(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Resource Management Report May 1, 1962"

No. 63 May, 1962 




ONTARIO 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 



Fish and Wildlife Branch 

(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 63 May, 1962 



Page 

The Oneida Community and Ontario. 

- by C. H. D. Clarke 1 

Pheasant Distribution and Harvest Report, Lake 

Simcoe District, 1961 o - by J. S. Dorland 23 

Ruffed Grouse Report - North Bay District, 1961. 

- by J. F. Gage 30 

Kenora District Grouse Hunt - 1961. 

- by Wm. H. Charlton 41 

Browse Survey, Gogama District, 1961. 

- by G. E. Vozeh l+$ 

Creel Census 1961, Kapuskasing District, 

- by P. A. Kwaterowsky 61 

Use of Cooper-Tox #6 as a Fish Poison, Gogama 

District. - by R. C. Johanson 66 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



THE ONEIDA COMMUNITY AND ONTARIO 

by 
C. H. D. Clarke 



Abstract 

This paper concerns the Oneida Community and its conn- 
ection with Ontario. The Oneida Community, a social 
group led by John H. Noyes flourished in upper New 
York State in the late mid-l$00 9 s. Noyes, a well- 
educated ex-clergyman was very inventive. He and 
other members of the Community developed such things 
as the Newhouse and Oneida steel traps and silver- 
plating of tableware. Much of the material for this paper 
was taken from a book, "The Trapper* s Guide" written by 
Sewall Newhouse. Members of the Community made a 
trapping excursion into the Hastings Road area of 
Ontario in 1&65 and considerable first-hand informa- 
tion is contained in the account of the expedition. 
Excerpts from the book are chosen to give Ontario 
information. 



The steel-spring trap in some form or other known as 
"gin" (short for "engine") was made by blacksmiths for years. In 
the middle of the last century, however, a vastly improved model 
was made by the Oneida Community, at Oneida, N. Y., and is the 
basis of traps now in use. 

The Oneida Community was a social group on the "share the 
wealth" principle, of which there were several in the early United 
States, It was founded by an ex-clergyman, John H. Noyes, who was 
very inventive, and developed silver-plating of tableware. Other 
members were skilled craftsmen, educationalists, printers, and able 
business men, as was Noyes. Tney started a factory, in which Oneida, 
or Community Plate ware, and a number of other original inventions 
were manufactured. The plant employed many non-community workers. 
The Community was famous (or infamous) because, besides sharing 
wealth, they also practiced a wife-sharing arrangement which Noyes 
called "stirpicultural marriage". For all that, the members, in 
and around town, were models of decorum and propriety, did their 
bit in the Civil War, tried to avoid offending their neighbours, 
and were very wealthy to boot. However, their arrangements were too 
much for upper New York in the later mid-l£00 ? s and, under pressure, 
they broke up and became simply a manufacturing corporation. 

Noyes and others were very well educated, and it is hard 
to associate them with trapping, yet the fact remains that a veteran 
and inventive trapper, Sewall Newhouse, was a member, and one of the 
best-paying parts of the Community enterprise was the manufacture of 
his Newhouse and Oneida traps. Also Mr. John P. Hut chins, son of 
John Hutchins, an old trapper and hunter, himself a trapper, was 
a member, and his father was a close associate of the Community. 



- 2 - 

The Hutchins family made trapping excursions into the 
Hastings Road area, north of Madoc, and were closely associated 
with two Canadian trappers, one Holland "one of the most accomplished 
deer-hunters in Canada", and Peter M. Gunter. 

Newhouse published a "Trappers Guide" of which I am for- 
tunate to own a copy that once belonged to the artist, Arthur Heming, 
and is full of annotations based on his winter at Lac la Biche, many 
years ago. 

Newhouse' s Guide has a hodge-podge of natural history from 
all over the world, that looks as if it might have been copied, 
along with the illustrations from published "Natural Histories"© 
With it, however, is much first-hand material, from his own exper- 
iences and those of his associates, among them Holland and Gunter, 
and there are several contributed chapters. It is mostly from these 
that we learn of the activities of Community members in Canada at 
the height of its life, 100 years ago. Excerpts are chosen to give 
Ontario information. 

Pages 131-135. 

"An Evening With An Old Trapper" by W. A. Hinds. 

It would be difficult to find, at least in the Eastern 
and Middle States, a better representative of this class than Mr c 
John Hutchins, now a resident of Manlius, N. Y. 

Born in Portland, Somerset County, Maine, November 16, 1801, 
he is consequently now (1865) nearly sixty- four years of age; but 
he is still "eager for the chase," and is planning a trapping 
expedition into Canada for the coming autumn. For more than half 
a century, he has spent a portion of each year in trapping and 
hunting. In his tenth year he caught and shot seventy-three 
squirrels, six blue jays, one mink, one weasel, and six partridges. 
When fourteen years of age he caught a bear which had killed a 
cow in the neighborhood where he lived in Maine; and he estimates 
the number of animals which he has caught in traps, or otherwise 
destroyed, as follows: 100 moose; 1000 deer; 10 caribou; 100 
bears; 50 wolves; 500 foxes; 100 raccoons; 25 wild cats; 100 lynx; 
150 otter; 600 beaver; 400 fishers; mink and marten by the thousands; 
muskrats by the ten thousands. 

After reading the above list, no one will doubt his skill 
and wisdom in wood-craft, or question the probability of the 
adventures he relates. He is always ready to communicate to 
others what he has learned in his long life in the woods; and 
he takes the same pleasure in recounting his adventures that 
the scar-worn soldier takes in telling of battles, sieges, and 
marches. On meeting Mr. Hutchins a short time since, in company 
with his son, I interrogated him in true Yankee style, as follows: - 

"In what part of the country have you trapped and hunted?" 

"Mostly in Maine, Lower Canada, New Brunswick, and New York, 
but some in Vermont and in Michigan." 

"At what seasons of the year do you generally trap?" 



- 3 - 

"I generally commence about the first of November, and trap 
till the first of April. There is no certainty of securing prime 
fur before the first of November, and but few kinds are good after 
the first of April. The three kinds - beaver, otter, and muskrat - 
are, however, good till the first of May; and the fur of the otter 
is good even as late in the season as June." 

"Do you generally go alone, or with companions?" 

"I have trapped alone about one fourth of the time. It is 
generally more pleasant, but less profitable, to have companions. 
When game is plenty, it answers well to have partners; but I 
would recommend never to have more than two, and think it nearly 
always better to have only one companion." 

"How many animals have you generally taken on a winter 9 s trip?" 

"That depends, or course, entirely upon my fortune in securing 
good trapping ground. My son Samuel and I trapped one season in 
Upper Canada, and caught forty-seven beaver; and the furs of 
other animals which we caught at the same time, would bring as 
much money as that of the beaver. The best specimen of luck I 
ever had was in setting twenty-seven traps, and finding a mink, 
fisher, or marten in twenty- five of them. That was on my second 
trip to Canada." 

"How much money did you generally make?" 

"That is another difficult question, I have made from $5 to 
$75 a month." 

"Well, then how much did you make in your best trip?" 

"The best trip I ever made was forty years ago. I went out 
on Dead River, in the State of Maine. I was absent from home 
just one month (started December 3d, and returned January 3d); 
sold my fur for ninety-seven dollars, and fur was then very cheap. 
The same fur would now bring several hundred dollars. Two of us 
have often made $100 a month, or $50 apiece." 

"What do you take for an outfit?" 

"A double-barrel gun; a hatchet (I used to carry an axe, but now 
prefer the hatchet) ; a butcher-knife; a pocket-knife; a camp- 
kettle holding about six quarts; a frying-pan; a pint dipper or 
cup, and a spoon. I go lightly clad, never taking an overcoat, 
and only a single woolen blanket. For a winter's campaign, I 
take 40 lbs. flour, 10 lbs. pork, 6 qts. beans, 5 lbs. sugar, 
and 1 lb. of tea. The two last items might be dispensed with. 
I have lived a week at a time in the woods, eating nothing but 
moose meat; and Reuben Howard a trapper from Connecticut, says 
he has Hved two months at a time on deer's meat alone." 

"If you were starting now, wouldn't you take some little 
conveniences for cooking and camping, beside those you have 
mentioned?" 



- 4 - 
"No; the longer one lives the life of a hunter and trapper, 
the better he learns to get along with few conveniences, and the 
more desirous he becomes of avoiding luggage." 

"How many traps do you take along?" 

"When I first went trapping, I thought six or eight traps 
enough; but steel-traps are so much better, and more easily 
tended than wooden traps and dead-falls, that I now take one 
hundred muskrat or mink traps — sometimes even one hundred and 
fifty — besides a few otter traps, and, if I am going into a 
beaver country, a dozen beaver traps*" 

"But you can't take all these into the woods at once?" 

"No; I first select my trapping ground, and then 'make a line, 7 
as trappers say; i.e., carry into the woods three or four back- 
loads of traps, and deposit them in safe places along the line 
on which I intend to trap, which sometimes extends from twenty to 
forty miles, from one stream to another, or from one lake to another*' 

"How many traps can one man tend?" 

"That depends, of course, upon circumstances. Where game is 
plenty, fifty traps will keep you skinning and stretching; but 
in other places you might tend one hundred and fifty or even two 
hundred traps «" 

"How did you camp at night?" 

"There is a good deal to be learned about camping out. When 
I go into the woods to trap for any length of time, I generally 
build a home-shanty of logs or bark. If I want to build one 
which will last three or four years, I make it of logs, notching 
or dovetailing the ends, and laying them up in blockhouse style, 
filling the cracks with moss, and making a roof of split cedar 
or bark. Sometimes I make a shanty by simply driving down two 
crotched sticks, placing a pole on them, and sticking down poles 
all around excepting in front, and covering them all over with 
spruce bark. When near the homeshanty I sleep there of course, 
but at other times I have no covering excepting a single blanket, 
I find a big log, and make my bed of boughs on that side of it 
least exposed to the wind. If the snow is deep, I select my 
camping-place on the hill-side, digging down to the ground to make 
a fire, and sleeping myself on the snow below, so that the blaze 
of the fire will shine directly upon me. When travelling by 
water, I draw the boat on to the bank at night, partly turn it 
up, and sleep under it, building a fire a few feet distant in 
front, I generally have slept very soundly in the woods," 



- 5 - 

Pages 143-145. 

"The Deer Hunt" from Samuel S, Hutchins* Journal, 

Oct. 21, i860. — We caught a deer to-day, and I am going to 
tell you all about it; for we had a lively time, I assure you. 

It was one of those still, cloudy mornings you see so often 
at this time of year. We rose early, got our breakfast, did up 
our chores, and then started for the lake to hunt deer. We 
found the lake as calm and smooth as glass. Father took the large 
boat and went up to the head of the lake to start the dog, and I 
took the small boat and started down the lake for the "point," 
to watch for the deer. After getting there I climbed up into a 
tree, so that I could have a good view of the lake, and listened 
for the dog. After staying there some time, the wind began to 
rise, and I was cold, and began to think that we should hardly 
get a deer that day. So I came down out of the tree and begun 
stirring about to get warm, when I heard the dog away off on the 
hills. I stopped for a moment to see which way the chase was going, 
and came to the conclusion that they were coming around the head 
of the lake, and so on down to where I was. I then got up into 
the tree again, to await the result. I waited about an hour, I 
should think, watching the upper part of the lake most of the 
time, thinking the deer would be most likely to come in there. 
On looking, however, in the other direction, behold there was the 
deer, swimming for life. It was a buck, and a large one too. 
He was about half-way across the lake, and half a mile from where 
I was. I did not stand there and look at him long, I reckon. 
Down I came, twenty feet at two jumps, hurting my shins most wo fully 
on the limbs, and my nose on the stones where I landed; but I picked 
myself up and got into my boat. Then commenced the chase. But 
let me describe the boat in which I was, so that you can better 
appreciate the fun. It is just eleven feet long, and sixteen 
inches wide, and scarcely heavier than an egg-shell, (poetic lic- 
ense,) and wil 9 upset a great deal easier. It was made from a 
bass-wood log, and well made too, and is what is commonly called 
a "dugout." I had to stand on my knees in the middle, and had a 
double paddle, which is just like a common one, only it has a 
blade on each end. Thus equipped I started the chase, with the 
wind in my favor, and with the firm intention of catching the 
buck if I possibly could. He was a good half mile ahead of me, 
and had not so far as that to go to get to shore; and I could see 
that he swam furiously. I had no weapons to slay him with. My 
duty was to get around him, and drive him up the lake to father, 
who, when he saw me start out, I expected, would come and meet 
me and help kill him. So away I went, exerting every nerve and 
muscle; shot around the point, and was out at sea in "no time;" 
kept my eye on the deer, and took a course that would cut him 
off from the shore that he was swimming for. For a long while 
I went thus, with the wind in my favor, sometimes thinking that I 
should overhaul him, and then again that I should not. Finally 
I saw that I was gaining on him a little; but I knew that I 
must do more than that, if I wanted to catch him; so I re-doubled 
my efforts. "Pull, Sam!" I muttered, "you must overhaul him, 
anyhow;" and so I did. After a long and hard pull I came up to 
him. When he saw me he turned square off from me, and swam almost 
as fast again as he did before. When I came about, side to the 
wind, to follow him, my little boat dipped water at every wave. 



- 6 - 

But I stopped not for that. I wanted to run in beside him once 
more, and turn him toward the opposite shore; but I found that it 
was somewhat harder to do so than I expected . I laid out all my 
strength. You could have heard me puff half a mile off, if you 
had been within that distance. I could see that I gained on him, 
but very slowly. He sees that I am coming too near him, and he 
makes a short turn and swims for the middle of the lake — just 
where I wanted him to go, exactly^ When I found he was safe, I 
dropped my paddle and shouted lustily for joy. Father came in 
a few minutes, and dispatched him, but not without a desperate 
battle. He fired three charges of buck-shot into his head, struck 
him more than forty blows with a hatchet, and only succeeded in 
killing him by getting hold of his legs separately and hamstring- 
ing him, after which he could raise his head sufficiently to cut 
his throat. He was an old buck of the toughest kind, and weighed 
three hundred pounds. 

Pages 181-205. 

"An Expedition to the Laurentian Hills" by Theodore L. Pitt, 

Several miles north of the village of Madoc, in Canada West, 
a traveller, journeying northward, enters upon a section of 
country to which geologists have given the name of Laurentian Hills, 
These hills stretch from the Ottawa River to Georgian Bay, and 
from the neighborhood of Madoc to the region of the Madawaska. 
This portion of Canada is supposed by geologists to be the oldest 
land in the world. Here was the primeval continent — the first 
"dry land" that "appeared" above the all-enveloping ocean, that, 
in those far-off days of creation, rolled unbroken round the globe. 
The rocks of this region are the oldest in kind with which man 
anywhere comes in contact. They are azoic rocks — rocks in 
which no indications of animal life can be traced. They have no 
fossils, and if any living creatures existed in the ancient ages 
in which these rocks were formed, all evidences of their exis- 
tence have utterly passed away in the geologic revolutions. The 
country is emphatically a land of hills. They seldom if ever rise 
to the dignity of mountains, but below this they are of all sizes 
and shapes. Generally their longer axis is from northeast to 
southwest. The land appears as if it had once been a vast sea 
of molten rock lashed into fury by a northwest gale, or the boil- 
ing of Plutonic fires, and then in a moment congealed. The region 
is all underlaid with rock at the depth of a few feet, and it crops 
out continually. There are visible ledges, vast beds, and bowlders 
innumerable. Perpendicular cliffs hundreds of feet high are 
found, sometimes overhanging the clear waters of a lake; at others, 
the lofty tops of a pine forest. There are great walls of rock 
piled up, which look as if the Titans of old mythology had worked 
there in the unknown ages. If one wishes to study rockwork on 
the largest scale, let him go to the Laurentian Hills and see the 
backbone of the world. He will see more. He will see the work- 
shop where the continents were made. All the rocks that are now 
to be seen are but the remnants of what existed in the old ages, 
hundreds of millions of years ago. They are all ground down and 
smoothed and rounded by untold cycles of abrasion and disintegration. 



- 7 - 

I can hardly imagine scenery more impressive and suggestive of the 
mighty power that has worked upon the world in the long, long past. 

The Laurentian Hills and valleys are covered with forests of 
pine, hemlock, hard-wood, cedar, tamarack, &c, and form a 
paradise for the lumbermen, large companies of whom carry on their 
operations there. The Canadian government has opened roads run- 
ning northerly into the forests at intervals of twenty or thirty 
miles. Settlers have penetrated along these roads and made 
clearings and erected log-cabins, far into the back country. But 
it is not a favorable country for farming: the summers are frosty, 
the winters long and severe, the soil is rocky and shallow. 
Many deserted cabins are seen, and clearings growing up with 
forests again. Here and there a section is found where the soil 
produced fair crops of grain. The greater portion, however, will 
always remain in woodland, and continue to be one of the best 
trapping grounds in Canada for years to come. The head waters 
of several river systems are in this region, and thousands of 
small streams and lakes abound. The rocks which underlie the 
country are mostly impervious to water, and the creeks which wind 
among the hills, wherever they find a basin, fill it and form a 
lake. These lakes are one of the most interesting characteristics 
of the country.- Their waters are pure and soft. Encircled as 
they are with woods, the arrangement of the trees around them is 
a noticeable feature of the landscape. Next to the water is a 
belt of evergreens, broken rarely in low, marshy places by sec- 
tions of black ash, or on low, sandy beaches by white birch. 
Nearest the waters is a fringe of cedars, whose branches droop, 
and, when the waters are high, touch the waves. Back of the 
cedars are the hemlocks and pines, and beyond these, on the up- 
lands, the hard-wood timber. In autumn, when the tints are 
changing, this arrangement forms beautiful pictures. The dark- 
green of the pines and hemlocks mingles far up the hills, in all 
picturesque ways, with the splendors of birches, beeches, and 
maples. The waters of the lake and the cedar f rings form a base 
to the scene. Over all comes the play of sunshine and shadow. 

To this region, in the autumn of 1865, several members of the 
Oneida Community went on a trapping excursion, under the lead of 
the old trapper and hunter, Mr. John Hutchins, whose character 
and adventures have been sketched on previous pages. Their 
departure from home was announced by the editor of the "Circular" 
in the following terms: - 

"On Monday next, September 25th, an expedition will set out 
from the Oneida Community for the backwoods of Upper Canada. 
The object is trapping, and the company go prepared for a six 
months* campaign in the woods. The expedition consists of — 

"John H. Noyes, Author and Inventor; 

"John Hutchins, old Maine trapper and hunter; 

"John P. Hutchins, son of the latter, and member of the Oneida 
Community; 

"Theodore L. Pitt, ex-Editor of the 'Circular*; 

"George Campbell, ex-Financier of the Oneida Community." 



- a - 

The objects of our expedition, more fully stated, were as 
follows: 1. A practical acquaintance with life in the woods, 
and its healthful influences; 2. Trapping and acquaintance with 
trappers; 3 • Fur-buying and study of the fur-trade. The pro- 
gramme included within its possibilities a winter campaign in 
the woods, and an outfit was prepared accordingly. As this out- 
fit was made under the supervision of Messrs. Hutchins and 
Newhouse, and was the result of their combined wisdom, it is 
perhaps worth copying, for the benefit of others planning similar 
expeditions. It was as follows: — 

Outfit 

Guns; ammunition; fishing tackle; two good salmon spears; two 
light axes; two butcher-knives, and one howel or round adze. 
One hatchet, one po.cket-compass, one stout pocket-knife, one 
double-case watch, a shoulder-basket and a haversack for each 
man. Provisions taken from home: One bushel of beans, two 
dozen cans of preserved fruits and vegetables, and a few cans of 
condensed milk. Clothing, &c: One good blanket, one stout 
suit, two woolen shirts, two pairs of woolen drawers, six pairs 
of woolen stockings, one pair of camp shoes, one pair of boots, 
and two pairs of woolen mittens, for each man; scissors, needles, 
thread, thimbles, wax, patches, &c, in abundance; matches in 
abundance, in tin safes or bottles, air or water tight; one pocket 
match-safe for each man. Cooking utensils: Two six-quart camp- 
kettles, two frying-pans, one baking-kettle; tin plates, spoons, 
knives, forks, basins, coffee-pot and pails. Miscellaneous: 
One draw-shave, one hand-saw, one hammer, one inch auger, four 
gimlets, two lamps and a globe lantern; files, nails, and tacks; 
pillow-sack and night-cap for each man; sacks for hammock-beds; 
snow-shoes for each man; fish-oil for bait; ink-stands, pens, 
and pencils; writing-paper; one dog. 

Additional provisions to be taken into the woods were bought 
at the last village on our route. These consisted of flour, 
oat-meal, sugar, butter, salt, pepper, &c, 

The destination of the party, according to programme, was a 
point on the Hastings Road, near the head waters of the Trent 
River. On arrival there, we were to reconnoitre, and if pros- 
pects were unfavorable, go on further north. Mr. Hutchins had 
trapped in that region several seasons before, and considered 
it a favorable locality for accomplishing our purposes. 

We started from Oneida about noon on the 25th of September, 
and arrived at McKillican* s, sixty miles north of Belleville, on 
the Hastings Road, the third day after, at midnight. It is suf- 
ficient to say of the journey, that we had descended in regular 
order of travel from the railroad to the steamboat, from the 
steamboat to the stage-coach, and from the stage-coach to the 
lumber wagon. The next step was pedestrianism: We had enough of 
that afterwards. I will say, however, that the traveller on the 
Hastings Road, after reaching Jordan, sixteen miles beyond Madoc, 
if he consults his personal comfort, will eschew all other modes 
of conveyance except those with which nature has furnished him, — 
his own legs, or perhaps horseback-riding. Even the latter is 



- 9 - 

not the safest operation a man can perform. Hastings Road from 
Jordan to the York River is truly a "hard road to travel." 

McKillican's is the clearing and habitation of Benjamin 
McKillican, a worthy Scottish Highlander, who, with his family, 
emigrated from Inverness to Canada many years ago. Nine or ten 
years since, he settled on the Hastings Road, took up government 
land and began improvements . He is now seventy years of age; a 
friendly, hospitable, honest man, and a fine representative of 
the Scottish faith and earnestness in religion. His family, at 
the time we were there, consisted of himself and wife; two hand- 
some daughters, who in health, refinement, and industrious 
activity, were noble specimens of backwoods life; and two younger 
sons. Our acquaintance and sojourns with this family, first and 
last, are among the pleasant memories of our expedition. 

Seven miles west of McK.'s was Mr. Hutchins' old trapping 
ground. Four years before, he had left it at sixty years of age, 
and gone to the war. Those years had made as great changes in 
the backwoods as in the Southern Confederacy. Other trappers 
had come in and "occupied the land." Settlers were penetrating 
the wilds on either hand. Fires had swept through vast tracts 
of forest. Mink, beaver, and fisher had become less numerous. 
If we would find good trapping grounds we must go on towards 
the North Pole, or penetrate many miles into the wilderness, east 
or west from the Hastings Road. The next morning after our 
arrival at McK.'s, the question of location was fairly before us. 
We made inquiries, we sent out scouts, we studied the maps of the 
country. The result, was, the selection of Salmon Lake and the 
adjacent region, seven miles northeast ff'-m McK.'s, as our 
"camping ground." The locality seemed attractive on the map, 
being full of lakes and streams. It was said to be out of the 
range of settlements; was unoccupied by trappers. The choice 
was between this locality and going on forty or fifty miles to 
the Madawaska region. The latter was far beyond the range of 
the white trappers, and occupied by Indians who were unfriendly 
to intruders. We decided for Salmon Lake. 

How to get to Salmon Lake was the next question. There were 
no roads; at least we could hear of none. There was no navigable 
river. We shouldered our pack-baskets and rifles, and explored. 
An old winter lumber-road, which was said to run nearly to the 
point we wished to reach, was first tried. We followed it two 
miles and a half, most of the way over burnt and fallen timber, 
and through a swamp half-leg deep in water, the rain in the mean 
time coming down in a steady drizzle on our heads. At last we 
came to an old lumber shanty, and camped for the night. As this 
shanty was a fair specimen of the lumberman's usual habitation, I 
will briefly describe it. It was about twenty feet square, seven 
and a half feet high at the sides, and nine and a half feet at 
the peak of the roof. Each side was built of five great logs, 
some of which were two feet in diameter. The roof was made of 
split logs hollowed into troughs, and placed in this position; 
rz^Z^^if^l* All the cracks and holes were compactly filled with 
moss. The chimney was merely a crib of six-inch sticks laid up 
log-house fashion from the roof, and placed directly over the 
centre of the building. It was four or five feet square at the 



- 10 - 

base, and served the double purpose of carrying off the smoke 
and lighting the shanty. The fire-place was an altar of soil 
and stones surrounded with timbers, raised a foot or more from 
the floor, directly under the chimney. There were no windows. 
Around the sides were two tiers of sleeping-bunks. All through 
the Canada woods, wherever there is good pine timber, these 
shanties may be found. They are occupied in winter by twenty 
or thirty lumbermen, and after the timber is all culled, and 
transported from the vicinity, are abandoned. 

We cleared out the rubbish from the shanty, built a fire, 
gathered in great armfuls of balsam and hemlock boughs for beds, 
ate supper, wrapped our blakets about us, and slept our first 
night in the Canada woods. Already we had begun to feel a fresh 
vigor pulsating in our veins as we tramped the virgin soil, 
drank the pure water, and breathed the perfumed atmosphere of 
the woods c How new and rich the sensation of tramping all day 
in the rain and swamp-water, through unknown forests, and lying 
down at night on evergreen boughs to dream of friends far awayl 

The next morning, Mr. Hutchins, who had been reconnoitering 
in a different direction, came up with us and reported he had 
found a better route. As there was no prospect of reaching the 
lake short of several days* travel, by this route, and as our 
provisions were nearly exhausted, we cooked a meal of red squir- 
rels, and retreated. A definite plan was now arranged. A mile 
and a half east from McK. ? s was Bass Lake. From Bass Lake to 
Salmon Lake there was an outlet five miles long. This outlet 
was reported navigable with canoes, but no one had voyaged 

through it for several years. P , who lived on Bass Lake, 

said the thing was practicable. We concluded to try it. On 
an island in Bass Lake grew lofty pines suitable for canoes. 

P , was an experienced builder of that kind of craft. We would 

go to Bass Lake, build canoes, transport our baggage to the shore 

of that lake, and set sail — paddle, rather down the "Outlet." 

We worked cheerfully, happily, and hard for a week; built three 
canoes, got our baggage across from McK.'s, loaded our vessels, 
and started. 

Voyage Down the Outlet 

It was morning; perhaps we should get to Salmon Lake, four or 
five miles distant, by nightfall. The mouth of the outlet was 
shallow and narrow, so that we had to deepen it with pick and 
shovel the day before. No matter; it would grow deeper. One 
canoe was fifteen feet long, and thirty inches across the gunwale, 
carrying three hundred pounds of baggage. Three persons occupied 
and managed it. The other canoes were small; would carry one 
man each, and considerable freight. 

Gradually, very gradually, the water grew deepr, and the big 
canoe would occasionally float a rod or two, without much lifting 
or tugging at the paddle. But it would soon strike a log. If 
the log was seven or eight inches below the surface of the water, 
the canoe could be pushed over, by using the paddles as poles, 
without much difficulty. If the log was nearer the surface, 
other tactics had to be resorted to. How we finally learned 



- 11 - 

TO NAVIGATE A BOAT IN A SHALLOW STREAM FULL OF STONES AND LOGS, 
is thus told by J. H, N-: — 

"It sometimes happens that the trapper, in following his line, 
or in passing from one lake to another, finds himself with his 
boat in a small stream, with rocks and fallen trees obstructing 
his way. The Oneida party, in descending from Bass Lake to 
Salmon Lake, encountered five miles of this kind of navigation. 
The creek that connects the two lakes was reduced by drouth to a 
mere rivulet, with only occasional puddles large enough to float 
the boats; and though somebody had forced a way through, some 
years before, by sawing and chopping away logs with incredible 
heroism and perseverance, much of his labor was lost to us, first, 
because the low state of the water brought out into bold relief 
the lower strata of logs, which he had easily sailed over; and, 
secondly, because hundreds of new trees had fallen across the 
creek since his descent. Moreover, the beaver dams had all been 
repaired and we had to work our way over twelve of them. We 
estimated by rough guess that the logs we cut through or dragged 
over numbered about twelve hundred, and the rough rocks (far 
worse than logs) that we polished with our boat-bottoms were 
about as many more. In the course of nearly three days 9 work on 
these five miles of boating, it may be believed that we learned 
some practical lessons which it will be useful to record for the 
benefit of future navigators. We tried two ways of getting along, 
as people generally do in travelling "Jordan roads;" namely, 
first, the dainty, conservative way, and afterwards, when stern 
necessity had lectured us into an accommodating spirit, the 
"rough-and-ready" way. 

" The Conservative Way 

"October in the Canada wilderness means November in New York, 
as we found by the snow-squalls we encountered in those three 
days. Of course the water was far from being warm; and of course 
the ex-clergyman, editor, and financier shrank a little from wet- 
ting their feet?, We were willing from the start to wade in water 
of moderate depth, say up to the ankle, or anywhere below the 
tops of our boots; and with only this reservation we worked hard 
and heroically, and, to say the truth, conquered many obstructions 
and got along tolerably well; that is to say, at the rate perhaps 
of a quarter of a mile in half a day. Three of us novices had 
in charge the big boat, with its load of three or four hundred 
pounds; and our way was, when we came to a log that could be 
surmounted without chopping, first to run the bow on as far as we 
could by a vigorous shove of all hands . Then the man at the bow 
would step out carefully on the log, so as not to take water into 
his boots, and, the bow being thus lightened, the remainder of 
the crew could shove it further on. The man on the log could not 
help much, as his footing was not secure, and he had as much as 
he could do to look out against wetting his feet, and to find a 
safe way back to his seat in the boat at the proper time. When 
we had worked along till the log was under the middle of the boat, 
the bow man would get in, and the * mid ship man would get out, on 
the log of course; and finally, when the balancing crisis was 
past, and the stern came to be the point of friction, the ? midship 



- 12 - 

man would get in, and the man behind get out, still on the log* 
In this way we kept our feet partially dry, that is, dry as they 
could be with water soaking through the leather, and running in 
at cracks; but our progress was very slow. Night overtook us 
before we had accomplished a quarter of what we had undertaken as 
a mere afternoon* s job; and Heaven only knows whether we should 
have ever reached Salmon Lake if we had not at last concluded to 
try — 

" The Rough-and-ready Way 

"John P. had charge of one of the small boats, and at the same 
time kept within hailing distance of the large boat, so as to 
assist the three civilians at the worst pinches» He had seen 
service of this kind in other days, and knew that the best way 
was to "take the bull by the horns." He laughed at our policy of 
keeping the water out of our boots by balancing and teetering on 
the logs, and set us an example of working on firm footing at 
the bottom of the creek, without regard to the depth of water. 
He reasoned and exhorted and scolded; and slowly his radicalism 
began to prevail over our timidity. The ex-clergyman (otherwise 
called the inventor) first gave in and went to work in John P.'s 
fashion, without the fear of wet feet before his eyes. The finan- 
cier soon followed suit, and the ex-editor, slowly, reluctantly, 
but finally with a faithful willfulness that beat us all, adopted 
the simple policy of considering cold water a harmless medium 
to travel and work in, favorable probably to health by causing 
reaction. Thenceforth we worked at boat-shoving with free hands 
and firm feet, and a strenuous heartiness that changed toil into 
sport, and carried us triumphantly through the most tremendous 
job of uncivil engineering that three civilians ever undertook. 
The difference between our first policy and our last was, that we 
began with trying to keep the water out of our boots, and ended 
with being contented to keep it out of our breeches pockets* 

After our first conversion to the "rough-and-ready" policy, 
we had still to learn an important subordinate lesson in regard 
to the best way of economizing vital heat in dealing with the 
water in our boots. At first we imagined it was best to get rid 
of the cold and incumbrance of each bootful we took in as soon 
as possible; and, for this purpose, at every opportunity we would 
sit down and lift first one foot and then the other to a posi- 
tion about as high as the head, and let the water run out at the 
top of the boots, taking care of course to keep the pantaloons 
out of the reach of the torrent; as, otherwise, what left the boots 
would run down in the cloth tube to the central and posterior 
regions of the body. But reflection convinced us that this prac- 
tice of constantly changing the water in our boots was not wise. 
A bootful^ that has been worked in for some time becomes partially 
warm, and soon ceases to be uncomfortable so far as temperature 
is concerned. In fact it may be conceived of as a kind of stock- 
ing protecting the feet from the colder water outside, and not 
easily displaced by what flows in at the top. To turn out 
this warm water, therefore, at every opportunity, and immediately 
take a charge of cold water in its place, was a great waste of 
vital heat, which we finally learned to avoid. Thus we came at 
last to work right along without paying any special attention to our 
feet and found in pursuing this policy the true economy of force 



- 13 - 

every way, and no ultimate damage to health or comfort." 

The party also learned some other things on this voyage, which 
the same writer reports as follows: - 

" Beaver Dams 

"Having opportunity for actual inspection of a great number 
of beaver dams, we got some new ideas about them. Beavers do 
literally cut down trees and cut off logs. Their lower front 
teeth are really chisels. We found one that had dropped out, 
probably, from the jaw of a superannuated beaver. It was a curved 
tusk, two or three inches long, and instead of being pointed, was 
beveled off at the end as accurately as any chisel, and had a 
true-cutting edge of a quarter of an inch in breadtho We saw 
many specimens of their work which, at a little distance, could 
hardly be distinguished from axe-cuttings. Boys* hatchet-work 
would not compare with them for smoothness . 

"But the idea that beavers build any thing like a common human 
dam — namely, a regular log structure or stockade, rising with 
a steep, definite slope against the stream — is a mistake. 
Their dams are simply huge deposits of sticks and mud, mixed, 
and laid, apparently without much order, across the stream. We 
saw none that raised the water more than about a foot; and some- 
times the first notice we had of a dam was from running our boat 
aground in what had appeared to be deep and smooth water. 
Neither did we find any confirmation of the popular statement 
that beavers strengthen their dams by a curve or angle up-stream. 
Some of the dams we saw were straight, and some curve down-stream, 
but not one curved or cornered up-stream. 

" How to * Shanty . » 

"When night overtook us in the midst of our boat-dragging, the 
old trapper would say, ? It is time to shanty. » By this he did 
not mean that it was time for us to go into a shanty, for there 
was no shanty within miles of us, He simply meant that it was 
time for us to prepare for the night. The approved method of 
*shantying 9 in this sense, as we learned it from several experi- 
ments under Mr. Hutchins*s instruction, shall be minutely des- 
cribed; and ought to be carefully studied by all who are liable 
to be caught out in the woods in cold weather, with no lodging- 
place but the ground under the stars. 

"A party at work or on the march in the woods ought to stop and 
prepare for night at least an hour before dark; as the work to be 
done is not trifling, nor can it be done without light. 

"The first matter to be attended to is the selection of a 
suitable place. Any smooth spot under the trees near your line 
of march might seem to be good enough; especially if you are 
tired, and shivering with wet feet and wet clothes, and want 
fire and supper as soon as possible. But, if you choose thus in 
a hurry, you may repent. You have a big load of substantial wood 
to prepare for your night's fire, and you must have reference to 



- 14 - 

this in locating your camp. Soft-wood trees, such as hemlock and 
cedar, are good for nothing; and you must not think of trusting 
to dead limbs and brushwood, A fire made of these may boil a 
pot and give a momentary comfort; but what you want is a huge, 
solid log-fire that will take care of you for hours together, and 
allow you to sleep in peace. You must find a spot where there 
are hard-wood trees, such as maple, beech, iron-wood, or birch, 
which you can fell right beside your fire-place. Otherwise you 
will have to conclude your day's work with some of the hardest 
lugging that you ever tried. This matter of a good supply of hard, 
green fire-wood is first in importance. Next to this it is desir- 
able to keep within moderate distance of a stream or spring, as 
you have the food to cook and the dishes to wash for supper and 
breakfast, and will need a good deal of water. Lastly, for a 
good place to sleep on, you must have in front of your fire-place 
a smooth space, nearly level, sloping perhaps a little toward 
the fire, and if possible a little lower than the fire, so that 
the blaze will shine fairly over you and cover you as with a 
blanket. 

"Having chosen your spot, one of the party fells a tree as 
tall as can be found, and ten inches cr a foot through; cuts the 
trunk into logs eight or ten feet long, and works up the top for 
small wood. In the mean time another man prepares and drives two 
stout stakes into the ground at the back of the fire-place, about 
six feet apart, and four feet high, bracing them from behind with 
other stakes sloping into notches near their tops. Three of the 
biggest logs are now placed, one upon another, against the stakes, 
forming a great wooden chimney-back, three or four feet high. For 
andirons you find, if possible, two large stones; but, if stones 
are scarce, you cut a ten-inch hemlock, and taking two short logs 
from the butt, place them against your back-logs at right angles 
to them. On these you lay the fourth of your great hard-wood 
logs; and thus you have the foundation of your night's fire. 
While some are making these preparations , others ought to be gather- 
ing hemlock bark and dry limbs in great quantities to start 
the fire, and to enliven it from time to time. Also, if neces- 
sary, another hard-wood tree should be felled, that you may have 
one or two extra logs to put on towards morning. 

"The kindling of a fire in the woods, especially in a hard 
rain, requires some science. A good way is to find a dead cedar 
or other soft-wood tree that leans to the south. The wood and 
bark on the sunny side of such a tree is sure to be dry. Split 
off some strips, and reduce them to fine whitlings with your jack- 
knife, under your coat or other cover; and with careful manipula- 
tion of matches and kindling stuff, you will soon have a roaring 
fire under and over the great forestick, that will defy the rain. 
Hemlock or pine bark, taken from dead trees, is excellent fuel for 
an incipient fire. But it must be laid on carefully in cob-house 
fashion, with the outside next the fire. After a while, the fur- 
ious blaze you have started with light material will get possession 
of the great green logs, and then the fire will take care of itself 
for hours. Almost literally it shall be to you a 'wall of fire' 
through the long cold-night. 



. 15 - 

"Now hang on the kettle for supper,. This is easily done by- 
cutting a pole ten or fifteen feet long, sharpening the large 
end, and thrusting it obliquely into the ground back of your fire- 
place, so that the small part will rest on the top back-stick, 
and the end will project over the fire, A twig left at the 
proper place will prevent the kettle from slipping. 

"All that remains, to make ready for sleep, is to prepare 
your bed. For this, hemlock or cedar boughs will do; but balsam 
Doughs are the best c The handiest way is to cut down a good-sized 
balsam-tree near your camp, and strip off its top brush either 
with your jack-knife or hatchet. This bed-material must not be 
tumbled into the sleeping-place pell-mell; but must be carefully 
packed, bough by bough, by thrusting the stick-ends into and 
under the mass, and leaving the brush-ends to shingle over each 
other, like the feathers of a bird. If you neglect this, you 
must expect to roll and groan on hard sticks, instead of sleep- 
ing quietly on tree feathers. You sleep, of course, in your 
blanket, with your boots for your pillow, and with your feet to 
the fire. If ? the stars look kindly down upon you, no matter how 
cold the weather is, you can sleep within the magic circle of 
that Cyclopean fire, though the water freezes hard in your water- 
pail at a little distance. 

"But what if it rains? Then the party must put their blankets 
into common stock, extemporize a shelter-tent with one or two of 
them, and sleep as well as they can under the rest, spread bed- 
fashion. For the frame-work of the tent you can cut five or 
six fish-poles, and thrust their large ends obliquely into the 
ground at the head of your bed, so that they slope up over the 
place where you are to lie, like the rafters of a roof. You 
fasten the upper ends with strings to a transverse fish-pole; 
and then you spread the blankets on the rafters, and fasten them 
by pinning them to the transverse pole and to each other at the 
middle edges. 

"N. B. — Beware of exposing cotton fixings of any kind to 
the contingencies of a great open fire, with the winds busy and 
the sparks flying." 

The third day of the voyage, about noon, we reached the open 
waters of Salmon Lake, and never was a sight more welcome to 
tired travellers. 

Salmon Lake 

Is a beautiful sheet of water, six or eight miles long and 
from one to two miles wide. So far as we explored, we found it 
surrounded by an unbroken wilderness, excepting two small clear- 
ings formerly made by trappers and two deserted shanties. Two 
miles from where we located, there was a lumber shanty and a 
company engaged in the lumber business. 



- 16 - 
How We Lived at Salmon Lake 

This is told in a letter written by one of the party, as 
follows: - 



"At Bob Holland* s Old Shanty, 
"Salmon Lake, C. W. , October 21, 1S65 



.) 



"Dear Friends, — Human society is, after all, but a great 
human body. The head and trunk and vital organs may be represented 
by the civilized and enlightened portions of mankind, — those 
portions where intercommunication is the most close and continuous, 
where the moving forces are generated, and the highest workings 
of thought and feeling are developed and educated. But this 
great human body stretches its hands and feet out into the wilder- 
ness, where only the Indian, the pioneer, the trapper, and the . 
lumberman are to be found; and where hardihood, and battle with 
the elements, the forests, and the animals are the required and 
the prominent facts of life. Here the circulating fluids move 
slowly, the lines of communication are far between, and the cuticle 
is thick and tough. The pulsations of the great heart are felt, 
but they are minute and feeble. The railroad has afar off given 
place to the stage-route, the stage-route to the lumber-road, 
the lumber-route to the blazed foot-path of the trapper and pioneer* 
The school-house is far beyond the horizon. The newspaper, that 
indispensability of the interior and superior regions of the body, 
reaches here only by accident and rarely. The sun here rises 
over the forest- crowned hills of the east, looks all day long 
on vast tracts of woodland, on clear-blue lakes wood-encircled, 
on solitary shanties, where solitary men, or perhaps a man and a 
woman and some children, try to solve their problems of life; 
looks through forest branches perhaps on the dingy form of some 
solitary trapper, who wanders by shaded streams and sleeps by his 
log-fire; and then it sets beyond the forest-crowned hills of the 
west. Here is where the hands and feet of humanity are found as 
it comes to take possession of the earth. Those extremities are 
worth coming to see, — worth getting acquainted with, — worth 
appreciating. 'The eye cannot say unto the hand, "I have no need 
of thee;" nor again the head to the feet, "I have no need of you.'" 
|We are all members one of another, ' and should ' remember those 
in bonds,' or in the wilderness and extremities of society, 'as 
bound with them.' 

" Beyond Cock-Growing and the Cow-Bells 

"An Oneida correspondent raises the query whether we have, 
after all, got beyond hearing the 'crowing of the rooster or the 
tinkle of the cow-bells. 9 Our friends need give themselves no 
anxiety on this point. The rocks and hills of this region 
(Salmon Lake) are as free from the sound of the church- going and 
cow-going bells as the valleys and rocks of Robinson Crusoe's 
island; and the cry of no fowl more domestic in its habits than 
the loon ever echoed from these shores. Solitary human beings have 
sojourned here in former years. The old shanty which we tempor- 
arily occupy was once occupied by a trapper noted in these regions. 



. '.' ' 



- 17 - 

This shanty is eight feet by ten, with an average height of five 
feet. There is an unfinished shanty of more ambitious proportions 
a few feet in the rear. On the opposite shore is an unoccupied 
log-hut. At the other end of the lake there is a new lumber shanty, 
which is now occupied by twenty or thirty lumbermen. The sound of 
the great trees falling on the distant hill-sides, reminding one 
of the reports of far-off cannon, and the occasional appearance 
of one of the shantymen's red canoes passing under the shadows 
of the cedars on the eastern shores, are the principal evidences 
that other human beings are near u'o, 

" Eleven Days on Sal r jon Lake 

"We have now been at Salmon Lake about eleven days. They have 
been days of active campaigning. We have had to secure means and 
routes of regular communi cation with the outside world, bring up 
our baggage, select ground for our home-shanty, and commence the 
building of that structure; had to do what we could in the way of 
securing a supply of fish, and attend to the daily duties of the 
camp-kitchen and quartermaster* s department. I do not know that 
the details of any of these operations can be given in a way to 
make them specially interesting to vou. Still there are some 
things that I will note. First, as to the 

"Quart e rmaster' s , 5 a part ment 

"I judge that it has been seldom that five men (three of them 
six-footers, or thereabouts) have occupied more limited quarters 
than have we for the last week. The old shanty which we inhabit 
measures eight feet by ten on the floor, and is five high under 
the middle of its shed roof. In one corner is a stone fire-place, 
which discharges its smoke through a square hole in the roof. 
Between the fire-place and the dcor is a space about two feet and 
a half by three, sunk a little lower than the average of the 
shanty floor, in which the cook can stand to prepare the meals, 
and in which our shortest man. Mr 9 Campbell, can stand upright. 
The remainder of the floor is covered with balsam-boughs for a 
common bed. VJe can just crowd en to this bed (five of us) at 
night, by stretching ourselves spoon- fashion, with our heads on 
a log-pillow and our foot to the fire„ It is rather a difficult 
matter for one to turn ever with a simultaneous movement of the 
whole corps. By 'moving careful, 1 however, and with military 
precision,- the thing can be done. To lie out straight on one's 
back, between the heels and knees, are! ether- protuberances of the 
sleepers on either side, is an equally difficult operation. 
Notwithstanding the smal." less cfour quarters, we are not troubled 
with the ventilation question, Our door is an old coat, which 
swings _ freely in the breeze, and rather' assists the draught of 
the chimney; besides which, there are various crevices in the walls 
and roof, where the moss and chinking have tumbled out, that 
give unimpeded entrance to the air, and exit to the surplus smoke. 
Across the shanty, just in front of the fire and over the foot of 
the bed, Mr. N. has placed a seat, which we call the 'deacon's 
seat.' In front of this, we erect a table at meal-time by placing 
a single leg under one end of a short hemlock slab, and inserting 
the other end between the logs of the shanty 8 It is crowding work 



- 18 - 

to get round at evening and morning, or on rainy days, when 
baking and cooking are going on, and the table is being set. 
Yet we manage to keep good-natured, and enjoy it. Even such 
limited quarters are preferable, in the cool nights and days of 
late October, to the open camp in the woods and we have been 
thankful for their temporary use." 

By this time we had our home-shanty about half built, and were 
contemplating a vigorous trapping campaign. We were looking the 
long Canada winter in the face, and rejoicing in the prospect of 
a battle with it. John P. had begun to set traps, and in the 
course of two nights had caught a fine mink and ten muskrats. 
We had selected a beautiful location on the north shore of the 
lake for a winter home. Rowing, spearing fish, felling trees, 
and shanty building had succeeded to the arduous toils of the 
voyage through the terrible "Out-let." The signs of game were 
rather scarce in the immediate vicinity of the lake, but our plans 
were to run lines of traps far back into the northern woods, where 
mink, marten, and beaver were supposed to exist in abundance. At 
this juncture it became evident that the health of our captain 
was not equal to the execution of the campaign he had planned. 
For most of the time since reaching McK. 9 s he had been partially 
disabled. Now, just as we were building our shanty and preparing 
for effective trapping, and were relying on him for leadership, 
he was prostrated for nearly two days, and unable to do any 
thing. A due consideration of his condition of the fact that we 
were all novices in trapping except John P., and of the unfavorable 
indications of the region as to fur, led us to resolve on a retreat 
and a "change of base." J. H. N. tells the story of his 

Last Day in Camp , 

as follows: - 

"I was left alone in camp three or four days on account of a 
sore hand. In the first place I blistered it by chopping and 
paddling, and finally it became so bad that I could do neither 
with any comfort. So I stayed at home to be cook and maid of all 
work. I had remained there two or three days, leading very much 
such a life as Robinson Crusoe is reported to have done. The 
other men were off about two miles, and I had the whole shanty to 
myself, which was not a very great domain. It was generally 
perfectly still, — not a sound to be heard. The slightest crackle 
was a startling event. I would jump up and look out to see what 
was coming, and perhaps it would prove to be a red squirrel, which 
would peer in through some hole in the shanty, and watch my move- 
ments. Several times a great bird flew over which I was unacquain- 
ted with. I learned afterwards that it was a raven. They are 
very much like crows, only larger, and with a voice somewhat 
different from that of the crow. In order to get along com- 
fortably I had to talk to myself a great deal. On the last 
day of my stay, J. P. Hutchins left in my charge certain tasks 
to be performed. For one thing, having caught ten muskrats, 
he wanted me to put the skins on stretchers. Then John Hutchins 
the elder, in the dawn of the morning, when you could hardly 
distinguish one thing from another, shot an animal which proved 



- 19 - 

to be a skunk. It was a large one, covered with fat; and they 
left it in my charge to get the fat off and try it out for 
domestic purposes. We had been troubled for the want of light, 
and on killing the skunk it occurred to them that it was. a fine 
opportunity to get some oil for our lamps. I commenced my day's 
work by washing up the dishes. By 'dishes 9 I do not mean such 
as are found at crockery stores. We had just got our tin plates, 
(Previously we had eaten off cedar shingles, with wooden spoons.) 
Then I mended my pantaloons, which had sustained a damage one 
night before, while I was lying near the fire in one of the 
Canton-flannel bags that Mr, Newhouse recommended. Just as I 
was going to sleep I felt something biting or stinging my legs, 
and on looking, found that I was on fire. With some difficulty 
we put it out, after a large hole was burned in the bag and two 
small ones in my pantaloons. So, as I said, I proceeded to patch 
these holes. After that I took hold of the business of making 
a bag of my blanket. I like the idea of a bag to sleep in, but 
it ought not be made of cotton. Mr. Pitt hung up his overalls 
one night before the fire to dry, and when he got up the next 
morning only a few little pieces and the buttons were left. We 
found that cotton clothing about a camp-fire is too liable to 
get burned up. So I took my woolen blanket and sewed it up into 
a regular sack, which I liked very much. After that I went 
through the work of putting the muskrat-skins on the stretchers. 
Then I went and got the fat off the skunk, and tried it out in 
one of our spiders or sauce-pans, and made a little tin tunnel 
and put the oil into a bottle. Then I put the sauce-pan into 
the fire and heated it red-hot, to take out the odor of the skunk. 
That was my last work. By this time it was pretty well along in 
the afternoon. I sat down and began to study. 

"It was evident from the failing health of John Hutchins, on 
whom we had relied as the captain of the expedition, but whose 
advanced age and former hardships in the army and the woods, by 
flood and field, now told on him, and from the comparative 
scarcity of game both for food and fur in the district where we 
were, that the trapping part of the enterprise would not be made 
to pay. We had had the advantage of a month' s "roughing it" in 
the woods, and had established communication with frontiermen on 
their own ground; and it appeared clear that our true course 
now was to get out of the woods and fall back upon the second 
object of the expedition, namely, the buying of furs. I accord- 
ingly advised a retreat of the party towards the settlements on 
the Hastings Road, and the next day left myself for the 'States.'" 

The Retreat 

Two days were spent in repacking our baggage, transporting it 
across Salmon Lake, and down through Gull Lake to the foot of the 
latter, and then we were ready to return to McKillican' s. We 
had discovered a new route to Salmon Lake, one by which a greater 
part of the labor and trouble of the Bass Lake passage might have 
been avoided. Four miles from our shanty, at the foot of Gull 
Lake, were Cannif f » s Mills,; and from thence a tolerable road 
connected with the Hastings Road five miles below McKillican' s. 



- 20 - 

We had been unable to learn any thing satisfactory about this 
route till after we had got to the lake. Our provisions and 
baggage had been brought round to Cannif f ? s by wagon. They were 
to go back by the same conveyance* Our baggage being all safely 
stored in Canniff ? s mill, we packed our shoulder baskets, shouldered 
our rifles, and started on a seven-mile tramp through t he woods 
to McKillican ? s. On arriving at the Hastings Road, we at once 
began to organize for the fur-buying campaign., Mr. Noyes had 
gone home. Mr. Hutchins and John P. left soon after for the 
same destination. Messrs. Campbell and Pitt remained to buy 
furs. They were soon after joined by Mr. Newhouse, and two months 
were spent very pleasantly tramping over the rough roads and through 
the snows. Of this kind of travel the writer performed about four 
hundred miles. We formed an extensive and pleasant acquaintance 
with all the leading trappers of the region, who are a class of 
interesting men. We bought nearly a thousand dollars 9 worth of 
furs, the profits on which were not quite sufficient to cover 
the expenses of the whole campaign. We returned to our Oneida 
home the last week in December, hearty and strong. In its health- 
producing results the expedition had paid many fold for all it 
had otherwise cost. In looking back upon it, in view of all its 
benefits in this respect, the physical and spiritual heroism 
which it developed, three of our number at least — the inventor, 
the ex-financier and the ex-editor — will always remember it 
with thankfulness. It will conclude my history of the expedition 
with a dissertation by J. H. N. on the 

" Mirages of the Sporting World 

"The visions of far-off cities, palaces, gardens, fountains and 
lakes that beguile the tired and thirsty pilgrims of the desert 
are probably but tame and rare illusions compared with those that 
lure hunters, fishermen and trappers, or the myriads of men and 
boys all over the world that would be such, on and on, year after 
year, in the pursuit of boundless successes that are always loom- 
ing in the distance, but are never reached. For one, I confess 
that ever since I was ten years old I have been seeking from 
time to time, in all directions and by many wearisome excursions, 
for that paradise of sportsmen where one can bag the nicest game 
in any quantities "as fast as he can load and fire," or where he 
can catch bass or trout of any desirable size "as fast as he can 
put in his hook;" but I have never found it I The exact spot has 
been pointed out again and again by very credible informants; 
but always, when I have reached it, there has been some mistake 
about it. Either I had come a few days too soon, or a few days 
too late; or the desired region was a few miles further on, or 
off to the right or left, or even back of where I started; or 
somebody had got in before me, and had just disappeared with the 
load of luck that I expected; or the weather was wrong; or the 
time of day was wrong; or I had not the right kind of tools and 
tackle. Thus in one way or another, as a sportsman, I have never 
got much beyond moderate luck, with hard work and hard fare; and 
I have come to the conclusion that the sporting world is full of 
mirages, that ought to be exposed and expounded for the benefit 
of rising generations. 



- 21 - 

"I do not believe that ray indifferent success is owing alto- 
gether to individual bad luck or bad management, but that it is 
an average sample of general experience. I hear the same story 
from multitudes of amateurs (told of course in their lucid inter- 
vals) , and even from old Nimrods, John P. Hutchins said that he 
"never got through a trapping campaign without wondering at him- 
self that he should be such a fool as to leave a good home and a 
civilized business to plunge himself into a purgatory of unspeak- 
able hardships for small profits and little sport." And even his 
father, tough as he is in muscle and story-telling, said nearly 
the same thing. 

"The illusions that cover the sporting world come mostly from 
the inveterate bragging and exaggerations of sportsmen themselves. 
The old hunter tells all he can, and more than he can truthfully, 
of his exploits; and says as little as possible of his failures, 
and the miseries which his successes cost him. Thus the mirage 
rises, and they who are deceived by it, in their turn, learn to 
brag of their exploits and conceal their failures; and so the 
deception passes on from man to man, and from generation to 
generation. 

"I mean to step out of this practice, and tell some things about 
our Canada expedition that will tend to sober the expectations of 
novices, and put them on their guard against inflated reports and 
promises of sport. 

"We went to Canada in full expectation of being able to get 
plenty of venison and fish for our winter supplies. When we came 
away, all hopes of getting these provisions had vanished, and we 
had found it necessary to borrow meat of our neighbors, the lumber- 
ers, and were about to send to Montreal for a barrel of mess-pork I 

"Our illusions vanished one after another in this fashion. We 
were told that at Bass Lake we could catch fine, large bass in 
any quantities, either by drop-line or trolling. We fished 
patiently with drop-lines at various times for hours together, 
and got one nibble 9 . We trolled the lake up and down with two 
boats, and caught one bass of perhaps a pound weight 9 . 

"We were told that at Salmon Lake, during a week or ten days 
after the 8th of October, we should find myriads of salmon-trout 
on their spawning beds every evening, and could spear boat-loads 
of them and salt them down for winter use. We had prepared two 
excellent spears and a jack; and we worked hard to gather "fat 
pine;" and we laid in a store of salt. But we had no success in 
finding fish, except on one night, and then only in moderate 
numbers. All we caught were ten trout, averaging perhaps two 
pounds apiece, and one fine one of over twelve pounds. We had no 
occasion to salt them, as five of us easily disposed of them 
otherwise in the course of a week. 

"We were told that we could kill all the deer that we should 
want for the winter. The understanding was that, just before 
freezing time, we should lay in our stock. I asked how many 
deer would probably be a fair supply for the party. The answer 
was, 'About twenty. 9 Such were our expectations. The reality 



- 22 - 

was this: Our party had the opportunity of seeing at a distance 
the chase and killing of two deer in Bass Lake, by resident 
hunters. These were all the deer that were taken in Bass Lake 
or in Salmon Lake within our sight and hearing, or within our 
knowledge by rumor, during the whole of our twenty days on the 
hunting grounds. The dogs were baying frequently, and hunters 
did their best, but no more deer were taken. We had not the 
slightest chance of killing any in the usual way by running them 
into the lakes, as our dog was only a puppy that was more likely 
to lose himself than to find deer. As to the chance of getting 
venison by the 'still hunt,' that is by shooting deer in the woods, 
there was little encouragement, as our party only saw one on land 
during all our journeyings. 

" 'But how about bears? You didn't kill any, of course, but 
did you see or hear of any 9 ? Well, I will tell you all about 
bears. We expected to have something to do with them, and provided 
ourselves with a couple of Newhouse's famous bear-traps; but we 
did not set them, and of course did not catch any. We saw 
scratches on a stump, which Mr. Hutchins pronounced to be the 
work of a bear's claws made for sport, as a cat airs her hooks 
sometimes by scratching. One night, when we were camping out, 
Mr. Pitt heard a terrible noise that he thought bad enough to be 
a bear's growl; but it proved to be the complaint of an owl. And, 
to conclude, we had a view — in fact, rather too near a view — 
of a grisly skeleton of a bear, lying by the side of the path 
leading from our Crusoe shanty to the lake, — a relic left us 
by some previous hunter and the ravens. That was the nearest we 
came to seeing a bear. 

" 'To cut the matter short, What did you shoot'? I killed a 
partridge and a pigeon. Mr. Pitt killed several red squirrels 
(which, cooked with some dried beef for want of salt, made an 
excellent stew) . John P. killed same squirrels and a partridge. 
Mr. Hutchins killed a skunk. Besides these, we hit several paper 
marks, and some we did not hit. This is a true account of our 
hunting and fishing down to the time of our 'change of base' and 
my departure for the States. 

" A tender conscience and compassion for the inexperienced 
prompts these confessions. Of course the veterans can do better. 
They have had their say, and will get more credit than we greenhorns 
anyway. All ears are open to them. As a counterpoise to their 
exciting stories, we feel bound to leave it as our last word to 
amateur hunters and trappers, that they should not set their 
hearts on external success and pleasure, but rather on the benefits 
to be derived from hard discipline. In that case, we can assure 
them that they will not be disappointed." 



- 23 - 

PHEASANT DISTRIBUTION AND HARVEST 

REPORT, LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT, 1961 

by 
J. S. Dorland 



Abstract 

Some 14,645 pheasants made up of 7,100 chicks, 7,375 
poults and 370 adults were distributed in Lake Siracoe 
District during 1961. Residents purchased 2,736 
township pheasant licences while 4,142 licences were 
sold to non-residents. This was a 10% decrease from 
the previous year. A field check by officers in 10 
Regulated Townships over the entire season (Oct. 11-23) 
showed that 1139 pheasants had been harvested by 2,195 
hunters for an average of .52 birds per hunter. The 
total kill in the area was estimated at 3500 pheasants. 



Distribution 

A total of 14, $45 day-olds, poults and adults pheasants 
were received from the Provincial Hatchery at Codrington this year 
for distribution among the sixteen Regulated Townships of the district 
and a few interested sportsmen 9 s associations. These birds arrived 
in the district as 7,100 day-olds, 7,375 poults and 370 adults. See 
table (1) for distribution. Approximately 5,000 day-olds were raised 
to eight weeks and released with the remainder of the chicks some 
2,300 raised to adult stage and released just prior to the open 
season. The 7,375 poults and 370 adults were released shortly after 
receiving them in the district. 

Licences 

A total of 6,87^ township licences were sold up to the 
close of the pheasant season in the district, October 28th. This 
number was made up of 2,736 resident and 4,142 non-resident township 
licences. A decrease of some 10% from the previous year with the 
largest percentage of decrease showing in the resident licences. 
See table (2) for complete coverage by townships. 

Open Seasons 

October 7-28 - Non-regulated areas of Ontario & York 

Counties. 

October 11-28 - Non-regulated area of Simcoe & Dufferin 

Counties, Regulated Townships of Peel 
County, 

October 18-28 - Regulated Townships of York and Ontario 

Counties, 



- 24 - 

The weather throughout the open seasons was a mixture of 
sunny, warm, cloudy, wet, and on October 11 in Peel, the opening 
day, hunters were greeted with a very heavy fog which blanketed the 
county until around 11:00 a.rru making hunting quite unsafe • 

Harvest 

Hunting of pheasants took place in all sixteen Regulated 
Townships and a few outside areas such as Camp Borden, Stayner, 
Barrie and Reach and Uxbridge Townships, with reports showing that 
fair to good success was obtained by the hunter. 

Hunter Statistics for 10 Regulated Townships 



No. of parties checked 
% of Parties using dogs 
No. of hunters checked 
Total hunter hours 
Total pheasants bagged 
Per hunter bagged 
Hours to bag a bird 
Approximate kill in area 

See Table (3) for complete summary. 

Remarks 



Opening D 


ay 


Ent 


ire Season 


302 






843 
42$ 


779 






2195 


2731 






7802 


565 






1139 


.72 






.52 


4© o 






6.8 


500 






3500 



Opening day results in some townships show excellent 
hunting with many parties getting their quota of pheasants. Many 
of these pheasants were birds from either a natural hatch or wintered 
over from the previous year. It is felt, however, that most of 
these were natural wild hatch as few banded birds of previous years 
were killed. 

The number of parties hunting with dogs has remained 
practically the same for the past three years within the district, 
but the advantage of using good dogs is clearly shown in the field 
officer's records of harvest. Although statistical figures this 
year are taken from one less township than the previous year, all 
figures such as number of parties, hunters checked and harvest, 
bird per hunter, have all increased slightly with the man-hour per 
bird decreasing approximately one-half hour over the previous year. 







- 25 - 






TABLE I 


PHEASANT 


DISTRIBUTION 






LAKE SIMCOE 


DISTRICT 


1961 




Place 


Chicks 


Poults 


Adults 


Total 


Whitby 


700 


200 


50 


950 


E. Whitby 


£00 


200 


50 


1050 


Pickering 


1000 


1000 




2000 


Markham 


500 


1000 




1500 


Whitchurch 


goo 


900 




1700 


Vaughan 


700 


300 




1500 


King 


500 


900 




1400 


£• Gwillimbury 




50 


20 


70 


Peel County 


1250 


1925 


100 


3275 


Adjala 




100 


30 


130 


Tecumseth 




100 


30 


130 


W, Gwillimbury 


200 


100 


40 


340 


Miscellaneous 










Barrie Club 


200 




25 


225 


Stayner Club 


200 






200 


Camp Borden 


200 


100 


25 


325 


Orangeville School 


50 






50 



Total 



7100 



7375 



370 



14345 



- 26 - 

TABLE II LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 

REGULATED TOWNSHIP LICENCES SOLD UP TO OCTOBER 28, 1961. 

Township 

Whitby 

E. Whitby 

Pickering 

Markham 

Whitchurch 

Vaughan 

King 

E« Gwillimbury 

Toronto 

Chingaucousy 

Toronto Gore 

Caledon 

Albion 

Adjala 

Tecumseth 

W. Gwillimbury 

Total 2,736 4,142 6,378 



Resident 


Non-Resident 
320 


Total 


223 


543 


99 


154 


253 


330 


400 


730 


350 


775 


1125 


180 


500 


680 


250 


236 


486 


161 


489 


650 


116 


99 


215 


536 


150 


686 


190 


100 


290 


6 


100 


106 


95 


200 


295 


40 


100 


140 


15 


226 


241 


60 


147 


207 


25 


146 


231 



27 - 



o 





rH 


rH 




nO 






O 


0H 




rH 


< 




S 






O 


Eh 


&H 


CO 




O 


< 


3 


M 


W 




Ph 


CO 


o 


H 






CO 


H 




M 


5 




P 






W 


s 




O 


w 




O 






s 


P 




H 


2 




CO 


<C 




w 


>H 




w 


< 




< 


p 




hh 


o 

H 

w 

Oh 

o 





o 

H 

w 
M 
o 
H 



w 



0) c 
Sh O 
•H W 
-P cd 
d CD 
W CO 



bJD 
d 

•H >■> 

d cd 
0) P 
ft 
O 



0) 
Ih 

•H 
P 

d 



d 

o 

co 

CD 



W CO 





U 

•H 
P 
d 



d 

o 

CO 

cd 

CD 



W CO 



bfl 
d 

•H i>> 

d rt 

CD P 

o 

















O 


o 


r>- 










i 


1 
















^- 


cv 


nO 


rH 








tf"\ 


CV 




^S. 












e 





• 


• 








a 





to 


rH 


O 


r>- 


en 


C- 


o 








u-\ 


rH 


O 


o 


<H 


rH 


nO 


-4- 


o 
cv 


H 


to 


i-r\ 


-4- 

rH 


en 

e 


•to 
cv 




rH 

• 


-4" 




CV 

rH 


o 

rH 


en 

cv 


rH 
1 

nO 

• 


rH 

1 

on 

e 


-co 


to 


en 


U"N 


m 


O 


-4" 








-4- 


LP* 


to 


en 


rH 


rH 


en 


u> 


O 

rH 


CV 
en 


-* 


CV 


[> 










UA 


CV 


to 























vO 


-4- 












c^ 
















to 


rH 


cv 


O 










o 




^ 















e 


e 


o 








cv 


rH 


t> 


CV 


r>- 


to 


en 


nO 


O 








ON 


o 


en 


en 


1 


1 


H 




en 










-4 

cv 

It 


rH 

• 


O 

en 




rH 

UN 

o 


rH 


rH 


cv 


rH 

rH 
1 

• 


rH 

rH 
1 

-4 

e 


CV 


u> 


CV 


-4" 


CV 


O 


CV 








to 


cv 


r> 


ON 


H 


rH 


m 


nO 


en 

rH 


-4" 

-4" 


en 


CV 


LT\ 










ur\ 


en 


to 







NO 



to NO 
NO C<\ 



to 
o 

rH 



ON NO 



LT\ 



UN 


O- 


CV 










1 


1 


CV 


rH 


-4" 


CV 








m 


O 


a 


e 


• 


e 




















ts 


-4- 
CV 


cv 

rH 


NO 

en 


rH 


CV 

























^J 




rH 




























o 


d 


cd 




























O 


CD 


■p 




























o 


EC 


o 

Eh 




























^^* 
































p 
































O 


s 


g 








CO 




CO 
















^! 






p 


d 




bJO 




U 














T3 


CO 






O 


CD 




O 




B 












rH 


U 








^H 


CD 




P 




O 








^ 




cd 


•H 


p 






CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 


w 








O 


d 


P> 


CQ 


O 


5 


£ 






CD 


faD 


U 










O 


© 


O 




d 






EC 




•H 


d 


CD 


(h 


xs 




id 


o 


a: 


Eh 


cd 


- — * 






\ 




P 


•H 


P 


CD 





T3 


CD 
















o 




U 


CO 


c 


•P 


bO 


CD 


bfl 


h 






hfl 


d 










cd 


P 


d 


d 


bfl 


bO 


hO 


CD 






cd 


CD 






O 




Oh 




ac 


3 


cd 


bO 


cd 


P 






PQ 


CD 


S 


s 


•H 






CO 




Ed 


CO 


cd 


CO 


d 


s 


s 




CO 






P 




<H 


CD 


<H 






CQ 




3 






O 








cd 




O 


•H 
-P 


O 


rH 
CTJ 


co 


CO 


cd 


K 






p 


CO 
XJ 






Ph 




9 


U 


a 


P> 


o 


d 


p 


(h 






e 


Ih 


s 


s 


X 




O 


crj 


O 


O 


O 


CD 


O 


CD 


5 


s 


fn 


•H 






CD 




3 


Oh 


ES 


rH 


o 


DC 


Eh 


Oh 






EC 


Oh 






CO 









nO 


CO 




o 


Ei 




rH 


S 






< 




z 


CO 




o 


<d 


6h 


CO 


w 


O 


< 


DC 


M 


W 


Oh 


Eh 


CO 


1 


CO 


W 




M 


ttj 


CO 


Q 


M 


o 




Eh 


H 


W 


S 


E-« 


o 


W 


CO 


o 




M 


s 


Q 


E-h 


M 


S 


< 


CO 


<c 


Eh 






CO 


W 


>H 




us 


<c 


O 


3 


o 


2 


J 





o 



Oh 

o 



us 





CD C 


s 


$h o 


< 


•H CO 


DC 


-p cd 


O 


C <D 


tD 


fxj CO 


< 




> 






bD 




G 




•H >■> 




fC CTJ 




d> Q 




CU 




O 




CD fC 




Sh O 




•H CO 


O 


-P cd 


£S 


C! CD 


M 


W CO 


US 






bfl 




CJ 




■H >> 




$C cd 




CD Q 




Ph 




O 




CD C 


DC 


^ O 


O 


•H CO 


P4 


-P CO 


CD 


5C CD 


PC 


W CO 


o 




Eh 




M 


bO 


3 


•H t>. 




c en 




(D Q 




p< 




o 




CD C 




Jh o 




•H CO 




p cd 


5 


JC CD 

H CO 


DC 




US 




OJ 


hD 


gj 


$C 

•H >, 




sc cd 




CD Q 




a 




o 



- 2a - 

















cv 
















-J- 
















• 


c*\ 


nO 


iH 


ON 


H 


ca 


-* 




-* 


-4 


CV 

rH 


CV 

-4 


LT\ 


CV 


c*- 





O 



NO 
NO 



ca 



O 
-4- 



nO -CO 



IA 



NO 



o i> 

LA H 
H 

















to 


CV 


o 
















NO 


ca 


o 




SsR 












Q 





« 


CV 


LA 


C^ 


rH 


CV 


rH 


CA 






H 


CV 


LA 


NO 


rH 


-4 


CV 


NO 









CV 



LA 











LA 


CV 


t> 










ca 


CV 


LA 










a 


e 


• 


rH 


ca 


<f 


O- 








-4 


la 


CA 


-co 








IA 















-4 



ca 



CV 

o 

NO 















LA 


O 


U~\ 














-4 


ca 


O- 


^ 












• 


a 


* 


CV 


NO 


H 


LA 


o- 


CV 








-4- 


LA 


CV 


CV 


rH 


-4 









la 



rH 

I 
CV 

• 
CV 



rH 

I 

o 



H 


O 


O 




CV 


la 


-4 


ON 


H 

e 


rH 



rH 
1 


NO 


NO 


CV 


rH 


H 


-co 


O 


-co 

rH 


H 
1 

9 


CV 
a 

H 
1 


-4 


O 


-4 


rH 


rH 


CA 


-4" 


O 





















o 


-* 


-4 










| 


1 
















CV 


rH 


CA 


(V 








LA 


LA 




^ 












a 


a 


a 











a 


• 


O 


o 


CV 


(A 


-co 


CA 


rH 








-co 


-4 


t>- 


rH 


H 


H 


o 


-4 


-4- 


NO 


-4 


CA 


-co 










CA 


-co 


CV 






rH 


^ 


CV 


NO 








-4 
cv 

e 


rH 

e 


rH 

-4- 

• 


LA 

e 


rH 




CV 


rH 

LA 

a 


rH 
1 

-4- 




-4 


O 


CV 


H 


LA 


t> 


CV 








LA 


CV 


LA 


tN 


rH 


rH 


~4 


LA 


o 

rH 


CA 
CV 


CV 


rH 


-4 


NO 

CV 




rH 
CV 


O 
-4 

a 


CA 
a 


ON 


NO 


LA 

H 


rH 
1 

CA 

e 


H 

1 

O 

• 


ON 


CV 


t> 


ON 


s 


^}- 


-4 








-co 


nO 


o 


NO 


rH 


H 


ON 


ON 


8 


NO 


CV 


-co 










LA 


CA 


-co 






rH 




CA 


H 


rH 


CV 










CA 


CA 


NO 












CV 








o 

-4 


CA 
CA 


CA 
O- 


o 








rH 
1 

CV 


rH 

1 
o 




^. 















■ 


1 











• 





ON 

la 


CA 
O- 

co 
O 


o 

CV 
CV 


s 

On 

CO 

3 


-co 
-co 


CV 


s 

rH 






rH 


NO 

tD 


rH 
CV 
CV 

o 
o 
o 

p 
o 

CO 


NO 
rH 

CV 

C 
CD 

DC 


o 

CA 
-4 

rH 

cd 
p 

O 

Eh 


rH 

P 

o 


H 

SC 
CD 
CD 




Q 




O 








X 




cd 


•H 


p 






CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 


DC 








O 


(C 


P 


aq 


o 


j 


£ 






CD 


to 


Ph 










o 


CD 


O 




C 






DC 




•H 


SC 


CD 


u 


-d 




X) 


o 


DC 


Eh 


cd 


» — ' 






\ 




P 


•H 


P 


Q) 


CD 


TD 


CD 
















o 




U 


CO 


C 


P 


cjD 


CD 


W3 


u 






faO 


a 










cd 


C3 


CJ 


C 


bfl 


hD 


M 


CD 






cd 


CD 






O 




a, 




DC 


3 


cd 


bO 


cd 


P 






CQ 


CD 


£ 


s 


•H 






CO 




X 


CQ 


cd 


CQ 


q 


5 


£ 




CO 






P 




<H 


CD 


^H 






PQ 




3 






O 








cd 




o 


•H 

P 


O 


rH 

cd 


CO 


CO 


rH 

cd 


DC 






p 


CO 






cd 




9 


Ih 


o 


p 


o 


JC 


P 


5h 






e 


fn 


5 


s 


X 




O 


cd 


o 


o 


O 


CD 


O 


CD 


£ 


£ 


Jh 


•H 






CD 




s 


a* 


a 


Eh 


o 


DC 


Eh 


Ph 






DC 


CQ 






CO 





t-3 

< 
E-" 
O 
E-< 

E-h 
O 
M 
OS 
Eh 
CO 



O 
Eh 

o 
as 
o 

Eh 






PU 



>H 
CO 
35 

o 
o 

o 

M 

33 
o 



o 

Q 
W 

►H 
< 
o 



CD 

•H 
-P 
S3 



H CO 



txO 
C 

•H >» 

C cd 

o 



W CO 



5x0 

c 

•H !>> 
C cd 

o 



W CO 



bO 

c 

•H >i 

0) o 

a, 
o 



CD c 

S-t o 

•H (0 

-P Ctf 

S3 CD 

W CO 



bO 
C 
•H >> 

C cd 

0> Q 

p, 
o 



-co 
-4 
-oo 



cv 
o 

CN. 



-co 

-4 

rH 



CV 

to 



cv 
cv 



cv 



co 

•H 
P 

H 

cd 

Oh 

<H 

o 



o 



CV UN 

-4 O 

rH 

cv 



On 



O ON 

o- cn. 



H 
cv 



CO 

bD 

o 

Q 

bO 
C 
•H 
CO 
33 

co 
0) 
•H 
P 
Jh 

cd 

Oh 



CV 
O 

to 
o- 



o 
cv 



ON 



nO <r\ On 

O 0-\ C<\ 

£*«- -4- H 

rH 



-4 
l/N. 






cv 



ON 

vO 



CV 

ON 



O Q 



CV 



CO 

U 
CD 
P 
C 
P 
33 

cm 
O 



o 



to 
-4 



cv 

CV 





^ 






c\ 


f\ 


U"\ 


-4 


C*- 


CV 


NO 


ON 






rH 


IT\ 



ON 



CO 

h 

O 

33 

H 

CD 
P 
C 

3: 



cd 
p 
o 

Eh 



O 
On 



rH NO 

~4 rH 



u-s 



CV 
CV 



T3 
CD 
bD 
hJO 
cd 

03 

CO 

o 
o 
o 



-4 



T3 
CD 

bD 
bD 
cd 
PQ 

CO 

S3 
CD 

PC 



NO 



-4 
O 
CV 



<r\. CV 

rH 






to 



T3 

CD 
bO 
bD 
cd 

PQ 



cd 
p 
o 



CV 

c^\ 



ON 



CV 
U"N 



UN 
-4 



O 
-4 

















o 
















U"\ 




^ 












e 


to 


o 


^t 


ON 


t>- 


CV 


ON 




m 


Uf\ 


H 

rH 


H 


u-\ 


CV 


{> 





-4 



to 

NO 



c*\ 



O 
O 

o 

U 

CD 
P 
$3 

3 

33 

M 

CD 

Ph 



cv 



o 

CV 



CV 



s 



On 



On 

NO 



-4 

NO 



O 
CV 



CV 



On 



CV 

UN 





LTN 


CV 




to 


-4 




• 


• 


m 






m 







cr\ 



CD 

33 



rH 

cd 

P 

o 

Eh 



to 

nO 



to 



-4 



-4 



U~\ 



-4 



NO 



O 

a 

-4 



ON 
NO 



CV 

a 

-4 



H 

•H 
X) 

cd 

bD 

cd 

£> 
O 

p 

CO 

3 
o 

33 



-4 

ON 

rH 



CV 

8 



CV 

O 

CV 



-4- 

-oo 



cv 
H 



to 



-4 



<r\ 



J* 
o 
o 
o 



p 
o 

CO 

p 

O 



C3 

CD 
CO 

CO 

J-. 

•H 
CQ 



ON 



CV 
rH 

in 



cv 
H 



UTN 
NO 

H 
CV 



-4 



-4 
H 
c^ 



H 

LTN 



UfN 

cn 



-4 

to 



-4 






o 

O 
CV 



to 



ON 
ON 



rH 



C 
CD 

33 



nO 
CV 



rH 

cd 
p 
o 

Eh 



I 

NO 



I 



I 

On 



I 
nO 

• 

CV 



I 

■ 
CV 



I 

CV 



rH 
I 



rH 
I 

o 

a 

CV 



o 

o 

•H 
P 

cd 
as 

X 

0) 
CO 



I 

CV 

« 

H 



I 

CV 



H 

I 

to 



H 

I 



rH 
I 

• 
CV 



o 

H 
I 

H 



CV 

e 

rH 

I 



o 

-4 
I' 



p 


c 


o 


CD 


x: 


CD 


CO 


CO 



CO 

P-, 

M 

33 
CO 



O 
Eh 

Q 

^< 
< 

35 

O 

W 

as 

52! 
Eh 

s 
o 

o 

w 

33 
O 

Q 

rH 



z 

O 

Q 

W 
CO 
oS 
PQ 

CO 

o 

M 

Eh 
CO 
M 
Eh 
< 
Eh 
CO 



- 29 - 



- 30 - 

RUFFED GROUSE REPORT - NORTH BAY DISTRICT - 1961 

by 
J. Fe Gage 



A bstract 

Spring drum count courses were established for the 
first time. Continuance of these counts should 
provide future population trend information » The 
brood counts indicated a similar population of young 
birds as experienced in I960 with an average of 6.05 
chicks per brood for the entire summer period. 
Hunter success was collected through the use of 
seasonal records (Form H-50) . Hunting methods, on 
foot and by automobile road hunting, were considered 
separately. Hunters on foot shot an average of 39 
birds for every 100 hours of hunting effort. Those 
using dogs shot fewer birds than hunters without 
dogs. Hunters hunting along the roads exclusively 
shot one bird for every 27.4 miles of driving effort. 
Temporal distribution of the kill indicated October 
as providing the highest kill period. Collection 
of wings and tails compared favourably to I960 with 
600 birds contributing to the sex and age data. 
Sex ratios were again in reasonable limits. An 
increase in age ratios was experienced in 1961 with 
5.5 juvenile birds to each adult female. 



Introduction 

This report considers four different phases of grouse 
study conducted in the North Bay District in 1961. The spring 
drum counts, a new innovation in this District, were conducted 
by Conservation Officers. They will provide in the future an 
early index in the trend of the breeding male population. The 
brood counts have been carried out for several years and pro- 
vide a good index to the post shoot population. The third study 
involves the use of seasonal records of selected grouse hunters to 
provide an index to hunting success for hunting on foot compared 
to road hunting. The fourth phase is the collection of wings 
and tails which provides information on sex and age ratios. It 
also reveals temporal and kill distribution throughout the 
District. 

Drum Counts 

Seven Conservation Officers submitted data on drum counts 
for approximately seven weeks from April to June. Counts were made 
on pre-designed courses containing ten listening stations approx- 
imately one mile apart. Range of "audibility" was considered at 
one-eighth of a mile. Counts were made in the early morning 
usually before 8 A. M. A total of 150 drum counts were recorded 



- 31 - 

(see Table I) . Since many of these birds were undoubtedly recorded 
repeatedly on different occasions, the maximum number of birds 
recorded on any single occasion is assumed to be the breeding 
population of males present. These maximums of peak activity 
were recorded as 50 birds. The seven courses represent a total 
audibility area of 13«65 square miles providing a population of 
3.66 drumming males per square mile. High winds, affecting the 
audibility range, prevented the completion of the required number 
of sample counts in the Mattawa area. Since this is the first year 
that drum counts have been made, comparative data, as an index 
to trends in the spring breeding population, are not yet possible. 

Brood Counts 

Brood counts were recorded from June until September 
(see Table II). A separate report was submitted to Toronto in 
September. A total of 36 broods was recorded containing 218 
chicks for a seasonal average of 6.05 chicks per brood. This 
figure compares well with the I960 brood count average of 6.2 
chicks per brood. While these figures provide an index to the 
population of young birds produced, consideration should be given 
to average brood sizes in late August and early September in pre- 
dicting the availability of birds immediately prior to the open 
season. Insufficient brood counts in August and September, 1961, 
prevents an analysis of the mortality which occurred between June 
and September 15th. It is interesting to note that no broods were 
observed by the Conservation Officer in the Temagami Patrol but 
a sample of 141 wings and tails was collected during the season 
for the same area, providing the highest sample for the District. 
Observations on grouse broods are recorded during other routine 
activities and no special routes or time periods are laid on for 
this study. It may be possible to miss broods which are presently 
recorded more or less by accident rather than intent. 

Hunter Success 

Ruffed Grouse Hunting Study Cards, Form H-50, were used 
for the second year. The results are shown in Table III. Our 
main goal was to collect at least 400 hours of hunting on foot. 
Road hunting is the most popular method of hunting grouse and 
difficulty was encountered in locating some keen grouse hunters who 
hunt off the roads. Fifty per cent of our Conservation Officers 
were unable to get individual hunters to co-operate. The remainder 
were able to collect cards embracing some 190 hours of hunting on 
foot along with 439 miles of road hunting. 

It is difficult to analyse such meagre data. The tem- 
poral distribution of grouse shot by those who co-operated indi- 
cates the highest kill (65.7%) in October. This does not agree 
with the data collected along with the wings and tails (see Table V) . 
Comparing the hunting off the road with that along the roads the 
return per hunter was 1.12 birds for the walkers and .59 birds 
per hunter for the riders. One of the most unexpected results is 
the comparison between hunters using dogs and those hunting with- 
out dogs. Hunters without dogs saw more birds and shot more birds* 



- 32 - 

The only explanation we can offer is that a few hunting parties 
encountered complete broods which they were able to shoot on the 
ground while hunters with dogs might knock down only a bird or 
two from the initial flush. The number of birds seen by those 
with dogs, however, was less which leads us to suspect that there 
is a better explanation. When data are as small as those provided 
here, a few such instances of covey encounters can introduce an 
extreme bias in the results. 



These data show that a combined hunting effort on foot 
and by automobile produced a hunting success in the order of one 
bird per hunter. This is better than the hunting success in 
both I960 and 1959« While some areas produced as well or better 
most officers and hunters felt the birds were less plentiful in 
1961. 

Sex Ratios 

The information on sex ratios was taken from the sample 
of 600 birds. A total of sixteen were classed as unknown and could 
not be used for this summary. The sex ratios were in reasonable 
limits and compared well with the I960 data (adults 1:0.79) 
(juveniles 1:1.44) (see Table IV), The reversal of sex ratios in 
adult females and juvenile females reported in 1959 and I960 is 
again evident in 1961. This is apparently a normal condition and 
the current sex ratios provided by the 1961 data indicate the usual 
ratio pattern between males and females. 

Age Ratios 

The age ratio for the 1961 kill sample described in terms 
of juveniles per adult female is l:5o5* This is an increase from 
the I960 age ratio which was 1:3. S (see Table IV). 



roads and 
venile bi 
experienc 
sive rain 
hunting i 
of juveni 
uates the 
record of 



The favourite 
logging trails 
rds. If we wer 
ed by the 1961 

and wet weathe 
n the bush. In 
le birds would 
need for more 
local weather 



method of hunting, by driving the back 
, is complimentary to the killing of ju- 
e able to relate the type of weather 
grouse hunters we might find that exces- 
r encouraged road hunting or discouraged 

either case, a disproportionate number 
appear in the sample. This merely accent- 
data on birds shot off the roads and a 
conditions. 



Temporal Distribution of Kill 



The 
form in Table 
sample because 
District than 
the sample is 
similar graphs 
is immediately 
that the highe 
of September, 
third weeks of 



temporal distribution of the kill is shown in graph 
V. These data have been taken from the 600 bird 

it reflects a better distribution over the entire 
the sample provided on the hunter success cards and 
larger. If the graph in Table V is compared with 
in the 1959 and I960 reports an obvious difference 
evident. There is a change in the 1961 kill in 
st percentage of birds was shot in the last week 
Similar peaks were experienced in the second and 
October but this latter condition is expected. 



- 33 - 

No explanation is provided for this unusual kill in September. 

While the collection of the sample for age and sex deter- 
mination cannot be used in terms of hunter success it does reflect 
to some extent on the availability of the birds. It should be 
noted that the annual sample is down 120 birds when compared to 
I960. This reduction is not significant since one officer was 
transferred about mid September and his collections always numbered 
well over 100 birds. We are confident that the collection would 
have very closely approximated the I960 sample or even exceeded 
it by a few dozen birds if the transfer had occurred later in the 
year. 

Distribution of Grouse Killed 

Comparison of the 1961 distribution map with maps in the 
1959 and I960 reports reveals a similar pattern except for the 
western section of Lake Nipissing and the western boundary of the 
District. This is the area mentioned before regarding the transfer 
of an officer with only a few voluntary samples being submitted . 
The distribution of the kill again reflects the road systems rather 
than good grouse habitat. (see Figure 1). 

The method of indicating the number of grouse collected 
in the sample for each township is entered on the map as a straight 
line. The average township size is six miles by six miles. A 
line drawn either parallel or vertical from one boundary to another 
indicates five birds in the sample. The line is maintained the 
same length regardless of township size. The line is reduced in 
length to indicate 4, 3 t 2, or 1 birds. 

The Township of Sisk, near Martin River, consistently 
contributes each year the highest sample of wings and tails (57) • 

Summary and Conclusions 

(1) The drum counts produced a new and interesting 
method of assessing the spring breeding population of male birds 
(3-66 per square mile). Continuance of these permanent drum count 
courses will provide future trend information. 

(2) Brood counts still provide the most reliable indices 
to predict the current post shoot population but more data are 
needed, particularly in August and September. The 1961 brood count 
average of 6.O5 agrees with the I960 count and the availability 

of the sample collection in both years, 

(3) The study of hunter success requires more co-operation 
from staff and the grouse hunters. The material submitted is much 
too meagre to provide proper analysis. Plans to begin an immediate 
search for co-operating hunters is recommended. It is felt that 
keen grouse hunters may be easier to locate now than just before 

the season when all hunters fancy that they fit this category only 
to let us down at the end of the season. 



- 34 - 

It is suggested that we take the Form H-50 one step 
further and ask these co-operators to collect and submit at the 
end of the season the wings and tails from the grouse they have 
shot while hunting off the roads. This will enable us to measure 
the susceptibility of young birds to road hunting and provide a 
correction factor in dealing with our age ratios in the general 
collection of wings and tails. 

(4) The sex and age ratios compare well with previous 
years 1 data. The age ratio shows some increase in juvenile birds 
but because of the apparent selection of young birds by our district 
method of hunting along roads we suggest that this is not particu- 
larly significant e The temporal distribution is changed from the 
two previous years. The higher kill in the last week of September 
is not understood at present. The collection of material for age 
and sex ratios as well as temporal and district distribution of 

the kill was reduced by 120 birds, but is not considered signi- 
ficant under the circumstances involving a problem in the mechanics 
of the collection. 

(5) There is no indication, in the material collected 
at least, that the North Bay District experienced the extreme lows 
in bird availability reported by neighbouring districts. We did 
have areas of low availability but we also had other areas where 
grouse appeared as plentiful as in I960. The general opinion of 
officers and hunters was to the effect that birds were harder to 
find and that more birds were encountered in the early part of 
the season. 

Recommendations 

There is no evidence to support the closure or shortening 
of the grouse season. On the other hand there appears to be no 
reason why the season could not be extended until the end of the 
moose season. Very few birds would be shot. In fact insignificant 
numbers are taken now once the big game seasons open and snow 
covers the ground. It is unlikely that local Fish and Game 
Associations within the District would support a longer season on 
the ruffed grouse. They would have little difficulty in securing 
public support in opposing such a recommendation due to the fact 
that hunting success for this game bird is not what it used to be 
in this District. It seems to be a general practice to compare 
hunting and fishing now with the "good old days" without giving 
serious thought to the great increase in demand and consequent 
lowering of standards of success. 



TABLE I: 



- 35 - 



Drum Count 
April 27th - June 8th 



Total 
Count Count Count Count Count Count Count Drum 
Course Locations 12 3 4 5 6 7 Counts 



Haileybury 


1 


5 


4 


*9 


8 


1 


1 


29 


Temagami 




Not completed 


in 


1961 








Martin River 





3 


1 


5 


4 


* 6 


4 


23 


McLaren* s Bay- 


2 


1 





4 


*5 


5 





17 


Sturgeon Falls 





1 


4 


*6 


4 


3 




18 


Monetville 


3 


9 


4 


*10 


5 


1 




32 


North Bay 





1 





2 


3 


3 


* 4 


13 


Mattawa 


6 


*10 












16 



148 



* - Maximum drumming for all courses = 50 

Each course of 10 stations — 1.95 square miles of 
"audibility" 

Seven courses « 7 X 1«95 ■" 13»65 square miles 

Population Trend of Drumming Males 13.65 _ o ^ ma i 

grouse per square mile 



- 36 - 

TABLE II ; 

Brood Counts 1961 June - September 



Patrol # of Total Av. Chicks Wing & Tail 

§ General Area Broods Chicks per Brood Collections 













1961 


I960 


1 


Haileybury 


3 


20 


6,6 


70 


61 


2 


Temagami 








0.0 


141 


122 


3 


Martin River 


1 


5 


5.0 


72 


115 


4 


McLaren 1 s Bay- 


14 


39 


6.3 


76 


69 


5 


Sturgeon Falls 


2 


10 


5.0 


37 


94 


6 


Monetville 


6 


46 


7.6 


57 


143 


7 


North Bay- 


9 


33 


4o2 


62 


14 


8 


Mat tawa 


1 


10 


10.0 


35 


73 




36 


218 


Av. 6.05 


600 


701 



TABLE III: 



- 37 - 



Hunter Success - Form H-5Q 



Hunting on Foot 

No. of hunters 65 

No. of birds shot 73 

No. of birds flushed 124 

No. of man-hours 190 



Hunter success 

Hunting effort 

Birds flushed 

$ of parties using dogs 



No. of parties using dogs 21 
No. of parties not using dogs 17 
Total hunting trips 3$ 



1.12 birds per hunter 
2.6 hours per bird 
1.53 hours per bird 



55. 2$ 



Birds shot by hunters with dogs 29 
Birds shot by hunters without dogs 44 

Temporal distribution of kill 



Temporal distribution of kill 



No. of co-operators submitting 
more than one return card 9 



September 20.5$ 
October 65.7$ 
November 13.7$ 



Birds flushed by hunters with dogs 60 
Birds flushed by hunters without dogs 64 

Road Hunting from Automobile 

No. of hunters 27 

No. of birds shot 16 

No. of birds seen 27 

No. of miles travelled 439 

Hunter success .59 birds per hunter 
Miles driven per bird 27.4 
Miles driven per bird seen 16.2 
Average number of hunters per car 1.5 



September 50$ 
October 50$ 

November 0$ 



No. of co-operators submitting 
less than two cards 1 



38 - 



TABLE IV: 



Adult Males 93 
Adult Females 73 
Total Adults 166 



Sex and Age Ratios 1961 



Juvenile Males IBS 
Juvenile Females 219 
Total Juveniles 407 

Unknown Sex 16 

Unknown Age 11 

Total 27 

Grand Total 



166 



407 



ZL 



600 birds in sample 



Ape Ratio 

Both Sexes 

1961 Age ratio per adult female 

I960 Age ratio per adult female 

1959 Age ratio per adult female 

195$ Age ratio per adult female 



Adults 


Juveniles 


166 


407 


73 


407 - 1:5.5 


114 


444 - 1:3.3 


73 


673 - 1:8.6 


26 


97 - 1:3.7 



Sex Ratio 



Sex ratio of Adults 
Sex ratio of Juveniles 



Male 

93 
183 



Female Ratio 



73 
219 



1:0.78 
1:1.16 



1960 
1:0.79 
1:1.44 



- 39 - 



TABLE V: 



Temporal Distribution Ruffed 
Grouse Kill 
North Bay District 
1961 

(600 Birds) 



10S 




104 



67 



94 



60 



31 



34 




-P CM 
Q* I 
Q) U~\ 

CO r-\ 



• to 

p CM 

a i 

CO cm 
CO CM 



I 

o 

CM 

• 
-P • 

CO o 
CO O 



. cm 

P rM 
° ^ 



p I 

a pa 

OH 



• cm 

p I 

OO 
O CM 



I 

CM CM 



P > 

o o 

OS 



> 
o 

3 



I 



vO 

• H 

> I 

OO 



o CM 
> I 

o I> 



CM 

> 
o -J- 






I . 



- 40 - 



NORTH BAY DISTRICT 



X T\\kaileybury 




ittawa 



MILES 



Figure 1 - 

1961 Grouse Season Kill 
Distribution 

5 birds 

Total 600 Grouse 



20 



10 

\'///A \'///A 



20 



40 



VZZZZZZZZZZ 2L 



» " ..*. :.?ti.T. 



- 41 - 

KENORA DISTRICT GROUSE HUNT - 1961 

by 
Wnu Ho Charlton 
District Biologist 

Abstract 

Grouse survey kits were again used to collect informa- 
tion on the district hunt . Returns fell off consider- 
ably from the two previous years with only 52 parties 
reporting. Hunter success was high with 1.7 Ruffed 
Grouse being shot per trip or 1,2 birds per hour of 
hunting. In addition to those turned in by hunters, 
grouse wings and tails were collected from district 
locker plant s A total of 41$ usable sets of wings 
and tails indicated a 1:1 sex ratio. The adult sex 
ratio was 1,3 *> : 15 while the juvenile sex ratio 
was 0.9^c? : 12 1 The ratio of juveniles to adults in 
the kill was 1,7 : 1 while the juvenile to hen ratio 
was 3*8 : 1- The number of Sharp-tailed Grouse wings 
and tails collected from locker plants increased to 
39 this year over the single set collected in I960. 



Av, 


Brood Size 




6.1 

5.3 
6.0 



Review o f S pring; Brood Count s 

Information on brood size collected by officers during 
the spring and early summer revealed a good survival of young birds, 
This information when compared to previous years indicated that the 
ruffed grouse hunting would be as good or better than in I960. 

# Broods 

1959 15 

1960 19 

1961 49 

Although hunter returns were down considerably, hunter 
success figures (T?ble II) support these data. 

Grouse Surve y Kits 

Grouse survey kits were first used in the District by 
Schenk (1959) « These ki^s consisted of five hunter success forms, 
three envelopes for wings and tails and an explanatory letter. 
These kits were to be distributed to all grouse hunters by licence 
issuers when the individual purchased his licence. Unfortunately 
very few kits were distributed to the issuers and less reached the 
hands of the hunters. A maximum of 365 kits were distributed with 
only 52 reports being received by district office. Of these 52 
individual reports, 31 were from department personnel within the 
district. One department man contributed 16 returns. The remain- 
ing 21 returns from outside the department were from nine indivi- 
duals. 



- 42 - 

The vastness of the district renders it impracticable for 
conservation officers to make enough hunter contacts to obtain an 
adequate amount of information on the hunt. Looking back to 1959 
we see that grouse kits can provide the information if they are given 
the proper promotion. It is planned to use the kits again in 1962 
along with a rejuvenated promotional program. 

The decline in returns is indicated in Table I. 



Table I 




No. of Parties 


Hunter - hours 




1959 
1960 
1961 


*121 

149 

52 


S3 5 

409 

76 



* In 1959 a party consisted of one or more hunters whereas 
in I960 and 1961 a party was an individual hunter. 



Sample 



1961 Grouse Hunter Success Form Kenora District 
(fill out one form for each grouse hunt) 

Date Name 



Address 



Area Hunted? 



No. of Hours Hunted? No. of Ruffed Grouse Shot? 



No. of Ruffed Grouse Seen 
but not shot? 



Was dog used? 



Were you Hunting with Rifles or Shotguns?. 



Did you hunt along roads, on lake islands or walking in 
bush country? 



Please place wing and tail feathers from each grouse shot in 
the envelopes provided. 

Your co-operation in this project is greatly appreciated. 



- 43 - 



Weather 



The weather throughout the fall was conducive to good 
grouse hunting. Clear days and a lack of lasting snow created ideal 
conditions. A six inch snowfall occurred on November 2nd but only- 
patches remained on the ground by the end of grouse season on 
November 25th. Cold weather early in the season brought on an early 
leaf- fall, with the majority of the leaves being off the trees by 
October 10th, 

Hunter Success 

Fifty-two parties hunting a total of 76 hours were success- 
ful in shooting SB grouse. In addition, 94 birds were seen but not 
shot by these hunters. This gives a success figure of 1.7 grouse 
per trip or 1.2 grouse shot per hour of hunting. Additional birds 
were sighted at a rate of 1.2 per hour. 



Table II 








Birds shot / 100 


hrs. 


Birds 


> seen but not shot/ 
100 hrs. 


1959 40.0 

1960 62.3 

1961 115.8 






74.9 
83.1 

123.7 


Comparison of hunter success before 


and 


after 


leaf- fall - Oct. 10th 



Before leaf- fall 30 parties hunted a total of 47.5 hours 
and shot 50 grouse. They saw 56 grouse in addition to those shot. 
After leaf-fall 22 parties hunted for 29 hours and shot 38 grouse. 
Thirty-eight grouse were also seen but not shot. 

No. of Hours Grouse Grouse Grouse Grouse 
Parties Hunted Shot Shot/hr. Seen Seen/hr. 

Before leaf-fall 
After leaf-fall 



30 


47. 


.5 


50 


1, 


,1 


56 


1, 


,2 


22 


29< 


,0 


33 


1, 


.3 


3^ 


1, 


.3 



This information, although limited, supports the theory 
that hunter success increases after leaf-fall. 

Table III Temporal Distribution of Kill (88 birds) 



Period 

Sept. 15 - 21 

" 22 - 28 

Sept. 29 - Oct 



Oct. 


6-12 


it 


13 - 19 


« 


20 - 26 


Oct. 


27 - Nov. 


Nov. 


3-9 


?» 


10 - 16 


11 


17 - 23 


11 


24 - 25 



No. of Birds Shot 

13 
8 

15 
19 
18 

3 

6 

2 

4 







- 44 - 



Type of Hunting 



No information was received from individuals hunting 
roads with automobiles. Thirty parties reported hunting in the bush 
while 1$ parties hunted walking along roads. In addition three 
parties hunted islands on Lake of the Woods and one party failed to 
indicate the type of hunting, 

A .22 calibre rifle was used by 27 parties while 24 
parties hunted with shot-guns. Sixteen of the 52 reporting parties 
indicated they used a dog while hunting. 

In addition to wings and tails submitted by hunters, sets 
were collected by conservation officers, and received from locker 
plants. Several questionable sets were discarded, leaving 413 
grouse that were sexed and aged successfully. 



Adult 


Males 


£6 


Juvenile Males 


m 


Adult 


Females 


J& 


Juvenile Females 


140 


Total 


Adults 


155 


Total Juveniles 


263 



Total Birds 41g 



Sex Ratios 

Sex ratio of all birds 

Sex ratio of adults 

Sex ratio of juveniles 



66 59 

209 : 209 

36 : 69 

123 : 140 



or 1.0 : 1 
1.2 : 1 

0,9 : 1 



Age Ratios 

Age ratio juveniles to adults 263 ' 155 or 1.7:1 
Age ratio juveniles to hen 263 ' 69 or 3,8:1 



cates they 
decrease in 
significanc 
sex ratios 
years shown 
whereas the 
parts of th 
in New York 
observed in 
(F & W Mgt. 



comparison of sex ratios for the past three years indi- 
have remained relatively constant. There has been a 

the ratio of adult males to adult females, but the 
e is not clearly understood. A constant reversal of 
exists between juveniles and adults. For the three 

there is a predominance of male over female adults, 

opposite is true among juveniles. This is true of other 
e province but appears to differ with information obtained 

(Gage, I960) . Similar reversals of sex ratios were 

Gogama, Parry Sound, Fort Frances and Kenora in 195$ • 

Report # 45) . 



Sex Ratios 



(Number of males compared to one female) 



1959 
I960 
1961 



All Birds 

0.9 : 1 
1.1 : 1 
1.0 : 1 



Adults 

1.9 : 1 
1.6 : 1 
1.2 : 1 



Juveniles 
0.7 : 1 



0.9 
0.9 



1 

1 



- 45 - 



A steady decrease in age ratios from 1959 to 1961 indicates 
the grouse population may be on the decline. This contradicts the 
hunter success data but hunter returns were too few to form a valid 
sample. 



Age Ratios 



1959 
1960 
1961 



Juvenile : Adults 



3.1 

2,1 

1.7 



1 
1 
1 



Juvenile ; Hen 

9.1 : 1 
5.3 : 1 
3.8 : 1 



Sharp-tailed Grouse 



The Kenora District generally is poor range for Sharp- 
tailed Grouse. There are, however, isolated populations of these 
birds particularly in the eastern portion of the district. (Olsen, 
I960). No information was turned in by hunters, but 39 sets of 
wings and tails were received from locker plants. Only a single 
set was received in I960. The majority of the wings and tails 
received were from Nestor Falls Locker Plant, located at the Kenora • 
Fort Frances border. It was impossible to check back and determine 
what percentage of these wings and tails were from birds shot in 
Kenora District and what percentage from Fort Frances. This dis- 
crepancy, and the limited number of sharp-tail observations reported 
by officers leads us to believe that the increase in wings and tails 
received is not indicative of a marked increase in population. 

Sex and Age Composition of Sharp-tailed Grouse (39 birds) 



Adult Male 19 
Adult Female 2 

28 



Juvenile Male 
Juvenile Female 



11 Total 39 



Spruce Grouse 



Spruce grouse are occasionally shot by hunters in quest 
of ruffed grouse. Eighteen sets of spruce grouse wings and tails 
were received along with the material on ruffed and sharp-tail grouse. 



Sex and Age Composition of Spruce Grouse (18) 



Adult Male 
Adult Female 



4 



Juvenile Male 
Juvenile Female 



4 
11 Total 18 



Conclusion, 



Although hunter success was higher this year than in the 
previous two, it was the opinion of most grouse hunters that ruffed 
grouse are on the decline . A comparison of age ratios since 1959 
indicates that this prediction is justified. The hunter success 
figures would tend to be high considering the small size of the 
sample received and the experience of the hunters contributing 
information. 



- 46 - 

Recommendations 

1, It is recommended that the Grouse Survey Kit be used again in 

1962. An all out promotional program will be required if suffi- 
cient returns are to be obtained. 

2* The grouse hunter success forms included in the kit should be 
altered to obtain information on hunters driving the roads in 
search of grouse. No information was obtained from hunters using 
automobiles in 1961, although it is realized that considerable 
hunting of this nature is carried on. 

3. Excellent co-operation has been received from the district 
Locker Plants in collecting wings and tails. The remaining 
plants should be contacted and requested to retain grouse wings 
and tails also. 

4* In addition to spring brood counts, a recognized sampling pro- 
gram should be innovated to obtain population estimates of 
ruffed grouse. 

5* An attempt should be made to determine the location of kill* 

This is particularly important for sharp-tailed grouse received 
from the southern portion of the district* It is believed that 
some sharp-tails from Fort Frances have been received through 
the locker plant at Nestor Falls. 

Acknowledgments 

We wish to extend our thanks to licence issuers throughout 
the district who co-operated in the distribution of grouse survey 
kits* We are also indebted to locker plant operators who collected 
the majority of the grouse wings and tails used for population 
analysis. Conservation Officers T. Humberstone, R, McGillivray and 
D. Moon assisted with the sexing and aging of the collected material. 



References 



Thompson, D. R. Field Techniques for Sexing and Aging Game 
Animals, Special Wildlife Report # 1. Wisconsin Conser- 
vation Dept. Madison 1, Wisconsin. 195#. 

Olsen, A. R. Report on Status of Sharp-tailed Grouse, 
Kenora District. F. & W. Management Report # 50. Feb., 
I960. 

Gage, J. F. North Bay District Ruffed Grouse Report, 
1960. F. & W. Management Report # 53. July, 1961. 

Vozeh - Dube & Walden - Linklater - Farr. Grouse Reports 
in F. & W, Management Report # 45. March, 1959. 

Schenk, C. F. Grouse in Kenora District 1959* District 
Office Files. 

Collins, V. B. Kenora District Ruffed Grouse Brood Count 
I960. District Office Files. 



- 47 - 

Collins, Vo B. Grouse Hunting in the Kenora District, 

1960. District Office Files. 

Charlton, W, H. Kenora District Ruffed Grouse Brood Count 

1961. District Office Files. 



- I+S - 
BROWSE SURVEY, GOGAMA DISTRICT, 1961 

by 
G« E. Vozeh 
Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

A combination moose browse survey, pellet group count 
and a snowshoe hare browse survey was taken in the 
southwestern part of the Nabakwasi census plot, Gogama 
District in May, 1961. Hazel, pin cherry, mountain 
maple and speckled alder were the most abundant species 
on the plot. Dogwood, willow, hazel and mountain ash 
provided most browse units for moose. Snowshoe hares 
favoured hazel, mountain maple and pin cherry. Browse 
units taken by hares during the winter of 1960-61 were 
about half of those taken the previous winter indicat- 
ing that the winter of 1959-60 was the peak in the 
snowshoe hare population cycle. By using 95% confidence 
limits, the population estimate of moose from pellet 
group counts was 5 08 moose with a range of 4.7 to 7*0 
moose per square mile. The mean cou.at of 4.5 moose 
from 15 flights during the previous winter is outside 
the lower confidence limit. 



Introduction 

A browse survey was made in the Gogama District from May 
12th to May 16th, 1961. A one mile square area was selected in the 
south west part of the Nabakwasi census plot. The survey plot was 
favoured by large numbers of moose during the early part of winter 
1960-61. 

The objectives of the survey were: - 

(1) to compare numbers of moose observed during the 
winter with the pellet group count 

(2) to record information on distribution of tree 
and shrub species on the plot 

(3) to evaluate the effect of moose on their range 

(4) to study food habits of snowshoe hares 

Plot Description 

The northeast corner of the plot is located fifty chains 
west of the junction of the Nabakwasi and Donnegana Rivers. The 
main part of the plot is covered by mixed regeneration of the 1961 
burn. A T-shaped swamp is situated in about the middle of the plot. 
A slow moving creek flows through the swamp from the south and the 
valley of the creek is protected from the north and west winds by a 
low range of hills. The topography of the plot ismainly gently rolling. 



- 49 - 

Moisture is normal in the mixed growth. Soil is sand and 
sandy loam of average estimated depth of over two feet Crown density- 
is medium to open and brush and shrub growth is abundant » The area 
of the mixed type is 532 acres. 

The coniferous swamp was flooded from the spring run-off 
and proved a hindrance to travel* Most of it was partially burned,, 
An over abundant growth of speckled alder followed the burn. The 
coniferous types occupied 103 acres. 

Methods 

The area was sampled by a series of unevenly spaced tran- 
sects because of the topography and the central location of the coni- 
ferous swamp. The approximate location of these lines was indicated 
on a map. 54 sample plots were allocated in the mixed type, 10 plots 
sampled the conifers. In several instances it was impossible to 
keep within the compass course without wading hip-deep in the water 
in the conifers. Therefore, an error would be possible in this 
timber type. 

(a) Pellet group count 

A count of moose pellet groups deposited previous winter 
was recorded on plots 1/10 acre in size (13o2 feet wide x 5 chains 
long) . 

(b) Moose browse survey 

The Passmore-Hepburn method with browsing limits altered 
for moose (from 2 ? to 10 9 ) was used on the 1961 browse survey plot. 
Plots were two feet wide and one chain long (1/330 acres). A count 
of stems browsed was recorded in addition to the tally of living, 
mutilated and killed stems. Another change was made in recording 
the percentage of browsing on the individual plots. Browsing was 
appraised in per cent of browsed stems instead of living stems. 

Example 

On one browse plot 23 living stems of willow were found of 
which 17 were browsed by moose. The total browse units removed were 
1300. 

Using the Passmore-Hepburn method, browsing would be recorded 
as 1300 eg c for which the nearest midpoint of range is 50. 

23 ■ 
Using the total stems browsed, browsing was recorded as 1300 __ 75,5 
for which the nearest midpoint of ranges is 70. 17 — 

In the summary of tally, using Passmore-Hepburn method, 
browse units would be recorded as 50 x 23 = 1150 BU. 

By using the stems browsed, browse units were compiled as 
70 x 17 = 1190 BU. 



- 50 - 

The advantage of recording browsed stems is to obtain 
subjective information which was lacking previously. This can be 
done with little extra effort by the survey crew. 

(c) Snowshoe hare browse survey 

Snowshoe hare browsing was recorded on separate tally 

sheets. Information on hare browsing was collected on same browse 

plots and stems as for moose. A tally was made of stems browsed, 

stems browsed and barked, and stems barked, with respective browse 

units for the three categories. Stems mutilated and killed by hares 

were also recorded. Browsing by hares was assessed in a similar way 

as for moose. Barking was estimated in per cent of the circumference 

of the stem. When browsing and barking took place on the same stem 

the higher value was recorded. If both were equal, next higher 

percentage was used. 

Results 

Pellet Group Count and a Comparison with the Aerial Count 

The moose deposited 122 pellet groups on 54 plots in the 
mixed type. In the coniferous types, 3$ pellet groups were found on 
10 plots. The deposition period of 213 days was calculated from the 
time of leaf fall (October 13th, I960) to half way through the survey 
(May 14th, 1961) . The daily deposition rate of 13 pellet groups was 
obtained from Edwards (1956). 

Using 95% confidence limits (Appendix 2) , the moose popu- 
lation on the one square mile plot was estimated as 5«& moose, ranging 
from 4*7 moose to 7-0 moose. 

The mean count for 15 flights (Appendix 1) was 4.5 moose, 
ranging from nil to 15 moose. The mean count per flight is outside 
the lower confidence limit. 

Until about the middle of January the plot was heavily used 
(average 11.2 moose) . In the later part of the winter only a few 
moose were seen (average 1.2 moose) . If we assume that such was the 
actual situation, we will get a much closer answer to the one obtained 
from the pellet group count (5»6 moose). 

Distribution of Tree and Shrub Species on the Browse Survey Plot 

Tables 1 (a) and (b) show the composition and distribution 
of species in the two main timber types. Twenty-two tree and brush 
species were found in the mixed type. Fifty- four sample plots show 
a total of 1692 living stems. The stocking of the mixed type is, 
therefore, 10340 living stems per acre Pin cherry, white birch, 
hazel and poplar show the widest distribution. Hazel, pin cherry and 
mountain maple were most abundant. 

Thirteen species were identified in the conifers. Stocking 
of plots was much denser due to abundant growth of speckled alder 
(1438& stems per acre) . 

Utilization of species by Moose 

Moose browsing occurred on 13 species in the mixed timber 
type. Six species show multilation and three species had stems killed. 



- 51 - 

Willow, hazel, mountain ash and juneberry provided most browse units. 
Willow, balsam, mountain ash and juneberry had the highest percentage 
of stems browsed. Browsed stems of balsam, mountain ash, juneberry 
and poplar were browsed most intensively. Seven species were browsed 
in the coniferous types. Stems of four species were mutilated and 
one stem was killed by previous use. Dogwood, willow and balsam were 
most important browse suppliers. 

It appears that because of the continued use of the area by 
moose, some of the less desirable browse species, such as hazel, alder 
and the cherries are beginning to play an important role in the moose 
diet. The result of the moose browse survey are shown in Tables 2(a) 
and (b) • 

Utilization of Species by Snowshoe Hares 

The diet of the snowshoe hares consisted of about the same 
number of species. Their preferences, however, differed from moose. 
Hazel, mountain maple and pin cherry accounted for most browse units. 
White pine, mountain ash, mountain maple and black spruce had the 
highest percentage of stems affected by hares. Browsed stems of 
mountain ash, mountain maple, pin cherry and hazel were browsed most 
intensively. A total of 13305 browse units was taken by snowshoe 
hares. Cutting (browsing) occurred on 188 stems, 14 stems were barked 
and on 13 stems both cutting and barking took place in the mixed type. 
Respective browse units were 11963, 860 and 482. The latter two were 
combined for tabulation. The coniferous types were of secon- 
dary importance to snowshoe hares. 

Only about half as many browse units were taken by snowshoe 
hares last winter compared to winter 1959-60. This is a good indica- 
tion that the winter 1959-60 was the peak in the snowshoe hare popu- 
lation cycle. 

Acknowledgments 

We wish to thank Ranger Frank Valiquette for his assistance 
on the browse survey. 

Summary 

A combination moose browse survey, pellet group count and 
a snowshoe hare browse survey was taken in the southwestern part of 
the Nabakwasi census plot, Gogama District, May, 1961. Hazel, pin 
cherry, mountain maple and speckled alder were the most abundant 
species on the survey plot. Dogwood, willow, hazel and mountain ash 
provided most browse units for moose. 

Due to previous heavy use of favoured species, more of the 
less desirable species were taken by moose last winter. 

Hazel, mountain maple and pin cherry were favoured by the 
snowshoe hare. Browse units taken by hares during winter 1960-61 
were about half of those taken the previous winter in the same general 
area. This indicates that winter 1959-60 had a peak snowshoe hare 
population in Gogama. 



- 52 - 

By using 95% confidence limits, the population estimate of 
moose from pellet group count was 5<>8 moose. The range was from 
4»7 to 7«0 moose per square mile. The mean count of 4.5 moose from 
fifteen flights during the previous winter is below the lower con- 
fidence limit. 

Literature Cited : 

Edwards, R. Y., 1956= Moose Pellet Group Data, Wells Gray Park, 
British Columbia, Parks and Recreation Division, B. C. 
Forest Serv., Victoria, B. C, 3 PP« unpublished, 

Passmore, R, C. and R. L, Hepburn, 1955. A method for Appraisal of 
Winter Range of Deer Ont. Dept. of Lands & Forests, 
Research Report Number 29. 

APPENDIX 1 

Aerial Observations of Moose on the 1961 Browse Survey Plot 

Date Moose Seen 

December 16th, I960 7 

December 20th, I960 11 

December 27th, I960 15 

January 4th, 1961 7 

January 9th, 1961 16 

January 19th, 1961 2 

January 25th, 1961 Nil 

February 2nd, 1961 2 

February 9th, 1961 Nil 

February 15th, 1961 3 

February 21st, 1961 2 

February 27th, 1961 1 

March Sth, 1961 2 

March 14th, 1961 Nil 

March 24th, 1961 Nil 



Total for 15 flights 63 

Average per flight 4»5 



- 53 - 



APPENDIX 2 



Frequency distribution of pellet groups on the 1961 plot 



Pellet Groups 



Number of Plots 
Mixed Coniferous 




1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



8 

16 

15 

4 

2 

4 
2 
1 
1 
1 



Total 





8 




16 


3 


18 


3 


7 


2 


4 




4 




2 


1 


2 


1 


2 




1 



Total Plots 


54 


10 


64 


Total Pellet Groups 


122 


38 


160 


Mean Pellet Groups per plot 


2.26 


3c8 


2.5 


Area in Acres 


532 


108 


640 



Calculations from Pellet Group Counts 
Weighted mean = 2.26 x 532 + 3.8 x 108 = 



532 



ToF 



2.52 



£x 2 - (ix) 2 510 - 122 2 



S mixed 



N 



N-l 



53 



5k. 



4 o 42 



S 2 conifer = !68 - 10 = 2a 62 

9 

Weighted S 2 - ^j^ 32 I 2m \o^ = 4.07 



V4707 = 2.02 



Sm 



2.02 



VTzT 



0.25 



APPENDIX 2 (continued) - 54 - 

95% confidence limits = 0.25 x 1.96 ■ 0.49 
m - 2.^2 ± 0.49 
Upper limit = 3*01 
Lower limit ■ 2.03 

1. Pellet groups per acre = mean count per plot x 10 =25.2 

upper limit = 30.1 
lower limit » 20.3 

2. Moose days per square mile Pellet Groups per acre x Acres in 

B square mile 

Deposition rate 

=. 25.2 x 640 . , 9i1 

Upper limit = 1432 
Lower limit ■ 999 

3. Moose per square mile ■ Moose days per square mile 

Deposition time 

= 12/tl = c Ho 
213 -^^ 

Upper limit = 6.96 

Lower limit t= 4.69 



TABLE 1(a) 



- 55 - 



Species Composition and Distribution of the Mixed Timber Type 

(54 sample plots) 



Species 



Living 
stems on 
Plots 



Living 
stems 
per acre 



Per cent 
of avail- 
able stems 



Frequency 



No. of plots 

of which 

species occurs Index 



Balsam 


12 


73 


0.7 


7 


0.130 


White Pine 


8 


49 


0.5 


7 


0.130 


Red Pine 


1 


6 


0.1 


1 


0.019 


Jack Pine 


59 


361 


3-5 


18 


0.333 


White Spruce 


11 


67 


0.6 


7 


0.130 


Black Spruce 


18 


110 


1.1 


9 


0.167 


Poplar 


116 


709 


6.9 


27 


0.500 


White Birch 


126 


770 


7.4 


30 


0.556 


Willow 


43 


263 


2.5 


11 


0.204 


Hazel 


569 


3477 


33.6 


29 


0.537 


Mt. Alder 


81 


495 


4.8 


8 


0.148 


Speckled Alder 


S3 


507 


4.9 


14 


0.259 


Mt. Ash 


55 


336 


3.2 


12 


0.222 


Juneberry 


59 


361 


3.5 


17 


0.315 


Pin Cherry 


182 


1112 


10.8 


47 


0.870 


Choke Cherry 


64 


391 


3.8 


4 


0.074 


Mt. Maple 


169 


1033 


10.0 


22 


0.407 


Red Maple 


32 


196 


1.9 


9 


0.167 


Elder 


4 


24 


0.2 


2 


0.037 


TOTAL 


1692 


10340 


100.0 






Average 








14.8 


0.274 



- 56 - 



TABLE Kb) 



Species Composition and Distribution of the Coniferous Timber Types 

(10 Sample Plots) 



Species 


Living 
stems on 
Plots 


Living 

stems 
per acre 


Per cent 
of avail- 
able stems 


No 
on 
sp< 


. of plots 
which 
2cies occurs 


Frequency 
Index 


Ground Hemlock 


1 


33 


0.2 




1 


0.1 


Balsam 


25 


325 


5.7 




6 


0.6 


White Cedar 


15 


495 


3-5 




2 


0.2 


White Spruce 


4 


132 


0.9 




2 


0.2 


Black Spruce 


7 


231 


1.6 




4 


0.4 


White Birch 


2 


66 


0.5 




2 


0..2 


Willow 


12 


396 


2.8 




4 


0.4 


Hazel 


1 


33 


0.2 




1 


0.1 


Mt. Ash 


7 


231 


1.6 




4 


0.4 


Mt. Alder 


1 


33 


0.2 




1 


0.1 


Speckled Alder 


300 


9900 


68.8 




9 


0.9 


Juneberry 


7 


231 


1.6 




3 


0.3 


Dogwood 


54 


1782 


12.4 




2 


0.2 


TOTAL 


436 


14388 


100.0 








Average 










3.1 


0.3 



CD 



<d 

JO 

6 

•H 
-P 

-d 

Q) 
X 
•H 
£ 

•H 

to 

CD 
•H 
O 
0) 

a 

CO 

a> 
x 
p 

c 
o 

CD 
CO 

o 
o 

s 

o 

p 
o 
a> 

<H 

cd 
o; 

X 
E-t 



CD 








CO 








£ 








o 


-d 






M 


0) 
•H 






U-i 


rH 






o 


CU 








a. 




MD 


p 


3 




• 


c 


CO 




IfN 


a> 








o 


CO 

p 






Sh 


•H 






<d 


Ci 






Oh 


cd 






>> 


(0 






p 


^ 


CO 


o 


•H 


o 


e 


• 


CO 


u 


a) 


o 


a 


X 


p 


o 


CD 




CO 




p 


C 






c 


O 






H 








hi 


C 






C 


•H 






•H 


> 




o 


co 


•H 


CO 


• 


5 


rH 


S 


C/N 


o 




cu 


-4 


h 


C P 




CQ 


o 


CO 




CD 








CO 


CO 






£ 


p 




o 


o 


•H 




<h 


5h 


C 




m 


CQ 


C3 






CO 






O 


B 


*fc 




• 


to 






o 


P 






UN 


CO 








X) 








CD 








co 








5 








o 









Eh 


o 




nO 


CQ 


B 















CO 






t>- 




^ 




» 


-a 






r-i 


<D 






-4 


P 








03 








H 








•H 








P 


• 






3 


o 




ir\ 


S 


z 







\& 



o 

z 



CO 
CD 
•H 
O 

CO 



- 57 - 



rr\ -4" to vO O CA *A 



ON O 
CV 



O -4" O 



CV 
r-i 



O 

rH 



ir\ t> <H cv 

c » • * 

N rl rl N 



cn 



cn. m nO CV O 

• • • • s 

O (^ 4 ^O CM O 

u-s in m <r\ ur\ m 



CV CV r-l r>- OA NO 

o a a ■ • • 

r-i r-i NO NO tfN fv> 

{>• NO LA IA C^l CN 



nO CV O -4 tO -4" O ^ O l> NO "CO 
• ••••aevoooa 

r^C^NO c\ iA o CVnO -4 CV O nO 
-4- CV rH 



cr\ 


NO 


O 


rH 


o 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


nO 


NO 


-4- 


l-l 


o 


r-i 


o 


t>- 


CN 


rH 


to 


on 


O 


O 


r-i 


to 


-* 


O 


O 
CV 


ON 
r-l 


-4 




CV 
rH 


On 


{>- 


rH 


r-i 


CV 


NO 

On 


O 


m 


O 


rH 


r-i 


CV 


ON 


rH 


rH 


t> 


•co 


to 




• 


e 


• 


• 


• 


» 


o 


• 


• 


• 


■ 


• 




NO 


CA 

H 


NO 

-co 


ON 


H 

rH 


rH 


o 

CN 


CV 


i> 


-4 


rH 


to 

rH 





i>- t>- o- cv on 

(H rT\ ITS 



CV O rH 
• a e 

ITN -4 tO 
l/N 



MD IA IA 
CV 



NO 

CV 



p-\ 



O nO CN CN CN nO 



• 
CV 
rH 



ir\ 



O 



ON 

o 



NO 



NO 



s 

CO 

CO 
rH 

CQ 



CD 

•H 
P-, 

CD 
P 
•H 

x: 



CD 

c 

•H 
Q-, 

X) 

CD 

cd 



CD 
C 
•H 
Ph 

O 

cd 

•-3 



CD 
O 



CD 
O 



cu cu 

CO CO 



CD 

p 

•H 
X! 
3= 



U 

X ctJ 
O rH 
CTS CU 

rH O 
CQ P-, 



X 
o 
u 

•H 

CQ 

CD 
P 
•H 



O 

rH 
rH 
•H 

.3 



rH 
CD 
N 
CTJ 

33 



CD 
d 

rH 

p 



CD 



T3 
CD 
rH 

O 

CD 
CU 

CO 



x\ 

CO 



p 



CD 
XI 
CD 
C 
C3 
►-3 



u 
u 

CD 
O 

c 

•H 



u 

CD 
O 
CD 

o 

XI 

o 



CD 

rH rH 

CU CU 

<TJ CO 



o 
o 



to 

a 
rH 
LT\ 



m 



to , 



o 

CV 



ON 

-4" 



nO 

e 

o 



o 



p 

s 



-a 

CD 
C£ 



Ih 

0) 

-a 

rH 



< 
E-< 
O 
Eh 



CD 

ctj 
Ci 

a) 
> 



li- I 



! 



rQ 



rH 

pq 

< 

E-< 



CO 




5 




o 




U 


TJ 


PQ 


CD 




•H 


<m 


rH 


O 


CU 




a 


P 


2 


c 


CO 


CD 




O 


CO 




p 


M 


•H 


CD 


C 


a. 


CD 




Tj 




CD 


!> 


CO 


P 


£ CO 


•H 


o s 


CO 


M CD 


C 


X) P 


CD 


CO 


P 


c 


c 


O 


M 


"^^ 




hO 


W 


C 


c 


•H 


•H 


> CO 


CO 


•H g 


£ 


H CD 


o 


P 


S-. 


£ CO 


pq 


O 


0) 




CO 


CO 


£ 


p 


o 


•H 


w 


C 


PQ 


£) 


CO 




B 


<s& 


CD 




P 




co 




•d 




CD 




CO 




£ 




o 


o 


M 


o 


PQ 


13 



CO 

X) 

CD 
P 

•H 
P 



CO 

6 

CD 
P 
CO 

CD 



•H 



^ 



O 



o 



CO 

CD 
•H 

a 

CD 

a 

CO 



-4 
rH 



UA 






CV 

o 

cv 

CV 






O 

3 



O 



O 

to 



CV 



r* 
o 
o 

rH 

6 

CD 
SC 

c 
o 

M 

a 



s 
a 

CO 
H 

<d 

PQ 



U 

CD 
O 

CD 
P 
•H 



CD 
O 

U 

a 

CO 

CD 
P 
•H 
X! 



CD 
O 

rH 

a. 

CO 

o 
CO 

H 
PQ 



to 
o 



53 



cv 

c 

-4- 



o 

OA 



O 



o t>- 

a e 

u-\ vO 

rH -4 



° 8 



CA 



O 



UA 



O nO 



to 



O- 

• 

nO 

rH 



CV 



s: 
o 
^. 

•H 

PQ 

CD 
P 
•H 
X! 



O 
rH 
rH 
•H 



rH PA 

o a 

to cv 



o 
to 



r>- 

o 
LTN 
-4" 



O 
(V 
CA 



o- 



-4 



CA 

■ 

-4 

rH 



CA 

-4 



CD 



CO 



p 



o 

o 

o 



o 



o 

ON 



o 
o 



w 

CD 



CD 

-a 



T3 
CD 
rH 

r* 

o 

CD 
CO 



rH 


-* 


a 


a 


nO 


-4- 




la 


O 


CA 


a 


• 


s 


CV 

to 


o~\ 


vO 


a 


a 


-* 


ON 


OA 


CA 


O 


O 


-4" 


-4" 


CV 


H 




CV 


rH 


On 


• 


e 


r>- 


to 


UA 


-4- 


-4- 


n0 




CV 




NO 




• 




u-\ 




fA 


>> 




(-, 




u 


-d 


CD 


o 


rQ 


o 


CD 


& 


3 


o 


»-o 


Q 



o 
o 



ON 



CV 



o 

o 

ON 



LA 
CA 
ON 
CA 



-4" 
CV 



^4 

UN 



to 



to 



CV 

o 





CD 




fal) 


rH 


rt 


< 


U 


rH 


CD 


O 


> 


rH 


< 







■d 


CD 


-H 


CO CO rH 


<H £ P> ft 


O O -H ft 


v „ !h C ^ 


"^pq j3 co 


-f^ 


td 





fi 


N 


•H 


■H 


CO 


iH 


£ 


•H CO 


o 


P S 


£h 


a 


pq 


t> p 




CO 


<H 


a 


o 


o 


h 


EiD 


p 


fl CO 


•H 


•H S 


CO 


> 


fl 


•H P 





rH CO 


+=> 




C 


fl 


H 


O 


CO 


CO p> 


£ -H 


o c 


£* 


CO 




B 




U 


^ 


O p> 




CO 




'd 




T* 




CO 




* X 


« 


o u 


o 


u 


cd 


A 



pq pq 



0) 

p 

CO 

rd 


CO 

o 

H 

pq 

DO 

s 


■p 

CO 

d 
CD 

P 

cd 
H 

•H 

P 

J3 



\& 



o 

|2! 



^ 



O 



^ 



o 



^ 



o 



CO 



•H 

O 
© 
P. 
CO 



- 59 - 



00 



ON 

LfN 



rO 

« 

st 



LfN 



CM 

LfN 



CO MD MD CO CO 

• * o » • 

O O MD o 



o o 



LfN 
CM 



LfN t~- 



c\j co 

• * 

O CO 



ltn co 



md 



CM 
CM 



O 

LfN 



O 

st 



ON CM rO 

IA LT\ Vfi 



LfN 


CO 


• 


* 


On 


ON 


CM 





md f— o "3- o 

ITN C t— CM VD 



rO rO CO LfN 

» • • • 

O rH rO vo 

CM rH 



CO 



iH rO 



O 
LfN 



ON 

C 

MD 

H 

O 



md 
co 

CM 



CM 



CM rn 



CM CM ON 
rH 



MD 



CM 



st rH 



o 



LfN 



MD CM 



st o os r- 

* • e • 

CM O rH CO 

CM rH rH 



CM rH f— st 
rH rn 



MD 

9 

m 



CM 



LTN 



t— rH 

• o 

rH ON 



CM 



(M rn 



LTN 

o 



s 
a 

CO 
iH 

cd 

pq 




c 

•H 
Pm 

O 
P> 
•H 





•H 
ft 

-d 





c 

•H 
ft 

O 

cd 




o 

rH 
ft 
CO 


P> 
■H 




O 

u 
ft 

CO 

o 
cd 

pq 



,H 

cd 

rH 
ft 
O 

ft 



^1 

o 

u 

•H 

pq 

o 

p 

•H 




N 

cd 




-d 

rH 



P> 



H 


-d 



ti 


rH 

O 

ft 
CO 



St MD 

« e 

st rH 
CM 



CM 



CO 


H 


LTN 


MD 


st 


MO 


rO 


MD 


MD 


LTN 



CM CO 

o • 

ON MD 



MO 


CO 


O 


o 


MD 


LfN 


O 


rH 


O 


CM 


LfN 


MD 


MD 


LfN 




rO 


r— 


o 


CO 


CO 


o 


s± 


CM 


t— 


CM 


O 


St 


rH 


O 




CM 


LfN 


rH 




CO 


H 


rO 




rH 


CM 


O 
rO 


CM 
rO 


CM 


rO 

m 

iH 




O 


MD 


MO 


f>- 


ON 


MD 


LTN 


st 


ON 


ON 


rO 


O 


LfN 




f- 


• 


• 


9 


• 


o 


• 


• 


• 


» 


■ 


o 


■ 


• 




• 


O 


CO 


CO 


rH 


H 


«=}" 


ON 


CM 


o 


rH 


LfN 


ON 


CM 




CM 


LTN 


rH 


CM 




rH 








m 


rH 


CM 


CM 


H 




rH 


<5fr 


rH 
<H 


CM 


CM 


LfN 

H 


CM 


St 
LfN 


CM 


t— 

rH 


C— 


MD 


ON 
st 


st 


LfN 

H 

CM 






r— 




t— 


c— 


m 


LfN 




ON 




MD 




rH 




MD 




• 




• 


• 


« 


• 




• 




• 









9 




H 




rH 


O 


CM 


o 




o 




MD 




rn 




rH 



ON 
CM 



ON 

st 



st 

© 

On 



m 



co 



p> 







t>5 
















U 














>5 


U 












>» 


rH 

















rH 


rH 


jq 


H 


rH 








U 





o 


ft 


ft 












Xi 




cd 


cd 






W) 


rQ 


o 





a 


a 


>H 


j 


cd 







^ 









-=3 


>H 


fl 


c 


o 


• 


-d 


•d 


g 





?! 


•H 


xi 


p> 





rH 


> 


h> 


Ph 


o 


a 


p« 


pq 


rH 


*>J 



o 

o 
o 

rH 



ON 

« 
rH 
MD 



ON 



CM 



co 

CO 



st 

o 



MD 



LfN 

o 



On 



CD 
CD -H 

CO £0 rH 
£ -P ft 
O -H ft 

v.o & £ $ 



o 



ts) 
•H 

CQ 

O 

pq 



o 
-p 

•H 

c 

CD 



CO 
O 



CD CO 

CO +> 

£ -H 

O S3 

fH P 
PP 





CO 




6 


m 


CO 


o 


•P 




CQ 


tJ 




o 


t) 


CO 


0) 


& M 


o 


fH 


fH 


CtJ 


pq 


pq 



m 

s 
CD 

-p 

CQ 

CD 

s 

pq 

CQ 

E 

cy 

-P 

CO 

-d 

CD 

CO 

o 
fa 

m 

CO 

E 
© 

-P 
CQ 

-d 

0) 
-P 

rH 
•H 

CO 

B 
o 

-p 

CQ 

CD 



W 



^ 



O 

Is; 



^ 



o 



^ 



o 



\& 



o 

is; 



VL 



o 

|S5 



CO 
CO 

•H 
O 
CO 
ft 

CQ 



00 - 



M 
o 
o 

rH 

a 

CD 

w 

c 
3 
o 

?H 

o 



IT\ 


rO 


H 


rn 


r- 


ON 


• 


* 


« 


9 





• 


■«* 


O 


*tf 


o 


o 


ON 


rO 


H 


CM 


H 


CM 


ON 



LTN 



o 

ON 



in 



o 



o 



in 



o 



O 

ON 



o 



in 
-3- 






o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




o 


ON 


rH 


ON 


CO 


t— 




rO 




CM 




H 


00 




O 


rn 


ON 


CO 


"tf 




o 


• 


• 


• 


• 


* 




• 


o 


oo 


CM 


o 


r— 




rO 


o 




"vt" 










rH 















rO 



in 

CM 



o 


rO 


ON 


m 


■ 


• 


• 


• 


in 


OO 


CM 


o 


r— 




"vj- 





ro 



rO 



% 



a 

cd 

CO 
rH 

cc? 

pq 



ct) 

TH 


o 

CD 
-P 
•H 



CD 

O 

Fh 



CD 

O 

fH 



ft ft 



43 

o 

fH 
•rH 



CQ CQ PP 



CD 
-P 
•H 
43 



o 

CtJ 

pq 



CD 

-p 



•H 



CD 
N 

W 



43 
CO 



-p 



fH 
CD 



-P 



fH 
CO 
tH 
i-H 
<^ 

TH 
CD 
rH 
M 
o 

CO 

ft 

CQ 



fH 
fH 
CD 
43 
CO 

c 



o 

O 



o 



o 

MO 



o 

CM 



rH 



CM 

O 



00 
CM 



OJ 



CD 

bD 

U 
CD 



- 61 - 

CREEL CENSUS 1961 
KAPUSKASING DISTRICT 

by 
P. A, Kwaterowsky 

Abstract 

A creel census program was initiated in the District 
during the summer of 1961 to obtain information on 
which to base future management plans. Logbooks were 
issued to Conservation Officers, Park attendants and 
tourist outfitters enlisting their co-operation. 
Data obtained show that 454 or 71 per cent of the 
anglers fished a total of 2565 hours to catch 313 
speckled trout or each angler caught 1.7 fish. The 
remaining 132 anglers spent a total of 734 hours to 
catch 236 pike and 431 pickerel for a combined aver- 
age of 3-6 fish per angler. Tables giving detailed 
angling returns for speckled trout, pike and pickerel 
are presented. 



In order to obtain basic information on the sport fishing 
potentials of the Kapuskasing District and on the status of indivi- 
dual game fish species a creel census was initiated in the summer 
of 1961. The need for creel census data as an essential part of our 
future management plans is evident. This holds especially true for 
our speckled trout waters in the Hearst-Hornepayne area where during 
recent years approximately 40 lakes were surveyed, found suitable 
for speckled trout and subsequently planted with this species. 

The introduction of speckled trout was a complete success 
not only as far as the survival rates are concerned, but also in 
regard to their excellent growth rates as indicated by specimens 
scaling seven pounds and more, two and three years after introduction. 
An annually increasing number of fishermen are utilizing these fish- 
ing waters and detailed creel census information is necessary for 
any management programmes we may have to establish for our speckled 
trout lakes. Because of the restricted number of lakes containing 
speckled trout, creel census data as a basis for detailed stocking 
plans are doubly important to the Kapuskasing District. 

Method 

Log books were issued to each Conservation Officer as it 
was felt that officers by recording the information from each fisher- 
man checked could participate in the collection of creel census data 
without any undue interference with his regular activities. In 
addition, logbooks were issued to tourist outfitters T camps for use 
by their guests; creel census cards were distributed to our Park 
attendants who were encouraged to participate in this work. 



- 62 - 

Results 

Data from 636 anglers fishing a total of 3349 hours were 
obtained in this manner., It is evident that this is not a specta- 
cular achievement e However, it may be considered satisfactory when 
we realize that this is our first venture into the field of creel 
census work, that only one tourist operator co-operated this year 
in providing data and that we were working under very adverse condi- 
tions in regard to the availability of our Fish and Wildlife staff 
due to illness and a position vacancy. 

Analysis 

From the total of 636 anglers, 454 or 71«4 per cent fished 
2565 hours or 76 per cent of all rod-hours for speckled trout. The 
remaining 132 anglers (28.6 per cent) spent a total of 7$4 hours (24 
per cent) for the capture of pike and pickerel. 

Each angler spent on the average a total of 5»3 hours 
(5*6 hours for speckled trout and 4-2 hours for pike and pickerel) 
on the different fishing waters. 

Tables No. 1 and No. 2 represent the fishing intensity, 
effort and success for the individual waters and species. 

Discussion 

It is evident that we cannot draw definite conclusions 
from this limited creel census. For example, the rate of capture 
for speckled trout as represented in Table No. 1 does not reflect 
a true average picture, as data were collected from the later part 
of June through August, at a time when speckled trout fishing is 
very poor. This explains the rather unfavourable rate of capture 
in most of our lakes. Sider Lake represents the only exception but 
this is explained by the fact that data were obtained on May 18th, 
just after the break up when speckled trout fishing was at its very 
best. If we calculate the rate of capture by including the 
alledgedly released 50 trout (av. 14") in the total fishing effort 
we arrive at the extraordinary capture rate of 3»18 fish per hour. 

Unfortunately sufficient information was not provided for 
stream fishing to draw any conclusions. The limited data for Jew 
Creek suggest that the reproductive potential of that stream must 
be very good, however, the small average size of seven inches needs 
some further studies in order to explain this phenomenon. 

Table No. 1 clearly indicates that in more accessible 
lakes (Arnott, Hart, Little Hart) the introduced speckled trout did 
not have an opportunity to grow to respectable sizes because of: more 
intensive fishing pressure due to the favourable accessibility. 

Despite the limited information obtained during the 
summer of 1961, we are already in a position to partially adjust our 
planting programme. 



- 63 - 

Table No. 2 reveals an interesting fact; in Kabinakagami, 
the average length of pike and pickerel retained exceeds those from 
the other listed lakes. Commercial fishing operations had been 
carried out in this lake and it can be assumed that this resulted 
in the more favourable average sizes of these two species. Further 
studies in this regard, however, are needed to voice definite 
conclusions. 

No attempt was made in this report to calculate the aver- 
age weight of fish per angler as it is felt that we have at first 
to standardize a weight of length relation for our northern waters. 
This relationship seems to differ considerably if compared with that 
for the same species in southern Ontario. Our lake survey data 
collected during last summer will be used to establish the age- 
weight relationship as applicable for our area. As soon as a scale 
reader (Leitz Trichinoscope) becomes available, we will embark on 
this project for which a separate report will be written. 

Recommendation 

It is strongly recommended that during the ensuing years 
a concerted effort be made to obtain more fishing data for specific 
lakes and areas to lay the foundation for appropriate fish manage- 
ment plans. 

It is believed that the introduction of fin clipped 
speckled trout into certain waters will facilitate our work in study- 
ing the survival rates, utilization and preference of particular 
trout waters. 



- 64 - 

| TABLE 1: 

SPECKLED TROUT 

Wame of Water No. of Rod Fish Fish Average Hours Fish Per 

Anglers Hours Released Retained Length Per Fish Angler 



Red Pine Lake 


7 


48 


Skunk Lake 


42 


114 


Myrtle Lake 


26 


78 


Slim Lake 


165 


1025 


Arnott Lake 


28 


159 


Trodd Lake 


38 


128 


Jaw Lake 


72 


420 


Young Lake 


11 


25 


Insect Lake 


15 


53 


Hart Lake 


23 


289 


Sider Lake 


4 


22 


Little Hart L. 


8 


126 


Gagnon Lake 


3 


18 


Leaf Lake 


4 


30 


Jew Creek 


8 


30 



50 



7 


18" 


6.8 


1 


46 


17" 


2.5 


1.1 


47 


14" 


1.7 


1.8 


249 


16.5" 


4.1 


1.5 


109 


13" 


1.5 


3.9 


27 


18" 


4.7 


0.7 


90 


16" 


4.7 


1.2 


6 


17" 


4.1 


0.6 


46 


15" 


1.2 


3. 


35 


10" 


8.2 


1.5 


20 


16.5" 


1.1 


5. 


29 


10" 


4.3 


3.6 


2 


16" 


9 


0.7 


17 


13" 


1.8 


4.3 


83 


nn 


0.36 


10.4 



TOTAL 454 2565 68 813 15.5" 3.2 1.7 



CV 

w 

CO 

< 















- O^ 


■■ 




Ph 
















CD 
















Ph P 
















CD 






On 


-4- 








X^r-i 


CO, 


ON 


• 


o 


ON 






to hfl 




CV 


ON 


UN 








•H C 
















&H < 














XJ 
















CO 
















•H 


rH 


to 


MD 


H 


H 






CO <H 


• 


o 


e 


• 


e 






u 


H 


O 


rH 


H 


rH 






P u 
















O CD 
















OC Ph 




















w 


-^ 
























X! 


s 


S: 


ti> 


UN 


£ 






o +J 


-* 


-4- 





• 


UN 






U W) 


rH 


rH 


-* 


UN 


rH 






CD p 






rH 


rH 








> CD 














►P 


<hP 












































w 


T3 














w 


1 CD 


CV 


O 


UN 


ON 


UN 




o 


-P P 


ON 


ON 


t>- 


CV 


-c* 




M 


CD -H 








rH 






P-. 


Ph" Cti 














T3 
















1 CD 


-d" 


1 


CV 


ON 


O 






rH CO 


cv 




H 


ON 


rH 






CD CtS 








rH 








Cd CD 
















£3 
















o 4J 


s 


£ 


s 


g; 


g 






G h£> 


F- 


to 


to 


rH 


-* 






CD p 


CVJ 


rH 


cv 


ON 


CV 






> CD 














w 


<rP 














T3 














fed 


1 CD 


U"N 


SO 


-J- 


UN 


NO 




M 


P P 


CV 


rH 


l>- 


-4- 


o 




Ph 


CD -H 
C£5 Cd 














T3 
















1 CD 


vO 


1 


H 


UN 


o- 






rH CO 






on 


ON 


nO 






CD 03 






rH 










CE! CD 
















CO 
















P. 


nO 


ON 


on 


ON 


ON 






n p 


CV 


to 


-d" 


ON 


on 






o o 


rH 




CV 


rH 


rH 






CnJ DC 
















CO 
















(h 
















CD 


ON 


t> 


to 


CV 


CV 






H 


CV 


-* 


ON 


ON 


-tf 






W) 
















C 
















< 
























•H 














CO 


S 














•H 


03 














co 


bO 














•H 


o3 








<H 


C 




6 


M 








O 


o 


fi 


cd 


<ti 








P 


Ph 


03 


ho 


C 








CD CD 


CD 


rH 


03 


•H 


•H 






6 -P 


£ 


c 


bfl 


J3 


B 






03 o3 


03 


o3 


03 


as 


CD 






S3: 


O 


ffi 


2 


*H 


« 





NO 



ON 



CV 



UN 






On 
£>- 

rH 



to 

CV 



nO 
ON 
CV 



ON 

H 



-4 

to 



cv 

to 

rH 



Ph 
< 
FH 
O 



- 66 - 

USE OF COOPER- TOX #6 AS A FISH POISON 
GOGAMA DISTRICT 

by 
R. C. Johanson 
Senior Conservation Officer 



Abstract 

Taylor and Docks Lakes, Wigle Township, District of 
Sudbury were poisoned with Cooper-Tox #6 on July 27, 
I960. This preparation was applied at the rate of 
10 P.P.B. or ,0054 Imperial gals, per acre foot. On 
Taylor Lake containing 309 acre feet of water, three 
gals, of Cooper-Tox #6 were used. On Docks Lake 
containing 107 acre feet of water, one gal. was used. 
Two men maintained a close check on the two lakes for 
nine days, July 30th to August 7th, I960. A complete 
kill was estimated on both lakes August 4th-7th. The 
lakes were tested for fish survival in May, 1961, with 
three complete gangs of gill nets in each lake, mesh 
sizes lj?" - 4". A toxicity test was made in May and 
June 1961, and the results indicated the lakes were 
still toxic. It is planned to carry out further 
toxicity tests later in the year. 



Objective 

To eliminate the present fish populations in Docks and Taylor 
Lakes in Wigle Township for the purpose of introducing Speckled and 
Kamloops trout and retain only one species of fish in each lake. 

Introduction 

Taylor and Docks Lakes were surveyed in May, 1959 by 
Conservation Officers B. Turner and A. Zimmerman as part of Gogama 
District Fisheries Management Programme. The survey crew found the 
lakes contained a population of perch, pike, pickerel and suckers. 
Speckled trout were planted for a number of years in Taylor Lake, 
also one planting of smallmouth black bass. While Docks Lake has 
been planted only once. Our records show the following plantings of 
speckled trout and black bass in:-- 



Speckled Trout 
Speckled Trout 
Speckled Trout 
Speckled Trout 
Smallmouth Black Bass 



Tavlor 


Lake 






1951 




1000 


Yearling 


1952 




1000 


Yearling 


1953 




1000 


Yearling 


1954 




2000 


Yearling 


1956 




500 


Fry 


I960 




6 


cans Yea: 



- 67 - 

Docks Lake 

1956 2000 Yearling Speckled Trout 

The speckled trout planted in both lakes apparently did not 
survive due to the presence of pike and pickerel in the lakes. 

A local resident of Taylor and Docks Lake area informed us 
that, a trapper, now deceased, caught adult pike and pickerel in 
Ketchini Lake and transplanted them in Taylor and Docks Lakes in the 
late 1940 v s. 

A tourist outfitter in the vicinity of Taylor and Docks 
hakes made a recommendation to the Department of Lands and Forests to 
consider poisoning the lakes, as the past speckled trout plantings 
had been fruitless. This recommendation was approved after the lakes 
had been surveyed. Plans were made to poison the lakes with cooper- 
tox #6 as part of the summer's work programme for I960. 

Netting Method 

An extensive netting programme was carried out on both 
lakes oneweek before applying the toxicant. Three complete gangs of 
nets, mesh sizes lj" - 4" were used in each lake. The nets were in 
operation from July 19th - 21st, I960 during this period the catch 
was as follows: 

Docks Lake 



12 pickerel - I6i" - 20" in length - li to 3 pounds 

1 speckled trout - I65" in length - 1 pound 
9 suckers - Average length - 2 pounds 

2 perch - 2" to 4" in length 
Taylor L ake 

17 pike - 12 1/4" - 24 1/4" in length - \ to 1 pound 

4 pickerel - I9J-" - 26" in length - 2 to 6 pounds 

Poisonin g 

The lakes were sounded by Conservation Officers B. Turner 
and A. Zimmen an, a contour map was prepared for each lake, and the 
area calculated. 

The volume of water in acre feet was calculated by Conserva- 
tion Officer Geo. Vozeh, (using Mr. N. D. Patrick 9 s method of calcu- 
lating the volume of water in acre feet) • 



- 63 - 



On July 27th, I960 Conservation Officers R« C. Johanson and 
B. Turner applied cooper-tox #6 to both Taylor and Dock's Lakes. A 
3 H.P. outboard motor was used on a small boat supplied by Mr. J. 
Redhead, Tourist Outfitter, Ketchini Lake. Cooper-Tox #6 was mixed 
in a galvanized wash tub at the rate of one pint to a tub full of 
water. An automatic bilge pump was attached to the leg of the motor 
above the propeller, a hose from the bilge pump, to the tub was used, 
to apply the toxicant into the slip stream, a gate valve on the hose 
controls the flow of the mixture. The valve is regulated to increase 
or decrease the flow of toxicants dependent upon the speed travelled. 

Observations . 

Arrangements were made for two Forest Rangers to keep a 
close check on the results of the poisoning project carried out on 
the lakes. These men started work on the 3rd day after the toxicant 
was applied. The following results were recorded: 



Taylor Lake 
July 30/60 - 15 pike - J - 1 lb. 
July 31/60 - 5 pike - J - 1 lb. 
Aug. 1/60 - Nothing 
Aug. 2/60 - Nothing 

Aug. 3/60 - 1 pike - 1 pound 
2 perch - 4" Av. 

Aug. 4/60 - Nothing 

Aug. 5/60 - Nothing 

Aug. 6/60 - Nothing 

Aug. 7/60 - Nothing 

testing for Survival 



Docks Lake 

2 pickerel - 3 and 4 lbs. 

Nothing 

Nothing 

(4 suckers - 2" Av. 
(4 p'erch - 4" Av. 

1 pickerel - 3 pounds 
1 sucker - 2 pounds 

Nothing 

Nothing 

Nothing 

Nothing 



Three complete gangs of gill nets were set in each lake, May 
13th, 1961 by B. Turner. The nets were lifted May 26th, 1961, no fish 
were caught in the nets. 

Testing For Toxicity 

On May 19th, 1961, 144 mud minnows were caught in a small 
pond at Mileage 101 C.N.R. and transported to Taylor and Docks lakes 
in minnow buckets. Three wire minnow traps with the tunnels closed 
were set in each lake, at the various depths, 5 ? - 15 ? - 25 v . Twenty- 
four minnows were placed in each trap. 



- 69 - 



Observations 



On May 26th, 1961 B. Turner and Geo. Richards checked the 
traps and found one dead minnow in the trap set in five feet of water 
in Docks Lake and two minnows were dead in the trap set in ten feet 
of water in Taylor Lake. On May 30th, 1961 Conservation Officer 
Geo. Richards checked the traps at Taylor Lake and found two dead 
minnows in each trap. The minnows in the traps set in 10* and 25* 
were removed and 12 yearling speckled trout were put on each trap. 
The traps were checked and picked up June 16th, 1961 by R, C, Johanson, 
All speckled trout were dead as well as all the minnows. The minnows 
had been dead for some time as they were in a high state of decom- 
position,, 

Twenty-five speckled trout were retained in a minnow 
bucket, in the lake at Gogama (Minisinakwa Lake) for comparison pur- 
poses - the speckled trout retained at Minisinakwa lake, were all 
alive June 16th, 1961. 

"Fall" Toxicity Test 

A second toxicity test was made September 27th to October 
21, 1961 in Taylor Lake, Wigle Township; sixty-five speckled trout 
(year and half olds) were used for this test. The fish were again 
placed, in three minnow traps 22 speckled trout at 5* , 22 at 10* and 
21 at 25* (bottom) depths. Upon checking the traps October 21st, 
only three speckled trout were found alive at the 5 ? level and two at 
the 10* , all fish were dead in the 25* depth. 

We are not satisfied with this test due to the fact the 
fish placed in the traps were 6 - 3" in length and we feel they were 
overcrowded, and this would certainly have a bearing on the high 
mortality experienced in the last toxicity test. 

Acknowledgments 

The writer wishes to acknowledge contributions made by 
various members of the staff, and particular the work carried out by 
Assistant Senior Conservation Officer B. Turner.