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Full text of "Resource Management Report March 1, 1962"

No. 62 March, 1962 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 




ONTARIO 



Fish and Wildlife Branch 

(These Reports are for Infra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 62 March, 1962 



Page 

A Review of the Methods in Deer Yard Management, 1 

- by W. F. Cheshire 

An Ecological Study of Northern Michigan 

Deeryards. - by Louis J. Verme 15 

Report on Opening of Duck Season on October 7* 
1961 in Lake Simcoe District. - by A. A. Wainio, 3-4 

R. H. Trotter and J. S. Dorland 



Summary of Fall, Spring and Summer Goose and 

Duck Kills in Patricia East. - by A. Gagnon 42 

Forest Existing in Ontario Counties about 1335 • 

- by H. B. Small 46 

Forest and Moose Management in Norway and 

Sweden. - by Douglas H. Pimlott 51 

Forestry in South Africa. - by T. W. Dwight 67 

Kenora District Creel Census I960. 

- by A, R, Olsen 75 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

A REVIEW OF THE METHODS IN DEER YARD MANAGEMENT 

November 1961 

by 

W. Fa Cheshire 
Biologist, Tweed District 



Abstract 

The purpose of this review is to present the approach, 
principles of deer yard management, and the techniques 
that have been used in dealing with deer yard manage- 
ment problems • The review is largely an expansion of 
the section on techniques of deer yard management from 
Gill's (1956) paper, but includes results from publi- 
cations that have appeared in the meantime. 



Introduction 

There has been a demand in Ontario during recent years for 
deer yard management aimed at preventing deer starvation during years 
of severe snow conditions. The purpose of this review is to present 
to the game manager the approach and techniques that have been used 
in relation to deer yard management. The present review is largely 
an expansion of the section on techniques of deer yard management from 
Gill's (1956) paper, but includes results from publications that have 
appeared in the meantime. Other papers worth reading in addition to 
the above are Gill (1957) and Nelson (1951). 

Evaluation of Deer Yards 

The first problem the game manager should be concerned 
with in managing deer yards for food production is the type of food 
that should be encouraged in the yarding area. It is usually im- 
practical to select the food to be grown in a yard, but it is 
possible to rate a yard as to its suitability as a wintering area 
for deer. 

Deer yard browse surveys might be used to determine what 
species are most desirable in the yards, however, it may be very 
difficult to rate the nutritional value and palatability of the 
various species of plants fed upon by means of a browse survey. 
Pearce (1937) states that continuous choice of a plant species does 
not necessarily indicate "preference" in its strictest sense. Most 
investigators assume that a species reflects the true "preference" 
when consistently chosen. Caution should be exercised in determining 
preference by means of browse surveys since numerous factors tend to 
obscure the true preference or palatability as revealed by browse 
surveys. Some of the factors involved are (from Pearce, 1937): 

1. Disappearance of the less hardy but highly preferred 
species after a few years of relatively light browsing. 

2„ The acceptance of species not particularly preferred 
due to concentrated populations or winter isolation. 



• . • 



- 2 7 

3. Unexplained variation in deer tastes for the same browse 
species on different ranges, 

4. When there is a scarcity of staple species those less 
preferred are sometimes eaten readily, 

5. The habit of deer in sampling nearly everything of an 
edible nature, 

6. The individual tastes of certain deer. 

7. The age and rate of growth of browse species results 
in differences in palatability. Sprout growth is 
chosen rather than normal woody growth. The prefer- 
ence for sprouts over top material is noticeable on 
areas where logging has occurred for more than one 
winter and where sprout growth and newly cut tops are 
available simultaneously. 

Deer tend to select browse having the highest nutritional 
value (Gill, 1956) . Nevertheless, it appears evident from the above 
that palatability and nutritional ratings arrived at from browse 
surveys may be misleading. 

In spite of the difficulties involved in determining the 
suitability of browse species, Gill (1956) states the present knowledge 
of deer food preferences permits the use of certain browse species 
as indicators of yard condition. For example, "A browse line on 
cedar and none on balsam fir shows an early stage of overbrowsing. 
A new browse line on balsam plus an old one on cedar indicates there 
is trouble. Fawns commonly starve when balsam or other poor foods 
begin, to show a browse line" (from Swift, 1946), Maine biologists 
rely on the appearance of red maple and balsam fir in appraising food 
conditions in a yard (Gill, 1956) • Balsam fir and red maple tend to 
be resistant to browsing (Gill 1956, p. IB), In addition, feeding 
tests have shown that balsam fir and red maple are low quality foods 
(Banasiak 1961; Dahlberg, Burton and Guettinger 1956; Davenport 1939) . 

Stoeckeler, Keener and Strothmann (195#) present some preli- 
minary data for determining browse which would result from timber 
cuttings. This information can be used in conjunction with stand 
tables to determine the amount of browse which would result from a 
cutting operation. 

General Considerations Prior to Planning 

Jenkins (1955) noted in Michigan that deer used cuttings 
as far as a mile from swamps during the winter. Consequently, they 
plan deer yard cuttings to include that much area surrounding the 
designated yards (Gill, 1956). In Northern Maine, deer generally do 
not wander more than 1/4 mile from sheltering cover to feeding areas. 
On the other hand, trails up to a mile in length have been noted 
between bedding sites and logging operations IBanasiak, 1961). 

Hardwoods are more valuable food suppliers than softwoods, 
cedar being an exception, since hardwoods tend to reproduce more 
abundantly through sprouting and are more resistant to browsing. 



- 3 - 

Many hardwood cutting operations can be adapted rather easily to pro- 
vide maximum benefits for game. The total area where deer can be 
appreciably helped by hardwood cutting is small. Deer yards comprise 
less than 15 per cent of the total range and are largely in softwood 
growth with hardwoods abundant only around the edges. Consequently, 
only a small proportion of the total range is involved (Gill, 1957) • 

It has been shown in the Lake States that large areas of 
potential hardwood winter range can not be used by deer due to a lack 
of coniferous cover (Aldous, 1949) <• If islands of coniferous cover 
are left while clear-cutting in extensive conifer stands, deer will 
use the food produced in the cut-over more effectively; otherwise 
they tend to use only the edges of the cut-over (Marston, 1942) • 

Laramie and Dole (1957) suggest a general approach to the 
problem of deer yard management. It appears the greatest length of 
edge between softwood cover and hardwood food per unit area of cover, 
when combined with light cuttings in the heaviest cover, is desirable. 
Cutting in large groups of 5 to 19 acres, leaving about 1/3 of the 
volume, helps break up the even aged aspect of a stand. The reser- 
vation of uncut strips at least 150 feet in width along water courses 
in deer yarding areas appears to be most compatible with timber oper- 
ations; these strips are heavily used by deer, however, it does not 
pay to extend the cover strips beyond the original yarding area. 
Cover strips are more effective if they can be left connecting larger 
compartments of cover or if they protrude from a larger segment of 
the yarding area. 

Gill (1946) recommends that uncut strips 150 to 200 feet 
wide of mature conifers be reserved along water courses or pond margins 
in areas where deep snow conditions are experienced as in New Hampshire, 
The peripherel stands to the cover strips which are composed of mixed 
growth of hardwoods should be cut every 15 to 20 years to provide a 
sustained browse supply. 

One point should be kept in mind where over-browsed yards 

exist; that is, no silvicultural treatment can be effective either as 

a forestry or wildlife measure if such large deer concentrations are 

present that growth of food is prevented (Latham, 1943) . 

Princi ples in the Design of Deer Yard Management Plans which are 
Coordinated with Timber Management 

Deer yard management plans should take into consideration 
the requirements for deer, the cutting plans of timber operators, 
deer populations, and hunting pressure (Gill, 1956). 

Requirements for Deer 

Yard management plans should be designed so food and cover 
are managed as separate units. The problem then is to intersperse 
the food and cover units. The reason for separating food and cover 
into separate units is, the management approach for food differs from 
that for cover. Cutting may damage cover values but nearly always 
increases browse production. The purpose of management for food is to 
provide more browse in present or potential yards by light cuttings 
within the thickest portions of the stand. The purpose of cover. 



- 4 - 

management is to provide continuous strips of softwoods on at least 
one side of every major stream and most tributaries . Where cover 
rather than food is the problem in mixed stands, softwoods should 
be encouraged (Gill, 1956) o 

Cutting Plans 

Yard planning should precede cutting operations and 
should take into account the operators intentions in regard to the 
time of cutting, cutting practices, road layout, etc. In some 
circumstances it may be possible to plan the layout of access roads 
to facilitate the movement of deer through the yards and provide 
access for hunters into deer populations without seriously conflicting 
with the plans of the operators (Gill, 1956) • 

Deer Population 

Gill (1956) suggests that high food production on areas 
of low deer population is not warranted since the food is wasted. 
On the other hand, high deer populations may severely damage tree 
reproduction after small or light cuts. In North Carolina cleaning, 
salvage or improvement cuts which removed no more than 1+0% of the ori- 
ginal crown canopy area left small openings of 1/4 acre or less scat- 
tered throughout the stand. In this case no desirable tree reproduc- 
tion resulted since the few deer in the watershed were successfully 
browsing the reproduction to the ground 

Hunting Pressure 

There is no justification to promote high deer populations 
where they are not going to be harvested (Gill, 1956) . 

Management in Hardwood Stands 

The best time of year to cut is from November through to 
March. Cutting at this time results in greater and more vigorous 
sprout growth than at any other time of the year. Cutting in late 
August through to October is a second choice; sprout production is 
high in following years and the nutritional quality of the tops is 
better than at any other season. Cutting during April and May is a 
third choice; sprout production is still good and fresh tops are made 
available at a time when deer are in the poorest condition. Cutting 
is not recommended during June, July or early August since sprout 
production is poor and the nutritional quality of tops is inferior from 
cuttings made at this time. ' 

Cutting should be done where browse is scarce or heavily 
used, or where the presence of more deer is desirable. Cuttings as 
far as a mile from a yard will be used during the winter (Gill, 1957) o 

Plans should be made for repeated operations in or near 
deer yards using small clear-cuts or larger selective cuts. Large 
clear-cuts including most or all of the yard periphery should be 
avoided. Sustained browse production requires frequent cutting every 
5 tol5 years in some part of a yard (Gill, 1957) » Under Wisconsin 
conditions, it was found that following clear-cutting of old growth 
the area changed from poor range to good and back again to poor range 
in ten years (Anon., 194B) . 



- 5 - 

Gill (1957) presents a number of points to consider in 
selecting trees to be cut c 

1. The best sprout growth comes from stumps of the 
smaller but dominant trees. 

2. Sprout production decreases radically with 
increasing diameter in the case of trees 8 inches 
to 10 inches DBH. Sprout production is negligible 
in trees above 16 inches DBH. 

3« Sprouting ability decreases rapidly with decreasing 
dominance in the stand, i.e. from dominant to over- 
topped or suppressed. 

4. Competition from trees left standing can be 
ignored since it has little effect on stump 
sprouting. 

Trees should be cut so that stump faces are low, smooth, 
flat, and at an angle to the horizontal. This gives better drainage 
from stump faces, and limits rot in stumps and sprouts. 

Trees should be felled so tops are scattered rather than 
piled since slash piled on stumps inhibits sprouting and limits 
browsing on sprouts that do form. Where sprouts need protection 
from overbn wsing, slash can be piled on some stumps. Slash depth 
over the stumps should not be over two feet in depth. 

Red maple sprouts vigorously. This is followed by the 
birches, and then hard maple. Beech sprouting may be excessive; if 
so, cutting should be done to limit sprouting in beech. 

Management of Cedar Swamps 

Gill (1956) says cedar stands in and near yards should 
probably be treated the same as the slower growing hardwoods. Where 
deer populations are moderate to high a fairly large proportion of 
the stand should be cut, otherwise cedar reproduction may be destroy- 
ed by overbrowsing. 

Ecology of White Cedar 

During the initial stages in the development of deer yard 
management plans, a considerable amount of attention is usually given 
to white cedar. Nelson (1951) studied the reproduction characteristics 
of northern white cedar. Some of the main points of this paper are 
reviewed here. 

Effect of Light 

Full sunlight inhibits cedar reproduction; partial and 
dark shade produces better results. Partial shade produces the most 
vigorous and rapid germination. Light did not appear to be a critical 
factor in the field, although observations indicated light was 
beneficial in increasing the growth of reproduction. 



- 6 - 
Effects of Temperature 

Laboratory tests showed no germination below l£°C and 
growth was less vigorous at low temperatures* In the field, germina- 
tion was later on the swamp floor than on rotten logs; temperatures 
on the swamp floor were also lower than on rotten logs. Late spring 
frosts were found to kill seedlings. 

Effects of Acidity 

Laboratory tests showed there was a significant decrease 
in germination below pH 4<>0, although adequate germination was 
found throughout the normal range of pH values existing in cedar 
stands o Most forest seeds show a wide range of tolerance to pH 
and germinate well within the limits of acidity usually found in 
nature (Baldwin, 1942) . 

Drainage 

Along stream courses there was a definite drop in repro- 
duction within 50 feet of the stream. Beyond this distance repro- 
duction was higher. 

Soil Moisture 

Moisture appeared to be a relatively important factor. 
Hardwood litter did not promote germination due to low moisture 
content. The germination on the swamp floor and decaying logs was 
higher, however, the moisture content was also higher. 

Germinating Media 

Germination tests were run with four kinds of germina- 
ting media: Organic swamp floor material which consisted of the 
top inch of organic swamp soil of Rifle peat; logs in various stages 
of decay, hardwood litter consisting of alder leaves and some red 
maple litter, and the A]_ horizon of a Trenary fine sandy loam. 
There were no significant differences between the germinating media 
tested. Field observations showed logs in various stages of decay 
presented the best germinating media. Seedlings growing on decayed 
logs had better developed root systems than those growing on the 
swamp floor. Germination was later on the swamp floor than on logs, 
but the temperature on the swamp floor was also lower. 

Season of Seed Germination 

Seed germination took place mainly during June and the 
first week of July. 

Effective Seeding Distance 

It is suggested the best seeding distance is within 40 to 
50 feet of seed trc js. About 150 feet is the maximum distance when 
aided by prevailing winds. 



- 7 - 

Effects of Silvicultural Practices 

Bowman (1944) mentions the severity of cutting and site 
quality influence the character of the resulting stand. Barring fire, 
almost all productive swamps will reproduce well after cutting. 
Partial cuts result in better fir and cedar regeneration than clear- 
cuts, but fir tends to come in more vigorously than cedar (Zasada, 
1952). 

Nelson (1951) mentions briefly the results of experimental 
cuttings carried on in Michigan at Bob ? s Lake and the Cusino Experi- 
ment Station. 10 to 14 years after cutting, it appeared the heaviest 
clear-cuts had favoured alder invasion. Seedling reproduction of 
cedar increased as the intensity of cutting decreased. Ten to 14 
years after cutting there was a good proportion of reproduction in 
the one to two year old classes. On the other hand, cuts that are 
too light will hinder regeneration (Skilling, 1959) <> 

Slash had an adverse effect on reproduction. Zasada (1952) 
found that for most species, soils, and cutting methods there was a 
consistent trend toward better stocking of reproduction on areas 
with light to moderate amounts of slash than on those free of or 
covered with heavy amounts of slash. On the Cusino cuttings (Nelson, 
1951) slash piles definitely limited reproduction. Lopping and 
scattering the slash seemed to inhibit alder invasion to some extent. 
Bowman (1944) stated that undisposed of coniferous slash remains an 
obstacle to reproduction for 15 to 20 years after cutting. 

Plantings 

Results from past attempts in Michigan (Nelson, 1951) 
and Minnesota (Aldous, 1949) to establish cedar plantations indicate 
this method of establishing cedar stands is unsatisfactory. 

Techniques 

Ehrhart (1936) felt that cuttings for food production on 
winter range were of great importance to deer in the northern parts 
of their range. Krefting (1941) found red-osier dogwood produced the 
largest amount of browse on a weight basis while honeysuckle produced 
the least. On the other hand, mountain maple was the most important 
species treated in Minnesota since it was the most abundant food 
available to deer in their winter yards. Ground line and snow line 
cuttings on mountain maple greatly increased the browse produced 
by this species, most of which remained available five years after 
treatment. Neither trembling aspen nor paper birch were recommended 
for cutting. Deer did not utilize their sprout growth to any extent 
during the winter, their growth rate was too rapid, and the results 
obtained did not justify the cost of treatment. 

Clear-cutting 

Clear-cuttings produce the greatest amount of food per 
unit area for deer. In Pennsylvania clear-cuts in oak stands 
produced 45 times as much woody browse as uncut stands and thinned 
stands produced 14 times as much browse (English and Bramble 1949; 
Harney 1948) . Gill (1956) and Bryan (1950) state the effectiveness 



- 3 - 

of clear-cuts depends on the size of the area cut and the density of 
the deer population. Small deer herds use only the edges of large 
clear-cut areas. On the other hand, large deer herds eat all the 
new growth on small clearings as soon as it starts, thus creating a 
non-producing forest. 

Thinnings 

Thinnings can increase browse production (Cook 1939# 
Gould 1937, and Trippensee 1943). Morton and Sedam (1933) found it 
was necessary to remove at least 50 per cent of the crown cover in 
order to ensure the growth of an adequate under-story. Bryan (1950) 
in North Carolina found that clear-cuts for browse production produced 
too much food for deer and very little desirable timber reproduction 
was expected to become established. On the other hand, cleaning, 
salvage or improvement cuts which removed no more than 40 per cent of 
the original crown canopy area left small openings of 1/4 acre or less 
scattered throughout the stand. No desirable tree reproduction 
resulted in the latter case since the few deer on the watershed 
were successfully browsing it to the ground. 

Weedings (cleanings ) 

Hosley and Ziebarth (1935) state the cutting back of 
undesirable stems provides an abundance of new sprout material for 
deer food. This, in turn, tends to keep deer from browsing the 
larger crop trees. Krefting (1941) describes the sprouting character- 
istics of a number of trees and shrubs based on work done in Minnesota. 
The following is the information he provides: 

Aspen- Sprouts profusely, grows rapidly, and usually grows out 
of reach of deer in three years. 

Paper birch- Sprouts vigorously the first season but produces less 
browse than aspen. 

Red-osier dogwood- Sprouts vigorously and, except for aspen, 

produces the greatest weight and length of any species 
studied. 

Mountain maple- This is the best adapted species for cutting 

back for deer food production. This species usually 
develops sprouts tall enough to provide food during 
deep snow and should remain within the reach of deer 
for at least four years. 

Red maple- Morton and Sedam (1933) report this species spouts 
vigorously and repeatedly, and abundant deer popula- 
tions usually keep it down. 

Neither yellow birch nor hard maple are considered to 
sprout well following cutting. 



- 9 - 
Release Cuttings 

Release cuttings made around small conifers allow conifers 
to grow and provide shelter for deer, and at the same time allow deer 
to utilize the adjacent hardwood stands (Severinghaus, 1950) • 

Non-commercial Operations 

Gill (1956) suggests that non-commercial operations may- 
be used as an emergency measure for local use during exceptionally 
severe winters . This approach is likely to be expensive and only 
small yards could be treated. Cutting and bending or bulldozing down 
trees and saplings of no commercial value provides browse from tree 
tops and permits the stumps to send out new shoots within the reach 
of deer (De Boer, 1952) . Mountain maple and red-osier dogwood res- 
pond well to cutting and bendingo The treatment of paper birch and 
trembling aspen is not recommended for the following reasons: Deer 
do not utilize their sprout growth to any great extent during the 
winter, the rate of sprout growth is too rapid, and the results 
obtained do not justify the cost of treatment (Krefting 1941) • 

Use of Logging Slash 

Logging slash has been used to protect sprouts and seedlings 
from heavy deer browsing on overpopulated deer ranges in Pennsylvania 
(Morton and Sedam 1933) « Slash depth should be no more than two 
feet since slash can hinder all types of tree regeneration (Thornton 
1957, and Gill 1957) . Grisez (I960) mentions the use of tree toppings 
in Pennsylvania to protect regeneration and sprouting from deer 
browsing. Tops should be felled in two's and three's but not on top 
of each other. 

Use of Bulldozer 

A bulldozer is a useful instrument for treating deer 
yards. When properly used, it can usually do the job at less cost 
than cutting. Costs range from $3.00 to $75.00 per acre, the aver- 
age being about $20.00 per acre (Gill 1956). Krefting (1953) and 
Swift (1953) mention that TD-9 bulldozers pulling cut-a-way disks 
have been used to break up stands of mountain maple and poor quality 
aspen stands. Gill (1956) mentions this would seldom be practical 
in yards but might be done on neighbouring eskers or similar types of 
topography as found in Minnesota and Wisconsin. 

Food areas in the vicinity of deer yards can often be 
made available to deer during the winter by breaking a trail bet- 
ween the yard and the food area with a bulldozer. 

Forbes and Harney (1952) present the following recommenda- 
tions for the use of a bulldozer: 

1. A large bulldozer equipped with a hydraulic lift blade should be 
used. The machine should also be equipped with a power winch and 
protective devices for the operator and machine. 

2. Bulldozing is most effective when done in the spring. The best 
results are obtained when the work is done after the first frost has 



- 10 - 

left the ground but before the trees have their complete foliage. If 
the job can not be done at this time, a second choice is the fall 
after a prolonged rain. 

3. The terrain should be reasonably free of obstacles which might 
damage the machine. Steep hill sides and swampy ground should be 
avoided. 

4. The site selected for treatment should have a relatively large 
proportion of good sprouting species. Areas in beech, birch, maple 
or northern hardwood transition forest types are the best sites. 

5. For the quickest job and one entirely satisfactory, trees should 
be felled in one direction and overrun by the bulldozer after being 
felled. It does not pay to avoid overruning the trees after they 
have been felled since insufficient increased benefits are realized. 

Plantings 

The establishment of cedar stands for food or cover is pro- 
bably not advisable due to the failures of previous attempts 
(Nelson 1951; Aldous 1949) » On the other hand, belts of deciduous 
trees through coniferous plantations and strips of conifers through 
hardwood monotypes would be desirable. The re-establishment of dense 
coniferous cover, 10 acres in size, in extensive hardwood stands 
adjacent to traditional deer yards is essential (Gill 1956) . 

Chemical Herbicides 

2,4-D had been used to kill overgrown stems of mountain 
maple. It is used in the ester form at the rate of 12 pounds of 
acid equivalent per 100 gallons of oil. The chemical is applied 
during the early budswelling stage and a DBH height. The resulting 
browse from spraying is readily used, but spray operations are no 
cheaper than cutting operations (Krefting, Hansen and Stenlund, 1956). 
At present the value of 2,4-D is still under study (Krefting, Hansen 
and Hunt, I960) . A mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4, 5-T can be used where a 
mixture of plant species is to be treated (Carlson 1952) . Ammate is 
a general purpose brush killer and is non selective, however, it is 
expensive and corrosive to spray equipment. None of the above 
chemicals are toxic to wildlife if properly applied (Gill 1956) • 

Controlled Burning 

The main use of controlled burning to date has been to 
keep areas in an open condition, exclude hardwood species (Gill 1956) 
and increase the protein content of browse regrowth (DeWitt and 
Derby 1955) « Most benefits from burning can be obtained from other 
practices such as cutting, bulldozing, disking or spraying. 



- 11 - 

Controlling Damage by Deer 

Shick (1955) outlines briefly the methods used to prevent 
damage to agricultural crops by deer. Many of these are likely to be 
impractical for forestry purposes except in special cases such as 
small plantations and nurseries. Fencing has given the best results 
in the case of orchards and crop-land. Two repellents, "Good-rite 
Z.I. P." and Diamon "L" Brand Deer Repellent, have been used for agri- 
cultural crops but have not been completely successful. 

McNeel and Kennedy (1959) used plastic sleeves to protect 
the terminal buds of plantation pine from deer browsing. The sleeves 
were applied in the fall to protect the buds during the winter. 
Light weight plastic, 1/2,000 of an inch thick, known as number 2 
was used; $1.00 worth covered approximately 48O trees. 150 to 200 
trees spaced $ feet apart could be covered in an hour. 

In Conclusion 

The approach and techniques described in this review have 
been developed through research and experience in management. Many 
of the techniques presented may not be applicable in every case. It 
is therefore up to the game manager to select the methods or modi- 
fications of them which are best suited to the conditions he has to 
operate under. 

References 

Anonymous. 194&. Environment and deer. Wisconsin Conservation Bull. 
13(3): 7. 

Baldwin, H. I. 1942. Forest tree seed. Chronica Botanica Co., 
Waltham, Mass. 

Banasiak, C. F. 1961. Deer in Maine. Game Div. Bull. No. 6, Dept. 
of Inland Fisheries and Game, Augusta, Maine. 

Bowman, A. B. 1944. Growth and occurrence of spruce and fir on 

pulpwood lands in Northern Michigan. Mich. Agric. Expt. 
Sta. Tech. Bull. 183. 

Cook, D. B. 1939 o Thinning for browse. Journal of Wildlife Manage- 
ment 3(3) : 201-202. 

Dahlberg, B. L., and R. C. Guettinger. 1956. The white-tailed deer 
in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Tech. 
Wildl. Bull. 14. 

Davenport, L. A. 1939. Results of deer feeding experiments at 

_Cusinc, Michigan. Trans. 4th North American Wildlife Conf: 
268-274. 

De Boer, S. G. 1952. Feed » em - with an axej Wisconsin Conservation 
Bull. 17(3): 3-11. 



- 12- 

De Witt, J. B. and J. V. Derby, Jr. 1955» Changes in nutritive value 
of browse plants following forest fires . Journ. of Wildl. 
Mgto, 19(1): 65-70. 

Ehrhart, E. 0. 1936. Forest management and deer requirements on the 
• Allegheny National Forest. Journ. of Forestry, 34(5): 
472-474. 

English, P. F. and W. C. Bramble. 1949. Kill ' em? - Starve « em? 

- Feed * em? Deer eat best forage they can find. Science 
for the farmer, Penn. State College, School of Agric. 
Exp. Sta., 61st. Ann* Rept., Bull. 502, 
Suppl. 3: 7-3. 

Forbes, S. E. and J. E„ Harney, Jr. 1952. The bulldozer. A tool 
of wildlife management. Penn. Game Comm., Final Report 
P-R Proj. 31-R. 

Gill, J. D. 1956. Review of deer yardmanagement. Game Div. Bull. 
No. 5> Dept. Inland Fisheries and Game, Augusta, Maine. 

Gill, J. D. 1957. Cutting hardwoods to help deer. Maine Dept. 

Inland Fisheries and Game, Game Div. leaflet Ser. 1(3): 
1-4. 

Gould, E. W. 1937 » Occurrence of low growing game foods during the 
old field-white pine-mixed hardwood succession in the 
Harvard Forest. Master* s thesis Harvard Univ.: 1-3$. 

Grisez, T. J. I960. Slash helps protect seedlings from deer browsing, 
Journ. of Forestry 58{5): 3$5-3$7. 

Harney, J. E., Jr. 1948. The effect of forest cutting practices 
on deer browse in the chestnut-oak ( Quercus montana ) 
type. Master 9 s thesis, Penn. State College: 1-54. 

Hosley, N. W. and R. K, Ziebarth. 1935. Some winter relations of 
the white-tailed deer to the forests in north central 
Massachusetts. Ecology 16(4) : 535-553. 

Jenkins, B. C. 1955* Program for improvement and increase of food 
for deer. Mich. Dept. Cons., Inf. Circ. 90°. 

Krefting, L. W. 1941. Methods of increasing deer browse. Journal 
of Wildl. Mgt. 5(1): 95-102. 

1953. Effect of cutting mountain maple on the 



production of deer browse. U. Minn., Minn. Forestry 
Notes No. 21. 

Krefting, L. W. , H. L. Hansen, and M. H. Stenlund. 1956. Stimula- 
ting regrowth of mountain maple for deer browse by herbi- 
cides, cutting, and fire. Journal of Wildl. Mgt. 20(4): 
434-441. 



- 13 - 

Krefting, L. W., H. L. Hansen and R. W. Hunt. I960. Aerial 
applications of 2,4-D to improve the browse supply 
for deer. Proceedings, Society of American Foresters: 
103-106. 

Laramie, H. A., Jr. and Summer A. Dole, Jr. 1957. Experimental 
deer yard management in New Hampshire. Trans • 22nd. 
North American Wildlife Conference: 502-520. 

Latham, R. M. 1943* Our deer - past, present and future. Penn. 
Game News 14(9): 4-5, 26-27. 

Marston, M. A. 1942. Winter behaviour of deer in Northwestern 
Maine. Master 9 s thesis, Univ. Maine: 1-53 • 

McNeel, W., Jr., and J. Kennedy. 1959. Prevention of browsing by 

deer in a pine plantation. Journal of Wildlife Mgt. 23(4): 
450-451. 

Morton, J. N* and J. B. Sedam. 193$ • Cutting operations to improve 
wildlife environment on forest areas. Journal of Wildl. 
Mgt. 2(4): 206-214. 

Nelson, J. C. 1951. A reproduction study of northern white cedar. 
Game Div., Mich. Dept. Cons. 

Pearce, John. 1937. The effect of deer browsing on certain western 
Adirondack forest types. Roosevelt Wildlife Bull. 7(1): 
1-61. 

Severinghaus, C. W., H. F. Maguire, R. A. Cookingham and J. E. 

Tanek. 1950. Variations, by age class, in the antler beam 
diameters of white-tailed deer related to range conditions. 
Trans. 15th. North American Wildlife Conference: 551-568. 

Shick, C. (compiled by) 1955 o Controlling damage by deer. Coopera- 
tive extension service, Mich. State College, East Lansing, 
Mich., Game Div., Mich. Cons. Dept., Circ. No. 10. 

Skilling, D. D. 1959* Growth of swamp conifers following an 
improvement cut. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest 
Service. Lake States Forest Experiment Station, 
Paper No. 71. 

Stoeckeler, J. H., J. M. Keener, and R. 0. Strothmann. 1958. 

Deer browse production from felled trees in the northern 
hardwood-hemlock forest type. Journal of Forestry 56(6): 
416-421. 

Swift, E. 1946. A history of Wisconsin deer. Wise. Conservation 
Dept., Publ. 323: 1-96. 

1953. Modification of forest practices in the Lake States 

for wildlife habitat betterment. Journal of Forestry 
51(6): 440-443. 



- 14 - 

Thornton, P. L. 1957 • Effects of cutting methods on advance 

reproduction in two mature mixed coniferous swamps in 
Upper Michigan. Journal of Forestry 55: 44S-45I. 

Trippensee, R. E« 194#. Wildlife management, McGraw-Hill Book 
Co. , New York, ed. 1. 

Zasada, J, A. 1952. Reproduction on cutover swamplands in the 
Upper Peninsula of Michigan. U. S. Forest Service, 
Lake States Forest Experiment Sta. Paper No. 27. 



- 15 - 
AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN DEERYARDS* 

by 
Louis J. Verme 



Abstract 

This paper reports the progress of deer yard research 
at Cusino Research Station in northern Michigan. 
Studies indicate that the quality of winter shelter, 
rather than availability of food, is the determining 
factor in selection of yarding areas by deer. A 
combination of food producing timber types and shelter 
producing timber types in close proximity seems 
preferable to a single timber type providing both food 
and shelter. An empirical classification of deer 
yards, ranging from good shelter areas (Type I) to 
good food areas (Type VI) along with others (Types VII 
and VIII) is included. Management practices recom- 
mended are clear cutting at 15-20 year intervals, use 
of strip cuttings, and maintenance of cut size at 
from 40 to 160 acres. 



In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan we are often perplexed 
by the seemingly irrational behavior of deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) 
with respect to selection of winter habitat. For example, there are 
certain areas of apparently excellent range which are devoid of or 
sparingly used by deer. In many instances highly preferred white 
cedar (Thuja occidentalis ) is very abundant "down-to-the ground". 
In contrast, however, there also are numerous situations of surpris- 
ingly high deer populations utilizing ranges which are in heavily 
overbrowsed condition. Less frequently we find yards which support 
sizable populations of deer in relatively good physical condition 
overwinter due to a high carrying capacity potential. The question, 
therefore, is what range components or circumstances are responsible 
for the differential range use noted. 

In conducting this study I was attempting to discover some 
"common denominators" useful in appraising the ecological factors 
determining selection of yards by deer in winter. The problem of 
range analysis is very complex because of the great variety of habi- 
tats found within yarding areas. The meaning or nature of the terms 
deeryards and yarding are poorly understood, largely because they 
vary with local conditions. The findings of this study are based 
mainly on (1) detailed habitat analysis on four 160-acre study areas 
(40 plots in each), (2) range appraisal in 25 randomly selected sites 
(8 plots in each) , (3) ecological observations along 80 miles of 
perimeter for 35 sections partly or wholly in the yard, and (4) data 
from 7 weather stations (snow depth and temperatures) dispersed in the 
area. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the rather 
large amount of quantitative data collected was of limited value from 
the standpoint of statistical analysis, thus the report consists of 
an empirical ecological study. 

♦We are indebted to Mr. Louis J. Verme, Game Biologist of the Cusino 
Wildlife Experiment Station for permission to reproduce this paper. 



- 16 - 

This report is a contribution from Federal Aid in Wildlife 
Restoration, Michigan Project W-70-R, Michigan Department of Conser- 
vation. 

Study Area 

The area selected for study is located a few miles east of 
Shingleton, Michigan, and extends northward for a considerable distance. 
The approximately 40 square-mile lowland swamp is sub-divided into 
roughly 4 geographic and locally-named units. From south to north 
these include the Star Siding, Petrel Grade, Cusino, and White Rat 
Grade areas. The Cusino area has been investigated inten- 

sively in the past (Davenport, 1939; Nelson, 1951; Davenport, et al. . 
1953 and Switzenberg, et al., 1955)- Deer research currently in 
progress at the Cusino Wildlife Experiment Station, near Shingleton, 
largely is being conducted at the Petrel Grade and Star Siding areas. 

At least six classes of organic soil have been identified 
in the study area (Veatch, et al., 1929) , varying extensively in 
acreage, distribution, and intergradation. Many types of mineral 
soil also occur. Organic soils vary extensively in physical and 
chemical properties, ranging from loamy or granular muck (Carbondale) 
to fibrous, undecomposed peat (Greenwood) , alkaline to highly acid 
in PH, and from 1 to 10 feet in thickness of deposits. Water tables 
normally are to 2 feet below the surface; consequently, drainage 
varies from poor to moderate. Organic soil types are important, 
because each promotes more or less distinct vegetational communities. 
In addition, many forest mixtures or ecotones occur, especially where 
organic and mineral soils intergrade. 

The study area lies in the deep snow belt of the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan. A total snowfall of about 200 inches is not 
uncommon. Snow generally covers the ground from mid-November to mid- 
April; frequently later and/or earlier. Much of the snow falls in 
December and January, with maximum accumulation of from 2 to 5 feet 
in February and March. 

Mean temperatures are below freezing from November through 
March. Sub-zero weather is common in mid-winter, with temperatures 
as low as -40° F recorded inland (away from the maritime influence 
of Lake Superior to the north) . Minimum-maximum temperatures in mid- 
winter often differ only slightly due to the generally present cloud 
cover. 

Winter winds are mostly from the north and northwest. High 
winds are common, although not particularly severe, except during 
occasional blizzards. At such times there is considerable drifting 
of snow in unsheltered sites. 

Under these weather conditions deer are usually tightly 
yarded from- at least January through March, or roughly for a period 
of 100 days. 

Forest types, or plant associations, within the study area 
vary to a marked degree due to natural edaphic differences and ex- 
tensive prior logging and/or fire. As a result the land has a very 
complex ecology. Deeryard habitat essentially consists of sites in 
swamp conifer timber. Species in high to low abundance are white 
cedar, balsam fir ( Abies balsamea) . black spruce ( Picea mariana ) , and 



- 17 - 

tamarack ( Larix laricina ) for softwoods. Swamp hardwoods also occur, 
frequently in high abundance, intermixed with conifers. In descend- 
ing order of importance are red maple ( Acer rubrum ) , paper birch 
( Betula papyrifera ) , black ash ( Fraxinus nigra ) , and three species 
of aspen, mainly Populu s balsamifera . Deciduous shrubs of many 
species usually occur in abundance in the understory. However, 
microsite conditions appear to regulate the distribution and density 
of these plants. Species of value as browse consist mainly of striped 
maple (A. spicatum ) , willow ( Salix spp. ) , and red-osier dogwood ( Cor - 
nus stolonifera ) . Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) is widely distributed 
and frequently in high abundance; however, it ranks low in nutritive 
value. 

Northern hardwoods generally are found on the uplands sur- 
rounding the lowlying sites, and in small "islands" on mineral soil 
within the swamp proper. These stands also vary, although they 
commonly consist of densely stocked even-aged pole-sized sugar maple 
(A. saccharum ) mixed with beech ( Fagus grandiflora ) , elm (Ulmus 
americana ) . and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis ) „ Many other species also 
occur, adding significantly to the very heterogeneous environments. 

The systematic appraisal of the area was of value in s 
further refining the classification of deeryard habitats into the 
eight major types (forest associations or successional stages) that 
are presented in Table 1. I feel that the breakdown of yards into 
more finite ecological entities is an essential first step in inter- 
preting the interrelationship of food and cover, hence the value of 
winter range for deer. 

Discussion of Findings 

Ecological Aspects of "Peerless" Areas ; The swamp conifer sites at 
Star Siding and White Rat Grade are outstanding examples of "deerless" 
habitats. These areas are located at the extreme south and north 
extensions, respectively, of the overall swamp, forest 
type and habitat conditions are essentially the same for both units, 
consisting primarily of all-aged, mature stands predominantly stocked 
in white cedar. Black spruce, and to a lesser extent balsam fir, are 
important co-dominants, while tamarack and white pine ( Pinus strobus ) 
are interspersed throughout. These stands are fully stocked at 
roughly 180-200 square feet of basal area per acre. Much of the tim- 
ber, especially white cedar, is large and overmature, ranging from 
9 to 15 inches in d.b.h. Height of the main overstory varies accord- 
ing to size classes of trees and species present. Tree crowns 
normally extend from 30 to 60 feet above ground. However, canopy 
closure is very irregular due to the all-aged nature of the stand. 
As a generalization, overstory closure is only 50-75 per cent complete. 
Based on these gross characteristics, I have classified the habitat 
as Class III deer range (Table 1) . 

White cedar browse is available on the seedlings and saplings 
which occur in clumps in openings or are scattered throughout the 
stand. Because of incomplete crown closure (and lack of browsing) 
many of the large trees also have foliage available at ground-line. 
Logging operations in late fall have failed to intercept deer en- 
route to other yarding sites. A mid-winter survey in 1929 by Ilo H. 
Bartlett indicated a low to locally moderate population of deer was 



- id - 

present at White Rat Grade. Only a few deer overwinter at Star Siding; 
the population has not increased despite the expanded logging activity 
in the area. 

Early in the study I theorized that nutritional deficiencies 
might be responsible for the non-use of these areas by deer. The 
winter diet of deer would consist primarily of white cedar. Feeding 
experiments in Michigan (Davenport, 1939) indicated that when fed 
alone this species would maintain deer in good physical condition 
overwinter. However, similar studies in Wisconsin apparently did 
not confirm this finding (Dahlberg and Guettinger, 1956) . I there- 
fore fed penned deer an unlimited ration of white cedar, balsam fir, 
black spruce, and speckled alder, the primary browse plants avail- 
able in the study areas, for 100 days during the winter of 1957-58. 
Adult and juvenile deer alike came through this trial in good to 
excellent health, where 90-95 per cent of the food consumed consisted 
of white cedar. This is not surprising, as deer in carrying capacity 
studies at Star Siding, similar to those referred to by Davenport, 
et. al., 1953 > also come through the winter in good physical condition, 
where the natural diet consists mainly of white cedar. Penned deer 
tests on the relative preference, hence indirectly the nutritive 
value, of white cedar from a high-use area (Petrel Grade) and from 
Star Siding have not indicated differences in palatability or sus- 
tenance value between sites. 

There are nutritional considerations other than the value of 
white cedar, however. Both areas tend to have a high stocking in 
black spruce. In fact, some adjacent sites approach in appearance the 
true black spruce type, grading beyond to either the open spruce- 
heath bog or willow-sedge marsh. These conditions are the natural 
result of changes in drainage and soil type. The White Rat Grade is 
underlain by Rifle peat (Veatch, et al., 1929), a relatively coarse 
woody peat, acid in reaction, and containing little mixed organic 
matter. Adjacent organic soils consist of Spalding and Greenwood 
peat which consist of coarse, undecomposed woody material, are very 
low in pH, and have very high water tables. Organic soil at Star 
Siding consists of Carbondale muck, which is finely granular, neu- 
tral, or alkaline in pH, and relatively well-drained. The adjacent 
sites, however, consist of Tahquamenon peat and Houghton muck; they 
are usually water-logged and support vegetation largely of sedges 
( Carex spp.), grasses (Graminae) , and clumps of willow, bog birch 
(Betula pumula) , stunted black spruce, etc. In both areas, there- 
fore, the surrounding sites are not suitable for deer in winter. 
Transition to upland mineral soils is usually abrupt; hence there is 
little "edge". 

As a possible result of these site influences, there is a 
general lack of variety and high density of deciduous plants nutri- 
tionally valuable to deer. The presence of hardwoods, even in low 
amounts or of poor quality, adds greatly to the sustenance value of 
an otherwise pure conifer diet (Davenport, 1939; Gill, 1957a). 
Deciduous shrubs which grow abundantly in the understory of these 
stands consist mainly of species that prefer acid, poorly drained 
soils. These include alder, Labrador tea ( Le.dum groenlandicum ) . 
leatherleaf ( Chamaedaphn e caliculata ) . blueberry ( Vaccinum spp".). 
cranberry (W. oxvcoccus ) . shrubby cinque- foil ( Potentilla fruiticosa ) . 
etc. Sphagnum moss ( Sphagnum spp.) commonly occurs in dense mats, 



- 19 - 

probably due to the edaphic conditions and the comparatively high 
amount of sunlight reaching the forest floor. It is not entirely 
unlikely that the presence of these plants may serve as indicators of 
unsuitability of certain swamp conifer sites for deer in winter, 

I am inclined to believe, however, that the main reason 
deer do not utilize these sites is inadequate winter shelter. Shelter 
requirements for deer are poorly understood. Research at this Station 
indicates, for example, that suitable protection from wind may be 
vital if food is in limited supply. Low temperatures also appear 
to influence deer behavior in winter (Severinghaus, 1953) > and very 
likely also affect physical condition due to higher metabolic demands 
(Silver, et al., 1959) • Great snow depth likewise affects deer dur- 
ing yarding TBartlett, 1941; Severinghaus, 1947; Gill, 1957a; and 
others) , and may contribute greatly to debilitation and death of 
deer. Snow conditions vary greatly, however, and the effects of 
different situations on deer have not been adequately studied 
(Passmore, 1953) • 

Casual observations of shelter components in the White Rat 
Grade and Star Siding study areas lead one to believe that adequate 
protection is provided. Actually, shelter may be deficient or at 
least below the level which deer ordinarily require and/or seek. 
According to Severinghaus (1953) > protection from rigorous weather 
probably is provided by densely stocked conifers with completely 
closed canopies. Canopy closure at both study areas is well below 
this level. As a result I suspect there is an excessive amount of 
wind flow near the ground. Also, there is a greater range in tem- 
perature compared to densely stocked conifer stands, probably because 
the relatively open canopy permits greater warming of air during 
sunshine and a rapid cooling at night, respectively. According to 
Darling (1937) , red deer in Scotland show daily and seasonal movements 
which are associated with habitats offering the most uniform tempera- 
tures. It is not unlikely that white-tailed deer react similarly to 
fluctuations in temperature in selecting winter yards. 

Snow conditions are not ideal under the canopy conditions 
present at Star Siding and White Rat Grade, at least from a snowshower»s 
viewpoint. A large amount of the snowfall is not intercepted by the 
tree crowns. Much of the fall accumulates on windfalls and on small 
saplings. This results in very uneven, generally mounded, snow cover 
which make travel difficult. Under these conditions deer may have to 
make longer, circuitous trails to avoid precarious footing or flound- 
ering in deep, lightly supported snow. I also expect that the all- 
aged, unpruned condition of the stands is not attractive to deer 
because it does not provide adequate protection from the possibility 
of predation. 

Habitat conditions described above may appear to vary only 
slightly with respect to environments in areas of high deer use. The 
subtle differences in food and cover conditions may be important to 
the survival of the herd, however. I feel reasonably certain that 
these areas fail to provide one or more of the requirements needed or 
desired by deer. That is, if the habitats were suitable, they would 
be occupied in time to the full extent of their carrying capacity. 
I doubt that a strong attachment, or home range tendency, for other 
adjacent yards explains the low deer populations at Star Siding and 
White Rat Grade. 



- 20 - 

Reasons for Continued Deer Use of Overutilized Range : The area around 
Cusino is a classic example of an excessively large number of deer 
utilizing a seriously depleted range. Reasons for the high population 
in this area, at least between 1920 and 1940, are not too clear. 
Extensive logging of conifer and hardwood timber in and around the 
swamp undoubtedly contributed greatly to a rapid increase in size of 
the herd. Dedication as a wildlife refuge between 1933 and 1939, 
together with bucks-only hunting season regulations in other years, 
probably compounded the herd-range imbalance which subsequently 
resulted. 

Environmental conditions in the Cusino yard vary exten- 
sively; this probably is the key to why the range is able to support 
the current moderate density of deer in winter. The swamp conifer 
forest comprising the major portion of the yard is in an early- 
mature stage. White cedar accounts for roughly 50-75 V er cent of the 
overstory, mainly in trees 5-12 inches d.b.h. Other conifers and 
swamp hardwoods are mixed to a large degree, although not uniformly 
distributed. 

An outstanding characteristic of the yard is the variable 
stocking or patchy nature of the overstory timber. It is difficult 
to determine whether this is due to site factors, to plant succession 
following logging, or is the result of severe overbrowsing in earlier 
years. Shelter or resting cover is provided by dense stands of even- 
aged pole-sized conifers. While these units generally are not ex- 
tensive in acreage, the closed canopy provides adequate protection 
from high winds, low temperatures, and deep snows. Interspersed 
throughout the area are generally small, often interconnecting, under- 
stocked sites. These openings probably resulted from 
earlier commercial logging activities, plus some experimental timber 
cutting studies (Nelson, 1951) • In outward appearance the area 
resembles forest conditions following application of the group 
selection system of timber harvest. I have classified this habitat 
as Class II type range (Table 1) . 

The total effect of this variable habitat is that barely 
marginal shelter and food are found on the same unit of range. The 
provision of food and shelter in this manner is a range compromise 
(Gill, 1957b) , which, I believe, is undesirable from the standpoint 
of both deer and the forest. Enough food is available to enable deer 
to survive overwinter in poor physical condition. The same time, 
however, the habitat continues to deteriorate in value. 

Because of the relatively productive Rifle peat soil, there 
is a dense understory of conifer and hardwood reproduction and many 
deciduous shrubs. While some browse is produced under the closed 
canopy of the mature timber, most of the browse is available to deer 
in very limited amounts, such as that contained on wind-thrown and 
snow-bent or broken trees and saplings. The death of trees in this 
manner further reduces canopy closure in the overstory, resulting in 
a decrease in effective shelter. 

Deer subsist mainly on browse from hardwood reproduction 
and shrubs. Species composition and density vary throughout the area; 
the greatest variety and abundance occur in and around understocked 
stands, and in the open sites. Fortunately, many of the species, 



- 21 - 

particularly those with opposite branching (Gill, 1957a) , are highly- 
resistant to browsing. Because of repeated browsing, much of the 
reproduction is small and clubby. Most of these stems and shrubs 
are covered by snow during mid-winter. Nevertheless, due to the 
close proximity of the food to shelter, deer seek out and often dig 
up the snow-covered browse throughout the winter. As a result nearly 
all plants are severely mutilated, dying, or recently killedo Heavy 
browsing occurs on such low nutritional value softwoods as black 
spruce, tamarack, and balsam fir, and on the many hardwoods such as 
alder, black ash, high-bush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum ) , and red- 
osier dogwood. 

It is obvious, however, that the large herd of deer present 
could not subsist solely on the browse available in the swamp conifer 
site. Adjacent areas contribute greatly to the maintenance of the 
deer population. An appreciable amount of browse is available in 
northern hardwood stands adjacent to or interspersed as "islands" 
within the swamp proper (Switzenberg, et al», 1955)° The amount of 
food produced and degree of browsing depend upon the nature of the 
stands and the distance from heavy coniferous cover. Nearly all 
seedling reproduction, especially sugar maple, is severely mutilated. 

Among the most important of the many other habitats available 
is the mixed swamp conifer-hardwood stand bordering the east edge. of 
the study area. , This Class IV range (Table_l) is of value 
to deer primarily because of its food resources. Shelter is marginal 
here due to the presence of hardwoods in the overstory. Ordinarily, 
deer do not use this area in mid-winter unless they are hungry. A 
much greater use occurs in late winter when the weather is compara- 
tively mild. Fortunately, sleet storms and thaws during this period 
often result in the formation of thick snow crusts which support and 
permit deer to move freely and range widely in search of unbrowsed 
food supplies. In addition to a limited amount of white cedar, the 
browse of many preferred hardwoods such as red, striped and sugar 
maple, provide a nutritious diet for deer in an acute stage of 
starvation. 

Other forest types or habitat conditions also are found in 
the swamp vicinity, including Class V, VII and VIII range (Table 1), 
plus hemlock-hardwood stands, openings, and willow-alder-tamarack 
marshes. Use of these environments by deer depends mainly on the 
severity of the winter and the amount and type of snow on the ground. 
In some winters deer are not able to range widely from heavy cover, 
thus they soon exhaust the local supply of browse. I suspect that 
mortality from malnutrition occurs at that time, although the extent 
of such losses is unknown. 

The environmental conditions described for the Cusino study 
area are typical of many other Michigan deeryards. Strict herd con- 
trol measures are necessary before range improvement through timber 
cuttings can be effective in restoring the range to a high carrying 
capacity. Even under reduced population levels, however, range which 
provides food and shelter in small, interspersed, relatively distinct 
units in close juxtaposition appears to be undesirable from the 
standpoint of habitat management. 



- 22 - 

Factors Contributing to High Carrying Capacity of .Deervards : The 
high deer density found in the Petrel Grade study area appears to 
result largely from fortuitous circumstances of range which is cur- 
rently of optimum value to deer. (It also seems likely that the 
historical deer population "irruptions" resulted from similar habi- 
tat conditions) . The primary characteristic of the Petrel Grade 
study area is the excellent provision of shelter and browse on 
separate units of range. Much of the 160-acre study area is valu- 
able mainly as winter cover. The swamp conifer stand is very heav- 
ily stocked at about 180-225 square feet of basal area, and con- 
sists mainly of even-aged trees 30-50 feet in height and 3-9 inches 
d.b.h. The tightly closed canopy (75-100 per cent closure) inter- 
cepts much of the snowfall. Snow on the ground, therefore, is level 
and of low depth, and probably has a high density or water content 
(Weitman and Bay, 1959) . Such snow conditions are quite likely 
conducive to easy travel as compared to difficult movement in deep, 
fluffy snow (Bartlett, 1941; Severinghaus, 1953; Gill, 1957a). 
Temperatures are quite uniform and relatively mild, and the flow 
of wind seemingly is negligible as compared to sites less heavily 
stocked or in younger timber. Deer usually bed in the most secluded 
portions of the stand, generally in heavily stocked sites where 
trees are in self-pruned condition. Since very little browse is 
produced here, deer must seek food elsewhere. White cedar browse is 
available in surprisingly plentiful amounts along the eastern por- 
tion of the 160-acre study area. Here the white cedar is smaller 
(3-6 inches), moderately stocked (roughly 150-130 sq. feet of basal 
area) , and not as yet self-pruned. Deer feed extensively on the 
foliage available throughout the winter, judging from the large num- 
ber of heavily-used trails. In a sense, deer are eating their way 
through the jungle-like, young stand. The reason for the difference 
in size classes between the two adjacent even-aged stands is not 
known, although it probably is the result of the logging. 

On the northeast portion of the study area there is a 
finger of Class IV forest which connects with other Class I type 
stands to the east and north. This neck of timber provides a tra- 
vel lane between the stands which provide optimum shelter. A moder- 
ate amount of food, mainly hardwood browse, is produced in this 
mixed swamp conifer-hardwood type. Other sites adjacent to the 
study area are quite varied, consisting of openings, marshes, and 
stands of northern hardwoods and hemlock-hardwoods. Food and/or 
cover is available here to a small or great degree, although use by 
deer depends upon the proximity of browse to good shelter, severity 
of the winter, etc. 

The high carrying capacity of the Petrel Grade to a large 
extent is due to the occurrence of two stands of immature swamp coni- 
fer timber which lie between areas of good shelter. I do not know 
the origin of these environments, although they seem to have resulted 
from clearcutting and/or fire 20-40 years ago. These areas generally 
are well-stocked, largely in white cedar saplings 10-20 feet in 
height. The Class VI habitat (Table 1) on the west border of the 
160-acre study area is heavily used by deer in the winter. Deer 
shuttle across this area on well-packed trails in traveling bet- 
ween areas of Class I cover approximately 1/2-mile apart. Deer also 
forage extensively in this area whenever the weather is not too 
severe. As a result, many of the white cedar saplings are beginning 



- 23 - 

to show a definite browse-line, although much of the tree-top foliage 
now is beyond reach of deer. In addition, there is a great amount of 
hardwood browse produced on this comparatively fertile site (Carbon- 
dale muck). Of the many species present, the most important for deer 
are willow, black ash, red maple, paper birch, aspen, cherry ( Prunus 
spp«)> juneberry ( Amelanchier spp.) and mountain holly ( Nemopanthus 
mucronata ) , roughly in that order of availability. These species 
fortunately are resistant to heavy browsing and resprout prolifically, 
hence they supply a reasonably stable amount of browse. 

Compared to the Class VI habitat, the Class VII habitat 
found along the south and east border of the study area , 
has a lower level of stocking, the saplings are generally smaller, 
and the stand contains a lower proportion of white cedar. During 
severe winters, such as in 195$-59> deer activity ends abruptly 
at the edge of the heavy cover; however, in mild seasons (1959-60) 
deer intensively search the area for browse. Much of the hardwood 
reproduction and shrub growth is snow-covered during the mid-winter 
period, although many thousands of stems per acre are available 
early and late in the season. 

The key to the high carrying capacity of the Petrel Grade 
area, therefore, seemingly is due to the wide variety of habitats, 
which primarily provide either food or cover for deer. The large 
acreage in each even-aged forest type and strategic location 
(interspersion) with respect to one another results in optimum 
situations of range utilization. Future management must take into 
account a sizable reduction in deer population to prevent range over- 
use in the habitats most vulnerable to overbrowsing (Class VI and 
VII) o Logging operations should aim at retaining the combination 
of varied, even-aged stands in the large acreages that presently are 
available (See "Management" below) . 

Management Implications 

Swamp conifer forests of greatest value as deeryards require 
a combination of varied, dynamic plant communities, in contrast to 
static climax situations, i.e., all-aged, mature stands. It is gen- 
erally agreed that browsed-out deeryards should be cut to restore 
their cycle of usefulness, namely food production, to deer. There 
is a notable lack of agreement, however, on the method of handling 
coniferous swamps from the standpoint of deer and/or timber product- 
ion. Moreover, in deer management we probably have been overly 
concerned with food resources per se, and have largely ignored other 
(i.e. shelter) considerations. 

At the present time, most deeryarding areas are managed 
primarily for timber, in which the welfare of deer is a secondary 
consideration, although deer usually benefit in some manner. Pri- 
marily because of the complex nature of the swamps, the most effect- 
ive or silviculturally desirable method of handling the swamp 
conifer forest type has not been developed or recognized (Thornton, 
1957) • The most commonly used commercial cutting methods include 
clearcutting, diameter or stick limit cutting, and selective cutting, 
roughly in descending order of frequency. There are many silvicul- 
tural considerations involved in obtaining adequate reproduction in 



- 24 - 

swamp conifer stands in relation to the cutting methods mentioned 
(Zazada, 1952; Thornton, op. cit.) • Adequate regeneration, to the 
forester, means a desirable stocking primarily of pulpwood species, 
while to the game manager a satisfactory growth of white cedar may- 
be of paramount importance. White cedar reproduction ordinarily is 
not too difficult to obtain following cutting (Nelson, 1951) ; however, 
method of logging influences regeneration through its effect on the 
amount of slash, rise in water table, and hardwood competition which 
follow (Zazada, op. cit.; Thornton, op. cit.). 

Single tree selective (partial) cutting is recommended for 
handling the northern white cedar type for timber production in the 
Upper Peninsula of Michigan (Day, 1944) , while Aldous (1941) suggests 
gradual selective cuttings that will leave l/£- to l/4-acre openings 
1/4- to 1/2-mile apart in deeryards when commercial logging is not 
in progress. In this region I do not believe that deer will utilize 
all-aged swamp conifer stands, such as described for Star Siding and 
White Rat Grade, because these habitats do not provide adequate protec- 
tion from harsh weather, ease of travel, and good visibility needed 
or sought by deer in winter (Gill, 1957b) . Furthermore, I suspect 
that unless only low deer populations occurred, the amount of foliage 
removed annually on white cedar stems under 7 feet in height probably 
would exceed the threshold level of 15-20 per cent determined by 
Aldous (1952) . 

Based on my appraisal of the herd-range situation in the 
Cusino study area, the group selection method of harvesting timber 
also is undesirable. Because of the small size and scattered distri- 
bution of cutting areas, overbrowsing on sapling stock growing ad- 
jacent to mature stands valuable for shelter seems almost certain to 
result if moderate to high deer populations are present. 

Diameter and stick limit cutting methods are widely used in 
this region of Michigan. The chief criticism of these systems is 
that they usually open the canopy of the stand to less than a 50 per 
cent closure. Hence, deer will commonly vacate these sites because 
of inadequate shelter. I have noted many examples of unused swamp 
conifer habitat where cutting of this type resulted in essentially 
two-storied stands which are unsatisfactory for deer in winter. A 
second criticism is that due to economic consideration the trees 
left often consist of cull conifers and most swamp hardwoods. Conse- 
quently, these stands may ultimately convert to the mixed conifer- 
hardwoods type. 

In the northern Great Lakes States the U. S. Forest Service 
currently is recommending a 3-cut shelterwood system for managing 
swamp conifer stands for timber production. While there are certain 
silvicultural advantages in the use of this system, I believe the 
gradual planned reduction in overstory closure would have undesirable 
effects on deer. If sizable populations occurred, deer probably 
would tend to concentrate heavily in the untreated strips of early- 
mature timber,, Thus, the adjacent younger vegetation may be seriously 
damaged by overbrowsing. 



- 25 - 

In view of the high range carrying capacity noted for the 
Petrel Grade area, I believe the best system of handling coniferous 
swamps for deer should aim at producing pure, even-aged stands mainly 
in white cedar, Watson (1936) states that it is best to grow white 
cedar in pure, even-aged stands because form, quality, and growth are 
better than in mixed or uneven-aged stands* Furthermore, as compared 
with partial cutting, there is less risk of windthrow in the largest 
trees. (However, in mixed stands he believes it is best to cut the 
various species, conifers and hardwoods, as they mature) . Watson 
also recommends clearcutting in strips about 75 feet wide and up to 
1/4-mile long, leaving uncut strips of at least the same width until 
reproduction on the cut-over portion is established. 

Unfortunately, clearcutting commonly results in heavy 
slash deposits which may inhibit stand regeneration (Nelson, 1951; 
Thornton, 1957) • Logging in large acreages may favrr invasion of 
hardwood brush or balsam fir if a rise in water table, hence a 
change in site conditions, occurs (Zazada, 1952) • White cedar is 
exceptionally slow-growing and about 20 years 9 age is required before 
seedlings reach a height of 4 feet on Rifle peat soil (Nelson, 1951) • 
After 20-40 years, depending on the site and whether reproduction 
resulted from seedling or vegetative means, a large amount of browse 
is available in even-aged stands, (i.e. the Class VI and VII sites 
at Petrel Grade.) Beyond this period there is a tendency for densely 
stocked stands to self-prune, whether or not the foliage has been 
browsed by deer. 

Gill (1957b) believes that a series of small clearcuttings 
at regular 10-year intervals, timed to cover a deeryard within one 
rotation, would have effects comparable to a 10-year selective cut 
over the entire yard (with respect to browse production) . Clear- 
cutting in this manner would be highly desirable if the management 
units are between 40 and 160 acres in size. I believe that even-aged 
stands of less than 40 acres could be overutilized during the early 
reproduction period if a high deer population exists nearby. Shape 
of cutting areas also is important, since narrow units (i.e., less 
than 10 chains wide) will permit deer to wander throughout the area, 
hence overbrowsing on the even-aged stock ultimately is apt to result. 
Cuttings that are larger than one-half section (320 acres) are likely 
to result in underutilization of browse on white cedar saplings near 
the center of the stand because of the greater distance from good 
shelter. At the same time saplings along the periphery may be over- 
used if adjacent dense stands of mature timber concentrate high 
populations of deer. 

Management of white cedar deeryards, according to one worker, 
should aim at converting the present types (generally mixed and/or 
all-aged) into a stand composed of strips or groups of even-aged 
cedar (through clearcutting) . Preferably, these even-aged groups 
should have an age differential of 15 to 20 years, and the type should 
contain 5 different age groups. A rotation age of 100 years is recom- 
mended, with intermediate cuts beginning at 40 years, if economic, 
and continuing at 20-year intervals. In white cedar stands less than 
60 acres in size, a reproduction cut following the shelter-wood sys- 
tem at about age 90 is recommended, followed by a harvest cut at age 
100-110 years. 

Anonymous processed report, organization and date not listed. 



- 26 - 

I agree completely with the program suggested above* Deer- 
vard management in this manner will provide a sustained supply of 
white cedar browse, since those units 20-40 or 40-60 years in age will 
be in optimum condition of browse production. Beyond age 60 these 
stands will become increasingly valuable for shelter. For proper 
management the yard should be mapped first and an overall shelter. 
For proper management the yard should be mapped first and an overall 
cutting plan designed with the objective of creating the 5 even-aged 
groupsT These groups should be properly distributed so that deer will 
utilize the range to its maximum potential. That is, units in optimum 
browse production should be within 1/4- to l/2-mile (roughly the maxi- 
mum daily cruising radius of deer in mid-winter, Gill, 1957a) of heavy 
cover. As a general rule, mature, all-aged stands, or the most ser- 
iously overbrowsed range, probably should be clearcut first. It is 
essential, however, that adequate shelter be left for deer, if nearby 
cover is deficient or absent (Laramie and Dole, 1957) « 

If economically feasible, densely stocked white cedar stands 
should be thinned starting at about 40 years in age. On good sites 
this results in improved growth of white cedar (Roe, 1947; Rudolf, 
1949) . Such intermediate cuts will provide additional browse from 
felled trees at a time when even-aged stands are becoming self-pruned. 
Thinnings should be light enough to improve vigor and growth of final 
crop trees without sacrificing shelter value by excessively reducing 
crown closure. Intermediate cuttings also should aim at removing 
culls of other conifers, and most swamp hardwoods. Hardwoods often 
resprout vigorously when cut; hence, the browse will provide the variety 
needed in the winter diet of deer. The final stands will consist 
largely of the pure white cedar type if the above practices are car- 
ried out. 

In conclusion, I believe that higher populations of deer 
can be carried overwinter in good health with the clearcut (even-aged) 
system of deeryard management described above than is possible under 
the selection (all-aged) system. If properly conducted the creation of 
even-aged stands in 5 age classes will benefit deer by providing white 
cedar browse generally in plentiful sustained amounts, while at the 
same time the damage to reproduction by overbrowsing will be minimized. 
In a recent study, Rabeck (I960) reported on changes in micro-habitat 
conditions in white cedar swamps of northern Wisconsin as a result of 
winter deer activity. Although it is not stated, I suspect many of 
the stands examined consisted of the mature, all-aged type. However, 
in the present report I allude to the fact that the winter deer pop- 
ulations are importantly influenced by the nature of the range. In 
the past this co-action probably has not been sufficiently appreciated 
in analyzing habitat (Hamerstrom and Blake, 1939; Webb, 195&; Gill, 
1957a). Hence, it seems appropriate to review our earlier concept of 
herd-range relationships, which primarily has consisted of appraising 
the deleterious effects of deer on the habitat, to include the in- 
fluence of forest conditions in determining the suitability of swamp 
conifer stands for deeryards. 

Summary 

This report deals with an ecological study of a roughly ^ 40 
square-mile swamp conifer forest near Shingleton, in the Upper Penin- 
sula of Michigan. We were concerned with refining the term "deeryard", 



- 27 - 

and investigating the reasons for differential winter range use by- 
deer within the area. The study was difficult because of the complex 
nature of the vegetation as a result of differences in soil and forest 
succession. Coniferous swamps in the areas primarily consist of 
white cedar, with balsam fir, black spruce, tamarack, white pine and 
hemlock in decreasing order of abundance. Various swamp hardwoods 
are interspersed throughout. 

Winter weather in this region is quite severe, with below 
freezing mean temperatures and heavy snowfall from mid-November to 
mid-April. Deer are tightly yarded from at least January through 
March, a period of about 100 days. 

Based on intensive study and general observations, I believe 
subtle differences in habitat or envirnomental conditions account for 
differential range use by deer. The Star Siding and White Rat Grade 
study areas, generally deerless, appear to be deficient in shelter. 
These habitats largely consist of overmature, all-aged swamp conifer 
timber. Conifer reproduction generally is plentiful in all size 
classes. The irregular, comparatively open canopy does not effectively 
intercept snowfall, resulting in variable, often deeply mounded snow 
cover. Wind movement and temperature fluctuations may be excessive* 
Much of the understory vegetation consists of species which thrive in 
acid bogs. The black spruce bog type is found in or around the study 
areas. 

The Cusino study area is a classic example of deer population, 
irruptions and range overuse. Moderate populations of deer still yard 
in this area. The early high range carrying capacity probably was 
related to extensive timber cuttings in and around the yard. Con- 
tinued occupancy by deer apparently is due to provision of both shelter 
and food on the same range. Cover is provided by dense clumps of 
even-aged conifers, while browse is available in patches of hardwood 
reproduction interspersed throughout the area. Additional browse 
and/or shelter is provided by the diverse, often extensive forest 
types present nearby. The small, adjacent, distinct units of food 
and cover found in this yard permit deer to seriously overbrowse 
available vegetation; browse of value to deer is dead, dying or 
severely mutilated. 

The Petrel Grade area is unique in that a population build- 
up has occurred in recent years. The high carrying capacity of this 
yard is due to ideal provision of food and cover on separate units of 
range. Stands in even-aged conifer sapling stock of value for browse 
are interspersed between areas of mature even-aged timber which pro- 
vide optimum shelter. Maximum use is made by deer of the various 
forest types or growth conditions, which are ideal in terms of acreage 
and distribution. 

Eight more or less distinct forest types or plant associations 
were found and classified in this study; they are important in the 
ecology of deeryards because of the complex co-actions between deer 
and range. 



- 28 - 

With the knowledge gained in this study, I believe the best 
method of range management, in terms of sustained carrying capacity 
at a high level, consists of a clearcutting system of timber harvest. 
Management of swamp conifer forests valuable as deeryards should be 
directed toward developing even-aged groups having an age differen- 
tial of 15-20 yearso Hence, 5 different age groups are represented 
in a rotation of about 100 years. Clearcutting should be made in a 
pattern of alternate strips, with the strips roughly 66 to 75 feet 
in width, leaving uncut strips until reproduction in the cut-over 
areas is established. 

Each age group probably should not be less than 40 nor 
more than 160 acres in size, in order to prevent over- and under- 
utilization of the range, respectively. The different age classes 
of vegetation should be strategically-located so that deer will make 
maximum use of all stands whether for food or cover t 

Literature Cited 

Aldous, S. E. 1941o Deer management suggestions for northern white 
cedar types* Journ. Wildl. Mgt. 5:90-94. 

.1952. Deer browse clipping study in the Lake States 



region. Journ. Wildl. Mgt. 16:401-409. 

Bartlett, I. H. 1941. Snow and Game in northern Michigan. Proc. 
Central Snow Conf. 1:102-105. Proc. 

Dahlberg, B. L. and R. C. Guettinger. 1956. The white-tailed deer 
in Wisconsin. Wis. Cons. Dept. Tech. Wildl. Bull. 14, 
282 pp. 

Darling, F. F. 1937. A herd of red deer. Oxford Univ. Press, 
London, 215 pp. 

Davenport, L. A. 1939. Results of deer feeding experiments at 

Cusino, Michigan. Trans. N. A. Wildl. Conf. 4:268-274- 



.D. F. Switzenberg, R. C. Van Etten and W. D. Burnett. 



1953. A study of deeryard carrying capacity by controlled 
browsing. Trans. N. A. Wildl. Conf. 18:581-596. 

Day, M. W. 1944. Forest management for the eastern part of the 

Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Cir, Bull. 190, Mich. State 
College, East Lansing, 22 pp. 

Gill, J. D. 1957a. Review of deeryard management, 1956. Maine 
Dept. Inland Fish and Game, Game Div. Bull* 5, 61 pp. 



.1957b. Effects of pulpwood cutting practices on deer. 



Proc. Soc. Am. For., 1957. 7:137-140 

Habeck, J. R. I960. Winter deer activity in the white cedar swamps 
of northern Wisconsin. Ecology, 41:327-333. 



- 29 - 

Hamerstrom, F. No, Jr., and J. Blake, 1939. Winter movements and 
winter foods of white-tailed deer in central Wisconsin, 
Journ. Mamm. 20:296-315. 

Laramie, H. A., Jr. and So A. Dole, Jr. 1957. Experimental deeryard 
management in New Hampshire. Trans. N. A. Wildl. Conf. 
22:501-520. 

Nelson, T. C. 1951. A reproduction study of northern white cedar. 
Mich, Dept. Cons., Game Div. Bull. 100 pp. 

Passmore, R. C. 1953 • Snow conditions in relation to big game in 
Ontario during the winter of 1952-53* Ont. Dept. Lands & 
For., Div. Research. Wildl. Res. Report 2, 12 pp. Proc. 

Roe, E. I. 1947* Thinning in cedar swamps. Lakes States Forest 
Exp. Sta. Misc. Report 3, 6pp. Proc. 

Rudolph, P. 0. 1949. Handling northern white cedar stands for wood 
and wildlife in the Lake States. Lake States For. Exp. 
Sta., Misc. Report 3, 6 pp. Proc. 

Severinghaus, Co W. 1947 » Relationship of weather to winter morta- 
lity and population levels among deer in the Adirondack 
region of New York. Trans. N. A. Wildl. Conf. 12:212-223. 

.1953* Springtime in New York 4 - another angle. 



What goes on in our Adirondack deeryards. N. Y. State 
Conservationist 7:2-4. 

Silver, H., N. F. Colovos and H. H. Hayes. 1959« Basal metabolism 
of white-tailed deer - a pilot study, Journ. Wildl. Mgt., 
4:434-432. 

Switzenberg, D. F., T. C. Nelson and B. C. Jenkins. 1955. Effect 

of deer browsing on quality of hardwood timber in northern 
Michigan. For. Science, 1:61-67. 

Thornton, P. L. 1957. Problems of managing Upper Michigan's coni- 
ferous swamps. Journ. For„ 55^192-197. 

Veatch, J. 0., L. P. Schoenmann, F. R. Lesh and Z. C. Foster. 1929. 
Soil survey of Alger County, Michigan. U. S. D. A. Bull. 
32, 41 pp. 

Watson, R. 1936. Northern white cedar, U. S. Forest Service, R-9, 
44 pp. Proc. 

Webb, W. H. 1943. Environmental analysis of a winter deer range. 
Trans. N. A. Wildl. Conf., 13:442-450. 

Weitzman, S. and R. R. Bay. 1959. Snow behavior in forests of 

northern Minnesota and its management implications. Lake 
States For. Exp. Sta. paper 69. 

Zazada, A. A. 1952. Reproduction on cut-over swamplands in the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan. Lake States Forest Exp. Sta., 
Station paper 27, 15pp. Proc. 



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- 34 - 
REPORT ON OPENING OF DUCK SEASON ON 
OCTOBER 7, 1961, IN LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 

by 
A. A. Wainio, R. H. Trotter and J. S. Dorland 

Abstract 

For the third successive year personnel from various 
sections of the Department in the Lake Simcoe District 
assisted the Fish and Wildlife staff in covering the 
opening of duck season in Holland Marsh. All access 
points into the Marsh were patrolled. The hunters 
began shooting before the opening time, 12 o'clock 
noon, but during the afternoon and evening they 
proved very helpful in supplying information. In 
Holland Marsh, 59S hunters shot 506 ducks giving a 
hunter's success of .$5. A similar coverage was 
carried out on opening day in Matchedash Bay near 
Waubaushene. Here, 172 hunters bagged 143 ducks for 
a hunter's success of .83 ducks per hunter. Recom- 
mendations for next year 9 s season include a morning 
opening rather than the present noon opening on the 
first day of the duck season. 



Holland Marsh 

This is the third successive year that the District has 
carried out a complete coverage of Holland Marsh for the opening day 
of duck season, which fell on October 7th. As in the past two years, 
the Department recruited men from Fish and Wildlife, who were in 
charge of the operation, Parks, Reforestation, County Forests and 
Severn River Management Unit. The R.C.M.P. patrolled Cook's Bay and 
Lake Simcoe. 

At all the access points into the marsh Department personnel 
were told to warn the hunters of the 12 noon opening time and try and 
keep them out of the marsh until 11:30 a.m. Hunters coming to the 
marsh received a sheet outlining the opening time, closing time and 
the daily bag limit. Even though the Department personnel were at 
their posts at 6:00 a.m. Saturday morning, there were some hunters who 
had arrived earlier and were already stationed in the marsh well 
before 6:00 a.m. 

Because of the dense cattails and other aquatic growth which 
surrounds the best duck shooting area on the west side of the marsh, 
it is practically impossible to apprehend hunters who shoot before 
the opening hour of 12 o'clock noon. When you consider that there 
are over five hundred men in the marsh trying for their limit of 
ducks, it goes without saying that if the ducks are disturbed by some 
trigger happy hunter, it sets off a chain reaction and everyone in 
the area cuts loose. In areas of such dense cover it would take an 
army of men to stop the shooting once it gets started. For this 



- 35 - 

reason, we tried to keep all hunters out of the marsh till 11:30 aem. 
This gave them one-half hour to take up their position before the 
noon opening. 

This has worked out quite well for the past two years, but 
this year we had trouble with impatient hunters who insisted on going 
into the marsh to get established before 11:30. As we could not 
legally keep the hunters out, it was decided to let them go at 
11 o* clock on the west side of the marsh, where over two hundred 
hunters were getting very impatient. By 11:30 there was considerable 
shooting in that area and before noon it had spread throughout the 
entire marsh. 

If we have a noon opening in the Holland Marsh next year, it 
will be necessary to use a different preventative measure to stop the 
early shooting. It will take a lot of men equipped with breast waders 
to get out into the marsh where the shooting takes place. The most 
practical solution would be to revert back to the one-half hour before 
sunrise opening and let light be the governing factor. If we could 
legally keep the hunters out of the marsh till 11:30, the hunters 
could be controlled by about 20 men to cover all points of access 
into the marsh. 

It was an ideal day for duck hunting with warm sunny weather 
and a light breeze blowing. Most of the hunters were successful and 
there were very few violations other than the early shooting. There 
appeared to be more hunters than last year. More were definitely 
checked this year, 59$, as compared to last year»s 269« Table i+ 
compares the results of the opening day of duck season for the three 
years, 1959> I960 and 1961. Far more ducks were shot this year than 
in either of the two previous years. The Department personnel at 
the various access points collected duck wings for later identification 
and study at District Office. 

Matchedash Bay 

This year as in I960, duck hunters in Matchedash Bay had 
warm and sunny weather to greet them, with temperatures ranging well 
into the seventies. Shooting in the bay began at 11:55 a.m. which 
must be considered good cooperation on the part of the hunters as 
many of the access points were unmanned. Twelve officers, four each 
from Parks, Timber and Fish and Wildlife, manned ten of the more 
important access points into the bay from 6:00 a.m. until 3:00 p.m. 
or until the last hunter had returned. 

Although large flocks, mostly blue bills, (Lesser Scaup) 
and Mallards were seen during their morning flights and on previous 
days, the hunters in the afternoon failed to flush these ducks from 
the many reed beds that surround the bay. Consequently the harvest 
must be considered only fair for the opening day. 

Number of ducks per hunter - .#3 
Man-hours per duck harvested - 6.1 



- 36 - 

All hunters at the manned access points were warned regard- 
ing the noon opening previous to entering the marsh. Most hunters 
who entered the marshes in the early morning to build make-shift 
blinds, left their firearms on the shore, returning for them previous 
to the opening. As the day was quite warm, many fishermen in boats 
spotted the bay throughout the day fishing for pike and bass which 
were taking the bait offered very well. 

The data compiled in Table 3 show Lesser Scaup as the 
largest species harvested during the opening day. A scarcity of 
dogs is also noted in the report and may be partly responsible for 
the poor harvest recorded. 



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TABLE 2: 



- 33 - 



Results of Opening Day of Duck Season 
September 23, 1961, in Brock Township 
(Central District) 



No. of hunters checked - 64 

No. of man-hours - 317 

Blacks • - 26 

Blue-winged Teal - IS 

Wood Duck - 9 

No. of ducks shot - 53 

No. of ducks per hunter - .$3 

No. of man-hours per duck - 6.0 



39 -' 



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- 40 - 

TABLE 4; 



Comparison of Hunting Success in 
Holland Marsh in 1959, I960. 1961 



Per cent of Bag 



Mallard 

Black 

Pintail 

Green-winged Teal 

Blue-winged Teal 

Wood Duck 

Baldpate (American Widgeon) 

Hooded Merganser 

Unknown 

Others 



Number of hunters checked 
Number of ducks shot 
Number of ducks per man 
Number of man-hrs. per duck 
Number of ducks per man-hr. 
Number of cripples lost 



1959 


I960 


1961 


14.5 


17.6 


31.8 


21.0 


21.6 


12.6 


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7.6 


5.7 


25.7 


23.7 


12.5 


12.4 


10.4 


7.5 


5.9 


6.5 


3.2 


1.5 


1.1 


2.6 


1.8 


.72 


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10.4 


7-2 


24.1 


2.4 


3.6 


2.2 



Overall Summary 



1959 


I960 


1961 


615 


269 


598 


333 


273 


506 


.56 


1.03 


.85 


9.2 


5.3 


6.8 


.11 


.17 


.15 


130 


57 


207 



- 41 - 



TABLE 5t 



Comparison of Hunting Success in 
Matchedash Bay in 1959, I960, 1961 



Mallard 

Black 

Pintail 

Green-winged Teal 

Blue-winged Teal 

Wood Duck 

Lesser Scaup 

Hooded Merganser 

Greater Scaup 

Rin,g-necked Duck 

Baldpate (American Widgeon) 

Common (American) Merganser 

Others 



Per cent of Bag 
1959 I960 1961 



11.2 
12.6 

1.3 

9.0 

15.3 

4.9 
23. S 



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23.2 


19.5 


19.2 


.93 


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3,9 


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10.4 


5.9 


12. d 


7.8 


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3.9 


12.0 


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6.4 


.49 


2.4 



4.2 

4.2 

2,1 

11,2 



2.4 



4.0 



Number of hunters checked 
Number of ducks shot 
Number of ducks per hunter 
Number of man-hours per duck 
Number ducks per man-hour 
Number of cripples lost 



Overall Summary 
1959 I960 1961 



146 


162 


172 


205 


125 


143 


1.4 


.77 


.83 


2.9 


7.5 


6.1 


.34 


.13 


.16 


40 


16 





- 42 - 

SUMMARY OF FALL, SPRING AND SUMMER GOOSE 
AND DUCK KILLS, IN PATRICIA EAST, 1961 

by 
A. Gagnon 
Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

Statistics are presented on the kill of geese and 
ducks by hunters and Indian families in the James 
Bay area of Patricia East during 1961. Data were 
collected by Lands and Forests personnel from two 
checking stations, licensed hunting camps and from 
Indian families in the area. A total of 1292 
hunters killed 15,200 geese and ducks. Waterfowl 
killed by Indian families during the fall of I960 
and spring of 1961 was 28,910. The number of kills 
for the past four years are compared. 



Statistics were taken from the check stations at the mouth 
of the Moose River, Len Hughes* Camp, Fort Albany, Bill Anderson, 
Fort Albany, James Bay Goose Club at North Bluff, 22 miles along 
the west coast from Moosonee and Ontario Northland Goose Camp, Hannah 
Bay, approximately $0 miles east of Moosonee along the east coast. 
Data were also collected from the Indian families for their fall, 
spring and summer kills in Patricia East portion. 

This year 1 s data were collected as in the past four years, 
such as; the hunter* s name, address, licence number, species and 
number of kills. 

A Patrol activities and collection of data from the hunters 
and Indian families at the two check stations were carried out by 
Lands and Forests personnel. Statistics from the licensed hunting 
camps were collected by the R.C.M.P. personnel. 

Peter Kataquapit, Conservation Officer and the writer 
collected data from all the Indians families from Lake River, 
Attawapiskat, Fort Albany, Moose Factory and Moosonee areas for the 
Fall, Spring and Summer kills. Data from each individual Indian 
were sent to Maple and the District Office with the annual report. 
A summary of the kills is included in this report. 

Convictions 

There were five charges laid this fall, all for hunting 
on the Moose River Bird Sanctuary. A few minor infractions were 
settled in the field. 

All five charges laid were against our local residents, 
three were white and two were Indians. However, on the whole the 
hunting regulations were observed by both outside hunters and local 
people. 



- 43 - 

Hunting Preasure 

Hunting pressure was lighter last spring and this fall by 
the local Indians, due to the Air Force Base at Moosonee, which is 
under construction and using approximately 75 local Indians and white 
status which could only hunt on week-ends. Weather conditions were 
not too favourable for the treaty Indians last spring, as we had quite 
a few days of north winds. When the birds were migrating north 
they took advantage of the favourable winds and the majority went 
through to their nesting grounds which accounts for fewer kills. The 
juvenile population was very low this fall, and as yet the cause is 
not known. Possibly weather conditions and predation might be 
factors. There was a heavy Snowy Owl migration this fall and in four 
cases, birds were seen killed by Snowy Owls. Snowy Owls were seen 
disturbing ducks and geese on the Bird Sanctuary, from the 15th, 
of October to November 5th, when the birds left for the south. 

Forty- two (42) bird bands were collected at the check 
stations this fall. 

Patrols 

Goose patrols were carried out extensively by the Department 
of Lands and Forests staff this fall as the R.C.M.P. did not have the 
help and equipment required as in previous years. 

Weather 

Comparing weather conditions for the past five years for 
goose hunting is as follows: 

Seasons - 1957 - fair 

1953 - good 

1959 - good 

1960 - good 

1961 - fair 

Recommendation 

Due to extreme variation among personnel working at the 
Check Stations and on Patrols, an attempt to provide more consistent 
results may possibly be reached by using local employees who have a 
knowledge of the James Bay coast, the surrounding area and the local 
guides. This would help provide more accurate results. 

INDIAN FAMILIES IN PATRICIA EAST PORTION-KILLS FOR 
FALL, SPRING AND SUMMER 

(Data of Summer kills from Treaty Indians are included 
in the Fall kills.) 

SUMMER AND FALL OF I960 SPRING OF 1961 

Canada Geese Blue-Snow Geese Ducks 

Fall Spr. Fall Spr. Fall Spr. 

Moosonee 33 £36 260 389 4 463 
Fort Albany 427 1931 4502 1352 932 645 
Attawapiskat 731 2727 6211 3240 1373 723 

1241 5544 10973 4931 2809 1331 



- 44 - 
1961 DATA FROM MOOSE RIVER CHECKING STATIONS FROM SEPT. 15. TO NOV. 5 



Killed by 
Licensed Hunters 



Killed by 
Treaty Indians 



Totals 



Blue Geese 








Adults 


1559 




3606 


Juveniles 


521 




573 
Geese Salted 
Geese Smoked 






(*) 


10$ Added 



5265 

1026 

61 

12 

636 

7000 



Snow Geese 

Adults 

Juveniles 


283 
61 


(*) 


133 

7 

10$ Added 


Canada Geese 


71 


(*) 


125 
10$ Added 


Ducks 


1176 


(*) 


1179 
10$ Added 



416 
68 
48 

532 

196 
20 

216 

2355 
236 

2591 

(*) For the birds not accounted for such as eaten in the field, 
wounded birds that were lost, poaching and Quebec Indians 
killing birds in Ontario 10$ of the kill was added as a 
conservative estimate. 

TOTAL GOOSE KILL FROM THE CHECKING STATIONS AND LICENSED CAMPS 

Blue and Snow Geese 11477 
Canada Geese 316 

Ducks 3407 



Number of Canadian Hunters — •••••••••• 

Number of American Hunters ••••... 

Number of Treaty Indians 

Number of Hunters with no kills .... c ....... • 

Total number of Hunters 



15200 

615 
226 
480 

1321 
172 



1493 



- 45 - 

Number of Kills for the Past Five Years from the Moose River 
Checking Stations and Licensed Camps. 10% Added to Kills. 



No. of Blue-Snow Canada 
Hunters Fall Geese Geese.. D ucks 



Check Stations 
















- 


309 


1957 


3504 


124 


1567 


American Hunters 


7% 


944 


1953 


7321 


166 


1329 


American Hunters 


*% 


1034 


1959 


11557 


204 


1432 


American Hunters 


4.6% 


1336 


1960 


11745 


296 


1324 


American Hunters 


4% 


1150 


1961 


7532 


216 


2590 


O.N.R. Hannah Ba-v 


■ t including 


guide k: 


.lis 








- 


131 


1957 


1136 


31 


563 


American Hunters 


90% 


95 


1953 


1135 


10 


223 


American Hunters 


73% 


101 


1959 


924 


20 


219 


American Hunters 


31% 


145 


I960 


1663 


19 


297 


American Hunters 


52% 


155 


1961 


2777 


27 


453 


James Bav Goose Club 














- 


35 


1957 


562 


10 


113 


American Hunters 


40% 


63 


1953 


797 


10 


122 


American Hunters 


40% 


63 


1959 


735 


13 


166 


American Hunters 


63% 


32 


I960 


233 


11 


23 


American Hunters 


50% 


2 


1961 


6 





2 


Len Hughes. Fort 


Albanv 














- 


107 


1957 


1033 


36 


72 


American Hunters 


30% 


97 


1953 


1142 


11 


31 


American Hunters 


31% 


101 


1959 


1039 


17 


219 


American Hunters 


73% 


103 


I960 


1236 


56 


314 


American Hunters 


77% 


111 


1961 


774 


50 


203 


B. Anderson. Fort 


Albanv 












- 


- 


1957 


Hi 


- 


- 


American Hunters 


33% 


53 


1953 


370 


3 


13 


American Hunters 


51% 


41 


1959 


459 


11 


63 


American Hunters 


3% 


33 


1960 


344 


5 


29 


American Hunters 


36% 


44 


1961 


333 


23 


149 



CHECKING STATIONS, LICENSED CAMPS AND INDIAN KILLS 
IN PATRICIA EAST PORTION 



Canada Geese 
Blue - Snow Geese 
Ducks 



1961 1960 1959 



6022 

27727 

3121 



7350 

33926 

7414 



9097 

31153 

3067 



1£^3 

6635 

30344 

7963 



1231 

4124 

22736 

6229 



Total Birds Killed. 



41370 49190 43322 45492 



33039 



- 46 - 

FOREST EXISTING IN ONTARIO COUNTIES ABOUT 1335 
(Extracted from "Canadian Forests" by H, B. Small, 1885) 

Abstract 

This brief historical excerpt gives the percentage of 
forest still existing in the counties of Ontario about 
1885. The chief kinds of trees are given as well as 
their principal uses. 



Prescott and Russell 

About forty-seven and half per cent of the entire area 
is under timber, consisting of hemlock, cedar, tamarac, beech, birch, 
elm, basswood, ash, balsam, pine, spruce, walnut, butternut, white- 
wood, dogwood, soft maple, and red and black cherry; used principally 
for lumber, fencing, firewood, railway ties and saw logs. 

Glengarry, Stormont t and Dundas 

Probably about thirty per cent of the entire area of these 
counties is still timbered with hard and soft maple, beech, birch, 
ash, tamarac, elm, basswood, hemlock, spruce, balsam, and some pine; 
used for fuel, lumber, railway ties, telegraph posts and shingles. 

Carleton 

About 287,000 acres of land in this county are still un- 
cleared. 

Leeds and Grenville 

In all the townships, except South Burgess and North Crosby, 
which have suffered from the ravages of bush fires, there is a large 
amount of standing timber, consisting mainly of hard and soft woods; 
used for firewood, fencing, lumber, buckets and pails. 

Lanark 

About twenty-four per cent of the uncleared land is covered 
with timber or bush. The timber is chiefly pine, beech, maple, 
basswood, ash, birch, cedar and tamarac. A considerable export trade 
in hardwood is carried on, and there is a large local consumption for 
railway ties, fencing, fuel, etc. A great destruction of pine took 
place from the great fire in 1870. 

Renfrew 

About forty-six per cent of the entire area is still timbered 
Red and white pine exist in large quantities. There is also an abun- 
dant supply of ash, elm, maple, basswood, spruce, cedar, tamarac, 
balsam, poplar, beech and hemlock. Lumbering is extensively carried 
on for exportation to European and American markets. The hard woods 
are chiefly used for fuel and cedar for fencing. 



- 47 - 

Frontenac 

As nearly as can be computed, about fifty per cent of the 
land in Frontenac is still timbered with pine, basswood, ash, hemlock, 
beech, balsam, tamarac, cedar and maple; principally used for lumber, 
fencing and fuel. 

Lennox and Addington 

Owing to the returns being in several instances obviously 
inaccurate, the extent of land in the counties under timber cannot 
be estimated. Four-fifths of Denbigh and associated townships are, 
however, reported to be under pine, maple, beech and cedar, and 
lumbering is extensively carried on<> There is also a considerable 
quantity of timber land in North and South Fredericksburg, in Camden 
and in Sheffield. 

Prince Edward County 

About sixteen per cent of the entire area is still covered 
with timber, consisting of beech, maple, elm, cedar, oak, black ash 
and some pine; used for lumber, fuel, coopers' staves, fencing and 
building. 

Hastings 

A large proportion of the acreage is still covered with 
timber - in some townships to the extent of seventy- five per cent. 

Haliburton 

About eighty per cent of the entire area is still under 
timber, consisting principally of maple, beech, birch, hemlock, 
basswood, elm, ash, pine, tamarac and cedar; used for lumber, fencing, 
railway ties, telegraph poles, shingles, bolts, saw-logs, etc. 

Peterborough 

A large proportion - not far short of one-half of the area 
- is under timber, consisting of pine, cedar, beech, maple, hemlock, 
basswood, tamarac, birch and ash; used for timber, fencing, firewood, 
shingles, bolts, railway ties and telegraph poles. Bush fires have 
destroyed large tracts, particularly in the township of Harvey. 

Northumberland and Durham 

About eighteen per cent of the total acreage is still 
timbered with hardwood, cedar, pine, hemlock and tamarac. The former 
is used principally for fuel, the latter for building, fencing, and 
barrel staves. 

Victoria 

Probably about fifty per cent of the uncleared land is under 
timber, consisting of cedar, pine, hemlock, maple, birch, beech, 
basswood, black ash, mountain ash, balsam, tamarac, oak and elm; used 
for lumber, fuel, building and fencing. 



- 4S - 

Ontario 

About seventeen per cent of the area of Ontario is still 
under timber (excepting the township of Reach, which returns no 
percentage) • The timber consists of pine, maple, beech, basswood, 
tamarac, balsam, cedar, black ash, hemlock and elm; used mainly for 
lumber, fuel, fences, staves and domestic uses. 

York 

About twenty-two and a half per cent of the area of York is 
still under timber, consisting of beech, maple, elm, basswood, pine, 
hemlock, cedar, tamarac and birch; used for building purposes, fencing 
and firewood, 

Simcoe 

It is impossible to glean from the returns the total acreage 
under timber, but probably over one-half of the entire county area is 
under maple, beech, elm, basswood, tamarac, pine, hemlock, cedar, 
balsam, birch, ash and oak. Lumbering operations are very extensively 
carried on in several of the townships, and there is a large amount 
of business done in hemlock bark (which is largely used within the 
county, and also exported for tanning purposes) , and in railway ties, 
telegraph poles and shingles. The hardwoods are principally used 
for fuel, and the soft woods for building and fencing. 

Peel 

About eleven per cent of the entire acreage is still under 
timber, consisting of beech, maple, hemlock, cedar, white and red 
oak, ash, elm, hickory and basswood. A few pine are scattered in 
Chinguacousy and Toronto townships. The timber is generally used 
for fuel, fencing and domestic purposes • 

Halton 

About seventeen per cent of the entire area is still timber- 
ed, chiefly with hardwood and a limited amount of pine. The timber 
is principally used for lumber, fencing and fuel. 

Wentworth 

Fourteen and a half per cent probably under timber consist- 
ing of pine, beech, maple, elm, black ash, cedar, tamarac,, oak, hickory, 
walnut and chestnut; used for lumber, firewood, fencing, building and 
general purposes. 

Lincoln 

Exclusive of the township of Caistor, which does not report 
the area of land still timbered, Lincoln has over 24|000 acres still 
covered with beech, black ash, maple, elm, oak, hickory and some pine; 
used for firewood, fencing, building and manufacturing purposes, also 
for ship timber and railroad ties. 



- 49 - 

Welland 

About eighteen per cent of the area is still under timber, 
consisting of beech, maple, oak, ash, basswood, elm, hemlock, poplar, 
birch, chestnut, walnut and butternut; used for shipbuilding, house- 
building, fencing and fuel. 

Haldimand 

About twenty-four per cent of the acreage is still 
timbered, consisting chiefly of hardwoods; used for fencing, fuel 
and building purposes e 

Norfolk 

About twenty-four per cent of the entire area is still 
timbered, and the standing timber consists chiefly of pine, oak, 
maple, chestnut, black and white ash, elm and cedar; used for 
railway ties, lumber, fencing, firewood and general purposes. 

Brant 

About twenty-five per cent is yet in timber of maple, beech, 
elm, oak, pine, cedar, basswood, tamarac, hickory and ironwood. 

Waterloo 

About twenty-two and a half per cent of the area is still 
timbered with pine, oak, beech, maple, cedar, ash and hemlock. 

Grey 

About thirty-four per cent of the land is still timbered, 
chiefly with hardwood. Very little pine exists, and only sufficient 
cedar for fencing purposes. 

Bruce 

About twenty- five per cent of the land is timbered. Maple, 
basswood, elm, hemlock, cedar, ash, beech and birch predominate; 
there is also some pine. 

Huron 

About twenty-nine per cent is covered with timber; hard and 
soft woods. 

Perth 

About twenty-one per cent is covered with timber consisting 
of beech, elm, maple, basswood, black and white ash, pine, hemlock, 
cedar, birch and tamarac. 

Oxford 

Seventeen per cent under pine, cedar, beech, maple, elm, 
ash, basswood and oak. 



- 50 - 

Elgin 

Thirty per cent is timbered with most of the indigenous 
woods excepting cedar. 

Middlesex 

Thirty-five per cent under hardwood and some pine. 

Lambton 

Forty-eight per cent covered with oak, ash, elm, beech, 
maple, basswood, hickory and some pine. 

Kent 

Thirty-seven per cent in oak, black and red ash, hickory, 
hard and soft maple, cherry and sycamore, some black walnut and some 
tulip. 

Essex 

Two-thirds still under bush, consisting chiefly of whitewood, 
oak, ash, elm, hickory, bass, sycamore and other woods. 

Wellington 

About fifteen per cent is still timbered with beech, maple, 
elm, cedar, hemlock, basswood, ash and balsam. 

According to Mr. Ward, Ontario furnishes 4*474,000 pieces, 
equal to 2,600,000 standard pine logs of 200 feet each, producing 
520,000,000 feet of lumber; 6,790,090 cubic feet of white and red 
pine, or 51,000,000 feet b.m.; dimension timber, 23,000,000 feet b.m.; 
hardwood, cedar &c, equal to 5,000,000 feet - making in the aggregate 
635,500,000 feet b. m.; paying to the Provincial Government for 
timber dues $501,000, and ground rents $46,000, with eighteen thousand 
square miles under license. 



- 51 - 



FOREST AND MOOSE MANAGEMENT IN NORWAY AND SWEDEN 

Douglas H. Pimlott 
Research Scientist, Research Branch 

Abstract 

The objective of the paper is to present back- 
ground information on forestry and moose management 
and to bring out aspects of their interrelationships. 
The paper is based on personal observations, made 
during a 10-day tour of private and state forests, 
and on literature obtained as a result of the trip. 

Much of the forest land is owned by private 
interests, however, forestry practices are intensively 
regulated by law. In Sweden, much of the timber on 
crown lands is cut by the Forest Service and then sold 
to private companies or to a crown corporation. The 
forests are intensively managed and the greater part 
of the labour force is employed on a permanent basis. 

The moose is the most important game animal in 
both countries. The annual kill has increased steadily 
since the 1930' s. It now exceeds 32,000 in Sweden and 
6,000 in Norway. Authorities in both countries favour 
regulations which permit control of the kill on the 
basis of relatively small units. The damage of forest 
reproduction by moose is of great concern and has been 
the subject of a doctoral dissertation in Sweden. The 
study indicates that damage to pine reproduction reaches 
serious proportions when moose densities exceed 2 per 
square mile. 

During the course of moose research in Newfoundland I became 
interested in the management of moose in the""*Scandinavian countries. 
The interest has gradually broadened to include the forests and the 
general field of resources management. 

I once expressed the thoughts that the Scandinavian races come 
closer to living in harmony with their environment than any other 
group of people in the world; that they have a better sense of balance 
in the use of natural resources than North Americans demonstrate. 
These were simply impressions that I had gained from reading, since I 
had not visited Scandinavia or very little of the rest of the world. 
The short period I spent in Norway and Sweden in I960 provided some 
interesting background on these thoughts. It increased my desire to 
spend a much longer period learning about their methods in resource 
management. It suggested that the Swedish and Norwegian people have 
indeed progressed far in the field of forest and game management. 

During June, I960 I attended the conference and the related 
technical sessions of the International Union for the Conservation of 



- 52 - 

Nature and Natural Resources. The main purpose of the trip was to 
give a paper on the ecology and management of North American moose. 
This report is based on a side trip that I made into Norway and 
Sweden during the period June 25 - July 7, on my return trip to 
Canada. Since my visit was to "be a very short one and since I was 
primarily interested in the interrelationships of forestry and "big- 
game management, I made the principal objective of my visit quite 
specific — "to gain first-hand knowledge of the interrelationships 
of forest and big-game management in Norway and Sweden. " My 
objective here is to attempt to synthesize the knowledge I acquired 
in the field, and from literature, on forest and big-game management 
in Scandinavia. The picture will not be a complete one. This will 
be especially true in the case of Norway where I had no direct 
contact with governmental officials during my visit. 

Planning and Itinerary . 

The planning for the trip was of a last minute nature since 
approval for the trip to Warsaw was received only a few days before 
the opening date of the I. U.C.N. Conference. On the way to Warsaw 
I attempted to make telephone contact with officials of the Swedish 
Hunter's Society from Copenhagen, Denmark. However, I was not 
successful and finally I arrived in Stockholm with many ideas but 
with definite plans still pending. On arrival in Stockholm I con- 
tacted Mr. Wallerstedt of the Swedish Hunters* Society, Mr. Torsten 
Wenmark of the Swedish Forest Service and Mr. Knut Rom (Oslo) of 
the Norwegian Hunters' Society. The co-operation of the three 
gentlemen made it possible to work out an interesting itinerary. 

The itinerary was planned so that I might visit some forests 
that were under state and others that were under private ownership. 
A second consideration was to outline the areas so that it would 
be possible to make a circuitous trip and hence to take advantage 
of the economical rail fares that exist for long continuous trips. 
(The rail fare per unit travelled becomes progressively less as 
distance increases. For example, the second-class fare for the 
first 100 kilometers is approximately $2.50, while the rate per 
100 kilometers for a journey of 2,000 kilometers is approximately 
one dollar. During my trip I travelled approximately 2,200 kilo- 
meters, or almost 1,400 miles, for a cost of $28.00. ) 

During the trip I visited six different forests. In Sweden 
these included small state forests near Soderhamn and Vanesborg, 
and the largest private holdings in Sweden, those of Swedish 
Cellulose near Sundsvall. In Norway I visited small company forests 
near Oslo (L/venskhold), at Hurdahl (Mathiesen-Eidsvold Vaerke ) and 
at Verdal (Verdalsbruket ). 

I was conducted on trips in the various areas by many interesting 
and knowledgeable people. These varied from hunting consultants to 
chief foresters. The diversity of interests of my companions enabled 
me to gain insight from many points-of-view. I am deeply grateful to 
all those who took time out to travel with me and to talk to me about 
their areas, their methods and their problems. 



- 53 - 

Forests and Forest Management in Norway and Sweden 

Land Area, Forest Types and Land Ownership. 

The total land area of Sweden is between 158,000 and 159,000 
square miles. Productive forests comprise approximately 88,500 
square miles (56 per cent) of the land area (Hedlund and Tamm, 
1957). The forests are classified broadly into two principal 
regions, the beech region of the south and the coniferous regions 
of Central and Northern Sweden. The coniferous region has two 
subdivisions, the southern region which is characterized by the 
occurrence of oak ( Que reus pedunculata ) and the northern region 
where oak is absent. Throughout the coniferous region the dominant 
trees are Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris ) and Norway spruce (Picea 
excelsa ) (Streyffert, 1958). 

Private ownership of forests and forest lands is much more 
common in Sweden than in Canada. State forests comprise only 19 
per cent of the total area while limited companies hold 25 per 
cent and other private interests 50 per cent of the forest land. 
The remaining 6 per cent are public forests owned by other govern- 
mental bodies such as those of counties and municipalities. In 
marked contrast to Canadian practice, no single private forest 
industry in Sweden is dependent on the wood from crown forests. 

The land area of Norway is approximately 125,000 square miles 
of which 30,000 square miles (24 per cent) is forested. The forest 
cover is similar to Sweden, however, spruce appeared to constitute 
a considerably higher percentage of the volume. 

As in Sweden, private forests are predominant and comprise 80 
per cent of the forest land (16 per cent company forests and 64 per 
cent small holdings). Of the remaining, 17 per cent are public 
forests and 3 per cent are listed as Parish Commons (Fogh, 1953). 

One of the most vivid impressions of my trip is of the mono- 
typic nature of the forests. By the time a stand has passed the 
early stage of reproduction, approximately 25 years, it is usually 
pure pine or pure spruce, In many areas it is possible to look 
out across the country for long distances and scarcely see a 
deciduous tree in the forest canopy. This monotypic condition is 
considered highly desirable and a great deal of work is done to 
achieve it. Much of the deciduous component is eliminated by 
cleaning operations, and now more commonly in the large holdings, 
by either aerial or ground spraying with herbicides. 

Knowing of the soil problems that- have arisen in parts of 
Europe where silvicultural practises had resulted in generation 
after generation of conifers, I inquired about the wisdom of this 
"pure conifer policy". Invariably I was told that soil conditions 
were being carefully watched and that as yet no serious problems 
existed. The use of burning to break down the raw humus and the 
present experimental use of fertilizers were cited as work being 
done to maintain or increase microbiological activity in the humus- 
rich horizons. 



- 54 -■ 

Whatever the economic desirability of clean forestry and 
monotypic stands - this was the side of Scandinavian forestry that 
held least appeal for me. Aesthetically, their pure forests rank 
far below the mixed forests of central Ontario. My prayer is that 
by the time we have reached the Scandinavian level of utilization, 
we will also have achieved a diversification of our forest in- 
dustries so that a conglomerate of tree species will not be 
economically undesirable. 

Forest Laws and Policy. 

One of the most striking features of forestry in Norway and 
Sweden is the extent to which it is regulated by law, I believe 
that in Canada comparable laws would be considered gross infringe- 
ments on the rights of private ownership, for the laws apply to 
both public and private lands. 

In the case of Sweden, where an English translation of The 
Swedish Forest Law is available (Streyffert, 1958), the most 
important of the regulations are those that govern the regeneration 
of cut-over areas, the stage at which final cutting can be done 
and the conversion of forested land to other purposes such as 
agriculture. 

The Forest Law is administered by County Forestry Boards 
which were established in each of the 25 counties when the law was 
passed in 1903. Each board has three members comprised of two 
owners of private forests and of a chairman elected by the Forest 
Service. These individual boards are responsible to a governmental 
agency, the Central Board of Forestry, which was established in 
1941. According to Streyffert (1958) the Boards have been highly 
successful in their work. He attributes this to their member 
composition (each board includes tv/o of the most respected and re- 
sponsible of the small private forest owners) and to the degree of 
autonomy which they have. The County Forestry Boards are much more 
than regulatory bodies. They provide technical advice and assist- 
ance to owners of small forests and also mark many of the stands 
for cutting. 

This method of application of a forest law is one of the ex- 
emplifications (we shall see another in the section on game manage- 
ment) of the basic differences which exist between the Scandinavian 
countries and Canada. In our country laws pertaining to natural 
resources are made by the government and enforced director by govern- 
mental agencies and personnel. In Scandinavia the regulations, 
although made by the government, are enforced by local bodies which 
are only indirectly controlled by governmental agencies. 

It appears to me that there is more to the success of this 
method of operation than the two points mentioned by Streyffert 
(1958), i.e., the inclusion of respected citizens and autonomy of 
operation. I believe that the people of Scandinavia, from the 
forest worker or hunter to people in high places, have developed an 
ingrained sense of discipline of action and an ability to consider 



- 55 - 

the common good over personal gain to a much higher degree than 
have North Americans. Fortunately for them, they started early 
and had time to develop these graces "before modern technique and 
equipment could despoil their countries. Unfortunately, we in 
North America started later and must by force of circumstances 
learn faster if we are to "be equally successful in living in 
harmony with our environment. As in practically every area of the 
world sustained yield forestry is the goal of forest management in 
Scandinavia. An important thing is that in these countries it is 
not simply a goal but a documented achievement. 

There have been three national forest inventories in Sweden 
in the 1923 to 1955 period. These inventories demonstrated an 
increase in the growing stock from approximately 61 million cubic 
feet to 76 million cubic feet over the period (Hedlund and Tamil. 
1957). A continuous type of inventory has now been instituted 
which will give revised data for specific areas at intervals of 
approximately 10 years . 

The Forest Services 

The Forest Services and the Forest Laws of Norway and Sweden 
appear to be similar in many respects. In both cases they come 
under the Minister of Agriculture and are headed by a Director 
General. Since I did not have the opportunity to gain first hand 
information on the Norwegian organization, the great part of the 
following discussion will pertain to Sweden. In the case of this 
country I had contact with a number of members of the Swedish 
Forest Service and was also given a copy of a publication (Anony- 
mous, 1956) which outlines the scope and function of the service. 

Administration and Organization; The administrative set-up of the 
Forest Service is similar, in broad outline, to the Ontario De- 
partment of Lands and Forests. The Board of Crown Lands and Forests 
is the management body of the Forest Service. It is headed by a 
Director General (Deputy Minister) and a Director-in-Chief who 
also functions as Deputy Director General. The Divisional Directors 
are also members of the Board. The head office organization is 
comprised of seven divisions and a crown prosecutor's office, which 
in effect constitutes the eighth division. In the field organ- 
ization the country is divided into 10 conservancies (comparable 
to our districts) which in turn are divided into a total of 106 
forest districts. In southern Sweden these districts average about 
40 square miles in size while those in northern Sweden are six to 
seven times as large. The districts in turn are subdivided into 
Forester's Beats each of which is managed by a forester. The 
Forester's Beats are the operational units of the Forest Service 
and number 460. The Forest Service employs 250 forest officers, 
who are graduates of the Royal School of Forestry, and 700 foresters 
who are graduates of Forestry (Forest Ranger) schools. One of the 
interesting aspects of the organization is that it does not contain 
any specific fish or game management section. The responsibility 
for administering these resources is with the first and second 
forestry divisions which administer the 10 conservancies. At the 






- 56 - 

field level the work is so closely integrated that fish and wild- 
life are part of the responsibility of the forester in charge of 
a Forester's Beat. At this point it is necessary to recall that 
the rights to, or ownership of, fish and wildlife are invested in 
the ownership of the land and not directly in the state. This 
means that the Forest Service is directly responsible only for 
these resources as they occur on lands which it administers. 
Matters pertaining to fish and game management on private lands 
are handled by local boards in conjunction with the Swedish Hunter's 
Society. There is a Nature Protection Section in the Board of 
Crown Lands and Forests, however, its function is primarily with 
non-game species and with landscape preservation. 

There are two aspects of the activities of the Forest Service 
which do not have any Canadian counterpart. These are the method 
of handling timber sales and the administration of agricultural 
domains. In the former there has been a steady trend toward the 
sale of felled rather than of standing timber. At the present 
time less than 40 per cent of the timber is sold standing. 

For the industrial part of its operations the Forest Service 
has a special business status and simply submits an annual state- 
ment of income and expenditures. The expenditures for normal 
administrative aspects of the service are handled in a normal 
parliamentary budget. 

In the industrial aspects of its operation the Forest Service 
employs between 4,000 and 5,000 permanent forest workers. This 
comprises approximately 80 per cent of the labour force. The 
labour force works under a reciprocal guaranteed annual working 
period agreement. "This means that the worker is guaranteed work 
during a certain number of days each year and he, for his part, 
undertakes to perform this work". The Forest Service provides 
housing, as do many of the companies, for permanently employed 
forest workers and, in some instances, low-interest housing loans 
to seasonal workers. 

These provisions of guaranteed annual working periods, housing, 
low interest housing loans, as well as special hunting privileges, 
for forest workers exemplify one aspect of Scandinavian forestry 
which greatly impressed me. Everywhere I went I saw evidence of 
the deep-rooted interest in the man at the bottom. Forestry 
officials constantly referred to the desirability of a permanent 
working force. I became very aware that a great deal is being 
done to make forestry work a desirable vocation. 

The Forest Service owns a company (The Royal Swedish State 
Forest Industries Ltd. ) which operates as a financially independent 
crown corporation. A considerable part of the production from 
crown forests in northern Sweden is processed by this company. 

The Forest Service administers farm properties which are owned 
by the state. These comprise between two and three per cent of the 
cultivated land of the country. The most important of the prop- 
erties are the agricultural domains, which are located in southern 



- 57 - 

and central Sweden. These domains vary in size from approximately 
50 to 1,000 acres. The arable land and "buildings are leased while 
the associated forests are managed "by the local forest district. 

Forestry (Forest Ranger) Schools; There are seven government, 
and one private, forestry training schools in Sweden. The course 
is of one year's duration. All applicants must be experienced 
woodsmen and are required to take a four-month pre-training course 
prior to being admitted. The schools graduate about 100 foresters 
a year. (The only wildlife management school of equivalent status 
is operated by the Swedish Hunter's Society. It is supported to a 
large extent by a government grant. ) The administration and super- 
vision of the schools is closely integrated with the forest con- 
servancies and districts. 

Pensions: Permanent staff members receive non- contributory 
pensions. Retirement ages vary, depending on the degree of respon- 
sibility held by the officer. A supervisor can be pensioned at 63 
but can remain until he is 65 t while the corresponding ages for a 
forester are 60 and 63. Pensions average approximately 65 per cent 
of the final salary. 

Indoctrination Courses ? All forest officers are required to 
take a 14-day course prior to commencing work. 

Unions? Forest Service officials may belong to a union, and 
most do belong to one of the four principal organizations. 

Housings The Forest Service provides housing for 35 to 40 per 
cent of its forest officers and foresters. 

Salaries? Salary scales appear low by our standard, however, 
there is more to it than a direct conversion from kronars to 
dollars. It seemed evident to me that the buying power of a dollar 
is 30 to 50 per cent higher in Sweden than in Ontario. 

The most striking feature of the salary question is the re- 
latively confined range within the various classes. District 
forest officers' salaries ranged (1956) from approximately $4,800, 
on appointment to $5,200 at the upper limit, while foresters' 
salaries ranged from approximately $2,200 to $2,600 per annum. 

Reserve Funds: In addition to having financial independence 
in the logging industry aspects of its operation, the Forest Service 
has two funds from which to draw for land acquisition and forest 
regeneration purposes. Some agricultural and forested lands, which 
because of location or size cannot be handled profitably, may be 
sold to private interests. The money frcm these sales is placed 
in a land fund and used to purchase forested lands that can be 
operated more profitably. In the mid-fifties this fund contained 
about $7,500,000. 



- 5S - 

There is also a "Reserve Fund for Regeneration Costs". Each 
year a percentage of the net revenue of the Forest Service is 
allocated to this fund by the government. In the mid-fifties this 
fund contained about $9, 000, 000. 

Forest Management by a Private Corporation . 

On July 5 I spent a most interesting day touring a small part 
of the limits of Swedish Cellulose ( Svenska Cellulosa, Aktiebologet ) 
with Mr. B. Hagstrom, Chief of Forestry. At the end of the day 
Mr. Hagstrom took me to one of the company's seed orchards and to 
his office at Sundsvall. He gave me a brief insight into many 
aspects of the cost accounting methods, investigation of world 
markets and competition, silvicultural procedures and programs for 
forestry workers that are conducted by the company, I was amazed 
at the detail and the thoroughness of their approach, I had not 
realized that forestry, in any part of the world, had achieved the 
degree of scientific and engineering efficiency of this company. 
In addition to amazement, my feelings contained an element "of fear 
occasioned by the wide-scale use of herbicides, the experimental 
draining of bog lands and by the vast burning programs, 

Swedish Cellulose is the largest private company in Sweden, 
The company owns over 7,000 square miles (1,188,000 hectares), of 
which approximately 75 per cent is productive land. During 1958-59 , 
61 million cubic feet were cut, an estimated 70 per cent of the 
annual growth. In addition the company buys large quantities of 
wood, in some years equal to the cut in their own forests, much of 
it from farm forests. The company produces a very wide variety of 
products from lumber and prefabricated houses on one side to many 
forms of paper, plastic, cellulose and liquid products, on the 
other. The diversification means that there is a market for all 
the wood that is harvested. 

Although I was aware that they occurred, I was amazed by the 
extent of cleaning and thinning operations. They provide approxi- 
mately 40 per cent of the material produced on company lands. 
After the final clear-cutting approximately 60 per cent of the 
areas are burnt-over and planted. Reproduction on the remainder of 
the areas is obtained by seed trees or by sowing, usually accon>- 
panied by scarification. Scotch pine is considered more desirable 
than spruce and many areas that originally produced spruce have 
been converted to pine. 

The planting program requires approximately 24 million seedlings 
a year. These are largely provided by company nurseries. Additional 
requirements are met through the nurseries of country forestry boards, 
Seed is obtained from high quality stands after logging, and from 
seed orchards of which the company now has four in operation. Tt is 
anticipated that within a relatively short period the bulk of the 
seed required will be provided by the orchards. The orchard stock 
has been provided from the superior, or plus, trees in five differ- 
ent zones which have been defined for SCA limits. The orchard 
planning has been done on the basis for the estimated seed require- 
ments for each of the zones. 



- 59 - 

Forestry is a year-round operation with the multiplicity of 
operations that are included in the various cuts, "burning, seeding 
and spraying operations and in other work such as road "building. 
Because of this, Swedish Cellulose is striving to build up a stable, 
permanent work force. As I mentioned earlier one of the most vivid 
impressions of my trip was the steps that are being taken to make 
forestry a more desirable vocation. The benefits that the company 
offers its forest workers include permanent employment, a guaranteed 
annual work period of 240 days, life insurance and pensions, special 
annual grants during the period when a worker is between 62 and 67 
years of age, low interest housing loans, free building sites, loans 
to buy mechanical equipment and hunting privileges. 

As elsewhere in northern and central Sweden the moose population 
and the kill has been increasing on the forest lands of Swedish 
Cellulose. However, considering the area involved it is still re- 
latively light. In 1959 » for example, 1,500 moose were killed on 
company land. This was approximately one moose per 5 square miles. 
A hunting license for company land costs workers approximately $2.00 
(10 kronar) and in addition they pay $20.00 (100 kronar), or deliver 
a hindquarter, for each moose shot. This represents the lowest 
moose-hunting fee that I heard of in the course of my visit. 



Moose and Moose Management in Norway and Sweden 

In a previous paper (Pimlott, 1959) I reviewed some of the 
aspects of moose management and moose hunting in Norway, Sweden and 
Finland. However, for the purpose of bringing things together into 
one place I will cover some of the same ground here. I will not, 
however, discuss hunting methods. Persons who are interested in 
this subject can refer to my previous paper and to a report by 
Cumming (1961), in which he tells of the hunts in which he actually 
participated during his trip to Europe in 1959. 

History of Moose Hunting, 

Sweden? The documented history of moose hunting goes back 
over 400 years. For almost two hundred years, 1593 to 1789, hunting 
was restricted to nobility. The first half-century after the re- 
striction was dropped is said to have been a difficult period for 
moose and they were almost extirpated by 1825. The first closed 
season was put into force at that time and lasted through 1835. The 
next hundred years saw much guggling of the hunting seasons, however, 
there has never been another completely closed season on moose. 

The moose herd was at a low point during the 1920' s when hunting 
was not permitted over large areas of the country. After wide-scale 
hunting was resumed in the late 1920's the annual kill began to in- 
crease steadily. The average annual kill for the 1930' s was approxi- 
mately 7,000, for the 1940's 12,000 and for the 1950's close to 
25,000. The kill for I960 was 32,280 (Svensk Jakt, July, 1961), 



- 60 - 

One of the remarkable facts about the moose is that they occur 
over large areas of southern and central Sweden where there is a 
relatively high human population. Stockholm County (2,500 square 
miles), for example, has a population of over a million people and 
yet during the late 1950 's had annual moose kills of 800 and 900 
animals . 

The greater part of the increase in the moose kill since the 
1940 's occurred in the northern two- thirds of the moose range where 
the kill was formerly quite low. In 1959, for example, the kill in 
northern Sweden still had not reached the level of central Sweden 
of approximately 35 moose killed for each 100 miles of range. 

Norway? The granting of hunting privileges to landowners in 
Norway did not come until 1863? almost 100 years after Sweden. 
Each landowner was then permitted to kill one moose on his own land 
regardless of the size of the holding. The law remained in force 
for 68 years until 1931. During the period seasons varied in length 
or were closed in specific areas in attempts to control population 
levels. As in the case of Sweden, the most extensive period of re- 
stricted and closed seasons occurred during the 1920' s. The annual 
kill, although much lower than Sweden's, has had the same upward 
trend since normal seasons were re-established. It increased from 
1,000-1,200 in the late 1920' s to approximately 6,000 in the late 
1950 ! Sc 

Reg ulatory Org anizations , 

In the regulation of hunting in Scandinavia, hunting organi- 
zations have a most unusual role. This is particularly true of 
Sweden where the Swedish Hunters' Society (Svenska Jagaref orbundets ) 
is virtually the counterpart of the Pish and Wildlife Branch of our 
department,, The organization is supported by an assessment of 
members of county organizations and by an annual grant from the 
Swedish Porest Service, This grant is from the moneys received from 
the sale of hunting licenses , A considerable element of government 
control is achieved through the appointment of a chairman to the 
executive committee from the Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) and by a 
requirement that the budget be submitted to and approved by the 
government,, Important policy matters are debated at the Hunters' 
Congress and recommendations are then made to the Riksdag. 

The Society maintains a staff of hunting consultants (Game 
Management Specialists; throughout the country. It also has a 
small research station at Boda Bruk, 

The Norwegian Society is a true private organization but also 
obtains some funds from the government. It is a powerful organi- 
zation and undoubtedly influences policy decision, however, it does 
not have the role of formulating and implementing policy that the 
Swedish Society has. Cumming (1961) has given a more detailed 
account of these two organizations. 



- 61 - 



Hunting Regulations 



Before discussing moose seasons and hunting regulations it is 
well to point out again that in both Norway and Sweden the game is 
the property of the landowner and not of the crown. It appears to 
me that Scandinavian hunters have a much higher regard for hunting 
regulations than do North American hunters. I have wondered if 
perhaps a sense of personal ownership may he a contributory factor 
to this difference of the outlook of so many people. 

Sweden; Moose hunting is done under a dual-season system. 
The two seasons are referred to as the general and special seasons. 
In the case of the general season the period of hunting is re- 
stricted (most commonly to 3 days hut varying from 2 days to a week) 
but there is no limit to the number of animals that may be killed. 
In the case of the special seasons, the season frequently extends 
for a month, however, the number of animals that may be killed is 
determined in advance and is rigidly adhered to. There is a very 
strong movement to bring all moose hunting under the special-season 
system. 

For many years cows and calves were rigidly protected over 
most of the country. With the build up of the moose population the 
concept of protection of calves began to break down. In 1953 calves 
were shot in a number of counties during the general season. In 
the interim the killing of calves has become more widespread and by 
I960 calves comprised over 10 per cent of the total kill (3,825 of 
32,280, Anonymous, 1961). 

Norway; The rigid control of kill by areas which Sweden 
aspires to was adopted by Norway in 1951. Under this system hunting 
permits are issued for specific areas, the size of which depends 
largely on the density of the moose population. Owners, or the 
owners of hunting rights of sub-minimal areas must unite to meet the 
area requirements . 

The Control of the Moose Kill by Areas - Pros and Cons. 

The rigid control of the kill of moose by areas is considered 
in Scandinavia as the ultimate stage in hunting season regulations. 
The system is advocated as the means by which the kill can truly 
be regulated on the basis of the relationship of the moose to the 
range, and to economic aspects of damage caused by moose to forest 
reproduction and to crops. Prior to visiting some of the areas, I 
subscribed to the idea that it was indeed the ultimate in control 
of the kill. I considered that it represented a stage of manage- 
ment that is still very distant as far as North America is concerned. 
My rapid passage across the land did not permit me to make a detailed 
appraisal for any area in Sweden that has made extensive use of 
special seasons which connote control of kill by area. However, in 
Norway I gained impressions that made me realize that adoption of 
the system did not necessarily mean the end of problems or the 
attainment of the ultimate goal of management in control of the 
kill. 



- 62 - 

In Norway the annual kill varies from 70 to 80 per cent of 
the prescribed or desired kill. An example is the forests of 
L/venshold Company on the outskirts of Oslo. The Company holdings 
comprise approximately 225 square miles (56,000 hectares) and the 
present allowable annual kill is approximately 50 moose. The 
annual kill, however, seldom exceeds 35 animals, or 70 per cent of 
the allowable kill. 

The forests of the company at Verdal (Verdalsbruket ) comprise 
approximately 360 square miles (90,000 hectares) of which 100 square 
miles (25,000 hectares) are productive forests. The annual kill 
for their forests is presently established at 40 moose. The kill 
is achieved each year by the use of a relatively simple device - 
the hunting fee of 740 kronar ($120) per moose must be paid in 
advance and is not refunded to unsuccessful hunters. However, 
problems still exist in the workings of the system. The allowable 
annual kill is established by a local committee. This committee 
includes many persons who do not have an intimate knowledge of the 
moose or the range. Although they are advised by the state hunting 
consultant and by foresters, they do not accept all the advice that 
is offered. Mr. Leif Lykke, Chief Forester of the cDmpany, states 
that the annual kill is much too low. As a result the browsing 
pressure on winter range is too heavy and is resulting in extensive 
damage to forest reproduction and to shrub species. 

As a part of his campaign to get the annual kill of moose in- 
creased, Mr. Lykke prepared a detailed brochure on the question 
and, just prior to my visit, had sponsored a tour of newspaper 
writers through areas of winter range. A few days later I followed 
in their footsteps and saw areas where browsing on willow and juniper 
was so heavy that many stems were dying. 

' The moose kill on the limits of Mathiesen-Eidsvold appeared to 
be closer to optimum than in either of the areas just discussed. In 
the hunting area centered around Hurdal community there is an allow- 
able kill of 100 moose in an area of approximately 375 square miles 
(150,000 hectares). In 1959> 98 moose were shot. The local com- 
mittee is fairly flexible in establishing the allowable kill and 
overbrowsing of range is found in only very limited areas. 

What does the Norwegian experience have to offer as far as 
Sweden is concerned? Will Sweden have comparable problems if they 
finally succeed in eliminating the general season? It is obvious 
that when it can be as difficult to adjust the annual kill as it is 
proving in the case of the area in the vicinity of Verdal, Utopia 
has still not been reached. In Sweden local committees are also 
influential in the establishing of allowable kills. It will be 
interesting to watch how they make out in this important aspect of 
game management. I believe that there is more to be said in favour 
of the general season than is generally recognized. Swedish hunters 
know their hunting areas very well and with their dogs and their 
specialized hunting methods are very efficient. This combination 
of factors probably means that the kill, during the general season, 
is greatly influenced by the density of moose. In other words, if 



- 63 - 

the moose population increases the kill is correspondingly higher. 
It seems to me that they would do well to consider the possible 
results of their actions before they eliminate this important 
"automatic" pressure value on the moose population. 



Interrelationships of Forest and Moose Management 

In the course of travelling across the countryside and of 
visiting three forests in Sweden it became obvious to me that 
conditions of food and cover are on the average much better for 
moose there than they are in comparable areas of eastern Canada, 
However, the most important factors either occur naturally or are 
related to aspects of the forestry program. They have not resulted 
as direct efforts to manage moose. Scotch pine, by far the most 
important tree species, is palatable to moose and forms a consider- 
able part of their winter diet in most areas. Cumming (1961) por- 
trays the importance of the pine to the moose herd in his statement, 
"It was as if black spruce had suddenly become the favourite food 
of moose in northern Ontario". In addition, the area occupied by 
pine stands is actually increasing with the conversion from spruce 
to pine after the final clear-cut. 

In Norway it appeared to me that the balance between the 
occurrence of palatable and unpalatable tree species more closely 
approximated conditions in Ontario. Spruce, which is unpalatable 
to moose, is more common, over much of the country, than is pine. 
Based on annual growth data (Anonymous, 1951) the ratio of spruce 
to pine in Norway is of the order of 2.5 :1. Although I do not have 
comparable data for Sweden, I feel certain that the ratio of the 
two species is, at the very least, inverse to that of Norway, 

Another important fact is the very wide dispersion of cutting 
operations across the landscape. The forest operations of Swedish 
Cellulose, for example, are divided into three main forest districts 
and into 66 sub-districts. In virtually all of these sub-districts 
there are forests in stages from early reproduction to maturity. 
A fairly common Canadian situation, the cutting of huge blocks and 
their subsequent abandonment for the greater part of a rotation 
period, appeared to me to have no counterpart in Swedish or 
Norwegian forestry practise. 

The mixing of stands of all ages, which occurs on industrial 
forest land, is paralleled by conditions on farm-forest lands which 
are particularly common in Sweden. In addition to a mixing of age 
classes, the intersperoion of fields adds a tremendous area of 
"forest-edge conditions" which are important to forest ruminants. 

The cleaning and thinning cuts which take place at various 
stages of the rotation are also important contributors to the 
success of the moose herd. The objective of retaining a relatively 
constant stand volume throughout the last half of the rotation 
period appears to result in more and more light reaching the forest 
floor as the stand becomes older. Although the shrub component is 



- 64 - 

periodically removed "by cutting or spraying, the end result still 
is a greater availability of food during the latter stages of the 
rotation than is common in coniferous forests in eastern Canada. 

Moose and Forest Workers . 

In most areas the forest labour force is relatively stable. 
The workers spend much of the year, and often much of their lives, 
in the various aspects of the forestry operations in a relatively 
small area. They become very familiar v/ith the terrain and with 
the moose of the area. The end result is that a great deal of 
knowledge about the moose population is obtained as a by-product 
of normal day-to-day work. When special studies are being under- 
taken, such as the country-wide moose inventories of 1945 and 1953 > 
much of the work is done by forestry personnel or by landowners. 

In the discussion of Swedish Cellulose I mentioned that hunting 
has now become one of the privileges extended to forest workers. 
This is becoming quite common in both countries, and is one of the 
interesting interrelationships of the two resources. Forest workers 
and land owners constitute a very efficient hunting force. They 
make control of moose population by hunting a practical possibility. 
The North American situation, of not being able to get hunters to 
go where they are most needed, rarely exists in Scandinavian 
countries. 

Moose and Forest Reproduction. 

Soon after becoming interested in moose management in Scandin- 
avia I realized that foresters were vitally interested in the 
question of the effect of moose browsing on forest reproduction and 
on ultimate quality and yield of stands. The interest is evidenced 
by articles and editorials on the question which have appeared in 
Svensk Jakt (the publication of the Swedish Hunters* Society) during 
the past decade. In addition, the extent of the damage to forest 
reproduction is always one of the important considerations when 
moose seasons and allowable kills are being discussed. 

In Sweden a detailed study of the problem was conducted by 
Hans Westman and was presented as his doctoral thesis at the Royal 
School of Forestry in 1958 (Westman, 1958). The study was con- 
ducted in six state forests in southern and central Sweden and was 
of a comprehensive nature. In Norway work is also being done by 
Mr. Yngvar Hagen of the State Service and by Mr. Jon Lykke of 
Verdalsbrukket and the Royal Norwegian School of Forestry. 

During the course of my trip I spent a day with Hans Westman 
and saw conditions on one of his study areas at Halle-Hunneberg. 
I also spent a day with Jon lykke and received considerable insight 
during the field trip with him and on field trips with Arne Krafft 
of Mathieson-Eidsvold and Svante Bjuralt of the Swedish Forest 
Service. 



- 65 - 



One of the most important aspects of the problem is that 
Scotch pine, the most valuable commercial species, is quite 
palatable to Scandinavian moose. The browsing of pine is often 
intensified by cleaning and thinning operations that remove many 
of the palatable shrubs and bring the young pine stands to a 
desirable density. 

In the six areas which were studied by Westman the estimated 
moose density varied from 0.8 to 7.5 moose per square mile. The 
highest densities of 5.5 and 7.5 occurred in the forests of Halle- 
berg and Hunneberg. The following text- table gives the estimated 
moose density and the percentage of pine stems that were lightly 
and heavily browsed in young stands in the various forests. 



Forests 
studied 

Moose density 
per square mi. 



Ebbe- ,. Halle- 

garde Naversjb Karlsby berg 



Hunne- Skinskatte- 
berg berg 



0.8 



2.0 



3.5 



5.5 



7.5 



3.0 



io of stems 












browsed-lightly 29 


38 


25 


9 


9 


11 


-heavily 15 


4 


44 


81 


87 


73 



The stems included in the heavily browsed class varied from 
those that had the leaders clipped or severely injured to those 
where more than 90 per cent of the needles had been removed. Many 
of the stems in the upper range of the class die or are so badly 
deformed that they are unlikely to produce merchantable trees. 



Westman' s conclusions and 
influence of browsing on stand 
I will summarize some of them. 



statements on browsing and on the 
development were very interesting. 



(1) He found that aspen and oak had a very high palatability. 
Where they we're abundant the browsing of other species, 
such as pine and birch, was markedly reduced. 

(2) Moose do much of their feeding in young stands. The 
smaller the proportion of young stands the more intensive 
the damage becomes. 

(3) A high browsing level does not necessarily result in 
heavy economic loss. Stand density is an important 
variable. Westman states that the loss in dense stands 
is less serious because a greater number of reserve 
stems remain after the moose has taken its toll. 

(4) Large areas of pure, even-aged pine stands have the 
best chance of escaping severe damage. He believes 
that this is partly the result of open-grown pines 
being less palatable to moose than are those that 
grow under heavy competition or in shade. 



- 66 - 

(5) He stated, "There unquestionably exists today a very 
great need of measures to prevent damage by elk (moose). 
In the course of the years, numerous methods have been 
tried in Sweden, but it seems justified to claim that 
no really effective solution of these forestry problems 
has yet been found - aside, of course, from a general 
decimation of the elk population". 

(6) His final conclusion was, "... it should be borne in 
mind that the management of young stands with due 
regard to elk (moose) may, in many cases, involve a 
greatly impaired forest economy. This consideration 
is of prime importance in the present respect and 
should, therefore, receive attention in future 
discussions on the appropriate size of the elk popu- 



lation. " 



References 



Anonymous 

1951 The northern countries. The Foreign Ministries of 

Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, 154 pp. 

1956 The Swedish Forest Service. Swedish Forest Service* 
44 pp. 

1961 The I960 moose kill. Svensk Jakt, 99(7) 024, In 
Swedish. 

Cumming, H. G. 

1961 Report on Investigation of European Wildlife Manage- 
ment Methods. Fish and Wildlife Management Report No. 55. 
62 pp. 

Fogh, I. F. 

1953 Journey in Scandinavia, The Canadian- Scandinavian 
Foundation. 35 pp. 

Hedlund, H. and 0. Tamm. 

1957 Your guide to the Swedish forests. Swedish Forestry 
Association. 30 pp. 

Pimlott, D. H. 

1959 Moose harvests in Newfoundland and Fennoscandian 
countries. Transactions North American Wildlife 
Conference, 24:422-448. 

Streyffert, T. 

1958 - Forestry in Sweden. School of Forestry, Oregon State 

College. 55 pp. 

Westman, H. 

1958 The damage caused by elk (moose) to young stands. 

Bull. No. 28. Royal School of Forestry, Stockholm, 
Sweden. 148 pp. In Swedish with English sub-titles 
and summary. 



- 67 - 
FORESTRY IN SOUTH AFRICA 

by 

T. W. Dwight 

Statistician, Research Branch 

Abstract 

This is largely a review of the book, ' ! Conifers - 
South African Methods of Cultivation'' by W.E.Hiley, 
describing the approach to forestry in South Africa 
where suitable foreign conifers were deliberately 
sought, and where these exotic trees grew success- 
fully and now form the largest proportion of the 
forest. Indigenous species form only a small part 
of the total forest area. The silviculture that is 
used is according to the formula of a Dr. I. J. Craib, 
and is based on wide spacing, and on freeing growth 
by thinning as soon as any increment reduction appears. 
Live pruning is also an essential feature. Special 
nursery and planting techniques are used, and only 
first quality sites are planted. V/hile this system 
has shown phenomenal success in South Africa, it is 
not necessarily completely suitable for other species 
or regions. It does, however, show some interesting 
and unusual developments in forestry by departure 
from beaten paths. 



This book is a most complete account of the distinctive 
methods of silviculture and regulation applied to the growing of 
conifers in South Africa. South Africa is unique in having a 
larger area of planted 1 than of indigenous forest. The country 
has a warm temperate climate and a great deal of the area is very 
dry, merging into desert, but a range of hills or low mountains 
on the eastern side provides a zone of sufficient rainfall for 
tree growth. The rate of increment there is extremely rapid. 
Outside the tropics, only New Zealand, Great Britain and the 
northern Pacific coast of iorth America have comparable rates of 
growth, but the Southern States of the U.S. are nearly as high. 

These conditions have led to very distinctive forestry 
techniques, particularly in regard to thinning. This suggests 
a thorough analysis of thinning techniques in other regions to 



Mainly of pines, such as Pinus patula selected from similar 
latitude and climate zones in Mexico and Central America. 



- 68 - 

determine the most profitable method of growing saw- timber. The 
techniques used in South Africa have largely been introduced by 
Dr. I. J. Craib^ who obtained a doctorate from Yale University a 
number of years ago. He worked with Professor Tourney on root 
competition, and this led to many of the ideas that he has intro- 
duced in South Africa. 

The distinctive features of South African forestry which 
are brought out in Riley' s book would seem to be mainly the 
following: 

The fast rate of growth due to the warm temperate 
climate, good soil and sufficient rainfall. 

9x9 planting resulting in 530 trees per acre. In 
some cases, 12 x 12 planting has been used. 

Entire dependence on pruning to secure clear lumber. 
The pruning is carried to 22 feet in three stages, and 
it is suggested that it might pay to carry it to the 
top of the second log. Pruning is essential because 
of the wide planting spacing and the very heavy thinning. 

Lifting so-called "sods" from the transplant beds and 
transporting them to the planting site in boxes without 
disturbing the soil around the individual seedlings. 
These boxes have an inside measurement of only 14" x 10". 
Immediately before planting, a knife is run between the 
rows of seedlings so that the seedlings and the 
surrounding soil can be taken out intact. It seems to 
be much the same idea as our tubelings, but with larger 
stock. 

Selecting times of planting very carefully, not only when 
there has just been a rain, but when it may be expected 
that the following two or three days will either have 
continued rain or at least be cloudy. Only about 30 days 
a year are considered suitable for planting and this in a 
warm temperate climate with a long frost-free period. 

The preparation of the planting site is rather elaborate , 
the area cultivated ranging from the whole area to planting 
strips 3 feet wide or 3 feet square for each tree. While 
the techniques would probably not be applicable to our 
conditions, they might be suggestive of possible changes 
that could be made in some of our methods. 



2 



"Some Aspects of Soil Moisture in the Forest", I. J. Craib, 1929. 
Yale University School of Forestry Bulletin No. 25. 



- 69 - 

Poor sites are avoided as not yielding an economic 
return on establishment costs. 

Wide spacing used in planting and early and heavy thinning 
is practised with the idea of eliminating almost altogether 
any crowding of one tree by another. 

In regard to the last point, it is felt that any crowding 
of the final crop trees causes reduction in the crown development 
which is never made up, even though the trees are later given 
additional room. This reduces their capacity for growth and 
delays the growth to saw- log size. The 530 trees per acre 
originally planted are reduced to 300 trees at an age specified for 
each site class, later to 150 trees and finally to 100 trees. Hiley 
places considerable emphasis on this method of what he terms 
''numerical thinning^, but this would not seem to me to be essentially 
different from the European practice of using normal yield tables 
as guides to indicate the number of trees that should be left after 
the thinning at each age. For this purpose, the Danish yield tables 
give data for two-year intervals at the youngest ages. 

There is a lack in the book of ordinary mensuration data 
such as the average diameters of the trees at different ages. This 
is primarily due to the fact that they have not yet grown stands 
through to the end of the rotation, which is 30 years for Site 1, 
40 years for Site 2, and 50 years for Site 3. Lacking data of 
diameters at different ages, Figure 1 in this review is based in part 
on Figure 1 in Hiley' s book giving average heights at different ages. 
It shows for each site the number of trees when the stand has 
reached the average height indicated on the horizontal axis. 
Similar figures for Scotch pine in Germany classified as being very 
heavily thinned, show how extremely low the densities in South Africa 
are, particularly at the younger ages. 

It may be noted that in both South Africa and Germany, the 
number of trees is smaller for a given height on the poor sites, and 
the practice in South Africa in this respect would not seem to be 
very different from the practice in Europe, although perhaps carried 
out in a little more extreme fashion in South Africa. This practice 
of giving more room to the individual trees on poor sites is based 
on the theory that the poor sites have less moisture and in order 
to get as rapid growth as possible on them, the trees should be 
spaced more widely than on good sites. Dr. Craib places considerable 
emphasis on this point due to his work on root competition at Yale. 

The degree of thinning in South Africa is so heavy that the 
pruning of stands is absolutely necessary to produce clear lumber, 
and the trees are pruned first to 8 feet when the trees are 20 feet 
tall, to 15 feet when their height is 30 feet, and to 22 feet when 
their height is 40 feet. 



- 70 - 



800 



600 



400 



n 



200 



I 1 

I \ 

\ \ 

\ \ 

\ \ 

\ \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 



\ UI \ l 






\ \ 



GERMANY 

Very heavy thinning 
Pinus sylvestris 




Pinus patula 



20 - 40 

H 



60 
Figure 1 



30 



100 



- 71 - 

The rates of diameter growth illustrated in Figure 2 are 
taken from a 1947 article by Craib,not given in Hiley's book. 
They were obtained in a 14-year old plantation of Pinus patula . 
Plots were planted at the densities shown and never thinned. The 
graph shows that when 300 trees per acre were planted, a diameter 
of 9.6" was reached as compared with a diameter of only 4.7' 8 with 
1740 trees per acre. The attained heights, as indicated by the 
ordinates at which the curves end, show how very rapid the growth 
was. 

Figure 3 is based upon a unique series of sample plots, all 
of which were planted to 1200 trees per acre and later thinned to 
varying densities. Once a plot had reached its intended density, 
no further thinning was carried on. The thinnings were made as 
soon as there was any sign of competition between the individual 
trees. This graph is the same as Figure 3 in Hiley's book except 
that diameter is plotted over height instead of vice versa. This 
makes the curves look like ordinary growth curves with height to 
indicate the stage of development instead of age. The steep curve 
on the left indicates the rate of diameter growth of trees that 
were continuously thinned so that there was no restriction on crown 
development at any time. The more horizontal curves branching off 
to the right show how the rate of diameter growth fell off when 
thinning was stopped. The numbers of trees per acre at the time 
thinnings were stopped are entered at the right hand end of the 
curves. The curve for 300 trees per acre is not very different 
from the top curve on Figure 2, for a stand with an initial density 
of 300 trees per acre. 

These curves emphasize the importance of eliminating 
competition between individuals as far as possible if a maximum rate 
of diameter growth of individual trees is to be attained. The 
usual thinning practice in Europe delays thinning in young stands 
until a considerable amount of natural pruning has taken place, 
since that is depended upon to produce clear stems. The South 
African practice requires artificial pruning. 

The broken lines on the same graph depict diameter growth 
of heavily thinned Scots pine stands in Germany. These curves show 
slow initial growth which corresponds to the high densities at early 
ages in Germany as depicted in Figure 1. The much more rapid 
growth later on could be explained by the continuance of thinnings 
throughout the life of the German stands, which was not done in 
South Africa. 

The figures in brackets alongside the curves for Sites I and 
III at 70 feet, and at the end of the curve for Site V at a height 
of 47 feet, indicate the numbers of trees per acre when the stands 
reached those heights. Interpolation between the South African 
curves would indicate that stands having similar average diameters 
at those stand heights would have densities of 450, 250 and 340, or 
nearly double the densities in Germany. 



••*)« 



';( 



- 72 - 



DIAMETER GROWTH 



At Different Densities 



Pinus patula 
South Africa 



16 



12 



B 




Initial 
Densities 
(no. per acre) 



80 



Figure 2 



- 73 - 



DIAMETER- HEIGHT RELATIONSHIP 



Pinus patula - S. Africa 

Pinus sylvestris - Germany • — 

Arabic figures are number of trees per acre 



50 



Site 
I 



/ 




- 74 - 

Data regarding total basal areas, volumes of thinnings and 
residual stands in South Africa are not available. Therefore 
comparisons with European yield tables cannot be made of total 
basal areas and yields of final crops and of total production 
figures. 

Two definite comparisons between the growth in the two 
regions in relation to average height of stand should not be made 
on account of the great difference in growth rate and in the ages 
at which various heights are attained. The graphs, however, do 
illustrate the marked influence of density on diameter growth. 
The lack of definiteness with which most of the relationships are 
known even in connection with European yield tables points to the 
desirability of conducting investigations into such matters in our 
own forests. Dependance should not be placed on foreign data to 
give an understanding of growth in our own forests. 



- 75 - 
KENORA DISTRICT CREEL CENSUS - I960 

by 
A. Re Olsen 
Fish Management Officer 

Abstract 

Creel census data collected by Conservation Officers dur- 
ing routine patrols from May to November, I960 in Lake 
of the Woods, Eagle Lake, the Winnipeg and English 
River chain, Wabigoon Lake and the Manitou Lakes are 
considered in this report. Fishing success throughout 
Kenora District was somewhat higher for I960 than for 
1959« Lake of the Woods, which attracted the largest 
percentage of anglers showed an increase from 0.73 
fish per hour in 1959 to 1.30 fish per hour in I960. 
The amount of time required to catch a fish in all 
waters combined decreased from 1.5$ hours in 1959 to 
1.17 hours in I960. 



Introduction 

As in the past only a very few of the numerous lakes in 
the Kenora District were utilized to any extent by anglers during 
the I960 season. 

Only those lakes which are most accessible and experience 
relatively heavy fishing pressure were sampled and are included in 
this creel census. 

These lakes are Lake of the Woods which is fi3hed by the 
largest percentage of anglers, followed by Eagle Lake, the Winnipeg 
and English River chain, Wabigoon Lake and the Manitou Lakes in that 
order. 

Many of the district waters are fished by fly-in anglers 
on occasion but the amount of angler pressure in these lakes is 
considered to be negligible and little or no data have been col- 
lected. Included in this group of lakes are those which are fished 
specifically for lake trout during the spring and fall and occasion- 
ally in winter,, These lakes are numerous and probably all are 
fished occasionally. It has been impossible to obtain any creel 
census data for these waters due mainly to lack of transportation 
facilities and shortage of staff. 

Method 

All creel census data included in this report were 
collected by personal contact of anglers by Conservation Officers 
during routine patrols. These data were recorded in the field on 
form M.F. 122, creel census forms. Information collected covers the 
entire open water season from May through to November. Little winter 
fishing data were collected. 



- 76 - 
The Creel Census Fishing Log Books (form M.F. 105) which 
were distributed in 1959 were not used during the I960 season* The 
use of these books was considered and, although a comparison of 
figures from both methods in 1959 showed a striking similarity, 
and a considerable amount of information was received through this 
method, it was felt that sufficient information could be collected 
by personal contact. It was also decided that while Conservation 
Officers were in the field to check on anglers for infractions, 
creel census information could be obtained simultaneously and first 
hand. 

During past years it was necessary to compile separate 
reports for various bodies of water or for various areas in the 
same lake. For this reason this report will present the results of 
the I960 creel census in six parts as follows: 



(a 
(b 
(c 
(d 
(e 
(f 
(g 



All waters in the Kenora District combined. 

Lake of the Woods. 

Other waters. 

Lake of the Woods (North of Aulneau Peninsula) . 

Lake of the Woods (South of Aulneau Peninsula) . 

Lake of the Woods (Sioux Narrows Tourist Area) • 

Winter Angling - Eagle Lake. 



Amount of Information Obtained 

During the open water period of I960, Conservation Officers 
contacted a total of 10$3 anglers. These anglers had spent 3^24 
angling hours on district waters. 

Information as to average size of species taken was col- 
lected but this, in all cases, was merely an estimate either by the 
angler in the case of released fish or by the Conservation Officer 
for fish retained. Average size of species, therefore, will not be 
included in this report because of the inaccuracy of information. 

Angling Success 

Table I indicates angling success for the entire district 
broken down into specific areas. 

"Other waters'* include all inland waters sampled excluding 
Lake of the Woods. 

Although the amount of information collected from other 
waters is comparatively small, it includes data on waters fished 
specifically for certain species such as lake trout and maskinonge. 
Fishing for these two species is in most cases extremely slow and is 
governed by the experience of the angler as well as seasons and 
weather conditions. Therefore, the rate of success on other waters 
is far below Lake of the Woods. 

On the other hand, angling on Lake of the Woods is almost 
entirely in search of walleyes which are abundant and may be taken 
by any angler regardless of experience. 



- 77 - 

Section (f) of Table I shows the Sioux Narrows Tourist 
Area to have the highest rate of success. This is due to 
the accessibility of numerous excellent walleye "holes". Another 
influencial factor in the high success rate of this area, as well 
as the remainder of the Lake of the Woods, is that during patrols 
of the lake it is only in these favourite spots that anglers are 
encountered. Seldom is an angler checked who is fishing for 
maskinonge, lake trout or even northern pike which are more difficult 
to catch. 

The percentage composition of catch by species in order 
of abundance for Lake of the Woods is shown in Table II (3) - 
Walleye 74»5/£, Northern Pike 12. 3$, S.M. Bass 11.2$, Lake Trout nil, 
Maskinonge nil, and other 1.5$. Although lake trout and maskinonge 
are considered to be quite numerous in this lake, none were en- 
countered during the collection of these data. 

Species included in "other species" are, in order of 
abundance, crappie, sauger, perch, rock bass, bullhead and white- 
fj-ho 

Crappies may be taken by the hundreds by an angler during 
the spring in many parts of Lake of the Woods. This species was 
not included in the census when an angler was encountered with a 
large quantity taken while specifically angling for this species. 
This would have increased the angling success greatly and thus been 
a misrepresentation in determining angling success for sport fish 
which is the main purpose of the creel census. 

A comparison of angling success for Lake of the Woods 
"1959 Kenora District Creel Census Report" by A. R. Olsen and the 
angling success for the same lake for I960 shows a marked increase 
in success from 0.73 fish per hour in 1959 to 1.30 fish 
per hour in I960. 

The percentage of walleyes in the creel for 1959 was 
63 - 9% as compared with 71.6 for I960. 

These two factors indicate as previously mentioned 
that more effort is expended in capturing the more vulnerable 
species. 

In previous years it was assumed that there was a slight 
error in recording actual fishing time. When asked the length 
of time spent fishing, many anglers included travelling time on the 
water in their estimation. For the I960 census every effort was 
made to ensure that only actual fishing time was logged. This too, 
may be a reason for increased angling success on Lake of the Woods 
as shown in this report. 

Summary 

Fishing success throughout the entire Kenora District 
is somewhat higher for I960 than for 1959 > with Lake of the Woods 
showing a considerable increase. 



- 75 - 

The amount of time required to catch a fish in all waters 
combined has decreased from 1„5S hrs. in 1959 to lol7 hrs. in I960, 
whereas the time required to catch a fish in Lake of the Woods for 
the same two periods has decreased from 1„36 hrs. to <>77 hrs. show- 
ing this considerable increase in success rate, 

The most logical supposition arrived at for the compara- 
tively stable success rate for all waters combined and the extremely 
high rate of increase in success for Lake of the Woods is that 
other waters are being fished by sportsmen with fishing experience, 
and not merely satisfied with filling their creel with the largest 
possible number of fish but are willing to gamble time and experience 
against larger but fewer fish» 



On the other hand, Lake of the Woods tends to entice a 
larger percentage of the other type of angler who angles for quantity 
not quality and who does not have the experience or patience to 
expend in quest of prize winners 

As this report has been delayed and precedes the 1961 
report by only a short period, any suggestions for future collection 
and compilation of creel census data will be included in the latter. 

Suggestions made in the 1959 report were not followed in 
all respects due to the changes in staff members and transfers within 
the district of other members, therefore, many of the prosposed 
methods could not be followed through,, 





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