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No. 81 



May, 1%5 



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v 




RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 





ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. 
Minister 



F. A. MacDougall 
Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



No. 81 May, 1965 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



Fish& Wildlife Branch 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemanmay1965onta 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 31 May, 1965 

Page 

Wildlife Status Reports. 

- by A. B. Stephenson 1 



Moose Tagging in the White River District, 
1964. 

- by S. B. Woods ide and D. J c Rice 23 



Pesticides and Water Quality. 

- by C. F. Schenk 30 

Pheasant Harvest Report, Lake Simcoe 
District, 1964, 

- by J. S. Borland 37 



Report on the Use of Four Inch Mesh in 
Harvesting the Walleye of Makoop Lake, 

J. J. Armstrong 46 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION ANB NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



1 
WILDLIFE STATUS REPORTS 

by 

A. B. Stephenson 

liologist, Research Branch, Maple 



Abstract 

Questionnaires completed by Fish and Wildlife 
personnel pertaining to the status of 13 mammalian 
species for the period 1954=55 to 1963-64 have been 
analysed. Graphs illustrating the 10 year trends 
in relative abundance and maps showing the 1963-64 
population statuses are presented. These data 
indicate population trends and provide a basis for 
prediction of future population changes. They 
illustrate changes brought about by range extension, 
predation, disease and other factors, many of which 
are still unknown. 



Introduction 

Since 1954 the Fish and Wildlife Branch has been conduct- 
ing an annual enquiry to determine the population status of several 
animals for which information was not available from other sources. 
Information on the relative abundance of each of the 13 mammalian 
species collected during the past 10 years is summarized in this 
report along with their 1963-64 status by District.* 

The use of annual questionnaires to ascertain the status 
of Ontario wildlife populations had its beginning in 1924 when the 
National Parks Branch in Ottawa started a two year snowshoe hare 
enquiry (Elton, 1933). There was a lapse of five years before the 
Bureau of Animal Populations in Oxford continued these questionnaires 
for the National Parks Branch. This organization collected data 
from 1931-32 to 1947-48 when the enquiry was discontinued (Elton, 
op. cit.; Chitty, 1950). In 1932 the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology 
initiated a much broader questionnaire which included a diversity of 
birds and mammals. They continued their records until 1953-54 
when they discontinued the enquiry in view of the increased interests 
in wildlife populations by provincial governments. At that time 
the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests initiated its own 
questionnaire pertaining to the status of a few species of particular 
interest to wildlife management. 



* A series of 13 maps accompanied the original article which is on 
file in the Fish and Wildlife Library, Maple. 



Status Reports 

A mimeographed questionnaire , as shown in Fig. 1, has 
been distributed to all Fish and Wildlife field personnel at the 
end of each fiscal year. The reporter indicated the occurrence of 
a species and the trend in the population by checking the appropriate 
columns. This technique assumed that each individual was familiar 
with the local status of the various populations and could give a 
subjective opinion of the current status relative to that of the 
previous year. In a few cases no comment was reported on the status 
of a population . This was taken into account when calculating the 
percentage of returns indicating occurrences and trends. 

Table I shows the number of reports received from each 
District for 1963-64 and an average for the 10 year period. No 
reports were obtained for 1956-57. Only the percentage of reports 
indicating abundance was used in illustrating the population trends 
from 1554 (Graphs 1-13) since this criterion reflected any relative 
changes which took place. 



Table I. Number of Wildlife Status Reports 







Aves 


rage No. of 


No. of Reports 


District 




Annual Reports 


in 1963-64 


Lake Erie 






14.1 


16 


Lake Huron 






13.9 


13 


Lake Simcoe 






11.4 


12 


Lindsay 






10.2 


10 


Tweed 






10.4 


13 


Kemptville 






9.6 


11 


Pembroke 






6.2 


5 


Parry Sound 






10.5 


15 


North Bay 






9.9 


10 


Sudbury 






6.9 


7 


Sault Ste. Marie 




7.0 


7 


Chapleau 






4.4 


5 


Gogama 






3.6 


4 


White River 






5.7 


5 


Swastika 






6.7 


9 


Kapu ska sing 






4.9 


7 


Cochrane 






6.3 


9 


Geraldton 






5.0 


5 


Port Arthur 






4.2 


5 


Fort Frances 






4.4 


8 


Ken or a 






4.7 


6 


Sioux Lookout 


Total 




4.9 


5 






154.8 


187 



Wildlife Status 

Snowshoe Rabbit 

-This species exhibits noticeable fluctuations in numbers 
and consequently has been a subject of investigation for a number 
of years. Its periodic peaks of abundance have been well documented 
since 1785, initially from the Hudson's Bay Company fur returns and 
during the past four decades by special status enquiries. In Ontario , 
snowshoe rabbits attained peak abundance in 1923=24, 1933-34, 1942-43, 
1951-52 and 1959-60. Questionnaire reports do not indicate the 
magnitude of these peaks but from general accounts of their status, 
it appears that they were most numerous during the early 30' s and 
relatively lower during their peak in the early 40' s. The popul- 
ation reached a low level in 1946-47 but for some unknown reason 
they did not increase to a major provincial peak in the early 50' s. 
Their numbers fluctuated at a relatively low level during this 
period although local areas did experience a fair abundance of 
hares. Following the next population low in 1954-55 their numbers 
increased to a provincial peak in 1959-60 (Graph I). Subsequently 
the population declined although the reports for 1963-64 indicated 
that snowshoe hares were common in most Districts (Map I). 

Peak populations may not be attained in all areas at the 
same time. Indeed, there are many local populations which are 
separated by only a few miles which will be out of phase with each 
other. During the most recent cycle peak populations were first 
attained in the south and central portions of the Province and 
gradually progressed to the western Districts where they were most 
abundant one year later in 1960-61. 

From the history of fluctuations in snowshoe hare numbers 
it appears that they are currently at a low population level, and 
that their numbers will i.ncrease to a provincial peak between 1968 
and 1970. 



This species was introduced into southern Ontario in 1912 
when a few individuals escaped from captivity in the Brantford area. 
Their population spread up to 1952 is well documented by Reynolds 
(1955). Since that time the European or brown hare (commonly called 
jack rabbit) has continued to extend its range throughout the southern 
agricultural areas, especially into eastern Ontario. Presently 
they are found in the southwestern portions of Grenville County with 
the occasional specimen being taken in the south of Lanark and 
Carleton Counties. 



In southwestern Ontario their numbers were relatively low 
between 1955 and 1>57 (Graph 2). During the next three years they 
exhibited a continuous increase which was also evident throughout 
the rest of their range. What effect predation had on this increase 
is unknown but it was during this period that foxes were drastically 
reduced in numbers by rabies which was spreading eastward throughout 
southern Ontario. 

Since 1960-61 the European hare has been relatively 
common and even abundant in some local areas, although the 1963-64 
reports indicated a general decrease in abundance (Map 2). 

Cottontail Rabbit 

This species j which is confined to the agricultural 
regions of southern Ontario, was relatively stable in numbers from 
1954 through to 1960-61 (Graph 3). During this period over 25 per 
cent of the reports indicated that rabbits were abundant, especially 
in southwestern Ontario. In 1961 and 1962, there appeared to be 
a sharp increase in their numbers with nearly 50 per cent of the 
reports indicating an abundance. This was followed by a decrease 
in 1963-64 although they were still reported to be relatively 
common except in the Kemptville District. 



This species is commonly found throughout southern Ontario 
where it attains its highest densities in the agricultural areas. 
The northern limit of its range extends into Pembroke District and 
throughout most of Parry Sound District to Lake Panache in the 
Sudbury District. It is also found in the urban areas of North 
Bay and Sudbury. In 1961, four individuals were introduced to 
Cockburn Island in the Sudbury District. Occasionally a few 
individuals have been reported in the western portion of Fort 
Frances District. These are a northern extension of the Minnesota 
population of. black squirrels. 

Reports showed a peak population in 1955-56 with a gradual 
decline to 1960-61 (Graph 4). The reports for the next three years 
indicated a relatively common, but stable population with the 
exception of Tweed District where there was an increasing population 
in 1963-64 (Map 4). 

Red Squirrel 

This species is found throughout the Province and during 
the last 10 years has exhibited two years of peak abundance; 
1957-53 and 1961-62 (Graph 5), It has seldom been reported as 
scarce except in the Lake Erie District. The 1963-64 reports 
indicated that red squirrels were relatively common with little 
to no change in their population status (Map 5). 



Chipmunks 

The chipmunk population has been relatively stable over 
the past 10 years with minor fluctuations in abundance (Graph 6). 
All Districts reported no change in the population trend in 1963- 
64 . However, both Port Arthur and White River Districts reported 
chipmunks relatively abundant in 1963-64 and Lake Erie and Lake 
Simcoe Districts reported them relatively scarce (Map 6). 

Woodchuck 

Although this species is found throughout the Province ii 
attains its highest numbers in southern Ontario, especially in the 
agricultural areas. The status of the woodchuck population was 
relatively stable between 1954 and 1961 but in 1962 there was a 
noticeable increase in their numbers (Graph 7). The reports for 
1963-64 indicated that they were relatively abundant and still 
increasing in some Districts in southern Ontario (Map 7). This 
change was not evident in northern and western Ontario where the 
population is relatively low and stable. 



This species was most abundant in 1954 and 1962 although 
it has never been abundant in northern Ontario (Graph 8). There 
are only a fex<7 local areas where the porcupine has become fairly 
numerous; mainly in Parry Sound District and the northern portions 
of Lindsay and Tweed Districts. In the Parry Sound District 
porcupines have been reported abundant every year since 1954. 

The 1963-64 reports indicate that there is no change in 
the population status following the slight increase in 1962 (Map 3). 

Skunk 

This species has been common to abundant in southern and 
south-central Ontario for the past 10 years (Graph 9). It has also 
been relatively common in the Districts of Fort Frances, Kenora 
and Port Arthur. Although the skunk has decreased in relative 
abundance during this 10 year period it is still considered common 
in all areas except northern Ontario where it is relatively scarce. 
The 1963-64 reports indicated no change in this status (Map 9). 



Raccoon 

The major population of raccoons is found throughout 
southern Ontario although they are extending their range northward 
in the North Bay, Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie Districts. 
Occasionally a few are reported from Gogama and other northerly 
Districts where they are usually found near railroads. There is 
a minor population in western Ontario where their numbers have re- 
mained relatively scarce. 

Raccoons were most abundant between 1954 and 1957 
(Graph 10). The}?- decreased in 1958 when rabies was prevalent in 
southern Ontario and have remained at a relatively stable level 
through to 1963-64 (Map 10). 

Red Fox 

The red fox exhibited a similar trend in abundance to 
the raccoon except that it decreased to a much lower level in 1958 
following the relatively abundant level between 1954 and 1957 
(Graph 11). This marked reduction in population took place largely 
in southern Ontario probably as the result of rabies. In the rest 
of the Province foxes remained relatively stable during this 
period . 

The 1963-64 reports indicated that foxes were still scarce 
in a large portion of southern Ontario but they were generally 
increasing in numbers (Map 11). Throughout central and northern 
Ontario they were relatively common and increasing in several 
Districts. In Fort Frances and Port Arthur foxes were reported 
to be relatively abundant with little indication of any decrease 
in numbers. 

Black Bear 

This species showed a general increase in abundance 
from 1954 to a peak population in 1957-58 (Graph 12). The reports 
indicated a sharp drop in 1958, although they remained relatively 
common through to 1963-64. The northern and western Districts 
showed an increasing population in 1962-63 and this was continuing 
in a few of these Districts in 1963-64 (Map 12). The remainder 
of the Districts reported no change in the population trend in 
1963-64. 

Bobcat 

According to Peterson and Downing (1952) the bobcat is 
found in three discrete areas of the Province; southern Ontario, 
Sault Ste. Marie and western Ontario. The recent status reports, 
however, indicate that the Sault Ste. Marie and western populations 



are now contiguous in the White River District, There is still, 
however, no indication that the southern Ontario population is 

linked with the Sault Ste. Marie population. 

Bobcats have been relatively scarce in Ontario since 

1954 but in 1962 they showed signs of increasing, especially in the 
western portions of their range (Graph 13). The 1963-64 reports 
indicated a continued increase in bobcats although they are still 
only relatively common in the centres of their ranges (Map 13). 

Conclusions 

Field personnel can provide a good general assessment of 
the status of wildlife populations from one year to the next. The 
changes which -take place in different animal populations may not, 
however, be equally conspicuous. For example, the behavioural 
characteristics of the snowshoe hare and their great fluctuations in 
numbers are readily apparent while the chipmunk is not as conspi- 
cuous and probably does not have as large a change in numbers from 
one year to the next. 

Since the reports are based on subjective information 
they do not permit comparison of abundance or scarcity from one 
area to another: abundance in one area, especially toward the limits 
of a species range may be considered to be scarce in the centre of 
its range. This does not, however, preclude comparisons from one 
year to the next providing the area in question remains the same. 

Trends in populations are independent of relative 
abundance hence an increase or decrease in one area can be compared 
with that in another area. 

The reports have their value in indicating general trends 
from which predictions can be made. These trends may be the result 
of inherent properties of the population, as in the case of 
snowshoe hares; range extension and possibly the reduction of 
predators, in the case of European hares; and disease, in the case 
of foxes and raccoons. 

Status reports are also useful in indicating range 
extensions, as were reported for the European hare, black squirrel, 
raccoon and bobcat, 

References 

Chitty, Helen. 1950. The Snowshoe Rabbit Enquiry 1946-43. 

J. Animal Ecol. 19(1): 15-20. 

Elton, C. 1933. The Canadian Snowshoe Rabbit Enquiry 1931-32. 
Can. Field -Nat. 47(4): 63-69; 47 (5): 84-86. 



Peterson, R. L. and S. C. Downing. 1952. Notes on the Bobcats 

( Lynx ruf us ) of Eastern North America With Description 
of a New Race. Contribution of the R.oy. Ont. Mus. Zool 
and Fael. No. 33:1=23. 

Reynolds, J. K. 1955. Distribution and Populations of the 

European Hare in Southern Ontario. Can. Field Nat. 
69(1): 14-20. 



Figure I 



Fish and Wildlife Branch 
WILDLIFE STATUS REPORT 



Name Address - 

District . April 1 , 196 ... to March 31 

Description of area covered in this report 





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23 



MOOSE TAGGING IN THE WHITE RIVER DISTRICT, 1964 

by 
S. B. Woodside and D. J. Rice 
Conservation Officers 



Abstract 

A new method of noose tagging employing a rubber 
collar set on an automatic snare- type release was 
investigated. Owing to the limited nature of this 
season* s work (only 12 collars released) no definite 
conclusions could be drawn. Temperature was found 
to be a limiting factor to this method as below 
42°F the rubber collar lost its elasticity. It is 
concluded that the economy of this method over present 
techniques of moose tagging warrants further study 
into its possibilities. 



Purpose 

To determine animal movement in direction and distance, 
during a recorded period of time, with thought to establishing 
movement patterns. 



Method 



Forward 



A rubber collar set on a snare-type release. 



This project has so far been limited to time spared from 
the normal enforcement and management duties of two conservation 
officers, and materials picked up at random within the District. 
The only material expense was the purchase of 150 feet of "'SIMATCO 
RUBBER TUBING" from the Fisher Scientific Company of Montreal at a 
cost of $30.00. The idea for this method of tagging was obtained 
from a newspaper article describing similar project being carried 
out by Mr. Pierre Des Meules, of the Quebec Department of Tourism, 
Fish and Game. 

Procedure 

It is first necessary to find locations where moose are 
consistantly using definite trail to water or feeding areas. Since 
this project was to be carried out in conjunction with our normal 
enforcement and management duties, we chose only those locations 



24 

which could be visited with little deviation from our regular patrol 
routes. These trails were rather easy to locate during the months 
of June and July, but became quite obscure and little-used by mid- 
August. The best set locations always occurred within 10 to 30 
feet of the water. Beyond this point, the main trail invariably 
fanned out into numerous secondary trails. The ideal site for erect- 
ing the collar release mechanism is between two trees located 
approximately 46 to 50 inches apart, on opposite sides of the 
trail. The larger the trees, the less work involved. It was 
noted that trees under 8 inches DBH were susceptible to considerable 
sway in a heavy wind and this resulted in the mechanism being 
tripped, the collar being released and often landing far enough 
away from the set to require a lengthy search in locating it. 

If trees under 8 inches DBH must be used, they should be 
wired firmly together about 8 to 10 feet from the ground and wired 
back to a heavier tree on either side of the trail. In some cases, 
only one tree could be found in a suitable location. Here, it was 
necessary to plant a post on the opposite side of the trail and wire 
it firmly in place as outlined above. In one instance, the trail 
was in a cleared area where no trees were available. In this case, 
two Jackpine trees about 6 inches DBH were cut, planted whole on 
either side of the trail and wired firmly in place. This set was 
successful in obtaining six releases. 

On completion of each set, it is important that it be left 
as natural looking as possible. This often requires considerable 
camouflage. Small spruce or balsam (7 to 10 feet high) wired to the 
set trees, proved quite effective. 



Equipment 










1 


a 


axe 




1 


- 


hand saw 




1 


- 


pr„ pliers (with cutter) 




1 


- 


long handle shovel 




1 


- 


hammer 




1 


- 


8 foot step-ladder 




1 


- 


8 inch rat- tail wood rasp 




1 


- 


steel pocket tape 


Material 









For one set. 

2 steel rods - 5/16" x 70" 

4 "I" bolts - 1-1/2" eye - 6" shank 

50 feet (approx.) haywire - gauge 

1 pc. hardwood dowel - 48" x 1/2" - stained dark 

brown or dark green 



25 

1 pec hardwood dowel - 4" x 3/8" 

1 roll black "electric tape" (Plastic) 

1 pco "Sinatco Rubber Tube" - 38" x 5/16" Bore 

1/16" walls 

18 inches plastic coated "twist- tie" wire 

1 identification tag. 



Collar Constr uction 

See Figure 2, 



V! 



Cut a piece of "Sinatco Rubber Tubing" to a length of 38 

Insert a piece of hardwood dowel (4" x 3/8") into one end of the 
tubing for a distance of 2 inches. Bend the tubing in a circle and 
insert the remainder of the dowel into the open end and force it 
en until both ends of the tubing neetc Bind this joint firmly with 
the plastic coated "Twist-tie" wire leaving length of about 6 inches 
protruding. Wrap the joint firmly with plastic electrical tape. 

Identification^ Tag 

Bright yellow "Dymo Embossing Tape" was used for the 
identification tags., The required information (tag number and Return 
to Lands and Forests - White River) was printed on two separate lengths 
of tape and these were glued back to back This offered double stre- 
ngth to the tape, A small hole punched in one end of the tape allowed 
for its attachment to the twist- tie wire protruding from the joint 
of the collar „ 

Collar P,oleas e Cons true t ion 

Gee figure 2, 

Take a 70 inch length of 5/16" steel rod. Measure 4 
inches from either end and bend it 90° . From this bend measure 
12 inches and bend it 90°. Measure 4 inches and bend 180°. Meas- 
ure 4 inches and bend 90°. Measure 42 inches and bend 90°. The 
rod should now appear as in figure 2, Two such rods are required 
for each set, The eyelets were made from the broken coil springs 
off "Conibear" beaver traps. Cut the shank to about 6 inches and 
sharpen to a point on the grindstone. Four eyelets are needed for 
each set. 

Making the Set 

See figure 1. 

When the desired trees have been located as previously 
described ? measure from the ground, 30 inches up the side of one 
of the trees , Drive an eyelet into the tree at this point. Before 



26 



driving the eyelet securely, decide what position it oust be in so 
that when the set is complete, the "trip- stick" and collar will sit 
at close to a right angle to the trail. Place one of the steel rods 
against the side of the tree with the inside am (the double-one) 
resting on top of the secured eyelet. Drive a second eyelet 
into the tree at the inside angle of the top arm on the rod. Place 
the rod into the e3^elets (top first, bottom last) and repeat the 
process on the opposite tree, checking to see that the two bottom 
eyelets are level with each other. Make sure the rods turn freely in 
the eyelets. With the rods turned so the arms point parallel to the 
moose trail, place one end of the I/2 s: hardwood dowel against the 
side of the bottom arm of the rod and measure the distance to the 
same point on the opposite rod. Cut the dowel to this length (which 
should be close to 42 inches) and file a shallow groove in each end. 
This groove should only be deep enough to allow the dowel to set 
firmly between the two steel rods. 

It requires two men to set the release. The first man 
holds the wooden dowel in place between the bottom arms of the rods 
as close to the ends as possible. This man should kneel at the side 
of the release opposite to the ends of the rod arms. The second 
man stands on the side of the release facing the ends of the rod arms. 
Re stretches the collar first over the two top arms, then down under 
the second set of arms, making sure that the tension of the rubber is 
close to equal on all four sides. The first man cautiously releases 
his grasp on the dowling and the set is made. Note : At no time 
should you allow any part of your body to come in line with the stretch 
of the collar while placing it on the release. The tension on this 
rubber is great enough to cause considerable pain and possible injury 
should it accidentally slip and strike you. 

Before leaving the set, take a spruce bow and sweep out 
all tracks on the trail in the immediate vicinity of the set. This 
serves a three- fold purpose; 1. When returning to check the set, the 
fresh tracks may indicate as to whether it was a moose, other animal, 
or a human who released the collar; 2. If there are no tracks present, 
the collar was likely wind-tripped; 3. Tracks may show that a moose 
approached the set and for some reason (likely poor camouflage) had 
by-passed it. 

Conclusions 

Temperature was found to be a controlling factor in this 
project in that at any temperature below 42°F the rubber had lost 
all of its elasticity and when the set was released,- the collar 
simply fell to the ground in the form of a 42 inch square. 



27 



Due to the very United nature of the project this year, 
it is rather difficult to draw many concrete and proven conclusions. 
Fron three different set locations we released a total of twelve 

collars during the period from June Sth to July 15th. To date, with 
the bulk of the hunting season over, we have had no returns. Obser- 
vations were made of collared noose as late as August 25th by the 
writer and the public. The collars appeared to fit the aninals 
quite comfortably, at least at the tines of observation. The lack 
of returns could be attributed to possibly three factors; 1, An 
insufficient number of animals were collared; 2. The collars have 
become snagged and torn off the aninals; 3. The collared aninals 
have moved from the release sites to areas inaccessible to the hunters 

However, it is felt that the economy of this method over 
present techniques of moose tagging definitely warrants a much more 
intensive study into its use. This will be conducted in the spring 

of 1965. 



Mr. Pierre Des Meules, Director, Terrestial Game Division, 
Department of Tourism and Game, Quebec: Mr. Des Meules was very 
co-operative in providing complete infomation of his collar release 
apparatus. Although we have nodified the mechanism to a certain 
extent, the basic principle is identical. 



Figure 1 




Figure 2 



COLLAR 




Wooden Dowel 



4" x 



3/8 



S TEEL RO D 

Ml 



"Simatco" Rubber Tube 
38" x 5/16" x 1/16" 



EYELET 




Plastic Tape 




Twist-tie Wire 





Dymo-tape" 
v Identification 



2 e 



r~7^ 



Broken 

"Conibear" Beaver 
Trap Spring 



/s 



42" 



<S< 



^Z. 



^v 



Cut & Point 









n 



A' 



/ 



12 



k-4 t8 -^l 



30 
PESTICIDES AND WATER QUALITY* 



C. F. Schenk, Biologist 
Ontario Water Resources Commission 

Abstract 

The contribution made by pesticides in increasing 
food production is recognized. On the other hand, 
the writer points out the combined effect on water 
resources of synthetic pesticides, detergents and 
industrial wastes. The paper discusses at some length 
the role of pesticides as a destructive component in 
water . 



A tremendous acceleration of technological development has 
characterized America's pest control industry within the last two 
decades and, more specifically, there has been an entire re- 
orientation of emphasis to the production of organic pesticide 
chemicals, as opposed to previous emphasis on inorganic compounds 
such as arsenlcals and salts of copper, zinc and sodium. Throughout 
the United States and Canada during this post-war period, the 
insecticide DDT and the herbicide 2,4-D have maintained dominant 
positions with respect to production, although the use of some of 
the newer chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as dieldrin, 
aldrin and lindane has increased dramatically in the last few 
years. The total value of pesticides manufactured in the United 
States increased from just over $75 million in 1939 to $300 million 
in 1961 (1) and it is anticipated that this figure will more than 
double itself by 1975 (2). 

The substantial contribution that pesticides have made 
in increasing the production of food, feed and fibre to meet the 
challenge of increasing human populations, in reducing spoilage 
and improving the quality of produce, and in effecting spectacular 
reductions in the severity and incidence of vector-borne communicable 
diseases, cannot be denied and should not be de-emphasized. 

However, accelerated technical and industrial progress 
of all kinds is producing an increasingly complicated array of 

^Presented at the Annual Convention of the Ontario Soil and Crop 
Improvement Association, Toronto January 29, 1965. 



31 



unnatural forces at work in nature,, which if left to proceed without 
appropriate checks and balances, would soon lead to a deterioration 
of our natural surroundings. One important aspect of this broader 
problem is the combined effect on our water resources of discharges 
of sanitary and industrial wastes, and the use of a large number of 
synthetic pesticides, detergents and other compounds which are 
reaching our waters from homes, farms and forested areas. The focal 
point of this presentation is to be the role of pesticides as a 
destructive component in water. I hope that I can objectively 
demonstrate that, while it is my firm belief that the search for 
effective pesticides that will be more specific as control agents 
should proceed unstinted, that progress along this line must be 
counter-balanced by equivalent emphasis in other directions. I 
am thinking of the development of refined methods of analyses to 
detect these compounds in water, the accumulation of data on residue 
levels in waters throughout the province and the promotion of studies 
related to the side-effects of the use of pesticides. 

How Pesticides Reach Our Waters 

Agricultural insecticides and herbicides applied to vege- 
tation or soil are subject to both biologic breakdown and processes 
of chemical alteration, the degree of change varying with different 
types of chemicals. The chlorinated hydrocarbons are extremely 
resistant to breakdown and indeed a generalized figure that has 
been established for the rate of loss of aldrin in soil indicates 
only a partial reduction of about 29 per cent of the applied rate 
over a six-year period. (West lake and San Antonio in Dugan et al, 
1963) (1). 

Pesticides may be transported to watercourses following 
periods of heavy rainfall. Stable compounds such as DDT and 
dieldrin are particularly hazardous in water since levels can 
increase over prolonged periods. On the other hand, these 
same chemicals tend to remain tightly bound to soil particles and 
this minimizes somewhat the hazard of surface and ground water 
pollution. Much depends on the timing of the application. 
The more volatile compounds may drift into streams or lakes during 
aerial and ground applications and this possibility is sometimes 
aggravated by carelessness on the part of persons applying the 
pesticides. Cleanup of spraying equipment in watercourses is 
often another source of contamination, for which there seems to 
be little excuse. Additionally, some pesticides are purposely 
added to water to control aquatic vegetation, algae, undesirable 
species of fish, aquatic insects, snails and leeches. Here in Ontariq 



32 



the addition of aquatic pesticides to water is regulated by a permit 
system administered by the Ontario Water Resources Commission, to 
forestall any detrimental effects that might result from such 
practices. 

Effects on Water 



There is little doubt that the use of pesticides is the 
most important of the several agricultural practices that affect 
water quality. The hazards associated with the presence of 
pesticides in water that have been quite well demonstrated by 
actual pest control operations and by laboratory studies are as 
follows: 

1. Toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrate life upon which 
fish feed. 

2. The effect of accumulated pesticides on the reproductive 
capacity of female fish and the hatching success of fish 
eggs. 

3. The tainting of fish flesh, making them unfit to eat. 

4. The creation of adverse tastes and odours in municipal water 
supplies. 

Fish are extremely sensitive to pesticidal compounds, 
more so than birds and mammals, as a general rule. They are 
especially susceptible to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. 
Endrin is the most toxic chemical to fish that is known to man, 
causing mortality at a concentration of less than 1 ppb in labor- 
atory tests (i.e., 1 pound of endrin to 100 million gallons of 
water) (3). Laboratory studies have shown DDT to be toxic at a 
concentration of approximately 16 ppb (3). The organic phosphorus 
insecticides, such as malathion and parathion, together with the 
herbicidal compounds, are considerably less toxic than the chlor- 
inated hydrocarbons, generally at concentrations expressed in 
parts per million rather than parts per billion. The toxicity 
of DDT to aquatic insects and other invertebrate life has been 
well established by studies in Maine, Montana and New BrunswicK, 
following applications of DDT for control of forest insects (4) (5) (6) 



It is necessary to cite only a few examples where pest 
control operations have decimated fish populations and have affected 

municipal water supplies, to emphasize the potential dangers that 
exist . 



o 



3 



In August, 1950, extensive fish kills resulted in 15 streams 
of the Tennessee River Valley of Alabama, following the use of 
organic insecticides in this area for the first time to control 
boll weevil in cotton. Toxaphene was reported to be the principal 
insecticide involved and the contamination of the streams was 
associated with excessive runoff caused by above-average rainfall 
and too frequent applications of the insecticide (7). Another 
example of a heavy fish kill was that experienced within a 2,000= 
acre salt marsh in Florida where dieldrin was applied at a rate 
of one pound per acre to eliminate sand fly larvae. It was esti- 
mated that 20 to 30 tons of fish were killed as a result of the 
treatment (8). Studies in New Brunswick showed that populations 
of young salmon and brook trout were drastically affected by 
aerial applications of DDT for control of spruce budworm (9). 

One of the most highly publicized fish kills in the history 
of the United States developed on the lower Mississippi River 
in the fall of 1963, following sporadic and less serious 
mortalities as far back as 1960. A tangled sequence of investi- 
gations, consultations and hearings involving government and the 
chemical industry centered around whether or not pesticide 
residues in agricultural runoff or discharges from chemical 
processing plants, or a combination of both, were responsible for 
the deaths of several millions of fish. Though pesticides were 
definitely implicated, the question of the source of contamina- 
tion does not yet appear to be satisfactorily resolved and further 
studies are currently in progress. One extremely worthwhile 
outcome of the controversy has been the tremendous impetus given 
to the development of specialized analytical procedures to detect 
the presence of minute quantities of pesticides in water. The 
final conclusions with respect to this situation on the lower 
Mississippi are being anxiously awaited. 

Closer to home, we have been fortunate in Ontario that 
large-scale fish kills related to pest control operations have 
never materialized. However, there have been several significant 
fish kills in the province which have been attributed to careless- 
ness in the use of these compounds. Cleanups of potato spraying 
equipment in the Nottawasaga River near Alliston in 1963 destroyed 
several hundreds of fish, including brown trout and rainbow trout. 
In a canal southeast of Leamington in July of 1962, fish were 
hauled away by the truckload following the use of aldrin for 
control of grubs in a radish crop and an application of DDT for 
control of mosquitoes and flies on the other side of the canal 
about the same time. In this case, it was reported that the 
spray bar on the water side was not shut off when the strip in the 
radish field adjacent to the canal was treated with aldrin. 



34 



The accumulation of DDT by lake trout and the subsequent 
effect on the survival of young fish at the Lake George fish hatch- 
ery was proven beyond doubt by a comprehensive study undertaken in 
New York State between 1958 and 1962. Survival of hatched eggs 
collected throughout the watershed and retained at the hatchery 
was completely lacking or negligible over a period of several years. 
This mortality was caused by the extensive use of DDT, mostly for 
black fly and mosquito control in the area surrounding the water- 
shed (10) . Another study in New York State has demonstrated the 
ability of fish to concentrate DBT in their tissues, particularly 
in their internal body fat and reproductive organs (11). 

With respect to production of tastes and odours, studies 
undertaken at the laboratory of the Ontario water Resources 
Commission have demonstrated the ability of 2,4-B and other 
herbicides to cause tastes and odours in water at low concentrations 
(12). Toxaphene can be detected in water at an extremely low 
level of a few parts per billion and other insecticides are offensive 
to a lesser degree. One of the most famous incidents related to 
the production of tastes and odours in water occurred at Montebello, 
California, in 1945. A small plant began to manufacture 2,4-D and 
discharged its waste water into the local sewage system. The 
sewage plant, in turn, discharged its treated effluent to the 
Pvio Hondo River. Within 17 days following the commencement of 
operations at the manufacturing plant, tastes and odours developed 
in shallow wells downstream and it was reported that lawns and shrubs 
were killed when the well waters were used for irrigation. These 
wells remained contaminated for a period of three years (13). The 
possible contamination of waters used as sources of municipal water 
supplies necessitates a cautious approach where aquatic herbicides 
or fish poisons are used to control nuisance populations. Further- 
more, persons using such chemicals should be aware that claims for 
damages might arise should their activities interfere with the use 
of water for irrigation or other rightful purposes by adjacent or 
downstream riparian landowners. 

Although this is an impressive resume of problems 
associated with the use of pesticides, it is to be admitted that, 
in the main, problems have been sporadic and generally localized 
when compared with the total utilization of pest control compounds 
throughout the entire U.S. and Canada. The widespread use of 
herbicides and insecticides has not resulted in concentration 
levels in surface waters used for public water supplies that can 
be considered to present any immediate hazard to human life. 
Nonetheless, studies undertaken by the U.S. Public Health Service 



o 



5 



have revealed the presence of detectable residues of DDT In 
several of the major water sheds of the United States and, of more 
interest to us, in Lake St. Glair and the Detroit River. Concentra- 
tions measured by the technique employed were in the range of 1 to 
20 ppb (14). Pesticides are getting into our waters and we do not 
understand all of the implications of their presence. 

In drawing to a close, the fact that much is still to 
be learned about the possible effects to man of long-term 
exposure to low concentrations of the more toxic pesticides, 
together with the ability of fish and possibly other forms of 
aquatic life to concentrate these compounds to their own detriment, 
point up the need for an accelerated programme to accumulate data 
concerning pesticide residue levels in water. The best means of 
providing an expansion of essential analytical services is 
currently being given careful consideration by the Ontario Water 
Resources Commission and rapid progress to this end is anticipated. 
Plans have been laid for this year to collect several species of 
fish from selected waters throughout the province to determine 
whether fish contain residues of DDT and possibly dieldrin. Since 
fish tend to concentrate these materials, it is felt that this study 
will provide a useful means of determining whether surface waters 
are being contaminated to a significant degree. Additionally, a 
single watershed draining an agricultural area receiving repeated 
heavy applications of pesticide compounds is to receive special 
attention, in order to determine what residue levels are present 
in the watercourse and whether fish populations are being 
detrimentally affected. 

In conclusion, may I re- iterate my realization of the 
need for high standards of agricultural production and I hope that 
continuing research will provide effective and specifically toxic 
pesticides to make this a certain accomplishment. All too often, 
this whole matter is presented as a choice - between high standards 
of agricultural production and uncontaminated waters, or on a 
broader scale, an uncontaminated environment. There really is 
no choice to be made, for we need both! A spirit of co-operation 
is required on the part of all parties concerned to see that both 
are maintained. 

References 



1. Dugan, Patrick R., Rcbert M. Pfister and Margaret L. Sprague, 
Syracuse University Research Corporation. Evaluation of the 
Extent and Nature of Pesticide and Detergent Involvement in 
Surface Waters of a Selected Watershed. Prepared for New 
York State Department of Health, Project No. GL-WP-3 
(August, 1S63). 



36 



2. Johnson, C, et al, Pesticides - Part 1: Insecticides, 

Mi tic ides, Nematocides, Rodent ic ides. Chemical Week Report 
McGrav7-Hill Publication (May 25, 1963). 

3. Henderson, C, Q. H. Pickering, and C. M. Tarzwell. 
Relative Toxicity of Ten Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides 
to Four Species of Fish. Trans. An. Fisheries Soc, 88_: 23 
(1959), 

4. Warner K., and 0. C. Fenderson. Effects of DDT Spraying 
for Forest Insects on Maine Trout Streams. Journ. Wildl. 
Mgt., 26: 86(1962). 

5. Graham, R. J., and D. 0. Scott. Effects of Forest Insect 
Spraying on Trout and Aquatic Insects in Some Montana Streams. 
Final Rept., Montana Fish & Game Dept. (1958). 

6. Ide, F. P., Effect of Forest Spraying with DDT on Aquatic 
Insects of Salmon Streams. Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc, 86_: 

208 (1957). 

7. Young, L. A., and H. P. Nicholson. Stream Pollution 
Resulting from the Use of Organic Insecticides. Prog. 
Fish Cult., 13, 4:193 (1951). 

8. Harrington, R. W., Jr., and W. L. Bidlingmayer . Effects 
of Dieldrin on Fishes and Invertebrates of a Salt Marsh. 
Journ. Wildl. Mgmt, 22:76 (1958). 



,. 



Keenlyside, M. H. A., Effects of Spruce Budworm Control 

on Salmon and Other Fishes in New Brunswick. Canadian Fish 

Culturist, 24:17 (1959). 

10. Bur dick, G. E. et al. The Accumulation of DDT in Lake Trout 
and the Effect on Reproduction. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc, 
93:127 (1964). 

11. Mack, G. L. et al. The DDT Content of Some Fishes and 
Surface Waters of New York State. New York Fish and Game 
Journ., p. 143 (July, 1964). 

12. Swabey, Yvonne K. and C. F. Schenk. Studies Related to the 
Use of Algicides and Aquatic Herbicides in Ontario. Proc 
Aquatic Weed Control Soc. Meeting, P. 20 (February, 1963). 

13. Swenson, H. A, The Montebello Incident. Proc Soc. Water 
Treatment, 11:34 (1962). 

14. Middleton, F. M. , and J. J. Lichtenberg. Measurements of 
Organic Contaminants in the Nation's Rivers. Ind. and Eng. 
Chem., 52:99A (19( 



37 

PHEASANT HARVEST REPORT 
LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT - 1964 

by 

J. S. Dor land 
Assistant Senior Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

A total of 5,518 township hunting licences consisting 
of 2,047 resident and 3,471 non-resident were sold in 
the thirteen regulated townships, up to and including 
November 7, the close of the pheasant season. This 
is a decrease in total licences purchased by hunters 
of 10.6? o from the previous year. Nine thousand, four 
hundred pheasants, 4,750 day-olds, 4,000 poults, and 
650 adults were distributed to the regulated townships, 
excluding Markham, E. Whitby, Toronto and Albion 
townships. A field check of 1,795 hunters during the 
open season produced a harvest figure of 964 
pheasants, for a hunter success of .53 of a bird per 
hunter checked, an increase of 15.1% over 1963. Time 
to kill a bird took 6.4 man-hours, a decrease in time 
from 1963 of about one hour. In Markham township 
where no pheasants were released this year an average 
of .85 of a bird per hunter was obtain-:;! during the 
opening day and .61 of a bird for the entire season. 



Open Seasons 



October 21 - November 7 - Counties of Dufferin, Peel and 



York. The townships of Adjala, 
Essa, Tosorontio, Innisfil, 
Tec urns eth and West Gwillimbury 
in Sir.coe County and the townships 
of Pickering, Reach, Scott, Uxbridge, 
Whitby and East Whitby in the 
County of Ontario. 

October 3 - November 30 » Remainder of the District. 

Statistics 

Although the hunting of pheasants was open throughout the 
entire District, this report covers only nine regulated townships 
in the District. The remaining regulated townships, Adjala, Tecumseth, 
West Gwillimbury in Simcoe County, the township of East Gwillimbury 
in York County and the townships of Toronto and Albion in Peel County 



on 
JO 



either produced little pheasant hunting or closed their township 
to hunting during the pheasant season. The remainder of the District 
that is northward is well outside normal pheasant habitat and no 
figures are available. 

Entire Season 

No. of Parties Checked In Field 251 712 

Mo. of Parties Using Dogs 141 427 

No. of Hunters Checked in Field 670 1,795 

No. of Man-hours Hunted 1,941 6,132 

No. of Cocks Bagged 251 578 

No. of Hens Bagged 175 386 

Total Pheasants Bagged 425 964 

Per Hunter Cock .37 .32 

Per Hunter Hen .26 .22 

Per Hunter Total .63 .54 

Man-hours hunted to Bag a Pheasant 4.6 6.4 

Cock Pheasants Seen but not Shot 431 935 

Hen Pheasants Seen but not Shot 381 778 

Sex Ratio c/h Shot 1.4-1 1.5-1 

Sex Ratio c/hSeen-not Shot 1.1-1 1.2-1 

See Table I for complete coverage by townships 

Distribution 

A total of 11,000 pheasants made up of 5,700 day-olds, 
4,500 poults and 800 adults were received in the District for 
distribution. As usual day-olds were raised to poult size by town- 
ships, Game Commissions and interested sportsmen before release. 
In the case of Whitchurch township 426 adult birds carried over 
the winter by the Whitchurch Game Commission were released in early 
spring, at a ratio of one cock for every five or six hens. In 
Pickering township, 1,400 day-olds and poults were received by the 
Game Commission, of this number 974 were released just prior and 
during the open season and an additional 68 are being wintered 
over for further experimentation. A loss of some 25.6 per cent 
here was attributed to the lack of space to raise a healthy well- 
feathered bird. See Table 2 for complete distribution figures. 

Costs of Raising Chicks by Townships 

Whitchurch Township 426 birds released = $675. or $1.55 per 

bird released (winter carry-over) 

Pickering Township 1,400 birds (974 released) = $1,805.15 or 

$1.76 per bird released (Put and Take Project) 

King Township 700 birds received = $691. or 99$ per bird 

received (shown only for comparison sake) 



39 

Licences 

A total of 5,518 township licences were sold up to the 
close of the pheasant season., November 7. This figure is made up 
from 2,047 resident licences, a decrease of 26.6 per cent from 
1963 and 3,471 non-resident licences, a decrease of 3.9 per cent 
from 1963. Although the new township licence which was placed on 
sale for the first time this year made additional work for the 
issuers, no complaints were received from the townships. In 
regard to the Township Back Patch a numbered patch issued with the 
licence and to be worn by the hunter, only praise was received. 
See Table 3 for complete coverage by Townships. 

Weather 

Unlike the previous year's opening day, when temperatures 
were above normal, this year's opening presented the hunter with a 
cool drizzling rain which turned to snow by mid- afternoon. The 
remainder of the season was a mixture of cool, overcast and sunny 
warm weather which was, in most cases, excellent for both dog and 
hunter . 

Harvest 

Hunter success, bird in the bag and hours to kill a bird 
all show a nice increase towards better pheasant hunting this year. 
Although our figures are taken from one township less than the 
previous year, our hunter success of bird per hunter is up 15.1 
per cent and the time to kill a pheasant has decreased by one hour, 
figuratively shown as .53 bird per hunter and 6.4 man-hours to kill 
a bird. See Table 1. 



1962 1963 1964 



No. of Townships reporting 

No. of Hunters reporting 

No. of Parties Using Dogs 

No. of Pheasants reported shot 

No. of Pheasants reported seen (not shot 

Hunter Success 

Man-hours to kill a bird 

Distribution of birds to Regulated Twp. 



9 


10 


9 


1,455 


2,097 


1,795 


263 


457 


427 


672 


942 


964 


1,679 


1,403 


1,713 


.46 


.45 


.54 


7.4 


7.5 


6.4 


15,550 


15,000 


9,400 



B.emarks 

In comparison with 1963 hunter success figures which are 
shown above as comparable with 1962, this year's hunter success 
figures for the regulated townships were upwards. In dealing with 
some of the townships individually, however, we find some interesting 
harvest figures which might tend to change our thinking as to the 
proper types of yearly introduction or if such introduction in some 
townships is needed at all. Three types of planting were in opera- 
tion this year, spring , s ummer , and fall , and in two townships 
where introduction has been carried out yearly in the past, no 
plantings were made this year. (A Special Pheasant Report is being 
prepared on these different types of plantings). 

Discussion 

In this report, and owing to the different procedures 
of re-stocking in some townships this year's harvest results have 
been erratic. Summarized very briefly they indicate to us seven 
things. First, spring plantings of hen pheasants in the Township 
of Whitchurch in the hope of producing more natural hatched birds, 
failed. This, we feel, was due to some extent to poor survival of 
the bird shortly after release, a poor hatch, cause unknown, and 
poor reproduction from 1963 plantings. Second, poor harvest of 
pheasants planted in the township of Pickering just prior and 
during the open season could be attributed to the release, in some 
cases, of an underweight, poorly-feathered bird brought about from 
the conditions under which they had been raised; inclement pheasant 
hunting weather during the opening day and insufficient publicity 
as to release spots. Third, the very poor harvest in the township 
of E. Whitby where in previous years a good number of birds have 
been released and this year none, is mainly due to lack of reproduction 
and release of birds, plus the publicity given by the township that 
no birds were to be released. Four, the much improved harvest over 
previous years in the township of Markham where, like E. Whitby, 
no birds were released this year, is difficult to explain. From 
checking hunters over the years in this township, one factor appears 
to stand out and it could be one of the main reasons that much of 
this year's harvest came from the southwest corner above No. 7 
highway which has many acres of grassy and legume fields. In 
previous years the best hunting came from the north-central areas, 
where many corn, grain field and low lands are to be found. Five, 
in the township of King where in past yeais this township was normally 
known for its rabbit hunting and where pheasant hunters have been 
difficult to locate this year enjoyed exceptionally good pheasant 
hunting. Although the number of licences issued has changed little 
in the past three years, planting of pheasants during August and 
September this year increased some 31 per cent over the 1962-63 
figures. These, with little hunter competition and well-feathered 
birds released, are some factors which, we feel, account for the 



41 



near doubling of hunter success from the previous year. Six, as 
in previous years, those regulated townships such as E. Gwillimbury, 
West Gwillimbury j Tecumseth and Adjala which are very marginal 
pheasant lands produced little or no hunting. Seven, the contin- 
uation under improved supervision of the raising and releasing of 
adult pheasants during the cpsn season should be furthered, plus 
improved supervision and more encouragement given to those townships 
raising and releasing poults. 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank Conservation Officers B, Smith, 
R. Toth, W. Danby, G. Love, F. Marshall, E. Smith, J. Catcher, the 
many deputy conservation officers in the regulated townships and 
the members of the District office staff who supplied the figures 
used in the compilation of this report. 





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43 



TABLE 2 



44 



PHEASANT DISTRIBUTION - 1964 

LAKE SB'ICOE DISTRICT 



Township 
Whitby 



Pickering 



King 

E. Gwillimbury 

Caledon 

Chingaucousy 

Toronto Gore 

Tecumseth 

W. Gwilliiabury 

Tosorontio 

N. Gwillimbury, Georgina 

Orillia G & F 

Orangeville School 

Stayner Rod & Gun 

Tiny Marsh 

Little Lake 
TOTALS : 



Da£_Clds 


Poults 


Stock 


Total 


1,000 


800 


100 


1,500 


1,100 


300 




1,400 


/ uu 


1,000 


200 


1,900 


500 


300 


100 


900 


200 


500 


75 


775 


700 


500 


75 


1,275 




200 


50 


250 


550 


300 


50 


soo 



200 
150 
600 



200 



5,700 



j 



4,500 



50 


50 


100 


100 




200 




150 




soo 




200 




100 



300 



11,000 



45 



TABLE 3 



Township 

Whitby 

E. Whitby 

Pickering 

Markham 

Whitchurch 

King 

E. Gwillimbury 

Toronto Gore 

Chingaucousy 

Caledon 

Adjala 

Tecimseth 

W • Gwi 1 1 irab ur y 



REGULATED TOWNSHIP HUNTING LICENCES 
SOLD UP TO AND INCLUDING NOV. 7 
LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 1964 



Resident 



289 

45 

410 

320 

170 

320 

159 

22 

151 

35 

24 

36 

66 



Non-Resident 
300 
88 

415 
347 
600 
200 
222 
100 
239 
210 
200 
300 
250 



TOTAL: 



2,047 



3,471 



5,518 



46 

REPORT ON THE USE OF FOUR INCH MESH IN HARVESTING 
THE WALLEYE (Stizostedion vitreum) OF MAKOOP LAKE 

WITH RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE USE OF THIS MESH SIZE 

IN THE PATRICIAS 

by 
J. J. Armstrong, Biologist 
Sioux Lookout Forest District 



Abstract 

An investigation was begun on a Precambrian Shield 
lake to study the effects of a reduction in mesh size 
from 4=1/2 inch to 4 inch extension measure. An 
analysis of a representative sample of 537 wallejres 
captured in the 4 inch commercial nets showed that 
approximately fifty per cent of the catch is ten years 
old and younger. The average age of the sample is 
10.8 years. The growth of walleyes from Makoop Lake 
is very similar to the average growth of walleyes of 
nine Patricia lakes and to the walleyes of the Red 
Lakes, Minnesota. A length-weight equation is pres- 
ented for a representative sample of 100 walleyes 
from Makoop Lake. An analysis of maturity data 
indicates that male walleyes from this lake probably 
mature at age VII followed by females a year later. 
An analysis of a segment of a catch curve for this 
walleye population indicates an annual mortality rate 
of twenty-eight per cent. When this information is 
used in conjunction with the relative growth rate, the 
age at maximum biomass occurs at 5.8 years. The 
large difference between the age at maximum biomass 
and the average age of the sample collected from 4 
inch mesh indicates that the 4-1/2 inch mesh currently 
in use in Makoop Lake is inefficient in harvesting 
the walleye. Recommendations on the use of 4 inch 
mesh in the Patricias is presented. 



Introduction 

Lewis (1964) recommended that a study be inaugurated 
on the effects of a reduction in mesh size from 4-1/2 inch to 4 
inch (extension measure) on the whitefish and walleye populations 
in Patricia lakes. In this report Lewis used catch per unit effort 
data to show that the 4-1/2 inch mesh currently in use is very 
inefficient in harvesting the slow growing populations in this 



47 

section of the province. He suggested that the use 4-1/2 inch 
mesh "...nay be one factor in preventing a greater and more 
efficient harvest of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and whitefish 
( Coregonus clupeaf omis ) c: > 

The use of catch per unit effort is not satisfactory by 
itself to justify a reduction in mesh size unless this information 
has been collected on an unfished population. Where a population 
has been previously fished by a given mesh size, the effect of such 
exploitation is to remove the larger fish which are expected to be 
old and which are generally slower growing. The end result is a 
younger population in which the average size of fish -is too small 
for efficient capture by the gear in use, and a subsequent reduction 
in the catch per unit of effort, This chain of events is especially 
true where only the oldest and largest fish in the population are 
harvested. With further reductions in mesh size the effects of 
recruitment and growth become more important and modify the 
situation described above „ 

Lewis apparently recognized the limitations to which 
catch per unit effort data are subject, and recommended a study on the 
population dynamics of the two species in at least one Patricia 
lake. This proposed study was to specifically examine the case 
for or against a reduction in mesh size. In accordance with this 
recommendation the present study was begun on Makoop Lake by this 
author with the assistance of Mr, E. A, Driver. 

Makoop Lake is situated at Long. 90 50', Lat. 52 25', 
approximately 205 air miles north of Sioux Lookout on the Precambrian 
Shield. A limited amount of physical, chemical and morphometric 
data is available in a report by Monk and Lessard (1963). 

Makoop Lake was selected for this type of study since 
Monk and Lessard had found that the walleye captured in the 4 and 
4-1/2 inch mesh nets were rather old and that the catch per unit 
of effort for these mesh sizes was low relative to the smaller 
mesh sizes. They found that the greatest catch per unit of effort 
occurred in the 2=1/2 inch mesh, (Figure I) These authors 
recommended that 4 inch mesh would afford a better return to the 
commercial fishermen. That the potential yield of this lake was not 
being realized was apparent on examination of the production records 
in comparison with the potential fish production calculated using 
Ryder's (1964) morphoedaphic index. Using this method a potential 
fish production of approximately 4.5 pounds per acre, or a yield of 
123,000 pounds for the entire lake was calculated. Although a quota 
of 45,000 pounds was set for this lake, the effort required to harvest 
this poundage of fish made the venture unprofitable. This quota 
was removed only once in three years of fishing (1959), and was almost 
entirely composed of whitefish (13,100 lbs.). During the winter of 
1952 intensive netting with 10,000 yards of 4-1/2 inch mesh net daily 
for 14 days yielded only 340 pounds of walleye (Pers. comm. - C. 
St. Paul). The general attitude was that the lake has been "fished 



out !! , 



L? 



11 



10 



<u 8 

O 



4J 

0) 

I 



6 



H 



03 



O 
CM 



4 inch mesh 




4-2 inch mesh 



1* 






3 3-ir 4 4* 
Mesh Size 



5 5i5* 



Figure I - Catch of walleyes per hundred feet of net for ten mesh 
sizes from 1-1/2 to 5-1/2 inch. Data calculated from 
Monk and Lessard. 



L 



f> 



Methods and Materials 

The nain objective in the work at Makoop Lake was to 
representatively sanple walleye and whiteflsli caught by the 4 Inch 
mesh nets in use for the first tine In this lake. In order that 
a representative sanple was collected the f ishemen were asked to 
bring all walleye and whitefish caught back to canp for examination. 
Excellent co-operation was received. When the fishermen were checked 
on the lake while they were removing their catch from the nets, no 
small walleyes or whitefish were being discarded although some very 
small walleyes were caught. As a further check, locations where 
unwanted fish were discarded were examined. No walleyes were found, 
although a few whitefish which were probably culls were present. It 
is, therefore, felt that the sample of walleyes reported in this 
paper is representative of the catch harvested by the 4 inch mesh. 

Scale samples, total lengths, sex and the state of 
maturity were collected on each fish. A total of 633 walleyes were 
sampled for this information. Total weights were collected on 
100 walleyes. In addition weights were collected on samples of 
dressed (without heads) walleyes to determine the average dressed 
weight harvested by the 4 Inch mesh. 

Scale samples were removed from the area below the 
anterior insertion of the soft dorsal fin below the lateral line. 
Total lengths were recorded to the nearest one- tenth of an inch. 
Weights were recorded to the nearest ounce using a balance type 
scale. 

The determination of the state of maturity is difficult 
in the walleye especially if the fish have been collected early in 
the growing season. Although mature females are fairly simple to 
identify by the noticeable presence of eggs retained from previous 
spawnings, the immature fish are difficult to separate from those 
fish which have only spawned once or twice, and in which the presence 
of retained spawn is not readily apparent. Where maturing eggs are 
visible the fish must be mature, but these are very difficult to 
find in the early part of the growing season. For the same reason 
the incidence of mature walleyes that were not going to spawn the 
following spring could not be evaluated; probably samples collected 
in August or September would clear up these difficulties. Since 
the samples of walleye reported in this paper were collected in the 
early part of the growing season, many walleyes just reaching maturity 
were undoubtedly recorded as Immature. The values reported for the 
percentage of immature fish are, therefore, probably too high. Since 
maturing eggs were difficult to find, the incidence of mature walleyes 
that were not going to spawn the following spring could not be eva- 
luated. 



50 



At Sioux Lookout, the scale samples were arranged in an 
ascending order of length and the information on the scale sample 
envelopes was recorded on previously prepared forms. Scale 
impressions were made on cellulose acetate slides, and the 
impressions were read using a Leits Trichinoscope following the 
method described in Appendix A of Lev/is et al (1964). 

Re suits 

Age and Growth 

Table 1 shows the percentage composition of walleyes 
caught in the 4 inch mesh at Makoop Lake in 1964, and the cumula- 
tive percentages at each age. The sample is predominantly composed 
of- old fish. Approximately fifty per cent of the sample was ten 
years old and younger with age groups IX and X accounting for forty- 
four per cent of the entire sample. Approximately ninety-eight per 
cent of the sample was older than six years. The average age of the 
entire sample was 10.8 years. 

The growth of the walleye in Makoop Lake is presented 
in Figure II. Triangles represent back- calculated values on a 
sample of age group IX walleyes collected in 1964. Circles 
represent the average lengths of each age group of walleyes 
collected in 1964. This growth curve is very similar in the older 
age groups to the curve presented by Monk and Lessard (opus cit.), 
but shows a faster growth rate in the younger age groups. When 
the original scales were examined it was found that the locations of 
the first annulus and in some cases the last were probably misinter- 
preted. Thus the ages were one year less than the ages designated by 
this author. When a correction was applied to their growth curve 
and the two curves compared they were almost identical. 

Differential growth between the sexes is general after 
the age at maturity has been reached. In this study the females 
grew faster than the males (plots not shown), but both sexes were 
combined in calculating the growth rate from age groups IX to X 
represented in Figure II, Since the females greatly outnumbered 
the males (SO females to 20 males) this section of the curve more 
closely represents the growth of the females than the combined 
growth which should be lower. 



51 




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52 



Table I - Percentage composition of the catch of 537 walleyes 
from 4 inch mesh at Makoop Lake in 1964 



— ...... mm 








Cumulative 


Cumulative 


Age Group 


Numbei 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Percentage 


IV 


2 


.37 


.37 


99.95 


V 


2 


.37 


.74 


99.58 


VI 


1 


.18 


.92 


99.21 


VII 


4 


.75 


1.67 


99.03 


VIII 


24 


4.47 


6.14 


98.28 


IX 


120 


22.34 


28.48 


93.81 


X 


119 


22.16 


50.64 


71.47 


XI 


81 


15.08 


65.72 


49.31 


XII 


72 


13.40 


79.12 


34.23 


XIII 


61 


11.35 


90.47 


20.83 


XIV 


30 


5.58 


96.05 


9.48 


XV 


16 


2.97 


99.02 


3.90 


XVI 


4 


.75 


99.77 


.93 


XVII 


1 


.18 


99.95 


.13 


Average age 


- 10.8 


years. 

















The average growth of walleyes from nine Patricia lakes 
(Lewis et al, 1964), and from the Red Lake of Minnesota (Smith 
and Pycha, 1961) are presented for comparative purposes. The 
similarities of the curves is apparent, and will be discussed 
in other sections. 

Length-weight Relationship 

The length-weight relationship for the walleyes of 
Makoop Lake can be expressed by the regression equation: Y ■ 
2.8930X - 2.1701 where Y is the log of the weight in ounces and 



53 



X is the log of the total length in inches (Figure III). In 
order to avoid the tedious work involved by using observations 
on 100 fish, the average weight of fish in ounces was calculated 
for each one-tenth inch interval and the regression analysis 
was calculated using forty=one observations. The method of 
regression analysis is presented by Snedecor (1956). A summary 
of the computations is presented in Appendix A, 

Maturity 

Table II shows the percentage of mature and immature 
walleyes of both sexes caught in the 4 inch mesh at Makoop Lake. 
It is quite apparent that this size of mesh captures a predominance 
of mature fish, at least when first used in a lake. With removal 
of greater proportion of the older year classes the percentage 
of immature fish will probably increase slightly. 



Table II - The percentage of mature and immature walleye of both 
sexes sampled from the 4 inch mesh used in Makoop Lake 
in 1964. 





Mature 

Immature 


Males 

97.8 
2.2 


Number 

132 

3 


Females 

90.3 
9.7 


Number 

446 
48 


Totals 


100% 


135 


100% 


494 



The data are not sufficient to accurately determine 
when the walleye of this lake first become mature, but are 
presented in Table III to serve as a rough indication. 




LENGTH IN INGRES 



Figure III - The length- weight relationship of Makoop Lake walleye. 
The regression equation is presented in the text. 



55 



Table III - The percentage of nature and immature walleye for 
each age group caught in the 4 inch mesh at Makoop 
Lake, 1964, 



Age Group 



IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 



Males 
Immature Mature 



100 
33 












No. 



1 



67 


3 


100 


7 


100 


17 


100 


19 


100 


23 


100 


20 


100 


22 


100 


3 


100 


2 


100 


1 



Feme 


lies 




Immature 


Mature 


No. 


100 





1 


100 





2 


- 


- 





100 





2 


41 


59 


17 


13 


87 


102 


10 


90 


102 


2 


98 


59 





100 


52 





100 


38 





100 


27 










100 
100 



4 

1 



Probably male walleyes become mature for the first time 
at age VII and females at age VIII. 



When the log of the frequencies of the age groups in a 
representative sample of fish is plotted against the age of those 
fish, the resulting curve is called a catch curve (Ricker, 1948). 
The catch curve for Makoop Lake walleye is presented in Figure IV. 
When such a curve is straight in the right-hand limb constant 
survival rate is indicated. Nonlinearity in this section of the 
curve may have several causes when the population being considered 
has previously been fished, but in a relatively unfished population 




11 12 
AGE IN YEARS 



13 14 15 16 



Figur e IV - Catch curve of Makoop Lake walleyes samples from 
•4" nesh nets, 1964, 



57 

such as Makoop Lake, the convexity is probably caused by two factors: 

1. An increase in natural mortality with age, and: 2. The 
effects of previous fishing effort on the older age groups when 

4-1/2 inch mesh was used. The straightness of part of this curve 
under the situation of a relatively unexploited fishery should 
give some indication of the annual survival rate between the ages 
of such a section of the catch curve. This section has been 
assumed to be between age groups ten and fifteen, inclusive. Using 
the method described by Rob con and Chapman (1561) in analysing a 
segment of a catch curve, an annual survival rate of 72 per cent was 
calculated. The computations are presented in Appendix 3. The 
mortality rate, which in this case would be the natural mortality 
rate, is the complement of the survival rate and was found to be 
28 per cent. It is assumed that this mortality rate is constant 
and applies to age XV and younger. 

Discussion 

If the relative rate of growth in weight of a species is 
known in addition to the rate of natural mortality, the minimum 
size at which maximum biomass occurs can be calculated. This 
information is presented for the walleye of Makoop Lake in 
Figure V. The . descending curved line represents the increase 
in weight added each year relative to the weight at the beginning 
of the year expressed as a percentage. This information was 
obtained by determining the average lengths at the end of each year 
from Figure II and calculating the weights corresponding to these 
average lengths by the regression equation represented in Figure 
III. A curve showing the growth rate in terms of weight would be 
just as satisfactory. Next the difference between the weights of 
successive age groups was determined and the percentage change in 
weight in relation to the weight at the beginning of the year was 
calculated. This method is presented by Fry (1964). The method 
of estimating the rate of natural mortality has been presented 
previously. The age at which the curve of the relative 

growth rate intersects the line representing the rate of natural 
mortality is the point where the mass of weight added each year 
equals the mass of weight removed each year through the factors of 
natural mortality. Maximum biomass of the species occurs at this 
point, and is represented by the vertical line A in Figure V (5.8 
years). The vertical line B represents the average age of the fish 
samples from the 4 inch mesh nets used on Makoop Lake in 1964 
(10.3 years). The broken line with the solid triangles is the 
percentage age distribution of a sample of the catch, and is presented 
to show the contributions of each year class relative to the estimated 
point of maximum biomass and the average age of the sample. 



58 




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59 

No average age for the sample of fish caught in the 
4-1/2 inch mesh nets was ever obtained, but this value must be 
greater than the average age of the fish caught in the 4 inch 
nets. Even so, the difference between the average age of fish 
caught in the 4 inch nets and the age at maximum biomass is 
startling and indicates that with the use of 4-1/2 inch nets, the 
lake was being grossly underfished. The fish which were passing 
through the 4° 1/2 inch mesh nets were simply dying through the 
factors of natural mortality. 

With continued use of 4 inch mesh nets in Makoop Lake, 
it can be expected that the average age of the sample will 
decrease slightly, but will not become less than the average 
age at maximum biomass simply because this size of mesh is 
too inefficient in capturing the size of fish at this age. In 
making this statement it is realised that with increased 
exploitation the characteristics of growth and mortality of the 
walleye in this lake will change, but the extent of this change 
should not invalidate this statement. 

The average dressed waLght of 303 walleyes (dressed 
without heads) was 1.28 lbs. The average round weight of 100 
walleyes was 1.08 lbs. These weights are suitable for government 
and commerce. 

Theoretically, when the effects of future exploitation 
with 4 inch nets are more fully known, it may be found that the 
use of 3-1/2 inch nets will more fully realize the potential of 
this lake, having due regard for the requirements of government 
and commerce for a desirable size of fish. This mesh size has 
been used in the Red Lakes of Minnesota for many years with no damage 
to the fishery (Smith and ?ycha, 1961). Since the growth rates of 
walleyes from Makoop Lake and the Red Lakes are very similar, 
Figure II, especially in the older year classes, the use of 3-1/2 
inch mesh should be investigated in the future. No specific 
recommendations for the immediate use of this size of mesh are 
given here. 

Since the growth rate of walleyes from Makoop Lake is 
very similar to the average growth of nine Patricia lakes, it 

can be safely argued that 4 inch mesh nets can be used in this 
area. 

Recommendations 

1. That 4 inch mesh nets be used for existing Patricia Indian 
fisheries after a fishery investigation has been conducted for the 
harvest of walleye and whitef ish in lakes where lake trout are 
not present. 



60 



2. That adequate representative samples of walleye and whitefish 
be collected by standard gill net sets and the data analyzed before 
licenses for 4 inch mesh nets are issued for any lake, providing 

that this restriction would be removed when adequate information 

is available to justify the use of this mesh size in Patricia 
lakes in general. 

3. That an intensive tagging programme be conducted on at least 
one, preferably two, Patricia lakes (Makoop and/or Sachigo if 
feasible) to more accurately determine the natural mortality 
rate. The use of trap nets capable of capturing the younger year 
classes is recommended. 

4. That detailed analysis be conducted on the data collected 
at Sachigo Lake in 1964 from the commercial fishery and 
experimental netting. This recommendation is especially important 
since Sachigo is the only lake in which representative samples 
have been collected by standard gill net sets before 4 inch 

mesh nets were used for the first time. Much valuable information 
has been collected from this lake. 

5. That follow-up procedures be conducted on the changes in 
the age, sex, and size composition of the commercial catch of 
4 inch mesh nets, especially in Sachigo and Makoop Lakes. 

6. That long-term studies be inaugurated on the feasibility of 
using 3=1/2 inch mesh nets in the future. Caution in making 
recommendations on the extensive use of this mesh size is 
recommended. 



I wish to personally thank Mr, C. E. Perrie, Fish 
and Wildlife Supervisor, for permitting me to undertake this 
interesting study, and for advice on the problems I encountered. 
For assistance in the field I am indebted to Mr. E. k. Driver and 
Mr. T. Beardy. For information on the past history of Makoop Lake 
I wish to thank Messrs. G. St. Paul, C. Milko, C.Monk and J. 
Lessard. For critically reading the manuscript my thanks are 
expressed to Mr. A. E. Armstrong. Finally, my thanks to Mr. H. 
Speight, pilot of Otter ODV for the transportation and suggestions. 



61 

References Cited 

Armstrong, J. J. 1961. Patricia Inventory Fish-ageing Techniques, 
Appendix A, Progress Report #2 of the Fisheries Inventory 
Work in the Patricia 1961-53 by C. A. Lewis et al. 1964. 
Mimeo. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. 

Fry, F.E.J. 1964. Anglers arithmetic, Chapter VI, Fish and Wildlife, 
edited by J. P.. Dymond, Longmans Canada Limited, Toronto. 

Lewis, C. A. 1964. Some current fisheries problems in Patricia 

lakes and recommendations for future work on the Patricia 
Inventory Programme. Mimeo. Ontario Dept. of Lands 
& Forests. 

Lewis, C. A., C. H. Olver, W. A. West, and F. J, Atkinson. 1964. 
Progress Report #2 of the Fisheries Inventory Work in 
the Patricias 1961-63. Mimeo. Ontario Department of 
Lands and Forests „ 

Monk, C. E. and J. L. Lessard. 1963. Lake Survey Report on 
Makoop Lake, Field Notes and Data on File at Sioux 
Lookout, Ontario. 

Ricker, W. E. 1945. Abundance, Exploitation and Mortality of the 
Fishes of Two Lakes. Invest. Ind. Lakes and Streams, 
2(17). Vol. 2, pp. 345-448. 

Robson, D. S. and D. G. Chapman. 1961. Catch Curves and 

Mortality Rates. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. Vol. SO (2): 
181-189. 

Ryder, R. A. 1964. Chemical Characteristics of Ontario Lakes with 
Reference to a Method for Estimating Fish Production. 
Sect. Eept. (Fish) No. 48, Research Branch, Ontario 

Department of Lands and Forests, Maple. 

Smith, L. L. and R. L. Pycha, Jr. 1961. Factors Related to 
Commercial Production of the Walleye in Red Lakes, 
Minnesota, Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. Vol. 90(2) :1S0-217. 

Snedecor, G. W. 1956. Statistical Methods. The Icwa State 
College Press, Ames, Icwa. 

St. Paul, C. Personal Communication, Indian Affairs Branch, 
Sioux Lookout. 



62 



APPENDIX LA 

Computations of the length - weight regression equation for 
walleyes sampled from the 4 inch mesh used In Makoop Lake in 1964, 



SX - 51.6S73 
x = 1.2607 



SY 



60.5625 


uj-A.1 " 


■ 76.65775517 


1.4771 


C.F. - 


= 76.34907576 


50.37177603 


Sxy - 


.30367941 



C.F.= 65.16041417 C.F.- 89.45893673 

2 



Sx 2 = 



.1067327^ 



Sy~ - .91283930 
N = 41 
h - Sxy/Sx 2 = .30868/.1067 = 2.8930 
Y - 2.3930X - 2.1701 



APPENDIX B 

Analysis of a segment of the catch curve presented in Figure IV 
using the method of Rob son and Chapman (1961) 



A^e 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Coded_ Age 


1 
2 

3 



Number in Catch 



11- 



81 
72 
61 
30 
16 



X = Tk 
n 



Total 379 



L^2 = 1.604 

^ "7 j "\ 

3 1 y 



Using the above author's Table 3 (page 107) for K = 5, the 
survival rate Is .72.