichaerus griseus ; but a comparison with these is beyond the limits of the present 
paper. ' Die Blutgefassc, &e.' Breslau : see plates x. to xiii. and xxix. 



in this case occupying a volume, one might almost say, greater than the glandular hepatic 
organ itself. As I have shown in Trichechus, there is a mid septum interiorly, with a 
free opening, however, between ; and each sac has diverticular pouches in communica- 
tion with the various segments of the much divided liver. The capacity of the two 
chambers is such that, on being injected, I was utterly astonished and confounded as to 
where the material was being sent to. Subjoined is the memorandum taken when at 
work ; and the drawings, figs. 48 and 72, supplant lengthened description. 

" Hepatic sinuses 14 inches across in a straight line ; that of the right side alone is 
8 inches, interspace 1 inch ; hence left, above, 5 inches long. There is a deep and wide 
fissure behind ; and each from this view is semilunar or stomach-shaped, the cardiac 
and pyloric curvatures being represented by the veins that enter the different lobes of 
the segmented liver. In front, i. e. below, there is scarcely any fissure ; but a strong 
white fibrous band, an inch broad, runs up the middle, being derived from, or a dupli- 
cature of the abdominal surface of the diaphgram. Circumference of right half when 
distended 11 inches, the left being half an inch less." 

The hepatic plexus of nerves lies beneath the portal trunks ; and twigs of these ramify 
around the vein while being sent to the numerous hepatic lobes. Minute branches of 
nerves are also derived from the hepatic plexus, which accompany the bile-ducts, and 
lie superficial to the portal vein, and even to the arterial trunks. 

Fig. 4. 

Diagram of the Renal Vessels, &c. 

K, K*. Kidneys. u,u*. Ureters, cut short. Ao. Aorta. 
R.a. Left renal artery ; the dotted line shows 
position of the right, hehind cava. R.v, R.v. 
Renal veins. V.c.a. Vena cava ascendeus. Sc, Sc*. 
Suprarenal capsules or Glands. 

V. Hyolartngeal and Pulmonary Systems. 

1. Contyoncnts of Eyoid and Larynx. 

a. Hyoid arch. — This arch is built up of nine osseous and four cartilaginous elements. 
A taper pointed cartilage - 4 inch long articulates the arch with the tympanohyal of the 
skull. The stylohyals united with these cartilages are subcompressed, digit-shaped 
bones, each 1*2 inch long, and with a knobbed extremity distad from the skull. These 


stylohyals are connected by fibro-cartilage to separate osseous elements, the epihyals ; 
each of the latter bones is longer than the stylohyal, i.e. T4 inch, somewhat stouter, 
dilated at both extremities and laterally compressed in the middle. Another fibro- 
cartilaginous synovial hinge-joint passes between the epihyal and the much stouter, 
equally lengthened adjoining bone. This, the ceratohyal, is subtriangular on transverse 
section, a broad surface or border being ventrally situate, and the angular edge deeply 
placed. The end of each bone which lies in apposition with the basihyal is enlarged 
and slightly depressed or grooved internally. The single basihyal, 2T inch in length, is 
developed as a stout bar of solid bone, with wide flattened extremities, possessing a 
superior and inferior or anterior and posterior broad facets ; with these the ceratohyals 
articulate above, and the thyrohyals below. The middle or body of the basihyal is 
somewhat narrower than the extremities, and is compressed in an opposite direction to 
the ends. Each thyrohyal is knobbed at its basihyal end, and tapers to a narrow car- 
tilaginous point at the thyroid extremity. It is subcompressed laterally, slightly bent 
or arched forwards, roughened or with a median prominence in front, and rather 
sharper-edged behind. Length 2-2 inches. At their narrowed cartilaginous tip is a 
free triangular nodule of cartilage - 4 inch long, the so-called cart it ago triticea. This 
is connected by strong fibrous tissue to the thyrohyal and is also attached by the lateral 
thyrohyoid ligament to the superior or anterior cornua of the thyroid cartilage. 

b. Cartilages of the Larynx. — Thyroid Cartilage. The two alae as they approach 
together in front are deeply incised anteriorly and posteriorly (or above and below), 
leaving only a narrow but nevertheless thick and strong septum of communication 
(pomum Adami). The anterior notch is an inch deep, the posterior no more than half 
that. Each lamella is somewhat rhomboid in form, the superficial and deep borders 
(anterior and posterior in Man) being convex, the anterior somewhat and posterior 
(upper and lower) decidedly concave. There is no prominent oblique line or ridge ; 
but on the lateral surface and near the middle of the posterior (inferior) concavity is 
a large-sized roughened tuberosity to which the arytenoid and thyro-arytenoid muscles 
are attached. The posterior (inferior) cornu is half an inch long, ending in a rigid 
thickened pointed extremity ; the posterior crico-arytenoid muscle being fixed thereon. 
The anterior (superior) cornu is much smaller, thinner, and elastic. Internally, the 
surface of the thyroid lamella is perfectly smooth. The connecting bridge between the 
ala?, much stouter than they, is smooth externally, but has an elevated cartilaginous 
median papilla within, from which the vocal cords arise. Measured from the septal 
junction to the deep free margin, each thyroid lamella is 1\ inches ; from the summit 
to the cricoid end 2 inches, the distance between the extremities of the cornua being 
nearly the same. At the narrowest part, between the anterior and posterior convexity, 
it is 1 j inch in diameter. 

The cricoid cartilage forms a solid ring some 6 inches in external circumference. 


Behind it is 2 inches in extreme (anteroposterior) depth ; in front, or superficially, 
which is the narrowest part, it is 09 inch ; the diameter from the ventral to the vertebral 
superficies is 2 inches. The elevated smooth ventral aspect is, as noted, moderately deep 
and with biconcave margins. The oesophageal surface has a raised mesial line, with 
lateral, wide, shallow excavations between it and the thyroid cartilages, the posterior 
crico-arytenoid muscles completely filling these depressions. Where the arytenoid 
cartilages are attached the cricoid on each side is very much thickened and projects in 
a rounded manner, leaving a median deep cleft or notch, which is filled with fibro-fatty 
tissue. The tracheal end of this same oesophageal surface has a thin spatulate cartila- 
ginous plate - 3 inch long, and fully as much broad at its widest part. On each side of 
this the borders are incised semilunarly, and form a slight angle posterior to (or beneath) 
the thyro-cricoid articulation. 

Each pyramidal or trihedral, but round-margined arytenoid cartilage is of the fol- 
lowing dimensions — 07 inch in extreme height, an inch in basal width, and - 6 inch 
in thickness, or from the internal to the external surface. Its crico-articulating facet 
is large, shallow, and with a synovial membrane. The inner mesially connecting spur 
is the thinnest and most elastic portion, and possesses a rounded recurved point to which 
the interarytenoid ligament is fixed. The true and false vocal cords have a firm and 
strong bond of union. The posterior crico-arytenoid ligament loosely but powerfully 
connects the cartilages in the interval. 

Fixed to the summit of the arytenoid cartilage by a close, movable, but not synovial 
joint, is a smaller and softer V-shaped cartilaginous body, which, as a whole, includes 
the cartilages of Santorini and Wrisberg. 

c. Laryngeal Membranes and Ligaments. — The thyro-hyoid membrane, or middle 
thyro-hyoid ligament, forms a strong, wide, and very clastic connecting bridge between 
the basihyal, thyrohyals, and thyroid cartilage. It contains in its centre, or midway 
between the basihyal and the fore part of the thyroid shield, a firm, well-developed, 
cartilaginous nodule. This nodule of cartilage has a short figure-of-8 shape, smooth 
on the ventral surface, and rougher or somewhat carinate anteriorly on its deep aspect. 
It is 08 inch long, and OS broad at its anterior segment. It is deeply imbedded in the 
fat and fibrous tissue at the root of the epiglottis ; and between the latter and its internal 
projecting anterior point there passes a strong fibro-elastic band — the hyo-epiglottic 

The lateral thyro-hyoid ligaments are two narrow bands of fibro- and yellow elastic 
tissue, which pass between the tip of the thyrohyals and each cartilago triticea to the 
short anterior cornua of the thyroid cartilage. 

The crico-thyroid membrane, divisible by human anatomists into a mesial and two 
lateral crico-thyroid ligaments, is, in Ofaria, a well-developed strong fibro-elastic struc- 
ture, the median portion containing abundance of yellow elastic tissue, which is thick- 
ened and forms a projecting ridge. The lateral portions of the crico-thyroid membrane, 


from the great size and thickness of the thyro-arytenoidei muscles, are partially excluded 
from the formation of the true vocal cords. 

The capsular ligaments encircling the synovial articulation between the posterior 
(inferior) cornua of the thyroid and the postlateral facet of the cricoid cartilage are 
short, and limit considerably the motion of the joint. The crico-arytenoid ligaments, 
on the contrary, are wide, loose, and permit great freedom of motion of the arytenoid 
cartilages, especially in an antero-posterior direction. The more elastic and resilient 
cartilages of Santorini and Wrisberg do not possess any definite articulation or liga- 
ments, but pass indefinitely the one into the other by cartilaginous union. There is, 
moreover, a small but strong ligamentous union uniting the inner points of the aryte- 
noid cartilages (interarytenoid ligament), and a less distinct, by reason of the inter- 
mixture of muscular and fatty tissue, posterior crico-arytenoid ligament or connect- 
ing membrane. 

The superior thyro-arytenoid ligaments, or false vocal cords, are so much interwoven 
with the submucous tissues, fat, and muscular fibres of the thyro-arytenoideus secundus 
as to prevent their special dissection. The true vocal cords or inferior thyro-arytenoid 
ligaments, however, are much better expressed. They pass in the usual manner from 
the elevation behind the junction of the thyroid alse backwards to the inward or 
anterior projection of the arytenoid cartilages and adjoining portions of the cornicula 

The upper end of the trachea is firmly lashed all round the interior of the cricoid 
cartilage by a very strong membrane, which, however, from its elastic nature, allows of 
a certain amount of up and down movement. 

d. Muscles of the Os hi/oides and Larynx. — The most superficial layer, in this case 
long massive muscles connected with the hyoidean region — to wit, the omo-hyoid, sterno- 
hyoid, and sterno-thyroid, forming a great part of the thickness of the neck and being 
involved with the structures at their origins, have consequently been described in 
Part II. 

Thyro-hyoid. — The direction of the fibres of this muscle are at an obtuse angle inwards 
from those of the sterno-thyroid ; therefore there is a clear line of demarcation between 
them. The thyro-hyoid is of considerable thickness, 2 inches long by 1 broad, and tra- 
pezoidal in shape. It rests upon the fibres of the inferior constrictor muscle, outer 
ala of the thyroid cartilage and the thyro-hyoid membrane ; and it is itself covered by 
the omo-hyoid muscle. Its origin is the curved line and prominence of the thyroid 
cartilage, and its insertion the inferior (posterior) border of the osseous thyrohyal and 
the thyro-hyoid membrane. On the right side a slip of the inferior constrictor was 
observed to pass across the thyro-hyoid just behind its middle. 

In Otaria jubata the Crico-thyroid is represented by a large and broad plane of 
muscle, as a whole, quadrilateral in shape, though rather irregular in outline. It comes 
from nearly the whole outer moiety of the cricoid cartilage, and covers the crico-thyroid 

vol. vin. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 a 


membrane. The two cricothyroid muscles converge medianly in front, but leave a 
triangular interval exposing the crico-thyroid membrane behind. 

Posterior crico-arytenoid. — This is of considerable size and thickness. It covers the 
posterior surface of the cricoid cartilage, with the exception of the spatular appendix. 
The fibres expanding outwards and forwards from the above origin are inserted into the 
outer protuberance of the arytenoid cartilage. As in Man, the outermost fibres are 
nearly vertical, and the upper or anterior ones nearly transverse to the antero-posterior 
axis of the larynx. The posterior margin of the thyroid cartilage partially hides the 
outside curved edge of the posterior crico-arytenoideus. This muscle is a retractor of 
the arytenoid cartilage and dilater of the glottis. 

Lateral crico-arytenoid. — A short, triangular-shaped muscle lying outside inferiorly, 
but in close connexion with the last mentioned. It occupies the space anterior to 
and below the crico-thyroid joint, and is fastened to the prominent protuberant angle 
of the arytenoid cartilage. The action of this pair of muscles is to drag downward 
the arytenoid cartilage, and close the posterior lip of the glottis. No ceratocricoid slip 
of Merkel was observed. 

Thyro-arytenoid. — Divisible in this species of Eared Seal into at least two well- 
defined bundles: — (a) The larger inferior one is a strong broad plane of muscular fibres 
which arise from the front and middle of the interior junction of the thyroid alae. 
Passing towards the arytenoid cartilage the fleshy fibres are inserted in front of (or below) 
the arytenoid protuberance. A few of the fibres run over the surface of the arytenoid 
muscle, (b) The superior smaller division in some respects may represent the so-called 
aryteno-epiglottidean muscle of human anatomy. This portion commences partly by 
fascia and partly by muscular fibres from the interior of the thyroid cartilage in front 
of the laryngeal pouch. Splitting so as to lie on either side of the sac and again uni- 
ting, the muscle is finally inserted into the arytenoid cartilage and cartilage of Santo- 
rini, anterior, however, to the arytenoid muscle. The superficial division of the thyro- 
arytenoid in great part covers this second segment. Concerning the function of the fore- 
going, the large inferior planes (a) of both sides drag forwards the arytenoid cartilages, 
and therefore approximate the true vocal cords. The superior divisions (b), fixed more 
behind the arytenoid cartilages, compress the laryngeal sacculus ; but they possibly also 
drag forwards the Santorine cartilages and close the aperture of the glottis. 

The arytenoidei muscles do not decussate obliquely and pass right across, as they do 
in Man. In the larynx of Otaria the arytenoid is thick, short, and alone fills the con- 
cavity of each arytenoid cartilage. 

Appertaining to the hyoid and thyroid region, I may in this place institute record 
of a thick fleshy muscle, somewhat of a long parallelogram in figure, and situated 
immediately beneath the posterior end of the hyoglossus and anterior portion of the 
superior constrictor when the parts are in natural position. The muscle in question 
has attachments to, and bridges or connects the cerato- and thyrohyal bony segments, 


posteriorly impinging on what appears to represent a stylo-pharyngeus. In some of 
its aspects it agrees with the interhyoideus or hyokeratic and partly hyo-epiglottic 
muscle of Cetaceans. 

2. Vocal Passages, Respiratory Organs, and Glands. 
a. Cavities of Larynx and Trachea. — Figures 57 and 59 are devoted to an exposition 
of the interior of the larynx, showing it from above and in section. To these the following 
description specially applies. The free surface of the epiglottis is smooth, thick, short 
and heart-shaped, the posterior median depression rising into an elongated fold within the 
rima. The superior aperture of the larynx, 1 inch long, has a trefoil outline, the hinder 
longitudinal limb being the longest. The fissure is bounded laterally by two smooth 
rounded elastic eminences (fatty cushions surmounting the cartilages of Santorini), and 
continuously behind by the projecting, clothed portion of the arytenoid cartilages. Two 
elastic, membranous aryteno-epiglottic folds connect the epiglottis with the rearward 
rounded prominences ; and outside these are wide and moderately deep reticular 
pouches. Behind and surrounding the parts in question are the inner longitudinal 
wavy plications of the pharynx and oesophagus. The laryngeal cavity itself is of 
moderate capacity. The ventricles anteriorly are well defined, but leave an open 
passage behind, which surface is dotted with mucous glands. Between the false and 
true vocal cords the narrow elliptical slit of the ventricle, which is directed obliquely 
backwards towards the pomum Adami, leads into a small flask-shaped sacculus or 
laryngeal pouch having a reversed direction, or towards the epiglottis. Besides a 
general converging of fatty tissue, the neck of the sacculus is surrounded by fibres of 
the thyro-arytenoidei, as above described. The smoother surface of the lower larynx is 
tumid to the cricoid, where it is slightly wider, diminishing gradually to the trachea. 
Before dissecting the intrinsic muscles and structures of the larynx, I examined and 
made diagrammatic outlines of the superior aperture in three different stages of tension, 
purposely comparing the same with the designs given by Czermak of the laryngoscopies 
appearances in the living human being. Consult fig. 58, where (1) a reduction shows that 
ordinarily the fissure is relatively narrower forwards than in man ; when more opened (2), 
and even when forcibly distended (3), a similar condition is exhibited. In other respects 
the aperture, as a whole, presents considerable resemblances, whatsoever may be said of 
the widely different powers of vocalization, betwixt Homo and Otaria. As regards voice, 
this male animal had no soprano notes. Its more usual cry commenced with a liquid 
but guttural and tremulous tone, increasing in volume and terminating by a loud and 
deep-bass roar or growl. At other times, when pleased, or fondling with the keeper, 
Leconte, a shorter subdued grunting whine was emitted. Lastly, a quicker, shorter, 
and sharper-sounding call was issued, apparently as a note of surprise or intimation of 
apparent danger. What has been compared to the bleating of a sheep, by voyagers 
and others, in the young and female Eared Seals, is doubtless the above tremulous cry 



given forth by a weaker and more metallic voice than is possessed by the adult male 

In the trachea the uppermost cartilaginous rings are wide and subequal ; they do not 
meet behind, the interspace being occupied by membrane. Moreover a dense layer of 
fibro-elastic tissue unites the trachea to the gullet, and, passing over both, ensheaths the 
thyroid gland and the vessels and nerves distributed thereabouts. This strong mem- 
branous investment or layer of deep cervical fascia appears to contain much yellow 
elastic fibre in its composition, and while surrounding the trachea tends powerfully to 
bring the cartilaginous rings together, a needful provision to the remarkable flexible 
neck of the creature. 

b. Lungs. — The lungs have great capacity, and when inflated are unusually long in 
shape. In this respect they correspond to the form of the very mobile thoracic walls. 
As has been previously mentioned, the Sea-lion alters remarkably in the rotundity, 
length, depth, and flatness of its body, according as the animal walks on all fours, 
swims, or lolls on the ground. This plasticity of the chest is due chiefly to the loose 
manner in which the ribs are articulated to the bodies of the vertebrae, and also to the 
amount of intervertebral, costal, and sternal cartilages present, all more or less acted 
upon by the large thoracic muscles. 

The right lung rises slightly highest in the chest. It is divided into four lobes, or is 
composed of three considerable-sized lobes and the so-called lobulus impar, in this case 
tolerably free. The upper or anterior lobe is of a trihedral form, and rather flattened 
at the edges ; the lower angle descending and covering the right side of the root of the 
heart. Its lower margin is slightly concave at the posterior third, allowing the bron- 
chus and the second lobe to fit into the hollow. This upper or anterior lobe has a 
separate or third bronchial division, which is derived from the usual right bronchus 
6 inches below the bifurcation of the trachea. The second or middle lobe of the right 
lung is long, narrow and spatulate. The third inferior (posterior) lobe is the thickest 
and slightly larger than the anterior or first lobe ; it is triangular in shape. The fourth, 
or lobus impar, is derived from the cardiac side of the root of the last, but receives a 
separate extension of the right bronchus, so that it forms an individual lobe. Single 
and pedunculate at the base, it divides distally in a trefoil manner, each spur being 

The left lung is composed of three main lobes : the first one is deeply cleft at its 
uppermost corner. The second, middle, smaller one is attached to the lower end of the 
first ; it is short, narrow, flat and broad at the free extremity. The third lobe is the 
largest of all ; it is triangular, the upper margin being slightly concave. The sternal 
free margins of all the lobes of both lungs have an irregular somewhat ci - enated border ; 
this is most notable in the middle, spatulate lobes. 

c. Glands in proximity to Air-passages. — The thyroid bodies, relatively to the size of 
the animal, are small. They are situated widely apart, without any connecting isthmus, 


upon the sides of the trachea close behind (below) the cricoid cartilage and immediately 
adjoining the oesophagus. Each gland is of a narrow elongated form, about If inch 
in length, and - 4 inch wide at its broadest part ; it extends from the first to the sixth 
tracheal ring. Anteriorly what may be considered the head or broader end is roundish, 
or well defined ; but posteriorly the gland mingles with the thick layer of yellow elastic 
and fibrous tissue (deep cervical fascia), which encompasses the trachea and connects it 
with the oesophagus as well as with the vessels of the neck. The surface of the thyroid 
body is smooth, and of a yellowish or orange colour ; section demonstrates its substance 
to be compact, with only a few vascular channels on its oesophageal side. There is no 
fibroid or muscular band representing a levator thyroideae. 

As regards thymus gland, no remnant of this fcetal organism was noticed. 

VI. The Digestive System. 

1. Parts and Organs wit hin the Mouth. 

a. The Teeth and Palate. — In this male animal the dentition presented the normal 
number accorded to the adult of Otaria, the formula being 

T 3—3 r , 1—1 -r, 4-4 ,, r 2—2 „,, 
I. g=2' C - 1=1' Pm - 4=4' M - 1=1 = 36 - 

The hard palate is as usual covered by firm periosteum, and by a lining of mucous 
membrane of a pale tint ; but these are only of moderate thickness. The openings of 
the anterior palatine canals are two long slits placed nearly behind the incisor teeth. 
They have an antero-posterior direction 0T5 inch apart in front, and diverge slightly 
from before backwards. The front portion of the palate to as far back as the 
anterior premolars is tolerably smooth. From between the premolars backwards to 
about opposite the hindermost molars, there is a series of transverse ridges. These 
elevations are low, and somewhat flat on their summits. The most of them do not 
traverse entirely the palate from one side to the other, but are irregularly interrupted 
in the median line. Each half slants inwards and backwards in such a manner that if 
continuous they would form a series of low arches, the convexity of which is directed 
backwards. The interspaces or hollows are less than half the breadth of the raised 
portions of membrane ; and the median longitudinal one is somewhat wider than the 
transverse ones, especially as it meets these. Behind the teeth the surface of the palate 
is smooth. 

b. Lingual Organ superficially considered. — The tongue in Otaria jubata is a thick 
fleshy body, which dorsally at the root is greatly arched both transversely and longi- 
tudinally, and becomes somewhat flatter towards the narrower anterior bifid extremity. 
Looked at laterally, when it has been removed from the mouth, it presents an elongated 
wedge-shape, with roundish margins. A marked lateral row of large papillae defines 
the smooth under surface from the opposite upper roughened dorsum. As seen above, 


the tip, fully an inch broad, has a central incision 02 inch deep ; and this divides the 
extremity into two rounded halves, which are roughened by a multitude of strong, 
erect, warty papilla?. A median longitudinal shallow furrow, the raphe, runs back- 
wards from the cleft for 1^ inch, behind which the dorsum becomes very convex (as 
noted above). 

The whole of the upper surface of the tongue has a very roughened rasp-like aspect, 
but not the retroverted acicular spines which obtain in some Felines, c . g. the Lion and 
the Cat. The papilla? differ considerably at the tip, the middle, and the root of the 
tongue. The margins and upper surface of the bifid tip are covered with short, semierect, 
conical, and triangularly flattened soft papilla?. They are longest and most numerous at 
the free edge, where they form a kind of brush. On the dorsum and raphe they are 
shorter and overlap each other less. These representatives of the human filiform papillae, 
at the sides and summit of the dorsum, insensibly alter into uniform, flat, and broadish 
fungiform papilla?. Laterally they are closely set together in a tessellated manner, 
but are rather more open towards the middle line. The summits of nearly all of them 
appear rounded, but they nevertheless contain a small central depression. The wide 
horseshoe-shaped root is overlaid with larger circum vallate papilla? ; these are irregular 
in contour, many elongate, others roundish ; but all are granular and deeply pitted 
superficially. Behind the tongue there is a long deep cleft, the soft wrinkled faucial 
tract presently to be described. 

c. Faucial folds, Tonsils, and Oral Glands. — When the mouth and fauces are ex- 
amined in the live animal, the anterior pillars of the fauces, uvular curtain, and 
retracted root of tongue so close the faucial aperture as to hide the textures between 
the proper base of the tongue and the epiglottis. Even in the dead animal with 
opened mouth, when the parts remain in situ, there is a difficulty in making an 
accurate examination of these posterior structures, because of the peculiarly long and 
narrow postpalatine formation. 

When, however, the parts have been carefully removed en masse from the skull, their 
configuration and relation are more easily made out. Figure 52 (in Plate LXXX.) re- 
presents the tongue and anterior two thirds of the isthmus faucium thus exposed. The 
raised floor of the postfaucial tract already spoken of is deeply divided medianly, the 
cleft or sulcus reaching from the root of the tongue to the velum palati, viz. a distance 
of 2^ inches. On each side of the groove there is a long transversely arched ridge, the 
apparent continuation of the forks of the tongue's root. These are covered by loose 
rugose mucous folds, which at intervals are studded with elongated soft filiform papilla?. 
Anteriorly the papilla? are short and small, but posteriorly, near the velum palati, of 
considerable size and length. In fact, the latter are so distributed as to give the sub- 
uvular parts quite a rough shaggy aspect. The intervening longitudinal cleft is 
smoother than the side ridges ; but, nevertheless, filiform papilla? are not wholly absent. 
The lining membrane of the postbuccal envelope, as it speads upwards or overarches 


the root of the tongue, possesses plications which correspond to the curve ; and these 
partially interdigitate with one another. 

The keystone or summit of the said arch, the backward continuation of the fibro- 
mucous membrane of the hard palate to the velum, is moderately smooth, but dotted 
with puncta, the orifices of the very numerous palatine muciparous glands. The ex- 
tension of this membrane becomes the duplicature of the uvula and posterior pillars of 
the fauces. The anterior palatine arch and faucial pillars are considerably in advance 
of the posterior, and equidistant between the uvula and proper root of the tongue. 

The so-called anterior pillars of the fauces are moderately prominent bulgings, with 
a middle indentation running backwards to a recess lodging the tonsils. 

Tonsils. — These amygdaloid bodies correspond very well in shape and size with what 
they have been likened to, almonds — their free edge and narrow end looking upwards 
and forwards. The resemblance to the fruit in question is further heightened by 
their surface being wrinkled and pitted, similar to the sculpturing of its outer husk 
or shell. There is a deep sulcus above, which runs round in front to the anterior lower 
third ; the faucial membrane thus constitutes a semilunar fold. In the hollow between 
the tonsils and fold there is a trabecular arrangement of the membrane connecting 
them, forming a series of interstices or deep pits. 

The velum pendulum palati, or soft palate, is a thick fold composed of mucous 
membrane, glandular and connective tissues, with an unusual quantity of strong 
fleshy muscular fibre. During the contracted state the thick, fleshy velum forms a 
complete partition between the pharyngeal cavity around the aperture of the glottis and 
the faucial one in front. The mucous membrane is studded laterally with muciparous 
apertures, which follow the attached base of the posterior pillars. The pendulous uvulae 
are divided by a deep median incision. Each uvula is rounded, its free margin running 
outwards, backwards, and then downwards, as the posterior pillars of the fauces, to the 
front of the epiglottis ; a fossa, however, exists between the two latter parts. 

The parotid and submaxillary glands in their diminutive development offer resem- 
blances to the Seal tribe generally. In this Otary the parotid obtains as a small flat 
subtrihedral body situated below the tympanic region, sunk in a recess partially covered 
by the cranial end of the sternomastoid muscle. The submaxillary gland is rounder in 
form, but of nearly the same size as the parotid. It lies lower than the preceding, 
more behind the angle of the mandible, and upon the surface of the digastric muscle. 
Below the jaw and tongue, and in the concavity between the latter and inner normal 
surface, there is a long but irregular chain of flattened glandular substance, the sub- 
lingual gland. Through its substance the lengthened duct of the submaxillary passes ; 
and both secretions find exit in the mouth, near the fraenum linguae. 

d. Muscles of the Tongue and Palate. — Mylo-hyoid. Possessing strong coarse fasci- 
cular bundles of fibres, this broad and somewhat extensive sheet of muscle is attached 
to the ramal groove. The muscles of the opposite sides approach and freely inter- 


mingle with each other in the middle line of the inframandibular region, rather forming 
a continuous whole and tolerably thick layer than thinning into a median longitudinal 
raphe. Anteriorly the fibres curve forwards ; and centrally, about the middle, they have 
a transverse direction, while posteriorly they bend inwards and backwards. The latter 
are not inserted upon the basihyal of the os hyoides, but rather superficial to it, being 
fixed by strong tendinous fascia to the fibres of the sternohyoid, omo-hyoid, and hyo- 
glossus muscles. Thus, as regards their action, the fibres of the mylo-hyoid are con- 
tinuous with those derived from the sternum, and therefore must act inversely as a long 
lever, according as they act from the fixed point at either end. It follows also that 
they have an increased power of compressing the tongue and fauces during deglutition. 

Together the genio-hyoidei form a thick tongue-shaped muscular mass arising 
anteriorly from the concavity of the mandibular symphysis, posteriorly spreading out 
and thinning as they are inserted in a continuous arched manner into the whole front 
of the basihyals and root of thyrohyals. Although divisible into two lateral equal- 
sized muscles, the fibres of the genio-hyoids are closely bound together, and, like the 
mylo-hyoidei, present scarcely any raphe. The fibres of each genio-hyoid at its 
insertion run outside into those of the middle constrictor of the pharynx, and likewise, 
with only a very indefinite fibrous division, join those of the sterno- and omo-hyoid. 
The genio-hyoids, from their great strength, must act very powerfully in drawing- 
forwards the hyoidean apparatus, and also greatly assist the closure and grasping move- 
ment of the upper pharyngeal constrictor. Their outer insertions compress or bring 
together the thyrohyals. It may further be remarked that, when examined deeply, 
each genio-hyoid is seen to be composed of what might be considered two parts. The 
middle appears as a long strong muscle with straight fibres inserted into the basihyal 
and sterno-hyoid muscle. Outside this, behind and superficially, a thin layer diverges to 
be partially inserted into the root of the thyrohyal and to intermingle with the omo- 
hyoid and middle constrictor. 

The massive genio-hyoglossi may be considered an azygos plane of muscular fibres 
originating at the symphysial cleft, and, therefrom assuming a fan-shape, are directed 
upwards and forwards to the tip of the tongue. Medianly they become vertical, and 
posteriorly gain the horizontal line ; inferiorly the horizontal fibres of the genio-hyo- 
glossi are flattened or slightly scooped out to receive the thick genio-hyoid muscles. 

The fibres of the anterior three fourths of each muscle do not ascend to the substance 
of the tongue. The remaining fibres are mainly inserted upon, and partly go to the 
inferior wall or basis of the pharynx. Those that go backwards are inserted into the 
upper surface of the basihyal and side of the ceratohyal. 

Hyoglossus. — This muscle is large and tolerably thick, broad behind and narrow 
wedge-shaped in front, also convex below and concave or deeply scooped out above, so 
as to fit into the prominent ceratohyals. Its origin is from the ceratohyal, thyrohyal, 
and posterior root of the basihyal ; its outer corner of origin from the thyrohyal is 


furthest back and partly covered by the middle constrictor. As it reaches the root of 
the tongue and narrows, it likewise becomes vertically deeper and laterally compressed, 
and proceeds along the genio-hyoglossus to the tip of the tongue ; previously to which 
the styloglossus ensheaths it. 

Arising from the anterior and outer side of the stylohyal the thin layer of mus- 
cular fibres of the styloglossus passes forwards and downwards obliquely, and, wrapping 
round the anterior half of the thicker hyoglossus, goes on with it towards the tip of 
the tongue. The long flattened irregular-shaped sublingual gland lies on the surface 
of this muscle. Representatives of the levator palati and circumflex or extensor palati 
are present. These were not made out precisely before cutting away the tongue and 
pharynx. The remnants of both appeared large ; the latter muscle must be rather 
strong, if the long deeply-grooved hamular process be indicative of a large tendon to it. 

Azygos uvulae. — This so-called pair of muscles are very long, narrow, but strong 
fleshy bands. They arise (close together) from the hinder edge and under surface of 
the palatine plates, and, proceeding backwards deeply within the tissues of the soft palate, 
diverge, one to each division of the uvula, being expanded inferiorly. 

The palato-pharyngeus is a strong broad fleshy layer, with a postpalatine origin. 
The fibres as they go backwards diverge outwards and go round to the back of the 
pharynx, mingling partly with the superior constrictor, and partly covering the oeso- 
phageal membrane itself. A salpingo-pharyngeus was not differentiated, if it existed. 
The presence of a stylo-pharyngeus, however, was better attested, viz. a longish band 
starting anteriorly from the tympanohyal cartilaginous apex. Directed rearwards 
deeply between the superior and middle constrictors, and becoming broader, it is 
fastened to the nodular cartilage at the posterior end of the thyrohyal and to the 
anterior cornu of the thyroid cartilage. The fibres of the palato-glossus are intimately 
united with the neighbouring muscles. They pass inwards and dowmvards from the 
narial opening to the genio-hyoglossus. 

2. Deglutive Apparatus. 

a. Pharynx and fleshy appurtenances. — The pharyngeal cavity comprehended behind 
the velum is capacious, but under the influence of powerful constrictors ; at the same 
time it is so very distensible that, in the relaxed condition of the parts, many of the 
folds and ruga? are readily obliterated. Its whole interior mucous coat is remarkably 
glandular, and particularly so at the sides of the postnarial opening. A foreshortened 
view of the region under consideration is shown in PI. LXXX. fig. 57 ; it may be 
described as follows : — The posterior pillar of the fauces projects on the side of the 
wall in front of the epiglottis; the lingual surface has numerous wrinkled folds, some 
of which may be considered to represent the fraenula or glosso-epiglottidean ligaments 
of Man. From the surface of this part a number of long conical papilla? project ; these 
are distributed rather widely apart. The epiglottis and superior aperture of the glottis 

vol. vm. — part ix. June, 1874. 4h 


form the floor of the cavity (these have been described along with the organs of voice) ; 
but on either side of them are several longitudinal elastic folds of membrane (aryteno- 
epiglottidean folds) connecting the root of the epiglottis with the wavy plications of 
the oesophageal portion of the pharynx. 

Inferior constrictor. — Under this head I shall describe what represents the above in 
human anatomy ; but here it may conveniently be subdivided into two portions, although 
the fibres of these in the median line closely intermingle with one another. 1. The 
crico-pharyngeal portion springs as a narrow strong muscular band from the posterior 
hinder (inferior) angle of the cricoid cartilage, close to and somewhat overlapping the 
margin of the crico-thyroid muscle. Its fibres curve slightly forwards and round the 
oesophagus, mingling, as already hinted, with the second portion. 2. The thyro- 
pharyngeal portion is much the broader, and consequently stronger, of the two. Its 
origin is from the surface of the thyroid cartilage between its oblique line and upper 
posterior oesophageal border ; whence the fibres are directed in an arched manner, 
meeting their fellows from the opposite side, and with scarcely any median fibrous 
raphe. The anterior median fibres curve in an angular manner forwards, considerably 
overlapping those of the middle constrictor. 

Middle constrictor. — Like the last, this is an expanded, tolerably thick, fleshy 
layer, the fibres of which are coarse and present clefts such as might suggest separa- 
tion of portions, as in the preceding ; moreover its points of attachment are more 
numerous than in that muscle. Its most posterior origin is a superficial slip which 
overlaps the thyro-hyoid muscle. Fibres joining this slip come deeply from the thyro- 
hyoid ligament immediately adjoining the superior laryngeal nerve ; this portion arches 
towards the middle line. The broader portion in advance of this arises from the thyro- 
idal nearly its whole length. This attachment has fibres in conjunction with the 
thyro-hyoid muscle which it overlaps ; in the same way it overrides and commingles 
with the origin of the hyoglossus, and in turn itself is overlapped by the outwardly 
expanded posterior fibres of the genio-hyoid, which, indeed, intimately mix with it. 
On the right side a further narrow slip arose from the thyrohyal. From these several 
sources the fibres proceed round to meet their fellows of the opposite side. Posteriorly 
they are arched considerably, so that part of the muscle passes under the inferior 
constrictor, the hinder border being convex. About the middle they are nearly 
transverse, and in front present a concavity forwards, the centre being attached to 
the skull. 

The superior constrictor underlies the fore part of the latter muscle, and is altogether 
very much weaker. 

3. Alimentary Canal. 

a. Relative positions of the Abdominal Viscera. — A longitudinal median incision having 
been made into the abdomen from the ensiform cartilage to the pubis, the contained 
viscera were found disposed in the undernoted condition. The Liver, which occupies 



both the right and left hypochondriac regions, was not seen to descend or come poste- 
riorly further than the ensiforrn cartilage. This viscus was equally divided into right 
and left moieties by the falciform ligament and the remains of the foetal vessels. The 
stomach was barely visible, being situated deeply in the left hypochondriac region, 
and almost entirely hidden by the liver. The great omentum, in the present instance 
perfectly devoid of fat, thin and quite transparent, did not, as is most commonly the 
case in Carnivora, cover the intestines, but was partially sunk among the folds of 
the gut. Nearly the whole visible contents of the abdomen seemed to be occupied 
by the small intestines ; only a small portion of the rectum peered out behind them 
and towards the right iliac region. The empty and contracted urinary bladder extended 
forwards no great distance beyond the symphysis pubis. The caecum, firmly attached 
to the mesentery, lay towards the right side of the spine and between the ensiform 
cartilage and pubes, being rather towards the former. From the caecum the great 
intestine runs backwards to the iliac region, forms a loop and returns forwards again ; 
then, with only a partial transverse fold, reaches the left of the spine, lying at this part 
behind the unusually loose kidney. Above the superior fundus of the bladder its rectal 
fold directs itself towards the median line, and passes into the pelvis, at first rather to 
the right side of the bladder. 

Fig. 5. 

Reduced sketch of the position of the abdominal viscera, as 
seen when opened. 

e.c. Ensiform cartilage. L. Liver, hr.l. The broad liga- 
ment. B. Urinary bladder. 

[Compare with corresponding view in the Walrus, Trans. 
Zool. Soc. vol. vii. pi. 55. fig. 20.] 

b. The (Esophagus. — Taking this wide tube as commencing at the lower border of the 
inferior constrictor muscle, it measures from this to the cardiac orifice of the stomach 
22^ inches in length. In the contracted condition its mucous membrane is tough and 
elastic, and thrown into very numerous interlacing and strongly ridged, pale-coloured, 
longitudinal plicae. The submucous areolar tissue is plentiful, and the muscular coat 
very strong and thick. 



The thick, well-developed muscular coat of the oesophagus of Otaria afforded me 
ample opportunity of testing whether its composition was similar or otherwise to what 
Dr. Rutherford ' has described in the gullet of the Sheep, Ox, and Dog. According to 
him, layers of fibres cross obliquely like the letter X, but are not continuous spiral fibres 
from pharynx to stomach — rather decussating in evenly distributed bundles or loops, 
which form short parallelograms crossing three times. Thus, while strength and 
rapidity of transmission in either direction is gained, the tube retains a more or less 
uniform thickness of wall. I find, therefore, after tracing the fibres with great 
caution, in the hardened and distended gullet of this Seal, that they perfectly corre- 
spond with the structural conditions extant in the Ruminants and Carnivore examined 
by him. Indeed it becomes evident, on consideration, that the diverse direction and 
interdigitating of the fleshy fibres of the three massive constrictors of the pharynx are, 
with some modification, modelled after the same fashion. Those fibres at the opposite 
extremity of the tube, near the cardiac orifice, are thicker than at the middle of the 
gullet, and they pass on to the stomach, tending to form the so-called constrictor or 
oblique bands of the cardiac end of the stomach. The deep layer of fibres has the 
greater obliquity of the two. 

Cuvier's 2 and Meckel's 3 observations (unnoticed by Rutherford), though indefinite as 
regards the length and continuity of the spiral fibres, show at least there is a common 
type of structure prevalent among several orders of Mammalia, quite irrespective of 

c. The Stomach and Omenta. — The gastric viscus presents an enormous pear-shaped 
figure, with the neck or pyloric extremity bent sharply round. The oesophagus enters 
the stomach quite at the left and upper end; consequently the great cul-de-sac, or 
fundus, is short, but widely rounded. It follows also that the great curvature is long, 
and with a regular convex contour, whilst the lesser curvature is short and acutely 
angular. The small cul-de-sac of the right extremity, or antrum pylori, furthermore, 
is long, narrow, and directed forwards or upwards towards the diaphragm. The gastric 
and splenic vessels and nerves pass on to the surface of the stomach, about midway 
between the sharp angle of the lesser curvature and the cardiac orifice, and pursue 
their course on the anterior and posterior surfaces, as has been described under the 
vascular and nervous systems. They are large, and encompass the organ with a complete 
ramified network. 

The size of the stomach of course varies according as it is distended or otherwise ; 
the subjoined measurements therefore, it is to be noted, apply to the empty and 
flattened organ. 

Extreme transverse diameter, median line drawn from the fundus 

to the antrum pylori =13^ inches. 

1 Linn. Soc. Journ. (Zool.) vol. iii. 1865, pp. 53-61, tab. 3. 

- Lecons, 2nd ed. tome iv. p. 16. 3 Anat. Comp. vol. viii. p. 688. 


Depth or diameter between the highest point of the lesser curva- 
ture and lowest margin of the great curvature, in a line cutting 

the spleen = 10| inches. 

Length or outer circumference, following the curve from the 

oesophageal to the pyloric orifice =31 „ 

Length of the lesser curvature from the oesophagus to pylorus, 

following the inflexed margin of the viscus =11 „ 

Depth of the narrowed part of the F-shaped angle of the lesser 

curvature about 2 ,, 

In the interior of the stomach the longitudinal folds of the oesophagus stop short, by 
a sphincter-like ring of mucous membrane sharply defining the cardiac orifice, which 
is wide and thick-walled. The mucous coat, throughout the entire cavity of the 
stomach, has a rough, marbled appearance, from the irregular crossing and inter- 
blending of slightly raised, narrow rugse. There is a partial septum, formed by a 
large semilunar fold of membrane, which projects downwards in a line with the angular 
bend of the lesser curvature. Beyond this, towards the pylorus, the mucous plaits are 
more pronounced ; and close to the pyloric orifice several longitudinal large folds exist ; 
between these, reaching from one to the other, are fine, transverse, honeycomb or 
narrow elliptical depressions and sinuous plicae. Although very indistinct, from the 
folds being low and flat, there is nevertheless a resemblance in the design of the 
mucous folds to what obtains in the first gastric cavity of the Cetacea, e. g. Pliocama 
communis. In the Lion (Fells) the lower part of the oesophagus has transverse circular 
folds, like valvulae conniventes, whereas in Otaria they are longitudinal and thicker. 
The fundus is better marked (i. e. larger) than in Otaria, and the walls throughout 
much thicker. The orifices of the gastric glands in Otaria are distinctly seen as minute 
pinholes, distributed here and there at intervals on the membrane. The pyloric orifice, 
guarded by a circular fold or valve, is narrow, only admitting the finger, or less than 
half an inch in diameter. 

The lesser omentum, while still comparatively thin, is rather thicker than the great 
omentum. It is attached to the lower or posterior surface of the left great venous 
reservoir, and to the right posterior edge of the left lobe of the liver. At this point it 
is also adherent to the right side of the left lateral ligament, passing on to the oeso- 
phageal end of the stomach. Having reached the upper curvature of the stomach, it 
stretches around and from it to the liver, there forming the dense layer of Glisson"s 
capsule. The great omentum forms a large, but exceedingly delicate, web of membrane, 
traversed, as usual, by vessels derived from the right and left gastroepiploic arteries &c. 
In the present instance there was not a trace of fat in the membrane when the abdomen 
was opened. It was observed not to cover the intestines and viscera, but to be inter- 
mixed among the folds of the gut. This possibly may have been an accidental 


d. Intestines. — The small intestines have a nearly uniform calibre throughout their 
entire course ; the average diameter is three quarters of an inch. From the pyloric 
extremity of the stomach to the ileo-cgecal valve they have a length of 60 feet 
2^ inches. 

Excepting the curve of the gut as it passes round the head of the pancreas, which 
may be arbitrarily termed the duodenum, there is no definite change in the character 
of the internal mucous membrane sufficient to limit the above as it passes on to the so- 
called jejunum. In like manner, excepting greater frequency of Peyer's patches, no 
line of demarcation exists between the jejunum and ileum. No valvulse conniventes 
are present. The mucous lining of the whole of the small intestines ordinarily appears 
to the eye as smooth; but looked at more closely, and especially under water, the 
membrane is seen to be of a velvety or minutely villous character. The villi are 
arranged in transverse linear folds of a very delicate kind. 

At the distance of 22 feet from the pyloric orifice the first Peyer's patch is found. 
It is 3 inches long and about 0-7 inch broad. Fourteen feet further on another patch 
of Peyer's glands is met with, which measures 7 inches in length, with a rather greater 
breadth than the first patch. The third agminated gland is 5 feet 10 inches apart from 
the second, and like it is broadish, but b\ inches long. A very considerable interspace 
then follows, apparently free from these glands. Eleven inches backwards from the 
ileo-ccecal valve there terminates an extraordinary long and continuous Peyer's gland. 
This enormous gland, or lengthened group of Peyer's vesicles, measures 4 feet 8 inches 
from the one extremity to the other. It varies in breadth from 0-5 to 0-8 inch, and in 
some places the vesicles or pits are more distinct than in others, but throughout its 
whole extent is well marked. 

The caput ccecum coli is a simple, wide, cylindroid diverticulum, half an inch long. 
The great intestine has few flexures ; and its walls are remarkably free from saccula- 
tions. From the ileo-csecal valve to the anus it measures 59^ inches, including caecum. 
The diameter of the greater part of its course is l\ inch, widening near the rectum 
to H inch. Mucous, muscular, and serous coats are each and all of considerable thick- 
ness. As may be inferred from the absence of sacculations, the longitudinal muscular 
fibres are not segregated in bands, but form a more or less uniformly distributed outer 
coat, thickest at the rectal portion, and terminating with the circular fibres in a large 
sphincter ani internus. The mucous folds are irregular slight elevations and shallow 
depressions, which only acquire a pronounced character at the lower part of the gut. 
The surface throughout has a minutely granulated appearance. 

From what has been said it follows that the total length of the alimentary 
tract (that is, from the mouth to anus) is approximately equivalent to 09 feet : of 
this the oesophagus counts 22^ inches, the stomach 21 inches, and the intestinal tube 
65 feet 2 inches. 


4. Alimentary Glands &c. 

a. Liver. — As in the Earless Seals, the hepatic organ is divided in a remarkable 
manner — there being seven or eight very much separated lobes or lobules, and each of 
these is more or less subdivided into lobules and fissures of an extremely complicated 
kind. This furrowed and lobular character of the liver is in some respects identical 
with the condition obtained in the curious Rodent Capromys fournieri 1 ; only in the 
Sea-lion the superficial sculpturing and segregation into the smaller angular lobules 
does not proceed quite so far as in the animal compared. In the aberrant form of 
Lemuroid Arctocebus calabarensis 2 the main lobes of the liver are very much separated 
by deep incisions, but the surface of the organ is comparatively smooth. 

In Otaria the root of the liver rests upon the enormously dilated abdominal venous 
sinuses, and, indeed, on the right side, partly surrounds that vascular reservoir. 

What may be described as the first (i) lobule of the right hepatic lobe is, like the 
other main divisions, tongue-shaped, and only of moderate thickness. Along with the 
second lobule it is very much separated from the other right lobular divisions ; indeed 
those two of themselves are quite free and placed widely apart. At its root the first 
lobule is adherent to the vena cava ascendens, and covers a portion of it deeply. 
In greatest length, upon its diaphragmatic surface, it measures 9 inches ; and transversely 
its widest diameter is c>\ inches. Superficially it possesses few furrows or marginal 
incisions, as compared with other of the hepatic segments. Those present are chiefly 
towards the left side, and have a trilobed character. The second, smaller lobule (11), 
4J inches long, situated in front, springs from the root of the first. It is much the 
narrower of the two, and has an imperfect sagittate outline, the left barb of which is 
partially adherent, and crosses the base of the first lobule. Fig. 72 shows the second 
lobe displaced to the right of the first. The third lobule (m), much the largest division 
of the so-called right lobe, has a sinuous, faintly fissured margin, and comes into contact 
at the root behind and on the left with the fourth or quadrate lobule. It is thick, 
measures 10 inches in length, and averages 4 inches in breadth. Both surfaces are more 
or less irregularly furrowed, the gastric one furthermore having median, somewhat 
angular, lobulations. A thick broad ligament (I) passes from the left of these to the 
gall-bladder, which lies in the fissure betwixt the third and fourth lobules. The fourth 
division of the right lobe (iv), or lobus quadratus (Q), is differently shaped from the 
preceding, being composed of several pedunculate, unequally fissured parts, joined, 
however, at the roots and partially adherent and overlapped by the base of the third 
lobule behind the venous sinus. The suspensory ligament of the liver intervenes be- 
tween the fourth and fifth lobules, though abdominally they are in contact. The neck 
of the gall-bladder is placed rather upon the left side of the third lobule ; but its 
fundus passes obliquely to the dorsal surface of the quadrate lobule. Very large subdi- 
' See Professor Owen's description of the anatomy of that animal, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 70. 
■ " On the Angwantiho," Professor Huxley, P. Z. S. 1804, p. 330, fig. 10, A, P. 


visions of the portal vein run into the substance of both the third and fourth lobules ; 
and these, along with the cystic ligament and a moderate amount of hepatic tissue, 
bridge together this otherwise separate or bifid cystic lobe. Its quadrate segment, our 
fourth lobule, is about 2 inches broad and 6 inches in extreme length. 

The fifth lobule, counting from the right (v), or right moiety of the left lobe, is large, 
thick, and almost completely severed from its fellow moiety on the left. From its root 
to its narrowed free point is 11 inches long; and it varies from 3 to 3 J inches in breadth. 
Marginally it is fissured, but not deeply, whilst its upper and lower surfaces are 
throughout very much grooved and ridged longitudinally. The furthest segment to 
the left, or sixth lobule (vi), is less tapering than the above, and rather smaller, 
namely 8 by 4^ inches in diameter, though equally thick. Dorsally it is smoother than 
the fifth lobule, but ventrally is much sculptured like it ; the left compartment of the 
venous sinus runs well into its substance. 

At the root or middle of this much segmented liver, where the blood-vessels and 
hepatic ducts split into divisional branches, there are several leaf-like, almost separate, 
minor lobules. These, together, represent or are homologous with the Spigelian lobe 
(S), and, numerically considered, count as the seventh hepatic lobule (vn). From them 
there issues an hepatic duct (no. 4). They lie upon the venous reservoir, slightly to 
the right of its median constriction, merge into a flat hepatic piece still further on 
the right, and are themselves partially covered by the hepatic vessels, ducts, and 
Glisson's capsule. A flat, broad bridge of union (vni), connecting the otherwise separate 
first, second, third, and seventh lobules, runs outwards from the two latter towards the 
two former. It is tolerably smooth, and firmly adherent throughout to the vena cava. 
From its position, and being in some respects an appendage to the lobus Spigelius, as 
likewise its being situate between the here indefinite transverse fissure, cystic lobe, and 
divisions to the right of that, it appears to be homologous with the so-called lobus 
caudatus of Man (C). 

Guided partly by the determination of both the above-mentioned anatomists on 
diverse Mammalian forms, and partly by a fresh consideration of the corresponding 
component parts in the human liver — the same organ in the Eared Seal, though greatly 
segmented, may be said to possess perfectly homologous constituents. That is to say, 
there is a right, a left, a quadrate, a Spigelian, and a caudate lobe, — each of the two 
former being cut into segments, the right lobe of human anatomy possessing what 
Owen has aptly termed a cystic lobe or division. Taking the broad ligament sitspen- 
sorium hepatis as the line of demarcation, the four divisions to the right of it and above 
the enlarged venous sinus would together be equivalent to the right lobe of human 
anatomy. If, however, the parts be read contrariwise, what are here separate portions, 
have coalesced in those animals wherein the hepatic organ is simpler in conformation. 

b. Hepatic Ducts, Ligaments, and Gall-Madder. — The very separate condition of the 
numerous lobes of the liver influences the distribution of the hepatic ducts. A branch 


(No. 1) of considerable calibre, and 2 - 3 inches long, emerges from the innermost pro 
tuberant angle of the sixth lobe, and passes towards the right side, in what represents 
the transverse fissure of human anatomy. A very short, narrow branch (2), 0-3 inch in 
length comes from the diminutive and almost free lobule lying at the root of the 
cystic lobe, and joins the above-mentioned duct. These continue together about 0-2 
inch, when a third duct pours its contents into the above conjoined one. This third 
branch (3) issues from the sinistral portion of the cystic lobe, is an inch long, and of equal 
diameter to that already spoken of as coming from the left lobe. A fourth adjunct 
carries the secreted bile from the irregularly shaped, nearly free lobule lying upon the 
immense vena cava. This branch (4) rolls round the hepatic artery, and crosses it 
from the left towards the right, terminating in the common tube formed by the three 
ducts already described, and about half an inch from them. At about the same distance 
further on a fifth branch (5), that sent off by the right moiety or lobule of the cleft cystic 
lobe, adds its contents to the united main trunk. This channel veers to the right and 
passes underneath the cystic duct, but without here joining it. 1*8 inch from where 
it received its last or fifth branch, it unites at a wide angle with a single capacious 
branch (6) coming from the right. This sixth division is the product of two branches 
— one, the wider, issuing from the right lobe, and the other the narrower, from the 
adjoining lobule. After the junction of the large trunk from the right side with that 
from the left, the single wide hepatic duct (hd), still keeping to the right of the cystic 
duct, runs parallel with it for half an inch, then joins to form the ductus communis 
choledochus (dch): 

The gall-bladder is an elongated, slender-necked, pyriform sac. When distended it is 
3 - 8 inches long and VS inch in diameter at widest. It lies in the deep cleft or fissure 
separating the cystic lobe into a right and a left division. A ligament passing across 
the gall-bladder, about its middle, connects and binds it with the third and fourth 
hepatic lobules. The cystic duct itself is 3*2 inches long, and the ductus communis 
choledochus 2'3 inches. This last, the common bile-duct, externally appears to terminate 
in the intestine on its upper surface, about two and a half inches distant from the 
pyloric orifice. There, however, it only pierces the outer fibro-serous wall, but does 
not penetrate the mucous coat for two inches further on, where it opens in a semi- 
lunar slit-shaped manner. The reservoir, or expansion, is increased by an additional 
cul-de-sac extending backwards underneath the channel of ingress for almost half an 

The broad ligament, or suspensory peritoneal fold, as it proceeds from the diaphragm 
towards the liver, is attached to the immensely distended vena cava of the left side ; 
it continues towards the incision dividing the third from the fourth lobe. The round 
ligament, as usual situated at the anterior margin of the broad ligament, enters what 
may represent the longitudinal fissure, namely that to the left of the cystic lobe, or cleft 
between the third and fourth lobes, where it joins the vena cava. In the present instance 

vol. vm. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 i 


this remnant of the foetal circulation was obliterated close to the vein, at the point where 
a cross branch was sent to the third and another to the fourth lobe. The right lateral 
ligament is attached to a small portion of the upper surface of the right or first lobe, and 
near to its outer border. Posteriorly it joins the coronary ligament. The left lateral 
ligament, thicker than the right, comes from the diaphragm, close to the cardiac orifice 
of the stomach, and goes to the upper edge of the left lobe. The left end of the 
gastro-hepatic omentum joins at right angles on its right face, whence the left lateral 
ligament is continued onwards to the lower and inferior surface of the left capacious 
vena cava. The coronary ligament, traced from right to left, is attached to the posterior 
surface of the enlarged right vena cava, and passes along, between the vein and the 
diaphragm, to where the ascending vena cava penetrates the diaphragm. Opposite 
the right lobe of the liver it is joined at right angles with the right lateral ligament. 
Around and behind the right surface of the left venous reservoir the coronary ligament 
joins the left lateral ligament. 

c. Spleen, Mesenteric Glands, and Pancreas. — The spleen is a flat, elongated, tongue- 
shaped organ, which lies behind and across the stomach, rather to the cardiac side of 
its middle. Its upper end has a rounded head and a beak-like process, which last is 
directed towards the left extremity of the stomach. The middle of the spleen is 
slightly the broadest part ; the lower end is attenuated. The edges are smooth, and 
there are only two shallow emarginations — one below and to the right side, the other 
on the opposite border and about the middle. In the undistended state the spleen 
is fourteen inches long and varies from one to three inches broad. It is attached 
to the posterior wall of the stomach by a duplicative of the gastro-splenic omentum, 
which is from an inch and a half to two inches broad, and runs down for two thirds the 
length of the spleen in the central line. Within this omental fold some seven branches 
of the splenic artery and of the vein are conveyed to the gland in question ; these 
divide into branches to the right and left sides as soon as they reach its surface, so that 
there is little or no hilus lienis. The internal structure of the spleen is of the usual 
trabecular character, and extraordinarily dilatable. Some enlarged lymphatic glands 
were observed on its attached or gastric side ; but no accessory splenules -existed, such 
as Owen 1 found in the Common Seal. 

The mesenteric glands lie upon the anterior and the posterior surface of the main 
trunks of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. In all there are some six or seven 
of these glands; but they appear to form a continuous chain on either side of the 
vessels spoken of. In front they are above six inches long. The upper part, close to 
the root of the said vessels and below the duodenal flexure of the intestine, is an inch 
broad ; but they lessen in size, and retain a nodulated character as they follow the 
course of the vessels downwards ; and near the iliac flexure of the intestine the lower- 
most gland forms a sharp turn or bend upwards and backwards. Behind they possess 

1 P. Z. S. 1850, p. 152. 


the same form, but without the lower curvature, which is replaced by a separate small 
kidney-shaped gland. 

The surface of the mesenteric glands is traversed by innumerable parallel close-set 
white lines. These are chiefly lacteal vessels, but they also have nervous filaments 
intermingled. Some of these lacteals appear to cross the gland entirely and pass up 
towards the pancreas ; but the greater number are derived from the mesenteric glands, 
and they follow the course of the arteries and veins. 

Pancreas. — Whilst injecting the vessels of the abdomen with a composition chiefly 
of size and colouring-matter, it was observed that the pancreas became very much 
distended, but did not acquire the red tinge of the material employed. This was 
caused by an infiltration of the uncoloured fluid into the tissues of this organ, whereas 
the thicker colour was retained in the vessels. As a consequence the dimensions, 
relations, &c. of the gland were altered, so that no approximation to the truth can 
be offered. 

VII. The Urino-generative System. 

1. The Benal Viscera. 

a. Suprarenal Capsules. — These bodies have a position not uncommon among Car- 
nivorous families — that is, in their non-adherence to the upper ends of the kidneys, but 
lying to their inner side and considerably apart from them. In the species of Otaria 
under consideration the suprarenal glands differ individually in shape and in their 
precise situation ; but they agree in both being flattened, smooth-surfaced, and mode- 
rate-sized. The right suprarenal body is somewhat tongue-shaped, its right end, 
however, being expanded downwards so that the lower or posterior border is slightly 
concave. Its left end is continuous with and partly lies upon the very much dilated 
ascending vena cava. The left suprarenal gland is smaller-sized and trihedral in 
contour. Its inner border rests upon the left emulgent or renal vein, the narrower 
outer extremity pointing to the left kidney. From this latter it is distant \\ inch, 
being somewhat nearer to the abdominal aorta and ascending vena cava than to the 
kidney itself. When divided, the interior of each suprarenal capsule appears. to 
consist of a uniform, soft, finely glandular substance of a pale yellowish hue. There 
is no central cavity, nor division into cortical and medullary parts, as is the case in Man 
and some Mammals. 

b. Kidneys. — The most marked feature, as regards the position of these secreting 
glands in the Sea-lion, is their comparative looseness or partial freedom. Thus they 
are not firmly bound down by a closely adherent investment of fascia to the posterior 
wall of the iliac region, as occurs in many Mammals ; but as in the Seals gener- 
ally, and to some extent also in certain other families of the Carnivora, they are 
somewhat free or loosely pedunculate. Both kidneys are nearly uniform in size, 
4*7 inches long and averaging 2 - 3 inches broad. Each is of an elongate, slightly 

4 I 2 


flattened, oval form, rather blunted, however, at the extremities ; the hilus, as the 
kidney lies in situ, appears shallow, and has a somewhat forward or ventral direction. 
The two kidneys are situated almost on a level with each other, near the middle of the 
loins. The renal arteries, as has been mentioned, enter the hilus at right angles, 
while the emulgeut veins of enormous calibre leave it more obliquely, and pass rather 
forwards ; the ureters, most deeply situate, diverge at an opposite angle from the veins. 
The capsular tunic is a strong, firm, fibrous membrane, pierced and ramified by 
numerous small vessels, chiefly arterial, but not possessing an external network of large 
veins as obtains in Phoca vitulina &c. Covered by its capsule, each kidney has a 
roughened aspect, indicating lobulation, but this by no means prominent. When the 
capsule is removed, the superficial renal lobulations become more manifest, the furrows 
and ridges, however, still being shallow and imperfectly defined. 

As in feline animals generally, the external cortical substance of the kidney, when 
injected, presents a peculiar and rather beautiful arborescent vascular tracery. This 
dendritic appearance, shown in fig. 71, is due to the ramification of minute veins upon 
the surface of each renule ; the arterial capillaries are not so distinct and not so 
numerous, but they nevertheless form an intervening complementary set of ramifications. 
If a longitudinal section is made a little to one side of the median line, as fig. 70, 
PI. LXXXI. illustrates, the kidney there is seen to be composed of between fifty and 
sixty lobules or renules of an irregular pentagonal and hexagonal figure, and varying in 
size from 0-2 to 0-5 or 0-0 of an inch. Each renule, though closely adherent to its 
neighbour, is clearly defined into its three renal constituents. In the middle and 
widest space are the fine and straight tubuli uriniferi, which radiate outwards ; these 
are surrounded by a narrow arterial ring of short radiant vessels in which here and 
there puncta indicate the Malpighian corpuscles. Lastly, bounding the arterial ring 
circumferentially, is a rather broader venous band, which is common to the several 
adjoining lobules, and, as mentioned, has an arborescent cortical configuration. Each 
renule manifests its independent structure in the uriniferous tubules terminating in a 
papilla, projecting into a central cavity, which in the section in question is only dis- 
played in some of the lobules. The cavities communicate with widish infundibular 
tubes, which convey the urine to the pelvis of the kidney, the latter being deeper on 
section than its outward appearance warrants. The renal artery, as it reaches the hilus, 
divides into several branches, which again subdivide into the lesser ramifications. The 
veins return the blood, in channels parallel with these, to the very wide emulgent vessel. 
Previously to making the above-described section, I forced successfully into the kidney 
a fine injection of three different colours, viz. red into the artery, blue into the vein, 
and yellow into the ureter. By this method the structures were well differentiated. 
A whole kidney thus manipulated is now preserved in the Hunterian Collection; and a 
half of the other has been mounted by Mr. J. W. Clark, and is now deposited in the 
Zoological Museum of Cambridge. 


c. The Ureters and Bladder. — As the former leave the kidneys they present a wide 
dilatation ; but they narrow considerably at a short distance from their origin, and 
then, retaining the diameter of a goose-quill, enter the base of the urinary bladder a 
little way behind the neck, an inch apart from each other. Having penetrated the 
serous and muscular coats of the bladder, they continue within its walls for about three 
quarters of an inch, and, converging, open by narrow apertures, 0*2 inch separate, at 
the uvula vesicae, immediately posterior to the prostatic portion of the urethra. 

The urinary bladder is elongated and pyriform, the neck, however, being short. 
The serous, muscular, and mucous coats are of but moderate thickness. Of its liga- 
ments I noted that the remains of urachus and hypogastric arteries obtain below the 
tip of the fundus. At the neck, just behind the prostate, a distinct strong median band 
of glistening tissue represents the anterior ligament. The lateral ligaments, broad 
and thin, reach from the neck to the fundus; and, furthermore, there is present an 
anterior vesical fascial layer. 

2. The Organs of Generation. 

a. Urethra and Penis. — The prostatic portion of the urethra is fully an inch long 
and narrow ; the mucous membrane, thrown into narrow longitudinal folds, has the 
median inferior one most elevated. The caput gallinaginis or veru montanum is 
distinctly marked, though of small size, and is situated anterior to the middle of the 
prostate gland. On either side are slight depressions, the prostatic sinuses, in which 
minute puncta indicate the orifices of the said gland. The membranous portion of the 
urethra is slightly wider and more dilatable than the prostatic portion ; but its mucous 
folds resemble the latter. Its length is fully two inches. 

The penis, which is enclosed in a loose subcutaneous sheath, measures in the con- 
tracted condition about eight and a half inches from its symphysial root to the tip of 
the glans. It lies adherent along the median line of the abdomen, the external opening 
being eight inches distant from the anus. The suspensory ligaments are two short fibro- 
tendinous cords attached to the pubic arch, and inserted on each side of the upper surface 
of the middle of the enlarged bulb. The strong crura, firmly fixed to both sides of the 
ischial arch, swell out as they go to form the deep enlarged bulb of the corpora cavernosa. 
The bulb, with its investing muscles, measures 1\ inch in vertical depth, and rather over 
that in length. Beyond the bulb the conjoined corpora cavernosa, or body of the penis, 
is round, and about the thickness of one's little finger ; this diameter is continued to the 
proximal end of the bone, a distance of between two and three inches. From this point 
the united cavernous body diminishes considerably, and is partially lost in the fibro- 
vascular membrane investing the os penis. 

There is no prominent corpus spongiosum, the urethral canal passing beneath the 
cavernous bodies, being embraced and almost hidden by them. It opens as the meatus 
urinarius at the front and lower end of the glans, immediately below the bone. The 


preputial fold of skin continuous with the sheath is dark-coloured and much wrinkled, 
both circularly and longitudinally, the latter cuticular furrows being remarkably small. 
The prepuce is attached 1| inch behind the urethral orifice. The glans penis at its 
thinner hinder end has dark-coloured mucous membrane ; but the bulbous terminal front 
is more florid. The truncate extremity of the glans is oval, the long diameter vertical, 
and the lower end the narrowest part. The somewhat prominent distal end of the bone 
is covered by a layer of mucous membrane, between which and the outer glans there 
is a shallow furrow. 

The os penis, a strong bone, is altogether 4 inches long, but in the present example of 
Otaria angularly bent ; suffice it to say that in other examples of the genus the os penis 
is more or less straight. The posterior extremity of the bone is thickest, the remainder 
forwards to the glans penis roundish, and about 02 inch in diameter. At the distal end 
it terminates abruptly in a vertically extended and laterally compressed truncation. 

Strange to relate, the animal during life had the misfortune to sustain a fracture 
of the penis, though the exact nature of the injury was only revealed after death. 
Either just before or immediately after the Otaria came into the possession of the 
Society it was observed that the point of the penis protruded continuously through 
the membranous sheath which usually encloses it. With this constant supposed partial 
erection the glans and foreskin were inflamed and in a raw state. The tumidity &c. of 
the parts suggested the probability of phymosis ; and it was proposed to alleviate the 
malady by topical treatment, or operation if need were. Neither, however, was very 
feasible ; and as the swelling gradually subsided, no further active measures were taken. 
Time brought about a cessation of all bad symptoms ; but the glans penis was never after- 
wards withdrawn within the sheath. At last it became leather-like and callous from 
the continual rubbings it was subjected to as the animal walked and scrambled about 
in its rough gravelly enclosure. On dissection of the body it was discovered that the 
os penis was broken exactly in its middle. The bones had firmly united in the form of 
an arch or obtuse angle ; that portion of the external limb of the arch within the glans 
could necessarily never be withdrawn within the sheath. In the delineation of the 
organs of generation (PI. LXXXII. fig. 73) this most remarkable piece of nature's surgery- 
is shown, the asterisk pointing to the apex of the angle or seat of fracture. In the 
figure in question the relative positions of the bladder, urethra, and penis are, of course, 
altered from that which they had in the living animal ; notwithstanding, the amount of 
bending in the bone is thoroughly appreciable. 

b. Muscles of the Genitals and Anus. — The retractors of the penis are two long, narrow, 
riband-like muscles, which have origin among the fleshy fasciculi of the internal 
sphincter and levator ani muscles anterior to the rectum. The retractors pursue a 
parallel course along and under the surface of the penis, and are inserted into the 
tissues connected with the prepuce. 

The membranous portion of the urethra has a thin layer of transversely striped mus- 


cular fibres covering the whole length of its exterior. This is the true compressor 
urethrae ; and, as far as my dissection enables me to judge, the muscular sheet in question 
comprehends what, in human anatomy, have been respectively termed the circular fibres 
of Santorini, or stratum internum circulare of J. Miiller, the constrictor urethra', and the 
levator prostata?. The compressor urethrae, then, in Otaria jubata embraces the membra- 
nous portion of the urethra in such a way that it appears to surround the parts spirally. 
The fibres posteriorly are partially continuous with those of what has been named by 
some anatomists the " sphincter vesica 1 " They are very sparse over the prostate, how- 
ever, and, on reaching the membranous portion of the urethra, apparently divide into 
two thick symmetrical halves, which have a direction downwards and forwards towards 
the anus and pubes. These fleshy moieties may be taken as the equivalent of Guthrie's 
muscle in the human being, which would seem to be but the continuation forwards of 
the outer oblique fibres of the bladder, Pettigrew's figure-of-8 loops. In front and 
below, a laterally compressed band of fibres goes towards, and joins, through the recto- 
vesical fascia, the levator ani muscle. This portion seems to represent the "levator 
prostata?" of Santorirri, Albinus, and Soemmering, and to be the fibres known as Wilson's 
muscle. Some few fibres, again, extend upwards to the symphysis pubis; these are 
analogous to the constrictor urethrae of some human anatomists, and may be what has 
been described as the ascending portion and origin of Wilson's muscle. 

The bulbo-cavernosus muscle is made up of strong fibres, which curve round the bulb 
as in other Camivora &c. The erectors of the penis have origin from the ischial 
tuberosities ; and each, as a thick carneous mass curvilinear in figure, is inserted into the 
side and postero-inferior surface of the enlarged crus penis. 

The sphincter ani internus is strong and broad. It powerfully constricts the lower 
part of the rectum and anus for an inch or more. The circular fibres join those of the 
transversus perinaei, levator ani, and retractores penis. There is also an external sphincter 
of the anus, which is of considerable size. 

Reference and figures of the unusually large and peculiarly inserted levator ani and 
transversus perinaei muscles are given in Part II. ; so that nothing further need be said 
of them in this place. 

c. J Genital Glands, Scrotum, &c. — Prostate gland. — Surrounding the urethra for 
an inch in antero-posterior extent, and of a cylindroid or spindle-shape, is the very 
moderately raised glandular body of the prostate. Its structure is compact and finely 
textural, merging almost indefinitely in the fibres of the sphincter vesicae behind, and 
equally continuous with the urethral walls in front. The efferent canal and ejaculatory 
ducts appear to open at the minute orifice of the sinus pocularis an inch in advance of 
the apertures of the ureters. 

There are no vesiculae seminales ; and bodies representing Cowper's glands are absent, 
or so small as to escape observation. 

Testes and surrounding parts. — Enveloped in a strong, but loose, tunica vaginalis, the 


testicles occupy the very remarkable ischiorectal fossae, and thus, as respects position, 
differ widely from those of the Earless Seals, whose testes lie in the pubic region, or 
the groin outside the abdomen. Theie is, moreover, in this Eared Seal {Otaria jubata), 
as has been mentioned and figured along with the cutaneous parts, an external scrotum ; 
but it is not usually prominent ; nor does it generally hang downwards, as in other mam- 
mals. Indeed the superficial scrotal tissues are chiefly distinguished from the neigh- 
bouring skin by the wrinkling and folds rather than by the dependent nature of 
the sac. 

On slight pressure being applied above this somewhat rudimentary scrotum, the 
testicles come down or emerge from the ischio-rectal cavity in which ordinarily they 
are lodged, and, as they pass into the scrotal sac, dilate it considerably. They do not, 
however, show a tendency to remain down, but are easily replaced or returned to the 
ischio-rectal hollow already alluded to. 

This ischio-rectal fossa, wherein each testicle ordinarily lies, is a narrow elongated 
cavity, between two and three inches deep, the opening of which is to the outer side of 
the very limited perinseum. On removal of the integument and a further dissection being 
made (such as is exhibited in fig. 33, pi. lxxiii., of former memoir), the boundaries 
and general relations of this cavity are unfolded. These are as follows : — Anteriorly or 
superficially is a somewhat semilunar-shaped fold of strong fibrous tissue, or proper 
perineal fascia, which is partly continuous with the dartos or scrotal muscular fibres 
and those of the transversus perinsei. Externally, above and in connexion with this 
perineal fascia is the oblique sweeping arch or fleshy plane of the gracilis muscle; 
beneath or deeply, the great broad semimembranosus ; posteriorly and also deeply, or 
at the bottom of the fossa, the semitendinosus and partly glands and vessels ; inwardly 
or in the median line, the transversus perinaei, root of the penis, circular fibres of 
sphincter ani, and the rectum itself. 

The testis itself and investing vaginal tunic is, moreover, supported by fibres which 
run towards the perinaeum ; and other still more delicate fibres proceed outwards and 
pass on to the superficies of the muscles of the lower tibial region. Some of the trans- 
verse layer of fleshy fibres representing transversus perinaei, along with fibrous tissue and 
fat, constitute a partial protection or anterior wall to this most unusual testicular 

The body of the testicle, including the epididymis, is smooth-surfaced, and of an 
oval or almond shape, 1*8 inch long and 0-9 inch broad. A strong duplicative of the 
tunica vaginalis firmly binds down the testicle to the bottom of the pouch ; the reflec- 
tion of this, the tunica albuginea, is of considerable thickness. On a vertical median 
section of the testis being made, the tunica albuginea is seen to dip between the lobes 
of the glandular substance. At its back part, where covered by the globus major, it is 
almost a line in depth ; and, in the uninjected condition, at this part it possesses a punc- 
tate or trabecular arrangement from the intermingled vascular network, the rete or 


tunica msculosa. The glandular lobes of the tubuli seminiferi are small and very 
numerous, the corpus Highmorianum being centrally well pronounced. The epididymis 
is nearly of uniform breadth, the globus major having no very marked obtuse head. 
Structurally to the eye it has a glandular-looking aspect, with irregular transverse, 
white, glistening septa. 



Fig. 1. Upper view of the skull of the Society's male specimen of Otaria jubata. 
Fig. 2. Basis of the same skull, viewed from below. 
Fig. 3. Front and foreshortened aspect of same, with mandible. 

Fig. 4. Occipital view of the skull, minus the inferior maxilla. Objects here given all 
about § nat. size, and from photographs. 


Fig. 5. Profile view of the same male Otary's cranium, with mandible. 

Fig. 6. Portion of its inferior basis cranii, slightly tilted inwards to show certain rela- 
tions of alisphenoid canal &c. 

Fig. 7. Upper view of the inferior maxillae. 

Fig. 8. The angle and articular condyle of the left mandible, seen from below. 

Fig. 9. The internal basis of the same skull, opened by a horizontal section made from 
the squamo-frontal process to the upper ends of the occipital condyles, and 
vertically cut by an incision 03 inch behind the former point. 

Fig. 10. The interior surface of the removed calvarium. Figures each reduced, about 
two thirds natural size. 
In this and the preceding Plate the same lettering is used throughout. 


Pmx. Premaxilla. 

Mx. Superior maxilla. 

Na. Nasal. 

Fr, Fr*. Pre- and postfrontal. 

Pa. Parietal. 

Sq. Squamosal. 

Ju. Jugal or malar. 

PI. Palatine. 
Pt. Pterygoid. 
Vo. Vomer. 
vol. vnr. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 k 

So. Supraoccipital. 
Eo. Exoccipital. 
Bo. Basioccipital. 
Bs. Basisphenoid. 
Ps. Presphenoid. 
As. Alisphenoid. 
Ty. Tympanic. 
Ma. Mastoid. 
Mn. Mandible. 



no. Antorbital. 

po. Postorbital. 

pf. Postfrontal. 

c. Condyle. 

pmd. Paramastoid. 

h. Hamular (of pterygoid). 

ap. Anterior palatine. 

to. Infraorbital. 

als. Alisphenoid. 

ov. Ovale. 

ca, ca*. Carotid (canal). 

jug. Jugular. 

mae. Meatus auditorius externus. 

mai. Meatus auditorius interims. 

sm. Stylo-mastoid. 

aur. Auricular. 

ac. Anterior condyloid. 

ex. Exoccipital. 

fm. Foramen magnum. 

v. Vascular (bony channels). 


cd. Mandibular condyle. 

co. Coronoid. 

a. Angle of mandible. 

t. Tentorium. 

gl. Glenoideum. 

eth. Ethmoidal spine. 


vc. Vidian canal. 

pe. Posterior ethmoidal. 

2. Optic. 

la. Lacerum anterius. 

Im. Lacerum medius. 

sp. Spinosum. 

af. Aquaeductus Faliopii. 

av. Aquaeductus vestibuli. 

Ig. Longitudinal (sinus). 

mg. Meningeal groove. 

me. Mental. 

i. Incisive. 

id. Inferior dental. 

/, /. Incisors. 
C, C. Canines. 


PM,T3I. Premolars. 
31, M. Molars. 

The upper dotted line in fig. 5 denotes where calvarium was sawn through. Com- 
pare figs. 9 and 10. 


Fig. 11. Skeleton of the Zoological Society's male Sea-lion, sketched in the natural 
attitude of walking, and with dorsum of the sacro-pelvic region slightly 
turned towards the observer. 
Series of skulls of Otaria jubata, illustrating progressive growth, reduced to scale 

one fourth their natural magnitudes : — 

Fig. 12. Profile of skull, No. 3971 c, College-of-Surgeons Museum. It is one of two 
young Seals' crania presented by Captain B. J. Sullivan, R.N., in 1844, and 
described by him in a letter as " about a fortnight old." 

Fig. 13. Upper view of the same specimen. 


Fig. 14. Side view of skull, No. 3971 b, College-of-Surgeons Museum, said by donor, 

Captain Sullivan, to be that of a " yearling." 
Fig. 15. Same skull as seen from above. 
Fig. 16. Profile of a female skull, No. 3968, Osteol. Cat. Roy. Coll. Surg. Presented 

by Admiral Beaufort, C.B., F.R.S. 
Fig. 17. Upper view of ditto, exhibiting roughening or commencement of occipito- 
parietal crests. 
Fig. 18. Side view of skull of the mounted skeleton, No. 3971 a, Roy. Coll. of Surg. 
Collection. This with the above crania, figs. 12-14, are each from the 
Falkland Islands. Attested by Captain Sullivan of H.M. ship ' Philomel,' 
and referred to in a letter, 21st May 1844, as male of the Hair Seal, Sea- 
lion, not full grown. Vide interleaved Catalogue and Minutes of Museum 
Committee, 30th August, 1844. 
Fig. 19. Upper surface of skull, figured 18: B marks a bullet lodged between the 

frontal and root of nasal bones. 
Fig. 20. Skull of a large and old Otaria jubata, from Dungeness Point, S.E. Patagonia, 
12th January, 1867. Presented to the Hunterian Museum by the Admiralty, 
1868, and in the College Catalogue numbered 3971 E. 
Fig. 21. The same skull, minus the mandible, hi bird's-eye view, or from above. 

The letters *, a, b, c, in figs. 21, 20, 19, & 18, respectively indicate extraneous pro- 
cesses and crest, developed and most marked as age advances. 

Fig. 22. A longitudinal mesial section of an aged skull in the College-of-Surgeons 
Museum (No. 3971, Cat.), to show the interior brain-cavity, ethmoidal bones, 
&c. : c, great occipital crest ; tent, bony tentorium, separating cerebral and 
cerebellar areas ; ex, exoccipital foramen ; pn, posterior nares. Fr, frontal, 
Eth, ethmoid, and Tb, turbinal bones. 
Fig. 23. Under view of pelvis, last two lumbar, and the sacro-caudal vertebrae of the 
Zoological Society's male Otary. The parts are united by ligament and the 
intervertebral cartilages : about f nat. size. L, lumbar transverse processes ; 
c, intervertebral cartilage ; I, ilium ; S, sacrum ; P, pubis. 
The separate drawings between figs. 24 and 37 are two views of each of the bones 

composing the left carpus and tarsus of the male central skeleton, fig. 11. 
Fig. 24. Conjoined scapho-lunar bone, as seen from above (A) and below (B) : d, upper 
or dorsal surface ; r, radial articular face ; tz, anterior facet, which articulates 
with the trapezium and trapezoides ; p, lower or palmar surface ; m, facet for 
os magnum ; uc, unciform facet. 
Fig. 25. Cuneiform, (A) its postero-outward and (B) antero-inner faces : ag, upper 
hinder, and ag*, lower front angle of the bone ; ul, ulnar fossa ; m 5 , facet for 
fifth metacarpal; r, radial facet; uc, unciform facet; d, narrow upper or 

dorsal surface. 



Fig. 26. Pisiform bone, (A) upper and (B) lower surface : o, outer extremity; ul, ulnar 
and cuneiform facet. 

Fig. 27. Trapezium, (A) upper and (B) lower and inner face: s, scapho-lunar border; 
o, outer border ; m 1 , first metacarpal facet ; td, trapezoidal facet ; to 2 , second 
metacarpal facet ; p, palmar surface. 

Fig. 28. Trapezoides: (A) inner and anterior faces, (B) outer and lower faces, tp, facet 
for trapezium ; to 2 , second metacarpal facet ; d, upper or dorsal surface ; 
p, palmar surface ; s, scapho-lunar facet. 

Fig. 29. Os magnum, (A) inner and (B) outer surface: d, dorsal, and^J, palmar apices; 
to :! and m 4 , facets for third and fourth metacarpals ; s, scapho-lunar ridges ; 
cb, euboidal facet ; td, trapezoidal facet. 

Fig. 30. Unciform, (A) postlateral inner and (B) postlateral outer surfaces : s, sca- 
phoid facet ; mg, face partially articulating with os magnum ; to 1 fourth 
metacarpal facet ; c, cuneiform facet ; to 5 , fifth metacarpal facet ; d, dorsal, 
and p, palmar surface. 

Fig. 31. Astragalus, (A) upper and (B) lower surfaces: t, tibial, andy, fibular articular 
faces; n, navicular facet; c\ c 2 , the two calcaneal facets. 

Fig. 32. Os calcis, (A) superior and (B) inferior surfaces: *, epiphysis adherent to the 
posterior extremity of the tuberosity; a 1 , a 2 , the two astragaloid facets; 
cb, euboidal articular surface. 

Fig. 33. The cuboid : (A) upper, outer, and partly anterior and posterior faces ; (B) 
inner and inferior faces, c, calcaneal end; to 4, n , distal extremity for fourth 
and fifth metatarsals ; d, dorsum ; g, peroneal groove ; ;/, naviculare, and ec, 
ecto-cuneiform facets. 

Fig. 34. Naviculare, (B) posterior and (A) anterior faces : d, dorsum ; a, astragaloid 
fossa ; ?', internal angle ; ec, me, en, ecto-, meso-, and entocuneiform facets. 

Fig. 35. Entocuneiform, dorsal (A) and plantar (B) superficies : n and vie, facets for 
naviculare and mesocuneiform ; to 1 and to 2 , articular faces of first and second 
metatarsals ; d, dorsum ; g, groove for peroneus longus. 

Fig. 36. Mesocuneiform, (A) internal and (JJ) external faces: d, dorsal, and^, plantar 
border ; to 2 , second metatarsal articular surface ; ec and en, ecto- and ento- 
cuneiform facets. 

Fig. 37. Ectocuneiform, {A) exterior and (B) interior faces: d and p, dorsal and plantar 
borders; nf A , articular border for third and fourth metatarsals; cb, cuboid 
facet; n, hind border or naviculare facet; en, part entocuneiform facet. 


Fig. 38. Upper surface of the brain of the male Otaria jubata, about nat. size. 

Fig. 39. Base of the same, with cerebral nerves. 

Fig. 40. Right lateral superficial view of the brain, also nat. size. 



Fig. 41. Reduced sketch of a posterior segment of the inner face of the right cerebrum, 
designed to show the hippocampal sulci. 

Fig. 42. An outline representing the same Sea-lion's brain, as seen in front or fore- 
shortened. Taken from a cast of the interior cavity of the skull, with the 
dura mater in place. 

Fig. 43. Posterior or occipital view of same. Both very much reduced. 

The same lettering corresponds in all the figures of this Plate. 

F. Frontal. 
P. Parietal. 

10. Internal orbital. 
MO. Mid orbital. 
EO. External orbital. 
IF. Inferofrontal. 
MF. Mid frontal. 
SF. Superofrontal. 
Cr. Crucial. 
AP. Anteroparietal ( = 

PP. Posteroparietal ( = 

SM. Supramarginal. 
Ang. Angular. 
AT. Anterotemporal (- 
M.T. Mid temporal. 

Cerebral Lobes. 

T. Temporal. 
0. Occipital. 


PT. Posttemporal. 

Occipital (inferior). 

premier pli ascen- 
: second pli ascen- 



Lob 1 

Lob 2 

Lob 3 


Lob 5 

Lob 6 

Lobule of anteroparietal. 
Lobule of postparietal. 
Lobule of supramarginal. 
Lobule of angular. 

Lobule of posttemporal. 

Lobule of internal occipital. 
* Fold connecting internal occipital with 

quadrilateral lobule. 
Ma. Great marginal. 
Ca. Callosal. 
CI. Callosal lobule. 
Ql. Quadrilateral. 
U. Uncinate. 

Fissures and Sulci. 

io. Intorbital. 

mo. Mid orbital. 

eo. Extorbital. 

cs. Crucial. 

ap. Anteroparietal. 

ro. Rolando. 

ipa. Intraparietal. 

sy 1 . Sylvian (antero-vertical). 

sy 2 . Sylvian (postoblique). 

at. Anterior temporal ( = parallel). 

mt. Mid temporal. 

ot. Occipitotemporal ( = posttemporal). 

ep. External perpendicular (faint line 

pointing to front one). 
ip. Internal perpendicular. 
cm. Calloso-marginal. 
co. Colateral. 
calc. Calcarine. 
dent. Dentate. 



al. Corpus albicans. 
pv. Pons Varolii. 
re. Corpus callosum. 

1. Olfactory. 

1*. Olfactory bulb. 

2. Optic (at commissure). 

3. Motores oculorum. 

4. Pathetici. 

5. Trifacial. 

Parts Base and Internal Face. 

py. Anterior pyramid of medulla oblon- 
/. Fornix. 


6. Abducentes. 

7. Facial and auditory. 

8. Glossopharyngeal and pneumogastric. 
8*. Spinal accessory. 

9. Hypoglossal. 
ce. Cervical (anterior). 

h Hollow. 
fl. Flocculus. 
to. Tonsil (or amygdala). 
a. Anterior lobe. 
in. Middle lobe. 


p. Posterior lobe. 

sv. Sup. vermiform process. 

Is. Lobus superioris. 

li. Lobus inferioris. 


Fig. 44. Inner surface of the right half of the same Otary's brain, of natural dimensions : 

Ma, great marginal convolution ; cm, calloso-marginal sulcus ; Ca, callosal gyrus ; CI, 
its callosal lobule ; Ql, quadrilateral lobule ; Io, internal occipital lobule, more fully 
shown in fig. 41, and marked Lob* ; *, a ridge therefrom partly connecting it with 
the quadrilateral lobule ; ip, internal perpendicular fissure ; ocp, occipital sulcus (see 
fig. 41) ; cc, corpus callosum ; sp, splenium ; g, genu ; f, fornix ; V 5 , fifth ventricle ; 
th, thalamus opticus; pi, pineal gland; c\ corpora quadrigemina ; V 1 , fourth ven- 
tricle; acm, anterior commissure; av, arbor vitse; al, corpus albicans; 1, olfactory 
bulb ; 2 and 3, second and third nerves ; pv, pons Varolii ; ap, anterior pyramid of 
medulla oblongata. 

Fig. 45. Horizontal section of the left cerebral moiety, exposing the cavity of the 
lateral ventricle &c. : ac, anterior cornu ; cs, corpus striatum ; ef, corpus 
fimbriatum, overlying choroid plexus; th, thalamus opticus; pc, posterior 
cornu, the dotted line in front, indicating the middle or descending cornu ; 
sy, Sylvian fissure; 1*, olfactory bulb. 

Fig. 46. Somewhat enlarged outline of the under surface of the left temporal lobe and 
neighbouring parts. The middle or descending cornu is opened into, and the 


hippocampus major shown, sy, Sylvian fissure ; mc, middle cornu ; hm, hip- 
pocampus major ; 2, 3, 4, portions of roots of corresponding nerves. 
Fig. 47. Dissections displaying the heart, the great vessels, their divisions, and portions 

of the lungs. 
1, 2, 3, 4, roots of different lobuli of right lung ; tr, trachea at its bifurcation ; a portion 
of the pulmonary substance is removed to show the bronchial divisions and vessels at 
lung's root; ao, dilated arch of the aorta; ao*, descending aorta, of diminished 
calibre ; Pa, pulmonary artery ; da, ductus arteriosus ; i, innominata ; r.s, l.s, right 
and left subclavians; r.c, l.c, right and left common carotids; r.s, l.s, right and left 
subclavian arteries ; v, vertebral ; im, internal mammary ; vc, vena cava descendens. 
Fig. 48. Reduced sketch, exhibiting the semidivided upper or anterior surfaces of the 
great hepatic venous sinuses, and their relations to the diaphragm, liver, and 
stomach, as seen on removal of the parts en masse. 
Vs\ right moiety, and Vs\ left moiety of the hepatic venous sinus or dilated vena cava 
ascendens ; D, diaphragm ; br, its broad ligament ; r.l, round ligament ; la, right 
lateral ligament ; St, stomach, hidden in great part by the liver ; G.b, gall-bladder. 
Fig. 49. Vertical anter'o-posterior section of the contents of the right orbit, made 
slightly to one side of the median line: I, lens; V, vitreous chamber; 
A, anterior or aqueous chamber ; c, conjunctiva ; co, cornea ; sc, sclerotic at 
its thickened hinder part ; ch, choroid ; r, retina ; cp, ciliary processes ; i, iris ; 
P, canal of Petit ; S, venous sinus or canal of Schlem ; n, opening of nasal 
duct ; gl, gland ; t, tarsal cartilage ; o, optic nerve ; a, artery ; Rs, Ri, supe- 
rior and inferior rectus ; cho, choanoid muscle. 
Fig. 50. Inner view of the anterior segment of the eyeball, cut crossways. The lettering 

applies as in the preceding : sp, sphincter iridis. 
Fig. 51. The vitreous humour with adherent crystalline lens and zonula of Zinn. Seen 
in front, and about nat. size. The dark pigmental radial processes (p) of the 
ciliary zone are unusually long and prominent. 


Fig. 52. Tongue and fauces of the Sea-lion shown as an anatomical preparation, looking 
into the throat, but in a three-quarters view. 

v, velum palati ; a, anterior pillars of the fauces ; p, posterior pillars ; t, right tonsil ; 
e, right postlingual eminence, or postfaucial tract ; g, mesial groove or cleft. 

Fig. 53. Under surface of the tongue, larynx, and portion of the trachea. The super- 
ficial layer of muscles &c, are retained on the left side, and a deeper dissec 
tion of the several structures brought out on the right. 


G.h. Geniohyoid. 

S.g. Stylo-glossus. 

si. Superior laryngeal nerve and artery. 

/. Lingual artery and hypoglossal nerve. 

g. Gustatory nerve. 

M.h. Mylo-hyoid. 
O.h. Omo-hyoid. 
S.h. Stern o-hyoid. Sterno-thyroid. Crico-thyroid. 
Th.h. Thyro-hyoid., thyroid gland ; Sgl, sublingual gland and duct. 
Fig. 54. Side view, deep dissection, of the same regions as in fig. 53, but enlarged. 
The lettering agrees, but there is in addition: — Ghg, genio-hyoglossus ; Thy, 
thyroideus ; Ic, inferior constrictor ; Mc, middle constrictor ; Sjih, stylo- 
pharyngeus ; Hg, hyoglossus ; oe, oesophagus ; v, jugular vein ; ca, common 
carotid artery, dividing anteriorly into internal and external carotids, with 
subsidiary branches ; pn, pneumogastric nerve, superior laryngeal, pharyngeal, 
and lingual derivatives springing and being distributed anteriorly. 
Fig. 55. Upper view of the pharyngeal constrictors and the adjoining parts : il, inferior 
laryngeal nerve ; Sc, superior constrictor, in part ; Azu, azygos uvulae unco- 
vered on one side ; Pp, palato-pharyngeus ; arrow leads into pharynx. Other 
letters apply as in preceding (fig. 54) and succeeding (fig. 50), in which latter 
portions of muscles have been removed. 
Fig. 56. A deeply dissected side view of the same region as in fig. 55. He, hyo-epiglottic. 
Fig. 57. Epiglottis and laryngeal fissure, with part of the pharyngeal membrane of the 
left side, reflected outwards. Seen from above, and somewhat less than 
natural dimensions : Ep, epiglottis ; sp, fatty prominences, or Santorinian 
projections ; ae , aryteno-epiglottic folds ; p, papilla? of the postfaucial floor ; 
a, arytenoid prominences ; ph, pharyngeal cavity. 
Fig. 58. Seduced diagrams illustrating the outline of the superior aperture of the 
larynx in three different states of tension : 1, its natural condition ; 2, slightly 
open, or during inhalation (?) ; 3, fully distended. The black ground marks 
the longitudinal chink, the light the divaricating loops. 
Fi<*. 59. The interior left half of the larynx as displayed by a mesial longitudinal section 
through the entire organ, but retaining the epiglottis intact : ep, epiglottis ; 
s.p, fatty projections above the cartilage of Santorini ; T, T*, sections of 
the thyroid cartilage, the smaller portion being the narrow bridge anteriorly 
connecting the thyroid alae ; C, cricoid, in front and behind ; tr, trachea ; 
s, orifice of laryngeal sac. 
Fig. 60. The deep lateral thyro-arytenoid muscles &c. The dotted outline signifies the 
boundary of the right thyroid ala, which has been removed. L.c.a, lateral 
crico-arytenoid ; P.c.a, posterior crico-arytenoid ; At; arytenoideus ; Th.a\ 
thyro-arytenoideus, its first or lower portion ; Th.a 2 , second or upper portion 
of the thyro-arytenoideus ; s, laryngeal sac or pouch ; ep, epiglottis. 


Fig. 61. Hinder view of the larynx and its arytenoideus muscles; the dotted outlines 

indicating the absent left thyroid cartilaginous moiety. Ar, arytenoideus ; 

P.c.a, posterior crico-arytenoid. 
Fig. 62. Ventral surfaces, hyoid bones, thyroid and cricoid cartilages, and on opposite 

half the deep muscles connected therewith. H l and Hg 2 , separate insertions 

of hyoglossus ; Mc, fibres of middle constrictor ; Thy, thyroideus ; Cth, cri- 

Fig. 63. Larynx and hyoidean arch, in profile. T, thyroid cartilage ; C, cricoid ; tr, 

trachea ; c.t.l, crico-thyroid ligament ; I, lateral thyro-hyoid ligament ; sh, stylo- 

hyal, and tyh, tympanohyal, its cartilaginous articulating tip ; eh, epihyal ; 

cth, ceratohyal ; bh, basihyal ; th, thyrohyal. 
Fig. 64. View from behind of the hyoidean arch and larynx. A, arytenoid cartilage; 

S, cartilage of Santorini ; n, nodule in thyro-hyoid membrane. Other 

lettering corresponds with the parts in fig, 63. 


Fig. 65. Reduced view of the distended stomach, seen from behind, with the spleen, 
vessels, and nerves in situ : 

«?, oesophagus, cardiac end ; f>y, pyloric end of stomach ; d, duodenum ; sp, spleen ; 
h.a, hepatic artery cut short ; s.a, splenic artery ; v.b, trunk of one of the vasa brevia ; 
c.a, cardiac artery ;, gastric epiploica sinistra as it proceeds to inosculate with the 
dextral branch. The veins not lettered follow alongside the arteries ; n, gastric nerve 
other branches are seen distributed upon the surface of the stomach. 

Fig. 66. A few inches of the Jejunum, with the mesentery attached, and showing the 
intestinal subdivision and distribution of the superior mesenteric vessels : a, 
artery ; v, vein. 

Fig. 67. Portions of the ileum and colon, with csecurn coli and ramifications of the 
ileo-csecal artery and vein : cte, csecum ; «, artery ; v, vein. The arrows indi- 
cate the passage from small to great gut. 

Fig. 68. Small piece of intestine (14 feet from pylorus), cut open to display part of 
broad elongated Peyer's patch. Pgl. Peyer's gland, about nat. size. 

Fig. 69. A portion of the rectum, exhibiting its mucous membrane, of nat. dimen. 

Fig. 70. A longitudinal section of the right kidney, sliced through a little to one side 
of its middle. Of nat. size. The arteries, veins, and urinary tubes have each 
different-coloured injection thrown into them, r.a, renal artery ; rv, renal 
vein ; u, ureter ; * veno-arterial inosculations. 

Fig. 71. Segment of the cortical surface of the same kidney, showing the arborescent 
nature of its superficial vascularity. The darker stellate lines indicate chiefly 
the veins. The undulate marginal periphery exhibits but slight lobulation. 
vol. vin. — part ix. June, 1874. 4 l 



Fig. 72. Under surface of the liver, its vessels, and a small piece of the gut. Reduced. 

B, right and L, left hepatic moieties. I, n, ill, IV, v, vi, vn, vm, lobes or segments of 
the liver as described in the text. C, caudate, Q, quadrate, and Sj), Spigelian lobuli ; 
/, cystic ligament; cl, coronary ligament; Gb, gall-bladder; cd, cystic duct; hd, 
hepatic duct; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0, branches of same, distributed to the several lobules 
(see text) ; h.a, hepatic artery ; p.v, portal vein ; Vc , vena cava ; VS\ VS 2 , venous 
sinuses, right and left, the latter only partially visible ; dch, ductus communis chole- 
dochus, an arrow showing its tunnel within wall of duodenum (duo) to its orifice at o. 

Fig. 73. Urino-generative parts, displayed as a preparation. 

B, bladder; uh, remnant of the urachus ; u, ureter; la, lateral ligament ; a .1, portion of 
the anterior ligament of the bladder ; v.d, the termination of the vasa deferentia ; 
P, prostate ; cm, compressor urethra? ; I.c , ischio-cavernosus, its bony insertion cut 
through ; B.c, bulbo-cavemosus ; B.p, retractores penis ; sph, sphicter ani ; B, portion 
of rectum ; c, left crus ; s.l, suspensory ligament ; a.v, dorsal artery and vein of the 
penis ; c.s, dark line representing the corpus spongiosum ; os, os penis, posteriorly 
defined by a dotted line ; *, the bent part where fractured ; f, frsenum ; g, glans. 

Fig. 74. Point of the penis. Front view, about nat. size, os*, truncate termination of 

os penis ; g, glans ; m.u, meatus urinarius. 
Fig. 75. Neck of bladder, prostatic and membranous portions of urethra, opened from 

above. B, bladder; u, orifices of ureters ; e.d, ejaculatory duct ; P, prostate 

in section ; c.c, corpus cavemosum. 
Fig. 76. Testicle in section and its sac. t.v, tunica vaginalis ; g.m, globus major; r.v, 

rete vasculosum. 



Allman, Professor G. J., F.R.S. 

Report on the Hydroida collected during 
the Expeditions of H.M.S. ' Porcupine '. 469 
Anderson, Professor John, M.D., C.M.Z.S. 

On the Osteology and Dentition of Hylo- 

mys 453 

Duncan, Professor P. Martin, M.B. (Lond.), 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

A Description of the Madreporaria dredged 
up during the Expeditions of H.M.S. 

' Porcupine ' in 1869 and 1870 303 

Flower, William Henry, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., 
Hunterian Professor of Comparative Ana- 
tomy, and Conservator of the Museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons. 

On Risso's Dolphin {Grampus griscus, 
Cuv.) 1 

On the Recent Ziphioid Whales, with a 
Description of the Skeleton of Berardius 

arnouxi 203 

Mivaxt, St. Geoege, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Axial Skeleton of the Ostrich (Stru- 

thio camelus) 385 

Muete, James, M.D., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

On the Form and Structure of the Manatee 
(Manatus americanus) 127 

On the Organization of the Caaing Whale 
(Globiocephalus melas) 235 

Researches upon the Anatomy of the Pinni- 

pedia. Part III. Descriptive Anatomy of 

the Sea-lion (Otarki jubata) 501 

Owen, Professor, C.B., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

On Dinornis (Part XVII.) : containing a 
Description of the Sternum and Pelvis, 
with an attempted Restoration, oiAptor- 
nis defossor, Ow 119 

On Dinornis (Part XVIII.) : containing a 
Description of the Pelvis and Bones of 
the Leg of Dinornis gravis 3(>1 

On Dinornis (Part XIX.) : containing a 
Description of a Femur indicative of 
a new Genus of large Wingless Bird 
(Dromornis australis, Owen) from a 
post-tertiary deposit in Queensland, 
Australia 3$1 

On the Osteology of the Marsupialia (Part 
III.). Modifications of the Skeleton in 
the Species of Phascolomys 345 

On the Osteology of the Marsupialia (Part 
IV.). Bones of the Trunk and Limbs, 

Phascolomys 4^3 

Walden, Arthur Viscount, F.R.S., P.Z.S. &c. 

A List of the Birds known to inhabit the 
Island of Celebes 23 

Appendix to a List of Birds known to in- 
habit the Island of Celebes 1 09 


Accipiter cruentus, 34. 

hyogaster, 34. 

rnjitorques, 34. 

Acridotheres cinereus, 77, 108. 

fuscus, 77. 

javanicus, 77. 

Acrocephahts arundinaceus, 64. 

brunnescens, (34. 

magnirostris, 64. 

oriental's, 64. 

Actitis glareola, 96. 
hypoleucos, 96. 

AUgialites curonicus, 89, 90. 

hiaticula, 89, 90. 

dubius, 89. 

minutus, 89, 90. 

■ peronii, 9.0, 108. 

JEtliopyga Jlavostriata, 7 1 . 

Aglaophenia dromaius, 471, 475, 47'i. 480. 

elongata, 471, 476, 481. 

— myriophyllum, 471. 

tubulifera, 476. 

Alccdo asiatica, 45. 

collaris, 44. 

diops, 44. 

meninting, 45. 

minor moluccensis, 45. 

■ moluccensis, 45. 

Allman,G. J. Report on the Hydroida collected during 

the Expeditions of H.M.S. ' Porcupine,' 469. 
Amphihelia atlantica, 3(»7, 324, 326. 

mioccenica, 307, 323, 324. 

ocwZata, 305, 307, 322, 324, 325, 326, 337, 

338, 339, 340, 342. 

ornata, 307, 324, 320. 

ramea, 305, 307, 324, 326, 337, 338, 339, 

340, 342, 343. 

June, 1874. 

Amphihelia sculpta, 307, 323. 

venusta, 323. 

Anas gracilis, 102. 

querquedula, 102. 

Anderson, John. On the osteology and dentition 
of Hylomys, 453. 

Antennularia antennina, 471. 

Anthreptes malaccensis, 70. 

Anthus arboreus, 117. 

Aodon, 209. 

Apiaster phil ip>pensis major, 42. 

Aporosa, 306, 309-332. 

Apteryx australis, 363. 

Aptomis defossor. On Dinornis (Part XVII.) : con- 
taining a description of the sternum and pelvis, 
with an attempted restoration of, hy Prof. Owen. 

, comparison of the sternum and femur 

of, with Tribony.v ventralis, Ocydromus australis, 
Notomis, Aptomis otidiformis, &C, 119-122. 

, comparison of sternum of, with Cne- 

miornis, 122. 

, ilium of, 124. 

, pelvis of, 122, 125. 

, sternum of, 119, 120. 

, vertebra; of, 122-124. 

- otidiformis, 119-124. 

Acpiila audax, 380. 
Arachnechtlira jlaviyastra , 71. 

frenata, 71. 

Arachnothera longirostra, 70. 
Arctocebus calabarensis, 563. 
Ardea alba, 99. 

caledonica, 100. 

fusca, 98. 

gardeni, 100. 

garzetta, 99. 

i li 



Ardea goliaih, 98. 

insignis, 98. 

lepida, 99. 

hucoeepheda, 101. 

metadata, 100. 

melanopliis, 99. 

melanoptera, 99. 

melanotis, 99. 

modesta, 99. 

nebidosa, 99. 

nigripes, 99. 

prasinosceles, 98 

rectirostris, 98. 

surnatrana, 98. 

typlion, 98. 

Ardeola grayi, 98. 

leucoptera, 98, 99 

malaccensis, 98, 99. 

speciosa, 98. 

Ardeomega nobilis, 98. 
Ardetta cinnamomea, 99. 

sinensis, 99. 

^-Irtam/A's bicolor, 70. 
Artamus leucogaster, 67. 

leucopygicdis, 6T. 

leucorhynehus, 67, <>^ 

melaleucus, 67. 

mcntalis, 67. 

mouacJnis, 67, 107, 1 13. 

papuensis, 67. 

zifrfraufo, 307, 327-332. 

, ls-f»j- bittbatllS, 37. 

Athene bomeensis, 40, 41. 

florensis, 41. 

japonica, 41. 

malaccensis, 41. 

ocJiracea, 38. 

punctulata, 38. 

Avifauna, list of species to be added to the Celebean, 

Balmna mysticetus, 265, 268. 
Balcenoptera carolince, 236. 
rowscuZws, 236, 266, 268, 276, 286, 298, 

rostrata, 235-237, 248, 263-265, 273- 


sibbaldii, 236, 237, 239, 271. 

Balanophyllia britamdea, 334. 

Balanophyllia cellulosa, 308, 333, 337, 339, 344. 
gaditana, 308, 333, 337, 339. 

Jeffrey*™' 334 - 

. sonYifo, 308, 333, 337, 338, 342. 

Basileornis celebensis, 77. 

coryihaix, 77. 

Bathycyaihus atianticus, 306, 318, 337, 339, 343. 

chilensis, 318. 

soiverbyi, 318. 

2?«ra magnirostris, 36. 

reinwardtii, 36. 

Berardius arnouxi. On (lie recent Ziphioid Whales, 
with a description of the skeleton of, by W. H. 
Flower, 203. 

Preliminary notice of a Ziphioid 

Whale, probably Berardius arnuxii, stranded 
on the Kith of December, 1868, on the sea- 
beach, near New Brighton, Canterbury, New 
Zealand, by Julius Haast, 214. 

, antero-posterior length of the bodies of 

the thoracic, lumbar, and caudal vertebrae of, 

, caudal vertebra; of, 228. 

, cervical vertebral of, 224 ; dimensions of, 



description of the skeleton of. 217- 

, dimensions of, 21 2. 

, dimensions of the bones of the right 

pectoral limb of, 231, 

, history of, 212. 

- ■ ■, hyoid bones of, 223. 

, lumbar vertebrae of, 227. 

, pectoral limb of, 230. 

, pelvic bones of, 232. 

, ribs of, 229. 

, skull of, 217-223 ; dimensions of, 221. 

. , sternum of, 22! >. 

, teeth of, 222. 

, thoracic vertebrae of, 226. 

, vertebral column of, 22:!. 

hectori, 211. 

Birds, table of Indian genera of, found in Celebes, 24. 

, table showing the Australian genera of, found 

in Celebes, 25. 

, table showing the genera of, represented in 

Celebes which likewise occur both within and 
beyond the limits of the Indian region, 25. 



Birds, table showing the genera of, found in Celebes 
which are also common to the Indian and Aus- 
tralian regions, 25. 

, table showing the principal Austro-Malayan 

or Papuan genera of, which do not occur in 
Celebes, 29. 

, table showing the principal Indian genera of, 

which are wanting in Celebes, 27. 
Bracliyurus celebensis, 62. 

forsteni, 62. 

Broderipits celebensis, 112. 

coronaius, 60, ] 12. 

frontalis, 61. 

Buceros cassidix, 47. 

corruijatus, 51. 

exaratus, 47, 107. 

sulcatus, 51. 

Budytes viridis, 65. 
Buphus hacchus, 98. 

Butalis hypogrammica, 66. 
Buteo pygmceus, 37. 
pyrrhoyenys, 37. 

Butorides chloriceps, 101. 

■ javanica, 100. 

Caaing Whale {Globiocephalus melas), on the Orga- 
nization of the, by J. Murie, 235. 

(see Globiocephalus melas). 

Cacatua <equatorialis, 30, 31. 

sulphured, 30, 31. 

Caccabis rnfa, 101. 

Cacomantis assimilis, 54. 

borneensis, 54. 

bronzinas, 54. 

castaneiventris, 54. 

dumetorum, 54. 

fasciolatus, 55. 

flabelliformis, 54. 

infaustus, 54. 

infuscatus, 55. 

insperatus, 54. 

lanccolatus, 53-55. 

meridians, 54, 55. 

pallblus, 54. 

passcrinns, 54, 55. 

pravatus, 55. 

pyroyaster, 54. 

rufovittatns, 55. 

sepulchralis, 54, 116. 

Cacomantis simus, 54, 55. 

sonnerati, 55. 

tenuirostris, 54. 

threnodes, 54. 

tymbonomus, 54. 

Callialcyon rnfa, 44. 
Caloenas nicobarim, 86. 
Calornis affinis, 79. 

amboinensis, 80, 81. 

aromatica, 82. 

cantaroides, 80, 81. 

chalybea, 79, 81. 

crassirostris, 80, 81. 

curuirostra, 82. 

yularis, 80. 

lcittlitzi, 80. 

metallica, 79-81, 107. 

mysolensis, 80. 

neylecta, 79, 80, 81, ll-"-. 

nitida, 80. 

obscura, 79, 80. 

psittacea, 82. 

jnir/>it,:tscens, 80, 81 . 

virescens, 80. 

viridescens, 80. 

Calycella fastigiata, 471. 
Campephaga nigra, 69. 
Caprimidyiis affinis, 114. 
aruiidiuaceus, 115. 

biiiotiitiis, 115. 

europwus, 114. 

macron /•»«, 115. 

monticolor, 115. 

Capromys fournieri, 563. 
Carpophaga luctnosa, 84. 
paulina, 83. 

Caryophyllia abyssorum, 306, 310, 311, 315,337, 

339, 340. 

africana, 313. 

amwta, 306, 310, 313, 317, 337, 339, 342. 

berteriana, 314, 317- 

Wis, 305, 306, 309. 312, 338, 340, 


eaZvm, 306, 310, 311, 312, 316, 337, 339. 

cfai/us, 305, 306, 310, 311, 337, 338, 339, 340, 

343, 344. 
corrniformis, 317. 

- w/aifats, 306, 310, 313, 337. 

4 M 2 



Caryopliyllia cylindracea, 306, 310, 311, 314, 315, 
337, 339, 340. 

elongata, 306, 311, 340, 344. 

epithecata, 306, 312, 344. 

exserta, 306, 312, 343. 

— formosa, 317. 

inskipi, 306, 310, 311, 316, 337, 339. 

omata, 314. 

pourtalesi, 306, 310, 311, 317, 337, 339, 341. 

seguen:ce, 306, 310, 314, 337, 338, 342. 

smiihii, 305, 300, 309, 312, 340, 344. 

vermiformis, 306, 310, 311, 316, 337. 339, :'>41 . 

Casuarius bennettii, 124. 
Ceblepyris fimbriatus, 69. 

lugubris, 69. 

Celebes. A list of birds known to inhabit the Island 
of, by Arthur, Viscount Walden, 23. 

. An appendix to a list of birds known to 

inhabit the Island of, by Arthur, Viscount 
Walden, 109. 
Centrococeyx affinis, 56-60, 112. 

bengahnsis, 59, 60. 

dimidiatus, 59. 

javaaensis, 58, 60. 

medius, 58, 60. 

moluccensis, 59, 60. 

reetunguis, 60. 

viridis, 58. 

Oentropus affinis, 60. 

ateralbus, 56. 

bengalensis, 57. 

bicolor, 55. 

borneensis, 57. 

bubutus, 57. 

chlororhyncTius, 57. 

dimidiatus, 57. 

ewryeerews, 57. 

javaiu nsis, 57, 112. 

lepidus, 57, 58, 60. 

lignator, 57, 59. 

medius, 56, 57. 

mdanopas, 56. 

molkenboeri, 58. 

moluccensis, 57. 

nigrifrons, 56. 

phasianus, 57. 

philippensis, 58. 

pumilus, 58, 60 

Centropus pygmceus, 59. 

reetunguis, 56, 57. 

rujinus, 59. 

riifipennis, 56, 57. 

viridis, 57, 59. 

Ceratocyathus armatus, 306, 310. 314. 
Ceycopsis falla.v, 45, 112. 
Cheetura celebensis, 46. 

gigantea, 46. 

Chalcopliaps hombroni, 86. 

indica, 86, 114. 

stephani, 85, 86, 114. 

Chalcostetha porphyrolaema, 71 . 
Charadrius alexandrinus, 89. 

cmjwm'cks, 89. 

fulvus, 88. 

giganteus, 91. 

intcrtnaHiis, H9. 

magnirostris, 91. 

minor, 89. 

mi nut us, 89. 

pMUppinus, 89. 

pusiUus, S9. 

Gharitornis albertince, 76, 77. 
Circus approximans, 38. 

assimilis, 37, 38, 380. 

gouldi, 38. 

jardinii, 37, 38. 

macropterus, 38. 

Cisticola cursitans, 04, 05. 
grayi, 117. 

lineocapilla, 65. 

schosnicola, 04. 

Vittura cyanotis, 44. 

sangliiri nsis, 44. 

CJadocarpus forniosus, 471, 47 s . 481. 

CUmacteris leucoplicea, loo. 

Gollocalia concolor, 46. 

■ esculenta, 40. 

fuciphaga, 40. 

hypoleuca, 46. 

Columba cenea, 83. 

diademata, 83. 

hypogastra, 83. 

rnonacha, 83. 

viridis, 81. 

Coracias papuensis, 43. 

temminclcii, 43. 



Corvus advena, 74, 75. 

balicassius, 70. 

caledonicus, 74, 75. 

corone, 74. 

dauricus, 75. 

enca, 74, 1 13. 

validus, 74, 113. 

(Phi/socorax) moneduloides, 74. 

Corydalla gustavi, 117. 
Gorydonix macidatus, 59. 
— — - pyrrhoptcrus, 58. 
Cranorrhinus cassidix, 47-49. 
Criniger aureus, 109. 
Cucidus canoroides, 116. 

canoras, 115, 116. 

• flctvus, 54. 

Mmalayanus, 116. 

micropterus, 116. 

prcesagus, 5 1 . 

pyrrhocephalus, 52. 

saturatus, 116. 

— — svmatranus, 53. 

?o?it, 58. 

Cuncuma leucogaster, 35. 
Cuspidella grandis, 47] • 
Ci/atha.vontda', 308, 335. 
Cqornis banyumas, 117. 

rufigula, 66, 107. 

Dacelo cyanocephalus, 43. 

monachus, 43. 

Dasyurus macrurus, 496. 
Delphinorliynchus, 209 . 
micropterus, 21 0. 

Delphinus acutus, 20. 

aries, 16. 

bidentatus, 209. 

butskode, 209. 

densirostris, 209. 

edentatus, 209. 

epiodon, 209. 

globiceps, 20. 

grcenlandicus, 209. 

griseus, 17-19. 

heavisidii, 20. 

melas, 235. 

micropterus, 209, 210. 

nesarnak, 237. 

obscurus, 20. 

Delphinus phoccena, 264, 268. 

jn'sso, 16. 

sowerbensis, 209. 

sowerbyi, 210. 

tursio, 266, 287. 

(Heterodon) sowerbensis, 210. 

(Phoccena) rissoamis, 16, 18, 19. 

Demicgretta asha, 100. 

sacra, 100. 

Dendrocygna gouldi, 103. 

guttata, 102. 

guttulata, 102. 

vagans, 102. 

Dendrophyllia comigera, 308, 334, 337, 339. 
Dermophyttum costatum, 307, 321, 322. 

crista-galli, 305, 307, 321, 337, 339, 340, 341. 

cumingi, 307, 321. 

dianthus, 321. 

stokesi, 322. 

Dicceum celebicum, 72. 

leclancherii, 12. 

Dicrurus atrocerideus, 106. 

bimae')isis, 106. 

leucops, 70. 

pectoralis, 70. 

Diclelphys ursina, 345. 

Dinornis (PartXVIL). Containing a description of the 
sternum and pelvis, with an attempted restoration . 
of Aptornis defossor, Ow., by Prof. Owen, 119. 

(Part XVIII.). Containing a description of 

the pelvis and bones of the leg of Dinornis 
gravis, by Prof. Owen, 361. 

(Part XIX.). Containing a description of a 

femur indicative of a new genus of large wing- 
less bird (Dromoniis australis, Owen), from a 
post-tertiary deposit in Queensland, Australia. 
by Prof. Owen, 381. 

«7<»s, 375. 

casuarinus, 362, 366, 368, 369, 375, 376. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371. 

crassus, 362-365, 373, 375-377. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 373. 

curtus, 375. 

dimensions of the femur, tibia, ami 

metatarsus of, 371. 
didiformis, 369, 372, 375. 



Dinornis didiformis, dimensions of the femur, tibia, 

and metatarsus of, 371, 372. 

dromio'ides, 372, 375. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371. 

elepliantopus, 365, 375—377. 

■ , dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 373. 

gerano'ides, 372, 375, 377. 

. , dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371. 

giganteus, 361, 366, 368, 369, 375, 376. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 374. 

gracilis, 375. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, aud 

metatarsus of, 371, 372. 
— gravis. On Dinornis (Part XVIII.), contain- 
ing a description of the pelvis and bones of the 

leg of, by Prof. Owen, 361. 
■ ■ , dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 372. 

, femur of, 366, 379. 

, metatarsus of, 362, 37S. 

, pelvis of, 369 ; dimensions of, 370. 

, tibia of, 364, 378. 

ingens, 361, 375, 376. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 374. 
— — ■ maximus, 360, 375. 
— , dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 375. 

rheides, 375-377. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371. 

rohustus, 365, 375-377. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 375. 

struthioides, 301, 373, 375. 

, dimensions of the femur, tibia, and 

metatarsus of, 371, 374. 
, table of admeasurements of the bones of the 

leg of the known species of, 371. 
Diodon, 209. 
Diphasia coronifera, 471, 474. 480. 

pinaster, 470, 471. 

Diplodon, 209. 
i uropceus, 211. 

Diplodon gervaisii, 211. 

Dipiohelia doderleiniana, 307, 324, 327. 

meneghiniana, 307, 324, 327. 

profunda, 307, 324, 320. 

sismondiana, 327. 

Diplopteron insigne, 471, 479-481. 

Dolichodon, 209. 

Dolphin, Pdsso's (see Grampus griseus). 

Dromaius ater, 382. 

■ novce-hoMandice, 366. 

Dromornis australis. On Dinornis (Part XIX.): 
containing a description of a femur indicative 
of a new genus of large wingless bird, from a 
post-tertiary deposit in Queensland, Australia, 
by Prof. Owen, 381. 

, femur of, compared with Dinornis tle- 

phantopus, 3S2-3b4. 

, measurement of femur of, 382. 

DrymopMla alecto, 107. 

Duncan, P. Martin. A description of the Madre- 
poraria dredged up during the expeditions "t 
H.M.S. ' Porcupine' in 1869 and 1^7". 303. 

Dysporus sula, 106. 

Eil i ctns m ii Hi ri. :il . 

Edoliosoma melanolamia, 69. 

morio, 00. 

Elanus liypdleucos, 30, 30. 

intrrnii dius, -i<>. 

Emu, the, 382. 
Enodes erythrophrys, 78. 
Eos cochinsinensis, 107. 
Ephialti s I' ucospila, 39, 40. 

magicus, 39, 40. 

menadensis, 30, 40. 

Epiodon australe, 235. 

australis, 208. 

desmarestii, 207. 

Erythra phasnicura, 94. 
Eryihropitta celebensis, 02. 
Eryihrospiza iogastrn, 34. 

trinotata, 33. 

Esacus magnirostris, 91. 

recurvirostris, 91. 

Ewh mi 'rin in ramosum, 470, 471. 
Eadromia veredus, 88. 
Eudynamis melanorhyncha, 53, 11—. 
Eulabes javawus, 81. 
Eurystomus orientalis, 43. 



Eurystomus pacificists, 43. 

Excalfactoria chinensis, 87. 

minima, 87. 

FalcineUus igneus, 101. 

peregrinus, 101. 

Falco aldrovandi, 33. 

columbarius, 33. 

cuculoidi'S, 34. 

indicus, 37. 

javanicus, 37. 

poliogenys, 37. 

rupicolus, 33. 

Filellum serpens, 470. 

Flabellum distinctum, 307, 322, 337, 339, 340. 

externum, 307, 322. 

laciniatum, 307, 322, 337, 338. 

Flower, W. H. On the recent Ziphioid Whales, 
. with a description of the skeleton of Berardius, 203. 

. On Itisso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus (Cuv.), 1. 

Fungia symmetrica, 308, 334, 337, 339, 344. 
Fungi idee, 308, 334. 
Gedlinago megeda, 98. 
Gallinida ardosiacea, 94. 

chhropus, 94. 

frontata, 93. 

hcematopxis, 93. 

orientalis, 94. 

tenebrosa, 93. 

Galhts baiikiva, 86. 

ferrugineus, 87. 

Gastornis parisiensis, 366. 
Gazzola caledonica, 75. 

typica, 74, 75. 

GeocicJda erytJironota, 61, 107, 113. 

interpres, 61. 

Geopelia striata, 86. 
Glareola gredlaria, 117. 
Globiocipludus ajfinis, 290. 

chinensis, 235, 291. 

, comparative tahle of diagnostic characters of, 

compared with Grampus, 20, 21. 

edivardsii, 290. 

grayi, 291. 

indicus, 291. 

macrorhynchus, 291. 

metos, 20, 235. 

, alimentary canal of, 256-260. 

Globiocephalus melas, auditory appendages of, 249- 

, cavity of the mouth, dental armature, and 

pharynx of, 252-256. 

, external characters of, 238-242. 

, eye and its surroundings of, 242. 

, fleshy motor agents of body and limbs of, 

, general observations and history of, 


, genitalia of, 284. 

, glands accessory to alimentation ot, 


, heart of, 266. 

, hyoidean and laryngeal structures of, 


, measurement of the tail of, 241. 

, measurements of, 240. 

, muscles acting chiefly on the pectoral 

limb of, 272-276. 
, muscles acting on the sterno-costal 

framework of, 281, 282. 
, muscles acting on the trunk and tail of. 

, muscles connected with neck and head 

of, 282-284. 

, nasal passages of, 242-248. 

— , nervous centre of, 272. 

, on the organization of, 235. 

, organs subservient to deglutition and 

digestion of, 252-262. 
, parts related to the senses of, 242- 

, pelvic bones, ligament, and muscles of, 

, respiration and machinery involved. 

, reflections, zoological and physiological. 

on, 290-293. 

, sanguiferous distribution of, 266-272. 

, skin, and subcutaneous coverings of. 

248, 249. 

, tongue of, 251. 

, tracheo-pulmonary parts of, 265. 

, urino-generative organs and pelvic- 

appendage homologues of, 284—290. 

, vascular channels and reservoirs of. 




Globiocephalus propinquus, 291. 

sieboldii, 291. 

svineval, 235, 239, 264, 282, 290. 

Grammaria abietina, 470. 

Grampus cuvieri, 15. 

— griseus, Risso's Dolphin, by W. H. Flower, 1. 

, 235. 

and G. rissoamis, identity of, 18. 

, anterior surface and side view of cervical 

vertebra; of, 5. 

, bones of the pectoral limb of, 10. 

■ — -, earliest account of, 15. 

, carpal bones of, 10. 

, carpal bones and the phalanges of the 

young of, 14. 

, chevron bones of, 7. 

, coloration of, 3. 

, coloration of the young of, 12. 

, dimensions of vertebrae of, 5. 

, dimensions of the young of, 12. 

, fins of the young compared with those 

of the adult, 12. 

, general form of, 2. 

— , general form of skull of, 8. 

■ , general form of the young of, 12. 

, humerus of, 10. 

— , pelvic bones of, 8. 

, periotic and tympanic bones of, 9, 
— , principal dimensions of, 1. 

, principal dimensions of the bones of the 

pectoral limb of, 11. 

■ , principal dimensions of the skull of, 1<>. 

, scapula? of, 10. 

, skeleton of, 4. 

, skeleton of young of, 13, 14. 

, sternal ribs of, S. 

, sternum of, 8. 

, systematic position of, 20. 

— , teeth of young of, 13. 

, vertebrae of, 4. 

, vertebra; of young of, 14. 

— , vertebral ribs of, 7. 
— ricJiardsonii, 15, 18. 

- rissoamis, 0, 8, 10, 11, 15, 236, 247 
— . identity with G. griseus, 1> S . 
Graucalus atriceps, 68. 

leucopygius, 68. 

personatus, 68, 


Graumlus temminckii, 68, 113, 118. 

Grey-headed Gallinule, 92. 

Grind Whale, 237. 

Guynia annulate, 308, 335, 337, 340, 343. 

Haast, Julius. Preliminary notice of a ZiphioidWhale, 
probably Berardius arnuxii, stranded on the 
16th of December, 1868, on the Sea-beach, near 
New Brighton, Canterbury, New Zealand, 214. 

Halcyon cTdoris, 44. 

— — ■ coromanda, 44. 

diops, 106. 

funebris, 106. 

Haliastur leucosternus, 35. 

Halicornaria ramulifera, 471, 477, 481. 

Haplophyllia paradoxa, 335. 

Hemiehelidon griseosticta, 66. 

Hemicyathus crassicostatus, 336, 

Hemiphaga forsteni, 84, 

Herodias alba, 99. 

egretta, 99. 

garzetta, 99, 

nigripes, 99. 

Heterodon densirostris, 209. 

sowerbensis, 20! ). 

Hierococcyx crassirostris, 116, IIS. 

Himantopus inter medius, 91. 

leucocephalus, 91. 

Hirundinapus giganteus, 46. 

Hirundo brevirostrh, 46. 

esculenta, 46. 

francica, 46. 

gutturalis, 65. 

javanica, 66. 

panayana, 65. 

rustien, 65. 

unicolor, 46. 

vanicorensis, 46. 

Hydralector gallinaceus, 92. 

Hydrallmania falcata, 46!), 47'). 

Hydrochelidon delalandii, 103. 

fluviatilis, 103. 

leucopareia, 103. 

nigra, 103. 

Hydroida. Report on the, collected during the Ex- 
peditions of H.M.S. 'Porcupine,' by (i. J. 
Allman, 469. 

Hylomys. On the osteology and dentition of, by 
John Anderson, 453. 



Hylomys peguensis, anapophyses of, 462. 

, carpus of, 465. 

, chevron bones of, 463. 

, clavicle of, 464. 

■, colouring of, 455. 

, ears of, 454. 

, eye of, 454. 

, femur of, 465. 

> , general form of, 454, 455. 

-, hypapophyses of, 463. 

-, hyperapophyses of, 462. 

-, humerus of, 465. 

-, innominate bone of, 465. 

-, limbs of, 454, 455. 

-, measurements of, 455. 

-, measurements of the skull of, 461, 462. 

-, metapophysial processes of, 462. 

-, prassternum and mesosteruum of, 464. 

-, radius and ulna of, 465. 

-, scapula of, 463, 464. 

-, skeleton of,462-467;measurementsof,460. 

-, skull of, 455-462. 

-, snout of, 454. 

-, spinous processes of, 462. 

-, tail of, 455. 

-, teeth of, 459. 

-, tibia and fibula of, 465. 

-, transverse processes of, 462. 

suillus, 453. 

Hyloterpe sulfuriventra, 117. 
Hyperoodon gervaisii, 206, 207. 
__ rostratus, 203, 209, 234. 

semijunctus, 206. 

Hypotmiidia celebensis, 95. 

philippensis, 95. 

Striata, 95. 

Hypothymis inanadensis, 66. 

puella, 66, 107. 

Hypotriorcliis severus, 33. 

Ibis falcinelhis, 101. 

Inacotis papillosa, 101. 

Iotreron melanocephala, 30, 83. 

Javan Hawk, 37. 

Kogia, 223. 

Lafoea dumosa, 470, 471. 

fruticosa, 470, 472. 

halecioides, 471, 472, 477, 480. 

Lafoeidas, 472. 

vol. vin. — part ix. Jmie, 1874. 

Lagenorhynchus albifrons, 273. 

albirostris, 236, 247, 250, 275, 280, 281, 290, 300. 

Lalage aurea, 70, 107. 

dominica, 69. 

leucopygialis, 69, 108. 

melanoleuca, 69. 

Lamprotomis cantor, 79. 
- — — columbianus, 80. 

metallica, 80. 

minor, 80, 81. 

obscura, 80. 

pyrrhopogon, 78. 

Lamprotreron formosa, 82. 
Lanius dominicanus, 67. 

dubius, 81. 

leucogaster, 67. 

leucorhynchus, 67. 

manillensis, 67. 

pacificus, 80. 

silens, 69. 

Lasiorhinus m'coyi, 345. 
Leptoptcryx leucorhynchus, 67. 
Leucotreron gularis, 83. 
Limnaetus lanceolatus, 34, 110, 111. 
Limosa uropygialis, 97. 
Lobipes hyperboreus, 97. 
LoplvOthelia affinis, 308, 331. 

anthophyllites, 307, 331. 

defrancei, 308, 331. 

gracilis, 305, 308, 332, 339, 341. 

latistella, 332. 

prolifera, 305, 307, 328, 331, 332, 337-342. 

stoppaniana, 308, 331. 

striata, 332. 

subcostata, 307, 331. 

Lophospiza griseiceps, 33. 
Lophotes reinwardtii, 36. 
Loriculus amabilis, 26. 

exilis, 32. 

jioscidus, 27. 

pusUlus, 27. 

quadricolor, 109. 

sclateri, 32. 

stigmatus, 26, 32. 

Lyncornis cerviniceps, 112. 

macropterus, 47, 112. 

macrotis, 112. 

temmincki, 112. 

4 N 



Macroptcryx klecJw, 45. 

leucophcea, 46. 

wallacii, 45. 

Macropus rufus, 483. 
Marropygia albicapilla, 85. 

leptogrammica, 85, 107. 

macassariensis, 85. 

Madrepora oeulata, 323. 

ramea, 324. 

Madreporaria. A description of the, dredged up 

during the Expeditions of H.M.S. ' Porcupine ' 

in 1869 and 1870, by P. Martin Duncan, 303. 

, classification of the species of, 306, 308. 

— , distribution of the species, in the recent and 

past faunas, of, 337. 

, tables of the localities, &c. of, 338. 

Madreporidw, 308, 333. 

Manatee (Manatus americanus), on the form and 

structure of, by J. Murie, 127. 
Manatus americanus, additional note on, 191- 


, admeasurements of, 12S-130. 

, air-passages of, 178, 179. 

, alimentary canal of, 169. 

, blood-vessels and lymphatic glands of, 


, cranium and dentition of, 140-143. 

, digestive tract of, 164-175. 

, exterior aspects and dimensions of, 127- 


fatty envelope of, 134, 135. 
general contour of, 127, 128. 
glands concerned in digestion of, 



, hair and bristles of, 133, 134. 

, heart of, 1 75. 

, hyoid and the surrounding pharyngo- 

glossal fleshy parts of, 179, 180. 

, iutegument, its appendages and sub- 
jacent textures, of, 131-135. 

, interior of the mouth, and tongue of, 


, limbs, pelvis, and ligaments of, 139, 


, muscles of the accessory skeleton of, 

, muscles of the axial skeleton of, 143- 


Manatus americanus, muscles connecting the spinal 

column of : dorsal aspect, 143-145 ; ventral 

aspect, 145-148. 
, muscles of tho costal arches of: thoracic, 

151-153; abdominal, 153-156. 

, muscles of the dermis of, 163, 164. 

, muscles of the hip-girdle of: pelvic and 

generative, 161-163. 
, muscles of the pectoral limb of: dorsal, 

158, 159 ; ventral of, 159-161. 
, muscles of the shoulder-girdle of, 156- 

, muscles of the skull or cephalic segment 

of: facial or supracranial, 148-151. 

, muscular system of, 143-164. 

, nervous system of, 180-186. 

, nose and nasal passages of, 186, 187. 

, ocular and auditory apparatus of, 187, 


, organs of circulation of, 175-178. 

, parts related to generation (in the female 

and male) of, 188, 189. 

, rank and relations of, 189-191. 

, sensoiy organs of, 186-188. 

, skeleton and its ligamentous connexions 

of, 135-143. 

, skin of, 131-133. 

, spinal axis of, 135-13*. 

, spinal ligaments of, 138, 139. 

, vocal and respiratory apparatus of, 178- 

Mareca gibberifrons, 102. 

punctata, 102. 

Marsupialia, on the osteology of the (Part III.). 

Modification of the skeleton in the species of 

Phaseolomys, by Prof. Owen, 345. 
, on the osteology of the (Part IV.). Bones 

of the trunk and limbs of Phascohmys, by 

Prof. Owen, 483. 
Megacephalon maleo, 87, 88. 

rubripes, 87, 88. 

rufipes, 87. 

Megapodius gilberti, 87. 

rubripes, 87. 

Melanqpelargus episcopus, 101. 
Melanopitta forsteni, 62. 
Melias diardi, 53. 
MelittopTiagus ininutus, 111. 



Meropogon bullochoides, 111. 

forsteni, 42, 111, 112. 

Merops datidini, 42. 

ornatus, 42. 

philippinus, 42, 112. 

vvridis, 42. 

Merula solitaria philippensis, 63. 
Mesodiodon, 209. 

densirostris, 211. 

seychellensis, 211. 

.JforopZotforc, 208-212. 

densirostris, 224. 

sowerbyensis, 210." 

sowerbyi, 223, 224, 229, 231. 

Micropteroa bidens, 210. 

Micropterus, 209. 

Mihus affinis, 36. 

Mivart, St. George. On the axial skeleton of the 

Ostrich (Struthio camelus), 385. 
Monaclialcyon monachus, 43. 

■ princeps, 43. 

Monodon monoceros, 278. 
Monticola solitaria, 63. 
Motacilla Jlavescens, 65. 
Mutteripicus fulvus, 41. 

pulveruhntus, 41. 

Munia brunneiceps, 73, 108. 

molucca, 73. 

nisoria, 73. 

pallida, 107. 

— — punctularut, 73. 

rubro-nigra, 73, 74. 

Murie, J. On the form and structure of the Manatee 

(Manatus americamts), 127. 
. On the organization of the Caaing Whale, 

Olobiocephalus melas, 235. 
— . Researches upon the anatomy of the Pinni- 

pedia. Part III. Descriptive anatomy of the 

Sea- Lion (Otaria jubata), 501. 
Muscicapa eantatrix, 117. 

panayensis, 79. 

rufigastra, 117. 

Myiagra azurca, 66. 

rubeculoides, 66. 

Myialestes cinereocapilla, 66. 

helianthea, 66, 107. 

Myristicivora bicolor, 84. 
luctuosa, 84. 

Myristicivora spilorrlioa, 84. 
Myzomela chloroptera, 117. 
Nectarinia aspasia, 71. 
NectaropMla grayi, 71. 
Neopm malayensis, 34. 
Ntoziphim, 209. 
Niaox affinis, 41. 

japonicus, 40. 

madagascariensis, 41. 

nipalensis, 40. 

philippensis, 38, 41. 

iWstts cruentus, 34. 

trinotatus, 33. 

virgatus rhodogaster, 33. 

Noctua hirsuta japonica, 40. 

j>7i ilippensis, 38 . 

iVocZws, 209. 

Notornis mantelli, 120. 

, length of femur and sternum of, 119. 

Namenius minor, 96. 

minutus, 96. 

phceopus, 96. 

wopygialis, 96. 

vvridis, 101. 

Nyeticorax caledonicns, 100, 114. 

griseus, 100. 

manihnsis, 100. 

Octopus, 214. 

Oculinidm, 308, 332. 

Ocydromus australis, 120, 124-126. 

, length of sternum and femur of, 

(Edicnemus grallarius, 91. 

magnirostris, 91. 

Onychoprion ana;sthetus, 104. 

melanauchen, 104. 

Ora« gladiator, 20, 237. 
Oriolus galbida, 60, 112. 

hippocrepis, 60. 

horsjieldii, 60. 

indicus, 60. 

lamdoo, 113. 

sinensis, 78. 

Ortygometra cinerea, 94. 

— quadristrigata, 94. 

Osmotreron bicincta, 114. 

griseicauda, 82. 

i/emans, 81, 113. 




Ostrich (StrutJiio camelus), on the axial skeleton of, 
by St. George Mivart, 385. 

, the (see Struthio camelus). 

Otariajubata, descriptive anatomy of, by J.Murie,501. 
, alimentary canal of, 558. 

, alimentary glands &c. of, 563-567. 

, aorta of, 536. 

, arterial distribution of, 536-545. 

, arteries of the base of the brain of, 539. 

, arteries of the head and neck of, 536. 

, arteries of the pectoral limb of, 540. 

— , arteries of the pelvic limb of, 544. 

, bones of the extremities of, 513-517. 

-, brain of, 519-530 ; outward aspects and 

dimensions of, 519-521 ; cerebrum, 520 ; the 
cerebral lobes, 521 ; clefts and sulci of cerebrum, 
outer face, 522 ; convolutions of the outer face, 
524 ; sulci and gyri of the inner face, 525 ; 
folds and furrows, left half of the cerebrum, 
526 ; interior structures, 527 ; basal parts of 
cerebellum, 528 ; weight, 529. 

, carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges of, 514. 

, cartilages of the larynx of, 547. 

, cavities of larynx and trachea of, 551. 

, components of hyoid and larynx of, 546. 

-, cranio-facial nerves of, 530. 

, deglutive apparatus of, 557. 

, digestive system of, 553-567. 

, dura and pia mater of, 518. 

, faucial folds, tonsils, and oral glands of, 


, femur and patella of, 516. 

, genital glands, scrotum, &c. of, 571. 

— , glands in proximity to air-passages of, 


, hepatic ducts, ligaments, and gall-bladder 

of, 564. 

-, hind foot of, 516. 

, humerus of, 513. 

, hyolaryngeal and pulmonary systems of, 


, intestines of, 562. 

, kidneys of, 567. 

, laryngeal membranes and ligaments of, 


Otariajubata, lnngs of, 552. 

, muscles of the genitals and anus of, 570. 

, muscles of the os hyoides and larynx of, 


, muscles of the tongue and palate of, 555. 

, nerves of, 530-533. 

, nerves in fore limb of, 531. 

, nerves of the main branches of head and 

limbs of, 530. 

, nerves of loins and hind limb of, 532. 

, nervous system of, 517-534. 

, oesophagus of, 559. 

, organs of generation of, 569-573. 

, organs of vision of, 534 ; eyeball, 534 ; 

orbital muscles, 535. 
, parts and organs within the mouth of. 


, pectoral limb of, 513-515. 

, pharynx and fleshy appurtenances of, 557. 

, pelvic limb of, 515-517. 

, pelvis of, 515. 

, relative positions of the abdominal viscera 

of, 558. 
, remarks on the extraction of the brain 

, lingual organs superficially considered 

of, 553. 
- , liver of, 563. 

and membranes of, 517. 

, renal viscera of, 567. 

, ribs of, 510-513. 

, scapula of, 513. 

, sensory apparatus of, 534. 

, skeleton and cranial changes of, 501-51 7. 

, skull of, general aspects, 501 ; cranial 

bones, 502 ; the mandible, 503 ; foramina of 
lower base, 504 ; interior, 505 ; sexual differ- 
ences, 506 ; progressive cranial changes, 507. 

, spinal column and thorax of, 509-513. 

, spleen, mesenteric glands, and pancreas 

of, 566. 

, sternum of, 512. 

, stomach and omenta of, 560. 

, teeth and palate of, 553. 

, tibia and fibula of, 516. 

, ulna and radius of, 514. 

, ureters and bladder of, 569, 

, urethra and penis of, 569. 

, urino-generative system of, 567-573. 

, venous blood-channels, 545. 

, vertebra? of, 509. 

, visceral arteries of, 542. 



Olaria jitbata, vocal passages, respiratory organs, and 
glands of, 551-553. 

Otus magicus, 39. 

Owen, Professor. On Dinornis (Part XVII.) : con- 
taining a description of the sternum and pelvis, 
with an attempted restoration, of Aptornis de- 
fossor, Ow., 119. 

. On Dinornis (Part XVIII.): containing a 

description of the pelvis and bones of the leg of 
Dinornis gravis, 361. 

. On Dinornis (Part XIX.): containing a de- 
scription of a femur indicative of a new genus 
of large wingless bird (Dromomis australis, 
Owen) from a post-tertiary deposit in Queens- 
land, Australia, 381. 

. On the osteology of the Marsupialia (Part III.). 

Modification of the skeleton in the species of 
Phascolomys, 345. 

. On the osteology of the Marsupialia (Part IV.). 

Bones of the trunk and limbs, Phascolomys, 483. 

Padda oryzivora, 72. 

Palapteryx ingens, 373, 374, 376, 377. 

Paracyathus agassizi, 306, 319, 337, 339, 342. 

confertus, 320. 

— crassiis, 319. 

striatus, 306, 319, 337, 340, 342. 

Parra cristata, 92, 93. 

gallinacea, 93. 

indica, 93. 

Pastor rnjicollis, 78. 

senex, 78. 

Pelargopsis melanorhyncha, 45. 

Pclecanopus cristatus, 105. 

medius, 104. 

Perforata, 306, 333-335. 

Pemis celebensis, 111. 

crassirostris, 36. 

cristata, 36. 

ptilorhyncha, 36, 111. 

Petaurus (Acrobates) pygmasus, 358. 

Petrorhynchus capensis, 208. 

rnediterraneus, 207, 209. 

Phalacrocorax melanoleucus, 106. 

Phalangista gliriformis, 358. 
Phalaropus australis, 97. 

Phascolomys. On the osteology of the Marsupialia 
(Part III.). Modifications of the skeleton in 
the species of, by Professor Owen, 345. 

Phascolomys. On the Osteology of the Marsupialia 
(Part IV.). Bones of the trunk and limbs of, 
by Professor Owen, 483. 

, atlas of, 483, 484. 

, bones of the fore limbs of, 487. 

, bones of the hind limbs of, 494-497. 

, cranial characters of, 345-353. 

, dental characters of, 355-358. 

, femur of, 494. 

, fibula of, 494. 

, humerus of, 488. 

, ilium of, 486. 

, ilium and pubis of, 493. 

, mandibular characters of, 353-355. 

, neck of, 485. 

, pubis of, 493. 

, radius and ulna of, 490. 

, ribs of, 484, 485. 

— — , sacrum of, 486. 

, scapula of, 487. 

, tail of, 487. 

, tibia of, 494. 

-, vertebra of, 485-4S7. 

, vertebral column of, 483-487. 

angasii, 345. 

lasiorhinus, 345. 

— - latifrons, 345-360, 483-491, 494-500. 

niger, 345. 

platyrhinus, 345-360, 483-491, 494-500. 

setosus, 345. 

vombatus, 345-360, 483, 485-487 

Philemon collaris, 106. 

inornatus, 106. 

moluccensis, 106. 

Phlogcenas cruenta, 29. 

luzonica, 29. 

tristigmata, 85. 

Phoca vitulina, 522, 568. 

Phocaina communis, 241, 255, 274, 278. 280, 501. 

globiceps, 235. 

griseus, 15. 

risonnus, 17. 

Pfaxaicopluies mneicaudus, 52. 

calorhynchus, 52, 53. 

curvirostris, 52, 53. 

erythrognathus, 52, 53. 

pyrrliocepludus, 52, 53. 

Phyllodes laciuiatum, 322. 



Physalus antiquorum, 266, 286, 298, 299. 

Physeter, 208, 219, 220, 223. 

bklens, 210. 

macrocephalus, 272. 

Pica albicollis, 75. 

Picus falvigaster, 41. 

horsfieldii, 41. 

-javensis, 41. 

leucogaster, 41. 

sanguineus, 42. 

Piked Whale, 255. 

Pilot Whale (see Globioccplialus melas). 

Pinnipedia, anatomy of, Part III. Descriptive ana- 
tomy of the Sea-lion (Otaria jubata), by J. 
Mime, 501. 

Pipastes batchianeiisis, 117. 

Pitta rnelanocephala, 62. 

— — miillcri, 62. 

Plictolophus buffoni, 30. 

Pliobothrus symmetricus, 336, 338, 344. 

PJotus melanogaster, 106. 

novce-hollandice, 106. 

Plumularia catharina, 479. 

pennatula, 477. 

pi lima, 476. 

setacea, 476. 

Plumularidce, 475-480. 

Podiceps gularis, 105. 

minor, 105. 

Polioaetus Jmmilis, 35. 

Ptiliorilis iii'/icus, 37. 

liveiiter, 37. 

Polophilus lathami, 59. 
Polyphasia merulina, 54. 

Pontoporia hhiinvillii, 235. 

Porphyria cinereus, 94, 95. 

indicus, 92. 

neglectus, 92. 

jndvi ru/entus, 92. 

samoensis, 92. 

smaragdinus, 92. 

Pratincola atrata, 63. 

caprata, 63. 

Prioniturus jiavicans, 32. 

platurus, 32. 

Wallace i, 32. 

Prionoclti/iis aunolimbatus, 72. 
Psittuctis cyanicollis, 107. 

Psittacus setaritis, 32. 

surnatranus, 31. 

Ptilinopus flavieollis, 107. 

hyogaster, 107. 

melanocephalus, 83. 

xanthogaster, 107. 

Pijrrhoccntor celebensis, 55, 56. 

unirufus, 55, 56. 

Querquedula circia, 102. 

humercdis, 102. 

Rallina isabettina, 96. 

minahasa, 95. 

rosenhergii, 96. 

Rail us aqualicus, 124. 

gularis, 95. 

lewinii, 95. 

pectoralis, 95. 

— — qnadristrigatus, 95. 
— — sajierciliaris, 94. 

torquatus, 95. 

Reinwardtcena reinwardti, 85, 107. 

Rhinoclarrus surnatranus, 247. 

RMzotrochus affinis, 307, 323, 337, 339, 343. 

Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus (Cuv.), by W. H. 

Flower, 1. 
— (see Grampus griseus). 

Rugosa, 306, 335. 

Sabinotrochus apertus, 306, 320, 339, 337, 341. 

Srt^n tartarica, 246. 

Sauropatis cldoris, 44. 

forstcni, 44. 

sancta, 44. 

Scissirostrum dubium, 81. 

pagei, 81. 

Scops madagascariensis, 40. 

mantis, 106. 

rutilus, 40. 

Seythrops novce-hollandice, 51. 

Sea-Lion (Otaria jubata), descriptive anatomy of the, 
by J. Murie, 501. 

, the (see Otaria jubata). 

Sertularella gayi, 469-471, 474, 480. 

polyzonias, 469-471, 474. 

robusta, 471. 

Sertularia abictiaa, 470. 

SertulariiLr, 474. 

Solenosm ilia variabilis, 307, 321, 328, 337, 339, 34 1 , 



SphenotrocJius intermedins, 305, 306, 320, 337, 

milletanus, 320. 

millet ianus, 305. 

Spilornis rufipectus, 35. 
Spizaetus cirratus, 34. 

cirrhatus, 35. 

cristatellus, 35. 

Sterna affinis, 104. 

bengalensis, 104. 

bergii, 105. 

delamotta, 103. 

grisea, 103. 

hybrida, 103. 

panaya, 104. 

panayensis, 104. 

pelecanoides, 105. 

msa, 105. 

similis, 103. 

sumatrana, 104. 

velox, 105. 

Sternula minuta, 118. 
Strepsilas interpres, 91. 
Streptocitta albicollis, 75. 

caledonica, 75-77. 

torquata, 76, 77. 

$<»•&» hirsute, 40. 

rosenbergi, 41. 

scutulata, 41. 

Struthio camelus. On the axial skeleton of the Ostrich, 
by St. George Mivart, 385. 

, atlas of, 387-390. 

, axis of, 390-394. 

, catapophyses of, 451. 

, caudal vertebras of, 387, 428-430. 

, centra of, 448. 

, cervical vertebrae of, 385, 387. 

, cervico-dorsal vertebra; of, 385, 386, 


, coccygeal vertebrae of, 386. 

, diapophyses of, 450. 

, dorsal vertebra; of, 385, 386, 413-419. 

, dorso-lumbar vertebras of, 385. 

, dorsal aspect of lumbar and sacral ver- 

Struthio camelus, ischium of, 437. 

, lateral aspect of lumbar and sacral ver- 
tebras of an immature specimen of, 422. 

, lateral aspect of the vertebrae from the 

fortieth to the forty-sixth inclusive, in an im- 
mature condition of, 427. 

, lumbar sacro-caudal vertebrae of, 420. 

, lumbar vertebrae of, 387, 421-424. 

, metapophyses of, 450. 

, neural laminae of, 449. 

, neural spines of, 449. 

, parapophyses of, 451. 

, paraxial parts of, 450, 451. 

, pelvis of, 431-438. 

, pelvis of, dorsal aspect, 434. 

, pelvis of, lateral aspect, 433. 

, pelvis of, lateral aspect of acetabular 

region of an immature, 437. 

, pelvis of, preaxial aspect, 431. 

, pelvis of, ventral aspect, 435. 

, pleurapophyses of, 451. 

, postzygapophyses of, 450. 

, presacral part of axial skeleton of, 386. 

, presacral vertebrae of, 387-407. 

, prezygapophyses of, 449. 

, pubis of, 437. 

, ribs of, 438-447. 

■ -, sacral vertebrae of, 387, 424—420. 

, sacro-caudal vertebrae of, 387, 426, 427. 

, ventral aspect of lumbar and sacral ver- 

tebrae of an immature specimen of, 425. 

, hypapophyses of, 451. 

, hyperapophyses of, 450. 

, ilium of, 436. 

tebrae of an immature specimen of, 423. 

, vertebrae of, 385-431. 

, vertebral parts and processes of, 44b- 

Sturnia albofrontata, 78. 

pyrrhogenys, 78. 

Stumus dauricus, 78. 

Stylaster gemmascens, 308, 332, 337, 338, 344. 

Sida fiber, 106 

Sylvia cysticola, 64. 

Tachyspiza soloensis, 34, 110. 

'Tantalus castaneus, 101. 

falcinellus, 101. 

Tanygnathus albirostris, 31. 

mulleri, 31. 

Tanysiptera riedelii, 45, 112. 

Tapir, 246, 247. 

Taut nuchas dominicanus, 78. 



Teraspiza rhodogastra, 33, 109, 118. 
Tetrao ferrugineus, 87. 

perlatus, 87. 

Thalasseus poliocercus, 105. 

torresi, 104. 

Thecopsammia socialis, 308, 333. 
Thuiaria artiadata, 469, 470. 

Uppuris, 471, 473, 477, 480. 

lama, 471-473, 477, 480. 

salicornia, 471, 473, 480. 

thuia, 473. 

Thniaridce, 472. 
Tinnunculus moluccensis, 33. 
Todiramphus funebris, 44. 
Toria nasica, 82. 

nipalensis, 82. 

Toianus calidris, 97. 

glottis, 96. 

Treron pulverulenta, 82. 

vernans, 82. 

viridis, 82. 

Tribonyx ventralis, 120, 125. 

, length of sternum and femur of, 119. 

Trichoglossus ornatus, 32. 

meyeri, 32, 107. 

Tricliostoma bicolor, 62. 

celebense, 62, 113. 

Tringa damacensis, 97. 

mwrnta, 97. 

— : SM&>m»M(ta, 97. 

Turaeoena menadensis, 85. 
Turbmoliidce, 306, 307, 309-327. 
Turdus avensls, 61. 

cantor, 79. 

chalybeus, 79. 

columbinus, 79. 

dominions, 69. 

eremita, 63. 

— insidiator, 79. 

manilla, 63. 

manillensis, 63. 

mauritianus, 80. 

Turdus orientalis, 69. 

pcdmanim, 80. 

philippensis, 63. 

strigatus, 79. 

<em«, 69. 

Turnix rufilatus, 87. 

Turtur cJiinensis, 85. 

tigrina, 85. 

Typhon robusta, 98. 

Ulocyaihus arcticus, 307, 322. 

Urospiza torquata, 106. 

Venilia cdbertula, 42. 

Tiralva indica, 103. 

Volvocivora melaschistos, 69. 

mono, 69, 10S. 

Walden, Arthur, Viscount. A list of birds known 
to inhabit the Island of Celebes, 23. 

. Appendix to a list^ of birds known to inhabit 

the Island of Celebes, 109. 

Weka, 119, 120. 

Wombat (see Phascolomys). 

, bare-nosed, 346, 350, 351. 

Yungipicus lisuki, 42, 111. 

temmincl-ii, 41, 111. 

Zapornica nigrolineata, 94. 

Ziphioid Whales, on the recent, with a description 
of the skeleton of Berardivs arnoucci, by W. H. 
Flower, 203. 

, dimensions of a large, stranded in Wor- 
sens Bay, 215, 216. 

Ziphiofi-Jn/tuhus cryptodon, 208. 

Zipliivs australis, 224. 

cavirostris, 206-208, 224. 

gcrvaisii, 207. 

indicus, 208. 

layardii, 211. 

sowerbyi, 210. 

Zonmias radiata, 84. 

Zosterops atrifrons, 72, 108. 

intermedia, 72, 108. 

nigrifrons, 72. 















I. On Bisso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus (Cuv.). By William Henry Flower, F.B.S., 

F.B.C.S., V.P.Z.S., Hunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Conservator 
of the Museum of the Boyal College of Surgeons of England .... page 1 

II. A List of the Birds known to inhabit the Island of Celebes. By Arthur, Viscount 

Walden, F.B.S., President of the Society . 23 

III. Appendix to a List of Birds known to inhabit the Island of Celebes. By Arthur, 

Viscount Walden, F.B.S., President of the Society 109 

IV. On Dinornis (Part XVII.) : containing a Description of the Sternum and Pelvis, 

with an attempted Bestoration, of Aptornis defossor, Ow. By Professor Owen, 
F.B.S., F.L.S., &c .' 119 

V. On the Form and Structure of the Manatee (Manatus americanus). By Dr. James 

Murie, F.L.S., F.G.S., &c, late Prosector to the Zoological Society . . .127 

VI. On the Becent Ziphioid Whales, with a Description of the Skeleton of Berardius 

arnouxi. By William Henry Flower, F.B.S., V.P.Z.S., Hunterian Professor 
of Comparative Anatomy, and Conservator of the Museum of the Boyal College 
of Surgeons of England 203 

VII. On the Organization of the Caaing Whale, Globiocephalus melas. By Dr. James 

Murie, F.L.S., F.G.S., &c 235 

VIII. A Description of the Madreporaria dredged up during the Expeditions of H. M.S. 

'■Porcupine'' in 1869 and 1870. By Professor P. Martin Duncan, M.B. (Lond.), 
F.B.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology to King's College, London, &c. . . . 303 

IX. On the Osteology of the Marsupialia. (Part III.) Modifications of the Skeleton in 

the Species of Phascolomys. By Professor Owen, F.B.S., F.Z.S., &c. . . 345 

X. On Dinornis (Part XVIII.) : containing a Description of the Pelvis and Bones of 

the Leg of Dinornis gravis. By Professor Owen, F.B.S., F.Z.S., &c. . . 361 


XI. On Dinornis (Part XIX.) : containing a Description of a Femur indicative of a new 

Genus of large Wingless Bird (Dromornis australis, Owen) from a post-tertiary 
deposit in Queensland, Australia. By Professor Owen, F.B.S., F.L.S., &c. . 381 

XII. On the Axial Skeleton of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus). By St. Geoege 

Mivart, F.B.S. 385 

XIII. On the Osteology and Dentition of Hylomys. By John Anderson, M.D., Curator 
of the Indian Museum, and Professor of Comparative Anatomy in the Medical 
College, Calcutta 453 

XIV. Beport on the Hydroida collected during the Fapeditions of II. M.S. '■Porcupine.' 
By Professor G. J. Allman, F.B.S 469 

XV. On the Osteology of the Marsupialia. (Part IV.) Bones of the Trunk and Limbs, 

Phascolomys. By Professor Owen, C.B., F.B.S., F.Z.S 483 

XVI. Besearches upon the Anatomy of the Pinnipedia. — Part III. Descriptive Anatomy 

of the Sea-lion (Otaria jubata). By Dr. James Murie, F.L.S., F.G S., &c, 
late Prosector to the Society 501 

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VOLUME VII. (1869-1872, containing 73 Plates) 

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I. On the Dentition and Osteology of the Maltese fossil Elephants, being a Description 
of Remains discovered by the Author in Malta between the years 1860 and 1866. 
By A. Leith Adams, M.B., F.E.S., F.G.S 1 


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