(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A Research in the History of Wilhelm Reich's Ideas and the Search for Evidence Through his Cloud Buster Machine"

Alessio Tognetti 



Spring 2002 



"A research in the history of Wilhelm Reich's ideas, and the search for evidence 
through his Cloud Buster machine" 




Todd Little-Siebold (Project Director/ Academic advisoi 
Gideon Culman (Stixlent advisor) : C-r'. :r^--^^^— 



Acknowledgements 



I wish to thank Millard Dority and all the folks at C.OA. Building & Grounds for putting 
up with me wile working on the replica Qoudbuster and for helping me with tools and 
materials that I would not have known how to use otherAAise. 

I would also like to thank Chemistry Professor Don Cass who lent more than his 
fair share of helping hand in the aeation and implementation of the testing system for my 
project. Last but not least I would like to thank my Academic/Project Advisors Todd 
LittleSiebold & John Visvader, without whom constant encouragements, ideas and 
persistence I would have never been able to complete this project. And of course my two 
readers Gideon Culman and Ben Volta without whose impartial comment my project would 
have made no sense what so ever. 

Thanks to all. 



Table of Contents 



X Part one: The history of the path that brought Reich to realize his 

revolutionary ideas in psychoanalysis. 4 



X Part two: The journey from psychoanalysis to biology: from the mind to the 
bodybioelectiicity. ^8 



X Part tree: The discovery of biones and the Orgon Energy odyssey; from the 
n^erious radation to the Orgon acamulator. 1 3 



X Part four: A brief history of the Qoud buster machine: origin, usage, and 
vMtnesses, 21 



X Part five: My quest, via the study of my replica Qoud Buster machine, to 
CTeate a system capable of objectively determining what if any of 
Reich's daims are true. My data and conclusions. 31 



Introduction: 

between 1 930 and 1 956 the worid canie to know the niind, ideas and inv^^ 
Austrian bom professor Wilhelm Reich. Because some of Wilhelm Reich's theories and 
inventions were so "out of this worid", he v\^ either conadered a genius, or completely 
insana This has aeated a cichotomy between those who have been exposed to Reich's 
ideas. On one side, devoted followers, live their lives in search of his mythical Orgon 
energy, trying to harness it and in so doing prove once and for all to the worid that Reich 
was unjustly persecuted for his radical concepts. On the other , skeptics devote their time 
trying to challange the wori< of the believers, showing that Reich's theories have no real 
scientific basis, and therefore no fijrther time should be expended to research them. 

Some of those who knew Reich's wori< fell under an exceptionally rare third 
category, where skepticism melds with interest and curiosity. It is in the perspective of this 
category that ths project was devised: to research and investigate the history of Reich's 
ideas, invention and experiments. This b attempted through the reconstruction of one of his 
experiments/ machines, the Qoud Buster, to scientifically asses -within the limits of time 
and resources available - the verity of at least some of Reich's ideas. 

I did not expect the results of this project to definitely conclude the debate on 

Reich's ideas, but in the end I expected it to bring some small amount of evidence that 

would, whether pro or cons, help cast some light on the situation. 

PART ONE: The history of the path that brotght Reth to realize his revolutionary ideas in 
Psychoanalysis 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/researchinhistorOOales 



Of the respected psychiatrists of our century, Wilhelm Reich is one of the most 
influential after Freud, at least when discussing the field of psychoanalysis and sexuality. 
Bom in Austria in 1 897, during his education Reich became interested in medicine and in the 
functioning of the human mind. He was trained at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and 
joined the faculty of the Vienna P^choanalytic Institute in 1 924. 

Almost immediately Reich became a leading figure in his field. As he realized how 
poorly and ineffectively the sexual aspect of psychology was regarded and taught at the 
Institute, he took the matter into his own hands and started organizing a seminar course 
focused on sexuality. As Reich recalls, "The suggestion was made to invite an older 
p^choanalyst to deliver a series of lectures on sexuality. ... I heard a great deal that was 
new, and I was very much intaested, but somehow the lecturer was not worthy of the 
subject" (The FurKtion of the Orgasm, pg. 2 1). 

It was at this time, 1 924, whfle in Vienna, that Reich came aaoss the work of Jung 
and of Freud for the first time. Although he did not immediately become a disdple of Freud, 
Reich assimilated his ideas, and slowly studied his discoveries; this study experience 
changed him deeply. " I committed myself completely to psychoanalysis and threw myself 
into it totally, I acquired a general grounding in natural sciences and natural philosophy; It 
was the basic theme of sexuality which compelled me to undertake these studes" (The 
Function of the Orgasm, pg. 22). 

Reich grappled with the problem of the relation between the quantitative concept of 
"ckive" and the qualitative concept of "pleasure". Accading to Freud, the drive was 
determined by the quantity of the excitation, by the amount of libido. "In keeping with the 



system of thought known to me at that time, the quantitative facta and qualitative factor 
were incompatible, absolutely separated spheres. I had reached a dead end" {The Function 
of the Orgasm, pg. 53). With this dinlcal-theoretical take of the problem of "drive", Reich 
had come extremely dose to the mechanistic thinking, in which "opposites are opposite and 
therefore incompatible" (7776 Function of the Orgasm, pg. 53). It is at this point in time that 
Reich dedded to use only dinical material and tried to stay away from theoretical essays. 
In 1 922,Reich started his independent career as a psychoanalyst, at first following 
the steps of Freud; during his career the detemiination of genital and non-genital sexuality is 

an idea that would continually be the fulcmm , 

of all his conceptions and representations in 
the field of sex-economy. In Diagram 
l(r^/Tt), Reich tried to explain the 
differentiation between genital and non- 
genital mechanisms: "on the outside of the 
crde, we see that the excitation retrogresses 
before reaching the peak. On the inside, we see that the discharge fijlly resolves the 
accumulated tension and reduces the excitation to zero." {The Function of the Org^m, pg. 
54). 

The dagram is also an eariy representation of Rdch's main psychological/biological theory, 
according to which, as I will later explain in more detail, the tension and successive 
relaxation of the body due to "natural genital act" trigger the discharge of energy, which 
would otherwise accumulate dangerously in the body with the risk of damaging the brain. 




In the summer of 1 922 Reich received his medcal degree from the University of 
Vienna. His interests in this period were mainly directed toward schizophrenia. At that 
time, psychiatry merely described and classified schizophrenia; there was no treatment for 
it. Reich wori<ed as an intern for a year at the Bleuler Institute (a mental institution) when 
the modem theory on schizophrenia, based on Freud, was beginning to gain prominence. 

Wrth the passing of time and an inaeased amount of dinical experience, however, 
Reich realized that Freud's allegations - that the discovery of unconscious mechanism 
would have allowed the construction of a causal psychotherapy - were simply not true. " 
At issue were the fdbwing questions: Is the Freudian theory on the etiology of the 
neurosis complete? Is it possible to arrive at a scientific theory of technique and therapy? Is 
the Freudian theory of instinct correct? Is it complete? If not, where is it lacking? What 
made sexual repression (which lead to the epidemic of neurosis) necessary in the first 
place?" (Charxter Analysis pg. 267). These are the true questions that would lead Reich to 
construct his sex-economy theory. 
PART TWO: Jhepumey from psychoanalysis to tx)logy from the irind to the body bioelecthcity. 

Since his first dinical observation in 1 920, Reich felt he had successfully 
interpreted the fijnctioning of the neurosB and aeated a psychoanalytical system to cure it; 
he believed that in this conflict between instinct and moral prindples, between ego and the 
outside world, the organism is forced to create an armor to protect itsdf against both 
instinct and the surroundings. It is a "hard and rigid armor" that results in the limitation of 



vital faculties needed in everyday life, creating an unhealthy individual, but one still 

functional enough to benefit society. 

In 1 920 he now had enough material to make his revolutionary final step: 
"Over the course of two years, I had collected sufficient material to permit me to 
make this formulation: the disturbance of geniality b not, as previously believed, 
one symptom among others, it is thssymptom of neurosis. Little by little the 
evidence pointed to one conclusion: p^chic illness is not only a result of a sexual 
disturbance in the broad FreucSan sense; even more correctly, it is the result of the 
dsturbance of the genital fijnction, in the strict sense of the orgiastic impotence." 
(The Rnction of the Orgasm, pg. 7 10). 

Unfortunately, the crucial problem of orgiastic impotence reminded still unsolved; if 
it is possible for the genitals to be filled with blood without a trace of excitation, then sexual 
excitation cannot be a manifestation of the flow of blood. "In addition to the flow of blood 
there must be sometNng else wNch, depending upon its bidogica! fijnction, causes anxiety 
anger or pleasure[. . ..] Perhaps this unknown "something" does not occur when movemeit 
of body fluid is hindered." (The Function of the Orgasm, pg. 272). 

In Reich's opinion the unknown something could be nothing else than 
"bioelectridty". Bioelectridty is an occurrence common in nature, throughout the animal 
kingdom, whenever reproduction takes place in the union of two sexes. Two surfaces of the 
body rub against one another. In this process, biological excitation takes place. 'The animal 
body is governed by electrical processes. It is made up of countless bader surfaces 
between membranes and electrolytic fluids, having various densities and composition." (The 
Function of the Orgasm, pg. 273). 

Consequently to this realization, Reich theorized that since our body also consists 
of such potential surfaces, wNch have various potential energy, then the energy in the body 



is in constant motion from places of higher concentration to places of lower. The tiny 
partides of fluid are transmitters of the electrical charges in this continuous process: "these 
are atoms which possess a fixed quantum of electrical charge, and, depending upon whether 
they are moving toward negative or positive pde are called cations or anions." (The 
Function of the Orgasm, pg. 275). One might ask what does all this have to do with the 
problem of sexuality? In Reich's opinion, sexual tension is fett throughout the body, but it 
is experienced most strongly in the region of the sexual organs. As the sexual organs become 
congested with blood, electrical charges reach the surface of the genitals. 

In gen&3\, the wfx)le process can be described with what Reich called the Orgasm 
Fomiula : MECHANICAL TENSIONJ ELECTRICAL CHARGEJ 
ELECTRICAL DISCHARGER MECHANICAL RELAXATION. 
See Digram 2. (bdow) 



Neurotic character 

Reactive work 



Genital character 



Protest, 
escape 

Sexual 
energy 
inhibited, 
repressed 




Sexuality 



Work 



Sexual 
^ ^ repression 



Biologica 
nucleus 




Oscillation of 
biological energy 



No sexual repression 



The way these biological observations reconnect with Reich's psychological 
theories are quite dearly exemplified in Diagram 3 (below) 



THE FUNCTION OK THE ORGASM 




Secondary impulse, 
neurotic symptom 
Anxiety 
Primary impulse 
Center (biological core) 

Muscular armor 

Periphery 



the central core of the body sends out primary impulses (usually of sexual nature); anxiety 
due to social restraints produces a "muscular armor", and this arma filters the primary 
impulses, deflecting part of them back to the biological core under fomi of addrtional 
anxiety, and letting part of them go through under the fiarm of secondary impulses or 
neurotic symptoms. What Reich had to do now, was to scientifically prove that this electric 
charge actually existed and that it actually moved through the body. 

In 1 927, Osta he taught character analysis, and as recompense he was given the 
opportmity to carry out some experiments he had planned. The main question these 
experiments sought to answer was whether sexual organs in a state of excitation would 
show an inaease in bioelectric charge. After several months of planning, a machine was 
buit to begin testing. It was "An apparatus consisting of a chain of electron tubes. The idea 



was that the electric potential of the body would dsturb the steady current of the tttoe, 
would be amplified by the apparatus, transmitted to an electromagnetic oscilloscope, and 
made visible on a piece of paper by reflection from a mirror" (The Function Of the Orgasm, 
P9.369). 

Reich reports in his journals how, after a number of attempts needed to gain an 
accurate calibration of the machine, "the picture became dear." The experiments were 
carried out over a period of two yeans and the results were quite stunning. Reich concluded 
that the surface of the entire organism was constitutedof a porous membrane; this 
membrane exHbited an electric potential with respect to any part of the body where the 
epidermis had been abraded. Undamaged skin possessed a steady or basic potential. This 
potential differed only slightly from individual to individual (1 to 20 mv). After calibration 
of the apparatus, the steady charge appeared on the graph as a steady straight line. Later 
subjects who were stimulated to excitation in the sexual zones would cause the line to peak 
up initially and down successively creating a wavHike graph. This paralleled an 
intensification and a deaease of the sense of pleasure. It is interesting to notice that ths 
difference in potential, when tested for in inorganic material, appeared null, leaving for the 
conclusion that this phenomenon, this energy, can be related only to living organisms. 



PART THREE: The discovery of biones and the Orgon Energy odyssey; from the 
mysterious radiation to the Orgon accumulator. 



What can only be described as a stupid laboratory accident, would prove invaluable 
to Reich to go from the general idea of bioelectric energy, to the dscovery of Orgon energy 
and the formulation of its related theories. In January 1 939, during some experiments 
designed as follow-ups of the static charge tests, one of Reich's assistants mistakenly 
heated a sample of oceanic sand instead of a sample of humus. "After two days in a 
potassium chloride culture a growth emerged from the sand that, once inoculated in egg ydk 
and agar[an algae extract commonly used for growth culture], spawned a new gelatinous 
yellow formation" ( Vita e opera di W. Reich II, p.47). 

This new formation was very particular. Regularly a culture that is formed from 
dfferent organic materials presents dfferent organic growth, a culture of egg and cheese for 
example would give origin to growth of different types of bacteria. This one was quite a 
stunning exception to the rule. In fact, although it formed from such a peculiar mix, it was 
considered pure, or, in other words it was composed of only one type of "vesicular form" 
a growth. Once samples of this formation were magnified first 400x and then up to 4000x 
it revealed to be made up of conglomerates of 6 to 1 of this "pure" vesides; Reich decided 
to baptize these biones SAPA (SAnd PAcket). 

It is generally agreed that is with this step that Reich passed the already delicate line 
between being revolutionary geniuses of psychiatry, into the controversial realm of 
Orgonomy. The major controversy comes ftxxn the feet that, if on one hand Reich was a 



capable psychiatrist, on the other he had no training on the realm of physics which, as it 

will be shown would play a significant rde in his theories. It seems therefore logical that 

Roger M. Wilcox, one of the few Reich critics that took the time to put his ideas in writing, 

focuses his critique on this specific point. 

"I find it odd that Reich referred to these "scarcely motile" packets of 
vesides as "bions." Bions — using whichever of the three definitions for "bion" 
Reich gives in The Bion Experiments and The Cancer Bopathy— are supposed to 
be half-way alive. SAPA "bions," from Reich's photographs and descriptions, 
seem more like nonliving crystals that happen to have a veside-like intemal 
structure. Reich made no mention of SAPA bions expandng, contrBCting, or 
exhibiting an interia movement. Periiaps Reich called anything that looked like 
vesicles under a microscope "bions." Reich dd have a tendency to assume that if 
two tNngs looked similar, they had a common cause, or "common fijnctioning 
prindple" — for instance, he later insisted that hurricanes and galaxies were both 
formed by converging Orgone energy streams because they both looked like two- 
armed spirals" OTttp/AxxrenetconrLCcrn/--mgeninw/R<^^ ) 

Althou^ none of the above is proof that Reich was making stuff up, Wilcox seems to 
definitely hit on some of the tender spots in Reich general attitude towards the events. It is 
a well known feet that to certain degree, lack in precision when recadng data seems to 
plague all his remaining sdentific woric 

The SAPA presented two major characteristics: first, as Reich recorded, they 
appeared to have the ability to immobilize badlli and cancerous cdls. 'They would kill or 
paralyze all these miCTOorganisms up to a distance of 1 microns" (Vita e opera di W. Reich 
II, p.48) Rach b said to have microfilmed this events and later described them in this 
fashion "... once the cancerous cell was pushed to this distance [1 micron] it would fi-eeze 
all of its activity, it would then start spinning on to itself, and in the end remain completely 
paralyzed and de" (Vita e opera di W. Reich II, p.48). 



Rega'dng this aspect as well Wilcox seems to have some interesting observation to 

aid dsceming between reality and fiction: 

'Chances are, the SAPA bions' lethal effect on other organisms had nothing 
whatsoever to do with their blue cdor. But Reich thought otherwise, [as objective 
observer I fed it is rr^ need here to wander how he — Wilcox - hss cmie to this 
conckjaon oth&- than \nAh even greater speculation than the one he accuses Reich 
of/ Several months before the first SAPA bion experiment, Reich received a letter 
fi-om Dr. Bon, asking Reich if he'd seen any radiation in bions. Bon w^ convinced 
that life is a manifestation of radiation, and had quarreled with his colleagues about 
this topic for many yeans. This idea doubtlessly struck a chord in Reich now that, 
months after having received the letter, Reich saw SAPA bions "glimmer" blue and 
kill other organisms at the great dstance (microscopically speaking) of 1 microns. 
(http/AxniejTetconicom/~mgemTw/1^eidVrde>chtni ) 

The second major characteristic was noted as Reich and his colleagues would report 
mild to severe cases of inflammation of the eye they used to analyze the SAPA under the 
miaoscope - this was opposed to no inflammation at all when examining other materials. 
Reich concluded that such a strong reaction could only be due to a very high energy output; 
he decided to test this theory by putting a sample of SAPA on a quartz strip and put said 
strip in contact with his hand. After only 1 minutes, discoloration of the skin and anemic 
sigre in the epiderms occurred. Later consultation with professor Moxnes at the Oncology 
dinic of Osto revealed that those types of ^mptoms were consistent with radiation 
exposure, but it would have taken a couple of days of X-rays or radium exposure to present 
similar results. 

Another important manifestation of this radiation was its seemingly pervasive 
presence of this radiation in the room that housed the specimens; this was manifested by 
headaches and a sense of oppression - similar to oxygen deprivation symptoms - even if 



the room had been aerated just an our before. This pushed Reich to try to see if he could 
collect evidence of the radiation. Reich took several pictures of the room in a similar 
fiasNon to the way X-rays pictures are taken; the result was a series of pictures of the room 
that appeared to be permeated by a gray4Dlue misL The observation of the potential radant 
characteristic of this biological energy from the sand culture would prove very important in 
the formulation of the omni-present Orgon energy theory. 

Wilcox's account of the above information is slightly different; it does not differ 
greatly but in just the right place. Although I decided to include his reaction to Reich's 
experiment, I have some reserves since it appears to me that Wilcox might have tampered 
with the infonnation. 



I wouldn't call Reich's conjunctivitis "fantastic" so much as "unrelated to 
the SAPA bions." Conjunctivitis, more commonly known as Rnk Eye, is usually 
caused by bacterial infection of one eye, in which case it usually spreads rapidly 
to the otha eye. tt can also be caused by aflergies, physical irritation (e.g. rubbing 
your eyes too much), a chemical irritation. [In my copy of the book apparently 
severe people suffered of this conjunctMtis. All at the ^me time all after bokirg 
at the bions and Reidi spedfic^ly say that the intation occurred in the eye he used 
to look in the miaoscxjpe]. The fact that it afflicted Reich in both eyes suggests a 
bacterial infection, periiaps from a dirty microscope eyepiece. Nowadays, such 
an infection would be treated by antibiotic eye drops, but antibbtics were not 
available in 1 939, and all his ophthalmologist could prescribe were dari< glasses 
and laying off the microscope wori< for a while. Since Reich's bion preparations 
provided excellent breeding grounds for many types of bacteria, it also wouldn't 
surprise me if Reich had, say, accidentally wiped a finger across one of his eyes 
after handing a bion preparation and gotten conjunctivitis this way. Reich, 
however, was convinced that his conjunctivitis was due to the SAPA bions' 
racfeition, and the fact that he got conjunctivitis in both eyes, e\/en though he'd 
been restricting his observations to one eye, later implied to him that the SAPA 
bions' radiation was affecting his eyes even when he wasn't looking at it." 

(http/AioniejTetcomaxn/~nyemTw/Rdch/ride>dtrri ) 



Following the cxxijunctivitis incident, Reich wrote: "I evidently had been dealing with an 
unknown energy, capable of a specific biological activity. Such energy seems to be 
produced in matter heated to incandescence and let in dilatation in specific solutions. . . this 
was the same energy with which my biones kifled bacteria and cancerous cells; the same 
type of biologically radiated energy that was registered in previous skin electric-potential 
experiments" ( Wta e opera d W. Reidi II, p.51). 

Reich had all the material he needed to make his final statement, in which he 
announced the discovery of this "organically omni present" energy which he came to 
baptize Orgon . This term is indicative of its story, fi-om the "orgasm formula" to the 
organic origin of the radiation. It was that particular "something" that he needed to connect 
the almost intangible realm of psychiatry and that of biology. 

In the summer of 1 940, briefly after Reich moved to the US due to the war in 
Europe, he decided to travd to Maine to enjoy a brief vacation. While he was observing the 
stars in a night of fijil moon he noticed that "The stars in the occidental portion of the sl^, 
where the moon sNned, seemed to flicker less that the stars in the oriental portion of the 
sky." ( Vita e opera d W. Reich II, p.58) 

Reich was struck by this, he knew that astronomers claimed the flicker of starlight 
to be caused by light cfiffiision phenomena. Therefore, in his opinion the flicker should have 
been the sane if not greater in the vicinity of the moon. 

Reich started observing the stars through a hollow wooden pipe; to his surprise he 
identified in the dar1<er areas of the sl^ a series of blue flickers and lines. Amazingly, these 
were exactly the same as he had recorded in his observations of the SAPA. Once again 



Reich felt he had no other dioice but to speoMe tiiat liie fl^ 

Orgon energy. In his eyes this demonstrated that Orgon was indeed an omni-present 

energy. 

Following these observations, Reich, all too aware of the need for objective proof of 
his theories, concentrated his effort in devising some kind of instrument that could in the 
end give hrn the edge in this struggle. Starting from his previous observations. In which he 
noted that the bluish mist (Orgon) tended to be attracted by organic material and repelled 
by metals he had an idea: 

"He built a metallic box of approximately thirty centimeter in side, on the 
top SLfffece he attached a cylinda 1 5 centimeters tall and approximately five 
centimeters in dameter. In tiiis c^inder he introduced a thennometer, he set this 
so it would be equidistant ftiom the sides of the cylinda. . .he then used cotton 
flakes to envelope the metal box, and he fixed it in place by creating a slightly 
brger wooden box that would hold the entire apparatus. Reich's hypothesis was 
that if the organic material attracted the Orgon energy and the metal refracted it, 
this would have caused a certain type of "friction" that would have in turn 
oToeased the temperatire of the box." 

(Vita e opera di W. Reich II, 60) 

This experiment was successfrjl; a variance in tonperature between box and room 
was recorded as being in average between 1 .8 to 2.8 degrees Celsius; due to this box's 
ability to allegedly attract and trap the Orgon energy from the atmosphere, Reich decided to 
call it an Orgon Accumulator. This will prove to be one of the major points in Reich's 
venture. All to well aware of the significance of his work, Reich attempted to contact the 
"scientific authorities" only to be met by skepticism and disinterest. The only alternative 
was to turn drectly to the master of physics himself. 



Albeit Bnstein had, like Reich, fled to the United States to avoid the war and Nazi 
persecution. On December 30 1 940 Reich wrote to Bnstein - who at the time was worWng 
at Princeton University. In his letter Reich briefly explained his psychoanalytical past and 
his more recent encotinter with the mysterious energy, but being the matter too long and 
complicated to be explained in a simple letter, he required a personal meeting. To Reich's 
relief Einstein replied only a few days later fixing an encounter at his house for the 1 3* of 
January. 

During this long encounter Reich and Bnstein exchanged information and 
experimental data. Records of the meeting show that, after Reich explained in fijil his theory 
about the atmospheric energy and the effects he recorded in the Orgon Accumulator, 
Bnstein was quoted exclaiming: "this is incredible. If true this could be a great 'bomb' [by 
bomb he meant a thing of extraordnary impact]" ( Vita e opera d W. Reich II, p.64) 

Unfortunately what could have proven an amazing relationship was cut short by the 
war, when Bnstein was isolated by the govemment to work on the Manhattan Project. 



PART FOUR: A brief history of the Cloud Buster machine: origin, usage, and witnesses. 



Amongst the vast ocean of experiments and data that Reich had collected, there was 
evidence that the Orgonic potential was present in particularly high quantity in dry sunny 
days; the levels would on the other hand drop drastically during humid days. From this 
Reich deduced that water (and therefore also vapor) had the particular property to "fix" 
Orgon energy. Amongst other things this was for him a legitimate explanation for why the 
human agansm would feel so depressed and deprived of energy during humid or muggy 
days. 

This phenomenon depended on the fact that the body could not absorb Orgon from 
the atmosphere and therefore suffered of an "energy deprivation syndrome". Symptoms of 
this deprivation are similar to those of sleep deprivation. 

If water vapa had the ability to absoriD and fix Orgon energy, Reich conducted that 
clouds had to be systems with high Orgonic potential. Based on the principle that Orgon 
energy tends to pass from systems of low potential to those of higher potential, Reich 
hypothesized that it would be possible to obtain dissolution of douds by redudng their 
Orgonic potential and vice versa, create them by increasing it. Remembering that metals 
acted like repellant preventing Orgon energy from sticking to their surface, he surmised that 
hdfow metal pipes would make the best "frictionless conduit." The Orgon energy would 
have been abte to flow inside this pipes being repelted all the way around aeating an effect 




of no resistance similar to the one 

obtained by suspending a piece of 

metal between two powerful 

etectromagiets. 

Reich therefore proceeded to 

construct a battery of hollow pipes, 

one end of which would be pointed . , 

toward the sl^ and the other would be grounded into water by means of other flexible metal 

tubes. The hypothesis was that the pipes would have attracted Orgon energy from the 

douds, and dscharged it into the mass of water. Throughout a series of experiments Reich 

was successful in determining that if this battery w^ pointed directly to a cumulus doud, it 

would cause it to destabilize and eventually disappear^ if the battery was pointed In the 

vidnity of a cumulus doud it would cause it to become larger. 

The prindples of Qoud Busting through Orgon manipulation are better explained 
by Reich himself in what is one of the few remaining copies of his journal of Orgonimy. 
These journals however present the reader with some puzzling ideas and contradictory 
statements: Reich introduces his article on doud busting by spedfying how the temi 
"Cbud Busting" will be utilized: "The temi "Qoud Busting", as used in this paper, shall 
denote afl engineering techniques which deal with the destruction as wdl as the formation of 
douds of water vapor in the atmosphere. . .". Knowing about Reich's theories, this portion 
of the text might be curiously interesting or even a bit weird, but it does not stray too much 
from a possible reality of things; however, to condude his introduction, Reich chooses 



words like "... Orgone energy of all kinds including gravity;" {Rdch, pg 1 76. Appendix I), 
which throws doubt onto the verity of his ideas. 

Reich continue the article/paper, by discussing the technological use of the 
"Orgonomic Potential". He writes: "the Orgonomic potential denotes all functions in nature 
which depend on the flow of cosmic energy, or potential, from low to high or from weaker 
to sOtTjger systems" (Rdch, pg 7 76. AppencSx I) Here too the argument is introduced in 
understandable and acceptable concepts and ideas, but again it moves on to strange and hard 
to accept concepts: " the Orgonomic potential is most dearly expressed in the maintenance, 
in most animals on this planet, of a temperature higher than that of the environment, and in 
the function of gravitational attraction. In both cases, the stronger energy system daws 
energy from, or attracts a weaker system neariDy." (Rddi, pg 7 76. Appendix I) This second 
half of the argument is meant to give examples of Orgonomic potential in nature. The 
gravitational example fits his description and, if we ignore our standard conception of 
gavity, his statement makes sensa On the other hand the example about animal heat seems 
to have no connection or even to make any sense at all. 

Reich divides the manipulation of Orgon for doud busting purposes in two 
categories: " A. Inaease of the OR [Orgon] potential. B. deaees of OR potential. . . 
If we wish to destroy douds we must use the Orgonomic potential in such manner that the 
potential deaeases. If we wish to aeate clouds or to inaease the power of existing douds, 
we must use the OR potential in such a manner that the potential between douds and their 
immedate environment inaeases. . .. Snce at present, adding energy to the atmosphere is 
not yet possible, we must use the other prindple, that of drawing energy from the 



atmosphere." {Rdch, pg 7 77. Appendx I). Once again the first portion of Reich's writing 
seem to make sense, at least if we were to accept his original Orgon theory as correct, but 
once we adventure in some of the technical portion of his writing, where he attempts to 
explain how such manipulation can be obtained, we encounter what can only be described 
as a confusing set of ideas and far- fetch speculation. "Ths is accomplished by changing, 
basically, the principle of the functioning of the lighting rod. [so far so good] The lightning 
rod, too, fijnctions according to OR energy principles, since "lightning" is atmospheric OR 
energy dscharge in a very narrow space. . .the lighting rod system fijnctions accordhg to 
Orgonomic, and not accading to electrical principals." (Reidi, pg 7 77. Appendix I) Although 
It could be attributed to a lack of ability to explain this peculiar physical phenomenon, it is 
statement such as this last one that put Reich's reputation in clanger. 
(See appendix I for complete copy ofMICROFIU^D PAGES 7 76 TO 182,) 

Many people met Reich's ideas with skepticism especially with regard to ths 
seemingly sdence-fictional idea of weather control. Nonetheless Reich was not dscouraged 
by the way the worid perceived him and kept going with his experiments. 
In July of 1 953 his persistency paid off, giving him a chance to prove to an "audience" 
that he could indeed influence weather patterns. As reported by the " Yanl<ee magazines. 
On the edge of science", on July third of the same year Maine was prisoner of a devastating 
drought, forest fires were raging through the landscape, and forest fire officials had declared 
a level 3 "hazardous" conditions in most of Maine. 

An Ellsworth blueberry grower, Osmon Menill, was worried about his crops, and 
diven to desperation dedded to act on a runia that he had heand recently about a sderrtM 



in the north west of Maine who was able to make it rain, this scientist was named Wilhelm 

Reich. Merrill dedded to call on Reich promising a thousand dollars if he could make it rain 

and save his crops. "Monday morning, July 6, 1 953, dawned dear, hot, and dry with no 

rain in sight. Tom Ross [one of Reich's assistant] loaded a doud buster onto a truck and 

drove it to BIsworth falls, about 1 40 miles to the east. Reich followed in his car." (Yankee 

magazriepg 130) 

After Reich had set up his machine and immerse the tubes in the water near the 

Banga hydroelectric dam, he began to draw east to west. Merrill recalls to this day "the 

douds began to change, they were getting darker and coming arourd ..." after about an hour 

Reich stopped, packed up and left with these words "that's it. You'll get your rain." 

Around midnight it started to rain and by morning an inch of rain had fallen. The drought 

had been broken. 

Ending the BIsworth drought of 53 was not the only occasion Rdch had to 

have his theory put to the test. Charles R. Kelly a meteorologist of the U.S. Air Force who 

had worked in the forecasting business during W.W. II took some interest in Reich's daims 

and in 1 953 decided to investigate Nm self . 

"Oven my meteorological background that artide [one about Reich's 
machine] was quite surprise for me, and I studied it with a good amount of 
skepticism. . .. None the less the following summer, during a vacation I found 
myself near the Wrengly laboratory in Maine, there Reich himself demonstrated 
his Ckxidbuster in action. . . I started observing the sl^ in the direction where the 
machine was porrted: it appeared that the douds in the dstance started to vibrate, 
for a few moments nothing happened. Then to my astonishment, the douds 
started to dBsotve, in about ten minutes the entire doud was gone." (Vita e opera 
di W.Reich II, p.l 64) 



Like all good scientists Kelly was not satisfied with that one demonstration, he 
decided to build his own doud buster, and started experimenting on his own. "I attempted 
many experiments over a period of three years. . . dfferent types of douds took different 
amount of time to disintegrate, but none the less they would dssotve, wile the control 
douds would remain unchanged." (Vita e opera di W. Reich 11, p.1 65) 

Reich and his followers were so convinced of the workings of the doud buster that 
decided to create a set of parameters for those that might attempt to built and use one: 

RULES TO FOLLOW IN CLOUD ENGINEERING by Wilhelm Reich 

X 1 . Shed all ambition to impress anyone. 

I 2. Never play around with rain making or doud busting. The OR envelope which 
you tackle while "drawing" energy from the atmosphere is an energetic continuum of 
high power. You may cause twisters. You may stir a forest fire into the wrong 
direction. You may do other damage without intendng to do so. Never do anything 
unless you must 

X 3. If experimenting: it is important to observe and know why you are doing what, 
that you can achieve immediate results. Slowly growing comprehension will secure 
later results safely. 

Z 4. In doud engineering you do not "create rain," - you do no^' destroy douds," - 
briefly, you are not playing God. What you do is solely helping nature on its natural 
course. 

I 5. Have your equipment, truck, etc. especially all metal parts well grounded into 
water, preferably flowing water. Lack of grounding imperils your organism. 

Z 6. Do not let workers draw OR [ORgon] energy anylonger if they become blue or 
purple in their faces or fed dEzy. Exchange the workers; let them rest far enough 
way, and have their faces and arms always wetted down with fresh water. 

Z 7. Do not hold on to pipes or other metal parts while you draw OR. Always use a 
separate plastic a wooden handle to move equipment while clawing. Have your 
hands always well insulated with rubber or heavy cotton gloves. 



X 8. Have signs put up in such a manner that no one is hurt by OR charges. Do not let 
people stand dose by. Among them may be men or women who are ill and would 
run some clanger to their health. 

I 9. Never "drill a hole" into the s\o/ right above you unless you aim for a long drawn 
rain. 

I 1 0. When you feel a breeze or wind setting in due to your operation, stop drawing if 
the wind drection becomes too strong a even if it acquire the appearance of a 
twister. 

I 1 1 . If you wish to remove DOR [Deadly ORgon] clouds, draw in drection of run of 
OR envelope. 

I 1 2. If you wish to DESTROY clouds or to stop rain, am at center ofhea\^est 
clouds. 

Z 1 3. If you wish to make douds grow heavier, draw from the vidnity of the smaller 
clouds, and have the large or heavy douds undfeturiDed. 

I 1 4. If there are no douds in the sky and douds ^ould be aeated, dsturb the 
stillness or evenness of the OR envelope all around you by brief, sweeping draws 
and ctaw mainly against the run of the OR envdope. To aeate douds you must 
CTeate differences of OR energy potentials. 

(published by the Orgone Institute in "CORE" July 1 954 Vd. VI Nos. 1 -4; appendix A) 



Due to the unusual ideas and this sense of faithful certanty that Reich instilled in 
them, the history of his dscoveries is, to say the least, constellated by a sense of seaecy, 
mystery, conspiracy and, for some, esoteric hogwash. Very simply his "discovery of 
Orgon energy" and possible applications was so intriguing, and it carried with it such a 
heavy load of promises that It was accepted by a fairly large amount of people. 

Some of Reich's daims were so incredble that people could choose only between 
two options in judging them: faithfully embrace his ideas and concepts or reject them 
completely, dsmesing them as superstitious nonsense. This is where my interest in the 



subject beguines its rote. My intention for the past few weeks has been to elaborate a 
scientific system that would enable me to objectively study Reich's claims. My system has 
been applted in the testing of one of Reich's machines, with the specific purpose to create a 
pool of data and knowledge that would, hopefijily, help objectively determine whether or 
not Reich's daims have any solid foundation. 

I have chosen the above mentioned Qoud buster as the one invention on which to 
conduct my study; my choice was influenced mainly by the fact that of all of Reich's 
"contraptions", this is the one I deem most easy to test, since it is supposed to produce 
tangibte and objective results like recordable changes in the surrounding environment. 

The actual construction of the Qoud Buster was much simpler than I had originally 
expected. Through a thaough examination of all the documents at my disposal, I manage to 
individuate all the necessary infomiation that allowed me build what I consider to be a fairly 
accurate reconstruction of one of Reich original Qoud Busters. Very important set of data 
was found in the miao films earlier mentioned, "[A device} of bng, hollow pipes, and not 
sdid steel rods. . . . The pipes, any number of them and any length beyond a minimum of 
about 4 meters or 1 feet" (Reich, pg 1 78 App I) 

The collection of this information allowed me to aeate a blue print to construct the 
actual apparatus. 



to — ■" 


n 


i"i '• « 


lTI 


//N 


I 1 A 1 






^ -. 


jlUi .. —Z^ 




> » 



IDE 



I 



13: 



ZI 



-F=ff 



<^'JI "*>>> 



^g^fr* 



5 



S] 






O 




Due to the limited amount of funds available nnost of the non essential components 
had to be recovered form a scrap yard: the base needed to be a spring loaded (to absorb 



shcxd<5), rotating sdid metal frame, such a component was obtain by stripping to the 
minimum the base of an old rediner chair. For the pipes supports and hinges a series of 
angle iron nods w/ere cut and welded together and to the frame of the base, holes were drilled 
in opposing sides of a wooden rectangular box, through these hdes the pipes would be 
inserted and suspended in the fi^me. Through a series of couplings five flexible metal hoses 
were attached to the corresponding pipes. 




PART FIVE: Myquest, via the study of my replica Qoud Buster machine, to create a system 
capable of objectively determining what if any of Reich's claims are tme. My data 
and conclusions 



The major difficulty In this project was to pinpoint a series of tests that would be 
considered acceptable by the scientific community; in other words I could not rely on 
simple speculation or subjective observation of weather pattems. This presented quite a 
challenge considering that the types of theory that I was about to test were and still are in a 
completely new realm and no specific instrument is to this day available to detect or 
measure Orgon energy. At a loss for ideas, the solution came to me wile re-reading some of 
Reich material; in numerous occasion Reich stated that ths Orgon energy would produce a 
reaction in a Geiger counter, when in action, he also mentioned that Orgon has a tendency 
to concentrate in water. I postulated my hypothesis based on the assumption that the 
machine could wori<; if my hypothesis was proven correct then I would have had objective 
data to support the assumption, if not, then the assumption would also have been proven 
false: 

IF: A "X °-famomt of Orgon in the air depends on Y "-^amount of moisture in the 
air" 

AND: B "based on Reich's claims, the Qoud Buster should, by changing the Orgon 
potential in the air dssipate the water molecules by depriving them of their cohesive 
property" 

THEREFORE: C "the inverse of A should also be true" 



IT FOLLOWS: D "if Orgon indeed produces a reaction in Geiger counter, then 
change h X should be measurable and should be directly proportional to the change in Y". 

To test the hypothesis, I proceeded firstly to construct a replica of the Qoud 
Buster designed by Reich. Because of Reich's claims that a smaller model would have 
smaller effects and his warning on some of the side effect possible in case of misuse, It 
seemed only logical to choose a smaller model. In case Reich claims were revealed to be true, 
smaller side effects would have resulted from misuse of the machine. 
Once I completed the construction 




I located a suitable place to put the machine. The place had to be out of the way of 
general public transit, it had to be within 20 feet of a mass of preferably flowing water and 
it had to have a dear opening to the sl^. The abandoned dock of Davis mansion seemed to 
fit al the requirements, except for the "flowing water" part; the ocean has tides and currents 



but not like a river or a stream might. I speculate that ths would cause the machine 
affectivity to deaease, but to still be sufficient to conduct the experiments. 

The next step was to aganize a routine of testing with the Geiger counter that 
would be satisfactory from a scientific stand point. An Associated Educational Products 
Model 650 Geiger counter was used. This instrument consists of a gas-filled tube (probe) 
containing electrodes, between which a high electrical voltage is applied. When high energy 
beta partide or gamma ray pass through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes 
between the electrodes. Ry each current pulse, the meter enriits a "beep" and registers the 
current on a meter. The meter has three sensitivity settings which adjust the sensiti\4ty of 
the current meter but do not affisct the number of pulses detected. 

In table # 1 below is an example of the first series of data gathering conducted on 
date of April 23'"^: the data is organized in 3 rows and 3 columns, the first 2 rows stand fbr 
the condtions the test was conducted under, namely befiore the use of the Qoud Buster and 
during the use of the Cloud Buster. The third row indicates the variance, the difference 
between detected radetion before and during use. The 3 columns indcate three separate 
instances of data collection for each of the two conditions. 

Table # 1 below gives the first data gathered on April 23rd. The first row indicates 
the scale setting of the Geiger counter used. (This should not affect the number of counts 
recorded, but served as a convenient way of recadng replicate data.) The 2nd row gives the 
counts per 4 minute interval before the Cloud Buster tubes wae inserted into the ocean. 
After a 1 minute pause, this was repeated again at another meter setting, and then a third 
time after another 1 minute pause. This data reveals some small random fluctuation in 



Geiger counts. The 3rd row of data gives the counts recorded after the Cloud Buster tubes 
were inserted into the ocean. The same 4 minute counting / 1 minute pause routine was 
fdlowed in collecting this data. The third row indicates the variance, the dfference between 
the Geiger counts before and during use of the Cloud Buster. 



Tab #1 4/23/02 
Geiger at 1x at 10x at 50x 



before 
during 



5 
15 
10 



mostly sunny day 



Graph 1 



16 

14 

12 

ID 

8 

6 

4 
2 

o 




at 1x 




at 10x 



□ before 
m during 

□ variance 



at 50x 



In graph number 1 , the results of the first Geiger survey are graphed to more 
eloquently describe the results; here it can deariy be seen how much difference was 
recaded ft'om before to durhg the use of the Cloud Buster. To be noted is that in future 
data collection a fourth row would be added and labeled contrd, the readings for this row 
were collected in the same fashion as the others, and they would be indicative of normal 



Geiger readings outside of the Cloud Buster radius of influerx:e. They serv/e as comparison 
fiar the other readngs. 

As my research deepened, the thought occurred to me that, if the Cloud Buster had 
to be grounded into water in order for it to function, then perhaps this would cause some 
type of recordable change in the water. To test this theory, I began monitoring water 
properties with a YSI Model 85 Dissolved Oxygen/Conductivity meter. This instalment 
records the mg/l (milligrams per liter) of 02, the % of 02 saturation, the conductivity, the 
ppt ( parts pa thousand) of salinity and the temperature. 

In the beginning I was not aware if any of these factors would be at all influenced 
by the use of the Qoud Buster, but I knew that, in theory, the Cloud Buster had to subtract 
Orgon from the sl<y and "add it" to the water when clouds - or other types of water vapors 
- trapped it in the air, and vice versa, "subtract it" from the water and ad it to the air when 
the air was dy. This meant that if any changes were to be recorded they would present 
themselves on a graph as a direct or inverse proportionality between the atmospheric 
humicfty percentage and what ever factor was influenced. Table 2 and graph 2 give the data 
from my first day testing with the YSI meter (April ). 



9.6 29,37 44.88 28.6 6.9 

0.4 0.31 0.66 0.4 -0.15 



Tab #2 


H2 test 
% 






before 


92.8 


92 8 


92.8 


during 
variance 


94.1 
1.3 


94.1 
1.3 


94.1 

1.3 



Graph2 




As with the Geiger counter, as I gained experience I gradually refined the test. First, 
I isolated the one variable that seem to be affected, % of 02 saturation. Then I decided to 
repeat the test at a constant 4 minute interval to exclude the possibility of random 
anomalous readngs. Finally, I added a "control" indicative of the water condition before and 
during testing in is fijrther away from the Cloud Buster station - this albwed me to confirm 
that the changes were localized in the proximity of the Qoud Buster and to exclude natural 
occurences. 

Afta a total often test cydes conducted between the dates of April 23'*^ and May 
1 2^ , I have collected the refined data sets and merged them in one single table. [See 
Appendix II for individual test results] 

Table 3 therefore contains the humicfty pacentage (Hum) present at the day and time of 
the Indvidual tests; the variance of 02 % saturation (% variance) which tells us how much 



and what kind of change ocxurred during the specific test by subtracting the % values befiDre 
the use of Cloud Buster from those after; the Geiger variance which just like the % variance 
tells us about the change between before and during; and finally the control % variance (cont 
%variance) which serv/es as a control to determine whetha the % variance is indeed 
connected to the Cloud Buster or if it is just a regular occurring event, 
tab #3 



Hum 




%variance 




Geiger 


variance 


cont % variance 


12-May 


38 




6 




3.5 


0.1 


11 -May 


39 




5.9 




3.7 


0.1 


lO-May 


74 




-1 




8.7 


-0.2 


9-May 


60 




4.6 




6.1 





8-May 


63 




3.9 




6.5 





7-May 


65 




3.2 




7.2 





6-May 


63 




4 




6.3 





4-May 


28 




8 




3.4 





1-May 


86 




-4.7 




10 


-0.1 


30-Apr 


78 




-1.8 




9.1 


-0.2 


23-Apr 


46 




1.3 




6.6 






Graphs 



gigervanance 



- cont \ar 



humidity 



12 
10 

8 

6 

4 

2 


^l|lZQ2_ 

-4 
-6 




A A 



4/24/0? 



5/9/0? 



3lMh 



100 

90 

80 

70 

60 

50 

40 

30 



t 10 




The above graphical representation of the data in table 3 allows for an easier 
comprehension of the testing results. The orange line represents the change in Geiger 
counter variance over the period of the ten experiments. Note that the variance is always 
positive: more did« were recorded with the Qoud Buster on than off. Furthermore, notice 
how, as stated in my hypothesis, the number of clicks per minute are indeed directly 
proportional to the amount of humidity in the air, represented by the blue line: high 
humidity equal more dicks per minute. While not actually showing that water vapor tends 
to trap Orgon energy, this does seem to show that the Cloud Buster machine is making 
something happen. 

The purple line is the change in the 02% variance over the period of the ten 
experiments. Here too it can be noticed that, with only minor deviations possibly due to 
human error, the variance is inversely proportional to the humicfity. The data again seems to 
strengthen my hypothesis; the change in 02 readngs would seem to indkzate that the 
Cloud Buster is indeed wori<ing and produdng some sort of tangible effect. Finally, the 
green line represents the variance between the two control sets. If the variance in 02% was 
a natural recurring phenomenon, one should have expected to see this last line mirror at least 
partially the trend of the original 02% variance line, since the contrd variance does not 
mirra the 02% variance, the graph actually seems to indicate quite the opposite, showing a 



fajriy even and constant trend. Graph 4 




Graph number four allows for a more dear view of the relation between atmospheric 
humidity and the variance of 02 % in the water. 
Graph 5 



10 
8 
6 
Of 4 
.1 2 

-2 
-4 
-6 



20 



40 



60 



4 Seriesi 
— Linear (Seriesi) 



100 



y = -0.1809x+ 13.197 
Ff = 0.7458 



humid Hy 



This final graph (5), ptots y equal (the 02 variation) vs. x equal (humidity) and shows the 
best Bnear-fit to the data It mathematically demonstrates the correlation apparent in the 
preceding graphs by evaluating the square of the minimum distance between plotted points 
and line. The data's R^2 value (.7458) therefore indicates the strength of the correlation. 
The closer the R^2 value is to 1 , the more certain it is that the data set has a correlation. 
Once again this relation seems to be incScative of some kind of phenomena taking 
place in the water surroundng the Cloud Buster; this is not proof of the existence of Orgon 
energy or of the working of the Cloud Buster, but once united with the Geiger counter 
results, it makes for compelling evidence to support Reich's daims. 

CONCLUSION 

The approximate 1 5 week research period I had available for this project, allowed 
me to get in touch with the history and reality of a phenomenon that could be called the 
Reichian Revolution. The limited resources available allowed me to conduct an equally 
Irnited amount of scientific research; nonetheless, this research yielded some interesting 
results. 

My research into Reich shows his wori< can be divided into two major phases: the 
frst phase can be labeled the psychological research period; here Reich estabfehes himself 
as an esteemed Freudian psychiatrist amongst his colleagues. It is also here that Reich 
begns to detach himself, fr^om Freud; he then begins to develop a theory relative to both his 
psychological work and biology bridging a gap between the two. This wori< although 



unusual it is regarded as ahead of its time, since it touches on elements of noirology wNch 
our scientist are starting to grapple with only now. 

This second phase is where Reich's more controversial ideas come into play, and 
where he falls from his highly regarded place as a frontline psychiatrist. The strange and 
hcomplete findings he brought to light make some believe this once highly regarded 
professa had lost his mind. 

Ultimately my work although by no means proof of any mystical "force-like 
energy", most certainly provides scientific evidence to the reality of the situation. Data 
shows there is something moving when the Qoud Buster is used. This is illustrated by the 
fact that the value differential, before and during the use of the Cloud Buster, registered in 
my collection of data, cannot be explained easily or logically by any other factor other than 
an "unknown something" whether it be Orgon or other. Fa example, the Geiger counter 
regsters higher radation when the humidty was higher and the 02 percentage meter 
showed an inversely proportional reaction to the percentage of humidity in the air. 

So, while much of Reich's criticism is due to the fear of the knew and different, 
alsnented by a work that was incomplete and shoddy, I fed compelled, thanks to the 
successflil conclusion of my project, to think it had more to do with lack of fijnding and 
equipment than any deceit or unsound thinking on his part. 

Again I believe that my results, although not definitely conclusive, are scientifically 
objective, enough to at least incite fijrther study. Perhaps, at a different time and place, with 
greater resources, whether they take the fiam of better equipotent, more people, ftjnds or 
simply rrxxe time, someone will be able to objectively determine whether Reich was just a 



man who stumbled upon a lucl<y cascade of coincidental evidence that led Nm to felse 
conclusions, or if he had indeed discovered the life force that drives the universe. 



References 

X Reich, W. ( 1 945). A case History. International Journal of sex economy 

X De Marchi L ( 1 987). Vita e Opere di Wilhelm Reich - II periodo freudiano-marxista 
[ Life and Achievements of Wilhelm Reich - The Freudian-Marxist period] 

X De Marchi L (1 987). Vita e Opere d Wilhelm Reich - la scoperta dell' Orgone [ 
Life and Achievements of Wilhelm Reich - the discovery of Orgon] 

X Reich, W. ( 1 945). The function of the orgasm ( volume 1 the discovery of Orgon) 

X Reich, W. (1 946). Character Analysis 

X Tim Qaric Yankee magazine '89 - On the Edge of Science - 'The man who maid it 
rein" 

X Publication by Orgone Institute in "CORE" July 1 954 Vol. VI Nos. 1 -4; appendix 
A" 

X A Skeptical Scrutiny of the Works and Theories of Wilhelm Reidi 
(http//fiomejTetconicom/''^rogenTM/Reich/rcl&d^ ) 

X The microHlms find ODrrect title. 

Other sources not directly quoted: 

X FBI - Freedom of Information Act - Wilhelm Reich 
httpy/foia.ft)i.aov/reich.htm 

X Orgonomy - American College of Orgonomy httpy/foia.fbi.gov/reich.htm 

X Wilhelm Reich nad Orgone http://www.mystical-www.cQ.uk/reich.htm 

X Pore's Information and links to WILHELM REICH MUSEUM (ORGONON) 
http//www.agonaorg/wrrri/wrmOO.htm 

X Reich, W. ( 1 946). Cancer Biopathy 



Appendix I : Microfilmed journals 

176 WILHELM REICH 

I'Vom the first licsi(;Uiiig aftcmjits to end the emergency at Orgonon, mcirc 
systematic experiments in the crcatioirtind destruction of clouds, as well as 
rain-making and stopping of rain began to develop successfully over several 
months, till the first two C.OR.E. "CLOUDIJUSTER" units were finally 
constructed a*. Portland, Maine, in September-October, 1952, for more elahn- 
ratc C^OKE operations. 

In the following pages only the basic prittciplcs of "(.'LOUD-HUSTINCi" 
will Ik presented. A detailed presentation of the technical aspects will follow 
in a broader context of Cosmic Orgone I'.ngineering (C.OR.H). 

II. The Principles of " 'Cloud-Busting" 

1, "Clood-Bosting" 

The term "CMoud-Busting," as used in this paper, shall denote all engineer- 
ing techniques which deal with the destruction as well as tlte formation of 
clouds of water vapor in the atmosphere and of orgone energy concentrations 
of all kinds ir.cluding gravity; briefly, with all phenomena which are related 
to i»r derive from atmospheric changes of climate iiicluding weather, humid- 
ity, amount of rainfall per imit of time, storms, hurricanes, "DOR-clouds," 
Oraniir fiutctions in the atmosphere, atmospheric OR energy changes of all 
kinds, the origin of deserts as well as of arras of green vegetation, and all 
similar functions which dcitend on the presence or al>sence, on the scarcity 
or pleniifulness of OR energy, oxygen, water vapor, rain, sun and wind and 
I heir interaction. 

2. Technological Use of the "Orgonomic Potential" 

The "orgonomic potential" (see Bibliography, Tme Oroone Enemiv 
AccuMi)i^\TOK, Nos. 5d, 6, 11)' denotes all functions in nature which dc- 
{x:nd on the flow of cosmic energy, or putentiul, from low to high or f''om 
WEAKER TO si-KoN(;EK SYSTEMS. Tlius thc orgouomic potential is the basis of 
and functions contrary to thc mechanical potential, heat, electromag- 
netic energy, mechanical potential of position, etc. The orgonomic poten- 
tial is most clearly expressed in thc maintenance in most animals on this 
planet of a temperature higher than that of thc environment, and in the 
function of gravitatiomd attraction. In both cases, the stronger energy system 
draws energy from or attracts a weaker system nearby; in both cases thc 
potential is directed from lotv to high, or from U'ea^ to strong. Gravitation 
obviously functions on this basis. 



DOR REMOVAL AND CLOUD-BUSTING 177 

'liic technique of cloud-busling is u» a very large extent; i( no» wholly, 
hiisfil »»n the tcchnoloj^ical use of the orgonoinic jiuleniial as it j^ovcrns the 
OR ciurj»y functions of the atmosphere. 

I'lic technological use of the orgonomic |X)ltMuial can be divided, basically, 
into two major groups: 

A. INCREASE of the OR potential: 

In this case \vc concentrate OR energy and bttiUl up a stee{Hrr or strongir 
OR potcntiaL This will have entirely different effects than 

IL DECREASE of the OR potential: 

In this case we disperse or dissipate OR energy; we toivcr the potential 
difference and create a tendency toward more or less equal distribution of 
the OR energy in the atmospheric OR energy envelope of the plaiiet. We act 
in the direction of the mechanical potential. 

Rain clouds, thunder clouds, hurricanes and tornadoes arc, seen from the 
viewpoint of orgonomy, clifTcreni expressions of basically one and the same 
ttii»ction, i.e., combinations of concentrated OR energy streams and tvatct 
vapors. On the intensity, direction, location and similar conditions related 
to the combination of water and OR energy (H;:0 ^ OR) many atmosjjheric 
conditions depend; most of these conditions still await detailed study and 
logical comprehension. 

However, the two basic principles of cloud-bvisiing, incrciise and decrease 
of ihc OR potential, suffice at the moment to make their technological use 
comprehensible. 

If we wisli to destroy clouds we must use the orgonomic potential in such 
a manner that the potential decreases. 

If we wish to create clouds or to increase the power of existing clouds, we 
must use the OR potential in such a manner that the potential between clouds 
and their immediate environment increases. 

In order to execute these two basic principles in a satisfactory manner, we 
muNt, logically, construct and use a tlcvicc which is capable of adtling OR 
energy to the atmospheric OR energy envelojie; or, we must construct a 
dfvitf which will duaw ENERCf FUoM THE OR T.NVEi.oi'K in such a manner 
that the affected region loses certain amo'ints of energy to other regions, thus 
cluinging the atmosphc.-ic energy concentrations. 

Since at present, adding energy to the atmosphere is not yet possible, we 
i^ust use the other principle, that of dhawin<: energy from the ATNfosi'iii'.KH. 



178 WILHELM REICH 

3. Drawing Off Atmospheric OR Energy 

In order U) draw off atmospheric OR energy, we must accomplish two 
tasks: a) wc must use a device which draws OR energy; b) wc must know 
into what place to draw this energy. 

This is accomplished by changing, basically, the principle of the function- 
ing of the LIGHTNING ROD: 

The lightning rod, too, functions according to OR energy principles, since 
"lightning" is atmospheric OR energy discharge in a very narrow space. The 
()ointed rod, reaching into the atmosphere, attracts the lightning discharge 
and conducts it through heavy wires into the ground. This lightning rod 
system functions according to or^onomic, and not according to electrical 
principles: In the lightning rod system, the atmoNpheric charge is drawn ^rom 
the atmosphere toward the [Xiint of the rod and further toward the earth's 
crust. It is, thus, the orgonomic j^xitential \rom u>eal{^ to strong which is 
o|xrrative also in the case of the lightning rod. If the electrical potential from 
high to low were operative in the lightning rod system, the direction of flow 
would necessarily be the reverse, from the earth's crust toward the atmos- 
phere; the energy would stream off and atvay from the point of the Ught- 
ning rod. 

Cloud-busiing operates in agreement with, the functioning of the lightning 
rod, only if we put both functions, cloud-busting and lightning rod, on the 
common functional basis of the OR potential. 

Cloud-busting deviates from the lightning rod principle in f<mr ways: 
(1) lis pur|^)se is ric; to draw and to gn»und IhjUs of lightning, but to draw 
OR energy c/iarges out of atmosphere and clouds. In doing .so, it deals Avith 
the same kind of force as in the lightning, with one imivirtant difTerence: 
The ctotid-hiister draws the charges slowly, in small amotinti at a time, 
dispersed, as it were, in time as well as in concentration, and not in the form 
of sudden lightning. It dtK'S so by way (2) of long, hollow pipes, and not of 
Nolid steel rods. 

1 he pipes, any number of them, and any length beyond a minimum of 
.ihi'iit 4 meters or 10 feet used in our first cloud-busting ex{)criments, havc 
the function (.?) of triggering the atmospheric OR energy flow info certain 
directions. The function of the pipes is fullillcd with this triggering of diicc 
tiojial flow. Once the OR energy flow is directed at will, it continues to flow 
in the same direction, until another natural or artificial stimulus chanj^es it 
again. The lightning rod. on the other hand, is not intended to direct OK 



DOR REMOVAL AND CLOUD-BUSTING 179 

energy flow. It only functions as a conductor toward the ground in case 
conctntrated OR energy ditichargc, i.c., lightning, liappcns to come its way, 
(4) The OR charges are tlrawn (not into the ground but) into water, 
preferably into flowing water of brooks, flowing lakes and rivers. We draw 
into water since the attraction is greater between water and OR energy than 
•between other elements and OR energy. Water not only attracts OR speedily 
but it also holds it, as especially in clouds. We thus have the following picture 
of the process of cloud-busting: 



DECkE/iSE 



OP^ 




^ClOVD 



CLOVDBUSTER 




GROUND 



WATER 



aOUDBUSTING 



Destruction of Gouds 

throuofli DECREASE of OR-POTOinAL 



180 WILHELM REICH 

This sketch depicts the principle of cloud destruction only. It does not 
suffice to enable the technician to destroy all existent types of clouds. This 
remains a task of future experimentation in cosmic engineering, to be solved 
in many ways, in various regions of the globe, with various moilels of cloud- 
busters (various as to number, length and width of pipes, direction of draw, 
size of clouds, maturity of our experience, etc.). The principle, however, may 
be described as basically complete: 

OXE DISSIPATES CtOVDS OV WATER VAPOR BY WITHDRAWING, ACCORDING TO THE . 
DRCONUMIC POTENTIAL, ATMOSPHERIC (cOSMIc) OR ENERGY FROM THE CENTER I 
OV THE CLOUD. THIS WEAKENS THE COHESIX'E POWER OF TILE CLOUD: THERE WILL { 
BE LESS ENERGY TO CARRY THE WATER VAPORS, AND THE CLOUDS NECESSARILY 
MUST DISSIPATE. THE ORGONOMIC POTENTIAL BET^^'EEX CLOUD AND ITS ENVIRON- 
MENT IS LOWERED. 

4. The Creation of Ctouds ; 

f 
The principle used in the creation of clouds is the same as that in the I 

destruction of clouds: the orgonomic potential from low to high. However. ! 

while in the destruction of clouds we draw iilT energy from the cloud proper, j 

we draw energy from the close vicinity of the cloud if we wish to enlarge i 

EXISTENT CLOUDS AND TO PROCEED TOWARD RAIN-MAKING. The chari on pagC ISl 

depicts the process. 

The tcchnologic-1 cx|ieriment bears out the theoretical assumption: Clouds ! 
dissipate when the cloud-buster pipes arc aimed at the center; they ffrotv '■ 
when we aim at the close vicinity in the cloud-free sl(y. 

One may create clouds in the cloud-free sky in a certain manner, by \ 
disturi>ing the evenness in the distrihittion of the atmospheric OR energy: ' 
thus clouds appear upon drawing energy from the air. The more clouds thai 
arc present and the heavier the clouds, the easier it is to induce growth ot 1 
clouds and finally rain. The fewer clouds, the more difficult it is and the ( 
longer it takes until the clouds give up their water. Practically, a rather shar}) ' 
distinction exists between rain-making in a cloudy as against a cloud-/rrf sky. i 

No matter what the variations, the principle remains the same as descrihcd: 
.Drawing from an existent cloud destroys the cloud. Drawing from its vicinity 
makes it grow. 

It is necessary to stop at this point. Strong reactions to cloud-busting in 
Rangeley, Mainr:, have been observed in distant regions (Boston); such 
influence on far-away regions is due to the continuity of the OR envelo|K; 



i DOR REMOVAL AND CI. OUD. BUSTING 

CLQUQ 



l»l 









.-d^ 



■M CWVDBUSTER 



GROUND 



VWTER 



CLOUDBU STING 

Majdiig 0f Clouds 

through liCHEASE of OS-POTEiWi/i 

tlic details will require extensive and careful study, Wc have always been 
ciuiious not to overdo while cloud-busting, since small twisters and r.-iptd 
changes o£ winds linvc been observed beyond any reasonable doubt. Also, on 
one occasion, heavy, prolonged rain occurred upon faulty opcraiioji, 
Qoud busting as a ia5»k of Cosmic Oil Kngiticaifig will by far iranscetu! 



182 WILHELM REICH 

ihc facilities and [X>tenualitic& of any single institution and even state or coun- 
try. Cloud-busting is truly an international a(Tair with no regard for national 
borders. There arc neither passport controls nor custom oificcrs in the sky 
where the weather is being made. This is good and as it sliould be in Cosmic 
OR Engineering (C.OR.E.). 

LAWtVL KEVULATION OF CIjOUD-MUSTINC WILL VKOVZ INDISPENSABLE IF CliAOS ! 
IS TO BE AVOIDED. 

(^pril till August, 1952.) 



."•.(iiK Siw 



Appendix II: experimental data 



4/23/02 
Geiger 


at - 


X 


at 10x 


at 50x 










before 




3 


3 


5 




mostly sunny 






during 
variance 




8 

5 


8 
5 


15 
10 












% 








mg/l 


ms ms 2 


ppt 


temp 


before 




92.8 


92.8 


92.8 


9.2 


29.06 44.22 


28.2 


7.05 


during 
variance 




94.1 
1.3 


94.1 
1.3 


94.1 
1.3 


9.6 
0.4 


29.37 44.88 
0.31 0.66 


28.6 
0.4 


6.9 
-0.15 



16 - 
14 - 
12 - 
10 

8 

6 - 

4 

2 - 


'^ 


^ before 

Bi during 

□ variance 


■ 


■ 


■ 


asMi 




at 1 X at 1 Ox at 50x 




4/30/02 




















Geiger 


at 1x 


at lOx 


at 50x 














before 


4 


4.1 


4.1 






sunny with clouds 






during 


13.2 


13.2 


13.2 














variance 


9.2 


9.1 


9.1 
















% 






mg/l 




ms 


ms2 


ppt 


temp 


before 


91.3 


91.3 


91.2 


9.13 


29.69 


47.45 


30.12 


5.3 


during 


89.5 


89.4 


89.4 


9.23 


29.86 


47.86 


30.6 


5.3 


control 


104.2 


104.2 


104.2 


11 


.32 


29.81 


47.02 


30 


6 


control 2 


104 


104.2 


104 


11 


.35 


29.812 


47.05 


30.2 


6 


variance 


-1.8 


-1.9 


-1.8 




0.1 


0.17 


0.41 


0.48 





cont.varianc 




















e 


-0.2 





-0.2 















14 








1"? 
































10 
8 

6 - 
4 
2 
- 










































n before 
Q during 
n \sriance 








































at 1x at 10x at 50x 








III] 



mg/l ms ms 2 ppt 



■F-f~l 

temp 



■ before 
g during 
D control 
D \ariance 



5/1/02 



Geiger 


at 1x 


at 10x 


at 50x 












before 


15 


15 


15 


Cloudy rainy day 








during 


25 


25 


26 












control 


26 


25 


26 












variance 


10 


10 


11 












H2 TEST 


% 






rmg/l 


ms 


ms2 


ppt 


temp 


before 


80.6 


80.7 


80.5 


8.1 


30.79 


48.52 


30.1 


5.9 


during 


85.2 


85.4 


85.3 


8.59 


30.88 


48.75 


31.3 


5.7 


control 


117.7 


117.7 


117.7 


11.27 


30.84 


44.5 


28.5 


8.9 


control 2 


117.6 


117.7 


117.6 


11.26 


30.85 


44.51 


28.52 


8.9 


variance 


4.6 


4.7 


4.8 


0.49 


0.09 


0.23 


1.2 


-0.2 


cont var 


-0.1 





-0.1 





















1 


26 
24 - 
22 

20 
18 - 
16 
14 - 
12 - 
10 - 
8 

6 - 
4 - 
2 - 












1 






1 


- 








































H before 
B during 
□ control 1 














T^i^m 










m 


















J 














m 















at 1x at 10x 


at 50x 







before 



during □ control 



□ variace 




5/4/02 



before 
during 
control I 
variance 

o2test 

before 

during 

control 

control 

variance 

cont var 



at 1x 



at 10x 



atSOx 



9.5 


9.6 


9.5 


13 


13 


13 


10 


10 


10 


3.5 


3.4 


3.5 


87.8 


87.2 


86,4 


95.5 


95,5 


95,5 


91.6 


90.5 


90,5 


91.5 


90.6 


90,5 


7.7 


8.3 


9,1 


-0.1 


0.1 







'WW 



at 1x 



at 10x 



at 50x 



m before 
■ during 
□ controll 



120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 

-20 





before during control control variance cont var 



5/6/02 



at 1x 



at 10x 



at 50x 



before 




15 


17 


17 


during 




20 


24 


24 


controll 




16 


17 


17 


variance 




5 


7 


7 


o2test 


% 








before 




93.2 


93.2 


91.1 


during 




97.6 


95,8 


95.8 


control 




111.3 


106 


109 


control 




111.4 


106 


109.1 


variance 




4.4 


2.6 


4.7 






0.1 





0.1 




5/7/02 



before 
during 
control I 
variance 

o2test 

before 
during 
control 
control 
variance 



at 1x 



at 10x 



at 50x 



7 


7 


7 


14 


14 


14.8 


11 


11 


11 


7 


7 


7.8 


a 


b 




78.2 


78.1 


78.2 


81.8 


80.1 


81.2 


126.5 


126.6 


126.5 


126.42 


126.55 


126.5 


3.6 


2 


3 


-0.08 


-0.05 






I I e^ 




m at 1x 
■ at 10x 
n at 50x 



during 




■ % 

■ a 

Db 



during 



before 
during 
controll 
variance 



5/8/02 



at 1x 



7 

13.5 

11 

6.5 



at lOx 



at 50x 



7 

13.5 

11 

6.5 



7.2 

13.6 

12 

6.4 



o2test 



before 

during 

variance 

control 

control 



78.4 

82.3 

3.9 

126.5 

126.4 

-0.1 



78.1 
82.1 

4 
126,6 
126.6 





78.2 

81 

2.8 

126.5 

126.55 

0.05 



16 

14 

12 

10 

8 

6 

4 

2 






m 



at 1x 
at lOx 



□ at 50x 



before 



during control I 



90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 





□ before 
■ during 
D variance 



5/9/02 



at 1x 



before 
during 
control! 
variance 

o2test 

before 

during 

variance 

control 

control 



at lOx 



at 50x 



7.4 


7.4 


7.2 


13.5 


13.5 


13.6 


10 


10 


11.5 


6.1 


6.1 


6.4 


a 


b 




78.4 


78.1 


78.2 


82.9 


83.5 


82.2 


4.5 


5.4 


4 


126.5 


126.6 


126.5 


126.4 


12663 


126.5 





















-0.1 










0.03 





















14 - 
12- 
10 - 
8- 
6 ^ 
4 - 
2 

n 


































■ at 1x 

■ at 10x 
n at 50x 








1 

m 




— 




1 




- 
















— 


1 : 










before during 




controll variance 







140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 





before 



during 



control 




5/10/02 



at 1x 



at 10x 



at 50x 



before 
during 
controll 

o2test 

before 
during 
control 
variance 

control 



4 


4.1 


4 


12.6 


12.8 


12.8 


11 


11 


12 


8.6 


8.7 


8.8 


a 


b 




77.2 


76.5 


76.5 


75.5 


75.4 


75.5 


24.5 


124.6 


125.5 


-1.7 


-1.1 


-1 


124 


124.2 


125.3 


-0.5 


-0.4 


-0.2 



14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 







before 



during 



controll 



■ at 1x 

■ at 10x 
D at 50x 




I before 



a during 



□ control 



□ variance 



before 
during 
controll 
variance 



5/11/02 



at 1x 



at 10x 



12.5 

11.5 

3.7 



at 50x 



8.6 

12.4 

11 

3.8 



8.9 
12.6 
11.5 

3.7 



o2test 



before 

during 

variance 

control 

control 



77.4 


77.1 


77.2 


83.5 


83.1 


82.8 


6.1 


6 


5.6 


123.85 


124.1 


124.9 


124.3 


124.2 


124.7 



0.45 



0.1 



-0.2 



14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 




m 



-fE 



■ at 1x 

■ at 1 0x 
D at 50x 



before 



during 



control I 




before 



during 



control 




5/12/02 



at 1x 



at 10x 



at 50x 



before 
during 
control 

o2test 

before 

during 
control 
variance 
contorsl2 

cont variance 



8.2 


8.2 


8.3 


11.7 


11.6 


11.7 


11 


11 


12 


3.5 


3.4 


3.4 


a 


b 




78 


77.5 


77.4 


83.8 


83.9 


83.5 


5.8 


6.4 


6.1 


123.55 


124.2 


124.9 


124.3 


124.4 


124.7 


0.75 


0.2 


-0.2 



14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 





■ at 1x 

■ at 10x 
□ at 50x 




before 



during 



controll