Skip to main content

Full text of "The Resources and opportunities of Montana"

See other formats

S Montana* Dept* ot 

338.09 Agriculture and 
A.72m Publicity 

1916 The Resources 

and opportunities 

of Montana 




Montana State Library 

3 0864 1004 0515 1 



















The Resources and Opportunities 



(1916 EDITION) 

"There's a Place for You in Montana" 


Commissioner of the Departmenrof 
Agriculture and Publicity 

This Publication is Issued and Circulated by Authority of the 

State of Montana 




/Jl^ HIS PUBLICATION is issued by authority of the State of 
%r| ^ Montana by the State Department of Agriculture and PubHcity 
for the purpose of acquainting prospective settlers and investors 
with conditions as they exist in Montana. 

This Department represents no private interest; it has nothing to 
sell. Its aim and ambition is merely to give to the earnest inquirer the 
truth regarding Montana. This State wants settlers for the millions of 
acres of good agricultural land waiting for the plow, and it also seeks 
legitimate investors who will assist in the development of the many and 
varied natural resources with which this commonwealth is endowed. For 
the energetic and ambitious, it is confidently believed that there exist 
in Montana opportunities for advancement which cannot be duplicated; 
opportunities which, even here, will not long be available. It is to acquaint 
this class of people with what Montana has to offer that this publica- 
tion is issued. 

This is the fifth "Montana Book" and it is a distinct pleasure and 
inspiration to realize that these publications have come to be regarded 
as the standard authority on Montana; that they are in demand in 
libraries, colleges, schools, newspaper offices and legislative and admin- 
istrative bodies throughout the world; and that they have served to cor- 
rect not only erroneous ideas concerning this State, but have also 
attracted to Montana a tide of desirable immigration unequalled in the 
marvelous development history of the northwest. 

The State of Montana invites the closest investigation of the claim 
that farming pays better here than in any other state; and that living 
conditions are more nearly ideal here than can be found elsewhere. 

In a book of this size, it is very difficult to give more than passing 
reference to many industries which, of themselves, are of immense 
importance. It has been the aim to merely set forth in these pages 
information which will be of practical value to the average Americaf^ 
of moderate means who seeks to better his condition, and to give to his 
children a better chance than can be found in some of the more crowded 
portions of the Republic. 

SETH MAXWELL, Commissioner. 

The State and its People 

Energetic Americans, Inspired by the Enthusiasm of Assured 

Success, and With a Wealth of Natural Resources at Their 

Disposal, Carve Out a New Empire of Opportunity 

ONTANA, THIRD LARGEST of the States of the 
Union, and greatest in natural wealth, is the 
newest empire of opportunity. Fastest growing 
of all the States, it is but even now merely glimp- 
sing the dawn of its greater destiny; it is just 
beginning to realize the vast extent of the great 
resources which Nature placed at the disposal of 
its people and to utilize these resources in the 
service of Mankind. 

To the ambitious and energetic, Montana ex- 
tends a cordial and a sincere invitation. It asks 
them to come here and share in its prosperity by 
assisting in its development. It offers a larger 
measure of assured success than can be found 
anywhere else upon the American continent, and 
to sujastantiate this claim it modestly presents the 
record of merely a few brief years of actual 

Montana is the keystone state of the great American Northwest. It lies between 
the 104th and 116th meridians of longitude west of Greenwich and between the 45th 
and 49th parallels of north latitude. The western boundary follows the Coeur d'Alene 
and Bitter Root mountains and is irregular; in the southwest corner the line dips 
below the 45th parallel and follows the main range of the Rocky Mountains; the 
northern boundary is along the 49th parallel and the eastern boundary the 104th 
degree of latitude. It is bounded on , the north by the Canadian provinces of 
Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia; on the south by Wyoming and Idaho; 
on the west by Idaho and on the east by North Dakota and South Dakota. The 
average length from east to west is about 535 miles and the average width from 
north to south about 275 miles. Montana thus embraces an area of 147,182 square 

It should always be remembered that Montana is big. The vast area of the 
state must be borne in mind in any consideration of its climate, its resources and 
its opportunities. It is the third state in size in the Union, only Texas and Cali- 
fornia being larger; France and Germany are each only about one third larger. Eng- 
land, Scotland, Wales and Ireland combined, with their thirty millions of people, 
have fewer miles of territory; Montana embraces a greater area than all the New 
England states. New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland added together. 
These states have a combined population of 19,701,130; Montana, with greater natural 
resources, has an estimated population of 750,000. There are counties in Montana 
larger than some of the populous states of the East. 

Montana is the last of the great public land states. When the broad acres of this 
state, now lying idle and unclaimed, shall have been seized upon by the homesteader 

;6 MONTANA-1916 

• • • — "■ — ■■ — " — "■ — ■■ — " — " — ■• — " — ">— " — ■• — ■• — " — •• — " — ■■ — ■■ 

-■■^— u^»»-* • # 


Spring Seeding in Montana — Forty Horses at Work on One Field. 

and the farmer, the day of free farm land in the United States will have passed. In 
the first great rush toward the west, the fertile acres of Montana were given not 
a thought. Its mines had given Montana its renown, but save for the rockribbed ore 
deposits lying within its mountains and save for the grazing ground which it 
afforded for cattle and sheep, the casual saw little for the future of the common- 

But the new day came and with it came the awakening of a great state. It was 
shown that the benchlands upon which grew the nutritious bunch grass could be 
transformed into the greatest and most productive wheat farms in the world. Grad- 
ually the skeptic was convinced; gradually the land hungry of eastern states turned 
their eyes toward Montana, and the state awoke from its lethargy. Another trans- 
continental railroad, in record-breaking time, stretched its line across Montana and 
into the state began to come the advance guard of the farmers who were to change 
its destiny and make it the "breadbasket of the world." 

They made good, and with less than one-eighth of the tillable lands of the 
state now under the plow, Montana, among the states of the Union, now stands 
twelfth in the production of wheat, seventeenth in the production of oats, thirteenth 
in the production of barley, thirteenth in the production of potatoes, and third in 
the production of flax. When the 35,000,000 acres of good farming land in this 
state shall be under cultivation it is not unreasonable to suppose that this state will 
take the lead in the production of practically all staple farm crops. 

Montana, the most prosperous and growing state in the Union, is the most highly 
endowed of all of the commonwealths. Its hills and mountains are great storehouses 
of mineral wealth, which modern industry is releasing at an ever increasing rate. 
Its valleys and benchlands are fertile to a high degree and are being rapidly 
converted into farms of great productivity. Its ranges give sustenance to immense 


7 : 

Harvesting a Portion of Montana's Big Grain Crop. 

herds of cattle and sheep which find a market at ever increasing prices. Its rivers 
and streams are capable of producing electrical power sufficient to turn the indus- 
trial wheels of an empire and this power is being rapidly developed and placed in the 
service of mankind. Its forests and streams abound in game and fish, offering a 
veritable paradise for the sportsman; while its scenic attractions, although but yet 
comparatively little known, are such as to inspire the admiration of world-traveled 

Montana, with its more than 147,000 square miles, is capable not only of supply- 
ing practically its every want but is also capable of exporting immense quantities of 
the staple products of commerce. As has been well said, it is an empire in the 
making and only those of far seeing vision can yet dream of the Montana which is 
to come. 

The year 1915 dealt with Montana with a lavish hand. Not only has this 
State produced the greatest crops in its history, but these crops have been marketed 
at prices which give good profit to the husbandman and encourage him to larger 
efforts. The mineral production of the State, estimated by the geological survey at a 
value of eighty-seven million dollars, established a new high record and the present 
high prices of copper and zinc, which are Montana's chief metal products, indicate that 
the output for 1916 will greatly exceed that of the year just closed. 

During the past year a new, and it is thought important, industry was added 
to Montana's varied activities. Natural gas, in commercial quantities, has been 
developed in a half-dozen widely separated portions of the State, while along the 
southern border prospecting for oil has resulted in the opening of a number of wells 
which are even now on a paying basis and there is every indication that the pro- 
duction of petroleum is soon to be one of Montana's chief industries. 

The past year also witnessed the first utilization, by a transcontinental rail- 
road, of electrical power for motive purposes, when an entire division of the 

: 8 MONTANA-1916 ; 

• • 

Montana's Fertile Prairies Are the Breadbasket of the World. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, a division which crosses the main range 
of the Rocky Mountains, was electrified and great electric motors replaced giant 
steam locomotives for the hauling of freight and passenger trains. The electrification 
is now being extended on this road through the entire mountainous section of the 
State and within a few months the silent power, generated by Montana's great, water 
falls, will pull transcontinental trains for a distance of more than four hundred miles 
and across two great mountain ranges. 

The agricultural development of Montana, although in but its infancy, is making re- 
markable progress. During the past sixteen years, the wheat production of this 
state has increased from 1,929,000 bushels to 33,800,000 bushels; the production of 
corn has increased from a paltry 23,000 bushels to 1,960,000 bushels; oats from 2,568,000 
bushels to 31,200,000 bushels; potatoes from 640,000 bushels to 6,640,000 bushels 
and yet, despite these vast increases, the fertile soil of Montana has scarcely been 
scratched. Of the thirty-five million acres of land in Montana suitable for farming, 
crops have thus far been produced on less than four million acres. In the light of 
these facts, Montana looks forward to the day when she will take her place as the 
premier agricultural state of the Union. 

The remarkable development which this State is undergoing at the present time 
is largely due to the energetic character of its people and their ability to look into 
the future and to build for days which are yet to come. 

It is fifty years now since Montana's first citizens were attracted to this then 
territory by the discovery of numerous rich deposits of placer gold, but the pioneer 
spirit is still a predominating influence among the people of this State. The 
gold seekers, who came to Montana in the sixties, did not pack up their worldly 
goods and return to their former homes when they had made their fortunes here. 


— II H ^^ tl n I tl H ~ 

a^||||>^K||||^>^||||^.^||||^^l|||^^llll~^IIII^^HII— nii^^HH^^un^^iiK* #9 


• ••• 

Cutting Wheat on Dry Land Farm Near Dillon (Yield 66^^ Bushels Per Acre.) 

Instead, they remained in tlie land of their adoption and devoted their fortunes and 
energies to the building of a great commonwealth. Throughout the years which 
have followed, the strong character of these pioneer citizens has been continually 
molding the destines of the State. Their influence has been felt in private and public 
affairs and their ideals have been ever foremost in the eyes of Montana citizenship. 
Few of them now remain, but their sons and daughters inherited their vision of lofty 
purposes and newcomers into the State have caught the spirit of greatness, which 
they inspired. 

During the past six years, more than 100,000 men and women have come into this 
state from all parts of the Union to take advantage of the vast area of public lands 
which were available here for homestead entry. These people have and are making 
good in the fullest sense of the word. It has often been remarked that it was per- 
haps fortunate for Montana that the great era of agricultural development in this 
State, now in progress, was contemporaneous with the general recognition of the fact 
that farming, the most independent of all earthly means of earning a livelihood, 
required brains as well as brawn. The result of this was that the Montana 
homesteader was not the cast off or the ne'er-do-well of other communities, but 
was the strong, self-reliant and ambitous. These people were quick to imbibe the 
Montana spirit and the results which they have attained speak eloquently in their 

Nothing of the wild and wooly west remains in Montana. Illustrations of mod- 
ern farm life are to be found in even the newest communities. The well furnished 
home, the opportunities for social intercourse, the groups of happy and contented 
school children all give ample testimony that "life in Montana is different." 

The public school system of this state is a strong index to the character of its 
people. The minimum limit for a school term is four months. Over four-fifths of 

^♦•^—■■^^■■^— mi^^HI— ^aa— BB— — Wl^— IIB^— m^— BW^— li^— ■■^^■■■^■■^^■■^^■■^^Ml^^lll^— lll^— Ml^— PB^— BM^— BB^— iB^— Hi^— ■■— ti^ ■ ■••># 

•10 M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 6 • 

• • 


T..^... . -J 


The Best of Horses Are Raised on Montana's Farms. 

all the schools in the state have at least a six months term, while practically all 
of the town schools are in session for nine or ten months. It was disclosed by a 
recent comparative study of public school systems in the United States, conducted 
through the Russel Sage Foundation, that many states with more than double the 
population of Montana, expend less for the maintenance of their schools. Only four 
out of the forty-eight states of the Union exceed Montana in the per capita expenditure 
for children of school age. Only three states west of the Mississippi river have 
public school property of as great a value, in proportion to the school population, 
as Montana. While the average annual salary paid to public school teachers in the 
United States is given as $485, the average paid in Montana is $645, an amount 
equalled by only six other states in the Union. During the past five years more 
new school houses have been built in this state than in any other and the progress 
of education in Montana continues strongly upward. 

The character of any people depends, to a large extent, upon their environment 
and their ability to earn the means necessary to live in comfort and contentment 
In this matter, Montana is proud of the superior position it holds. Industrial condi- 
tions in this state are good, not only for the employer but likewise for the employee. 
As an instance of this, attention might be called to the fact that in the city of Butte, 
where more than seventeen thousand miners find employment, the average wage paid is 
higher than in any other industrial community of like size in the United States, if 
not in the world. Good working conditions prevail throughout the State and the 
eight hour day is almost universal in industrial activities. 

The agricultural growth of Montana has been one of the marvels of this great 
age of achievement. A man who twenty-five years ago would have said that 
Montana would in 1915 produce 33,000,000 bushels of wiieat or six million bushels 
of potatoes, the big portion from non-irrigated land, would have been laughed to 

••• — .. 


11 : 



^;ii»i.^ Jl 

Montana Cattle Help Supply the Nation With Beef. 

scorn. And yet today, so changed is the Montana idea of its own agricultural possi- 
bilities, that the well-informed citizen looks upon last year's record breaking crops 
as merely an indication of what may be expected in the next few years when 
Montana gets the people necessary to properly cultivate the 35,000,000 acres of fertile 
agricultural land which lies within the borders of this great empire. 

Some half-dozen years ago it was begun to be realized that the great need of 
Montana was people — active, energetic people who were not afraid of work but who, 
with adequate reward assured, were willing to do their share in the development 
of the magnificent resources of this great commonwealth. For such people, it was 
realized, this state offered opportunities which are not to be found elsewhere. Re- 
peated experiment and thorough trials had demonstrated that the benchlands of 
this state were capable of producing enormous crops of grain and that, properly 
farmed, Montana Avas destined to become one of the great cereal producing states 
of the Union. The greater part of these fertile and highly productive bench- 
lands were yet in the public domain and could be secured by the ambitious under 
the liberal provisions of the homestead law. 

It w^as hard to make those who had always associated Montana climate with that 
of the Arctic regions believe that, despite the popular impression to the contrary, the 
climate of the greater part of this state was practically the same as that of Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois, although the reports of the weather bureau proved this to be 
true. It w'as hard to make people believe that there were agricultural possibili- 
ties in a state which their geographies had taught them was useful, aside from 
its mineral production, only by reason of the fine grazing it afforded in the summer 
time for great herds of cattle and sheep. 

But education, as always, won over popular ignorance and during the last six years 
more than 29,000,000 acres of public and Indian lands have been entered by settlers in 

: 12 
••• — - — .1 

-DH^^ii^^UU •! 

M O N T A \ A - 1 9 1 6 

^■■^^iiu nil' 

in-^UH-^— Hl^^nH^^ua^^nn— ^iiu^^uu^^uii^— un^^iiu^^iiii^^iiH*^ll^^Hl«**iiii-«00 

Montana Produces More Wool Than Any Other State. 

Montana, and during every year of this period Montana has led all the states of the 
Union in providing new homes for homeseekers. Thus far there has been no slackening 
of this great tide of immigration and there is no indication that there will be any 
until the last of the public lands suitable for farming has been filed upon by some 
energetic home-builder. Of the more than 100,000 homesteaders who have come to 
Montana in the last six years the vast majority have come with the determination to 
make good and are making good. During the last fiscal year almost 4,000,000 acres 
of land — 3,994,418 to be exact — were patented to settlers, the largest area transferred 
from the government to private persons in any year in the history of the state. When 
it is considered that the land patented to Montana settlers last year could not all be 
placed within the borders of the state of Connecticut and would occupy more than 
half of the state of Maryland, one can begin to understand something of the size of 
the empire which the newcomers into Montana are appropriating, and when it is 
considered that each settler, in order to secure a patent to not to exceed 320 acres of 
this vast domain, must first reside upon his "claim" for a period of three years and 
cultivate at least one-eighth of it, something of the sturdy purpose of these home- 
steaders and something of their faith in the agricultural future of Montana can be 

The higher quality of Montana's agricultural products is becoming generally recog- 
nized. At every national exhibition held in the last five years the exhibits from 
Montana's farms have been among the leading prize-winners, this great string of 
victories having been crowned during the past year by Montana winning the grand 
prize in agriculture at the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, and the 
grand prize in both cereals and apples at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, while at the 
latter exposition more gold and silver medals were awarded to Montana farmers 
than to those of any other state. 

T II i: 




■-— «Glg|^ 

Montana Has the Greatest Water Power in the Country. 

Not only do Montana products excel in quality, but figures from official sources 
show that this State is in a position of undisputed leadership in its high average 
production per acre. The Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
for 1915, shows that the average per acre production of oats in this state during the 
past year was 52 bushels — the highest state average given any state by the 
Department. This report also shows that with an average of 22.5 bushels, Montana 
last year led all the states in the per acre production of rye, while with 155 bushels, 
it tied with Maine for the high record in the per acre production of potatoes. Aside 
from a few states where wheat raising is only incidental and where less than 20,000,000 
bushels are produced, Montana with a state average of 26.5 bushels led all the states 
in the per acre production of this great cereal. 

These, it will be understood, are the averages for the entire state, an area of 
more than 147,000 square miles. When only the records made by really good farmers 
throughout the state are considered it is found that results have been achieved 
which would stagger the belief of those unacquainted with farming in Montana. 
Down in Beaverhead county, in the southwestern corner of he state, a farmer filed 
upon a homestead less than a year ago and last fall he harvested a crop of wheat 
which averaged 66 1/^ bushels to the acre for the entire hundred acres he had put 
under the plow; Over in Fergus county, in the central portion of the state, in the 
now famous Judith Basin, over a dozen farmers reported yields running from 50 
to 60 bushels per acre. Near Cut Bank in the extreme northern part of Montana 
350 busshels of flax were harvested from a measured ten acres — the highest flax 
yield of which there is any authentic record. In Sheridan county, in the northeastern 
corner of the state, a newcomer leased a section of state school land, for which he 
paid a rental of $320, put it into flax and marketed his crop for $12,000. In Cascade 
county, in the central portion of Montana, was a field of oats yielding 103 bushels to the 




? 14 

• •• "»- 

-ftW^— »uh ™ iih— 


M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 6 


Montana Won the Grand Prize on Apples at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

acre, while in the county adjoining on the north 45 acres of oats yielded an average 
of 109 bushels per acre — and this from a homestead which was less than two years 
old. In Valley county a yield of 69 bushels of marquis wheat per acre was reported, 
while a Hill county farmer established what is believed to be a state record by 
threshing 71 bushels of wheat to the acre. These instances of previously unheard 
of yields could be continued almost indefinitely, but enough have here been given to 
show something of the marvelous fertility of Montana soil and to explain why in 
an agricultural way Montana is growing faster than any other state in the Union. 

There is still plenty of opportunity for the ambitious farmer. There is land 
left. According to the last report of the commissioner of the General Lana Office, 
dated July 1, 1915, there remains in Montana more than 19,000,000 acres of unappro- 
priated and unreserved public land available for entry under the homestead laws. At 
least half of this is suitable for farming and will some day be farmed. The state 
owns more than 4,000,000 acres which can be leased very cheaply or purchased on 
easy terms, payments being extended over a period of twenty years. The Northern 
Pacific Railway grant is on the market at prices which are low when the character 
of the land is taken into consideration. Larger ranch holdings are being cut up and 
colonized. All of these conditions serve to make it easy for the landless man to 
change and better his condition, and to such the State of Montana extends a cor- 
dial invitation. 

Among the great assets of this commonwealth — and they are legion — none count 
for more than the splendid citizenship with which this state is blessed, a citizenship 
which, surrounded by every opportunity for material prosperity, has nevertheless neg- 
lected no effort toward making Montana a better place in which to live. 

Montana is proud of the educational facilities it offers to its future citizens. A 
wide variety of local school conditions may be found in different parts of this great 

MH^— lllf^UH-^im^^— H W I I III^^IH' 


— llll^^HH ——I IIH ^ tlUi 

15 : 


Lumbering is One of the Chief Industries of Montana. 

empire, but many a settler has come to Montana to find school facilities far superior 
to those he had left behind in some of the older states. The revenues available for 
the support of the common schools of the state are growing rapidly each year. To 
begin with, at the admission of the state twenty-six years ago, two sections in every 
township — that is, one-eighteenth of all the land in the state — were set apart for the 
endowment of the public school system. Year by year, as advantageous opportunity 
appears, these lands are sold to settlers, never at less than ten dollars per acre, 
and usually more. A fund is thus accumulating for the endowment of the public 
schools. Meanwhile lands not sold are leased and revenue is thus derived from them. 

The permanent school fund, derived from the sale of land and timber and invested 
in interest-bearing bonds, is steadily growing each year and already amounts to more 
than three million dollars, although less than one-tenth of the land has been sold. 
Every year the income from this fund is apportioned to the school districts of 
the state in proportion to the number of children of school age therein. While the 
number of children has been rapidly growing, it has not grown so fast as the fund, 
and the per capita apportionment has been steadily increasing for the past several 
years. In 1911 it was $3.00; in 1912, $3.50; in 1913, $4.00; in 1914, $4.50, in 1915, $5.00 
and $5.25 in 1916. As the county high schools do not share in this apportionment, it really 
amounts to over $6.00 for every child actually enrolled in the common schools. Each 
county also levies a school tax of four mills, which yields an average of about 
$20 per pupil. Finally each district may supplement this by a local tax up to the 
limit of ten mills. The results actually accomplished are most encouraging. The 
minimum limit of school terms is four months, but there are very few that come 
down to this limit. More than four-fifths of all the schools in the state have at least 
a six months' term. Nearly all of the town schools are in session for nine months and 
many for ten. 



M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 

»^Bi^^Bi^^ii^^Bli^— ml— ^na^— nn— ^PM*^— u n ■■^—■■■■^■■^^■■^^■■^^■■^^■■^— ub^— nu^— m 


B-^Un^— MB uu«^— UB^^UB ua^^BB^^BB»»^^ 

Montana's Scenic Beauties Attract Thousands of Visitors Every Year. 

In the matter of secondary education, Montana has made great progress within 
recent years. For a long time there have been good high scliools in most of the 
larger towns, as Butte, Helena, Great Falls, Missoula, Billings and Anaconda. In the 
smaller towns, however, the people were determined not to be behind and several 
years ago a law was enacted by the legislature enabling a high school to be established 
in each county, at the expense of the whole county and free to all the children of 
that county. Already seventeen counties have taken advantage of this opportunity, have 
erected fine modern buildings, and are carrying on courses of four years which are 
fully accredited for university entrance. The average salary paid to principals of 
these schools is over $2,000 per year, and some receive as high as $3,000. Besides 
these county high schools there are district high schools of equivalent character in 
many of the larger towns — indeed there are only three counties in the state which 
have no school accredited to the State Board of Education, and even in these coun- 
ties there are schools doing some good high school work, but not yet equipped to be 
quite able to meet the requirements for standardization. 

In organizing the work of higher education, Montana has been peculiarly for- 
tunate. The Act of Congress which admitted the state to the Union, supplemented by 
other laws, set apart vast areas of public domain. For all the higher institutions, this 
aggregates nearly seven hundred square miles. Already the endowment yields a much 
larger annual revenue than the total income of many private colleges of renown, 
and the legislature supplements this by liberal appropriations from the general 
funds of the state. The University of Montana is located at Missoula, the State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts at Bozeman, the State School of Mines at 
Butte, and the State Normal School at Dillon. Recently the state arranged for the 
unification of all of its institutions of higher earning, thus consolidating the four 
institutions listed above under the general designation of the University of Hon- 



• •• — ■' 

Historic Three Forks, Head of Missouri River. 

tana, and placing their control under a Chancellor, who has his office in the state 
capitol at Helena. For this responsible management of its greater university of 
Montana this state not only secured one of the most eminent educators of America but 
at the same time it arranged an original and effective program for the control of 
its land grant institutions. 

In addition to the institutions of learning maintained at public expense, there 
are a number of thriving educational enterprises carried on by private activity. The 
oldest Institution for higher education in Montana is the College of Montana, sus- 
tained by the Presbyterian church, at Deer Lodge. The Montana Wesleyan univer- 
sity has been doing excellent work in Helena for many years under Methodist aus- 
pices. The educational vi^ork of the Catholic church is most extensive. In several 
of the larger towns parochial schools are maintained, and in several places are 
boarding academies which carry on both elementary and secondary work. These in- 
clude St. Vincent's Academy at Helena, Sacred Heart academy at Missoula, and Mt. 
Angela Ursuline academy at Great Falls, as well as the Catholic central high school 
at Butte, and St. Charles college at Helena. 

Practically every church in America is well represented in Montana. There are 
three residential bishops in Helena — Catholic, Methodist and Episcopal. The former 
has just completed in Helena a cathedral which is second to none in the Northwest, 
and also has charge of an extensive system of sectarian education, embracing colle- 
giate, secondary and parochial schools. Throughout every section of the state is to 
be found well supported churches of every denomination, and all the larger cities boast 
of splendid social clubs and fine Y. M. C. A. buildings. 

Politically, Montana is among those desirable states which are classed as "doubt- 
ful" at election times, a condition which not only protects the state from the abuses 
of unbridled political power, but also develops a strong sense of responsibility on the 

• •• « ■■ ■! 

l^^il^^HII^^HII^^PII^^«l^^«»^^«i^^l(ll^— UII-^IIII^^IIII^^IIII^^IIH^^HB^^II«^^nM^^llll^^HH^^II«^^llll»^»H^^IIB^-»i«^^|««™«H»#0 

M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 


Harvesting Oats Along the High Line of the Great Northern 

part of those entrusted to public office. In the first election following statehood, 
Montana's electoral vote was cast for Benjamin Harrison; in 1896 and 1900 it was 
cast for W. J. Bryan; in 1904 for Theodore Roosevelt; in 1908 for W. H. Taft, and in 
1912 for Woodrow Wilson. The present state administration is democratic, with the 
exception of the State Senate, in which the republicans have a majority. 

Strong interest is displayed by the people of Montana in public affairs, and the 
state has been particularly free from administrative scandals. The magnificent state 
capitol at Helena^ a picture of which is shown in the frontispiece of this book, was 
built at a cost of $1,100,000 and is universally regarded as a splendid example of a 
state getting the full value of every dollar spent. 

Political power is jealously guarded by the people, and through the instrumen- 
tality of a direct primary law, under which all nominations are made, they keep in 
close touch with political conditions. Through the initiative and referendum clauses 
of the state constitution, they reserve to themselves the power to enact or defeat 
legislation by popular vote, a power which thus far has been seldom but always 
wisely used. Of seven measures which have been initiated through popular agencies, 
five have passed and two have been rejected. Of two measures referred to the people 
after legislative enactment both were rejected. Equal suffrage, without regard to 
sex, has been Avritten into the constitution. 

The people of Montana welcome outside capital and treat it with every degree of 
fairness, while at the same time insisting that capital be also fair with the people. 
Every branch of legitimate industry is encouraged, while the people amply safeguard 
themselves with every necessary protection. A railroad and public service commis- 
sion has been established to regulate the rates of every public utility and common 
carrier; a "blue sky" law has been enacted to protect investors from fraudulent 
promoters; a grain inspection department looks after the proper inspection of 
Montana grain; farmers are protected in their seed purchases by a system of free 
seed inspection; weights and measures and pure food laws are rigidly enforced; an 





• ••• 

Winter Feeding of Cattle. 

eight-hour day for underground miners has been written into the state constitution 
and an eiglit-hour day is in force on all public and practically all private works — 
child labor is prohibited and truancy laws are well enforced, while the law prohibits 
employers from requiring women employees to work more than nine hours a day in 
certain classes of work; an efficiently administered workmen's compensation law has 
been placed in successful operation at a lower administrative cost than has been 
attained by any other state in the Union; the promotion of the dairy industry is in 
the hands of a state dairy department; an efficient and well managed agricultural 
experiment station, with sub-stations in various parts of the state, carries on exten- 
sion work among the farmers of Montana, and good-road building has become the rule 
under the energetic activity of the state highway commission. 

Intelligent aid is extended agricultural operations of all kinds, and every effort is 
made to insure the success of the new settler. Important among the agencies active 
in this work are 'the county agriculturists, who are in reality county agricultural 
teachers, whose pupils are the farmers of their respective counties. These men, who 
are paid jointly by the state and the federal government under the Smith-Lever Act, 
assist the individual farmer in working out his particular problems and already their 
influence is being felt in the direction of better farming and increased production. 

The Montana State Fair, held each year at Helena, is a great statewide agricul- 
tural exposition, which attracts visitors not only from all over Montana, but from 
every state in the Union and is generally recognized as the best agricultural show 
in the country. Practically every county in the state exhibits at this annual event, 
which arouses much competition among the farmers of the state, and is an educa- 
tional institution of incalculable value. The standing of the Montana State Fair is 
indicated by a remark made by the late James J. Hill to President Taft at the 1909 
State Fair, when the great railroad builder assured the nation's chief executive that 
this was the finest agricultural display he had ever seen. 

In short, Montana, while offering to the honest and energetic of all classes 
unequalled opportunity to better their condition in life also strives valiently and 
successfully toward those happy conditions which make life more worth living and 
without which success in a material way becomes scarcely worth while. 

Home-Making in Treasure State 

Magnificent Empire of Public Land, Available for Entry Under 

the Liberal Provisions of the Homestead Law, Furnishes 

Opportunity for Many Thousands of Farmers. 

ELDOM, IF EVER, has there been a finer vindica- 
tion of the wisdom of the policy of the United 
States government in the disposition of the 
public domain, than Montana has furnished in 
the past few years. The demonstration of the 
productivity of Montana soil, together with the 
knowledge that there was available here millions 
of acres of government land, served to attract 
toward Montana a tide of homesteaders such as 
the country has never before witnessed. 

During the last few years energetic farmers 
by the tens of thousands have learned of the 
superior productive power of Montana's soil and 
have taken advantage of the liberal homestead 
laws to come to this state and get a home. They 
are here now and they are on the high road to 
prosperity. In every county of the state they have 
settled and everywhere they are making good. 
The lifegiving effect of this great agricultural development is felt on all sides. 
In 1913 more miles of new railroad were built in Montana than in any other state in 
the Union. Since that date there has been practically no new railroad construction, 
due to the high cost of materials and unsettled business conditions, but during 1916 
the Montana railroads have renewed construction work and during the present sea- 
son it is confidently predicted that several branches will be constructed into new 
territory within the next twelve months. 

In no way can the remarkable growth of Montana be more strikingly shown than 
in the reports of the Commissioner of the General Land Office giving the number 
of homestead entries made in Montana during the period when the present influx 
of settlers has been at its height. The following figures cover the years 1911-15 












21 5 

Threshing on Productive Bench Lands. 









final proof 








According to the last report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
dated July 1, 1915, there yet remains in Montana more than 19,000,000 acres of unre- 
served and unappropriated public land, over half of which is suitable for farming. In 
the greater part of this area homesteads embracing 320 acres may be "taken up." 
The homestead laws have been recently made much more liberal. Formerly the 
homesteader was required to live continuously and uninterruptedly for five years upon 
his claim before he could perfect title. Under a recent act of congress the required 
residence on a homestead is reduced to three years, each year of which the home- 
steader may, if he so desires, have five months' leave of absence. The homestead 
law gives the ambitious a chance to secure a home at the mere expense of nominal 
filing fees. Unmarried women, as well as women who are the heads of families, 
have the same rights as men under the homestead law. 

Montana, more than any other state in the Union, spells Opportunity for 
the ambitious farmer who wants to get ahead. The public domain of this state 
offers an exceptionally brilliant chance for the young man just starting out in life 
for himself or for the tenant who has grown tired of paying rent and desires to be- 
come a freeholder. More than 19,000,000 acres of free public land may be had in 
this state for the asking. It is Uncle Sam's gift to those of his citizens who are 
willing to contribute to the development of the nation by making productive broad 
acres which now are barren. The present federal homestead laws have been greatly 
liberalized within the past few years and it is now possible for any ambitious man 
or woman who owes allegiance to the United States government to secure title to 
320 acres of public land by residence and cultivation of only three years. 


M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 

•••— " 


'■■^^ai— ii^^Di^^ii— 

A Field of Montana Oats. 

Montana's forward stride, as shown by the assessment of property for purposes of 
taxation, is aptly illustrated by the following table: 


The State of Montana 
States land office for the 
district. These land offices are located 













8 877,833 

12,219 920 
17 956,224 

is divided into 

Total Value 

No. of 

of State 






















































districts, each 

containing a United 

ten land 

of the public land affairs of that particular 
at Billings, Bozeman, Glasgow, Great Falls, 






Packing Apples in the Yellowstone Valley. 

Havre. Helena, Kallspell, Lewistown, Miles City and Missoula. A person desiring to 
make homestead entry should first decide where he or she wishes to locate then go 
or write to the land office of the district in which the land is located and obtain 
from the records diagrams of the vacant land. 

A personal inspection of the land sought to be entered should be made to ascer- 
tain if it is suitable and when satisfied on this point entry can be made at the local 
land office or before a United States Commissioner. 

Any one desiring to obtain information in regard to vacant lands in any dis- 
trict before going there for personal inspection should address the register and re- 
ceiver of the particular land office who will give such information as is available. 
The local land officers cannot, however, be expected to furnish extended lists of va- 
cant land subject to entry except through township plats which they are authorized to 
sell at a nominal price. A plat showing the vacant land in any township (a town- 
ship being six miles square) may be had at the price of $1.00. 

All unappropriated surveyed public lands adaptable to any agricultural use are 
subjected to homestead entry if they are not mineral or saline in character and are 
not occupied for the purpose of trade or business and have not been embraced within 
the limits of any withdrawal, reservation or incorporated town or city, but homestead 
entries on lands within certain areas are made subject to the particular requirements 
of the laws under which such lands are open to entry. 

Homestead entries may be made by any person who does not come within either 
of the following classes: 

(a) Married women, except as hereinafter stated. 

(b) Persons who have already made homestead entry, except in certain cases 
where former entry has been cancelled through no fault of the entryman. 

••• — .• 

HM— •Bll — Ha — 

-H 1^^1111*^11 ll*i 

_UHa^ UH^i^ II H^^ll II ^^ U II < 

_tlH^— >UH— 

• ••• 


iB^^nn^^nii^^iiM^— HH^^Mi— ^■■^^■•^^■■^^■■-«^^ 


A Glimpse of the Big Wheat Territory Surrounding Great Falls. 

(c) Foreign-born persons who have not declared their intention to become 
citizens of tlie United States. 

(d) Persons who are the owners of more than 160 acres of land in the United 

(e) Persons under the age of 21 years who are not the heads of families except 
minors who make entry as heirs, or wlio have served in the Army or Navy during 
the existence of an actual war for at least 14 days. 

(f) Persons who have acquired title to or are claiming, under any of the agri- 
cultural public land laws, through settlement or entry made since August 30, 1890, 
any other lands which, with the lands last applied for, would amount in the aggre- 
gate to more than 320 acres. 

A married woman who has all of the other qualifications of a homesteader may 
make a homestead entry under any one of the following conditions: 

(a) Where she has been actually deserted by her husband. 

(b) Where her husband is incapacitated by disease or otherwise from earning 
a support for his family and the wife is really the head and main support of the 

(c) Where the husband is confined in a penitentiary and she is actually the 
head of the family. 

(d) Where the married woman is the heir of a settler or contestant who dies 
before making entry. 

(e) Where a married woman made improvements and resided on the land ap- 
plied for before her marriage, she may enter them after marriage if her husband is 
not holding other lands under an unperfected homestead entry at the time she ap- 
plies to make entry. 





-nil^^HR*^— ■R^^NN^^VN— 


Sugar Beets Are a Profitable Crop in the Irrigated Districts. 

The marriage of the entrywoman after making entry will not defeat her right to 
acquire title if she continues to reside upon the land and otherwise comply with the 

A widow, if otherwise qualified, may make a homestead entry notwithstanding the 
fact that her husband made an entry and notwithstanding she may be at the time 
claiming the unperfected entry of her deceased husband. 

A person serving in the Army or Navy of United States may make a homestead 
entry if some member of his family is residing on the lands applied for, and appli- 
cation and accompanying affidavits may be executed before officer commanding branch 
of service in which he is engaged. 

A homestead entry may be made by the presentation to the land office of the 
district in which the desired lands are situated of an application properly prepared 
on blank forms prescribed for that purpose and sworn to before either the register 
or receiver, or before a United States commissioner, or a judge, or a clerk of a court 
of record, in the county in which the land lies, or before any officer of the classes 
named who resides in the land district and nearest or most accessible to the land, 
although he may reside outside of the county in which the land is situated. 

Each application to enter and the affidavits accompanying it must recite all the 
facts necessary to show that the applicant is acquainted with the land; that the 
land is not, to the applicant's knowledge, either saline or mineral in character; that 
the applicant possesses all the qualifications of a homestead entryman; that the 
application is honestly and in good faith made for the purpose of actual settlement 
and cultivation, and not for the benefit of any other person, persons or corporation; 
that the applicant will faithfully and honestly endeavor to comply with the re- 
quirements of the law as to settlement, residence and cultivation necessary to ac- 
quire title to the land applied for; that the applicant is not acting as the agent of any 

• ••^■■^■■— »— u>— >■— ■• » iia >■ iiii..^iii—iiii^iii^iia—-nii— Ha— nuclei— iia—iia—— an— ■■ ai^aa— aa aa aa^aa.**# 

•26 M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 • 

• • 

09«^^gi^^Ri*^nH^^aa^— aavi^aa— iiu^^aa^^aa— Ha«^i(i«^Ha^-'na>— •na^iBaH***Ma— ~un*^ua— ^Na*^na*^ua^^uu^^ua«-»ua^^aa^^Ha^^iN>^ai'«90 

Montana Farmers Build Substantial Homes. 

person, persons, corporation or syndicate in making such entry, nor in collusion with 
any person, corporation or syndicate to give them the benefit of the land entered 
or any part thereof; that the application is not made for the purpose of speculation, 
but in good faith to obtain a home for the applicant, and that the applicant has not 
directly or indirectly made, and will not make, any agreement or contract in any way 
or manner with any person or persons, corporation or syndicate, whatsoever, by 
which the title he may acquire from the government to the lands applied for shall 
inure, in whole or in part, to the benefit of any person except himself. 

A homestead entryman is required to establish residence upon the land within 
six months after the date of entry unless an extension of time is allowed, and Is 
required to maintain residence thereon for a period of three years. He may absent 
himself, however, for a portion of each year not exceeding five months. 

Cultivation of the land for a period of three years is required. During the second 
year not less than one-sixteenth of the area entered must be actually cultivated, and 
during the third year, and until final proof cultivation of not less than one-eighth 
is required. There must be actual breaking of the soil followed by planting, sowing 
of seed and tillage of a crop other than native grasses. 

The homestead entryman must have a habitable house upon the land entered at 
the time of submitting proof. Other improvements should be of such character and 
amount as are sufficient to show good faith. 

All original, second and additional homestead, and adjoining farm entries may 
be commuted, except such entries as are made under particular laws which forbid 
their commutation. 

The entryman or his stautory successor submitting such commutation proof must 
show substantially continuous residence upon the land, and cultivation thereof, for 
a period of at least fourteen months immediately preceding submission or proof of 




-HW^^BM^^HIIi- ■ tIMi i-i tlH— 

— till' I nil — 

iin III. III. I.II • • 

HI iiti 'iin- '"'■«#0 

Growing Peas Is a Big Industry in Gallatin and Bitter Root Valleys. 

filing a notice of intention to submit same, and the existence of a habitable iiouse 
upon the claim. The area actually cultivated must equal at least one-sixteenth of the 
entire acreage. A person submitting commutation proof must, in addition to certain 
fees, pay the price of the land; this is ordinarily $1.25 per acre, but is $2.50 per acre 
for lands within the limits of certain railroad grants. The price of certain ceded In- 
dian lands varies according to their location, and inquiry should be made regarding 
each specified tract. 

When a homesteader applies to make entry he must pay in cash to the receiver a 
fee of $5.00 if his entry is for 80 acres or less, or $10.00 if he enters more than 
80 acres. And in addition to this fee he must pay, both at the time he makes 
entry and final proof, a commission of $1.00 for each 40-acre tract entered outside 
of the limits of a railroad grant and $2.00 for each 40-acre tract entered within such 
limits. Pees under the enlarged homestead act are the same as above, but the com- 
missions are based upon the area of the land embraced in the entry. In all cases 
where, lands are entered under the homestead laws of Arizona, California, Idaho, 
Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah" Washington and Wyoming, the commission 
due to the register and receiver on entries and final proofs, and the testimony fees 
under final proofs, are 50 per cent more than those above specified, but the entry 
fee of $5.00 or $10.00, as the case may be, is the same in all the states. 

A mortgage by the entryman prior to final proof for the purpose of securing 
money for improvements, or for any other purpose not inconsistent with good faith, 
is not considered such an alienation of the land as will prevent him from submitting 
satisfactory proof. In such a case, however, should the entry be cancelled for any 
reason prior to patent, the mortgagee would have no claim on the land or against the 
United States for the money loaned. 

According to circular number 420 of the General Land Office, there remained 
in Montana, July 1, 1915, a total of 19,065,121 acres of unappropriated, unreserved, 

11^— ■■*-»■ 1^— 11^^ ■■• • •# 

• 28 

MONTANA- 19 16 


Where Crop Failures Are Unkno'wn. 

public land. Of this acreage, 10,804,819 acres was surveyed and 8,260,302 was un- 
surveyed. There is unreserved and unappropriated public land in each of the forty- 
one counties of Montana, the following table showing the acreage in each county July 
1, 1915: 



Big Horn 








Deer Lodge 








Lewis and Clark 
















Silver Bow 
































































































































opportunity in State Lands 

Millions of Acres Held in Trust by the State of Montana to be 

Sold to Homeseekers, With Payments Extending 

Over a Period of Twenty Years. 

OR THOSE who do not desire to reside upon 
land while acquiring title or who do not wish 
to become subject to the requirements of the 
homestead laws or who desire to avoid some 
of the hardships of pioneering, the state lands 
of Montana offer an unusual opportunity. The 
lands granted to the State of Montana by the 
Congress of the United States for the use of 
public schools and for other public purposes 
remaining unsold at the present time aggregate 
4,113,053 acres, classified as grazing, agricul- 
tural, timber and coal lands. Sections 16 and 
36 in each township within the state, lying 
outside of Indian reservations and national 
forests are state lands, unless sold, and in 
addition to Sections 16 and 36 the state has 
selected and owns thousands of acres of land, 
all of which is for sale except coal and some 
timber lands. A minimum price of $10.00 per 
acre is charged for state lands, and sales are made upon the basis of 15 per cent cash 
and the remainder extended over a period of twenty years with interest at 5 per cent. 

The State Board of Land Commissioners is custodian of all state lands, and the 
fixing of sale dates is discretionary with this board. The law requires a sale to 
be held in each county in the state at least once every two years. Sales may be held 
oftener if deemed necessary. 

Those who desire to buy state land should make formal application to the 
Register of State Lands, Helena, Montana, upon the receipt of which, together with 
a fee of 50c, the land will be offered for sale at public auction at the next sale held 
in the county where the land is situated. Advance notice of such sale will be mail- 
ed to the applicant. 

Sales of state land can be made only to citizens of the United States or those 
who have declared their intention to become such, or to corporations organized un- 
der the laws of this state. 

Not more than 160 acres classified as agricultural land and susceptible of irri- 
gation; nor more than 320 acres classified as agricultural land not susceptible of irri- 
gation; nor more than 640 acres classified as grazing land can be sold to one pur- 
chaser. State lands not sold may be leased for a period not exceeding five years, and 
the purchaser of state lands on which a lessee has improvements must pay such les- 
see a reasonable value therefor. If the lessee and purchaser cannot agree on the 
value of the improvements, the State Land Agent fixes the price the purchaser must 
pay for same; provided, such improvements as are capable of removal without 
damage to the land may be removed by the lessee. Lessees of state lands are re- 

: :50 MONTANA-1916 * 

• • 

quired to pay a rental for grazing use of $50.00 to $100.00 per section per annum and 
for agricultural use of from $150.00 to $320.00 per section per annum. 

No maps or lists of state lands are published. A typewritten list of the state 
lands in each county will be furnished at the legal rate of 20c per folio, a folio- 
consisting of one hundred words, two figures counting as one word. The cost of a 
list of state land in a single county ranges from $5.00 to $15.00. 

The following table shows the amount of state land in each of the several coun- 
ties of the State, November 30, 1915: 

County Acres 

Beaverhead _ 163,414.24 

Big Horn 42,538.58 

Blaine - -..- - - 165,479.91 

Broadwater 20,971.34 

Carbon 44,702.11 

Cascade 100,807.03 

Chouteau 312,785.56 

Custer 205,814.73 

Dawson 242,010.50 

Deer Lodge 10,911.92 

Fallon - 128,603.01 

Fergus 249,050.02 

Flathead 115,140.44 

Gallatin 54,976.69 

Granite 17,202.45 

Hill 205,375.97 

Jefferson 28,840.87 

Lewis & Clark 112,089.26 

Lincoln 57,197.34 

Madison 121,698.00 

Meagher 138,649.18 

Mineral 26,285.05 

Missoula 79,412.98 

Musselshell 99,747.22 

Park 39,606.71 

Phillips 112,345.2& 

Powell 52,564.25 

Prairie 58,698.48 

Ravalli 28,778.10 

Richland 86,888.41 

Rosebud - 193,419.02 

Sanders 58,897.68 

Sheridan ..-. ^ 181,256.27 

Silver Bow 14,994.27 

Stillwater 50,539.30 

Sweet Grass 76,612.59 

Teton 162,019.35 

Toole 112,143.11 

Valley 326,325.97 

Wibaux 31,358.21 

Yellowstone 67,454.49 

Total 4,397,605.96 

For further information about Montana State Lands or for lists giving dates of 
forthcoming sales, write Register of State Lands, Helena, Montana. 

Land Values Are Increasing 

Proven Productiveness of Montana Soil Results in Large Influx 

of Farmers Who Purchase Holdings at 

Bargain Counter Prices 

OUNTLESS FARMERS who have used their home- 
stead rights or are in a position to buy farming 
land outright are talking advantage of the com- 
paratively low prices at which Montana lands are 
held and are purchasing land here which, if 
history is any precedent, is practically certain to 
double in market value within the next few years. 
When it is considered that farming lands in 
the older states of the Union are selling at from 
$100 to $200 per acre, and that land which will 
actually produce more can be purchased in 
Montana at from $10 to $40 per acre, the wisdom 
of such a course becomes apparent. It is the 
history of all farming countries that land values 
are low in the beginning, but rapidly increase 
in value as the country becomes more thickly 
populated and as its productive power is proven. 
This movement is already under way in 
Montana. A few years ago, farms which are now held by their owners at from $25 
to $40 per acre, could have been purchased and were purchased at prices ranging 
from $1 upward. At that time, it should be remembered, the land was thought to be 
fit for nothing but grazing, and there was but little demand for grazing land, because 
there were millions of acres of free grazing land available for the flockmasters of the 
state. As soon as the farmers l)egan to come in, however, land values began to 
rise and that they will continue to rise for many years is the confident prediction of 
every well informed man. 

Thousands of acres of good farming land are now being marketed by the Northern 
Pacific railroad company, the Big Blackfoot Lumber company, and many of the larger 
old-time ranching companies of the state. The Northern Pacific lands, in eastern 
Montana, and the Big Blackfoot lands in the western part of the state, constitute an 
empire in themselves, and they are now on the market at prices which are far below 
their productive value. 

The Northern Pacific land and some of the larger ranches offer an exceptionally 
fine opportunity for colonization, as in many cases they can be purchased in large, 
compact bodies at prices which will yield a handsome profit to the man who will 
undertake the development and colonization of them. Already there are several large 
concerns operating along this line, and they have been uniformly successful. 

For a man with a little capital and the determination to build a home, the log- 
ged-off lands of northwestern Montana offer a field of endeavor which in proportion 
to the returns promised can scarcely be equalled. As is generally known, there are 
thousands of acres of bench and valley lands from which timber has been removed, 
leaving the stumps and undergrowth upon a soil which when cleared is of uniformly 

# •^^iiii<a—*itii^^rin^^iiii^^tii 


: 32 

111^— >llll^— Itll*— llll^— lin^— MH^^UN^^MH^^HH^^HH^^»tl^^MII^^HH^^nN^^lllt^^nil^^llH^^nia**IIH^-~IIH^>~lin^^HII^^II'*#0 



An Irrigated Potato Field. 

fertile character, usually perfectly sub-irrigated and suitable for the growing of all 
kinds of crops. Such land is available for the most profitable kind of extensive cul- 
tivation. Much of this land is held by the big lumber companies of the State, while a 
considerable portion of it is in private ownership by original homesteaders and timber 

Roughly speaking the logged-off lands of Montana are in the counties of Lincoln, 
which has approximately 20,000 acres of such land; Flathead, with 70,000 acres; Mis- 
soula, 40,000 acres; Mineral, 35,000 acres; Sanders, 25,000 acres, and Ravalli, 30,000 
acres. These lands will be sold on easy payments extending over a considerable pe- 
riod of time. Generally speaking, land of this character can be bought on time pay- 
ments of from $10.00 to $25.00 per acre, which is regarded by many as cheaper than 
homesteading. The settler can get title at once by completing his payments, and can 
sell as his land rises in value. 

The man who buys a stump ranch and clears up ten acres each year is merely 
making an annual payment of $500.00 on a cleared ranch. The stump land produces 
fine clover, blue grass and timothy pasture for cows, and even before clearing offers 
an excellent opportunity for stock raising on a limited scale. 

Many of the finest orchards in the state were developed from cut-over lands, and 
throughout the northw^estern part of Montana are to be found thousands of sturdy 
farmers who have secured logged-off land and are building beautiful and substantial 
homes in what was until recently a wilderness. The work is slow, of course, but its 
reward is certain. 

A Wealth of Natural Resources 

Montana's Many-Sided Richness Make Possible Diversified In- 
dustries All of Which Contribute Greatly to the 
State's Increasing Prosperity. 

ARDSHIPS are no longer the lot of those who 
come to Montana; instead those who come to this 
state at the present time find a people who are 
enjoying prosperity along Avith all the comforts 
and conveniences of civilization. The diversified 
resources of this state, its many-sided richness, 
all contribute to this end. 

Montana has numerous industries, each of 
which is capable of supporting a much larger 
population that the entire state boasts today. The 
mineral deposits of this state alone would make 
a wealthy commonwealth. Its agricultural re- 
sources and opportunities, both for grain grow- 
ing and for intensive and diversified farming, 
rival those of the great rural communities of 
the west. Its forests could for years supply the 
nation's demand for lumber. Its livestock leads 
in both quantity and quality. Its natural water 
power could turn the industrial wheels of the 
continent. Its transportation facilities are being developed to meet its rapidly grow- 
ing needs, and a period of great industrial activity, inevitable because of the abun- 
dance of raw material and cheap power, is upon the threshold. Combined, these 
resources serve to make Montana the premier state in the Union, a commonwealth 
which needs only men and capital to lay its diversified riches at the feet of 

Farming in Montana, while yet in its infancy, is making gigantic strides. Of 
the more than 93,000,000 acres of land within this state, it is conservatively estimated 
that over 35,000,000 acres are available for agricultural purposes. Of this agricultural 
empire upwards of 6,000,000 acres will in a short time be brought under irrigation 
leaving some 29,000,000 acres which will be farmed by non-irrigated methods, a 
condition which will inevitably make Montana the greatest producer of small grains 
in the world. Non-irrigated farming in Montana is carried on almost exclusively 
on the benchlands, which are nearly level or undulating table lands lying between 
the streams. Along the streams the valleys are relatively wide and level. The bor- 
ders that line them are usually rough and rugged. The railroads usually traverse the 
valleys; hence the impression made upon the traveler is usually anything but favor- 
able. The benches lie beyond the hills and extend away and across until the bluffs 
are reached which border another stream. These are the best lands in Montana. 
They are usually composed of a clay loam covered with the short grasses of the 
prairie and are underlaid with clay. 

The benchlands of Montana are farmed on what is known as the dry-land plan of 
farming, which means the holding of all moisture in the soil until it can be 
utilized by the growing crops. This is done by plowing, packing, harrowing and 



M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 

• •• 


Growing Sweet Peas for Seed. 

cultivating the soil at a certain time and in a certain way. Under this method win- 
ter and spring wheat, winter and spring rye, speltz, barley, flax, oats and peas can be 
very profitably grown without the hazard of failure even in a dry year, providing 
they have been planted in season and in properly prepared land. In all parts of 
Montana potatoes are especially prolific, and beans are a success below the middle 
line of the state. In the eastern part of the state corn is rapidly coming into favor as 
a profitable and certain crop. 

The climate of Montana, though comparatively dry in many parts, is temperate 
and because of the comparative coolness of the nights in the harvest season is ex- 
tremely favorable to the production of large yields of grain. This, more than any- 
thing else, has given Montana first place in the Union for large grain yields. 

Intensive farming in Montana is to a large extent carried on on irrigated 
lands, and in the matter of furnishing water for the supplying of moisture to growing 
crops. Nature has again been bountiful to this state. Of the more than 35,000,000 
acres of land, which will ultimately be cultivated in Montana, it has been conserva- 
tively estimated that upwards of 6,000,000 will some day be irrigated. 

Already the federal government, through the reclamation service, has spent many 
millions of dollars on irrigation projects in this state, and this work is still under 
way. The last congress appropriated several millions of dollars for reclamation work 
in Montana during the present year, and the reclamation service is now engaged in 
completing some of the largest irrigation enterprises ever undertaken on the con- 

The national reclamation act was one of the most important pieces of legislation 
to the agricultural development of Montana since the passage of the homestead law, 
and this act is now being utilized by the building of great irrigation projects in 






A Montana Watermelon Patch. 

various parts of the state. Under irrigation is is possible to practice intensive farm- 
ing to tlie higliest degree and thus to produce more valuable and certain crops. 
Under good administration, it follovi^s that in irrigated regions the greatest number 
of citizens can be given opportunities on the smallest area. With the high price of 
labor it has been found impracticable to produce crops wholesale on land of this 
character. The individual farmer who has industry and intelligence, and especially 
if he has a family, the members of which can do their part, can make a far better 
living and produce greater crop returns on a small farm than is possible by the 
consolidation of small farms into larger holdings. 

Under the reclamation act there has been constructed, or are being constructed, 
in Montana, the Huntley Project, the Lower Yellowstone Project, the Milk River Pro- 
ject, including the St. Mary storage feature, and the Sun River Project. All of these 
projects have been completed to a certain degree, but all of them are incomplete as 
regards ultimate development. Water is being delivered to irrigated land on each 
of these projects, and at frequent intervals additional areas are being made avail- 
able for entry. The irrigable areas of the various reclamation projects are as fol- 
lows: Huntley, 32,405; Lower Yellowstone, 60,116; Milk River, 219,557; Sun River, 
216.346. In addition to these projects the reclamation service, under an agreement 
with the office of Indian Affairs, is carrying on development work on Indian reser- 
vations. The Indian projects in Montana are the Blackfeet, on which 122,500 acres 
will be irrigated; the Flathead, 152,000 acres, and the Fort Peck with 152,000 acres. 
The total area to be irrigated in Montana by the reclamation service is thus 954,924 
acres, of which 426,500 acres is in Indian reservations which are, or will shortly be 
opened to settlement. The estimated cost of these irrigation projects reach the 
stupendous total of $35,828,020. 

• :u\ M < ) \ T A \ A - 1 !> J () : 

;,. . . . — ... . — ._.._» . — . ....,, 



.,^^r_ "4 



f ^ 


• * 




^ « 





1'^^:^ ■' r s 



Growing Sugar Beets in the irrigated Districts. 

In addition to tlie work of tlie United States reclamation service, the develop- 
ment of irrigation enterprises under the Carey Land Act has been undertaken in Mon- 
tana, with the result that there are now three very successful Carey projects in 
Montana already or practically completed and receiving settlers, while two other 
projects, it is expected, will be completed within the year. 

The largest of the Carey projects in this state and one of the largest irrigation 
enterprises ever undertaken in the west is the Valier project, surrounding the town 
of Valier in the northern part of Teton county. This project is now the home of 
one of the most prosperous and successful farming communities in the entire north- 
west. For the benefit of settlers on the project, the company constructed a rail- 
road, which connects at Conrad with the Great Northern, and which furnishes ade- 
quate facilities for marketing the livestock and produce raised on the project. The 
Valier project embraces almost 195,000 acres, of which over 100,000 acres will actually 
be irrigated. Within this project there are now available for entry under the Carey 
act and susceptible of irrigation some 38,000 acres of land. Under the Carey Act, the 
entryman pays the state $1.50 per acre for the land, and also pays the irrigation com- 
pany $40.00 per acre for perpetual water right. The annual maintenance on this pro- 
ject is 50c per acre. Land in the Valier project may be entered on easy terms, $5.00 
per acre being required at the time of purchase and the balance being payable in 
fourteen annual installments, with interest at six per cent per annum. 

Rapid development has marked this project and a fine spirit of co-operation 
exists between tlie settlers and the irrigation company. During the year 1914 the 
acreage farmed on this project increased by 6,050 acres, while the number of hogs on 
the project increased from 1,884 to 5,135. The Valier-Montana Land & Water Com- 
pany, which developed this project, does everything possible to insure the success of 
the settlers on the project. The company's engineer runs the farmer's ditches, often 

A Field of Alfalfa Under the Ditch. 

having a man go out and help in building the ditches at no cost to the settler. In 
addition, the company has men each season who cover the project showing the farmer 
how best to irrigate his land and giving him every aid possible to get started in the 
right way. For full information regarding the Valier project, address the Valier 
Farm Sales Company, Valier, Montana. 

Another very successful Carey project in Montana is the Big Timber project, lo- 
cated near Big Timber, in Sweet Grass county, Montana, and embracing 18,000 acres 
of irrigable and 14.000 acres of non-irrigable land. On this project some 9,000 acres 
of land have already been settled upon and cultivated, while an equal amount is now 
available for settlement. The price for a permanent water right on this project 
ranges from $45.00 to $60.00 per acre, terms being two to ten per cent cash on first 
payment and the balance running from one to ten years, with interest at the rate 
of six per cent. This project is exceptionally favored in the excellent quality of the 
soil, and the intelligent interest shown by the company in the treatment and assist- 
ance rendered settlers on the project. Full information regarding the Big Timber 
Carey project may be had by addressing the Glass-Lindsay Land Company, Big 
Timber, Montana. 

The Billings Carey Land project was the first successful development of Montana 
irrigation lands under the Carey Act. The project embraces a total of 34,000 acres, 
of which 27,000 acres is susceptible of irrigation. Owing to the success of this pro- 
ject there is now open to entry but 2,132 acres of Carey land susceptible of irrigation. 
Permanent water rights on Carey lands in this project cost from $25.00 to $58.00 
per acre, with an annual maintenance of $1.00 per acre. 

The Billings project is located upon what is known as the Billings bench, but a 
short distance from the rapidly growing city of Billings, and the project has made 
good progress during the last few years. The Billings Land & Irrigation Company, 


M < ) X T A \ A - 1 !> 1 «; 



Great Western Sugar Factory at Billings. 

which developed the project, recently took up the question of markets which was be- 
coming of great importance owing to the growth of the district. In 1913 the com- 
pany built a farmer railroad over the project, connecting the farmers with the Bil- 
lings market. This enabled many of the farmers to engage in the growing of 
sugar beets for the sugar factory at Billings and also put the dairymen in a posi- 
tion to market their milk and cream in that city. The road is so located that but a 
small portion of the land is more than two miles from a loading station. A thriv- 
ing town has sprung up in the center of the project. Literature regarding the Bil- 
lings project may be had by addressing the Billings Land & Irrigation Company, Bil- 
lings, Montana. 

Beet-growing is exceedingly profitable in the irrigated districts of the Yellowstone 
and Clark's fork valleys, which are within shipping distance of the Great Western 
Sugar company's factory at Billings. The success of beet-growing in this section of 
the state has resulted in extensive investigations being carried on in other parts of 
Montana, and it is expected that additional sugar factories will be constructed in the 
near future. Already experimental beet-growing, encouraged by the sugar companies, 
is under way in Ravalli, Blaine, Teton and Richland counties. 

Stockraising has long been an important industry in Montana, and in 1915 this 
commonwealth still raised more sheep and produced more wool than any other state 
in the Union. The beef industry in Montana since early territorial days has been of 
prime importance, and it was but natural that the almost unlimited amount of free 
public range would attract to this state enormous herds of cattle. It is interesting 
to note that with two exceptions every year between 1891 and 1910 over 200,000 head 
of beef cattle were shipped from Montana to eastern markets. 

With the enactment of the 320-acre homestead law and the spreading of know- 
ledge of the true agricultural conditions in Montana, followed by the influx of farm- 


3!) : 

Feeding Sheep on Alfalfa and Syrup. 

ers, the land available for free public range was rapidly reduced, and during the past 
two or three years it has been the policy of the big cattle companies to gradually close 
out their extensive holdings. It is estimated that not to exceed 173,936 head of 
cattle were shipped from Montana during the year 1915, and with the increased local 
demand it is more than likely that this output will continue to grow smaller for 
several years. It is admitted on all sides that Montana is now in the transitory 
stage as regards the beef cattle industry, but those wiio have given the subject 
thought unhesitatingly declare that within a few years Montana will regain its pres- 
tige as a great producer of beef, although to do this means the production of cattle 
on an entirely different basis than that of the past. 

In addition to cattle which may be ranged during most of the year on unculti- 
vated lands the beef production of the state will unquestionably be larger in the 
near future by the development of small herds throughout the state. It has been 
demonstrated that it is a real economy for the farmer to feed as many head of live- 
stock upon his farm as is practicable, and the large importation of high bred stock 
during the past year indicates that an unusually numerous body of farmers are 
taking advantage of this condition. 

Montana has for years been the leading sheep growing and wool producing state 
of the Union, and in 1915 it produced a total of 28,682,000 pounds of raw wool of a 
value of $7,302,437. In a lesser way the wool industry is undergoing the same change 
as the beef industry, the settlement of the open range making it necessary to cut 
down many of the larger flocks of the state. The increasing number of small flocks, 
however, and the better and more intelligent care now being given the range, to- 
gether with the high price of wool, makes it certain that the growing of sheep will 
always be an important industry in Montana. 


MO N T A X A- 1 9 1 6 



Holstein and Black Poll Cattle in the Bitterroot. 

In addition to the development of its beef and dairy lierds, liorses and hogs are 
also of prime importance. The growing of hogs on a commercial scale has recently 
been successfully undertaken in practically every section of the state and is rapidly 
being extended. Many Montana swine are consumed in the larger markets of the 
state, and the surplus finds ready sale at both eastern and western primary mar- 

Horse-raising is a very important industry in Montana. The range horse — the 
"cayuse" of olden days — has given way to a large extent to full blooded stock with a 
preponderance of heavy draft animals. A few years ago the United States War De- 
partment established at Miles City the largest remount station in the United States, 
and co-incident with this has been developed at Miles City the largest primary horse 
market in the world. Here very successful sales are held every month, and practi- 
cally every kind of horse flesh, from the full blooded running and trotting ani- 
mals to the heaviest of draft horses, are bought for shipment to every section of 
this country and abroad. 

Although the dairy industry of Montana is still in its infancy, the possibilities 
in this line of farming are very great, and the past two years has seen rapid growth 
The climate of Montana is very favorable to dairying. The winters are not so severe 
as in some central states, and the greater part of Montana is better adapted to dairy- 
ing than these states. In summer the weather is fine for the work, and with cool 
evenings and plenty of good cold running water in all parts of the state, dairy prod- 
ucts are easily handled. 

Montana is noted for the vast amount of hay that is being grown. Clover, al- 
falfa and other grasses are produced in abundance. With plenty of water for irriga- 
tion in nearly all parts of the state, pastures, one of the most essential items for 


41 : 


A Richland County Holstein Herd. 

the dairyman, are easily kept in good condition until late in the fall. Alfalfa is 
being raised in nearly all sections of the state, and dairymen find that this is a very 
valuable roughage feed and cheap in cost. The demand for dairy products is very 
strong the year round, and there is no state in the Union in which the market is so 
well maintained. Taking into consideration the cheapness of the land, the vast 
amount of feed that can be grown and the high prices received for dairy products, 
Montana, it seems certain to assume, will rapidly become the ideal dairying state. 

Horticulture in Montana, like many other enterprises, began in a small way but 
it likewise has grown to large proportions. Today fruit growing is one of the 
leading pursuits of the entire northwest, and Montana is sharing in its production in 
proportion to the utilization of her sections adapted to horticultural development. 
Private corporations and reclamation funds have given the horticultural industry an 
impetus that nothing can check, and each year sees hundreds of acres being planted 
to orchards. The utilization of the horticultural lands of the state affords pleasant 
i.nd profitable employment for hundreds of people and will be the means of de- 
veloping a type of rural life and establishing rural homes that equal, if not 
surpass any rural community in the United States. Recent experiments by farm- 
ers who are not afraid to learn what their soils will produce, have served to revolu- 
tionize previous conceptions of the horticultural opportunities of Montana. While 
fruit growing has heretofore been largely confined to the western section of the 
state, in which it has been marked with great success, it has been found that 
eastern Montana is also adapted to horticulture. Grapes have been successfully grown 
in Blaine county, while apple orchards are now common throughout the eastern part 
of the state. 

Commercially, the Bitter Root valley, including Missoula and vicinity, stands 
foremost in orchard development. Next in horticultural importance comes that part of 



>I O X T A X A - 1 9 1 (J 

• •• 

Portland Cement Factory at Trident. 

Flathead county lying tributary to Flathead lake. Following these sections are found 
Carbon county, Sanders county from Plains to Trout Creek, and Lincoln county. The 
orchard acreage of the state is upward of 30,000 acres, the greater part of this, how- 
ever, being young orchards not yet in bearing. 

Montana presents conditions for the growing of a large list of fruits, the suc- 
cess of their growing being measured by the care with which the grower selects the 
variety and the location upon which they are grown. The apple is the principal com- 
mercial fruit grown in Montana; Mclntoshs, Wealthies and Gravensteins have estab- 
lished a reputation of their own whenever they have entered the market. Cherries 
rank next to the apple in importance, and many carloads are annually shipped from 
Bitter Root, Missoula and Flathead orchards. Pears, plums and prunes are a good 
source of revenue to growers who give them proper attention, and excellent success 
has been met in the production of peaches and grapes. The growing of canteloupes. 
watermelons, cucumbers and garden stuffs, especially peas, is rapidly coming into 
prominence in various sections of the state. 

Markets for all kinds of agricultural and dairy products are ready-made in the 
mining districts of the state. Butte, the largest mining camp in the world with a 
monthly pay roll considerably in excess of a million dollars; Great Falls and Ana- 
conda, large smelting centers, and numerous smaller camps throughout the state 
employ thousands of men who yearly add many millions of dollars to the mineral 
wealth of the nation. Since 1880 Montana has produced one-third as much copper as 
has the entire United States since 184.5, and this year's production, it is conservatively 
estimated, will closely approximate 400,000,000 pounds. In no other mining district 
of the world are the methods used so advanced and so economical as can be found 
about the copper mines of Butte. Long ago the management of the different com- 
panies learned that the best results could be obtained by paying the best wages, by 
employing the most capable men, by adopting the best and safest methods and using 




13 \ 







a jpi rl }™ ja 


Sft itf .'S '1 
m! |t It- '^ 

i il 'H 

Power House at Big Dam Below Great Falls. 

the best equipment. They learned that the best of everything is cheapest in the long 
run, and new processes are being constantly utilized; while $6,000,000 was last year 
spent to enlarge and improve the smelting and reduction plants at Anaconda and 
Great Falls. 

Within the last two years the zinc producing industry has come rapidly to the 
front in Montana, and the next year is expected to see Montana the leading zinc min- 
ing state of the Union. Gold mining, which brought the Montana pioneers across 
the plains and built up the State's first camps, has been outstripped by the mining 
and smelting of the baser metals, such as copper and zinc, and yet the gold produc- 
tion of this state, which has reached a total of approximately .$330,000,000, is still an 
important industry — the annual production now ranging between $3,000,000 and $5,000,- 
000. The bulk of this gold is now developed as a by-product of the copper mines of 
Butte, but in various parts of the state gold mining, both placer, including hydraulic 
and dredging, and quartz mining contribute to the annual supply of the yellow 

Montana is the largest producer of silver in the world, and its annual production 
of from 12,000,000 to 14,000,000 fine ounces is being gradually increased. Silver is 
secured principally from the copper ores, and any increase in its production is largely 
the result of a greater copper output. 

Extensive and profitable coal mining operations are carried on in various sections 
of the state, and the mining of precious stones gives promise of assuming important 
proportions. Near Yogo, Montana, is the largest sapphire mine in the world, and 
other districts throughout the state give indication of the profitable production of 
precious and semi-precious stones. 

Coincident with the growth of Montana has come the enormous development of 
the water power of the state, and electricity has become the popular power in all 

••• — «» — «» — »" — "■ — ■" 

-IIH WH itH nw 

M (> N T A N A - 1 y 1 <i 


Electrically Driven "Olympian" Crossing Continental Divide. 

industrial enterprises and is rapidly being utilized for the propelling of freight and 
passenger trains across the mountain divisions. There are few places in the world 
in which nature lavished so generous a hand in the distribution of natural resources 
as in Montana. And this is particularly true with respect to the bounteous water 
power within the confines of this state. Two of the greatest rivers of the continent, 
the Missouri and the Columbia, have their headwaters in the mountains of Montana 
at elevations ranging from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, and traversing Montana for great dis- 
tances leave its borders at elevations but slightly in excess of 2,000 feet above sea 
level. So great is the waterfall of Montana's streams that conservative electrical 
authorities have estimated that not less than 1,000,000 horse power can be developed 
within this state. Already one company, the Montana Power Company, has developed 
more than 100,000 horse power, and additional development is being prosecuted as 
rapidly as markets are found. The electrification of over 400 miles of the main line 
of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul is being rapidly completed, and it is expected 
that the other transcontinental roads will shortly follow the lead of this one. Elec- 
trical power is used at all of the principal mines of this state, and the invisible fluid 
has become an important essential in the industrial and domestic life of the common- 

Supplementing its 60,000,000 acres of rich valley and bench agricultural and 
grazing lands, Montana has approximately 30,000,000 acres of mountain lands for the 
most part timber, and the lumbering industry of this state contributes in no small 
degree to its prosperity. The total estimated stand of commercial timber in the 
State of Montana is approximately 65,000,000 M. feet, of which 33 per cent is in 
private ownership, 6 per cent in state ownership, 3 per cent in national parks and 
reserved public land, and 58 per cent controlled by the national forests, which cover 
an area of 17,977,580 acres. The commercial value of the forests in all ownership 


r II i: T H i; \ s i h i: s t a t i: 

Logging in the Forests of Western Montana. 

represents an aggregate community wealth of approximately $1,500,000,000. To a 
state whose greatest resource is its agricultural land, the value of such a body of 
timber is incalcuable. This great body of forest land has developed a lumbering in- 
dustry which, with its enormous pay roll, adds much to the prosperity of the state 
and assists in furnishing a market for the products of Montana's farms. 

The real value of Montana's diversity of resources cannot be even estimated. Not 
only are each of them adding millions of dollars to the wealth of the State, but in 
addition the success of each industry contributes largely though indirectly to the 
success of others. This is particularly true with regard to the influence which Mon- 
tana's mining, lumbering and industrial resources have upon the development of the 
farm lands of the State. Not only do these industries offer a home market for many 
of the farm, garden and range products of the state, but in other ways they con- 
tribute to the success of the farmer and particularly the new settler. The first years 
on a new homestead are necessarily lean years for the farmer, and in the majority of 
instances he welcomes an opportunity to earn a little money on the outside while 
getting ready to grow crops. The five months annual leave of absence allowed under 
the homestead laws is being put to practical advantage by many new settlers, who 
spend this period working at good wages in the mining or lumbering districts, and 
thus secure ready cash to assist them in their farming operations. In many instances 
the opportunity to secure outside work of this character has enabled a man of lim- 
ited means to make a success where failure would otherwise have characterized his 
homesteading operations. 

Montana has been proclaimed the greatest grain producing state in the Union, and 
Its great agricultural wealth is so strongly supported by so many other industries that 
Its lasting prosperity is assured. 

Where an Acre Is Worth More 

Impartial Figures of United States Department of Agriculture 

Show That Montana Soil Leads in the Production of 

Practically all Staple Farm Crops. 

RY STATISTICS are uninteresting to many 
people, but to those who wish to make a 
serious study of agricultural Montana, no more 
interesting material can be found than in the 
plain figures which show the remarkable 
growth of farming in this state and the 
enormous productive power of Montana soil. 

It has been well said that an acre in 
Montana is worth more than an acre else- 
where, and this statement is clearly substan- 
tiated by the impartial records collected by 
the bureau of crop statistics of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. A few com- 
parisons, taken from the 1915 Year-book of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, will 
show the strength of this statement. In 1915, 
North Dakota was the greatest wheat-producing 
state in the Union, yet the per acre produc- 
tion in North Dakota was but 18.2 bushels, 

while the per acre production in Montana was 
26.5 bushels. Iowa was the greatest oat-producing state in the Union, yet the per acre 
production in oats in Iowa was but 40 bushels, while the per acre production in 
Montana was 52 bushels. North Dakota was the largest producer of barley, yet the 
per acre production of barley in that state was but 32 bushels, while in Montana it 
was 34 bushels. Wisconsin was the greatest rye-producing state in the Union, yet the 
per acre production of rye in Wisconsin was but 18.5 bushels, while the per acre pro- 
duction in Montana was 22.5 bushels. Minnesota was the greatest potato-pro- 
ducing state in the Union, yet the per acre production of potatoes in Minnesota was 
but 106 bushels, while in Montana it was 155. New York, last year, produced more 
hay than any other state in the Union, yet the per acre production of hay in 
New York was but 1.30 tons, while in Montana it was two tons. North Dakota led all 
the states in the total production of flax, yet the per acre production of flax in 
North Dakota was but 9.9 bushels, while in Montana it was 10.5 bushels. 

The following table, compiled from the 1915 Yearbook, shows the average per 

acre production of principal crops of twelve principal agricultural states of the Union: 

State Wheat 

Ohio 20.3 

Indiana 17.2 

Illinois 19.0 

Michigan 21.3 

Wisconsin 22.7 

Minnesota 17.0 

Iowa 19.8 

Missouri 12.3 

North Dakota 18.2 

South Dakota 17.1 

Nebraska 18.3 

Kansas 12.5 

United States 16.9 











































































r 1 1 K T n E A s r R K s t a t i: 




t/^ - • ■ 'gltt^, 


■^Ry «l7ff^^^ 





viii iiimllBi 



Brt. , yiiiittmiii 

; - f ft^ ' : V^> ' 

•, ^ ^ 

TJ> -f.^ 



' '''■'''■■'■fe't:,.: 

,.(/ •••/L' 

^' -i f" '■ .' : 



'- ',: A'' 

''■ - -.^(lilt ' ' ' 


^IV-illi . 


■'»'^-1/ • ■- »■■-'.•■» ' 

!■■■:. 5^ 

^ -■ itjJi'^Vit*njk; -^r^ A<\ 


■• ''UV 



/■ -K' 

•;- ^<v^- F-v^-'i 




(«.:\:.#:^-'fc^:/ .-' 

-- .:-<-m' 

' V 



A Fifty Bushel Crop of Wheat on an Eastern Montana Homestead. 

These figures, it should be understood are the average for the entire state. When 
individual yields are under consideration, it is found that exceptionally good farm- 
ers in every section of the state produced crops which are really amazing. 

The following newspaper clippings selected at random from the press of Mon- 
tana, show something of what the better farmers In this state are doing toward 
producing record-breaking yields: 


Dillon Examiner — ' At the close of this week the threshing season in Beaverhead 
county will be practically finished. According to John Ewing, a wellknown rancher 
living at Barretts, nine miles south of Dillon, this year's crop of grain will be the 
heaviest in the county's history. Mr. Ewing said: "More grain has been produced by 
the ranchers of Beaverhead this year than ever before, and they have made the high- 
est average yield per acre. Ranchers living on the west side of Beaverhead river, be- 
tween Dillon and Barrets, produced 87,000 bushels of grain, according to the statis- 
tics of the threshers. The average yield per acre in the county is about 65 bushels, 
while in many instances a yield of nearly 90 bushels has been recorded." Mr. 
Ewing's average yield per acre was 81 bushels. The average amount of bushels pro- 
duced by the average rancher in the county varies from seven and eight thousand 
to eleven thousand bushels. The Beaverhead Ranch company, which produces more 
grain than any other rancher in the county, last year produced 100,000 bushels of 
grain and it is understood that this year's yield from their grain fields will surpass 
last year's amount by several hundred bushels." 


Hardin Tribune — George Lammers reports that his 120 acres of wheat on sod yield- 
ed an average of 30 bushels. Peter Beck, who conducts the Bair ranch, had an aver- 
age of 38 bushels, spring wheat, and 53 bushels, barley per acre. The Batty sisters 


MO N T A \ A- 1 9 1 (5 

A Herd of Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle. 

had 90 acres of wheat which averaged 40 bushels, and 30 acres of this crop averaged 
43 bushels. The best yield of winter wheat so far this season, is that of August Berg- 
sten. From 15 acres he averaged 52 bushels per, and from 96 acres all told he was 
rewarded with an average of 47 bushels. 


Great Falls Leader — Senator S. B. Taylor of Blaine county is in Great Falls from 
his home near Lloyd. Mr. Taylor is one of the leading farmers and stockmen of his 
county. "The crops look good up our way," said Senator Taylor today. "In fact, 
I believe that the wheat and rye of our section will average 35 bushels an acre right 
through, and that is some statement. Last year my rye averaged 26 bushels, and I 
had as good rye as anyone in that section; this year I believe the figure will be 35. 
Our rye is as good as that raised anywhere, and we are raising a great deal of it, 
and with good market. Our wheat is also of the best and rates A 1 hard in eastern 
markets. We are beginning to harvest, and the grain cuts fine. The country of that 
section is settling up rapidly and thousands of farms now show where once was only 
range land. And speaking of range land, the native grasses stand to one's stirrups 
where the ground is not tilled, and all kinds of stock look ready for market. We have 
some showing in our section of Montana, as well as in other sections, and this fall's 
crop will ))(' a bumper one." 


Townsend Star — In conversation with Geo. Baily tliis week we are informed by 
him that his wheat crop measured up seventy bushels to the acre. He says he still 
has the wheat and the ground still bears the stubble marks so that if anyone doubts 
the yield, the premises are open for inspection. Seventy bushels is "some yield" but 
Broadwater is equal to anytliing in the grain line. 




A Field of Standing Oats. 


Red Lodge Picket — A winter wheat yield of sixty-four bushels per acre is the 
record established in Carbon county without irrigation by W. A. Brockway on his 
Shane Ridge farm, nine miles west of Boyd, according to A. G. Anderson, the Boyd 
merchant, who was in Red Lodge on Saturday. The field comprised seventeen acres 
and it threshed 1090 bushels, or on an average of sixty-four and one-eighth bushels 
to the acre. This yield was obtained on non-irrigated land and demonstrates that, 
under changed climatic conditions, the words "dry land" are no longer applicable to 
Montana acres. Reports of other large yields on non-irrigated land in the county 
come from the Boyd section. From C. A. Sauerwein, who was in the city on Satur- 
day from his irrigated ranch, it was learned that one of his neighbors, Nels Bue, 
threshed forty bushels to the acre from a forty-acre field of Turkey Red, and that 
other non-irrigated wheat lands thereabouts yielded equally as well. On Mr. Sauer- 
wein's own ranch, Judson Underwood, who had in a field of the Marquis wheat, a 
new kind just being introduced in Montana, this week threshed 1800 bushels, ob- 
taining a splendid yield per acre. Mr. Sauerwein's ranch is one of the finest in the 
valley and he recently topped the apple market in Billings with seventy-five boxes of 
apples of the Wealthy variety grown in his orchard. 


Great Falls Leader — Thomas Daley lives four miles northwest of Portage in Cas- 
cade county. His postoffice address is Portage, Cascade county, Montana. Mr. Daley 
is a man who lives upon a homestead taken up two years ago, and has not been able 
to farm extensively, but has had to work his way. This year he had 36 acres in 
Turkey Red winter wheat. No. 1 hard. The 36 acres yielded 1,542 bushels, or a little 
less than 43 bushels to the acre. Sixteen measured acres of the land was upon new 

0«« Uii r.>i .. 

; 50 

••• — «"— " — "I 

>I O X T A N A - 1 9 1 6 


Cottonwood Valley in the Judith Basin. 

sod, well ploughed and went 62 1^ bushels to the acre. This was measured land and 
measured yield, and the threshing was done by Adolph Ingold. "I have been two 
years on my homestead four miles northwest of Portage, Cascade county, Montana, and 
20 miles northwest of Great Falls," says M!r. Daley. "I have done my best, farming 
under the circumstances. I had 16 acres on the sod, deep ploughed and dry farmed, 
which went 62% bushels to the acre. The land was measured and the wheat was 
measured before witnesses. Adolph Ingold did the threshing. In all I had 36 acres 
in the same kind of wheat, but the second 20 acres brought down the average, the 
entire 36 acres yielding 1,542 measured bushels of Turkey Red No. 1 hard wheat, or an 
average of a little less than 43 bushels to the acre, which is not so bad. I have 160 
acres under homestead, taken up two years ago. I have lived in Montana all my life." 

Great Palls Correspondence in Butte Miner — Reports of authentic character from 
Highwood, 26 miles east of here, tell of one of the largest wheat yields ever secured 
in this section of Montana. W. Vaughn, one of the successful ranchers of the Nine 
Mile bench, north of Highwood, using a combined harvester, completed harvesting 250 
acres of wheat from which he got 19,973 bushels of wheat. This is an average above 
57 bushels per acre. Mr. Vaughn cut 500 acres with a binder, but this has not been 
threshed. Seventeen acres from the Wheeler ranch, near Highwood, yielded an aver- 
age of 63 bushels. Mr. Wheeler is on the engineering staff of the Milwaukee railway 
and formerly was located at St. Paul. Threshing is in full swing here. 


Chouteau County Independent — Harry Kelso of Highwood raised a record crop on 
twelve acres of ground, when his field of Turkey Red wheat gave him the heavy yield 
of 65 1-5 bushels. Carl Pinske of Goosebill was in the city last Saturday, bringing with 
him some fine potatoes. Mr. Pinske exhibited 26 potatoes from three hills, and they 
weighed 32 1/' lbs. 

09a.— ■>—>■- 



51 : 

Spring Plowing in Sight of the Snow-Clad Mountains. 


Miles City American — Ed. Whitbeck brought to this office a very fine sample of 
oats of the White Russian variety. Mr. Whitbeck has a fine large field of these oats 
and feels confident that they will yield 75 bushels to the acre. The report has come 
to town that wheat in the Rock Spring country has yielded 44 bushels to the acre and 
oats 89. Who says Montana is not a farming state? 


Dawson County Review — Although the crops of the season just past cannot be 
said to be of the "bumper" variety, reports received from some of the agricultural 
sections where threshing has been finished prove that many of the yields were excep- 
tionally good- — in fact they were fully up to predictions made at the beginning of 
summer. Secretary Rasmusson is gathering crop statistics and while the report is as 
yet far from complete, he has secured sufficient data to show that the returns of the 
harvest were very far removed from the "failure" category. For instance, Miles 
Borntrager of the Bloomfield country had 155 acres of wheat which threshed a total 
of 4,200 bushels. He has 10,000 bushels of grain altogether, and his neighbor, I. L. 
Jones, harvested a similar quantity. A. H. Oellermann of the same country had a 
50 acre field of macaroni wheat which showed an average yield of 41 bushels per acre. 
In the Crackerbox neighborhood, A. E. Aiken cut 50 acres of Fife wheat which thresh- 
ed 28% bushels per acre and his oats showed an average yield of 72 bushels. Willis 
Maples cut 100 acres of oats which yielded 65 bushels to the acre, and the grain is 
said to be of particular excellent quality. P. W. Hohensee had 46 acres of wheat which 
averaged 26 bushel per acre; 25 acres of oats that yielded 45 bushels and from 20 
acres of flax he threshed 320 bushel of seed, an average of 16 bushels to the acre. 
Halvor Bjornson of the Union country harvested wheat which showed a yield of 27 


M <> X T A \ A - 1 9 1 a 



Harvesting Oats in the Flathead. 

bushels; oats that averaged 52 bushels and flax 18. None of the above mentioned 
crops are considered phenomenal, by any manner of means, and it is believed when 
the secretary's records are completed that they will show a large number of others 
fully as good, and very probably some that are even better. 

Jordan Gazette—Probably one of the best average yields of crops raised in Daw- 
son county this season was harvested by John Womble, who resides near the head 
of Vail creek, 20 miles northwest of Jordan. Mr. Womble settled on the land a little 
more than two years ago, but did not start to do any breaking until the spring of 
1914. Since that time he has put 250 acres of raw prairie sod under a high state of 
cultivation and in the finest condition to produce excellent crops. 

Mr. Womble this season threshed 3,342 bushels of fine, clean and well matured 
wheat. He had several different varieties of this grain, the yields of which were 
as follows: Marquis spring wheat went 34 bushels to the acre; Turkey Red winter 
wheat produced 40 bushels per acre, and two or three other varieties did not yield 
so well. Mr. Womble considers the Marquis the best spring wheat for this country, 
its growth and maturity seeming to be especially adapted to the climate and other 
conditions. He had 16 acres of oats which yielded 700 bushels. 


Baker Sentinel — As threshing progresses reports are coming in placing the yields 
fully up to, if not beyond expectations. Hans Hanson is reported as having threshed 
40 bushels to the acre of winter wheat on his entire acreage, and S. H. North, nearby, 
from two and a half measured acres threshed 59 bushels per acre. G. F. Latham's 
spring wheat, just west of town, yielded better than 25 bushels, and Theo Olson's, four 
miles southwest, went about ."'.O. Receipts at the elevators are just beginning to 
come in. 



53 : 



A Heavy Stand of Winter Wheat., 


Fergus County Argus — A report reached town this week of a most remarkable 
yield of wheat on the Cape ranch near Coffee Creek. The wheat from 149 acres 
was recently threshed and showed an average yield per acre of 57 bushels. This field 
was damaged by hail during the summer and the insurance company allowed a 12 per 
cent loss on it, which was conservative. Just how big the yield would have been had 
there been no hail damage is a matter of wonder. Assuming that the insurance 
company allowed the full loss it would have been around 65 bushels per acre, but it 
would probably have been higher. 

Stanford World — There have been so many prenomenal yields reported from the 
different sections of the Judith basin during the 1915 harvest period that it is ex- 
tremely difficult to create any excitement by mentioning them. In fact no one who is 
acquainted with the basin's potent power to produce thinks anything of these big 
yield reports, they have rather learned to expect them and as long as the yield ranges 
between 25 and 75 bushels the report does not create much comment. If a farmer 
states to another than his wheat made only 20 bushels to the acre that provokes the 
question, what was the matter? But so long as it is above that mark the yield is 
taken as a matter of course. Last Saturday E. E. Haker was in town and upon 
being asked concerning the amount of wheat he threshed he stated that the final count 
showed a total of 56,000 bushels. Think of it— 56,000 bushels. There are places where 
that would be a remarkable yield for an entire community, but not so in the Judith 
basin. Mr. Haker came to this section of the country in 1912 and afterwards leased 
the Prank Strouf home ranch. He has worked it for three years and this year he 
harvested 56,000 bushels of wheat from an acreage of 1800 acres. A little figuring 
will show that that is an average yield of a little more than 31 bushels to the 
acre. Yields of seventy bushels to the acre may be attained from small acreages, and 

••• — 

: 54 

M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 

ij«'i. f 


:^^k uz::s.jimMSMk^ii.:jmiS!&.3:ss.A>mi^^ k/A, j^kfcgiv 

:i « ..ii-..^" 

■v'^^'^in^^^x -i VVwri^^ 

A Threshing Crew at Work. 

yields of forty and forty-five bushels per acre liave been obtained from quarter sec- 
tions, but it is doubtful if there has been so large a tract in the state that has beaten 
the 31 bushel average yield. And it is certain that there are few men in the state 
who have produced more than 56,000 bushels of grain. A little figuring with a pencil 
and a piece of paper will show how much money this represents at the present price 
of the grain. 

Stanford World — The first of the week the final strokes were applied to the Baker 
Brothers big job of threshing, the tally box was noted and the figures stood close to 
the 13,000 bushel mark. Big yields ranging from fifty to sixty bushels have been re- 
ported over the country, but none have come to hand that covered a very large 
acreage. The Baker Brothers field was 365 acres in extent and a little work with the 
pencil will show that the average yield for the entire field was a little better than 35 
bushels. This is an extra good yield and will show profit even with the price where 
it is at present. This is a striking example of the wisdom of care in the preparation 
of the seed bed. The field of wheat in question has attracted attention ever since 
the plowing for the crop was begun and frequent prophecies were always to the effect 
that this would be one of the best fields in the country. The land was prepared in 
capital shape and no effort was spared to give the crop all the advantage that this 
climate and proper farming methods could supply and the result was a crop that has 
attracted the attention of farmers, land men and tourists throughout the season. 


Kalispell Times — Edwin Pray, a rancher who resides near Poison, is in the city 
today on business with the county surveyor's office, and gives a glowing account of 
the crops in that section. Mr. Pray states that he believes the wheat will average 
30 bushels per acre, and oats probably 40. He knows of one crop of oats which went 
90 bushels per acre, and another of 75. but of course, these are the exception rather 


.1111 — uii**A 

55 : 

A View of the Beautiful Kootenai. 

than the rule. In some instances. Mr. Pray says, this is the first crop which has 
ever been produced. One of his neighbors has been cultivating his homestead for 
four years without results, and this spring rented another place which he thought was 
better. His abandoned farm produced a volunteer wheat crop of 600 bushels on 30 
acres, and he has heard of another case where a volunteer wheat crop went 30 bushels 
per acre, but this could not be vouched for. 


Bozeman Courier — Joseph Kountz, farmer and banker of Bozeman, is pleased with 
the returns from the threshing machine on his ranch near Whitehall, where 38 acres 
of Turkey red winter wheat yielded 2,175 bushels, or an average of 58 bushels to the 
acre, 35 acres yielded 1,700 bushels, or an average of 481/2 bushels to the acre, and a 
field of 60 acres planted in Marquis spring wheat,- also on dry land, yielded an aver- 
age of 30% bushels an acre. 

Belgrade Correspondence in Butte Miner— Corn was pulled by Thomas Gordon, a 
rancher, residing about five miles southwest of Belgrade, and brought to Belgrade, 
where it is on exhibition in a department store. The cornstalks, including small 
roots, measures 10 feet 11 inches in height, with several ears on each stalk. The 
corn was planted in June and Nebraska seed was used. It is the finest specimen of 
corn ever seen in this locality. 

Bozeman Correspondence in Butte Miner— A yield of 40 bushels of Alaska peas 
from one field and 35 bushels of the same variety from another field are the per 
acre returns Charles Spick reports after the George Border threshing machine had 
completed part of his crop last week before the rain interrupted. He has a fine field 
of Gem peas worth $2 per bushel which should thresh out in the neighborhood of 
50 bushels per acre. 

0*« „ ,1,1 ii> 1MI i.» «. » r,M Ma «■ «> «N iiH ill. nil 1.11 1.1. •» .." 1". .1" II" .1" "« .1" "" «• o»'»«# 

: r>(j M () \ T A \ A - 1 » 1 () : 

I • 

-,,_„.. 11,1 III. ... ... .... nil II.. ,.« .11. .1.. .III 1. 1. .... 1... I..I »" "» »" "" "" "" "" "" «« "" "" "••••• 

Waiting for the Threshing Crew. 

Bozeman Correspondence in Butte Miner — A yield of winter wheat so phenomenal 
that it invites incredulity is reported by E. W. Radford, who is in charge of a thresh- 
ing machine and outfit west of Manhattan. The average per acre yield will exceed 
81 bushels. This is in a field of 32 acres of Turkey Red wheat raised by Richard 
Quint, which has been threshed with the exception of a little over one acre and the 
machine is now idle because of the rain. The total yield from the field as far as 
they have gone is enough to average 80 bushels per acre for the field and the rest 
will increase the average. Mr. Radford is running the J. W. Freeman threshing 
outfit of Bozeman and threshed out recently 135 acres for G. S. Black near Man- 
hattan, which averages well above 40 bushels an acre, a part of which went 57 

Bozeman Courier — From a field of five and a half acres on the College View 
farm of Harry L. Summers, John W. Chaney has harvested over 1,500 bushels of fine 
potatoes of gigantic average size, and when the crop is weighed it is confident that 
the average will be above 300 bushels to the acre. This is the second year of big 
potato crops on this farm, and although the yield may be no larger than on many 
other Gallatin valley farms, the excellence of the product and its proximity to Boze- 
man make it notable. 


Granite County News — The Brazil threshing outfit, finished threshing the Col. 
Morse piece of grain, adjoining town on the east, Sunday. From the 20 acres, 800 
bushels of wheat were threshed. Mr. Morse stored the grain with the expectation of 
receiving higher prices. This is one of the best yields of Marquis wheat threshed from 
dry land in this section. 


57 t 

Sheep on Manhattan Farm. 


Box Elder Press — The outlook for a big grain yield is promising. The best crop 
to date is the report of the yield of Borde Brothers who threshed an average of 54 
bushels of Macaroni wheat to the acre, 150 acres. The yield on this farm was so 
much greater than had been expected that all available storage room was used and the 
grain had to be piled on the ground. The following yields have also been reported: 
Wm. Glynn on 30 acres, 28 bushels wheat to acre; 30 acres on stubble, 18 bushels to 
acre. John Murphy, 75 acres, 23 bushels wheat to the acre. Frank Kurtz, 100 acres, 
39 bushels wheat to the acre; barley, 20 acres, 88 bushels to acre; oats, 90 bushels to 
the acre. Oscar F. Harvey, 70 acres, 29 bushels wheat to acre. Jasper Nevins, 16 
bushels wheat to acre. Edward Formanack, 240 acres, 16 bushels wheat to acre. J. 
Jarosz, 36 bushels wheat to acre. 

Havre Plaindealer — Early reports of the excellent crops around Kremlin, 20 miles 
west of Havre, are amply borne out by the results of threshing already done in that 
district. From a gentleman prominent in the business life of Kremlin, and who is in 
close touch with the farmers of that section, the Plaindealer is in receipt of the fol- 
lowing list of grain yields in that district. The figures apply to winter wheat: Gus 
Renner, 42 bushels per acre; Gus Renner 711/2 bushels per acre; Oscar Erlandson, 44 
bushels per acre; T. R. Nelson, 42 bushels per acre; Vernon Hill, 38 bushels per acre; 
Peter Horn, 36 bushels per acre; F. M. Wilson, 35% bushels per acre; Chas. Thomas, 
331/2 bushels per acre; Frank Horeish, 33 bushels per acre; Anton Bordie, 38 bushels 
per acre; Wm. Reimer, 34 bushels per acre; Sara and Mary Fenton, 36 bushels per 
acre; Chas. Benson, 29 bushels per acre; B. A. Albertson, 281/2 bushels per acre; Odin 
Sjordal, 28 1/2 bushels per acre; Frank Barden, 29 bushels per acre; Rose Vosen, 25 
bushels per acre; Martin Berglie, 23 bushels per acre. 

? 58 

„„ ,|H „„ „u „„ HH MM — KB — m^— m^— ii^— li^— Hi— B"^— "■ MM — M»^— Mi^— tM^— MB— BB^— ■»••# 

M ( ) X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 * 

, „„ ,» «K MM MI— -•■^■l «■ »■ " «" "" I'll " "" "» »« 1" " ■•■••• 


A Young Lincoln County Orchard. 


Whitehall News — D. F. Riggs, the land man and auctioneer, brought a potato to 
the News office last Friday which tipped the scales at four pounds and measured 
twelA'e an one-half inches in length. The only fault that we could find with the 
Murphy was that it was so large that many could not find space to grow on an acre 
of land. The spud in question was grown on Mr. Rigg's ranch, soutli of Whitehall, and 
was surely a beauty, clean and smooth as a billiard ball. 


Augusta Times — Jack Williams was in from Hogan Monday after a load of lumber 
for his new barn. Jack informs us that he had a pretty good crop on his homestead 
this year. He threshed 1,023 bushels of winter wheat from 27 acres. He has planted 
72 acres in winter wheat tliis year. 

Augusta Times — C. D. Wheeler and Mrs. Henry were in from the Wheeler ranch 
last Monday. Mr. Wheeler says he raised tons of purple top turnips this year for 
cow feed. Many of them are as large as tlie 17% pound sample which lie left at the 
Times office last week, and they were all raised without irrigation. 


Eureka Journal — Eureka has been quite a shipping center for wheat the past week, 
Geo. W. Gilpin, the grain buyer having already purchased ten carloads of wheat in 
the valley, and threshing will continue for perhaps three weeks. 


Madisonian Times — Charles S. Baker and Mrs. Baker of Ruby came to town Sun- 
day to make arrangements for Mrs. Baker and the children to remain here this 
winter so that the children may attend school. Mr. Baker is living on a dry land 


59 ! 

Government Irrigating Ditch on the Flathead Reservation. 

homestead near Ruby and in speaking of his success in farming without irrigation 
said he had just harvested his crop of spring wheat and that is went better than 
30 bushels to the acre. He says he considers that a very good showing when the fact 
that the grain was not planted until the 17th day of May is taken into consideration. 


Judith Gap Journal — The 310-acre field adjoining town on the west was threshed 
out a little over a week ago. There were 18,290 bushels threshed out of the field, or 
at the rate of 59 bushels per acre. This yield was made after a hail loss of 12^4 
per cent had been paid and taking this into consideration the yield of the field if it 
had not been struck by hail would have been 63 bushels per acre. The field belongs 
to C. R. Stone and has been farmed by him and Walter "Witt very successfully for the 
past two years. The land was originally state school land and was purchased by Mr. 
Stone some five years ago. A year ago Mr. Stone declined $60.00 an acre for the land 
that many an old-timer would not have given a dollar an acre for up to seven or 
eight years ago. And this same land produced 63 bushels of wheat per acre this year 
— more than half the price of the land at $60 an acre after paying all expenses. 

Harlowton Correspondence in Anaconda Standard — Additional reports of the 
threshing in this district are coming in daily from the three main divisions of terri- 
tory adjacent to the city. The following this week have been reported: C. R. Stone 
of Judith Gap, 320 acres of Turkey Red, averaging 59 bushels per acre, and 200 acres 
of spring wheat with 48 bushels to the acre; Clarence Morgan of Judith Gap, 100 
acres of Turkey Red with 53 bushels to the acre; Pearson of the Gap, 80 acres of 
winter wheat at 40 bushels; Wilmer Johnson, 30 acres of Turkey wheat at 42 bush- 
els; Milton Dressback, 30 acres of spring wheat with 34 bushels to the acre, and 90 
acres of winter wheat with 25 bushels, and 20 acres of oats at 50 bushels the acre. 
Ed. Jacobson had 11 acres of Karkhieff wheat which ran 40 bushels to the acre on 





M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 


Alfalfa on the Valier Project. 

which he will realize $50 to the acre, selling his grain for seed. Dr. J. W. Beardsley 
has 40 acres of Turkey Red at 33 bushels to the acre; M. McFarland of Oka, 40 acres 
of Turkey wheat, 41 bushels to the acre, and 320 acres at 35 bushels to the acre; L. 
L. Dixon, 116 acres of Turkey wheat at 38.5 bushels; Jack Darrington of Nihill, 10 
acres of Turkey Red with 40 bushels to the acre, and 15 acres of spring wheat with 
32 bushels to the acre; John Jacobson, 90 acres of spring wheat with 40 bushels to 
the acre. South of town the following returns are in: J. S. Langston, 43 acres of 
Turkey Red, 52 bushels to the acre; Jess A. Langston, 22 acres of Turkey Red, 58 
bushels to the acre; Jim Kent, 200 acres of Turkey Red, 41 bushels to the acre; 
Rufus Dockins, 22.5 acres with 57.5 bushels to the acre; Charles Langston. 70 acres 
of Turkey Red, 28 bushels to the acre; George Lacey, 75 acres of Turkey Red at 32 
bushels to the acre; Jess Duffy, 40 acres with 63 bushels to the acre; Jess E. Lang- 
ston, 87 acres of Turkey Red with 48 bushels to the acre. West of town returns are 
incomplete. Bob Montgomery of Two Dot reports 10 acres at 59.5 bushels to the acre, 
30 acres with 56 bushels to the acre, and 30 acres of spring grain with 49 bushels to 
the acre. 


Mineral County Press — C. O. Dunkle of Tarkio, completed threshing his oats last 
week. They went over fifty bushels to the acre on the entire 70 acres and the seed 
was put in late. All those in the Tarkio and Quartz districts got handsome grain 
yields this year. 


Ronan Pioneer — Every farmer who has finished threshing can report a big yield 
this year. Some are so surprised over the bushels they are getting that they can 
hardly believe it to be true, even with the evidence before their eyes. Some are 


Tin: thi:a8Uki: statk 


'" — •■•••• 

A Northwestern Montana Farm Scene, 

afraid it is a dream and that they have hardly become awake. Since the Pioneer was 
published last week it has been learned that John Semar, living west of town almost 
to the Flathead river, has an avearge of 44 bushels per acre on 50 acres. This wheat 
was "stubbled in" last fall and is a remarkable yield. Besides he got 19 bushels per 
acre volunteer wheat on 40 acres. Mike Gadbois had better than 20 bushels per acre 
from his fall wheat and better than 15 bushels from spring wheat. This may not seem 
worth mentioning, but when it is known that none of this land from which the yields 
came has been touched for three years, then it is some wonder. This makes the third 
time this acreage has been cut since it was sown. Henry McRae had 44 bushels per 
acre on the Beck place in the same locality and this is all a volunteer crop. Not 
having water to irrigate the land, and believing it useless to cultivate the land with- 
out water, nothing was done last fall, but the grain came so well last spring that it 
was looked after and 44 bushels per acre is the harvest. Miss Carrie Miltenberger is 
another of the lucky ones in that neighborhood. She has sown wheat for the past 
three years, but last fall became discouraged and did not sow any. This spring it 
was like all other tracts in that section. The wheat came up so promising that the 
land was allowed to remain as it was, and last week she threshed 120 acres and it 
yielded over 30 bushels per acre. This entire acreage was pastured until June and was 
all a volunteer crop. Miss Edna Whitney, a school teacher from Anacortes, Wash., 
is another to reap a harvest without sowing. Miss Whitney has been on her land for 
two months past and while here had the satisfaction of seeing 40 acres of volunteer 
wheat harvested and threshed which averaged 26 bushels per acre. 


Lavina Independent — Here are a few records of verified wheat yields in Mussel- 
shell county. The address of each farmer and the kind of crop grown, together with 
the yield in bushels per acre is as follows: M. R. McMullen, Ryegate, Turkey Red, 84; 
H. B. Hersey, Elso, Forty-Fold wheat, 56.7; H. H. Porter, Elso, Forty-Fold, 54; Henry 


>I O X T A N A - 1 y 1 6 



Pure Bred Holstein Herd Near Havre. 

Kleisaat, Roundup, Turkey Red, 53; Bert Haylock, Roundup, Turkey Red, 51.4; W. P. 
Hunter, Darrell, Turkey Red, 50.1; B. Eliasson, Roundup, Turkey Red, 50; A. J. El- 
lingson, Roundup, Turkey Red, 48.3; Ernest Paulley, Belmont, Turkey Red, 48; George 
Meachem, Glendale, Turkey Red, 48; R. W. Tartt, Emory, Turkey Red, 48; Henry 
Doering, Ryegate, Turkey Red, 46; William Fentres, Big Wall, Turkey Red, 46; W. P. 
Hunter, Darrell, Turkey Red, 45; Alex Swanson, Emory, Turkey Red, 45; Oscar Reich- 
ard, Roundup, Turkey Red, 45; A. A. Meachem, Emory, Turkey Red, 45; Charles A. 
Virgils, Roundup, Turkey Red, 43; Earl Morrow, Lavina, Turkey Red, 43; W. 0. Old- 
ham, Roundup, Turkey Red, 42.5; Sam Edwards, Belmont, Marquis, 42; J. T. Buck- 
ingham, Lavina, Fife, 40.2; Art Wilson, Roundup, Turkey Red, 40; E. N. Blair, Bel- 
mont, Turkey Red, 40; W. F. Ording, Roundup, Turkey Red, 38.2; O. H. Helgeson, 
Belmont, Turkey Red, 37.5; Merwin Neace, Melstone, Turkey Red, 37; Fred Blue, Mel- 
stone, Turkey Red, 35; Paul ranch, Lavina, Turkey Red, 35; William Card, Ryegate, 
Turkey Red, 32.6; Charles A. Virgils, Roundup, Macaroni, 50; Ernest Paulley, Bel- 
mont, Marquis, 41; Watt Bros., Elso, Marquis, 36; O. H. Helgeson, Belmont, Marquis, 
30; Sam Parker, Roundup, oats, 112; Carl Weeks, Melstone, oats, 100; Paul ranch, 
Lavina, oats, 80; J. M. Candler, Lavina, oats, 77; Fred Cram, Emory, oats, 65; James 
McLeod, Roundup, oats, 63.6; Ben Plenger, Lavina, oats, 92.6; Watt Bros., Elso, oats, 
50; Charles A. Virgils, Roundup, oats, 41. 


Livingston Correspondence in Butte Miner — Because of the skepticism with which 
some of the uneducated receive reports of grain yields on Montana farms resulting 
from the wonderful advantage the Treasure State has over every other common- 
wealth in the Union, affidavits have been made by a surveyor sent to measure a 
wheat field in the Shields River valley and also of the yield of wheat. The ranch is 
owned by Mrs. H. J. Miller of Livingston and operated by John J. Waters. It is be- 
lieved this ranch has made a record wheat yield for Montana. Here are some of 
the facts contained in the affidavit. Field of v/heat contained 39 acres. The machine 
measure 2,588 bushels. Taking 60 pounds to the bushel the wheat totalled 2,933.04 

0#»— -m^— "H^— ""— ^''■^— "■^— ''■^— in^— ""^— X"^— »"— """-^U"^— "»^— "H^— HH^— HH-^HH^^UM^— IIH^— IIH^— iril — lltl^— IfD— ^IIPI^— llll^— IIH^— nil — lll|.»#0 



63 ; 

Loading Potatoes Near Piedmont. 

bushels, or 74.4 bushels to the acre. It is the biggest yield ever heard of in Park 
county. The wheat was Turkey Red. 

Wilsall Correspondence in Butte Miner — First returns from the harvest fields in- 
dicate that the Shields river valley wheat this year will grade unusually high, with 
a normal yield per acre. Threshing operations began the first of this week and as yet 
not enough returns are available to justify estimates that are correct. However, all 
indications point to an average yield of high quality, with the exception of the foot- 
hills, where it is believed the grain has been slightly frost-bitten, but the yield will be 
unusually heavy. Returns to date are as follows: Merrill Henry, seven miles north 
of Wilsall, 60 acres; yield, 40 bushels per acre; weight, 63 pounds per bushel. Harold 
Johnson, one mile north of Wilsall, 45 acres; yield, 35 bushels per acre; weight, 62% 
pounds per bushel. 


Malta Enterprise — Threshing operations still continue with more energy than 
ever and a number of new machines are at work near Malta. Last week the crops 
on the B. W. Brockway farm were threshed and on five acres that was in corn last 
year the winter wheat gave a yield of fifty-two bushels per acre. The rest of the 
field gave only fair returns and cut the average of the whole considerably. 


The Silver State— Plum Murray, one of the successful young farmers of the Avon 
district, was a Deer Lodge visitor Monday on a business mission. Mr. Murray had 
just finished harvesting his hay crop which he reports was one of the best in recent 
years. The quality was excellent and the yield big. 


The Terry Tribune — The greatest yield of oats which has been reported in this 
section was threshed from a field on the J. J. Morrow farm a few miles from Mildred. 
From statements made by the man who did the threshing and several others who 



M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 



Seeding in the Gallatin. 

were present at the time the yield of 105 bushels per acre must be taken as correct. 
This is the largest yield of any grain ever grown in the Terry section so far as we 
have any knowledge, and we congratulate Mr. Morrow upon his success. From every 
direction have come reports of great yields of both oats and wheat, but the nearest 
approach to the field mentioned has been 85 bushels — and this was considered a 


Stevensville Register — Pour hundred cases of celery will be shipped to Butte by 
parcel post from the A. M. Hightower ranch on lower Burnt Fork between now and 
the first of the year. This amount is the product of a combination of an acre of good 
soil, 30,000 celery plants and the enthusiastic labor of Henry Hightower, a student in 
the Stevensville high school. One firm in Butte has contracted to handle the entire 
output, part being shipped soon, more about Thanksgiving time, and the remainder 
in time for the Christmas trade. The shipment is made by parcels post because the 
celery can be delivered to the rural carrier at the door, saving the expense of haul- 
ing to town. The estimated net return from the crop will be between $400 and $450. 


The Sidney Herald — Dr. Magruder reports 32 bushels of blue stem to the acre 
on his farm south of the city and 20 bushels of Marquis, the latter having suffered 
from the frosts early in the spring. Peter Anderson threshed an average of 36 ^^ 
bushels of wheat to the acre on dry land, while A. Vaux reports a yield of 37 bush- 
els to the acre on last year's corn land and 25 bushels on another field, both dry land, 
and his wheat in the valley, under irrigation, averaged 33 bushels to the 

Enid Correspondence in Sidney Herald — The following crop reports have been 
received — E. A. Roberts, wheat, 25 bushels per acre; oats, 36 bushels; barley, 41 

••• — .„ 


I 1 1 I-: '|- It I ; \ S t K K S T A T K 

-HW^^M^— UN— 

_„, «„ „■! ,.i, Ilia** 

lit ml itii ml "M»a0^ 

Tractors Break Thousands of New Acres Every Year. 

bushels. Mrs. Addie Roberts, wheat, 17 bushels; oats, 54 bushels. Thompson Kemmls, 
Jr., wheat, 21 bushels; oats, 40 bushels. G. G. Dupuis, wheat, 20 bushels; oats, 35 
bushels. S. B. Bean, wheat, 20 bushels; oats, 33 bushels. 


Ingomar Index — Harry Guyer, a homesteader living in the Snow Belt district, 
about 25 miles northeast of Ingomar, threshed a 12-acre field of Turkey Red winter 
wheat this week. From this field Mr. Guyer received 600 bushels of excellent wheat, 
an average yield of 50 bushels to the acre. Mr. Guyer also had in 10 acres of a new 
variety of oats known as Black Beauty. He got off this field 730 bushels of oats, 
making an average yield of 73 bushels to the acre. His flax averaged 12% bushels 
per acre. This yield of Turkey Red winter wheat is the largest, for any sized field, 
we have reported this year. For this 12 acres of winter wheat Mr. Guyer at the 
market price today, Oct. 21, 1915, at this market will receive 78 cents per bushel or a 
total of $498, making the proceeds per acre, $39. Or in other words, Mr. Guyer has 
realized $39 this year on 12 acres of his land that did not cost him $10 per acre. 
Where, on top of earth, can a farmer do better? 

Sumatra Record — Tuesday of this week, Joe Fields brought to this office a red 
beet which would be a credit to any community, and some fine potatoes, one making 
a meal for three persons. The beet weighed 91/2 pounds. Mr. Fields came to this 
country three years ago with 10 cents in his pocket and has had a hard struggle to 
get along, as he had to work out to make money to improve his claim. He had two 
grubstakes, amounting to almost $100 stolen. Still, he has succeeded in improving his 
place, fenced it and has 40 acres of corn, an abundance of potatoes and other vege- 
tables, including about one-fourth of an acre of onions. Mr. Fields recently made final 
proof on his claim and will soon be the proud possessor of a fine half-section of land. 
His farm lies about five miles east of Sumatra. 


: 66 

••• — "I- 

M O X T A N A - 1 9 1 6 


A. B. Cook's Famous Prize Hereford Herd at Townsend. 


Sanders County Signal — OUie Gregg finished threshing Sunday. He received a 
larger yield than expected. His wheat running about 24 bushels to the acre and his 
oats running as high as 50 bushels to the acre. He got in all about five thousand 


Sheridan County News — Threshing on the Fort Peck reservation has been going 
at full swing during the past week and everyone is well satisfied with the 
yields obtained. Jacob Brombarger threshed a field of wheat averaging 25 bushels 
per acre, Grant Maxwell, 21 bushels per acre, Mr. Chipman, 20 bushels per acre. 
A. S. Barlow threshed a field of oats which averaged 50 bushels to the acre. Flax is 
running about 12 bushels per acre. Thus it would seem that by using these crops 
as an estimate the Fort Peck land is as good as any within the State of Montana. 


Park City Pioneer — Postmaster Ed Peck went up to his ranch in Lake Basin last 
Saturday, and while in that neighborhood took advantage of the occasion to find out 
how crops were. Mr. Peck says on the ranch of his neighbor, Frank Vanoy, from a 
40-acre tract an average of 45 bushels per acre was threshed. Mr. Peck reports that 
the threshers haven't got to his ranch yet, but he is confident that the grain yield on 
his place will equal any per acreage mark yet reported in that locality. 


Big Timber Pioneer — Perry Jasper of the Boulder, who was a business visitor in 
the city yesterday, reports the biggest wheat yield so far reported — 260 bushels from 
four acres, or 65 bushels to the acre. The grain was hauled two miles to the machine 

#••—•■ " ■• ■• " " "" ••— •"^— ■"-^■■■^"— •■-^•"— •<^— n^— ll^— ■•— ■■^— »•— iiii..^«».^iiii nn liH-^nli-^mi— — liil*«9 


• # 

0#«— «<• "■ "• "• "■ ■• ■" "■— ■■^— ■•^— ■■^— ■■— ■■^— ■■^— "■^— •■— na^— m-^Mil— ^iin^— UM^— UH-^iiM^— nB-^im-^liH^— uu^— ntt«00 

Beau Perfection Twenty-Third, Grand Champion Hereford Bull. 

before threshing, so that some ranchers could get good seed wheat, and on the way 
scattered a great deal. However, It stands as the highest yield reported. 

Big Timber Pioneer — Henry Keithley and family were in from his ranch home 
and made a three day's visit at his father's T. W. Keithley. He says his crops were 
light, having been struck by hail three different times, but his neighbors, the Dunn 
boys, had 51 and 52 bushels of winter wheat to the acre. 


Valierian — The record crop yields from all over the state have been printed in the 
big papers every day, but up to this time there has not been one to compare with 
one yield right on the outskirts of the town of Valier. This week J. N. Starbuck fin- 
ished threshing 160 acres of fall wheat, and the machine tallied a yield of 63 bushels 
to the acre. The wheat will, according to those who know overrun the machine meas- 
ure about three pounds to the bushel, which will make the yield about 65 bushels per 
acre. Mr. Starbuck recently resigned as postmaster of this city, and who could 
blame him, w^ith a crop growing that was admired by every passer-by, and its yield 
was predicted a large one from the time it began to head out. Raising 65 bushels 
to the acre has got a postoffice job backed off the boards, or any other political job. 

Montana Daily Record— Fifty-five bushels of wheat to the acre is by no means an 
unusual yield this season for the dry land farmers of Teton county, according to 
E. J. Hirshberg of Choteau, who is in the city today. He says yields have averaged 
better than 40 bushels. One farmer, on a measured tract of 10 acres, threshed 88 
bushels to the acre. 

Cutbank Correspondence in Helena Independent — A flax yield of 350 bushels on a 
10-acre patch on the farm of Robert Paul, north of Cutbank, or a yield of 35 bushels 
to the acre, is the best yield known, according to the best information obtainable. Mr. 



M () X T A X A - 1 9 1 « 



— Ull^i.ii III 



Productive Alfalfa Field Near Billings. 

Paul, a conservative Scotchman, has made affidavit as to the acreage and the thresher 
has made affidavit as to tlie yield. One of the largest paint manufacturing firms in 
America, whose representatives travel through the flax belt of the United States 
and Canada, says this is the biggest yield ever recorded. A yield of 32 bushels in the 
Golden Valley of North Dakota, three years ago, was the best to this time, the man- 
ager says. The manager of the paint house says the region east of the Rockies, in 
which Cutbank is located, is the best flax zone in the United States or Canada. 


Devon Register — Following are some of the grain yields reported around Devon: 
J. H. Creighton, two fields wheat, 27 and 32 bushels per acre; oats, 70 bushels; Clin- 
ton Craig, oats, 90 bushels; J. L. Clark, wheat, 39 bushels; oats 95; Owen Doolittle, 
wheat 54%; Ed. Wilkins, wheat, 32; Clifford Bros., wheat, 38; Gust Dukleth, wheat, 
36; Mrs. Bertha Hinman, wheat, 28; T. Mallette, wheat, 33. 


Valley County News — Word comes from Hinsdale to the effect that the oats yield 
this year on J. T. Rowe's farm was at the rate of 102 bushels to the acre, machine 
measure, and this grain averaged forty-six pounds to the bushel. The stalks stood 
over the field six feet in height and the heads were seven inches lang. It is recorded 
as one of the banner yields of the county, exceeding in acre yield the 100-bushel rec- 
ord made on the farm of H. C. Christianson, whose place is a few miles south of 

Glasgow Courier— The biggest yield reported to date is that of Charles Tanner of 
Hinsdale, whose wheat averaged between 45 and 60 bushels to the acre. Reports of 
threshing in this vicinity give yields averaging between 20 and 30 bushels of wheat 
to the acre, while oats is running as high as 100 bushels to the acre. Pete Breig- 

#••.—<• •■ " ■ " "• ■• ■■ ■• •■ " " •• "■ «■ ■» «• •« •• n> u» .ill ii> 1 , ii*«9 

; III i: 1 H i: A s L K i: s t a t f (}«> • 

• • 

• •• •■ •• " " " " ■■ " " ■■ "■ »• " "■ •" " "» »" "" "I' 11 II III! "II liii nil ...1 nil iii..a« 


pUPiiiHHHHH^^^^^H^^^^^^^Hp .V'- 

' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hi^ 


' ' '^^BBW^^^^^^m|MM|J^^H|B^^^P 

' ^^^BW^^^BBBB^^imlM 

>^^9^9^9^^^^^^H^^' ^ jHSi^^^^Hi^ 

>dlRI VUJWffiHB^^^H^BLt- ^H^^^^^^^Kk 

' 'y^^^^S^s^m^ '^^^^^^^^Bl 

J^^^^^^^mK^. '^^^^^^w^m 

t^SSgS^SS^fi^E^^^^' r^; 

" - *■ ^^^^^^S^H^k^^ 'tf^^^^SSt^ff* ■ : jihAi^m^ 

. - . . ^ 


, ' "" - ."'■" " , ■^:~' ^^^' 

-'■".--. "^ 

". '. -^ ::-.■- ■'•'•:- ■ ..".-. ^^-'if^-^ '': •Z^r'-.-^-^'^WM^i^ 

Orchard in the Missoula Valley. 

piizcr, who has a farm nine miles northeast of Glasgow, threshed 2,800 bushels of 
excellent wheat off 100 acres. This wheat is all high grade and up to the standard 
of the grain that is being raised on the north bench this fall. An average of 25 
bus'iels of wheat to the acre from 220 acres w^as threshed on the farm of Nels 
Dokkon near the city. 

Valley County News — A yield of sixty-nine and two-thirds bushels per acre of Mar- 
quis wheat, thresher measure, is announced by the New^s correspondent in that 
town as having been secured by W. B. Dolson, of Barnard. He expressed belief that 
this wheat weighs seventy-three pounds to the bushel. The statement is made by the 
correspondent also that Mr. Dolson thinks this big yield breaks not only the record 
in Valley county but also in the State of Montana this year on spring wheat produc- 
tion. Mr. Dolson is reported to have grown this big crop on summer fallowed ground, 
plowed ten inches deep, and the enormously prolific yield is being attribuetd in 
some measure in that neighborhood to this fact as well as to the favorable wheat- 
growing weather which prevailed. The Dolson yield exceeds by far the greatest yield 
heretofore reported from any part of the bailiwick. While J. E. Gasser was in the 
city Friday from Valleytown, he stated that there were threshings in that vicinity 
which disclosed crops of macaroni wheat running forty-five bushels per acre. The 
bluestem, he said, gave up an average of about thirty-six bushels. His own blue- 
stem, he added, yielded at the rate of twenty-eight bushels per acre. Throughout 
the Valleytown region, he also explained, good grain crops were harvested. The J. 
D. Kelly crop, twelve miles northeast of Hinsdale, is reported to have been forty-five 
bushels per acre, sixty-six pounds to the bushel. This wheat is said to have grown 
on fall-plowed land. Mr. Kelly harvested only eighteen bushels per acre off another 
piece of land nearby which was merely spring plowed. In the Tampico district, 
from which a great many reports of high yields have been coming, the News has it 
straight and vehemently, from T. O'Connor, who was in the city Friday, that there 

! 70 

1*11 n ^^11 (I ^^ itit^— u U' 

M O X T A N A - 1 9 1 (! 

— UH* ppi-' nB" Hi"! hh pb <m— 

Many Montana Farmers Stack Their Wheat. 

was an average threshed of twenty-five bushels per acre throughout that territory. In 
the Opheim country the Carl J. Anderson oats crop is reported to have yielded fifty- 
five bushels per acre, on an 100-acre harvest, which yielded 5,500 bushels. In the 
same region John St. Germain harvested sixty bushels of oats to the acre. The flax 
crop of J. Pudois yielded at the rate of twenty-two bushels per acre and his wheat 
forty-three bushels. Havener and Brathovde, in the Tango country, are said to have 
procured a yield of seventy-eight bushels of oats per acre. In the Baylor region Forest 
E. Hale's wheat gave up twenty-six bushels, and oats in the same neighborhood is 
said to be running about sixty bushels per acre. 


The Wibaux Pioneer — C. H. (Dad) Molton who lives two miles east of Wibaux has 
just completed threshing a crop of 20,000 bushels of wheat, which averaged close to 
30 bushels to the acre. If you want to find out what this splendid crop of wheat is 
worth to the producer, just look up the market reports and you will find it to be 
in the neighborhood of $25.50 per acre or a total of $17,000 for the entire crop. It is 
reported that the crop of wheat just threshed on the Van Luchene ranch immediately 
south of town averaged 42 bushels to the acre. 


Laurel Outlook — Another big yield of Turkey Red wheat that was grown on dry 
land was made on Miss Helene Wold's ranch southeast of Laurel. Miss Wold has 
320 acres of land that she acquired by homesteading. It is located on the ridge be- 
tween Duck creek and Spring creek. She hired seventeen acres plowed last year. It 
was summer fallowed and seeded early last fall. The crop was threshed yesterday 
and it yielded 1,000 bushels of No. 1 grain. This lacks only a trifle of making 59 
bushels per acre. This average is a tie with the yield secured by M. E. Dye on his 
place on the Whitehorse flat. Miss Wold now holds the record for high yield on the 

•I 5 




K i: A S V Hi: ST ATK 


Lower End of the Beautiful Mission Valley. 

bench where her farm is situated and the high average secured is proof that dry 
farming is profitable in this section of the state. 

The 1915 Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture shows in plain 
figures just why farming in Montana is profitable and just why "an acre in Montana 
is worth more tiian an acre elsewhere." The Yearbook shows the average per acre 
value of each of the various crops grown in the various states, computed over a pe- 
riod of five years. 

In the table given below the Yearbook figures showing the average five-year 
value of an acre of wheat in the various states is given, and from this basis the 
average five-year value of a 160-acre farm of wheat is computed. The result shows 
that every year the Montana farmer pockets from $200 to $1,600 more money than 
does the farmer who has not as yet learned that farming in Montana pays better. 
Here are the figures on wheat: 


5 Year Average 
Value per Acre 

Ohio $14.52 

Indiana 13.66 

Illinois 13.90 

Michigan 15.07 

Wisconsin 16.55 

Minnesota 11.75 

Iowa 16.25 

Missouri 13.62 

North Dakota 8.60 

South Dakota 7.95 

Nebraska 13.43 

Kansas 12.76 

United States 12.79 

MONTANA 18.11 

Average Yearly Value 
of 160 Acre Crop 


M O N T A X A - 1 y 1 <! 

• •• 

Growing Corn on the Flathead Reservation. 

In the table given on this page, the Yearbook figures showing tlie average five- 
year value of an acre of corn in the several states is given, and from this basis the 
average five-year value of a 160-acre farm of corn is computed. The result shovirs that 
every year the Montana farmer pockets as much as $2,000 more money than does the 
farmer who is as yet unacquainted with the superior producing power of Montana 
soil. Here are the figures on corn: 


Value per Acre 
5 Year Average 

Ohio $21.18 

Indiana 18.57 

Illinois 16.82 

Michigan 20.91 

Wisconsin 21.50 

Minnesota 16.95 

Iowa 17.17 

Missouri 14.55 

North Dakota 13.16 

South Dakota 12.05 

Nebraska 10.49 

Kansas 8.21 

United States 14.99 

MONTANA 21.29 

of 160 Acre Crop 
Average Yearly Value 

In the table given on this page, the Yearbook figures showing the average five- 
year value of an acre of oats in the several states is given, and from this basis the 
average five-year value of a 160-acre farm of oats is computed. The result shows 
that every year the Montana farmer pockets from $200 to $1,600 more money than 

? Ill I : I i{ i; A s r it i: s t .\ r i: t • ? 



• •"—'■ " "■ ■■ "■^— ■■•^■■— ■■— IIH 1111*^1111 lltl^— nil im-^||||^_,IH-^|||^^0 

., ■ ■j-.'t_-.r<.'>. '<::tJii,':/'^-.i.^i-,:if.:. ir.^ 

Enormous Yields Are Obtained on Irrigated Land. 

the farmer who lias been living in ignorance of crop conditions in Montana. Here 
are tlie figures on oats: 



5 Year Average 
Value per Acre 

Average Yearly Value 
of 160 Acre Crop 






















North nal\0ta 


1 260.80 

South Dakota 









T'nited States 





In this table are shown the Yearbook figures giving the five-year average value 
of an aero of rye in the states with which comparisons are made, and from this basis 
is computed the average annual value of a 160-acre crop of rye. The result shows 
that at the end of every year the Montana farmer has from $240 to $740 more money 
to deposit in the bank than does his less fortunate eastern farmer. Here are the 
figures on rye : 


Value per Acre of 160 Acre Crop 

5 Year Average Average Yearly Value 

Ohio - $12.37 $1,979.20 

Indiana - 10.97 1,755.20 

Illinois 12.30 1,968.00 

Michigan -- 10.98 1,756.80 

Wisconsin - 12.36 1,977.60 

Minnesota - 12.56 2,009.60 

Iowa 12.61 2,017.60 

Missouri - -- 11.67 1,867.20 

North Dakota ....- 9.46 1,513.60 

South Dakota - 9.59 1,534.40 

Nebraska - - - 9.77 1,563.20 

Kansas 1129 1,806.40 

United States - 12.07 1.931.20 

MONTANA 14.10 2,256.00 

In the table on this page are given the Yearbook figures showing the five-year 
average annual value of an acre of barley in the various states, and from this basis 
is computed the average annual value of a 160-acre crop of barley. The result shows 

•74 M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 (J • 

• ••■^0" no eg nn nn ii> ii« an iiii tin nn gii im m un iiii nil «• na ii. nii 1.. nii nn nn .. .. •■'••• 


Good Barns and Good Fences Are the Rule in Montana. 

that at the close of each harvesting season the Montana farmer has a crop which is 
worth as much as $1,700 more than the crop raised with the same labor on the same 
amount of land in some of the other big farming states of the nation. Here are the 
figures on barley: [^ 


5 Year Average Average Yearly Value 
Value per Acre of 160 Acre Crop 

Ohio $17.13 $2,740.80 

Indiana 16.39 2,622.40 

Illinois 18.44 2,950.40 

Michigan 16.88 2,700.80 

Wisconsin 17.98 2,876.80 

Minnesota 13.22 2,115.20 

Iowa 16.21 2,593.60 

Missouri 15.27 2,443.20 

North Dakota 9.37 1,499.20 

South Dakota 9.12 1,459.20 

Nebraska 8.61 1,377.60 

Kansas 7.48 1,196.80 

United States 14.60 2,336.00 

MONTANA 18.24 2,918.40 

The Montana farmer who grows potatoes will get rich in half the time as the 
farmer of any other state. In this table is shown the Yearbook figures giving the 
five-year average annual value of an acre of potatoes, together with the computation 
showing the value of a 160-acre potato patch. These figures show that the Montana 
farmer who grows 160 acres of potatoes will make $5,000 more per year than the 
average farmer outside of Montana, and $8,000 a year more than the least fortunate. 
Here are the potato figures: 


5 Year Average Average Yearly Value 

Value per Acre of 160 Acre Crop 

Onio $52.11 $ 8,337.60 

Indiana 47.76 7,641.60 

Illinois 45.48 7 276.80 

Michigan 45.90 7,'344.00 

Wisconsin 48.98 7,836.80 

Minnesota 47.44 7 590 49 

Iowa : 47.49 7,598.40 

Missouri 42.43 6,788.80 

North Dakota 46.51 7 441 60 

South Dakota 43.41 6,'945.60 

Nebraska 43.94 7 030 40 

Kansas 43.72 6,995.20 

United States 58.01 9 281 60 

MONTANA 92.48 14,796 80 

Montana Products Lead World 

Not Only Is the Treasure State First in the Quantity of Its 

Grains Rut it Is Likewise First in Quality as Shown 

h\ Record-Heating Awards. 

I' .MONTANA it may be truthfully said that the 
products of this state are not only first in 

quantity per acre, but also first in quality. 

l^^g^^^^KKfMM m From the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 

I^H^flP^jV A St. Louis in 1904 to the Panama-Pacific and 

I^^^^Hg^ K B Panama-California expositions in 1915, the 

I^^HpP^' H H products of Montana's farms and fields have 

l|^^ H H been in the front rank of prize-winners, and 

njj^fa^: H H the success of Montana at the various exposi- 

MWI^ W iaiMr'"l>i'''M tions and land shows held during the past ten 

I BPSPlMMil^ MvPIVB^ V years has done much to establish the perma- 

"*' —" "" nent reputation of this state as the premier 

agricultural commonwealth of the nation. 

Montana's long string of consecutive vic- 
tories was crowned last year with the greatest 
agricultural conquests ever won by any state 
in the Union. At the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition at San Francisco, Mon- 
tana won the grand prize in cereals, the high- 
est competitive award in the agricultural division, and the grand prize in apples, 
while Montana farmers were awarded more gold medals, more silver medals, more 
bronze medals and more honorable mentions than were given the agricultural exhibi- 
tors of any other state or foreign country. 

Montana received nine medals of honor, these being awarded on wheat, oats, 
barley, flax and general agricultural products. There were awarded to the 
agricultural exhibitors of this state 73 gold medals, 236 silver medals, 195 bronze 
medals, and 100 honorable mentions. 

At the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, the grand prize in agriculture 
was awarded the Montana exhibit, while 15 gold medals were awarded to exhibitors 
from this state on cereal products, flax, alfalfa, barley, wheat, oats, wild grasses, clover, 
peas and other displays. 

As long ago as the Chicago Exposition of 1893, besides mining awards for gold 
nuggets, crystals and placer gold, for collections of silver and silver crystals, for 
copper ores, for coal and for building stone, this State won distinguished recognition 
by its agricultural products, awards being made to the State of Montana on apples, 
and also on a collective exhibit of flaxseed, oats and hay. J. W. Dawes, M. M. Fer- 
guson, Sam Fowler and the Manhattan Malting company secured awards on barley; 
William Caldwell and J. Mason secured awards on wheat; Bailey & O'Donnell on hay, 
and Thomas Blake and Mrs. Ed. Duke on Timothy hay. 

At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis in 1904, the Grand 
prize for the mining industry was awarded to the State of Montana. The State of 
Montana was awarded a gold medal for fruit; Bass Brothers of Stevensville received 
a gold medal for apples, and the Bitter Root Farm of Hamilton a gold medal for apples 

• •• — nil- 

: 76 


:>I O X T A X A - 1 9 1 (i 


Lost in a Sea of Oats. 

and crab apples. Thirty-eight silver and twenty-three bronze medals were received by 
various exhibitors from Montana on apples, crab apples, strawberries, plums and 
prunes. For agricultural exhibits from Montana there were received sixty-nine gold 
medals, sixty-two silver medals and fifty-three bronze medals. Gold medals were 
awarded to the following exhibitors from this State: 

Barley — Duncan Cameron, Cascade; B. H. Kemp, Cascade; A. H. Sales, Salesville. 
Barley and Oats — G. F. Anderson, Belt; J. E. Morse, Dillon; P. R. Nash, Bozeman; 
James A. Potter, Bozeman. 

Barley, Oats and Wheat — E. M. Davidson, Belgrade; W. C. Newton, Bozeman; Dan- 
iel Payne, Monarch; Robert Scott, Sand Coulee. 

Barley, Wheat, Oats, Rye and Speltz — Experiment Station, Bozeman. 

Barley, Wheat, Rye and Oats — E. Bisson, Great Falls. 

Beans — Frank Rene, Echo. 

Beans and Peas — Samuel Dick, Great Falls. 

Bromus Inermis — J. R. Kruger, Plains; Christ Prestbye, Kalispell. 

Hay— Alfalfa— Paul McCormick, Billings. 

Hay — Timothy — J. M. Horan, Belt. 

Hay — Claude V. Flynn, Toston. 

Hay Seed — Timothy — Ed. Peterson, Kibbey. 

Oats — F. K. Armstrong, Bozeman; A. M. Austin, Falthead; C. H. Austin, Flathead; 

O. H. Barnhill, Holt; Joseph Braitvant, Highwood; Henry Bush, Chinook; James Cook, 
Chinook; Wallace Cook, Chinook; C. R. Featherly, Dillon; John H. Green, Plains; 
Frank Harlen, Missoula; B. J. Heaney, St. Peter; J. M. Horan, Townsend; Carl Innes, 
Dillon; Otis Johnson, Plains; J. H. Lamphear, Manhattan; C. H. Lind. Great Falls; 
Con Mannlx, Townsend; Theodore Nelson, Dillon; Theodore Norman, Bozeman; C. E. 
Skidmore, Bozeman; G. W. Sparr, Bozeman; Leonard Stone, Central Park; Charles 
Stephens, Highwood; J. H. Stubbs, Kalispell; M. D. Sullivan, Townsend; Otis Thomp- 
son, Plains; C. Van Wagen, Laurel, and M. L. Wade, Choteau. 

Oats and Wheat — C. M. Anderson, Belt; W. R. Cullen, Monarch; Jacob Carolus, 
Bozeman; John C. Coulson, Cascade; C. A. Lee, Sand Coulee; J. J. Patterson, Truly; 
C. W. Winslow, Waterloo, and W. L. Cork, Riceville. 

Wheat — Pete Fake, Eden; H. Hicke, Truly; G. P. Kessner, Stockett; Joe Maxner, 
Eden; Charles Morgan, Truly; John G. Ross, Great Falls. 

At the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition held at Portland, Oregon, in 
1905, the State of Montana was awarded a gold medal for Educational Exhibit, gold 
medal for collective exhibit of grains and grasses, gold medal for mineral exhibit and 
gold medal for gold exhibit. 

? Till. TKKASURK S T A T K 77 ! 




1 1™* 

1 * . ' '- 

A Newly Made Home on the Prairie. 

In tilt" agricultural exhibit Montanans were awarded a total of sixty-two gold 
medals, thirteen silver medals and two bronze medals. The gold medals awarded in 
the agricultural division were on the following products: 

Barley — Manhattan Malting Co., and J. P. Stone. 
Barley and Oats — J. E. Morse. 
Barley and Wheat — W. J. Bowers. 
Barley and Timothy — Ed. Peterson. 

Barley, Wheat and Oats — Nash Bros., and C. R. Gearch. 
Barley, Spring Rye and Wheat — Manhattan Malting Co. 
Bromus Grass Seed, Wheat, Oats and Flax — C. Presbye. 
Flax and Oats— P. R. Nash. 

Oats — John Kiuner, Mrs. A. Lock, J. Carolus. C. Van Wagen, W. A. Little, G. N. 
Featherly, John H. Stubbs, John McKennick, Pabst Steel, S. Holmsland, Thos. Bauers, 
Thomas Nelson, J. E. Morse, Clark Harlan, W'. C. Newton, C. Mancat, George Bentley, 
C. W. Winslow, Carl Innes, Charles King, and U. Marte. 

Rye— C. H. Campbell. E. E. Wilcox. 
Rye and Wheat— C. H. Lindle. 
Timothy Seed— J. C. Gibson. 

Wheat — Thomas Kening. A. C. Vanderpool, James Baker, S. D. Luce, S. Holms- 
land, H. F. Peterson, E. F. Mann, A. H. McMillan, Daniel Cummings and George 

Wheat — Macaroni — John Epperson. 

Wheat and Oats — John Baumgardner and Otis Johnson. 

At the Dry Farming Congress held in Cheyenne in 1908, Montana exhibitors re- 
ceived most of the prizes, among the important winners being the following: W. B. 
George, Silver Cup for the best 25 pounds of wheat; Miss Mabel Sudduth, first, for 
best display made by woman homesteader, first for sheaf flax, second for display of 
alfalfa, and third for hulless barley; Dr. W. X. Sudduth, second for wheat, first and 
second for flax, second for field peas, third for Durum wheat and field beans. Of 
the five first sweepstate prizes, the Billings exhibit took three. 

In later showings Montana exhibits have far exceeded the earlier records, exhi- 
bits from this state winning in competition against the world whenever and wherever 
shown. At the Dry Farming Congress of 1911, held at Colorado Springs, the gold 
medal for the best potatoes was awarded to H. E. Murphy of Wibaux, while the gold 
medals for the best hulled barley and the best hulless barley were won by John For- 
ester of Grey Cliff. 

At the great Land Show held in Madison Square Garden, New York City, in 
1911, Montana exhibitors practically swept the boards, being awarded first prizes for 



••• — "■ 

M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 6 

Corn Is a Profitable Crop Throughout Eastern Montana. 

the best wheat in the United States, best oats in the United States, best barley in the 
United States and the best alfalfa in the United States. 

The $1,000 silver cup, donated by the late James J. Hill of the Great Northern 
Railway, "for the best one hundred pounds of wheat grown in the United States in 
1911," was awarded to James Todd of Geyser, Cascade county, Montana. Mr. Todd's 
exhibit consisted of one hundred pounds of Turkey Red winter wheat that was grown 
without irrigation. It was part of a yield of 75 bushels grown on an acre and weighed 
65 pounds to the bushel. 

The $1,000 silver cup donated by A. J. Earling, president of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railway, for "the best one hundred pounds of oats raised in the United 
States in 1911," was awarded to Hartman & Patton of Bozeman, Gallatin County, 
Montana. The oats entered by T. Menard of the same county were found to be the 
next best. 

The $1,500 silver cup donated by Colonel Gustav Pabst of Milwaukee for the best 
bushel of barley grown in the United States in 1911 was awarded to R. Eisinga, of 
Manhattan, Gallatin county, Montana. 

The $1,000 silver cup donated by Paul L. Van Cleve, to be awarded "to the persons 
demonstrating the best and widest uses of alfalfa as food for man and beast who shall 
also exhibit at this exposition alfalfa meal or flour and bread and other products there- 
from," was awarded to Dr. W. X. Sudduth of Broadview, Yellowstone county, Montana. 

At the Land Products Show, held in St. Paul under the auspices of the North- 
western Development League, December 12 to 23, 1911, there were exhibited the best 

• ••—■' 

T II i: T K i: A S U R E S T A T E 79 ? 

■ — "" — " — "" — "■ — ■" — "■ — ■••••• 

Montana Soil and Sunshine Make Sure Crops. 

collection of land products from the state of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington ever brought together, and in this show Mon- 
tana again distanced all competitors. 

The valuable cup offered by L. W. Hill for "the largest and best exhibits of 
products from any one state," was won by Montana. This exhibit was collected and 
exhibited by J. H. Hall, Commissioner of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, Industry 
and Publicity, who received the cup as the representative of the State of Montana. 

The beautiful cup offered by the O'Donnell Shoe Company for "the best bushel of 
winter wheat produced in the American Northwest" was awarded to Frank Smart of 
Bozeman, the wheat being a part of the Gallatin county exhibit. 

The cup offered by the St. Paul Association of Commerce for the best sample of 
barley grown in North Dakota or Montana was awarded to John Klaver, of Man- 
hattan, Montana. 

The cup offered by W. A. Campbell for the "most beautiful, elaborate and attrac- 
tive booth at the show" was won by the Judith Basin exhibit, Fergus county, Montana. 

The J. J. Hill cup for the best individual display of potatoes was awarded to Pat 
Carney, of Waterloo, Madison county, Montana. 

At the Minneapolis Land Show, of 1912, a Montana exhibit won the largest prize 
ever offered for five bushels of wheat. This was a $5,000 traction engine, and the 
competition covered the entire American Northwest. Nash & Bridgeman of Clyde Park, 
Park county, Montana, easily won this big prize, while the second, third and fourth 
places in the same competition were taken by Montana exhibitors. 


••• — I.. 

: 80 

>I <) X T A \ A - 1 » 1 (i 

Grape-Growing Is Being Extended in Western Montana. 

The scores of the ten leading contestants were as follows: Nash & Bridgeman, 
Clyde Park, Montana, 92.1; Peter Deboer, Conrad, Montana. 84.23; J. F. Kane, Conrad, 
Montana, 81.05; Dick Heun, Conrad, Montana, 80.08; J. V. Skarvoid, Christine, N. D., 
79.53; K. F. Ebner, Cando, N. D., 79.03; J. W. McNamara, Amanda, N. D., 75.52; Fred 
Pietz, Mott, N. D., 73.00; Frand Anderson, Heffner, Ore., 72.61; Josephine Connolly, 
Power, Montana, 67.8. 

Out of the twelve sweepstakes offered at the Dry Farming Congress, in Tulsa, 
Oklahoma, in 1913, Montana won four. The significance of this victory can be ap- 
preciated more fully when it is understood that these prizes were competed for by 
products from every section of the American continent. 

The sweepstakes won by Montana exhibitors were as follows: 

First on Turkey Red wheat by Joe Nash. 

First on sheaf of hard wheat by Joe Nash. 

First on sheaf of alfalfa by Joe Nash. 

First on timothy by Pat Carney. 

It was, however, at the California expositions in 1915 that the pre-eminent super- 
iority of Montana products was finally demonstrated. These expositions resulted in 
what was undoubtedly the greatest agricultural competition ever staged in the world. 
Exhibitors were present not only from practically every state in the Union, but also 
from the Dominion of Canada, South America, Europe and Asia. The Montana agri- 
cultural display, under the direction of Resident Commissioner F. A. Hazelbaker, was 
the constant center of great throngs of people from every section of the world who 
expressed amazement at the quality of farm products sent from this state. After the 
awards were made, samples of Montana prize-winning grains were eagerly sought by 
foreign representatives for seed purposes, with the result that Montana's participation 
in these expositions will contribute directly toward better crop production in every part 
of the world. 

The following gives a complete list of the awards made at the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition to Montana exhibitors: 

«•. . — . .. — . — ._ ._„_. — .,,_„._.._.._„_„„ — ,_„_„„.,„ 


•••———— — ———"———"——————"—""—"—»"—«.—".—.,.—,.,,_„._„._„„_„„.„• 




State of Montana Helena Exhibit of Cereals. 


W. A. Davis Seed Company..Bozeman Canadian Field Peas 

State of Montana Helena Flax, sheaf and threshed. 

State of Montana Helena Wheat, sheaf and threshed 

State of Montana Helena Oats, sheaf and threshed 

State of Montana Helena Grains, sheaf and threshed 

State of Montana Helena Barley, sheaf and threshed 

State of Montana Helena Exhibit Gen. Agr. Products 

State of Montana Helena Flour. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Exhibit Grains and Grasses. 

Gust Seigling jVrmington Grains and Grasses. 

Montana State Fair „Helena Collection of Potatoes. 

J. L. Dyer Helena Howard Elliott Potatoes. 


Bozeman Commercial Club....Bozeman Field and Garden Peas. 

Beck and Smith Bozeman Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat. 

C. F. Bolin Rosebud Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

Billings Poly. Institute Billings Threshed Hog Millet. 

Wm. Bison Missoula Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

C. M. Barnes Hamilton Potatoes. 

Douglas Cogdill Whitehall Sheaf Rye. 

Wm. A. Davis Seed Co Bozeman Field and Garden Peas. 

J. L. Dyer Helena Potatoes. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley White Dent Corn. 

Carter Edinger Dillon Potatoes. 

Millard Holman Dillon Hard Winter Wheat. 

J. A. Grady Terry Potatoes. 

Robert H. Gattis Creston Potatoes. 

James Griffin Chinook A-lfalfa Seed. 

Pat Carney Waterloo Grains and Grasses. 

T. B. Haynes Creston Winter Emmer. 

W. J. Hartman Bozeman Threshed Kharkov Wheat. 

Thos. Haynes Creston Potatoes. 

James A. Jergenson Whitehall Sheaf White Oats. 

Lewistown Commercial Club.-Lewistown Grains. 

B. J. Kleinhesslink- Big Timber Hard Winter Wheat. 

Lewistown Commercial Club..Lewistown Six Row Barley. 

H. O. Bohn Anaconda White Oats. 

Mrs. J. K. Lewis White Sul. Springs Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Ernest Marks Clancy Hard Spring Wheat. 

State of Montana Helena ....Timothy, sheafed & threshed. 

State of Montana Helena ...Alfalfa. 

State of Montana Helena Potatoes. 

State of Montana Helena Vegetables. 

State of Montana Helena ...Grasses & Forage Crops. 

Hugh McNeil St. Ignatius Hard Winter Wheat. 

Phil Magee Lo Lo Threshed Oats. 

J. P. Nash Bozeman Threshed Marquis Wheat. 

T. T. Nash Bozeman Hard Spring Wheat. 

R. L. Norris Simms Winter Emmer. 

Fred Newgard Ronan Potatoes. 

W. E. Overstreet Salesville White Oats. 

James Philips Dillon Potatoes. 

Mrs. Chas. Palmer Eureka Potatoes. 

H. Piatt and Sons Como Potatoes. 

Frank Robson Dillon Potatoes. 

H. D. Roub Hinsdale Potatoes. 

W. E. Scott Bozeman Potatoes. 

State of Montana Helena Exhibit Cereal Products. 

D. A. Scollard Bozeman Sheaf Winter Emmer. 

State Nursery Company Helena Alfalfa Seed. 

J 82 MONTANA-191C • 

i • 

5,._„ „_„ — .. — »_« — .. ». .,_,._.._.._.._.._„ „„_„„ .« — .—, — .._..— .,...,, 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Rye. 

S. F. Blakesley White Sul. Springs Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Hulless Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Winter Emmer. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf White Hulless Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf White Macar. Wheat. 

A. H. Stafford Bozeman Threshed Marquis Wheat. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Oats. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Flax Seed. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf B. Macaroni Wlieat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Hog Millet Seed. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf B. Macaroni Wheat. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

Pat Carney Waterloo Potatoes. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Grains and Grasses. 

F. W. Vote St. Ignatius Six Row Barley. 

John Vallence Hamilton Potatoes. 

Montgomery Wisner Bozeman Threshed Marquis Wheat. 

C. S. Wentworth Lewistown Macaroni Wheat. 

Geo. Beckwith St. Ignatius Sheaf Flax. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Grain and Forage Grasses. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Grains. 

O. C. Haynes Miles City - Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat. 

R. L. Heaney Glendive Sheaf White Oats. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Winter Emmer. 

Durell Whitcraft Race Track ....White Oats. 

Green Meadow Farm Helena Netted Gem Potatoes. 

Robert Jones Wisdom Grasses. 

Billings Poly. Institute Billings Threshed Lima Beans. 


C. W. Allen Big Timber Canadian Field Peas. 

Joseph Allard St. Ignatius Sheaf White Oats. 

James L. Applebury... Corvallis White Oats. 

James L. Applebury Corvallis Two Row Barley. 

James L. Applebury Corvallis Millet. 

James L. Applebury Corvallis White Hulless Barley. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Sheaf Timothy. 

Boon and Manlove Anaconda Timothy 

Nels Larsen Bozeman Threshed Oats 

C. F. Bolin.. Rosebud Sheaf Oats 

E. A. Willard Rosebud Sheaf Flax 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Six Row Barley 

Billings Poly. Institute JBillings Threshed Navy Beans. 

Billings Poly. Institute Billings String Beans 

Chas. F. Bolin Rosebud Timothy 

M. H. Baker Libby Timothy 

Jake Bair White Sul. Springs Timothy. 

Wilfred Bisson Missoula Hard Winter Wheat 

J. P. Bartlett Simms Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat 

John Beck Bozeman Sheaf Scotch Fife Wheat. 

C. F. Bolin Rosebud Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Henry Buckhouse Missoula Brewing Barley. 

B. R. Burch Belgrade Brewing Barley. 

Jos. Chamberlin White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

N. G. Cunningham Stockett Hard Winter Wheat. 

John Clark Chinook Macaroni Wheat. 

J. R. Cunningham St. Ignatius Sheaf Grain. 

Pat Carney Waterloo Six Row Barley. 

Mrs. Ida Cottrel Florence Potatoes. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Potatoes. 

Henry Cote Missoula Soft Spring Wheat. 


• . „. „. „„ „„ „, .„ „„ „„ „„ „„ „. .. „. .. • 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


Martin Crest Big Timber Soft Spring Wheat. 

James Cliamberlin White Sul. Springs Spring Rye. 

Agnes Doyen „Miles City Millet. 

Wm. A. Davis Seed Co Bozeman Smooth Garden Peas. 

Jacob Doerr Boulder White Oats. 

Geo. R. Hogan JBozeman Marrow Fat Peas. 

Chas. W. Jones Great Palls Smooth Garden Peas. 

Peter Dyk Manhattan Two Row Barley. 

John Dyk Manhattan Two Row Barley. 

Hugh Dart ..Dillon Potatoes. 

A. M. Day jVnaconda Winter Emmer. 

J. F. Donohoe Whitehall Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Bert Douglas Jlexford Potatoes. 

Vincent Delmoe .Whitehall Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

Elmer Daley Lima Sheaf Flax. 

Vincent Delmoe .Whitehall Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Tony Deschamps Missoula Sheaf White Oats. 

Tony Deschamps Missoula Threshed Oats. 

Romolus Deschamps Missoula .— Turkey Red Wheat. 

W. C. Daniels, Jr ...Canton Soft Spring Wheat. 

Agnes Doyen Miles City Hard Spring Wheat. 

Noah Early Lavina Turkey Red Wheat. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley Northwestern Dent Corn. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley Pop Corn. 

Geo. Edinger Dillon Grains. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley White Flint Corn. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley Yellow Flint Corn. 

Geo. Edinger Dillon Sheaf Oats. 

Geo. Edinger Dillon Oats Threshed. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley Grains. 

Ed. Ekman Laurel Potatoes. 

W. M. Eckhart Fort Benton Hard Spring Wheat. 

Thos. Emmelcamp Manhattan Threshed Two Row Barley. 

Geo. Edinger Dillon Threshed Barley. 

Geo. Fowlie White Sul. Springs Turkey Red Wheat. 

A. J. French Helena White Oats. 

John Fredericks Libby Sheaf Alfalfa. 

J. C. Ferguson Riechli Potatoes. 

Robert Fisher Deer Lodge Soft Spring Wheat. 

G. F. Fleming Suffolk Spring Club Wheat. 

Robert Fisher Deer Dodge Sheaf Oats. 

Grant Brothers Salesvllle Sheaf Red Clover. 

Leonard Gossett Libby White Oats. 

Joseph Grenier St. Ignatius ...Sheaf Oats. 

L. 0. Gault Whitehall Spring Rye. 

Glendive Chamber of Com Glendive Yellow Flint Corn. 

J. F. Hallford Bozeman Sheaf White Oats. 

T. B. Haynes Creston Oats. 

W. Hampton White Sul. Springs.. Winter Emmer. 

D. E. Hardman Simms Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Forage. 

T. B. Haynes Creston Grains and Forage Grasses. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Bromus Enermis. 

L. E. Hines Bozeman Sheaf Timothy. 

H. M. Gilbertson Kalispell Threshed Turkey R. Wheat. 

Joseph Grenier St. Ignatius Sheaf White Fife Wheat. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Red Clover Seed. 

Viola Hamilton Libby Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

J. F. Hallford Bozeman Sheaf Red Clover. 

Chas. Hackman Missoula Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

J. F. Hallford Bozeman Sheaf Club Wheat. 

Viola Hamilton Libby Soft Spring Wheat. 

B. F. Howard Ranch Libby Soft Spring Wheat. 

Pete Hamel Missoula .Hard Winter Wheat. 

«•. „ .. „„ „. „ „ ,. u. .. „ .• ll< >■ .« «■ «■ «« «« »« "" "" "" " "» "" "" "" »-••• 

• 8 1 M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 « : 

; • 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


Pete Hamel Missoula Hard Spring Wlieat. 

M. Irwin Whitehall Hard Winter Wheat. 

James Jergenson Whitehall Flax. 

Robert Jones Wisdom Sheaf Red Top. 

W. C. Jones Wise River Sheaf Red Clover. 

James Jergenson Whitehall Soft Spring Wheat. 

Mrs. A. O. Jones Bozeman Threshed Swed. Sel. Oats. 

J. W. James Anaconda Sheaf Club Wheat. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf White Oats. 

B. J. Kleinhesslink Big Timber Oats. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Winter Emmer. 

F. W. Korman Saco Potatoes. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Spring Rye. 

B. J. Kleinhesslink Big Timber Extracted Honey. 

Geo. Linsey St. Ignatius Sheaf Oats. 

A. Lonsberry Libby Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Pat Lappin Anaconda Oats. 

Pat Lappin Anaconda Soft Spring Wheat. 

Ernest Monforton Salesville Threshed Marquis Wheat. 

O. S. Miller Hardin Sheaf Flax. 

Richard Manger White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alfalfa. 

R. Milne Big Timber Potatoes. 

H. Matt Arlee Threshed Swed. Sel. Oats. 

Phil Magee Lo Lo Sheaf Oats. 

Geo. Miles Bozeman Sheaf Six Row Barley. 

Ernest Monforton Salesville Hard Spring Wheat. 

J. P. McKenna Deer Lodge Soft Spring Wheat. 

Mongomery Wisner Bozeman ..Sheaf Marquis Wheat. 

E. M. Martinall Dell - Sheaf Red Top. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Grains. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Six Row Barley. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Oats. 

John Behring .Bozeman Hard Spring Wheat. 

J. P. Nash Bozeman Oats. 

Theo. Nelson .Dillon Oats. 

Geo. H. Featherly .Dillon .Sheaf Oats. 

R. L. Norris ^Simms Sheaf Speltz. 

R. L. Norris _Simms Sheaf Six Row Barley. 

R. L. Norris.. Simms Sheaf Flax. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Flax. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Bromus Eneris. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Winter Rye. 

J. P. Nash Bozeman Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

J. P. Nash Bozeman White Hulless Barley. 

R. L. Norris Simms White Hulless Barley. 

Nash and Wasonaar Bozeman Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

Thos. Parker Anaconda Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

Joseph Potts Wise River Sheaf Red Clover. 

E. P. Pierce Boulder White Oats. 

Hiram Piatt Como Potatoes. 

Perkins Brothers Deer Lodge Grains and Grasses. 

F. M. Plummer Libby Sheaf Red Clover. 

Alfred Perkins Warm Springs Sheaf White Hulless Barley. 

Chas. Renter Waterloo Bromus Enermis. 

Jacob Rehder Missoula Oats. 

J. W. Randies Stevensville White Oats. 

W. A. Remington Great Falls Threshed Blue Barley. 

Ernest Riclilie Missoula Potatoes. 

Gust Scigling Armington Sheaf 6-Row Barley. 

John Ringling White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Rummel Bros. & Scott Eureka Sheaf Red Clover. 

J. J Rossman Bozeman Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat. 

W. A. Remington Great Falls Threshed Polish Wheat. 

Rummel Bros. & Scott Eureka Soft Winter Wheat. 

0«.__,. >• «• «> ■• ii> ■• ■■ ■■— » HI nii..^ao aa ■>._.■_»■ ., „. „, „, „, „ „, ,„ „, „ „.••« 


• • 

0,, «■ iia iia iia nil iiii ii« iin ii» aa aa Da aa na aa-^aa aa aa-^aa aa ua na na aa aa aa aa aa'.«0 



Jacob Rehder Missoula Sheaf Rye. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Fall Rye. 

Wm. C. Smith Cardwell Red Top. 

Jacob Rehder Missoula Wrinkled Peas. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Red Top. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf German Millet. 

E. A. Scollard Bozeman Black Emmer. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

F. C. Sumner _Clyde Park Sheaf Black Hulless Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Buckwheat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Six Row Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Black Emmer. 

Charles Sherman White Sul. Springs Sheaf Oats. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Prince Royal Oats. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Black Hulless Barley. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Alfalfa. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed B. Hulless Barley. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Marquis Wheat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Timothy Seed. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Peas. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Alfalfa Seed. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf W. Hulless Barley. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Macaroni Wheat. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Flax. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat 

P. D. Scott White Sul. Springs Hard Winter Wheat. 

R. N. Shay Laurel Hard Winter Wheat. 

M. P. Sheinfelt Eureka Soft Spring Wheat. 

J. L. Smith Pipestone Macaroni Wheat. 

H. L. Sprague Glasgow Hard Winter Wheat. 

H. L. Sprague Glasgow „ Soft Winter Wheat. 

A. H. Stafford Bozeman Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat. 

Wm. Staferson White Sul. Springs Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Wm. Staferson White Sul. Springs Six Row Barley. 

W. H. Stuart Boulder Sheaf Rye. 

John Subley White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Hungarian Millet. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Hog Millet. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf German Millet. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Threshed Peas. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Alfalfa Seed. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Mammoth Clover. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Turkey Red Wheat. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Threshed 60-Day Oats. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf B. Hulless Barley. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Threshed W. Oats. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Scottish Chief Oats. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Big Four Oats. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Kerson Oats. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Six Row Barley. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Alfalfa. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf W. Hulless Barley. 

Turange Brothers St. Ignatius Oats. 

Mrs. E. S. Tolliver Monarch Native Grasses. 

C. H. Valinum Bridger Navy Beans. 

C. W. Voges Big Timber Sheaf W. Oats. 

F. W. Vote St. Ignatius Sheaf Flax. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Flax. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Oats. 

G. M. White Birdseye Grains and Grasses. 

J. T. Wood Victor Potatoes. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Six Row Barley. 

Thos. W. West Havre Potatoes. 

•86 MONTAXA-1916 • 

• • 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


G. M. White Birdseye Oats. 

Chas. Warren Boulder White Oats. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Sheaf Winter Emmer. 

Jacob Zenter White Sul. Springs Sheaf White Oats. 

G. W. Whiteney Bozeman Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Dr. W. H. Williams Harlem Alfalfa Seed. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Soft Winter Wheat. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

C. W. Winslow Whitehall Sheaf Scotch Fife Wheat. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

G. M. White Birdseye ...Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

C. W. Winslow Whitehall Spring Rye. 

D. P. Wood Troy Soft Spring Wheat. 

G. W. Whitney Bozeman Six Row Barley. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

State of Montana Helena Forestry Products. 


A. L. Applegate Deer Lodge Hard Winter Wheat. 

James Applegate Deer Lodge ...Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

James L. Applebury..... Corvallis Threshed Club Spring Wheat. 

C. B. Axtell Salesville Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

James Applebury Corvallis Sheaf Soft Spring Wheat. 

James Bair White Sul. Springs.... Sheaf Alfalfa. 

J. P. Bartlett Troy ...Clover. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda White Hulless Barley. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Sheaf White Oats. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Sheaf Timothy and Alsike. 

C. F. Bolin Rosebud Macaroni Wheat Sheaf. 

A. H. Bowman Hardin Timothy. 

H. A. Briggs Victor Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

G. F. Burch St. Ignatius Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

R. M. Calkins, Jr White Sul. Springs... Oats. 

Pat Carney Waterloo Alfalfa. 

Pat Carney Waterloo Clover. 

Pat Carney Waterloo Wheat. 

T. E. Carney Waterloo Soft Winter Wheat. 

Joseph Chamberlin White Sul. Springs Forage Crops. 

Joseph Chamberlin White Sul. Springs Red Clover. 

Riley Cheeseman Cardwell Soft -Spring Wheat. 

Joseph Cechlosky Libby Mammoth Clover. 

Dr. Copenhavre Helena Comb Honey. 

Dr. Copenhavre Helena Extracted Honey. 

Richard Collins White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Ed. Cordry Bozeman Winter Club Wheat. 

Henry Cote Missoula Sheaf Hard Winter Wheat. 

J. R. Cunningham St. Ignatius Sheaf Wh^.e Oats. 

J. R. Cunningham St. Ignatius Threshed 6-Row Barley. 

J. L. Dyer Helena Soft Spring Wheat. 

Elmer O. Daley Bynum Hard Spring Wheat. 

A. M. Day Anaconda Timothy. 

Vincent Delmoe Whitehall Sheaf Timothy. 

A. M. Day Anaconda Hard Winter Wheat. 

J. L. Dyer Helena White Oats. 

Elmer O. Daley Bynum Sheaf Blue Stem Wheat. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley Blue Joint. 

Geo. Edinger Dillon Threshed Wheat. 

J. R. Cunningham St. Ignatius Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Joseph Eichhorn Miles City Sheaf Timothy. 

Geo. Edinger Dillon Sheaf Barley. 

A. J. French Helena Soft Spring Wheat. 

•••— — " — " — ■■ — " — " — "• — " — " — " — "■^"' — " — ■" — " — " — «■ — »• — - — " — "■ — »" — " — .. — .. — » — •> — ..■••• 


• • 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


Henry Fitter Lima Blue Joint. 

Clias. Franklin Wise River Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Geo. Fairweather Anaconda Sheaf Red Clover. 

Wm. A. Flaherty Cold Spring Red Top. 

R. H. Franklin Jiardin JVIillet. 

Geo. Fairweather Anaconda .Timothy. 

John Flaherty Cold Spring Sheaf Timothy. 

Wm. Fleming Bozeman Sheaf Timothy. 

Wm. A. Flaherty Cold Spring Hard Winter Wheat. 

J. A. Gastineau Three Forks Hard Winter Wheat. 

Chas. W. Goodall J'ark City Sheaf Soft Spring Wheat. 

J. E. Gordon Silver Star Flax. 

J. H. Gordon Silver Star Rye. 

J. H. Gordon Silver Star Flax. 

Grant Brothers Salesville Threshed Turkey R. Wheat. 

Grant Brothers Salesville Forage. 

Grant Brothers Salesville Alfalfa. 

James Griffin Chinook Macaroni Wheat. 

James Griffin Chinook Hard Winter Wheat. 

J. E. Gordon Silver Star Soft Spring Wheat. 

Jeff Gowen Bozeman Hard Winter Wheat. 

Joseph Grenier St. Ignatius ...Hard Winter Wheat. 

Joseph Grenier St. Ignatius Threshed Fife Wheat. 

Thos. Haynes Creston Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Chas. Hackman Missoula Six Row Barley. 

C. A. Hamann Eureka Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Sheaf Red Clover. 

W. J. Hartman Bozeman Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

Thos. Haynes Creston Sheaf Spring Wheat. 

T. B. Haynes Creston Macaroni Wheat. 

Lellman Hinton Simms Sheaf Red Clover. 

Viola Hamilton Libby Sheaf Red Clover. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Sheaf Timothy. 

A. C. Herbst Libby Sheaf Timothy. 

C. S. Howell Townsend Oats. 

Hodgkiss Brothers Choteau Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Pete Hamel Missoula Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

W. J. Hartman Bozeman Wheat. 

Harmon Brothers Libby White Oats. 

Mrs. D. Ingram Dillon Six Row Barley Sheaf. 

C. B. Jones Anaconda Timothy. 

D. E. Jones Anaconda Bromus Enermis. 

Mrs. E. A. Johnson ....Hamilton Threshed Club Wheat. 

Robert Jones Wisdom Sheaf Timothy. 

E. A. Jones ..: Hamilton Soft Spring Wheat. 

L. V. Jennings Salesville . Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

W. C. Jones Wise River ;. Sheaf Mammoth Clover. 

Orville Jones Bozeman Sheaf Scotch Fife Wheat. 

John Kennison Dell Sheaf Timothy. 

B. J. Kleinhesslink Big Timber Timothy. 

Lewistown Com. Club. Lewistown Forage Grasses. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Soft Spring Wheat. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Fife Wheat. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf W. Macaroni Wheat. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Blue Stem Wheat. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Millet. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Blue Grass. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Bromus Enermis. 

John Keifer Bozeman :... Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

B. J. Kleinhesslink..... Big Timber Sheaf Timothy. 

B. J. Kleinhesslink Big Timber ...Comb Honey. 

G. A. Lewis Bozeman Sheaf Red Clover. 

G. A. Lewis Bozeman Sheaf Red Clover. 

• •._„ . « . .._.._.._.._„_.. n. »» , . .•• 

J 88 MONTANA-1916 : 

i^,.^„, „a „, na ng iin.^iia ik^ik la no ■■— «i^n— on nil— ■■ 01 ■« mi un iin pn on nil >■ •■ "•••A 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


Mrs. J. K. Lewis White Sul. Springs Sheaf White Oats. 

John Legerue Helena Sheaf Soft Spring Wheat. 

Geo. A. Loasby Big Timber Hard Spring Wheat. 

Fred McDonald White Sul. Springs Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

Hugh McNeill St. Ignatius Soft Spring Wheat. 

Ernest McDonald Bozeman Sheaf Timothy. 

Geo. Miles Bozeman Sheaf Timothy. 

J. MacPherson Anaconda - Bromus Enermis. 

John L. McFadyen Dillon Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Ernest McDonald Bozeman Sheaf Red Clover. 

Dall Moore Wise River Sheaf Red Clover. 

Ernest Monforton Salesville Sheaf Marquis Wheat. 

Ernest Monforton Salesville Hard Spring Wheat. 

Thos. Nash Bozeman Threshed 2-Row Barley. 

R. L. Norris Simms Sheaf Alfalfa. 

R. L. Norris Simms Spring Rye. 

Dr. R. L. Packard Whitehall Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Thos. Parker Anaconda Sheaf Orchard Grass. 

Perkins Brothers Deer Lodge Bromus Enermis. 

Perkins Brothers Deer Lodge Flax. 

Joseph Potts Wise River Sheaf Timothy. 

Henry J. Ravet Bozeman Sheaf Winter Club Wheat. 

Jacob Rehder Missoula Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Wm. Repass St. Ignatius Hard Winter Wheat. 

John Richardson Raynesford Hard Winter Wheat. 

John Ringling White Sul. Springs Sheaf Red Clover. 

John Ringling White Sul. Springs Bromus Enermis. 

Rummel Bros, and Scott Eureka Sheaf Timothy. 

W. A. Sabin St. Ignatius Hard Spring Wheat. 

P. Scott White Sul. Springs Forage Grasses. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Grail Fife Wheat. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

Gust Seigling j^rmington Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

Wm. Smith Cardwell Sheaf Two Row Barley. 

Wm. Stafferson White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Wm. Stafferson White Sul. Springs Sheaf Oats. 

Wm. Stafferson White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed B. Macaroni Wheat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Kharkov Wheat. 

P. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Turkey R. Wheat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Red Clover Seed. 

F. C. Sumner : Clyde Park Orchard Grass Seed. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Orchard Grass. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Flax. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Kharkov Wheat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Threshed Kaubauka Wheat. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Speltz. 

W. C. Talbot Armington Threshed Hulless Barley. 

W. C. Talbot Armington Sheaf Timothy. 

W. C. Talbot Armington Sheaf Blue Joint. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf German Millet. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Fife Wheat. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Red Clover. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Mrs. E. S. Tolliver Monarch Sheaf Millet. 

Mrs. E. S. Tolliver Monarch Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Mrs. E. S. Tolliver Monarch Sheaf Blue Grass. 

Mrs. E. S. Tolliver Monarch Wrinkled Garden Peas. 

Mrs. E. S. Tolliver Monarch Sheaf Timothy. 

P. N. Thomas Libby Sheaf Timothy. 

Major Thompson Bozeman Soft Spring Wheat. 

W. S. Thompson Townsend Sheaf Red Clover. 

Dick Trueman Wise River Sheaf Elsike Clover. 

0** ■• •■ ». ■• •• «» »• "« »• "» «« Ni> »" "" "« «».^ii« iin Nil nil III, III! 1,1, uii iin iiii m, iii,.**^ 

J T 11 1 : T It K A S U R E S T A T E 89 ; 

• • 

00»^ii— "■-^■•^—"■^— ■■—■■— ■■^—■■^—■■^—"■^—"■^— ""^—■■^—nn^—llll^—ll*^— iiit^—MH^—llll^— II 11^— iiH-^HH^—lin^—nn—iiH^—tm^—im^—lii.»^0 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


Dick Trueman Wise River Sheaf Red Clover. 

F. W. Vote St. Ignatius Flax Seed. 

Chas. Warren Boulder Soft Spring Wheat. 

Louis Webber Bercail Hard Winter Wheat. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Macaroni Wheat. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Timothy. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Flax. 

Durell Whitcraft Deer Lodge Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

Geo. A. White Helena Sheaf Timothy. 

Geo. A. White Helena Sheaf Alfalfa. 

G. M. White Birdseye Sheaf Blue Joint. 

G. M. White Birdseye Soft Spring Wheat. 

Matt M. White Bozeman Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

G. W. Whitney Bozeman Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

G. W. Whitney Bozeman Sheaf Spring Club Wheat. 

G. W. Whitney Bozeman Sheaf Red Clover. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Sheaf Red Clover. 

W. O. Williams Jefferson City White Hulless Barley. 

C. C. Willis Plains Timothy. 

C. C. Willis Plains Red Top. 

C. C. Willis Plains Sheaf Red Clover. 

C. W. Winslow Whitehall Sheaf Red Top. 

Henry Youngblut Helena Sheaf Club Wheat. 

Green Meadow Farm Helena Red River Ohio Potatoes. 

Jacob Zentner White Sul. Springs Alsike Clover. 

Jacob Zentner White Sul. Springs Exhibit of Forage. 

Jacob Zentner White Sul. Springs Bromus Enermis. 

Jacob Zentner White Sul. Springs Flax Seed. 

John Verwolf Manhattan Hard Spring Wheat 


Bailey and Dorr Hamilton . Threshed White Oats. 

James Bair White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

M. H. Baker Libby Sheaf Red Clover. 

J. P. Bartlett Troy Timothy. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Grain. 

Wm. Benninger Anaconda Sheaf Red Top. 

S. F. Blakesley White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alfalfa. 

C. F. Bolin Rosebud Sheaf Grain. 

C. P. Bolin Rosebud Sheaf Blue Joint. 

C. F. Bolin Rosebud White Top. 

A. H. Burns Libby Timothy. 

A. H. Burns Libby Sheaf Timothy. 

Joseph Cechlosky Libby Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Joseph Chamberlin White Sul. Springs Sheaf Timothy. 

Vincent Delmoe Whitehall Sheaf Red Clover. 

R. Deschamps Missoula Sheaf Turkey Red Wheat. 

J. L. Dyer Helena ...Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

J. L. Dyer Helena Sheaf Flax. 

J. L. Dyer Helena Flax Seed. 

Elmer 0. Daley Bynum Flax Seed. 

Joseph Eichhorn Miles City White Top. 

Joseph Eichhorn Miles City Sheaf Red Clover. 

E. E. Eiker Huntley Sheaf Timothy. 

Prank Ellis White Sul. Springs Timothy. 

Prank Ellis White Sul. Springs Red Top. 

Henry Fitter Lima Sheaf Blue Joint. 

Henry Fitter Lima Sheaf Timothy. 

John Flaherty Cold Springs Sheaf Red Top. 

Wm. Fleming Bozeman Red Top. 

John Plynn Missoula Timothy. 

Joseph Grenier St. Ignatius Forage. 

J. F. Hallford Bozeman Grain. 

0«*.uii— — nit uii Dii^— II 11-^11 u—'H II uu on^—uii^— IIP uii iiu mi mi mi mi im-^nii iiii un hw mi^—tiu— uti— «n yn iin — ••• 

•90 31 O N T A N A - 1 9 1 • 

• • 

• ••—"" "" "" no— un— in -^110— in iin iin iin iiii..^iiii.^iiii— ni— an— nii-^iio-^«ii im un nn-^iiii nil in— nn^— ni^ia-s^^ 

AGRICULTURE— Continued. 


J. F. Hallt'ord Bozeman Sheaf Red Top. 

Thos. Haynes Creston Sheaf Blue Joint. 

Geo. R. Hogan Bozeman Sheaf Blue Joint. 

A. C. Herbst Libby Orchard Grass. 

A. C. Herbst Libby Sheaf Flax. 

A. C. Herbst Libby Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

Robert Jones Wisdom Timothy. 

James A. Jergenson Whitehall Forage. 

James A. Jergenson Whitehall Sheaf Alfalfa. 

Robert Jones Wisdom Sheaf Blue Grass. 

W. C. Jones Wise River Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

John Keifer Bozeman Sheaf Blue Grass. 

Lewlstown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Mammoth Clover. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Hungarian Grass. 

Lewistown Com. Club. Lewistown Sheaf Orchard Grass. 

Lewistown Com. Club Lewistown Sheaf Blue Joint. 

Pat Lappin Anaconda Red Top. 

J. E. Lange Salesville Blue Grass. 

J. E. Lange Salesville Sheaf Timothy. 

G. A. Lewis Bozeman Sheaf Timothy. 

Pat Lappin Anaconda Timothy. 

Richard Manger White Sul. Springs... Sheaf Timothy. 

Richard Manger White Sul. Springs Red Top . 

E. M. Martinall Dell Red Top. 

E. M. Martinall Dell Sheaf Blue Joint. 

C. Mysee Reed Point Sheaf Flax. 

T. T. Nash Bozeman Soft Spring Wheat. 

Frank Nelson Potomac Timothy. 

R. L. Norris Simms Grains. 

E. W. Overstreet Salesville Sheaf Timothy. 

Perkins Brothers Deer Lodge Timothy. 

F. M. Plummer Libby Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

E. L. Popham Victor Sheaf Hard Spring Wheat. 

Chas. T. Rader White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alfalfa. 

R. H. Robinson Cardwell .....Sheaf Blue Grass. 

Wm. Savage Troy Sheaf Red Clover. 

Gust Seigling Armington Sheaf Vetch. 

Gust Seigling Armington Red Top. 

Gust Seigling Armington Flax. 

Thos. Sheridan White Sul. Springs Sheaf Timothy. 

■■'. D. Scott Helena Sheaf Alfalfa. 

H. L. Sprague Glasgow Macaroni Wheat. 

Wm. Stafferson White Sul. Springs Sheaf Red Clover. 

Wm. Stafferson White Sul. Springs Sheaf Timothy. 

D. J. Stephens Wisdom .....Sheaf Bromus Enermis. 

D. J. Stephens _Wisdom Red Top. 

John Subley White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alfalfa. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Brome Grass Seed. 

F. C. Sumner Clyde Park Sheaf Alfalfa. 

W. S. Thompson Townsend Red Top. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Orchard Grass. 

W. V. Talbot Armington Sheaf Pringle Cham. Wheat. 

Turange Brothers St. Ignatius Sheaf Alfalfa. 

W. N. Thomas Libl)y Sheaf Alfalfa. 

J. C. Walter White Sul. Springs Sheaf Alsike Clover. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Alfalfa. 

C. L. Wentworth Lewistown Sheaf Red Clover. 

G. M. White _Birdseye Red Top. 

G. M. White „Birdseye Sheaf Red Top. 

G. M. White _Birdseye Bromus Enermis. 

G. M. White Birdseye Sheaf Blue Grass. 

G. M. White Birdseye White Top. 

E. A. Willard Hardin Sheaf Blue Joint. 

Jake Zentner White Sul. Springs Red Top. 

P. D. Scott White Sul. Springs Sheaf Blue Grass. 




— IHI-*<»# 

91 S 

-im^^OH^— nil"— OB^^iiii^— nil- 




State of Montana Helena 


Mrs. G. H. Grubb Kalispell 

..Largest and best display of 
apples exhibited and main- 
tained during the exposi- 



State of Montana Helena Processed Fruits. 

Hazel Elliott Hamilton King. 

W. E. Grandey Whitehall Wealthy. 

T. S. Hood Red Lodge Wealthy. 

Mrs. E. A. Johnson Hamilton Mcintosh. 

Mrs. Ben Kress Hamilton Mcintosh. 

F. S. Putnam and Son Fromberg McMahon. 

J. B. Taylor Hamilton Mcintosh. 

J. C. Wood Big Fork Mcintosh. 

J. C. Wood Big Fork King. 


I. E. Andrus Missoula Mcintosh. 

I. E. Andrus Missoula Wagner. 

T. L. Bateman Ravalli Yellow Bellfleur. 

Franklin Engler Victor Lawyer (Delaware Red). 

Franklin Engler Victor English Russet. 

Franklin Engler Victor Wealthy. 

J. A. Fossum Somers Wealthy. 

Hort. Sub Station Corvallis Delicious. 

Byron Howell Stevensville Lawyer (Delaware Red). 

Mrs. E. A. Johnson Hamilton Northwest Apples. 

Mrs. Ben Kress Hamilton Wolf River. 

F. E. Kolm Lewistown Northwest Apple. 

J. P. Lupton Hamilton Wealthy. 

S. J. MacPherson Fromberg Wolf River. 

John Milbank Big Fork Delicious. 

F. C. Pickering Joliet Northwest Apple. 

C. E. Proctor Proctor Banana Apple. 

H. H. Roberts Bridger Wolf River. 

L. E. Schadd Billings Wealthy. 

D. E. Showen Fromberg .....Northwest Apple. 

J. B. Taylor Wolf River Hamilton. 

Fred Whiteside Kalispell Mcintosh. 

J. C. Wood Big Fork .- Rome Beauty. 

J. C. Wood Big Fork Wealthy. 

Jesse Yenney Big Fork Gravenstein. 

.lesse Yenney Big Fork Wealthy. 

State of Montana Helena Baldwin. 


I. E. Andrus Missoula King. 

I. E. Andrus Missoula Red Bellfleur. 

I. E. Andrus Missoula Wealthy. 

Jordan Bean Bridger — Wealthy. 

Bischoff and Swartz Hamilton Baldwin. 

Wm. Blackie Victor Wealthy. 

Wm. Colbrick Kalispell Senator. 

•92 MONTANA-1916 ? 

• • 



T. J. Dudley Fromberg .Wealthy. 

Franklin Engler Victor Starks. 

Richard Gregg Kalispell Esopus (Spitzenburg). 


Mrs. G. H. Grubb Kalispell Ben Davis. 

Mrs. E. A. Johnson Hamilton Salome. 

Mrs. E. A. Johnson Hamilton Wealthy. 

Dr. A. L. Peterman Victor Wealthy. 

F. C. Pickering Fromberg Wealthy. 

Taylor Sisters Hamilton Northern Spy. 

State of Montana .Helena Lawyer (Delaware Red). 


Mr. Ashby Victor Mcintosh. 

Como Farms Company Darby King. 

Como Farms Company Darby Mcintosh. 

Como Farms Company Darby Northern Spy. 

W. J. Crismas Joliet Mcintosh. 

C. E. Davenport Hamilton Mcintosh. 

Mrs. G. H. Grubb Kalispell Mcintosh. 

Mrs. E. A. Johnson Hamilton Wolf River. 

Mrs. E. V. Morgan ^Fromberg Mcintosh Red. 

J. B. Taylor Hamilton Gano. 

Dr. A. L. Peterman Victor Mcintosh Red. 

J. B. Taylor Hamilton - Jonathan. 

J. B. Taylor Hamilton Northern Spy. 

J. B. Taylor ..Hamilton Senator. 



State of Montana ..Helena -Scene portraying Agricult- 
ural Activities. 


State of Montana -Helena Scene partraying Agricul- 
tural Activities. 

F. E. Leiberg tvaiispell Furs. 

Butte Sewer P. & T. Co Butte Tile and Brick. 


Kenyon Killibug Company ...Great Palls Bug Poison. 

Frank Lemmer Great Falls Taxidermist Work. 

C. Cobb Kalispell Taxidermist Work. 

F. E. Leiberg Kalispell Taxidermist Work. 

E. L. Hillis Anaconda Taxidermist Work. 

Engineering Model Works Butte Relief Map. 

W. T. George Dillon Map. 

A. Schlecten Bozeman Colored Farm and Mountain 



Thompson and Schoetner Butte ..Colored Farm and Mountain 


«•• — u. >■ ... •• •• ■• «■ » >■ iia^iia •> .■— o>_.. ,,,^,1, a, ., „„ „« „„ „, „, „, „ „„ „,.««0 


• • 

m»»—" •" "" "" "" "" "" "" "■ "" °" "" "" "■ "" "" " "" "" " "» '" ""—"I' ■" on iia^i<a..«0 


Grand. prize 1 

Medals of Honor 12 

Gold Medals 77 

Silver Medals 240 

Bronze Medals 199 

Honorable Mentions 98 

Total Awards in Agriculture at San Francisco Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition 627 


Grand Prize 1 

Medals of Honor 1 

Gold Medals 10 

Silver Medals 27 

Bronze Medals 17 

Honorable Mentions 14 

Total Awards in Agriculture at San Francisco Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition 70 


Grand Prize 1 

Silver Medals 3 

Bronze Medals 8 

Honorable Mention 1 

Total Awards in Agriculture at San Francisco Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition 13 

The following shows the awards won by Montana exhibitors at the Panama-Cali- 
fornia exposition in San Diego: 


State of Montana Helena Agriculture. 


Bozeman Milling Company... Bozeman General Products. 

Great Northern Ry. Co St. Paul General Exhibit. 

Crystall Graphite Company. .Butte Graphite. 

Butte Sewer P. & T. Co Butte Pipe and Tile Brick. 

Montana State Building San Diego Building 

State of Montana Helena Flax. 

State of Montana Helena Mineral. 

State of Montana Helena Alfalfa. 

State of Montana Helena Barley 

State of Montana Helena Wheat. 

State of Montana Helena Oats. 

State of Montana Helena Wild Grasses. 

State of Montana Helena Clover. 

State of Montana..-. Helena Peas. 

State of Montana Helena Grasses. 


Grand Prize i 

Gold Medals ..-. 15 

Total awards at Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, 1915 16 


of Montana's winnings at Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco. 
1915, and Panama-California Exposition at San Diego. 1915: 

Grand Medal of Gold Silver Bronze Honorable 
Prize Honor Medals Medals Medals Mention 

Agriculture, P. P. I. E 1 12 77 240 199 98 

Miscellaneous — - 13 8 1 

San Diego 1 — . 15 

Horticulture, P. P. I. E 1 1 10 27 17 14 

Total 3 13 103 270 224 113 

Grand Total - 726 Awards 

The Climate of Montana 

Contrary to Popular Impression, the Treasure State Is Not in 

the Arctic Zone; Instead, Its CHmate Is the Same 

as That of the Central States. 

^,,____,„^,^ EATHER conditions in Montana have probably 

I fa 1/ I been the basis of more erroneous statements 

^^BHE^V I 1 .|L' I « T I regarding this state than all other causes 

/S^^^^^L^i ^^f^Ll-^'^i^^^ combined, and those who have endeavored to 

spread the truth about the Treasure State have 
had more difficulty in convincing the unin- 
formed that Montana is not in the Arctic 
zone than in establishing any other fact con- 
cerning this commonwealth. 

Through one of those not unusual freaks 
of popular misunderstanding, years ago there 
spread throughout the land a legend which 
made a "Montana blizzard" a by-word, a ter- 
rible something to be dreaded, to be endured 
by only the most hardy. Montana winters 
were pictured as being long and excessively 
cold, and its summers something to be vainly 
hoped for. Nothing could be further from the 
truth, for even in winter, the uncomfortably 
cold day is the exception rather than the rule in Montana, and the summers and 
autumns of Montana are the most delightful to be found on the continent. 

As a matter of fact, amply verified by the records of the United States weather 
bureau, Montana has a milder climate than eastern states of the same latitude. In 
truth, the clomate of this state corresponds very closely with that of Iowa and Illi- | 
nois, with this important exception — while the cold weather in these states is of the 
damp and penetrating kind, the cold weather in Montana is dry. There is printed on 
the following page a diagram, prepared by the section director of the United States 
weather bureau, showing the normal mean January temperature of the United States, with , 
lines drawn on the map through points of equal mean temperature. A glance at this 
map will show that western Montana has the same mean mid-winter temperature as j 
southern Wyoming, southern Nebraska, and central Iowa; while Central Montana 
has the same average mid-winter temperature as the southern part of South Dakota, 
northern Iowa, Illinois, southern Michigan and New York. 

In any discussion of Montana climate, however, much consideration must be given 
the great area of the state and the great range of altitudes here. Montana is two-thirds 
as large as the German empire; its altitude ranges from the high peaks of the main j 
range of the Rocky Mountains, which crosses the state from north to south, to great 
areas of plains in the eastern section, and valleys in both the eastern and western 
sections which are but approximately 2,000 feet above sea-level. 

In Montana there are high mountain peaks which reach above the level of per- 
petual snow; there are sheltered valleys in which the wind scarcely stirs a leaf; there 
are great plains, level as a floor, and there are many foothills and stretches of rolling 




95 : 

Lines Pass Through Points of Equal Mean January Temperature. 

land. All these have their own effect on the climate of the State, making for differ- 
ent temperatures and different weather conditions in different sections of the State. 
The most pronounced of these diversified conditions is due to the influence of the 
main range of the Rocky Mountains, on the western slope of which there is, generally 
speaking, much milder winter weather and considerable more precipitation than on 
the eastern. 

The climate of Montana is conducive to good health. Fogs are practically un- 
known, and malarial conditions are entirely absent. The winter season is not one 
of continued cold. Bright, sunshiny days in December, January and February are the 
rule rather than the exception. When the State is visited by a snow strom the tem- 
perature may drop considerably below zero, but these cold spells are not only infre- 
quent, but are also short, being rapidly modified by what is known as the "chinook" 
wind, a western breeze, which warmed by the Japanese current in the North Pacific, 
spreads its modifying influence as far east as the Dakotas. 

Montana is blessed with bounteous sunshine, there being sections of the State 
where an average of more than 300 days of clear weather is experienced each year. 
The altitude makes for a clear, dry atmosphere, and the disheartening, cloudy, damp 
day is seldom witnessed here. 

Many enthusiastic tributes have been paid Montana's climate. A federal govern- 
ment report contains the following: 

"The light snowfall in the valleys throughout the state during the winter months 
is usually speedily evaporated by the Chinook winds which are prevalent from Oregon 
to Nebraska, from the Peace River to Arizona, being particularly common in Montana, 
where they do much to modify the climate." 

In his book, "The Treasure State," James H. Mills said: 

"The average temperature in Montana is about the same as in New York or Penn- 

«•< „ n„ „„ m nn ml » iix ii« » >■ m na nil Da aa aa Mil nil nil ml ml irn nn .la iin ii. »■••• 

: 9(! >I O X T A \ A - 1 9 1 6 • 

• • 

• •• aa aa aa aa iia an iia im n. n. aa aa aa aa aa na ua aa .a na nu aa a. na a. aa aa aa.«« 

"^A f^Wr 9 

»■- ■ ti-'-L, j^r 

Farmers' Picnc at Moccasin. 

sylvania. The snowfall in the valleys is less than in either of those states; there is 
more sunshine than in any Middle, Eastern or New England state, and the great 
mountains, ribbed with veins of gold, silver and copper and crowned with majestic 
forests, are but gigantic framework in which are set great picture valleys, bench lands 
and foothills, fertile as the Valley of the Nile, and which have never yet refused to 
yield bounteous harvests when touched by the hand of industry and nourished with 

Randall J. Condon, superintendent of the public schools of Cincinnati, Ohio, who 
for some years resided in Helena, has written for a geography used in the public 
schools, a brief but comprehensive description of Montana. From personal knowledge, 
he discusses the climate as follows: 

"It is doubtful if there is another state in the Union where the climate, taken the 
year round, is so delightful as that of Montana. Its northern latitude is more than 
offset by the mild westerly winds, which temper the climate of the mountains and 
plains and yet do not bring excessive moisture. 

"Fogs are almost unknown, and on the days when the temperature is low there 
is not that penetrating chill which is felt in the more humid states. 

"As in any extreme northern state, the thermometer occasionally records a low 
midwinter temperature, but the cold spells are short. While they remain there is 
practically no wind; the air is dry and the sunshine clear. The ordinary outdoor 
occupations may be carried on in winter with little inconvenience. On the other 
hand, the summer temperatures are never oppressive, and heat prostrations are un- 
known. The temperature in the middle of the long summer days may rise higher than 
in the states further south, but with the coming of night the cold mountain breez' 
brings a delightful change." 

The following comparison of the monthly and annual mean temperatures of the 
states of Ohio, New York, Wisconsin and Montana is of interest: 












































New York 




























The United States weather bureau maintains an up-to-date station in Helena, 
which collects and compiles climatic records from all parts of the state. Mr. H. P- 
Alps, the meteorologist in charge of the Montana station, has very kindly submitted the 
tables which appear on the following pages and which show the monthly mean, mini- 
mum and maximum temperatures and the monthly and annual precipitation reported 
from various parts of Montana during the year 1915: 



»— ••-••9 






























^ E 
Z H 
















t— ( 



t^ I-l UO 


C-S5CO'-Ot-ir5CvIOO-*C'5LOC\IOOOCCTt< ;t^ :t-oc^c- ; 

CO -*■ 

T.0 O O 
■*! Tt< Ttl 


Tf^c^c^^cOl— ii-ic<i'*ioiococ<i-*coc<ic^i ;co ;00C<I-*CD ' 

(M CD 

as to ID 



t- M o 

(M I<1 CO 

C0CDCOC0C^^T-l■<J'CDt-lH05■^l000Tf^Ol0L0 ;cOC^OOOiCD 

s<^c^^(N|C^lo^(^5(^^cQc^^c<^c<^c^^c^^c<Ioqc^c^(^q ;rHiM<M<rgc^ 

00 a> 

r-i CO 

OOCO■^a)IHOl^O•<tlOT}^«^Tt^C>•DOlOO<^5I-l'X' .t-CDOO-^iOOCOOtOOJ 

CD C7i lO 





CO C<l (M 


■*l0OrHl0-«tlC^0it-Tt(00lrtC0C000C^OmiCC0iHOO : 

S<t CO 

LO Ift Cq 
■<*< Tj* lO 

Ot-^COCOt>^TlHC50005t-^r-icDLOC<ic^CDCOt^LftCDlOC<i-^" i 

lOTtH-^-^-^-^TtlTfl-^Tf'lrt-^TjHlO-^TtlCO-^Ttl-'tlTtllOlO ' 

o o 
in lo 

CD CO to 

oi t-^ c<i 

■>*l Tjt lO 



irt aj co' iH c^ 00 iH ^q c<i -r)! CO 00 CO ■»*< cTJ T-i CO ■*' i-i o oj 7-! CD i 

LO^'*LO-<*l->*l010lOLOlO'*ilOLO-*lOLOlOlOlO-*LOLO ' 

(M in 

in in 

C^ O CO 




Csl i-l o 
CD CD t- 

Ol00005-*lCiOl«0S0000C0O00C000000000L0t~C0C<l ; 

t^ CD 

■^ O lO 

O lO M 



^-l^t>^C50^-^asc^c^r-^c<^r-^t>^^^|^dcDaic<^T-^^^iocoo5o ; 


r-J CD 

■^ CO 
to CO 

O '^^ CO 



i-H O CO 
to lO lO 


OiTHMlfflTHMCOTtilOOiLOC^ICOCOi— l^t-CDCOlr5THCOTf<-*00t^ 

C<j Tj< C^_ 

r-i t-^ 00 

LO C^ lO 



oo oq US 
in c£> ■>* 

'^ -^ lO 







Tfi Oi UO 
CO C<1 CO 





CO t^ rH 

CO ?-! CO 


CO o'; Tf 



T-l Tf 

O CO t~ 
c^3 cq 

CO -"ti 

c^^ o 


o ■>* 



o fe 


03 ^ 
> .-H (XI 

o oi a 
a; ™ o 

ai OJ 


cs a 


o '^ 


.2-^ >. 


o a; 
CO c; 


o 'O 

3 s •ii' o iH :;: 


^ 9. '^ <v 


OJ rt .-ti s 


„ o 

■4 CD 


Sh as 

si ^ 


CO o 

a '^ <^ -^ 

o ^'B^ 

CO •£=„ o 1^ 

•--' M ^ CO „ - 

kJ a) 

TO Q; '^ 
> «2 C 

?2 CS 

2 ^ 




.^ S T3 ?^ 3J o3 

••• — ■■• 

• 98 

M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 


CQ V- 















i-lrHf-liH t-(iHr-li-li-lTHrHTHM WtH 


1-1 iH 1-1 i-H 

lO Iffl ■^ 00 
50 to to O 

05 1-1 
to 5D 

CO ■^ C5 
to m LO 

la o 

liS to 

to 00 t- 
Lffl U5 to 

00 00 

O O iH 

to c- to 

Oi t- to Irt 
I to lO to lO 

05 M 

t- to 

Oi 05 O 

Ift t- t- 

O 05 CO ITS 
C^ 1-1 M M 

iH IM 

05 to LO 
eg M 


eg eg • 

I t- tH 00 

I eg eg eg 

t~ to 00 to t- 
iH eg iH r-l l-l 

; ic eg eg eg 

1-1 eg eg eg 

r-i eg ; ,-( i-( 

CO o o eg 

t- t^ 00 00 

o to 

00 t^ 

0> O OS 
00 t~ t- 

CO eg 

t- 00 

00 eg c- 
t~ t~ t- 

CO eg 

o to o 

05 t^ 00 

t> o eg 00 o 

Ut) 00 t- t~ t- 

iH 00 
05 t- 

; o CO 
: 00 00 

o -^ t- ■^ 
CO eg eg CO 

eg eg 

•^ t~ 1-1 

eg CO CO 

eg •«*< I 

• t" Ci ^ 

I eg eg CO 

to LO 

eg CO 

o OO lO 

CO eg eg 

o eg eg LO o 

CO eg CO eg CO 

lO CO 


; t- o 

; eg co 

00 to tH -^ 
t- t- 00 OS 

t- 00 

05 C- 

C2 O^ 02 

t>- t- t- 

O 1-1 ■ 
00 00 1 

c> t^ to 

00 00 OO 

CO -^ 
00 OO 

CO eg uo 

o; 00 00 

<35 1-1 to to LO 
OO 00 00 00 t- 

00 00 

CO eg 

; 05 05 

lO iH 00 00 
CO -^ ■* 1* 

o eg 

to t^ LO 

^^ ^H ^^ 

eg -^ ■ 

Ci •* ■"*! 

I Tj< CO ■* 

o t- 

to LO to 
•* CO CO 

eg 00 CO CO ■>*< 
•* CO -^ CO •* 

CO eg 

; iH o 

Oi CO to lO 
00 00 Ci OS 

C5 iH 
05 Oi 

t^ o o 

1^ ffi <^ 

as oi 

O 1-1 CO 

Ci O C5 

to lO 

LO c; 00 

Oi 00 o 

LO c^ to eg eg 

C2 o^ o^ cs c^ 

1-1 CO 

to 00 

ci as 

o eg 

■* CO 

LO eg 


CO to 
•* CO 

eg OS 


to to 


c- eg a; 


to 1-1 
CO ■* 

1-1 O OD 
CO •* CO 

o eg 


c~ CO a: 


LO eg ( 

CO CO < 


iH ■* 


as en 

O 00 
OS 00 

Oi o 

lO LO 

iH ■* C^7 

en c^ o; 

t- o 

as OS 

■* CO o 

00 a; cs 

LO eg 


eg t^ LO 

as as as 

as CO ' 

00 OS I 

; t-i to 







H E 

^ 2 

< S3 

O s 












iH t- 

CO eg 

OS o 

Tt< CM 


o as 


CO 1-1 

■* o c- 



a. o LO 

eg CO CO 

00 rH 

eg CO 

o o to 


as o 
eg CO 


eg CO 

to 'ti 

eg tH 

t- 00 

OS lO 
00 OS 

t^ eg 

OO 00 

00 ■* 

00 00 

OO o 
t~ OS 

00 ■* CO 
00 00 00 

Tt< CO 

OS 00 

1-1 to LO 
00 00 OO 

O i-l 

00 as 

to o c> 

00 OS OS 

00 00 

iH 00 
00 t- 

i-l OS 

as OO 

CO 00 
CO tH 

lO Tfl 


•* crs 
eg eg 

CO eg 
eg CO 

CO ^o 
c-i eg 

lO t~ CO 

eg eg CO 

o eg 


CO eg to 
eg CO eg 

t~ CO 

eg eg 

t^ CJS 1-1 ■ 

eg eg CO ' 


I eg eg 


eg eg 

Tji to 

eg eg 

CO eg 

Tfl to 


00 c^ 

1-1 00 
OO c~ 

T*< CO 

O OS Tf 
00 t^ t~ 

to CO 
00 t- 

eg 00 o 

t- t- 00 

OS as 

O 00 OS • 
OO 00 t- ( 

I CO o 
I t- OO 

00 t~ 

LO to 


00 1-1 

eg eg 

O 00 

CO eg 

iH LO 

eg eg 

eg to 
eg eg 

00 CO 

eg eg 

00 t- eg 

eg eg CO 

iH o 
eg CO 


eg eg eg ( 

I O OS ■* I 

I eg eg eg • 

I tr- lo 
eg eg 

to LO 

eg eg 

ci eg 
eg eg 

•<*< OS 
00 OO 

00 LO 
00 I> 

eg o 


CO o 

eg OS i> 
OO t- t- 

CO to 
00 c^ 

LO ■* OS 
C^ 00 OO 

00 OS 

eg 00 1-1 

CO 00 00 

LO eg 

t- 00 

00 00 

00 o 


LO-*tooi-ic^otOi-ic-'^coLO-*i— icotooootoosegiHcgostorMTHtoas 

1-1 tHiH rHiHi-li-li-iegi-l I-l 




iHiH tHiHiHi— li— liHiH 



ostoi— locoLocgtotOLOOsc^Oi— i-^ootoot^cooegcgt-totoooost^co 
iHcgcoco eg iH cgi-iTHi-i ih egi-ieg co -^ cgiHi-icoeg 







H § 






I— I 



^ "C HI 

^ >> 



a; ra 


P tp rt "S 




S C5 <!i J bi CQ 


'7^ O 


o cs QJ r •'- >> 

02 Gj fr^ S ^ CC 
72 ^ ^ Co R t« 


^' _ 

cs::: TS 

;; ^ *-■ T, ^ •-' j^ "2 ^ ^ C3 ^ t« >- >^ *J "^ ir 

^ C g 


I— I 



-a . 

%^^ uo"^ %%% 

<A ^ m m > li %^^\Z 

C 5J 

cO ^ " ■ 



9 C S a^ 

"- S •>- fcc S tc »^ <ii 


- u^ ^ CO 

O 2 S 
CO ^ to 

• ■ > 5 "^ 

^ ^< ^ > CO 
-= Ca O CO O 



cO ^ -^ 



<0 03 

-l-J u 

CO fcC 

Si <^ 



^r^'Xl ^ <ij a ai 

w CO 






w a 









O £ 

< c 
fc .2 

o « 

Z '3 

:^ ^ 

H 13 

^ c 

< c 

Oh < 

Q ^ 

H -S 

< c 

H o 















I— I 


CO o 
00 •* 

ro 1— I s<i 

o ^ IJ^ 

i-J M t-^ 

M M iH 

© t^ O 

in t~ o 

C<I lO 

to Kl 

CO -^ 


00 in t^ 

t>; O r-l 

O CO 00 I 

CM 1— I tH ■ 

: to cq o 
to o «o 
in o TjH I 
tH c^ tH ■ 

CO t- 

t- o 



i o 

CO c^ 
t^ in 

C^ 00 
i-H 00 

O 05 t^ 
•>*< 00 •^ 

o o in 
00 o t- 

t- m 

00 in 

5C in -^ 
m •* in 

O 05 
CO t- 

; o o c<i 
; th in CO 

in Tf< 

00 c- 

CO !» 
Oi to 


M O 

O iH 

CO c^ 

I © 05 00 

I 05 to CO 

iM in 

05 CO 

oq © 

m t- M 

(M tH t~ 

© © 

Si Oi 


•^ CO OS 
iH 00 Oi 

c<i in 

© c^ 

05 © 

I— I tH © 1— I r-lT— l©i— It— I©©©© C<1tH©<©©©© '©C<l©TH©©©©r-l 

•* in 

© © 

CO ■* © 
rH 00 © 
© © r-i 

I T-l Tfi M 

I iH CO to 

© i-H © © 

C^ to 
•*! r-l 

CO cq 

CO m 

iH -^ -^ 

t- © m 

© © © iH © © © 


OS in 
in iH 

© CO to 
■* t^ CO 

© iH © © T-l 

•<f © 

© © 

© 00 

in 1-1 
© © 

T-l 00 

in in 

cq 00 in 

C<1 CO -^ 
CO iH c<i 

t^ ^* ^^ 1 

to © CO I 

in 1-1 
© in 

CO iH 
tH 00 

t- © 

(Tci c<i c<i c^ c<i" 

OO iH to 

in CO 05 

1-1 C<1 

© 05 CO 

c- in OS 

t- in • 

CO iH 

rHi-l©TH©lH'*<CO 'iH 

to C^ 


© 00 


t- ti CO 
to t- M 

00 C<l 00 
C- Kl CO 

Tf CO 

Ol CO 

05 in 
in iH 

t- in in 

© Oi 05 

OS m 
M in 

OO in 


^ Tf* C5 
© t-; CO 

CO © 

© CO 
CO © 

00 tr- 

in CO 

-I © (M rH 

■^ © 

•<J< iH m 

© in c-^ 

■ in 

to rJH 1-! 
C~ t- <35 

00 <3i 
' 00 © 

csi in © 

03 iH in 


rH © 

coodcqi-icg-^oj-^'coco 'c<ic^coc<ii-ic6 'coc^ 

; •*! © m 
; c^ Tti 00 

CO 00 

t- T-l 

1-1 to 

© in 
to i£> 

to ■* -^ 

© 00 1-1 

^ 05 ^ ' 
C<1 © -^ I 

I in c<i 

I CO t-l 

in to 

C~ iH Cq 

Oi t- CO 

05 iH 
© i-l 

CO 00 

o to 

rH © in 
to Cvl l> 

00 © 

in in 

to iH 

■* cq 
to M 


00 © 

i-i Tj< 

© 00 CO 

eg t- -^ 

OS t^ t^ 

to to to 

in 00 
o> eg 

Tf 1—1 

t- to 

CO CO to 

© to in 

in in 
© t- 

© CO 

in in © 

CO © Oi 

00 to 
00 © 

to 00 

to to 

to 00 





CO CO ■* 1-1 Oi to to 
CO -"ti ■* to © iH to 



l:^ © "* 

CO in iH 





1-1 1-1 © © eg © © 








00 c- 

to iH 



© 1*1 


in © CO 

© © © rH © © 

eg 1-1 in 

T-j © © 

© i-i © 

1* 00 

Tfi © 

to lO 
CO iti 

Tt< © 00 

© © © 




© © 
m © 

© iH in 


to 00 

in © 

in rH 

© © 

in to 
cq © 


CO <>q 
© to 

© CO in 
in © eg 

tH © © iH © 

in oi iH 

to iH C5 

to m^ 

01 00 

to to ■>*< 

r*< tH tH 

c- to 

in iH 

Tf eg in 

tH CO Tf 

00 CO 
1* GO 

in in 
c^i to 

ai to 



:3 o; 

•a c<3 .-ti 

g a; c 



O m 


5 CO 

O j3 " 



o "3 5 



o « o 


— CD 

,2 -^ !>. 


>■ '^ o ^ 

o ^ 



-' o is a 

Qc^:5S'?'<dJtiicnSllcc:E32^S^ooK&, HSmcQCQoEBfS 







rt !~ 

CO V. 



cti C Oj 

OJ — ^ CO 

g3 b£ 

r o ;:: 2? CO 





>- ^ £ 2 ^ '" 

oj O ™ P 

C O) > , 

lU o 


The Nation's Playground 

With Two Great National Parks, and Unrivalled Scenic Attrac- 
tions, Montana Offers Inviting Retreat to Those 
Seeking Rest and Recreation. 

ATURE was in her most generous mood when 
Montana was in the making; nowhere else was 
there lavished in such profusion such a wealth of 
scenic attractions, and while Montana is calling for 
the homebuilder and the settler, it nevertheless 
welcomes the casual visitor. 

"Sst Americj Firsi, and Begin with Montana," 
is a good rule to follow, and those who have followed 
this rule unhesitatingly pronounce the Treasure 
State the playground of the nation. Certainly the 
state can live up to this appellation, for in no other 
commonwealth may be found so many and so varied 
works of Nature which appeal irresistibly to those 
upon vacation bent. With its wealth of natural 
scenery, its countless lakes and majestic peaks, its 
glaciers, its geysers and its wonder-colored canyons, 
its unlimited supply of fish and game, .its great 
altitudes with their accompanying ideal summer 
temperatures, and, last but not least, its superb mountain highways, which bring the 
great outdoors within easy and comfortable reach of the tourist, Montana indeed 
offers inviting retreat to those who would, for a day, a week or a month, break away 
from the commonplace. 

It can be truthfully said that a vacation in Montana can be arranged to suit any 
taste and any purse. Camping parties can spend months in the mountains and 
on the lakes at a cost which is so small as to be almost negligible. Boon companions 
may wander for days through primeval forests at the mere expense of coffee and 
bacon and bread, while the sparkling trout streams serve to make their table a ban- 
quet board. On the other hand, those who would retain all the luxuries of civilization 
while upon their outings may here find magnificent hotels dedicated to their comfort 
and convenience. 

While the lakes and mountains and forests of Montana would of themselves put 
Montana at the head of the list of recreation places, it is to the two greatest and 
largest national parks that Montana owes its best known summer attractions. These 
two great national playgrounds — the Yellowstone and Glacier National Parks — are 
primarily Montana institutions. Even before the nation was awakened to the im- 
portance of reserving these great natural wonders for the benefit and enjoyment of all 
the people, these parks were vacation and sight-seeing places for the people of 
Montana. Glacier National Park, containing more than 1,500 square miles and nest- 
ling upon the very apex of the continent, is wholly within Montana, while Yellowstone 
National Park, the oldest and best known of all the national reservations, is reached 
through this state. The official entrance to this park, an imposing rock arch, dedi- 
cated by President Roosevelt, is at Gardiner, Montana, five miles from Mammoth Hot 
Springs, the administrative headquarters of the great reserve, which contains more 


T H i: T li E A S I R E STATE 


Rain's Horn Lake on the Upper Gallatin. 

than 3,500 square miles, while across the park at Yellowstone, Montana, is the west- 
ern entrance, now vieing in importance with its older rival. 

The pride which Montana takes in these two great national playgrounds is shown 
by the building of a magnificent automobile highway, which connects Yellowstone and 
Glacier National Parks, and which incidentally gives the tourist an entirely new con- 
ception of the phrase "See America First." 

Between these two parks, this great roadway runs for over four hundred miles 
along the "backbone of the continent," giving an ever changing vision — the majesty 
of towering mountains, the sublime of primeval forests, the romantic glamour of 
great cattle ranches, the busy activity of thriving cities and great industrial enter- 
prises, and the quiet prosperity of rich farm and meadow lands. 

Along this highway may be traced the history of the commonwealth. By the 
roadside may yet be seen the placer miners sluicing gold as the Californian of '49 
washed it from the native sands. There may be seen some of the deepest mines 
and some of the largest smelting and reduction plants in the world. There may be 
seen the woodsman felling the giant trees and the sawmills which cut them into the 
lumber of commerce. There may be seen the harnessing of swift and turbulent streams 
and their conversion into the mystic power which turns the wheels of industry all 
over an empire teeming with life and activity. There may be seen great traction 
engines breaking virgin sod that it may be sown to grain, and further beyond may 
be seen the shack of the homesteader — Montana's newest citizen. And if you care to 
stop by the side of the road you may angle from the sparkling streams the gamest 
trout known to the disciples of Isaak Walton, or wandering into the forests you may 
treat yourself to the spectacle of the greatest and most varied collection of wild 
game which yet remains in America. 

: 102 
••• — "— 

M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 6 



Mountains and Forests on Upper Middle Creek. 

Along this roadway may be seen in a state of civilization far beyond what the 
average tourist expects, the remnants of tribes of the aboriginal inhabitants of the 
western hemisphere. The Indians who formerly roved the plains and hunted buffalo 
and white men's scalps have been tamed and, yielding to the influence of the white 
men's way have turned to raising cattle and growing grain, in which more than one 
Indian has found the way to success which measures large even by the white man's 

The mountains and prairies of Montana are prolific in game. In fact, after cen- 
turies of relentless hunting by Indians and white men, elk, moose, deer, antelope, 
Rocky Mountain sheep. Rocky Mountain goats and bear abound. On account of the 
ruthless slaughter of moose by the Indians and antelope by both races, it has been 
found necessary to perpetually protect these beautiful animals. Big game hunting 
vvhich in most parts of the world, is a princely pastime, capable of indulgence only 
by the very wealthy, may be had in Montana by even the humblest. Despite the 
slaughter of bison and other large animals by early settlers of the state and relentless 
hunting by Indians ages before the white man's advent, all game in Montana, with 
the exception of the American bison, is now increasing under the protection afforded 
by the game laws and constant patrolling by the members of the state game depart- 
ment. Twenty-five years ago the elk on the northern boundary of the Yellowstone 
National park did not number one-half as many as they do today and in the north- 
western part of the state where these animals have never had the protection afforded 
by the federal authorities, they have more than held their own and are numerically 
stronger now than twelve years ago. 

Unlike some of the eastern states and Canadian provinces the game and fish dis- 
tricts of Montana are not subject to private lease by native or foreign citizens and 
all of the vast territory of the state, covered by almost 150,000 square miles of prairies, 

..._.. . .. — . ._.._.._.._.._„_.._„_„_.._.._. — , — _. — .._.._.._.„ 

; T H K T R E A S U R E S T A T E 103 • 

Near the Head Waters of the Gallatin. 

mountains and timbered areas, watered by thousands of lakes and streams, is open to 
all followers of the sport, subject only to the liberal provisions of the state game laws, 
which permit the killing in season of all game animals, except moose, antelope, buf- 
falo, bison, caribou, mountain sheep and goats, and elk in certain counties, while the 
gamest of game fish, trout and grayling, may be taken from the waters at all times 
of the year with rod, hook and line. 

There is not a city or town in the mountainous region which does not yearly con- 
tain the carcasses of deer killed within a radius of a few miles of the business sec- 
tions. Many deer are annually bagged within ten miles of Helena, and the same may 
be said of Butte, Anaconda, Missoula, Dillon, Livingston, Bozeman, Deer Lodge and 
Kalispell. Mountain sheep and Rocky Mountain goats are in considerable numbers 
within a few miles of Anaconda and Deer Lodge. But few states possess the proud 
and majestic Rocky Mountain sheep. Montana is pre-eminently the abode of the 
largest number of these magnificent animals in the United States. For the present 
these beautiful animals are protected by the game laws and are expected to rapidly 

From September first of each year, on which date the season opens for ducks 
and other water fowl, only, until November 30, when the season on all big game closes, 
the mountains of Montana contain thousands of hunters, some camping tor a few days, 
and others out for a month or six weeks' trip, systematically bagging all the different 
varieties of birds and animals permitted to be killed under the law. The season on elk 
and deer is from October 1 to December 15; there being a limit of one per season on 
the former and two per season on the latter; on grouse, prairie chicken, fool hen, 
pheasant, partridge, sage hen, with a limit of five per day, from September 15 to 
October 15, except in the counties of Custer, Dawson, Richland, Sheridan, Valley, 
Philips, Rosebud, Big Horn, Prairie and Fallon, in which counties thd open season 



M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 


Bear Hunting is a Favorite Sport in Montana. 

on these birds is from September 1 to October 1; wild ducks, limit twenty per day, 
and wild geese and brant (no limit) September 1 to January 1. 

There is no closed season on bear, which are often the coveted quarry of local and 
eastern sportsmen, during the months of April, May and the early part of June. At 
this time, especially during the month of May, the skins are prime. The animals 
have just finished their winter hibernation. When they first emerge from their long 
retreat, they are in fairly good flesh and ravenously hungry. Unless they immediately 
find food in considerable quanitity they rapidly loose flesh and soon become thin and 
gaunt. It is at this time that bear travel over a large area in twenty-four hours in 
quest of meals and it is especially true of the Grizzly or Silver Tip variety that at this 
season they are most fierce and seldom seek to avoid an encounter with their natural 
enemy — man — consequently to the hunter, in addition to procuring pelts in their 
primest condition, there is the added zest of dangerous sport. 

Bear are native to all the mountainous regions of the State, but probably the great- 
est numbers are found in the counties adjacent to the Yellowstone ISiationai Park and 
in the northweftern portion of Montana, being particularly numerous on the South Fork 
of the Flathead and Swan rivers, in Powell, Flathead, Missoula and Lincoln coun- 
ties, where many silver tips and other varieties of the bruin family abound. These 
regions are also the homes of thousands of elk and deer which may be hunted 
during the open season, subject only to the provisions of the game laws, which re- 
quire the possession of the proper hunting license and an observance of the law as 
to the limit. 

While Montana has long been known as the hunter's paradise, the fishing 
streams are also among the best on the American continent. Here, native to the 
waters of the eastern side of the continental divide are found millions of toothsome 
grayling, beautiful game fish, the peacocks of the aqueous realm, which are native to 

a*. , » n„ „. .. ...i ,..< ,M. .1.1 .» .. .... .... ... .... .lu .1.. ...I .... .m .... ».. ,1.. .1,. ,1,. .„. „„ ...i.*** 

• Till: thi:asurk statk lor, • 

• • 
«•« — "" — "" — "" — »> — "" — "" — »" — "" — "" — "• — "" — "» — "" — "" — " — »" — "» — "« — "» — "» — I'll — "11 — I'll — iiii — iiii — iiii — «« — ""•(•e 

American Bison on Reserve at Ravilla. 

only three localities — Montana, Michigan and Alaska. On the western slope of the 
Rocky Mountains trout abound in great quantities and numerous varieties. To specify 
the best trout fishing in Montana would be a presumption and more than that it 
would be largely a guess — there are so many streams and mountain lakes in which 
abound these gamy specimens of the finny tribe. The Stillwater, Big Boulder of 
Sweet Grass county, the Upper Yellowstone, the Gallatin and tributaries, the Madison, 
Red Rock river and lakes, the Big Hole, Silver and Georgetown lakes, Flint creek, 
Rock Creek, the Big Blackfoot river, Clark's Fork, the Flathead, Stillwater river of 
Flathead county, the Big river, the Kootenai, the Yakt, the Swan and hundreds of 
smaller streams throughout the state, together with the lakes of Lincoln and Flat- 
head counties, all afford this most alluring pleasure. An excellent detailed description 
of the fish streams and game regions of Montana and how best to reach them, written 
by Mr. Dave Morgan, chief deputy game warden, is published in the first biennial 
report of the Montana Game and Fish Commission, a copy of which will be forwarded 
free by this Department upon receipt of four cents' postage. 

The game laws require that all males over the age of fourteen years who are 
resident citizens of this state and who desire to hunt and fish shall first procure a 
license therefore. This license may be had upon payment of $1.00 to the state game 
and fish warden or any salaried deputy or $1.10 to a justice of the peace or non-sal- 
aried deputy. Any person who has not resided in this state for the six months last 
past, but is a citizen of the United States may procure a non-residents' license, of 
which there are three classes — the "general" which entitles the holder to hunt large 
and small game and to fish, and costs $25; the "limited" which entitles the holder to 
hunt small and feathered game and to fish, and costs $10; and "fishing" which entitles 
thvj holder to fish only and costs $2. Any person who is not a citizen of the United 
States, irrespective of the time he has resided within this state, is entitled to secure 
an alien license, which is in two classes — "alien general," which entitles the holder to 




••• — ■■ — "I 



Fairy Lake on Upper Shields River. 

luiut large and small game and to fish and costs $30; "alien fishing" whirh entitles 
the holder to fish only and costs $5. 

Among the natural wonders of Montana, the tourist should not neglect the Lewis 
and Clark cavern (formerly called Morrison's cave), a limestone cavern of great 
scientific interest, because of its length and because of the number of large vaulted 
chambers it contains. It is of historic interest, also, because it overlooks for a distance 
of more than fifty miles the trail of Lewis and Clark along the Jefferson river, named 
by them. The vaults of the cavern are magnificiently decorated with stalactites and 
stalagmite formations of great variety in size, form and color, the equal of, if not 
rivaling, the similar formations in the well known Luray caves in Virginia. 

The cavern is located about three-quarters of a mile northeasterly from Cavern, 
a postoffice in Jefferson county and a station on the Northern Pacific railway, about 
45 miles from Butte. The cave may also be reached from the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
FA. Paul station of Alcazar, about two miles distant. The cavern is situated in a mas- 
sive deposit of what is known as Madison limestone, which at this place dips steeply 
to the southwest. The various chambers in the cave, as far as explored, extend for a 
distance of about 700 feet horizontly and 350 feet vertically, but there are many 
openings and passages that have never been explored. The chambers and passages 
seem in general to follow the dip of the formation. The cavern is best reached by 
following the railroad track easterly for about a quarter of a mile and then following 
a circuitous road or trail about one and a half miles. The mouths of the cavern are 
1,300 feet above the railroads and the climb requires about an hour and a half. 
Its two entrances which are about one hundred yards apart, are upon the walls of a 
deep canyon about 500 feet below the rim. The LeMis and Clark cavern is a national 
monument, under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior. 

I 1 1 !•: T R I-: A S U R J : S T A T K 

107 : 

••• — •■ 


The Sphinx, Elevation 10,840 Feet. 

The Yellowstone National Park has unrivalled claim to the title of the Wonder- 
land of America. In fact, at no place on the globe, are to be found, so closely grouped, 
so many natural phenomena. It is the home of the unique and unusual in nature, and 
its attractions are known all over the civilized world, from every country of which it 
annually draws its large quota of visitors. During the year 1915, 51,895 persons toured 
the park, and it is expected that this number will rapidly increase during the next 
few years. 

The tour of the Yellowstone National Park may be made in five and one-half 
days, and yet, so many and so varied are the opportunities here to enjoy the wonders 
which abound on every hand, that a visitor may spend months within the park 
confines and know not tlie feeling of time heaviness. The route of tourist travel 
through the park is ideally arranged to produce a constantly changing view of world 
wonders, with each new scene lifting the emotions to a higher point and giving a more 
glorious conception of nature's marvelous work. 

First, at Mammoth, with its hundreds of mineral springs, constantly building and 
rebuilding myriad formations, and its wierd spectral rocks and subterranean caverns; 
another day, and the visitor is in the heart of the geyser region, where, each on its 
own regular schedule, a hundred spouting springs send forth their charge of boiling 
water, playing for a minute or an hour, as the case may be, sending their streams up- 
ward in some instances to heights of hundreds of feet, and then dropping back into 
the form of a clear pool which gives no indication of the mighty forces working be- 
neath its surface; out of the geyser region, the tourist views and sails across beautiful 
Lake Yellowstone, a magnificent body of cool, clear crystal water, over 7,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, a scene which makes one feel that the turbulent, volcanic activity 
he witnessed the day before can scarcely be more than a dream so striking is the 
contrast; another day and he comes upon the wonder of wonders — the falls and grand 

: 108 
••• — ■"— 


M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 (5 

—nil iin iiu nil— 

llll iin IIB nil— — IIH- 

View of Madison River Near Red Bluff. 

canyon of the Yellowstone, a mighty river dropping over a precipice of 360 feet and into 
a chasm, tlie wonderful coloring of which has baffled every artist who sought to trans- 
fer its marvelous tints to canvas. 

There are numerous and varied accommodations for those who desire to "do' Yel- 
lowstone National Park. The great national playground is open to all the people and 
the choice of the method of viewing Its wonders lies entirely with the individual. 
Many parties annually go through the park with their own camping "outfits," making 
the trip as leisurely as they desire, and while enjoying the unusual scenes about 
them live, in reality, close to nature. Although wild game of all kinds is protected in 
the park, fishing is allowed in all the streams and in many parts of the park excellent 
catches may be had. Others patronize the professional camping companies and thus 
enjoy outdoor life without the expense and worry of providing and caring for 
their own means of transportation. Many others secure accommodations at the Wylie 
permanent camps, which company also maintains a line of stages for the transportation 
of its guests. Another favorite method of seeing the park is to take advantage of the 
palatial hotels which the Yellowstone Park Hotel Association has erected at various 
points throughout the park, in close proximity to the scenes of the great natural 
wonders. The precincts of the park have recently been opened to the automobile, 
and many tourists annually drive their own cars through wonderland. By following 
the hotel route the tourist is enabled to reach all points of interest in the park and 
at the same time to enjoy, between sight-seeing expeditions, all the comforts and con- 
veniences of a metropolitan hostelry, with most excellent cuisine and service. 

Those desiring to visit the Yellowstone National Park should go to Livingston, on 
the main line of the Northern Pacific, from which point a branch line runs up the 
picturesque Yellowstone to Gardiner. Over this line modern Pullman trains are run 
twice daily, making the trip to tlie park as easy and comfortable as a ride on a trans- 


I II i: T n i: \ s i n k s t a t k 


World Famous Hotel at Grand Canyon, Yellowstone National Park 

continental train. Representatives of tlie various companies holding camping, trans- 
portation and hotel concessions in the park may be met on the train and all arrange- 
ments made for necessary accommodations. The cost of the park trip is usually be- 
tween $35 and $60, depending upon the character of the accommodation desired. The 
season is from June 15 to September 15 each year. 

Glacier National Park is the newest of the great national playgrounds, Iiaving 
been created by act of congress in February, 1910, and yet so well and favorably known 
have its attractions become that between June 1 and October 15, 1914, 12,168 visitors 
registered at its two entrances, Belton and Glacier Park station. The park is located 
in northwestern Montana and comprises an area of 1,500 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by the Canadian border, on the south by the main line of the Great 
Northern railway, on the west by the north fork of the Flathead river and on the 
east by the Blackfeet Indian reservation. The main range of the Rocky Mountains 
extends from north to south throughout the center of the park, and within this 
region is found a variety of mountain scenery unsurpassed for beauty and grandeur 
on this continent, and said by those who have seen both countries to excell the famous 
Alps of Switzerland. Recently Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, wrote: 

"The United States contains Switzerland, the Riviera, the fiords of Norway and 
the Egyptian desert. This is a flamboyant way of saying a simple fact that there is 
nothing of natural gradeur or beauty which our people cross the water to enjoy, which 
has not its rival or superior within this country. And in addition our land is rich in 
canyons, forests and natural wonders, the like of which the Old World does not 

"To see the Yellowstone, with its golden canyon and its strange spouting geysers; 
the emerald lakes of Glacier, gathered in the laps of massive mountains of brilliant 
red; * =s * — ^q g^g these is to know 'Nature in her supremest moments.'" 

••• — ,._ 
• 110 

M O N T A X A - 1 » 1 (} 



Two Medicine Lake, Glacier National Park. 

Glacier National Park takes its name from the fact that within its borders are 
upwards of 60 living glaciers, of which the Blackfeet glacier, covering an area of 
almost five miles, is the largest. There are within the park more than 250 
mountain lakes, hunciieds of wild mountain streams and countless beautiful water 
falls. There are snow-covered mountain peaks ranging from 8,000 to 10,000 feet in 
height, a number of which have never been climbed by white men. This region of 
scenic beauty and scientific wonder is awaiting the tourist, the explorer, the fisher- 
man, the artist, the scientist and the mountain climber, and because of its variety of 
attractions and ease of access, it is destined to become one of the great playgrounds 
of the world. 

Already much progress has been made toward making it easy for the tourist to see 
Glacier-land. So rapidly has this been carried on, that it is now possible to pene- 
trate the very heart of the glacier region by automobile. Secretary of the Interior 
Lane having directed the building of an automobile road to Lake McDermott, where 
may be found all the comforts and conveniences of a modern city hotel, located in 
what was until recently one of the most remote and inaccessible recesses of the 

The Great Northern Railway, the officials of which were active in the movement 
\)T the setting aside of this great natural reserve, has taken a leading part in provid- 
ng accommodations for those who desire to view the park. At Glacier Park station, 
the eastern entrance to the park, a magnificient hotel, casting upwards of $200,000, 
and having accommodations for 300 guests, was opened to the public in the spring 
of 1913, but before the close of the year it was found that this was inadequate to 
meet the demand, and the construction of an annex, to double the hotel's capacity, 
was immediately commenced and rushed to completion. This hotel is unique among 
the inns of the world and deserves more than passing mention. It is constructed of 
huge logs, and its great lobby, with its campfire in the center, and around which hang 



— M W 

■m™™ ■■— ■■^^■■^— W^||M^^gi^^gM^^iM» 


• ••• 


111 : 

Many Glacier Hotel, Lake McD ermott, Glacier National Park. 

Iiundreds of bear skins and buffalo skulls and other early-day trophies, is one of the 
show places of the continent. In addition to this hotel and the one at Lake McDer- 
mott, the Great Northern has established comfortable and sanitary permanent camps 
at easy stages throughout the park. These are gradually being replaced by Swiss 
chalets, a magnificient example of which is located at Belton, the western entrance to 
the park. 

Many who make the trip through the interior of Glacier Park do so by walking, 
taking camping equipment with them on pack horses or securing accommodations at 
the permanent camps. Others go through on horseback, plenty of horses and guides 
being available during the season. The trip takes the visitor over the continental 
divide and over some of the largest glaciers and is very popular with those who desire 
to "rough it." For those who do not care for traveling as hard as this, however, 
easy and in fact luxurious trips can be made far into the interior of the park 
from either entrance. From Glacier park station, as stated above, the tourist may 
penertate the heart of the glacier region at McDermott lake, using automobiles and 
steam launches the entire way. From Belton, on the western side, there is an easy 
stage or auto ride to beautiful Lake McDonald, upon the shores of which are numerous 
permanent cottages and camps, as well as two modern hotels, both of which were 
greatly enlarged in 1914 to accommodate the rapidly increasing tourist travel. Long 
before Glacier National Park "was created by congress, Lake McDonald had more 
than a state-wide reputation as a summer attraction, and many prominent citizens have 
secured small land holdings on the shores of the lake and spend the entire summer 
amid these attractive surroundings. 

Glacier park is reached only by the main line of the Great Northern railway, 
being entered either from Glacier Park station, on the eastern border, or Belton, on 

M <) \ T A \ A - 1 » n> 


Steamer Passing Through the Narrows, Flathead Lake. 

tlie western. Trips through the park may be made at a cost of from |1 to $10 a clay, 
depending upon the character of the accommodations desired and the number of per- 
sons in the party making the trip. Good accommodations may be liad at the hotels 
and permanent camps at the uniform rate of .$3 per day, American plan. The Glacier 
park season is from June 1 to October 1.5. 

In addition to the two great national parks, there are many other places which 
invite one to while away vacation hours. Along the shores of Flathead lake, the 
largest fresh water lake in the country, numerous restful places are to be found. 
Flathead lake is easily reached from Kalispell, on the Great Northern, or from 
Ravalli, on the Northern Pacific. Swan lake, near by, is popular with summer 

The famous Kootenai country, stretching through Lincoln county in the north- 
western corner or the state, attracts many summer visitors, who find restful days 
in the shadow of the giant pines and along the banks of the wonderfully beautiful 
lakes and rivers. The Blackfoot valley, in northern Powell county, offers numerous 
attractions, and is especially popular with Helena and Great Falls people, while 
the lakes on the Missouri river near Helena, are being rapidly developed into summer 
resorts. At Helena, also, is the famous Broadwater natorium, the largest enclosed 
swimming pool in the world, which annually attracts visitors from all over the 

These are hut a few of the better known places, which appeal to those on vacation 
bent. There is scarcely a section of the western part of the state, however, in 
which mountain streams and mountain scenery, are not to be found, and those who 
want to get away from the beaten paths of summer tourist travel can easily do so 
by dropping back a few miles, where they can be immersed in solitude. 








Oh Dd 

■« c i- 
£ 3g 

C <D oi 



■a • y 

i C C 









fl 3 m 

X t. oj 













2:2.1 O 

o .... 
^U c c c c 
5 . o o o o 

O . ») 02 m M tc 

MJD^ U I- t^ U 

■r, D r- a> * <!' 1^ 
Q^ ^ »-i .^ rH "-I -^ 

H ••=• CQ ^ , ; =^ =^ 

. .s ^ 



m to 

S C C 

fflw << 
pqW u 

;3 fj 



4-> O) 

a> a c 4) 0) -a « 

o o 
o o 



O >-• <D 

n ^ ■— ' 

a o 

c^ ^H -M'O d ^ n^ 

0* -!-> ■"-I-' 

U rH 02 S CJ G C 

!-::: oj c !- c c 

^3CU Oj O <U (U 

2 3 1 aoao. 

■1) ojcg 0'2'2 


■ 01 >. 

a :e 

™ !-. i- 

ir a> 0) 


dj ci 


, 01 



t- 5 S "iJ d 






o o 

O C rH C C 

Z! <!' S '1' I' 

d -a Q 'O TT' 

CJ OJ n a> Q) 

o ft-5 ftp, 
S oj ?; 0) <D 



"a -a 



— c 

d'+j 0313 4) 

=:-^ S S <" 

d . 

t— I O z 

-u5 - 


'.S ^"^ 






<D <p 

d . 
rz!^ d) 


0) g 

C . 

o t- 

m 1) 

03 — 

n~ M m r" . -C 

??" i^ e 2 

-a o 
p - 


d • 

■a ; 


e ■ 1= 



r^ 05 '^ '^ '^ 

Qaoyd >,d 

>> >> £ d :S £ d £ d d d 
"« 3'o c 3^ 3'O'a'a 
d d ^ 'E '^ s^'u ■S'u'i^'t, 


iS m d 

>, d d S £ h 
•3 .„ .„ 'i <p +j 
m t-, uJZiZ d 

'73 -*-■ d -M 

f3 G to c r- " 

-5 d S 3^^ii d'-5 

2 3 .ii a I 0.32 



'd 5 


(D ■ 

o , 

o o 

d d -y d '-5 1; 

o o d a d d 

q-= o— o o 
aaG ftS S 

0) 0) ^ Oi CJ dJ 




GG*^ -ok"- -'C 


o'O'^tl'd-^ cS , n O) 5 

.■2^!«G3 35ii3g-2 

^ " OJ o 



. o 
G . 


. o 






.G n 




tfl+j • i-i 

to c 0) 
0) 5 'dJ 


G . 

'-' O 
.0 O 
o u 

^bi,. . . 

• t; p be o 


^ G 3 C 3 
^ d)Cu OJh, 

d gH_^ g^ 

.3i d) d d) d 
tH ft c ft c 
d) d) t- d> t- 
G-O 3-0 3 
^ G O C O 

G C 
G d 

3 c • c 

G d d 
Hi o C o C 

3m om o 

<j "O "O 

fc .0 .0 

to m 


!m >i>>d C 

j:3 d d'tUfT 

t; c '^ r * 

ti d.S d.S 

d o to o tc 
(-•3 to-« 01 

G ft o a o 

0> d) !^ d) I- 






• o>-^ ir; 

• c G ? 

,-w'd o 

, to G (- 
k d) bo 

' S-5 d) cj 



d) d) : 
be be . cm 

'O'O t- 

o o t. 01 

'"'gI^I y 
« o> J- .!- vg ^ 

to to to !« W to to 

^ ddddddd 


■ p G G ■ • 

: Hi 


,'d • 


-^WW«" ^ „„„„„„„_ ^U>j., ^^w._.„;.uw ,^^ 

d)d)d)a)dJdJa>— 'tfl 

r_, d; d) G C 
-• to G O-t^-" -1-' d-G 3 2 


?*> ^ p^ ?^ ?^ 

4-H-> +J -M -M 


c^ to to to to to 
CC o> 0) o> O) o> 

: 111 

>I O X T A X A - 1 9 1 (i 

• •• 

^0,^_|,l,_^m^^«g^^l,||.^— lIB^^IIIt^^Hlt^— IIM— ^IIH^^HH^^im^^BII— BB^^Pi^— ■■^^■■^^im^^llll^— Illl^^mi^^Ull^^lltl-^— Ull — IIM^^HH^^IIH^^U«^^»ll-^^0 






m o 
















O q: 

»— < *• 















4^ 3 

■? S u 

o tilling 



>■. >, 

d >5 rt 

b »■. s- 

3 0) P 

-y re rt 

CO u cj 


en a 

c^ 0) a* 


— 5" 

O ^ 
m (1) 

o big- 
m ^^ E 

o _P^ 

^< ^McH 


(U o 

• >.. >. >. >. >. >>, 

oi rt d d rf C? 

■? t^ t- t^ »3 M >^ 
™ - r. - t^ t. -; 

^4J-i-H-i P P J^ 

■n d d dJ=j::ti 

"■3 S "^ S '-t^ "^ 4-> 

d oi'O (1) d'O rt 

S-Q CQ !- C !- 

oW ojH o 0) o 

o ft - - 


2 ao 

r- O ^ 


C c c 

•> u u-^ -p. oi 
g oxu d „ a+j ._ 


4) 4) O 

> > > 

c c c 

<D (U aj ^ 

O Q) <D ^7^ H 















^ Vi/ U/ ,j 





: c 

. to 

C C 
o o 




d . 

m P rt 



d c p 

„ 01 
OJ . tl£ 

!- 03 c 
d£ a) 

3^ tt 

m m 

»; . 

'^S ■ 

c c p re r- - - 

B .M 3 dfc .h; 

L_: to . • CD • be 


. oC . . d£ o 

d d 

3'^'Cd'O'O p'c 

.S c.S.^.- c.ii ^ 
+-> (5j ■'-''■*-' -^^ d -^ "^ 


07; o o 07; o a; 
o-S o o cS o a 


2 -li "t- N 

Gd) <D 


. S'gd 

bj3-4-) d t- 

re S diS d c qjo; 


o o 


to to 

<P 0) . 

re dn:: 
o c . 


E P N 

W -^ 





~ -s c 

- ■= ^ 
o to w ■ 

to I- to 5 


. £ -t/ . . . 


. . to 


c u 

'f o 

o . 

1-5 H^ 


^ d 


P C '^■ 

c C 

p t- 

O <P 
to to 




P o 





to d d 



, w ^c to to 
>< ;- TO ^ ;- ^j 






22d°?2 anoaG^oooftOo 
££a£S£ ^^£^^D,££E^E£ 

pQpiOPQ £«0££«PPQ£PP 

^^ ^ p ^ 

^ ^ o '^ ^ '^ 
o 07^ 000 


C P 
Q) bl 

p ^ 


to to 

c c 

^ o- c c w 

"O d'O (D 0) p 



*j (T p.. 

4) 73 to 

0) <D 



t- fc-^ to-^ 

it^ d >j r^ .* 

<J3 Oi 
C C C <D <U 

o o o~ 

<o 01 

c c 

0) 4) 


d t^ 



e c r^ ddiSo^S.Ca; H 



a op 

I p 


p .Sis 

o . p-t: 

o c o 





d d 

^^ K I;; -^ 

^ O r- » 

<-j*j re•— 
d d o to 

t. U.x to 

O (D (D L4 


g ti) t, 

01 0-" c 


:•. d d .:::;« .x = .= ;s 1^ O) i a* o o a) o? t^ s^ClSS 

-c c 

V. P 

!>. = ii 

O o " d 


S-C P 
d^S p 


d, Qj a; 4) 


T. in m a. 

d ri dre 












[0 C C c 

s a d a 












Q ^ 





^ c — 

C 5 f^ r- 

- 0) C * 

O " r" 

: (p 

— -^ ^ c ^ 

TJTj o3 o Co 
C C t- • - ^ 

0^ O O o ^ 


rf 3 o 



< " 

^ Wo 

m — d O P 

• t^ -; c ofii 

■2 t« ° !- t? 
P-iffi O ^0) 

o ;::; -o "^ q 
'Sb-2 2'SaJ . 


r; <u o 




c^ 32 oi cd oi c^ 

. r- ;-?tn m to w 

>,i: cS t^ t. t^ tH 

^l^-O p 3 3 P 

Ht^Hh i^feHI^HE 

0) (-• <^ ^ 


.G o X 


— wt> 

- ^ k J* 

- o l> s- 
^ a; tlj o 

»1 u 

d, cii o o 
cS oj 

^ S " " 

OJ Co f- r-" 

P cti 






■ c 

o r; te c c ^ C 
d cj (-^ o vi'O 

O ^ (V O) ^. C Oj 

Sal ^dS a 

a; 0) o^ 0) 0^ i; a; z. 

"O 3 

3 f^ 

C C C ' 

oi a! oj'' 

3 r-" r- f 

3 C C , 

0) 0) 01 1 

N N N' 

O O O ' 


. s5 

~ c 



i: ^^ CD >.^'^ '^ m c >. 

Cfl . <V 


_ " g m 

<D<pr>x ^ ™ P c 

t. 3 m w<?. gU r: cj 


ce ct ■ jJ is 

-p 'P >, ^.-p >> >. >.^ >. >. >. 


c^i o3 

u o 

o o 

s ■ 

3 C ^ .^ .'-^ C 3 C .i; .i; .^ 
c5 Ci '^ +Ij +I> <!> <1> <1J *4Ij Zi +j 




O <!'+-' 


c^ 0) ^ 



<V di u 



<D ao) 



^^ p- O rr( <D 

o, ojdjH® o^5ir 

1- t_ I- ■*^ 3 .^ T"_ 1 



3 " 
O (U 



3 '^ 

O d) 

C 3 

O) OJ 
^ 'w 

3 3 

dj 0) 


g3aipgg<iJ4Ja>ggg ajcu 
- a)'5 5 OJ S'S'H'S «J "i* 5 '^'" 


u o 

o m 

•H ^ 





3 cS 




OJ o 3 

+J c<3 ti s^ssK*^ 

• O OJ 

cdd - 

■^ 3== ^'-i's &; ^ " "■' '^ 

Po <l^o tc.S,S £-r; ""5 

c« <u K p- fL, . (1) ^j: — 

J ^S^E«Pu 

t: 0) c^ s 



3 aj 


>, >. £ c« .J, -w -M +j +^ t; o3 cs 

I^.'^ P'C 3 3 3 3 3 S'O'd 

i;' 3 $ c «« 

*i cti--^ S-^-^- m>-.-t; 
©■2^-aoo7 bn.g I 

5 S'S'2 5£ "="■£ - 


K a; 

a; t- 

o o 

r- o 

•« O) 



,3 !-■ 
O 01 


3 3^ 
^ cSK 

0) 3 S 

Om > 

3^ m 
O'u 01 
r\U (_ 
a?0 b£ 

-a '-' o 


_ bx)CS c* 

p S 3 c 3 3 .;i 

Cti O 1) oi O o !„ 

*^ -e C: kH 1^ kT< r 



cp p 
3=3 2 





3 4^ 

1^ I^ - 


•d ?,^ 

rrj . 01 . 

CO J, 05 
w e !" S' 


c p c 2 p c c 

■■■'" ti oi,S oi 

2 3f^3 

o o i: o 

t« <P 


3 '5^ - 



i.r *-" '^^ 1-^"^.^^^*^ ^j-iL^" ^h33333--33 

'^'3.S'a''-fe "" ^ ooi(i;0)Ooa;ajaj 

^ '"Sor'Hoo'oIoo'oioJ'iJ" 


^CZ^^^Wkk ^ 

J "^ - ►-^ 
f 3 53 o 

P<c5 k: 



••• — 

: n( 






ss "^ 

© l^ 



tlH £ 

O £ 


Oh .ii 

l-H *■ 

Q ^ 












3 . 
^2 • 

as S 



m P 


c ^ c 
a f- c 

O O (H 

2<2 ft 

OJ g <D 



r-l O O 

-3 F^ C "K 






OJ (1) 



d »i o g 

« M o k 



r-: " o i- 
=; 1) ij o 

&t3 ri 

SiSSS «sa^- 












d d 


d cj £ cc 


Ts-a 3-^3 

3 3 

d d 


0) 3 


d d 

^, a 



fe <" r- 

2 >.£,-;; ^ 

Cj OJ -- I— '- 

> o 
• > 

» C 



o • a> 
CO 3 

Eu d 


K 3 


S . " 

'^ d S ° 


2 o 

2 bJJog'sP^'S^ 

So .S3 . ® 

3 . ® •!> 



>»>jd;^ — -Uijdd 
dd'S 3S25T1"C 

• <ua>r;~Cd<D<u 
a^^o H H o o,'5'5 

d rt-j 

a; c c 
" o a> 

cjr- aa 

^ ^ (H o 

-> *-■ ^ W •" j_l 


3 s^ 5-^5;-^ 

d 1^ 

55 (1) 


W O ^ 

ai <l3 w O ^ 



3 E <^ 

3 C 
O O),^ 



> <^ 
- . to 

3'^dS' w« ^ u - — - 

O .> ^£ -S -to .0^ .fj 


^ <D • . 33: 

0.2 St«!- 

d d 

M ^ X? 5? ^ "2 

i^ TO Cu ro ra t- 

^'d'O'O'C 3 

O r; C 3 C C 

■^ I- (P a> <D o 
d o'0'CO''3 
'« — c c C 3 3 
O o O Qj O) <1> 

o-i aaaa 
f3 jr 0) oj <p 01 


3 'd OJ 3 TO -t-> 
3 Sh Q,OJ O ^ 

^ O Q? ?;; 9 2 
.-2 o ^ w > a 

0)^ OJ-i^ q; 

II o 

O) OJ ^ 

aa M 

3 3 i-i 

MM ,S 

d d d d d d d 


m to tc 

to t/J 7i 

3 3 3 
m to to 
t/i »j m 




e to <u 

S ?k d 

_2 3 <D 


S 3 
i-JU d 

>-.d I 
:3'C ■ 

^afcfefah pfeh 

2 3 c 

1} rt 

3 Bs 

<v 0)3 

01 g^ 

S d 

3 a^ 




^ .■ 



d ^ d d 
re 3'a2 


i d o 

d j; 

2 32 3 

3 a3 a 

$ 0) 0- 0) 





a;«5rf rt«««a; 

CO irf M 

S 3 ^ C o o d £ -; >-. 


o d 

M — 
c iJ d 


^< _■ 




J3 biO 


S a 



: > 





t, d 

o o 
o o 

0) O) 




O ^_) 
> CO 

a O 


:iai-:§<Di a --j 

a c 

add.,, ^ 
a d d o M o 

a g§p| a 

3'-5 — 





P !- 

o -; '^ 
. >. . 


d d 

: 0)^ 

/c d 

3 u 

0/ o 

o ; 



3 OJ 3 

S CO 3 

— to r. 

'S I' o 




O O M 

a^; ci 

'- '~ < 

0) o /; 

<u o) a 

PP - 

>. o 

■3 3 

. d . 



• CO 



-a c 

3 £ 

. « 

H o 

3 o; 

3 3 
O 0/ 




— ■ t- 

3: o 



-3 a 

^^^ a 

C 3 
O C 

d d 

T H 1 : T II E A S U li E STATE 









r ^ 

O r 






On » 

Q ^ 

W (IS 





Di2 to 


'O'd ; 


O (U (-. 

u c o 

S 1- 

CS O (D 










I— ( 





y -i! 03 r 01 



s c 

d to 

^ c^ c^ c^ rt 
X? si w w w to 

c C c " c c 
a ft 3 o a-^ 


to O ^ 
1 1) g o 

<D.H 0.5 i.^ 

5_5 Q 

c> > 

O (0 to 

£ > > 

3 £ d 




^ ■ 

C o- 
' ft 


c c 
oi o 


•^ Li ' Cu 



• P^Kf^c 





C c 

C M c 
0.2 o 

J3 — ■" 

2. .3 



■ Qj 

o !- 



.S <D 01 

g . • be . 
^oj^o) r .cto^i-Sg.S^- 
0101 .0) .D .i-Jk, . -o .0 • • 


m . 

tfi o 0) 


01 ii 





p§ . 


>. >i >■. ^. 

to to to to i?!' 

!-, t< In i^ o e 

3 3 P 3'^ — 

CO o 
C ft 




o ' 'CO 

(D ai_ 

5 S'5a 

O) OJ 01 

r^ be 

C £ d 
d d cS 

CJ to 

■ c 

■ o 

o ^- ^- 

, 0) 0) 

r"S O^ 

0) a) 0) ., 

I -J i^ zr — t- — 

c c 

o c c 




^ s- O 
. 01 c 

3 o^ 

o lA "■ 


^^r^E^^ .gfi 

^ 1^ .^ r^ 

"t: o 

>>g gs; c 

0) 01 .0) . d 



^^ o ^ 



d d in a 

^ T3'0'0 




d cij 
^' ^' to to ^' K^ f^ ►-"■ 
'C'C 3 ^ — fr^T-T-' 

o'3 3„ 

^'fflffi S E H 

. . . O ca ;!• 
1-3 1-5 H, pa er- 


d csi eS dcS d !- ™^ h i- "^ d i: cd >.^>,t:J:^-T 
— '3'c'C'a'C33yr;33y'or;'c ~Ji---;r;S~ 

'^ W (.U I.U W I.U 

^ ■ c 

fn • 0) 

H >■, i: •- 1= - 






c c c 

0) 01 0) 


c c c 

01 0) o 

01 01 a; 

c c c 

.2 '^ C.« C.i;' c.Si.H.- '- C- C.H C '^ '^ C ^ "^ " " ; c - E 

■5 +^ rt '♦i d -^i cs "-i^ '-i^ '-2 OJ ijj +j qj in d T! '42 ni o *^ *■!-' "-i^ '■*-' r! d ^ =^ 
ddodododdd'Oodododdoirdd ddi^r-uu'' 



o o 




0) ft— 

be!-; d 

to c to p 


-a g"a d c 

S "O 5 m d 
™ d " k-4tr^ 







d CD 13 

•^iS o) 


0) — 

5 d 

^ ^^5^ to— P — 

o "rt-^ ft- 


01 oj " o 01 ;: i 

— t^ .^ C £ 

a, p .SO 3., 

01 o t,_ 


^t, +jCos-';:<>;;'^i;CcTt-i;d 

:3 S 3 5 OJ i:.c^>2M ® °i5ii5 o^ 

.« 0) c 

o > = 
C-^Vt^-r, ft 

cPh c 5^ = — 

S 01- PX! = ft 

.5 -a do-n c c 




OoO>>™03 -,^„,^„. -^. .„_^„„_ 





o « 
73 ft! 


„ - o 

o-c o 

o '^*^ 


OJ .„ 

C t^d 
is to-w+j 

O 0^^^ 


= •^33; 

01 4) 4) '^ '^' 

+^ -^ +j !iinr 


: 118 
••• — ■— 

M O X T A \ A - 1 9 1 (i 











X 8 

3 I 











c WW-; 

oj w T i" "^ 

% 'I' ^~ 

o £ d g w 

<B w oi; 
■^ * c - • 

- - s a • 

:i cjs:.- 
fi tn <i> ■v~ 

5 5^ .2 J r-. 


.K:-'j:,fc'- h 

"■z: 5 S 5 

rf O 0) -o ' 

o]3 "^ ^ 

c; ^ — - 



< <« 

. C 0/ 



■- nS 


M = -t: i 'i r 


c c r: -— > 
M o O X ::i " 

X 5 


c^ . c -- 

ri _• .M »^ O -; Of. . • 

*-< O ^ .X n JO O K 4) 

r * ^ ^ HT" '' " '*' ^ r" *7^ ' 

J o , 
^ si'. 

^ a; 
,-• cso o-r 

5 C d >■ 


0/ a, 
c c 
o o 

^ ^.n ^' -^ -^ • *■■ O t- O 


^ ^ y. m K j; 5 
■- - - O,- C- 



; oj 

OS. a; ;: 

0) i;:^ 

. ^ ■ 

• • • W "^ Cft 

CS oj 

^- '^ K iJ ^ •: b b'E 'H 2 b 

"'"■"" ■", ff' '^ — 'E 'C 'H " 'ih t- !- ^ — ^ S T 

H^F^^H^feiS'-fc fciMMr-S 

r"x S c S j^ 0/ '2 - ' 

■;2■^J - - 1^ 
ri d o ^-C 

5 o-£-£ c. 

V ~ z: V ^ c :^ s '^ '-^ '^ 
'■Zj a "^ -i^ 3i '*^ •♦^ d '-w Tj +j 

c- o ao c - 

O O Cj 

o c o 


O -^ fw a ;* 

■- w ^ C * 

^ • 3 

il u '^ 0^ a; = X o 

= d = 
u o rf o 

ao' -■ 

^ 3 

O c 

>. 5 5 c5 M § ; 

d c 5 c -w t; .: 

- >. o o S :: 

o - ? 

:"£ ^ e 

r. — JL 

Id -J 


^ a; i. ^ ft d I 


!^ w 


M 4/ 




S ft 

O d 


d » 

d ci p p 


. °-t: w^ 0) J be 
. 1^,5^ c wj: ^ c 

. .. . --. _ ,-i w d 

»■ ,1. *t^ -,• rl- _^ ►^ /-s ^-N ^ 

3 3 
d d 

, 6 i- 

6 ^' ^' 

r s C O W 

"-' o O c 
.5 -jy C 5 O; I 

-;: .^'-^ Em .£ 

+J -t-J r- d ■*;? 

N NO) aj: 

«*t^ !* -^ o ""^ 




>,;.,->■. r: ^ d '" 
t; -~'3 li'O'C 
Zj Z^ «* ■« OJ.X OJ 

o o c o c c c 

dcio d'O'C'C 

b u-~ u 3 C 3 

u o '1 o 1 :, :, 

o o - o ft ft ft 

P P ft 3 - - - 

<D i; 


d — 

fc£ i P c _ •.- 
P a-t;'-::: 4 d- 

p a; o 1^ C- c 





w w wTT ' 

p p p 


h: .i: .p .t: ce 

•- [v; = = = P P 

P 3 

• •• 



119 : 
— •" — ••• 

Progress of Montana Agriculture 

(All figures from the year books of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 


Year Acres 

1900 ..: 72,555 

1901 88,807 

1902 - 90,583 

1903 98,735 

1904 108,608 

1905 119,469 

1906 137,389 

1907 - ..- 139,000 

1908 - -.. 153,000 

1909 350,000 

1910 480,000 

1911 429,000 

1912 - 803,000 

1913 870,000 

1914 910,000 

1915 1,275,000 


per Acre 




1,929 963 

$ 1,177,277 



































19 346,000 



20 673,000 









Year Acres 

1900 4,781 


1902 - 11,521 

1903 12,904 

1904 - 13,162 

1905 - 13,668 

1906 14,099 

1907 18,000 

1908 -- 20,000 

1909 25,000 

1910 25,000 

1911 27,000 

1912 37,000 

1913 - 36,000 

1914 37,000 

1915 39,000 

Bu. per 

• Acre 





$ 339,547 











1 642,560 




























3,315 000 








1902 12 

1903 -- 12 

1904 9 

1905 16 

1906 24 

1907 34 

1908 - 9 

1909 10 

1910 ..- 60 

1911 425 

1912 460 

1913 400 

1914 320 

1915 180 

■s Bu. 

per Acre 






$ 268 
















135 874 
































4,140 000 











M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 C 


Progress of Montana Agriculture — Continued 

(All figures from the year books of the U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 























4 000 

: 4,000 




1912 24,000 

1913 - - 28,000 

1914 50 000 

1915 70.000 

Bu. per Acre 



















i 14,172 


















Acres Bu. per Acre 

1900 65 865 

1901 147,365 

1902 159,154 

1903 162,337 

1904 167,207 

1905 :..... 178,911 

1906 196 802 

1907 240,000 

1908 254 000 

1909 300.'000 

1910 350,000 

1911 425,000 

1912 :... 476,000 

1913 500,000 

1914 530 000 

1915 600,000 






































;res Bu. 

per Acre 

















































2 720,000 


$ 96,773 
















• •• — 

• •• 

II i: r H i: \ s i r k s t a t k 




Milk Cows 

Year No. of Head Value 

1902 52,380 $2,101,486 

1903 ..: 53,951 1953,026 

1904 55,030 1,809,455 

1905 61,634 2,098,638 

1906 •- 65,948 2 308,180 

1907 - -' 69,000 2,484,000 

1908 75,000 3,300,000 

1909 80,000 3,720,000 

1910 ..- 77,527 3,407,090 

1911 85,000 4,122,000 

1912 91,000 4,495,000 

1913 ; 95,000 5,795,000 

1914 ..: - 104,000 7,332,000 

1915 114,000 8,550,000 

1916 129,000 9,998,000 


No. of Head 

1,048 559 
















18 134,570 


The following table shows the number of head of Montana beef cattle shipped to 

markets out of the state in each of the years noted: 

Year No. of Head 

1885 -- 70,089 

1886 119,620 

1887 82,134 

1888 167,602 

1889 123,880 

1890 174,035 

1891 250,000 

1892 203,000 

1893 279,158 

1894 302,655 

1895 . 206,460 

1896 254,864 

1897 252,162 

1898 232,225 

1899 203,499 


















No. of Head 


















No. of Sheep 

Year Shearing 


1900 3,717,160 

1901 : , 4,526,517 

1902 5,081,000 

1903 5,100,000 

1904 5,576,000 

1905 5,200,000 

1906 4,940,000 

1907 4,600,000 

1908 4,600 000 

1909 5,000,000 

1910 4,800,000 

1911 4,650,000 

1912 4,300,000 

1913 4,200,000 

1914 3,869,000 

1915 ... 3,725.000 






Washed and 


of Fleece 

Per Cent 




26,020, 1?,0 




















37 700,000 





































11 165,490 





9#«^^H«^^lll^i^aH— •— HH^— ■HH^^NH — l)H*^lll 

im^— II W MU m tin— 

- ■ H«— - n H^— ■ H n -i 

M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 G 

^00^^IIK^^«i^^mi^— HH^— MH^^IIM — im^^llH^^IIN—ii^MII^^MI^^If^^Mi^^liMi ■ I 

'■■■II I HM- I- MH m— 


Number of Head 
Year On Farm and Range Value 

1902 246,570 $ 7,251,264 

1903 244,104 8,988,890 

1904 236,781 9,084,698 

1905 239,149 10,352,765 

1906 ..: 291,970 18,379,534 

1907 292,000 21,316,000 

1908 304,000 19,760,000 

1909 ■ 319,000 25 520,000 

1910 315,956 27,115,764 

1911 344,000 29,928,000 

1912 347,000 30,189,000 

1913 354,000 32,922,000 

1914 - 372,000 37,944,000 

1915 - 391,000 33,626,000 

1916 430,000 36,980,000 


Number of Head 
Year On Farm and Range Value 

1902 3,424 $131,784 

1903 3,390 161.552 

1904 :.-. 3,424 195,754 

1905 3,561 237,526 

1906 3,917 314,939 

1907 - 4,000 328,000 

1908 - 5,000 415,000 

1909 : 5,000 510,000 

1910 4 174 445,278 

1911 4,000 428,000 

1912 4,000 364.000 

1913 4,000 436,000 

1914 4,000 424,000 

1915 4,000 392,000 

1916 - 4,000 392,000 












1911 124,000 

1912 143,000 

1913 153,000 

1914 184,000 

1915 :. 276,000 

1916 298,000 

Number of Head 
On Farms 









I 560.916 









1 290,000 







r II i: T K i<: a s u r e s t a t i 

Montana's Contribution to World's Mineral Wealth 

Mining was Montana's first industry and the taking of precious and semi-precious 
metals from the bowels of the earth is even yet in its infancy. In 1915 the mineral 
production of the state reached a new high water mark when the total value of the 
gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc taken from Montana mines reached the stupendous 
sum of $87,000,000. That this record will be greatly exceeded in 1916 is apparent and 
it is conservatively estimated that this year's mineral output will be in excess of 

The following table shows the mineral production of Montana by years: 


























to 1881. 

2,170 000 
. 5,978.536 

1905 4,889,234 




11,000 000 




































56,105 288 






8,459 860 
53,656 249 

$334,259,870 $491,393,627 $929,704,782 $17,138,558 $32,311,241 $1,804,585,246 

The following shows the number of tons of coal produced in Montana by years: 

Years (Tons) 

1901 - 1,442,569 

1902 1,502,115 

1903 1,514,538 

1904 i 471,504 

1905 1,743,771 

1906 1,502,200 

1907 2,030,564 

1908 ■ 1,978,347 

1909 2,541,679 

1910 2,970,246 

1911 2,913,406 

1912 3,143,799 

1913 3,365.712 

1914 2,938,671 

1915 2,789,755 

••• — .. — .. — .. — ., — .. — „ — .. — . — .. — „ — .. — ,. — „ — „ — ., — „ — ..^.. — „ — .. — «, — ., — „, — „ — „ — .. — „ .,« 

: 1 1' 1 M O X T A N A - 1 9 1 6 • 

• • 

Montana's Most Prosperous Year 

On September 1, every indication was tliat 1916 woul be Montana's most pros- 
perous year. The bureau of crop estimates of the United States Department of 
Agriculture reported that crop conditions were excellent and that the growing acreage, 
with the exception of one grain, was larger than ever before. With prospective high 
prices for farm products there was every indication that Montana farmers were to 
have the best year in their history. 

The same degree of optimism pervaded the mining industry. The European war 
had the effect of establishing exceptionally high prices for copper and zinc and the 
mines of the state have for months been increasing their production. 

The indications were, on the date mentioned, that during 1916 the farms, ranges 
and mines of Montana would send to the markets of the world products valued in 
excess of $255,000,000, an average production of more than $300 in new wealth for 
every man, woman and child in the State. 

The following table compiled from the latest available information, indicates 
the value of the various products of Montana which will go to market in 1916: 


Wheat $36,000,000 

Oats 12,000,000 

Flax 3,000,000 

Barley 2,000,000 

Corn 2,000,000 

Rye 150,000 

Hay 17,000,000 

Potatoes 4,100,000 

Sugar Beets 1,500,000 

Apples 700,000 

Other Fruits 300,000 

Vegetables 1,250,000 

Total Agricultural $82,000,000 


Beef Cattle $16,000,000 

Wool :.. 8,000,000 

Swine 3,000,000 

Horses 2.000,000 

Total Livestock $29,000,000 


Gold $ 5,000,000 

Silver 12,500,000 

Copper 97,000,000 

Lead 1,000,000 

Zinc 26,000,000 

Coal : ; 5,000,000 

Total Mineral $146,500,000 

Grand Total $257,500,000 



T II 1 : T K i: A S U K K S T A T I : 



Counties of Montana 


('ounty Sq. 


Beaverhead 5,632 

Big Horn 5,111 

Blaine 4,219 

Broadwater 1,248 

Carbon 2,108 

Cascade 3,411 

Chouteau - 4,594 

Custer - 7,111 

Dawson 9,280 

Deer Lodge 746 

Fallon -- -- 5,003 

Flathead 6,380 

Fergus 7,178 

Gallatin 2,529 

Granite 1,728 

Hill 4,180 

Jefferson 1,642 

Lewis and Clark 3,476 

Lincoln . 3,660 

Madison - 3,588 

Meagher 3,553 

Mineral 1,224 

Missoula - - 3.022 

Musselshell — - 2,944 

Park 2,679 

Phillips - 5,266 

Powell - 2,549 

Prairie 1,685 

Ravalli 2,391 

Richland 2,703 

Rosebud -- 6,067 

Sanders 2,837 

Sheridan 5,103 

Silver Bow 698 

Stillwater - 1,684 

Sweet Grass 2,310 

Teton - 6,546 

Toole - 1,949 

Vallev - 5,496 

Wibaux - - 944 

Vellowstone -- 2,708 





Population Countv Seat 



1 9,921,164 














Red Lodge 



Great Falls 



Fort Benton 



Miles City 




































Virginia City 



White Sul. Spgs. 


















Deer Lodge 



























Big Timber 


















M < ) X T A N A - 1 9 1 (! 

• •• 


• T II i: T It E A S U R E STAT E 127 • 

• • 

00^_HH HH— — IIM-— im BB-^iiB— im—— m^^Hll^^Mil^— im^— HI—— Bi^— nn^^Bl^^nB^^BB^^m-^ni^— nn-— nn^— un— lilt— nil— flM^^Bl^^Bl^— ii»-#00 


Beaverhead county, located in the southwestern corner of the state, contains 
the source of the Missouri river and is well watered. The principal rivers 
are the Beaverhead and the Big Hole and each has many tributaries. Along the 
streams are valleys of varying sizes, from which rise bench lands and rolling hills 
that extend to high mountains. 

The discovery of gold at Bannack in 1862 caused a stampede into what is now 
Montana; other rich placer deposits were soon found; the territory of Montana was 
created and Bannack made the capitol. Beaverhead county was created by act of 
the first territorial legislature, approved February 2, 1865. Many of the most 
interesting events in the early history of Montana occurred in this county. 

Beaverhead county embraces much picturesque scenery, is noted for the excel- 
lence of the fishing and hunting, and several hot springs, and many residents 
of the cities of Butte and Anaconda enjoy outings there in the summer. 

The industries are stock-growing, farming and mining. Large quantities of 
gold, silver and lead have been mined, and many undeveloped mines and mining 
districts offer attractive opportunities for the investment of capital. Near Melrose 
large deposits of high grade phosphate rock have been discovered on public land and 
many thousand acres have been withdrawn from the operation of the laws relating 
to the acquisition of mining claims. 

Farming lands are irrigated and non-irrigated. The chief farming district 
embraces land in the Beaverhead valley and the smaller connecting valleys of Black- 
tail, Rattlesnake and Grasshopper creeks. Oats and hay are the principal crops. 
Oats yield from 60 to 100 bushels per acre and are of a very high grade. Farming 
without irrigation on bench lands is being rapidly developed. Good crops of wheat, 
barley, flax, potatoes and other products have proved the adaptability of large 
areas on bench lands for successful farming without irrigation. Thousands of 
acres are planted to alfalfa and timothy and the native grasses yield good crops 
of excellent hay. 

The leading industry is stock growing, which includes the raising of sheep, 
cattle and horses. The numerous flocks of sheep flourish on the nutritious native 
grasses and produce great quantities of wool. Large sums are annually realized from 
the sale of horses. The cattle industry has two phases; one is the raising of cattle 
bred in the county and the other is the fattening of beef steers bought outside the 
county, and sometimes outside the state, and brought into Beaverhead county to be 
fattened for the market. Annually more than 20,000 steers are fed in the winter 
in the Big Hole Basin. 

Markets for all products are close at hand. Butte gets much of its farm pro- 
ducts from this county. Transportation is provided by the Oregon Short Line 
railroad which crosses the county from north to south. The Pittsburg and Gilmore 
railroad, a subsidiary of the Northern Pacific, has been built from Armstead west 
into Idaho and is expected to be part of a new transcontinental line. 

Dillon, the county seat, is a delightful place of residence and is the principal 
business point in the county. It had a population of 1,835 in 1910, and it is esti- 
mated that this has increased to about 2,500. In the city are two banks with 
deposits of more than $2,700,000, and a good hotel, two wholesale and twelve 
retail stores, a fine public library and public schools noted for their excellence. 
Two weekly newspapers are published. Dillon has electric lights, water works and 
sewers. There is a good opening here for a flour mill and a cheese factory. 

The Montana State Normal College, a branch of the University of Montana, 
and a well equipped institution for the training of men and women to become 

•128 M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 « * 

• • 

• •• " «..^««— «•— il« » im im nil im na nn na nu ■■ >■ 1|> mi iin nil nn n« »• nil iiu n« n. ni..«0 

teachers in the public schools, is located at Dillon. The college possesses a well 
merited reputation for the success it has achieved, many of the most efficient 
teachers in the public schools of Montana being graduates of the Normal. 

Other towns include Lima, an important shipping point in the southern part of 
the county, and Wisdom, an inland town, in the heart of the famous Big Hole 

The population of Beaverhead county in 1910 was 6,446; the present estimate 
is a population of 10,970. The assessed valuation is |9, 921, 164. 

LAND AREA — Beaverhead county, which is in the Helena land district, embraces 
an area of 5,632 square miles, including 409,302 acres of unreserved and unap- 
propriated public land available for entry under the homestead law; 163,414 acres 
of state land, and 1,401,618 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 538,604 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 375,000 bushels; oats, 1,100,000 bushels; barley, 20,000 bushels; 
potatoes, 250,000 bushels; hay, 185,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 13,078 head; 
milch cows, 1,551 head; other cattle. 64,136 head; sheep, 157,744 head; swine, 
1,318 head. 

The Beaverhead commercial club recently issued a map showing the exact loca- 
tion of vacant public land in the county. For a copy of this map or for other 
information regarding opportunities in this county write W. T. George, president 
Beaverhead commercial club, Dillon, Montana. 


Big Horn county, one of the youngest counties in Montana, was created 
January 6, 1913, under the provisions of the act providing for the creation of new 
counties, as the result of an election held by the qualified voters residing in the 
territory embraced within its boundaries. 

The principal geographical feature of the new county is the Big Horn river 
from which it is named. The Little Big Horn river also traverses the county and 
its source is followed by the Burlington railroad. On this stream is the Custer 
Battlefield National Cemetery, in which have been built monuments to the soldiers 
who fell in the disastrous battle of the Little Big Horn, commonly known as 
"Custers Massacre". Big Horn county includes nearly all of the Crow Indian 
reservation and a part of the Northern Cheyenne Indian reservation. 

The development of the county as a farming region dates from the opening to 
settlement in 1906 of a part of the Crow Indian reservation, and it is expected that 
further cessions of Indian lands on the reservation will be made before many years, 
as the amount of land included within the reservation is much in excess of the 
needs of the Indians. In addition to opportunities to obtain ceded lands, Indian 
owners under certain conditions may lease their tracts, and from time to time sales 
are made of lands that belonged to Indians who have died. 

The industries are stock raising and farming; but there are many other sources 
of wealth in an undeveloped state. Coal has been found in numerous places, and 
ranchers near Hardin get their supplies from convenient coal banks. Much is 
expected from oil and gas development now in progress in this county. The Big Horn 
river is a rapid stream having many falls and is capable of furnishing hydro- 
electric power in large quantities, one proposed project alone providing for the de- 
velopment of 210,000 h. p. 

m0 g, „„ im_ nil un rin iiB- - mi nn tin nr i"i "" "" "" ..w-^— «tn^— h— .^w— ^hm^— mt^.^««— — tm-^— nn^— rm.^— »■. ■■■. «.. ,..m^^ 

* TIU: TliKAStRE S T A T K 129 • 

J„ „„ ... .... 1... iiH >.n .... .... ..» .... .... ...1 .... m on mi .... .... ..n .... .... .... ...i m .... .... ni. ..«.•« 

The elevation of the Big Horn valley is about 2,900 feet and the climate is excel- 
lent. The growing season is long and the soil fertile. All the grains, grasses and 
vegetables that grow anywhere in the state make excellent yields. Common yields are, 
oats 50 to 100 bushels; wheat, 30 to 65 bushels; alfalfa, 5 to 7 tons; 60 bushels of 
corn to the acre have been raised, 600 bushels of potatoes, and sugar beets of excel- 
lent quality. The beet crop is a cash crop and the grower nets from $40 to $60 
per acre. Parts of the county seem to possess advantages for the growing of apples 
on a commercial scale similar to those enjoyed by the Clark's Pork and Yellowstone 
valleys where the industry is well established and very profitable. 

The chief agricultural development is in the Big Horn valley. Hardin is the 
center of 100,000 acres of irrigated land in the Big Horn and Little Big Horn 
valleys. The Big Horn valley extends north 35 miles to the Yellowstone valley and 
south 50 miles to the canyon of the river. West of Hardin is a high table land of 
150,000 acres which it is proposed to irrigate. 

In the northern part of the county and in other parts are large areas of land 
heretofore chiefly used as grazing lands that are suitable for dry farming, and 
this industry is being rapidly developed. 

The only railroad is the Burlington, which runs along the banks of the Little 
Big Horn river from a point near the Wyoming line to Hardin, where it turns to the 
northwest and after a few miles enters the Yellowstone valley which it follows to 
its terminus at Billings. From Billings, trains on the Burlington line continue to 
the Pacific coast on the tracks of the Northern Pacific or of the Great Northern 
either by way of Butte or Helena and Missoula, or by way of Great Falls and Shelby. 

Hardin, the county seat, is the most important town, having a population of 
about 1,500. It is situated sixty miles east of Billings on the west bank of the Big 
Horn river near where the Little Big Horn joins the larger stream. Hardin has made 
a remarkable progress in the few years since it has been in existence. It has many 
substantial business houses and residences, some built of brick made close to the 
town. It possesses a water system, a telephone system extending down the valley, 
has grain elevators, banks, a newspaper, churches, schools, and hopes for the estab- 
lishment of a beet sugar factory. There are also openings for a creamery and canning 
factory. The trading point for an extensive, rich and rapidly developing region, 
Hardin is a busy and substantial town which is growing steadily in population, 
wealth and in the amount of business transacted. 

Big Horn county has a population estimated at 3,670, and property of an assessed 
valuation of $5,494,909. 

LAND AREA— Big Horn county, which is in the Billings land district, embraces 
an area of 5,111 square miles, including 375,000 acres of unreserved and unap- 
propriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, and 42,538 acres 
of state land. Of the total area of the county, 247,192 acres are privately owned. 
The remainder of the county is included in Indian reservations. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 250,000 bushels; flax, 5,000 bushels; barley, 151,000 bushels: corn, 35,000 
bushels; oats, 375,000 bushels; potatoes, 160,000 bushels; hay, 45,000 tons; sugar 
beets, 10,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 5,910 head; 
milch cows, 703 head; other cattle, 47,976 head; sheep, 55,558 head; swine, 2,106 

For further information regarding Big Horn county, address A. L. Mitchell, 
secretary Hardin commercial club. 

•130 MONTANA-1916 ; 

• • 

••• — "« — ■>« — " — "■ — ■" — "" — " — " — »' — »" — II" — »" — «" — «• — •» — " — " — " — " — ■" — " — ■■ — «■ — >• — «■ — " — ■« — "'••• 


Blaine county is another of the newer counties of Montana, having been created 
along with Hill county, by a vote of the people, in February, 1912, out of territory 
embraced in Chouteau county. 

Milk river crosses the county near the center from west to east. North from 
the river to the Canadian line extends a region of rolling hills, intersected by 
numerous streams and coulees, land that is still used chiefly for grazing purposes 
but which contains much good farming land. South of the river the country rises 
to the Bear Paw mountains in the western, and the Little Rocky mountains in the 
eastern part. Flowing north from these elevations are many creeks that empty 
into Milk River. The southern slope of these hills drains into the Missouri River. 

T'.e irrigated lands in the Milk river valley are among the most productive 
in the United States. Various small streams supply water for irrigating limited 
are.'s. Farming without irrigation is successfully conducted on the bench lands; many 
thousands of acres have recently been put into cultivation; and on extensive areas 
of unoccupied public land many thousand settlers may find homes. 

The development of the agricultural resources of the Milk river valley has been 
hindered by the delay in completing the Milk river reclamation project; but diffi- 
culties having been overcome, there is the prospect that this great enterprise 
will henceforth be carried on with commendable energy. Upon the completion of this 
project it is expected that, as in the case of the Huntley project in Yellowstone 
county, sugar beets will prove to be a most profitable crop and that a sufficient 
acreage will be planted to cause the erection of a beet sugar factory at some con- 
venient place. 

Blaine county has considerable mineral wealth. At Chinook are developed coal 
mines and at many other places are coal banks that supply local demands. 

Chinook, the county seat, had a population in 1910 of 780, which has since in- 
creased to 1,800. It is a rich and busy little city and is one of the most attrac- 
tive places of residence in the state. It is surrounded by a rich farming country, 
has a coal mine at its door, modern water works, business houses whose trade 
extends over a large territory, banks, newspapers, good hotels, a creamery, elevators, 
many churches and good schools. Chinook offers an opening for a flax fibre mill, 
a flour mill and a beet sugar factory. 

Many thousand of fertile acres are tributary to Dodson, whose business will 
be multiplied when the Milk river project is completed and the irrigated lands 
settled upon. Harlem is an enterprising and growing town which owns its water 
system and has all the conveniences of a modern city. Harlem has large business 
houses, attractive residences, a newspaper, and is the shipping point for an extensive 

Blaine county is in the Havre land district. The Fort Belknap Indian reserva- 
tion is almost wholly within this county but there is no prospect that it will soon 
be opened to settlement. 

The assessed valuation of the county is $5,587,686, and the population is estimated 
at 10,830. 

LAND AREA — Blaine county embraces an area of 4,219 square miles, including 
676,930 acres of unreserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under 
the homestead law, and 16.5,479 acres of state land. Of the total area of the county, 
378,525 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 350,000 bushels; oats, 560,000 bushels; barley, 25,000 bushels; corn, 
15,000 bushels; flax, 10,000 bushels; potatoes, 70,000 bushels; hay, 45,000 tons. 





In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 9,949 head; 
milch cows, 1,826 head; other cattle, 18,438 head; sheep, 43,317 head; swine, 1,397 

For further information regarding Blaine county, write the Commercial Club, 
Chinook, Montana. 


Broadwater county lying north of Gallatin, south of Lewis and Clark, west 
of Jefferson and east of Meagher counties, embraces the upper Missouri river 
valley and is within close shipping distance of the cities of Butte and Helena. It 
was created from parts of Meagher and Jefferson counties by act of February 
g, 1897. 

The Big Belt range forms the eastern, and lower mountains the western boun- 
dary. In both ranges rise streams that flow into the Missouri river. The principal 
agricultural districts are in the Missouri river valley and in the valley of Crow 

The industries are farming, stock raising and mining. The mineral area is 
extensive and rich and the placer and quartz mines have yielded great sums. The 
principal mines are at Radersburg and Winston, from which places many tons of ore 
are annually shipped to smelters. 

The range sheep industry has been the source of many fortunes for men who 
owned from 2,000 to 20,000 sheep. Mountains or foothills still afford good range for 
many horses, cattle and sheep. Much attention has been paid to the breeding of 
high grade stock, and the claim is made that Broadwater county has the best horses 
in Montana. 

Fine herds of beef and dairy cattle are numerous. In 1904 fifty farmers and 
business men organized and started the Townsend creamery, which is the pride of 
the county. From a small beginning the output has steadily increased and about 
200,000 pounds of butter of a superior quality is produced annually. The butter 
finds a ready sale at Helena and other neighboring cities. More recently a flour 
mill was erected at Townsend and the product readily found profitable market. 

There are bure bred herds of Poland-Chinas, Chester White, Berkshire, Duroc and 
Hanmshire hogs and the raising of swine is profitable. 

The principal farming districts are in the Missouri and Crow creek valleys, where 
many thousand acres are irrigated. The chief crops are oats, wheat and alfalfa, 
timothy and bluejoint hay. Oats make large yields, are of a superior quality, and 
have been sold to cereal mills and for seed. Wheat is in demand from millers and 
many cars of alfalfa and timothy hay are shipped annually. Potatoes yield from 300 
to 400 bushels to the acre and other vegetables do equally well. 

During the last few years many thousand acres on the foothills and benches 
that extend from Three Forks to the northern end of the county have been settled 
upon and farmed without irrigation. A large part of the uplands is adapted to 
dry land farming and good crops have been raised at many places, the rainfall in 
the spring and early summer being sufficient to produce large yields of crops that 
are properly planted and cultivated. The soil, a warm and very productive lc?im, 
is easy to work. Winter wheat, rye, bald barley and alfalfa are the chief crops on 
non-irrigated farms. Raw lands may be bought at low prices and turned into pro- 
ductive farms. Large ranches have been subdivided and are offered for sale in farm 
lots. The raising of apples and other fruits on a commercial scale is a new and 
promising industry. Apples of many varieties have been grown. At the Stafford ranch 

• 1 :',2 M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 (! ! 

• • 

0«, — uii UK ill »■ .g •■ HI. ii> mi " "« " »" " "■ "• " "• "" "» "" "" "" »" "• »" "■ ■■-••• 

near Avalance creek is an excellent orchard that has been in bearing for twenty 
years; and it is said that four thousand dollars were received from the sale of 
fruit gathered one year from fifteen acres. 

The main line of the Northern Pacific follows the Missouri valley from Lombard 
to Townsend, and the Butte branch is separated by the Jefferson river from the 
southern boundary. The Milwaukee enters the county near Lombard and passes 
through the southern end. 

The chief towns are Townsend, Winston, Radersburg and Toston. Toston is 
the shipping point for the growing mining camp of Radersburg, eleven miles west, 
and for an extensive country including much of the fertile Crow creek valley. 
Winston, 21 miles from Helena, is the supply point for a rich mining district and 
of a farming and stock region. 

Townsend, the county seat and principal town, is located where the Northern 
Pacific railroad crosses the Missouri river, is a financial, educational and social 
center. The population in 1910 was 759, and is now estimated to be 1,200. The city 
has an electric lighting plant, a volunteer fire department, five miles of side- 
walks, graded streets, fine street lights, excellent schools. Catholic, Episcopal, 
Methodist and Methodist South churches, good school buildings, large business 
houses, good residences, two elevators, a flour mill, a creamery, a brewery, a cigar 
factory and a newspaper.. It offers an opening for an alfalfa mill, a cement plant 
and pottery manufacturing. 

The population of Broadwater county is estimated at 5,310, and the assessed 
valuation is $4,260,871. 

LAND AREA — Broadwater county, which is in the Helena land district, embraces 
an area of 1,248 square miles, including 141,516 acres of unreserved and unappropri- 
ated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 20,971 acres of state 
land, and 221,653 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 309,117 
acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 300,000 bushels; hay, 43,000 tons; apples, 15,000 bushels; currants, 
2,000 quarts; barley, 15,000 bushels; corn, 5,000 bushels; oats, 425,000 bushels; pota- 
toes, 125,000 bushels. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 5,480 
head; milch cows, 939 head; other cattle, 10,319 head; sheep, 57,211 head; swine, 
1,796 head. 

For further information regarding Broadwater county, address the Townsend 
commercial club. 


Carbon county, which adjoins Wyoming and takes its name from the extensive 
coal deposits that exist within its boundaries, was created from parts of Park 
and Yellowstone counties by an act approved March 4, 1895. 

The southern part is a mountainous region of great scenic beauty in which rise 
numerous streams whose waters flowing north through valleys of varying width 
finally discharge into the Yellowstone. The largest stream is Clark's Fork of the 
Yellowstone. Rock Creek is a large stream that flows through the central part. 
Many thousand acres in the valleys are irrigated from canals that bring water 
from these streams and their rapid fall make them available as sources of hydro- 
electric power. 

In the mountains are forests, gold, silver, lead and copper mineral claims, 
excellent hunting and fishing, and much remarkably beautiful scenery. In the 

• •• «»^— ■> ■■ .i-^.i— >«— nil— ii«— iin— n«..^ii».^ii« ik hh— iin-^nn-^iiii^iia ii>^— mi-^iin iia_iiii.^nii un^— iin— iia iiii>«S 


• • 

southern part of the county, along the Wyoming border, lies the Elk basin oil field, 
which is the scene of the first discovery of oil in commercial quantities in Montana 
and is now being extensively developed. Two large companies and many smaller 
concerns are now operating in this district, and there is every indication that it will 
shortly become one of the great oil-producing regions of the country. A pipe-line 
has been laid for the transportation of petroleum to refineries. The Elk basin oil 
field is now reached most easily from Bridger, a station on the Clark's Pork branch 
of the Northern Pacific, connecting with the main line at Billings. 

Other industries are coal mining, stock raising, and fruit growing. Immense 
coal measures exist. A government report stated that in 1907 there were 1,238,796,784 
tons of unmined coal in the Red Lodge field which is one of the several fields. 
Forty-five feet is the total thickness of the veins. A thousand men are employed 
at Red Lodge and about 600 at Bear Creek, Washoe, Bridger and Coalville, making 
a total of about 1,600 men who are employed at good wages and their demands 
create a home market for farm products. 

Stock growing is an important industry. Many sheep run on the ranges and 
Carbon county is noted for the excellence of its beef cattle. Besides raising live- 
stock on the range and hogs on alfalfa pasture. Carbon county has uncommon 
advantages for the fattening of beef cattle and sheep for market, having a good 
climate, abundance of water, and home grown hay, grain, beet top and beets for 
food. The conversion into beef, mutton or pork, of hay and grain on the place 
where produced, is the most profitable use that can be made of these crops. 

The Clark's Pork valley, about fifty miles long and from four to ten miles wide, 
is the principal agricultural district of Carbon county and is one of the most 
productive parts of Montana. Prom the river and streams that empty into it 
enough water is brought to irrigate the greater part of the land in the valley, 
while on the foothills farming is successful without irrigation where the proper 
system of cultivation is carried on. Clark's Pork valley produces a great variety 
of field and orchard products. Sugar beets is a main crop, alfalfa is extensively 
grown, and wheat, oats and barley make large yields. Standard vegetables do 
well; celery is extensively grown, and cantaloupes of the Rocky Ford flavor are 
raised. Near Promoerg, is the noted apple orchard of Rev. J. G. Clark, from 32 acres 
of which $10,000 worth of apples, plums and crab apples have been gathered in 
one year. 

The main line of the Northern Pacific railroad is separated from this county 
by the Yellowstone river. At Laurel the Rocky Fork branch to Red Lodge goes 
out from the main line and also the Clark's Pork branch which terminates at 
Bridger. Prom Bridger the Montana, Wyoming and Southern railroad extends to 
Belfry, Bear Creek and Washoe, a distance of 2.5 miles. The Burlington railroad 
has completed the Fromberg cut-off from Schribner near the Wyoming line and runs 
through trains using the Northern Pacific tracks from Bridger to Laurel and the 
Great Northern tracks from Laurel to Great Palls, Shelby Junction and Pacific 
coast points. 

Washoe and Bear Creek are coal mining towns in the foothills west of Clark's 
Fork valley. Bridger is a coal mining town and the supply point for a farming 
and ranch country. Fromberg, the chief town of the valley, has two coal mines 
adjacent to it and is surrounded by a highly cultivated region of farms and 

Joliet, a flourishing town in Rock Creek valley, is the principal shipping point 
for the central part of the country. 

Red Lodge, the county seat, had a population of 4,860 in 1910, is the seat 
of a coal mine that gives steady employment to over 1,000 men, and is one of the 
busiest and mose prosperous cities in the state. It has a high school, graded 

•134 MONTANA1916 • 

• • 

schools, two hospitals, two newspapers, three banks, hotels, two wholesale and 
thirty-five retail stores. Many new business houses have been recently erected and 
much money has been spent in city improvements. Many miles of cement walks 
have been laid and a sewer system costing $50,000 was installed a few years ago. 
The city is lighted by electricity, has an elevator, a creamery and does a large trade 
with the country tributary to it. 

The population of Carbon county is estimated at 23,600, and the assessed valua- 
tion is $8,123,797. 

LAND AREA — Carbon county, which is in the Billings land district, embraces 
an area of 2,108 square miles, including 346,847 acres of unreserved and unapprop- 
riated land available for entry under the homestead law, 44,702 acres of state land, 
and 359,159 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 416,236 
acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, .500,000 bushels; oats, 875,000 bushels; barley, 150,000 bushels; corn, 
15,000 bushels; potatoes, 360,000 bushels; hay, 105,000 tons; sugar beets, 75,000 tons; 
apples, 45,000 bushels; plums and prunes, 1,000 bushels; cherries, 750 bushels; 
strawberries, 15,000 quarts; currants, 10,000 quarts. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 9,345 
head, milch cows, 3,090 head; other cattle, 13,298 head; sheep, 63,437 head; swine, 
4,953 head. 

For further information regarding Carbon county, address secretary of com- 
mercial club, Red Lodge, Montana. 


Cascade, one of the richest and most populous counties of Montana, is 
situated in the northern central part of the state, has rich mineral and agricultural 
resources, an unequalled water power, and is destined to be the seat of numerous 
manufacturing establishments and of a commerce that will extend for hundreds 
of miles in every direction. 

The southern part includes a part of the Little and Big Belt ranges and the 
Highwood mountains extend across the eastern border. The Missouri river crosses 
the county from the southwest to the northeast and is joined near Great Falls 
by the Sun river, which rises in Teton county and drains a large section east of the 
Rocky mountains, and by the Smith and Belt rivers from the south. These 
streams have extensive valleys. 

Cascade county, like the greater part of Montana, is in the Chinook belt, and 
warms winds from the Pacific ocean moderate the winter temperature. The 
occasional cold spells are rarely of long duration and are attended by the dry, calm 
atmosphere that makes the cold in Montana felt less at zero than at twenty above 
in humid countries. Stock run on pasture during the whole year, and are fed only 
a short time during the winter. 

Farming, mining and stock growing are the chief industries. Rough and high 
grounds afford excellent pasturage for live stock. The soil is fertile, and the land 
as a rule lies well for farming operations. In the Missouri, Sun and Belt river 
valleys are extensive irrigated areas. Near Cascade is Chestnut valley, a long 
settled and thriving farming district. The Sun river valley contains a government 
reclamation project and many farms that were irrigated before it was begun. 
The Belt valley is a large and productive section. 

Far from railroads are some tracts open to homesteading, but the best oppor- 
tunity for the homeseeker is to buy lands which are for sale at prices below their 
investment value, or to acquire a farm unit in the Sun river project. The bulk 

• •• ■■ >i> » ■• » «■ IK ii« mi rill nil nn nn iin n. iin ni, nu iin iiii nn uii uu uu iin im ua gi.^*« 


• • 

00«^iiii-^nii-^iin— iin— tm-^tin nn— nil nit— — iin—^nn^— nn^>-iiii-^nn>^nn^— nn— ^nn nn^— nn-^nn^— nn iiii..-iiii^-.nn— iin-^un— nn— nn-a«0 

of the farm products are raised on non-irrigated land. Large crops are grown 
without irrigation by cutivation by the dry land system of farming. In the northern 
and eastern sections dry farming is very successful. 

Common yields are from 20 to 60 bushels of wheat, 40 to 100 bushels of oats, 
20 to 60 bushels of barley and of other crops in similar proportions on irrigated 
farms. More uniform and usually greater are the yields on irrigated lands. Hay and 
timothy and alfalfa is a large crop and sugar beets have been grown as an experi- 
ment. Vegetables make surprising yields. Apples and other fruits do well. 

The principal cities are Great Palls, Belt, Stockett, and Cascade. Cascade 
is a trading point for a rich farming and stock growing district, has city water, 
good schools, churches, a flour mill, two elevators, a creamery, a bank, business 
houses, and two weekly newspapers. Stockett has great coal mines and is sur- 
rounded by a good farming country. Belt is in a fertile valley, has a population of 
nearly 1,500, lias electric lights and water works, schools, elevators, hospital, churches, 
a bank, business houses, a weekly paper, and coal mines that have employed 
400 men. 

Great Falls, the principal city in Northern Montana, and the second city in 
size in the state, takes its name from the wonderful asset with which it is 
endowed. In seven and one-half miles the great Missouri river, with a mean low 
water flow of 3,500 second feet, drops 535 feet over a series of falls and rapids. 
At the head of these falls, at a place where the Missouri, Sun and Belt river valleys 
come together, where there is a down hill haul from all directions, where all 
railroad lines meet, the logical location for a great city, is Great Falls, which had 
a population of 13,948 in 1910. The population, according to local estimate, has 
almost trebled since the census was taken. The site was chosen for its natural 
advantages, the city was planned on generous lines, and it is the natural trading 
point for a great, fertile and rapidly developing section. Already 150,000 horsepower 
of electrical energy is developed at Great Falls and distributed by high tension power 
lines to practically all points in the state, where there yet remains for development 
200,000 horse power. 

Extensive copper and zinc smelters employ a great number of men whose 
earnings contribute materially to the business of the town. 

A Great Falls smelter has the largest smokestack in the world. The Royal 
Milling company has a large flouring mill; here is located the largest meat- 
packing plant between St. Paul and the coast, and there are more than fifty other 
manufacturing establishments. 

Great Falls has all the improvements and conveniences of a progressive, 
growing, western city, and a system of large and beautiful parks that is peculiar 
to itself. It has seven banks with total deposits of .$8,772,910; two $400,000 hotels, 
fine public, business and residence buildings; street cars, electric lights, sewer, paved 
streets, parked avenues, a people confident of its future greatness, and two daily 
newspapers. It is a pleasant place of residence and a prosperous commercial 
city. The United States Land office for this district and the office of the Collector 
of Customs for Montana are located here. Openings for manufacturing establish- 
ments and for wholesale houses are numerous. 

The population for Cascade county is estimated at 46,075, and the assessed 
valuation of the county is $31,649,303. 

LAND AREA— Cascade county, which is in the Great Falls land district, 
embraces an area of 3,411 square miles including 157,749 acres of unreserved and 
unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 100,807 

«•• „, „„ » .• Uii .1,. ... ..u .< u. ..> iiu .... i... .1.. .... "» «« »" "" "« "" '•« »• »" " " ..-••• 

: 13« M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 « * 

acres of state land, and 421,242 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 1,292,953 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 2,100,000 bushels; oats, 1,500,000 bushels; barley, 250,000 bushels; corn, 
40,000 bushels; flax, 15,000 bushels; potatoes, 250,000 bushels; hay, 100,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 12,800 
head; milch cows, 4,582 head; other cattle, 30,701 head; sheep, 229,095 head; swine, 
4,828 head. 

For further information regarding Great Palls and Cascade county, address 
A. J. Breitenstein, secretary Great Palls commercial club. 


Chouteau was one of the original counties of the state which has been reduced 
several times by the formation of new counties. In 1912 Blaine and Hill counties 
were formed from the eastern and northern parts respectively and Chouteau county 
was reduced from an area of 15,539 to one of 4,594 square miles, besides losing 
the greater part of its population. The county, though so greatly reduced in size, 
is still very extensive and the development of its resources is indicated by the fact 
that its population and wealth are now greater than before the division. 

The Missouri river enters Chouteau county from the south, flows northeast 
about sixty miles and makes its great turn to the southeast. The Teton river, 
coming from the west, and the Marias river from the north, join the Missouri near 
the center of the county. Arrow river forms a part of the southeastern boundary. 
In the southwestern corner are the Highwood mountains in which rise Highwood 
and Shonkin creeks and tributaries of Belt river. In the northeastern corner is a 
part of the Bear Paw mountains. 

The industries are stock growing and farming. This part of Montana 
has long been noted as a stock region and the county contains many cattle and 
great numbers of sheep, 'rne native grasses are luxuriant and nutritious and the 
permanence of the industry is assured by the extent of good grazing lands near the 
mountains and along the rivers that are too rough for farming. 

Farming, which until recently was relatively unimportant, has made great 
advances in the last five years. A limited area of land adjacent to streams is 
irrigated, but the chief advance in the development of agriculture has taken place 
on bench lands which are farmed without irrigation. Homesteaders have come into 
all parts of the county but there is some vacant land still subject to entry. 

The county seat is Fort Benton which is situated at the head of navigation 
on the Missouri river and had a population of 1,004 in 1910, and now has an 
estimated population of 1,600. Before Montana was organized as a territory Fort 
Benton was an important fur trading post and for years following the gold dis- 
coveries in the early sixties was a very busy place. Steamers, starting from 
points on the Missouri river near where Kansas City now is, brought numbers of 
passengers bound for the gold fields and great quantities of freight to Fort 
Benton. Stage lines carried the passengers to Virginia City and other points and 
numerous freighting teams hauled needed supplies over long and dangerous 
trails to the mining centers. Fort Benton maintained its commercial importance 
until the coming of railroads into the state. The steamboat service on the 
Missouri river was abandoned when the trunk lines were completed. 

Some of the present great fortunes of Montana were founded at Fort Benton 
in the days when it was the trading center for a great territory and the seat of 
large business establishments whose activities extended for hundreds of miles in 

(•• .. •> » mi «. n. u» .. » u> III >• III uu uu nil u« nil uu uu nil 1.« nil ». un mi ■• •»••• 


• • 

••• — >■ — " — " — "• — "• — '• — »" — "" — "■ — " — " — "" — "■ — "■ — "■ — "■ — "" — "" — " — "" — "» — "" — "" — ■•'^ — "" — " — " — ■••••• 

all directions. The stock industry later became the dominant one. Old Fort Benton 
has been preserved; and many of the most interesting incidents of Montana his- 
tory are associated with the town of Fort Benton. 

Fort Benton is the largest town in the county. It is a place of much business 
importance and is surrounded by a good agricultural district. It has three churches, 
a hospital, two banks, with deposits of $1,500,000, hotels, general stores, a daily 
and two weekly newspapers, a court house and good public schools. There are 
many handsome private residences. The city is amply supplied with water and has 
a complete sewerage system. 

Geraldine, in the southern part of the county, although less than three years old, 
is an important and thriving center and is growing rapidly. 

The population of Chouteau county is estimated at 17,055, and the assessed 
valuation is $9,105,442. 

LAND AREA — Chouteau county, which is in the Havre and Great Falls land 
districts, embraces an area of 4,594 square miles, including 408,760 acres of 
unreserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under the home- 
stead law, 312,785 acres of state land, and 6,303 acres of national forests. Of the 
total area of the county, 1,311,218 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 2,250,000 bushels; oats, 750,000 bushels; barley, 125,000 bushels; corn, 
35,000 bushels; flax, 75,000 bushels; potatoes, 80,000 bushels; hay, 40,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 13,917 
head; milch cows, 2,879 head; other cattle, 14,529 head; sheep, 17,566 head; 
swine, 3,697 head. 

For further information about Chouteau county, address B. H. Kreis, secretary, 
Fort Benton commercial club. 


Despite the fact that all of one large county and parts of two others have been 
taken from Custer County during the past three years, reducing its area from 12,915 
square miles to 7,111, the wealth of the county is now almost as great as it was 
before it lost almost half of its territory, and its population is even greater. All of 
which is but another way of saying that Custer County is one of the fastest growing 
counties in the state. This county is strikingly typical of the change from a grazing 
to an agricultural region which has come over the greater part of eastern Montana. 

The Yellowstone river flows through the northwestern part of this county, and the 
Powder and Tongue rivers, two large streams which rise in Wyoming, drain the 
southern part. Mizpah river is an important affluent of Powder river and Pumpkin 
creek of Tongue river. All of these streams have valleys of varying width back from 
which are extensive stretches of bench lands. 

Custer has long been the leading stock county of Montana, and from it have 
probably been shipped more horses, cattle, sheep and pounds of wool than from any 
other county in the United States. Miles City is the greatest primary horse market 
in the northwest. The stockyards embrace 50 acres and monthly auctions are held 
during the season. Last year more than 29,000 of the strong, hardy full sized horses 
for which Montana is noted were sold here to buyers from foreign lands and many 
parts of the country. Adjacent to Miles City is Fort Keogh, an army remount station, 
where many horses are yearly bought and trained for the cavalry service. 

The mean temperature is 44, the same as Wisconsin; the altitude is about 2,300 
feet; severe storms are rare; the air is dry, and heat and cold are noc felt as In 
humid regions; in an average year 175 days are clear, 125 partly cloudy, 65 cloudy 

••.—.._.. — ., — .. — .. — .. — .. — ,. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — ..^., — ., — .. — ....•• 

: 138 MOXTAXA-19 16 • 

• • 

and SO rainy. The normal rainfall, about 15 inches, is sufficient for all properly 
cultivated crops. More than half of it falls during the growing season. Cottonwood 
and ash grow near streams and pine and cedar in the hills. The county is underlaid 
with lignite coal which provides cheap fuel. 

Nearly every grain, vegetable and fruit known in the northern part of the United 
States grows in Custer county. Oats, wheat, barley, rye, corn, cabbage, rutabagas, 
pumpkins, squash, egg-plant, cauliflower, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, radishes, 
peas, beans, celery, asparagus, make a partial list. Watermelons have a flavor and 
crispness that are unequalled, cantaloupes grow to perfection, and strawberries are 
of fine flavor, color and size. Peaches, pears, apples, crab-apples, gooseberries, cur- 
rants, and raspberries do well. There is a home market for fruit and vegetables 
and an unsupplied demand for alfalfa, dairy products, eggs and chickens. 

Horses, cattle and sheep thrive on alfalfa, which is the leading crop, and sells 
at from $5 to $12 a ton; an acre, cut three times a year, yields from four to five 
tons. Oats yield from 50 to 100 bushels an acre, barley does well, and 50 bushels 
of wheat is not regarded as an exceptional yield. 

The transformation of Custer county from a stock to a farming country is pro- 
ceeding with astonishing rapidity. Recently it has been demonstrated beyond question 
that Custer county is in the "corn belt" and the raising of corn, both for the grain 
and as a forage crop, has become an important phase of the farming industry of 
this part of the state. 

The chief town is Miles City, the metropolis for all this rapidly developing 
empire, and the county seat. It is located at the junction of the Tongue and Yellow- 
stone rivers, and is an up-to-date, growing, progressive western town of more than 
7,000 people. There are two daily and three weekly newspapers, a number of 
manufacturing establishments, many wholesale and retail stores. It is the distri- 
buting point for a large and developing territory, ships more horses, catte, sheep 
and wool than any other town of its size in the country, and is a division point on 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railway, whose large monthly pay roll con- 
tributes to its prosperity. Many opportunities exist for the investment of capital 
in manufacturing and other enterprises, a canning factory and sugar beet factory 
being especially needed. 

The population of Custer county is estimated at 25,850 and the assessed valua- 
tion is $14,272,833. 

LAND AREA — Custer County, which is in the Miles City land district, embraces 
an area of 7,111 square miles, including 1,598,400 acres of unreserved and unappro- 
priated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 205,814 acres of 
state land, and 341,293 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
1,443,232 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915; wheat, 700,000 bushels; oats, 850,000 bushels; barley, 28,000 bushels; corn, 
210,000 bushels; flax, 95,000 bushels; potatoes, 85,000 bushels; hay, 30,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock; horses. 22,224 head; 
milcli cows, 1,378 head; other cattle, 52,998 head; sheep, 113,339 head; swine, 1,509 


Dawson county, organized in 1869, and named for Andrew Dawson, for many 
years a leading man in the fur trade, is the largest county in the state, having an 
area of 9,280 square miles, consisting for the most part of prairies, bench lands 
and hills. There are no mountain ranges, although the mountain sheep hills parallel 
the Yellowstone river in the eastern part of the county and form a divide between 
the drainage basin of the Yellowstone and the much larger area that drains into the 

• •• •• •« II li II II nil nil nn nn ml— nil n> nil m nn «> im g._...^n. an nn nn •■ ■■ ■■ ■■ .. ».••• 


• • 

Missouri river. The Musselshell river is the western, and the Missouri river the 
northern boundary. Big Dry and Red Water creeks which empty into the Missouri 
river have extensive drainage basins. The Yellowstone river flows through a part 
of the county. 

Stock growing was the first occupation of the settlers in Dawson county and 
remains a leading industry. Perhaps one-fourth of the entire acreage is too rough 
to be farmed and will always be devoted to grazing. Agriculture was first allowed 
as a business In the Yellowstone valley where many thousand acres are irrigated. 

The greatest advance, however, has been in the increase in the acres farmed 
without irrigation, so-called "dry land farms". Farming without irrigation is a 
demonstrated success on farms of thousands of new settlers who have filed on 
homesteads and have transformed a part of the vast range into productive grain 
fields. Large stock ranches also have been sub-divided and sold as farms and many 
acres of Northern Pacific railroad lands have been put into cultivation. 

The average annual precipitation at Glendive for the last 25 years was 15.54 
inches. At places the rainfall is higher and everywhere it is sufficient when pro- 
perly conserved. The evaporation is much lower than in states farther south and 
the timeliness of the rainfall increases its efficiency. Of the total of 15.54 inches 
of precipitation at Glendive, 10.72 inches falls during the crop growing season, as 
follows: March, 1.32 inches; April, 1.10 inches; May, 2.29 inches; June, 3.39 inches; 
July, 1.78 inches; and August, .84 inches. 

Wheat, oats, rye, barley, flax and alfalfa are the chief crops. Yields are reported 
of oats, 100 bushels to the acre; flax, 34 bushels; barley, 42 to 60 bushels; wheat, 
50 bushels, and corn, 45 bushels. From all parts of the county have been collected 
reports of higher yields on large fields of all staple crops. 

Dawson county is now reached by the Northern Pacific railway, which maintains 
divisional headquarters at Glendive, but much of this county, especially the north- 
western part is yet distant from transportation facilities. The Great Northern 
railroad, will, however, soon extend its New Rockford-Lewistown branch from the 
eastern to the western boundary of Dawson county penetrating the central part. 
Work began on this extension in the spring of 1916, although no definite statement 
of the time of completing the line has been made by the officials of the company. 
The Glendive-Helena cut-off of the Northern Pacific is proposed to extend from 
Glendive to a point of junction with the Great Northern railroad in Fergus or 
Meagher counties and thence to Helena. 

Dawson county is underlaid with coal which is sold at low prices in the towns; 
and the farmer who has not opened a deposit of coal on his own place is able to 
obtain a supply from some coal bank in his neighborhood. 

The principal towns are Glendive and Jordan. The county seat is Glendive, 
whose population in 1910 was 2,428, according to the census, and is now said to be 
5,000. It is a division point on the Northern Pacific railroad whicn employs about 
800 men with a monthly payroll of $75,000. The Northern Pacific hospital has 
recently been completed at a cost of |125,000. Glendive is a progressive, growing 
town, is well lighted, has large business blocks, banks, hotels, newspapers, fine 
public buildings, attractive residences, and has spent more than a million dollars 
on municipal improvements. It offers an excellent opening for a flour mill and a 
brick yard. 

Jordan, a large and thriving town, is the distributing point for a great new 
country which has been opened up in the western and northern part of the county. 
It is expected that it will have railroad connections with the outside world within 
the next year. 

«•■ u „ „ „ >. .. » n >. „ » ■■ ■■ » » ■• >■ ■> ». •• «■ •• .. «• >• >■ •■ .•■••• 

: 1 10 M O X T A X A - 1 9 1 (! • 

• • 

••• — ■■ — " — " — " — " — ■■ — " — "" — "" — "" — "' — "" — " — "" — "" — "" — " — "" — " — "" — ■" — "" — "" — " — "" — "■— >• — "'••• 

The populaion of Dawson county is estimated at 23,600 and the assessed valuation 
is $10,854,401. 

LAND AREA — Dawson County, which is in the Miles City, Lewistown, and 
Glasgow land districts, embraces an area of 9,280 square miles, including 2,077,21.") 
acres of unreserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under the 
homestead law, and 242,010 acres of state land. Of the total area of the county, 
1,733,228 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 850,000 bushels; oats, 1,200,000 bushels; barley, 125,000 bushels; corn, 
85,000 bushels; flax, 50,000 bushels; potatoes, 95,000 bushels; hay, 22,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 20,409 
head; milch cows, 3,240 head; other cattle, 15,734 head; sheep, 118,195 head; swine, 
3,678 head. 


Deer Lodge county, which is in western Montana and is drained by Deer Lodge 
river, embracing a part of the valley of that stream, is one of the original counties 
of the territory. By the formation of new counties it has lost the greater part of 
its original area and is now a very small county, and yet is one of the richest in 
the state. 

The chief industry is copper smelting. At Anaconda is located the Washoe 
Smelter, of the Anaconda Copper Company, which employs many thousand men and 
has a monthly pay-roll of hundreds of thousands of dollars. This great smelter is 
the largest and most modern ore reducing plant in the world and smelts about one- 
fourth of the copper produced in the United States. The ores are brought from the 
mines at Butte, 28 miles distant, directly to the smelter by the Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific Railroad, which was built for this traffic, and which is operated exclusively 
by electrical power. Even after an inspection of the smelter one can scarcely 
comprehend the immensity of its operations. In connection with the smelter is an 
extensive sulphuric plant. 

Constant progress is made in reducing the cost of production of copper by 
lessening the cost of getting out ore at the mines and in treating it at the smelters. 
Large savings have recently been affected by the increased use of electrical power; 
and the mines of Butte and the smelters of Anaconda and Great Falls are models of 
efficient operation, while the wage scale is the highest in America. 

Anaconda, the county seat, owes its existence to Marcus Daly, founder of the 
copper industry in Montana, who was attracted to it by the presence, so near Butte, 
of an abundant supply of water. It has grown into a city of about 17,000 inhabitants, 
is an attractive place of residence, has one of the most costly hotel edifices in the 
state, many large business blocks, handsome dwellings, a daily newspaper, and manu- 
factories of fire and building brick. Tlie county court house, the Hearst library, 
and the Margaret Theatre would be notable buildings in a much larger city. The 
Montana State Fish Hatchery is located in beautiful Washoe Park. 

Population and business of Deer Lodge county are chiefly centered in the city 
of Anaconda, which is situated at the base of the mountains. In the mountain 
regions are placer and quartz gold mines, extensive forests and many places of much 
scenic beauty. The Butte, Anaconda & Pacific railroad has recently been extended 
into the mineral region near Georgetown which is expected to develop into a very 
productive mining district. 

At Warm Springs is located the State Hospital for the Insane, which cost more 
than $500,000, and at which is maintained the finest pure bred Holstein dairy herd 
in the state. 


• • 

Hay and oats find a ready sale in Butte and Anaconda. In these two cities, 
many millions are annually paid to miners and smeltermen and their demands for 
products of the dairy and the garden create the best markets for Deer Lodge county 

The population of Deer Lodge county in 1916 was estimated at 21,725 and the 
assessed valuation of the county is $9,938,341. 

LAND AREA — Deer Lodge county which is in the Helena land district, embraces 
an area of 746 square miles, including 37,813 arces of unreserved and unappropriated 
public land available for entry under the homestead law, 10,911 acres of state land, 
and 307,793 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 153,190 acres 
are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 22,000 bushels; oats, 150,000 bushels; barley, 2,500 bushels; potatoes, 
100,000 bushels; hay, 21,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 4,050 head; 
milch cows, 974 head; other cattle, 2,807 head; sheep, 5,300 head; swine, 584 head. 


Fallon county occupies the extreme southeastern corner of the state, and is 
just beginning to attract attention to its diversified resources. For many years, 
Fallon, which was then a part of Custer county, w-as merely a great stock range; 
today it is largely a grain field, and every year thousands of new acres are brought 
under the plow. 

The Little Missouri river crosses the southeastern corner of the county and the 
northern part is watered by Fallon creek and Beaver creek. Box Elder creek flows 
through the central part of the county. Many extensive valleys follow the courses 
of these streams and back of these valleys are great stretches of bench lands, which 
are being farmed by the non-irrigated method. 

In addition to the farming and stockraising industries of the county, natural 
gas has been developed at Baker and extensive prospecting is now in progress for 
oil in commercial quantities. 

Baker, the county seat and principal town, is growing rapidly. It is one of 
the newer towns of the state, but in 1915 claimed a population of 1,500 and had 
every prospect of soon having 2,500 people within its confines. A flax-tow mill 
was recently established here and is a pronounced success. Ekalaka, in almost the geo- 
graphical center of the county, is a large inland town, surrounded by a good farming 
and stockraising country. 

The population of Fallon county is estimated at 14,925 and the assessed valua- 
tion is $8,451,930. 

LAND AREA — Fallon county embraces an area of 5,003 square miles, including 
1,362,400 acres of unreserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under 
the homestead law, 128,603 acres of state land and 107,580 acres of national forests. 
Of the total area of the county, 855,188 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 500,000 bushels; oats, 560,000 bushels; barley, 52,000 bushels; corn, 
92,000 bushels; flax, 65,000 bushels; potatoes, 95,000 bushels; hay, 20,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 19,535 
head; milch cows, 3,473 head; other cattle, 30,928 head; sheep, 74,952 head; swine, 
2,199 head. 

•112 M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 <! • 

• • 


Fergus county, which includes a large territory in the central part of the state, 
was created by act of March 12, 1885, and named for James Fergus, a noted 
pioneer. It is the second largest county in the state, and one of the richest and 
best developed. 

The greater part of the western part of Fergus county consists of the Judith 
Basin, which extends approximately sixty miles east and west and ninety miles 
north and south and comprises about 2,000,000 acres of table and gently rolling 
fertile farm lands, having an elevation varying from 3,500 to 4,500 feet. The Little 
Belt mountains bound it on the west and lesser ranges in other directions, making 
it a sheltered country. It is drained by the Judith river and tributary streams. 
The Missouri river forms the northern boundary and receives the Arrow river and 
smaller streams. The eastern part of the county is drained by the Musselshell river. 

Stock growing, farming and mining are the industries. Before the advent of 
railroads stock growing, for which the conditions were ideal, was the main industry 
and it remains a very important one. Producing gold mines are located at Kendall, 
Maiden and Gilt Edge and there are undeveloped mineral claims in other sections. 
The country is underlaid with coal and there are many large and numerous small 
coal mines. 

A unique and important industry is the mining of sapphires at Yogo gulch 
about fifteen miles southwest of Utica. The best of the Yogo sapphires are of the 
first grade in color and quality and bring high prices. These mines are owned by 
an English syndicate which distributes the gems through all markets of the world. 

In the last eight years agriculture, from being comparatively unimportant, has 
grown to be the leading industry. The transformation of the Judith Basin from a 
stock growing to a farming country has probably been more rapid than has ever 
occurred in any other part of the United States. Township after township which 
a few years ago were open range lands are new among the most productive grain 
districts of America. 

The opportunity for the land seeker in Fergus county is to purchase farm land 
at $.30 an acre and up near railroad lines, cheaper land farther back, or to take up 
a homestead in the unsettled section. Land that may be relied upon to raise year 
after year thirty or more bushels of high grade wheat or other crops in like 
proportion before many years will have a fixed value perhaps amounting to double 
the price at which lands in the Judith Basin may now be bought. 

Lewistown, the metropolis and county seat, even when an inland town eighty 
miles from a railroad, was a very busy and prosperous place and has expanded its 
activities in all lines as the country has developed. The population returned by the 
census of 1910 was 2,992 and is estimated to be more than 6,000 now. The city 
has an abundant supply of pure water, supplied by a municipal plant constructed 
at a cost of $150,000, boulcvarded streets, cement sidewalks, a sewerage system, a 
fire department, and a public library. The business houses are chiefly of stone or 
brick; there are four elevators, a flour mill, a brick yard, five wholesale mercantile 
establisliments and a number of retail ones. Four banks have deposits of more 
than $3,750,000; there are good schools, churches, and a hospital; an electric light 
plant, telephone systems, one daily and one weekly paper, large machine shops, 
hotels, theatres and many handsome residences. A great many costly business 
blocks and fine residences have been erected in the last two years. 

Mooro, twenty miles south and west of Lewistown, in the center of a rich 
agricultural district, is the second town in importance, and had a population in 
1910 of 573. 


• • 

Straw, Garneill, Hobson, Benchland, Utica, "Windham and Denton are towns 
in the farming district. Stanford has grown in five years from a small village to a 
thriving town. Kendall is the chief town in the gold mining districts. Grass Range 
and Winnett are rapidly growing towns in the eastern part of the county. 

The population of Fergus county is estimated at 41,926 and the assessed valua- 
tion is $20,910,585. 

LAND AREA — Fergus county, which is in the Lewistown land district, embraces 
an area of 7,178 square miles, including 1,381,965 acres of unreserved and unap- 
propriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 249,050 acres of 

state land, and 204,497 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
1,824,164 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 4,750,000 bushels; oats, 2,750,000 bushels; barley, 250,000 bushels; 
corn, 65,000 bushels; flax, 75,000 bushels; potatoes, 320,000 bushels; hay, 100,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 24,195 head; 
milch cows, 5,655 head; other cattle, 41,455 head; sheep, 98,212 head; swine, 9,953 head. 


Flathead county is situated in the northwestern part of the state, embraces the 
greater part of the Glacier National Park, the large and fertile Flathead valley, and 
beautiful Flathead Lake. It was created out of Missoula county in 1893, and is 
named for the Indian tribe that formerly occupied the country. The eastern boundary 
is the main range of the Rocky mountains, of which the Flathead and Mission, in the 
southern part, are outlying ranges. Mountains on the west separate the drainage 
basins of the Flathead river from those of the Kootenai and Clark's Fork of the Col- 
umbia. The northern part is mountainous; in the southern part lies Flathead 
lake, bounded by the low hills beyond which lies Mission valley. This is a region 
of numerous springs, streams, rivers and lakes whose waters flow into Flathead lake 
and out from it by the Flathead or Pend O'Reille river at Poison. 

Flathead lake has an area of 360 square miles and is the center of attraction. 
Around its wooded shores are some of the most beautiful spots on the continent. 
Orchards grow close to the water, and attractive summer homes are found at many 

During 1915, the federal government sold more than 900 villa sites along the 
shores of Flathead lake and, with the many summer homes which are now being 
built around the lake, it is expected that this will shortly become one of the great 
summer colonies of the country. Flathead lake is not merely a wonder and delight 
to the visitor, but is of great practical use. It is navigable and numerous fast pas- 
senger boats make regular trips between lake ports during the summer season. Be- 
sides steamboats and gasoline launches, there are tugs, barges and rafts which trans- 
port considerable freight. 

Lumbering is a great industry and there are numerous mills. Kalispell has large 
mills and, at Somers, where also is a tie-preserving plant, is one of the largest mills 
in the state. In the northwestern Montana lumber district, of which Kalispell is the 
financial center, the standing timber has been estimated as amounting to forty bil- 
lion feet. In the lumber industry about 2,000 men are employed and receive for wages 
about .$1,250,000 a year. The lumber sold brings $2,500,000. 

The industries are farming, fruit growing and lumbering. Wheat yields from 
35 to 50 bushels per acre, oats from 35 to 75 bushels, and barley, rye, hay, potatoes 
and other vegetables make large yields. The logging camps and lumber mills furnish 
home markets for farm produce. 

•Ml M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 * 

• • 

On both shores of Flathead lake are fine farming and fruit growing districts, and 
south of the lake is the Flathead reservation which was opened in 1910. The climate 
is excellent and it is never very hot or very cold. Kalispell is 2,965 feet above sea 
level; the annual precipitation is 15.45 inches and crops grow without irrigation. 

Many varieties of apples are successfully grown; a mature orchard will yield 
500 boxes per acre and a box will sell at from $1.25 to $1.75. Crab apples are raised 
in abundance and often pay better than the regular apple. Probably the most 
profitable crop raised is cherries, and especially the large sweet cherry. Fruits 
mature in any part of the valley, but the lake shore is a favored spot owing to the 
equalizing influence on the atmosphere of a large body of water and because the 
residents have become fruit specialists. Orchards are free from pests and a wormy 
apple is unknown. 

The county is adapted not only to diversified farming and fruit growing but 
to dairying and truck farming, and its natural resources, when developed, will support 
a dense rural population. 

The southern portion of the county, that embraced in the former Flathead Indian 
reservation, has been handicapped by lack of transportation facilities, but official 
announcement has been made that a branch line of the Northern Pacific, running 
north from Dixon, will be constructed at once and it is confidently predicted that 
when this road is built this region will experience rapid development. 

The country is rich in water power. At Big Fork is the plant that supplies 
Kalispell with electric light and power. Immense power is available in the Flathead 
river at Poison which is to be used for pumping water for irrigation and to furnish 
power for other purposes. 

Kalispell, Whitefish, Poison and Columbia Falls are the chief towns. Poison, 
the principal port on the south shore of Flathead lake, is the shipping point for a 
large and productive part of the Flathead reservation. It is a thriving town, having 
grown from nothing to be an incorporated town with a population of 2,000 in six 
years. It has city improvements, good schools, churches, banks, large business 
houses, electric lights, telephones, a weekly newspaper and steamboat service to all 
points on the lake. A five story brick flouring mill, having a daily capacity of 200 
barrels of flour, was erected in 1912 and adjoining it is an elevator of 30,000 bushels 
capacity. On the shore of the lake, near the docks, the Farmers' elevator, having 
a capacity of 35,000 bushels of grain, has been constructed. A large warehouse has 
been built at the docks and the grain storage capacity of Poison is about 100,000 

Big Fork, in a fine fruit district, is the trading point for the Swan river 
country. On Whitefish lake, a beautiful body of water seven miles long at the head of 
Flathead valley, is Whitefish, which has grown in a few years to be a modern, 
progressive town of 2,000 people, having city water, electric lights, telephone, sewers, 
brick business blocks, banks, business houses, a weekly newspaper, and a good fruit 
country adjoining. Columbia Falls, at the head of the fertile eastside of the Flat- 
liead valley, has a bank, stores, a newspaper, lumber mills, the State Soldiers' Home 
and is an important trading point for a rich agricultural district. Somers, the 
principal port on the north shore, is the terminus of the branch line of railroad 
from Kalispell and is the center of a great saw mill and of a tie pickling plant. 
A state fish hatchery has been established at Somers. Dayton and Big Arm are 
towns on the west shore. Belton is the entrance to the Glacier National Park, a 
region of wonderful scenery to which thousands of visitors are yearly attracted. 

Kalispell, the county seat and the business center of northwestern Montana, 
lias 200,000 acres of rich agricultural land tributary to it, and sliips large quantities 
of apples, cherries and small fruii«. The population, in 1910, was 5,549. A United 

0««, .» m aa aa aa aa ua iia na aa aa an aa iiu an na aa aa lia aa aa aa aa aa— — aa an aa ai*«S 


• • 

0^0— .mi^^iMl an^^ao— aw^^aa^^iia^^wa^^aa^^BB^^BB^^na^^nB^^Ba^^aa^^BB^^aa^^aa*^— aa^^Ha^^aw^^aa^^aa^— BB^^aB^^aa^^aa^^aa— 00^ 

States land office is located there, the county high school and a business college; 
the city has a water system, a sewer system, electric light and power, telephones, 
paid fire department, over ten miles of cement sidewalks and paved and ma- 
cadamized streets. The two principal streets have recently had modern pavements 
laid on them. There are five elevators, a cold storage plant, a large lumber mill, 
a flour mill, a nursery, many large merchantile establishments, four banks, three 
weekly newspapers including one daily, a public library, good schools, many churches, 
handsome dwelling- houses, good hotels and many large business blocka. 

The population of Flathead county is estimated at 25,860 and the assessed 
valution is $12,174,107. 

LAND AREA — Flathead County, which is in the Kalispell and Missoula land 
districts, embraces an area of 6,380 square miles, including 66,475 acres of unre- 
served and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 
115,140 acres of state land, and 2,202,120 acres of national forests. Of the total 
area of the county, 867,350 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 850,000 bushels; oats, 1,700,000 bushels; barley, 125,000 bushels; corn, 
4,000 bushels; potatoes, 265,000 bushels; hay, 35,000 tons; apples, 75,000 bushels; 
cherries, 5,000 bushels; strawberries, 60,000 quarts; raspberries, 80,000 quarts: cur- 
rants, 12,000 quarts. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 6,277 head; 
milch cows, 3,137 head; other cattle, 6,404 head; sheep, 4,146 head; swine, 2,084 head. 


Gallatin county was one of the original counties created in 1865 by act of the 
legislature of the newly created territory of Montana. It was named for the Gallatin 
river, which was discovered by Lewis and Clark in 1805 and named after Albert 
Gallatin, who was secretary of the treasury in President Jefferson's administration. 
It has given freely of its territory to form other counties and is now a relatively small 
county. The southern part of the county extends to the Yellowstone National Park 
and is a mountainous region pierced by the West Gallatin river into which flow 
numerous streams. The mountains are covered by forests, interspersed with parks, 
and there are several large basins of open country where the native grasses are 
abundant and afford a splendid summer range for livestock. Excellent coal has been 
found in this section and there are deposits of copper and asbestos. This part of 
the country is a favorite resort for the camper, the fisherman and the hunter, and 
is entered by a good road, which extends from the Yellowstone National Park, fol- 
lows one of the most beautiful streams in America, passes through picturesque can- 
yons, through forests and parks and basins and the bases of mighty mountain peaks. 

The cultivated area is in the foothills, which descend from the mountains sur- 
rounding the valley, and in the Gallatin valley, an extensive region of wonderful 
fertility. The valley lands are irrigated from the waters of the West Gallatin river 
or tributary streams while on the benches and foothills farming is usually carried 
on without irrigation. The irrigated and unirrigated lands under cultivation are about 
of equal extent, but every year there is an increase in the number of acres of 
land farmed without irrigation due to the breaking and cultivation of tracts on 
the foothills that have been used heretofore for grazing. While there is no chance 
to file on public land in the valley or the adjacent foothills, there are splendid op- 
portunities to buy land of remarkable fertility at low prices considering its pro- 

The Gallatin valley has been called "The Egypt of America" and Gallatin 
county was the pioneer county to make farming the main industry of its inhabitants. 

^«,.^„i,__i,i, iiii_iiii nil— iiii nil— iiii nn— iic-^nii nu^— nn-^un-^nn^— nii-^nn un-^nn-^nu— nil— n«.^nn nn nn^—nn^— •■—■>••# 

; 146 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

A.^.^nB^^u.^nu— •iiU'^nH- lilt im^— nB-^nB^^DB^— iin— iiil^— po— — nn^^iin^^iin^— nn- nil nii-^iiB-^nn— -bb— ^nn-^nB-^nB^— ob^^bb^— flt»0^ 

The annual products of its farms are probably of greater value than those of any 
other county in the state. 

The average production of grain per acre is believed to be unequalled in any 
county in the United States. Reports collected from 192 irrigated grain fields, em- 
bracing 14,000 acres, gave an average crop of 58.2 bushels of wheat per acre and 
$38.28 as the average returns per acre. The average yield of oats was 76.4 bushels, 
barley 58.7 bushels, and potatoes 291.5 bushels. From 76 non-irrigated 
grain fields, embracing 7,090 acres, the average yield per acre was 42 bushels and 
the average value of the crop $35.39 per acre. Both irrigated and non-irrigated 
lands show a money return per acre that supports the claim that no county in the 
United States is known where farming is so profitable as in Gallatin County, 

The quality of the grains have caused them to be in demand for seed and for 
shipment to flouring, cereal and malt mills. Barley has been shipped to Europe, 
Japan and Australia. 

A new industry, which promises to be remarkably successful and profitable, is 
the growing of seed peas under contract with seed houses. The soil and climate 
are ideal for the production of peas of the highest grade, and the pea crop should 
net the grower not less than $40 per acre. 

Strawberries and raspberries make great yields and are in demand in the 
towns of the county and in Butte and other Montana cities. All hardy vegetables 
yield amazingly, the celery being of exceptional quality. Hardy apple trees make 
large yields of excellent fruit. Dairying is an important and increasing industry, 
and from the sale of eggs and chickens large sums are derived. Hogs thrive on 
alfalfa and cow peas and sell at profitable prices. There are many horses of ex- 
cellent grade and beef and dairy cattle of the best types. No farming district in the 
northwest has greater advantages and no farming community is more prosperous. 

The county is served by the Northern Pacific and Chicago Milwaukee and Puget 
Sound railways, and by the Gallatin Valley railroad, a subsidiary of the latter. The 
main line of the Northern Pacific crosses the county from Bozeman tunnel to Logan 
and thence to Lombard; the Butte branch starts from Logan and passes west through 
the Jefferson valley; and from Manhattan a branch line has been built to Anceney 
in the Camp creek country; at Mountainside, a railroad comes in from the Trail 
Creek coal fields. 

The chief towns are Bozeman, Three Forks, Belgrade and Manhattan. Less than 
six years old, Three Forks, with two railroads, a population of 2,000, large 
business houses, many civic improvements and a growing, busy little city, is an 
example of how towns grow in developing Montana. Manhattan is a milling and 
shipping point for a productive section. Salesville, in the southern, and Maudlow, 
in the northern part of the county are important grain shipping points. Belgrade 
is a thriving town in the center of the valley, has large flour mills and elevators 
and ships great quantities of grain. Logan is a trading place for the lower Madison 
valley and is a junction point on the Northern Pacific railroad. At Trident is a 
large cement factory. 

The county seat is Bozeman, "the beautiful", a city modern in every respect, 
with fine residences, surrounded by beautiful lawns and shade trees, churches, schools, 
business blocks, mills, and elevators. The population in 1910 was 5,107. The city 
owns the water works; there are sewers, a paid fire department, paved streets, 
many miles of cement sidewalks, parks, street car lines, and the grounds of the 
Inter-State Fair Association. The Montana Agricultural College, the largest educa- 
tional institution in the state, having more than 500 students; the Montana Agricultural 
Experiment Station; the United States local land office and the United States 

»•«■ ■« ■• ■« lilt 11" 11" 11" 1111 11 11 "11 111' '111 111 " 11" "" 1111 "11 "" "" "" "» "11 "" "" "" un iicaC 


• • 

MAw °" °" «■ '~ "" tn "" "" " "" "" "" "" "" "" "" ""-^^■■" ■■■■ "" "■■ ■■" ■■■■ ■■■■ 'III till ,|]|- nil ••A 

Pish Hatchery are located at Bozeman. It is a beautiful residence and educational 
city and an important business place. There are flouring mills, a cereal food 
factory, several elevators, a brewery and numerous small factories. Every year 
in September Bozeman gives a "Sweet Pea Carnival", a unique festival that attracts 
thousands of visitors. 

The population of Gallatin county is estimated at 22,700 and the assessed valua- 
tion is $16,724,404. 

LAND AREA — Gallatin county, which is in the Bozeman land district, embraces 
an area of 2,529 square miles, including 10,650 acres of unreserved and unappro- 
priated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 54,976 acres of 
state land, and 840,418 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
788,419 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 3,350,000 bushels; oats, 2,500,000 bushels; barley, 500,000 bushels; corn, 
12,000 bushels; potatoes, 195,000 bushels; hay, 87,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 11,769 head; 
milch cows, 3,562 head; other cattle, 14,258 head; sheep, 14,185 head; swine, 4,998 


In 1893, Granite county was created from the western part of Deer Lodge 
county. It lies east of the Bitter Root valley and much of its territory is moun- 
tainous. The slope of the land is from the high mountains in the south to the 
Hellgate river in the north. In the mountain area is much beautiful scenery, 
excellent hunting and streams in which trout are abundant, and also much timber. 

Granite county achieved a world wide reputation as a rich mineral district more 
than a score of years ago. Out of the great Granite-Bimetallic mine it is said that 
more than |40,000,000 in silver and gold have been taken, the production of other 
mines swelling the total to $50,000,000. While the famous mines of generations ago 
are not now producing in large quantities, it is probable that there remains in them 
and in undeveloped prospects in the many mineral districts ores worth many millions 
of dollars. Prospectors continue to search for new deposits, leasers are working in 
old mines, and many small mines are operated by individual owners or by companies. 
The outlook is for an improvement in the mining industry in all districts and for 
swift development into a great producing camp of the Georgetown lake country 
into which has been extended the Butte, Anaconda and Pacific railroad. 

In the West Fork district of Granite county great quantities of sapphires have 
been mined. The stones, which are found in gravel deposits, from which they are 
taken by hydraulic mining, are of value as gems when of the first quality and as 
abrasives when of inferior grade. 

Much attention has been paid to the breeding of improved strains of horses 
and cattle. Belgian, Percheron, Shire, and standard bred stallions have sired young 
horses that have sold for high figures. At least half of the range cattle is Hereford 

The county has convenient markets for its products in Missoula, Anaconda and 
Butte. The Flint creek valley has peculiar advantages for successful dairying and 
creameries at Phillipsburg and Hall produce large quantities of excellent butter and 
other dairy products wiiich have won many prizes at the Montana State Pair and 
at other expositions. 

The valleys of Flint and Rock creeks and Hellgate river contain many acres of 
irrigated lands that yield profuse crops of grain and grasses. Flint creek valley, 
extending from Drummond to Phillipsburg, embraces the most productive agricultural 

«•• ,1,1 „ii no no iin nil «ii iin iin nn nil— nil nn »> m iiii..^in mi^iiii nil nu nn iin nil •■ ■■ !»__■■.••« 

?148 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

0,._., ,. nil nn nn nn nn nn ni> nn nn nn K. nn n» no nn nn nn iin nn im nn nn nn .• .. •IH,«0 

section. The soil is alluvial, rich and deep, and convenient railroads transport grain, 
grasses and vegetables to the market close at hand. Oats make large yields and 
crops of 75 to 100 bushels per acre are not uncommon. In Rock creek valley are 
many fine ranches. The average production of grain is high, but hay is the chief 
crop. Hellgate valley has an easterly and westerly trend and a width, in places, 
of more than a mile of rich alluvial soil. The Northern Pacific and the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & Puget Sound railways run through it; and its productive lands offer 
advantages that are equalled at few places. 

The advantages of the county for fruit growing are attracting attention. The 
suitability of the soil and climate for the successful production of fruits on a com- 
mercial scale is shown by several orchards. 

Phillipsburg, the county seat and principal town, is a terminus of a branch 
line of the Northern Pacific railroad, had a population of 1,109 in 1910, occupies a 
commanding position upon the terrace of Flint creek valley, has excellent drainage, 
a good water system, an electric lighting plant, a court house, handsome homes, 
good hotels, business houses, a bank, a creamery, a foundry, a brewery and a weekly 

The public schools of Philipsburg and the Granite county high school afford 
excellent opportunities for obtaining a good education. Hall, in the Flint creek 
valley, is in the center of a prolific farming section, has an up-to-date creamery, and 
has a number of business establishments, is within easy reach of lignite coal mines, 
and controls the trade of a populous farming district. Drummond, on the main line 
of the Northern Pacific railroad where the Philipsburg branch starts, is the trading 
place for the northern end of the county, has mercantile houses, a newspaper, and 
men who will be glad to tell of the advantages the neighboring country has to offer 
to the homeseeker. 

Granite county has an estimated population of 9,380 and an assessed valuation of 

LAND AREA — Granite county, which is in the Helena and Missoula land dis- 
tricts, embraces an area of 1,728 square miles, including 198,948 acres of unreserved 
and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 17,202 
acres of state land, and 718,094 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 257,490 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 75,000 bushels; oats, 450,000 bushels; barley, 25,000 bushels; potatoes, 
65,000 bushels; hay, 34,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 4,077 
head; milch cows, 906 head; other cattle, 11,817 head; sheep, 18,807 head; swine. 
1,058 head. 


Hill county was created, by vote of the people, March 6, 1911, being carved out 
of a portion of old Chouteau county. 

This county is strikingly typical of eastern Montana in the rapid development 
of its agricultural resources. Formerly regarded as fit only for grazing, it has fur- 
nished homes for thousands of new settlers who have filed upon public land and 
made good as farmers. An exceptionally large percentage of the land of the county 
is tillable and it is rapidly taking its place as one of the most productive farming 
counties of the state. 

Hill county is watered by the Milk River, which flows southeast from the Cana- 
dian border through the eastern portion of the county, and by numerous creeks. 

: T H K T K E A S U R K STATE 149 • 

• • 

00»— BB^— ■■ iK-^ll— ■■^—■■^—■■■^■■-^Bl—H^— BB^—ll^—ll^—ll^— ■■—■■— ■■^—Mi^—llt^—yi^—nil — IIP |in— BB^— BB^— PB— BB**BB-»#^ 

There is not, however, except in a few districts, sufficient water for Irrigation and 
practically all the farming in this county is non-irrigated. Excellent yields of 
wheat, flax, oats, barley and corn are obtained and many of the farmers are going 
into hog-raising on an extensive scale. 

Recently there has been much prospecting for oil and gas in this region and 
commercial gas has been produced in large quantities within two miles of Havre, 
the county seat. This gas has been brought into town, with the result that during 
the winter of 1915-16, Havre was the only city In the state heated by natural gas. 

Havre has experienced a remarkable growth within the past few years and has 
every prospect of soon becoming one of the most important cities in the northern 
part of the state. The city now has an estimated population of 5,000, and an as- 
sessed valuation of almost $2,000,000. It boasts three banks, three wholesale houses, 
one daily and three weekly newspapers and a dozen progressive retail stores. It 
has city water and an electric lighting system and is thoroughly modern. 

The utilization of the large deposits of natural gas in the vicinity of Havre 
make it probable that this city will shortly become a manufacturing center of 
considerable importance. 

The estimated population of Hill county is 24.480, and the assessed valuation of 
the county was $9,247,436 in 1915. 

LAND AREA — Hill county, which is in the Havre land district, embraces an 
area of 4,180 square miles, including 245,795 acres of unreserved and unappropriated 
public land available for entry under the homestead law, and 205,375 acres of state 
land. Of the total area of the county, 784,000 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 1,250,000 bushels; oats, 750,000 bushels; barley, 28,000 bushels; corn, 
15,000 bushels; flax, 85,000 bushels; potatoes, 110,000 bushels; hay, 40,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 13,25tt 
head; milch cows, 3,592 head; other cattle, 8,777 head; sheep, 42,118 head; swine, 
1.115 head. 


Jefferson, one of the original counties of the territory, lies on the eastern slope 
of the Rocky Mountains and is separated from the Missouri river valley by parallel 
ranges of which the Elkhorn mountains form a part. From the mountains in the 
western, northern and eastern boundaries, the ground slopes to the Jefferson valley 
where the lowest elevations are found. Many mountain streams unite to form 
the Boulder river, which rises in the northwestern part, flows east for a number 
of miles and thence south to the Jefferson river with which it unites at Jefferson 
Island. The northwestern part of the county is drained by Prickly Pear creek, 
which empties into the Missouri river near Helena. The southern boundary, for the 
greater part, is the Jefferson river. 

Mining is the principal industry, stock growing and farming being next in 
importance. Nearly all of the mountains that comprise a great part of the 
county are mineralized and scores of millions of dollars have been extracted from 
the mines. There are thousands of mineral claims and many producing mines. 
Mining is active in the Corbin-Wicks neighborhood, where great sums have been 
spent in the last few years in development work in mines, and at Clancy, Boulder, 
Basin, Amazon and other places. 

Stock growing has been an important and prosperous industry from early 
days. The native grasses furnish good food, little winter feeding is necesary, and 
many horses and cattle are shipped every year. In the mountains are large areas 

; 150 MONTANA- 19 IC : 

• • 

of good grazing lands that are not adapted for farming and the permanency of 
the stock industry is assured. 

The area devoted to farming increases yearly. Farming without irrigation 
has been successful in many cases, but the chief production is from irrigated 
lands in the Jefferson and Boulder valleys. The Jefferson valley, about 35 miles 
long, extends from the canyon on the east to Waterloo on the west and embraces 
Jefferson Island. Whitetail, Deer, Fish and Pipestone creeks water this section 
which contains many fine farms. The Boulder river has a long valley in which 
are situated many productive grain and stock ranches. Prickly Pear valley has 
the advantage of being near Helena. 

Oats, winter wheat, rye and hay are the chief crops. Irrigated oats yield 
from 25 to 50 bushels per acre and a bushel often weighs 44 pounds. Winter 
wheat and rye yield from 30 to 50 bushels on irrigated and from 15 to 40 on 
non-irrigated land. 

Native grasses make excellent hay, and alfalfa yields from 3 tu 6 tons to 
the acre. For butter, eggs, vegetables and fruits the many mining camps supply 
a market and the markets of Butte and Helena are in part supplied from this 
county. Diversified farming is pursued by many and dairying is profitable. Hardy 
apples produce abundantly. Excellent opportunities are present for the farmer, 
fruit grower, dairyman and gardener as well as for the capitalist, who will help 
to develop mines, and the stock grower. In addition to precious metals are de- 
posits of limestone and cement rocks. The excellent granite that was used to 
construct the wings of the State Capitol was quarried in Jefferson county, only 
ten miles from Helena. In the limestone formation, north of Jefferson canyon, is 
the wonderful Lewis & Clark cavern, one of the most beautiful and extensive 
caves in America. 

Boulder, the county seat, is situated in the central part of the county, thirty- 
seven miles from Butte, and thirty-five miles from Helena. It is a thriving town 
with good schools, churches, banks, business houses, a newspaper and many at- 
tractive residences. It is the home of the State School for the Deaf and Blind. 

Whitehall is the chief trading point in the southern part of the county and 
of the Jefferson valley. It had a population of 417 in 1910 and is perhaps the 
most populous town. It is a railroad junction point, has good schools, churches, 
and large business establishments. Piedmont, a new town, is in a good farming 
section. Many orchards have been planted, and vegetables are extensively grown. 
Basin, in a mining region, has commercial establishments, churches and schools. 
Clancy is in a prosperous mining and agricultural region. Corbin and Wickes 
are centers of mining activity. Elkhorn is where the famous Elkhorn group of 
mines is located. 

In Jefferson county are four noted mineral springs which are visited by many 
invalids who are benefited by the waters, and by many others in search of 
recreation. Alhambra and Sunnyside are fifteen miles south of Helena and haje 
excellent accomodations. Boulder Hot Springs are near the county seat and a 
costly hotel building has recently been erected. Pipestone Springs, on the Northern 
Pacific railroad, 26 miles from Butte, is a favorite resort. 

Jefferson county enjoys the advantages of being close to the cities of Butte 
and Helena, where farm products may be marketed and to which ores may be shipped 
for treatment at smelters. The average wealth and production per capita is high, 
and there are attractive opportunities for the homeseeker and the capitalist to acquire 
land at its present low valuation for farming or fruitgrowing and to purchase in- 
terests in mining properties that need the expenditure of capital to develop them 
into producing mines. 

The estimated population is 6,790 and the assessed valuation is $6,215,035. 

9««.^i. !!• » nil IK II II II II nil im mi >■ ■> nil nn nn-^nn nn nn— nn na nn ni nit nn nn an ni nn»*a 


• • 

0^ » ■■^^nn^^na^^na^^ua^^nn^^na^^Bn^^nn^^aa^^nn^^wH^^iiii^^iin^^iin^^iiB^^Bn^^nB^^Bi^^BH^^an— ^nn^^nn^— nn^^nn^^na nn— u» • # 

LAND AREA — Jefferson county, which is in the Helena land district, embraces 
an area of 1,642 square miles, including 125,146 acres of unreserved and unappro- 
priated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 28,840 acres of 
state land, and 482,267 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
307,609 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 150,000 bushels; oats, 425,000 bushels; barley, 10,000 bushels; potatoes, 
80,000 bushels; hay, 28,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horsea, 4,049 head; 
milch cows, 1,576 head; other cattle, 12,715 head; sheep, 2,900 head; swine, 795 head. 


One of the oldest and wealthiest counties in Montana is Lewis and Clark county. 
Under the name of Edgerton, it was one of the original counties of the territory, 
the name afterwards being changed to keep in remembrance the famous explorers 
of 1805. It was the scene of many events of historical interest in pioneer days; and 
Helena, the town of which grew up around the placer diggings of Last Chance gulch 
and became the financial, commercial and mining center of the state, was fittingly 
selected as the territorial capital and as the seat of government of Montana after 
its admission into the Union as a State. 

Nearly all the population and the greater part of the area of Lewis and Clark 
county are on the eastern side of the Rocky mountains, the land sloping from high 
mountains to the Missouri river wiiich runs through the county in a northeasterly 
direction and receives several important tributaries. A considerable area in the 
northern part of the county is in the Sun river drainage basin. The Prickly Pear 
valley, adjacent to Helena, and the Sun river valley, embrace most of the land that 
is under cultivation. 

On the western slope of the Rockies is a sparsely settled and mountainous part 
of the county in which are several mining districts. The drainage is mainly into 
the Big Blackfoot river, and the greater part of this region is included in national 

Mining, stock growing and farming are the occupations of the country 
residents, and commercial and manufacturing pursuits employ large numbers in the 
cities. The county embraces a very extensive and rich mineral belt and mining has 
been successfully carried on since 1864 when the wonderfully rich placers of Last 
Chance Gulch, now included within the limits of Helena, were discovered. Many other 
places were productive, and every year a considerable quantity of placer gold is 
recovered. Much land that could be profitably worked with a gold dredge will, it 
is thought, be found on exploration. Near Lincoln, on the west side, are placer 
grounds that have been yielding gold for many years. Mines at Unionville, a few 
miles south of Helena, have produced many million dollars' worth of gold. The 
Spring Hill and other great mines are in this neighborhood. During the past few 
months two producing mines have been opened in the Scratch Gravel district, three 
miles north of Helena, and many prospects are now being developed in this district. 
In either direction from Helena, mining camps are found only a few miles apart. 
The principal mining town is Marysville where many large mines are producing. 
It is reached by a branch line of the Northern Pacific from Helena, 21 miles distant. 
Gould is an established mining camp in the same section. A branch line of the 
Northern Pacific railroad extends to Rimini, 18 miles from Helena, which is a 
shipping point for an extensive mineral territory in the southwestern part of the 

To treat the ores of this and adjoining counties, the American Smelting Com- 
pany operates a smelter at East Helena where a large number of men are employed. 

0««_g,_^,a_^nn^— nil— BM— UK— im-^iK-^ni— li>-^"^— ■■^— KK— n"^— n*^— "'■^~"'>^— "" "" nii— im-^iin-^PH-^iin— nn^— m^— m— ■■-•#0 

;152 MONTANA-1916 • 

• „_ • 

East Helena is a considerable town which is connected with Helena by an electric 
railway and two steam railroads. 

Stock growing has been a leading Industry from early days and the fattening 
of beef cattle in the Prickly Pear valley for shipment to distant markets, is a 
branch of the business that is becoming important. 

The chief agricultural districts are in the valleys of the Prickly Pear and 
Missouri rivers near Helena and in the northern part of the county from the Dear- 
born to the Sun River. Farming development has been stimulated in the Augusta 
neighborhood by the construction of a railroad from Great Palls, and in the country 
near Helena by the recent completion of a large irrigation project. Much land, in 
what is known as the Helena valley, is also farmed by non-irrigated methods. Fruits' 
also grow successfully and several orchards have been set out. Soil and climate 
conditions are favorable for the Prickly Pear valley becoming a great fruit district; 
For farm products of all kinds, especially for vegetables and for fruits, the city of 
Helena and the adjacent mining camps will provide markets, the local production at) 
present falling far below the local demands. 

The enormous power that is generated at the electric power plants on the 
Missouri river is used in part to pump water from Hauser Lake to irrigate about 
30,000 acres of land within a few miles of Helena. The agricultural development of 
the country near Helena, caused both by the extension of cultivation of unirrigated 
lands and by the large increase in the acres under irrigation, promises to be rapid. 
In the past three years, many new settlers who have gone into the northern part of 
the county and have broken and planted many acres of raw land; older settlers have 
increased the number of acres under cultivation on their farms, and this part of 
Lewis and Clark county will soon become a very productive farming district. 

Helena, the county seat, is the capital of Montana and is a commercial, 
financial and political center. The population, in 1910, was 12,515. It is an at- 
tractive place of residence and is said to be the richest city per capita in the 
United States. The total resources of the banks of Helena are more than $1,000 
per capita. Costly private residences and large business blocks testify to the wealth 
of the inhabitants. 

Helena is the center of many religious activities. The Episcopal Bishop of 
Montana, the Bishop of the Methodist church, the Bishop of the Roman Catholic 
diocese of Helena, and official leaders of other denominations reside in the city. 
Hospitals, asylums and benevolent institutions are numerous. It is an educational 
center having an excellent public school system, and many denominational schools. 
By the aid of friends in Helena and at other places a large endowment fund has 
been raised for the Montana Wesleyan University, a long established institution 
which has secured handsome grounds, not far from the Capitol, upon which will be 
erected a group of fine buildings. The Deaconess School for young children, is a 
useful institution which is located a few miles from the city. The Catholic church 
has parochial schools, graded schools for boys and girls, a high school occupying a 
$500,000 building; St. Vincent's Academy, a school for girls, conducted by the Sisters 
of Charity, which has been in existence for many years and has a large attendance; 
and Mt. St. Charles College, for boys, which was opened in 1911, and has splendid 
buildings. One of the most beautiful churcli buildings in America is the new St. 
Helena Cathedral recently completed. 

The capitol, a splendid building costing $1,100,000 contains the offices of various 
state executive officials, the Supreme Court, and the chambers of the two branches of 
the legislative assembly. The Montana State Fair is held every year on grounds 
near the city and is attended by many thousand visitors. The federal courts meet 
in Helena and the chief federal officers for the state have offices in the city. A 

##•— ■ ii^^ig^— UH^— uii-^im [in— iiu^— iin^— tin^— iiii^— llli^— HH^^Hn^— iiH^— HH^— HH^^HH^^iiH^— Hii^— iiit-^iin— iin^— tiii^— uii^— (IN— nn^— itK*#9 

; T II 1 : TREASURE STATE 153 • 

• • 

0^a^— ■■ ■■ ■■ !!■— Hu— iin nn iin un-^tiii ml— -iin—— iiH^^uii^— nn^— nil^i— iiH*-~Hn^^llH^— nil*— iin— — iin-^tin— ua-— pii^— hh^— HH— H|«00 

United States assay office and the land office for the Helena district are located 
here, as are also the headquarters of the engineer in charge of the government 
reclamation work in Montana. 

Helena has all of the advantages and conveniences that are to be found in a 
modern and progressive city with public, business and residence buildings that com- 
pare favorably with those of any city whatever its size, and has some advantages 
peculiar to itself, such as the largest enclosed natural hot water natatorium in the 
world and one of the greatest developments of water power on the continent. Two 
immense dams and generating plants have been completed and a third is under con- 
struction. The three dams develop a total of 220 feet and will make available 100,000 
horse power. This abundant and cheap power is available for use on the farm and 
in the mines; is transmitted in large quantities to Butte and is an advantage for 
manufacturing plants that few cities possess. This almost unequalled power, the loca- 
tion of the city near districts that produce large quantities of grain, and the ex- 
cellence of the railroad facilities are expected to unite in making Helena a flour 
milling center as well as to be reasons for other manufacturing establishments to be 
started. Helena is an important jobbing center and goods are shipped to all parts 
of the state. The manufactures are crackers, candies, soap, spices, extracts and 
baking powders, brick and clay products. There are two breweries, an iron foundry 
and planing mills. There are two daily newspapers and five large printing establish- 

Helena is a railroad center, being on the main line of the Northern Pacific and 
the place from which the Rimini, Elkhorn and Marysville branches start. The 
Great Northern, through the Montana Central division, gives communication with the 
main line at Havre, the Burlington at Great Falls and Oregon Short Line at Butte. 

Lewis and Clark county abounds with opportunities in farming, fruit growing, 
mining and manufacturing, and is on the eve of great growth in all these lines. 

The population is estimated at 26,960 and the assessed valuation is $24,151,849. 

LAND AREA — Lewis and Clark county, which is in the Helena land district, 
embraces an area of 3,476 square miles, including 551,517 acres of unreserved and 
unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 112,089 acres 
of state land, and 863.147 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
668,929 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 300,000 bushels; oats, 750,000 bushels; barley, 50,000 bushels; flax, 
10,000 bushels; potatoes, 350,000 bushels; hay, 56,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 6,116 head; 
milch cows, 1,161 head; other cattle, 20,518 head; sheep, 137,000 head; swine, 1,476 


Occupying the northwest corner of the state and comprising a large area, rich 
in natural resources and but slightly developed, is Lincoln county, which was 
organized in 1909 from a part of Flathead county. The greater part of the county 
is mountainous and heavily timbered. Streams and lakes are numerous and the 
rainfall is heavier than in any other county in the state. The great river of this 
part of Montana is the Kootenai, which is said to have a larger flow of water than 
either the Missouri or the Yellowstone. Tol)acco, Fisher and Yakt rivers are im- 
portant tributaries draining large regions. 

The industries are lumbering, mining, farming and fruit growing. Lumbering 
is the leading industry and large lumber mills are operated at Libby, Eureka and 
Warland. It has been estimated that there are twenty billion feet of merchantable 

•154 MOISrTANA-1916 • 

i • 

timber standing in Lincoln county. Large numbers of men are employed at good 
wages in the lumber industry whose permanence is assured. The lumber camps 
furnish a local market for farm products and the wages of the workmen contribute 
largely to the business of the towns. 

The mineralized area is extensive and rich. In the southwestern part is the 
Libby silver-lead mining district whose rocks are said to be a counterpart of those 
of the rich Coeur d'Alene district of Idaho. The Snowshoe mine, in this district, 
has produced about $1,000,000. About 40 miles southeast from Libby are the West 
Fisher gold fields where many discoveries of rich ores have been made and much 
development work done. As soon as a railroad is built into this district, it will 
begin to produce large quantities of gold. In the northern part, near Eureka, are 
also promising mineral claims; and the Yakt district, in which is Sylvanite, contains 
much mineral wealth. The quartz mines present many opportunities for the suc- 
cessful investment of capital to aid in their development. The Libby placers were 
among the first discovered in Montana and have been producing gold since the 
early sixties. Hydraulic mining followed the ground sluicing and gold dredges may 
be used where the ground is favorable. 

The average rainfall is about 24 inches and irrigation is not necessary. The 
growing season is long, and the altitude away from the mountain peaks, is low, 
being 2,308 feet at Eureka, 2,113 at Jennings, 2,055 feet at Libby, and 1,881 feet at 
Troy. Tobacco Plains is the largest area without a growth of timber; smaller tracts 
of the same kind exist in many sections, and the area of farm lands is annually 
added to by the clearing of cutover timber lands. Throughout the county the 
conditions of soil, rainfall and climate are such as to insure prolific growths of all 
grains, grasses, vegetables and fruits. 

As a fruit country, Lincoln county has exceptional advantages. The Tobacco 
Plains district has a number of excellent orchards. Apples, plums, pears, cherries, 
and berries of all kinds produce large crops of excellent quality. The same is true 
of the whole Kootenai valley, which has the lowest altitude of any part of the 
state. Many thriving orchards exist near Libby and every year a number of acres 
of newly cleared land are planted to orchard trees. Troy is at even lower altitude; 
and the whole Kootenai valley has the advantages to make it one of the greatest 
fruit districts in the country. 

The Kootenai river drops 60 feet at Kootenai Falls and 40 feet in the rapids, a 
fall of 100 feet in the distance of one mile. This wonderful water power is as 
yet undeveloped. 

Lincoln county has much beautiful scenery, many picturesque mountain peaks 
and waterfalls, and a curiosity in Blackwell glacier. Many visitors are attracted to 
the county by the excellence of the fishing and the hunting. 

The advantages of this section, for wood pulp mills, are generally admitted. 

Three fine bridges have been completed across the Kootenai river at Troy, Libby 
and Rexford at the cost of $95,000, the balance of the bond issue of $125,000 voted 
for the purpose, having been used to aid in road construction. A good road now 
extends along the Kootenai river from Gateway at the Canadian boundary to the 
Idaho state line. 

The main line of the Great Northern railroad runs through the county and 
a branch line runs from Rexford north into the Pernie coal mining district of 

The principal towns are Eureka. Libby and Troy. Eureka is the chief trading 
point for the Tobacco Plains country, has electric light, Avater works, churches, 
scliools, a bank, a creamery, a newspaper, business buildings and attractive resi- 

#««i^ii •■ >• ill ■■ ■■ HI ■■ «• an IK on •• iin nn un iin nn nn un nu n> nn iin na an aa »••• 

: Tin; TKKASURE STATE 155 • 

• • 

##• ■" aa^— ea ■a—^na— aa— nn— aa^— ua— na— aa^^nw^— aa^— aa^^na^— ai^^m^^mi^— aa— aa^^aa^— nn^— iia— uh— ^aa—^nn— aa^— aa-^^^ 

dences. Large saw mills give employment to many men. The towiw is surrounded 
by a very productive farming and fruit district and immense forests are in the 
neighborhood. Copper, cement rock and marl are mineral assets. Eureka is a growing 
town and has openings for a flour mill, a cement plant and a brick tactory. 

Libby, the county seat, is on the Kootenai river, had a population of 630 in 
1910, which has since increased to 1,500; has fine public, business and residence 
buildings, hospitals, churches, banks, newspapers, numerous stores, a water works, 
electric lights, many miles of graded streets and cement sidewalks. Libby is in 
a great timber district and has large saw mills. The tributary country is rich in 
mineral, has beds of marble and includes part of the Kootenai valley orchard dis- 
trict besides many acres of good farming land. Libby is growing rapidly and has 
cheap fuel, available water power, clay, timber for wood pulp, and many other 
inducements for manufacturers. 

The estimated population of Lincoln county is 8,355 and the assessed valuation 
is $6,215,569. 

LAND AREA — Lincoln county, which is in the Kalispell land district, embraces 
an area of 3,660 square miles, including 3,980 acres of unreserved and unappropriated 
public land available for entry under the homestead law, 57,197 acres of state land 

and 2,005,535 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 531,224 acres 
are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat. 65,000 bushels; oats, 325,000 bushels; barley, 45,000 bushels; corn, 
8,000 bushels; potatoes, 125,000 bushels; hay, 7,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 1,690 head; 
milch cows, 530 head; other cattle, 1,305 head; sheep, 46 head; swine, 221 head. 


Madison county is situated in the southern part of the state, having Idaho as 
its southern boundary. It was one of the original counties created by the territorial 
legislature and one of the sixteen counties existing when the constitution of the 
state was adopted. Virginia City was the territorial capital and was the scene of 
many notable events in pioneer days. 

It contains Alder Gulch, discovered in 1863, which has produced more gold than 
any other similar area in the world and is still producing. At the mouth of the 
gulch are the large dredges of the Conrey Company which handle at large profits 
great quantities of gold bearing dirt. Quartz mining followed placer mining and 
Madison has produced and is still producing more gold than any other county in 
the state. The greater part of the county is in a mineralized region and numerous 
mining camps exit. Silver Star, Iron Rod, Twin Bridges, Rochester, Sheridan, 
Virginia City, Pony, Norris and Red Bluff are towns that are surrounded by rich 
mining districts. In addition to gold, silver, copper and lead are ores of tungsten, 
iron and manganese, pure limestone and coal. Sapphires and rubies are found in 
placer diggings. In the numerous mining districts are many good opportunities for the 
prospector, the miner and the capitalist. 

Mining, stock growing and farming are the three leading industries. Some of 
the best bred horses, cattle and sheep in the United States are in this county. Fine 
herds of cattle are numerous, and much attention has been paid to improving the 
breeds of sheep. Horses, cattle and sheep are shipped in large numbers each year 
and sell at prices that prove their quality. 

Madison county contains timbered mountain ranges, long rapid rivers, extensive 
and fertile valleys, and is watered by the Madison, Jefferson, Ruby, Beaverhead and 
Big Hole rivers and their numerous tributaries. An immense quantity of hydro- 

: 156 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

electric power is available, part of which is being utilized by the Montana Power 
Company which has built, seven miles from Norris, a dam across the Madison river 
and established a large plant that generates 20,000 horse power the year around. 
The power is transmitted to several points in the state, to Butte and Anaconda on the 
west, and to Bozeman, Livingston, Billings and other places on the east. 

A mountain range forms the eastern boundary, another is in the center, and a 
third in the western part. The chief agricultural districts are in the valleys and 
between the ranges. The Jefferson valley extends from the northern boundary to 
Twin Bridges where the river is formed and embraces in its own drainage basin 
and those of the South Boulder and Willow Creek a great extent of excellent farm 
land. South of Twin Bridges are the Beaverhead and Ruby valley, the former about 
15 miles long and five miles wide, and the latter about 30 miles long and from one 
to three wide. The extensive area in these valleys contain many highly improved 
and very productive farms. The trading points are Waterloo, Twin Bridges, Sheridan, 
Laurin and Alder. A part of the Willow creek valley is in Gallatin county, but the 
upper part is in Madison county and extends to Pony and Norris. South of Norris 
is the Madison valley, about 36 miles long, and, including the bench lands, about 5 miles 
wide. Large crops of oats, wheat and hay are raised. Meadow Creek, McAllister, 
Ennis, Jeffers, Cameron and Lyon are postoffices in this valley, which has room 
for at least five times its present farming population. Many excellent stock ranches 
are in this section. 

In the valleys are irrigated areas and on the benches, farming without irrigation 
has been successful. Several projects are pending that will increase the acreage of 
irrigated lands and some of the large ranches are being subdivided and sold in farm 

The county is sparcely settled and offers good advantages to the homeseeker 
who desires to secure farming and fruit lands by purchase at low prices. The 
markets of Butte and Anaconda are convenient; and fruits, dairy products, eggs and 
chickens are always in demand. 

The principal towns are Virginia City, the county seat, an important com- 
mercial and mining center, a rich town and of great historical interest, having been 
the territorial capital; Pony, a mining town and trading point for the Willow creek 
country; Sheridan, a pretty thriving town, surrounded by rich farm lands and near 
producing mines; and Twin Bridges, which is situated at the head of Jefferson 
valley near the confluence of the Ruby, Beaverhead and Big Hole rivers and at 
the outlet of the valleys of those rivers. Twin Bridges possesses a favorable location 
for growth in size and business importance and undoubtedly has a very bright 
future before it. 

The State Orphan's Home is at Twin Bridges and occupies buildings that have 
been erected at the cost of $160,000. It has numerous inmates and is well supported 
by appropriations for its maintenance. 

The Northern Pacific has a branch line extending from Whitehall to Alder and 
another from Sappington to Pony and Norris. The extension of the Pittsburg and 
Gilmore railroad from Dillon to Twin Bridges and Whitehall is a probability of 
the near future. 

The population of Madison county is estimated at 9,870 and the assessed valuation 
is $7,493,144. 

LAND AREA— Madison County, which is in the Helena and Bozeman land dis- 
tricts, embraces an area of 3,588 square miles, including 686,032 acres of unreserved 
and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 121,698 
acres of state land, and 839,382 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 565,184 acres are privately owned. 

#•• — ■■—— iw^^Bi ■■^^■■— iw^— w^— n«^— Bii^— im^— u»^— na^— nn^— ■N^— HW^— Hii^— nw^— wn— na— iiw-^aa^— NM— Bw^— ■■■^■■^— iiH— iiH-^mt«>0 


• ^^ _^ ^^ _^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^_ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ • 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat 300,000 bushels; oats, 1,200,000 bushels; barley, 65,000 bushels; potatoes, 
450,000 bushels; hay, 95,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: Horses, 9,811 head; 
milch cows, 1,280 head; other cattle, 26,878 head; sheep, 131,728 head; swine, 2,836 


Meagher county was one of the sixteen counties existing when Montana was 
admitted into the Union as a state in 1889. It was named for General Thomas F. 
Meagher, some time acting governor of the territory of Montana, whose statue adorns 
rhe grounds of the capital at Helena. Of great size when created, much of its 
original territory has been taken for new counties. There is now pending a proposal 
to form a county, to be known as Wheatland, out of the eastern part of Meagher 
county and adjacent parts of Sweet Grass county and Fergus county. Harlowton 
and Judith Gap will be in the new county if it is created. 

Meagher county is situated in the central part of the state. It is separated from 
Che Missouri valley by the Big Belt range. The two ranges and outlying spurs 
bound it on the north and in the southeastern part are the Crazy mountains. The 
Musselshell rises in this county and flows east. Smith river also rises in this 
county and flows north, entering the Missouri river near Great Palls. A large 
stream is Sixteen Mile creek which heads in the Castle mountains, flows west 
through a canyon of remarkable scenic beauty, and joins the Missouri at Lombard. 

The principal railroad is the Milwaukee, which crosses the southern part of the 
county from east to west. A railroad was built in 1910 to connect White Sulphur 
Springs with the main line. The Billings & Northern division of the Great Northern 
crosses through the eastern corner of the county. 

The chief farming districts are the Smith river valley in the northern, the 
Musselshell valley in the southern part, and the country around Judith Gap. The 
county has long been and is still a great stock country. Large tracts of land were 
acquired by stockmen who ranged cattle and sheep on the open range and raised 
hay and grain for their own use to be fed during the winter. Lands in the valley 
were irrigated, and it is only within a few years that farming has been carried on 
to any extent on unirrigated land. Irrigated lands in the Smith river and Mussel- 
shell valleys produce large crops of wheat, oats, barley, timothy, alfalfa and vege- 

The Smith river valley is about 50 miles long by 10 or 12 miles wide. Stock 
growing is the chief industry, but many acres of the valley and bench lands that 
formerly were devoted to raising hay and to pasture are being planted to grain, 
and a very extensive area will be put in crops when a railroad is built through 
the valley. The soil is very fertile; yields of 50 to 75 bushels of oats, 35 bushels of 
winter and 53 bushels of spring wheat, and 2 to 4 tons of hay are reported. On the 
Catlin ranch it is said that 30 bushels of flax to the acre have been raised. Oats 
often weigh 45 to 48 pounds a bushel. Many prizes have been won by Meagher 
county exhibits at the State Fairs. Another very productive section is the Mussel- 
shell valley, where are some of the largest and finest ranches in the state. Around 
Martinsdale, Two Dot and Harlowton are many productive farms both irrigated and 
unirrigated. The benches between the valleys are being farmed with success, the 
soil being fertile and the annual rainfall 19 inches. 

Great development has taken place in the country near Harlowton, and around 
Judith Gap and Hedgesville. Average yields of grain are high and some remark- 
able ones are reported. 

9«« „u iiii^_ II 11.^1111 nil— nil im-^iiB— uii^— nil ii,i__iiii^_iiii^_iiii_iiii^_iiii nil iin nn un iiu— iin-^nn^— nn— nif^nn-^nu— mi SCS 

•158 M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 6 ; 

• • 

0^9^^nn— *nn^^iiii^^nii^^iiii^^nu^^iHi~^nN^^nn--~nii^^iiii^^iiil^^UH^— iMi^— nii^^nn-^un^— iiii^^un^^iiii^^nN^^nH^— uu^— nu^^nu-^un^^un^^iin «0A 

Ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and iron exist. Near Delphine is some 
activity in mining. Castle was formerly a large producer of silver. 

White Sulphur Springs, the county seat, is picturesquely situated near the head 
of Smith river valley 18 miles from the Milwaukee railroad, with which it is con- 
nected by the White Sulphur Springs & Yellowstone Park railroad. The waters ot 
the wonderful springs that give name to the town possess healing qualities of great 
value. The water has a copious flow at 110 degrees. The springs have been bought 
by John Ringling, the circus owner, who intends to errect here a large and costly 
hotel and to provide the conveniences of a great health resort. The town has a high 
school, graded schools, three churches, banks, a newspaper, hotels and stores. 
Some of the large ranches in the neighborhood are being sold in small lots and the 
population and business of the town is increasing. 

Harlowton, in the Musselshell valley where the Judith Basin line joins the main 
line of the Milwaukee, is the chief town and has experienced great growth in popula- 
tion and business in the last five years. It is a well built, busy and growing town, 
and has a large hotel, extensive flour mills, business houses, banks, a newspaper 
and is the distributing point for a large agricultural and stock district. Railroad 
shops and a railroad pay-roll contribute to its prosperity. 

Judith Gap, at the entrance to Judith Basin, is a flourishing new town in a very 
productive section. It is a division point on the railroad and in the large round 
houses and shops and in the operating department many men are employed. The 
town has a newspaper and numerous business houses and hotels. 

Meagher county offers excellent opportunities to the homeseekers to purchase 
lands at low prices or to enter land under the homestead law on the benches where 
vacant public land may still be found. 

The population is estimated at 10,100 and the assessed valuation is $11,084,129. 

LAND AREA — Meagher county, which is in the Helena land district, embraces 
an area of 3,553 square miles, including 245,254 acres of unsurveyed and unappro- 
priated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 138,649 acres of state 
land, and 728,887 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 1,124,708 
acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915; wheat, 450,000 bushels; oats, 525,000 bushels; barley, 20,000 bushels; flax, 15,000 
bushels; potatoes, 65,000 bushels; hay 60,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 8,737 head; 
milch cows, 1,735 head; other cattle, 20,696 head; sheep 212,218 head; swine, 
2,190 head. 


Mineral county is one of the newest counties in the state having been created 
from the extreme western portion of Missoula county in August, 1914. The 
county, which is generally composed of picturesque ranges of mountains, is cut in 
two by the swift flowing Clark's Pork of the Columbia and contains one of the 
longest and most fertile valleys of the state, although the valley, in many places, Is 
very narrow. Back of this valley there are, in places, benchlands which have been 
found to be very productive, and the county, although very backward in the 
past, is now experiencing a healthy agricultural growth. 

Lumbering and mining are, however, the chief industries of this sesction of the 
state. At St. Regis is located one of the largest sawmills of the state and at 
Henderson another mill is in operation. The region west of St. Regis is heavily 
timbered and will furnish work for logging crews for many years to come. 

«••-_>■ ■■ an ui ii< III nil nil un nil 111 ml rin nil m mi rni n« nil mi mi nu im ni— .uu ug mi II*«« 


• • 

0^0^^«i^^ig^^nii— -Di— >nii^^Bi!^^an^^ua^^on^^aa^^nit*^fln^^aB^^un^^iiit^^aii^^nD^^nD— ^un— ^nn^^iin^^Dn— — uii^^iiii^^nii^^na^^np^^ua«0A 

Superior, the county seat and principal town, is a rapidly growing, progressive 
place. Its location is extremely picturesque, being on the Clark's Fork river with 
towering mountains on either side. The town now has an estimated population of 
450, and hoasts one bank, with more than $100,000 deposits, eight retail stores, one 
theater, two weekly newspapers. 

Along the Clark's Pork river, in Mineral county, it is estimated that 20,000 
horse power can be developed and the development of this power will undoubtedly 
give a strong impetus to the industrial life of this section of the state. 

There has been renewed activity in mining in this county during the past few 
months and at the present time more than 400 men are employed on properties 
adjacent to Superior. 

Mineral county offers unusual inducements to tourists. There is magnificient 
scenery and the best of hunting and fishing may be found within easy access 
of the railroads. 

In the development of the county, it seems probable that dairying will soon play 
an important part. The excellent pasturage which the cut over lands of the 
county furnish, together with the purest of water and a never failing market for 
dairy products, tend to make dairying very remunerative along the Clark's Pork, 
and this industry promises to enjoy much growth in the near future. 

The estimated population of Mineral county is 2,750 and the assessed valuation 
of the county, in 1915, was $4,035,177. 

LAND AREA — Mineral county, which is in the Missoula land district, embraces 
an area of 1,224 square miles, including 59,248 acres of unreserved and unap- 
propriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 26,285 acres of 
state land, and 875,000 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
171,784 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat 10,000 bushels; oats 75,000 bushels; barley 20,000; potatoes 45,000 
bushels; hay 12,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 618 head; 
milch cows, 207 head; other cattle, 351 head; sheep 88 head; swine 331 head. 


When the territory of Montana was divided into counties, the extensive country 
drained by the Bitter Root, Clark's Pork and Kootenai rivers was put in Missoula 
county. The flourishing counties of Ravalli, Missoula, Sanders, Plathead, Mineral 
and Lincoln, have been formed from Missoula county, which still retains an 
extensive area having a large variety of rich natural resources. 

The principal industries are farming, fruit growing, lumbering and mining. The 
principal farming districts are the Bitter Root and Missoula valleys and the recently 
opened Plathead Indian reservation. South of the city of Missoula, to the boundary 
line of Ravalli county, extends the part of the wonderful Bitter Root valley 
which is embraced in Missoula county and north and west lies the Missoula valley. 
Around Prenchtown, 17 miles from Missoula, is an old and prosperous farming 
community. In the Missoula valley average crops are 2% to 3% tons of timothy 
hay to the acre, 2% tons of clover at the first crop and 2 tons at the second. 
Great yields of wheat and oats are reported from irrigated lands. On non-irrigated 
land, wheat yields from 30 to 40 bushels to the acre, oats 60 bushels and barley 
45 bushels. Potatoes yield about 250 bushels to the acre, many vegetables are grown 
and the county is splendidly adapted for dairying and has some dairy cattle of the 
highest quality. While stock raising is not a leading industry, many head of beef 
cattle are annually shipped to Montana cities and to Pacific coast points. 

• •• „ 1,, .p » .„ HP an >,. ir. m in nn D« «n un ni n> n. .o ,. ... .n m ,. u, .. .. ..«•• 

•160 MONTANA- 191G • 

• • 

••• — "" — "" — " — "" — "" — "" — "" — " — "" — ■» — " — " — "■ — ■" — " — "" — "• — " — " — "• — ■" — " — '" — " — " — " — " — "••• 

In 1910 the Flathead Indian reservation, the southern part of which is in 
Missoula county, was opened to settlement. The reservation is about 60 miles 
long and about 40 miles wide and contains a million and half acres. While the 
greatert part of the area is mountainous and grazing land, the agricultural area is 
very extensive. Mission valley is one of the most beautiful and fertile in the state. 

Large yields of grains, grasses, vegetables and fruits are too common in the 
Bitter Root and Missoula valleys to excite comment and the reports that come from var- 
ious neighborhoods in the Flathead reservation indicate that a very extensive country 
is coming into cultivation which in quantity, quality and variety of products will 
rival those of the valleys that have made western Montana famous. In parts of the 
Mission valley, all the conditions for successful fruit growing on a commercial 
scale are present. With the coming of a railroad, rapid increase in the acreage 
in cultivation will take place but remarkable progress has already been made in the 
short space of six years. 

The fruit growing industry is a leading industry in Missoula county and is 
very profitable. Apples, cherries, plums, pears, berries, peaches in a few places, and 
grapes at St. Ignatius Mission are grown. Bing and Lambert cherries have been 
shipped in carload lots to New York. Many varieties of apples are grown but the 
Mcintosh Red, which is the leading variety, attains perfection. This apple, beautiful 
in color, excellent in flavor and of good keeping quality, is in demand in all the 
markets of the world and many carloads are shipped to New York and other 
eastern points. The apple raising industry is capable of great development and 
markets for fruit of the first quality should never be lacking. 

Lumbering is a very important industry, and the lumber mills at Bonner are 
among the largest in the northwest. Smaller mills are numerous. 

The towns are Missoula, Bonner, Ravalli and Ronan. Ronan the chief town in the 
Flathead reservation, has a population of 500, is incorporated, has a bank, a news- 
paper, business houses, and is loking forward confidently for the arrival of a 
railroad that will hasten the development of the fertile region of which it is the 
trading point. Ravalli and St. Ignatius are growing towns in the reservation; at 
Bonner, six miles east of Missoula where the Big Blackfoot river emerges from 
a canyon, is an electric power plant and one of the largest lumber mills in the 
northwest. An electric railway connects Bonner with Missoula. 

The city of Missoula is the metroplis of the western part of Montana. It is 
conveniently located at the northern end of the Bitter Root valley which extends south 
for about 65 miles, has the Missoula valley adjacent to it, is close to the Flathead 
reservation on the north and to the Big Blackfoot valley on the east. Missoula 
is a well built, progressive city that has all modern improvements, good public, 
business and private buildings, banks with large deposits, electric lights, power 
and street railway, two daily newspapers, numerous large business houses, a number 
of manufacturing establishments and openings for many more. A beet sugar 
factory is shortly to be opened here. The Western Montana Apple show is an 
annual event in Missoula and wonderful displays of Montana fruits are made. The 
secretary of the State Board of Horticulture, who is also the chief inspector of fruit 
and fruit trees, maintains an office in the city. The headquarters of the United 
States forestry service for district number one are also in Missoula, at which is 
also located the United States land office for the district. Fort Missoula is an 
army post in the suburbs. Missoula is the seat of the University of Montana which, 
in the few years since its establishment, has grown to be an institution of great 
usefulness. It is a delightful place of residence and is known as "the Garden City." 

Missoula is an important railroad point, being on the main line of the Northern 
Pacific and the Chicago, Milwaukee and Puget Sound railways, both of which 
have built extensive passenger and freight stations, have large yards, and a pay- 

• ••^■« ■•^■i •■ c.—.ii^—.. III ai^ia— 1> HI m ■■ ui— uii nn nil m im ua m ag ai gg gg— iig ua»«« 


roll that contributes much to the volume of business done. Missoula is connected 
with the famous Coeur d'Alene mining district of Idaho by a branch of the 
Northern Pacific that passes through the county before leaving the state. 

The estimated population of the county is 32,460 and the assessed valuation is 

LAND AREA — Missoula county, which is in the Missoula land district, em- 
braces an area of 3,022 square miles, including 105,595 acres of unreserved and 
unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 79,412 
acres of state land, and 940,000 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 903,571 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915; wheat, 300,000 bushels; oats, 750,000 bushels; barley, 45,000 bushels; potatoes, 
185,000 bushels; hay, 20,000 tons; apples, 80,000 bushels; strawberries, 50,000 
quarts; raspberries, 20,000 quarts; currants, 10,000 quarts. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 5,757 head; 
milch cows, 2,614 head; other cattle, 9,701 head; sheep, 6,058 head; swine, 3,400 


Musselshell county was created March 1, 1911, from parts of Fergus, Yellow- 
stone and Meagher counties. It embraces a large part of the valley of the Mussel- 
shell river and is named for that stream. 

The industries are coal mining, stock growing and farming. Very extensive beds 
of coal of good grade have long been known to exist in the Bull mountains, but 
they were not developed until the Chicago, Milwaukee and Puget Sound railway 
was built through the Musselshell valley a few years ago. Now the mines at and 
near Roundup have been developed so that they have the capacity to produce 
5,000 tons of coal a day; at other places are smaller mines; prospects that may soon 
become producing mines are numerous; and a very extensive area of known coal land 
has not been developed at all. 

For a generation before the arrival of a railroad the Musselshell was a splendid 
stock raising country. The water was good, the grass abundant and nutritious, and 
the winters mild. Stock growing is still a leading industry and many carloads 
of wool and beef cattle are shipped annually. Farming did not become an in- 
dustry of importance until the railroad was built, since which time it has experienced 
a remarkable growth. 

A considerable acreage in the Musselshell valley and a smaller amount in 
tributary valleys are irrigated. The recent development, however, has been chiefly 
in farming bench lands without irrigation; and wherever proper systems of cul- 
tivation have been followed, profitable and in some cases surprisingly large 
crops have been raised of wheat, oats, flax and alfalfa. 

The Musselshell river runs through the center of the county, the railroad 
runs along its banks, and the developed farm lands are found both on the north 
and south sides; and new farms on homestead lands or on lands bought from the 
Northern Pacific railroad or on some of the old stock ranches extend back for 
miles. There is still good homestead land to be had and cheap lands to be 

Roundup, the county seat, has been called "the Miracle of the Musselshell," 
and its growth in a few years from a small village in a cattle country to one 
of the best built, busiest and most progressive towns of the northwest has been 
little short of marvelous. The population is estimated at 3,150 and the city has 
water works, improved streets, many miles of cement sidewalks, is lighted by 

•162 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

%9l m in Ml ni nn nn "" — "" - " "" " "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" " "" "rr ■■ m •%% 

electricity and has cheap electric power and fuel, has good schools, churches, 
banks, two newspapers and many business houses. The great pay-roll of the coal 
mines is the basis of the commercial business of the town, whose trade extends for 
many miles in all directions. Roundup is surrounded by a rich and developing 
agricultural country. Klein is a busy coal mining camp near Roundup. 

Near the eastern boundary is the town of Melstone, which is a division point 
on the Milwaukee railroad and is the trading point for a rapidly developing 
country. Melstone is surrounded by a good farming district and there are 
undeveloped beds of coal in the vicinity. 

Lavina was a noted place in the old stage coach days and the new town, a mile 
east of the old one, enjoys the same advantages of location and is a thriving, growing 
place. Many prosperous ranch homes are in the vicinity. An artesian well 
yielding water under good pressure is in the town. 

The county around Rygate, a town in the western end of the county, has under- 
gone a wonderful transformation in the last five years from a grazing to a farming 
country. The soil is good and large yields of all staple crops are made. Opportunities 
exist to buy good land on easy terms. 

The character of the soil, the climatic conditions and sheltered positions of 
considerable area of land in Musselshell county suggest that fruit growing on a 
commercial basis would be successful; and the growing of sugar beets on irrigated 
lands in the valley would surely be carried on on a large scale if there were a 
beet sugar factory within shipping distance. 

The population of Musselshell county is estimated at 16,280 and the assessed 
valuation is $12,614,799. 

LAND AREA — Musselshell, which is in the Billings and Lewistown land dis- 
tricts, embraces an area of 2,944 square miles, including 92,155 acres of unreserved 
and unappropriated public land, and 24,480 acres of national forests. Of the total 
area of the county, 1,221,375 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 850,000 bushels; oats, 375,000 bushels; barley, 30,000 bushels; flax 15,000 
bushels; potatoes, 105,000 bushels; corn, 20,000 bushels; hay 28,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock; horses, 9,257 head; 
milch cows, 2,507 head; other cattle, 8,086 head; sheep, 42,468 head; swine, 3,939 


Park county is one of the southern tier of counties and adjoins the Yellow- 
stone National Park from which it was named. It was created February 23, 1887, 
from a part of Gallatin county and some of its original territory is now included 
in Carbon and Sweet Grass counties. 

The county is watered by the Yellowstone and Shields rivers and their 
numerous tributaries. In the southern part of the county are high mountains on each 
side of the Yellowstone valley. The Yellowstone river emerges from the Yellowstone 
National Park and flows south through several canyons to Livingston, where it turns 
to the east. South of Livingston is a long valley of varying width; and on each side 
are foothills rising to the mountain ranges which contain timber, minerals, much 
beautiful secenery, and favorite resorts for hunting and fishing. Hunters, Chico, 
and Corwin springs attract many health seekers, and their waters have valuable cura- 
tive properties. 

The industries are stock raising, farming and mining. The minerals are gold, 
silver, copper, lead, scheelite, and coal. Emigrant gulch was formerly a producer 
of placer gold in large quantities and there are quartz mines in the neighbor- 

' ■ ■ " -- •" "■ "" "" "■ "" ■" "- "" "" ■■ rrn fi tn tin — nn- nn nn iin nii ■ ■ n n ■■ ■■ n i !!■ •># 


hood. Jardine and Crevasse are mining camps near the Yellowstone Park entrance; 
and the New World mining district, in the high mountain range in the south- 
eastern corner, of which Cooke city is the trading point, is highly mineralized, 
has been developed to a considerable extent, needs, it is said, only a railroad to 
become one of the greatest producing mineral districts in the United States. The 
developed coal mines are at Aldridge, in the southern part of the county, and at 
Trail Creek near the Gallatin county line. Marble and gypsum have been found 
and cement rock of a superior quality. It is proposed to erect a mill that will manu- 
facture white cement. 

Park county has much excellent grazing land on which pasture livestock of 
excellent grade. 

The agricultural industry, which is growing rapidly in importance, embraces 
farming of irrigated lands in the valleys and of unirrigated lands on the benches 
and in the foothills. The soil is fertile and crop yields challenge comparison with 
those grown anywhere. Oats, wheat, barley and alfalfa are the chief crops in 
the irrigated districts and truck farming and fruit growing are also engaged in 
to a limited extent. All root crops make remarkable yields. On the unirrigated 
lands, wheat, oats and barley are the leading crops. 

The Yellowstone valley, south of the canyon near Livingston, embraces a large 
and productive farming district and another part of the valley lies east of the 
city. The largest farming district, however, is the Shields river valley embracing 
the northern part of the county and including arable land estimated as amounting 
to 800,000 acres. Until the construction, a few years ago, of the Shields river 
branch line of the Northern Pacific, this vast area of fertile farm land was, except 
in the lower part, devoted to stock raising. It has been rapidly transformed into 
farms, but many acres still remain unplowed. Great crops of all grains and 
grasses are produced in this favored region. 

Taking the county as a whole the yields of leading crops every year are about 
as follows per acre: irrigated wheat, 45 to 60 bushels; unirrigated wheat, 25 to 35 
bushels; irrigated oats, 70 to 90 bushels; unirrigated oats, 40 to 60 bushels. Many 
crops exceed these figures. Alfalfa yields from 2% to 5 tons. About 100,000 tons 
of hay are annually cut and there is a good demand for all that is not needed 
for home consumption. 

The estimated population of Park county is 14,690 and the assessed valuation 
is $10,985,589. 

LAND AREA — Park county embraces an area of 2,679 square miles, including 
54,660 acres of unreserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under 
the homestead law, 39,606 acres of state land, and 898,382 acres of national 
forests. Of the total area of the county, 675,407 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 1,750,000 bushels; oats, 875,000 bushels; barley, 125,000 bushels; 
corn, 7,000 bushels; potatoes, 200,000 bushels; hay, 67,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 8,857 
head; milch cows, 2,667 head; other cattle, 18,912 head; sheep, 74,925 head; 
swine, 4,878 head. 


Phillips county was created in February, 1915, from the eastern portion of 
Blaine county and the western portion of Valley county. Generally speaking, this 
section of the state is devoted almost exclusively to farming and stockgrowing, 
although in the southern portion of Phillips county there are a number of producing 
gold mines. 

9 • • _iii^_nii^_iiii.^iiii iiii^_ii^_Dn.^uii^— nil— nil iiii iio nn-^nii^— DD^— m^— nn^— hb^— nn-^iiii ne^— im^un— iig^— Di^— ■a.^iii— m. • •• 

•164 31 O X T A N A - 1 9 1 « ; 

• • 

Until recently, farming was unknown in Phillips county and the broad, fertile 
prairies of the county were given over to the grazing of thousands of head of 
cattle and sheep. This has been largely changed now, and throughout the county 
are to be found large farming districts which are rapidly going forward. 

The county is well watered by the Milk river, which flows from west to east 
through the central portion. A considerable acreage in the county will be irrigated 
by the Milk river project, now being constructed by the United States reclamation 
service, and already dairying and intensive farming is being practiced m some 
irrigated sections. 

In the Little Rockies in the southern part of this county, is one of the most 
productive gold camps in Montana. The Ruby Gulch Gold Mining company of Zortman 
is the principal producer. At Landusky are the mines of the August Gold com- 
pany. The Rawhide, the Ninety-Six and the property of the Fergus Mining company 
have been extensively developed. 

Malta, the county seat, until a few years ago one of the famous "cow towns" 
of the west, has developed into a prosperous, progressive city. It has electric lights, 
modern stores, well kept streets and every aspect of a thriving town. It is the 
distributing point for a large farming territory, lying both to the north and to the 
south and is enjoying a rapid growth. Dodson, on the western side of the county, 
and Saco, on the eastern, are thriving towns. 

The estimated population of Phillips county is 9,760 and the assessed valuation 
of the county, in 1915, was $4,335,839. 

LAND AREA — Phillips county, which is in the Havre and Glasgow land 
districts, embraces an area of 5,266 square miles, including 1,991,300 acres of unre- 
served and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead 
law, 112,345 acres of state land, and 29,240 acres of national forests. Of the total area 
of the county, 205,977 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 450,000 bushels; flax, 15,000 bushels; barley, 35,000 bushels; corn, 
25,000 bushels; oats 325,000 bushels; potatoes, 75,000 bushels; hay, 20,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 10,842 
head; milch cows, 1,639 head; other cattle, 11,314 head; sheep, 129,507 head; 
swine, 924 head. 


Powell county lies on the western slope of the Rocky mountains west of 
Lewis and Clark and north of Deer Lodge counties and was organized in 1901. 
One of the original counties of Montana was Deer Lodge, whose territory has been 
divided into the four counties of Silver Bow, Deer Lodge, Granite and Powell. 
Within Powell county are much of the best lands the original county contained, 
and it has retained as county seat Deer Lodge, which is one of the oldest and most 
attractive towns in the state. 

In 1858 Granville Stuart, an honored pioneer who now lives at Butte, and 
five companions made at Gold creek in what is now Powell county the discovery 
of placer gold which, it is claimed, led to the settlement of Montana. Though 
unable at the time to work the placer they returned and began work in 1862, the 
news of their discovery led to the prospecting of other districts, and Bannack 
and Alder gulch were discovered. Gold seekers in large numbers flocked into the 
country and a territory was created and named Montana. 

The industries are mining, stock growing and farming. The placers have 
been worked from early days and much gold has been taken from them. On 

♦ ♦•—■ ■■ ■ — —•^—■■—BB—^Bi^^llM— BB^^tl^^Bi^^nn^^llM I !!«»■» UB—li—HI*^!! i ■■^^BK»^M^— nn^— [lll^— llll^— [111^— nii^— iin^— llll^— iin— llll-* • # 

: THE TREASURE ST A Till 165 * 

• • 

both sides of Deer Lodge valley are quartz mines and mineral claims. Some 
of the best mining opportunities in any district of the state are to be found in 
the several mining districts in the upper Ophir and Snow Shoe districts. Near 
Helmville and Ovando several gold and copper properties have been developed, and 
in the neighborhood of Elliston there is much activity in mining. On Dry 
Cottonwood creek, 14 miles southeast of Deer Lodge, many sapphires have been 

Powell county is well timbered, especially in the northern part, and lumbering 
is an industry of importance. A large part of the land is mountainous and 
where it is not covered by timber is a luxuriant growth of native grasses. Much 
attention has been paid to improving the breeds of live stock and Powell county is 
noted for the excellence of its horses, cattle and sheep. Many car loads of beef 
cattle and wool are annually shipped. 

The Deer Lodge valley where irrigation is practiced contains many productive 
farms. A number of large ranches in the vicinity of Deer Lodge have recently 
changed hands and will be sold in farms of moderate size with the result of adding 
greatly to the number of farms in the valley. The valley of the Little Blackfoot is 
not extensive but contains many good farms. Nevada creek valley is larger 
and in it are raised large crops of hay and grain. The Big Blackfoot valley 
is a fine stock country which will change in part to a farming district when 
railroads are built into it. The soil is fertile, all grains do well, and in few 
sections can such profuse yields of timothy be secured. 

On some of the large ranches in the Big Blackfoot valley farming has been 
successfully conducted on a large scale and on many small farms and homestead 
claim excellent crops have been raised. The arable area is extensive, but its agri- 
cultural development has been held back by the lack of railroads. The northern part 
of Powell county is now almost exclusively a stock raising district, but when it is 
made possible to transport farm products to market by rail the fertile plough lands 
in the valleys, on the benches and foothills, will be devoted to farming and the 
higher and rougher lands will be used for grazing live stock. Cultivated grasses 
make large yields and the native grasses are abundant and nutritious; water is 
plentyful; the climate is good and the soil fertile; wood for fuel is abundant; as 
soon as a railroad reaches this district it should attract a large population to engage 
in diversified farming for which the country has so many advantages. 

The location of Powell county close to the cities of Butte, Anaconda, Missoula, 
and Helena insures convenient markets for all products. Truck gardening, raising 
poultry and eggs are profitable, and the county has unusual advantages for the 

The main line of the Northern Pacific, after crossing the main divide, 
follows the course of the Little Blackfoot river and at Garrison is joined by the 
line extending from Butte through the Deer Lodge valley. Through the latter 
valley the Milwaukee railroad runs. 

Deer Lodge, the county seat, w^as prominent in the history of Montana in 
territorial days. It is a city of homes, is beautifully located, has well laid out 
streets bordered by shade trees, has many churches, fine graded schools, is the seat 
of St. Mary's Academy for girls and of the College of Montana, an old, well 
equipped and well endowed institution of higher learning. The town has many 
handsome public and private buildings, banks, newspapers, and commercial estab- 
lishments. About 200 new buildings were erected in 1910 and 1911 and large 
sums were spent in public improvements including a new sewer system and 
several miles of sidewalks. The Montana State Prison is located at Deer Lodge, 
and the furnishing of supplies to the inmates and the guards is a considerable item 
in the town's business. 

•166 M O N T A X A - 1 9 1 6 • 

• • 

Other towns are Elliston on the Little Blackfoot, a mining center; Garrison, 
a railroad junction point and the trading place for a considerable territory; 
Ovando and Helmville. Helmville is the principal town in the northern part of the 
county and is surrounded by a good farming region which will experience rapid 
development when the railroad comes. 

The population of Powell county is estimated at 8,100 and the assessed valu- 
ation is $7,346,760. 

LAND AREA — Powell county, which is in the Helena land district, embraces an 
area of 2,549 square miles, including 218,684 acres of unreserved and un- 
appropriated public land, available for entry under the homestead law, 52,564 acres of 
state land, and 621,509 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 
573,327 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 50,000 bushels; oats, 425,000 bushels; barley, 25,000 bushels; corn, 2,000 
bushels; potatoes 95,000 bushels; hay, 76,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock; horses, 4,832 head; 
milch cows, 1,353 head; other cattle, 13,631 head; sheep, 97,214 head; swine, 
1,213 head. 


Prairie, carved in 1915 from parts of Custer and Dawson, is Montana's baby 
county. It is one of the smallest counties of the state, but is likewise one of 
the best developed. Practically the entire area of the county is available for farming 
purposes and as all of the county is within easy access of the best of railroad trans- 
portation, it will undoubtedly be but a short time until every tillable acre in 
the county is placed under the plow. 

Prairie county is watered by the Yellowstone river, which flows through the 
county from west to east, and by a number of smaller streams which flow Into the 
Yellowstone. Irrigation however, is not practiced in this county, as exceptionally 
high yields have been secured by non-irrigated farming. This county, like Dawson 
and Custer, is in the heart of the "corn belt" of Montana, and its long growing 
season enables corn to attain certain maturity. 

The climate is practically the same as that of Iowa and Illinois. The alti- 
tude is approximately 2,300 feet, insuring cool nights, there are comparative few- 
severe storms; the air is dry and one does not feel the cold of winter or the heat 
of summer as in more humid regions. The normal rainfall is in excess of fifteen 
inches, more than half of which falls during the growing season and, under proper 
cultivation, this has proved ample for all crops in this soil. 

Terry, the county seat, is a rapidly growing town with excellent railroad 
facilities. It is served by the main lines of both the Northern Pacific and the 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul. Terry is a distributing center for a large farm- 
ing country in the northern part of the county and is rapidly assuming metropolitan 
airs. The second most important town in the county is Fallon near the extreme 
eastern border. Like Terry, Fallon enjoys a good trade and is growing rapidlj 

The population of Prairie county is estimated at 6,350 and the assessed valuation 
of the county, in 1915, was $5,088,483. 

LAND AREA— Prairie county, which is in the Miles City land district, embraces 
an area of 1,685 square miles, including 109,280 acres of unreserved and unappropri- 
ated public land available for entry under the homestead law, and 58,698 acres of 
state land. Of the total area of the county, 634,568 acres are privately owned. 


• • 

CROP PRODUCTION^:riie following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 450,000 bushels; oats, 575,000 bushels; barley, 45,000 bushels; corn, 
65,000 bushels; flax, 70,000 bushels; potatoes, 80,000 bushels; hay, 12,500 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 7,626 
head; milch cows, 1,552 head; other cattle, 7,242 head; sheep, 55,184 head; swine, 
1.779 head. 


Between the high Bitter Root mountain range which forms the western boundary 
of Montana and an outlaying range of the Rocky mountains lies the Bitter Root 
valley noted as one of the most wonderful sections of America on account of the 
salubrity of the climate, the fertility of the soil and the beauty of the scenery. 
All but about fifteen miles of this valley, which is about 75 miles long and 
varies in width from a mile or two to fifteen miles or more, is in Ravalli county. 
On both sides are extensive foothills and benches. From the mouniains descend 
many streams that furnish water for irrigation, and through the length of the 
valley flows the beautiful Bitter Root river, one of the headwaters of the Columbia 
river. Protected by mountain ranges the winters are usually mild, the thermometer 
rarely falling to zero. The summers are delightful; the days are never excessively 
hot and the nights are always cool There are many places of rare scenic beauty, 
mineral springs, excellent trout streams, and places where big game may be found. 
The first church in Montana was established by Father DeSmet in the Bitter 
Root valley in 1841; and there the first crops of wheat, oats and potatoes were 
grown. The first flour and saw mills to be built in what is now the state of 
Montana were built then under the direction of the Catholic missionaries to the 
Flathead Indians, the tribe which inhabited the country. Ravalli county was formed 
from Missoula county in 1893 and named for Father Ravalli one of the pioneer 

The industries are farming, fruit growing and lumbering. Agriculture in 
Montana had its beginning in the Bitter Root valley which early attracted settlers 
who engaged in stock raising and in farming. Hay, wheat ana oats made 
astonishing yields. Marcus Daly, the copper magnate, bought a large tract of land 
near Hamilton and made the most highly improved farm in Montana. Good 
crops have been grown without irrigation on bench lands. The valley lands are 
irrigated and large yields of all staple crops are harvested every year. A new 
and promising crop is seed peas. The potato rivals the apple as a profit pro- 
ducing crop. 

Celery, asparagus, tomatoes, peas, cabbage and other vegetables are raised in 
large quantities and sold in the cities of the state. 

Ravalli is not a range stock county, but has many pure bred horses, cattle 
and hogs. The Bitter Root Stock Farm at Hamilton was formerly the home of 
Mr. Daly's stable of famous thoroughbred and standard bred horses and many 
noted performers on race tracks were raised there. The dairy stock Is of high 
grade and the valley has many advantages as a dairying section. 

Some of the early settlers planted fruit trees which succeeded so well that 
it became evident that the Bitter Root valley possessed unique advantages as a 
fruit district, and much credit is due to the early fruit growers whose experiments 
resulted in building up a great industry. Orchards are found in all parts of the 
valley and on bench lands that are not suitable for farming. The profits from 
growing apples are so great that no one can afford to grow grain on lands suitable 
for orchards. Large capital has been enlisted in developing irrigation and 
orchard enterprises and much publicity has been given to the attractions and 
advantages of this section. One of the longest private irrigation canals in the 
world has been constructed by the Bitter Root Valley Irrigation company. 

: 168 M O N T A N A - 1 9 1(J • 

• • 

0^«_ll^^op..^Bi^— ni^^UD iiu iiH^— iin uH^— nn^— OH— uii-^an^^lia^^iia^— Bl^^na— — UI1M— nn hh hu^— i<n— ^dd— riti nn^— ■■ hk.^— ot-#00 

Apples are the chief commercial fruit crop, the variety most extensively 
grown being the Mcintosh Red which reaches perfection in this valley. Hundreds 
of thousands of trees have been set out in the last few years. Cherries, pears, 
plums, peaches and berries are also very successful. Fruit tracts are usually 
irrigated, and water has been brought at great expense from distant reservoirs 
to insure an unfailing supply. For quality of product and profit yielded the 
orchards of the Bitter Root valley challenge comparison with those in the most 
famous fruit districts. 

The mountains are heavily timbered and lumbering is an important industry. 
At Hamilton is one of the largest saw mills in the state and there are smaller 
ones at other places. Ravalli county has also mineral wealth — gold, silver, 
copper and coal. 

Flourishing small towns ars close together, the chief ones being Stevensville, 
Victor, Corvallis, Darby and Hamilton, the county seat and principal town. Ham- 
ilton has city water works, sewers, electric lights, a fine city hall and county 
court house, three saw mills, one flour and oatmeal mill, an elevator, an evaporator, 
a creamery, manufactories and desires a beet sugar factory. It has one of the 
finest hotel buildings in the state, banks, large business establishments, good 
schools, many churches, three newspapers and is the chief trading point of a 
rich and growing country. 

Stevensville, the next town in population and business importance, has city 
water works and electric lights, excellent schools, a hospital, six churches, banks, 
a public library, a newspaper, a creamery and a number of retail stores. 

Victor and Corvallis are flourishing towns in the valley surrounded by good fruit 
and farming districts. Darby, the terminus of the railroad sixteen miles south of 
Hamilton, is surrounded by a rapidly developing country. 

All parts of the county present excellent opportunities for the homeseeker 
to purchase improved or unimproved farms, orchards or farm lands at low prices 
below their value considered from an investment standpoint, and in many cases on 
<ery easy terms. 

The estimated population of Ravalli county is 1.5,640 and the assessed 
valuation is $7,492,264. 

LAND AREA — Ravalli county, which is in the Missoula land district, em- 
braces an area of 2,391 square miles, including 6,560 acres of unreserved and un- 
appropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 28,778 acres 
of state land, and 1,131,346 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 388,755 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 250,000 bushels; oats, 1,250,000 bushels; barley, 75,000 bushels; corn, 
8,500 bushels; potatoes, 425,000 bushels; hay, 50,000 tons; apples, 150,000 bushels; 
strawberries, 100,000 quarts; raspberries, 27,000 quarts; currants, 17,000 quarts. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 6,679 head; 
milch cows, 3,811 head; other cattle, 10,986 head; sheep, 12,072 head; swine, 
4,437 head. 


No county in Montana has enjoyed greater growth in the past few years than 
has Richland, which was carved out of the northeastern corner of Dawson county 
in 1914. The territory now^ embraced in Richland county was formerly regarded 
as the premier stock range of the great cattle country, but is today one of the 
most progressive farming sections of the state. 

• ••— ••^— " ■■— m— «■ u» un— — itii— Bi— un^— nn^— oB-^iiii^— M^— ui-^nu^— (m— nn^— BH— .UH^— im-^iiii— im nn-^iin-^— mm iim iim *•# 

: Tin: TREASURE ST ATK 169 • 

• • •^■•— •• •• »« ■■ i>i>— «>— "— ii>— 110^— o>^— ui— ui^— on^— HI— K^— D>— n^— n^— ni^— III— iia— un-^nn^— ni— iii^— an^— nn. m»% 

Both irrigated and non-irrigated farming is practiced in Richland county. 
In the eastern section of the county lies the Lower Yellowstone project of the 
United States reclamation service, one of the largest irrigation projects in the 
west; in the western and northern sections, non-irrigated farming is followed on 
a large scale and with exceptionally satisfactory results. 

Sidney, the county seat, which is reached by branch lines of the Northern 
Pacific and Great Northern railroads, is a remarkably well built city of about 
1,500 population and growing very rapidly. It has all modern improvements, 
including a water system, electric lights, well graded streets and miles of 
concrete sidewalks. Its business blocks are of the most modern, fire-proof con- 
struction, which would not be out of place in a town many times the size. 

Pairview, the second town of importance in the county, is along the state 
line between Montana and North Dakota and is growing rapidly. It has a population 
of about 900, and is a well built, progressive little city. Fairview is in the 
center of the Lower Yellowstone project and has every chance of becoming one 
of the finest farming towns in the state. Lambert, in the western part of 
the county, has for the past year been the temporary terminal of the new 
Great Northern extension from New Rockford to Lewistown and has enjoyed 
a large trade with the country to the north and west. This road is now being 
extended westward a distance of twenty-five miles and will, it is believed, be 
put through to Lewistown within the next few years. 

An exceptionally large number of new settlers have gone into Richland 
county within the past three years and what homestead land remains is some 
distance from the railroads. Large private holdings, however, including much 
Northern Pacific land, has recently been put on the market and many buyers 
are coming into this section of the state. Improved irrigated land sells for 
between $40 and $50 per acre, and unimproved irrigated land at from $25 to 
$30. Non-irrigated benchland ranges in price from $30 for improved to $10 for un- 

The estimated population of Richland county is 18,874 and the assessed valuation, 
in 1915, was $5,554,436. 

LAND AREA — Richland county, which is in the Lewistown and Miles City 
land districts, embraces an area of 2,703 square miles, including 306,085 acres of 
unreserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under the home- 
stead law and 86,888 acres of state land. Of the total area of the county, 728,018 
acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 1,500,000 bushels; oats, 1,350,000 bushels; barley; 65,000 bushels; corn, 
125,000 bushels; flax, 100,000 bushels; potatoes, 97,000 bushels; hay, 25,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed .the following livestock: horses, 15,992 
head; milch cows, 2,992 head; other cattle, 9,404 head; sheep, 3,154 head; swine, 
3,695 head. 


Rosebud county was created in 1901 from a part of Custer county; and in 
January, 1913, a large area in the western and southern parts was taken by the 
new county of Big Horn. Rosebud is one of the counties in the Yellowstone 
valley. It has been developing very rapidly in recent years but Is still sparsely 
settled and offers excellent opportunities to homeseekers. Stock growing was 
almost the only industry when the county was organized and is still a very 
important one. Large quantities of wool and large numbers of beef cattle are 
annually shipped. 

•170 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

The county has a great extent of arable lands and the farming industry- 
is rapidly growing in importance. Farm lands are of two kinds, irrigated lands, 
which are situated in the valleys, and non-irrigated lands, which are situated on 
the benches and in the foothills. The chief irrigated districts are in the Yellow- 
stone and Rosebud valleys where are produced great yields of alfalfa, sugar beets, 
wheat, oats, barley, corn and vegetables. In no county in Montana does corn do 
better, and stalks and ears of surprising size have been exhibited at state fairs. 
The productiveness of the soil is strikingly shown by the great yields of vegetables 
and by the size of specimens. Yields on irrigated lands are about as follows: 
wheat, 50 to 60 bushels; oats, 70 to 90 bushels; sugar beets, 18 to 22 tons; alfalfa 
hay — three cuttings — 2 to 6 tons an acre. 

A large part of the Crow Indian reservation was in Rosebud county previous 
to the creation of Big Horn county, in which it is now included, together with a part 
of the Northern Cheyenne reservation. The agency and part of the latter reservation 
remains in Rosebud county. 

The Northern Pacific railroad follows the south bank of the Yellowstone river 
from the eastern to the western boundary of the county. The Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and Puget Sound railroad runs along the north bank from the eastern 
boundary to Forsyth, at which place it turns to the northwest, passes through the 
northwestern part of Rosebud county and enters the Musselshell valley at the 
boundary line between Musselshell and Rosebud counties. 

The principal town is Forsyth, the county seat, which is located on both 
railroads, and in population and business is the most important town in the large 
extent of country between Billings and Miles City. Forsyth is a progressive 
place, has good schools, several churches, a public reading room and gymnasium, 
municipally owned water works, a sewer system, cement sidewalks, electric lights, 
telephones, a newspaper, banks, hotels, business houses and attractive residences. 
The railroads employ a considerable number of men, and from Forsyth are shipped 
large quantities of wool and livestock. It is the trading point for an extensive and 
developing agricultural section. 

Other towns on the Northern Pacific railroad are Rosebud, which is a thriving 
town and trading point for a large territory on both sides of the Yellowstone river, 
and for the country, drained by the Rosebud river, and Hysham in the western 
part of the county, which is surrounded by a very productive country and is a 
progressive and growing town. 

The estimated population of Rosebud county is 17,875 and the assessed valuation 
area of the county, 1,838,617 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
193,419 acres of state land and 100,607 acres of national forests. Of the total 
is $12,883,047. 

LAND AREA — Rosebud county, which is in the Lewistown an* Miles City 
district, embraces an area of 6,067 square miles, including 947,908 acres of unre- 
served and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 
1915: wheat, 350,000 bushels; oats, 525,000 bushels; barley, 42,000 bushels; con., 
165,000 bushels; flax, 20,000 bushels; potatoes, 140,000 bushels; hay, 40,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 13,560 
liead; milch cows, 1,309 head; other cattle, 29,770 head; sheep, 109,945 head; 
swine, 3,138 head. 


Sanders county embraces the country lying north of Missoula and south of Lincoln 
and Flathead counties adjacent to Idaho. It was created in 1906 from a part of 
Missoula county and named for Wilbur F. Sanders, who was a distinguished pioneer. 


• • 

#> • M at ■■^^""^^n^^— nd^^HH— nn— -iin^^mi^— un— nw^uH^^iin— ■HU— Mii^— nii^— un— iiii^— im— iiu^^iiii^— im—^iiii^^HB— iiB— nn^— im. ^^m 

The industries are farming, fruit growing, stock raising, lumbering and mining. 
The chief agricultural districts are in the Clark's Pork valley near the towns of 
Plains, Paradise and Thompson Falls. Back from the valley on the benches on 
both sides are farms and fruit tracts. In the Little Bitter Root and Flathead 
valleys and on Camas Prairie, in the recently ceded Flathead reservation, great agri- 
cultural development has taken place and this fertile section will produce great 
quantities of grain when a railroad is built into it. 

Sanders county has a fertile soil, and any crop that grows anywhere in the 
state makes large yields. The rainfall, about 18 inches annually, most of which 
falls during the growing season, as a rule provides sufficient moisture for crops, 
although Clark's Fork river and its tributaries provide an abundant water supply 
for irrigating purposes. The area now under irrigation is being increased, and 
excellent opportunities exist for capitalists to undertake large irrigation pro- 
jects. To its fertile soil, Sanders county adds the advantages of a mild climate 
and a low altitude, the elevation at Heron being only 2,256 feet. The mountains 
surrounding the valleys afford protection; and because the springs come earlier 
and the summers last longer than in other parts of the state, varieties of fruits 
and vegetables thrive that do not succeed where conditions are different. 

The soil in the bottom lands is usually a fine, deep, sandy loam, while on the 
bench lands a rich gravelly loam is found. Frequent yields per acre are from 2 
to 4 tons of timothy, 4 to 5 tons of red clover and 3 to 6 of alfalfa; 40 to 50 
bushels of wheat, 60 to 100 bushels of oats, 60 to 70 bushels of barley, 600 bushels 
of potatoes, and vegetables and fruits in proportion. No finer strawberries are 
grown anywhere, and they find a ready sale in the mining camps. The agricultural 
products are sold in all the large cities of the state, but the principal market is in 
the mining camps of the Coeur d'Alene country, lying immediately south, with 
which there is a direct railroad connection by way of the Coeur d'Alene branch 
of the Northern Pacific. 

Wheat, oats, barley, flax and hay are the principal crops and the yields per 
acre are large. 

The fruit growing possibilities of numerous districts in this county are 
almost limitless. Apples, peaches, pears, cherries, apricots and berries thrive in one 
or more of them, and some of the best orchards in Montana are in the Plains 

The conditions of fruit growing are substantially similar to those in the 
Bitter Root and Missoula valleys; the Northern Spy, the Baldwin, the Spitzenburg 
apple grow to perfection; and no finer specimens of the famous Mcintosh Red 
can be found anywhere than are produced in the Plains valley. All other kinds 
of fruit grow in profusion in all the valleys of the county, and each succeeding 
year sees new orchards started. Sanders county promises to become one of the 
chief fruit producing counties of the northwest. , 

The county is well adapted to dairying and poultry raising, both of which bring 
large and certain returns. 

The mountains, which cover about three fourths of the area of the county, are 
covered with billions of feet of pine, fir, spruce, tamarack and cedar, and lumbering 
has been a leading industry since the Northern Pacific railway was built through it 
in 1883. There are many saw mills and the lumber companies pay out large sums for 
wages. Much of the timbered land, when cleared, will make the finest kind 
of farming land. 

Sanders county adjoins the famous Coeur d'Alene mineral district and has 
a similar geological formation. Around Trout Creek and White Pine sufficient 
work has been done to show the existence of rich deposits of lead, silver and 

•172 MONTANA- 19 16 • 

• • 

copper and throughout the mountain districts are mineral claims that promise to 

develop into mines. The mineral districts of Sanders county need capital for 

their development and promise splendid returns for investments in mining 

The Camas Hot Springs on the Flathead reservation, which have been reserved 
by the government on account of their wonderful curative qualities as a resort for in- 
valids, may become a rival to the Hot Springs of Arkansas. Near Paradise are 
Quinn's Hot Springs, a favorite place of resort that has good accommodations. 

Large sums have been spent in the last three years in improving highways 
and in constructing at Plains and Thompson Palls very long and expensive bridges 
across Clark's Fork river which afford communication to farming and fruit 
districts near those towns. 

A valuable asset is the great water power of Clark's Pork river and of tributary 
streams. By constructing a 25 foot dam at Thompson Falls it was possible to 
generate 60,000 horse power. 

Plains, in the productive Plains valley and the trading point for the western 
part of the Flathead reservation, is the chief town. It has a water works sys- 
tem, electric lights, an elevator, a public school building which cost $25,000, four 
churches, banks, newspaper, numerous business houses, which have spent much 
money on permanent improvements and many new buildings have been recently 

Thompson Falls, the county seat, a growing town in a rich undeveloped 
district has two public schools and a high school building, a hospital, a church, 
a newspaper, a bank, hotels, stores and a fine system of water works. 

Paradise is the railroad point where are a large railroad roundhouse and 
a tie preserving plant. A large sum is paid to the numerous railroad employes. 

Camas is a new town in the reservation that has grown up around the springs 
and promises to become an important place. The springs attract visitors to the 
town which is a trading point for a country that has recently been settled. It has 
hotels, business houses, a bank and a newspaper. 

Dixon, a growing town situated on the Northern Pacific railroad where the 
Flathead river empties into Clark's Fork, is the trading point for a good farming 
country, is connected by auto stages with towns north of it, and is the port of a 
steamboat that runs on Flathead river. The town has merchantile establishments, 
a bank, a newspaper, hotels, and expects to be the southern terminus of a railToaa 
to be constructed through the reservation. 

The estimated population of Sanders county is 7,860 and the assessed valuation 
is $6,044,324. 

LAND AREA — Sanders county, which is in the Missoula land district, embraces 
and area of 2,837 square miles, including 115,087 acres of unreserved and unappropriated 
public land available for entry under the homestead law, 58,897 acres of state land, 
and 1,005,438 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the county, 447,662 acres 
are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 200,000 bushels; oats, 525,000 bushels; barley, 17,500 bushels; corn. 
10,000 bushels; potatoes, 85,000 bushels; hay, 7,500 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 3,002 
head; milch cows, 1,500 head; other cattle, 3,896 head; sheep, 2,150 head; swine, 
654 head. 

• •• •• ■• II ■ ui » ii> nil uu nil— 11. nil nn nn iin nu nn «n mi nn nn nn nil nn no >n >■ u. ..*•• 


• • 


Sheridan county, occupying the extreme northwestern corner of Montana, was 
created out of a portion of Valley county in 1913, and since that date has enjoyed 
wonderful progress. This county is a vast expanse of fertile prairie land, 
through which runs the Big Muddy and Popular rivers. 

The southwestern portion of the county is in the Fort Peck Indian reserva- 
tion which was opened to settlement in 1914. At the time of the opening but 
a very few of those who were successful in the government drawing availed them- 
selves of the privilege of filing upon the claims, this being due to the fact that 
the appraised price, running from $1.25 to $7.00 per acre, had to be paid for 
the reservation land, while, outside the reservation, just as good land could be 
secured under the homestead law. Since that time, however, the rapid acquisition of 
the free homestead land in this vicinity has served to call atention to the at- 
tractiveness of the reservation land and during the past year practically all of 
the reservation, not alloted to the Indians, has been filed upon by settlers. 

There are a number of good towns in Sheridan county, Plentywood, the 
county seat, is the largest and most important. Although less than seven years 
old, the town now boasts a population of almost 4,000 and is rapidly growing. It is 
a thoroughly modern little city, boasting all conveniences. Medicine Lake is 
likewise an excellent distributing point and is growing fast. Scobey, the present 
western terminus of the Great Northern's branch line, is the trading point for an 
immense territory, while Poplar and Wolf Point not only supply the greater part 
of the Port Peck reservation but also enjoy a big trade in the country south of the 
Missouri river. East of Scobey are Opheim and Glentana, both rapidly growing 
inland towns which have excellent prospects. Dooley, Outlook, Daleview and 
Whitetail are important points along the Soo road, which parallels the Canadian 
border for a distance of more than sixty miles in the northern part of Sheridan 

Sheridan county has been one of the largest flax producing sections of Montana, 
while wheat, oats and barley also yield heavily. Good farming is the rule rather 
than the exception in Sheridan county, and the rapid growth of this section of the 
state is, to a large extent, due to the exceptionally large proportion of real farmers 
who invaded this territory when it first began to attract the homeseeker a few 
years ago. 

The present population of Sheridan county is estimated at 23,510 and the 
assessed valuation of the county, in 1915, was $10,599,544. 

LAND AREA — Sheridan county, which is in the Glasgow land district, em- 
braces an area of 5,103 square miles, including 662813 acres of unreserved and 
unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law and 181,256 
acres of state land. Of the total area of the county, 653,531 acres are privately 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 1915: 
wheat, 3,600,000 bushels; flax, 750,000 bushels; barley, 125,000 bushels; corn, 
130,000 bushels; oats, 875,000 bushels; potatoes, 192,000 bushels; hay, 32,000 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 20,168 
head; milch cows, 5,928 head; other cattle, 10,116 head; sheep, 5,694 head; swine, 
4,229 head. 


Silver Bow, the smallest county in the state, having an area of but 698 miles, 
is by far the richest and most populous. Its prosperity is derived largely from 
the marvelous richness of its copper and zinc mines, and, while the mining industry 

0#»^gii^— 11^— PI— nn^— irii"^— irn^— nn^^nn^— iiB^— Di— ni»^nw^^BH^— MP^— UP— im— nii^— HB^— Hn^^BB— ^nu— nn— na^^tB^^H^*^(Mi^^i- iih-*># 

:174 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

»^PH^— na^^nn-^aB^— iin— 1111^— iiii«^inr^— uil^»M*^pii^— MB— itB^— Mi^— iiB^— BH^— Bii^— nif^MP^— nn^— nii^— riH^— uit^^im— Hii^— M ga ■ m • • 

has overshadowed all others, Butte, the metropolis of the state, has developed into 
a large distributing center. Butte is practically Silver Bow county, although the 
incoi-porated area of the municipality itself, embraces but a comparatively small 
portion of the territory actually covered by the city. The area devoted to 
agriculture in Silver Bow county is very small, and no great increase is likely. 

Butte is known is the "greatest mining camp on earth" but it ia much more 
than that. It is the largest city in the state, the population, at the present time, 
being estimated at almost 90,000 and, aside from its mining interests, it is of 
importance because of its manufactures and as a financial, railroad, commercial and 
distributing center. With one exception, every interstate railroad operating in 
Montana has lines into Butte. 

Butte, from a one time mining camp, and later a city of smoke, has emerged 
into a city of beautiful homes, splendidly paved streets, fine public buildings, 
dignified business blocks, and is generally accorded the distinction of being one 
of the most metropolitan cities of its size on the continent. Pew cities can boast of a 
more healthful or bracing climate. Seldom is the winter excessively cold and 
when, occasionally, there is a touch of zero weather in mid-winter, there is an 
absence of chill and penetration due to the peculiar dryness of the air. 

Copper and zinc form the basis of Butte's exceptional prosperity, the annual 
production of the former being in excess of 300,000,000 pounds and the latter about 
215,000,000. More than 15,000 miners are employed underground at the highest wages 
paid for this kind of work anywhere in the world. The total mining payroll of the 
Butte district, in the spring of 1916, was more than $2,500,000 monthly. Butte 
produces one-fourth of the copper mined in America, and one-seventh of the 
world's production. In addition to the copper and zinc mined, there is annually 
produced, chiefly as by-products, 12,000,000 ounces of silver and about $1,500,000 in 
gold. The Anaconda, the greatest silver producer in America, is in Butte, while the 
Butte and Superior is the greatest zinc producer on the continent. The Ana- 
conda is likewise the second greatest copper producing mine in the woria. 

The production of zinc in the Butte district is of recent growth. In 1908, the 
total value of the zinc mined in the district was estimated at $77,080. It reached 
$1,708,000 in 1910, went to $6,200,000 in 1914 and to more than $20,000,000 in 
1915. In 1916, figured on the prevailing price of spelter and the rate of production 
in the early spring, it is believed that the total value of the zinc production in 
Butte will reach $43,000,000. 

The operation of the mines in Butte furnish ready markets for many products of 
the Treasure State. Electrical power is sent to Butte over long-distance transmission 
lines from Great Falls, Helena and the Madison river. More than 65,000,000 feet of 
lumber is annually used in making safe the underground workings. 

The permanence of the Butte mining district is assured. Gold and silver camps 
are usually short-lived, but copper veins increase in value as depth is attained. 
Copper mines in Europe have been worked for more than a thousand years, and 
on this basis, although Butte has been a copper producer for 34 years, and during that 
time has sent to the markets of the world a billion dollars worth of the red metal, 
the camp is but in its infancy. The depth of the producing Butte mines range 
from 1,000 to 3,500 feet. 

Butte is noted for its modern and excellent educational eystem. There are 
27 public schools, with one of the largest and most efficient corps of teachers in 
the northwest. There are also seven parochial schools and a most up-to-date high 
school, which offers technical training in several lines. The State School of Mines, 
a branch of the University of Montana, is located here, and annually turns out a class 
of mining engineers whose theoretical education has been supplemented by intimate 
acquaintance and observation of the practical ideals of mining and smelting. 

0^* ai n I I 11 n ni ni ni ni ii ■■ in nn tit "" "- "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" — "T— 'v ^ ^9 


• • 

There are 42 churches in Butte, Protestant and Catholic. Almost every religious 
denomination is represented, including Catholic, Adventist, Baptist, Christian, Episco- 
palian, Greek, Hebrew, Latter Day Saints, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, Re- 
organized, Scientist and Unitarian, besides several missions. 

Railroad men term Butte the "cross-roads of the northwest." Five transconti- 
nental lines run into the state's metropolis, and the railroad business of this city 
is declared to be the largest of any inland city of its population in the world. 

The population of Silver Bow county is estimated at 91,760 and the assessed 
valuation, in 1915, was $42,419,268. 

LAND AREA — Silver Bow county, which is in the Helena land district, em- 
braces an area of 698 square miles, including 59,924 acres of unreserved and un- 
appropriated public land, little of which is, however, suitable for cultivation, 14,994 
acres of state land, and 188,144 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 90,600 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 10,000 bushels; oats, 25,000 bushels; barley, 2,500 bushels; potatoes, 
12,500 bushels; hay, 10,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 2,539 head; 
milch cows, 1,696 head; other cattle, 2,348 head; sheep, 8,115 head; swine, 587 head. 


Stillwater county is another of the newer political sub-divisions of the state, 
and since the creation of the county, in 1913, from parts of Yellowstone, Sweet- 
grass and Carbon counties, it has enjoyed an exceptionally rapid growth. 

Stillwater county lies in the center of the great dry land farming region of 
eastern Montana and the inhabitants of the county devote themselves exclusively to 
farming and stockraising. The southern part of the county is well watered by the 
Stillwater river, which flows north and empties into the Yellowstone at Columbus. 
Along the Stillwater river is one of the oldest farming regions of the state, and 
about Absarokee are to be found many irrigated farms on which intensive farming 
and fruit raising is practiced. 

The northern part of the county embraces a portion of what is known as the 
Lake Basin country, one of the best developed and most productive dry land 
farming sections of the state. This section is soon to be opened by a Northern 
Pacific branch. 

Columbus, the county seat, is said to be the best lighted town of its size in the 
state, and is a thoroughly modern little city. It has doubled in population since the 
1910 census was taken and is now estimated as having a population of 1,000. It has 
bank deposits of more than $500,000, and has ten retail stores, two newspapers, two 
elevators, and two lumber yards. Nearby is quarried the famous Columbus sand- 
stone which was used in the erection of the State Capitol at Helena. An effort is 
now being made to secure a flour mill and a cheese factory, while at least 15,000 
horse power is awaiting development. 

An effort is being made to secure the construction of an electric or steam 
road up the Stillwater valley. Such a road would not only furnish much needed 
transportation for an agricultural population of 4,000 but would also tap extensive 
timber lands and coal and mineral deposits. The Rosebud Lakes, easily reached 
from Columbus, offer fine scenic attractions and the East Rosebud Lake colony is one 
of the popular summer places of the state. 

Although there is but little good homestead land left in Stillwater county, land 
can be purchased at prices which are very attractive. Improved farm land sells 
at about $30 per acre while unimproved land may be had for $20 or even less. 

• ••_„„ un nil «• iin >• uii IK nil im mi nil iin pn iin nil nn iin nn «H n« «n nil nn n. nn .. ,..••• 

: 176 MONTANA-1916 ; 

• • 

00«— un^— BO^^RB^^nn^— Ul^^fll— ^nn^^Rl^^nua^DH*— un^— uil*^nl^^un^— nn^— un-^nn— — nn^^nn^— 'nn-^uil^— nn— UH^— nn— nn^^Hii>^n«^^un-«#a 

The estimated population of Stillwater county is 9,185 and the assessed valuation of 
the county, in 1915, was $6,028,429. 

LAND AREA — Stillwater county, which is in the Bozeman and Billings land 
districts, embraces an area of 1,684 square miles, including 47,914 acres of un- 
reserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 
50,539 acres of state land and 99,200 acres of national forests. Of the total area of the 
county, 522,280 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 943,000 bushels; oats, 407,000 bushels; barley, 50,000 bushels; flax, 40,000 
bushels; potatoes, 125,000 bushels; hay, 20,000 tons; sugar beets, 3,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 5,844 
head; milch cows, 1,739 head; other cattle, 9,514 head; sheep, 58, (o^ neaa; swine, 
3,095 head. 


Sweetgrass county, which was organized in 1895, is situated in the southern 
part of the state. The Yellowstone river runs from west to east nearly through its 
center. On the south the land rises from the level of the river to a high range of 
mountains in which head the Boulder and Stillwater rivers; and on the north the land 
rises to the Crazy mountains. Big Timber and Sweet Grass creeks are large streams 
that enter the Yellowstone river from the north. The northern part of the county 
is drained by tributaries of the Musselshell river. 

In the southern part, much of which is in a forest reserve, are tracts of mer- 
chantable timber and a highly mineralized district containing ores of gold, silver, lead 
and copper. Coal has also been found. This region is one of remarkable scenic 
beauty. Many visitors come each year to fish in the Boulder river, a beautiful mountain 
stream in which trout abound. One of the most wonderful natural objects in the 
state is the Natural Bridge over the Boulder river. On several streams are cas- 
cades of rare beauty. 

The county is well watered and there are many valleys. The Yellowstone valley, 
about 55 miles long by 2 wide, the valleys of the Boulder, Big Timber, Sweet 
Grass, American Fork and Otter creek, of varying length and width, are the chief 
agricultural districts. Private irrigation ditches have brought water to the lands in 
the valleys where hay is the chief crop and is raised in connection with stock 
raising. The county is noted for the excellence of the native grasses and stock 
growing is an important and profitable industry. Sheep are owned in large numbers 
and great quantities of wool are shipped from Big Timber. 

Farming is on irrigated and unirrigated land, the latter a recent development. 
Many acres are under private irrigation ditches, and a great impulse has been given 
to the agricultural development of the county by the completion of the Big Timber 
Carey Act project. Many new settlers on these lands have raised excellent crops, 
and more land is being cultivated each year, and a large and prosperous community 
of farmers and fruit growers will occupy many acres that a few years ago were 
used only for grazing. Oats 162 bushels to the acre, barley showing a cash return of 
$48 an acre, wheat from 20 to 40 bushels, flax running to 25 bushels an acre, and 
potatoes remarkable for size and quality are reported as having been raised on 
lands in this project. Alfalfa is the chief crop on irrigated lands and yields about 
four tons per acre. 

Farming without irrigation is succeeding because the soil is fertile and the 
rainfall averages about 20 inches annually. Many settlers have come into the 
northern and eastern parts of the county and are transforming what used to be 
a noted range country into a region of productive farms. 

0>*i w wi ■■ ti irn " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " Ti r ■ tti itn nn nn — iiT^lp 


• • 

Many orchards have been set out and the county promises to become a large 
producer of fruit. The soil and climate are well adapted for the growth of sugar 

Hog raising is attracting attention and the conditions are favorable for its 

development into a very profitable branch of farming. The excellence of the 

grasses, water and climate suggest that dairying ought to become one of the 
leading industries. 

Small towns that are trading points for the surrounding country are Melville in 
the northern and McLeod in the southern part of the county. Big Timber, the 
county seat, is the chief town. It is an attractive and growing place and has an 
elevator, a creamery, a newspaper, hotels, stores, schools, churches, a hospital, a city 
hall, miles of cement sidewalks, electric lights, a water works system, an attractive 
court house, and is the trading and shipping point for a rich agricultural and 
stock country. Of 26,000 horse power available only 20 horse power is developed. 

The estimated population of Sweet Grass county is 6,600 and the assessed 
valuation is $5,379,976. 

LAND AREA — Sweet Grass county, which is in the Bozeman land district, 
embraces an area of 2,310 square miles, including 169,628 acres of unreserved 
and unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 
76,612 acres of state land, and 413,809 acres of national forests. Of the total 
area of the county, 655,116 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 85,000 bushels; corn, 12,000 bushels; flax, 20,000 bushels; oats, 325,000 
bushels; barley, 40,000 bushels; potatoes, 79,000 bushels; hay, 72,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 5,127 
head; milch cows, 1,851 head; other cattle, 16,535 head; sheep, 140,159 head; swine, 
2,843 head. 


The extensive territory lying on the eastern side of the Rocky mountains, 
extending from the Canadian boundary on the north to the northern boundary 
lines of Lewis and Clark and Cascade counties on the east to the western boundaries 
of Hill and Chouteau counties, is embraced in Teton county, which was created 
in 1893. On the west it extends to the summit of the Rocky mountains; and 
owing to its great extent and differences in altitudes, the climate and soil at 
one place may differ considerably from those at another. In the mountains, the 
snowfall is heavy and important rivers, furnishing water for irrigating the 
low lands, have their source there. There are passes through which the Chinook 
winds come and temper the winter climate which is seldom severe enough to 
prevent outdoor work for any extended period. The average rainfall is about 
16 inches. In the northwestern corner is the Blackfeet Indian reservation which, 
it is expected, will be opened to settlement soon. A part of Glacier Park that 
included much of its most attractive scenery is in this county. 

The industries are livestock and farming. Teton county is a famous stock 
region, contains many noted ranches where blooded horses, herds of high grade 
cattle and fine flocks of sheep are owned; and the livestock industry is still a lead- 
ing one. Large quantities of wool are sold annually. 

Farming, which is of irrigated and unirrigated land, has maae a wonderful 
advance in the last few years. 

Teton county contains great expanses of beautiful prairie land, and in the 
past few years many settlers have moved in and begun farming on unirrigated 
lands. Yields, on dry land farms, of from 18 to 35 bushels of spring wheat. 

•178 MONTANA- 19 16 I 

I • 

0^,^_u„__„n-^nii^— mi— nn^— PD— iiu^— no— Bii^— na— — UD^— DO^— DB^— DB^— Bi^— OB^— BH-— no^— Bi^— nn^— nii^— an^— HB^— Bi^— «■— Bi^— ii^— B»»#^ 

25 to 40 bushels of fall wheat, 40 to 65 bushels of oats, and 40 to 50 bushels of 
barley are reported. Potatoes and vegetables have done well. Where the proper 
system of cultivation has been followed, paying crops have been raisea, and the 
success of these pioneer dry land farmers will lead to the establishment of many 
Luousand farm homes on the broad prairies. 

The Burton bench is a large farming district where wheat yields average 40 
bushels an acre and oats 85 bushels. There is no record of heavier oats than those 
grown on this bench; a bushel has weighed 55 pounds and the lightest of 83 
samples sent to the World's Fair was heavier than the heaviest from any other 

The largest private irrigation project in the state is the Valier Carey Act 
project which contemplates the reclamation of 126,148 acres, including 40,568 
acres of deeded land. Much of the work has been completed and many acres of 
land sold, occupied and cultivated. 

Flax has made large yields in several districts, and at Conrad a large factory 
has been erected for making fiber from flax straw. 

Power, Button, Collins and Brady are thriving new towns that are shipping 
points for a large and rapidly developing dry farming region. 

In the mountain ranges are indications of minerals, but little work has been 
done. Coal is mined in a small way at several places; and there are indications of 

The chief towns are Choteau, Conrad, Valier and Cut Bank. Cut Bank 
is a railroad and trading point adjoining the Blackfeet reservation and a con- 
venient point from which to reach the large tracts that have recently been re- 
stored to entry. Valier is the terminus of the Montana Western railway which 
connects at Conrad with the Great Northern railroad and is in the center of the 
Conrad, Valier project. It is located on Lake Frances, a large and beautiful 
artificial lake, and has grown in three years to be a large, busy and well built 
town. Valier is a marvel for its age, and is an example of the energy and 
ability that is bringing about the remarkable development Montana is under- 

Conrad, the chief town, had a population of 888 in 1910 which has since much 
increased; and 200,000 acres of irrigated and 600,000 acres of unirrigated land are 
tributary to it. 

The county seat is Choteau, an attractive town of about 1,000 population. It 
is beautifully situated in the fertile valley of the Teton river and is surrounded by 
a rich farming and stock growing district for which it is the trading point. 

The population of Teton county is estimated at 21,975 and the assessed valuation 
is $12,419,568. 

LAND AREA — Teton county, which is in the Helena and Great Falls land 
districts, embraces an an area of 6,566 square miles, including 217,634 acres of un- 
reserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under the home- 
stead law, 162,019 acres of state land, and 434,441 acres of national forests. Of the 
total area of the county, 839,101 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: Wheat, 2,250,000 bushels; oats, 1,125,000 bushels; barley, 75,000 bushels; flax, 
350,000 bushels; potatoes, 125,000 bushels; hay, 34,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 15,89a 
head; milch cows, 3,222 head; other cattle, 14,982 head; sheep, 89,418 head; 
swine, 4,291 head. 


• • 


Toole county, which is located along the northern border of the state, is a 
farming and stockraising county which is in the initial stages of its development. 
Toole county was created out of parts of Teton and Hill counties in 1914, and 
is one of the smaller counties of the state. 

All farming in Toole county is carried on by non-irrigated methods, but 
some exceptionally high yields have been secured. In the season of 1915, a ten acre 
field of flax yielded 350 bushels, said to have been the highest per acre yield 
of flax ever produced from non-irrigated land. Flax is one of the principal crops of 
this county and the growing of this crop has enabled many homesteaders to 
secure sufficient money to enable them to develop their holdings. 

Recently, there has been considerable work done in an effort to develop the 
large oil deposits which are believed to lie beneath the Sweetgrass hills in the 
northern part of Toole county. Strong flows of gas have been encountered, but thus 
far the oil development has not reached a commercial scale. 

Shelby, the county seat and principal town, is a railroad junction point and is 

the trading center for a large and productive territory. Sweetgrass, in the 

northern part of the county, is a port of entry from the Dominion of Canada. 

Galata and Devon, in the eastern part of the county, are good farming towns, 
Doth growing rapidly. 

The population of Toole county is estimated at 7,880 and the assessed valuation, 
in 1915, was $4,380,412. 

LAND AREA — Toole county, which is in the Great Falls and Havre land 
districts, embraces an area of 1,949 square miles, including 123,442 acres of un- 
reserved and unappropriated public land available for entry under the home- 
stead law and 112,143 acres of state land. Of the total area of the county, 310,066 
acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 350,000 bushels; oats, 575,000 bushels; barley, 20,000 bushels; flax, 
100,000 bushels; potatoes, 24,000 bushels; hay, 7,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 5,967 head; 
milch cows, 1,441 head; other cattle, 4,471 head; sheep, 36,038 head; swine, 
545 head. 


Although Valley county has been greatly reduced in size within the past few 
years in order to create and help to create two new counties in that section of 
the state, it is still one of the largest counties in the state, and is being rapidly 

Like all the rest of eastern Montana, Valley county was, until recently, 
merely grazing ground for sheep and cattle; but like the remainder of that section 
of Montana it has been transformed and today it is one of the substantial farming 
sections of the commonwealth. 

Excellent crops of wheat, flax, oats and barley are produced all over the county 
on land which has been under the plow not to exceed two seasons and, in many 
cases, crops sown on spring breaking returned large yields. 

Glasgow, the county seat, is the metrapolis of northeastern Montana and is 
a distributing point for a great farming empire extending in every direction. 
Glasgow is a modern city of about 2,000 population and is growing rapidly. 

The estimated population of Valley county is 16,660 and the assessed valuation, 
in 1915, was $5,442,026. 

9**_iiii__iiii.^n> HI >> in— ■« .n-^in— ■« ■■ ■■_■■_— ■■—■■.^■■—■i ■■— _ii.^u— ■■—.■■..^■i ■■ w-»»# 

• 180 M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 • 

• • 

0««.^iiii an ii^ii—iii— ni ii^— m^ii II la-^ii— 01 ■■ ii ■■ ii^ii •■ ■■•^■i ui ■■ tt—n—n ■■ ■■ ««0 

LAND AREA — Valley county, which is in the Glasgow land district, embraces 
and area of 5,496 square miles, including 2,543,415 acres of unreserved and un- 
appropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 326,325 acres 
of state land. Of the total area of the county, 276,930 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION — The following gives the estimated crop production 
for 1915: wheat, 850,000 bushels; oats, 925,000 bushels; barley, 87,500 bushels; 
corn; 75,000 bushels; flax, 125,000 bushels; potatoes, 120,000 bushels; hay, 45,000 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock: horses, 13,357 
head; cattle, 12,424 head; sheep, 92,479 head; swine, 1,412 head. 


Wibaux county is the third smallest county in the state, but it probably has 
a greater percentage of its total area under cultivation than any other county 
in the state. It is the "gateway" county to Montana, the county through which 
all Northern Pacific passengers, from the east, enter Montana. 

Beaver creek extends northward through the county, forming a large fertile 
valley which is highly productive. There is but little land in the county which 
is not tillable and during the past two years the amount of land in crops in 
this county has more than doubled. 

Wibaux, the county seat and principal town, is a thriving city of 700 people 
and is growing rapidly. It has two banks, fifteen retail stores, two weekly news- 
papers, a creamery, three garages, two livery stables, two hotels and five elevators, 
the latter with a combined capacity of about 250,000 bushels. City water works and 
an electric lighting plant, together with good streets and fine sidewalks, give the 
town a metropolitan appearance. It is expected that a four mill will be established 
here during the coming year. 

But little public land remains in Wibaux county which is suitable for farming, 

although private land can be purchased at low prices and offers an unusual 

opportunity for the industrious farmer. Improved farm land sells for $25 per 
acre and unimproved land can be purchased from $15 to $18 per acre. 

The estimated population of Wibaux county is 6,400 and the assessed valuation 
of the county, in 1915, was $3,823,421. 

LAND AREA — Wibaux county, which is in the Miles City land district, em- 
braces an area of 944 square miles, including 34,400 acres of unreserved and un- 
appropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, 31,358 acres 
of state land. Of the total area of the county, 422,834 acres are privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 525,000 bushels; oats, 675,000 bushels; barley, 54,000 bushels; corn, 
65,000 bushels; flax, 75,000 bushels; potatoes, 76,000 bushels; hay, 15,000 tons. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock, horses, 5,356 
head; milch cows, 1,139 head; other cattle, 4,715 head; sheep, 1,477 head; swine, 
1,123 head. 


Yellowstone, the most important and populous of the counties in the Yellow- 
stone valley, was created February 26, 1883 and named for the Yellowstone 
river which crosses it from the western to the eastern boundary. The Big Horn 
river forms a part of the eastern boundary, and mountain ranges in the south, 
west and north afford protection and modify the climate. During the past five 
years, the average temperature for December, January and February has been 
29 degrees Jigjj^j^ zero. Spring opens early; and plowing and planting is com- 



• • 

monly done before the rainy season, April, May and June, in wliicli months half 
of the annual rainfall of over 15 inches falls. The long days of sunshine are 
ideal for the growing and maturing and harvesting of crops. 

The rural industries are stock raising and farming. Yellowstone county has 
long been noted for the number and excellence of its livestock, and great quantities 
of wool and numerous cars of cattle and sheep are annually shipped. In addition 
to raising livestock, another phase of the livestock industry has assumed large 
importance, viz., the feeding and fattening of cattle and sheep for the market. 
Hog raising is also being very profitably pursued. The conditions are ideal for 

Farming is of irrigated and non-irrigated lands. The Yellowstone valley is 
extensive and about 268,000 acres are under irrigation in the county. Irrigated 
lands may be purchased at from $35 to $50 an acre on the newer projects, and 
$75 to $150 under the older ditches. 

Average yields of land in the irrigated districts are uniformly high. Alfalfa 
and sugar beets are the great crops in the valley, the yield of the former being 
3 to 6 tons an acre and on the latter from 10 to 20 tons. Oots yield from 50 
to 90 bushels per acre, wheat from 40 to 60 bushels, and corn from 30 to 50 bushels. 
Barley of the first malting variety is grown. Potatoes yield from 200 to 400 bushels 
to the acre, and the largest known yield from one acre, 1,213 bushels, was made 
near Laurel in this county. Vegetables of various kinds do well and are grown 
successfully for shipment to distant points. Berries are very profitable; apples do 
splendidly and many orchards have been set out. Fruit growing is an increasing 
industry and the products of the orchards sell for a large sum annually. 

The Yellowstone valley is the chief sugar beet growing district of the state. 
Sugar beets yield enormously and have a high percent of saccharine sVrength. 
At Billings is the only beet sugar factory in the state. 

Away from the valleys and the irrigated districts farming ia carried on 
without irrigation and is called upland farming or dry land farming. 

The northwestern part of the county is the Lake Basin country, a very 
extensive region in which many new settlers are growing successful crops by dry 
farming methods. The Broadview district is another important dry framing section 
which has made displays at the State Fair which have attracted much attention. 

The Northern Pacific railroad's main line follows the Yellowstone river 
across the county and branch lines extend from Billings via Laurel to Red Lodge 
and Bridger, Carbon county. The Billings and Northern division of the Great 
Northern runs north to Great Falls. Communication with Omaha, Denver, points 
on the Crow reservation, and northern Wyoming is offered by the Burlington 

The chief towns are Billings and Laurel. Others are Huntley, Ballatine and 
Hardin in the Huntley project; Broadway and Comanche on the Billings and 
Northern division of the Great Northern railroad in a part of the county which 
has been transformed in the past few years from a stock range to a farming 

Laurel is an example of how towns grow in Montana. A few years ago the 
population was about 200 and today it is about 1,500. It is surrounded by a 
fertile and extensive district of irrigated lands and its trade extends back to 
the bench lands that are being converted into farms. It is located opposite the 
mouth of Clark's Fork river whose valley is one of the most productive in Mon- 
tana. Laurel is a very important railroad point and is on the Northern Pacific, 
the Burlington and the Great Northern railroads. New railroad -shops and round- 

•182 31 O X T A X A - 1 9 1 « • 

• • 

• ••^"" " "" "» "" «•— »" 11" "> "" «" "" " "" " "« "" " m HI HIT na » an >i ■• ■■ ■•■■•« 

houses have recently been built at Laurel at a cost of $3,000,000 and the railroad 
pay roll is a large one. 

Billings, the county seat, is the center of an irrigated area of approximately 
500,00 acres and of a non-irrigated farming country of 1,000,000 acres, ships great 
quantities of livestock, wool, hides and grain, is the headquarters of hundreds 
of traveling salesmen and of numerous branch houses of large firms, has many 
jobbing houses, numerous churches, good public schools, a polytechnic institute 
representing an investment of $200,000, costly society buildings, two daily news- 
papers, and all the conveniences and improvements of an up-to-date city. Billings 
has numerous manufacturing establishments, the most important being the beet 
sugar factory which pays out annually about $1,500,000 in payment of beets. 
Hydro-electric power is abundant and 50,000 horse power is available. The 
population was 3,221 in 1900 and 10,031 in 1910, an increase of 211 per cent. 
The people of Billings are noted for their public spirit and enterprise. 

The population of Yellowstone county is estimated at 34,960 and the assessed 
valuation is $20,531,859. 

LAND AREA — Yellowstone county, which is in the Billings land district, em- 
braces an area of 2,708 square miles, including 90,665 acres of unreserved and 
unappropriated public land available for entry under the homestead law, and 
67,454 acres of state land. Of the total area of the county, 767,535 acres are 
privately owned. 

CROP PRODUCTION— The following gives the estimated crop production for 
1915: wheat, 1,050,000 bushels; oats, 950,000 bushels; barley, 56,000 bushels; corn, 
75,000 bushels; flax, 25,000 bushels; potatoes, 240,000 bushels; hay, 74,000 tons; 
apples, 20,000 bushels; strawberries, 28,000 quarts; currants, 17,557 quarts. 

In 1915, the assessor's rolls showed the following livestock, horses, 9,613 
head; milch cows, 4,004 head; other cattle, 15,071 head; sheep, 88,708 head; swine, 
6,384 head. 

• •• .■_■._>■ „, .1. ai ■■ ■■_■■._■■_■■— ■I.—BI—H—II—H M^.I_-||..^||._— og— on—iii— .» iii_iia..^»_-»* •« 


• • 



Accomodations for Tourists, Yellowstone Park 107 

— Glacier National Park 110 

Acreage assessed 22 

Acreage of orchards 42 

Agricultural College, location of 16 

Agricultural possibilities 7 

Agriculture, awards in exhibits of 93 

— progress of 119 

— 'Value of products in 1916 124 

Alfalfa 40 

Apples, variety grown 42 

Area of counties 125 

Assessed valuation, increase of 22 

Assessed valuation of counties 125 

Average acre production by states 46 

Awakening of a great state 6 

Awards at Chicago Exposition 75 

— at Dry Farming Congress 77 

— at Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition 76 

— ^at Louisiana Exposition 75 

— at Madison Square Garden Land Show 77 

— at Minneapolis Land Show 79 

— at Panama-Pacific Exposition 75 

— at Panama-California Exposition 75 

Barley, sixteen years' growth of 120 

— five years average value per acre 74 

Beaverhead County, assessed valuation 128 

— crop production 128 

— description of 127 

— extraordinary yields 47 

— land area 128 

— population 128 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Beet-growing . 38 

Big Horn County, assessed valuation 129 

— crop production 129 

— description of 128 

— extraordinary yields 47 

— land area : 129 

— population 129 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Big Timber Irrigation Project 37 

Billings Irrigation Project 37 

Blaine County, assessed valuation 130 

— 'Crop production 130 

— description of 130 

— extraordinary yields 48 

— land area 130 

— population 130 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Broadwater County, assessed valuation 132 

— crop production 132 

— description of 131 

— extraordinary yields 48 

— land area 132 

— population 132 

— public land in 28 

— state land in J 30 

Bronze medals, horticulture 91 

— Panama-Pacific Exposition 86 

«•._„ ., „ ., „ ■■ .. tl II ■• » ■! >• <I •■ M •■ •■ ■• ■■ " «« »■ " " ■■■ « ■' 

•184 M O N T A N A - 1 9 1 6 


Carbon County, assessed valuation : 134 

— crop production — 134 

— description of 132 

— extraordinary yields 49 

— land area 134 

— population 134 

— public land in 28 

— state land in -- 30 

Carey lands - 36 

Carey projects — 36 

Cascade County, assessed valuation 136 

— crop production 136 

— description of 134 

— extraordinary yields 49 

— land area 135 

— population - 135 

— public land in - 28 

— state land in 30 

Cattle, shipped from Montana 121 

Character of citizenship 9 

Character of Montana Pioneers 9 

Chouteau County, assessed valuation 137 

— crop production 137 

— description of 136 

— extraordinary yields - 50 

— land area 137 

— population 137 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Churches and religious activities 17 

Climate of Montana 94 

Clover and alfalfa 40 

Coal mining 43 

College of Agriculture, location of 16 

Colonization, opportunities for 31 

Copper production 42 

Corn, five years average value per acre 72 

— sixteen years' growth of 120 

Counties of Montana, area of 125 

— assessed valuation -- 125 

— county seats 125 

— estimate population 125 

County agriculturists - 19 

County sp?ts - 125 

Crop statistics 46 

Crop yields of Beaverhead County - 47 

—of Big Horn County 47 

— of Blaine County 48 

— of Broadwater County 48 

— of Carbon County - 49 

— of Cascade County 49 

— of Chouteau County 50 

— of Custer County - — 51 

— of Dawson County 51 

—of Fallon County 52 

— of Fergus County 53 

—of Flathead County 54 

—of Gallatin County 55 

— of Granite County 56 

—of Hill County 57 

— of Jefferson County 58 

— of I^ewis and Clark County 58 

— of Lincoln County 58 

— of Madison County 58 

— of Meagher County 59 

— of Mineral County 60 


• • 


— of Missoula County 60 

— of Musselshell County 61 

—of Park County '. 62 

—of Phillips County 63 

—of Powell County 63 

— of Prairie County 63 

— of Ravalli County 64 

— of Richland County 64 

— of Rosebud County 65 

— of Sanders County 66 

— of Sheridan County 66 

— of Stillwater County 66 

— of Sweet Grass County 66 

—of Teton County 67 

—of Toole County 67 

—of Valley County 68 

—of Wibaux County 70 

— of Yellowstone County 70 

Custer County, assessed valuation 138 

— crop production 138 

— description of 138 

— extraordinary yields 51 

-land area 138 

— population 138 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Dairy Industry 40 

Dawson County, assessed valuation 140 

— crop production 140 

— description of 138 

— extraordinary yields 51 

— land area 140 

— population 140 

— public land in 28 

—state land in 30 

Deer Lodge County, assessed valuation 141 

— crop production 141 

— description of 140 

— land area 141 

— population 141 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Directory of Newspapers 113 

Diversified resources 45 

Education 16 

Electrification of transcontinental roads 44 

Employment, opportunity for .— 45 

Export of Montana cattle 39 

Fallon County, assessed valuation 141 

— crop production 141 

— description of 141 

— extraordinary yields 52 

— land area 141 

— population 141 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Farming, growth of 9 

Fees required to make homestead filing 27 

Fergus County, assessed valuation 143 

— crop production 143 

— description of 142 

— extraordinary yields 53 

— land area 143 

— population 143 

•186 MONTAXA-1916 ? 

• • 


— public land in : 28 

— state land in ^ 30 

Fifteen years of Montana cattle 121 

— of Montana horses ..- 122 

— of Montana Swine 122 

Fishing and Hunting 102 

Flathead County, assessed valuation 145 

— crop production 145 

— ^description of 143 

— extratordinary yields 54 

— land area 145 

— population 145 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 28 

Flax, sixteen years' growths of 119 

Forests, commercial value of 45 

Foreword : 4 

Gallatin County, assessed valuation 147 

— crop production 147 

— description of : 145 

— extraordinary yields 55 

— land area 147 

— population 147 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Game Laws, provisions of 103 

Glacier Park 109 

Gold Mpdals, Horticulture 91 

— Panama-Pacific Exposition 81 

Gold mining : 43 

Good roads 19 

Grand Prize, Horticulture 91 

Panama-Pacific Exposition - 81 

Granite County, assessed valuation 148 

— crop production 148 

— description of 147 

— extraordinary yields . 56 

— land area 148 

— population 148 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Growth of farming 9 

Hay 40 

High Schools 16 

Highways, encouragement of 19 

Hill County, assessed valuation 149 

— crop production 149 

— ^description of 148 

— extraordinary yields 57 

— ^land area 149 

— population 149 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Homemaking in Treasure State 20 

Homesteads, cultivation required - 26 

Homestead entries, number of 20 

— who can make 23 

— application for 25 

"Homestead fees required 27 

Homestead land, acres patented 12 

Homestead lands, plats of, how to secure - 23 

Homestead law, provisions of 23 

Homesteads, opportunity to secure 14 

— residence required 26 

Honorable Mentions, Horticulture 92 

Horses, increase in 89 

0#«,._ga^__iig^_aii--— utt^— iiii^— iiB^-— un^— ■Hii^—iiri— ^11(1— — iiii^— utt^— un— ^iin^— UB^— mi^— iin^— iiii^— iiii^— iiii^— mi^— tiii^— iiH^— nn^— iiii^— nii^— 1111^— nu»»## 


• • 

A^,^iiil...HilM^Hfl^^nB^^np>*-UB^— an^— iiR^— u«^— po— ^iin-^— iin^— oa^— un»— DU^— aa^— un^— nn— -iiit*^tin^— Mit^— iiu^— rm^— ua^— un^— im— — >vn>^nn-«0^ 


Horse Market, largest in world - 40 

Horse raising 40 

Horticulture 41 

Horticulture Awards at Panama-Pacific Exposition 91 

Hunting and Fishing -- 102 

Hydro-electric development — - - - — 43 

Increase in assessed acreage — — - - 22 

Indian projects in Montana -- 35 

Irrigation projects • 34 

Jefferson County, assessed valuation 151 

— crop production - .— 151 

— description of 149 

— extraordinary yields .- — - 58 

— land area -.- 151 

— ponulation - 150 

— public land in - - 28 

— state land in 30 

Land districts - 22 

Land offices, location of - .- 23 

Lewis and Clark cavern -- .- -.-. 106 

Ivewis and Clark County, assessed valuation 153 

— crop production 153 

— description of 151 

— extraordinary yields 58 

— land area ...- 153 

— population — .. 153 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

License, hunting and fishing 105 

Lincoln County, assessed valuation 155 

— crop production 155 

— description of 153 

— extraordinary yields 58 

— land area 155 

— ^population 155 

— public land in - 28 

— state land in — .- - 30 

Livestock, value of products in 1916 124 

Location of irrigation projects 35 

Logged-off lands, character of - - 32 

— price of 32 

Lumber industry . — -- 44 

Madison County, assessed valuation 157 

— crop production 157 

— description of 155 

— extraordinary yields 58 

— ^land area - 156 

— ponulation --- 156 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Map of Montana 126 

Markets for Montana livestock 40 

Maximum and Minimum Temperature 98 

Meagher County, assessed valuation 158 

— crop production 158 

— description of 157 

— extraordinary yields 59 

— land area 158 

— ponulation 158 

— ^public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Mean temperature by counties 97 

Medals awarded Montana : 75 

— at Panama-Pacific Exposition 81 

•188 MONTANA-1916 • 

• • 

00 »^— BH^— iB^^nn^^Bn^^Bii^^iip^^nn^^MB^— MB^^ni^^DB^^Mi^^ii^^ui^^Ml'^— Be^^ai^^lli^^mi^^iiB^^aB^^Kn^^nB^— iiB^— a^^^i M ■■ iw^ ^ m 


Medals of honor, horticulture 91 

— at Panama-Pacific Exposition 81 

Metals, value of in 1916 124 

Mineral County, assessed valuation 159 

— crop production 159 

— description of 158 

— extraordinary yields 60 

— land area 159 

— population 159 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Mineral Wealth, Montana's contribution to 123 

Mining pay roll 42 

Missoula County, assessed valuation 161 

— crop production 161 

—description of 159 

— extraordinary yields 60 

— land area 161 

-public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Montana climate, conductive to health 95 

Monthly and annual precipitation by counties 99 

Morrison's Cave 106 

Mules, increase in number of 122 

Musselshell County, assessed valuation of 162 

— crop production 162 

— description of 161 

— extraordinary yields 61 

— land area 162 

— population 162 

— public land in 28 

—state land in : 30 

Nation's playground 100 

Natural Resources 33 

Natural Scenery 100 

Newspaper Directory of Montana 113 

Normal College, location of 16 

Oats, five year average value per acre -.- 73 

— sixteen years' growth of 120 

Opportunity in state lands ...- 29 

Oportunity to secure homesteads 14 

Orchard acreage 42 

Panama-Pacific Exposition, Montana awards at 80 

Patents, number issued 21 

Park County, assessed valuation 163 

— crop production 163 

— description of 162 

— extraordinary yields 62 

^land area 163 

— population 163 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

People of Montana - 5 

Phillips County, assessed valuation 164 

— crop production 164 

— description of 163 

— extraordinary yields 63 

— land area 164 

— population 164 

— public land in '. -: 28 

— state land in 30 

Plats of Homestead land 23 

Policy of the state 18 

Political status of Montana 17 

• • • .. u— .. •• » •• IK >■ im u. .m ni ■> >■ » >• »■ »• » » •• >• •■ •• •. .. ■. .■ • • « 


• • 


Potatoes, five years average value per acre 74 

^sixteen years' growth of 119 

Powell County, assessed valuation 166 

— crop production 166 

— description of 164 

— extraordinary yields 63 

— land area 166 

— population 166 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Prairie County, assessed valuation 167 

— crop production 167 

— description of 166 

—extraordinary yields 63 

— land area 166 

— population 166 

— public land in 28 

— state land in ; 30 

Precipitation, monthly and annual 99 

Price of land under Carey Act 36 

Production of wool 39 

Productivity of Montana soil 20 

Progress of Montana 8 

Progress of Montana Agriculture 119 

Progressive legislation 19 

Prosperous year 124 

Public land available for entry 14 

"Public land entries 20 

Public land in each county 28 

■Railroads, electrification of 44 

Rainfall, amount of 99 

Ravalli County, assessed valuation 168 

— crop production 168 

— description of 167 

— extraordinary yields 64 

— land area 168 

— population 168 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Record yields 13 

Residence required on homesteads 21 

Richland County, assessed valuation 169 

— crop production 169 

— ^description of 168 

— extraordinary yields 64 

— land area 169 

—population 169 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Rosebud County, assessed valuation 170 

— crop production 170 

— 'description of 169 

— extraordinary yields 65 

— land area 170 

— population 170 

—public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Rye, five years average value per acre 73 

Sanders County, assessed valuation 172 

— crop production 172 

— description of 170 

— extraordinary yields 66 

— land area 172 

— population - 172 

— public land in 28 

; 190 MONTANA-1916 I 

• • 


— state land in -- - 30 

Scenic beauties -.- - - 100 

Sectarian Institutions of learning -... -.. 17 

School funds, growth and permanence of -.- -- 15 

School of Mines, location of 16 

School teachers, average salary of -.- -.- 10 

School term, length of 15 

Sheridan County, assessed valuation 173 

— crop production 173 

— description of 173 

— extraordinary yields 66 

— land area 173 

— population 173 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Silver Bow County, assessed valuation . 175 

— crop production 175 

— description of 173 

— land area 175 

— population 175 

— public land in 28 

— state land in ,. "0 

Silver cups won by Montana 78 

— Panama-Pacific Exposition 82 

— Horticulture 91 

Silver mining 43 

Sixteen years' growth in barley 120 

— in corn 120 

—in flax 119 

— in oats 120 

— in potatoes 119 

— in wheat 119 

Sixteen years of Montana wool 121 

Smelting center 42 

Soil, productivity of 20 

State Capitol, view of 2 

State Pair, visitors to 19 

State land, acreage in each county 30 

— how to secure 29 

— price of 29 

Stillwater County, assessed valuation 176 

— crop production 176 

— description of 175 

— extraordinary yields 66 

— land area 176 

— population 176 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Stockraising 38 

Sugar factory in Billings 38 

Sweet Grass County, assessed valuation 177 

— crop production 177 

— description of 176 

— extraordinary yields 66 

— land area 177 

— population 177 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Swine, increase in number of 122 

Temperature, monthly mean, by counties 97 

Teton County, assessed valuation 178 

— crop production 178 

— description of 177 

— extraordinary yields 67 

— ^land area 178 

- — population 178 

^««,^„i,^_,,^_„,^_iiii^_Bii..^iii.—iiii^—in^—«ii^— IK— iiii^—«»^—iii"^—n"^"i^—»"^—""^—""—""^—"»^—""—""^"—""^—""^—"'^— ""—"'••• 


; • 

Z^,^„if^„,__„^_i,i,__„il^iiii_iiil^_in^— nn^— m^— m— un— »— m^— n>^— l"^— «■— n^— ni^— »«^— iin nn— mi^— nli^— nn-^iin nl^— nil'«a0 


— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Toole County, assessed valuation - 179 

— crop production - 179 

— description of 179 

— extraordinary yields 67 

— land area 179 

— population - 179 

— public land in -— 28 

— state land in 30 

Township plats 23 

Trout fishing - 105 

Unappropriated lands 14 

University of Montana, location of 16 

United State land offices -- 23 

Unreserved and unappropriated public land 21 

Utilization of water power 43 

Vacant public lands 28 

Vacations in Montana 112 

Vacation spots 100 

Valley County, assessed valuation 180 

— crop production 180 

— description of 179 

— extraordinary yields 68 

— land area 180 

^population 179 

— public land in 28 

— state land in 30 

Valier project 37 

Value of Mineral wealth in 1916 124 

Value of wool produced 39 

Water power, development of 43 

Wealth produced in one year 124 

Weather conditions 95 

Wheat, five year average value per acre 71 

Wheat, sixteen years' growth of 119 

Wibaux County, assessed valuation 180 

— crop production -.... 180 

— description of 180 

— extraordinary yields 70 

— land area 180 

— public land in 28 

— state land in - 30 

Wonderland of America 107 

Wonderful Natural Parks 100 

Wool production 39 

Yellowstone County, assessed valuation 182 

— crop production 182 

— description of 180 

— extraordinary yields 70 

— land area 182 

— population - 182 

— public land in 28 

— state land in — 30 

Yellowstone National Park 108 

Zinc production .-... 43 


MT Coll HC 107 .M9 A6 1916 

Montana. Dept . of 
Agriculture and Publicity. 

The resources and 
opportunities of Montana 



-iij^viLiiT' r •"-•-^•'