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Full text of "Resource Management Report January 1, 1962"

No. 61 January, 1962 




ONTARIO 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Fish and Wildlife Branch 

(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 61 January, 1962 



Page 

Reports on the Algonquin National Park of Ontario 

For the Year 1S93 - Chief Ranger Thomson's Report. 1 

The Distribution of Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum 
in Extreme Northwestern Ontario. 

- by D. W. Simkin 5 

Spring Ruffed Grouse Strip Counts, Lake Huron 

District, 1961. - by R. E. Mason 9 

Sudbury Commercial Bait-fish Industry in 1959. 

- by D. A. Mulligan 17 

A Preliminary Report on the White Lake Fishery. 

- by M. L. Milton 27 

A Review of the Biology and Management of Pickerel. 

- by W. F. Cheshire 46 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

REPORTS ON THE ALGONQUIN NATIONAL PARK 
OF ONTARIO FOR THE YEAR 1393 — 
CHIEF RANGER THOMSON'S REPORT * 

Sessional Papers No, 22, Printed by- 
order of the Legislative Assembly, 
Toronto, 1394. 

Abstract 

In this very early account of Algonquin Park, Chief 
Ranger Peter Thomson tells of building a headquarters 
at Canoe Lake and the establishment of 15 shelter- 
lodges in various parts of the park for the accommoda- 
tion of rangers. He remarks on the abundance of moose, 
deer, bears, muskrats and other wildlife. 



The Honorable A, S. Hardy, 

Commissioner of Crown Lands, Toronto. 

SIR, — I beg to submit the following report in connection 
with The Algonquin National Park of Ontario, from its inception up 
to the end of 1393. 

On being appointed Chief Ranger of the Park, 21st July 
last, I received instructions from yourself to proceed thither in 
company with Mr, James Dickson, 0,L,S,, and to begin at once the 
erection of a house for headquarters and a number of small shelter- 
lodges in various portions of the Park for the accommodation of the 
rangers while on duty. Having made arrangements for the purchase 
of such provisions, tools, etc, as would be required, I left for 
the Park on the 23rd of July, I was joined at Orillia by Mr, Dickson, 
and on reaching Huntsville we found the supplies from Toronto, to- 
gether with four canoes and three tents, which Mr, Dickson had pre- 
viously procured and forwarded from Peterborough, Messrs. Stephen 
Waters of Huntsville, William Geall of Port Sydney, and Timothy 
O'Leary of Uptergrove, reported for duty here, having been appointed 
as under-rangers for the season on trial. The party was completed 
by the engaging of Robert Dinsmore of Huntsville and William Morgan 
of Port Sydney, as carpenters and builders, and Samuel Barr of 
Fenelon Falls as assistant. 

After packing our outfit we proceeded from Huntsville to 
Dwight, On arriving at the latter place we transported our effects 
by wagon to Oxtongue lake, seven miles distant, and thence continued 
our journey in canoes up the Muskoka river to Canoe lake, in the 
township of Peck, which we reached on the 2nd of August, making no 
less than fifteen portages en route. At a point on the north side 
of Canoe lake we determined to build our headquarters, the lot 
chosen being the south half of 19 in the second concession of Peck, 

* We are able to reproduce this early report on Algonquin Park 
through the courtesy of the Legislative Library, Toronto. 



- 2 - 

After setting the men to clear the place, get out the timber, etc., 
Mr. Dickson and myself accompanied by one of the rangers, set out on 
a trip of inspection for the purpose of locating sites for the 
shelter-lodges and of obtaining an idea of the connections of the 
various water systems of the Park. We returned after a week* s 
absence, having gone as far as Great Opeongo lake on the east and 
Cedar lake on the north, and touching on most of the lakes lying 
between. Shortly afterwards Mr. Dickson returned to Toronto. 

The house at headquarters was finished about the latter 
part of August. It is a substantial, hewed-log building, 21 by 2$ 
feet, with hewed timber floor and "scoop" roof. We selected this 
site for headquarters because of its accessibility to Canoe lake 
and the chain of waters of which this lake forms a part, its nearness 
to the proposed line of railway from Arnprior to Parry Sound, and 
also because of the fine grove of balsam, spruce and a few pine 
trees which stood upon it. During the absence of myself and staff 
in October, the employes of Messrs. Gilmour & Co., who own the pine 
timber in this part of Peck, built a lumber camp (doubtless through 
some misunderstanding) immediately alongside and within ten or 
twelve feet of our headquarters. They also entered the grove and 
took out the pine, at the same time cutting down a great number of 
other trees, and marring the beauty of the place, which I had hoped 
to preserve. 

During the course of the summer and fall we erected, in 
addition to headquarters, fifteen shelter-lodges, on previously 
selected sites throughout the Park. Following are the situations 
of same: 



(1 
(2 

(3 

(4 

(5 

(6 

(7 
(3 

(9 

(10 

(11 
(12 
(13 

(14 

(15 



Cache lake, north side of Madawaska river, lot 5, con. 6, 

Canisbay. 

North side of lake of Two Rivers, south-east corner lot 30, 

con. 3, Canisbay. 

West side of south bay of Great Opeongo lake, township of 

Sproule, half a mile west of mouth of Mud creek. 

Southernmost point of south-east bay of Great Opeongo lake, 

township of Preston. 

South side of head of McDougal lake at entrance of Opeongo 

river, township of Preston. 

North end of Burnt lake at mouth of Petawawa river, lot 27, 

con. 1, Osier. 

North side of Great Opeongo lake, lot 22, con. 7, Bower. 

North side of Little Nipissing branch of Petawawa, lot 30, 

con* 10 , Lister. 

East end of Cedar lake, near mouth of Petawawa river, lot 

13; con. 7, Deacon. 

Foot of Horsehoe lake, township of Boyd, immediately 

adjoining north boundary of Lister. 

South side of Cauchon lake, lot 34, con. 6, Pentland. 

Head of Mink lake, lot 22, con. 7, Pentland. 

North side of Kioshkoqui lake, near head of Amable du Fond 

river. 

Grass bay. White Trout lake, lot 13, con. 13, McLaughlin. 

East side of Island lake, lot 16, con. 16, McLaughlin. 



- 3 - 

These shelter-lodges or huts are erected at such points as 
will be convenient for the purpose of preventing the entrance of 
poachers and trespassers into the Park, and will command the passage 
from one chain of waters to another, as well as other lakes or 
waters within a radius of half a day's journey. They vary in distance 
from one another from seven to ten miles, the limit being a day's 
journey on snowshoes in winter. The lodges are of a uniform size of 
14 by 16 feet, and are made of unhewed logs and covered with hand- 
made shingles. There is no sawn lumber used in their construction. 
Each has a door and a window of four panes of glass, and inside are 
a small table and sleeping berths for four men. A small sheet-iron 
stove, made specially for the purpose, will be placed in each. The 
outlay for labor, which is almost the only item of cost of these 
lodges, was perhaps from $20 to $25 apiece. In erecting them, as 
well as the larger house at Canoe lake, we not only had to find our 
raw material in the forest, but we were obliged to haul the logs by 
hand, frequently for considerable distances. As will be seen, the 
lodges built so far are mainly in the southern, central and eastern 
portions of the Park. In order to provide a chain of communication 
to and from all parts of the Park, and to permit of an efficient 
patrol being kept up summer and winter, a number of additional lodges 
will be required in the northern and western sections. 

It was necessary to spend considerable time and trouble in 
cutting trails and clearing portages along the lines of water com- 
munication from one shelter-lodge to another. In all we cut out 
upwards of 25 miles of portages and trails, and cleared many stretches 
of river and creek beds from floating timber, brush and other obstruc- 
tions, in order to secure free passage for our canoes. 

I may say that I have found a tendency on the part of the 
public in general, and more particularly of men who have been in the 
habit of hunting and trapping in the territory now included in the 
Park, to acquiesce in the new state of things. I came in contact 
with a number of trappers who were removing their traps from the 
Park, and who appeared to have given up any idea of further trapping 
there. While regretting the loss of their trapping grounds, they 
acknowledged that the fur-bearing animals were gradually becoming 
more scarce, and recognized that the preservation of game and fur 
animals within the Park would eventually be to their benefit, as 
the animals would increase in number and could be taken in their 
proper season outside the Park limits. We found a trapper's camp- 
ing ground on the north side of Horseshoe and Mink lakes and seized 
several traps and a few beaver skins. The man himself could not be 
found. This is the only violation of the law which came under my 
notice. During the hunting season deer were several times pursued 
up to within a short distance of the Park, but so far as I know, the 
chase did not extend into it. 

I received from the Department notices printed on linen, 
warning hunters, trappers and others, against trespassing in the 
Park. I had these nailed up at conspicuous places in the Park, and 
also at points in the neighborhood where they would be seen and read. 



- 4 - 

With regard to game, both moose and deer are plentiful, 
particularly in the northern and western townships of the Park, 
notwithstanding the reckless slaughter of late years. In my 
opinion, there are as many moose as deer, and in the township of 
Butt, just outside the west boundary, the moose are very numerous. 
Signs of beaver are seen in various places, but the families appear 
to be small. In very many localities where these animals have 
evidently existed in large numbers in times past, there is now no 
indication of their presence. They are, however, I am convinced, 
still sufficiently numerous to replenish the Park, if properly 
protected for a few years. Mink, otter, fisher and martin are plenti- 
ful, and muskrat abound. There are many bears and wolves. The 
former do little or no damage, but the wolves are very destructive 
to deer. The bonus of $10 per head for killing wolves does not 
seem to have had much effect in reducing their numbers, either 
here or in the surrounding country. Foxes are numerous, and prey 
upon the partridges. The latter are abundant, and wild ducks are 
often seen on some of the lakes. There are many shallow, soft 
bottomed lakes that seem suitable for the growth of wild rice, the 
favorite food of ducks, which does not at present appear to occur- 
in the Park. The experiment of procuring some wild rice and sowing 
it in such places would be attended with very little cost. 

Following your instructions, I have taken steps to obtain 
a quantity of white pine seed, in order that some experiments in 
forestry may be attempted. 

The water in the rivers and lakes in the Park was last 
year unusually low. The snowfall this winter has so far been heavy, 
and up to 31st December, according to measurements made by myself, 
amounted to 55 inches. 

Messrs. Gilmour & Co., whose headquarters are at the foot 
of South Tea lake, are carrying on extensive lumbering operations 
in Peck township. They have built a dam at the lower end of this 
lake, and have raised the water four feet. I understand that it is 
their intention to construct a dam at the foot of Joe lake as well. 
Lumbering is also being conducted in the Park by Messrs. Barnet & 
Co., Whitney & Co., Fraser & Co., and others; and I am pleased to 
say that from all these firms and their employes I have experienced 
the best of treatment, and a general desire has been shown to co-oper- 
ate with myself and staff in furthering the objects for which the 
Park was established. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

PETER THOMSON, 

Chief Ranger. 
Canoe Lake, 

Algonquin National Park of Ontario, 

3rd January, 1#94» 



- 5 - 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF PORCUPINE Erethizon dorsatum 
IN EXTREME NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO 

by 

D, Wo Simkin 

District Biologist, Sioux Lookout 

Abstract 

Data gathered at trappers* meetings in 1959 and I960 
from 285 trappers from Patricia West and Patricia 
Central enabled the writer to work out the present 
range of the porcupine in extreme northwestern 
Ontario. This information is presented on three 
maps of the region,. 



Accurate data on the distribution of many mammalian 
species inhabiting the large sparsely populated areas of 
northwestern Ontario are greatly lacking. In this respect the 
porcupine was no exception to the rule. This report is the first 
of a proposed series, the purpose of which is to illustrate the 
distribution of species whose range has never been clearly defined 
in the area in question. 

During the trapper meetings held in the early summer of 
1959 and I960, 285 of the trappers interviewed in Patricia West 
and Patricia Central were questioned as to the status of porcupine 
on their trap-lines. 

All of the trap-lines for which we have information 
concerning the status of this species are shown on maps 1 and 2. 
Upon examination of these maps it is readily apparent that there 
are many conspicuous gaps still in the data. I feel, however, that 
enough information is now available to draw a reasonably accurate 
distribution map for the species. Map 3. 

As shown in maps 1 .and 2 there are several areas within 
the zone shown on map 3 as being inhabited which are reported as 
having always been devoid of this species. Very few species are 
continuous in their distribution over areas as large as the one 
here discussed. The purpose of map 3 is to show the general status 
over large areas. 

It should be stated here that even in the present 
and relatively common area the species is very scarce in comparison 
with southern Ontario densities. 



MAP #1 



- 6 - 



\^> 



Distribution of Porcupine 

v.] Always Absent 
^Absent for at least 10 yrs 
ES Absent less than 10 yrs„ 
PSBPresent & common 
(^Present but scarce 



PATRICIA WEST DISTRICT 
REGISTERED TRAPLINE AREAS 
(Numbers Omitted) 




- 7 



PATRICIA CENTRAL DISTRICT 
REGISTERED TRAPLINE AREAS 
(Numbers Omitted) 



MAP #2 

Distribution of Porcupine 



EUAlways been absent 
^Absent but occurred 10 yrs 
/^Absent but known in last 

10 yrs 
(^Present & Common 
* ,\»\^Present but very scarce. 




MAP #3 

Distribution of 
Porcupine in Northwestern 
Ontario 



■^ Hudson Bay 




PATRICIA WEST 



PATRICIA CENTRAL 



- 9 - 

SPRING RUFFED GROUSE STRIP COUNTS 
LAKE HURON DISTRICT 1961 

by 
Re E. Mason 
District Biologist 

Abstract 

In order to obtain an annual index to breeding and 
pre-season ruffed grouse populations, strip counts 
were begun in Lake Huron District in 1960 e The 
population indices are derived from the King method 
strip count data collected during the spring and 
fall of I960 and spring 1961. The data are analysed 
using covariance and regression analyses applied to 
the King method, and by the use of the King method 
directly. No significant differences could be demon- 
strated between the total spring population of I960 
and 1961, although a decline in grouse populations 
on poorer quality habitat during the same period is 
evidenced by the data. An increase of 75% between 
the spring and fall populations of I960 was significant. 



Contributing Personnel : R. R. Bellinger, H. W. Clark, H. J. Gingrich, 
G. R. Harris, M. Marr, R. T. Elian, W. H. Flynn, R. A. Guenther, 
E. L. Johnston, G. C. Matthews. 

Introduction: 

After preliminary evaluation of the technique in 1959> 
strip counts were initiated in this district in I960 to provide an 
annual index to breeding and pre-season ruffed grouse populations. 
The value of strip counts run on plots not pre-determined as to size 
is that variability in observations, as related to cover types, is 
presumably accounted for by the varying strip width. 

However the resulting variation in plot size and the 
inclusion of plots on which no observations are made, makes the 
analysis of the information difficult. This difficulty has resulted 
in four proposals for the analysis on strip count information; 
King's ruffed grouse methods, Hayne's subpopulation method, Webb's 
varying hare method, and Kelker's Belt Method. (2) & (3). King's 
ruffed grouse method, which uses twice the mean flushing distance 
as the average strip width; has been found to introduce less 
variation than the other techniques, while retaining the advantage 
of allowing for some habitat variation, (see Spring Strip Counts, 
Lake Huron District I960.) 

For the I960 spring data, confidence limits were calculated 
for the mean flushing distance, and this figure applied to the sum 
of strip lengths for the district. The inclusion of additional census 
periods permits an analysis of covariance technique to be applied 
to test for differences between census periods. In this report, the 
information has been analysed both ways for comparison. 



- 10 - 

Procedure 

Strips are run through pre-chosen grouse habitat. Selec- 
tion of areas was made by the conservation officer. By employing 
selected areas, a reduction in sampling variation was attempted. 
Using a compass, the strip is run, usually through a concession, 
in as straight a line as is practical. Observations are recorded, 
along with the angle of observation, and the distance from the 
observer at the time of the observation to a point along the strip 
estimated to be at a right angle to the point where the observa- 
tion was made. This allows for the calculation of flushing distances 
without necessitating that the observer deviate from the line of 
travel. 

Analysis of Data 

Flushing distances are calculated from the data using the 
cosine of the angle of observation. Using the King method, the 
average flushing distance is doubled to produce the average strip 
width. The average strip width is then multiplied by the total 
length of strips to give the area sampled. Confidence limits ex- 
pressed for the average flushing distance can be applied to the area 
sampled to produce an interval estimate of the grouse population, 
assuming flushing distances to be the source of experimental error. 

Using the covariance analysis, the area sampled is cal- 
culated as before, only separately for each strip. Sampled areas 
for strips on which no observations were made were arrived at by 
using the average flushing distance for all strips completed by 
the observer who had recorded the zero strip. A single observer 
was used to eliminate the possibility of differential habitat selec- 
tion between observers. Sampled areas are recorded in acres. 
Covariance analysis proceeds using the relation between sampled 
areas and number of observations. 

Observations 



Table 1. 


Ruffed Grouse 


Observe 


itions 






Year 


Grouse 
Observed 


Strip 
Length 


Flushing 
Distance 


Area 
King 


Sampled 
Covariance 


I960 Spring 

1960 Fall 

1961 Spring 


20 

129 

48 


23.5 
55. 8 
51.1 


43.9 
75.6 
52.5 


273.6 

1022.7 

650.4 


263.8 

1057.6 

595.4 



Table 2. 



- 11 - 

Observations Other than Grouse 





Spring 


Fall 


Spring 


Species 


I960 


1960 


1961 


Cottontail 


• 


9 


3 


Snowshoe Hare 


3 


11 


19 


European Hare 


3 


10 


1 


Pheasant 


4 


3 




Red Squirrels 




1 


2 


Black Squirrels 






3 


Red Fox 


1 






Porcupine 


1 


1 




Woodcock 


1 


2 




Snipe 


1 






Chipmunk 






1 


Woodchuck 




1 




Deer 




2 


2 


Waterfowl 




1 


3 



Table 3- 



Grouse Per 100 Acre Estimates 





King Method 


Covariance Method 


Year 


Unadjusted 


Adjusted 


I960 Spring 

1960 Fall 

1961 Spring 


7.13 

12.60 

7.33 


7.53 

12.20 

3.06 


7.71 

13.35 

7.35 



Discussion 

The mean numbers of grouse seen during each census period 
were tested for significant differences using an analysis of covar- 
iance. This analysis corrects the mean number of grouse, y, for the 
variability which can be accounted for by the varying plot size x, 
expressed in acres. The covariance analysis is presented in table 4« 



Table 4. 



Covariance Analysis 



Source of 
Variation 


d.f. 


< X 2 


<xy 


C 2 


Total 

Period 

Error 


120 

2 

113 


30567.1934 

312.1226 

29755.0703 


1519.6596 

169. 3260 

1350.3336 


634.2645 

40.1995 

594.0650 


From regression s 7 

d.f. < dy. yt mean sq. F 


Common 

Error 

Difference 


119 

117 

2 


553.714 

432.736 

25.923 


4.5537 
12.9640 


2.347 



- 12 - 

The tabulatar value of F at o 10 level of confidence is 
2.35. It has been proposed that 0.20 confidence levels are suffi- 
cient for most wildlife inventory purposes; hence the evidence indi- 
cates that the difference between at least one pair of means in the 
fourth column of table three is significant „ 

The mean differences which would appear to be of interest 
are the difference between the spring census periods of the two 
years, and the difference between the spring and fall population of 
the same year. The mean squares for the adjusted mean differences 
were calculated, and confidence limits set using the 0.20 level of 
t. The inclusion of zero by the confidence limits indicates non 
significance. 

Spring I960 - spring 1961 = 0.0553 - 0.7937 

Spring I960 - fall I960 = -0.3943 t 0.7770 

No difference can be demonstrated between the I960 and 
1961 breeding populations of ruffed grouse. The difference between 
spring and fall I960 grouse population is significant, at the 0.20 
level of confidence. However, from the degree of variation encount- 
ered in these three census periods, it would appear that changes in 
the population would have to be in the order of 60-65% before the 
change could be demonstrated even at this relatively low level of 
confidence. It would be desirable therefore to reduce the sampling 
error through a more stringent selection of habitat. 

In order to evaluate the variation associated with habitat 
types, the regression of observations against plot size was plotted 
for each of the three census periods. The regressions, contained 
by their 0.20 confidence limits, are plotted in figures one, two, 
and three. If the habitat selected by all officers was homogeneous, 
or if grouse approached a random distribution in differing habitat 
types, each regression curve would describe a line of constant 
proportionality between the axes. That is, a plot of 100 acres 
would contain ten times as many grouse as a plot of 10 acres in size. 
Figure two is the only regression which approaches this condition. 

If the selected habitat was homogeneous, then plot sizes 
would tend to be the same. That is, the grouse would tend to flush 
at the same distance on all strips. The data on flushing distances 
reveal that this was not so, although more consistency is apparent 
for strips completed by the same officer than for the whole district. 
The assumption is then made than grouse tend to be more randomly 
distributed in the fall than in the spring, within the areas selected 
by officers as "grouse habitat". 

According to Dorney (1) , spring ruffed grouse habitat 
selected is toward denser cover. This is evidenced by figures one 
and three. In both cases the density of grouse per unit area de- 
creases with increasing plot size. The basis of the strip count 
technique is that plot size is a function of cover density. An 
examination of figures one and three, therefore, provides an estimate 
of changes in the grouse population not evident in the covariance 
analysis. 



Spring 




1.960 




13 . 2 


- 6. 


,8 


7.2 


- 4« 


■ 5 


6.5 


- 3- 


■ 5 


6.3 


- 3. 


,0 


6.2 


- 2. 


,3 


6.1 


- 2, 


,6 



Spring 




1961 




12.2 


- 7. 


.9 


4.8 


- 2. 


■ 7 


3.5 


- 1, 


,4 


3.0 


- 0, 


.9 


2.7 


- 0. 


.5 


2.6 


- 0, 


.4 



- 13 - 

Under the covariance analysis, the mean plot size for all 
census periods used in the calculation of the adjusted grouse per 
plot means for each census period was 15.84 acres. For figures one 
and three, the difference at this plot size is obviously not signi- 
ficant, since the 0.20 intervals of both regressions overlap at 
this point. For plot sizes approaching 50 acres in size however, 
these regressions approach significance. Interval estimates of the 
regression values for several plot sizes are given in table five. 
Again, overlapping intervals indicate non-significance. Figure 
two data are not included since they were significantly different 
at the adjusted level of 15.84 acres. 

Table 5, 0.20 Interval Estimates, Spring I960 and 1961: Presented 
as Grouse/100 Acres 

Plot Size 
A cres 

10 
30 
50 
70 
90 
100 

Although table four reveals no significant over all change 
between the I960 and 1961 spring populations of grouse, table five 
indicates a possible decline in grouse numbers in the poorer quality 
habitat. Interval estimates of "i" corrected to four places of decimals, 
while not containing zero for mean differences, very closely approach 
zero. Considering the low confidence level used (0.20), the possible 
decline should be accepted with caution. The regression analysis 
may however be capable of detecting somewhat smaller changes in the 
grouse population than the more inclusive covariance analysis. 

Summary and Conclusions 

Population indices for ruffed grouse are derived from King 
method strip count data collected during three census periods, 
spring and fall I960, and spring 1961. The data are analysed using 
covariance and regression analyses applied to the King method, and 
by the use of the King method directly. No significant differences 
could be demonstrated between the total spring populations of I960 
and 1961, although a decline in grouse populations on poorer quality 
habitat during the same period is evidenced by the data. An increase 
of 73% between the spring and fall populations of I960 was significant. 

References 

(1) Dorney, Robert S., 1959? Relationship of Ruffed Grouse to Forest 
Cover Types in Wisconsin, Wise. Cons. Dept. Tech. Bull. No. 18. 

(2) Hayne, Don W. , 1949, An Examination of the Strip Census Method 
of Estimating Animal Populations, Journ. Wildl. Mgt., 13(2). 

(3) Robinette, W. Leslie, et al. , 1954, Methods for Censusing Winter- 
lost Deer, Trans. 19th N, Ami Wildl. Conf. 



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- 17 - 

SUDBURY COMMERCIAL BAIT-FISH INDUSTRY IN 1959 



by 
Do A. Mulligan 
Conservation Officer, Sudbury District 

Abstract 

An evaluation is made of the availability and utiliza- 
tion of the Sudbury Commercial Bait-Fish Industry in 
1959* A standard report form and letter were issued 
with each licence sold to bait fish dealers in order 
to gather information on this phase of the fishing 
industry. In 1959> 145 licences were issued in the 
districto This report covers the returns of 35«9% of 
Sudbury's licensed live bait dealers, approximately 
613 > 000 minnows and 171,000 worms . Peak sales were 
found to occur during mid-summer with a lower peak in 
January. With the provision of two assumptions, the 
gross income from the sales of minnows in 1959 was 
calculated to be ip#5>506.50, while gross income from 
the sales of worms was Jj>ll,904«50. Gross income from 
the combined sales was calculated to be $97*411«00. 



Introduction 

To assure the proper management of a natural resource it 
is necessary to attempt an evaluation of its availability and util- 
ization. One of the newer resources to be exploited in recent years 
is the minnow and small coarse fish population. This phase of the 
fishing industry has developed geometrically with the coincidental 
increase of sports fishermen in Ontario. 

Methods used 

It was felt, here in Sudbury, that some attempt should be 
made to evaluate the extent of this resource and its use. A form 
letter (Exhibit 1) and a report form (Exhibit 2) were, therefore, 
prepared and issued to the licensee with his licence. The 1959 
returns, although far from complete, are encouraging and it is 
anticipated that with additional public relations work, we will 
soon be in a position to set the parameters of this industry and 
evaluate its financial importance as a fish and wildlife resource. 
Information made available through the use of this medium includes: 

1. The type and number of gear used in collecting the 
minnows. 

2. Size and number of holding tanks or ponds. 

3. Type of equipment used in transportation. 
4* Whether aeration was used or not. 



- 18 - 

5. Source of minnows, i.e. name of stream, lake or pond. 

6. Whether artificial propagation was attempted, 

7. Relative annual abundance of resource. 
8c Species and quantity sold by month. 

Survey results 

This report covers 52 bait dealer returns (35«9% of the 
district's total licence sale) and includes data on the sale of 
approximately 6l3>000 minnows and small coarse fish and 171,000 
worms o 

Table 1 shows the temporal distribution of sales by species. 
Figure 1 shows the temporal distribution of total sales and the 
temporal distribution of the two major species (common shiner and 
creek chub) from table 2. Fewer shiners were sold during 1959 when 
compared to chub, but when viewed as a per cent of individual 
species sales, the June, July and August sales of shiner topped the 
same period sales of chub. 

Table 2 records the temporal distribution of the two major 
species as a per cent of total individual species sales and as a 
per cent of total minnow sales. Per cent temporal distribution of 
total species sales is also recorded in this table. Figure 2 
represents the temporal distribution of the two major species ex- 
pressed as a per cent of total sales. 

Suckers and golden shiners were recorded as the chief 
species sold and reported under the column, "other species of minnows" 
Worm sales paralleled the sale of chubs with moderate January sales 
dipping to a low in April, but rising sharply through May to July, 
before once again dipping to a low in November. 

With regards to the type of gear used — the 52 licenses 
reporting indicated that 18 seines, 6 dip nests and 26 trap nets 
were used to harvest the minnows. Five licensees used a combination 
of seines and traps, while three used a combination of seines and 
dip nets. One hundred and forty-five licenses were issued in Sudbury 
in 1959 covering 24 dip nets, 3§ seines and 253 traps. Holding tanks 
varied in size from a maximum of 7 ft. x 10 ft. x 3 ft. to 45 gallon 
barrels. The latter were most frequently used. Maximum pond size 
was reported as three-quarters of an acre. Vessels used in the 
transportation of the minnows ranged from barrels, to pails, tubs 
and bottles. Five licensees reported the use of aeration during 
transportation and a same number attempted artificial propagation of 
minnows. 

Forty per cent of the licensees reported minnows scarce in 
1959 » thirty- five per cent abundant and the balance of twenty per cent 
failed to indicate oneway or the other. Those that indicated a 
scarcity were almost unanimous in stating the time of scarcity — 
late summer to early fall. 



- 19 - 

Other information was volunteered by the licensees — 
gross income from sales, selling price of minnows, mortality, and 
cause of mortality. The selling price of minnows varied from 
seventy-five cents per dozen during May through September to fifty 
cents per dozen during the balance of the year^ Likewise, the sell- 
ing price of worms varied from three cents each to two and one half 
cents each. The chief cause of mortality appears to have been 
fungus ingo 

Discussion and Conclusion 

To place a monetary value on this phase of the fishing 
industry, we are going to make two assumptions which we feel are 
quite within reason. First, we are going to assume that the 1959 
returns are representative of the industry in Sudbury District,, 
The sample we have for this year represents licensees that did not 
use their licenses, those that sold in large volume and those that 
only made a token attempt to realize an income from this resource. 
Secondly, we will assume that the average selling price (from 
January to December) of minnows is five cents each and the average 
selling price of worms is two and one half cents each. 

Using the second assumption first, plus the recorded 
sales of the fifty- two licensees, we arrive at a gross income from 
minnow sales of: 613,296 x .05 equals $30,664.80; from worm sales 
of 170,786 x ,025 equals $4,269eo5. The gross income from the 
combined sales of the 52 licensees is then $34,934.45 or an average 
gross income of 652.5#« 

Applying the first assumption, we calculate the gross 
income from the sale of minnows in Sudbury District to be: 

613,296 x 145 x .05 - $ 85,506.50 
52 

613,296 Reported sale of minnows by 52 licensees; 

52 Number of licensees reporting; 

145 Total number of bait dealer licenses issued in 
Sudbury during 1959* 

.05 Average selling price of minnows. 

Similarly, the calculated gross income from worm sales is 
$11,904*50. Total calculated gross income in Sudbury during 1959 
is then: $ 85,506.50 plus $ 11,904.50 or $ 97,411.00. 

One of the apparent failings of such a method of survey 
might be discussed here. Perhaps the most outstanding bias is the 
species identification by the licensees. The common white sucker 
obviously is one of the more important bait species here in Sudbury, 
yet reported sales are relatively low. Thismay be due to one of two 
reasons, viz: inability of the licensee to recognize different 
species or suppression of the true sales value of this species, by 
the licensee, due to the bad publicity the sucker has had as a 



- 20 - 

competitor of game fishes,. It is well known that some of our larger 
dealers are artificially propagating the sucker, yet total sales 
reports are not at all comparable to those of the chub or shiner,, 
To overcome this bias, vials or bottles containing alcohol could be 
distributed to the dealers with instructions to submit samples of 
the species that they offer for sale or a conservation officer 
could sample their tanks or ponds at intervals and interview the 
licensee with regards to sales volume of each species collected. 

Examination of Table 2 and Figures 1 and 2 suggests an 
interesting variation in species availability. Creek chub show a 
moderately strong sales record from January through April, while 
the common shiner sales are relatively weak. During the May to 
September period the shiner closely parallels the chub in sales, 
exceeding chub sales during the month of July. This concentrated 
sales period for shiners might suggest that the availability of this 
species in ponds and streams might change with the season. 

Summary 

1. A standard report form and letter were issued with each 
licence sold to a bait fish dealer in an effort to gather 
information on this phase of the fishing industry. 

2. This report covers the returns of 35°9% of Sudbury's 
licensed live bait dealers - approximately 613,000 
minnows and 171,000 worms. 

3. Peak sales were found to occur during mid-summer, with a 
lower peak in January t 

4. 145 licenses were issued in Sudbury in 1959« 

5. With the provision of two assumptions, the gross income 
from the sales of minnows in Sudbury during 1959 was 
calculated to be $35*506.50, while gross income from the 
sales of worms was $11,904, 50. Gross income from the 
combined sales was calculated to be $97,411«00. 

6. There is a suggestion of a seasonal variation in relative 
availability of the two major bait species. 



- 21 - 



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- 23 - 
TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR SPECIES AS PER 
CENT OF THEIR TOTAL INDIVIDUAL SALES AND OF 
ALL SPECIES OF TOTAL SALES 



\ 
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- x Creek Chub 



-• Common Shiner 
. o All Species 



3- - -* 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 



- 24 - 



FIGURE 2 



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. Common Shiner 



x x 



JAN. FEB, MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC 



TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR 



SPECIES AS PER CENT OF TOTAL SALES 



- 25 - Fish and Wildlife Division 



EXHIBIT 1 **7<£--» n 

km 



WHEN REPLYING KINDLY QUOTE 
THIS FILE NUMBER 



OriTARIO 

dh;~a:itmenv of lanos and forests 



SUDBURY, Ontario. 



Dear Sir or Madam: 

The number of people racking application for minnow seine 
licences, trap licences, minnow dip net licences and bait-dealer ? s 
licences is increasing every year, 

In recommending or refusing to approve these applications 
it is necessary that we know something about the size and value of 
the annual minnow harvest from ou~ local waters. 

Further, we may be justified in paying much more attention 
to this industry than the mire sale and control of licences. Arti- 
ficial propagation of minnows to supply the demand during periods of 
scarcity may well be the answer to this annual problem in which we 
may be able to help. 

It is unfortunate that we have very little information on 
record regarding your industry. If we are to manage it intelligently 
we must know roughly what the annual take of minnows amounts to and 
what this means in dollars and cents to the economy of the district. 

We respectfully solicit your full co-operation in keeping 
a monthly record of the minnows you sell. At the end of December next 
this form should be submitted either to your local Conservation Officer 
or to the Department of Lands and Forests. 172 Elm St. W. , Sudbury. 

The information you. submit will be kept strictly confidential 
and will not be used for any purpose but to benefit your business. 

FAILURE TO MAINTAIN AND SUBMIT THE REQUESTED RETURN MAY 
MEAN SUSPENSION AND/OR CANCELLATION OF YOUR LICENCE. 

Yours very truly. 



For: Gc A. Hamilton, 
'B/RM. District Forester 



- 26 - 



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- 27 - 

A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE WHITE LAKE FISHERY 

by 

M. L. Milton 

District Biologist 

White River District 



Abstract 

The purpose of this study was to determine over a 
prolonged period of time the effect of intense angling 
pressure on a lake hitherto unexploited. In order 
that conditions might be studied as they existed in 
the natural state, a biological survey was initiated 
in White Lake in White River District during the 
spring of 1961. This included depth soundings, test 
nettings, a pickerel tagging study and the taking of 
scale samples. A second phase of the programme was 
to establish a creel census technique. Tables and 
graphs showing angling success results by month over 
the summer period are presented. 



Introduction 

White Lake is situated in the White River Forestry District, 
twenty-three miles west of the town of White River, and thirty-five 
miles east of the town of Marathon. A bridge on the Trans-Canada 
Highway (Hwy. 17) 9 crosses the lake, thereby providing excellent 
accessibility. 

White Lake itself is twelve miles in length, five miles 
across at its widest point and supports excellent populations of 
Yellow Pickerel ( Stizostedion vitreum ) , Northern Pike ( Esox Lucius) 
and Whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) . 

Previous to the opening of the highway, the lake was 
subjected to only slight angling pressure. However, the completion 
of the Great Circle Route in the fall of I960 coupled with volumes 
of tourist literature has initiated a great influx of anglers to 
the area. 

White Lake, being one of the largest and most accessible 
lakes along the route has naturally been subjected to a sharp upswing 
in angling pressure; thus affording an almost unique opportunity to 
study the effects of suddenly intensified angling pressure on a lake. 

In order to properly study the effects of angling pressure, 
it is hoped that this programme may be continued over a number of 
years so that a trend in angling success may be established. In 
this way, the need, or lack of need, for the introduction of manage- 
ment practices should become apparent. 



Figure 1: 



- 2d - 



WHITE LAKE 



wShabotik 
/? C]3ay 



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River 



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Bay ( 




Provin-? 
cial / & J 



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C? 



^* 



S^obert River 
Indian 
Reserve 

iJhite 
River 



- 29 - 

Before such a programme could be initiated it was necessary 
to conduct at least a partial biological survey of the lake in order 
that conditions may be studied as they existed in the natural state. 
For this reason this paper will be divided into two parts; the first 
dealing with the biological survey and the second with the creel 
census survey. 

Part 1 - Biological Survey 

Neither time nor money would allow for the complete 
biological survey of White Lake during the first season. It was 
felt however, that certain phases should be investigated as quickly 
as possible in order to establish certain pertinent facts. 

A pickerel tagging project was initiated in the spring 
of 1961 before the beginning of the angling season. The purpose 
of this project was to tag a known number of pickerel, the returns 
from which, when compared with the total number of pickerel caught 
during the season, would give a very rough estimation of the pickerel 
population in the lake. This, if continued for several years, could 
conceivably establish a trend in the population size. 

The lake was completely sounded in order that locations for 
test nettings might be found. As well, it is intended that a contour 
map of the lake will be made up as an aid to anglers. 

Test nettings were carried out in order that growth rates 
and population proportions may be established. It may be possible 
to carry out similar nettings in several years using the same loca- 
tion to find whether or not growth rates and population proportions 
are remaining unchanged. 

The remaining phases, necessary to complete the biological 
survey will be carried out during the remainder of the study as 
time permits. 

Methods 

(a) Tagging 

Tagging was done in May during the pickerel spawning run 
at the mouths of the Shabotik and White Rivers (see map] . Gill nets 
were used to secure the fish and although die-off was rather high, 
519 pickerel were successfully tagged and released. 

Both dart and oval type tags were used in an effort to see 
which would prove the most successful. The fifth and sixth spines 
on the dorsal fin were clipped on all tagged fish in order that 
tag losses might be ascertained. Besides the taking of scale samples, 
the length, weight and location of release of all fish was recorded. 

(b) Sounding 

The whole lake was sounded by echo sounder during the 
months of June and July, as time permitted. 



- 30 - 



(c) Test Netting 



Six test-nettings were done in the lake using standard 
Department of Lands and Forests gill net gangs. An effort was 
made, making use of the information obtained while sounding, to 
place the nets such that all depths would be sampled. 

Nets were set at sundown and picked up at sunrise the 
following morning, to avoid as much as possible, entanglement with 
anglers* lines. 

Results 

(a) Tagging 

Table 1 shows calculations used to arrive at a very rough 
estimation of the pickerel population. This should in no way be 
interpreted as an accurate estimate. 

When calculating population size, the number of pickerel 
caught rather than the number of pickerel retained was used since 
it was felt that anyone catching a small tagged fish would probably 
keep it, if only out of curiosity. Cooperation among anglers with 
regard to returning tags was found to be good. 

It was found that the dart type tags are far superior 
to oval tags, particularly considering their ease of application. 

Table 1: 

No. of Fish Tagged and Released 519 
No. of Tags Returned 75 

Total No. of Pickerel caught (census estimate) - 35>077« (table 4) 

X " Pickerel population in lake. 

_2i= 35,077 
519 X 

X = 519 x 3 5077 
75 

= 242,734. 

(b) Sounding 

Soundings showed that about sixty per cent of White Lake 
is le8s than 30 feet deep. There are however, fairly extensive deep 
water areas in the northern and north eastern parts of the lake, the 
greatest depth being 140 feet. Sounding results will be used to 



- 31 - 

prepare a contour map of the lake for distribution among anglers. 

(c) Test Netting 

Graphs 1 to 4 represent growth charts formulated from 
data collected during the six test nettings. 

Graphs 5 and 6 represent length-weight charts, formulated 
to aid in the interpretation of creel census results. 






- 32 



Graph 1: 



CO 
CD 

x: 
o 

c 

H 

C 

•H 

.C 

■P 
hO 
C 
CD 

1-3 



Yellow Pickerel 
Length versus Age 



Graph 2: 



Northern Pike 
Length versus Age 




12345 6789 10 11 
Age in Years 



12 3 4567 89 10 11 
Age in Years 



Graph 3 



Graph 4 : 






CO 
CD 

Xi 
o 

c 

M 

c 

•H 

•p 

hQ 
C 
CD 



Lake Whitefish 
Length versus Age 



Common Sucker 
Length versus Age 




123 4 56789 10 11 12 
Age in Years 



123 45 678 
Age in Years 



- 33 - 



Graph 5: 



CO 

CD 

o 
o 

•H 

-P 

.c 

•H 
CD 









Yellow Pickerel 
Length versus Weight 




10 15 
Length in Inches 



25 



Graph 6: 
80 



- 34 - 



Northern Pike 
Length versus Weight 



70 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 







10 15 
Length in Inches 



20 



25 



30 



- 35 - 

Discussion of Results 

(a) Tagging 

The advisability of this phase of the programme is admittedly 
questionable The use of gill nets and limited personnel accounts 
for a rather high die-off. Numerous problems were encountered during 
this project; cold weather and floating pulp logs constituting the 
major set-backs. The proximity of the angling season meant that 
many fish were caught on hook and line before proper dispersal could 
be accomplished. This undoubtedly places a heavy bias on the results. 

If however, this project were continued during future years 
at exactly the same times and locations, presumably the same biases 
would be introduced,. Thus since our intention was not to establish 
the size of the population but more specifically the yearly change 
in population size, perhaps the project is justifiable. 

(b) Sounding 

Sounding results showing extensive deep water areas, 
coupled with the presence of a thriving whitefish population indicate 
the presence of an environment suitable for the production of lake 
trout o Test nettings and interviews with local residents indicate 
that there is no native lake trout population. 

(c) Test Nettings 

Results indicate that all species in White Lake have a 
somewhat retarded growth rate as compared to the Ontario averages 
(Devitt, 195 S) • This is partially due no doubt, to the shorter 
growing season in northern parts of the province, but may also be 
attributable in part to competition among species. 

Further test-netting at some future date may show a change 
in growth rate because of population changes induced by angling 
pressure. 

Recommendations 

(a) Tagging 

It would seem wise to retain this phase of the programme, 
if only as a comparison with the population trends established by 
the creel census. In future years an effort will be made to utilize 
trap or hoop nets for the taking of pickerelo 

(b) Sounding 

Becr.use of the evident absence of a lake trout population 
and presumably satisfactory environment, the introduction of a small 
breeding population of adult lake trout is recommended. 

(c) Test Netting 

It may be interesting after several years to undertake 
this phase of the programme again using identical locations, in order 
that possible changes in growth rates and population proportions may 
be studied. 



- 36 - 

Part 2 - Creel Census Survey 

The prime requisite of this phase of the programme was to 
establish a census technique which, while not taxing personnel unduly, 
would provide sufficient accuracy to give a true picture of fishing 
success. 

Methods 

Because of the fluctuating nature of angling pressure in 
this area, the wisest approach was felt to be stratification by 
calendar months (Best and Boles, 1955) • Otherwise, it was felt that 
a random selection of census days on a seasonal basis might well 
give overcoverage in months when angling pressure was low, and 
undercoverage when angling pressure was high. 

The proximity of nearby towns, it was felt, might introduce 
differential angling pressure between week days and week-end days, 
particularly where a Canadian holiday was concerned. For this 
reason it was deemed advisable to treat week-ends and holidays sep- 
arately from week days. 

Census was carried out on all Canadian holidays, alternate 
week-end days; Saturday one week-end, Sunday the following week-end 
etc.; and thirty per cent of all week days, each month. The census 
period extended from the opening of pickerel season May 13th until 
the 20th of September, at which time all heavy angling pressure had 
ceased. 

Since no table of random numbers was available, week day 
census days were chosen by numbering uniform sized pieces of paper 
with the week day dates of the particular month. They were then 
placed in a box and thirty per cent drawn for the sample. 

Whenever possible, an aircraft boat count was carried out 
on census days, thus providing a total towards which to correct 
results in case all parties could not be directly contacted. Since 
the angling and forest fire seasons occur at roughly the same time 
of year however, it was often impossible to obtain an aircraft 
count of the boats on the lake. On these days an estimate of the 
number of parties was obtained by travelling the lake; usually in 
mid afternoon, in as short a time as possible, in order that no 
parties would be counted twice because of movement. This alternative 
seems to have proven quite satisfactory. 

The location of the highway, with adjacent camping areas 
prompted most angling parties to set up camp near the highway and 
travel up the lake to fish each day. 

On census days personnel tried to contact as many parties 
as possible at the camping area between dusk and dark. This was 
done in order that the full day* s fishing results could be obtained. 
It was also felt to be more efficient than contact on the lake, since 
most camps were concentrated in a relatively small area. 



- 37 - 



Discussion of Methods 



The camp concentration previously mentioned will undoubtedly 
continue since, while anglers had to camp in unorganized sites this 
past season, a Provincial Park situated on the lake shore (see map), 
is fast nearing completion and will probably be open for the 1962 
angling season. 

It is realized that these methods could undoubtedly be 
improved upon. It was necessary however, to reach a final plan as 
quickly as possible in order that the first year* s data would not 
be rendered valueless for comparison with data collected in future 
years* Moreover, it is felt that as long as consistancy is main- 
tained as completely as possible throughout the study, any short- 
comings should remain constant and therefore not distort the overall 
picture to any great degree* 

Results 



Table 2 shows the angling success results derived from 
actual information before any conversions of any kind were made. 

Graphs 7 to 10 show the differential angling success on 
a monthly basis. 



- 38 - 



Table 2 : 

MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT 

Number Pickerel caught per rod hr. 0.80 0.94 0.62 0.46 0.40 

" Pike caught per rod hr. 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.07 0.15 

»« Fish caught per rod hr. 0.90 1.06 0.73 0.53 °»55 

» Pickerel retained per rod hr. 0.59 0.50 0.42 0.35 0.28 

" Pike retained per rod hr. 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.07 



N 



Fish retained per rod hr. 0.65 0.55 O.48 0.39 0.35 



lbs. Pickerel retained per rod hr. 1.02 0.91 0.70 O.58 O.46 

lbs. Pike retained per rod hr. 0.16 0.17 0.16 0.09 0.16 

lbs. Fish retained per rod hr. 1.18 1.09 0.86 0.67 0.62 

Av. Wt. in lbs* per Pickerel retained 1.74 I.83 1.68 1.68 1.67 

Av. Wt. in lbs. per Pike retained 2.72 3.40 2.88 2.11 2.23 

Av. Wt. in lbs. per Fish retained I.83 1.97 1.82 1.73 1.79 






Graph 7: 



- 39 - 



Fish Caught /Rod Hour 
(by months) 





1.2 




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1.0 




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Pickerel caught/ 
rod hr. 

Pike caught/rod hr. 
Fish caught /rod hr. 




May- 



June 



July 



Aug, 



Sept 



Graph 8: 



- 40 - 



Fish Retained/Rod Hour 
(by months) 



u 

O 

o 
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CD 
J-. 

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Pickerel retained/ 
rod hr. 

Pike retained/rod hr. 

Fish retained/rod hr. 



0.1 

0.0 



May 



June 



July 



Aug, 



Sept 



Graph 9: 



- 41 - 



Lbs. Fish Retained/Rod Hour 
(by months) 



1.2 



lbs. Pickerel retained/rod hr, 
lbs. Pike retained/rod hr. 



■._i_ lbSv Fish retained/rod hr. 



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Aug, 



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Graph 10 
3.4 



3.3 
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3.1 
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2.9 
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2.4 
2.3 
2.2 
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1.7 
1.6 



- 42 - 



Av. Wt. in Lbs. /Fish Retained 
(by months) 



Av. wt. /Pickerel 
Av. wt./Pike 

Av. wt./Fish 





May 



June 



July Aug, 



Sept 



- 43 - 

In order to derive total angling success over the whole 
summer period, it was necessary that the data collected each month 
undergo several conversions,, 

If contact was not established with all parties on any 
census day, it was necessary that that day* s results be multiplied 
by the appropriate factor to account for all parties observed on 
the lake 6 For example, if 30 boats were observed during that day's 
aircraft boat count but only 20 parties were interviewed that 
evening, then that day's data would be multiplied by 3/2. 

It was further necessary to apply a conversion factor to 
the data collected on census days such that the results would be 
increased by the appropriate amount for coverage of the whole month. 
For example, if there were 1000 pickerel caught during 7 census week 
days in June, the results would be multiplied by 20/7 or 2.86, so 
that 20 week days, the actual number, were taken into account. This 
was also done for week-end days and holidays. These totals were 
then summed to give the monthly totals. 

Table 3 shows the calculated angling success stratified 
on a monthly basis. 

Table 1+ shows the calculated angling success on a summer 
basis. This was derived by summing the monthly totals. 







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- 45 - 



Discussion of Results 



Since this programme is to be of comparative nature on an 
annual basis, very little can be said of the results to date,, 

Recommendations 

Now that a reasonably practical method of survey has been 
instituted, it is recommended that this method be adhered to as 
closely as possible for the duration of the programme. Otherwise 
direct comparison from year to year will be impossible. 

No final estimate as to the number of years for which this 
study should be carried on has yet been reached,, A minimum of four 
years would seem desirable with the provision of continuation after 
that time should it be found that trends have not yet become clearly 
established. 

Acknowledgments 

Thanks are due to Conservation Officers E. J. Mitchell, 
D. J, Rice and A. E. Swanstrom for their willing co-operation in 
this study; also to the many members of the Chief Ranger's staff , 
Mobert Division who helped so consistantly with the evening creel 
census work. 



References 



Best, E. A. and H. D. Boles 

1955, An evaluation of creel census methods. 

Calif. Fish and Game, Vol. 42(2) -.109-116. 

Devitt, 0. E. 1959, 

The age and growth rates of Ontario game fishes 

for fish and wildlife management. 

Ont. Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 45, March 

1, 1959c 



- 46 - 

A REVIEW OF THE BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT 
OF PICKEREL 

by 
W. F. Cheshire 
Biologist, Tweed District 

Abstract 

A survey was made of the important literature on the 
pickerel in order to review this species* biology 
and management „ Information is provided on distri- 
bution, habits & habitat,, food, reproduction, growth, 
ecology, parasites and disease, mortality, harvest 
data and management. 



Specie s: Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ( Mi t chill) 

Family: Percidae. 

Order: Percomorphi. 

Commo n names : Pickerel, yellow pickerel, yellow pikeperch, 
walleye, walleyed pike, and dore". 

Introd u cti on 

Pickerel probably forms one of the most important inland 
fisheries in North America. It is sought after commercially and is 
highly prized as a sports fish* Practically the whole catch, both 
commercial and sport, is utilized as food (Niemuth, Churchill and 
Wirth, 1959) o The paper attempts to summarize the important liter- 
ature on pickerel to date,, Papers not used in this summary are 
also included in references for the convenience of the reader. 
(Niemuth et al op cit.) have provided the most recent review of the 
biology and management of pickerel. Since their review was sufficiently 
complete, it was difficult for the present writer to refrain from 
extracting passages completely intact from their paper. 

Range 

The range of the pickerel in North America extends from 
Labrador and New Brunswick on the east, thence south to Northern 
Alabama and the upper Miss:' ssippi Valley. On the west it extends 
into Nebraska and the Saskatchewan River Valley, The Pickerel range 
extends north into the Mackenzie River and Hudson Bay drainage systems 
(Niemuth et _al op. cit , ; and Meckay, 1953) • 

Pickerel are found throughout Ontario, particularly in the 
Great Lakes Basin. They are very abundant in Northern Ontario, the 
range having been extended through stocking (Mackay, 195$) . 



- 47 - 
Habitat 

Pickerel thrive in moderately fertile waters but occur in 
all types of lakes, providing the necessary spawning and feeding 
grounds are present e Spawning requires two to four feet of water 
with a gravel substrate, and a current or wave action to provide 
the necessary aeration for the eggs» Feeding takes place along bars 
and shoals, and among rocks along the edges of weed beds (Niemuth 
et al op. cito, and Carlander, Whitney, Speaker, Madden, I960.)* 

An unusual spawning habitat has been observed in Wisconsin 
on the flooded marsh vegetation of the Wolf River Bottoms. Pickerel 
were found spawning in the tangled root masses of bog vegetation in 
Tumas Lake, Manitowoc County, (Niemuth et al op. cito)* 

The habits of pickerel are such they never become abundant 
in weedy waters (Niemuth et al op. cit.). The above statement requires 
some clarification since many local Ontario waters contain extensive 
weed beds as well as considerable numbers of pickerel. 

Habits 

Pickerel live near or on the lake bottom. They are 
nocturnal in habit and depend largely on unwary or resting fish 
for food. During the daytime they retire to deep, dark water. 
During the evening, they migrate to the bars and shoals to feed among 
rocks or along the edges of the weed beds. They may be active during 
the daytime in turbid waters or during cloudy weather. During 
midsummer (July and early August) they remain in deep water where 
they continue to feed (Niemuth et al op. cit.). (In contrast to this 
last statement, pickerel in the Tweed District are known to come 
into shallow water at night to feed, even during July and August) . 
Winter finds pickerel active and feeding, especially when the ice 
first forms and prior to the spring break-up (Niemuth et al op. cit ). 

Food 

There is virtually no information on the feeding habits of 
young pickerel in the wild. Young pickerel in rearing ponds feed on 
plankton and crustaceans at first. Later, they feed on insect larvae, 
particularly chironomids. When young pickerel reach three inches in 
length, they begin to feed on fish. At six inches, plankton becomes 
unimportant in their diet. Adult pickerel feed mainly on fish. 
Other animals, particularly aquatic insects, are also utilized. 
Pickerel are vigorous swimmers and are capable of overtaking such 
fish as the largemouth bass (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 

Mating 

Pickerel start out on their spawning migration with the 
first warm weather after the ice goes out when temperatures range 
from 3$° to 44° F. Males are the first to seek the spawning grounds 
and linger on after the females have left. Spawning begins in 



- 4d - 

Wisconsin between mid-April and May first, the peak occurring when 
temperatures range from 4<3° to 50° F. The spawning season begins 
one to two weeks later in Northern Wisconsin than in Southern Wis- 
consin (Niemuth et al op. cit.). In Ontario, spawning begins in early- 
April or May (Mackay, 1953). Hile's (1954) data indicate the older 
fish are the first to start on the spawning migration,, 

Prospective spawners lie off a ripple or bar in the daytime 
and come in to spawn at night. A female is accompanied by one or 
more males . Male and female sidle up to each other. Vents are 
tilted slightly, brought close together, and the sex products 
emittedo The unattended eggs are randomly deposited on the gravel 
substrate (Niemuth et al op. cit„). 

N umber of eggs 

On the average, about 50,000 eggs are produced per female, 
although there is considerable variation depending upon the size of 
the fish and the locality concerned (Niemuth, Churchill and Wirth, 
1959) • The eggs hatch in 26 days when the water temperature is 40° F 
and seven days when the water temperature is 57° F (Niemuth et al op. 
cito). 

Age at Initial Breeding 

In most populations males breed at two to three years of 
age and females at four to five years of age (Niemuth et al op. cit.), 
Rawson (1956) found that few individuals bred at five years in Lac 
La Ronge in Saskatchewan; most breeding started when fish were eight 
to ten years of age. 

Growth 

Generally, females grow faster and larger than males 
(Niemuth et al op. cit.) although Kennedy (1949) found the growth of 
females and males approximately the same in Lake Manitoba. Pickerel 
introduced into new lakes of suitable environment grow faster than 
elsewhere (Stroudt 1949; and Eddy and Carlander 1939) • Wild young of 
the year may reach five to six inches in the fall and are usually 
over six inches by May first (Niemuth, Churchill and Wirth, 1959) « 
Weights over ten pounds are rare, but individuals measuring three 
feet in length and weighing twenty-five pounds have been found 
(Niemuth et al op. cit.). (Niemuth et al op. cit.) present a 
table of length and age for pickerel from various places. 

Longevity 

Pickerel live about seven years in Wisconsin, but individuals 
eighteen to twenty years have been found (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 



- 49 - 

Mobility 

The only known migration is the spawning run, which may 
be as much as a hundred miles. Pickerel have no clear-cut home 
range, but apparently drift around in their environment in response 
to food supplies (Niemuth et al op. cit.). Mackay (195$) states 
they are active swimmers and may travel distances up to 175 miles. 

General Ecology 

Pickerel are important components of the predator-prey 
balances in lakes with extensive open water free of weeds. Often 
they are co-habitants of yellow perch (Niemuth .et .al op. cit.) and 
are associated with fairly large populations of the latter (Smith 
and Krefting, 1953 > and Maloney and Johnson, 1955) « It is suggested 
the similarity in habitat preference of yearling perch and pickerel 
together with difference in growth rates and feeding habits may be 
important factors in this relationship (Maloney and Johnson, 1955) • 
In large, cold lakes the role of pickerel is assumed by the lake 
trout (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 

Pickerel are competitors of both large and smallmouth 
bass. Where successful introductions of pickerel have been made 
in exclusively bass waters, a decline of the bass has followed 
(Niemuth et al op. cit.). On the other hand, white bass appear to 
be successful competitors of pickerel. In Spirit Lake, Iowa, 
pickerel increased during periods of low white bass density and 
the reverse situation prevailed during periods of white bass 
dominance (Rose, 1955) ■ 

Pickerel are subject to the usual fish-eating bird and 
mammalian predators, but this form of predation is probably small 
due to their nocturnal habits, their preference for open, deep 
water areas, and the relative size of the adults. Young pickerel 
are probably more susceptible than adults to this form of predation 
(Niemuth et al op. cit.). 

Although pickerel are vigorous and successful competitors 
in their own rights, habitat changes due to man's activities can affect 
them. Increased water levels in the Wolf and Fox River lakes above 
Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin (Lakes Poygan, Winneconne, and Butte 
Des Morts) resulted in a decline of emergent and submergent aquatic 
vegetation. In the resulting open water a pickerel - white bass 
associes replaced the bass - perch and pickerel (Niemuth et al 
op. cit.). 

At low oxygen concentrations, pickerel often become vic- 
tims of winter-kill in shallow lakes (Niemuth e_t al op. cit.). 

Parasites and Disease 

Little is known of the disease problem in natural pickerel 
populations. Lymphocystis is common and contageous in nature but is 
not known to cause mortality. Unsightly external lumps develop but 
this does not affect the flavour of the flesh. Parasites found 



- 50 - 

consist of Cestoda , particularly Proteocephalus sp; Piscicola sp; 
fish leeches; Neacus, the black fluke; and Clinostomum . the yellow 
fluke. None of these parasites are known to infect man or to cause 
significant mortality in pickerel populations (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 

Population Mortality and Productivity 

Changes in the annual harvest of pickerel from year to 
year appear to be caused by the large fluctuations in the strength 
of year classes; these fluctuations being exaggerated in a popula- 
tion with high mortality rates. These fluctuations in year class 
strength can be traced to the survival of the young (Niemuth et al 
op. cit.) which is determined during the first summer (Maloney and 
Johnson, 1955) • 

The following is a table of pickerel yield from various 
bodies of water (data from Niemuth et al op. cit.). 



TABLE I: 



Location 

Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin 

High and Fishtrap Lakes, Wisconsin 

Spirit Lake, Iowa 

Lake Erie (Blue and yellow pickerel) 



Pounds Per Acre 

20 - 40 

10 - 20 

8 - 12 

6.5 in 1956 



Angling and natural mortalities reported are as follows t 
(data from Niemuth et al op. cit.) 



TABLE II : 

Location 

Escanaba Lake, Wisconsin 
East Okoboji Lake, Iowa 



Mortality 
Angling Natural 



23$-40# 
32f 



10#-15# 



Management 



The large fluctuations in year class strength, which is 
traced to the survival of young, produces one of the greatest 
problems in pickerel management. Although knowledge of the actual 
mechanism regulating the survival of young pickerel is far from com- 
plete, it appears intra-and interspecific competition are involved. 
Research has not reached the point of forecasting the size of a year 
class or prescribing means of improving recruitment in poor years. 
Since pickerel are a "big water" fish, the creation of spawning grounds 
as a management measure is not easy (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 



- 51 - 

Artificial stocking has met with variable success. Stock- 
ing fry in new habitats often has resulted in good survival and 
very rapid growth, but results from stocking fry in habitats already 
containing pickerel have often been very poor (Eddie and Carlander 
1939, Stroudt 1949, Carlander, Whitney, Speaker and Madden I960). 
Carlander and associates (I960) have reviewed past results of fry 
stocking of pickerel in various lakes. Stocking of fry had a signi- 
ficant effect on pickerel populations in Clear Lake, which is in 
sharp contrast to earlier studies on pickerel fry stocking in Lakes 
Huron and Michigan (Hile, 1937), Lake of-the-Woods (Carlander, 1943), 
and in the Red Lakes in Minnesota (Smith and Krefting, 1953) • The 
latter lakes are much larger and the rate of stocking in the latter 
was much less than in Clear Lake (Authors reviewed by Carlander et al 
op. cit.). In the larger lakes many of the pickerel spawn in streams 
tributary to them, whereas all pickerel in Clear Lake spawn in the 
lake itself (Carlander et al op. cit.). Although Carlander and his 
associates have shown that stocking can make a significant contribution 
to the population, they indicate more data are required to determine 
whether stocking oan contribute to the annual harvest (Carlander et al 
op. cit.l. 

The trend in Management in Wisconsin has been to libera- 
lize fishing regulations for pickerel. The ice fishing season has 
been lengthened, the season is opened earlier in the spring, and the 
thirteen inch size limit has been abolished. Year-round fishing 
has been permitted in several Wisconsin watersheds. The spawning 
runs on several watersheds have been exploited for many years without 
harm to the population, notably in the Lake Winnebago chain of waters 
including the Wolf River. Although regulations have been liberalized, 
they have not been completely removed. Sport fishermen have a bag 
limit of five and the season is closed during the spawning run in 
many waters. In Northern Green Bay, commercial fishermen have a 
minimum size limit of fifteen inches and a closed season during 
April and May (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 

There is not much concern in Wisconsin of overfishing 
since angling mortality is modest and the pickerel is a moody, 
seasonal biter. Nevertheless, some caution is desirable since it 
takes three to four years for pickerel to reach a desirable size 
(Niemuth et al op. cit.)» Although stocking may be 
recommended to boost an overfished population, it has yet to be 
demonstrated that stocking can influence the annual harvest 
Carlander et al op. cit.). 

Little liberalization in pickerel management regulations 
has occurred in Ontario, however, size limits have been removed due 
to mutilation and mortality occurring when young pickerel are removed 
from the hook and returned to the water, and the growth variation 
occurring in different lakes. By 1958, management regulations 
depended mainly on possession limits and closed seasons (Mackay, 1958) • 
Recently, the pickerel season in Southern Ontario has been extended 
into the winter months. 



:.- 



- 52 - 
Techn i ques 

Two techniques used in pickerel management are touched on 
in this section, one only briefly. Johnson (1953) describes a 
method for reducing mortality due to fin clipping operations which 
consists chiefly of retaining fish in holding tanks for twenty-four 
hours after the clipping operation and before releasing them« 

Probably one of the more interesting techniques is the 
method used in rearing pickerel in natural rearing ponds. The 
method appears to be similar to that used for rearing fresh water 
fish in many parts of the world, particularly in Southern Asia 
(review by Hora, 1949) « Any pond of one-quarter acre or larger 
will produce pickerel, provided crustacenas and fish are provided as 
forage in sufficient amounts and at the right time (Smith and Moyle 
1943) • The maximum water depth used in Minnesota ponds was 
five to six feet (Dobie, 1956) . A mean production of 4$ pounds 
per acre has been reached in Minnesota, but a maximum production of 
234 pounds per acre has been realized (Niemuth et al op. cit.). 
Dobie (1956a) stresses the importance of organic material in the 
pond bottom in maintaining rearing success. Pickerel can be raised 
up to a size of three to six inches in length in fertilized or rich 
natural rearing ponds at a cost of about three cents each (Niemuth 
et al op. cit. ) 

The ponds used could be drained in order to manipulate 
the organic content of the pond bottom when necessary. The method 
of managing the ponds is described in detail by Dobie (1956 and 1956a) 
and Dobie end Moyle (195Q*- and consists of fertilizing the pond 
bottom with ordinary barnyard manure, filling the pond with water 
and stocking, applying three applications of sheep manure while the 
fish are in the ponds, watching the ponds for signs of starvation, 
harvesting che fish at the appropriate time, draining the ponds and 
"olanting rye in the pond bottom in cases where the organic content 
of the soil is lew (Dobie, 1956a) . Martin (1953) suggests the use 
of hay as fertilizer in place of sheep manure. The hay helps in the 
production of zooplankters which are fed upon by pickerel, and helps 
prevent the development of phytoplankton blooms which are poisonous to 
the fish (Dobie, 1956a and Martin, 1958). Recently, work in pond 
management for pickerel has been started in Southern Ontario 
(Roseborough, 1959) . 

References 

The following is a list of references presented for the 
convenience of the reader • Many of the earlier papers are reviewed 
in the more recent ones; thus there was little point in using them 
in the body of this review. 

Adamstone, F. B. 1922. Rates of growth of the blue and yellow 
pike-perch. Univ, of Toronto Stud. Publ. of the 
Ont. Fish. Res. Lab. No. 5« 

Lch, Robert, 1951. The age and growth of the yellow pike-perch 
Stiz ostedion v. vitreum (Mitchill) in the Green Bay 
"water j of Lake Michigan. Invest. Rept. No. 652, Fish 
Mgt, Div,, Wis. Cons. Dept. Mimeo. 

Srubacher, M. J. Catch-effort study, Lake Erie 1, yellow pickerel, 
1948-52. Fish and Wildl. Div., Dept. of Lands & Forests. 



-53- 

Burrows, Charles R. 1951. Status of the Lake of-the-Woods Fisheries, 
1933, through 1949, with special reference to the walleye. 
Minn. Dept. of Cons. Div. of Game and Fish, Fish Res. 
Unit, Investigational Rept. No. 106. 

Carlander, Kenneth, 1958. Some simple mathematical models as aids 
in interpreting the effect of fishing. Iowa State Coll., 
Journ. of Sci., 32( 3) : 395-413. 

Carlander, Kenneth D, 1946. Growth of the yellow pikeperch, 

Stizostedion v. vitreum (Mitchill) in some Iowa lakes 
with a summary of growth rates reported in other areas. 
Iowa State Coll. Journ. Sci., 22:227-237. 

Carlander, Kenneth D. 1943 • Age, growth, sexual maturity and 

population fluctuations of the yellow pike-perch Stizostedion 
v. vitreum with reference to the commercial fisheries, 
Lake of-the-Woods, Minnesota. Trans. 73^d. Ann. Meet. 
Amer. Fish. Soc: 90-107. 

Carlander Kenneth D. , Richard R„ Whitney, Everett B. Speaker and 

Kenneth Madden, I960. Evaluation of walleye fry stocking 
in Clear Lake, Iowa, by alternate year planting. Trans. 
Amer. Fish. Soc. No. 89(3): 249-254» 

Cleary, R. E. 1949. Life history and management of the yellow 

pikeperch, Stizostedion v. vitreum (Mitchill) of Clear 
Lake, Iowa. Iowa State Coll. Journ. Sci., 1949: 195-20$. 

Cummins, Robert, Jr. 1954. Malachite green oxalate used to control 

fungus on yellow pikeperch eggs in jar hatchery operations. 
The Progressive Fish Culturist 16(2): 79-82. 

Doan, Kenneth H. 1945° Catch of (S. vitreum ) in relation to changes 
in lake level in Western Lake Erie during the winter of 
1943. The Amer. Mid. Nat., Vol. 33 (2) : 455-459. 

Dobie, John, 1956. Walleye pond management in Minnesota,.. 
Prog. Fish Culturist, Vol. 13(2): 51-57. 

Dobie, John, 1956a. Walleye ponds, 1956. Minnesota Dept. of 

Cons., Div. of Game and Fish, Bur. of Res. and Planning, 
investigational report Mo. 179. 

Dobie, John and John Moyle, 1956. Methods used for investigating 
productivity of fish-rearing ponds in Minnesota. 
Minn. Dept. Cons., Div. Game and Fish, Bur. Res. and 
Planning, Fish. Res. Unit, Spec. Publ. No. 5° 

Eddy, Samuel, and Kenneth Carlander. 1939. The growth rate of 

walleyed pike (S_. vitreum) in various lakes of Minnesota. 
Proc. of the Minnesota Acad. Sci., 7:44-48. 

Edminster, J. 0. and J. W. Gray. 1948. Toxicity thresholds for 

three chlorides and three acids to the fry of whitefish 
and yellow pickerel. The Prog. Fish Cult. 10 ( 2) : 105-106. 



- 54 - 

Eschmeyer, Paul H., 1950. The Life History of the Walleye in 
Michigan, Mich. Inst, for Fisheries Bull. No. 9* 

Eschmeyer, Paul and Walter R. Crowe, 1955 • Movement and recovery 
of tagged walleyes in Michigan, 1929-1953* Mich. Inst, 
for Fisheries Res., Misc. Publ., No. &. 

Hart, John L. 1923. Data on the rate of growth of pikeperch 
(S. vitreum ) and Sauger (S. canadens e) in Ontario. 
Univ. of Toronto Stud. Publ. of the Ont. Fish. Res. 
Lab., No. 34:45-55. 

Herman, Elmer F. 1947 ° Notes on tagging walleyes on the Wolf River. 
Wis. Cons. Bull., 12(4) :7. 

Hile, Ralph, 1937 • The increase in abundance of yellow pike- 
perch, Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill) , in Lakes Huron 
and Michigan, in relation to the artificial propagation 
of the species. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc, 66:143-159. 

Hile, Ralph, 1950. Green Bay walleyes. The fisherman, March 
1950, issue. 

Hile, Ralph, 1954° Fluctuations in growth and year-class strength 
of the walleye in Saginaw Bay. Fish. Bull. 91# U. S, 
Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildl. Serv. , Vol. 56:1-59. 

Hora Sunder Lai. 1949« Management and cultivation of fresh water 

fish. Pond culture of warm water fishes. United Nations 
Sci. Conf. on the Cons, and Util. of Res., Mar. 3> 1949* 

Hunter, George W. Ill and John S. Rankin, Jr., 1939. The food of 
pickerel. Copeia No. 4:194-199. 

Johnson, Fritz H., 1953. Notes on mortality of walleye fingerlings 
during and following fin-clipping. Minn. Dept. 
of Cons., Div. of Game & Fish, Bur. of Fish. Invest. 
Rept. No. 145, Dec. 7, 1953. 

Kennedy, W. A. 1949. Relationship of length, weight and sexual 

maturity to age in three species of Lake Manitoba fish. 
Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, Bull. No. 31:1-5. 

Kmiotek, Stanley, 1952. The Wolf River: Walleye Nursery. Wis. 
Cons. Bull., 17(3): 12-15. 

Mackay, H. H. 1958. Yellow pikeperch (_S. vitreum ) . Sylva 14(6): 
25-31. 

Maloney, John E. 1956. Development of an introduced fish popu- 
lation in a small Northern Minnesota Lake with notes 
on survival of stocked walleye pike young of the year. 
Minn. Dept. Cons., Div. Game and Fish, Bur. Fish., 
investigational report No. 172, Jan. 25, 1956. 



- 55 - 

Maloney, J. E. and F. H. Johnson, 1955 • Life histories and inter- 
relationships of walleye and yellow perch, especially 
during the their first summer in two Minnesota Lakes • 
Trans. Am. Fish. Soc, Vol. £5:191-202. 

Martin, Mayo. 195&. Walleye hatching, rearing and transporting 
techniques as practiced in Kentucky. (Processed) 
Kentucky Dept. of Fish and Wildl. Res. 30 pp. n.d. 

Micklus, Robert C. 1959« A three-year creel census of a softwater 

walleye population in Northeastern Minnesota, Caribou Lake, 
Cook County. Minn. Dept. of Cons., Div. of Game and Fish, 
Sect, of Res. and Planning, Invest. Rept. No. 220, 

Niemuth, Wallace, Warren Churchill and Thomas Wirth, 1959. The 
walleye, its life history, ecology and management. 
Publ. No. 277, Wis. Cons. Dept. 

Raney, Edward C. and Ernest A. Lachner 1942. Studies of the summer 
food growth and movements of young yellow pikeperch 
(S. v. vitreum ) in Oneida Lake, New York. Journ. of Wildl. 
Mgt., 6(1):16. 

Rawson, D, S. 1956. The life history and ecology of the yellow 
walleye S. vitreum in Lac La Ronge, Saskatchewan. Vol. 
£6, Trans. Amer. Fish Soc.:15-37. 

Rose, Earl T. 1955. The fluctuation in abundance of walleyes 
in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Proc. of the Iowa Acad, of 
Sci., Vol. 62:567-575. 

Rose, Earl T. 1951. Notes on the age and growth of Spirit Lake 
yellow pikeperch. S.v. vitreum . Iowa Acad, of Sci., 
Vol. 53:517-525. 

Rose, Earl T. 194$. The population of yellow pikeperch in Spirit 
Lake as determined by the tagging method. Paper pres. 
to 10th. Midwest Wildl. Conf . , Ann Arbour, Mich,, Dec. 
9-11, 19A-S. 

Roseborough, J, D. 1959. Report on pond rearing of yellow pickerel 
and whitefish. (Unpublished) . 

Scott, W. B., D. N. Omand and G. H. Lawler. 1951. Experimental 
rearing of yellow pikeperch fry in natural waters. 
Canadian Fish Culturist, No. 10, 

Slastenenko, E. P. 1956. The growth of yellow pikeperch, S. vitreum 
(Mitchill) in Three Mile Lake, Ontario. The Canadian Fish 
Culturist, No. 19, Nov. 1956. 

Smith, Lloyd L. and Laurits W. Krefting. 1953. Fluctuations in 
production and abundance of commercial species in the 
Red Lakes, Minnesota, with special reference to changes 
in the walleye population. Trans, Amer. Fish. Soc. 
Vol. S3: 131-160. 



- 56 - 

Smith, Lloyd L., Jr., Laurits W. Krefting, and Robert L. Butler. 

1951. Movements of marked walleyes, S.v. vitreum (Mitchill) 
in the fishery of the Red Lakes, Minnesota. 
Trans. Amer. Fish Sec. Vol. 31:179-196. 

Smith, Lloyd L., Jr. and John B. Moyle. 1943* Factors influencing 
production of yellow pikeperch, S.v. vitreum in Minnesota 
rearing ponds. Trans. 73rd meeting Amer. Fish. Soc: 
243-261. 

Speaker, E. B. 193$. Pond rearing of walleyed pike. Prog. Fish 
Cult., 36:1-6. 

Stroudt, R. H. 1949. Growth of the Norris Reservoir walleye during 
the first 12 years of impoundment. Journ. Wildl. Mgt., 
13(2): 157-177. 

Stroudt, Jerome H. and Samuel Eddy. 1939. Walleye pike tagging 

study, 1937-193^, Chippewa National Forest. Trans. 4th. 
N. A. Wildl. Conf.:305-310. 

Van Oosten, John. 1937» Artificial propagation of commercial fish 
of the Great Lakes. Repr. from Trans. 2nd. N. A. Wildl. 
Conf.: 605-612. 

Whitney, Richard. 1953 ° Tagging study of walleyes at Clear Lake, 
Iowa. Pres. at 15th. Midwest Wildl. Conf. Dec. 10, 1953. 

Wistrom, Clarence A. 1957* Problems in the propagation of walleyes. 
Wis. Cons. Bull., 22(9) :l-3.