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Ills Mrrarum milil prulsr omnei 
An^luK rtdotf ubl bob Hymetlo 
Hellk decodanl, Tiiidlijiie cerUt 
Bices VeDBfto. 
Ver ubi longum Mpidutjue pnebat 
JupilCT brumAA. 

Hduci, Cbitc. tI. Lib. 11. 

^tb Cbilion — |tcfaistb Bttb ^argtlg ^ngmtnttb. 



. Nos. 8 Broad and 109 But Bay Streeto. 

•■ ■■:.•*: : : 

• ••■.•-? • •■••■•> 


Sntersd aecording to Act ot CoDgiesa, In the year ISM. by 


In tha Caatk'i Ofllee of the Dli-uict Court of the United State* toi the tUstrict at 
ChuleatOB, SOBlh CsTOllIia. 


TBI* voLinix » lynrniSRn 

fir0ini8 Xctgb ^atcUtt, 




The tint Edition at this volume was prepared during the late war by 
direction of tlie Surgaon-General of the Confederate Statoa, that tbe Medical 
Officers, as welt as the public, might bo supplied nith iurormation, which, At 
tbe time, wu greatlj needed. I was released, temporarily, for this purpou, 
from service in the Field and Hospital. My conaection with the last men- 
tioned Institutione, as Physician and Surgeon, bu aztended almost uoiii' 
tsrruptedly over a period of twelve years ; so that my opportunities for 
experimental invcstigatione in Thorapeuticaand practical medicine, has been 

This Edition has been largely added to, and much time and care have 
lieen expended in its preparation. 

It is intended as a Band-book of scicnUflc and popular Icnowledge, as 
regards the medicinal, economical and useful properties of tbe Trees, Plants 
and Shrubs found within tbe Umits of the Southern StHtes, whether em- 
ployed in tbe arts, for manufacturing purposes, or in domestic economy, to 
supply a present as well as a future want. Treating apecially of our madi- 
cioal plants, and of the best Bubatitutos for foreign articles of vegetable 
origin, my aim has been to spare no exertions, compatible with the limits 
assigned me, to make it applicable as well to the requirements of the Surgeon 
as of tbe Planter and Farmer ; and I trust that there will still bo no diminu- 
tion in the desire of every one lo possess a source from whence his curiosity 
may be satisSed on matters pertaining to our useful plants. The Physician 
in his private practice, the Planter on bis estate, or, ahould the necessity 
ari^e, the Regimental Surgeon in the field, may himself collect and apply 
these substances within his reach, which are frequently quite as valuable as 
others obtained tinni abroad, and either impossible to be procured or scarce 
and costly. In preparing it, I have also bad in view the wants of Emigrants 
and those abroad who wish to be acquainted with respect to the Agricultural 
capacities of this extended section of country. But information scattered 
through a variety of sources must needs be first collected, to be available in 
any practical point of view. 

I have, therefore, inserted whatever I thought would throw light upon 
the vegetable productions of the Southern Stales, to enable every one to use 
tbe abundant material within his reach. An excuse will be found for any 
awkward arrangement of the details, in the difficulty of collating, digesting 
and reconciling a multiplicity of statement, some of them contradictory, 
from a variety of authors. I have searched through the various Catalogues 


Rod t7»tematlc works on Bolutj, hdiI nolicod in iilmi»t *f<!Tj Iniitanca the 
hutiiut «nd ptcciif localiiy of plnnti, that nach ona vauy be nppriicd ot the 
proiiaiUT of Tftlualile spMiivs. Kn-ijui^iit T-.'fi<r<.>no«i to one Itmll^d Mietton 
in {unicular, may be nccoiinti'd for by th« fnct thnt It bu been i!liiiitruli>d 
bj- Umi Ubirn of nt leMt Ibroo ItolanlnU of dUlInr.Iion, Wnllor, Mm^ltrido 
and Rkvecel. Wbvnuvcr citixeni of otbitr Ijtatiw bsve perfurmed a simllikr 
work, I h>T4< gladlv sTalInd myself of It 

Cntaloguca of Ui« trcoi ftod plimte growing in ipccial ioculitira ihut b»conie 
of (Teat larTicn, lU thoj indlcnlo j^wiKli/ whcr« valuRblc ipc^oim niuy b« 
proouied. TboM interiwtfd oiay obUlti the locnlhlc* of ninny pianln found 
in (bo Southern Statcn by coniultinf; KIIIouV Botany, Uurby'i, iind th« 
rocfinl work by Cliapmau, of Florida, " Tb« FIoth of ibp Soutbi-tn Unitod 
tiiBtw." Among tbo Cataltigu<* itiuvd at tb« Soutb, ib oiii.' by I>t. Jno. 
Bkcbman of " PUnU growing in the ricinlty of Charlmlon," publiiWl in 
the Southern Agriuulturiit: oii« by Pruf. Lt!>i'iit K. Gibbon uf i)io«e found 
In Richland Di(iri''t, S. C.j " PlnnUi faiind in tho vicinity of Newborn, N. 
C," by U. B. Croum i an uaQnlahed {>npt<r by W. Wru^i; Siiiithi El*1-, 
pablUtind in tbn Tramutctionn of Iho KItioli SociMy of Cbnrloiton; "A 
Cntalogus of Indlgonoiu nnd Nutumliiiod PluiitJi of North CaruliuH, by 
R«>. M. A. Ourtln, D. D., 1867 ;" nnd " A Mi>d)oo-BoUniRa1 Cauloguo of 
the PlonU of St. John'» Berkeley, S. C," by Ihe writer. AI«o my "Ski<t«h 
of tha Hodicnl Botany of Siialh Carolina," fiiitilinhcrl in tho TrHniBctioni of 
Ifao Am. UmI. AHooiaiiun, vol. ii, IB-IO. The extensive culleclion in tbe 
Charloilon Mukoiim, by my friend, Mr. H. W. Kavrrnol, and his MVornl 
publiCHllODii, uili;ht ulto b« I'unBullcd with proUt. X buvu HVHiIed uiyiieir of 
Dr. Chapman'* work in nacnrtainlng tbn nnni«t or jjUtiU Kildwl by biiiHDtfU 
aiocv Ihe time of Waller iind KlliuH, and uol contained in the Cjilaloguea 
raAirrod to. By the opportune publication of this work, T bavo boon i<niiblnd 
U> inlruduce a largH tiumbur of pliinl* poomiid of valuable proixTtSus, 
medicinal and ccwnoniioat, whivb are ruinmon to Mexlro, tlic Wcii India 
Itlandi and tho troploHl countrlca. Thn plunu bnvo Ihwh arritiiuiil nftiT llio 
Satural SyiteuJ, ndopling, for the imut purt, Uie vii^wi of Lindloy. 

The rpfi'r«ncn to iiifiirmalion ounlnllu'd In boukh* norvcs tbe plirpcwo of 
thowing Ihoao intcruilLsl in any Pruiiuctinn or Unnufiiciucu where fuller 
detnllt, whii'.h aio loo Ii^ni:; to intnri, can ho profuritd. It will bo afirii from 
Iiupi'-cting the lirt of nutboriliei, Ibtii the labor of scnrching ihrougb the 
largo number of Mrdicnl and other nulhoriiloii hiu- lio'in v«ry ;;ri'ftl. My 
chief object boa been utility and tho deiire to benefit our people, nnd that 
Pnture in^utrert, being advl»ed of what bab boun alrmidy aciHiDiplltbed,tiiay 
proooed to more ei peri men tnl reaeareho*. I have not heiUated to draw 
largely from nny qunrler, np[i|tr>dlng tho name of the nolbiT, whenever I 
thought iho mailer applit-ablo to our condition and recjiiirnmonti. Thus, on 

*I take IbU eacajiea to cxpretj my L0ilublC4lne» W CoL J. U- Muore, of ^lalc*- 
barg, 6. Cfur th* aaeof a valuable llbrarjof ■grleuIlBral and choDilcal book), and 
tvr man; raoililiwa affunlod iii<; ia Ihe pruHHUtiuii uf Ifait work. 




tht nibj * ct of tfa* Orap«, Wine, Su^r, BorKhum, IVinU, Ophim, CMIan, 
ToImcu. T™, Rvnis. EspKrto (ir*», Fl«», MmtaM, C-»t«r Oil, OiK Tur- 
|wMi», hijuvh, P-'ta«!i, SuiIh, Wood for i>ngnviag nnd for donaftjc puT- 
pwH. Madici&iJ •utwtAiM'o, AfcrlRuHural |)r»diu-iii e^n^niUy, etc., I bsvg 
k*«a proftM is mj KJcetioiM froa b mnllipHuitv of fourcu. 

I hftTv BTcndod nom tLoji ii caxtorj montinn of tbn Cryptogamic plADto, 
f**t^, cKv, H lit* •pMO Mvupicd would bv Uiu ^reHt. J would rvfer tlw 
rmildt ta nj p«pcr in tho Tntnucliotu »r Ibo Am. Mod. AMoclntlon, thI. 
T{i,aB "Tba Vadidnal, l>ii)iettc ini Poitonous FroiwrUm of ilia Crypi«- 
pwte PbDU vf thv UatlAj gi«tw," wbare Ui« >ubjt>ct b irMlod m exUnao, 
ia4 » dswription of mv^tkI liundr«d HMtAiI orpoiAonnua «p«clM fitrnlthed. 

1W aUcr M »«11 u the more mxal works on Ui« MmtpriH Mudica, Tliarn- 
f^Etia* aad Medical BoUbj — from the Oaialofu* Ptant«rvm of JohuinM 
K>T aftd l^ Ditpfiiutiw; «r Triilvriu, (u P«r«in, Wood, Griffith kod 
Slllt*— %T( b<«n oontulted. 1 h«t« been al tbv paim to tcttrcb Lbroui;li tlto 
bcv<r, Ik order DOt only to RtccrUin the vIrUK* onnmucrfbcd toonr rinnlK, 
^id ti>»Rlrs«i th««>i with tbp r«Mitt* of later InrntigAtioiiK, but toux- 
hMi tb« BiHiaiioiu tlut liBVu oomrnd ill thv ooDfldmco rvputod id miiny of 
vWl u« U pnuiDt M>ntlil^ind our mott uppnivod Thi>riipHUtlc a^ent*. The 
CriftttAcy witli wbi«h tlii> takui plac« w*r(u tu not to diiourd, upon r lupor* 
inal Biaaiiiiation, tbom pLipuIsrlr oontidorod to bn of trivial importancit. 
Ttm Kuropean aulborllics bare bxen eiaiutiiM. mid frum them bat bWD 
ittoiiiMl msch concerning our Uedicinnl nnd Economical pUnt4, which it 
Mtktf not irrrKTutly knovn or not DUiiilod bi in our DlifrfinialoTl**, and 
«UcA ui^i be of otMolUI aerTice to thoie dviiruuK, nut mcrvlr of Mcnr- 
tti«i^ ohAlta alritftdj' uDd«ntood, but also more thoruiighly oflnTMllgMlng 
iW htddvii qualili« of alb«n. 

TW inmatiption Drcatnty tor aicsrtniniDjt and collecUay thoM hat 
wfnM»d a nut fbnd of fact« rHUllv<> to lli« virtUM of a targ« proportion, at 
It win bvobaerred, of the Ptantu, both ob*ctir« nnd mrllknown, ataoa)^ U(. 

1 ban arailad mjiwlf of thtr t2th RdUion of iho U. S. Djapoomlory, 
MMstlj isuied and oarefullj^ r«vi>i>d bir it* able aun'Sviiig author. That 
laad eslCMitawork. tbr Dittionnairr Jt Matien ittJiatU if TAtra- 
Ofurclt, hy Memt aod lie Lfiir. inctutliug Ibi- SuppIumentBrj 
mJ^mi. hai bfvs tyiwlv IraimlaU^d when nwcuary. I have n1>o ixamlnad 
A> Agriciillural J-^uriuli, the Patent Officu Kcports, liic " Itural Cycto- 
pHiTla.*" vditMl bjr Wllfvi), uf EdiBtnirgli ; ami have tlioii|[hl it not londmii- 
AirWgtMa from Iha Journals and NewipHjwra of thv daj', which ooos- 
ilalHj" affbfd Um fsrllMt InKarmatlon on the economical nwouront of ft 
MVriiy. From tlHM I have bcun oarefull; coIIm^D);. 

Maay tofila sr«, t)»«reforA, appropriBtelj' introducwl wbtcfa would hardly 
h«««|kUoo in aatriiily Medical work. Iiifornmifoa oflhlt kind lag^aerally 
ttSb cn t to under nibjacl* with which tl u cloiely allied. Thui, Potaah, 
tthtt anil "i ii[i II rr rlamil urrfltr Hickory and Oak, ("Cbtj'h'' and "(Jiaer- 
ow,") Suda and Soda Soap* andvr "Snltola" and " Fucn*," Cbartoat aadar 
Ptw u4 Willow, (••Piooi" and "SaUi,"} Oi)« under B«9,("8MaBBinn,") 



Ster«b and AiTOtrroot UDdM "JdAranU" Mid "ConTolvoIui." »l«.,Mt>MMi 
PIk&U «ra e]iaTBCtaruti«llf rich In aui-'h priditcu. TIm Inilix. liowcvcr, 
will oMtMio foil r«ft<r«ni!m. 

Ttie mode or action of Mudtcinnl pknU mftnilclv *«Tiet ; tliuir wiMTtioa, 
OoaMquently, for llio »OTrt»l piirpM«* roquIr«<J by ihn Phjiioiati, U not, in 
my opinion, » mMIar cf mcro McidMit, tfaa rwullof gucuwork vr uf pi>piilM' 
r*[>aMtJon. Booh it diilln^iihcd b; tlio cunipusition of lt« principal cult- 
ttituenU ; th«»« aro gonernllv lutriiii^cnt prlticlplna, naKOtiw, i^mulutiii); 
veitouble oils, coulin;;, rt-frif;i>rHnt itcld!i, lilttvr totiim. (.'Hlliaiiio, etc., «tc- 
Sonw>, u the CincbonftcciE and the lo* nutlve a nti- period to, ruuintn prinel- 
nlet ttill more knIj met with und Bii>ra ob<ii,-iir(r In ihnlr nindn of »p«ratl«B, 
which have conlrol in wnrdiiig ufTibi; uoi^ui* of malarinl ultackt. But ones 
In ]K>«>«n<lon of Iho mnin n>-ti7o principle fiirnlthiHl by ii plant, it U Muy to 
(M wAjf it goinii orudit us a r^mi-dy in ui^rtuin uiusKv i>f diHwiu. Tllia puivsr 
It na*y ahare In cnnnnon with man; nlktiri, and nevnrai priip^rtlet nmj ho 
oombined in yarioui degr«e« lu aaub, which it in nocuwnry to know, prolim- 
lawj to • JudlnloD* appllcalioii of thiini. Many PlHnin, for 4>ian>ple, ure 
reputed vfflcaeiouo in arrulin^ tb» profiuviu, dtarrlimu iind dincbargci from 
th« miicouti burfaiHd fci^DRMllT ; thi> thonM oxiiitn no »urprlii« when it U 
•uipcctvd or n9(.-i'rlatn«d tbnl. they cunlntn tiinnia aiiDply, tn tome olhnra, 
•» In tho I'va urti, for nxampir, tbu tannin is nuooiiticd wilh a AlimiiUlIng 
diuretic ail, whii'b furlhtir Hilft]iU it to th« rptivfof cbroniF rvnal affudion*. 
So with thoKi which cipMit'Ofu lnwbci ui produoo a cailiariic, nmelk, nar* 
ixilic. »cdsll?t>. Irritant, or vorniiruii;^ aoilon on the human iiritctn. It b 
alwayii in Tiflno of tho well known prindplc-i Ihiiy iv>n<Hln, tb«t Ibej pmvo 
lurricvHble ttnil aT« pri.<fi.>rri'd| and cliuirilcal nnnlytin >ubtei|uantlj rcTpaia 
pNciiely what it h upon which tb<<irpowe»d«pond. ThRlgni>rant, wbptbvr 
Cfeduiou* <"■ inor(niiil.jim. Isnow only by mmniiry lbs nimn.' of thu plnnl and 
tLu diMOBO which it is said to »uil — aa iu tho manner uf liharlatimn and herb 

Inoruoaod atlontion hiw, within the part ducade, bcon paid to thn produc- 
tion and mnnufacturo i>f the Concnnlratcd Priiparntioiu, Alkaloids, Ruin- 
oidn, *o1id and fluid Extructo, lie. Wu nrc indcbiod for mnny nf thuw lu 
thA pbarmacnutioal iind chnniioal «lcill of Pn>r«itii!or Proctor, Dr. PitrnUi, 
nnd Qtliur coiupplcnl inv«gtit;a<on, and to the reiearr-hnt und publicaUotii 
of Prof. a*o. B. Wood. iSno Am. Journ. Pharin,, Juurn. Pbillf.d. Col- 
lege of Pburu., and Am. Pborin. Asaoa) Eiclentivu ci>ubli'hnii>Dt« at tbo 
North am nnjcajtcd in ihnir manufacture, and an iinmi-niic impuliinn baa 
been giv«n tu tbelr ura among n largo and growing clou of pbjait/ian* Hud 
praetilloncri, j>nrliculiirly ol the North and Wow.. 

I may remlnii ihi' n-adtir that Ihy knuwled^ of the very nal>lcntM> of Ihu 
Alkaioidi comnipni;ecI with the dUcovcry and »(ip«rulion of Morphia, iiy 
Svctiirn'-r and Sni;itln, in 1817 ; h modillcution of the Gcn--rli- nH>iii> of the 
plant from wbiob lb<-y arc flrit derived, is uauaily givua to Ibeni ; lomctimet 
thmnar* IndiicrJmlnaUiily Inrniinutc'l by tn or id, but in order to have uni- 






l^mSf, Urn UshMt MKliaHtiM rMomniafld that tba foriiMP should alwayi 
k •pfUad O Uia Ncuirsl prindpl*^ wmI lli« Inttur to tlw Alkalmd*. Tbn; 
M« JiMiiliiiil b; irater, but •fi«riii)[l?, bj acidi, Blcobol, Mlior aad sIrioM all 
1» biBMB* and eiblaroforai. Tannic add iir«vlpii»t« tbaoi, anil U coniiidcrc)! 
tta bM aatidate for tholr Injurioiu tlTect*. 

0*. Wood rcfen to ttaa uBKivntlflc Datow DMd by tb« •o-o«ll»d K«l«clMa 
is ^S^ Mieh appflUtloni ai Hjrdraahi, Iridia «r Iriiin to Alkalotda, 
Mwi ratiiM. etc., which ihuuld b« teaarttJ for the pore aollvo ^nulplo* 
vhoa thl7 ahall hare bfoD dUcOTcrri and icparatcd ; sod PanUfa c>bj<«u ID 
'* |^a>th grawiiif; out of thii lyitt-iu uf |ir«etH^," Hiid lo " ilnti niultipliciiy 
•illKm ttoadMcrlpt ;)rliKlploi, obkfa ichile tunny of them mny bn valnabl* 
■attdaca, are pircpkr«i] atmoat rKcliMiv«tjr by n f<^w inaniiraclun-n, catdi 
fT'Tl«TTg hb «VB jirocouaod liablr to produci^ varjing remit* ; wfciU undar 
^ if afft c * irpleoi (if Duntovlatur^ all arw vlaued lof:eib(>r." Thi* la 
btwij wlBlllcd ; ffill, oven in the impure and opEnpaiatirely uomptcs uato 
b vksoh ibaaa p«x>ducu urn u*od by thom. they ar* inuelt 1*m bulky than 
f <wa or d«eM*i«o* of ihn [ilanu frc>ui which they are olilained ; Ihoy aro 
«Mly -^w«W«t*fHi and tbou^h praparatioru morn KientiBcaUy ooBMri>c4«d 
M« Iw ba ptcbncd and *ho«Id b« wud, It miat be aUowcd that bj tbdr 
m^M0 k cvnalD sdTancn baa bacn nado and an impubn f^Tcn to th* «■»• 
flajMHU of medicinal agpnti of T«geiabl« (■rlg;in, aiul huniw ineidroUilly 
U Mdlwl Botany. Dr. Parriifa aUa in hi* Praclicnl PharBiacy tiMtaint 
fit — ri^ilar to tfaote I have lon|; beU : 

"la^imienUi the to-^MlUd Kclactic praetitioiMn, it tniuit bn admitted that 
thaj hara bada uHlrameatNl in intiodiKing to notice aomr obarure mpdlcnl 
r^aau vhitlt [jBiiini TaliMblft propaniM ; ll In to b» ragroltcd that tbi-ir di«- 
pathiun k> mn into pharnuMutiMl empirittism ahould bar* to to&g limited 
ik»tr 1 lAi lnaa* and damafad thadr reputation." 

Il b tkm tendency of the age, at txhibJ^ed cvm bj thoM who ar* JaMly 
tamUmti aittn^larand uiiMicatiAc, oouplcd wtihihe iilKirUaadnpndty 
•f MT PhanBBOOutlntl UboiulnU, that wi- ar* li>d<;t>I«d for tlie lepnntion and 
«*«f Leptandrin, IlydraitiB, Iruin, Apocinin, Todophyllln, Caulupbyllin, 
■•fr, aad a numbfrofotbina which are b«lnK nilwuslvvly employed both In 
ihii t»t»try and in Europe; and that ib« pinnti from which they an pnv 
daead ha** hwn tramfitrrtd durii^ a comjiatatlTely rncent period frtnn the 
a iiM J a i y L1»U and fbiffi a •ubortllaaie poaitivii is tbe PbttrmacopiiTia and 
Ac INtpnuBtarj to the Primary Liii. 

Ihao^rentaB eii«iit are Lepiandrln atMl Podophyltin eroploy«d sltb* 
Sacth. (hat they are "tendtag artidw of prnductlon with nverdloftha 
ttt g ml naRufattwrinc PharmactfiUtui In Ihe UdIimI fltateo." 

^k^of oar Indisenoiw Jtedidna) Plant* !■ Indoad eiieiMlinK Tiih 

rapU»lridaii and thoae usaoqaalntod vttb or nnobtervaot of vbat ban 

•bwadjr and ■■ being doiM, will be aUoniihcd at the proffm* thtit iweoly 

■Mvof caroful Invei^licalton of th«i», aided by minnt« clivmical re> 

•ad tii« «spa(i«iice Dbiatnvd fVom clinical ehierratMn, will effocl. 

In tUi latitnd*, bowerer, ttrnsxe lo aay. It I* rath«r r«fardrd aa a re- 

praaefc ft>r (be edi*calod PhytkUn to be at all addicted to BolaDloal invea- 


tifiKtions: or that ho iIiimiM by uiy uhumibI •aiiilult; add to tli« «ip«rienoe 
atid ntuitrviitloR BoijuirDd by him io ibio pnr*uit ftf hia profouion oven the 
vutiinet of k pnuiiuiil knowl»Ju;a of eitliur tiunaral or Misli<»il ItuUuiy, at 
If it lend* noccaurily to a blind bcliof in tbo ixiUmcj; of dru}:i; and to ho 
mnit fkin nuUpr Ihu ponaltiw sUHab»d lo bis uiil-hIIwI fur and lixi iulr«ntur< 
ou« March in thuo forbidden fleld*. Such knowlodRu, (o limited, hai not 
btun coti«ld«4-<>d Mtentinl or appropriate, o* it In tvfrjvrhurt el«n, avoa t« 
tfao Uselier of Materia Jfaltra aud TtDtrspuuUcii ; .Tvrt wIiuq the TliarapiHlt- 
l«l, wbn It Rt all informod lU a Bolaaiiit. bann only iho nam* «f a tii«- 
dicinnl prepurutiuii of vv^vlaililt' origin, or iLul of no dlkiiluid or ftuaiciuid, 
hn knows and auocinuu ini mediately therewllb the naow, ralntlon', chnrao- 
tor and projiertitn of Iha ptanl ftoui wbic-b it in darirod, «nd eonvwiely. 

In a nolin by uif dlntlnguUlied friend, W. OilmornSImnis, Ktiq., of sn 
Article in Da Bow'« Revlonr, by tbo writer, bo rcfon in djicurmivo langaiucit 
to Ibd " ivtoDrRes of llio Soiithorn Unld* and fiirmli, tli«i natural prodlinliona 
In brief of the Scuth^her rwimrv-ea in ibo woodi, and twumta, and fleldi, 
lhi< earlli and rtioln; for pitrp»gwa of nocd, utility, nifidleio*, art, trlenea and 
iu«alian>n; hint* lo IbtrduaiMtk' inanuriu.'tur«r; to tbe wurkiiri ici wood and 
ejiTIb; and roek and troo ; and ih rub and flower; blnw, cliiea, auggmtlon* 
wbkb may bo lumcd ti> tb<> tii"ii itwM purpOMS; nut mcrvly ai expeJitntt 
during tbo prewure of wilt iind btuckode, but cuntinuoiuly, through all tiiiM^ 
u aflbrdlog profit, n«c, and iiniplaynuinl. to our pcmplu." 

Friim an irufioction of thn large amount of nuit«rial embrace In thi« 
volumu. it will be seun timl our Soultiurn Klurti in cilruordinarily rich. 

It u the tcooiiR)! product of every variety of >oil and clIinatA, fWiio Ma- 
rylund l>i Fluridu, from TvnnixBuo Ui TeiM. Tbu Atlnnli-; ilopu* with tbcir 
marine growth, the Mountnin rid|(m of the interior, the alinnat Inrra-tnip!- 
c8l prodiictliHia of LouiLlHnH and ^iolltl) Flurlda, Willi thi^ rii-h alluviu of the 
Rivor courHw — «ll contribul« to iwell the liau nnd produce a wonderful 
etuberaDce of v«j«*ilon. Tht- ii)«utb«rn tftjilM wcupy simwt tbt wbolo 
of the Temperiilo Zone in th« Weslern Dcmiiphcrc. 1'ndof a s.-ninl *un, 
»a4 ODduring ooilbor ftilrRinm of hiiat or cold, thxy are rich In nstuml r«> 
loUTCa, and pouiiM n variety of toil and a range of ivmpcraturc affected by 
tb« prvHcnui) of both iwa nnd mountain. 

Their geologicnl fea'urei nrti divfr^lfied and Boiuewhat pocullar. The land 
in the Allatitio Suit.« at Tarytnir dWanciu from thn «i«*l rlhi* evenly and 
Inionaibly M tlio hdght of about two liundred and fifty feet above tbn gcn- 
ural tidv tnval, forming h vast plain abnundlng In oypriw itWHmpa uud pino 
nnd Duk ridgM, and conitituiing what i> known ni the Alluvliil focmatl'in*. 
For the niwl part, quarlAiwit »nnd« and clay* cover iho turfnco from the depth 
of from ton to Iwnnty-Bvc feci or more. The«c overlay vn»t bcdi. of Tortlary 
narl, tbu Koopnt', Mim'UtiA ami F<iMi-plk-<v<ne ituotions of wbicb, compoaing 
tbn Limmtone regloni, crop out and etpoiii their rich fowiU in invnral locall- 
llc«. Tho earth "f the swampa and manhec that »Wrt iht* river* and onjuka 


fr*qimtt|' contalai a, ivtge proportion uf peat. Succeeding the above ars 
tb" Primnrj (uriDations BircCchiDg Hway to Ihe mouDtains in the interior. 
Th-- foil uf tbi' portion, diirived frutn tbe digintc^mtioii ol' Lho graniUi, 
pvL*. cUv-»Ute, and other metamorpbic rocks, aa tbuj reapectivelj come 
10 ibe iurbce, *nd are tubjectad to atmoipberli: inSuances, presents everj 
nrietT of fertilitj and barrenneu. The geological features of the Feniu- 
tu!a of Florida ar« exceptional. These diTjiions ue diBtioguifhed bjr tbeir 
fhuact«rutic Tegetation,* and thus ve are presented vith geographical and 
climatic influencM, which combine to produce a relation between heat and 
EMLtture peculiarlj adapted to the production of a varielj of upecica, com- 
f-niin^ raanj of our moat active curative agents. The State of New Yorlc, 
«hi<^ It said to include an area equal to the whole of Qreat Britain, accord- 
ing ui Pruf. IjcCif out of H Flora of one thousand four huniirod and flfty 
rpKiei, cuniaina but one hundred and tilly known to be medicinal. Here, it 
will be obe<>rved, in a sfiaca at the South considerably smaller in extent, a 
much larger proportion cxisLa. Mj Sketch of the Medical Botany of U. C 
tmbraced a ni>lice of four huudrcd and ten species, out of about three thou- 
sand dve hundred, poaaoaied of medicinal or economic value ; including, 
how>rv«r, among thvae, some few exotic or introduced. A single circuin- 
Kribed locality in the lower section of the same State, but ten mitea in 
diam«ter, fiirni«heB one and one-third more than the whole of New York. 
W« can roadily )iun:eive what the South at large, with an expanse of tcrri- 
lury equalling that of Greiil Britain, France and Germany combined, i* 
eatable of producing. 

Ucaci.', though the South lias been swept an by a whirlwind, and, like one 
■ ' in natire pinea, scathed and blaat<.-d by the lightnings of war, its inherent 
[xwert I'f reproduction are almost limitless. Its sesBons of spring and 
lammvr are long ; the navigation of ita rivers is scarcely ever interrupted, 
and during the whole year iU people may be continuously and industriously 
•<Tupied. Heretofore, they bave been nlmost exclusively etinlincd to the 
laV-r^ of tbn field — in the production and prcparalion of t1iui<u »cven great 
iiapk' articles uf consumption and of cipurl, vix : Cotton, Kicc, Sugar, To- 

•■■ 111 ^b^■n. till- FIntm iitlhi- upper vcrjfi: iif tht Ti-rtiBry i« a» ilittiiiet fmui tlmi «f 
t-i- rnifi .>f iho .■^iHte SI arc iTh- two gi-uti- -iirsL BvpfoniK irliioh moot Ihtir fmin cteh 
v-h'-r.'^ l*ri,f. Tuoioi'v'i' (ioolof*. Up|i. of B. I*"., p. Nit. | havo T('pi'nti<<l]y uliserved 
>i-D.lir rrlutiun.t afTcctinK auinrv liinilcij apace. 

Tljfiiithvur iho Stali-a WriLpriiig on lhi> iicoarL uI I'arjiiifE ^lit^tnncca from tlii-cini't, 
•:^r .:i:ur [;'''>l"fpnil dlrigl'iDp mrv (uun-l, unly ilifli-rinj; in brvailih sad I'Xtciil, anil 
I r> •rntiii;: ;tn-ul f iioilarity ■:• rvfiifcrs Mjil (n't tigi'Intiiiii. 

Thui< I Lliii- mn^tittlj notcil the Fluru sikI fdco at thi' oiuntry jtn-vailing in Fair- 
!'ll I ■■udii-, S. r.. nuil Puirliiillun, Vh., hiiiI have i>1i"i'rvril a markvil rti'riiil>lnntr in 
i>i"*t i-Tvry ri'*|ii-ct. A imrrfiH HIrip ot Lung kaf PiiH", tut exanijilo, If fuuiiU Inir- 
..--nifZiho 'ouilii-nytfrn i:xtrpiiiilivy of ei<:b of IhoFi- i-uuiilLi-s. t^i-o tirpiirt t» Klliott 
-■■. . -.( i'h*rh-i"n. 

r A 1'utal'<p(itt iif thi- .Mi-<1h'. Phttit?. liiili^. and Riot., gr^winj^ in the ^lalc of 
S.w \-rk. Ht C. a. U-r. I'riif. Mat. M<'>].. etc. New Yurk, 1H8. 



bMMv Wb«M, Corn Bad Turpeutino, wlilch though dfttironod m " KIbe*," 
ytA »UII cr«MI«i or moTo ih« comiDdrro of Ihn world and form tba wealth of 
Btatc*. Now, faowL-ir«T. immpnt» llllUttDd HHnufiii:'t'>rl<« taiutKprtng np 
to cpii*iinin the rnw mninriitl of thn tso(t importunl of thoii- produoU, wbjcb 
i> grown Bt their il oon. nnd which hiu heretoft-ra hi-vin cnrrlod «lti>wh«ri.> to 
bo rAlurnad lo im burilptind with tho mut nf tmniportation and of tho labor 
and tkill «<i[wnd(<d upon ita «>ov(<reii>ii tmo fabric*. 

It will, Ui«mrnro, he ob«Hrved how important it h for u» lo undnvtand 
IhB Flum Hj ■t'll n*i the »«)il of a couniry ; and n» ann al Inati of our ftjipltf 
ootnnioditi« bai lulfhra), we mmt lock to dironify unr industrini ; and (if 
a moro intolligi-nt utttitrvatioa we insj- dincovBr n«w prodiiol" adnpl«d la 
our wanu and capnbli!' of hiAag produced hero. It will bv olwt-rvcd Ihat 
miMt of our Udnful PUnt* aro not indigcnoiia. Manj now in the wood* maj, 
by carrful cuUiTniiou, become ){r«ally improvi.>iI in qualit]', and tMifoM 
raurp jifidiictiv*^ — ii- hai atrwKJy bwn dona with our wild Kr"P"*i appl™, 
cauliflower*, itmniberripi, MO., oW. 

Central BotanSoal Gnrd<!n< iliould he dutablishwi in placn of Pnrlu, whicli 
may bo ni*dc luoflil to the induitry of man, and are aa nnpurlnnt to a State 
oil Upolugiciftl Surveyi. 

1 hard introdiico a notice of upward* ot livu hundmiBuhitnniiiii, ponoaing 
<iv«ri varluiy of u'ufiil niinlity. 8i>nio will bn iKJooiwi lu iiiinWii, olh«n 
may bo found upon eloper nxamination to bo »til1 nior*i valuiiblp. The mort 
prtielnuK of all Toiiltn Fi1>rwi and Oraint, Silkt, .Scrdu, Fruiu, Oili^, Giin9«, 
Caoutchouc. Itciini, Dyoa, Fccula, Albumen, Sugar. Starch. Vr^etablo 
AcMi and Alhalles, LiqQon, Spirit, Durnlftg Fluid, matprfnl for making 
Paper ftnd Cordaitfl, Gra«*» and Fonm* Planti. Barka, Ucdicinei, Wood 
for Tanning and thf- produvliou of Chemical Aj^nciua, for Tiriib«r, Ship- 
building, Engfuvirtji, Furniture, Iraplementi nnd tllmniU of ovfiry dworlp- 
llnii — all abound In ihn ^rcaiiidt niunlflc^nri^, Hiid n*nd but th<? Hriii of th« 
aattiovitlea or the energy and enlt-rpriic of Iho privsto oilizen Ic be mndo 
(onTOM of utilily, profit or Imaiity. 

Amonx tbe RcsourL'fM of thf Soiilh, T had inltindod lo mfm to the Pho»- 
phatea rMcntly ditcovcrcd and devvlup'.'d. in one oeutlon. at lean, which 
may oonlrlbnta *n macorinlly tf> lni|irova Ihn prod no lion of our Pieldn. I 
had prejiarvd a history or tiioin. to be publSithed as an appendix to thl* volume, 
but tho want of ijircc forbidi. 

Tboro i* a nibjcet, however, wfatdi thn writnr haji boon long reflating 
upon, and wbicb hA considers one of lupromeltnpurlanou, wbetber wnrctcnrd 
thi* improvement of our Cullivntod Crop«, or tbe Fields and Forii^U of Uio 
country. If MiocMiiflilly carried out. It will reclaim and render- lit for tiIl»Bo 
vaiit bo'li™ of londi now lying idle, and ([riartly improve ilicir Hinilary 
coiidilion. It will nltio niake white labor available during tbc whole year, 
and grently tlimutite tmmiBration. 

1 nttr to the JDauiraaK of tbe Marahns and Swamp landn, particularly 

tliOM near the Oitlea and klong the Kver courses. This, aavo in parliculnr 
initkiice*, canoot now be done by the eeparate and isolated elTorts of pUntera 
and brmen, but should be accomplisbed as e. public work by the State. Op- 
oraUoDS could be commenced on the inland Swampa, each of which presents 
■n independent problem to the Civil Engineer. Along our cossta, at a 
distance of forty milea from the sea, there is a rise of about twenty feet above 
the general tide level, giving a &11 of half a foot to the mile, which is 
sufficient. In my own experience, these arc capable of thorough and per* 
feet drainage. 

The Engineer Mills, in bis Statistics of S. Carolina, published in 18S6, has 
presented an elaborate scheme of (hi* hind, by which it was proposed that 
the State should purchase so many slaves, and when the Swamps were 
druoed, the lands so improved and increased in value should be sold to the 
Farmers and Planters. 

Enterprises of a similar nature, on an extensive scale, have long since, as 
is generally hnown, been successfully prosecuted in HoDuudacdin Belgium. 
The Harlaem Meer, drained in 1S89, was 4,600 acres in extent, with an 
average depth of thirteen feet. The works were executed by the government 
at an expense of 15/. 5*. per acre. The whole of the bed of the take has 
been brought into cultivation, and the government has been partially repaid 
by the sate of the land. Large tracts of alluvial land have been reclaimed, 
both Id Holland and Belgium. The Campine, in Belgium, has been sub- 
jected to a syatero of both drainage and irrigation. 

Large Bogs in Ireland, the Chat Mosa, and the Bogs of Allen have been 
successfully reclaimed by mrtace ditches and by auger-holes descending to 
tbe pervious strata below. 

Fens and Mora&ses in Yorkehtre, and in various other coanUes in England 
faave been transformed fima barrenness to fertility, and now yield abun- 
dant crops of pasturage. 

lu Milan, the system of irrigation is extensively practiced on Meadow 
land, and near Mantua, as in the time of Virgil, the superabundant water 
has been reduced within its proper channels, to tbe great advantage of the 

Tbe operations by the late East India Company have been brilliant In 
tbeir results, the engineers availing themselvea of tbe huge works of their 
Indian predecessors. Pitty per cent, has been realized.* 

The French In Algiers have succeeded in draining and reducing to suc- 
cessful cultivation Ihe entire plain of the AUmtijo, which was before an 
unhealthy region, and which now produces abundantly all the tropical fruits, 
grains, etc, to supply the demands of the mother country. 

•Sm, for more prsatlosl deUila, The Bndlmenta of Hydranlifl Engiaeering, by Q. 
R. Bnmcll, F- 0. S., Civil Bnginesr; Ths Art of Draiiiing Dlatrlats anil Luds, 
and DraiDSge and Sewage of Toms, by Q. D. DempMy, C. E.j and Embsnkiag 
Lands from the Sea, by Jno. Wiggins, F. O. 8. J. S. Virtab, London. I iosert 
these nferesoes OD aoaonnt of tbs troth of ths maiiai : "Solre ubi aliquld inTmirc 
possli, maxima pars solsntiss sst." Tbe flrit thing is to know whsrs to get infer, 



The writw bu kMn Uie piL-iar«Hquc nnd fertile Valley of tbo Chlwia 
Itnlj, ■tniltttK in pMco ftod plonty, Mmnm with villa* and famUiouM*, and 
intiineoUd bjr tbe b«*t coniitrucied roAdk, kiwftyt so Indloailvn i>f w««llli luid 
Abundance ; yat thi* beautiful Yallej, which now supplies oil Taiaiay witb 
corn, wine and <>lt, ww unon t, pMtUenllal Hiid »lnintt dtanrbid rnclon, and 
noted in the onrliMt tima Eor it* intnlubritjr, lu i>ridcnu«d hj the itrikin; 
hIIiuIoii made U> it bj Danla tn thn Inrnrno.* 

Thii hmt boen wcomplishR) bir tbi> Kkill Of Uount FoaBoiubronl, who fal> 
lownd Ibo plan rmiommoniipd by Torrinclli in drnininjj thn HnrFiiiina by 
bydiaulio eai'Inui'riiiK. It in kiicwii id Ibi! tynUitn 'if (hliuUa, mid ooofiUta 
in turninK thci cuuno of river* or ttronint comiuK frurn clay-liilla, >a thnl 
they ilnjiuhil llin daod and intid with which their nrn uhitri^oil, nnd Ihua raiMMi 
IIm general Invel nnd at the miric tlmo cuuiing n M\ of the itai;nnnt water, 
convorU it luUj o ridi a.nd furlll<? tritct (0|>era PrnlWhe t->prti il Val dl 
Cbinna, piibli>hed at Montopulciuio ; n copy of which it tn lh« ponwtluii 
of tha wrifatr.j 

The aiinplMt plan* for dmininji tli« iccondnry or inland Swumpt, in tu run 
A ttrAiK'^t cnniral canat, whloh mmovni the ohi-lrii(-llonii i-'ouuDd hy Inji;* and 
mud flaU, and tn.k« ofT thu main Imtly of water. A canal or drain ia aliu 
cut on ench aldn to recniTo tha wnlnr Rinninjc in from the aiirrnundini; high 
Undii. The undprgruuutl ayetKiii with Tiloa, )^n<.-rally pnictl(.^<d in Kiigiaail 
nnd on tha Contlnont, U only appJioablo in thin country to a tiniit«d niluit 
at prrivol. 

The land) throughout ■ Inrgo portion of the South ar« quitn rich 
CDuugli fur *very purpo»o, and wo iim^ not go to Ihu Wuat ur elaewhoro 
In qucil of hotter Boil. Since emaneipntion, immifcranU Tram Riirnpn mxy 
bv •mployrd In thMe puhtic worha now prupuBud. Tiiu outliiig down tho 
tPMt and expMing the Burfncc to the nlmoct conitani action of the «un, will 
atlbjcL't it to lliu Siupurtanl Kg«lK*y of cvuporitti'.ii: ; the removal of the oaUMa 
of tnnlnria will bn ibc rwult; and if complntn exemption of ihn RJcklj' pur- 
lions of thv States from 11* banuful liitlui-ncit and fruiu jxTiodienl fevor*, by 
which wl)iie labor i* modn ponible, ii nut iceuri^, lhi< byjjinnic I'vndltlun of 
tliu whole country will, at leaal, ba Imprnvi.'d, and ihu wualth nnd happincu 
ot our eitixent gonemlly onorn)ou»ly incrcBMid. 

By draining our Swamp*, we secure a »olI for corn, uane, etc., anriehed by 
th« vi^etnble mutter neoumalatud for oonturi«, nnd the bigher landu ore 
releaaad for iMtton and other cropk. 

BeMdw. wh^n we druiu the Snampa there eoiuci an intniitillal drainage, 
by a proRiiM of molecular abaorjition inetunitnlly acting, wliich extend* for 
inilea tirou&d, atTeoUng the high land« at a muoh greater diataneo than many 

■Qiul dulai fora bo dtgtl ipedoli 

Vi ValiliobiuiB. Ira'J luglio o'l loliDmbnv 
B Ul Mommiua v <]i i^iinliKDii t mall 
Puneni to una I'ttn lulli iiiJUiuibn^ 

0,1 Hto ixix, anil iUh Panajiuo, a. xtlL 


amid rappofe, mtderlDg tbem drier, and mllowing plnn, oakg and other 
jlaata to tprlng np where before only awamp trees «nd nnb grunes grew. 

ItUnd* Mid UoUted sections of country fiirontbly Bitueted, m, for ex&mple, 
tboe adjaiaing GharleBton, and embraced between the Cooper and Afhiej, 
tht Mme being trueof thoae Ijing near other cities, and along our coast, oan 
be drained and made rich and habitable oven in the warm roonthe. They 
will be occupied by Garden Farms which will lupply, not only the cities cou- 
rlgooof to them, tmt fltl our ships going to the North with fruits, vegetables 
and produce. 

Xany of ui reHiding on the Coast are aware of what was accomplished in 
the wsy of Embankments by our &thera and the earlier lettlerB of the 
State. They were built for the most part to aid in the culliTation of Hce, 
hot the remains of theee immense banhs attest the industry end enterprise 
cf our people and ere an earnest of what we outscItcs may accomplish when 
festered and aided by the State. 

It is true that much of this work was done under the system of primo- 
geniture, when it was in the power and to the interest of Ihe owner of thn 
foil to make lasting improTemenIs, and by so doing look fur the permanent 
welfare of his descendants. A different organiaation of labor and capital 
also enabled the private Individual to accomplish more then than now. 
These coniiderations, however, famish arguments in support of the same 
being done by the State; which should, when it becomee necessary, perform 
for its citizens thoee acts of public uUlity, the right or the ability to do which 
depended upon syslems and institutions which it has, from reasons of policy 
or interest, abolished or destroyed, and being deprived of which, they suffer. 

To carry out the project imperfectly unfolded above, the State or Govern- 
nent may organize a Itrainngc Commission or Joint Stock Association, 
which wilt make the Snancinl scheme a feanible and suecessrul one, into the 
details of which I oinnot now enter. Its realization is doubtless imposiiblo 
at preaent ; but viewed in every light as respects the common welfare, it in- 
votres enterprises which are to UB and to thoee coming after as of com- 
manding importance and worthy of the moat thoughtful consideration. 

When the lime arrives for its eiecution, the wisdom and policy of the 
«tep being apparent, it will establish the distinction of any Administration 
which nndertakcs it, or the fame of any Statesman who shall have the wit to 
we his induenco successfully to achieve it. Ffnu eoronat opnt. 





CfttAlogns PlontAram Anglin, anm ObMrrationiliiu et 
Eipcrimeatis Novii Uedioii et Phjikis. Londini, 1687. 
A act. Johamies Ray. 

EDglitb Physician. By Nioholtu CalMpper, gant., 1 
" Student in Pbyaia and Astrolosy." " An Aitrologo- y 
Fhyslolo^cal Discourwi on Vul^r Herbflj'^ «tc. J 

Butliud, Histoiro des PlantcB VeneneuAeA do la Fmjioe> ) 
4 Tol». P«rii, nU. j 

HoitDi Americuiiu. By Dr. Barham. 

Linnnua, Vegetibla Mai. Hediaa. Tnntlated by G 

Demon itnttons ElementaLni deBotaniqae. Cotitamiilg 1 
d«ra-T Teg., phjo. propertieB, and uflcs of plants. With f 
maoh information ooDc«ming tbfl vegetable vetArinary f 
pnctiee, etc. By J. UilliberU LyoDi, 1787. J 

Plants RarioTea Hibtmia InvsDtie, eta. Witb Ramarki 1 
OD ths Pnpertiei and Uuw. By Walter Wade, H. D., H. > 
L. 5. Da&Un, IBD4. J 

Le Medeoin Herbbriate. Faria, 1803. 

New Had. Diaooveriee, 3 rota. London, 18!e. By C. ) 
Whitlaw. I 

Am. Herbal, or Materia Mwlica. Witb New Medical I 
DiaooTeriee. By Samuel Steams, LL. D. Walpole, 1801. | 

Flei* Bcoliea. By John LighttooL Edinburg. 

Indigenoui Botany. By Colin Milne, LL. D., aad Alex- 
ander Qordon. London, ITtt-l. 

A New Family Hsrbat ; or, an Aooount of Plants and 
their Propertiea in Medicine and the Arti. By K. J. 
Thoruton. London, 1810. 

Lindley'a Natural Syalem of Botany. With the Uaeal 
of Important SpecioB in Medieine, the Arta, and Domeatie > 
Economy. London, 1830. J 

Medical Botany. By W. Woodrilio, i foU. London, ) 
n»0. Sec. edition, 1800. J 

Barloa'a HecL Botany. 

W. P. Barton's Flon. Philadelphia, 1B33. 

RaGueaque'a Medical Fton. 

Bigeloir'a Am. Medical Botany, 4 vols. Boston, 1820. 

Bartos'i Collaotion towards the Formation of a Materia ) 
Hedioa. j 

Medical Botany. With the uses of Important 
in Medicine, the Arts, etc. By R. E. Orifflth. Pbil 

phia, 1M7. 

niiutrations of Medical Botany. By Joseph Carson, I 
M. B. With Deeariplions, eta. Philadelphia, 1847. J 

Cat. Plantarum. 

Colp. Bog. Phya. 

Bun Plantei Yen. da 
Bar. Hort. Amer. 

Linn. Veg. M. Med. 

Dem. Blem. de Bat. 

Species ^ 
luladel- > 

Wade'a PL Rariorea. 

Le Mod. Herb. 
Whitlaw'a New Med. 

Steam'a Am. HerbaL 

Fl. Scotica. 

Hitne Ind. Bot. 

Thornton'a Pom. Herb. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 

Woodv. Med. Bot. 

Bart. M. Bot. 
Bart. Flora. 
Raf. Med. Fl. 
Big. Am. Mod. Bot. 

Barton's Collec. 

ariSth's Med. Bot. 

Corson's Illust. Med. 

Ohng. riots Ouul. 

m. But. Msd. Xolca;^ 

rintjrton'i View, 
ChHluivr* Hill. 6. C. 

Oud. u<I Lin. OW. 

L«inoii'* 8. C. 

By John Bdl. | 
Pbild- > 

U. S. Di-i-. 

Tbiuher*! C. i*. J>itf. 

C"XV, Am. Divp. 

tlorgll, Mkl. M«l. 
Callnn, Mitt. Mt'L 

I W. M»I. McJ. 
I Thrnip. 

Ucir* PtMi. UicL 

Bl»<r1<\ Mal. Hud. 

SbMDt'i Flam Cirallnsoniii : or. a IlLilory, McdlFfill 

knd BoonQinlr-iil, uf 1l>e Vc|C«lal>lv Kinjlilnni. Chiitl(nl»a, > 

tens. ) 

Elliott'* SluUb at (be Butaay of South CaroUiiB and I 
Ouoriciik. With Msitliul N'lUw. rharlHlnn. ISM. J 

Draylon'i \'ls<r of ISoalli Carvlina. ■.'hurlMton. 1!^(I2. 

Cluiinpr'a Illilnry of ^uulh Csrulioa. 

GkntMi'* and Ltaiag't Oburvftliuo*, Pbyiloal ui^ Lit- I 

Tmivlr in S"ulh an-l Xorth Cuolins. By Jnha t*n-) 
■on. ^urvcj-or-UuiicTml. IJIft. f 

UnilAl 8l*lH iJfipcnmiory. Bf Wood and Ba«ho. ) 
Philiulvifhin, IMd. ISLh K'lilian. IS6S. | 

Thiwihcr'n I'txileil KlilICJ yinjiiJiKMory. 

Amvrlnui I>L«]wu»Uiry. B7 It. Coic 

Berjcii Mslinu M«<li«ft. B. rapi u vvKDlBbill, eln. Slook. I 
holinlir, I78S. j 

rullm'i Malorin MvdIiMi. Kdlnbnrgh. 

I^wit' MitvriK llitilipAt 3 Till*. t<oiailiin, ITVt. 

Pciretru'i Maluris UimUiw and ThEra|i>-iilIui, S vol. 

)*niiTrii-)ii PldtioRjirj iif M*CiiHn MtilJcA. 

EIittIf'i Mstorift Mrdiciiuid Thnrnpgul1cr.S I'nlii, 

<Ul|>him l!).<<4. 

Eilwunli end VnvatHor'a MAlloro Medlcilc. Pnrlf, | Ed. iind Var. Mot. 
IHSfl. I »a.l. 

TroagHaii ct Pidoux, Tmlle do Tlurnpontlqiuv vl di Mo- ( Tram, cl P!d. U»X, 
tjvrv Mitdiiwlr. I'urii, TSXT. J Mnd. 

Kli^iiirnU of Miti^rit .MhIil-ii aiiiI Thi-HkiHiutict. B7 IT. It. I prott'« Kltni. MbI. 
Proil. Prof. M. M. MtdlPiI College of foulh Cafollno. ( McJ. 

Cbnpmun'a TlK-nui«ijtiiw and Alu-lrrift Mi'diui, 3 viilr. I Chdii. Thcrap. uid 
Pliil»U-I|>hi>>. \»22. i Um. iifJ. 

Bfttlod and UnrTMl'i Matoria McJlen. LondoD. IMA. Hull. A <1m. .VaUMtd. 

PbilB.I*lphla, I 

Moral and dp Leui' Illotionnitlfe t' Mnti«n>Modi- ( Mcr. nuiI do I.. Uiof. 
«Llt. riiii>. 1^1'. Iiim, Ti. t dv M, MlmI. 

Supidcufuur; volmncto Iho abovf, I'nHn. IHIO, { Uo^"''i^''M' «% ""' ' 

WU'on'a Pracliil of Pbjtiir. Swood AiUDripDR Edition. ) Walaon't Pnuitlce 
?tiilit.1i'li>l>iu, 1m6. I Vhytle. 

«imn'< 'niiini|niulint nnd Malcria Medina. PhlladelphlB, ISCI-'S. 

0l»tmliMof SoglU Oamlinn. A Vii>« of iln Nnlnnil, riril and MOlturj' Ilialnr;. 
Ky ttidiiTn Millt, Civil Ki>|[lii<uir. CliailiMloii, l»'i&. 

Suulhiim AK'i'''''turiil. Clinrlction. Ie20-'S!I. So. AgHcult. 

Malinn'a VcgclAbIc Piaiillsi-. IK39. Miiilrua'F Vog. PncU 

Imp. i^i'ilciD LotaniciLl Mrdli^in^. By lloTtnn llcrirnnl- Imp. S\iil. It»l. Mvd. 

l'hariDiuu)iinin>. Juumili, KcvlaiFf. Monogiapht. iDanjiitnl Tlicset. r(i%. bolb 
Anmlcaaand foreign. 

Tbo P)inoiplof of A)[ric-nllur*. hj Albnrl D. Tbaer, (ranvlnlud hy Willjani !<hHw, 

a., momUf of iba luuiicU of th» Boyol A^rieullufiLl ,«"ciply of En((l«nd, oU'.. 
C.W. JohOMti, Eaq., 4lli ICililioci. Nxw York: llimttn, Rtiilhnr ^ C'n., 

Plom of Ibo Southern United SUIm, oontaiaing hti nImdgKd (Inx-tipiiiin of the 
flowirisit plantJi anil fariia of TunoMMCv Korth Caiuliuih tiuutb CuoliaH. li<ur||ia. 




HoyloV Malvria Hvllcn and ThrrapDUIIOB. 

Itoflo, Mai. Mod. 

Abkbftmi, MiMinippi, Bnd Ploridft, iirntnged UMording to tbe natam) ejatero, b; A. 
W. Chkpmui, M. D. Tbe hrut by Daaiel C. Eaton. New York, 1860. 

Rnral Eci>Domy, ia EtB relationn with flbeinlltrj, phjaics, and meteorology, or ohem- 
iitry applied to agriaulture, by J. B. Bouaaiogkolt, member of iaetitate of France, oto. 
Tr»n«liteU by Ucorga L«w, Agricutturalist. New York, C. M. 8»xloii, 1867. 

Saxtun'a Rani Uand Booka. New York, 1852. 

Thornton's Sontbem Otrdaaer, >nd Receipt Book. Cunden, 6. C. 

Enqoini Within ; 3,700 facta. New York, 18G7. 

The Fmit GardsDer. Pbitedelpbio, 1847. 

DownlDE'a FmIt ftnd Fmlt Troea of AmerioL Now York, 1658. 

Tbe Southern Fanner and Market Qardener, by Prof. F. S. Holmea, Charleaton, 

The Art of HannTtotaring Soapa and Candlea. By F. Knrten. Philadelphia, 
Linasy A Blakiaton, ISM. 

iDdoatrial BeaonrcM of the South and Wait, by J. D. B. DeBow. New Orleana, 

Sorgho and Imphea, the Cbineae and AfMoan Sugar Canea, by H. S. Oloott. New 
York, 18S7. 

tjre'a Dictionary of Aita, MaaaTactarea, and Minea. From the 1th Gnellah edition. 
New York, 1853. 

Chemistry applied to Agrioaltnre, by Coant John Antony Cbaptal. Boston, 

Chemical I^eld Lootima, by J. A. Btookhardt. Tranalated from the Oerman. Cam- 
bridge, 1853. 

Parriah, Practical Pharmacy. Philadelphia, 18SS. This work (wntaini informa- 
tion reapecting the aotire principlea of plaata, oila, acida, etc., with many pbarma- 
ccntica] details. 

Poiltive Medical Agenta, a Treatiae on the new alkaloid, reainatd and conoentrated 
prapanUiona of native and foreign Medioal Plants ; by authority of (be American 
Chemical Institute. New York, ISH. 

The Art of Tanning and Leather Dmaaing. By Piof. H. Duaaonce. Philadelphia 
and London, 18S7. 

A Huok Hannal, by Samnel L. Dana. New York, ISiS. 

The Fruit Sarden. A Treatiae by P. Barry. New York, 1857. 

Practical Treadse on Culture of Qrape, by J. Flake Allen. New York, 1868. 

Charlton on Culture of Eiotio Grape under Glass. New York, 1853. 

Elementa of Scientific Agriculture, by 8. P. Norton, Profeeaor in Yale College, 
New York, 1854. 

A Hannal of Beientifle and Practical Agrlcultare, for tbe School and the Farm, by 
J. L. Campbell, A. H., Professor Phyaieal Science, Washington College, Va. Phila- 
delphia, 1858. 

Tbe American Grape Grower's Qaide, intended espeoially for the climate of America. 
ninatiated by William ChartlDn. New York, A. 0. Moore, 1850. For fall description 
of beat modes of cnltirating tbe grape. 

Sorgho and Imphee, the Chinese and African Sngar Canes. Manufacture of augar 
ayrnp, alchohol, wines, beer, cider, rinegar, ataroh, and dye stulfa, with traualations 
of French Pamphlets, etc., elo., and drawing of machinery, by H. 8. Olcott. New 
York, A. 0. Moore, 1857. 

Patent Offioe Reporta, Agriculture, 1818, '51, '53, '54, 'fi5, '50, '57, '58. 

Rural Chemiatry, by Edward Solly, F. L. S., Honorary Member of Royal Agrioul- 
tor*) Society, England. Philadelphia, Henry C. Baird, 1852. 

The Rural Cyclopadia, or a General Dictionary of Agriculture, and of the Arts, 
Beienoea, Instramenta, and Practice neeessary to the Farmer, ele. Edited by Rev. 
Jno. M. Wilaou. In four lolumes. Edinbnrgh, 1852, A. Fullarton. 

General Directions for Collecting and Drying Medicinal Subatances, with a list of 
Indigenona Plants. From the Surgeon- General's offioe, 1862. Richmonil. A pam- 

TabMRn rulliirv. Pnuliniil JciUili fcDin Ihn anleeUon and bmuhUm of th* SmI 
uid Sail (0 hui'MilDii;, aurlDH. and mnikdlnK Ihp croc. IHalii Dlr«aUini«, H gi''mi 
hj fomtton 4i|i^<n'*nmL vHlMi»r'>m. XfiT Vrark. ]^i)T-i< 

Ktnj* on <!uHiviiliun uf Fliu tiiwd nn<l Ciul'if IlooDf. Publitbsd by Uic ^i. Lonla 
Batd and Oil Co.. U«i~ 

A tVtulnjcua nf In>li|^naiu and VMonJitvtl P1uil« of ttia SiilU oT Nurtb Cuolin*. 

SHcv. M. A. Curlii, V. D. KitlKiKh, IMT. Thii mnlalni over a hundred iWidla 
u>hruumF. dcBigaatoil b; Itkllda, Mr. Ciulia *llt auun publixh Illuitrnliuna uf llivM 

I tutra not onuamntcd (hn nuiniiroai itatborillea I ba'I examined wilb reference to 
tlio HediclDiJ uid EcoDDmleal pnipertlea vt ibe CrTplognmte PhnU, Fnngi, and olhera 
of thUnliLM- 

Thc falloirlnK worki. [lubliilied !n CngUiuI, m>; be referted U In eue >nj sre 
dtnirvuB «f enmullinjt Ibnn : 

SmiBT** OknIeniAr'i I)U'iiim&r,v. M&rahnll an Plnnllno, !IIubnt«* Pbtnler'i (.'nlrmliLr. 
Pontj'a Frolluble I'JuiiItT. I'hiUliii' Shrubbery, Trvsllfo dd PluitinK Id lb<^ l.ibrnry 
of llftuful KtiavljAil^i^ LoijEbfTi'ji Ki(nV(iln|iiiMlJ4 of PI)LiiU» Acwum an die AiloUi:rfiMuiii 
of Poofl. Bnbba^ un Ihe Beonomy of MacbLnery iLod MiLDutaoturef, Thampaon'a Vc^- 
«tiih1ij rhi-iiiiniry. Kn^ipp** TtH-TinnLrtifj^r Willii^h'jt P»(nitHCin Kniiyolrifm^diit. Hwt uUii, 
Trtollao by l>r. J. lUirii. of Mui.. an luacola InJurloua (a Vei;elalian, ud Tawnaeott 
Qlover't pijietT do anine lubjivl in Patviil OIBih) napurli. 

Jft' TbunD iiitnrvulwil In iibiniainit Tdratgn aeodn, ]>l»iita, oto.. can ablain iliem bj 
*]iplylns to Jamea Carter A Co., and Butler ud MeCDlloob, ef Loudon i WUIIwn 
Thnmpaon, of latrloh, Eniflnnd ; uid Vllmorin, Androui A Cin,, Puriii, Pruno*. 

Dr. Pu-riihin hii " Pmiilicitl Plmrtniuiy." a»ya tbiU Ike m/iiniiinn af ucdklual pUnta 
In tbii ooUDtry. far aalo, u puch, i> inoiDly fddBdhi] to thn Hraiitiful vnUvy In Coliun. 
bil^ C(i,, X. Y.. wbi>ri> iL \n purHUf^l by llii^ i!h».ki»r)> aod by Tiltlm if- fa, " Tbtn di«- 
Met •ecnii rii^liitly adnpUd loihc parpoia. onil like Iho wtobriUoJ PbyalajtarOmanf 
Milobsin. BiiKlaucl. rnrni"l>™ ■ gn^ni mrirty unci in hirgi' ijiHiiJily." •' Pur an InUr- 
vMIdc Mflcnuni." hii iLildv, "nf Uio Phyiin jpinltin^ of Mtii-limn, xbp Aui. J. Phann* 
r.XXIII., p. !J>: fut i"inio doldila lu tegiitJ lo Ihe X. Lubmiou gurUent. nhureovory 
lElnd of medEcina] prcpAmtlan from native and iiie<1ielna1 plunu, are prepared an an 
txt«n<lTe aoale, ace Ibe fame Jiinmnl, v. Will., p. .1KB." 

Th« lathtfinK "f (bo (^uiim': Ii-avci id eiUiiilvciy and prafitfibly purauod in Vt. 
(]«SM),and lu nhieb I hod luvlted atlentianui on arlglaal luggelUali In Ihcllril Edi- 
tka of thia llooli {aee Sumnv), in m-ll W'lrihy of imiiAljim •■ an induilrial purault by 
alaqp anoilx^r af jiiHrjiln nuiidiug in etl»T t^taUip, uiid ] tliorefatv give promtnenoe ta 
U by llus aboct ivrgrruiee. 

I N T E D TJ C T I N . 




All leaves, flowers, and herbs shoald be preferably gathered 
in clear, dry weather, in the morning, after the dew is exhaled. 

The roots of medicinal plants, although more advantageonsly 
gathered at certain periods, to bo hereafter specified, do not losa 
their medicinal virtnes in conseqnence of being dug in mid- 
snmmer. It is probable that most of those imported are thns 
collected by savages or ignorant persons, when the plant is in 
full lea^ it being then more easily recognized. 

Plants, Annuai., should be gathered at the time when their 
vegetation is most vigorous, which is generally Itom the time 
they be^ to flower until their leaves begin to change. 

Flamts, Bibnmal, should, in most instancoB, be gathered in 
the second season of their growth, and about the time of 

fiooTB OF Annuals arc to be gathered just before the time of 

Boots of Bicnnialb are to be gathered after the vegetation 
of the first year has ceased. 

Boots of Fzrsnnialb are to be gathered in the spring, before 
vegetation has commenced. Boots should be washed, and the 
smaller fibres, imless they are the part employed, should be 
then separated from the body of the root, which, when of any 
considerable size, is to be cut in slices previous to being dried. 

Bulbs are to be gathered after the new bulb is perfected, and 
before it has begun to vegetate, which is at the time the leaves 

dopHj-, Thoiw which aro to bo prcNCrvod frosth ithoiiltl be buried 
ill (Iiy Hand. 

Babks, whether of the root, tmuk. or branches, ohoald bo 
gathered in llie acitutnii, or early in the Bpring. The dead 
epidennU or outer bark, aiid the decayed parte, nhould be 
removed. Of aonio trees (oa the elm) the inner bark only iA^ 
preserved. ^M 

TiKAVRK iii'e to 1)1^ giitbcroi jifti'r thi-ir full 'li-voliipitn'iit, before 
tbo fiuliiii* of tho flowen. Tbo Icavoe of bionnials do uot ittUilg „ 
thvir perfect qualitjea until the second year. H 

Flower.i should, in ^iienil. hn giitbinid at the time of their 
ox]mnMon, before or iminediiitely iifLer Ihey havi- fully opened; 

some — as the Row Gallioa — while in bud. 


Aromatic Hkr»8 »r» to be gathered wh«n in llowor. ^M 

Stalks and Twios should be collcctod in'autumn. 

Sbkpk should bo collected at the period of their l\ill matui-ity. 


Htvlielim) iirodiictN of the vegetable kingdom (a>i pluntK, root*, 
etc.) Hhoulil be ilried an rapidly ns iti consistent with their per- 
fect proeorvation. but not subjected to extrcmo heat. 

Those collcclod in tbo warm months and durinj^ dr}' weather 
may, except in a few inxtances, bo dried by tlieir spontanooas 
evaporation, in a well ventilated apurtnuml ; Mome — as roola 
and barks— may be exposed to Uio diruct riiys of the ami. 

In spring and autumn, and in damp, foggy, or niiny woalber, 
a drjring-houso should be resorted to ; ibo len4Kiraturu to ningo 
from 70" U> 100° F. There sb<iuld bean apurturo above for Iho 
escape of warm, moist air. 

FiBROL's Boots maj' bo dried in the snn, or at a beat of fVom 
66' to 80° P. in the drying-room. 

FiEBUY Hoora should be cat in transverse slices, not exceed- 
ing half an inch in length, and during the drying piwcees should 
bo stirred sovoral times to prevent their mouldinj;. 

Bui,Bs must have the t^arms milcr membrane peetod off. In 
other reepects they are to btf truatvd like floBby rootu. 


Babkb, Woodb and Twiob readily dry, in thio layers, in the 
open air. 

LiATis, after separation from the stalks, shonld be strewed 
loBely over hnrdle-framos, and their position changed twice a 
day, until they become dry. When very sueculent, they require 
more care to prevent their discoloration. For thin, dry leavesj 
the heat need not exceed 70° F. ; for the snccnlent, it may 
gradnally be raised to 100° F. 

Annual Plants and Tops. — If not too jnicy, these may be 
tied loosely in Bmall bundles, and Strang on lines stretched 
across the di^ng-room. 

Plowkbb moat be dried carefully and rapidly, so as to pre- 
serve their color. They should be spread loosely on the hurdles, 
and tamed .several times by stirring. When flowers or leaves 
owe their virtues to volatile oils, greater care is necessary, 

A carefully pressed specimen of the stem, leaf, and flower of 
eaoh medicinal substance collected, whether it be bark, root, or 
herb, should be obtained and forwarded with each collection, 
for the purpose of aiding in its identiflcation. The above is from 
"General Directions" and List of Plants — a pamphlet issued 
from Surgeon-General's OfSce, 1862. Consult, also, U. 8. Dis- 

The two following papers, contributed by the writer to a 
Periodical during the war, are introduced before entering npon 
the systematic portion of the Work, because they contain 
information, in a condensed shape, which may be practically 
usefnl : 




My attention having been occupied with the subject of the 
substitutes for imported Medicines, I have thought that if some 
hints were given the Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons in the 
field, with respect to the useful properties of a few articles 
(easily attainable in every part of the conntry), it would 

greatly iMReii the uao of tha ntoto ,*xpendve medicinos. One 
man dctaitud from caoli company, or fVora a regiment, could 
obt«ii) a full supply of oacb aiit>iitatio« frcAb, for Iho otw of the 
Surgeon, and ttiin at 1i>^h Iroulilu an<l oxpenM thau if it wu 
proeurod by tho Medical PurvcyorH, to bo diRtributitd to tlie 
ro^moDte. I will mootion iom« of thcoo subHtanccs. Tbcy 
are ftmiliar to a1], bat still ivithout special rocommondation, 
thoy are likely to escape alKiiition : 

Sasta/rat {Iiauras). — ^Wbilat engaged in active dutioM as Sur- 
geon to tho Hulcombe Legion, whcnoTor a Holdicr suflercd 
(h>Ri moaitiGS, pnoumonia, bronchitis, or cold, bis coinpaniou or 
nureo was directed to profui-u tho roots and learos of SassafVas, 
and n tea mado with this supplied that of Klax Sood or Gum 
Arabic. Tbo leaf of the Sassafras conlaiua a ^'eat amount of 

Bene (Seaamtim). — ^The leaves of the Bcni5 may be nacd in camp 
dysentery, in eoldn, 00iigh«, olo., in plnco of Gum Arabic or! 
• Flax Scttd. Ono or two loaves in a luiiibler of water imparts 
tlieir mucilaginouft pra)>ertic«. 

Dogtvood (Cornus Florittay. — During the late war. the bark has 
beoD em]>loyod with great advantage in pla^^e of quinine iu fe- 
vers — ]tarliiiiiliirly in ouhci* of low forms of f.-vi-r, iinii in ilyiicn- 
tery, on the river eourBes, of a typhoid clmracU-r. It ic given aa 
a eabstituto for Peruvian barkii. In fact, in almost any easu 
where the Cinchona bark wa" imed. 

Tkortiui/hworf, Bonc-etit (_Eupa(orium pcrfoHatum). — ^Thorough- 
wort, drank hot during the cold stago of forcr, and cold as a 
tonic and antipcriodic, is thought by many physicians to be 
even superior to the Dogwood, Willow, or Poplar, as a sub* 
etitute for quinine. It ia quite sufficient in the manat;ement of 
many of the malarial fevera that will prevail among ti-oopa dur- 
ing the warm niontba; and if it does not supply enlinly the 
place of quinine, will certainly leitattn tho need for ita uso. Tbc«a 
plants can be <-aaily proeurod in every locality. 

Tulip Bearing Poplar (Lirimic-niirori) and Uio Wtllnw liarlc sup- 
ply romediea lor tJiu tcvor8 met with in camp. The Cold infit> 
nion ix given. 

fiweei Ovm (Liqvufambar Styraciftua). — The inner bark oon- 
tajnsan astringont, ^mmy substance. If it ia boiled in milk. 

■ ■ tea made with w»Visr, it» iislringcnoj- is m great that it will 
tatHj ch««k tliarrhn^, and UHHix-iutcd with tho tiso of other 
nB«ltu», dvwniviy »l»i. Thu loaf of thi> ^ni, when grocn, I 
IwTealao ascortaini^tl to bo powcrfally astringent, and to con- 
tain aa Urge a proportion of tannin as that of any other treck 
I bcCere that the Gun leaf and the leaf of th« Uj-rtle and 
Btadtbcrty oao \*a used whcrt'vor an astrtngeDt is required ; 
(Did water take* il up. The/ i-nn, I think, ho ahto uacd for tan- 
uo^ l e a tb ar, when greon, in plac« of oak luirk. 

BtadAfrry SiMt (itafriu). — A docoction will check profn^o 
4ianriiawa of any kind. The root of the Chinquapin (Castanea) 
M also aHringenu 

Gn/un. — Our native tonics Br« ahundnnt. Sovoral varieties 
of OtmliaM, Saiiatia. ale., may be added to tboso mentioned. 
Tbif Pipaaaoa, or Winli^rliroen (^Chimapkila), is both an aro- 
matic tonic and a diiirftic, and (heri-foro Hck-ctcd in the vonva- 
^ W»nftjc« from low fcvenii followt-d by drop«i(-al itymplomK. Thnvi, 
I tkr nain<>nraft aromatic ptanti>, etc., arc nut int<-ndvd to tuko the 
plac« of othvr mvdicitn.tii. which ran bo obtained and arc n>- 
fund. It is not intended that a blind or oxclnsivo rclianco 
AoaU be placed in them — but they were recommended to aap> 
ply a jcftat and pivwiin^ need. 

/M/y ( /Ifx Ofxica}. — Tho bark of the holly root chewed, w a 
tea mado with it, jivldK an excellent bitter dcmulconl, very twe- 
&] ID eovgh*, cold«, etc. The bitter principle i» aii<o tonic. Iho 
BoUy tootaina bird-lime. 

W3d Jalap {Podophi/lium PeltatvtiL — If this can h« found it 
be wed as a laxative in place of rhubarii or jalup, or 
wbovnra purgative is ri-<]nired. Every [ilauter in thu South. 
<nt Staletfcan produeo the o|>iuni, muHtanI, and flax need that is 
M«d i d far borne a*t, 

Smam p Dragon, {Savrvntt CtntvwC). — ^The roots of this plant, 
frowiog abundantly in the swamps and manheii along tlio aca- 
boaid, boibd and maabed, ftimish au easily iimouriiMo and high- 
If aiaithiiig material ibr poultices — ndmiralily adapt<-d to tlic 
waata of lai^ bodies of men !n camps, bi« well as of negroM on 
uar |)laBtatiODfl. 

Patasb, pearlaah, and soda are easily procarable from the 
Mhcs of certain plants. Oar SaUola Kaii, growing on the soa 


Mnuit, ia riol) in Hodn. Conault Index for rcferent^os to moro do 
tuilvl inlbrmatioii. 


Id aoawor to an inquiry of a correspondent. I gave tJio natnos 
of Bov«nil Trees growing at ihc Soath as probably suited for tho 
purposes of the wood engraver. To tlieso I will now add ihoso 
noiloMi by Rub!)0(]aent correspond i>nt«, and al»o call atteution to 
two orllireeolher Trees with wood of grt-'alfinoness and density 
of fllnicliire, whlcli may be tomed as aubstiiulos for tbo wood 
heretofore imported fVom tlie Korth; and which are also likely 
to prove serviceable wliciievcr a wood of hard, line grain is 
riM|uire<l by the niatiiifaeturor. 

Iron Wood, Horn Beam {Oatri/a Virginka, EU. Sk.) — It has 
often huen employed by turucr^, and wrought into mill-cogs, 
wheels, etc. The wcfod is lough and white, and will prove an 
)m[)OrLant acquisition to those interested in machinery, or in the 
construction of impleoienta, tools, etc. 

White Beech, (Fagua si/lvtiticay — DitTused. This wood is vary 
hard, 18 cnpablo of receiving a high [tolish, and should be prised 
by CAbinct uuikrm and turiivm fur manufacturing purposes. 

Swci^t Ttireh, Ohtrry Birch, Jitovniain Mahogany {Betuta tenia, 
Linn.) — Growtt in the mounlninH of 8nuth Carolina and Georgia, 
]>DMCS808 a fine grain, and also suncvptiblc of n beautiful polish. 
The Red Uirch {Betula nigra) prows in our swamps in the lower 
couutjy. The Black Birch is said by Lindlcy to bo oxcoedingly 

Whitt Oak (Qi/croM alba). — One of the host of tbo Oaks, with 
tho Live Oak, likely to bo omployod whcrovor great durability 
is desirable ; these, with the Walnut and Maple, are well known. 

Dnj Wood {Comua Florida). — Sluch used on our plantatiuna 
wherever a wood of Grmuoss of texture ie required. 

Persimmon {Diotpyrf-f Virginiana). — A very hard wood— in 
Uie natural family of plants found under what is known tw the 
Stony tribe. 


The Holly (Ilex opacif), the Apple and Pear are very mach 
esteemed bj maciy; pcrbtips harder than any of tboae cited. 
These may be more particularly adapted to the purposes of the 
wood engraver. 

The Calico Buah, Ivy Bush, {Kcdmia latifolia). — Grows in our 
middle diatricte. Wood bard and dense. 

Mountain Laurel, Bay {^Rhododendron maximum) — Found in 
oar mouQtaias ; said to resemble the Kalmia, and quoted by a 
writer as adapted to tbe purposes of the engraver. 

Iron Wood. — Another tree named from its supposed firmness 
(^Sumelia Lycioides Ell. Sic.) I have collected it in Charleston, 
and forty miles from the ocean. 

Yellow Locust Tree, False Acacia {Sobinia pseudoaccadce, L.) — 
In monntains and in lower districts. The graiu is tlno and 
compact; the wood, on account of its durability, is much used 
for treenails in ship building. 

Leather Wood {IHrca palustris). — Grows in Georgia ; is both 
hard and pliable. 

Arbor Vita (Thuja occidentalis). — Grows in the mountains. 
Tbe wood said by Micbaux to be the most durable which our 
foroste produce. 

The «o/( woods are; tbe Cedar, the Cypress, the Black Spruce, 
or Fir (^Pinus nigra, Ailon), tbe Pinus strobus (growing in the 
mountains), and the Spruce tree of our low country swamps 
which might well supply the place of Northern pine. All these, 
with the Willow (Salix nigra), are used for the timbers and 
spare of boats. The last is both soft and durable. Mr. Elliott 
says, in his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina, that the 
wood of the Eed Mulberry (Moms rubra) is preferred in the 
building of boats to that of any other, except tbe Red Cedar. 

The wood of the Black Gum (Nt/ssa aquatica), particularly 
the portion near tbe ground, is peculiarly white, spongy, and 
light. It has great elasticity, and a specific gravity almost low 
enough to adapt it, in the opinion of tbe writer, to be used as a 
substitute for the bark of tbe Cork tree. The Sycamore is a 
veiy light wood, and the Catalpa also. 


The Poplar ia well known fbr its qualities of Boftnees and 
lightnesB. The Uaple less so. The Fnde of India is light and 
durable, and soacoptible of polish with a pretty grain under 
varnish, adapting it to the purposes of the manuaotarer. But 
these do not resist water when submerged, as do the softer 
woods first mentioned, vis : the Cypress, Cedar, or the PalmetU), 
which ia characteriatically soft, porous, and elastic. 






Sub-Cla89 I. POLYPETAL^. 


Ranuncdlacb^. {Croto-Foot Tribe.) 

The plants belonging to this order are geueraily acrid, 
caustic, and poiHOnous. It contains some species, however, 
which are iDnocuoua. The caustic principle is volatile, sod 
neither acid nor alkaline. 

crispa, Linn.) Not of El!. Sk., which is the C. cylindrica, T. 
and Gray. Grows in damp, rich soils, and in ewampa in the 
low ooantrj of South Carolina; vicinity of Charleston, Dr. 
BachniaQ. Newbern, Croom. K- C. Cortis. Fl. May. 

Mer. and de. L. Diet de M. Med. ii, 311; U. S. Disp. 1244; 
Shec. Flora Carol. 418. Thia plant is substituted for the C. 
erccta, mentioned by Storck, and is employed in secondary 
syphilis, ulcers, porrigo, etc.; given internally, with the pow- 
dered leaves applied to the sore. It aots also as a diaphoretic 
and diaretic. Merat says it poaseBses the properties of the C. 
vitatba, which is a dangerous vegetable caustic, used aa a substi- 
tute for cantharides, and applied to rheumatio limbs, and in 
paralysis and gout. The decoction of the root is alterative and 
purgative ; and ia alao said to be valuable in washing sores and 
ulcers, in order to chanf;e the mode of their vitality, and to 


mnko th«m cicatriso. Sh«oul romftrkji that "tlio RpariiHh or 
bli'<t«niig (lies ore very foml of ihe Clanafis rrispa. and it woulil 
bo well for rnviJical ^ontlemcn in tliu coimini" to propagnte th« 
plitiit ubont tlieir reeidencoa, in order to aeoare a constant 
»uuoo)wiOD of thoao valuable insects." See Potato, "Convol- 
vnliu." Tbo American epeciee are deoerriiig of piiitionlar 
nttontion, and I would iuvite ftiriii«r itirotiti^ntion of them. 
The taste of the flow«r niid >wcd tomhc! of tho UI<miiitiN it 
oxceodlngly pungent, iind th» juiev irritiileit tim ekin, ak 1 bavv 
myxelf cxperivncvil. 

riofHa, L.) Grows in middle and upper dJaLriclH of South 
Carolina. Elliott. S. C;, CartJe. FL July. 

Shtfc. Flora Carol. 4fi9; flriffiili's M.eiJ. Bi>t. 86; U. 8. Tiii-p. 
1244. This, and the following, have ul»o a caustic property, 
ntiil are employed intoraally as diurolicR and sudorifics in 
ehronie rhoiimatimu ; and externally, in tho treatment of omp- 
tiuiDt, and as voKic-antn. Shotut eays that a yellow dyo may be 
extracted from both leaves and branches; the latter are suffi- 
ciently tou^h to make witha and f«KOls, Tho tihrouo shoots 
may be converted into paper, and the wood is yrilow, oompact^ 
and odoriferous, fnrnishing an oxeoilont mutorial for vontjcrins. 

giniana, Linn.) Grows in rich soils; vicinity of Charleston. 
N. C. Fi. July. Wood and Baohe, V. 8. Disp. 124-1 ; Griffith, 
Ued. Bot. 80. See C. viorna. 

WOOD ANEMONE, {Anemone nemoroaa, L. Raituncuhig phraff. 
mitee.) Slonnlainsof Sonth Carolina. N. C. F!. A|iril. 

Bull. Planles Ven, de France; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 109; FI. 
Sooticft, 287; Chomcl, Plantee UsneUea, ii, 376; Diet, dcs Sc. 
Mod. Ixv, 191 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. M.-d. i. 292; U. S. 
DiHp. 122!^. It iH said to bo extruinely arrid- — even small doses 
producing a gn-at diitturhance of the Mlumucrh ; omployed as a 
rubefaeivnt in fevers, gont. and rbonmatism, and as a vesicatory 
in removing corns from the foot. It is reported to have [iroveil 
a speedy cure for tinea capitis, and the flowers liavo been uced 
In violent headaches ; Linniens says that the plant produces a 
diwhnrgfl of urine, attendod with dyneninry, in cattle which 
feed on it. It contains » principle called an^monin. 





Mmt of the Bpccto* of Aocmono, etiy* WitMin, Itnral Cyc-, 
m acrimonious and deUnivo. "An infoBigii of Aavnioiie is 
md to remoTc woman's obatmctiotis, and to inui-caso her inillc ; 
tbt bolboos roots when oh«wed are said to strent^en the gums 
md preserve the leetii; a decoction of llio roots is said to 
diMSB cormsiTe ulcen, and lienl tiiflanimalion in the eyes; the 
iowcn, boilcal in oil, are laid t» liai'O tliu |)i'U[>vrly of tfaiekiiiiieg 
tbe lisir, and Ancmono ointmi'nt i« ouid to bo u good oyi'-eaivc, 
•ad a aficfbl application to nicors and i>xt«rnal inflammationis" 
aQ which I inlnodace for what it may be worth. 2io doubt ibo 
o3 fumisbed by il imparta itnme pro|)vrty to thi! plant, anil, like 
tatuaia in all the viringvnt plants, nocoants fur (he nliglit 
Bolieinal effi.'d which rrKnlls from thoir uh«. An iinpnivvd 
ksowlodge will, one day, det^-rmino the exui-t potrilion in viiluo 
ef tb« whole vegetable kingdom, but for a while we must bo 
eo«teiit«d with the pablication of much that in vague and 
■aoeriaiD. The unexjivcted discoveries of Ipecacuanha, Cin- 
ckuia, Vcratnim viride, etc., warn wt not to dJseard, npon u 
HpCTticial examination, all those popniarly convidorvd aa of 
trivial importance. 

TTVKnwrtnT ( /TCTM/un frrTefro, Chaix. 1 OrowR tn light 
*'****""""*■! Ji.CTa9wA';«rf«i.Linn.|»oih. upper dii.- 

trietc and in Georgia and North Carolioa. Collortcd by Mr. 

Bavvnel at the Kulaw battle-ground, St. John's, Berkley ; sent 

lo aie also ftom Abbeville district. 

r. a Difp. 368 ; Ilaf. Ued. Fl. i, 238 ; Lind. Nat. Syst. SI. A 

tonic and aotringenl. Kupponeal by Rome lo jMiiiMistt deobKtruvnt 

Txrtae*. It ha* been u«itl to :i i-oiihidcrable cxt<'nt in hwmoply- 

A aad chronic congh ; but Wood sa}~s it ha» (alien into ncgU-ct. 

DUN DYE; tJ01J>EN SKAL, (ffytr^ait C^inAdfKm. W.) 
Iitnwv in rich itotU, among the mountainHOf North and South 
Chrolitui and Ucorgta. PI. May. 

UadXat. S}-st.6;Bart. M. Bot. ii.Sl; Vog. Mat. Med. EI, 17; 
Ban Med. FT i. 251 . (iriffilh. Med. Bot. SS. Il hiun a nnrcirie 
MacO : lued in this counirt' a« a tonio. The root wai* known lo 
(1m Indiana, from the brilUanl yellow eolor whieli it yields. This 
sppvani to be |rfrm»nfnl, and might lie apptiiMl in the nrtx. 
Martin, tn the Tniiu. Phil. Sec. 1783. in hiu ObNcrvalinnn on tbo 

Dyee used by tJio AborigfBMf Matnt, fyom his own experience, 
that it was fonnd 8i>rvicctnbl« in oolorinff silks, wool and linon. 
■\Vitli indigo, it yielded a rioh gi-een. tiriffith, mentions it aa a 
powerCol bitt«r looio, miieli used in the Vr'ost U8 a vh»]i iii chroiii*: 
oplithalmla. In it» H-esh elat«, supposed to be narootio. Tinc- 
ture, deeootioi), or powder employed. Dose of powder, tliii-ly u> 
sixty grainii. Dr. N'orcnm, of Kdeuton, iRibnua inc lliat tlie in- 
fu!iion ix nnfd itiiciH'!'«rully in fjimorrhira. 

The American Chemical InMitnto »nd Tilden & Co., pre- 
pare fVora this plant two principlea, on« reaoous. Hydras- 
tina, wliieh is laxative and tonic, given !n doses of one lo 
five grains; the otlier an alkaloid Hydrastine or Hydra*. 
Una, the latter noluhlo in aleoliol, wftter and ellior. whiht the 
first if only sparingly foliiMe. HydmAliue i" fiivcn in the moio 
doeoi^ In over (low it i.t nuid to prodiiee almo»t idcnlieal effects 
with eulph. of qiiinino, vix: a snnise uf tightncMM, buiEiu):; and 
ringinjf in thi> cant, reducing the pulsi.' and producing sedation. 
In ordiiialy dotw« it in tonic and a»tringvat and it is claimed lo 
have great power in interniitlcnt fover. It is ollen prescribed 
willi PodopLyllin. This plant yields Itcrberina aLundniitly, 
which Dr. Wood thinks should bo examined tor iu antiperiodic 
propi-rties— n. S. I>i?ip. 12tli od., Am. J. I'lmnn., April 1861. 
Am. J. S(^ and ArlM Jan. 1S62 and July 1863. Il is now placed in 
the primary li»t U, S. Diitp. Tho following nummary of the quali- 
ties of this plant is givun by Dr. Wood : AVhile all admit its tonio 
properties, it is considered by different praoiitioners as a]>eri(>(it, 
ulU-ralive in il^ influence on the mueons inemhrant!!*, cholagoKuo, 
dcobstruuDt in refurtneo lo Ihi: glnndn generully. fiiiiii-tic, nnti- 
septic, OtC It liaM been employuil in d^-spepi^ia and other affee- 
tionn requiring tonic treatment, in jaundice and other fimotional 
disoixlors of the liver, as a laxative in constipation and pitcH, 
and OB an alterative in various discasca of the raucous mem- 
branes, as catarrh, chronic enteritie, cj-Btorrha3a,lucorrh(fia,gon. 
onrhwa, etc., being u^ed in the latter complaint internally and 
tocttlly- By some it is used aa one'of the huKt Kub»titutos Jbr 
quinia in intermittenln. A.t an injoctio;i in gonorrhcea Dr. 
McCann. of Martinvburf^, Ohio, made a decoction in the pro- 
portion of a drachm of the dried root to a pint of water, and in- 
jected a Hyringe lUII three times a day. The jiiant is uslmI in iho 
furm of deeoetion, ini>i8ion Uneture and extract. Thu Eclectics 




pn their Aydnufin in doses of three to five gminfl. . Soo also'n 
fohuiM ontilled "Pusilivc ilt'dical Agrnt*. New York.' 

(CtibAa pafttfTriit, II Var. panuutifiUia, T. & G.) Oo<iar !$wamp«, S. 
C- ' Cliaji. Flora. Tli« flowf^rbudsarepicklcdforuscMa 

mI' i.>r *-'U|wrs. The juice of the &e«h roots i» acrid uid 

ntirtti-. lint avcoitling U> Liuiueuii, by dj-^ing. grindiDg and 
waMag th« rcnit^, ruruLiIi » ver\- [lalatablu bn>ad. A sj'rup 
fC^Mreil (Wim ihiK |tlBiii in « ixrpuhir reiuody lor coughs. I>ar- 
fakgUKt'H Flora Ccat. Tho Colt's Foot of the V. H- Du'p. b Tutti- 
hf) farfara. 

CELKKV LEAVED CROW FOOT. {RaniiMculm srfteratus, 
L. T.aad Urav). (ttows in bog«; abundant arvand Charleston. 
Savbttm, Cruoni. Fl. May. 

BbIL I>UnU'« V^n. de Prance, 143 ; Dim. Kl^m de Hot. Light- 
fnf% PL SvoUca, 295 ; U. S. I)is|>. S84 ; Mer and de L. DicL de 
ILX^eSO. and thcSuppkm. IIM6, 620; Diofuondcit, lib. vi, cl 
h-; Ordla. Toxicol, Uvn. ii. 8U ; ]lig. Am. Mnd. Bot. iii, 65; Grit' 
6th.Ued. J)ot.»l. 

Tbs jotoe pooBMwe remarkable caustic powers, raising a Uiii- 
bs if applied lopieally, and often in doses of two drops exciting 
^f^^ t»*»».mi.n»n aloti); tb(^' wIkiIp track of the alimi^ntary mnal. 
6aae^ bowerer, !»y that this property is not coii^utnt. as it is of 
amdatile nature, and is dissipated by heat. According to Merat, 
th*B«do«Uua use it as a rubcianent, and it is applied in sciatiea, 
fcffWB^B BobstiLate for cauibarides. AnnaL Unir. de Med. 1643. 
U JuM been adniiiiL->tered witti >>ucet!iM in aMliina, icieruH, dy- 
ant^ rbenmatiNm, pneumonia and Rxfi ])iun>t. Whfn itac-t« as 
■ maiaiiT it has not tho dii^dranta<;e of producing straniiury. 
HigalowMTS tboTotstilc principle- may be collected by distilla- 
lUo and preserved in closely-stopped bottles. Tilobein relates 
t^t the distilled water is exoeasJvoly acrid, and on cooling, du- 
pwta oyMUn. which arc almost inMiluble in any nu'^nKlruuni. 
fa e aipl Wf are camed by muriat«^of t4n an<l atx'tutc of lead. 
Tke bnilnl niot may be eaten. 

Btmwtoii Linn. ( Grows in «ha<ly woods, and among 

'< liil. Sk. I the ntoanlains. Fl. Aog. 

C. S. Ois. &*». This has also a rube&cient and opispastic 
Big- Am. Med. Hot, iii, 65. Very similar to the 
its mode of action. 

■■ -r-.-i-i,!,. Ait,) Mts. of 

■.■-■n u-i'.l liji' :i j-imiliir 

:- .; — .-. ■.!ji'.-tinv nuiili- liy mai-i'- 

" ... "i- :iii-'i|j<j]. I«'rii;j lisoil i[i 

■ i— .-.i. in i.-;i.ii's 1)1' Mitii.^irnictii.' 

■,.«..'/(/,», L.) Hecoiningnatii- 

•• - J ■■: ].iMpiTiics, the seeds are 

" . '.■:.<.■ tWv. 

- I- ;v' k-rieksbui'jr, Va., iiifwi'ins Die 

1 - ■,U"-iriietivi' to iiisoetw, mid use- 

;l;1>Iivii infested with lliem. It 

^.\-\ Delphiiiia. Am. J. PJi. v, i„ 

■ ■; aeonitie acid from the expvessi'd 

i :iet. lSa4. and V. S. J>., llitli ed. 

.■..■"iin:i. .Mills sayn tlnit ftimi the ex- 

:;.- vith a little alum. :i ;ji«iil Ijliie nuiv 

CDHOSir. (f'inii'-'fii'ia niimnosa, 
\ Williil- (iri>ws ihrnu^^liniit [lie 

< . '. '2 *ee .Iftifii). The rout is used 

- - .. ;;uit iijiiiu ulerim- disonler ; ainl, 

■ . ;i -jieeial jirtinily li)rlhis nrj^an. 

■ .•:! Slime neiToiis art'eelions. es[ie- 

.' :. (.'till. I'liariii. vi.l'il. juid I>r. 

,-• ,1,'iiniJil Med. .Se. v, 810. "We 

. -..' in vliiireii will) eumplele sue- 

.'■.:s;ives and metallie Imiies; and 

-. ;Tleeis from it in eases uf eonvul- 

.*-..i eimuet'lcd with uterine di.snr- 

V ..' jHiwdeivii T'Kit is erii|)!i>\-ed, a 

» , ;.\ It is a stiniiilatinfi tonic, in- 

. •■kill, kidneys and hinps. Jlerut, 

. .-theaiitliorily ofDr. Kirkbride in 

■ -v'.jint in chorea, wlio advises ihat 

■;: may he frJTeii for several day.s, 

^ :-,>;:miHl ayain ; frielions slionld at 

V -.'.x siiriiioe witli Ihc tinctni'e. See 


the Supplem. 1846, to the Diet. de. M. M6d. cit. sup. Dr. Hil- 
dreth has fotmd thiB plant, in combtnatioD with iodine, very ad- 
TADtageouBiD the early stages of phthiHis. Am. Journal Med. 
Sc. Oct. 1842. The decoction is the most useful form ; one ounce 
of the hniised root is boiled in a pint of water, of which a half 
pint to one pint may be taken during the day. Dr. Physick 
also had known it to cure cases of chorea ; and Herat and de L., 
in the 1st vol. of op. cit. p. 67 (See Act<JEa), say that it partakes 
of the properties of A bracAtpefd^. According to Chapman, it 
produces &ee nausea, with abundant expectoration, succeeded 
by nervous trembling, vertigo, and a remarkable slownosi of the 
pulse. Dr. Garden administered the tincture for phthisis. Lon- 
don Med. Journal, li, 246. Dr. N. S. Davis uniformly found it to 
leeeeu the force and frequency of the pulse, to soothe pain and 
allay irritability. Trans. Am. Med. Assoc. 1, 362. Hildreth had 
also observed its influence on the circulation. Barton employed 
it as an astringent, which property it owes to the gallic acid it 
contaiDS. He also gave it in putrid sore throat. In Kew Jer> 
aey, a decoction of the root is said to cure itch ; and in North 
Carolina, it is given as a drench for cattle, in the disease called 
murrain. Shec Flora Carol. 91 ; Carson's lUust. Mod. Boi. i, p. 
9, 1847. See anal, in Am. Journal Pharm. vi, 20, 1843 and 
xxxiii, 396. According to Mr. Tilghman, it contains gum; 
starch ; sngar ; resin ; wax ; tannin ; gallic acid ; salts of potassa ; 
lime ; magnesia ; iron, etc. The ethereal extract contains most 
of its virtues. The Eclectics prepare from this plant a resin 
which they call cimicifugin, from a saturated tincture of the root 
precipitated by water — used in anomalous nervous disorders and 
puerperal hypochondriasis. Dose, a grain. See, also, Jones, in 
the Journal de Pharm. x, 670 ; and Journal Phil. Coll. Pharm. 
vi, 14 ; Griffith, Med. Bot 92. He remarks that its greatest ef- ' 
flcacy has been exhibited in rheumatism, in the form of a tinc- 
ture ; the power of the root appearing to depend on the volatile 
oil and bitter resin, both of which are soluble in alcohol, and 
partially so in water. Dr. Tally, Mat. Med. p. 1358, uses it as 
an ecbolic to excite the uterine organs. He says : "It never 
narcotizes the child." Dr. D. A. Morse, of Ohio, in Med. liep. 
recommends it as a nervous sedative of great valne, and to pro- 
cure sleep after physical exertion. He often combines it with 
qoioine. Bates in Jonrn, of Mat. Med., 1867. 


BAXEUKKKY; WHITE COUOSK. {Actaa alta, Big.; Act<M 
paehtfpoda, Kll.) lioeky Woods, Uts. orSotith Carotitia; Norlli 

Mr. F. St«ftms in his ac<?ouiilt> vf tltu Mvdioiiial planu of Mich- 
igw), speaks ot Iho rhisoma of llitM )il»iii im Itvhit^ violently jmr- 
gaUve. (Proc. ol" Am. Phann. Awoc. 1858, p. 240>. U. S. VUp. 
I2tli ed. 

YEI.LOW ROOT, {Zatti^ornhsa apu/otia. L-Hor.) Upper, 
aod moDntainouB districU. North Csrolius: P[. April. 

U. ii Disp. 745; Bart. Med. Boi. ii, 203; New York Med. Kc- 
pos. 2»I ; Ltad. Nat. Syi>t. 6; Griffilfa, Med. Bol. 3& ; Elliott'ii 
Bot., Med. note i, 37(1; Stoketi, Med. BoL ii, 194. 

The baik po^tHUKiitM pure tilU-r toaic proiR'rlies, dofcly annlo- 
goua to ihoAc oT oolombii and iiiiaiBia. Dr. P. R. Barton ttiiiikit 
it a moro powerful liillor than the former of thu»ic. It wait j^ivi'n 
by Dr. Woodtiotiso in dosw of forty grains in (lyMpepi>ia ; a do- 
cootion is alao omployod. The shrub contains a ^um and rmin, 
both of which are intensely bitt«r. Alcbohol is the best men- 
Btruum. Its tinctoi-ial powers were known to the Indians, It 
yields plentifully a cotorinj; niatler, a drab being imparted by il 
to wool, and rich yellow to silk : without a mordant it does not 
affect cotton or linen ; with PriiHxiaa blue it Htrikes n dull oIIto 
grooa color. It yields the alkaloid bcrbaina. 

TWIN LEAF, (J^ertonia diphyOa. Poni.) Rich shady 
woods, Tennosseo. 

The decoction of this plant is nsod by the vogipt«blo practi- 
tioaors and Indian doctors as a diuretic in dropsy, aiid as an ex- 
ternal applicalioii to sores, nieere, etc. 

To the alfovc meagre outlines published in the firet edition of 
this work, the 12ih ed. TT. S. Disp. contains the following addi- 
tional pai-ticularH. The plum has been analysed by Mr. H. K. 
Wayne, of Oinciniiuti. and found to contain albumen, su^^ar, 
liguin, pet-tin, a liitty and a hard rcstii, and u peculiar acrid printi- 
pl« reeomblioi; poly galie acid, in which it issuppone^l thiit thuvir- 
UiM of the root reside. The root is said to bo cmi-lic in largo 
doses, tonic and expectorant in smaller, and not unlike scneka, 
u a substitute for which it is sometimes us«d. (Am. J. Pharm. 
XXVII), Aocordingto Prof, Mayer, of Now York, the rhizome 
of the plant contains a xmall quantity of berbcrina and another 



alkallriit which U vrbilo. and in large proportion, as may bt in- 
frmd. adds Dr. Wood, from \ht rettclioua notictsl by Kr. Bnntlcjr, 
d Loadon: tb« pectiu of Mr. Wayn« h« voiuiidwn to l>o mponin. 
Am. J. Pbann. Man-fa, 18CS. 

LEMOX; DUCK VfERb,iPodoph^U«mpet/atiim. L.) Diffboed in 
rick woods ; gi%>v» in Altbovillo aud Hantter dUtriols ; col I I'll- 1 oti 
m St. Jobn'^ Berkley ; vicinity of ("liariesion, Bacb. ; Ni'wU^ni. 
I siw it at Porunonth, Virginia. It should be difltiiiguiidiMl from 
tbe " mav-applts," or inay-pop of our com fi«bi». (Suw Passi- 
ftny PL Uarvh. 

Pe- Mai- M«J. ii. 7-19 ; Bi'II'b Pnwt, Diet. ; Drayton's Viow H, 
a 73 ; Roylo Slat. M<v]. 573 ; FtxhA's EIrmH. 137 ; Eb. Mm. Med. 
laW; Bd. and Vav. Mat. Med. i, M4 ; U. S. Disp. 656 ; Big. 
Am. Mm). Bot. ii. 34 ; Bart. Med. Bot. i, 9 ; Joamal Pbil. Coll. 
Phanii. iii, 673 ; Med. Kocord, iU, 332 ; Ball and Ciar. MaU Med. 
US: Zcboepf, M. M. 86 ; iiir. and de L. Diet, de Ma(. Mi^. v. 
*«7 : Chap. Mat. Med. and Thenp. 209 ; Coxe, Am. Di»p. -178 ; 
Lmd. XaL Syat. Bot. 

Bigdow «aya it te a mm and active caibai-tle. " Wc hardly 
kiow soy native plant that answers better the common pnrpoee 
<rf jalap, alo«^ and rhubarb." Tbo Shaken prepare an extract, 
whlrb is much esteemed a« a mild cathartic By the esperi> 
of Dr. BoTf^n, in the Am. Med. Recorder, it is useful in 
kliiiiaUon with calomfl; ten grains of the latter with twenty 
«( tbe padophyllum. In bitioDs affectioiis it usually auperwede* 
A* B*c«aafiy of an emetic previona to a cathartio ; and by tins 
■MBS two deximblu olTccis are prodac«d by one agent. Big. 
.A|fcodix. iii. 187 ; Griffith, Med. BoU 116. It ha» been reoom*. 
■mded in dropsy, from the abundant evacuations which it pro- 
4in«^ According to Staples, ii eoutains resin and starch ; and 
Dr. 0(Hlg»oa haa given the name podophyltine to the peeuliar 
nbrtantM} it eontalns^ See Jonmal Phil. ColL Pbami.; Canon's 
OtMLaf Had. Botany, |>t. i. An officinal extract ia prepared, 
grrvB IB dosMt of 5 to 15 grain--*. Tbt- leavea are purf^ivv, and 
watiiiii" prodm-o nauwa in irritabU: stomachtt ; the Iniii ia c«t- 
afela It was employod by the Chcrokcoa as an anthelmintic ; a 
W drop* poured into the ear are said to rciturv tbi' power of 
The plant ha& ali<o bc«n found to afford opvedy roliof 


ouTelope of Uio cupAuIo dchtKocA ttponlaneonaly whoa ripe, so 
that tJiu i>om1 i« ciu<i\y ithod ; and Mwtbvr, in wliich llio need re- 
mains onclosvxl wittiiD tho capsolott, which mn«t ln< 0[ioiiim1 ia 
order to extract it," " Xho poppy niay bwoomc oiio of th« moat 
profitable crops, if w« have the meane of diiiposiiiff of the itwd, 
or if wc Jfnew Iiow to ezti-aot tlie oU. By proper cuitiTation it 
may hu iiimte to [irodiii'i' fi-oin nine to ten bushela of seed por 
nerv, and one bii.'Oiel j-ii-lds twenty-four puiindit of good oiL This 
oil, ODpucially the tirat portion, which im cold-]>r<s*»6d, and mixed 
in the mill with ulitxn of applo, ie doubtk'tui the piiniHt kind 
oil tor till- table, sod the most agreeable that i» known. It in 
inrerior to none, excepting the flneet Mice or Lttccaoii. Itii 
protbrable to the f«coDd-rat« oil of those pIaco«. and tJio peculiar 
taste of olive oil may bo iiupaned to it by iho addition of n 
Aaall quantity of that oil of anperfise quality." PriDciploM of 
Agriculture, 4&7. 

The oil of tlie poppy in blnod, and not narcotic. " It is used 
bolli for food ami light, and in oonnidered a fiflh more valuable 
than that of the oolxa. The calcic nniiainiiig alitor the exprea* 
sion of the oil are valuable for the fattening of «winv ; and tha 
sUlkM for fuel. The ^shc^ which remain alli-r liiiriiing il are o£ 
the beat kind of manure. If the seed he prestcd iu a mill used 
for the colaa, or otlicr oil, the greatest attention must be paid 
to cleaning it. The oil expn^ftned in cold weather is much eupo 
rior in quality to that ohtitiued in warm weather, and the two 
muMt not bo mixed." " Hvnr)- Colman's Kuropt-aii Agriculture," 
vol. ii, 538, BoBton, 1819. See his " Report on Flemish Agritnil- 
turo, for method of growing the Poppy, Co l»a, J''Ir.\, Hemp, Hop, 
Mulberry, Boct, Olive, Grape," etc.; also " Thaer's Trontiite on 
Agriculture." Soo Bene (iksamum) fbr oils and their exprca- 

In Thorntou'9 Family Herbal a very full and intereeting^ 
account can be rtnnl wf tbo (cultivation of poppy in £nglatid, 
with the Huctiettttful production of opium in nonftiderahle quan- 
tify. Forty pound;* were made in ono weaiton by on« periton. 
Boyn and girls were (tmployvd in inLining the bullw and gather- 
ing the gum. 

A variuly of the ■'common" or "opium poppy" (P. somni- 
ftrum.), indigenous to the warm and tem|)ei'ate parts of Kuropo 
and Aiiia, has been introduced, and a brief notice i» contained 



is Patent Offin> Report, 1855, p. xxi : " It baa proved ttaclT tutu 
veptiMeof eaayculliTauouon ver\'nch Kntlti. It is wcU lulnpted 
to tb» cUniBt* of the Middle and Southei-u Stat«fl. Tbe tlovvn 
tt tbe 'white |>0|>P7 ' {Paj/aeer s. alba), the rariuty witJi whicb 
ike expcrincat vriw mode, may Iw oilbor cnliroly whitv or rod, 
wnsy be fringml witb purpir, rose or libtr, varicgnt«d and 
«dg»d witb the «ain« colon, but norer occur bine or yellow, nor 
■isad with these colore. MU-h p«tal heiii); ;^n(>riUly marked at 
1)m bottom wiib a black or parpk spoU Tbo seeds arc black in 
tiw plaatB having purple flowere, and ligbt'colored in tfaoeo 
vUch «ro white; although tb« »e«dB of the tattor, when of 
ifwntaneooa growth, are someUmea black. The largest licada 
«Uck are employed for medioal ordoinealic use. are obtained 
Asa the single dowered kind, not ouly lor the parpoao of ex- 
tncting opiuni, but olao on account of the bland, eisvuleut oil 
Ikatit cxpretwCd from ihv wvd», wbith iiri- nimply tfinitlnivw, 
od eooiain none of the nsrcu(ic primiple. Fur Lliu lultiT pur- 
if nu other, ita vtdtnro in this country' i» worlby of atttm- 
Certainly it is an object worthy of public eneourugemoot, 
• th« annual amount of opium imjmrted into the United States 
■ vmlavd at upward of $4<^,000." If this was trui' some years 
MM, how much more otMeutial to us is its production uow 
(US3), wb«B gum opium and uiui^ihiue are so vary dilfieult Lo 
Uillt, in hJBi S(tttUtk-a of South Carolina, idatt^v thai 
waa extrai-ted from the p^'ppy in South CuroUiiu, and 
that aeren giminx ware obtained from viK-h planC Occupied in 
tiHcarclim apoo thv«o nabjceto darin;; the month of June (186S), 
aador the <Mer of the Hurgoou-GenvraJ, 1 was unablod to vol- 
het, Ik a fow days, more than an ounce of gum opium, appa- 
mmIt of vety excellent quality, having all the smoll and taste 
ti opisza (which I have administered to the sick), IVom speei- 
aoM of the red puppy found growing in a garden nuur Slato- 
kn^ S. C. I have lit^ <loubt that all wc require could be 
pAmnd by ladic* and cnildren within the Southern Btates, if 
mfy the Blightevt attention was paid to cultivating the plants in 
^lianleua. It thrives if ell, and beats abundantly. It is not 
pmmlly known that the'gum which hardens after iuci«iiug the 
U then ready for uhc, iiud nuiy be preacrilxid na gum 
or laudanum and paregoric may be mode from it with 
fkolwt or whiakey. 


Tbo poppy, it a Mid, prni)iio<!» bftttcr whoii pliint«d in the fall. 
Willi my [>r(.'i>vnl oxporionco (Juno, 1863). I woiilii dfty thai this 
wan 0HN»ntiii1 in ihc cliinntp of Sniitli Carolina niul Gojrgin. It 
sliouli) bo planted early tn S«>ptcmbcr ; the plants are not killed 
dnrtD<; Oxe wioter. ihey thrive in the early spring, and the eap- 
Rulos are ready for incision ill May. I find that the vitality ofth« 
weds are not destroyed hv tin' innnijiulHtioiifl to which the cap- 
milee are siihjeeted. Several nttein{)t!t by Ihe writfr to obtain the 
poppy by {tlantiug Horeral aere« i»uwK!i»ive!y in April and May 
failed, tbo^eodiinotgc^tliniriip. Fn>m a ''j^rilcn nquitre" plaiited 
in October, 1882, I obt«ini?d in Stay. 1SC3, IVoni two galhoring*, 
5 druchms and 30 (^ins of ^nm opium, weighed nller the iiiu«8 
bad dried odo month, of excellent quality jud^iof* by the 
emell and color. Thi? o.xporinient was hardly a fair omp. a» the 
aecond recolte was delayed too long. Twieo the amount might 
have been eolleot«d. The land Hlioiild be rich and finely worked ; 
lh« wills were iint sown lightly. 

Mr. Fanni-r, iif WiiltfrlKiro*, 3- C, rcpi>rt» through Surgeon 
Liniiing (Juno. 1863), that he also ha* eucwuded in procuring 
enough for th« h»u of bin plantation. The writer liati littlo 
donbt from tbo prt^^ent b(;.ginDingi< that opium will become onn 
of tlie ordinary stajiles of the country, as iho plant ihrivos well 
as u volunteer. It should be remembered tliai poulty eut the 
young plantA with avidity. 

I qiiotv the following fn»m paper dted above: 

Thv «>n('(!c4Mful ciiltivulion nf the plant, however, requires the 
provision of good soil, appropriate manure, and uamfnl raanngo- 
meut. The strength of the juice, according to Dr. Butter, of 
British India. de]>ends much upon the quantity or moistui'v of 
the oHmate. A deficiency even of dew prevents the proper flow 
of the peculiar, narcotic, intlky juice which abounds in every 
p*rt of the plant, while an exeesR beHlden wuKhing off ibis milk, 
CtiiiHiv> iiiblitionni tninchief by ttepnmling the nohihle from the 
Imroliible parts of this drug. This^^ot only dctcriorut*'* ibt 
quality, but increases the quantityS)f moisture, which must 
afterward bo got rid of. The history of the poppy, as well 
a« that of opium — its inspissated juice — are but imperfectly 
known. The oldest notices of this plant ore tbnnd in theworka 
of the early Grui-k physicians, in which mention is also made of 
the juiee ; but opium dues not appear to have been so generally 




iployea AS in modem timeii. an the notic«a respecting it vould 
woald htivv be«D nuniei-ous nud clear. In (lie niiiDuracture of 
opium in Pcrua ur tnilik. ili« juice ii» |>artiully cxlructcij, li>gi'lhcr 
with a ron«i(lvrablo qnsntity of miicilnsc hy drauHion. Tfa« 
fiqour i^ ctronj-Iy |tmG«'d (mt, ■nffcrcd to settle, clnrificd with 
tkt wbttc of ("Jiff", and evaporated to a duo contiistcn*^' — yirld- 
iag m fifth of tho irciglit of t h« heads of extract, which ]>OKKiv<»i-a 
Um ▼irioon of opium in a very inferior degre*. and ie often cm- 
plofad to adalierato the genuine opium. The headB of the 
popples are gathered as tbey ripen ; and, as this happens at dif- 
fenfnt periods, (here arc uminlly three or four guthcriiigH in a 
j-ear. Tb« milky juice of Uie i"ippy in iu tnori! pi'rf«>ct !>lHto, 
«hich ill thti eatM? only in u'linn climaV% ttt cxtniotcd hy ini'iH- 
i»na made in the cap-nuIcA, and Kiinpty uvaporateal into th<: con- 
wUvcQ in which it in known to commerce, nndvr tho namo of 


In Turkey, tho plants during their growth are caroftally wa- 
tared, and mannrod if ncce«MTy ; the wateriiijc being more 
praftue as the period of flowering appronchc^, and until (ho 
iMada are half grown, when the operation in diflctm tinned, and 
tfc« eolleetiOD of the opium comnieneea. At sunHot longittidiiiAl 
iacinoDsan; made apon vm-h half-Hpe i-ap»nlc. not rutlicicntly 
deep to p«tnnirat« the internal «-aTily. Thu ni^ht dcwi- fnvor 
the ezndattoD of the juice, wliich ie oolltK^tcd in the morning by 
^taping it from the wonnds with a smalt iron scoop, and dei>os- 
'aixtg the whole in au earthen pot, whore it is worked in (be fiun* 
•hitte with a wooden spatula, until it acquires a considerable 
dc^T«« of thickue-ts. It \a then formed into cakvA by tho handn, 
aod pl»C>ed in curlhen panit to be further cxni<'CHted, when it ia 
covered with the Iwivoi of the pop|»y, or «omc other plant. 

In obtaining glim opium, the capsules an cut longitudinally 
oaly through tho skin, though some advise that it should be 
docM bom below upwanl. I find longitudinal iooialoDs the most 
Manomicat This is generally done late in the afternoon, the 
hardened gum being scraped off early next morning. Boya or 
gifia can easily attend to this. If the capsules arc cut only on 
oa« dide, the same operations may b« n-pv»tcd on (he olLcr side, 
and a fr«ah supply of opium obtained. A knife with thre« or four 
vdgf*, catting alMut the twelfth or fotirteeulb pari of an inch, 
a aometimett used. If the invuioa lit too deep the juice passest 
within thr poppy hi'Jid. 

Prof. Alston, of Kdinburg;)!, lon^ ftgo, esys Thornton, anccr- 
latncd Ihnl opium of gnuil qunlity (muM bn ohtniiivd in Groat 
Itriluin, '• having ull th(' color, conKiNtonci-, tiiKto, smell, fn<.'ultii.-N, 
phcnomoun," ate, of opinm. It hiw bvcm cnlonlatcd by M>. 
1^11 that more than titty pouniii* of opinm may ho colloctod 
from one statute aero. Mr. Jonos in 1794. in the County of 
Middlpsos. Kn^land, prosentod twouty-five pounds of opium to 
the Society of Arts, mado by himself, which was ascertained by 
cb«mical examination, to be eqaal to the imported drug. The 
reader intereMtid in the culture of the poppy, can find in Thorn- 
ton's Kcw Family Herbiil, p. 516, a prelly f\iU statement of the 
method of culture, the collection of the guin, etc., employed by 
Mr Jonos. In Love'i' report lo the Sociely. he snys: " Karing 
« tup root, Iheir hIbc will, i-onnenoenlly, bo proportioned to the 
depth of earth they wo ^nat^ed to penetrate. Hence Iho !»• 
ceKxity of land that will admit of deep pIoiit;hiDg. The fincDOM 
of the #urliice, too, is very essential. As thL> seed is small, and 
tie plantt on their first coming up so exceedingly tender, the 
bu«ih harrow should always be used after thoite which nro com- 
monly employed." Tbey should bo so cultivated that the 
gatherer may not disturb the plants iu coUectiug the juice. Mr. 
Jones is also in favor of autumnal sowing, planting in the month 
of Sttpienilier, by which means theplautx attain oatlicient fliw> 
to endure the i-old of winter; these were also ioun<l to produce 
more opium than those ptnuted in March. The scnritic&tioux 
aro described, Thoratou's Herbal, 617, but any one can deviuro 
a knife for the puit>ose. In the Proc. of Am. Ph. Assoc, 1SG6, 
a specimen of Virginia opium exhibited contained 4 per cent, of 
morphia and 3.5 per cent, (approximately) of nareotina. 

Mr. John Commina, of Charleston, ban endeavored (1867) to 
extraet the gum more ueoiiomieally fn)m the whole plant, leaver, 
t>talk>« and c-Hps'Hlei', but it has been foand imprstctiewlile. Papa- 
ver dubium. Corn poppy, introdnoed, grows in lower ^urth Caro- 
Uno, Curti*' Cat. 

THOllN APPLE; YELLOW THISTLE, (Aryfmow Mfximita, 
Linn. D. 0. Prodrom.) Charleston Distnct, grows around 
buildiitgs in rich spote ; vicinity of Cfaai'leston ; Newbem, N, C. 
PI. July. 

Her. and do L. Diet. U. Med. i, 39ft; Jouiiial do 
Phannaeie xiv, 73; Bull. den. 8ci. MAd. de M*r. viii, 210; D« 




Cml. Emu. 116. The oil b said by 



« to bo ss activa as 
uat ui ibe Urornn tiujliuni ; *q^ ihc Sujip. to Her. and de L., 
18W-'&T, Id Bruxil, ihi- K-arrx uru cmpioyod k% a cutit{ilit.4iii for 
driviti^ off a](.>era. The infuMon i« used in Mexico for itK markiKl 
■darifio povttns; tho jnioc is fonod ^frvkvaMv in clirimic ntalii- 
dic» of th« ^o. In Java. th«y employ it in inveterate c»t9k 
MOBV diMaMS, and as a caustic in chancres. Lind., in his Nat. 
&r«t- Bou 8, says that the 9e«d« are narcotic, and aro emoked 
with IctMtcoo ; Gardenur'a Hag. vi, 31ft. It is administered in 
tiw Wen Iiidi«o aa a subfitiiot^ for ipecaenanha, and the jnico 
of tL« plant w f^mMidervd hy tliti native dnctora of India aa a 
ralaable rcmody in uphthnlmia, either dropped in tlte (^y« or 
rabbcd on tho tar>iis ; it is also conKiderixt purgative and deoi> 
itnctil. Ainelie, M. Meil. Ind, H3; Prince Maxi mil. Travel^ 
114; Anblec, Uiei. Uaiane. Herat, in the Supplem., 1846, says 
that, in Braail, in the Isle of Prauoe, and in India, the aH te 
nnfanied aa a pargative, not unlike caator oil, but more activo^ 
aol, however, beiu]^ all«Dded witli griping; lliirty dro|>3 were 
favnd vqtiiTalent to the ounou of ca«itor oil. They applii-d it iu 
ttaca capitis, and as an vxtemni appUealioii in hcadavhi; occn- 
by exposure to tbc rayi« of th« nan. See Dr. Schorl's 
lination of it. Dr. Muddic asserts that it indncee anodyne 
Act*; M> uucli ao, as to relieve. In an instant, tJio paiita of 
«)lic Med. Bot. Soe. London, laiO; Gniltth's Mod. BoL, 129. 
The ptant abounds in a vi«etd, milky, acid juii^o, wbioh, ux[iottt<d 
lAlhiiair, hecomc« yellow, resembling gamboge. Th** flowera 
■>• Mid by PeCandolle, K».-<ui, to be employed in Mexico as a 
kypnoiiv^ A thorough examination of this plant might well 
ntpay the labor bestowed upon it. It is, apparently, native, 
aija Cbapman, in South Florida. " Its seeds are said to yidd a 
karaotio substance as poweriU as opium. A milky, glutinous 
jaiee flows from the whole plant; turns by exposure to the air 
btta a flne bright ycUow ; and when reduced to the conaBi«ftc« 
of tt Bfm gtim, is not disiinguinhuhlo from gamboge, and bats we 
bcGove, bc«n bnmght into the market iimlvr the name of tliut 
4l%g, It has similar properties to gamboge, both as u mtilieine 
and as a pigment; uid it has been admiuisterod in very small 
Afmm in caaea of dropsy, jaundice, cutaneous eruption, and 
aoae other diaeaaes." Wilson, Rural Cyc. 
I colIect«d a large number of the seeds of tJiis plant ovar 


Charleston, and experimeDted with tbe oil and tincture, but 
with no definite rt-'eultA. A lun^r jiii^t^r on tlie medical prnper- 
lieo of tlio Mexic-Jin Poppy riiti lx> rmiml in the CliurloHton Uvdi- 
Cft) Journal, nmong iho extracts. I cnnnot, at present, cito th« 
Tolumo, but it was daring the editorial management of Dr. Caio 
and myseir. The tincture was particularly recommended tor the 
relief of colic and pain. 

In the 12tb Ed. U. S. Ilisp. M.Lepine isqaoted as atulinj; tltat 
the oil of tbe seeds has a cathi>riio pi-operty, and may be used in 
tbe arU (Jonrn. de PLarm. JuUiet, 1861), and that according to 
Dr. W. Hamilton, that the seedei iinitu an anodyne and Nopurilic 
with tbo cathartic propL-rly. In tbo hands of Dr. Afflccio, of 
Jamaica, they have proved UKoful given in emulsion in flatu- 
lent colic, in the dose of about 8 grains, repeated every half 
hour, till throe dosea were taken. The pain was relieved and 
the liowelm opened. (Pharm. Journ. xti. 642.) 

POCCOOX; nhOOMlOOT, {Siiniftiinaria Ctinadmsis, lAaa. 
Ell. Sk.) Diffiincd; vicinity of CharloMton; Abbevilln, Richland, 
and Fairfield Districts ; colloctod in St, John's, N. C. PI. March. 

Drayton's View of S. C. 72 ; Bell's Praci. X>ict. 404 ; Eberle, 
MuL Med. M ; Lind. Nut. Syst. 8 ; V. S. Disp. (127 ; Koyle, Mat. 
Med. 273 ; Po. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 722 ; London Med. 
Cbirurg. Tmnn. vol. I , Burt. M. Bot. i, 30; Ann. Lyceum Nat. 
Iliel. New York, ii, 250 ; New York Moil, and Pliyc. Journal, i, 
No. 2 ; Am. Journal Med. Sci. N. .S. ii, 506 ; Journal Phil. Ooll. 
Pbarm- iii, 95; Ball and Gar. Mat. Mod. 308; Big. Am. Med. 
Bol. i, 75; Schoepf, Mat. Med. 85; Barton's Colloc. 28; Trans, 
Lond. Med. Soc. i, 179 ; Tliaehers Ditip. 331 ; Uutlor, Mera. Am. 
Acail. i, 155; M^r. and de L. Diet, do M. Med. vi, 208; Bull, des 
Set. Med. Per. vi, 71; Edinb. Med. Journal, vii, 217 ; 8hec. Flora 
Carol. 153; Curson'n lllust. Med. Bot. i, 18, 1847. The root i« 
nanvilie, emeiiu and purj^ative in large doHos; ntinmlant, 
expectorant, and diaphoretic, tonic in small. Dr. Dana found a 
found a peculiar prinoiple in it, called ^on^utNurind (Ann. Lyceum 
Nat. Hiat, Now York). AcL-ording to the uxperimenlH of Dr. 
Donney, of Maryland, in hiH inaugural Tht-Kis, twcnty.grain 
doaetiof the root induced nausea and vomiting, attended with 
heal of stomach, acceleration of pulse, and sometimes slight 
headache ; the leaves are said to bo endued with similar powers. 
"Tlia needs exert a marked influence on the nervous system, 


occaaioniDg torpor, languor, disordered vision, and dilatation of 
papil." Dr. Bard, of New York, coDfirras thie in his Inaugural 
Diss. It IB an acrid narcotic, producing vomiting, and given in 
all diseases of the mucous membraDes; employed in catarrh, 
typhsid pneumonia, croup, hooping-cough, and in arresting the 
progress of phthisis, and also in inflammatory rheumatism and 
jaur.dice. It was known to Scboepf ; and Merat states that it 
was serviceable in gonorrb<Ba. Dr. Israel Allen, of New York, 
Bays it acta with all the good effects of digitalis, in alfections of 
the lan^b — the infusion being preferred in these, as the tincture 
does not afford the active principle sufficiently strong; be adds, 
also, that it powerfully promotes diaphoresis in infiammatory 
rhenmatism. Bigelow mentions it as an acrid narcotic, in small 
doses lessening the frequency of the palse, somewhat analogous 
in its operation to tbat of digitalis — this, however, being its 
secondary effect. In still smaller doses, it is astimulatingtonlo. 
The powdered root, snuffed up tbe nose, is powerfully sternuta- 
tory; it is-applied as an escharotic to fungous flesh; and several 
polypi, of tbe soft kind, were cured by it in the hands of Dr. 
Smith, of Hanover. Mill says in his Statistics of S. C, publish- 
ed in 1826 : " It is a deobstment, and excellent in jaundice, old 
coughs, and bilious habits ; the root powdered and mixed with a 
small quantity of calomel, and used as a snuff^ has cured tbe 
polypus in tbe nose." Dr. Shanks, of Tennessee, also destroyed 
a gelatinous polypus with sanguinaria, after extraction had 
twice failed. Am. Journal Med. Sci. Oct., 1842. Tbe decoction 
has also been used as a wash to ill-conditioned ulcers. Dr. 
McBride employed this plant to some extent, in his practice in 
St. John's Berkley, 8. C, in jaundice, in doses of two to six 
grains of the root. He did not trust to it exclusively, but found 
it most effectual in those cases characterized by torpor of tbe 
liver, attended with colic and yellowness of the skin. See his 
letter to Dr. Bigelow. He gave, too, with bqccsbb, in hydrotbo- 
rax, the tinctnre in doses of sixty drops, three times a day, 
increased until nausea followed its employment. Sberle, in bis 
work on Diseases of Children, p. 97, says that the powdered 
root is an excellent escharotic in ulceration of tbe umbilicus. 
Griffith's Med. BoL 127. It is observed by some that tbe seeds 
are more narcotic than the root, inducing symptoms re»emb1ing 
those produced by stramonium. Tbe dose of the powder as an 


emotic, x-xx gn.; M a Dtimii latin;; oxpoctorant, iil-v gn. ; or 
itn iiifiisiun of one-half ouncu oflbo root to one pint of water — 
dcMo, » tabUwjxionfnl ; of the tincture, it is ono-half a drachm ; 
a larger qttaotity a«tii »» ao omotic. The Unciaro U made by 
adding two ouoces of the bniieod root to one pint of aUoliol. 
Macorate fouriecn days. It ia expectorant and alterative. Dr. 
Donnoj says the leavoii are adminititvred in vuturinary pruc-ttcv 
in Maryland, to produce sweatiug, aiid to fuoilitalu the Mtiiidding 
of hair In thfl Spring. Dr. Gnflitb is convinced of it« cfficaoy 
in thtM rtTMpvot, anil he bax aho given tbo iWeb root mixed with 
the food, at int«rvali(, to doatroy bots in horees — one or two 
roots proving sufficient. In a communication from Dr. Isaac 
Branch, of Abbeville District, S. C„ he inforniH me that Iw has 
tor many years employed the decoction of the root in croup ; 
ho prefers it to any other single remedy ; 'and, by pemi^ting in 
it till emesis is produced, be is of the opinion that it prevent* 
till} formation of the dipbtberitic memhrani^ Prom bis own * 
experience, ho considers it a K]>uvific in the i.'arly stagos of the 
disease, prufurring, for infuDlo, tlie infusion to the tincture, aa 
thediffieullyof exciting vomiting fre<iuuntly renders it necessary 
to give more of the alcohol than would be prudvrit. He finds it 
Gonvcniont, when called lo it ca^u of croup, to add to thirty 
grains of the powdered, or bruised root, a teacupful of boiling 
water, allowing it to steep for ten or Mecn minutes over the 
fire, when it may be giveu in teaspoonfnl dones, fruqnently ro< 
poatecl, until vomiting' is induced ; if the patient is relieved, 
continue it in doses short of the emetic point, every hour,or two, 
increasing it in Oequeney and amount should the symptoms 
require it. Dr. B. i* of the apiiiion that it owen it:« value to 
three qnalitiivt'Comhincd: an acrid, an emetic and a douDstrucnt 
property — the latter acting on the glandular syatora. It 
possesses, also, the peculiar advantage of not prodnciug bad 
effects by ocoumulution; a teac-upfnl not debilitating any more 
than a smaller quantity, and neither inducing prostration, 
whicti. in the diHcn-ie in question, is an important vonHidoratioo. 
If (he pationl's skin is hot and dry, tho addition of a few grains 
of ipecacaanha is advised. The osperie^ico of Dr. Branch cor- 
roborates that of others respecting the value of the tincture, in 
doses of leu to tirtocn drops, given three or four times a day, as 
an expectorant in chronic cough. In emetic doses, it proves a 





BMfal promoter of expoctorntion in pnoumoDJu. The dccocUon 
ef Um root, taken in sianW dos», rnuy bo uHod wherever a 
mini ail I aad expeetorant is required, and will aid id prevoat- 
big the Bdruictf of colds, croup, pDi>uinoni«, etc. The juice of 
the root wftn ancd by the Indians jis a rod plgmcnl, and it has 
he«o applied to the artH. Dr. DoDney nays that the sulpb. of 
■limiiDa will (wnially fix the color in woolen etuffa, and ihe 
Dtuno- »alph. of lead iu cotton and linen. The Htafn, applied to 
tbe anbrokcn akin. La not iudolible. LawHon, in his avcounl of 
CkroUn*, says, that the Pueeoon ia Balsehia eantscens (XitAoc- 
frmmm eoMteats), growing in upper districta. Suo Punsb's 
Flora and Croota'^ Catalogue. 

above wft« containod in my report on Mod. Botany of 

C^ publbhed in ,1SJ9. Since that period, 1 have u^ed the 
^BCtnr* of Rauguioaria largely during Ave years attendance 
«pOD the Murine lloepital, and in private practice. 1 employ 
IM vegetable riubtttaneo ao conitiaiitly, an an addition to oougb 
■dxttircs, and a« an alterative and tonic, when I think the 
IkMttioiw of tbv lircr not mifficioatly tt^tivr. We mimt avoid 
adAilg too much of the tinctoro to any mixture, leet it convert 
it iiiti> a naaaeanl or emetic. I can only say that it has proved 
a bifUj Hlisfactorj' agent in my hands U8 n tonic, alterative, 
akd expaetorauL (Sc« Bone^et, {Ettpatorivm pcr/ot. w(itjw), 
Ifar combinations of that and Sanguinaria in pneumonias and 
Fkmaiilc at the end of (hi« volume.) 

Dr. J. B. Ancrom, of CharloAtou. informed me in 1867, that 
he bad rep<-atedly found benefit from tbe local application of 
t&* powdtnd root t« scrofulouK uleern, adminiittering it nlfo 
iotrmally in diMiti of a few groins nereral times a day. From 
a ffiggr«tion made to him by a soldier during the late war he 
■•■d H internally wilh much satisfsctiou in e«urvy, and the 
p ow J erri root waa nMd in making a gargle, and wa» also 
pven internally. 

i faavF repeatedly employed the tincture with advantage in 
jMDidiee, giving an occasional mercurial at nigbt ; tbua avoiding 
tte pfQctraiion whicb 14 no mMHcc<l a feature of tliiii diAeaaa aa 
» often lb* ca*f wluin manai;cd excluBivoly by mon;wry. 

Id tbe ISib ed. of the U. 8. Disp. 1S6£. Dr. Motheribead 
paper (troat Wood's Qoartorly Kclrosp. 480) is qaoled, where he 


Bpcabs in tbe strongest t«nne of tia efficacy as ad oxcitant to 
the liver given in alt«ralive do«>ee. 

Prof. Wood says in refcronoe to Sangutn'mrla : The lato Dr. 
Win. Tully fixiTid it in Iurg4! doMi» to prodace verlifro, dilalulioa 
of the pupil, u hnggun] oxpninHion of tho face, iiaiiMca, diinin-^ 
i*hod fr<!4»enoy and irrt^idiiritj' "f iho pidsf^. Prof. R. P. 
Tbomas, of Philudulphiit, who experimented with it on hiraitcl 
and othon, in modivinnl dost-H. using hoth the alkaloid and its 
HaltH, gavo tho following stutcmi-nt of its powers: In do«c« 
varying from one-twclfth to one-eighth of a grain it ncl«d m 
no espoctorant witlioot distnrbing the stomach. One-aixtb or 
onft-fourLh of ft grain given every two or three hour^ generally 
prodnced naiiHOu and HomKtimvit vomiting. Half a grain in 
solution, givon at intvrvnls of ten minuloK, almoxt invai-iably 
Tomitod after tbo second or third ilosv. Under the influeneo of 
one^ighth or ono-Bixth of a grain given oveiy three or four 
honrs, for two days or more, tho piiUo was genemlly reduced 
from five lo fifteen boats in tbe minute. He fonud no alterative 
effect, and none of any kind directly upon the liver (Proc. of 
A. M. Med. Aasoc, ISti's) U. S. Uisp. 

A flnid extract is prepared, of which tbe dose as an emetic i» 
from ten to twenty nuninia. 

PUMITOilY. {Vmmna offirwUis. Linn. Hook. Ft. Bo.) Nata- 
ntl, says Bllioit, on JohnV Island, und ni Mr. Aliddleton's on 
Ashley River. Not in Curtis' Cat. 

Thia plant received great attention in former titnex, nnd n-as 
nImoKt UDivcrwally employed. Pltny f^peakx of it, lib. 25, c. 13, 
According to Iloffraan and Doerhaave, tlie jniee taken in lai^e 
dcAes is diuretic and laxalive. Grout confldonce was plnoed in 
ita virtues by Cullcn. MaL Med. ii, 77. In the Oem. filom. do 
Bot-> it ia referred to fts « diuretic and dctoraive aperient, 
employed o» a ponficr of the blood in Hcrofnlous and cutaneous 
disMses. It was administered in amenorrhrBas loss of appetite, 
and hypochondriacal affections; PI. fjcotica, 379. Boerhaave 
frequently prescribed it in jaundice and bilious colics. Thorn- 
ton, In his Pain. Herb. 628, aniterts that ho bud experienced its 
value in cutaneouH diiwaiies. Iti* acrimoniour' properly is vola- 
tile ; hence, it should bo given in whey. Mcr. und do L. Diet. 


4f X. UM. iii 310 ; FL Ued. ir, 163. " A m«-k«d bittor, whieh 
in I MB w an beiug (bied.'* A popular dopurativo remedy, 
wiMh magmtat6 ibe action of Ibo organt^, and therefore DB^ful 
itt tlte diMMUwa ttpMiticd. Meral fmys, il was very generally 
iBowed to be ft spectfio in clcplukDliasts, actiiiju: without any 
cnctuttion or t>ppr«wial>l<! tifTi-fil. Bftrbk-r, M. Mod. 381 ; U. S. 
Oiip. I3&4. An cxtruct of thv cxpri^Kwd juic«, or n do«oi:tiOD, 
iteowv oat Qpon its eurfaco a copious Mlinc pfflorrsrcnuo. " Tbo 
pluit UMievd abounds in saliii« eubBtauocs." Griffith, Mod. Hot. 
ltd. It la sljll employed in i-'nuico; givoo ia the form of 
^Moctkrn, «xtnu;l, ayrup, or oxpr««aed Juioo. 

In obcerving tl>u enormouii wnount of pototli Mid by XJre to 
tatH in tba ft«he» of this plant (fuurlli Ijondon vditiou, 18S3), t 
OS DOW welj undi^i-statid some- ut* th« stutcmento madw xboro, 
vkich I h&d published several years sinco in my report to the 
ABerioD UedicAl A«aocJation. It U anotber evidence of the 
Gekt thrown u|>on any ^uliject by facts gathered iVom different 
M Wfu wid by intl^pi-ndciit inquirers. See article " Polasb." 
Woraiwood, iirteiai«ttt, tobacco, o»m nud rice iitalks, ot<-., contain 
[Hit III ill ia largo proportion. Tbo two Ar^t invutioned in onoi^ 
•aonnt ralativdy. 


WATKB CINtiUKPiX ; POND-NUTS, (JVe^umftiiun lutevm, 
W.) Fla. and nortliward, not common; Chap. N, 0. The 
frnt it a nut, tlio slzv of a eiuqui^pin, of a sweetosli flavor, and 
wJMb. It growH abundantly in the Saiitc« canal. 

NYUP1L+:aCB;K. (TV Water i% IViie.) 

u generally considered anaphrodiiiau, eixlativo, 
Their stemu arc bitter and aHtnnf^nt ; they 
eonsidoniblo quanty of fccula. and, after repeated 
■ wftiiiftn. are capable of bein^ used for food. 

^ ^Irr odarala. Ait. Kcw. and Ph.) lUffujtH in lower country of 
■fiMtli Carolina; X. C. Root* immenwd. Xewb«m. Fl. April. 
W^^- ^- ^in*- 1280; Mat Ve^. Pract.S01; Thompson's Steam 
fnct^ Big- Am. Ued. Itol. 132 ; Cntler, Am. Trans, i, 4&6. " An 
I MaiitiriT'f' "•"'" The root poeuetutM a high degree of aslrin- 
I {Me}", cooLaining, according lu I>r. Bigclow, tanniu and gallic 


add. It ia a popular njtnei}}' in bowol complainu ; and i« uaod 
OB uo afllring«nt in gleet, fluor albue. etc It also rorm^i an 
excellent demulcent poultice for nicprs. Mer. and de L. Diet, 
dv M. Mwi. iv, 643 ; Bull. dcs. Sci. Mod. iii, 74. Ainslie, in hi» 
Hal, Med. Iiid. ii, 381. aaya that, in India, ilioj- prcpafo with it 
a rvlrcfliinfT liniuieiit for tlie bead. Tliouiii^on employed this 
plant in thu vt^-am practice^ and Alatnon mcominendB it aa a 
garglo in Horo tbruatn. 

W© insert thJB order, the projiortics of which aro unknown, 
merely to introduce tbo noD-modicinal, bat very remai-icable 
plant, the 

VENUS FLY-TRAP, (Dhna-a intisa'puh, Ellis, L.) G«n6ral 
C. C. Piucknoy informed Mr. Elliott of the only locttlily of ihls 
inlcr«Mting plant in Hoiilh Carolina, vix.: on the margin of ihd 
Santoc River, between LyiK^li's Ferry and the sea, particularly 
at Collins' and Rowmnn'» bridge*. Newborn. Fl. May. Its 
Joavci* p(i««c>si great sonxibiltty, and are prehensile: closing vp 
and eonfinin)* inwectn and any foreign body wbith eomes in 
contact with it. See Curtis, in Bout. Journal Nat, Hist, i, p. 
123, the article " Sarraccnia " infra, and authom. " Mir- 
acalnm nature t folia triloba, radiealiu, dliata, ncnaibilia, 
oondupMcanda, insoota inoaroeronda. EOis, Ej/at. ad Z-innamm. 
Croom'a Cat. 

MAGNOLIACE-«. {The Moffnalia TriU.) 
This order ia ehantcteriKod by the pWHeHxion of a bitter tonic 
taste, and (Vagrant Howors; the latter generally producing a 
decided action opon the nerrea. 

glituca. h.) BifFuaed in damp pine landa. Charleston j X«w- 
bera, N. C. Fl. Jane. 

Big. Am. Med. Hot. ii. 67; Bart, i, 77; U. S, Disp. 442; Pe. 
Uat. Med. ii, 733; Royle, Mat. Med. 248; Bull and Gar. 189; 
Michaux, N. Am. Sylvia, ii. 8; Kalm'a Travels, i,205; llmn- 
phricA, Mod. Comment, xviii ; Mer, and de L. Diet, de M. Mud. 
iv, 193; Marshall's ArbusU 83; Bart. Mat. Med. 46; Pries, 
luaug. Diss. Phil. 1812; Lind. Nat. Syat. 16; Am. Herbal, 200; 


GnStb, Hfd. Bot 97. It i» s «tiintil&nt, nromiitic tonic, with 
MiM*d«i»bIo (Jiapbor«tir powers. The loaves, utcciiol in brandy, 
«r a dcoocUon of ikem, are ralaable' In p«ctoral affoctionn, 
iwwBl tsold. i-tc The tincture, mode by msc-oradDg tho f>«Ah 
«a» uid «v«ilit, fir l>nrk of ruot. in brandy, vrkicb best extracts 
Ito Tirtnir-. i^ tnacU a«Ckl im a popular rcmody in rheuraatiam, 
and in iotn-tnittent fevcn; and, ai-cording tu Rurlon, in inflam* 
■ ■tmj tcuot. Lindtey refers to it u a raluablo tonic, bnl il is 
aid to be destitute of laDuio or gallic acid. The bark of the 
root, aoeording to Griffith, was employed by tho Indians (o 
bUI s variety of indications; the wnnu decoction acta as a 
pfitle laxative, aod tmhitMincntly Bt< a sudoritic, vbJbt the cold 
ieeoe ii oo, powder of, or tinctarc. is tonic. T1h'>*<! have proved 
«ny bmeflrial in the hands of rvgnlar practitioncn> in the 
tnatnent of romittenu of a typhoid character. It wnippooed 
k^ mmny radding in the lower portions of Sontb Carolina lliat 
lfc» tre« prevents the water of boj^ and galU from gooernting 
■ataria. It c«rtsinly iieemit that the water itt much clearer in 
wbicb tbi' bay tree erows.* It is etatvd in a Jonrna), 1863, 
Ikat Mr. Ki^rr. of Wilminifton, K. C, has mndo good writiag 
mk by boiling in wat«r the bari: of the bay or dwarl' magnolia. 
RJlara for elaircasos of the color of niabogany are made of the 
md bay, an excellent material for inntrr work of bouaee, ftirni- 
tDvv etc-, as I have seen at t^ol. Singleton'ti, Clarendon, S. C. 
ba grain is m tine and bean* ho good a polish, says Milln in bis 
Statiatica of South Carolioa; that it is used for catinet purpoxcHi. 
It alao diee a beautilfal black color. 

•Za tkai eld WMk on llvTta.rnltlkxl tb'>"Eii;luh Phj-riciui," bf Kloko- 
It! Ontptppn, gtaMoiB^, ■• SUiduM m Thj-iic itiid AUrology," ] hsve lael 
" a (Teat dad ooaMrainic iha «niiikiTi»<int of betU la nadloln*; bet, 
Um a h i w i w «I BotMictl teriw. It b impcMtUo to asoertain, ia auatj 
«k>t (pKW* WW iBtcndvd. Ia ardor t« *hov iha Hirprlslngly wpor- 

«c&M* cndcnec Dmu utacfaad to the inllaMm of Aatrekigy, IB d«t«raialBg 
tfe* rfftasa Bf, and Iba tiin«a proper for fuliwlt^: ploni*. Uti a1*o tba 
firasitj or ijiialitin ■nribuwd to thoni, I will «z(nict ■ portiofi of wbat 
Calfoppor My* of tlm " Bay Ttw :" '■ OvrtmmnU uiW FirHwa.— That It w 
• Tree of ill' S«u, 4nd uD4vr the calutlal 8ii;n Lw. sad recUtoth WlMb- 
«mft rerr p^(/-jitl.r. M lira all ibn orll* old Saurn can do to tbo bodr of 
^■a, sM tbrj arc anl ■ r*w ; fiw it a tbc apeccti oif on*, and I an mblakoa 
S it ■«» But Jlut^ut, that aaitb«r Wlt«h nor l>evil, Thunder nor LifSbt- 
, will turt a laan In Iho ptaoo wburc ■ Boy Tr«i It. Oakm (aid tbat 
I or bark du dry nnd boal very mur)i, and tbi- bnriao laora Uua 
i UtB bark 14* tan root b )«m iliarp aad Iioi, but mors iHttor. nad 
A<tricUi»a vlihitl, wbcrcti; it u oSbcluol tt> braak Iha itoOL-, ui<l 
[ ■» apo) Um obaUuotioni of lh« tl*ur, tfilMiu, and utber inward |iarl». 


ICAGXOLIA, {Mttgnolia grandifiora, I..) Thi* mii£;Dificont 
trm jp^wit ubuiiiiautly alonj^ the Aca-cua«t, uutl in ih« stroets oi' 
Charli-«t<jii. FciiiKi Ajfaringly in St. Johii'a Berkley, forty-five 
miles from tho ocean ; growH in Gvorgiii, «]m», tii NorDt Curoliiii. 
Fl. May. 

M4r. and do L. Diet. de. M. Ued. iv; 193 ; Pe. Mat. Med. ttnd 
Thtriip. ii, 73*; U. S. Disp. 444. The medicinal and chemical 
prO[mrtii)(* of llieee plants are supposed to be identical. See J/. 
gtauca. Mr. Proctor, in his analyein, Am. Journal Pbarm. xiv. 
96, iind viii, S5, found in this species volatile oil, resin, and a 
crystaUiKubh: pi-incipli* analogous to tlio liriodtttdrine of Prof. 
Emmctt, obtained from the X.fu/iyii/rri^ growing in thuSonthurn 
States {iiiile L. lutip.) Merut nnyn that in Mvxico llit' sticds are 
employed with success in panUyBie. Z«c. ciY. nup. 

CUCimiltKH TRKE, {Magnolia aomiRata, Linn. Mich.) 
UoantaiiiouN i)i«trio(a; grown in Giwrgia, also, in Kortli Caro- 
lina. FI. July. 

V. S. Disp. 443 ; Mx. N. Am. Sylvia, ii, 12 ; Lind. Xat. Syet 
16. Lindloy speaks particularly of the conos of tliiB specie:* 
l)t)ingem|>loyed in the form of a spirituoas tincture in rhonmaiJc 
affcctionn. M^r. and de L. I>ict. de M. Med. iv, 103; Griffith, 
Ued. Bot. 98. lined tts » prophylactic in aututuiial fevers. 

whlcb bring tha Drnpiy, Jnundlcn. etc. Tho fiHrrlni *rt^ Tory eflWtunl 
■goiuBt nil poiBuu of vvDoinuug orMturM, and ihu eliiig of Wwiw and Bboi, 
•t also nguiiut ih<.> ptvtilciipi-, tind otbet iofrottoiu diitruM. nnd thi>r«tf>re 
put Inlo sundry Trenclw (or Ino purpoBc. Thfj, llkfwiso, |.rin;iir<' wciuirn'i 
oounon, and mvoii of tlicm givvn to a w-riiisn in Son.- Travi-I of child- 
birth do cauin n upccdy dolivRtr, and «x|x>] lh<< uflcr-binh, and thorcibre 
are not to lie tiiktii by rach u havo iint ];i>iii> Ihi-ir Umio, iMl ihvy procur* 
abortion, or cnuio labour too «<ion, Tboy wonderfully lielp all cold luid 
rlMumalic dlflillm-lnnii from tho Itrain to tlin Krcj, Liin)^, or otliiir parts, 
and boins uiadu into an EUwlutiry with Hoiicv. d» li-'lp ibu C'unauuption, 
Old OnuKlM. (^hortno* of Brc-ntii, and ibin rtfiounm, nn d1<o tlit^ Megrim. 
TIii-'j mightily riTint tb* wind, nnd proTokn iirtn''*, lic<l|i tho niolbi>r, aud 
kill the vormii. Th« Livirui niw work th» lih« elt'outaj a balh of the de- 
coction of th« iiOavM «nd Bcrri«« it nngularly good fbr woTniTi m xlt in 


of thvir cuunw. or for tho ditvnsM of llie Maddur, pnint in tb« bowdt hy 
wind, and it»ppinj[ of urine; a dococrtioQ, olc., ■niiluih tha nalato of the 
moutn in it* placu. The Oil ni»dff nt thv BiirrSw I4 lery I'tnolorlBble. All 
Cold, Gri»fi of Ihu Joint*. >"prvr». Arlerii-s. Stomach, BHIy, i>r Womb, 
and hnlpnth Paliirs, Convuiaionn, Crompi, Aeho*, Troml'linjj^, aud ^mnb- 
n^ in tmy p*ft, wvariiicaa h1«(i. mid puinr tbal vow by soro (ravelHiut. 
• • • " Tainn in tho Knn nro alio cured by droppmc in tonm of Uia 
Oil, or by n>c«lviii)i Into Ihu Kar* Ui" futno of tin' ili-tus'iiin of Uio B«Tri«s 
throitffh H funn«l, li tuiivc awuy thi> uiitrbi of Bruiie* ; it b«lpetli alio lb* 
Itcb, Scabi, and Wnal* in tbo Skin," ntc 


Tlwwood U tn>(i, fine griuncd, and sti»cepUble of a brilliaat 
peBih. It i» aomcltmcat «awo(] into boards, and Dsed in Uio in- 
Wtior of wooden )ioa«vi>. 

Tbe tUnron of ino«t magoolias exhale a strong uromatic 
ftsgranoe ; the bark of aJl po«scaae«t a coniliinaUon of bitMr and 
iotly antinatic properiies, witlioul aHtringcncy, and that of 
0/ acts Its a powcrl^l mvdicind, in a nimihirway to PvruviaD 
: and Wioler'a bark. Wibon'it Rumt Cyc. 

OUT T 1 ftfvv i Magnoiia umbrtfla. Lam. 

BELLA TKBE. j jf^^^^ tripctala, Linn, and Bli. 8k. 

Ban. Grows on tbo soacoaat in r'lvh soiis; IJewbern, S, C. 

V, 6. I>i«pL 443. ll has a warm, aromatio odor, aod u 
peoMMed of ^roJIar properties with tlie abore. Mi. X. Am. 
Sjrlrla, it, 19 i Lind. Xii(. SysL 16. Acconliiig lo Do Cand. and 
Krrst, T>ict. do M. Mt-d. iv, 193, it avtt m> poworfully on the 
m^TTr* a« to tndacc dicknosx and hradacbv. 

LONG LEAVBI> UAONOLIA. (Magnolia macrophj/Ua. 
Mx. and Kll. Sk.> Grows on th« monntains of Soulb Carolina 
aad >'iinb Carolina. It po<«c«sea tbe moat magnificent foUngO 
and flowers of any of our forest trees ; the former are a foot or 
two in length ; and the latter one foot in diameter. For its 
■edtatuU pioportios, see M. ^tiea. See, also, Griffith's Aled. 
Bm. 98, and Klf. Hk, of Bot. of S. C. 

ANISE HKKI) TKKB, (lUicium Floridanvm and parvifiorum). 
IWae plaota have the emoll of anise sood, and eboold be ex- 
Mf"^>^ Griffith says tbe bark may be nsed as a substitnte fbr 

^^kack ao' 



bdqtifeTa, L.) Grows in swampai diffused. CoUeoted in St. 

John's, Charlottton distrift; Columbia; Newborn, North Caro- 
I g— Fi. June. 

H Bberle, Mat. Med. li, 30S ; U. 8. DiMp, 432 ; Rush, in Trans. 
^thO. CoU. Pby. 1798; Pe. Mat. Slod. ii. 743; younger Micbaox 
■•a FoTM't Trees of North America; Clayton, FhiL Trans. 8; 

Ckrvy'B An. Mu-ieom. 12; Barton's Collec. Form. MaL Kod. 14; 

nachor's V. S. IHsp.; Big. Am. Mi>d. BoL it, 107; Barton, i, 
K; Ball- Gar. Mat. Med. 190; Mcr. and de L. Diet, de U. Hed. 

b, 130; A una)- de Cbimie, Ixxx. 2I&; Und. Nat. Syat. BoL; 


Rogont' Innug. DiM. 1603. Tliii> plum i« tonic, diarnlic nod 
dinpborciio, and in •{onerally conoidorod odo of iho most nilDn- 
blo or the EubstituiPM tor PoniTian bnrh. It ha« bi>eD ompluy- 
od M a warm sudoriflc id the treatment of chronic rbemnatiem 
and^oQtj snd Bi^elow thiob^ it valuable as a aioraachic. It 
was admiiuHtered by Dr. Young and himtielf, combined with 
laudiiniim, in hj>flturia, and tlic formt>i- nayn Lhnl in all the roat«- 
ria medica ho dfloA not know of a more curtain, tpoudy, and 
effoetual r«raedy for that diiieaM. Seo hi* k-tlor to Governor 
Clayton. "Ho haH ncvor known it to fail in a einglc case of 
worms." Am. Uuwura, xii; GritTith, Mod. But. 93. Rafinosqao 
nays the soods aro lazativo, and tbo loaves arc nBod as an exter- 
nal application for hoadacho; tb«y aro waehcd and applied to 
tho forehead. Merat stales that it is ueuful iu phthinis, and bo 
also retors to ita vermifage properties; employed in relaxed 
stales of tho stomaoh (retdchfmeng) and in the advanood stages 
of dynciitery ; this iti corroboratod l>y Tliuohcr, Ane. Jounml do 
Med. Ixx, 530; J. C. Unyer, Mcra. on L. tulipifura, In the Mem 
do I'Avad. do Berlin, 1796; Kuch. Hem. sur lo talipier, Tillocb's 
Uagasioe; Uildebrando, Kssai nnr nn oouveau sacc^dane du 
quiuquina in Ann. de Chim. IxTi, 201; Carminati enr tea pro- 
prietes medioinaieB de I'^coroe de luUpier. Its analyaia, etc., iu 
the Mom. of Roy. InaL Lombardy, lii, 4 ; in llio Sopplcm. to 
iter. Diet. 1846, -IZG. M. Boiiohardat advinot, a* the most pre- 
ferable mode of exhibiting it in fevurs, tho wino made with tba 
bark in equal parts of alcohol, to whioh he adds of tvhite wine 
seven or eight times the amount of the alcoholic infusion. Bull, 
de Th^rap. xix, 246: 3. Cubiere's lii«t. Tulip. I'aris, 1800; seo 
Tract, of Bonohardat in Anu. de Therap. 75, 1841. 

Dr. J. P.Emmot, in his Analysis in tho Pbil. J. Fliarm. iil, 5, 
announced the dim-ovory of a uew prinei|ilA in it — hnodt-ndnne. 
This is solid, brittle and inodorous at 40^, fusiblo at ISO", and 
Tolalilo at 270° It is soluble in alcohol, thought to be analo- 
gous to catuphor, and to the principle found in the Magnolia 
grondijtora, and to consist of a resin and a volatile oil ; hence the 
alcoholic tincture is preferable. The powdered bark in Ayrup 
is given to children who are liable to convulsions fVom worms, 
to promote their expulnion, and to strongthon tho tone of tho 
digestive organs. The bark whould be pulveriurd and bottled. 
I have employed a strong infusion of the bark and root of this 


jiaat aaftB miitI-Ent«nnSu«Mt, among a nnmber of negroes, and 
IB maeh plMMil with Iitt eflicaey. See the wild Jalap (i^ 
iyJ^ tfw w ptitatHm,) in cuiijanction with wliioh it waa uaually 
prtn. In Virginia, th« decocttno of the biirk, wilb tliat of the 
Crwa Florida (dof^ood) and the Printa rtTticiUatat, i» given 
M bonws AlTected with th« bot«. The poplar bark powdvrcd ia 
a«siii»b[« rem&dy &£ a tonic for hon«H. An iDfuKton may bo 
gmo to a korM, or the bark placed in his trough to bo chewed. 
ItpTM tooe to the digeative organs when th«y are "off Ibcir 
iai," 1b Tet«riuary or jockey parlancQ. This tree I notice in 
T^^lWt' afaattdaaoe along the line of railroad iVom Kingville to 
Colunbia, 8. C; also in SparUnburg diMtriul, S. C, on tbe banka 
cf itnaiBa. Do«« of bark xx-xxx grti. It in a stimalanl tunic, 
iCl^tly diapborelic. The infVision or decoction is mado in tJio 
pDportion of au ounce to a pint of water; dose one or two (laid 
wnn DoM of ibe Hatnrated linclure a fluid drachm. Th» 
vmkI ta darablo when not exposed to tfav wvather— it \b ligbt, 
§maoth, fine grained, and flesibic; employed for rarioua me* 
**"'-^' purposes—for carv^ing and ornamental work ; for 
■aldng carriage and door panels, chairs, cabinets, etc. Sen 
ttta Mx. Foreet Trves of America. 

ANOSACE.B, (The Papaw Tribe.) 

Tbe planta of this order generally pOMcas a powerful aromatio 
Iwt* aod euell in all tbo parts. 

■) Vrxtria triloba, T, and (tray, 
PAPAW; COSTABD APPLE, [AiumatriMo, Linn. 

J Asimina triffba, Kll. Sk. 
Grow^ iu rich eoib along streams. 1 bave observed it in Fair- 
Lftdiiacd Spartanburg districts, Soutb Carolina, and collected it 
St, Jobn'a; Ur. Kllioit says it \» found at Beck's ferry, Ru- 

rtTvr, and Nurth Carolina. Fl. Uay. 
Dfct. de Mat. Med par U^r and de L. torn, i, 311. The tind 
[(f Uw (Wit of the A. triMa of Linn, poeaessce a very activo 
palp noraetimes employed as a topical application iu ul> 
I>iDd. Xat. Syst. Bol. 69. "Juice of unripe fruit ii« a pow- 
il aad efficient vermiluge; the powder of tbe »eod8nn»worii 
Mime parpone; a principal constituent of tbe jaieo is fib- 
product Dopp'Me'l peculiar to animal sabstanciw and to 
[L" " The tr«e baa, moreover, the property of rendering tbo 

oagbeat Animal saUitanoefl tender by cansing n Hepariition 
the inuscalkr fibre — tU ver^' viij>or even cIol'vi ttiin ; iit^wly kill 
meiLt Biiiipondeil ovfrr the toAVoa, nud even old boga und [loiillry, 
wb«n fed on thu Icuvok anil rrniU Ixx'Omo 'Unutler in a fo 
lioiinil' " Ijiiid. lou. cil. Tlic nap nf the Papiiw tree, {Oirica 
fi/ay, which is extracted from tho Irnit by incieion. is wbit4 
and cxc««siroly rieconn. In n Kpcoimcn I'rnm tho Ide of >'ran€«f, 
Yoaquclin ibnnd a mat tcr having tho chumiuil proportics of ani- 
mal albumoD, and lastly, fatty matter. Uousfjn^ault. Tbiv 
tree can bo tbund in many parte ol' tbc South and 1 would io^ 
vile examination into these very curious properties. For aif 
excellent dodtription of tho Fapaw, eoe Uooker in tho Boi,| 
Mngoxino, 898. At PillAburgh, a eptriluouii liquor Iika beuo' 
made from th« fruit. Dfichaux notices that the cellular intngu^ 
mcnt of the bark, and particularly that of tbo roots, exhale* ini 
Hummcr a naUBOons odor so utrong as to ocussioD sickness if r^ 
spired in confined air. Am. Sylva. 

UMBELLIFKK.^, (Tfe Umbelliferous Tribe.) 

Thin order is nearly related to the llanuneiilaeote, and is gen«> 
rally found in cold countries, and on the mountains of tropical' 
rcgionx. The plants belonging to it arc often poisonous, 8011141 
virulently tto; othciw are nutrilJvo and wholuttomo; of the forv; 
uer, the hemlock is an oxamplo; of tho latter, tho celery and' 

PENNYWORT; WATKB GRASS, {Jlydroeotyle umbeitata,. 
L.) Grows in bogs and wet marshes; collected in St. John's ji 
vicinity of Charleston; Nowbern, N.O. Fl. May. 

M<!r and do L. Diet, de M. Med. torn, iii, 560. Employed with 
great cfticitcy iu BiaEiI against bjpocbondriacism. According 
to one author, tho root it* so valuable in dlseasnH of tho kidiioy 
as not to bo replaced by any other modicines. It in emetic,' 
diuretic and vulnerary. I sou no mcDtion of it in tho Boglish 1 
or American worki?. 

SANICIjE; black SNAKEROOT, {Sanicula Man/landica, _ 
Ij.) DifTkiscd, grows in shady spots; collected in St. John's; 
vicinity of Ghar lesion ; N^ewburn, N. C. Fl. July. 

Mer. and de Li. Diet, dc M. M6d. vi, 201. The Indians used it 
as we do sarsaparillu in syphilis, and also in diseases of tho, 


In the ]2ttt Ed. U. S. DU|K 1966, the aatbor states that the 
lOQt bfut an arvmiiLic taste, and lias been uMd aa a domestio 
wily in inU-miittcnl Tovor, and that Dr. J. B. Zabriskie has 
Itmad it highlj i.'fFix'l»u! in chorva. IIo conntidBrH it nioac 
AciMit in ■ab«tanc(>, and ho givoH the pi>w<]er lo children of 
eiflit or too years old, in the dose of half a drachtn IhrMi limea 
a day. Am. J. Med. S. <_'. ; N. S. xii, 374. 

BmoS SNAK.KROOT, (Eri/Rsitim aquaticvm, h. B. 
Y*reaft)lium of Mx.) Damp pine Undii; diff(iB«d; ooUoctcd in 
St John's ; Charli^ton ; N. C. Fl. July. 

Oaxc, Am. Di»p. 268; Kll. Bol. i, 343 ; Barton's Colleo. t, 3 ; 
Pimt'tf Eienui. S80 ; U. 8. Disj>. 316 ; Ucr. and <lc L. Diet, do M. 
Ued. iii, 145; Shoe Flora Carol, art. Butti>[iitnukeruot,310,&-ia. 
TIm docQctton i» diaphoretic, iMpL-vtoranl.iirid xometimcs emetic. 
BUiott MJK it is proforrvd by some physi<L'ians to the Hcnoku 
^^erooi. Barton, in his Collections, states that it is allied lo 
tbe eoDtrayerra of the shops. This plant is poseessed of no- 
4aabt*d diuretic po%<'cre, and in combination with the trii 
nnicalcr (bine &ag), was much employed by Dr. UcBrido, of 
Soitb Carolina, in dropsy. (See /, versic.) Groat use is (te- 
qasDtly made of thero In popular practice. Shi?cut in bin Flora 
CBtuL 31D, stales thai ibo decoction and linctore are given with 
kcAeflt in pleorisios, colds, and most of the inflammatory 
Jill aim of the mucvus passages. It is also said to act as an 
Meharoti4>^keepin^ down ftangns flesh, and preventing inortifl* 
catioo. The root, when cbevred, sensibly exciiea a flow of 
nlira. The Ji. aromalU-um, an aromatic !ip«cica, grows in East 
aad South Florida; Baldwin in Chapman's Plr>ra. The K. 
^ttfotimiam, of RngUiod, ponetrat«H the loil to tho depth of 
nrMty flwt. 

PETEK WKKD, (Bryngium ftetidum, L.) EJIiott is doubtful 
vbetbor ibis plant comes within tlio limlto prescribed U> nn; it 
bowRver, been nolieod hy writrnt a^ a 8. C. specie*, and 

idiaax fbnnd It in Florida. T. and Gray aiv of the opinion 
it is not a native of the United States. Vicinity of 
leatoD, Kacbmani not in Curtis' Cat Sbec. Flora Carol. 
"An admirahlc febrifuge." Mer. and do L. Diet, de M. 
tii, 140; Aublot, i, 'iM. RotbuU says it is a sedative. 
aitarativO) Bnd Tebrifuge. Sprougel, de. hi Med. v, 467; 
Ltod. Sptfoiw, PI- 33C. Not tucludod in Cbapman'H Flora. 

uncinatuBi, L.) Stmiiy liaiika of xtreams among the raoautaiDS 
of tho >Soiittittrn StittM, itmt nortliwitrd; tlso, Aconitum ndina- 
tttm. Gray. Mountnins of K. C, 

3Iofit of the Aconitvs, particularlj those witb bluo flovrorv, 
are highly poisononfi. This tpocios ebonld bo carofully oxpuri- 
mbDled with, s? it may bo made to supply tho tincture of 
aconite and aconttin for modioinal and chemical piirpoKon. Tht: 
active principal i§ " the moHt vimleot poiitan known, not cx- 
copting prusic acid, aa prepar«d by Moison, of London, 1-^0 
of a grain tiaa endanger od life." Wilson's Rural Kncyc. Chris- 
liHon Htatos tliat t!ii« i^pvcini* it< poiMenMod of nii inlon^t; anrimony. 
Seo aW workn on Uatcria Medics. " The 1-100 purl i}f a graia 
has produced a fooling of nombnesH, weight, and constriction, 
which has lasted a whole day." The tincinro of aconiu^ is mora 
manageable, and ii^ useful aa an external nn'teathetlc in frontal 
neuralgia, local paina, etc. The writer hn^ used it largely io 
thin way whiNt in charge of the Uarine Ho^pilal, Charlealou, 
and with (■lilorofonn and glycnrinu to relieve the itching in 
pmrigo and camp itch (1868)' No remedy, save chloroform, 
oquals it when applied locally for the relief of pain. Tho 
tincture may be combined with oil and chloroform, as a liniment 
in rheumalinui. See Puff Ball (l,yeoperdon), tho duel of which 
is said lo be a good anassthctic agent. 

(Cicul" macalata, h. Walt. Kl., Carolina). GrowB in boga and 
inundati'd land; coDooled in St. John's; CliarloHton ; Xcwbam, 
N.C. Fl. Aug. 

U.S. Dii-p. 1242; Barton's Colleo. 1846; Mer. and doI>. Diet, 
do M. Med ii, 282 ; Big. Am. Med. But. i. 125 ; Schujpf, M. Mod. | 
36; Scockbridge. N. England Journal, iii, 334; Mitchell, Bly, 
and Muhlenburg, Med- Ecpos. xvii, 303^ Stoarns, Am. Herbal, 
li2. The leaves, flowers, and BoedH are resolvent, powerfully 
narcoiio, aodalive, and anodyne. It rescmblefl couium in ita 
otTuctta, and is used as a nnbtitliule for it. " It reliereH pain from 
cancer more powerfully than opium;" employed in illcoDdi- 
tioned ulcont, glucli«, paintul uterino diHi-faarges, venereal ulcera, 
cpUcpbios, and convulsions; it promotes perspiration and nrine, 
and, externally applied, disperses bard tumours. It is closely 


tB>logoo« to thn Enrap««n Kpecitw, the C. ciroea; Bigelow a^r* 
illBtkal irith it. Tho do«v of llic Icavt-s iu ponder iit one to 
two i^nms ibrve times a day, id infiiiiigii, ur unv gmin of tlio 
exiz*ct. iiicr«*«in^ il as tbe Hystcm btwoniM tolerant. Tbi» 
pUat has reikctttedly occaAJoucd tho dvatb of thoaa miBt»kiug it 
for others. An KCtive emetic, to which an infiuion of galls may 
be added, will generally j^ve rolief. Thp vogotablo acid*, Icmoa 
jniM, and vineffar, neatralise iu effects ; and strong tea and 
u4k* are tbe best antidotee for tbe stupor wbich follows its 

Dr. StearDf, in bis BCTOBnt of the ])l»fii« of Miebtgnn (Proc 
Am. Pbam. Assoc. I8S8, 2&:t) Htuti-v Ibat Dr. Norton, of 
UlnnnifiTl. bi^ly recommends it an a spociGc in nervous and 
tick headacbe. By a chemical analysiii. Dr. J. E. Voang found 
in tbe eeeds a volatile oil. a principle sappowd to be identical 
*!tb eonia, etc. (Am. J. Pharm. xxvii, 294), U. 8. Disp. I2lh Eil. 
CFXERY, {Apivm yraveolmsy Kx. cnU. Milne, lu.l. B«l.4:iO, 
Tbe fretb rooui, observes Dr. Lewis, vhen produced in their 
Dative water imU, are supposed to partake of the ill quality of 
those of tbe hemlock kind, and to be [Ktrticularly hurtful to 
epileptM and prrgnant women. So that we have here a strik- 
iag eridence of tbo excellence of the KaturnI System, a« it may 
be remembered that, in describing the charaotcriniioN o( tbia 
order, thi* pUuit wa* alluded to as fbrmiug an exception. 

PABSLET, (Ajwum yr(riM<^i«tiiw). Rx. cull. Leaves aromatic 
aad fliijchtly diuretic, and niwd a* such. A recent Jouniiil 
coDtauia the following : Two phyMciaiM of Paris have published 
a very imporiant memoir, the objuct of which i« to make known 
the itnmeoee resonrccs which the healing art may draw from 
tbeeeedof tbe Pamlcy. This common iudigeniuus plant pos- 
«HMa tnconte«tibIe febrifuge properties; ibe decoction of Its 
Hedt nay be subelitntod for that of Cinchona, and the aclive 
pfiaeipal which has been drawn from it, and which ibey desig- 
aale under the name of Apiol. is oquivaloot to (juJnine in tbo 
tnatment of local intermittent fevers. 

Tbe U.S. Disp. 12th Ed. refers to the sabetanoesapiin and apiol 
fiRiKbed by tbo seeds and rooiof ihi« plant, and also^tales Uiat 
tbe jniceof the iVesb herb has been emptoycl as a subsiitulv for 
^siniae — and tbe seeds also, according to M. U. Josct and 


Homollv, yield npiol knd net on tbo syMfrrn voiynoeh likcqainino, 
prodncin^ in tlic doeo of about 15 f;raiii« corobral oxcilation, and 
in inorQased doses causing a epecios of intoxication with giddi> 
new, wasted sif^ttta and aoands, «tc. In temperate latitudos 
it ciinid iiiLi:miitti!iilii in tlin praportioii of S6 pur vent. It 
has also been employed lis an emmenagogiie in dose of four 
grains morning nnd evening. (Jonm. de Pbarm. Jnue, ISGl.) 
It is somctimori ^ven in eapKulm of gelatin. 

BISIIOP'S WFFD \ ^'■'*™J'''"""<' ^'tpillacea, D. C.and T. and 

Grovs in damp soiU. Fl. July. 

Ammi mtijus of Walter. 

H. C. »bec Flora Carol. 136- 


wiTirn PAUQViP ) AVum mdifiorum. Walt, and Eil. Sk. 
Vf ATER PAKSMP, J jj^^^i^aium of Koch. 

"Proliably Introducc'd; abuiiJunt nriiutid Cliai-leAton." Ell. 

Ttiunitoii'A Fum. Uurbiil, 2li7 ; Iliiy'ft C'liU PlaiiULnim, 213; 
Oict. do M. Med. It i» recummondud in u it la neous eruptions. 
Withering relates the caeo of a young lady, who wae cured of a 
very otKlinate attack by taking tbrce large epooufuls of tbe 
ioice twice a day; "and X bare repeatedly seen," eaya Thorn- 
ton, " two ounces udminiHtervd every morning with tlio grealMt 
advautago." It is not naui^eoun, and children luke it readily, 
mixed with milk. When il is prepared in this way it is not 
dintigrQeable, and does not affect the bead, stomach, or bowel*. 
tJ. S. I)ia|). 1296. The juice has also been employod in sicrofu- 
lous Hwellingn of the lymphatic glands, and it, considered 
diareiic. Mcr. and de L. Diet. 369 ; Bull. dv« Sc. iL do Ferns, 
xviii, 420 and xx, 421. 

FEKSEL, {Fxniculum oj^cinale). Introduced IVom Kuropo; 

Tbe weds of Fennel are well known ; employed in flatulent 
c<^c fur their carmiuiCive and stimulant properties. The oil of 
fennel is also unod for the same purpose, and to correet the tasto 
ofmodieinc. See authors. 

COW P.^RSXIP; MASTERWORT, {Jlcradaim hnatum, 
Mx.) Mountains of North Carolina. 

This is an acrid plants much esteemed by the Indians. Bigfr* 
low. Mat. Mod. 203. is of tbo opinion that it is poisonous, and 
should be used cautiously when gathered fi-oui wet placeH. 
The root and loaves have an unpleasant and rank odour, and 


the taste is pungent and acrid. Its qualities are certainly active. 
Griffith. The root, in a dried Btate, is uaed as a diuretic expec- 
torant and antispasmodic. It has been greatly employed by 
Empyrics. Dr. GriflSth qaotes a paper by Dr. Ome, of Salem, 
Mass., read to the Uassaobusetts Medical Society, 1803, in which 
be reports three oat of five cases of epilepsy cured by it. Ho 
gave it in large doses both in substance, and in infusion. Dr. Cos, 
Am. Disp. 326, recommends it as a stomachic and carminative, 
axid in cases of dys^psia accompanied with flatulence and cai'- 
dialgia, he used a strong decoction of it with benefit. The 
leaves are used externally as rubefacients ae a cataplasm in ab- 
scesses, and the seeds are said to be expectorant. Dr. Richardson, 
Faun. Bor. Am., says the Northern Indians use a portion of the 
hollow stem of this plant to imitate the voice of the male deer, 
to attract the female within gunshot. Griffith. 

ANGELICA; MASTBRWORT, H"ff '*'" r'^!?' ^'l" ^^- 
' ' ) ATChangehca of some. 

I have collected it in rich woods in Fairfield district; also 

rarely in upper St. John's, Charleston district. Fl. Jnly. 

Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 469 ; Ed. and Vav. Mat. M6d. 

276 ; Le. M. Med. i, 85 ; Woodv. Med. Bot. 86 ; U. S. Disp. 98 ; 

Journal de Fharm> 3e ser. 2 ; Mer. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. i, 

296 ; Shec. Flora Carol. 167. The root is edible, and possesses 

more aroma than any of our indigenous plants. It is used in 

spasmodic vomiting, flatulent colics, and nervous headaches ; 

some say it is powerfully emmenagoguo. The vittie of some 

species are filled with a pungent oil. A candy is sometimes 

prepared with the roots boiled in sugar. The great fragrance 

of this root has caused it to be used for many purposes by the 

confectioner and others; the tender stalks also are candied. 

The seeds are cordial, tonic, and carminitive ; and the plant 

was in repute at one time as a preventive of pestilence to those 

who boro it about them. " The pulverized root, in doses of a 

drachm, is said to ^e very useful in pestilential fevers and 

diseases of the liver; and a paste of its root and vinegar used to 

be carried and smelled at by physicians during the prevalence 

of epidemics, as a preventive of infection." Wilson's Rural Cyc. 

"Angelica " is stated in some tables to yield more potash even 

than wormwood or fumitory. See " Chenopodium " and "Fitma- 

ria" in this volume. Cbapmau does not include the A. Iwida 


ia hts flora — h« has ArcKaHpetica Mrtuta, T. and G. A. triquinata. 
Ell. N, C Dw, Wofxl Bii'i GriUlth refor to jlxjrftVrt atropvr- 
pvrta M « uutiv« or the South, aiul Dr. tiriffilh iDcliidcH A. 
tvcida, nlHO, W ■ l>>K)ily aroinalic plant. 

DILL, (Atuihiim fitnieulmn, L.) Introd. cnlL iu Soulli Cunt- 

It is DinployMl in fliitulent oolic an % Pnnninativc and anti- 
xpatuiiodio. Tho oil hint Ki:ii given in hiccough. Hiino, in h» 
Ind. Bot 404, Mayit : Tbv herb, boiled in broth, has been used 
with great »«ccc« in prcvootiog obesity." Soe authors. 

CARROT, (^JMuevs carota, Tourn.) Completely natiinilUod, 
nays Elliott, in Sonth Carolina, Georf^ia and North Carolina. 
Collected in 8(. Jobn'it; CharIc«ton. Fl. April. 

Woodv. Mod. Bou ; Roylo, MaU Hed., 401. The root and 
ncvd.i are Btimulant, camioativc, and eminontly diuretic ; em- 
ployed with great success in sirangnry, unasarcouA Piwellingv of 
lowur extremities, in suppreMion of unne, and in painful inioturi- 
tion. Eberle on Diaeases of Children, 1 10 ; Am. Herbal, 92 ; Frost's 
Klems. Stat. Med. 2it8. Dr. Chapman u«.?d n >■ Irons' infusion in 
gravel. Mor. and do L. Diol. dc M, Med. 2'J9; Flora Med. ii, 
99 ; swe Chemical AniU. by fiuutllon Lagrange, in tho Journal 
do Pbamt. {, 529. Britanct and himself wrote a hook on the' 
plant (which may bo seen in the Now Toft HnMp. Lib.) The 
root contains some volatile oil, n large proportion of pectin, a pe- 
culiar coloring principle railed atrotin, and sugar. Gtiflitb, Med. 
Bol. 337. The aathoTs alluded to atiove contend that thi> plant 
act« as a sedative, oven topically applied. In tlio form of a 
ponltioe, It calms pain, is antiseptic, and corrects tbc intolerable 
fetor arising tt-om intonial diseases — as of the ear, for example. 
Dr. Geo. Wilkes, oplitbalniic Surgeon, New York, informs me 
that be lin<lH it invaluable in t)ii!i reaped. Mt^ni. di- MuHCum, Et, 
102; Suppl. to Mt-r. and du L. l&ld; Viiiiqnidin upon the Pectio 
Acid in the Root of the Carrol, Journnl do Pharm. xv, 340, 
The ewenlial oil ia regarded iu> ernmenago^ue and anti-bystoric. 
Ancien Journal de Mi-d. xxiv, 68. In Gt-nnany, it is oooaiduivd 
vermifuge. Crnntx, Mat Med. i, 33. Shocut, in his Flora 
Carol., alludes to ite employment in gravel, and in expelling a 
species of tape worm. A synip similar to tii>acte )i»k been 
obUUned fV-om it, and hy distillation, a liquor nearly equal in 


flavor to brandy. An old Encyelopcedia, in a very favorable 
Dotdce of the carrot, then not 80 generally known, gives this 
statement : 

" YariouH but ansuccoBsful attempts have been made to get 
sugar from carrots — they yielded only a thick syrup similar to 
treacle. These roots have been lately employed more advan- 
tageonsly in distillation. A distiller has obtained from ton 
poands of carrots, one quart of 'first runnings' and half a pint 
of very strong ardent spirits." 

Much nse is made of the seeds of this plant in popular prac- 
tice as a diuretic. For this purpose a drachm of the bruised 
seeds, which arc excitant and carminative, may be taken at 
ODCC, or an infusion of an ounce of the seeds may bo given 
daring the day. Prof. Proctor has made an ointment of the 
root grated and mixed with lard and wax molted, and slightly 
evaporated and then strained. It is used in excoriated or ulce- 
rated surfaces requiring a gentle stimulation. U. S. Cisp., 12th 

WILD CAEEOT, {Daucus pusillm, Mx.) Grows on the Sa- 
vannah RiVer ; collected in St. John's ; Charleston. Bach.. K C. 

Eberle, Mat. Med. and Therap. ii, 318; Boll's Pract. Diet. 162. 
The seeds contain more volatile oil than the other species. It, 
- however, possesses nearly the same properties. Used as a diu- 
retic in calculous diseases, suppression of urine, etc. 

AKALIACE^. {The ArtUia TrU>e.) 

GINSENG, {Panax guinquefolium, L.) Rich soils in the moun- 
tiuns of South Carolina and Virginia, and westward. Fl. May. 

Am. Herbal, 157, by Steams. In China they drink an infu- 
sion of the root instead of tea, and it is well known that thoy 
have recourse to it as a last resort in all diseases ; Dr. James 
says, more especially in all cachectic and consumptive cases, 
and in those arising from debility of any kind. Dr. Hcalde 
also alludes to their great confidence in it as a restorative after 
great fatigue, as an anti-spasmodic in nervons aifections, in 
eoma, and as an aphrodisiac ; one hundred and twenty grains 
of the sliced root arc boiled in a quart of water, and two ounces 
of the decoction, or twenty grains of the root in substance, is 
employed. Jartonx, in the Phil. Trans, xxviii, 239, slates that, 
after being fatigued by travelling three days, he employed the 


decoction of the IiMivom intoni4illy, nnil lis Uii uppliciilion tx> tlie 
fbcl, and was eiiti»iiud of iu atilUy, being c-onipicl«ly rvivh-fd 
hy iu Dr. Wooil, in lh« V. S, Diitp. 531), mj-s, it is very liUlo 
more than n dcmuWnl ; but Limlloy, Niit. Sytt. BpI. 2&, ibinkit 
tfaat there ie uo rca§oiinble doubt of the f^eong having nu ia- 
vigoraliiig and utimulant power, when fresh. Bi^. Am. Med. 
Bot. ii. R2; Jl^r. and de L. Diet, do M. M^d. iii, 3M. and iv. 176j 
Flur. Mod. tv, lf&; Kaein)iber, Aiunen. AcadiMuicK, t, 218; Ilift- 
toiru du Jiipon, vi, 21)i: Burmann, F!o. liid. tab. 29, i: L'En«y- 
elop. Cbinoino, Ixc'ii; Flora Coehine^ 8(Ki i Laliltenti, DvscHp. da 
Ginxuug, Piiri.s, 1718. i, 12. Dr. Sarraxiri iiitroditced it inio 
notice! in Rnropi;. Trant. Hoy. Aoitd. 8oi., Barli-arn Com. SI, 
1741 ; J. P. Brxtgnius, Diwi. Mvd. dc Radice CiiiiHong, 1700 ; Coxc, 
Am. Dii>p. 4.'j4. CuUcn in bin iStiL U^d. 270, refers to ila effi- 
cacy in incrnaitiiig virility. Si'o Munil, loc. eit, '"J'avoue qa'un 
individu qui vn tvvnit fait iiHitgc dunit ti-l dernivru iiitonlion 
pendant long tcnipH, n'en obtiot abHuluiucnt auvun rPSiiltaU" 
S. Vaillant in Aca4^l. dctj Si-i. 1718; Boiinli-lin, liiMt. do I'Anul. 
!7!)T; Ladlteaii. Mom. c-vnccrnant la pi'i'douet! pinntc dc Uin- 
fteng, Paris, 1788; Kalm. Travels, iii, 114; Osbcck's China, I4S; 
Huburdi^n, Mod. Trans, iii, 34; Koihorgill, (Jeiit. Ml^^. xxiv, 209; 
loc. dL ftup. The (lin&eng was an article of imjwriauce as an 
export front Virginia. Tlio root ii* llmtigbt to rcHemblo liqao> 
ricy, and may parl.iiiUy supply thtt plai^o of tliat artiide : »ee 
Itopoil from Surgw^ii-ticneral'it office, C. S. A., 1882. 

TllKEE LEAVJiD UlSSENU, {Panax tri/otiiim L.) N. C. 

TbiH formed an article of considerable trado formerly witJi 
the IndianHj and it makoB an (.'Xcollent cordial. Ifills' SbitiMtica 
of South Carolina. 

LKJUOKICE, (Glyct/rrhka glabra.) Kxotie, I am unccrUio 
as to the posiiioii of this genue iu the Natural syetem; it should 
pmbably lif placed nuar ■' Uobinia." Dr. Wood statoA, U. S. 
Disp., that a ni«;cic» G. lepidota grows about St. Lonic and along 
tbe bunk of the Ui»«ouri lo its source. X friend intbrms me that 
it has boon a long time planted near Uoko, qu the Charlotte 
Haiiroad, in South Carolina, where it j-i-ows luxuriantly. This 
plant IS eald to be well adapted to the Southern Stateii. It haa 
been grown in Texas. Information as to the best mode of 
planting and oulture can be ibund in a paper in Patent OSicci 



1S&4. p. 359. I apftt'nd the Tollowing pravtiral romiii-kx : 
■r litiuoriof Li M>Id lUe lieavk-r it wtrigli.-*; ami tho 
jTc ' iho more virtiii- it cotitiiiiiA. It is iw\d in tbroo 

Arttoc-t ronne,viz; in the roots, in pon-dcr, and in its inspinacott 
)nc«. Tho fit^l of thctto n«cds no cxplnnaliuD. The ««Pon<l is 
pfcfMUvd by mltini; tho nnall root« into small pioco*, drying 
iWm in an oven or kiln, and ;;rinding tht-m in a raitl. Th« thii-d 
imi » pTvparvi .by iroundiiig thu nmallei- rooU and fVajcRientM 
vith niM WAlt^r for iK'ariy two days: after which t)ie pnlp is to 
W Mjttnitcd, »n<l th(- jutcf b'lilttd down in an iron ]>ot to a piiohy 
<ua»i»lrncc. and then ruUi-d ur stainpod into nliclcn or cukv^ 
vkkh ant Mtmctimeo Mild iinildr tho iiaini! of ' Spaninh Liquo- 
ritr.' litqmmw nmtt will ln-i-p u yf^r if laid in iwnil, iind xtorrd 
ia a cool, dnr (.-ollar i and if I ho H(^t«, or ninncrK. or bndit^ aro 
ntfvady (br planting, tied in bundles, and sent by land car- 
rM(v, they vill keop a f!>rtni<;fat. If packed in sand, and sent 
ky waliT. thvy will kc<op M>mo thr«>t> or tbar mouths, (vpot-ially 
ll« more hardy hnda." In tbv Patent OfBcc ItopoMH for I8M-'55, 
tbe calUvatiou of a number of medjoal plants is dmcribod, par. 
Itatlariy tb'Me yiddinj; aromatic oiK 

ASH: I'lUCRLY KIJ'EK. iAf'lia apinosa, h.) Coliwied in 
Sl John's; rich wilt along fences; Charleston, Florida and 
Xorth Carolina. 

Plant olWn i-onfonndcd with iho Xanthoxglon ; prDp«Hi(.'« 
«HB«wbat Mmilar. Soc X.ftitrimum, which fa tho true Prickly 
AA. HO. [tot. 373 ; M6r. and d«' L. Pict. di- M. M<m. i. 379 ; 
Om», Am. t>i.-p. 100; Shcc. Klora Carol. 191; Frost's Kl«mfi. 
Griffith. M(>d. Dot. 34&. li ia a Btimnlaling and very 
jn diaphoretir, " pi-ohably to b* profemvi to any emetic 
vH dhKMirerol among oar native plants." Thia species is more 
•tfnalaitng tliun the A. nudiraulia. The infhaion of the bark 
at the root Lt uiiod in chronic rhenmatiMii and cutancoa^ 
fmpttoiw, alxo employed in lueK venerea. Purah Htatfs that a 
fisotu or «piril tionn infaKioii of t he iM-rriw* ii* n-markabk- for iboir 
^««r in relieving rheumatic pain!>^ and the tincture is aim given 
Eo Virginia in violent colica. Sw Dr. Meara's expcrintonCa. 
iJUrat aa^a, it has been used to allay pain caused by carioas 
tMtfa. I>OM^, of the Halurati^l tiuciure, a bihlespoonHil three 
tinn a day. A JenKtinn ii* nftrn pn.'fern<d in rhcamatiRm, 


maHo by boilittf; an outico nf th« hark Id a quart of water ; 
lAk<.-n ill ilivkldl doses wveral timof) a day. In ^outb Carolina, 
this plain ia the rattleSDake's master piir ea^cellimce. accorUinjj; to 
till' negroes; ihey roly on it almoat cxcluatTely as a rcmudy for 
tlie bite or .<>ur[iOMtH. I ntu informed that tlii-y iip« the liark of 
the fi-eiih root, in suliiitancti, tnkou inli^riiuliy, al^in ii[iptyltijr it 
powilvrod to Ihu wouiidwl jitirl. Dr. Meant iidvim.'^ thai thv 
wat«ry infujiion, when employed »Mn<lin]>hi>i-etie, ehoiild beniado 
vor}' weak, as it is apt to oxtito nausea, and cauao irritatioa of 
the salivary fjlande. 

SPIKENAHl), (Ara/iffl raecmoaa, L. Mx.) Grows, according to 
J)r. Me Bride, in the moiintainB of South Carolina, Georgia and 
Xorth Carolina. 

BU. Hot, Med., note, i, 373. The decoction of the root ia much 
OBtcomed by thoee residinjf in the mountainous difttricls aa a 
remedy in rheumatism ; no donbt po^seeitted of otiinuliiting pm- 
pertiea. Michaux citen it aa a sudorlile. The root, when iKiileil, 
yielda a guuiinj' Hubntuuce. A l«i, syrup, or tinclurc, may be 
made of thi; roota or l>errinH. It is given in ooughf, asthma and 
diKeaitoH "f the Inngc. AWo given an a stimulant in menstraid 
obKtrui-lionH ; ttaiil to be in high repute among the Indians. Soo 
the ''Indian Gnidf to Health." Dr. Sarazzin infljrms iis llial it 
is vorj- useful a« a cataplasm in inveterate utoers ; generally 
adapted to similar purposes n-ith ibe A. nutlicauUs. Mer, and dw 
h. Diet, de U. Mod. i, 376 ; U. S. Disp.; Am. Journal Ked. Hei. 
xix, 117. 

jiKdktiutis, Mx.) Mountains of South and North Cai-olina. FI. 

J!af. Med. Flora, i. 63; U. S, Disp. 116. A^ntly stimulating 
dinphorctie ; thought to bo alterative, and used in popular pmo- 
Uce in rheumatism, syphilis, and cutaneous aireetionn. Uer. and 
do I'. Diet, de M. M6d. i, 376. Dr. Mearn reeoriU 1 he root« as pofr 
M'fwing the virtues of flai-siipanlla. JIuk. Mcil. PhiloK, iv. An excit- 
ant diaphoretie, and eiilrophic, like mexi're'»n,gimiac,»arsaparjlla, 
and Kftiwafras. The infuAinn Iihn been unt])loyed witli eueeoss in 
zona, and as a ionic in debility of stomach (la reldchemen* 
d'rgttmuic.) Coxff, V. S. Diiiji. 9t» ; LindJey's Nat. Syst.; (iriffith 
M«d. Rot. 344; Phil. Mod. Mus. ii, 161. Administered in domea- 



ioo, in palmonar^' diM«so, whoro inflatumiLtion dooe not 


DWABK KLDKK, (AnHa hispida, Ms.) Uoimtaina of Korth 
Otrolira and nortlin-ard. 

br. P*ck stronfjlj" i^oommends the root as a diutviic m droptiy, 
fi* a*«9 it in ibo funn of dctuctioii uml findi* it plt-aiUknter u> the 
Ufte snd more ftoocptuble to the atoinuob tliau inocil other incdi- 
thu «itn<' p1a«. Am. J. Med. H. C. xijt, 117 ; V. S- 
til Kilitiiin. 

BERBERAGK.K. ^The Bahfrry Tribe.) 

AKEItlCAX BABBRRUY. {Serhrris vai^rix, Wull. FI. Carol. 
BaitriaCaivi4ttuis,Vh.t\t\\\ ¥,\\.) GrowM wild in ii!t.Jolin't!, Borkc- 
l^', near Woodluwii, PI.; upper (li*trict« of Gourglu, South and 
Simli CafvUna, aud northward. Fl. May. 

Flora Carol, (wte B. vttlQaris.) 268; Lind. Nat. Syat. BoU 
; XT. S. I>»p. 1233, Appendix. The B. culgarU of Kurope, 
villi which this plant is oot idontical, thou);ti dtflciing ft>oin It 
hu ttfighiiy, if at all, in medicinal properties has received ood> 
adtfable aIt«ntion. Tht-y arc used as a domostic remedy in 
pmtuiir.ti, atol in dysenterj' and diarrbtea ; it is supposed that Uie 
add i« tfociUc. Prom anul^'aiiM by Biiehiii.'r and ICvrborgvr, it ia 
Aoitn that the root conlainv a new principlu i-allod berfteriite, 
whidt aet« liko rhubarb, aod with i-iiital prr>mpUic«s and activity. 
GfiiBlK, MmI. Bot. 113, Journal de Fharm. 1233 i Trans. Phil. 
SoK. l&i ; .\nitlysis in Journal de Pbarin. xxiv, 39 ; Mer. and du 
I*. Die*, df M. Mfd. Supplemenu lAlfi, 101. From tlio I..Trii'« a 
^rap it vblaitit^ which in adapu-d to putrid f«verK and thoci* of 
alnv type; a eooling drink in nivo mmdu with llu-m, and given 
in aailar catv*. The mot buili-d in lyo im]ukrt.-i ii ycllnw eolur to 
vooL I have ohM^rvod tbv remarkablv ii-rimbility of tho Htamena 
IB tha specicfl growing in South Cnmtina, wbieb, wbon touched, 
ly spring; down upon the i^ti^ma, and in this way coni- 
tlteir pollen to il. It was said to have a sinncular otdacl 
apMi whrat growifiju; near it, tuniiufj; the eara black torttHmo dii^ 
tA&rc around ; but tliiA, however, U doubt«d. The berriM are 
kmL The Rngtinh luirbcrry {£. vvl^ris) haft attracted much 
■CUatioD ; itfl fmil is edible, and much discussion baa been ex. 
ated whethi^r or not it [irotluceit smut in wheat or com when 
ptaatvd Boar iL Ex[>orimviitM touching Uiis peculiarity should 


he p»rfbrnie<l with rwpoct to our biirtwrry. For u full *inlo- 
nii'nt >if tlic fiKfitu ol" the iiWvf fjiu'^lioii, »c* Wilstin'i' Itural 
Cye. Art Bariwrry. Thawr, in hi» " Principios of Aji^riciJluro," 
p. i09, ways: "One very extraordinary fact b that llie barberry 
buah will in-oilace smut, or ftomolliitig very eiiiiiilm' to il. In all ■ 
com growing within a (Hirinidttrable diiiltiiieo of it. Thin Lt 
& Tact which liati keen couRrmed by numvroiiK obnonru- 
tlontt anil vx^Mrrimciitx in nbno<4t all itoDntriciti. But It 
luif nov«r yi't Wi-n di;arly ti'id siiLinliu-liirily awwrlninoJ 
in what iiiiinijcr the b«rln'riy jm'iliico tJiid pflVi-t. My 
frivtid Eiiiholf hn» tnai]i.< scvvnil cxpcrrimcnt^ on the jmssi- 
bility of ooinnniiiicfttin^ tho (ecidium (it parasitical tungiitt) to 
C*realB by eiitliii(^ branches fVom ibe barberry, which wore 
quite covei-od with it, and shaking th«m over tlie corn, or else 
planting lb«in in the midst of it; but ho never socoeedLs) in 
tbuH pri)il"{'ing lliu dim-iifw; Uu-n'fon' it wonid mn-m Ihal it is 
not the (ronininnii;Hli<>n of l,hii< ilunl, but Ihtt vugftnlion of iho 
barberry in the vicinity of the cornfield, which ongendem Iho ^ 
ili»ii'ii«o. Nor will it attack crop* pinntvtd near young and new- 
ly made barberry hi^dgcs ; but as tlioHtt latter grow np, tho dis- 
ease will appear until thuHC bodges arc rooted up. As §iood as 
the barbeny has been thoroughly extirpated, the evil disap- 
poara." Tha^r ooneiders mill or mel-dow a disease of ihe nkiu 
of planlK. Sw this work for iiiforniatiuu on tlineit.-HW affecting 
the coreulM — on irrigation, etc, TraiiRlated by William Shiiw 
and C. W. Johnnon, Xew York, I8S2. It is hclinvcd by nome 
in this country that ihe polccweitd (Phjit'iliirai.) if nUowi'tl to 
die in a eotton field, will jifoducc rust. Tliif is unite uiditidy. 

Dr. Wooil adrisoB that the active principle htrherina be ex- 
amined fbr its antipi'riodiu properliRm. Hw Hydrastis, in Ulis 
volume; U. S. Di-p., lath Kd. 

{Cauhphi/llum thalictroidcs. Mx., Lcontice Ihalictroides, h.) Moun- 
tains of South Carolina and northward. Jill. 

The seeds when roasted are said to Ibnu an exoellent substi- 
tute for coffee. Tho root, which is the pari used, is sweetish, 
eomowhat pungt-nt and aromatic, nfTordiiig a yellow iufuifion or 
tincture. See Grillllh, who says thai it is much eniploywl by 
empyrics, who deri\'cd a knowledge of il from the Indian. "It 
is stated to be dcniulceiil, antispasmodic and eninieuagoguo, 

«nd ha» been ndministcrod in rheaiDatism, dropfy, nervous die- 
orders," etc. Rafinesquo states, adds Griffitli, that it is par- 
titalarly adapted for female disordoi-s, and that the Indian wo- 
men make aae of a tea of the root for some time before their 
confinement, asserting that it facilites parturition. It is like- 
wise said to be an active emmenagogne. Ryddell, Synop. 4, 
also statea that it is "bitter, diuretic and a preparatory partu- 
rienL" Griffith invites an examination of it. A decoction, in- 
fosioD or tioelure of the root is employed ; of the two former 
the proportions arc an ounce to a pint of water — dose one or 
two ounces; the dose of the tincture, made by adding four 
ounces of the root to a pint of spirits, being one or two tcaspoon- 


The species of this order are exclusively confined to the boga 
of this country. Lindiey thinks it should also comprehend the 
Dionsa, which grows in Sorth and South Carolina, and which 
also possesses the power of entrapping insects. See D. mvs- 

»ia fiara. L., and variolaris, M.) Difl'used; grow in bogsi 
Cbarieston; Newhcrn. Fl. Juno. 

See Mer and de L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 226, where the Diss, 
of Dr. McBride, of South Carolina, in the 12tli vol. Trans. 
Linufean Soc., is referred to.' I have read this description of 
one of our native botanists, and allude to it with pleasure. I 
am informed by several gentlemen of South Carolina, that these 
plants are used in dyspepsia with great service. The roots are 
nndouhtcdly posaeitscd of bitter, tonic and stomachic proper- 
ti«i> ; and I am erudihly assured of a number of eases in which 
rtlief has been experienced from them. The taste la disagreea- 
ble to those using them for tho first time, but eventually it be- 
comes pleasant, us I have myself experienced. An inAision 
might serve as a useful fubstitute forbittert*. 

In an article on tho medicinal and chemical properties of 
the«e plants, published by mo in the January number (I&IO) of 
the Charleston Moilical Journal, tho attention of the profession 
i* the first time invitee! to their reputed rainc in the treat- 
ment of dyspepsia. Several cases nre there detailed, illustrat- 


Ing the Employment of the Sam)ceDt&. It iBRopposed by mi 
to relievo mo«i of the dUtreitiUn}; byrapIouA of this afft-eiion, 
among which may bu cited: gaiilraljpti, pyi-osiA, ucidily, and 
tho general tVeling of iiialaiiie "O frRi|iiunt1y att«ii(l«nt upon i(. 
In 8omt it iiiitui.-es (■oiiHiili'riibKt 'linri'.siM, and in olhcm KOn^iic-Ju 
of tho mouth. Ill i-xjn-rinirntA miiihr upon my own pcriiDn, to ^^ 
nsoortaio H» phjrsiological ctfoctH npon a hoaltliy iodiTidnal,^! 
it exhibited a tonic, ^timulutini;; intlucnoe upon the di|[«stiva^ 
organH, prodilditiK some oorehial difilurljante, when persisted in. 
On one occasion thi-ee hundred and twenty ffraina of the 
dried root, in the form of pills, were taken during the 
couno of twelve bourn. From the exuuiiimlion iiiitdii for 
mo hy Prof. C. U. Shvpurd, it itontuiuH bcisi<lc» ligniu, 
coloring uiattvr, and IrauvN of a roninoun body, ttn add, or 
an acid xalt, and also an aetringcnt property, duo ncitbor 
to tannic nor gallic acid, "and a salt of !ionie alkaloid, relat 
perhaps to cinchona, which, should it prove new, may be call 
aarracenin." I ascertained tho existence of starch in some 
quantity inllio cold infusion and in the decoction, not discovered 
in tlie boiled alcoholic solution, which, however, enntained 
Bomo gluten. "In its exbihiiiiig in modvratu f^imntitiisi no 
very decided nor violent offwl* upon the animal economy in 
diseaso consists its excellence. And its peculiar action on tho 
stomach, I think, is the rcsuit of a happy combination of do* 
jn«nti), which renders it nppn)[inate to the relief of un atfection 
like dy8pi.^pi*iu. IlBai-id prevtnti* ordirrwl" tht; undue tbrma- 
tiou of alkalies, ur cupplios its own delii^ii-ucy ; the cxi»t<'n<'e of 
oither condition havin<r been aesumod as cxplniuinj< the tmo 
pathology of tho disease. Its power of ncutraliising or correct- 
ing acidity was obvious. Its bitter properly, which is abund- 
ant, is tonic and restorative; its resinous portion may supply 
the proper cathartic >«limulns,tbo too inordinate action of which 
ie eorrooted by the a3trin;;ent ; and this being neither that of 
the tannic nor gallic acid found in other vogutabJe tonics, may 
be superior. Should dyspepsia be a gastric m-uralgia, or cou- 
•i«t, aa Parry thinks, iu u condition of bypcrR^mis; or aa, ac- 
cording to Wilnon Philip, a i-hronio gastritis, its relief may be 
accounted for, by a iiurcoiic principle contained in the plant; 
tho cerebral disturbance, one of its physiological effects u]>on 
my own person, giving some color to the suggestion." {Soe 



Alt. e^. »tfp.\ A hit of the ft-e^h or dried rooi of oitbor spccioe 
Mky b« «be<ri^d, iinil Uitt jiiicu awall'iwuti ilnritij; the day tieforo 
Mch mcftl; it nwy bo git-ou {>nwdorfd in the I'ona of pill, witlt 
k Uule rbobarb if aowtumry ; «• a tinctnre may bo mndu by 
pMriDgs pint of brandy ovit several ounces of the root, of 
wUcb half Ui ouncv, diluU'd. may bo taken thi-c« timca a day. 
l)ivr« Utoly bad ca*o» rvportod to mo oi' it6 marked aucceas 
ia Uw relief of ehronic diarrhcca and dysoott-r^', and I am 
fttaacd to l«u-n thai it is now- widuly used in other portions of 
SiMth Carolina and in Goorgia, with very ;ii;oDcral approba- 

PITCHER PLANT, (Sarracaiia purpurea.) I have Bped- 
mtot from Barlinmvillo, S. C., and liavi- (.■olhtelcd it in .SU John'tt, 
& C^ n<-ar the Suitv Ruad. It is not nvar no cmmmon a» thu 
odMr specira. N. C. Cnii. Cat. 

Tlie tollowinf; [laper was eent 1o tho Surg. General C S. 
Jjmy, and waa addr<^<>)>ed to the Kililor of the "Kveuin^ Mail," 
Bb«>. by Couno (i. Logie, Sur^;. Major lioyal Uoroe Guai-da 
(BiB«,) and dated Windsor, Uay 25, (1862:) 

Soaie timo »ito, se^in^ a paper written by ABsistant SurgooD 
IGka, of Lbct Koyal Aruller>', on the efllcaey of the \orth 
Aaericsn plant ealiod tho &irraernia purpurea, or pitcher plant, 
ia tbe uvaiment of small-pox among tbe Indians, my colleaKUO 
(Mr. Agnis) and myseb' have piven this remedy, which has 
kcco imported into this country' ^Y i^'- Miles, to the hoose of 
Mmbts. Savoy A Hoore, a fkir trial. And I am happy to say 
Uw «Wen caseA in our bands have recovered nnder its peculiar 
bdlnracc. Thi» rvme<ly 1 coiuudur a 1>oon to iliv public, for thiit 
w un [ it ill «u Ka«ily inaitaged ; any one van make a ducoctton 
at iafiuioa of the root, like ten. An uiinec of the rtml U filived 
aad iafnaed in a ijuart of wat«r and alluwol to simmer down to 
• pint, aad ^ven in two tablc«poonAil doHc« every four hours, 
vUla t)ie |>aticut i^ well noarished n-ith beef tea and arrow 
root- Poor of tJio cases in ray hospital have been severe oon- 
igant caAu«,(voofIuuDt mcanc where tliv bea<l, fare and neek are 
•vollon into a miwhapen maM^i, and llie puMukit thiekly run- 
Mag into oaoh other;) they haw Uimughout the dixeaAe all 
bean perfoctly sensibli.-, have had excellent appetites, been free 

Itnm ftaa, and have never felt weak. The efTeeto of this medi- 
dar, which I hare carclMly watched, seemed to arrest tho 
i i . Z 



dfiTulopmcnt of tho pai>liik>i«, killing, »» it wvrc, tho virus fW>ni i 
vrithiB. thereby ohuiii*iii.e thp thiiractw of the di^oftiw. ami 
doing away with the eaUBo of pitting (if I msy so exprei^a 
myself to the uoinitiated,) and thus avoiding th« nec«(iaity of] 
gulfa (lercha and India riihtxir njijilioAlion, or of (ijK'ning thoT 
p»Htuk«. In my opinion, all the tintiajiiitioriA of diHtigiircmcoti 
from pitting mtvy now- 1)« cutmod, if this modic-ino is given froia^ 
th« CM>minitnO(!mcnt of thv. dii!wa*P. Befor* tca\Hng thin sabjoot^ 
I may hon- <?aution thd public that the u««ful part of the pUnt 
ifl its root, as recommended by I)r. Miles, and it ean only b«1 
obtained from Messrs. Savoy A Moort', to whose honse alone it^ 
has been imported. With the usnal kindness of Dr. tiibsOD,J 
the Di roc tor-General, I have been unijily supplied with it for 
the tiae of iny rOj^imenU So much am I impn-H^od with (hu 
efficacy of it in smnll-pox ovor tho old mode of tn-atmcrit, that I 
I hope to hear of it in every country gentleman's medicine 
chest. " 

It !i« diftloult to conceive how It ac(|uired any repata*- 
tioii in the eure of small-pox. niiless from the flict that simple 
meiiniii are the best in the treatmenl of thiri diaenso, as in other i 
vruptiva fi<v«rii. T do rii>l know ibat the & ;)ur7'rirnJ has uror^H 
been cxperimiiitod with in thi* country. I was unable to procaro ^^ 
any of it in Virginin, in obedience to the wishes of Siir^on- 
tien«ral Mooro, Dr. A. Itaoid informs ine that this plant has 
been used in South Carolina to correol vomiting in [irc^naRt 
women, 1867, He has cniployt'd it for thin pHriMimi, Prof. 
Wood, in 12lh Rd. U. S. I>isp,. iKiticlini'd to put no c'liitidcnco in 
tlie power of this plant iis a remedy in small-pox, itnd I fnlly 
«groe with him. IIo rofors to a doscription of this species in 
all its relations by Prof. Bentley, in a paper in the Pbai-m. Joorn. 
for January, 1863. 

KHIZOPnOR.tCE.E. {Mangrove TrOa.) 

M.\N«ROVE, {Hhisophora mangle, L.) This plant I» fhund 
in South Klorida. ("hapman. An iutrodiiocd spcdiM>> Im used in 
India for jielding a black dj-o. 

ONAGKACEiK. {l%e Botning Primrose Tribe.) 

SCABTSTf. {(Enothrra biennis. Linn.) Grows in dry pasliireA ; 
difl^ifod; collected in Charleston District ; Newlw-rn. 



Jnanial Pbil. CoU. Pbanu. iv, 202 ; LJDiJ. Nat. S^t, But. 3G ; 
v. S. l>Up. VMl; Di-iii. l;i.-m. de Bui. ti. -Ill; Griltith. Ued. 
Boc 3M. Tht' root ami burb bavu bM>n vniployRd in cutaneous 
fiiBMeti. Dr. Griflltb bas uwd it witb suocnat in tott«r. apply- 
ipg tb« decoction to tho affected part Hercral Urim a day, and 
giriog it internally at tho eamo limo. ilc bs8 been suooeeafbl 
witb it in nLb6«qii«nt tnale^ Tbo plant should be fcatltoi-d<i 
iLiT tbe llowi^riiiv; n«ason. Th« young Hpn;kr>4 are mudliigi- 
■a■i^ and i.'an bi- i-atoa ad salad. Liiidtty. Tlii,^ Icuvch of ibc 
Cbntbrn expand in the ovAiiing, and contiiiuu upon all night. 
Panb statps that, even of a dnrlc ni^bl, il c»n bo voon at iwmo 
**»«***—' oiling, bo Bap]>osc«, to itome plios|)horic pi-opovty. 
the Wi'ns are slated by U. Daraaooe, in bi:^ Treattae on Tan- 
vos, Phitadu^ IA67, to bo u&eful in tanniiij; lentbur. Tin rootrt 
b*ro a natty fliivar. aomcwlial similar to tboM! or'nimptoR, and 
Kit aafd in (.icrmany and Ki>ni<! jiarl.t of Pran<'(\ slewed and 
Taw, in ealadis, with mitntanl, oil. i>all und pt'ppi'i', lilco tbe 
CMBiDon polery Tbe ancii^nti^ thought thv plant ])osHc«ised tho 
poirer of atlAViiii; iutnxieation and calmint; iho moitt forocious 
awimalt. It IB doubtful u'hellier this is the CKnothora of tho 
aoct«Bta. Wilson's Kural Oyo. It appears to possess some 
pofrrr a> un ttl>sl(.-ivent, and is used in washing clotJies. 

WILLOW.IIRKB. (KfiilMutn auyutti/olium, T.) Mountains 
«t K. C. and uortbwanl. The lettvcA and root arc Huid 10 Iw 
demalcvnl, tonJv und OAlringent, and yield fhoir virtueit to 
alenhol. Tboy are uiwd by the "RulecUvH," wldn Dr. Wood, 
pnerslly and kK-ally, in dix-uctiun infu.iion or caLapla^ni, in 
I aim which coll for the n»c of astringent niniedien ; U.S. l>i»p., 

Jvssura f/raitiSiJIora. Mich. Grows in l>og«; "common 
aroand Savannah, and in ponds four milca from Charleston." 

Dr. J- Bachman iniotrua mo that he has seen it in abundance 
arovod ChoHiit^ton fbr tJie spaco of ten ntilos. ft-om wliicih 
toealiiy 1 have i>)Kicimuns. PI. July. Dr. S. A. Cartwrighl, of 
KatdioK, luaerta that thia plant lias the power of preventing 
the dsretopment of malaria in regions jtcouliarly oilapted to ita 
gmeratjon. lie alfirms that it "puriliett all stagnant water in 
whieh it grows^that of the lakct and bayouM inbtdnied by it 
beinje ma pure to llw siijht^ tasto and smell ai> if it bad juHt 
bllm from tho clouds" — ascribing to tho presence and peculiar 


"h^fi^otiic or hcatth-prvKcrvin;; propiTtiM of this plant" the 
rvinnrkable oxeiuplion of tho iuhabitants of tower Louiaiuia 
I'rom "matariouii or miasmBtic (JisottHra." "'Vhe faot," he add«, 
"that the rogiuii of country in which thia aqualie ]>1hiii aboun<U! 
U exooedingly hi>itllhy, can be eatftblisherl biiyoncl oavil or ijii«- 
pDt«; it iiurcrLhcluNH cuiitiiitiA more alitfrniirit w»t«r utnl Kwutnp* 
thiin any other iiih»1iili!il diittrict of the oumv cxl«iit in the 
Unitu'l SlaloM." llv 'i» 'jnotud in tbo iioti^» appoaded by tho j 
American inlitor, to Watson's Pruc-t. Physic, p. 465 ; and Dr. 
Wood, in his lati> work on ibt? Practicn of Physip. also makes I 
u«i> of tho«c asscrlioiie as ii'thcy wore <?» tab lis lied. Dr. C. muatl 
BQok for the exemptioa of this soclion of country fhim these 
di8c4iaes in otlier causes, aa this plant is abundant arouud the 
cdties alluded to above, in situntioiiii where it is well known that 
fevera of midnrioiiH origin ure oontiiiiutlly jirovniliiig. I baro 
recently "bser\'od this plant growing profiisvly around Charles- 
ton Nvvk, where intvrmitti-nt and remittent fevers are noto- 
riously prevalent. 

The genus Janisiica has ita roots distended into vegetable swim- 
ming bladders. The curious can cxamloo tho J. graHdiftwa to 
observe thin peculiarity, like that in oiir beautiful T/tricularia in. 
jUila. Typtut an'i Nijmplur.)i (waltr lily,) and Sagitturia, alw) '■ dis- 
play myriadit of air chambers in the solid stem." -liee Wilson, 
'■Aquatic plants." 

KASTAIil) nOOSMSTItll-'E; SEED BOX, {Ludwigta alier- 
ni/olia, L.) Grows in Charleston District; lilliolt says rare; 
seven milc« fWini Beaufort, and at Savannah ; coHvoted in St. 
John's; North Carolina. Fl. Aug. 

Hvm(, in ihi' Dift. dc M. MV-d. iv, IM, siiys that in .Vmoricuu 
dceoctiun of the root is employed as an luifailing emetic. 


In this oi-dcr, a slight dogroe of astriiigency is the prevailing 
oharacteristic : though a largo one, it does not contain a single 
unwholesome 8|Kteie8. 

DEER tJHASS ; SORREL, (Rhexia glaheUa, Mx.) Grows in 
moist pine lKn<ls, vicinity of Charleston ; votleeted in SU John'*; 
Sorth Carolina. Fl. July. 

Tho leaves of this phint have a sweetish, acid taste, and arc 
eaten with impunity. Door aru said to be fond of them. 


MYKTACRfi. {The Mtfrtk Tribe.) 

POHE<>ILVNATE, (Puttiea ^ranalvm.) Culfivnu^a witli mv- 
ttm in tlic Sodllierti SiaH-s, Tlic Iwrk tif (he itwt i^ a well known 
Mtringcnt; eaiploviKl ill (lynentery mill itiaiTlia'*; ono »<:ruplc 
«f tbe [K>wd«r mny bo f^vcn at a dooo, or a <lcro«lioti may be 
t*t4 if tfoU is [(Ml >>lrting, %»■ it iicls nn the ticrroiiH Kyrtt^-m. Var- 
fM, in hi* llloi^. Mvd. Bui. i. \Si7, itlntcs that it hue s1k> boen 
OBpioTed with savcw a<;iiinnl titnia. Tho t'niit is rcuiarkablo 
Ibr the beauty of the ouloriition of the pulp aronnd the seed vcB; 
■^ which are packed awar in a snrpiisin^ly econoniieal man- 
ma. This b edible, and fonns with water a eoohng ai^cefleeiit 
^rink, grateftal in (I'vers. A correspondent of the '-Mercury ," 
"P. J. SL," ISGS, ^ays that tbe rim) of the IHiit yields a jet hlack 
taid, which writes very etnoothly and retAins its jetty hue." 

LYTURACELE. (/^wc^n/V Famils/.) 


Sy.'MiV LOOSESTRIFE, (^aww v*rrticaiata, H. B. H. De- 
•NribM vtrtirithtvm. Kit.) S. C. 

Lindley telis aa : "It i» naid to (leotroy tbo yoan^ of cattle 
Icavy with ealf." I>r. Tully ^y«: " 11" a greal amoant of t«sli< 
taony will decide aiiyihiof^ in ineditnne, Dtmdon p. i» an ix-bolic 
tor CMlaiu brute aninial:!. Thiit olTcct i* Mtit) to bo ino«t fro- 
qneotly pnxluctNl upon vstem, nexl u|>on cows, and MOuotimcs 
■poo inBre«." 

IIAMAMELACK/E. {The WiteAJiajtl Triie.) 

Thu order, remarks Lindloy. in found in the northern ]«irt» of 
Xonfa America, Ja]>aa and ('liina. lu my exainiualion of the 
variow authurili^^i* on Uii; stibj^ul beforu mo, I have frequently 
b«aa atmck with the com-Kju^ndt'tice pivvailirig between the 
ipaCMa found in South (_'an>tina and thoHo of Jai^an, and this ro- 
tfett» only tbe medical botany of tho two ; aboold Uie flora of 
tmcb be compared, a still more univereal relation mi^ht be i^tuh- 
Gahed. Professor Agaada has noticed something of thii munc 
kind c^xifttin^ between tbe fossil liotany and the fauna of each. 

ft'ITCU-UAZIili, (liamamelu Viryiniea, L.) Grows abng 
pine laud bays; colk-cteil in St. Jolin'it, Charlcotou Pixiriet; vicin- 
ity of Charleston. Bach.; S.C. 

'M*r. and do h. Bid. doM. Me-i. ui. 452: Coxe, Am. Di«p.31(>; 
V. S. l>Up. 1258; Matson'H \'eg. i>raci. 201 ; Criffillh'* Mt-d. BoU 
3S0 ; lUfiiioMiue, Med. Flor. i. 227. It l8 Mid lo Im »i.>(lmliTc, 
iriiipoiit, tonin Biid dimjiiticn), Tlii^ liurlr iva* !i rcmcdv derived 
Crtmi llic Iiuliitnn, who H[i]ili»d it U> |iniiiriil Itimoi-^. UHtn^ the 
doroctiuti 0* a wa«h in inftamuiatoiy Hwcllin^, painfal htnnoF- 
rhoidnl afTcotione and ophthnltniai^. A cataplastD, and a tea of 
the kiavc*, iw an astrini'pnt, won- cmployod in htEinftt«ineai& Tho 
steam prai'titinncrn also ndiniDi^vr it in irritable liiMiiorrboldK, 
and during the bt'aring-dnwn pains attending child-hirth. No 
analyms has heon made, but as it proliably contjiinK swliitivo an<i 
aMlrinji;onl priiicipli-n, attention is (lin'i-l<-<l to i(. The curioas 
rvader inny <<on)>iilU bowidoK thu paper in Ilutton's "Matbotna- 
tics," on tJio wondm-t\il propcrtim oftho witoh-liami-'I in dct«ctiiig 
water, a recent one in Pstont Ofliec Report on Aj{ri cult lire, ]>. 16, 
1881. This is ft-orn Prarie' dn f 'lilen. by Mr. AIiVimI Btirnsinn, 
and GontaiHit oonie remnritnblt^ iitatoinentA o( tho certainty of 
finding water by clivininjirods. Roniu nh.-ctrieal and tellnrie inHu- 
eneec are hinti'd at — Credat Juilmis! Pennons livinj; in tho up- 
pvr diKtridtN <>r South Can^lina UHHUino to uno the rud with suc- 

Dr. Jamt^i* Fountain, of Pookskill, N. Y,, npeaks highly of the 
efficacy of the bark in bemon-hagi* of llit? lungs and oloniiicb, 
and also us one of iho best applicntiotiH for external pilei^ an 
ointment buing jircpared from lard, and n decoction of v'|nsl 
[iart« of thin bark, whiti- onk biiric and that of tbit apple tree, 
He bi'lieveK tht' wituh-haxi.'l to pw»e!*i« »nodyn« propertiiw. (N. 
Y. J. Mod. X, 21)8.) Dr. N. S, Da\-i8 in liiN n-port (Trans. Am. 
Mw). AxMDi!. i, SM.) agrOM with Dr. Fountain In hi" entimat* of 
lh>» remedy, whieb ho hna employed in the form of a doooetion, 
made with one ounce to a pint of water; do§o, a wine glase full 
every three to eight hours in incipient phthisis. U. S. Oisp., 
12lh Ed. 

In the Richmond Jouinial for Jannary, 1868, is an article iVora 
the Atlanta Med. and Surg. Joum. (1867,) in which Dr. W. W. 
Durham chtintH for thin plant pnipertiw similar to tliosv said by 
Dr. Pharen to be thosu of tht- VirbiirnHm pr«ni/o!mm. and which 
tend to confirm opinions expressed above by Prof. Davis and 
others. In reference to its power of preventing abortion or 
misoariiftge, Dr. Durham says : " At one period of my practice 



n«gn>a> attei) tho colton raot eo rrc<|uontly Ut pniijitco 
tkMi, tbul lay »u[>|il}' of bluek haw ireciituc cxh»iM((-<i, anil 
kiTini; botux] of thin powi-r nf tho hazol U> uflvci ibn purpuHO 
ftjr whtirh I tt-H>l tb* haw, I n'l^nruxl tu il (llm hnxol) with per- 
fect encttwt- llavtiig wily iim-il it for tlio jmrjioM- orpruTuiiliiig 
itOTtion. ^Di tho cffocU oftho colton root, I cnnttvt opratk of t( 
is oiber nuts." llv niuk«^')> adococlionol'onc piat of the li>Arefl 
to ooe piul of water, which in nduiiniijU'rctl fit-cily. Sc« also 
fifrwUKiH pnai/otiuni. 

Dr. JoM^h Butffii, in an artielo on tho Witch-hai!«], pahlitthcd 
b 7ilde>a'» " Joarn. of Mat. iled," February, 1808, fhrnishes an 
sMlvttA of ihiK |>tant by Dr. A. L«e. (,8eo J. of Mat. M«d. 2, 
p. too.) The bark vontuin.-t or^iiie and inor^iiic ai«tt«r, 
aBsmva gum, i-xlr:M!live, tHiiiiin, a jmrlicutar (iMllor) prinuiplo, 
IWB, starch, ote. 

Dr. Lw observes : " The great amount of lunnin eonlained in 
tfab plant is worthy of notice; while the Bomacb coniiuus 
three hundn>d and twenLy-five and gni^nium one bundrvd and 
thiny-«ut partti in pevt-n thousand, the baxol couiainii no Ichb 
tiaa £)ur hundred." This in an iropoi-tant Htat«nionl and 
dMerviM Bttetitinn. In the Boston Hed. J. Sur^. J., v, 37, )k 
H&, t» an B<'M>unt of tho i-fticaiTV uf thiH plant in iirrvsting Imnt- 
«ahaga — the leaves being chewed and tho juke swallowed. 
TSdcn & Co. prrpare a fluid extract which may be given in 
4c»«a of one to two drachms. By means of this an inHiMOfl or 
a wash may be made by mixing with water in tho proportion 
of oiw ovDCfi to a piuL 

CORSACE-B. {Ihe Dmywoorf TriU.} 
I>OGW001>, (a.r«M Fhrubi, U> Well known ; ditfuKwl in 

riah, thady landa; Nowbern : Va. 

Drayton's View S. V. C3; Iletl'e Pract. Diet. 152; Barton's 

CoUer. 1^. Eberlc. MaL Med. 303; Chap. Therap. and Mat. 

Med. U, 438; EU. Hou i, 208 ; IV. Mat. Mod. ii, 753; U. S. Disp. 

277; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Med. 11>7 ; Am. Jouniul Plinnn. vii, 

114; Boyle, MaU Med. 42^ ; DaU. and (iar. :i10 ; Mer.anddoL. 

Diet, de H. Med. iv, 436 - Big. Am. Med. Bou ii, 73 ; Sbec Flora 

CuroL 449; Thaclier'ft Uiap. 203; Walktu-'a Inaug. I>iM. FhU. 

laOS; Llnd. XaU Syst. Bot. 49; Fi^M'* El«ms. Mat Mod. 

This wdl known plant posHOnw* tonic and Hnli.iutorroitt«nt 

ppopcrl.iwi, vi'Fj' iiMH-ly aiUed lo t,h<»(i> or cinchnnu ; in pcrioiiic 
rcTcre, one orthe miiiit valuable of .our iiidigenouK plimU. ■■Dr. 
Gn-gg •^tiitvK thai, iifter Rn)])I<)yiiig it for iwonty-tlircc yamf i 
the tromtniPiit oi' inlonnitt^-iit fitvvre, lie wiw gKtJMtird that it 
w»8 not infurior to Peruvian bark.'' Go?iiTalIy givon in con- 
junction with laudaimrn. It also pos«c8t<es antiseptic [lowo 
In tlic recent atalo, it \s less elimiilatin); than tlie eiiicbona baric, 
but il affi'OtB iJie bowels more ; tlio driod bnrk in itn* jircforabli 
form, Tbi- IVojib Imrk will HomoliriicH ai-t tu* a catharlkr. It I 
more miniiilntiiifi lluui llionmghwort (Enpaturiutn,) and, tbe 
foro, is Ip^B apiitioalilo dnting ihohotttugvn ol'it-vcr. Acoordln 
to Dr. Walkvr'-i t'xnmination, tho bark foutaini* extractive niat- 
t«r, ^iitn, rosin, tannin and gallic acid ; aod Dr. Cavpeiilor 
announces in it a new priticipal, trommc Dr. ij. Jackson iUho, 
ftora experiment, is satisfied that it contains a principle analo- 
gous to qiiinia. It. bna been exhibited bj Dr. S. (i. Morton ia^— 
intermittent fever, with succeas. Griffith, in hia Med. Bot. 347,'^| 
montionK that ihi- infuriion of the flowers ia iieii^fal a" a ittibetitute i 
for ebumoniili' tiiu : for aiialysin, nue Am. Jrnirn. Pharm. i, llj ; 
and Phil, JoumnI Med. and Pbyx. Bci. xl. Done of tbe dried 
bark in poM'der, is twenty loKistjgraiiit; the detection is made 
with one ounce of lb« root to one pint of water, or the extract 
may be employed; alcohol alao extracts its virtues. Tho ripe 
fruit, incised in brandy, make>' an agreeable and uttkCuI bitter, 
which may bo a convenient substitute for the article prepared 
in tho whop*. Dr. 1). C. O'Kceffc, of GeiTrgra, pnblished an 
article on the C Florida in the So. Med. and Surg, Journal, Jan- 
nary, 1849. He gave the extract in (loses of ten grains to two 
drnohni!!, withont its producing any disturbance of the stomach, 
t» a1k'g<-d by some vriters. Bai-ion says, in his Collections, 
that the bark is valuable in a malignant disordar of horaoa 
called yellow wiitor. From the gallie aetd it contains, a good 
writing ink may be made, and from tbe bark of the tibrous 
roots ibe Indiana cxtraclcil a .icurlet color. Lindloy mentiona 
that the young branches, stripped of thcii- bark, and rubbed 
aitainst the tooth, render them extremely white. It ia oAen 
employed for this purpose by persons living in the country, . 
Where there is need of astriugent aiiti-periodics pnd toiiic«^ 
the dogwood bark powdo-ed will be found the be«t substitute 
for the Peruvian. Inttirnally and cxU-rnally, it can be applied 


• wheiwer the cincbons iNii'ks wore tiiund noTrivcfitblv. The dog* 
^nwkd t>«rk uiil root, in decoction, or in form of cold inftasion, Is 
^rWieTvd by loany to Iw die most ofllcieiil nubstitntc for quinine, 
V iIm Ib tr«atUiK malarial fovora ; certainJy, it mi^bt be nsvd in 
Urn eaaat uccurriuK in mmp, to prevent the wast« of quinine, M 
it can ^c vAMiIy and niiuodaiitly prouurcd. 

Dr- Richard Moor«,ofSuiuler County, informs me that h« DOt 
nUj findM It elBeionl in fevers, hut particolarly useful, wilJi 
I wtiriEey or alcohol, in low forms of feTem, and dysontory 
tcearriof near nor rtver Mwana|>«i. 

Daring convolvtH.-enco nlMo, whem an nAtnngent tonic is ro- 
^rvd, thii' [>lnnt nxH-ln our mquircmi-nts. Sou KujMiloriHm 
(bokCMt) and LiriodmdroH (Poplar.) Tho«e, with the folack- 
fcirijr aod chinqiispin a4 astringent^, the gcntiunit and pipeis- 
MVa as tonics and tunic diuretics iho hwccI ;;iim, snaMafrait, and 
Wae Ci>r their mnciUifinous and aromatic pro|HTlic:<, and iho 
«iM JaUp (Podophj/Uvm') as a cathartic, supply the ptirgeon in 
vamp during a hlockado with easily procurable medicinal 
pjaaia, which are sufficient for almost every purpose. Nitrate 
aad bt-carbonate of potash are uioHt wanted, and with calomel 
oay be procarvd tVom abroad. Our Muppty of opium can b« 
waly rsache^l by planting tho p'>ppy, and ineii^ing the eapsulea. 
Bveey planter coutd nunc a full supply of opium, muatard aitd 
laxvMxL A tonic compound, as advisoil by the berbaliMv, ia 
■ade with the bark of thoVoot of dogwood, Colombo (/Vuawa,) 
pQplw, each six ounces ; bark of wild L'hurry, ux ouacea ; leaves 
W tboptagliwort, four oancuA; cayenne popper, four ounces — 
■R«d and mixed. Dwni, u teaspoonl\il, in warm or cold water, 

Tb« berries of the dogwood have also been highly rocom- 
aeikded — given as a remedy for fever in place of quinine (1863.) 

Tbe mod U oompaci, heavy, Una grainwl and ttuaccptible of a 
IriUbMt poUsli. It m ui«ed on our plantatjonx whcruvtra liard 
VMod U required, an in making wedges, the handles of light 
iHib, mallvUi, )ilaBt! ittocks, harrow teetb, hamu«, horse ooUarv, 
tle^ Uirhatix mates that the shoots, when lhr«e or four years 
iid, are found proper tor the light hoops of small portable cuxks. 

iKe Xiddio States the cogs of mill wheels are made of dog- 

The branches of the tree are diiipcKiM] nearly to the 

of cttMHs. X. Am. iglva, Parmer's Kncyc. ) have used 


the dogwood for ongmvinp. Soo "Amclanchior" inthisvoU 

Dr. Walker makos an oxcollost ink tlma: Half an ounce 
dc^wooil bark, forty grains of sulphate of iron, the »inie 
giimarabio. in §ixt«en onnccs of rain water, ProC Jowpl 
Jones, of Georgia, lias also used it willi success. See So. Med 
&iid Surg, J., September, 1861. The wood of the dogn-ood, lika 
the willow, (itee Satix,) is preferred in making gunpowder. 

BEll WILLOW; SW.\MP DOGWOOP, (Clwnrw scrirra^^ 
Ph.) Klliolt (lays it i^owk iti tlio mountainBof (^outh Carolina; 
sent to mo frum Abbovilk' District, by Ur. Itood ; Kortb Ca 
lina, Fl. .lunc. 

Griffith, Med. Boi. 349, It posseascs properties quite similar 
to tliotie of the C. Florida, but it ia moptt bitter and uAtrinjrenL.' 
Sir. It. informs me that it is employed to a (rreut extern in do* 
mcMtic pniciif'!* in Alibcvillc. Ani-ording to B. S. liarton, iho 
bark wa» considered by the Indians a favorite combination with 
tobacco for smoking. Thoynnng^houtw wcroutted tomako coMfse 
baskets ; and tlioy extracted a ecarlet dye from those and th« 

BLOOD RED DOGWOOD. (Cormis sangmnea, L.) Grows,' 
acronling to Kiliott, in the valleys among the mountains. PU 

Dlot-do Sled, do Fmis. ii, 737; Mulhiole, Comment, ii, 119 
Journal dc Chim. xxxviii, 174, and xl, 107. Sire. al«o, Journal 
dc Phann. for an account of the oil extracted fWim it, M. Ma 
Hon H»y» 1 hey afford one-third of their weifiht of a pure andl 
limpid oil, UHed for the table iind for burning. A ease of hydro-' 
phobia was nuid to have been enrcd by il. <iriftitb, Mod. 
B»t. 349. There also esiiite in thi^ as in tbe othert), a red eolor- 
ing principle, soluble in water alone. 

Cornits xtri'-ta. Rrows in swamps near Charleston; Newbern. 
Shcc. Fl"ni t'arol. -149. C. CircinnUi is not included by Chtti»- 
man among the Southern specicB, (hough Dr. Wood says that it 
grows in Virginia. See V. S. DIsp. 



Bark usually astringent; berries contain a viscid matter; planta 
possess the power of rootinfi; in the wood of others. 


M13LBTOE, ( ViKttm ctrtinUatvm, L.) The F. vtHicMatum «t 
SB. Sfe. » not nf tlmt Linii. T. niid Cniy ; N. A. Flora. Dif> 
fia«rf; pown on onkit; Ni-wbcrn. Fl. M»y. 

Mrtv utd (Iff L. Diet, dc Mdd. vi. 860 ; Lind. Nat. Sj-at, Bot. 
SA;L(^Hat M*''). ii. 4&t>. Journal do M^J. Ixx. 529 ; P:U<rl«, 
i Dta. <!*■ Children. 522. Dr. Burtium, in tlio llortus AtufrieauiiH, 
^h^tkat the fVuil of the mi^lotou corcH epU^paicA, pleurUies, 
^bnpde eolciL etc. Di-iu. ^li^tit. dv Bot. iii. SSfi; tMti[i(o,VKd in 
^^•laljSM. Tbortou'ft Faiit. Herb. 333. Foiliergill. Dr. Wibioii 
•id Gilbert Thomp!iOD q»c tl "wilJi great eftuct in cpile^Hty." So, 
abo. Dr. Frwr, Vflio |iubli»liixt a worit on il. Wadi-'s PI. flari- 
«n«. 82. KbvHf, --Di«t. of Cbilili-cg," alliidi--^ to iU cm ploy in eat 
ikim&nltle ■.•|)ili.'|Hy. Some writcni n-frr li> ibc Kiinjpfian f>{iccie8; 
Ifaio i.-* faip|KMi>d til bi; idfiitieiil vith it. Thu iwcdti cuntaiu a 
anbHtaaci; rv«iinbli»g bird-limi'' in appcurancv, whieli is 
1i in waU-r and in alctiohol. In Dr. IIuDtor'n flilion 
E-. .--ylvia, it im wiid lo prrvwil tho ml in Hhecp. Bird- 

Kmm was lurtniirly madu fVom tho borrioa of tho loislctoo of oak, 
■tidi were fir»t boiled in water, tben poandot), and tlie water 
fwr t d off in onlor to carry away the sewda and rind. For prtt- 
»*e "Holly" (A/«r e/irjoi;) also, Wilson's Rural i'^yc, "Bird- 
%m»" and "Bird mtuhiug." 
lOSI.El'OR. (f'ftoraiirnilroH fiavacens, Nutt.; Visatm fiave*- 
I. I*ar«h.; T1ii» w the only xpeeie inelnded by Dr. Chapman 
« kb Mora of the Southern United Statoe. 

X. Oampert (Ann. de Therap. 1859, 3(i,) had reported a ca»c in 

haiKC in which a child threuy earmold wa>> poJMined by eating the 

bni«9tof the mislftoe. Vorailin);aud prostration were pi-od need, 

Ike latirnt wa» Enacnslble, wiUi a lixeil and itoinewluit eonlractcd 

f^U, and ootdniSMk of the i<kin and convulsive movemenla of the 

itim were prenent ; nn emetic bi-ought uwuy a i.-vnnidor». 

quantity of the Iwrrie:* and tho vhild recovered. Prof. Wood, 

Te^uTting thia in tho U. S. Disp.. 12th Ed., statee that Dr. 

Dye, of Texas, record* (Memphis Mod. Record, iv. 344,) 

csaes of children poisoned by eating the berrieH of a 

frrnwinK on the elm, probably V.fia\ftteen9 of Ph. The 

lODt nymptoms were vomiting and great thirst, followed 

ftti^iaoni dii*fhar|Lce« of bluwly mncas from the bowel*, with 

us. One of the children wan found in a collapsed state 

ich detUh UmIc )>1um^ Dr. Dye atuteit, alxo, that in anotltei 


instanoo, as he had bo«n infurmod, childron hiul oatOQ the beis 
ric«, wilhoat anv ill effect. 

CUCUIIBITACR.K. C^" «'«""' ^'^^O 

TkiH order in oloHcIy allied to the PaA!«it1oraci-H>. and if rotitid 
in most a1>iind»n<.'o in hot <^iiint.ricM. Mont nt" tlii-m art* valuable 
■rtioK-it of food, but arc ptirvailcd by n bitU'r laxative qnality. 
wbii-h in the colocynth goord boromc« an active piirji^alive 

WATKIIMKLOX. (^Curumin citrtillux.) The juiceof the melon 
by boiling iiiiiy lie e'lnrcrtrd into » pidalablo i>yru)> for tal>le OM 
and one of ibc iiu^t ^ulwtilnU'H for moluitses. Fi-ont nx:ciit fx- 
pei-iint'ntx it has buen found that uhout one plot i» yielded by 
eaeh nieKiii, whtih may bo pr<t1italily made during a pt-riod of 
great scai-city in the sui)ply of i?n;ptr. No doubt, like the ripe 
6g, heut and other »acchariito Kiib^tance'^i, it may easily bo con- 
verted into \-int'gar, and trhould be added to the viiiesarcaak. 
It in woll known that the juieo is diuretie. and Ihe eecda. by tri> 
turiitioD. or by beinj^ boiled in water. afTortl a demulcent and 
diuretie drink. iiseM in iiiconlinenee of urine and in iitraagury. 
Alinoet the Kiime may be niiid of the jintnpttin, i\-hieh i» xi»Ktl w 
an artiele wf food fur man and lica»t in niiuiy of the Soulhcni 
StHtttN. The harder portions of both melon and pumpkin are 
uned in making preserves by oar Southern matrons, and brandy 
wait made from the juice during the war. The melon, the celety 
and the asparagun are said to yield muntiite. 

PUMPKIN, {CWvmis jjfpo, W.) Cultivated very eueeearfiilly 
at the South. 

Sbee. Flora Carol. -188. The 8eeds atTord an esAential oil, 
which might bo made of w>me value; whvn triturated wiUi 
water, they fiirninh u eooling and nutritive milk, and when 
boiled to u jelly, they are naid by lieehittein to be a very eflic-ii- 
oious remedy for retention of urine. The fruit itt much lucd OD 
tbo plantations at the f^oiith a« an article of tbud both for men 
and animal)^ ; pies and preserves of an agreeable flavor are mado 
of it. 800 Stille'sMat. Med. and reeent medieal works for tb« 
singularly uselUl qualities of the seeds, as reeeutty npphod by 
Johnson, Soule, Jones and others, as a remedy for tape-worm. 
Apaeto is made IVom tJio seeds, in the quantity of about an outioe 

nd a half with as much shr^. The dose or Uie aeeda ia about 
t«o owces in emul^on. taken in the morninK and followed by 
caMor oU. Boaton Ued. and Sur^. J., U. S. DUp. An oil of tlie 
«m4s ia abo twed. The &uit wlien dried ia uf-eM aa a winter 
proriaoo for annies. An excellent aabstitate may be (bund in 
Ae pvmpkiii, which when cut into slips and dried either in the 
j*a or io a dry room, is said to be little inferior to driinl ap- 
pies. The mask-nit-lon {CucvmU mf/u)and cncaniber(C. sativus) 
alao lar|i;ely cultivated at the South. 
GOL'RO; CALABASU. (f^uMtriirii la^naria,L.\ Qrowa in 
iS«hla and along feiioes ; vicinity of Charleston ; Richlaml ; 
etad ia 8t. Jofan'^. FJ. May. 
lAna. Veg. Hat. Ued. ISO ; Ed. and Vav. Hat. Ued. &&i ; Le. 
MmI. i, 379 -, M.-r. and dt- L. Diet, du M. M.^1. ii, 492. An 
haa Ixvn fuund iiiivful in intluinm.itititi <jt' the urinary 
and tbi! needs bare been employol In rheumntisiii, 
•trangnry and nqshriltti. Slice Flora Cam;. 47!t. -Water, 
whirb faa« lain for Hiimv time in tbc tniil of thU plant, becomoa 
nofcnUy emetic and cathartic." The shells of the dried fruit 
■R tonetimes so capacious as tu contain Ibar gallons of water ; 
oonTenteiit receptacles, water-Basks, dippers, milk pans, etc., are 
Martr of them. They muHt tint be dupnvcd of their acrid 
innciplo by boiling ; muuIdH fur buttons are tui>htoni:<l out Ol' 
tk^'ot. aad they arc much used for thcsn purpoxes by the 
on the plantations. The {general rvudor will recall the 
Dbossia Tree, " mentioned in "Paul and Virf^inia," henc« 
name given to this vine, no doubt by the negroes, fVom it« 
iblance to the tree, a native of the east coast of Africa. 
eBEKFlKU CUCfMUHli, {Mcfothria paidida, L.) Growa 
ia rich, ahaded soils; collected in St. John's, Charleelon Dia- 
X. C. FI. June. 
Joomal de Chim. Mi'd. iii, 498) MM and do L. Diet, de M. 
J. iv, S£f ^ (trifllih, Mu-ii. Bot. 311. The xvi-ds act m a drasUv 
ktive — half a one i^ a doM for an adult. Marti u» states 
that threa ur four will act powerfully on a horso. Journal de 
CUtm^ tvc ril. mp. 

CACTAOB.«. {Th- Indian Fig Tribe.) 

^TVvil very similar in its praperlies to that of the currant 
(nbw ; often rcf)-eshiii|{, xuRiutinies mueilagiuouit and insipid. 


CACTUS; PRICKLY PEAR, {Ojmntia ttihjaris, Mill. T. and 
Qmy. Cactus opuntia of £11. Sk.) (irowM in tiry pwt>Uirc8; 
Newbcrn. Fl. M&j. 

M^. «Dd dc L. DScl. de U. Med. v't, 11. Tho fruit is said to 
hv catnblv; ilia tunroit cut iranHvorNely an iippliod to (umun 
aa a diecutient; the d(.^cuctiun in mucilagiiiuuN. and I am in- 
ibrmed tbitt it is much nNod in Alalmron uk n drmulcont drink 
in pneumonic Kn<l plviirilit^ inHnminationtt. It« ciiHivntion baH 
been vecomiTii:'i)dt<d on aerount of the uichincal inF'Pct^ which ia 
Baid to feed on it. Mr. Wm. Hummer, of South Carolina, oop- 
tributo§ tho following; ts the lint of onr "expedients:" 

To Make JI'iTd Tallow Candks — To one pound of tallow 
take five or six icavoe of tho prickly poar, (Cactus opvntia,) split 
then), and hoil in tho tallow, without water, for half an hour or 
more; strain and mould the caudles. The wicka should have 
been previounly dSppod in Hpirlta of tiirpeittiiie and dried. If 
th« lalliiw at lintt is boilMl in water, and ihe water chang<Hl 
four or five times, it will be bU'achcd and rendered free from 
impurities. Then prepare, by frying with priekly pcais, to 
harden it. In thin way wc have madv tallow candles nearly 
equal to the beet adamantine. 

The priekly pitar has been genurally iiited (1863^ for harduninfr 
tallow, with Hatinfactory ri'sult". One pound in added lo four of 
tallow; a larger quantity make the candlen too brittle. It lakoa 
the placo of wax. I have ollen seen candles whieh wore made 
hard by ibim process, and it appears to bo a singular property 
possessed by this plant — and equally singular how it wan ever 
Aral applied for the purpose. 

COCHINEAL CACTUS, {Cactus cochinili/er.) Klliott says 
that it in pniliahU- that other K)ieeies exists but he does not [«• 
elude this in liin nketeh of the Bot. of South Carolina. Shecut, 
however, in bio Flora Carol. 319, remarks that "we ore indebted 
to Dr. Garden, of Houtli Carolipia, for tho discover)' of this Iroo 
hero," well known »« the one upon which the eoehineiil insect 
feeds. T. and Gray do not include it in ilieir N. A. Fl. The 
fruit tin^ces red the nrino of those who eat it; ani] the loAVea 
rvbbed up with bog's lard, are useful as a Uqiical application to 
prevent mortifleation. 



CKUCIFER.E. iTh£ Crwi/tnut Tribe.) 

tJodlvy aUit«e that (bo onivcnwl chiiract«riBtic of thiit onlor 
k tb« pOMceeioo of anu-§corbutic »ml stimulunt (jiialiiicM, torn- 
Vmti with ftn acrid flavor. Tbo Hpccip^ coiituin t« f^tx-at dvu\ of 
wtrog«a, to which is aUribated thoir animnl odor whoa 

PRI'PERGRASS ; VIRGIXIA C RKSS, {Ltpidivm Virffiiu- 
not, L.) Wpt ptiw-eti. If.O- Cuminon. 

It in aoitable to be used in winter and iinrly *[iriiig Maladit, but 
bflir leas Id requuiil than eomo of tho olhnr ercrnnv. t^uwinga 
tfcoaUl be mude in iiKbt, diy oarth. tbg bode protnuted with dry 
Btler during »ctciv uirilur. Kural Cyc. 

GOLD OF PLEASCRK; FALSE FLAX, (Cametina satitfa, 
Crsntz.) Kof'-rriHl to in CbajunaiiH Botiiny ol'Suiilhcni Stut«a, 
^ 30, as introdaccd, jfrowing in cuitivutwl fields. K. Hanover, 
X. C^ Cortis. 
8ae a paper in I'. U. noport on Agricultarc, 1^1, p. 51, on 
■ li* ■' CanielinH eativa — a new oil plant." In Bomo part" oi tho 
H world U ia cultivated for its Btenia, wbtoli yield a fibre applica* 
^M bla Ii>r A)>iai)iiig, und for it« oleift^rcmH tMudn. M6rat nays it ia 
^^Mltiratvd for ibi» purpose in Flnndcnf. 

^^^b(r. Wm. Taylor. F. L. S., hiM recently drawn tho atlcntion 

^^^r Bj^catiuruts and oibers to this as an of/ j^ant, adapted for 

feeding: cattle, and for oth^r purpoaofl. He saya that the soil 

beat adapted for ita oultivution ar« lliO!t« of a Itgbl nature, bat 

ta emp will never fail on lurid of tbc mOKl inforicir dcm^riplion. 
It hart been fbund lo tlouriitb thi» y«ar on ttandy BoiU, where fio 
flthvr v«gQtable woald ^row, and indopundeot of the drouth 
tba ptanta have ^^wn moH luxuriantly, yielding a large and 
ABtaio erop. When grown upon land that ha^ been long ia 
tSlap and well funntil. the crvp will he tno«it abundant- Tho 
baU time for putting in the eecd is as oarly as poenblo in tho 
(fkring months, nay from tho middle of March or the middle of 
April to Jane, and Tor ualumn sowing to Aogust ; and the 
^antity jM-r aero required, fonrloeii pound.-* ; and may hu eitlivr 
dhilnl or broadcast, bgi the drilled method should be preferred. 
If dniled. the rows munt hn twnlvc inches apart. As soon aa 
th« plants have grown five or Mix inches high, a band orhoraa 
kw may be oaed to cat up thi^ weeds between tho rows, and nu 


fVirthpr culture or oxpcnw will bo rwjnired. If Bovrti (wrijr, two 
crops may be I'reqaonily obtaini''! in one year, as it if fit lor 
barvwlint; io throe monttie aflor tho plant mak«e its first a| 
pearotiee. Or another important advantajru ma}' ho obtained ; 
if seed is sown early in Jllarch. the crop will be read}' to harvest 
in the be^aning of July, and the land fallowixi ibr wbe«t or 
spring corn) aUo when barloy or small sooda caaooi be sown 
sufflciontly early, this may be put in with givat miooeae. It is a 
plant that may be cultivated atler any corn crop, without doin 
tlic l«ast injur)' to the land, and may be tiowu with all norts o: 
olover; th& leaves of the ^old of pl&isttre, beiii^ parliculurly HinaU, 
aflbrd an unintorrupled growth to uvei-}' plant bem^uth it, jind 
iho crop being n-niKVud watly, thv vluvor haa tjmv lu i.!stubli»Ji< 


The growiT of this invaluable production is in all Beaeo&s 
secure of his crop, inasmuch as it is not subject to damage by 
spring fVosts, heavy rains, and dronth, and, above all, the 
ravages of insects, moi-e particularly the c-ubbage plant louso, 
(Aphis hnusiat,') wliich no frequently destroyn rape, turnips and 
Othertt buloiiging to tlio cniciferut ordur, wlivn coming into 
hlossom. The i^eed is ripu as noou un the pods change from 
groeu to a gold color. Care must then bo taken to cut it O! 
b«fore it beixtint.-B t4>o ripe, or nuich need may bo lost. When cut 
with u Hicklv, it is bound up in isheuvcH and shocked in the Aara« 
inum«r an wheal. The procci^s of ripening completed, it ti 
stacked or put in a barn, and threshed Uke other com. The 
ex[>unse of these ci-ops caunul he very gn-at, either in the ]>re|>- 
aration and culture of ihit land or in mnnagcnient in M>cn 
ing the produi^e ulU^rwnrd ; hut when grown with csrc and in 
good M(iaw>n. the produce will montly be very abundant — as high 
as thirty -two bushels and upward to tho aero. 

The cultivation of this plant for the seed would repay th« 
farmer; an abundance of chaff would he produced, which would 
be of infinite service for horses or for manure. In a grazing 
country like I'liigland, whuro vast HuniH are annually expended 
tor foreign oil cake, the gold of pleasure will soon be I'ouncl an 
oxcollcnt MulK'titnlv under manufacture, and consequently a 
grower would find a good romuncration in cultivating the seed. 
Tbe plant may bo conaidored a valuable production of the earth. 
A dne oil is produced for burning in lamps, in tho manufbcture 







if voallcn go(Ml«, in the inttniirnolni-u or mutps lor labricntiof; 
■irfciptfTy. aaii IVir paiiiti-ns. Thv oil uakc hnn i>c«n found 
UftUr nutritions id ihc rattening of tthc^p nnd oxoii, m il 
oautBsa ^T«at (lOrtlon of luuoilage aiid iiitrugcnuiui tnnttor, 
•Uefa, raotbinud togellwr, are found wry IxanciRv'tni i» dc- 
Tffeplnjp tkt dud le&n. from the experiments iibnv<- relatcil. 
It b alNinilAtill)' proved ibat il doe» not tiuflttr from tlie Mcvon^Mt 
ft*Mto, iu fuliugo nnt being iiijunil. It iti nut inftiilcd by iu(^cct«, 
Mr iloo it rxhsDMt tlie w>ii. 

Tb« gold of pli'nsnrc biu> l«-<'n c-iilUvitt4><I by »ovit4iI pnirlicul 
agriealtarsli»tt>, whu bigbly iippmvo of tbe nour plant, i-'or all 
tiMM mwoiu it i« bopvtl that every farmer will avail himsolf of 
ifcMVkhabk diM-overy an » rvmime rating rotation crop. Mr. 
Tlirlor Adda (hat one aerv vultivatoif witli th^^'iK- plants yield 
tkbty-two bosbelaorserd, tVoiii whicb five hundrwl and forty 
fowkof oil are obtained ; so that the C.*am«lina sc«ina to ex< 
eeed ihc llax in its produce of seed, oil and cake per acre. The 
Mr^j !■• cxirvnivly neb in iiulrimeiiU I know of no aveii superior 
twit for fi-«din£ eattle. Tbt- oil obtninetl by exprusnion iit Mwect 
^•4 excrllont, cr>pc<-ially tor jxirpOM-n of illumination. From lb u 
ntf MBsU quantity of inorganic matter in tbe i<ecd, it will be 
cfWkot that theseedcakemnHt beof a very nutritiowicharatitor, 
hmag meruly tbe seed deprived of a portion of lU wut^tr iin<l 
«ay matter. We have oxuuiined ^oine of lite oti obtained from 
tke acwl of Ibti C'lmcimit tiitira, and wliieb ban bM'ii rc(-i*nlly 
tmi to sereml medical men by Mr. Taylor, under Ihtt belief that 
it pooKBWM valuable mo'lioal pro pert !<.■!<. Il is of a yellow eolor, 
Md onells something like lin8ci-<! oil. Finding il of Hervite in 
r«ii«Ting iJte ineeasant congh of an animal, Mr. Taylor has 
ntcnded the Bse to the human subject, am] siatee that il haa 
tmrwi aaverul ]>erdon!ii affeeted with di»eaBed lungs and asthma. 

Id a brief notiee, P. 0. Rejiorts, 1^0, ia the following Mtate- 
•eat-. "Camelina sativa, (.Vuj/;ruin cati't'tiiiR,) a» annual from 
Fntaee. prodacex a finer oil for burning than rui>e, having a 
brighter flame, lew nmoke and i>CHr<i7ly any smell. It suvn-eda 
well in light, »^hallow. dry wiils; and in oiir Middle and Soutbem 
Slate* il would probably produce two crops in a mmsoii. Bc«id«i 
iW Wfi uf ihi- seeds for oil, the stems yield a coarse fibre for 
' a^Bg MM-ks and a rough kind of packing paper, and tbe whole 


plant may bo employed for th»U!hing. The culture is Bimilar : 
thstforfiax." Svc -'Ijiuum" in thU vuhimo. 

aTrei.irw»ivc i.TfiiuP I ^"P*^^'" Bui^t-pastom,Xa!tich and 
SUEPirERDS I'UliSb, 5<i«. Thtanpi. Linn.»iidEll.Sk. 

Grown in damp {lasturee) collwlod in St. John's i Nowbonx. 

Fl. May. j 

Kay'B Cat. Plimliiruin, 47 ; B«rgiU9, Mat. Med. ii, 389 ; Lofl 

Mat. Mod. i, 243 ; Mor am] d« L. Diet, de M. Med. vi, 732. It^ 

iuti'i:i^c-.4 and constipates ; Lon«c employed in dyoentopy, diarr- 

La» aiid bloody urine ; tbi' juicv pliiccd on a piece of cotton, 

and itiKiTtwl In the nostril, will ari-uHl hcmorrhag*. " Extenio 

vuhiL'ribiin nolidaiidiA adhibiutcr nec sine suo(!i'iwn." Fl. Soolica, 

US, Limi. Vcg. M. Med. 128. 

CRESS, (iSMyHiArium nasturtivm, L.und Kll. Rk.; /iVytmwin o^ 
Bot.) Nat. in tlu< upper pai't of South Carolina; vicinity o 
CharlcKtoii. VI. March. 

Fl. St'oticH, 351. Tin' jtmiig leaves rurniah an agreeable salad ; 
the plant wan vistccmcd iiitcrul lu* wn uiili-M^<irliutic, and wiLt em- 
ployed in removing obsti'iictions of tho liver, visoora, jaundice, 
etc. Thornton's Fani. Herb. 618. The juice aoM as a atimolant 
aud dturvtic. Uallersays: "Wo have seen patients in a deep 
declinu eiimd by liviug almost entirely on Ihcxo planta." Ac- 
cording t«> Tounirfort, thvjnicc, xnulfed up the noso, corvdcaaos 
of polypus of Ihat organ. See Edinburgh New Disp., Flora 
Med.iii, 138; Fliny. lib. xix,chap. 8; xx. chap. 13. Hofftnauaud 
Culleti Hpolcit highly of it ua furtii.thing a inucilaginoiU!! applicu- 
linti for the head!< of infants utfevted with eniptiontt. It waa 
acknowledged to havo an ulTeet upon the nialailiex of the skin, 
ongorgomoiit of the ubilominal viiwera when tho blood is d» 
pravvd, in feeble digestion, otc. XT. 8. I>i«p. 1226. This plant 
18 also vaunted in incipient phthsig, In chronic ealurrlm. in mida- 
dios of the bladder and kidiieyx, and in hyHterical affections. It 
contains a very bitter and odoriferous essential oil — Iho itooda 
yielding fifty-five per cent, of fixed oil- St^o De Cand, Pliya. 
Veg. i, 298; Journal G.m. dr Mod. xxviii, 136; BarWer, M. 
M<Sd. 242. Mnreau anHcrts that vertigo and ditteoloration of 
the iiuf aro prodttcx-d in those eating this plant; bift Ibis 18 an 
eflvrt unnoticed by othei-s. 


BEIMiB MtTSTAKD, (Siaymhrium ojjtoiwte. Fide Gray; Eri/. 
mmMM e^taiutle, Lin. and Kll. Sk.) 

This b not incliiilvd by Mr. Klliott in liia Sketcliee of Iho 
PtuiU of Sooth Carvtiiia. )l wn* one of thv apneimons »cnl tn 
Fntaeaot tirajr, and dotermiiipi) hy him ; culU-ct«d in Ht. John's 
B«rfc«le]r; Charlroton DiMrict; Xorth Ciirnlina. Thu herb is 
aid b> tra diaroiic and cxpM.-umitit ; llio iwvdaposHcuuit-dnwdvr- 
able pungency, and Iiavo Innin ix^C'imini'iidvd in vhrunic cough, 
koarwDccBaad ult^rution of the monih and Taucm; thu jaivs 
of ike plant in honi'y or tho koo^Iii in siilixtancv may bo osvd. 

WATER BADISU, (AsymArium auipkit>iHm,h.'} Bate; toots 
innencd ; collected on caurowsy nv«r Brunswick PL, T. W, 
PrvreSi, ia St. John'fi; vicinity of I'barieHton. 

Mrr and du I/. Diet, dc M. HM. vi, 36.V lU«omrnonded for 
tapv-worm by Didolol, and in tliv old workt* as an anti-i»corl>ulio. 
Herat says thu "yonng Icatm arc itiitable in the spring; probo- 
Vij pnmcased of MUiilar propi-rtii-^ with the & nastvrtium." 

WATER CRKSS, {Aoafwrtiitni oficinaU, R. Br.) Introduced. 
Dtt«bM Florida, and northward. Chap. N. 0. 

This plant came into pretty high favor about a century ago 
a> a stprmg satad ; and it Boon obtained preference to all other 
spring salads on account of iu agreeable, warn, bitter tu«tc, 
aad (br the sake of its purifying. anli-»corbulic and diatelic 
propettie«. It was greedily gathered in all its natural hnbitate 
within some miles of London tiir the supply of the Ixindon mar- 
ket, and eventoally became an object of regular, peculiar and 
WBMwhat extennve caltivation ; see methods, ot«., WilBoit'n 
Barwl Cyclopedia. 

UDSTARD,(.V)'N'jpi>n(^r(i.) Cultivated throughout the Bouth. 
Tb^-rspeutic virtues well known. 

Mnstard ii> a hardy annual, eulttvuted as a small valad for 
(TMBS. and for the seed, which arc pxtonKivcly employed for 
nedKioal parposes. The demand for ihc production of thia 
plant, on account of the value of secda as a local irritant, should 
fadaee cverj- planter and Ihnner to grow it. Enormous ignnnti- 
tica are required to Huppty armies; bciiides that, it i» liirgely 
COimmed in every hotiveliold. The white nin>>tiird I have seen 
cattivnted on uur {iluniaiionK, and, maturing curly in June, ia 
fully c<)Ual in Htmiigili to tlic imported artii-le. It ia very eaaily 
ground or powdered, and uned like RngliMh muntard. 


Thil common tabU' miiftaril it< propitrct) Tmni llitt tlour nf tho 
M»d. For aalitd, il w t(own thii^lcly, und iitint liki^ coiumon cress. 
"Sowpurly ill Iho spring in two fot-t dHllx, nnd thin to nix 
invhos. Tho crop muHt tio gulbcrod bcforo it in fully ripe, on n 
clondy day or early in ibo morning, to provont lUc seed firom 
shelling out." 

The "wliiw" is usually preftrred for salftd, and tb« soods are 
eacon whole an a remedy for impaired digeeiion. The leaves of 
tbia are light green, mild and tender when young; tho Beed 
light yt'Uow. The " bliifk " or "Wown " is a liirgtr )i1ant, with 
mut;1i (lurkor Icnvcs. "Sel^dIt brown, and more pimgttnt." 

For tho medical nscn of tlu-.w planln, any of Uic workK on 
tho matma medicn will supply iDformatlon nndcr the head 

Mustard seed oil. wys Urc. in hii« Diet. Art* and Sciences, p. 
28a, concretca when cooled a lililo below 32° Fahrenheit. Tho 
white or yellow seed afford thirty-six per cent, of oil, and the 
black sood eighteen per cent. 

Tbo ii-ader inten«ted in the cuitnre of mustard can find some 
inTormation in Wilson's Kural Gyc. Ue quotes fKim s prixe 
essay by T. C. Btm-ongbes in 7th volume Koyal Ag. Soc. The^ 
field culliire of biHli the whilu and hiack munUrd '» practiced'^ 
for the prodnctiun nf their seeds, with a view cither to the ox- 
prcKSJon of oil tVom them similar to that of ciole and rape and 
[>oppy. or to the obtaining of oil cake for the use of cattle, or to 
the grinding them into the well known condimental and medi- 
cinal flour of muHtard, or to several other economical and 
pbarmticeutitia! pvirponus. The crop is raaped, and tied in 
HheeT«ut like whral. and in afLi-rward threshed oat upon cloths 
In tbo ticld in tho same manner as culo. White mustard i; gen- 
erally laid in bandfuls on the shuttle, and not tied op. The 
black mustard is hardier than the white. The quantity of oil 
obtained from any given weight of black mustard seeds ia 
greater than thai obtained fVom the same weight of coles; but 
the oil oake itt slightly purgative, and requires to be given to 
cattle with cautian, and in commonly ground and sprinkled on 
their cliatf. Wilxon also states that the Hour of mustard from 
the hwuds of black niuslnrd. is miicii more pungent, nnd of much 
finer quality than that Iriim the seeds of white mustard. It !tt 
ktill the kind most eommonly used in Franuc ; but it rMinire« to 

be Buuinfu;iur«(I by ■ nice mccliatiicitl practtw of nuDoring tlio 
Mit«r sktnit of tbo iMHMift, »r flue ii lui* ■ grayish or vory 'iark 
color ; Rod, in fact, il ic never no prepared &» to bi> entirely 
fr«*4 from it« graytKbncw. Th« flour of while Diustsnl is gea' 
«nUy vsed in Bntsin in conHoqaonc« of it« fioe color, and iho 
iBpcrior &ciUty of msDUfacturing it. It is ofion duximI witli 
ikn btsok. Kami Cyc Tb« mctJiod of depriving tli« btuvk 
■wtard 6«ed of its eDT«lop 1 bavo been unable to obtain. 

Warm waivr m always tbe best addition to muitlard to didt 
tbe Tolatile oiL Vinegar liMisena its pungency. 8et< Tromwati's 
Bxperimdits. Mustu-d has bvi-n highly i-c«oniioeudi-d tutu aub- 
cUlBte fiir tko spring I'obta nnd other plants, to be usmI in tbo 
(trodaelion of oil. "Both npiM-tesi," whit« nnd bloc-k. yield oil, 
Thairtky* in his Prinvipk-« ot Agrk-ullurc, "which in well 
■iaptcd for burning; and alto, whvn wdl ptiri6ed, lor tho use 
f4 the tablet. A quintal of musiurd swd yields from thirty-flix 
to thirty-eight pounds oi oil. Thv biting iitridity of tbe seed 
Kzuta oot in the oil, bnt in tbo intc^gnmcnt ; and the KuglUh 
■utard. which is celebrated for its strength, is said to be niudo 
Amb cakes from which tbe oil has been expro6>«ed." Among 
Ike plaala mentioned by Thstr as valuable for tbe oil in their 
aeed, mre the oily r«diHl), (Htij/htmus duMtrasis olei/ervt,) tho sun- 
flower, and tbo common poppy, {Papaver mmni/crum ;) the oil 
from lh« wbidvMcdeii variety i« prt'fvrablo on account of iut 
UbUl See Thaer also tor descriplious of tbe caltivation of 
flaxseed, hemp^ hops, madder, be«t8, etc Many plants, the 
Mcds of which yield oil, are used in making oil eak» for (igri> 
cnhnrml purposes, and as food for animals. The Hunlluwer, 
which yields a largo quantity of seed to tbe acre, will, it in said, 
famich one gallon of oil to tli« busliel. See "Cultoo," "Flax," 
«tc^ in this volnme. 

1 obtain ihw following, ou the cultivalion of mustard, from 
tk« farmorii' Cycloputdia: 

Tbe species ot'tiitapu, generally grown in the kitchen garden 
far domestic purposes, are the white mustard, {S, aita,) and the 
cammoa or black niuslard, (&'. nigra.) The first ia the one 
grown for salads; but the seed of both Is employed in the 
manafactare of mustard. 

The soil tbcy succeed iu be«t, U a fine, rich, mouldy loam, in 
wbicb tbo supply of moisture i« regular; il may much rather 


infilinc b> lightnosfi than ton«cily. If grown for flaladinj;;. it 
noo'i not be dug deep; but if for Mod, to full the deptb of the 
blade of (lie Apade. In early spring and late in autumn, the 
Biloation rtbould bv sliellered ; and, during Uir Iivigbt of Hum- 
mer, shaded from llie meridian «un. For Kalnding, th«! whito 
mny bo nown throughout the y«ar; from tho boginning of No- 
vember to the Mmc period in Man.-h, in n gentle hot-bod appro- 
priated for the purpoHo, in one already omployod for imma other 
plant, or in the oomer of a. stove. From the cloae of February 
to the close of April, it may be i^own in the open ^^roniid, on a 
warm sheltered border ; and from thence to the middle of Sep- 
tember in a shady one. Both the white and the bla«k, for 9e«d, 
mny tio xown ut the cto»c of March, in an open vompurtment. 

For salading, it i» nowti in Ital^botlomed drilU, about half an 
inch deep and nix imdutfi iipiirt. The !*eod cannot well be sown 
too thick. The mould which covers thu drill» should bo entirely 
dlvesied of Htoiicit. Water must ho ((iven occasionally in dry 
weather, as a due Miipiily of inoiaturo is thi* chief inducement 
to a quick vegetation. The sowingK lire to hu performed onuo 
or twice in a fortnight, according to the demand. Crena (Lcpi- 
diunt sativum) i» Ibo almost conntiint accompimimenl of thix 
salad herb; and, as the mode of ciiltivatioo of each is identical, 
it U only necessary to remark, that, as cresn is rather tardier in 
vegetating than nmpliird, it is necL-ssary for obtainiiij; them 
both in perfection at the name time to sow it five or six days 

It must bo cut for use while yonng, ani) bofore the rough 
loaves appoiir, otherwise the pungency of Ihc Havor in diiis- 
grocably incroasod. if the top is cut otf, the planiH will, in 
general, shoot again; though thif« second produce is alwaya 
scanty, and not so mild or tender. For the production of seed, 
whether for manuractnru of mustard or future sowing, tho 
iniiei-tion must he made broatleusl. thin, and regularly raked in. 
Wbvn the seedlingH have attninetl four leavea, they should be 
hoed, and again after the lapne of u month, during dry weather, 
being net eight or nine inohei* apart. Tliroughout their growth, 
they must be koptfVoefrom weeds; and if dry weather occurs at 
the lirae of flowering, water may be appliod with great advan- 
tage to their roots. The plants flower in June, and arc lit for 
ctitting when tboir podt> have become devoid of verdare. Tboy 



tthoroaghly dried before ittraithing and storing. Kor 
ll|t, Uu Med U mo»l coiivouionlly nown in Ikixi:.! oi* |tADB, 
if a bot-bud is ii)>])n>priated l»r lla* |>urpi>)(c. Pnns of 
ntLtn tao am to ht preferred to pota or boxes o( mould. Ual, 
vkklMMror ix cmpInyiH), (he M-ed miiHl bo Mxvn tbitk, and other 
KMUiclioiw attt-mti-'l In, lui lor tliv opoti i^rotind crop*. Tlio 
bat-b«d axx4 only bv moderRtfi. Ah' miiy be Bdmittod as abmid- 
iBtljr an circumsUDccs will allow. 

CAPPARIDACE.E. (The Giper Tribt.) 

CAPBR TREE, ( Cupparit Spint»i.) Thi--- i^anl, cnltivatwl in 
GrMC«,«>ie toDisn twlnn, Pmnco, Itidy, cU-., Him also been intpo- 
fc ot d iato ihi« country. The (lowor buds arc collected and put 
iatoMlt and vin«f;ar. Sou Patent ORici- Itoport, IS55, p. 286, 
fBra bri«t' notice of tbo cultivation and preparation. In the 
SovUiera States we have the C. Jomaieenda, Jaey, and C. cpna- 
pUUofkottL, L., growing in «»ut)i Florida, ll ia pOHi<ibltt that 
thqr may be nacd as Hab»tiiuti» for the foreign eapvr. 

VIOLACKJi. {The Violet Tribe.) 

Boots more or leas emetic; a pmpeHy whieh prevatltt to a 
grtaier exlvnt in the South "pccii.'s, which arc genor- 
■Qj- IcM herbaix-oim. 

VIOLKT. ( Viola pfdata, Mich.) Found in the upper di». 
trirtA, spartnglv in the lower; Richland, L. (iibbtw. X. C. PI. 

U. a Dij-p. 753; Griffith, Med. Bot- 140. The rootaof neariy 
■B tfae ypecies of this ^cnns possess a nutritive and an emetic 
principle, coiled vMint, allied to that of ipecacuanha, but mor* 
mccrtain in its operation. This i« natd to replace the European 
plaal, and, according to Dr. Bigclow, in valuable as an vxpcvio- 
nat and demakuut in pevtoral affertion?. 

PIF.LD riOLRT, ( HcAi anvnais, D. C.) X 

Griffith, MeJ. Bot. 141. This and the I', tricolw, of which it 

I a variety, hare received oonaiderable attention (Vom Hnro- 

Ipcan wTit<>rs, e^>ecially the nennan. Strack made them the 

■b^t of a discuMsiou in ITTii, and i«ince Uien the ob««rvations 

IfffiUer, Cloquet and othcra have shown that they are poa- 


soijHcd of niuc-h rffioucj in the- triMitmwnt of culancoux ilUrniti: 
and ospcdiilly of that obsltitatc anil iinpk-a«itnt orupfion, cruiite 
Uct«a. Tho flrcsh plant, or ite Juico, k to be usod, no drying 
defttroys ite active qualitiM. Slv«ck staUis that, when tin 
remedy lia§ been given for Bom« time, the urine beoomoB o] 
trcm<^ly fetid, Kiiielliiig liku that of tlie cat ; op. cit. tupra. At 
t«Dtion if) invited to it. Sisc V. (n'co/or. 

WILD I'ANSY. UKARTSEASB. (rio(a*r*M(«-,Linn.) C 
livated in gardens. N. C, Fl. May, 

Ti-oua. et Pid. Traite <Ie Therap. et de Mat. Med. ji, 15 ; V. 
BiH. 743; Le Hut. Med. ii, 453 ; <irill1t]i 40; Thornton 'a P« 
Horb. 731. It watt formerly c^msidcrod a valiialilu remedy 
epilopsy, tdccrn) and ncirrhus. Soo Stonk dc V. triwilor. B 
lang. ItSS. Mother lic crustca UiMca i&tantum, vjonilcm qi 
i-ojnodio pnetnio uoronavit. 1776. Lond. Med. Journal. 
haiidf\il of the fW>!iih, or one ounce and a half of tho dried he 
waa boiled in luilk, which was taken twice a day ; bread soaki 
ill tJiirt waa aliu) applied to the ulfectod parta. It waa mu< 
botuitixl of ai> a n-mcdy in the latter diMiiaHe; »vv Mer. and <li 
Ij. and the Art. V. arvcnxin Iliir;^iu«, npe.alcitig of thesu Iwi 
Mayi tliul half iin ounoe in iwolvii of water produGos ft noRtiist£i| 
and valuable dcmnlocnt jelly. 

HAND-LKAVED VIOLET. (F*Wa/)aim.ifa, Linn.) Collect* 
in St. John'a; vidnity of Cliarlo«ton ; Ncwbern. Kl. Uaivh. 

Kll. Bot, 300, Mwl. Notes. The plant in very mucilaginot: 
It is employed by negroes for making soup, and ii« wnnmonl 
cjiUed wild okra. Tho bruised leaves sro|UHod an an cmolli' 

COMMON BLUE VIOLET, {Viola CMCullata, k\\..) Gw 
in damp pine landa ; oolkoted in St. John's; vioiuity of Charl 
ton, N. C. Fl. May. 

ThiH plant haA been uHod for making t«oup during war tiiQ' 
To it may be added tho wild okra, the duck and the lamb'l 
quarter. i 

Le. Mat. Mod. i. 223. Probably poHSOHH<>d of similar propen 
ties with the others; a decoction i« given to children in cruptivj 
dioea^ieA. These planlH might very convjeuiently be used i% 
dome»ti<; praciiec, and I would invite attention to their l\irthetf 


CYSTACEjE. {/twJi Jiose Familn.) 

eamoJaue, Ux.) FU. anil N. C. and northward. 

Pr. Wc». of X. Havt-'Tt, fii-iit rvcoinmuudcil it in scraAiIa, and 
Dr. TnMC Parriah, of Pliiliuia., inlVtrmud Dr. Wood timl lie Itad 
Mod it with mnvh apparvnl bt^ni'fil uk an intumul nimvdy tn 
•crofaloaA mtltKlumf ol'lhi; vyn. In ii panijihlrl upon thu Frost- 
«««d by Dr. D. Tyler, ptibli.thwl at N. Haven, 18-lB, it is sUted 
th«t U. e^tynbosun pooHciwen «tiniliir pn>|>crltrH. Hu found 
hrth qtMries awful in »<.-r(>ruta, diiirrlnL-u anil itevondary- iiy])bilia, 
«ttd lotaUlj as ■ S^rgU- in warlslina, and a wa-^Ii in pruri^ 
Tbi plant baa bci^n uiwd in the fonas ot* powder, dt-vuctiun, 
UKtaro and ayrup; and may bo given ft-i<«Iy with impanity. 
Dr. Tyler, howover, has known the strong dt-coctiou and th* 
extract to produou vomiting. Hv conaidum twu grainn of tho 
latur 10 a fall done for an adtitt. The hurh ban an aKiringcnt, 
ilq^tly aromatic and bittcriith tjutr, atid appear:! to poaaess 
Imie and astringent propertiea. Dr. Wood sayti that attention 
ka* only bc«ii attracted recently to it as a medicino. U. & 
Ihip. IZtb Ed. 

Dr. Parrisb, in bis Pract. Pharmacy, p. 231, fumishes a iyrap 
of (hit plant whtdi he my* was nimrli umtd by I>r. Ixiiac Par- 
mfa in ftcrofuloas alTocIioni) of ibo cyoe, and by othera in 
diaeafl«9 of tho scrofuloos typ«. Four ounces of the horb, 
MXte«n<Miur«» of su^ar are boiled down with alcohol and water, 
till the liquid la reduced one-half; given in dosvs of a fluid 
dvachm three timen a day. 

DBOSRRACE-K. iT%e Sun Drw Tribe.) 

Plants generally lightly avid ; acrid and polaonoua to cattle, 
6l'N UEW, (Drostra rotun'li/otia, Linn.) Grows in damp 
■pou to the low oonntry of South Carolina; Richland j col- 
lected in St. John's ; Newbern. Kl. June. 

Bull. PlantM Veu di- France, Vic-al raentioni it at an active 
and rurroAive plant; the liquor which exudoH from tbu bain 
destroying warta, conu, etc. Dent, fil^in. de Bou il, 334. II. 
G«olIbM ttJiAerts that it in a valunbUi pectoral, employed iu nicore 
ef the lungs, asthma, etc.; tho infiiNion b<ang gniierally used. 
Tbe Jaice ha* been recommended in dropsies, dinoasee of tlio 


kfdtiefO, o|)tillia]mifis, etu. Mi-r. ami tie L. Oict. de M. ilM. I 
fi90. SIhh-., in hid FUmi Carol. 51!l, i-on6rn)» tliu opinion in 
ntfori'tifn to the coitokivc property of tJie juico, iind adds thai, 
Willi milk, it furnisiiea » Bafo appliciiiion for remoritig freckles; 
any part of it will curdle milk. Ft. Sooiica, 109. Il is tliou^Iit 
to bo wry irijurioun tu nhi-'i'p, producing in thiirn vuusiimptioti 
or roL M. Bi^rlaoc affirmH (E<4i)iji>«t. Hint. Bot. Aug.) lhale«ltle 
avoid it on aM-Miiiit uf aii inHtxa (Hydra liydatula) wliioli feeds 
on it. Tlii» plant in quito dimitiativc, und Iiah horotoforo 
roceiv«d vory little attention. I mo no mention tnado of it in 
onr Am. Dispensaioriea. 

PASSIKLORACE.E. (The. Passion flowtr Tribe.') 

fiofa tutea aad incarnata, L.) Gn>wN in pnntiirt-H, piitxim. 

The fVuit. u)' tliUKi? Iioautifiil clitnbirii; plnnti>, which itlirmld not ' 
he cotif[)iindi!il with the wild Jaiiip, {Pmlnphyllum,) somulimc* 
calltid may apple and jpx^wiog Iti nth wourl», eontalna a HwcctiKb, 
acid ]>nlp, and is eatable. Several of tbe Hpcfios ar« employed 
in medicine; but tht-se have received no attention, being more 
remarkable on account of the structure of their flowers. One 
is 4}nito dimtimlive. In mime portions of SouLli Carolina llta 
weed tit need ari greens and liir making xDiip. 

Ill fi paper in liichniond M, Joiirniil. for July, ISlii, Dr. J). \i. 
Pharei*, of Newlonia, MiHii.. recoramcnds the May pop vory 
highly a« a remedy fijptetanu?. He states that in 1838, Dr. W. B. 
Tiindsay, of La., had directed his attention to it. and that "he 
used it for ihirty years with extraordinary siiece§s in all cases 
oS tetanus neonatorum." Dr. L. itayH it never Htujielteit, bat is 
serviceable in "all Bi)rl!i of mmralgii- itffeelions." He al»o ein- 
ploys the ac|Utfoii« oxtniet i)f the ri)Ot ua an application for' 
ohancn-^H, in irritable pileH, for crysipdo" and roceiit bunts. 
The odojjy is couched in rather extravafiant termn, 

Tbe author dii-ects that the leavus should bo ;tathercd in May, 
or before forming iVuit; it is poundud and the juice expressed 
through a stixing doth into shallow glass or porcelain dishes to 
dry a» rapidly a« portwibk- in the Mhttdi\ When dry il Is reduced 
to powder in a mnrtar, botlled and idosely corked. Thtf dowe 
of this powder it from one to lour teaspoonnfii!, repealed. For 
external use, the wboto plant, including the mot, may be boiled 


far AB bottr, tbe extract thus nhtjuiieii Ircing furlhor Iwilod down 
to m pn>per consiotcnM. 

I tkay add that Griffilb, in hU Mod. B<)t., mfcn tu thv odibic 
£rnt of the P. ^uadraitgvlaris. or tirauadilla, aud in epcnking 
■jf tb* foreign species he saj-s: "In a medical point of view, 
Xhej ar* alM> of some interest, being posse^acd of active quuti- 
ii«»ca{ml>l« uf fulfiting a variety of indioatioiia, thougb it should 
h*w>tioe«l Utal our itiformalion in regard to ibem i^ far fi-oni 
iAiite. Till; only m»iiioir on tbe subject, dv.-wrviiig of notice, 
Htfaat of Dr. Rioonl Madiana (Joum. de Pharm. xvi, and Ann. 
Ltc Nat. nisU 1,) on tUo P. qaadraiti}.; u dccot^tion of the root 
•f tbi« he found to be poinonons, acting lilio a nai'cotic ; he dls- 
corerad in it a peculiar prini;iplc which bo kiAH faaifiorine." 
Bnvn, in his tlist. of Jamaica, eays a tincture of the lloweni 
oTtlie F. nJjra ie used a>t a MiUtitnte for laudanum. Tli« 
czpcrieQc«. therefore, of Dr. Pharc*, with reference ut our ^>e- 
t^Cf^ »hi>ald encourage othore to tost their valuc^ 

HTPEKICACK.B. {The TaUan Tribe.) 

Tbe juice of many of the iipeoie* i« >i)ii;htly purgalive and 

ST ocTPD'ii \vn»T I AtcuTHtn Crvx Andrta, W. 
»l. rblBK».«Uttl, f ^^yrvn. mwHiViiutr, Mx. 

Collected in pine land mils; .St. John's; vicinity of CharleA- 
KewboTD. V\. July. 
infoMion of the bruisod root and bntnctiea of thi? plant 
WM nsed by an Indian with sucoeea in the cuho of a female, 
■ader my observation, with an ulcerated breaxt, which bad t«- 
•nated all other attt*mptit at relief. I have iiinco Men it employed 
«it& entire HatiAfu-tion on the pcnwn of an infant, having a 

tpal&nil cnlargcnienl of the «ub-maxillary gland. Ko farther 
dpportDDily ha9 been aftbrdod of ascertaining il« propertiee 
vbli ocrlainty ; bat it Menu to be poaseaaed of sionie power oa 
a reaolvent in diiicuF*ing tumors, and rvduiMng glandular on. 
ku]getnenia; given intvnially and applied X>picjdly. The taate 
itaoinewbat acrid. I would invite further examination. So« 
fffpfri'-viH perforatum. 

ST. JOI1NS.WORT. (Jlt/pmeum pa-foratum, h.) Sparingly 
MtaraliMd in the Southern •States. S. and N. C. 


It was greatly in vogue ut one time, and was thought to 
cure dcmutiiacs. Tlio dotoc-tioii was also given in hysturia and 
BupprcHsed menstruation. Thornton'H Family Herbal, 67. Tho 
eolorinff matter gives a good dyo to wool. 

The plant called St. John's-wortj which t think is Asnynim 
cruxandreii'; growing abundantly tliroughoul our country, is 
popularly regarded as of givat value, bruised and appiitid in 
tho iiealiny of wounds, and as a diHeiiliont. I have known a 
decoction of tho whole plant used tiueecsK; fully aa a local appli- 
cation in prurigo and in "c-amp itch," lamp oil being also 
upjilicd alternately with it. I have used it with great satisfac- 
tion (1868) without the oil. 

Wilson wtates that its leaves and flowers are strongly i-csini- 
fcrous or oleiferous, and emit a powerl'ul odor when rubbed ; it 
bleeds under very slight compression or wounding, and imparta 
a blood-red color to any spirituoun or oleaginous suhstarico Avith 
which it is mixed, and was fonuerly supposed to possess the 
power of healing wounds, bi'uihcs and eontusious. It is the 
Fvga Divmonium. he adds, of old herbalists, and was lield to 
influence conjurntions and enchantments. It yields a good 
yellow dye to woven fabrics, from its flowera, and a good red 
dye from its leaves. The juice of the hypericums are often 
oxceedhigly similar to gamboge. Itural Cyc. The plant lias a 
resinous odor, and Dr. Darlington says is believed to produce 
troublesome sores on lioi^cs and horned cattle, especially those 
which have white feet and noses. The dew which collects ou 
the plant appeurs to bectmie acrid. Florii Cost. Farmers' 
Fncyc, I found the same impression prevailing in Powhattan 
County, Va. There it is known to cause blindness in horsea 
and troublesome sores on the legs, particularly in white horses 
with delicate skins. Dr. John Harvie, of Va., informs mo that 
five of his were made blind by this plant in ono season They 
sometimes recover. The plant proves injurious by being eaten 
with hay, and it gets in contact with the skin or tbe eye when 
the animal ia brows-ng. Seo Ascyrum cruxandrete. 1 find that 
Griffith also, in speaking of If. perforatum, says that it is ob- 
served to exercise " an injurious effect on cattle by inflajniog 
tho skin wherever the skin is white, but he is inclined to attri- 
bute this to a species of Euphorbia gi-owiTig with it." This 
opinion was entertained by some persons in Virginia, Tho ear- 

lier writers attributed to the St. John'a-wort gitat virtues ae & 
tebritiige and antlielmintic. Id thic> country, adds Dr. Griffith, 
"it 14 only uwd to maku &d oil or ointmeut, which is aaid to be 
an exrellent application in ulcera, the reduction of tumore, etc. ; 
uid from Aome trials with it, we are disposed to think favorably 
of it. It is made by infusing the flowers in oil or lard until 
these substances arc tinged of a red color. The first of these 
preparations, though perfectly fluid at first, has a tendency to 
solidity when kept." It is obsci-ved by Cullon, in his Mat. Mod. 
173, " we should not be so audacious as to neglect it, for by the 
»eni<ibte qualitieit it appears active," "and there are many well 
Touched testimonies of its virtues, pai-tienlarly of its diuretic 
p-fwers." Blair, in Am. Jonr. Phar. ii, 23, says its active con- 
•ititnents appear to be on acrid, resinous substance in the whole 
plant, a red oil furnished by the glands on the petals and some 
tannin. A tincture of the flowers and leaves are used in stom- 
arh complaints. M. Dnssauce. in his Treatise on Tanning, 1867, 
says that th^ flowers and flower tops may be used for tanning 

PISE WEED; ORANGE GRASS. (Bypericum sorotKra, 
3[ii:h., T. and G. Sarothra ge.Ktianouie.i Linn, and Ell. Sk.) 
Grows in dry pastures; collected in St. John's; vicinity of 
Charleston ; Newbem. Fl. July. 

>Ier and de 1. Diet, de M., 226 ; Journal de Med. Ixxx, 
360. It is employed as an aperient in inflammatory affoc- 

ACERACE/E. {The Sycamore Tribe.)' 

RED MAPLE, (Acer ruhrum, Linn.) Diffused. 

Shec. FloraCarol. 80. The wood is much used in the manu- 

CKlure of "Windsor chairs, gun-stocks, etc. ; the grain is some- 

iIrk.-:- boautifully curled. In a communication received from J. 

DuuglasA, M. D,, of Chester District, S. C, his correspondent, 

Mr. McKeowii, states that the country people consider a strong 

dec(K-tion of the hark, witb white sugar, used as a wash, a safe 

and certain cure tor ordinary ophthalmia. Some of the inhabi- 

tant.1 f*t' the Western States make sugar by boiling do%vn the 

up (if the white maple, which, .however, like that of the red 

maple, yields only half the proportion of sugar obtained from 

the juio" of the Migar maple. Farmer's Encyc. 

H. IkilHIIMlO >n tiiM ''CompMo Trcatioc on tbo urt of Tan- 
ning," 4fii;,-td67, Htatoa thai lh«Hap or juices of "mapic, bcecb 
anduttlc" forniah tannin. 

SUGAR MAPLE. f.4«r sacctiarinum. Linn.) Var. Florid 
nvm, found in soutli Florida. Chap. Diffused, bnt mora abund 
ant in tbe upper districts ; found sparingly at tlic head wat 
of Cooper Kivor, St. John's, Borkuley ; N«wt»ern, N. C 

Slioo. Flura Canrl. 9(1. Puru floku manna lia« boi.*n iliAr-ovcivd 
in tbis specie^ Sugar I'xtractod from it i« an article of li-ado ; 
it is employed m<.-di<:inaUy ulrto. The wood is otlcc-mcd in tite 
mannfnclnrcof saddlt^trouK. Thoii^in o( tho wood is fine and 
close, nnd vrhou polisli«d it bas a ftillcy lustro. 

The timber of old U«ea is extensively used in America for 
inlaying maliogany, and it possesttc-t, in iiti cminont dugn-L*, the 
same kind nf hird'A-uye mnrkings which (listingtiifb tho timber 
of the Norway maplo. The wood is heavy and ntn>nB, but not 
dnrabk\ The a«hce arc very rich in alkaline matter, and fur- 
nish a large proportion of tho potash which is imported lo 
Karope from New York and Boston. Rural Cyc, I have seen 
tho suf^r maple boxed as low down as Middle Virffinia, but 
have never beard of any sugar being nmde from the tree iu 
States Muth of Virginia. Maple and sweet gum harks, with 
copperas, will dye a purple color; mapio, red oak biirlc nnd cop- 
pons to Rx it, will dye dove color ; maple, with bark of black 
walnut, (Juglang nigra,) gives a brown color; sweet gum, with 
copperas, yields a color nearly black. See, also. " Qacrcui, " 
"Sopea," «te. See BouNsingault's Treatise, "Rural Keonomy, 
in its Relation to Chemistry, Physics, " etc., p. 12ft. fbr valua- 
ble tnstruetion on euttivation, production, etc., of augar from 
maple, beet, etc.; also, Ure's Oielionnrj- of Arw, Mnnufuetnrcn 
and Mines, article "Sugar, heet, " etc. Wilson, in his Rural 
Cyc, arlicio " Acer, " which tho reader may consalt. ritatOK that 
the sap of the maple also contains ammonia, and has, there- 
fore, all the conditions for forming the nigrogenous coinponentA 
of tho branches, leaves nnd blossomit; and in proportion as 
these parlH of the tn?e are developed, it grailnally loni-s its am- 
monia, and when thoy are completely fnnncii it ceases to flow, 
Kiiral Cyc. Liehig diKCovercd that ammonia was emitted from 
this juice when mixed with lime. Tho sugar crystalized ftpon- 



UBWHiKlr. Tbc Aiuerioan practice nlth th^ sugar mcpli; l» to 
ban two au2«r bolen, ikree-fonrths of an ineb in diumntor, nn<) 
Wf An io(--b dt>i.-|>er iban the bsrk. id an obUqiii-ly iiitouuiling 
iGt«et)on,on tbo aoiitti iiirle of tbe tree, at ihu bvigbtof uboiit 
eiclit4«a or twenty tiiobm fraiii tbe gi'tiund, in fcbrnary or 
March, wbilo the snow in on tbvgratind, nnd ibe cold i* Htill in- 
tcaao, uid to insert into llio bole.-' eblc-r or !>uiii»i: tnbcx, [lartiiil- 
\y laid opvn, eight or ten itii-bc<> in longtb uiid thrco-funrllis of 
■ft imb in diameter, (ximmuDtcaitiiig al the lower end with 
tRMgbaof two or tbrco gnllons in C9i|i:tcity, for the rorciition 
tt ihe Hip. Four jjallone nri< udhuIU- sultlcient (o yield ono 
inBtMi oT BUftar; and eight to Bist««D gallODs are usuallj oV 
talned in a ^eiiiwn ft^m a BJngk tree^this must depend upon 
ttolocftlity. Qp. eit. I inwri the I'oUowiiig from tho Kariufr'ii 


"Id a nwtral sitiiaiion, lying vnnronicni to thv Irevf from 
«Uc^ tb« aap Is dnwn. a shod is oon»lruct<-d, culled a stigar- 
iWBp. which ih destined to sbelt«r the boilera and tbe pertons 
«bo t*nd them from tlio weather. Ad anj^er, thi-ce-fourths of 
an ineb in diameter, small tronfib to receive the eap, lubes of 
(Uer or «iinao. eight or ten inches long, corre^jranding in siss 
to tbe ftDgnr, and laid o]M>n for a part of tlieir length, bucketa 
ftir emptying tbe irooghti and conveying the rap to the camp, 
hoOefsof dlYeen or eighteen gallr>iis <-u{>a<'ity, munldi to rctrelve 
tbe •vmp when redueed to a proj>er con'vinteney tor being Ibrm- 
W into eakeo, and. lastly, axes to cut and split the fliel, are the 
yri D nip ^l nteiiaiU employed in tbe oporalioo. The trees are 
fMfcrftt«d in an iib!i(|u<.-ly UAcending direction, eighteen or 
tw«atr inches from the groand, with two holet* four or fire 
laebes apart. Care «honld be taken that the augera do not 
Mter more than half an inch within the wond. as experience 
bw shown ibe moat abnndant fiow of sap to take place at this 
4^b. It is alw recomraended to imterl tbe lubes on tbe south 
•fa of the trM ; bat tbi« omAiI hint ia not always attended to. 

" A tniflgh it ptacod on the groand at the foot of eaeh tree, 
kad tb«! sap ta STory day (»llected and temfMirarily {foared into 
cmIti. fKfta which it ia draws ont to fiti tbe boiltiK The erapo- 
ntioa ia kept up by a brisk fin, and tbaacam i« earcfully taken 
eff darinir Lh>* t"^'^ ^ ^" proMM. Frwb aap is added fKiin 
time to time, and tbe beat is maintained till tbe liquid is re- 


duced to a Hynip, after wMch it ii l«ft to cool, and thon ntraincl 
tlirougli B bluiikut, or ollior woollen etuff, to soparst« th(< re- 
luAlning im|iiirilie!i. 

" Socnt! {iimoiiH rucommend leaving the syrup twelve houra' 
before boiling ii for the last time; oiiiera proceed with it im- 
mMiatcly. In otthvr ca»i! the Itniler* are only half filled, and 
by UD BCliTe, steady heat the liquor in r.ipuily rcdiK;»>d U> l!i* 
proper consistency for beitifj poured into tli« m»uld>t. The erap- 
oration is known to bare proceeded far onoagh when, apoo rain 
bing » drop of the eyritp between thc^ fingcrx, it is perceived to 
be granular. Il' it is in dan^r of boihng over, a bit of lard or 
of butter ia thrown into it, which instantly calms the eballi- 
tion. The mola-ixeit being drained oiT IVora the monlde, the 
sugar ia no longer deliquescent, like the raw sugar of the West 

"Uapli; «ugur niuiuifsittnrcd in thiA way is lighter colored, ia 
proportion to the care with which it itt made, and Uie judgment' 
with which the evapomtiou i" (Hmdiit-ted. It in nuperior to lh& 
bniwn sugar of the colonics, at least to such iw in generally 
uNc^l in the United Stales ; it« lasto in an pleasant, and it is »» 
good for coliiiary purposes. When refined, ii equals in beauty 
tlio tlriesl supxrcoiisumed ill Europe, U if made use of, how- 
ever, only in the di^triclH where it in made, and there only iii 
the countrj' ; from prejuiliee or ttiMte, imported nugur in uned in 
all thi; Hmnll towm* and in th>' inni'. 

"The sap continue"* to flow lor nix weeks; after which il Iw- 
oomcs less abundant, less rich in sacchnriiio mutter, and eome- 
timeft oven tneapahlo of ery.italization. In this case it is con- 
0iimed in the ntntc of molu»!'i'.'«, which is superior to ihat of tiro 
islands. AlVr three or four dayn exposure to the sun, Timpio 
sap ie i-onvfrtfld into vinegar, by the aeetoua ferinenlation. 
The amount of i>uj*}tr nuvnuTattured in a year viirien from dif- 
ferent eauwf*. A eo!d and dry winter rendern the tree.* more 
productive than a ehangeuhlc and humid hciihoti. It iit ohxcrvod 
that when u fronly night ie I'oIIowihI by a ilrj- and brilliant day 
the sap (lows nbnndantly ; and two or three ^llons are some- 
tirocB yielded by a single tree in twenty-lour hours. Three 
pcraons are Ibund sufficient to tend two hundred and titty trees, 
which give one thousand pounds of sugar, or four pounds from 
each tree. But this product is not uniform, tbr many liu'meri 





na the Ohio do not commonly olttain more than two pounds 
from a trve. Trees which grow in low and moist pluccs afford 
a greater quantity of sap than those which occupy rising 
^Touods, bui it is lese rich in the Haccharinu principle. Tliat of 
insulated treen, Ictt standing in the middle of fijulds or by the 
ride of fences, ia the best. It is ako remarked that, in districts 
which have been cleared of other trees, and even of the less 
vii!orous sugar maples, the product of the remainder in, pro- 
portionally, most considerable. 'Having introduced,' says a 
writer, ' twenty tubes into a sugar maple, I drew liom it the 
ttme day twenty-three gallons and three quarts of sap, which 
^re seven and a quarter pounds of sugar; thirty-three pounds 
bare been made this season from the same tree, which sup- 
pores one hundred gallons of sap.' It appears here that only a 
little more than three gallons was require<l for a pound, though 
four are commonly allowed. " 

Mr, M. Eames furnishes the following account of his pro- 

" I gather my nap to one lai-ge reservoir once in iwenty-fonr 
hours: then it is boiled each day to syrup, which is about half 
the jiweetness of molasses; it is then taken out and strained 
thron^rb a flannel cloth, and put into a tub or barrel to cool and 
•eiile tor twelve hours — (I use a sheet-iron pan set in an arch of 
brick ; the pan is made of Russia iron, eight feet long, four feet 
wi.le. and six^nchcs deep;) it is then taken out, and 1 nni care- 
tiil not to move the bottom where it has settled, and place it in 
a kettle and heat it to ninety-eight <legrecs. 1 then add (for 
one hundred pounds) the whites of lour eggs, two quarts of 
milk, and one ounce of saleratus — the eggs well beat up, and 
the saleratus well dissolved — and stir the whole well together 
in the syrup ; and when the scum has all risen, it is to be taken 
'iff, and bi- sure it does not boil belbre you have done skim- 
ming it. Then it is hoiied until it is done, which you will know 
by drujiping some into water; whieh, if done, will lorm a wax. 
It then must be taken titim the kettle and placed in linpans 
to fo<jl and fonn the grain; and as soon as the grain is suf- 
Sciently tiinned, I then jwur it into lunnel-shaped boxes to 
drain, and atlcr IWfTity-lour hours I place a flannel eioth on (he 
trip. uikI take the plug from the bottom anil let it drain. The 
flaitntd ftotb I keep wet from day to day. " 

'SAPINDACEyE. {Soapberry 2Vife.) 

SOAPBERRY, (S.ipi»iltiS maryinatus. Willd.) Florid* nn 
Gcorgiit, ii<-Hr Lhti (^ 

TUa nkiii uf th« fniit of 8. cmnrijiniittui ia said to be used il 
liidiu for tl]<; snmc piirpoM'it iih lump. Ttiut of the S- sapoJiJiria 
H'bich grown i» tlic Wvni Indium, i» t;inpli>y«d for washing IIdc 
bnt whttu umployvd olU'O is apt to Imni luid dcntroy it; tl 
nuts aro very smooth and of a shining blafk color, and wore' 
formerly imported to Knglatid uiul manniiictured into biittotts, 
which were eometimiiii Lipped with silver and always very 
darable. Wileiuii'H Rural Cyc. Our Hpeoius nliould be pxamio- 
od. It will ho obocrvvd that it in wry nuarly rrlnlud to the 
btiokcyc, {.Eeeculus,) the roots of wliich aru ahto used for waoh- 
infj woollens. Sop, also, " fiapotiariii, " in this volnnie. 

Cardiospennum /uiUcaeabum,h. S. Fl». " Apparoutly native^ 
but not UQOonimoii in cultivation. " Chap. 

The root in Bitdoritio, diuiytic alid aperient ; and on the Knln- ' 
bar ooiLtt tlio Icnveii arc considered eflicacious in pulmonic uC- 
fvvtioni-u Anstio, 11. 204, Griffith. 

Tho J)odon<ea viscosa also grows in S. Pla. 

.KSCULACRyE. (TAc llor&c Chestnut TYibe). 

The seeds eontaia a groat quantity of nutritive starch; aL 
a sufficient amount of potaeli to ho tuneful an eoKilietieit, or u« 
substitute for snap. 

HORSE CllKSTNUT; BUCKEYE, (J&cu/m* pavia. L.) 
DiflUeod. J have observed it in Greenville, Fairfield and 
Charleston Districts ; vicinity of Churlenlon, Baeh.; North Caro- 
lina. PI. May. 

Sheo. Flora Carol. 105 ; Griffith'.-. Med. Bot. 2U. The fruit ia 
about thi- ^ixi- (if u Kmall lemon, and of a be-autilhlly polished 
mahogany color exteroally ; it contains a ^^at deal of starch. 
Dr. Woodbouso prepared a half a pint fVom the nuts, which ru- 
tained its color for two years. Il is superior to the famous 
Portland starch, and doen not impart a yi'Uow color to cloth. 
It is said that tht; wunhln^ fnjni thiN is nurenlic and puiisonoua. 
I>r. MeOowol Iricd the powder of iho rind, and states that ten 
grains woro oqniv»l«nt to three of opium ; a strong docootiuD 


I t«ei](nniv<nik'd w s lotiou to gODfrrenotifl ii]<;era. A Btrong 
4wu-ttun of the root ii §aid to polievo tootha<rbo when lield in 
di« OKiatb. The IVosh kcrnfls. iuacor!i[«d in water, mixed with 
vfceat flour iiilo a gtiff pasie and tUi'on'D in pools of standing 
vu«r, iutuxii-atv &ih, mj tlint they doat on the sarrnco, nnil 
■ay be taken ; reviving, however, when plaoed in frooh n-uier. 
I un (riformi-'! that larg« '(niiiililio:> wi*re formerly oaiight in 
tti« way in Iho »wami» idong thr SanHH- Riv<T. Stu', also, Ell. 
BoL Me4. Notes. Thr ro«t« ura prnfurrvd urcn to Konp for 
vaching and n-hitonin;; noolkni'. hlnnkrls. and dyod oottons — 
Ifce oolOTBorwhichai-e imiirovi-dby the process, Satinfl washed 
bt tbiA maiinvr and eareAilly Ironed, look almost ua well uh 

The Bnckt-yo has Unou M«ed in St. John'n, Berkeley, S. C, 
(t9SX,^ to fix the t-olor oft'oHon I'lihrim, muMlinv, <-tc., whrn alum 
a i^U, sngar of lead, ele,, had proved ineflioicnt. Bcdet4'ads 
■ade of the horse chestnut are said not to b« inli?sled by bu^, 
I am told thai in the West thoy uho tho bnckeyo to prevent 
fUat, voni about the loins as an amulet! 

POLTGALACR.V. (The Milkwort Tribe.-) 

■i L-!j^iiC 

in tho l«ave«, and milk in theroul«,aru thetrnsual 

Awyc, L.) MountainooK diMriclaof South and North Carolina. 
FL Jaly. 
Tboraton's Fam. Uerb. 629. An active stimulant, increaa- 
, IIm Ibrce of the ciiTulalion. especially that of the palmo- 
rnairlii , hence, found very useful in typhoid inflamma- 
tioD nf tb« luni^ Dr. Brandretb, of Livcq>oo), has derived 
gnM verrice from itti employment, in ciues of letbarfi^y, in 
tbc forra of an extraet combined with carb. amroonife. It has 
bam given in dropttit-nl ea-tes, and a» it Aometimeft provuken 
planlifb) diM-hargca by urine, »tooI and pempi ration, it i» fre- 
fs«ntly the means of removing the dineanc after the ordinary 
^tthartica, diureticH and hydra^j^cs have failed. The In- 
diana OM) tl in Mtako bitiwi, given internally and applied topi- 
cally : if twmeiicial, it only actet as a dilfliftible stimulant ; it is 
MfminEatcred, aUu, a« a gargle in crOup- A principle callodacJW- 


^'n liaH hiH^n di»i-«voi\H) in it; and one by Iteachier, called po/j| 
galie ucid. ijiicroiin«is also swd t« hare detpcted twi>: polgi 
gaUc and Virgineie — the fiittt of n-bi<>h will unite with baaesj 
thtf (tocond volatik', oily, iitiu«<.-aiil. and emetic in Ainall, dla-" 
phoretic, expectorant and diuivlic in largo i]o»ot>. Stejilions 
Church, 103. Ke« AtmlyAi^ in Journal dj; Plmrm. xxit, -MS 
Ono of tht! [iriiidplojt rufcnvd to ii ifaid n»t L" ililTnr front 
jioninr. Su|i|ilt!in. l.o Uil- Diet, dc M. Moi). by Mi'r. and du 
184fi, S78; M. Gaibourt, in hia " Abridgud lli»t. ol' . Simple 
Druys;" Garnon"* Illuet. Mod. Boi. 1847, pt. i; L, Fcneulio's 
Annul. Juiininl dn I'barm. ii. 430. It huM Wun vinployod in 
pluuriei}'. Sec Tenoont's Kssay on that di«i>asi? ; Uubfunel, M«m. 
dc I'Acad. dc Paris, 1739, 144; McKensio's Med. Obs. and 
EDquinex, ii. 288; De Haen. Ratio Medendi: F. d'Ammon"aut 
I'omplai ct Tutilite de la rai-iue du P. ei'n^jta dans plusicura 
mal. dc I'teil;" Aiinal. do t.'liim. dt- lltidi-lbeiji;. Dr. AromoD, 
of Dnwdon, in hla jinpor, omploya it in opbtlmlinia«, afler the 
inltaminatorr ('(■ajfc inpatwd; it in Hutd lo pri'.v<»nt ihw fonna- 
tion of calarai't, and to promote the ab*oii)iion of pux in hy- 
pop ion ; ho rcportK two caecH; it it* adaptud, in fact, to all 
cases of esttdatioti. by its poM-cr of proniulin<; disi'har;{v. Suite 
dw Kxpmoncop, in Bull, don Sci. Ked. xx, £41. Brctonncau 
gave foil 1- to five ^trains, every Lour, in croup; it oppoeea the 
foniiution of iho diplithitritic mumbruno. Hull. Av-i Sci. Mod. 
de Ferun. st, 61 ; Mem. sur 1o Senega, Acad. dvH Sd. Sco 
Merat. loc eit. Hr. Milne ipoke higiilyoflho dwoction,join©d 
with biiartrat« of potash, in dropsy. Dr. ['ci-eival adininiHtcrod 
it ]n dropsjr of the chest. 11' the decoction cauHOB votniliuff. 
tomv aromatic, aiiKelioa, calamaa, or fenn«l may bo added. It 
is preni-ribed as a drink ia pneumonia, pleurisy and typhoid 
fever. Linnnus, in hia Veg, MaL Mod. 137, speaks of this plant 
saa fpceific in eron]> i*pfcifiitim in plUi»josc hinc o^dnU noatris 
digniiv^irtia.) I.ind. Nat. Hy»l. BoL >ti. It acts as a stiniulanL, 
diuretic, "iula^^ogne, cxpeeloranl^ piirjialivo, emtitic, sudorific, 
and is al»i t'nimeiiagognc. V.H. Dinp. ti49; Big. Am. Med. BoL. 
ii,27; Bon. M. Hoi. ii. Ill; Meriuid de L. v,424; Dicl.desSei, 
Med. Ii. 1 ; Joiimul ile Cliini. M>-d. ii, ; Journal Anal^t. i, 339. 
Kmpioycd in nwrvnim affi-vfions, and hoetic fever; in bydro- 
thot-ax, from it« nlimulating eH'ett on tins kidnayii, and in din- 
cu:>eH of the Inn(j;e, ftvjm its nugmttntin^ the abwn-bent foroiit. 


Anc. Joarcal do Med. Ixxri, 53 ; Detbarding, Dies, do Senega, 
1749; C. Linu. IJias. upon ihe Boot of the Sprioga, Aigcntorati, 
1(50; Kiolhon, Dicis. Fmiikfbrt, l(t>5; Hi'hniiitli, at EdJuburgh, 
1782; G. Folchi, "Rech. cliimico — Thei-ap. sur la racino du 
polygula daVLrginic. " In pticunioiiia, after bleeding, and in 
the typhoid stages, it is one of our best remedies for promoting 
expectoration ; at an earlier period it is loo t^timulating. Much 
a-M: is made of it on the plantations in South Carolina for this 
purpose. Aceording to Dr. Bree, it is eminently useful iu the 
i>tbma of old people, and in the latter stages of cronp. It has 
been employed suceesBfulty in chronic rheumatism, and Dr. 
Chapman also found it very eifieucious in recent eases of amen- 
orrhffi&. FroK'a Elems. 258; Griffith's Med. Bot. 225; Archer'a 
Med. and Phys. Journal, i, 83 ; Brecon Asthma, 258; Massie'd 
Inanj:. Diiw. Phil. 1803; Thaelier's Dijsp. 319; S. Eng. Journal, 
vii. 2flti. In cronp, it is often given in the form of hive syrup ; 
the best form, however, is a docoftion made by boiling one 
oonteof thoroot in one pint and a half of water, fill it is reduced 
to a pint, the dose of which is a tablcspoonful ; tbirly grains of the 
powdered root may he given in substunee. This plant is em- 
ployed by the steam practitioners. See Howard's Syst. of Bot. 
Med. 343. 

BLOOD RED POLYGALA, {Pohjgala sangtdnm, L. Nutt.) 
(frows in fltil, jiine lands; abundantly near I'urj-sburg; sent to 
mt- from .ililrt-'villeby Mr. Bei-d; vicinity of Charleston, Bacli. 
Xurth CanJina, Fl. June, 

Lind. Xat. Syss. Bot. 86; Barton's Mod. Bot. it, 17. A siinin- 
laiiug diajdioivlie, similar, it is supposed, in properties to tho 
il«jve. Mer. and do I4. Diet, de M. ilcd. v,424; Griffith, Med. 
Bot. 225. 

Polygitla pntiC'folia, Willd. Grows in tlve mountains of South 
and North Carolina. Fl. August. 

(■rillith, Med. Bot. 227. Rafincsiiue, in his Med. Flora, says 
itifi posst'ssed of active properties; the root having a sweet, 
[•ungvMl. aromatic taste, similar to that of the winttT grcfu 
• (i.iuUliiria fini'-iimli.;) ho thinks it milder than the /'. sin-'ia, 
and. therefore, adapted to eases in which that is ina]iplieal>Ie. 
GritHili does not agree with him, attributing to it merely tonic 
and Idtter properties. 

Poll/gala niMtn. Willd. Polyoma, Walter. Victni^ 
Charleston . 

The nbolo plant il> ufficinnl. In grnall ilanr* it !■ tonic, i| 
Iwfiicr, laxative &n<] diaphorctiv. Thv infiiniuii of tbn driwl pbiiit 
liaA hc«n usually cmiiloyoi) to impiLrt ton4> to Iho digvMive 
oi^caofi. (Uimclow.) It apppArs, a<til» Dr. Wood, to bo dot^cly 
anulagoua in medical vii-lu«fl to the Polynia amaru of Kuropc^^ 
vhtnh in used for a similar purpose. U. S. Disp., I2tb Kd. 

The IVL-sh root of P. luXea, yellow hachelor't; button. growin| 
thitiughuiii the8outhvni Status, emitH a taste slntilw to that 
iJie Gaulthcriu. 

Krameria tanceoiata, Torr. S. Flu. It in highly probable that 
this mif^ht he UHrd as a iubtttituttr for tlie ofHcInul fthatany 
which in such an exdoUent antrinirent. UriHith. 

CEDRELACE.E. {J^aho^ant, Trihr.) 

MAnOGAKT, (Swii^mia mak-itjoni, h.) South Florid 
Chap. So. Flora. 

This ti-co is viit down f ti .iiigust. Kco dcBeriplion of meth 
pursued in Ilotidurax, Wilson's HurnI Cyf. 

The unes of the wood arc so well known as 1o need do rnrthi 

Tht* burk wtiioli htu* the pi-ojH-rlii-s of the S. ftbrifuya. wliieh 
iit ctrnpliiyecl in llm Kual in intermittvnl iV'vrr in doues of ihirty 
gniinK, niuy, it is i*aid, hv u^M ax Peruvian bark. 1 do n 
know lliut the troo isi-' exploited" in Florida. 

LINACE-K (The ytax Tribf.) 
FIjAX, L. {Linum usitati»simum.) ('ultirutcd in the Souther 


It if enltivutiMl here pretty much on account of the seeds,* 
which an- wolj known fur their vahiable demulcent propertivvi, 
and tor thu lioiXied oil whiob they afford. Immediate ullrntion 
should be paid to raixtng on a very much lai'ger witlf Imth this 
plant, the mustard and the castor oil. Flax matnres well in* 
this latitude. For much useful Iiiforination in reference to the 
coononiical application of thia plant, see ildr. and de L, Diet, 
de M. Med. Sup. 1846, 439. 


Anwoi;th«fArro</p/aiif.viii»ylM;ni<;iilu>mMl Rninir F1uc,(XJiram 
■vm,) Porcnniii] Flax, (Lt'nvm permne,) Hemp (Cannabis 
,) Tir^iiQuui Silk, I^Asciepias- syriaea,) Common D«ttle, 
[(CTrtni dioiea,) and the Rosebay willow herb, (^Mpil^'bium angus- 
Cifiimm.) The three lattor arc all tbund grrtwin;; wild in South 
CamlinL The Aitc'lopiaa was pUniod for lh« puriioB« lu G«r- 
ftjr, tNit » Bii imperfect substitute for hemp or flax. 8«e A 
. iftmea in thi« volume. The Ht«ra of the hop hits alito been UM-d 
th* pn>dav-tion of thread. They rt^qiiirc furtlu^rexamina- 
6m Thaer*! work, "Principle* of Agriculture, " p. 461. 
1 M4<d8 also yield oil. 
Vke heac dr^'iog oils, Chaptal eintes ('■Chtrmistry applied to 
IgriCBllsre. " p. 145.) are tbooe of flaxseed, nuts and popple*. 
IJKKiii oil will dissolve at boiling teroperatare on^uarter of 
lite weight of llint oxide known In coinnien^e by llie niiniu of 
[litksf^. It bM-omfs brown in proportion n» the oxide i«dts- 
«l; when saturated with the oxiilu it ihivkonH by cooling, 
1 it u necemary to render it liquid by boat at the timo of 
iMtng it Linseed oil satureied with the oxido aiid applied with 
twvsh \o any itubHianee, hardens readily and forms a coating; 
[hi|ii I liiiii I by water, and much rewmbttti guni elastic; linen or 
: pprp»rvd with it t)> flexible without being adhcsirc. A co- 
at of thii* oil, preparcHi with the oxide and mixed with the 
■or broken fra^pnentB of porcelain or well baked potter's 
t. i» ased with )fn.-at ttoccess in uniting; the tiles upon roofk, 
ud in ci*t«rtM and reservoirs. To form this cement the puU 
f«ruwd fra^fmont* are thoroughly incorporated with the heated 
«B, aiMl applied by the trowel while io that .itate. When linaeed 
Ml n to be OK-d iu painting, one-twentieth, or, at the most, ono- 
tc«th of llthanfe U siifKeictit to rvnder it di-ying. 

With linM-vd oil and common }(lue, a \c<tter-proo/ material is 
■Mle, wbirh may prove of (;reat use in prepariug garments for 
mUien^ Immerse common glue in cold water nntil it beeomea 
•oft, but yet rv-tuiuing its original form; after whieh 
to be dissolved in common raw linth'ed oil, aAaiHtcd by ■ 
b««t, until it liecomei* entirely taken up by the latter; 
^^rbich it may In* applied to !'ul>«tan(r<'H tor adhesion to each 
r. in the way common fulae is nmially applitnl. It dries al- 
iromcdtatvly, and wat«r will exert no action upon it. ll 
tenacity than common glue, and buvomM impervioua 


to wat«r. It rnny be anvd aim for riirnituiv, anil two luycn i 
cloth may be K!rif<l litgi-tlu'r tw limn a wiiH-r-jiruul" ;;tinni-nf 
Gluo <ii*8olvcd in ^'incgnr al»rt nuk^-H n wry tunnvtmia Hiil'mlnnc 
in place of the {irvpitrui] frIucM. Soc plutcs of machinoiy 
presBiDg linBOed and othur uiIh, Ui-e'4 Uictianaty of Arttk article 
"Oilft;" also Wilaoa'o Haral Cyc, itnicl(>§ "li'las" and "Lio. 
Bftcd." The iirooi>6soa aro deacribod, with platee. Thoue iiiier- 
e«t«d may findlborea flill AtatcmeQlol'tUemotbodof gatbciiug, 
planting, iifluH, etc. Hev, alflo, '-Olea," lu ibia work. Flaxaeed 
intondvil Ibr planting Hbuiilil not bu gatb«rL-(t loo quiokly. Ii is 
sown early in thu spring. If niimtil muixfly for tbu Kvd, it id 
barroHtL'd and tbrc-shcd like utbvr grain. But wbon th« stalk 
is uBod, it is pulled np by a tuachino ao icoon ax thv eevd begins 
to ripen, and bound lu email biimlk-.-^ the xti-d xtrippcd off by a 
machine, and tbo stalks spread out and dow rotted ; it ia then 
80ld to the hemp makers for seven or eight dollars per lou. 
The fiinn»-r nelln Ibu onip at one dollar per bushel for the s*!vd, 
which i» Bunt to the oil-mill. 

Popular Essays oii (lie fiillivatiim of Fluxsix'd and t'luttor Oil 
Bcanx have been publi>ihi.vl, IHdS. by ihe Ht. houiis "Lfad and 
Oil Company," Bnrniim & Rri^ther, of ^^l. tjimis, fni-niA>b ma- 
chinery. They Ray that "fanners can uuderlake their cnllurc 
with an almost ab»olnte certahity of obtainiiiu; hijch [iHeeR, and 
of being riebly n^wardc-d for ihi-ir lal)Or," and that, their i-it It iva- 
tion iu the Southern States may be ma*Io nion; i-eniunorulivo 
than in the Northom States, where, as in tliat of New York 
particularly, they have been profilsiMy cultivated for years. On 
account of ihc importance of the subject, 1 introduce the follow- 
ing ft'oin tlie pamphlet : 

" Millions ai-e annually paid to foi-cign nations lor flaxseed (or 
linseed) and vasiur beantt, and for the oil pressed from ihum. 
It fH ntrange that this eounh-y should he the importer of ariidoM 
which can he so cu^iily pi-odueud by our own puople, and wUieli 
are art j)erfi'(clly eilnptrai to our itoil and dimate. Ww might, 
with the name pnipncty. neglect to raise enough wheat or com 
for our own couHim]itloD. and thus be compelled to depend U]K>n 
foreign nations for our supply of those ai-tieles; for womainlajii 
that these crops can be rairted at a greater average profit iJian 
whoat or eurii. 

"Th« (lutlivation of flaxseed iit ox »impl<! an that of any crop 


»» bare. It roqaireit no more labor u> nim and JiarrcAi a crop 
•f ll UiAa it (low to raise and harvoflt ■ crop ol" oala, bartcy op 
rtttt, U U lem exhansting to the Hoil than a crop oI" whpat. 
1W ttM of mnn-ors ia barv«Hiiiig, leaving llto roots in tbo 
fRwad, pn-vents the crop (ram being an exliauating one. 
FUx is » very quick crop. Tlic producer can reeuivtf his money 
«ithlB thr«e monthft afti-r wwing. The rollowiiig diroclions, If 
Mktwcd, will vna1>l« any fanner to raise a largo crop of strictly 
frimt s«e(]: 

■ Selwfi'M) of $»/.— AlmOMt any dry, roiling, modermtoly rich 
hui will produce good «ccd. It ia generally thought that flax- 
«ed «lK>akt he <wven on taoist, rich lanil, aoch a» our ciwek and 
ivrar bottonu. Thia opinion prevails UecanM tb« slranr of flax 
p9in more laxuriaully on khcIi Inml. Thv beet »eed. i. e., rich* 
«M in oleaginofis matrer, w proiluLvd npon rather dry, rolling 
wd only moderalvly fcrtilo Mil. The stalks are shorter, branch 
avre, and the bolls fill l>ctt«r. A better quality of seed is also 
JitaiiH«) in a dry season than in a wet one, i. e., the so«d con- 
(aias a beti«r per cent, of oil. The straw does not grow so rank, 
md the IxriU fill witli larger, richer aeed. 

'- I^tjutrtttion nf thf Snil, — Tho wtil xhoutd be jmt in the finoet 

pMuble tilth for the rcceptioa of the seed. One good, daap 

|fc»»iiig, and several harrowings, so as to make the surface fine 

Md ooooth, will answ't-r. But it i.t better. M'lieu it can be done, 

to plow the gnianil deeply in the full, exposing the »ab-»oil to 

ihr action of the fhMt« and the atmoHphvre. In Uic )«pring, ctom 

flow ih« land, and harrow as before recommended. One thing 

t always be borne in mind in pregiaring land for flaxseed, 

that ia. the land miuit not Im worked when weU If it ia, it 

wfD bo lanpy, -ticky. and in had condition for a crop. When 

the kmI ifl dry. it palverizes tVcely. and no Hoch ooni<«)quenci<« 

Ubiw. It bdMirable to have a heavy roller drawn over the 

Md, to crash and thoroughly pulverize any lumps or clods that 

■ay iw an the snrface. The whole cultivation of the crop, and 

thtt yield therefVom. do]>ends npnii pulling llie land in proper 

eofiifitioa for the Bc«i. A little extra labor and can; in this r&> 

^ect will ^-ield a rich return. If tho mb-toil is a retvniive olay, 

b better to plow the ground iu back furrows or landx, eighteen 

twenty (k<\ wide, leaving tbe furrows belwocn thv lands opvn 



tbv llie pos^ge or waier in eaw of lieavy rains, or an undao 
amount of moit«tui-o. 

" Quiility of iSW, — Too much )min» c-aiinot be taken to get that 
whii'ti is fully miitiin-il Jiml jH-rfirctlj" clfati— ftve from a)) loul 
aewlN— -iiolh tWJU-curi.* u (^kmI merchantable Oii>(i and U> pniturvB 
tha land on whk-h it is sown l\H>in troublpsonio wcpfln. Farincm 
often expprioiiw jtreat iliHiciiIty in pi-ocuring fiii-h swO, a» no 
ordinary fuiuiiug mill will r«niov« mome of th« n'oi'^t cDf-mu'^ of 
tbv farmer and j^ood flux. Thtt linxcfd oil manufacturer wbo 
receircs the oniji of a larni- w^ctiori of founr.ry in (>niil)lf(l to 
iteleot <i|iuiet! lot.-* of hci'i] mid rc^orvo tlioiii Ibrsiowin^, iiixt thun,' 
by machinery too oxpi'Mnive and cuinbroiiH fur ordiiiury line, to 
clean it <4A thorniiglily tliar hit f»n ^ivu out viitdi yc-iir mi alniont 
ptfrffot iirticlv of wtwing hpivI. Siicb woil in uupoHor t" that 
oriiinarily obtaiiivd in the raarkt-t, and pvcn at upcd stores. 
With yood seed to bow, there is nothing; like flax as a prepara- 
tory orop for wheat. The testimony of Ohio facuiero, where 
flftx has been fXlKimivoly f!;i-ovvri for over a <)iiartorof a eontury, 
H (-xjjlk'it on this point. 

" Time ami Manner of Sotring. — The ncred Mhould bo sown no 
»oon in sprin;; »■ tho land t-ati In- got in proper conriition — Bay 
tho latter pait of March to middle of April. Wo havo hoard 
that it iti sometime!) injured, at a parl.iaular iitage of itM growth, 
by (Vost; but we have (-utlivaied it, ami seen i1 ciiltivulod for 
more tlian twonty-live yoan«, and have noviT known any injury 
to occur to it from fVvmt. To avoid tVost, it should not be 
phintod tilt about the first of May in the latitude of St. Louis; 
but if the Hca«on should he dry. llie flax vritl not get largo 
enough to ivsifit the drouth of summer. Therefure. we think it 
better to sow the nued al>out ihv first of April. Some fanners 
do BOW the seed as early as id February, on the »ii«w. It may 
he sown with itiifety ut nlniont any lime in sprinif. Tht.' HL-ed in 
aeattered evenly and thinly uv<>r Ibi? Miirfaci? of tht* gniund by 
liand. It tihuiild be eovered by drawing bnixh over it, iuAtCtiil 
of harrowing it, a* by the latter method it i» eoven^d too d««p. 
Only a very wlight covering is ri^quirod. A heavy rain, immo- 
diaU'ly artcr the neeiiing, will cover the wed eufticicntly ; or, 
drawing a heavy roller over the gi-ouud will answer the same 
purpoBO. Jim, in tbene easeB, the Boil must have been made 
very mellow and 6ne befbre sowing the tteed. 



'* Qtntittiljf cf tkttt.ixr Acre. — \ot ovor linlf b binliL*! ]M.Thcrc, !n 
■Bf <»*«, abxulil tx- sown. Hy itiiii tuiwing tbv nliilk^ will Iw 
Onragrr anil tliruir out vigorous l)^allcll<^(^ n-bk-b will [tru«liK--« 
krga IkiIIb filled with plamp, glossy socl. contuining a very 
brg* pvr i-vnt. of oil. By thick iwadiiig the jilaDtw »rc Iom 
■nMi|[, branvh bat littlir, Iho hqd cftu Btriko only th« tops of tbo 
ffaaU, aitti the seeds will be smaller, lighter, and will aot OOD- 
Ufs within filleen or twenty per cent, ttie amount of oil tbal 
mtd will wtivn mixud by ihiu mowing. 

-Ftaxsefd vHh Barlri/. — FInxwed may hv raided with «>pring 
bviey with the munt i(atistiu;tor}' nwultt. A yidd ha« Iwcn 
4buio»d, Tsiying in diflvrt-nt yoarw. from ti'n to tiflvvn buslicb 
oC iaxMed. and from sixloen to tweniy-iwo bushels of barley 
ptracre. Tbe barley is tirst sown and h»rrowcxl in, then tho 
Sax>e«d ia wtwn, fix or eight quariA |)«r aore. and n>vei-ed with 
(ka bnjsb, Tbc croiw ripen noaHy togutUur. Tlii-y are har- 
nn«L and then thrtwbvd with a common thn-nhing machine; 
M^by tbe n*v of viiiluhlc ««r«cns in tbo fanning mill, tbo barluy 
I out cleun in the front part of the ntill, and the flastiWed 
I oat under or at on« side of tlii; mill. We have Men »ii 
ba. plump Baxseod raised in thi* roaniior u» wv ever saw, and 
Ike bailey equally fine. Tho^c fanners wbo intond to sow 
Wriejr, trill find that, by sowing flaxM-ed with it, they will 
4»riv>! mueb greater returnx iVom the flaxHi'^ed tbau from tli« 
bariey, and the tmanlily of barley produeed will not be mat^tri- 
•Hy IobmumJ. Loss than the usual quantity of barley should b« 
Mwn, when it is intoDded to raise flax^ved with it. 

" Timt I// <\tting. — Flax should be cut as soon as tbe t)olla begin 
la tarn brown, and while the ntock in yet grctm. If lc)l Mand- 
iag luo long, there will be a great hnw of xeod in harvi^ting. 
Pamen *rv usually well tlirotigb harvesting spring wheat 
Wbn flax is rcwly to cat; and it ripons oonxidcrably l«t«r 
than wiuier wbeau 

** Jfotte ttf (Sitting. — Some farmers use a oradle, but a large 
Buiuriiy a maeluue. From the number of reapers mentioned 
as working well, we are p<.*rHuad(Ml that almost all onr standard 
•whtuet can be used to advantage in outtiog flax. When it ia 
taised |irinci|mlly for the send therv is no nweSHity for binding 
iiL,fa«t Kiny be simply raked off into gavels and tie until dry, 
wkoB it n ready for ihrpsbing. It i* butter to thrwh it early. 


"MwUof Threshing. — Some uw % flail, eoinc a tnachinv, and 
eonie tread out wiih homca. In enme Bcclions, and tbo»o whore 
tbcy have rniH<-<l moHt, iiiid for tlie languHt tim«, they report do 
dUBculty in lining miK-hinPS with eomu nlight allvratioDS. to soil 
better the nature of tho crop. The good npnuc iinil |>0CHliar 
cirvu Dint oil oo» of each tbrmer will euggost thv bent mode for 

"CUanittff fWd. — Tiian item in nisingflaxthatmuot have gnat 
attention from fiu-tat-.m. Until lately ibu makers of fanning 
mtlb had liltio or no experience with it, and bo Ibrnished no 
•creenH Aui(al>lc; but now HVTOruI fiirnirth a flax Rcreen, with 
wbifih It large amount of the foul soeils can lie n-moved ; and 
there is certainly no oxcubp for trannporting dirt, at a high 
rate of fVeigbl, to the damaging of the crop in the market, and 
the great annoyance of the manufaeturer, who has to spparato 
every particle of it before cruHhing the seed. The diiTerencc in 
price butweeii lotaof «cm1 belonging to different parties is mainly 
determined by the manner in which it has been cleaned by the 

" Yieid per Acre.^-Thn average yield of seed may be slated at 
t«n to twelve bushels per acre. The largcut yield of which we 
have heard was twenty-three bnehels to the acre, but »corcH of 
farmvre report filleen to twenty buahcle. The average yield of 
atraw is one and a half to two and a half tons — when cut, yield- 
ing about one ton of rotted Atraw for which' there is now an 
active ilvraund with every pronpvvt for its inoreaHe, aa machines 
for breaking oat the fibre are improved iind multiplied. 

" Coat of Production. — About the same a" whait. HarveMting 
!««« expensive, but cleaning a trifle morts So that it may be 
safely put down aH costing less to raise flax than wheat. 

" Ceriaintff of the Crop. — On this point there is perfect agree- 
ment from all aectiuns. We hope farmers, who have hitherto 
stood aloof from its culture, will give it at leant a fair trial — 
ftilly persuaded that, at no di!«tant day, the South and Went can 
and will produce Haxxeed enough to supply the whole connliy 
with linseed oil, and flax fibre enmigh to clothe us all in linen 
more or less fine, and that at a oust comparing favorably with 

" Flaxseed baj> proved a profitable crop in tho Northern Statra 
for several yearn. The imporuMon of Unseed and linseed oil 


^•zc«cilt.-<l maiiylbld tho hnniv prfxludlinn ; ttiiil tlic |)rfM!nt 
_ I diMnaiii'l, i» 

smActvnt ganrsntcv to thu producer urn'niunurBtivoprireM for 
many jears to coiik^. The market price for flnxjMicd haa ruled 
Kaaritabl; rvgnlar tbe past lew years, tut a oompnrison of the 
Ugfcast &ad lowest prices for the four yeara last pafieed will 

High«at PHoc l^wMt Prlev. 

18« 92 7h fi 25 

1885 2 65 I 70 

1S66 2 75 2 50 

IMT '.. 2 50 2 00 

Tbe highest pricee for the four yoam averaging; 92 71, and the 
bw«6t t2 II per boshol. The fibre, ■when properiy rott«d and 
Woken, is saleable id lar^^to quantities in the priucipal cities, at 
fom «g)ti to tvelve c«nt8 per pouud." 

The reader iiitereJited in the preparation au<l cleaning of tlie 
ibra of textile plants, will find a [laper u[H>n the iiahjtTi, <ijn- 
danaed from tbe Singapore Fre* Pre.-m, in the P. Office Rep. 
ISM, p. 174. A doMcriptionuf tbe tnniple«t auil mo»t economi- 
cal modes of cleaning them is given. The Plantain, Agave and 
Aloe are planted in iDdia, and the fibre exported for twine, 
papvr, etc^ bringing from sixty to two hundred dollare per ton. 
I do not know that these plants are URcd in onr Wont India 
Uanda or in Florida for tbe«« pnrpoBc«. The ordinary mill iiaed 
in pranng eugar eane can be n^ed in cleaning the fibre. Sue 
aftida cited, and " Kamie" in this volnme. 
WilaonV Roral CJ'Ct article "Bleaching," fnmiiihcH a practi- 
I axplanatiun of the methodtt of blear-hing flax, hemp, etc. See, 
a, Urt's Dictionary. The wild flax (X. I'l'r^ini'anwm, L.) 
fTDwa in Florida and northward. 

UALVAOEJ:. {The Malimc Tribe.) 

They abound in mnctlage, and are totally deMtitiile of all un- 
wboieaome qualities. 

IX)W MALLOWS, (Jfalva nhindi/olia, L.) Natnraliaod; 
frowa around buildings ; Richland i vicinity of Charleston ; Sf. 

V. S. INap. 444. A suballtute for Af. tylnafris, which poaseiMesi 
valaablo demuli.«ul prvperlic*. Woodv. Mud. Bot. fi&4, torn. 


197, It 18 very cmolliont, and is cmplwyed in eatarrlial. dj-wm- 
teric and nephritic dlaeasn-a, and whei-over a mo oil acinous Auidj 
is ri-4piri'd. Il in adminiaU'ri'd in tho Hliapo of cmollivntj 
ipcinata, anil it (broiK n good nuppnrativo or rolaxiiig cntapla)'in| 
in I'xtcmul inflamniationx. Miyr. and dc L. UicU du U. M*d. li, 
207, It wai» highly iTKard(fd by tbo ancivnte. "P^-thagora 
rvganJait Inir uisui;*; <i>innK' propnr a tavorisor I'cxcrpifio do bkj 
penfl^e I" liippocratoB employed it as wo do, I'or gar^l^ Bn<i 
coUyria, as an application to heated and inflamed parUt, aa 
vehicle for pectoral and anodyne medicines, and tbr thou 
adininiHtiin-d in diitea^eA itf tlu' uVinury pu^vmiges. Thv root)] 
WM-dx and whole plant arv) rnncilagiuou^. and arv employvd inl 
catarrhal, dyKetitoric and nephritic com plaint if as an emollient 
iiywtioti, and wherever an emollient substance i^ required. U, 
8. ViflpL I hATS seen it collected in ChurleHton for Ihiiau 

omaa', Gtvrtn., T. and G.) {Sida abutilon, Lino, and Kll. Sk.) i 
Grows at Granby. in liichland Di§triet, and in Georgia: vicinit] 
of CharlcHton, Bacb. Newbcrn. Fl. July. 

Lind. JIat. Syst. Hot. 96; Mer.and d« Ij. Diet, de M. Med. vlj 
338. Tbtt plant ih tgtid to he odtivatcd in China as ii mibstitat 
for hi'mp. The flowerM arc t-mploycd ae an ingredient in emol-> 
licnt applicutionn. 

Aliulihft and Sida. Hpecios of ihcsi; two genera have beon^ 
used in medicine. iV. abvtiton is cultivated in India for the fibre, 
and somewhat extensively introduced into field culture in Italy. 
See Rural Cyc, Chap. So, Flora. One Abvtil'uis .ihonld bo ex- 
amined; MCVcral grow in South Camlinu and Florida, They 
all furnish miicilago and may bo uned as subetitntcs for the 
Marfh mallow. 

MARSH KALLOW, (Jiibiscus Moaeheutos,L.) Collected in 
St. John's; vicinity of Charleston; Newhem. 
, Bcr^us, M. Med. ii. 621). This also is possessed of demulcent 
properties; a convenient substitute for the above. 

OKilA, {Jlibiscus esailcntuK.') liitrodueed iVom Afriea. 

The IVuit and jiods alTord the well known vnhiahle ve^jetablo 
BO largely used iu the Southern Staten in eumbinntion with 
toiualoea in making soup. It la v«ry mucilaginous, acd, in- 


(nnl in watvi', Ibrmn a luiisl^lc vi'liiclv for rnddicintM prtwcribtHi 
to diHaoM of Lbc maco»« pU'uqi<;r«. for cnemata, etc. Tbe leavoa 
■wnotimes eni|>li>yi.*<l liir propai'mtj cinollienl poultices, Tb4 
nata an eaid m nbaaad ia muuila^te, of which tltoy yield twica 
m moefa ts lta« Altlura root. Q-e« from any iin|tlcii»aiil ndor. 
TtMr pdwiirr b perfectly wbito and BU|>ortor abo to thul »f the 
M«nli maUoM-. Sue Am. J. I'liarriu, May. li^tiO. V. S. Dix., 
Uih Kd. The parch ml MMtl" uflordu tolcnihly -^oud suWtitotv 
fcr coSiM : tW differonoc can with diffit-nlly bu d«t«ctcd. It has 
far waat timo been used for tliirt pnrpow among the iie^-oos on 
iW ptaniAtionB of South Carolina. 

Thia «rell-koowQ veg^tablo contains aii eoonnotis aiuuuiit of 
■Ikunen — mi mucli. that Ch»ptal niva that in 8t. Domiiigii it 14 
alloyed in clarilying liiiiiuni. In GimdeloupL' and Murtini(iu« 
tktf use the bark oftbo slippor^- vim for this purpose as white 
af c||[ rlecwlicre. It vroitld he a inatti-r of ini[Htrtan(.-o Ut att- 
Mn«in whvther or not voffctabh* iilbutnvn vrinild bo uscfui in 
duiiyiDju; flOjptr. Id rmployini; nlbiimt'ii for GiaritViii"; flaidg 
ilic PilIowiDx method U adopted, according to the writer Jtist 
ntntioDi-d. 1 wculd refer the reader also to Ure's Dietionary of 
Arts ami MiiiiufaciurM>. Tlie albnmen, fp?ni>rally while of «g^, 
ii diluK.-*! with wate'r, and llicu mixed with ilu- liquid which is 
tebecUrifled ; the whole ie tb«n heated to 65° or 70° Kahr.. and 
Ctimd carafoUy so a§ to diMributo the albiiint'ii equally among 
•II h* pAiticIca; by increasinjK tbe heat the albumen h made to 
fBM^tati% when it ri»e!t to the top of tbe vij!i»el, carrying with 
it all the particle* which render the liquid turbid or cloudy; the 
tkick toani which tbi» ])niductfi>, when ocmlrd, may be taken off 
vitlis skimmer, and the liquid be lUlcrwanl tiUratcd. to remove 
aay remainiti^ partichM IVuid it. Tho same writer esys that 
■ninial albumen, mixed with qiiick-lime, finely powdered and 
•pre*d npun tdrlps of linen, inake« an excellent lute, to he ap- 
jilwd oT«r the joiutJt of vivewla fur diuilling, to prevent Io«h of 
pm or vapor. 

Tbe Bcnr, (a-jtaraum iWinrm,) iit anulher plant cultivated on- 
oar pUntatioD». which huK a very large amount of niucilaj{v. 

The okra plant lias boon recommended to bo planted for tho 
•a a textile substance. Even tho cotton ptnnl, if not al- 
to come to maturity, and planted closer, like flax and 
iHOip. might t'^rnixb an Inner bark nailable for twine or clnth. 


Th« nottl«, ( Urtica dioica,) the Apo^yttum eanmiftinHm, and wvv 
RficcicH of Andt-piaH, or silk wood, may, by unproved ciikiva-i 
tioti, K)vc a U6cl\il fibre; see indox, Dr. G. C Shsoffcr, tbs^ 
anthor of a paper in P. O. Itcp^ 373, 18&9, on " Vegettiblo fibre,'' 
Rtat«i that tbe fibre of the silk or milk -weed {A. eomvti) 
nearly if not quit« as elrong si the hemp." In this article Un 
mode of preparing textile fibres is treaterd of| aud alao the bmt 
matcriuU fur (xper mukiug. A uurioua work, by Dr. J. C, 
Sliuvflcr, 1786, is rcferrwl to, in which vxpi^riroontJi were Ion 
Mnn' perrormed tipon intiumorablc Hubstancon xuitcid lo thi 
making of paper. Tho latest work of fonHequ<rncu huH 
pnbliKhed by L. Piette, 1838. Pietle pvcB epocimons of 
strong, white paper made from straw. Paper in the United' 
8t*te(t WMH nko tnKdi> fn>m wood, nawdiisl and nhnviDga, id 1 
and ISilO. Tho bark of thi; linden in used in Pniiwia. 
Tilia.) Tho palmetto, tigBTO and yucca of the South fiimiith ■ 
long fibre. When nocemary, the intercellular eubetance may 
be diHeoIved ont by strong alkalies by tho lye fVoni the ashes of 
plantsv etc. For material for paper making see ■' Cotton " and 
"Esparto" Grass. Ure's Dictionary of Arts may be consulted 
with reference to maohiiiei^, etc 

COTTON, (^Gotfjipittm licrhaceum, Liou.) 

A native of troptcnl Amcrii-a. Tho long staple, inclnding 
TBrietie« of sea island, blaek seed and mains, grow best in lh« 
lower oonntry, and the short, or green seed, in the upper dis- 
tricts. Prescott slutoH that tho SpuniurdH found it in Uexico. 
See "Conquest of Mt-xico." It wa-t first planted in the UnitiMl 
Stat«itt lis an experiment in lfi21. It waM known in South Caro- 
lina by a paper which rcfwrii to it, dat^-d IBKtl, hut only wven 
bags wore exported in 1748. 

Mer and de L. Diet, do M. Mod. .Snpplom. 1846. This was 
the plant known to the ancients as tho Uyssus of old writers 
Herodotus, u iii, IS*, of Durger's Ed. ; Chateaubriand, Journal 
toJemsalem, 1777. See Kevue Medicftle, Feb. 184S, 225, for 
Ohsorrations on the Rmptoj-nient of the Cotton Fibre in Dress- 
ing Wounds; Ann de Chimie, 427, 1845; Biniira Letters on the 
Ciiltiratlon of Cotton in India ; C. Detuslttrifl on tlie G. lier- 
bacva and its Cultivation, Pwrin, 1808; Lcrtnier surla Culiiiro du 
CotOD en France; Gon«pach, Convldcrutionrt sur i'infiuenvc do« 




n Coton »nr la MtitA dttt oilvriftrH, PnriH, 1827 ; ObA. 

tnplo3rtti4.Mit of Ollon in th« Tn-jitniwit of BliAtem, 

lOI; Bomt B«llcction» by V. T. Snint Hilairuui) WouD<Iit, und 

thatr TiT«tm«nt with Cotton, (in French,) Uontp. 1830; Sicund. 

Oh&OB Um Employment of the Cotton Fihrv in Surgery »nd s 

Mwiiiil im lliii difr>?ront Spovic« cnltiratod in N»pl<», op. vit. 

ap.: eriffith, Med. Bot. 163; l>i-. MacFnydon (Fl. Jiimsica) 

«— idtK Uie species only as vKrieiiee. Humboldt saw tbero 

growing ia Central America at an elevation ol' nine thonsaod 

ieet. The flowcrti ore cinollifni like mallows and used for 

«nul*r parpOM»; the roota arc nacd in Indiu in dineaHOS of the 

unary orgaoi. Seo Anslie. In Bracii. a dccovlion of th« 

teiTca atoeppd in vinegar is oaid to relieve heniicranis. Ac- 

rmling to Martin tbo seeda. which nRbrd much oil, are emol- 

iiBt »itd are employed in emulsions, injections and disoaMs of 

As ■ocoiu passages. Tha oil is aflorded by the seeds in saf* 

finally large quantities to be exportod. It might be made a 

«A1 article on (he plantations, as it doc« not deprive the 

■all (rf' their valuable properties as a manure. When boiled, 

titj famtab an excellent food lor cattle, but are poisonous to 

ktp when ntten in the raw Mate. Mu<;h unv in made of the 

rasts in South Carolina in the treatment of asthma — a di.>«oc- 

liaa b«in^ employed. It appears to have, moreover, a specific 

u6(m Ob the aterine oi^ns. Dr. Heady, of Kd^tleld Uistrict, 

iitens me (1849) that bis attention was callod to its emraoif 

tfttgm* propertiea by an article which appeared in a journal 

pMiafaad •omeyvaro since. (New Orleans .Uetl. Journid.) He 

iMaoDcoDsed it io suppression of the mensex, but more par- 

ticataHy in many cases of flooding, with entire succesft. It 

Msaa to produce as active contractions of the uterus as ergot 

itodC Four oaneea of the root or inner bark of the root are in- 

IB one pint of boiling water, of which &om three to four 

are taken inti'nially every fifteen rainate«. Uore ex- 

tMidvd experiments with this remarkabtn plant, in cases of this 

4Mcripl>on, might furnish very Tahisblo rc-Hults. and I would 

iorlts particular attention to it. Since the appearance of tho 

Im edition of this work many articles have been published io 

iW medical joomals on the use of the cotton root as an om- 

maagogae and parturilaeient. 

Dr. Wood in tl>e 12th Ed. tJ. 8. Dis]!.. 1866, says that the root 


of tlie cottoD plaut liaH been eraplojed by Dr. Bouobelie, 
Mii^Hliiaippi, who believes it to bo an pxcollent eiomena^Rae* 
mill not inferior to ergal in promoting uterino contract iodk. 
Ho ittattM that it h habitually and effectually resorted to by the 
xlavoit (ifUiu South for pruduoiug abortioo ; uiid thiiikit that it 
lU'ttt in this way without injury Ut the gnuend health. To rk- 
BJst labor be oraploys a doroi;tion made by boilin;' four ouncc-s 
of the inner bark of the root in a quart of watvr t« a pint, and 
gires a wineijlaesful every twenty or thirty minutw. (Wcat. 
Journ. Sled, and Surg. Aug. 1840.> Dr. T. J. Shaw, of Ten- 
uesAee, thinks it superior In tlie treatment of ainenorrhcea to 
any otlmr agent, and e<]ua] to ergot ait a purtiirient, while at- 
t^ndttd with lejW danger. He linen a tincture madu hy mn- 
euruting tiigliL rmnci-A of the dried Imrk of the n>Ot in two pounds 
of dtlutcil ak'ohol for t wo w<,'okH. and give» u draehm throo or 
four times a day. (NoHhrillo Journ. Med. nnd Surg. 1855.J See 
U. S. Diap. See, also, Pe. Mat. Mud. ii, 568; Med. and Sur^. 
Journal, xiii. 21&; tT. S. Di»p. 337; Lond. Med. Gazette, Nov. 
8, 183!); West. Journal Med. and Stirg. 18-10; Koyle, IlliiM. 84 
and Mat. Mod. 2S9 ; Mer. and de L. Diet de M. MihI. iii, 409 ; 
Martgrave'u, 60; Diet, de* Si,', Nat. xxxiv. 15. Dr. Italua, 
Journal ol Mat. Modtca, May, 1^7, furnishcH a paper on 
tncdieul nnnii of the plant. 

The tibre of our great staple in applic-able to many pur 
in surgery, in dreiwing burn», prewyrving the temperature 
extremities in depressed conditions of the system, and also for 
stultbig and padding in the applicatiou of fracture boxes; but it 
in nut, un Iiuk hei'u eoiilidiUilJy Htati^d. a HiiliHtiluU' forlintin any 
91-iiM^ iif the term. On iiecount of the oil whieh it eontaioK, it 
cannot absorb pui« or liquids from wounds, udIckh it has been 
previously pivparod. This, indeed, is a puculiarity of cotton 
fibre in its natural slate; water or fluids wii! rolltVomit; the 
alighteHt experience or observation would convince any one of 
this; and yet !t hati been extensively dlalributcd as a subnlvncv 
for drtrHHint; wounds, which it only teudfi to nuidt^r hotter and 
more inflamed. 

The plant has also be«n highly reeominendcd an a viibstitate 
for quinine in intermittent fbvcr. I will refer the reader to 
some of the later volumetn of the Charleston Med. Joui*nal and 
Review. It Iiiin been uned with great ootitidenee hy inany per- 

— ■ — I I 
. Itales, I 
on lli^j 



' attt throitf>)iriitt tho Sontb ami WwL Reo, aim, a]>a|)«>-byBr. 

Ctkdl, in the Va, Nft-d J..i:rnul, t.iI. S. Prof. H. IL Froat, 
m^lutMiou Med. Jounial, May. 1850,) quotoi" Pr. W. R. I>ari«, 
^■f PaiHI«l<i Didtrii-t, S. C. who rcporta tJiat it n-H« umd m tio 
^nti-|i«rfotIip a|{«nt. A pint of the i><c«d» ifi lioilnl in » qtinrl of 

vat«r to a piu(. and a li>acupftil of th« dcvovtion is ijivcti an 

Ibvror two bcToiv lfa« retiim of Ibe rbill. i inlrodnc^ tbe lbl> 
(•vinf! #Iip from a nov,>i[iappr(If!62) in ilvf'Hiilt of more prvoiM! 
■AiriBation from tfa«' mcitinil uiilhoriileit who bavo u»ed it. 
I B. D. Brown, of Copiah Ooaoly. MitMiH^ippi, commiiitimU'a 

^tke followin;; notice of the n»c of the cotton iwcd tiia »* a tub- 
"1 beg" to make puMio the following iH-rtiiin und ihoroiighly 
tticd core for a^e and tbv«r: Ono pint of t-oltoit iwcd, two pinCa 
tinier boiled down loon* of t*a, taken warm one hour before 
ifcr TxpwU'd attack. Many per«onfl will doubtlms lau^lt al this 
MBplr rcfniNly, but I have tniHl il effectually, ttnd unla^itallngly 
•tH ia bettor than <)ainiiii-, and could I obtain the latter article 
pataito<a!dy, I would infinilfly prefer the cotton seed tea. It 
wtS not only L-urr invariably, bnt |M.-rrnanently, and it is not at 
•U anpl«a)«bt to thr (ante." 

CoOodion, a soluiion of giin cotton in eth^r and alcohol, 
^b«ati exteusirely employed in siir^ical caaeit. aa a covering 
far woatHJa, to k^^i^p out (he air and to aMii§t in the approxima- 
I ^o» of tbe edgcii. ll ha»atMibeeu employed in various enipljvu 
fiit afl w, in cryxipf^laN, in burna, in the cure of Gxcnrintionn anij 
>Biaii I of the nippto. in nEPVui. etc Sit) mciiroal work". 

I am informed by planters in South Uarulina that they uao 
babitoally a decoction of the cotton seed in place of flaxseed, 
«ad wbererer a mucilajpnous tea is requirMl. If it »erTes fblly 
dw pvrpoMa of 8a][, tbu fact Is highly Importani, and )t 
aboald be largvly tiM'd. 

Tbv Meda of the black Med cotton, parched and ground, are 
e u a ai d crul by many as one of the beat anb«tilHtc« for coffee, 
bath in smell and taste. In a paper by G. 0. Hhaeffer, on tbe 
^xMUm fibre. Patent Office Kepori, Agrieulmre.. 1854. p. 181, hu 
^Bqr»: "Siill, in tbe present M-arcity of paper makitig material. It 
Vnuy he well to hink to the hark of the cotton plant aa a partial 
V npplr for the common kinds of paper. Kcrmnntatlon, or any 
at tha known methods of m-pnraling the wood, may bo cm- 


ployod." If th« cotton is ^th«red, the plant hae tben be 
too woody. See, also, Okra. (JlibiscM eseitUtUtu.) 

Townscnd tiiovor, ontomolojf'ai, em|>l'kyed by ihe Pat 
Office, describes ibe dUeatied inoiddnt to tlifl iiutfon plant in 
encoeHaive papers, in tbe vohimex of t)ie P. O. Roport 
18ft&-'7, " On the InAcets froquunliiig Um Cotton PtanU" Tl 
papen <;ontain u good deal of inliirmation on the chnractor and 
hvbita not only of innectH infcviiog cotton, but many other 
planlK, with i I liint rations on wood. Ho describva the met, rot 
and blight, and itovisun mothods tor preventing their 6]n-cad. 
The finglish uho cotton dipped in a soiutiou of saltpeter as a 
mcxs ; eoe " Jlelianthua" " Gun ootlon " is also a well known 
explosive agent, i)repared by means of nitrie noid. 

Dr. Wooil, in his nnteo to tiu' I:ilh Eil. U. S. Diitp., 1866, 
qnot«s Hoinu inlttruMting tiicls IWitn a paper by Mr Wm. U. 
Wt^thcrby, who rvKided ul the .South. (Soo Am. J. Pbarm., 
May, IStil.) H« xtatcw that the oil is obtained by oxprcseion 
(rom the ooods, prcviounly deprived of their shells. In tbi« 
state they 3'ield two gallons of oil lo the bushel. Besides the 
crude oil, there are three varieties in the shops at the Soutli 
more or loss purified, recognized as tbe clarified, the rejinfd and 
the winter blfocheii. The bist moutioned has a mild^ peculiar 
odor, and a bland, nwectiith taste, not unlike that of almond 
oil. Tbe oil is used in the preparation of woollen clotb and 
morocco leather, and for oiling machinery. There seems lo be 
some doubt of its drying qualities. It hss been found to bu an 
excellent i«nbstitute (or almond and olive oil in roost pbarma- 
ceutic4il preparations, hut it does not aniiwor well in tbe forma- 
tion of tbe lead plaster. Citrine ointment may be prepared 
with it. It is unsoluble in alcohol, but dissolved iu all pro< 
portions of cldoroform. 

Cotton fitted Soap. — Tbe following 1 obtain fr*)m a oor- 
rcwpondnnt; '■Piitootton seed into a large and Mtrougtron pot, 
in small quantities at s time, mash them well with a wooden 
pestle, iind then pour in u certiiin quantity of eommun lye, and 
boil thoroughly ; strain in an ordinary sieve, and proceed in 
tbe usual way in drying and cutting into cake». The oil is thua 
yielded, and saponified." 

MachinuK are now manufactured in tliis uouutry for decorti- 
cating Ihe cotton seed in manufacturing the cake. U ih tbus 


«wk tm{>n>rei] an an nrtielo of food lor cattlo, not being near 
^ID&ftblr' tn injure thr mnimsK It brings m higti pHc« lo Eng- 
MilU for the |)rf]>anitioD of the cak« have l>e«n «staU- 
in Bbodc laland. Strange tliat noitilug of tli« kind baa 
(dsced at the South wliere the ae^il can b« ito cwiily ohlMnvd. 
The great valau oC the nned a* a maniirx; may account in part 
fcrthBinditTiTrtico of the planter, Th« wctI ha» twcn prvswvd 
m Nvw Ork'atiM. Th« oil i>« said to be " unvurpawcd for dmss- 
i^t te«th«r and lubricating machinery, and an an illuminator 
tfMds a d«w and brilliant light" — as good aa s(>ennai'<-li when 
ofaed. 8e«, alao, a paper on cotton »G«d oil, Southurn Cultiva- 
Mf, p. iil, ToL 3. He atatea that' there are thirty buNbelt of 
wrd to crery bale of t^oiton ; ea«h bale will yield at luaHt lSn«an 
fsHofW t>f erade oil and three hundred and Mxiy Iwrroln of oil 
rabc " No difficnlty exists in hnlliiig, («mpuring, or expretMiiog 
ifaoO," and the httllrr of Follct and Smith, of Petersburg, Is 
nfcoi d to; hnlltngat ibr rate of a basket of kernels in four or 
fa* minatMk The machinery cmploywl in French Flandent for 
npc teed, answers perfectly (or cotton seed. 

(kUtm Seed Oil. — A good deal has been said of late in the 

Oadnnati and New Orleans pap«r» on the subject of cotton 

M«d oil and cake; and if the half of what is published shAlt 

ura o«t to b« tm«, we have reac-b<K) the beginning br a new 

•Ta ia the cotton cnlturo, not unlike that which marked the 

farantioa of the coiion gin. Mr. William R Free, of Cincin- 

h aati, haa Inrenled and constructed a cotton seed hulter, which on- 

' lir*lr #r|)«rates the hull and the little lint that udhervti to it 

ftw the meat [Mrt of the seed. The hullvr i* naid to b« simple 

I eoBSlrtiction. i» made entirely of irtm, and is cosily kopl in 

Tvpair. It rcquircM a two-hon>v power to drive it and two 

kaada to t«nd it^— ono to feed tho mill and one to remove Iho 

ftalla ftom the screen. It will hull and screen one ton, or two 

thfnwnd poonds per hour, ready for tbo prvM — fltty per cent. 

«f which ia kemeb or the meats of the seed, IVom which forty 

^llofU of oQ may be obtained. This machine mu»t be vxceed- 

h^^jr vmloable to prepare Accd for all feeding purposcn on the 

fern wbera no oil ii> exprvtwed, a^ the bulls and lint are alto- 

fCether andesirable as lood. Hulls and cotton seed and cut straw, 

•r com utalks, boiled together in large iron boitero, or steamed 

■ hig toba or vata, will make a aU(>erior aUiek feed. But at a 

illon of ihii oil in cheap &i a dollar, itnd «noagh wed to ntatctt* 
ioriy j^alloiid can be hulled iu an lioiu-, ii is tar botler to l^cd the 
cak» attci' most of the oit U taken out, siuuaied urith almw or 
stalks, tbttd to ftM.-d tbin {ircoiinigi oil tu Iivl* .ti.ock. After cultop 
lidtiij isi hulliid, a gnod cntloii pri?** lor buliiig cloth will prv«» 
out most of tbo oil in tbu kornvlit. Pttrbaps they m»y roquire 
bcjitjng, at) ii) preasiiig fluxsood. The art in very Hiruplo. In* 
sleud of HundiTi^ cottoD »«od to distnot markulH, whom the 
produuer will lose the cake for I'tjudiiig aod as a fertilizer, we 
earnestly recomokend to each large platitaiioD (or wbure tbotr 
opc'rutioiiH urt! hiiiuU, for several to uiiile,) to puruliiiHi' n hulliug 
iiiiieliiiie, and, if iieceu-ary, coiiHtrui.-t or Imy an oil preut for 
home line. Aceofding tu thu data fumUhed by the Cineintiati 
operutor*, four tboustind pounds of cominun cotton sc«d will 
turn out tifly dollan* worth uf oil j and tvcry plaotor kuowa 
chat in case he should wish to mix the hulls with the cake in 
feeding it, or as a manure, becno do bo after the oil in expressed. 
The oil la nearly valueless as a fertilizer, beiug uolbiiig but 
carbun and the elemeiiln of water, while iu nkilful hnndn it is 
worth some forty Ut fifty eRiitm u gnllon for making fat bogs, 
slieep. cowe and stuer^, but inoro tur burning, and lubricaliiig 
niaohiocry. At this time wo, would gladly pay twenty dudai-n 
per one ibousand pounds for cotton seed cake, to feed cuttle, 
shtiitp anil hogu. It is worth more than uorn or wheat, jwund for 
pound, to fci'd muloH and hoga on a cotton plantation. It con- 
tains more of tho muacle, ninew and bmiu forming matter. It 
ba« loss starch than corn, hut in a hcalibior food than either 
peas, beans, wheat or maiw}. If the hulls wore in the cake, tbo 
reiiult would be quite ditfcront. In flaxseed cake the ball of the 
seed :s not removed, it is owing to the riehneea of the clean 
moatM of cotton need lliat titraw, or ooarM fbragv of tome kind, 
should be fud with the cake, except to hogi«. 

Connt'iiucnt upon the increaned aninunt of ootton raised in 
the Southern filaliw, and the gn.'at bulk of the seed, there bad 
been s<.A'cr«l cstablinlimciits in opiTStion before the war for 
coonomizing tbu oil. Alono tnNcw Orleans, driven by a tbirty- 
fivo-boi-se power sloampross. five hundred gallons of oil and 
five tout* of oil cake a day were prepai-cd. It j-uquirixl for the 
day's work, aa la staled in the i^outhern Farnici- and I'lunter, 
about filWen ton« of cntiou neod to pr-iidiue this amount of oil 


ikv, each Ion of seed yielding ubout forty gallona of oil 
•.Tyti huuilivil or I'ifjlit tiundrrd pounds of cakv. Th« 
pmptMtnr »bip|Htl «tght htindivd tone to En^taod, wbtri: ii wim 
Mb4 by ihe furm<-ni, who an> oxtcnstve iin|iorteri« of lioMvt] oil 
eik*^ The cotton seed cake "is iiighly enu-fiiovd lor futtcuint; 
■lUe Bnd shc«p." la Ucmpliis. Tenn., il wait bImo made in 
ftry iargo qoaDiitto*. Tha oil. reAnud by n :>«<irot procvM. b 
■kdeoT two qaalitie.<*-~^b« ]n»t xt*e<l for illiiminuting and lu- 
M»tiDg parpoees, as woll 08 for ciirrying Icallnir, et«. The 
' iti ibiuid U> answi;r ibt' purpoMi- of noap mukinf; c<(ual to 
_ , oil, making soap of i-Tcry qoality, won to tlio moet re 
Ih4 tail«C aoap." Cotton «ix-<l c-nkc nii,i;lit be used as a sab' 
Niut« to ■ curtatR rxtvnt for com for IhttvoitiK stock. " Coiton 
«t«d me«l and com mcjit. if appiici directly to the bay tbai is 
Min fattening; animals, inistvad of tbe latti?r buiiig fe<t iiloiiv 
mA dr>-, aud the corn niijcrouDd, would add voatly (o tbo 
fn4tB of fatteuiog." Cotton aeed cak« sold al Ibu mills fi>r 
■fcoat tbeMUiic price tbal flaxMcil nikc M)ld for. 
BdMroe. in hii* ■■ Fii'ld Bcwk of Manure*. " New York, 1853, 
of th« cotton Mwds: ''They abound in a mild oil, and are 
■tit«>l v^ry nutriliouK (as inanurra) cfifT tke oil U i\xyrts»ai. 
b«i>hcl of «c*d weighs thirty pounds, and yields two aud a 
Uf quarta of oil and twi'lrv and a half poundn ot linv mitul. 
TW oil i-ukc in vory brittU and bmakK down much moro 
nviily than lin«ccd oil mkc. [tata«tv in not iinplcavtant, and 
b Matvd that it ran bv employed with lucocen in talt«ning 

la thv Patent Offico Itcport. I8&5, p. 234, are some "Choni- 

Boararchca on the Sc*d of tho Cotton I'lant," by Prof. C. T. 

In ihifi article a patoul is referivd to as bavinf^ boeu 

taken out by D. W. Mesner ti>r ">»epanitinfi the hulls ttom tJio 

ontioQ tccdB. " The yield of tbe unprepared and woolly moimU 

f. » vyr>' Moail, in coni[>«ririon with what iit obtainetl from ihoso 

^Kfaicli bare btxta hulled. Analyxin are given of tho oil, the 

^K*d. ihccmkc, etc. Prof. Jacknon itaj-n: " Stparatiwi oftheoil: 

^pBordtfr to ecpnralc the tixo<l oil. purr ether wa« omploytid, 

aad it was found thai one hundri-d j^rain^of the dried pulvetv- 

■bdI ecctb yielded in one ex]ieriinent 39.7, and in another 40 

' pr MOl. uf pun- fatty oil. By presMiirv. I wax able with a 

MiaJI M!rt!W-pnMM to obtain only tJiirty-thrce per cent, of oil ; 


but I huvo no <Iouht a more powerful one would havu given s 
lurgcr yield. The specific gravity of ttie oil which I obt4un4Kl 
from the olh<.TeaI i°olutioit wa)) 0.923 — water being unity. Thift 
is also lUe ftpeciflc gravity of puritiud wbiUo oil. Cotton Med 
oil is stat«d by I>r. Wood to be a dryiuj; oil, hut that which I 
have obtained does not appear to poAnatm drying properties, 
serving porfwtly wt-U for the luhrioution of machinpry. and for 
burning in lampn, an well uh fur making Duap. It will also (i«rve 
AH a Kiihstitiitu for olive oil in many caev«, and perhaps may be 
eaten an a walad oil, fur it ha* no di«agreeablo odor or taste." 

C^emical examinalimi of the OU Gilu: — Linseed oil cake ia w«ll 
known both in Kuropo and in this country as valuable food for 
cattle, and aean excellent fertiliser — worth iVom forty to filly 
dollars per ton for the latter purpose. On examining my cotton 
flood oil cuke, I found it jtoasessed a sweet and agreeiihU' flavor, 
and wa» much more pure and clean than Unseed oil cake. One 
hundred grains of the seed leave sixty grains of oil unkc. This 
cake, examini^-d for sugar, was found to contain 1.1 gruini*, and 
for gum, thirty-five grains were obtained. Iodine gave oo proof 
of the existence of anyatarch in cotton seed, nor in thsmi cake. 
Aloobol dissolves outthe sugar, which is like tbatobtainod from 
raisins, and is grape sugar. Boiling water dissolves the gum. 
and beoomes very mucilaginons. The gum is predpitable fVom 
the water by means of pure alcohol. On the subject of paper 
from the iiotton plant, I introduce the following com muni cat ion 
dated Carlowville, Ala., and signed C. F. Sturgis, 1863 : 

" Several yean* ninco I commenced experimenting with the bark 
of tho cotton plant, (both of the root and the dtalk,) and noon 
satisfied mvself that it fnniislies an admirable nutiKtitutn for 
rags in the niaiiulacturD of paper, and is doubtless posscMsed ol' 
some advantages. Proceudiug with my experiments, I finally 
invented a process (in many respwis peculiar^ adapted to the 
production of pulp from this mutisriut, visiting during the time 
the Bath Paper Mills and the Rock Islnnd Milbt for this pur- 
poae, as Mr. Walker, of the Bath Mills, can inform you. Aflor a 
long series of annoyances, succeeded in procuring a patent 
from the United States Government, which is inoperative 
through or by reason of defective specifications, the fault either 
inteDt4onally or unintentionally of my a^ont, at least to a 
degree. I, however, continued my experimenis, and since the 


UnniBStton of the wsr main a|i{>)JcaLion for it patent Tor my 
landMl •pvcificniioiifL 

'I km {■n!|-&n-<i Ui <k*niAnKtrHli' lo anr inU^lligcntlKxIy tlist 
tlKAbuvtf namril maivriul riiriitKKuH iiii lulminiblv »ul>«titute for 
1*0 in Ihc itroHuctton o( Pa[HT pulp, nn<t llint dispcnito* with 
Ml* of tliu operatioDS ncco*Mii-v with r»fff, nnd, tberororo, will 
IfWoce p«{>or far tnorechpitpty llian rags can posMbly da." 

A writer in iho Jadcson, Mis^, Southron, nrges most etreii* 
m»ljr npoB ibe people of the South the advantages of oottoo 
br making htsd*. Beaides its gri.>At<>r clieapnc^t, nttciilion is 
odkd to ito ittiporior clvanlinL-nci, " vcrmiii will not iil>i<lv in it ; 
iWtv uf DO gr^KNi in iU an in hair nr wool ; it dnvs not got Stalo 
Aracqairo an iitiploiLKiint 'xlor im fi-athtirK often do; moths do 
aM infest it a* tt»-y do wool ; it diK-K not (MK'k or Itccoinv bard, 
m BMesdow; nor does it become dry. brittle orduFty. as do 
mnw. hay or ahncbs. It is the ehoapmt, ino«t comfortable 
aadtnofit healthy material for beddiag." Cotton has been ex- 
ICMi*elT aned both by whiles and negroes in making mat- 
tnsM* and (xtmtoria during the war. Seo "Zostera" and 
"Aaau^ " for subetilDte« for oottoD. 

It would hardly be deiurable that I phoiild fiirniith, in a work 
like this, very full inptruclion n-specliu'; the cultivalloD sad 
baadlioR of cotton, as it can easily bo procured eleewbore. It 
is greatly to be hoped that manufactories will hoou spring op 
Mvrywbvre in our niidnl which can uoe the raw niHLcrial at 
tlwir very doorx, and tbuH obriouAly diminish our expenditurea 
and ia«r»«»o our ppifitK. 

Governor W. B. Seabrook, of Sl C, has written, perliaps, tho 
Moet fall dcM-ription of tho cultivation of cotton, in a pnmpfalot 
paUiabed a tew years since. So<-, also, a paper on "Cotton" in 
new Am. Kncyclopa>dia, which i-oninins a fiill acconnt of tlia 
trade, growth, manufaeiure. production, etc. 

CVlitkttioH •)/ Colton. — With reauect to the onllivation of up- 
IsKd or ahon »taph' cotton, I must bo content to give an abstract 
Otllmt jdan rifoonimi-nilvd hy David r>ick»on. of Ttjiiieoek County, 
•vU kiiii«n a.'* cini' ul' ihi' inont Hitecivinttil |ilautcn in fteorgia, 
sad » pnhlishcd by him in a Korios of lottt-rs to Southern Cult- 
vatur, (or .[annary, 1869. 

Ub method in brief is a» foilows: 


Brekk tk« land dvop bultire plaiiting. If in 
cultivate the lami Hul, not oii iKtiljt .\t the secuni] pinwing, 
wbon the plant im about Bix iiiclics high, giro it a very deep 
plowinf; — Bulnsoil it if you oan; after thou cultivaio with broad 
Bwecpe twenty-four inches across the wing, set to ruu veryj 
shallow or lijjht barrows, bo as not to break the small roots ii 
tlie middle of tlie row, as Uie breaking of thiMO roots i» ve 
fiital to cottou, causing it to nbed itH fruit. In a ould olinmtA < 
on lioltnm land plunt on higli biiiin, and kttcp ihvia iK) in cultivi 
tion, and bu sure to luart: a thick stand to pruvout too largo a 

His formula for mftnurcs for both corn and cotton, is " I'uro 
dissolved bones, land plaster and salt, crowned with tlie beat of 
all Dianiirea, Peruvian Guano. Purctione the pure article arc 
do your own mixing. For one acre, lake : 

F«ru\'ian Guano. 100 It 

Dissolved bono (,' aup-Phoaph.) without admixtant of 

dirt.'— Bds) » 100 

Salt 100 

Laud Plaster SO 

ail well mixed ; and when you lay off cotton, open at least eight 
innhet^, and dcpottil the miuiiire altmg the furrow unii bed as 
nntml. [Fur corn open eight inubcit. drap tho mauiiro in hills 
throo feci apart, drop the corn within tbi'eo or four inches of 
th<^ manure, cover all at once, about one and a half inches deep. 
Let it stand for four or five weeks without work."] 

The following contains an al>HtraoL iif his imnhod of cultivat- 
ing a hit of xixtcon acre*. Ho givos ilm details of Ihi) prnpura- 
tion, mitnitring, planting, culUvation and production of a MXt«eD 
acre lot planted in cotton. As many may doftirc to know all 
the partrculai'H, I will bo as explicit as 1 can be in a letter: 

"Firvt, the land is good pine land, and has been under the 
plow nearly seventy years, ^nd as many as fifty-flvc years in 
ootton. About twelve years a;ro it was sown in oats, with two 
hundred lb& of guano and bonus mixed with salt and jila-itcr, 
and made thirty or thirty-five bushels per acre ; all fed off by 
turning stock in the field. Four yours ago 1 lefl it uncultivattid 
until tho middle of July — ihurt- was then a heavy growth of 
weeds on it, just grown. I turned tlicni in and dropped pcW 


Itaenery thini liirrow. Thr nMiittwax a lurgc crop ol' Tines 
iwa-i kc leant fifli^n bu^heU of pvaui por aoro. Thrao were tud 

[off bv iNvf Cttttlc. 

-That, if yon call it rest, is all the field ever had. The coi. 
nwaa planted on tb« top or a lerel ridge, ll wan planii'd 
icottua ID 1866 — manured wilk about on« buiidrwl and fiflv 
I Aa; of bones aod Peruvian guano each, and one hundrod lln. of 
I flMter. I coram I'Dctvl the 3d day of Hay with two hor«c«. to 
I H»f>re the laitd, outlon ravt» fotir fait apart ; ran two furrows 
I the nuddle of eaoli row, wliivb titood ojHjn about ctf^ht inchos 
it tf , aad appliiHl to cuvh acre two hundrod and fifty lbs. solu- 
U* bone*, one hnndivd and sixty-five lbs. ^'o. 1 Pernrian guano 
i one hundrcK] I b«. plaster. Salt being too high, I omitted 
tkaL Th« mixtare was deposited in the bottom of the furrow, 
ihtt oorered with a long soooter plow, going about aa deep 
m the other two Airrows, then ran on tbu mde of «acb sooolAr 
famw with a good turning plow, going sewn inches deep. 
JlAvr preparing about six avrcs in this way, I oponod with a 
^ull bnll-tongne plow; dropped the seed and covered lightly 
with a board — part of it with a barrow. I continued in thia 
way ontil the lot was planted, finishing tbe IMh of May. 
Tke laad being fhwhly prepuri-d and a little dry, it did not 
mm» ap weU. The 25th of Hay, hu<] a fine nhowcr, and on the 
Int looming of Jono there was a tint rate stand. About the 
fnt of June 1 tunied the plowH back to finish tbo preparation, 
naoing a scooter (six 7) incbos long in the bottom of each turn 
plow farrow, jfoing serim inches dc«])cr : then ploughed Dp the 
«M ttallu with a large, long shovel plow, goiug under the old 
eolloa rtallcH — making nine furrowit to tbe row in preparing 
tkabiid — taking nine <lays, with one lione, for every eight 
■eras, which was equal to a lull sub-soiling. Tbo preparation 
w«a Dot expensive. Inolndiug planting, it was eleven days 
vorli l4> eight acres. 

"The i«tlftu noon fttrotohed up well. Tlic Ant plowing vim 
d«De with a heavy twenty-two inch nwecp, (right wing towards 
tWend nearly fiat; tho back edge of the wing about one and 
■ fcorth of an inch abovu Iho fVont edge in elevation.) I tbcn 
hoed out to a stand, the width of No. 2 Soovetl hoe, leaving one 
•0 lluiM stalks in a bill. Cotton standing thick in the drill 
will ba mach forwarder than that which is thin. Give it the 
■ry distance between the rows. 


"Tlio second plowing wa* donu frith thi- Nftmv kind of 
wilh b«>H) wings HdviiUrd — thu woond iind ]w*t hwing fti 
in B fbw day». Tho third plonitig ran ono fiuTuw in titi? mid- 
dle of tb« rove. The onltiration witli the plow occapied ono 
horse five daya fer each eight acres, whicli malceA two days 
plowing for cttoh acre, and nboul two diiva hoeing for the 

" Tlio cotton grow oo rapidly it did not ncod any morc! woi 
T)io lot iivvrngtid uhoul (S.'KIOi tlime thouHand Itx*. por oci 
but owing to a storm and other fauKe>;, 1 gathered only (2,700) 
twenly-Beven hundred lbs. and n fraction, which will make two 
good hales per acre. I picked one hundred bolls in two sepa- 
rate parts of the lot, at four o'clock in the evening of a dry 
day. Etieb weighed twenty-one ounceii. In the lot was an 
lri»h potjkto patch that had booo maoiired and mulched with 
fltraw twice. I think that portion made at tho rate of six 
thousand lbs. per aero. Tho next best plHco Has about on« 
acre of old pino field, first year, which made, I think, about five 
thousand lbs. 

"If you oxpeol fluoh results, you must not out tho rootti of 
the ootton. Cotton is a sun plant, as you will ceu hy its turning 
its leaves to tho snn. as tho latter moves through the heavon». 
So havo a deep water IVirrow in tho spring, work flat hy 
hot weather, and on level land run the rows north and 

"Tho cotton would have been muob better planted the 10th 
of .\pril. 

" 1 lound, during tho wot weather, whoro tho nin<<t muniire 
was put it stood the best — especially tho part that had tho most 
Peruvian guano on it. There was some rot. owing to tho density 
of foliago and wet weather; some boll worm and caterpillar on 
•bout one-half of tho patch. The seed planted was of tho 
T>avid Dickson, Oxford, Ga., vnn'ety, selected twice by myself, 
and would itL-ll for more than Ihv cotton if I did not wiiih to 
plant them mywlf." 

David Dickson, of Oxford, by his st'loetions, has grtiatly im« 
proved the quality and piwluctivi'noss of this variety of oot* 
ton. Mr. Peabody. on the contrary, hoe hyhridiaed the "uplands" 
on tine sea island cotton, and has reached what is esteemed by 
hira a most valuable clues of cotUMi. 





M OkV Kqqi-i't, Mr. J. W. R. Poiw, of Uluiflon, S. C, bas dmwu 
Ml ttv ritllowiai' uccoant of tbe Caitivution* of the Sea Island 
<r I^fig Staple varioiy of colton. TUongb his exjierieocc is not 
•tfrnat as tKat of some otbers, bo has made ooe hundred and 
Hiy faMiads rooad of fine cotton to the acre, osiiig tnannrea 
sadc uD the larm. 

Th« met island cotton i^ thi- jihtiit ii-hicfa hurt bi>o» so cai-ofully 
taitivated unce tbe abandoning nt of indi^ti along thu nbori^ 
M Catutlna and Georgia, and moro rooontly inlrodatiod into 

Thi* plant was first cnltivated on the Island of Ililton Ucad, 
^ Xr. William Ktliott, some sixty years or more ago. This 
Tahrty of cotton nffordH the fin«.t vegoiable fibre known, its 
nHlJ staple reaching over iwo in(ili<.-9i in leiigili. The selection 
«f thic ootton ha^ »i> f)ir iinpruved it» quality, Ihut llie seed of 
the dKMt valued kinds haw commanded onv hundred dollars 
pvbosbd to gold. The tinoni tonality of thio cotton han com- 
W Mx I ed in market ax high as seventy to ninety centv in gnUl 
WfcfK Ibv war, and has sold during the prraont eoa«on at two 
Mam per lb. in currency. The most prominent selectors of 
lUitntton, Iwf^^nninK with Mr, Kinney Burden, are Joso)>h D. 
EfiapiJiMcph J. I'ojfe, Kiihraim Seabrook, J. Jt:iikiiifl Mikell, 
Jafcii F. Tbvrnound, William G. Baynard, William EdiogK, 
Tleodnns Bwfcet, Biihraim Clarke. Owens. Kcnjamin Godlay, 
VUliam Fripp— the two last confining themsolves chiefly to 
•dtctinff for more productive varieties. 

Thi^ plant requirea, on the whole, a nioer cultivation than the 

Previoos to emancipation the Mta ixlund lieldx were cultivated 
fcjr "laling" down the old hvdi' of the fallow bind into the 
alfeya. This ws(> done oxcIuHively with the hoe. Manures 
wm applio) tiilher above or below this list, ucconling to the 
bncy of the planter, the pre««nro of the mnnnrc in thu field at 
tine of " listing, or tho character of tbo soil. 

This work boio^ carenilly done, the land waa then bedded, or 
Uled ap with the h<M% either with or without tlii^ plow, ac- 
cnrdiDj; lo tbe wish of tiie planter, tbe strength of his laboring 

• pM«r Oalllam w th« 8sntM, fa BarkeUy Paritb, 8. C, carriid tli* 
I «f OtH cutlaa to ptttaetiva vary moo ntter tU inlnMluclioa. BU 



forco or t«sin. With the early and fiirther orops, In the met 
time, it usually required from the Ut lo Iflih Fiibniarj', up 
Ist or IStb April, to complcto tliu fiddx ft}r plmitiiig, much 
th in time being conAumod in huulin;; out ami di:>tnhiitiiig ma- 
nnn>« or the field. The moat itpprovinl timu of planting wa^_ 
U^m ihu 6tli lo U>th April. ^ 

The dir>tnncu in planting was from under one foot to three 
foot and ovpr, on rows avuraging fivv frat or lens apart, acooni* 
tng to dtrongth of soil and manures applied. 

The plants alonj; the Town range from under one foot to ti 
feet and more, according to alrength of soil and growth of eot 
ton. The mont approved plan of planting con fitted of IVom Qvt 
to six seeds lo the hill. These pluiits vrorc aflurwaniM Ihinnnij 
down to one or two planlM lo tliu hill — tlw more careful an^ 
jndicious planters leaving hut one stalk. The first working 
aflcr the plant gets up for eight day:! or moro, ie a nice hoeing, 
when the bunehea of young plants "are slacked" by cai-eftilly 
drawing out a portion of iho same. 

The next working is what is colled a "hanling," or hilling 
to tb^ cotton, when the planlA are reduced to two or thre« : 
the hill. Anotluir "hoeing" or "liauliiig" iti lJu>ti giviMi, whea 
the plantj« are reduced to a "stand," or the number uf staillu^ 
deemed proper to the row. The crop is then hoed or baul« 
according to condition of the field, to Ihe end of the season, itf 
being deemed advisable to have the two last workings, at U 
the last, done by " hauling." The plow, in the meantime, 
used or not, as the preference of the planter or cireumslunoca 
may rk^ijiiire. Th<Me fields were for:iierly thoroughly and beau- 
tifully attended wilh the hoe alone, and checkered with tmrroi 
paths a quarter of an acre apart, prenented tli» up|icanmcD < 
a well kept farm garden. 

The last working was given from the 5th to 20th July. The 
sea island planters enriched their lands with marsh cane, and 
luiually mode their own manuree, consisting of oomposta mado 
of salt weeds or marsh grasit, salt muck, leaves, drilled "iiiarvh 
nedgti" or dead marsh grass, waehi-d in heaps on the tthorcs, 
mixed sparsely with cotton seed slrewn ou the ditTeront layers;] 
tJie whole drenched with sea water and soiled by oiittle, eaol 
layer being strewed over with salt muvk until the bed wa 
oompleted. Stable manures wi-ro freely used nnd the fieic 
soiled by running over them shiiting {>ens of cattle. 



The green salt marsh was abo freely osod, being oat in the 
■■na- and fall fur iioxt year's use. 

Thla coilon i» [ireitareii fur mark»t by what is known as the 
llcCartky Gin, |irc>p«!llcd oitlier by atcani or horM |>owflr. This 
^ U of laorr rc«cnt amv A few yoara ago thv wholo R«a island 
mf was ^nocd out on Ireddlo rollrr gins 

ike onltivaUot) now pureaod with tbis variety approximal«8 
mm* iHttriy the uplaod method, and with a modorato uho of 
the ho*, the recurrence to manuree formerly practiced, and thfl 
tnt oaeof approved roercautde maDnras, it is ooDfldently hoped 
that thoM onee bvanlifui fields will again gladden our genial 

8m p. O. Hep.. 1857, and Tnomey** Geol. of S. C- for ttnalyws 
•f«aUoo plant, fibre and Mil, by I'rof C. T. Jackoon and C. W. 

The germinating power of xome aeedn reaches ttom one to 
fertf yean: that of the cotton may germinate aAer being 
kipt thrrc ycar». 8cc paper on vitality of soeda, and then 
fKkiagfor tntnspt^rtation in P. O. Rep., 1857. 

OSAGE OBAXftE, Bois d'orc. {Afachra (mrantiacai) If. 
AvOTvea. >'ot included by Chapman in^hia Flora of the 
Soathera United States; position irregular; itia allied to th« 
JfllberT}* moru.i. 

From the P.O. Report, lft*8, isanartidotakenfrom thePrairio 
Ftmer, by Prof. J. B. Turner. He liays that the oitago orange, 
tltefitrorite hedge plant of the United States, has already become 
hw well known to need any particular dofoription. It gn>w!i in 
th»wUdaof North America, in regions further north (han Now 
T«rfc and fVirtber south than the Oarolinaa. It is usually in 
Ail eoaotry from ten to ttf\een feet in height, though, like the 
■a^bh thorn, it is said somi^t:mi'!> to attain in its native soil a 
Mght of fifty and even sixty feel. Its utility as a hedge plant 
llw> longer an experiment. HMlgve of the rarest beauty and 
mrileaee have been growing in Boston, Philwlelphia and Cin- 
i. in Kentucky, Tenneweo and Northern Missouri ; and, 
in all the Middle and Southern Slaten. Some of thsM 
Wdgea have iieen standing for ten or twelve years; they were 
flaued bjr geaUemen of wealth and taste around their favorite 
■mika and groands at a time when the planta sold at the rate 
if fradnllars per thousand. Among all who have written on 


th« sobjeot) no iinravnrHb1« account hma como to roykDOwlodge^ 
Great Iohuch have l)ooii incurred wUti the ^leed, as niigiit bo ox- 
pecied, bub tho {ilaitl and liodge are unirei'saUy admired sad 
OotnmcodiHl, and it in ooiitidoutly Ijoiicvcd hy tliu b«til judges 
that it vill doubio the real value of any liirtn ii tmrrounds. 
Recent writers enumerato thus its many a(lvuntagi;«: Finit, 
ita t«naoity of life is aearoely equalled ; it is a native of the 
pmiri«sand will grow on any soil whore comnioD prairie grasa 
will grovr. Orerdowin!^ the land docH not harm it. It will Uvo 
for vrcirks and montbKOTitirvIy uod«r water. The dead wood is 
cxL'vodiiijfly hard and durable, and frash vbnuto from Iho Mnm|M 
eoon supply the place of all which have bcon killed by fire or 
OUttinK- !^Cond. its pi-oteetion if> perft>cU It is armed with a 
very sharp,stout ibom under each leaf. Its dense iron branches 
eoon become no interlocked, that no domoHiic animal, aud not 
CTCn a eommon bird, can ytMH through it. Both iu thorns and 
itx aerid bitter juice [ir«:veiiL all animals from browsing or 
feeding on it* branohe*. !im .teed i« like the oninge, and tU 
roots like the hickory, conwquonlly it can nov«r npreud iutci 
the field, either IVom the seed ur root, but keeps itH own place, 
/(rowing strons*"'" "iid thicker year by year. It thus perfectly 
secures orchards, fruit yards, stabies, sheeplblds and posture 
grounda iVom all lliievci*, dogs, wolves, etc., and one good gate, 
well lo('-kr<l, mnkei4 a whole farm si^oure from all intnideri^ of 
whatever dcnt-ription. It may he trained so high a» U> afford 
shelter to stock, and break otT the rough prairie winda from all 
gronnds needing such protection. Plants may also be pi-epared 
BO that it can be set in the open prairie without fence with 
perfect success. See, also, in Patent Office Report, 1854, p. 419, 
au article on the best mode of onltivating the osage orange for 
hedges, and the volume for 18.55, p. 315, on "Live fcnoea." The 
inttocLs which feed on it are described, v'lx,: a "chincli-bug," 
and the mule known an the gopher in southern Illinois. In 
Illinois oontractors ect and tend the hod;{e at one dollar a mJI^, 
till a good fence is produced. The juice of the osa,i;e orange, 
says Wilson, is exceedingly abundant, and flows freely from 
incisions, and quickly separates into a feeulant matter, and a 
sapcmatant, olear liquid. The wood In iineoramonly fine and 
olatilic, and in used by the v\ Imlinnrt for making their 
buw«. Itnoums well adapted to many purpuseii of turnora. It 

I ii«id tosqnal lartiu as a yellow dyo stuff, nad may bo much 
M« ra*i)y prtMlacod. Uaral Cyc'[o[KC(lia. 
Hm Ch«ttibe« rose forma a mo6t valonble hodgo plunu A 
nder pnuaes lilghly tLo "cabliage tree." Sec, al«», Crnb ap|ilo, 
(Ovtoym,) ami Wild Orttng«s {Ceratiu CaroliH.,} iti ibis volomc 

TIMACE.i:. {The LiHdat Tribe.) 

Tb«y all bava a mudlagiiiuiioi, wholcxoine juivo. 


MdEU. 8k. Anornamontal tree, Touud in lite mountain viJlvys 

froa Florida k> North Curalina ; NcwWni. 

EIL Boi. 22. The bnrk, wbcii inuci-mti.'d, TorntK a Hlt-on}; 

iMrdagc. used for dumosliv purjiui'tvi. Tli4! wood in wUitf mid 

jnA, and to uHcd bi' airriagr und vHb)ni;t-iniikci'& 

Tbr imivr bark ol' tho kluropoiiii liuden. ( T. Europea,) Ibrioa a 
[•tnMg conlsj^. Doabtlcsrt our Americau species are aleo tJiuti 
bed. Uilio. in bib Suiifitic& of S. C, 6tat«B that Ibe 
' l«rit of tlio Tilia AmerkiHa, maciTate^l in wal«r, umy be 
woAt iaVo n>p«a and fiabing net^ aud la a good uppllcvtion to 
kuBM. The plaiiU or br»titi|iiiH may In' Htii-pwl in water for 
ikne montha, Urio<l and »iri|>)i(-d ; tor cvpry purpose of cordagti 
IDB tlw pUntation or gnrdon, tlii« uiatrriul will bo tbititd luelUl. 
|b form« iliroUffboDt En^ttand tho material for ■' boss," and is 
by tho boiiicoiiuriBi. The flowein* of our Aiuvi-icaii TUia, 
il Witae from Pvndl«lo» DiHlrifl, S. C, I tirid quitv un uMiful 
«t tbt: tro|KirLt-d •' Tillevl," a mitU'riiil rDr<|ijtutiiig, a nti -spasmodic 
ImM, wbirh 1 bav« repeatedly Men preroribed in Prance. It is 
pafticalariy j^at^'ful and soothinif Lo lyini;-in women : qaieting 
MfvovB czcitoment, and pleasant to the taate. I would particu. 
lariy recommeud a larger use of tlieae flowers in Uio 8oDtlieni 
StalML It can be used wherever a tea U r«<|uin.-(I. The nliove 
rcnarka apply Ia T. pubrjieent also, which in indigeuou-. Tito 
wvti of tht 7*. Amtricana if white aud rod. In tho Northom 
BtaU«, where thn tulip poplar doo4 not grow, it i" used for 
CKTwJ work for tho panols of carriage bodies and tho seat? of 
Wiadeor chain*. It w, however, apt to split, and is not von- 
mtt r t i M^al to poplar for sncb and othvr uwful purpo»c«. X. 
AM. Sylva. 


" Uoney-dew " in fi;enerAllj' fotitKl mont nbundknt on tlto Lime, 
Dycamore and Beooli Iroea. I hure noti«ed it on the Cotton plant, 
and at timei> il ooven the IcikvoK of the Potiito, Uyv, Whoat, 

It i^ hy AOTDu, iinppwicd to bo conncctud with the potato 
dboaM;, tbongh it nbouods in nwampy places. Hejwood says 
" it is owing to an pxccbs of carbon in the plantii," whi(?h oonid 
only occur in dry weather, when the otbdr ingredicnttt conid 
not bo fnrniehed for it to combine with. I insert horo nn ox- 
tract fVom the Analectic Mh^., I'liilad., 1816: 

" My dv^igft in ihin cHsny is to give a brici' statement of 
c«rlain facta tvlativo to tho appoaranca of the booey-dew in 
Carolina, which appear to militate aurainst the received thuorien 
of its formation ; together with a coneise view of tho opinions 
of ancient and modern writers with regard to this pocnliar 

'' The production of honvy-dvw in inflttencod by tho season of 
the year, oviiiunlly by ihi; ulatc of tho atmnsphoro. In Carolina 
it most frequently appears tn tho month of May or June, during 
a long absence of rati), and after a succenaion of warm days, 
alternating with cool nights. Early in the morning it is found 
on the leaves ofptauttt, grapes, etc., of the consistency of diluted 
honoy, tmnsparunl, and rem>mbling in taste tho syrup of refined 
sugar; the viscidity of it increases with the heat of thv sun; 
and about ton or eleven o'clock it cvascs to bo fluid, giving to 
tlto loaves a shining and gloiwy appearance. Situations, also, 
appear to influence the production of the honey-dew. I have 
obHer\'ed it in the greatest abundance near the margin of stag- 
nant mnmhcs, pondx and savannnhH. In the District of Marion, 
South Carolina, is a moru^rt exti^niliog lilVHm or sixteen miles in 
length, and one or two in breadth ) it contains no trcc« of con- 
siderable niagniUido, except tho cypress and a few perennial 
nbruba, but aboundfl with annual succulent aquatic planta and 
gnpea. Koar the edge of this morass, during tbc season and 
state of the atmOHpliure alluded to, the honey-dew in produced 
in sDch quantitie.t as to moisten every shrub, and to cover the 
grass, Horses, which food at largo in the vicinity of the moraM, 
may be found at eight or nine jj'dock in the morning with tbeir 
mant-H iukI tailn ag;=;luiinated to a mass with this subntance. 
The particles of pinu loaves and groaseit carbonated by the firea 


■Ucli MnnetitDVs r%vago cxten^ire tracts of conntry in Hareb 
tmt April, ar» (Vs^ueotly observed c«inoDt«d with large m•ssc<^ 
mt in situations where, «p|uireDtly, the lioiiey-dow could oot 
kin dropped from ore nth ode wing tTi>«s. RtriinnA of boos in- 
ilnuwt erur)' oxcuvnied tree ; and from their honey tho 
' inbabitaatB of thin Hlurilu region derivu no inconvidursblo 

■ FcfWga, in his history of California, aays that Father Piccola 

<befT«B thai in the months of April, May and June, there fallH 

nth th« dvw tt kind of Dianna, which beoomes inftpisftoti'd oa 

llMteaTt« of trvcH. He aildn that he laxlMJ it, and, though not 

I m sfute as sugar, it had all the «wi>otD04t^ of it." 


TEA PTjANT, {Tkea Hindu.) The inWodnction of the Tee 
fiaat into the Southern States is so important that I will, at any 
nl^ •mkaror to give all suitable refereiioea to Hourocit of infor- 
■atioo oonrertiing its culture, preiiaratton, eto. 8oe a pretty 
HI aceoant of the history of it.-< production in the Unitod Slstoa 
m P. O. Iloport, 1855, p. 4'i. The bvHt modo of growing tho 
fkat, dryiDg and preparing the leases, is alno dcxcribod. 

Pbr «oine account of the experiment in the rultiralioii of 
finigB tea in South Carolina, by Dr. Junius Smtlli, see P. 0. 
Bcfori, 1848, p. 168, and 1859, p. 6. See, abo, vol. lor la')?, p. 
^■JCT, lor arltcla on " Practivahtlily of thu Tea Culture in tho 
H^aiied Ststfls." A doscriplion is given of the vari«-liesof »oil 
Vwd dimato adapted to tho growth of lea, its cultivation and 
P pteparation, with a notice of the plaute tml out in Washin^ioo. 
Thu fwromunivatioD should h« read by any one who proposes 
cMafiBg apon the businmu otniaag t«» plants ; al»o, vol. 1859, 
pk4t.«(f., coniaiuin^ sncceasftil experimeDts in Braeil. See 
Bed-root, New Jersey te« tive, iCeanothtu Americanut,) a» a 

AtMij^ our indigenous planta, the Gardenia, (G.pvbaccna aod 
IummTAiu, |rrowtng from Florida to North Carolina,) belong to 
iht mate natural family, Camellien, as tho tea plant, and they 
be •xporimcnted with. Our Linden tne, {TUia Ameri- 
:,) tlie flowers of which are ai<od in making an anti-xpaa- 
■oAic tea, is doeoly rolat«d to Oardrma ami Tkea; ho tb« 
Marrfrr' rvlatiousbip and the natural properties are again sub- 


•taDtinUMJ. 8c« Tilia. It is Raid that a pleasant tea can 
mudo libowi«c from the Holly, (^JI^t opaea.) 

Tlie introduclioD of both oofToe and t«a into Brazil wod 
first very iw, but was subsequently auoceaafu]. 

A writer in tlie "Country (lentliMiiun " makoH thi^ tlat 
tnenl : "A Tew days ago ! drunk u cup of rvnl Arncritran 
from tho Cliiniw ti-a plaiil, of which Dr. J. P. Barrett, nea 
Now Market, S. C, haitii tinu shrub, iiboiitfourffct high, wbi« 
has boruc flruit during Movcral years. Dyits side was a tlu 
afiecimon of tho Oka fraijmns, or Chinese olive, with whkh the" 
tea it) scentt^d." I have seen planttt of the TIim growing out 
in the open air, near Stuteburg, South ('aroliriii, which bora k«A» 
ahuiiilttiitly and wore vory flnurinhing. Tho ^iccdH, at first eweot 
to thir tiidto, wji>iipn>vu ^nuHL•l)U^ anil punyont, to a groat dogreo. 
It was flomo timtt hvforo 1 mcuvored IVom thoir diea^roeable 

In the cultivation of tho tea in China, "tho lower alopes of 
tliu hills are preferred, at 1,000 foot above tho love! of thoaoa. 
In India, from 2.000 to 6.000 feet. Tho best description of Miil 
for the tea plant \f a light loam, well mixed with sand, and «n- 
riched with vogolable matter, moderali^ly moist, Imi neither 
wet nor suur. (Sloping or undulating land of this kind, on 
which good cropH of millet or Indian corn may be produced, ia 
likoly to be suitable. Any aspect will do, but east or wt^t in 
prnfdrroii. The tea plant will not flourish in a wet or Htagnatit 
whI. When produced from seeds, the tea plant fir»t flowers in 
tho eocond yivir. The usujil period of flowering ii* in November, 
and the needs ripen thv< next nuliimn. The f^rouDd is prepared 
for planting by beinc diip or tronohod in the usual way*. 
Manure id rarely uried in tea culture in China; but whern (he- 
land irt poor, MluhlV'litter and ttowago of all kinds are noinotimcK 
Bppltod indiHC-riminntoly, in niodi-rato quantitieK, and a top 
dreasingof rich loam ie t-oni<idercd valn.iblo. The best time to 
apply manure is in the spring, before the plants bo;^ to grow, 
or during mild weather in winter. When the plant is about, 
eighteen inches high the leadingshoots are pinched off, and the 
shrub ii> forced to throw out laterals. Naturally, it haa a ten- 
dency to grow tall and strai;gling, with few side shoots. • * • 
As thi^ leaves UHcd m making tea are produced yearly ut Ibv 
ends o\' tlic sboolA, tho object of thia syatem of ti'catmont is ap- 



pwnt. A liioall crop of leavea may bo ^tbered tli« third 
yrmr all«r iiluntiri);. In tbf cjuilitb or tontli ywr, ihv proijuct 

,T be eotutdtfi-i'd at in inaxluiutn. Alwiii ton pounds to uu 
ia produced In Cliina Uiu liiird year, aomutiinen Uirvti hun- 
dred ^trndit in llio t'.'iith year." Arl. fit. rnip. 

A ralnablv hut IctigtKy nriiolu on thi^ (niilivitlioii uf thi« pUnt 
recently (1866) appeared in tbo Sonthcrn C"llivi»tor, a 
stoodard a^caltural jfinnial publisfaod in Athens, tin., from 
wUdi I make lUe lotlowini; oxtract«: 

-Inllarcb, 1860, 1 received fifty plonts fty>ra the PatentOfllc*. 
I kept them in pola unlil Kobruary, 18G1. They wei-e then 
pbwtrd Dul fivu fe«i each way in a looae.aaudy soil. They grew 
tittwry Andy; la April, l$lA'2, I made s Mmnll qnuitity ol' leu, 
a»d froni that lime to llitt pntiHiinl (1866) 1 Ituve Mipplicd my 
&mtlr with 6vo or xix |>ounds of H» yearly from fifty plants. 
nc lar^(«t amount of lea prodiK-cil in China, i« raided in tltv 
iaadslyi&g between tn'enly-«i);bt and thirty-tivo norlb latitude. 

'^Tkat the plant will grow and flourish w* well or ovon bettor 
(abboogh an exotic) tbrongh the wbolo of the States bordering 
tte Atlantic and tialf, A'>ira ^'oitb Carolina (o Texas, I have. 
B0k tb« leant doubt. All the laiidit of Middle Georgia and the 
Ckrolioa^. which arc now considered of ltttl« value for eorn or 
eooan, can bo made available, and grow tea to great adrant ago. 
In Middlv Georgia and other regions the eultivalion of cation 
vill il«eT«ft«e (h>m this timo onward. Tbe truth of titia fact is 
^tenl to all ob^errers. 

'As bcfort' Aintod, I planted out tea plants in 1S<>1. At the 
pravnt linip (186A) tboy arc from sis to iwven feet high, each 
plant covering a space of Keren or eight feel in diamiitvr — «o 
iMeriacking that it is with difliculty you can get bt^twci>n Ihcm, 
Tu aatimatc Ibe quantity wbieb oiio acre of land planted in tea 
wiMld make, I selected a medinm eized plant, and coUcetod the 
tmcttM from iL Tbe yield was one-fourlh of a pound of tea. 
TW Bumbor of plants to au aere, standing five feel each way, 
■ one ibomand a«vcn hundred and sixty-four, which will nmku 
fcar hundred and forly.nno pound* to the acre. Cun wo unl- 
lirateany plant that will compare with thin? Al fifty cenU* pair 
paaad it would make two hundred and twenty dollars per acre. 
Aaodier vt-ry great advantage it has over all other crops i«, 
Ikal neither cold or beat, dry or wet, hail or winds, or inHect« 


injore it. Wboerer beard of a failure of tbe t«a crop of Chin 
or Japan 7 Of th« qualitv of tbv t«a I have made, I can 
•ajr ihat coiinoi»iti;uni liavo aiuiircd m« that tht-y {irvfer it to tli 
Imported. Age fpvw flavor to coffi.'c — no with lea. 8oio<! tbi 
la two yvars old I find higher tiavori-'] than that ruc«ot 

HBLIACB.V. {The Bead Tree Tribe.) 

Bllter, afttringcnt aiid louic properties cbaraot^nze lh« npncit 
of thin order. Some of theni are active and daugirouti. 

AMERICA, (^Mieiia A:etUuacky Linn.) Xat.; diffused ; ^;row§ in 
the »trM)t« of Charleston nod North Carolina. Fl. &tay. 

Chap. Therap. ii, "0; Ell. Boi. 475; Mer. and de L. Diet. 
deM. Med. iv, 290; U. S. Disp. 135; Royle, Mat. Med. 308; 
Bell's Prao. Diet. 87 ; Eberie, Mat. Mod. 207 ; Frost's Elem*. pi. 
1 ; Aroliivoit Gcnt^nilBW d.; Mtitl. xrii. 112 ; Lind. Xnl. Syst. 102; 
Coxe, Am. Dinp. 128, Burton cotiNiiliired it onrmowt active an- 
thelmintic. It i» alwi a fitbrifugc, adapted to vorminonii fovora, 
where no worms arc voided. Diet, dcs Drogncs, par Chevallier. 
iii, 27. Tournon relates a case whore a little ^iri was thrown 
into coQVulsionH by eating three of the seeds. Merat alM 
mentions eaaeft. Journal Gen. de M^. xlviii, 25; Qaaeit«de 
SanLi^, MarH, 1821. I have fri-qiienlly seen them eati-n by 
children ii) .Sotith Carolinn, with no hiid olfiMjt, tlioiigb <l(!«truc>> 
tive, it ie said, to hog«. As an anthelmintic, four ouncva of the 
bark of the ft-esb root aro boiled in one pint of water, till it 
beconiott of the conBi§tence of cotToe, of which tVom one oudco 
to h»lf an ounet" may lio given evi*ry two hours; it may ho drunk 
sweetened, and should he followed by a cathartic. The dried 
berries, in spirits, have also been employed against asearides*, 
tape-worm, and verminous maladies generally. Aceording to 
Thacber, tbe pulp of the berry, stewed in lard, is used ad\'nn- 
tageously as an ointment in scald head. The decoction of tbe 
leaves is i-egarded as astrinjfent and stomarhic, and Dr. Skyston 
Buys he uses it with Bueoess in hysteria. This plant is employed 
in JaMi and Pemia. 8ce Rt'iv. Medieale, iv, 82. The tree fa 
planted aroiini] stables, in order that horses, by eating the 
boi-ries, may be prevented from having "liots." The leavea and 
berries of the Pride of India, packed with dried fhiits, will 


• Unem rrom itwecu, and will prer«nt ntotlis in cloUtM. 
'Tke kAf«« ot' the <-edar arc «Ieo useful fbr the sftme purpoM. Sec 
ttatk for mode of pt«T«nliiig injury Iroiii worms, where what I 
WBMiler U> (h! H very iin])<>rta»l tiuf^geiitioii in niadc. It Lt niiicb 
Jtintd in Soatli Carolina a* u. nUadv tnn, gnming t'<iually well 
indfypino laniJ rGBidvnvv!>, unit irt (^ilR-»i during tliv i-xpuuKioa 
tt tfae flowers, however, it j^iTeit oat r diiui^rooalilo odor. It is 
tmOr blown down, hod is noi louv lirod. Tho wood isbeanti- 
bB;- grained, and adapted tor table core r«i, drawers, etc., oerer 
k«n^ injured by worui-L A cea of (lie berries affooia the eye- 
■gbU t aio told. 

A «>lQti»ii or decoction made with the berries of tho Pride of 
!•£«, (to a half ba«hd of thA berriea put into a barrel add 
Mmd gallons of water, and let tbom nouk one or two dnys.) 
■ad eprinkled with a water-pot over iho plant, will, in moat 
mta>, prevent the depredation of the black grub, or cutworm. 
TW elder (^S^mttvcus canadaisia) is also eaid to be excellent, 
ID the ume way. P. S. Hotmes' So. Karmer. The oil 
flaxMnftd (£4x11111) will aliio destroy all kinds of animals 
;qnadmpod«, whiin rubbed into the «kin. 

A Hwp (B nude from the burner of the Pride of India, which 
it called " Poor man's eoap." 

The toUuwiug was published in the Columbus (Oa.) Sun 

dnu BoTtea for Hnrse and One Fted. — The writer has fed 
CWb» barrios to honMW and cowa for Uie past two )tL>«.-u)nK, and 
(H poceive no bad elTk-cts from ihcm — on the contrary, borso« 
miitr this feed iieera to improve bettor than when fed on com 
•loo*. In these times of scarcity and hii^h pricosit is worth 
while to give this feed a trial. In my opinion a buxhol of 
Ckiaa berries are ueariy, if not quite, equal to a busliel of corn. 
The crop i» T«ry abundant, and now, befora the winter rainit, is 
lb time to gather them. I give tny hortoit a half a bucket 
liQ of the berrioM, with a nmall ItM-d of corn, threo timed a day, 
sad I boil the «o«d with pea* or other fcvd for my vowa. 
HotvM art) partienlarly foud of iho h«rriiM». 

AUBANTIACE.E. iTke Orange Trite.) 

SWEKT OH.VXGE. {Ciiru* aurantinm, W.) This well known 
Un b i:iilLiT]st«d in CbarliMlOii, and grow« abundantly in Boaa- 


Ibrt District, on ihe aeA«OA8t; wry proiliic^tiTO iii Florida, and 
<^oeinl of Gi-nrgiB. 

I will i-oiiiJiMiMc tho followint; from Griflilh: In ovpiy part of 
tha Wt'Htcrn Statm tho omngo treo is liftblo to be injuriNl by 
JVo*!)", itixt hcin-rt rnnodt bo coii^iilcnwl ns u conaiii crop ; wi.en 
thiM IK m>t the cafto it in a most proHlir plaol, an'] tiie qnaiitity 
bonio by u sin<;l0 ti'eo is aometitnes erionnous; thus it is Paid 
tliai 20.000 liavo bei'n fc<^tliered fi-om one in Si. Micbm^r.t, cxilu- 
(tivo of tboAe unfit for ui>v, wliicli may lio VKJ^^iilnlvd M lO.OlK) 

Thu orangii <-ot)t»in» ii Isr^^ <}uniitily of saucharine matUir 
Mild murit.igc uniti-d to an .n<j;rooabltt ntid, and hcnco i>( wbolo- 
come. coolinj- and rcfrchinK to tho sick, especially in febrile 
and ioflaDimatory complaints, bat should be used cautiously, «a 
It is apt to disorder tb« stomach and bowels. The juice of Uiia 
IViiit contains citric ami malic actd^, thi' super citrttto of lime, 
mucilage, i«ugur and w»U-i-. The rind of the nweet ariiiigo ix 
also UMcd a!< a fubfttitntc for that of the bitter Hpotici.*, which is 
the true offloinnl article; tt yields by distillation a iVii^rant 
OHiwntiHl oil. The iiomaturc' fruit id hImo employed for the pur- 
pose of mskin;^ issue peas; for this puqwse they arc turned 
smooth by a lathe; tJiey have an aromulie odor ami a bitter 
taste, and are also employed to flavor curttiiii eonliiilK. Accv^nl- 
ing to Lebi-etoii, they are composed of \-iilatile oil, Milphiir, 
fatty matter, a pi-eiiliiir prinoipk? t^ulU'd hesperidin. bitter 
astrin>:;«nt matter, Home trium of acids, ve.<:;otabIo and mineral 
salts, etc 

The leaves have been employed by some practitioners as o. 
remedy in many nervous disorders, and are said to have proved 
btTneficinl in vpilepMy and choriiii. They are nr'iniiitio and 
feebly bitter, iinil (N>ritain n fragritnt volatile oil. which ik pro- 
cured on diiilitltttion, principally employed by porfumen*. The 
flowers arc miie.h more celebrated as reiiiDiliiil ugent«, in siib- 
BtBTiee, btit more especially in their di«tillcd water. Orange 
Bower water, ax it i» termed, has a very n^eoable odor, bat 
less powert\il than that of the flowers themselves, and is in 
general use in Eiii-ope as au anti-spasmodic, and is considered to 
poBsesE much power; its use in this country is limited, but is 
becoming more extended; although not endowed with the 
active qualities ascribed to it, it forma ft very plcw«ant drink to 



die airtc, knil exerui^iea a sgotbing iiifliioiivo when tlic tivi'voiut 
«jf(e«i 14 uii-iiily L'Xt'itdil. An rx.-ii'iiltnl «i| i* oblninc*] from tbo 
tfwvrx known an tlie uil of XuroU, much usod lis a perfume 
■Mi IB Lb<! miuiDriicturc nf oologiic oiid oiber scaut«d watcta 
ftr tii« toilet. Hce, also. IlisM)'^ etaborat« woi-k rereri-ed to by 
Orifitb. Tbe yoimid; sbooui ko'^ r«^iili)rly kootu-d niid iirv iiiucb 
mti ia liic roKUUlHCturv of walkitig Litnitii. 

T« lUmm lAt /raifram essences from tlkn: fresh rinds of UmoM, 
— yi ■, <<«•-. ibe rind* uvv rnbbud ui^itiDsL largo lumpa of louf 
mgw antil ibc yellow rind is compldtely absorbed. TboM 
pKts »f the sa^r which are Itnpregnaled with Ilio essence, 
tn, fnim Um« to limo, lo be out away with a knifo, and pat 
isla wa nortlteii diwh. Tli« wholo buiug tbuit tjikun off, the 
M;gared osMoce is lo U- clovi'ly proKM(»l, aniJ pal by in pout, 
wkorv it t» to b« fiqnocs«d dowu hard, have » blu^lilor over llie 
piper by which it is covered, and liod tightly tip. It i» at any 
St for or^: and will kt.-op for niaoy years. Exactly in tho 
manitcr ta^y be oblaiiied and prwierved, at the proper 
from tbo fr«h roolt<, the twsuncM of tho rliids of bitter 
■r nrect orangM, i«n>ons or limc«, bergnmotM, uU;., Homu of 
wUcii are oi\vn unaLtainable in a froMb state at any prioe. 
Tbomton'* Herbal, p. ^!>. By thit« Mniplo nieanA those who 
h«e, or can obtain lomonx, may pr««ervf thu vwtfiiic^ for the 
pKpnration of cooling! acidulous drinki> at any tlmo. Winii 
■ay also hv made tl-om the orau^. Thornton, in hi* raudicul 
mprfc. ^TOd the ntetbod as followa: Pot twelve pounds of pow- 
4mA Migar, with tho wbltea of eij^ht or ten »iiiP', well beaten, 
ialo mx i^lloD* <'f A]>nng water, boil them Ihn^e quailors of an 
imu; when void, put into it «lx Apooneltil of yeast and tbo 
)«k« of twelve lemons, wbich, being pur«d, miut stand, wilb 
two paandb of wbiW aogar, in u tankard, and in the mornin^t 
lUm off tb« lop, and then put it into the water ; add Ihe juioe 
aad rinds of fitly orangea, but not tbo white or pithy )>itrt« of 
lb« Huds; lot it work all together two days and two nigblo; 
lb«a add two quaru of Itbcnidib or while wino, and pat it into 

h P. O. tU-ii^ 1869. p. 106, is a cummnnication on the pro- 
4wts of the Ionian islands and Italy. J'be following may be 
d^l to thoM in Florida who raise the lemon in quanlity : At 
ifraaw'. "tbe mosteonsiderablo, and soraotimos tlie most valu- 

hi'n j/'irti'ji. 'j! tilt- irch i- .^i-.T-rc. or iliai reieinwl at- uafii for 
*-zj»'.'*J-.'i. ti'.'iL wLi' i. "-uT •— ^.-i.'ii.. '.'ii rviiiuiiin'ci iii tiit- liiid, 
uijO ;t.', Jui'j'.- ■■r ■.■.".r.v fi'.-ld. iL Tbt I'UJji. ari- tsirnfiK-d. Tiit 
iM-^L'.iii. '.iJ if v;;;-!'v»mk: t-r liie Luiu. it b nmiL troni wiuii 
t-Jifc h'r if cjir*-'i.-y '.S'.-iud'.-d. l^. '.-wiiji: H' ii* Li^iilv voljiuk 
i.bii.!'.. lij-; j; ;r..ju'.t-cl w.'Lii t* cretiuv diciiiiisbfu W for- 
i-»-i.t-i: '.i! hi;. Tijrr -ic.;l '.-Ij: 'r:'n. iLit^- eititt of Uit iumon i* 

liiBv i.c ^-rjij'rif -d ;l h J.-lj: dhv i-v kL txjien viirfemUL Tie 

'.ijl tijlie tXJT«rt-st-J i- pul ;i.l_. inriTr r«:eiTtTS.. wbtOiW <»tna 

n.-Biuujit:^' vjuit 'Uiiv- to d"-]".-^! itit txtmnt^'Ot- m»Tier iliat 
'■oimrf 'jff wJiL iL- oil it i- irfcislcrrt'd lu '.-wjijifr ItC'tlte* Iwr 

" Til*- juj'.*. 1.1- ';iiri'.- fc'.-jd. i? oL-iaiiitd L>t smliiuiitiitg liit pnip 
Vj u p'jwtriu; j.rt*. wLict. tliouglj msiie iu wustmttJC'n. is 
•rlBf/ieiit. 'J"Lii^ i? w'jrked during ihe Beit!*ii niglil and dar. 
'J'Lir 'junijlily 'j! juict (ji-ixiLced jrbia one i<rc!i?> daiing iweoiy- 
J'^ur liouTf iivtrh^v? 1:;6 giili'.'H-. " " Lriuon juit* initbdtid 
i'/r •rxjyjnsii'jji i- pul iiitij ivvil -t-ast'iit-d oak carJi^. auJ filled 
Uj iLir Ijuij;£. «j a^ tiitireiy lo exoiude ilie air. When <rf « good 
quality, aud ihi,- fiUJug oi tlji- ta.-k is complti^d. tLe article may 
tw k*f|/t ill a wrIJar of c-'jJd j.'late (or any ivAsonat'le time' 
lA-rii'tii jui'.-v. ust'J I'jr i-alii-o prim'iu^. was afterward Ixtiled down, 
iir i.-vaj;''raii:d. in Ivadvii j-ai.K ov»-r Mean), it" a wriain i-onws- 
l<:ii(-y — iliv i.'iirii; a'.-id uTid mu<.-il:iiri' ouIt rimaining in a LigLIy 
';'>ij';';ijtrat'!d '■law, O-uhiilt Miiil".'TTv -.Viprw* ruirj i in this 
voluim:. Scj; I'. O. Iteji.. 185^*. j>. 257, for Mr, (itoTtT's rc-pon tm 
th<: iijM.-(;t>i f't-i'diii^ uitoii it. and a liistorv of llie tre* in Florida. 
S-;*;, alwi, l.'rt's JJii-iiotiary of Art*!, article Citric Acid. To 
[irifvi-fii uttackri of the ''«uk-," an insvct. hot water or tHeam is 
ihi^ h'-Ht rBiimdy, Tlie Persian ))OW'cler (iwe P, O, Rep., 1857, 
\i. iny,; i« alito adviwed (J'yrfflirvm caurasicvmj — allied to the Oi- 
ijy'id daiwy ( ^JhTynatitlu^inum (eacanlhtnum ) growing in the 
Sotillioni MtatcB. 

IjK.MON, < Citrun limonum, Risso,) Dr. Griflith gives the fol- 
lowing ftCO'tunt of the jiropertics of the Lemon: 

"Tin; jui'ie iind rind are officinal. The rind has an aromatic 
and Ijitli-r taMte, and an agreeable, fragrant odor; these proper- 
tii;n an- owing to the ltre^ence of a volatile oil and of a bitter 
j>riii<:ii)le. It in a» aromatic Hlimulant. principally employed, 


however, as a more flavoring ingredient, being Bolilom or never 
administered alone. The volatile oil, oil of lemons, alllioiigli 
carminative and diaphoretic, is more naed aa a ])(;rfiinie and to 
mask tlio taete of nauseoas medicines, than a^ arumu<lial agent; 
some SQCueSB has attended its emploj-raent an an exturnal stima- 
laDt, especially in chronic inflammations of the oye. 

" The jnice owes its sonrneas to the presence of the citric acid 
it contains in combination with mudlagfi, extractive matter, 
FHime sugar and water. Scheele was the first chemist who ob- 
tained this acid in a pure state. The procens ho devised ia the 
same now employed, that of saturating the juico with chalk, and 
decomposing the citrate of lime thus formed by means of sul- 
phnric acid, when the vegetable acid is set free, and may bo 
purified and crj'stallized. Citric acid thus obtained i;* extremely 
acid, but not as agreeable as the juico itself; it is, therefore, but 
seldom used in medicine when the latter can be procured. It 
, is, however, largely employed in the arts. 

"Lemon juice, as being one of the most grateful of the acids, is 
much used in the formation of refreshing drinks in fehrile com- 
plaints, and also in the preparation of eiferve^cing draughts. A 
mixture of this made with one scruple of the carbonate of potash, 
dissolved in an ounce of water and half an onnce of lemon juice, 
taken in a state of eifcTvescencc, is advantageously employed to 
lessen fever, to cheek vomiting, and to diminish morbid irrita- 
bility of the stomach. But the juice appears to possess proper- 
ties of a higher order. Whytt found that given in half ounce 
doses it allayed the paroxysms of hysteria, and relieved palpi- 
tation of the heart. As a preventive to scurvy, this article is 
well known. The crystallized citric acid has been substituted 
for it, though it is not equal to the juico itself. Id the West 
Indies and South America a cataplasm of the pulp mixed with 
common salt, is a usual remody for the bites of venomous 

I may refer, also, to the use of lemon juice, with olive oil, in 
the West Indies, in the treatment of yellow fever, and in large 
doses, as recommended by B. Jones and others in acute 

LIHE, {Citnis acida.') Cultivated in warmer regions of 
Southern States. 

This ie largely used in the preparation of citric acid. It is 

more acid than th* Lemon. Tho C. deeumaria, or Sbnddock, 
aud C, bfiyamia, or Uergamol, ore also fultirntod. Tlic Ibrnw 
poaecjtseR n rind HUjii-riur to tliiit of the Bitter A)niODd lor dm 
dicinul {lurpoHeii, nn<l Uio tultitr tlm vn-]\ known oil employed It 
|H*rluini-ry. The viiidv uf ull iiru iiniid in inukiiig preserves. 

Rmo.) CultivatiMl. 

Tho ft-uit is too bitter to bo oateu. Tho leavos. flowow. «tc., 
are usod for llio same purpose as those of the sweot Orangf, but 
tlie volatile oils are said to bo of a finer quality. The rind is 
the ollleinal cvrtrj: auritnCii of ibe PlmrmD(-oi>u>Jas, iJiOUj^b that 
of lliu Orange in gunerully aiibHlituted for Jl in our ahops. Sue 
Griffltht V. S. Di»p., aud aathora. 

CITltON. <atrus Medica. Kisso.) Cultivated. 

This i-eseiubles the ijomou v«iy closelj'. The fruit attains 
great size. The Had id uned to inalcu a pi-ntorTe ; oil of Cilrof 
and oil of Ccdral are obtuim-d from it, wliii-b iiru v^ciitial \n\ 
compiiKition with oil of Lomon, am) ummI In perfumery. Si»«J 
Griffith, D. 8. Ditp., and authors. 

RHAMNACEjB. (TAc Sucldhorn Tribe.) 

Amerkanus, L.) Two raritttiuH exi»t in the .S'mthern Siateduj 
Ditfuflud in dry pino bniTunM ; Ricbliind ; onllnoiud in 8l. John'aH 
vicinity »f ChiirlpMton ; Nwwbrrn. Fl. Jnly. 

Liad. Nat. Synt. liot. 108; FvTrcin, Mut. Med. iii. 338; U.S. 
Disp. IS40 ; KIl. Bot. Mvd. Noio(<, 2S)I ; Mnr. and do L. Diet, de 
M. Ued. ii, 165; UoHtun Med. and Siiri^, Jiturnal, 1S3!(. See, 
also, the aupplcnieut to Mer. de L. l>ict. do M. Med. I84C, 155. 
This plant j)OS9(!iiflen a uonsiderable degree of aatrin^ojicy, and 
luM been uwd in gonorrbiunl diiitiliurgert. It i* npplJod by tfaw 
Cherolciic dcK-lorM ti" .i wii»b in ciniH-r, and nijiy lie uwd wber- 
over an astringent is likely to be iiwL-l'al. Tho Indian:* employed 
it in lu«H venerea, preferring ilto lobelia; if tho caso was violent, ] 
the root of the blackberry (Rubus vitlosus) was mixed with it 
Sloarns' Am. llerbiil, 97. Ruforriiig to its anti-ityphilitii:* powers, 
Forroiu Kaya: "EIIl- guL-rit aunn! en moinH de quinxe jours, lea : 
Tooerieiin len pluH iuvutero^." It if not now ttuppoi«ed to ba : 
ondovred with any vary decided virtue in this respect. I>r.J 


Hsbtnn] prvMrtbm il with nitvunUigo in llio aphthotiK affeotiong 
«f iafkoU, in muligriitnl dyfvaUsry mnd in otiivr inii)iiilict> ilvpcn- 
4nit apoD dobilitj ; he osuallj combinra with it a lilUo borax. 
Sae Jovmal de Pbarm. xxiii, 354. Mr. Tuomoy, Slst« Geologist, 
Mfcnu mc that much otto in made of il in domufltic practice 
n ChaM^rfitfld OtHlrict. A n infumon of th« loft vca was employud 
4niB)t tb« w&r of indepondcnou am a isubi(liln(o for lc». I tiavu 
uperUnootcd with the lesros, and obtained a liquor eomowliat 
TeMOiMiDg common tea, both in cofor and taste. It imparts to 
«oal> Biw, perBistenl, cinnamon, nankeen color. 

Tba above was iocludcd in my ropon on the Medical Botany 
ofSoatli Carolina, iHibliahed in IS'9. Sinoo th« biiginningof 
Ae recent war I callud the attention of our citixontt 1» ihin plunt 
aaanibatitDto for fort^ij^tco, in a brief communication, liaving 
^UD collected and used it, and ioducod othor« to do tho same. 
IfWte from this article: "Without any desire to exaggerate, I 
eonamd the sabstitnto. It grows abundantly in ou* high pine 
lUgea. The tea, prepared fVom this slirub, drawn aa common 
.tea, b certainty a g<HNl aub«tilutu for iadiffurent blaek tea. 
Pnperiy dried nn<l prcpAPL-d, it i» aromatic and not unpleasant. 
1 ■■ glad to report it as an article to be used in war times in 
ffanof a bigh-prieed commodity, which, in every respect, il 
nHmUc6, if It does not equal." Dr. John Baohmun, alMO. at a 
hter period (1862) directed aiU'ntion to thci plant, stating 
that bo bad used it for two months in his own family. The 
hara should bo carefully dried in the shade. 

CABiiLINA BUCKTIIOK.N, (i-Vfliijfofa Carolwana. Gny.) 
MmU, In hi» Statistics of South Carolina, states of Rhammiu 
Otnti*iii»us, thnt a purgative ayrnp in pn:{>iired from the 
bmee; and of ti. fran-jiitn, (Blackberry hearing aider,) that 
tkcbarfc dyes a yellow color, and that from a quarter to half an 
•■BO! of the inner bark boik>d in small beer is a §harp purge; 
•aed a* a certain purgative in oonAtipation of Ihe bowels of 
eat tie. 


jBTAKK TREB, (Cdastnu scatuU-nt, L.) ilonntoinaof N. 0. 

Aendity cbaraclcnzes the order, bat the Meds yield an oil 
which is useful for a variety of purpoi^H. The bark of this 
plant ba» considrrable reputation in domestic prucUce a« an 


umetio, diMulieiiL and «nli-tt^))hiliLic; it aJtio appears to poe 
80inD niircotii' poivcrv. Ri<t<J(!l, ii) lit;* Syn. Kl.. kIiUuh that (t I 
nsad by tho Thotmsonians a(( a »liniuiating (litirctic, nnd con 
eidorod capable of rumovin}{ hepatic obstructions. GriRith. 

EUPilOKBIACEjE. {The Euphorbivm Tribe.) 

The general property, aoRordiog to Jusaieu, is an excitant 
principle, residing prinoipatly in tho milky Hocretion, and pro 
porLiontid in iU Hlronglh to ihn ubuiiduiicu of the latter. 

BOX, (Brtrua ;!^cmpfTmrrji!'.) Ex.; cultiviitvd iu gardens. 

Borgii, Mat. Med. ii, 793; Ed. and Vav. Mat. M.-d. 512; Le,^ 
i, iU ; Griftith'it Mod. Bot. «f)2. The ktavo* bavc been aftirnu 
to bo violently puri;ativu, and arc employed as a fJiibMiituto for) 
giiaiavttm. I>c<m. Klom. da Botaniquo, ill, 434; Bull. Plant 
Von. de France. A I'otid oil is obnunod from it, and the wc 
is prised by on^ravers fbr their blocks. 

The timbi-T-bearing box true is planted in England A'om tb< 
aeedslo great profit. BettideH being ornamuiiUil, itH timber la 
rerj' valunblc. It attains a great height in Tiirkey and Asii 
Uinor, and tho wood i» nscil by Ihi,' engraver, and for tho mani; 
facturc of combH afid miiKical and mathematical inKtriimuntx. 
It will grow on poor land?. One species of the garden box 
always dwarfish. 

BALSAM HBAUIN« CROTON, (Oroton baUamiferum.) 
Willd. Soulh Florida. 

'J'hin plant, C. jiiaratimtim, WalL, and Mvoriil other specie 
natives of the Swutliorn StnUin, xhould bo cxaminod od account 
of their alliance with ('. tiijUum, which produces crotou oil. 
Caacarilla bark, and a dye, aro obtained fK>m the genns Crolon. 
Tho rcHin known as lac is obtained from V. tanciffrum. ^d 

TI, (Jtidnus communis.) Rx; grows luxuriantly in rich spote. Tbis 
valuable plant thrives ho well in tho f^outhern States that it might 
bo made a ttourvu of profit, On some of tho plantations tlie 
fiOod» are boiled, and the eupematant oil given a» a oathartic. 
It might with grcjit advantage be more generally used. 8eo 
medical authors j^d^si'fn, 

It is believed by some that one Tarioty of tho castor oil bean j 
hulU itself spontaneously. I remember uo distinction of thia^ 
kind mentioned in Pereira's lengthy description of the plant. 


Mr. W. Toney, a writer in the Soatliera Field uud Pire«tide, 
np ■'lh«re srv wveral raHoLicH, all yielding cnator oil, but 
osly on« kind vrbii-b if »Qlf-hiilling, and thisi« the true, genuine 
al-bcao." If this is to, I am not awam of it. 1 have only 
•ofo a 1»T^ at>d a small Hovd variety, and no writer refoni, ho 
far as 1 am aware, to any otbcr distiootion. lie 8aya tliat, Tor 
Vm f— ijh eafiirtia, Hom<> maebinery, like the cotton tH>ed kuUer, 
iiMeeasarj* to d«oorticat« them. 

I haw becu applied to to afto«rtaiu the relative vidue of the 
laaU aad largcsHt-edisl \-uriuly. Porviraslateit that llio oil is 
c^vaJly good and abundant in each. S«e, also, the Dictiunnuiru 
im Xat. Uedicale. 

It u beine planted ostousivcly by pUnlerfl for homo use in 
IkaSoBlberu Siati'!%. Aa it ia imporlnnl tliat ihia pl»nl should 
be lai^dy grown, on aocount of its fcreal vuluo and onorraons 
roniamplton. 1 will be nt lb« Lroable to iiiHort MOme of the 
poetical information nt my dinjHMial. 

A brief paper can be found in the Patont Office Itoport, I8i>5, 
f- 27, Tbo writer says iliat the Pnlma Cltrinti "has proved 
ibair well adaplod to the soil and climate of ihe Middle and 
Soitbtm Stales, and were ita culture extended for the manu- 
teUR of castor oil, thei-e ia no doubt il would be profitablo 
mdtr improved methotU of luctmoling it, and we fdiould no 
higer ba dupendvnt ii[Hia olUc^r nittioua for a aupjdy. At 
fnwot Wd annually import an umounl of tbiM article ex- 
enlmg in value S30,a00." 

Aitbougb nn atuiaal berbaceou* plant in the gardens of tbo 
oouler parta of Europe and the United States, witiiin the trop- 
ia, and the warm olimatea adjacent thereto, the Palma Uhriali 
become* a tree of several yeara alanding, oileo having a woody 
male of tli« fizu of a man'n body, iind filti'en or twenty feel 
b^. This plant ihriruH bi^t in a light, lutndy louui, although 
itnaj be cultivated with success in almoet any soil tolerable 
ftnila, M- ID any climate or soil where Indian com will thrive. 
Ia lL« cooler porta of the Union it may be planted in billa two 
bat by three apart, two Meda in a place, na early in the apring 
m tbe wariDtb of the groand and the aeaaon will admil ; but in 
thcSoalh. where the Maaon ia longer, and the plant assumes 
Ifcc character of a true, the billH sbould be six or seven fe«t in 
oae direction, and three and a half feet in the otber, receiving 



one seeii Lo n kill, ooirefed to the depth of two iochc». Tfaj 
oaltiiro i» m nimplo, that it niily roquirvd lo keep the plants fVc 
from weeds, with n small, flat hfll to uach. The only diilieull] 
to oonteod with ts, tliat iu savinj; or hnrvvKtini; Iho Iwiiii^, ih^ 
outward coats, aa they become dry and clastic, 6y off ihti plonl 
to a ootiHidorablo dintanoe, caasing the seeds to dtvp io iIh 
grniitid. In order lo prev«nt this, it has been recomtnondul 
cut olYtho braiichfi* rroiii Uio jrlniitH as soon as the pods be| 
to explode, and sprond thotn on t)iD floor of a elose room ; nn 
after the beans and thoir sheila have parted, to nopitnite lliC 
hnsks from lite seeds with a fan Ding-mill, as with wheat, or try, 
the oommon riddle and a dranglit of air. The oil is olttainc 
both by deoootion and expression. The former method ispc 
formed by freeing the soodn Oom Ihoir husks, which ai 
gathered upon thuir turning brown, and when beginning lo 
borat open are first bruised in a mortar, allcrwarda tied up in a 
linen bag, and then thrown ini'i u largo pot with a aulfideul 
quantity of water, Jind boiled until the oil hiw risen lo the sur- 
face, when it is earofully skimmed otT, strained, and prtnH-rvvd 
fbr use. In extensive operations, a mill should be provide>d, 
moved by the agency of animal power, walor or (ttcuni, for 
bruJHiiig the seeds ; and the other apparatus uaod in obtaining 
the oil tthoutd bo of appropriate dimcnnionti. The oil tbu« ob- 
tained, however, bus tho ditadvantage of beooming raucid 
sooner tbau thai procured by oxprossion. The best mode, 
therefore, is to subject the seeds lo a powerfhl hydraulie press, 
in a nimilar manner to that in which tho oil is extracted f>om 
almond.f nnd cotton Kecdn. Tlic xeeiin yieM about one-quarU'r 
of their weight in oil. The reader intert-jited in the vunntics, 
mode of pressure, etc., of castor oil scciIh, mny consult with.^^ 
profit Merat and DeLens, Diet, de Mat. Med., Pcrcira's Mat^| 
Mod., the V. S. Disp., and in addition the material included in 
this paper; iiIko, Uro's Diet, of Arts, article "Oils," and Wilson^i^^ 
Bursl (!yc. ^ 

I introilnce the following, from an EsKiiy on the Cultivation 
of Castor £eiins, published, 1868, by the Hi. Louis Lead and Ul 
Company : 

"The cultivation of tho Castor Bean is attracting considerabli 
attention at the prosent time. Ueretoibre tt has been cultivat 
chiefly for the Oil for mediolnal purponus, but it i» now coming 


kKgrij- tat<> <leni]knil Tor otbor u^m. It ut l.-«iHg ititoil qniUi ox- 
Iwm'rr ly fur lubricatinif. aihI &.■' uit oxocllunl uil Tor ibe hair. 
Fnf Mwlfcinal parpiisoit it< u«u ih nlmot^t uniTcnal. 

.'iiittfioH of SmL — i\lmo«t any eoil thai will pradace wheat 
■roMB, will answer for the castor bean. Whunitcan bo batl, a 
m»dj htmm u ]ireferable. Tho soil sbould bo dry. Wcl, ht'svy 
aiili are not adapted to iia auocessf\il culture. 

■On« importaut faol in <:omie«lian wiih the culture of cutor 
Waa* M, that it it* otm gf tbe moHl TerliliKiiiK crojui nu«c-d. Id 
\im rM>p«ct it sarfMUMiM cvon doTcr. Many larmcnt »ay, fbr 
iwtithuiig purpiMoa, a crop raised npon land is north eeveral 
Mian per acre to Uio land, on scooDDt of the additiona] fer- 
iMity gaiocd by it. Wc have heard of landholders ofl'ering tba 
frw wa of laud to bu pbinled with t-iMloi- Wann. 

~ i*nfaraUim «/ lite Soil.^Thn ground idwald bo put in good 
BM^tim for thv Mod a» for other orop«. Oae thorou.^h plow- 
three or four harroivin^, with a heavy harrow, will be 
BDt preparation. Full plowing is undoubtedly de> 
dfaHflyU It more fully exjHiMA the particlei* of ibe koil to 
tkeiaiMoee of the frost« and iho atmonphoru, thttrvby pulvor- 
ii. and preparing it belter for the wod. Where a fall 
flaw in g baa been bestowed upon the land, and another cross- 
ftew in g in the spring, thorough harrowing will put it in ex- 
[ will 111 condition for a h<.-avy vn>\t. If tbi: Moil is inclined to bo 
««t, U dnMld bo thrown into back furrows or lands, liflcon or 
twiaqr Ibet in width, and tbo dead ftirrowe between theM 
bad* aboold be kept open for draining ofl' all Hurfaoe water. 
TUa b t>et more necManry lor iho cii^tor bean than for many 
: Mbar lam crop*, wh«rv thv land is inclined to ba w«t. 

'PVtmting tkt Setd. — The ;;round is now laid off in rows, five 
Itrdix fMi apart uach way, except that betwwn every cixth 
•avcBtb row, a disuuicoof abt^nt eight foot bctwoon the 
■ ■ left ono way, to admit a horse and wagon or slide to 
I, to take tfao beans when gathered. Hot water, somewhat 
brfow tbe boiling point, should be poured over tbo aeoda, and 
tbsy aboold remain in thi^t water twenty-four hours boforo 
Wag planted. Tbo tomporntare of the water will, of course, 
la gndnaJly reduced to the tampers ture of Ute atmosphere, 
kffijiuff tbe hot water once will bo sutttc-ivnt. If planted with- 
Ml tbta preparation, they are a groat wbile in germinating^ 



many of them not mnlcing llicir »pp«araDce fur three or foi 
weokn. With this pre pa rat ion thoy will booh ^'rniimito ae 
c-omc up r(!;{ularly. Some fui-meN put in each hill ouu-hiiir^ 
tho«c which have hot water poured orer ibem, and one-half q 
tJiose which have not ; »o thai if Ihu ciitvrorma licwtray Uio 6i 
that come up, a stand may bv obtniiiud I'mm the otlittr», whi< 
wil! come up a woek or two liili.ti'. Good, vound, pinmp ma 
Ahould bo Hck-cted for planting. A halt' buithel will plant oi;tli 
or tun acnw. Kij^ht or ten awda should be dropped in eacb hU 
Butono, oratmor^t. two plaoiaai-eto bt>)ef\ in a hill. Aa theoi 
worm is quite dent r tic tivu tu the plutitA, tbiit niiinber of nevdn i 
reconiniended, ho as to ho oortaiu of an ovon Htand. Of ctmt 
replanting ean bo done; but it is bolter to avoid it, if poesibid 
by plantinfi; plenty of seed. The seed should bo planted sBi 
aa all dangor of fro»l. i^ ovor. The plants are aa easily de^troyc 
by frost ait onr r-onimi>n beau, anil, iherefore, planting ahou 
be delayed till »t\er the firat uf jMay. 

"After Vult\irc. — The cnllivation of the plant" connisU 
destroying the woods and grass, and koeplnf; the soil open ai 
mellow. These objects are ehiofly attained by usinfi the hoi 
and (cultivator, or small jdow, workinjt between the cows bol 
wayti. It is also QeceMnry to work uinot)>; ih« ]>lHnl« with bo< 
j^ing over them two or ibroo times, cutting the woods awi 
from the plants that cannot be reached with the plow or cult 
vator, and drawing a little mellnw earth to the plants, gradi 
ally reducing the number to one plant in a hill, though two 
uccasionully loft. One Htroog, vigorous phint, howtvor, wi| 
prodooo better seeds than two, and as groat a quanttty. Afu 
the plant is two feet high, it is capable of taking care of it 
and grown rapidly. After heavy raina, however, it is still at! 
visable tu work betweoti the rows with the hortic eullivator, 
breaking up the crust that has formi'd on the Hurfuco of the 
ground, and opening and loosening the soil to derive a greater 
benefit from the atmosphere. It will bo seen that the cultiva- 
tion ia as t<impte ns that of Indian corn, or of the common aa.vy 

** Jfaroestini/ the Vrop. — About tho first day of August the 
beans begin to ripen. They are produced in pods or huHkii, on 
spikes about eighteen iuchea long, and should be gathered as 
soon as the pods bej^n to turn brown, to prevent loss by tlicir 


popping oat on the field, as tho bpans when ripe pop or burxl 
firom the pod quite & distance. They are gathurcd by cutling 
off the enldre spike. b!iich plant hits a number of these, and 
they are prodaced and ripen in succession till frost. Of course, 
only those exhibiting brown pods should be cut. Those splkeii 
are then thrown into a wagon or on a slide, passing through the 
broad rows, and hauled away to the 

"Dry Yard. — Which is made on a piece of land near tho bean 
field, sloping to the south, so as to got as much hoat as possible 
from the snn to ripen the beans and cause them to burst from 
the busks. Then roll the ground down hard and make a fence 
around the yard by placing boards up agaiust rails laid on 
crotchcd sticks or ])osts; though the fence is not nccessury if 
tho yard is made largo enough to leave a space outside the 
beans of twelve or fifteen feet, as many of the beans will pop 
that distance; and if tho fence is not built, or tho space loft, 
many of the beans will be lost in the grass or iield beyond the 

" The spikes are occasionally turned over and exposed to the 
Ban, until all tho seeds have latt tho husks, when ihe old spikes 
are taken away and a now supply added. Tho same process is 
gone through with the entire crop. Great care should bo taken 
to prevent the beans getting wet. Dirty beans command but a 
small price, and sprouted beans are nearly worthless. When 
rain is anticipated, rake the spikes into a heap and cover lliem 
with straw or plank; sweep the beans up; clean them with a 
fanning mill, sack tfacm up and store in a dry place. Do not 
attempt to pop them out in pots .over the fire, as it renders them 
tUmoit worthless, 

"After the beans begin to ripon, the field should bo gone over 
once or twice a week till frost. In hot, dry weather, they 
ripen more rapidly than in cool, wet weather. Children can 
perform this work, and a large family of children cannot be 
more profitably employed than in taking care of a crop of c^tor 
beans. The work is all light. With a steady horse children 
might do all the work. 

"Farmers who raise but a few acres of castor beans will not, 
of course, go to the expense of fitting up a dry house, as the 
yard answers the purpose ; but farmers who raise fifty acres or 
more will save labor and expense by having a dry house for 
]K>ppiog out the l)eanH on the following plan : 


■"i>ry HoMf.. — A common log Imt or frame building may 
CODVortod into u t'ouroDient camorboan diybouno b}' iiiakiug ti^ 
tight and cooaiructiug in it a. drying flour, coni|iitNed oi narrow 
strips or board, carelully liiid onu-rourth of un inch apart, oxcopt 
ihosi- |iiiri.s wiiidli aro iminodiutcly over tho inov« and pipe, 
which nhcviilil bo luitl cioxe. This floor should be as near the 
ground ns possible, but not so low aa to impair ihe vatuo or tlis 
building an a bam or plaoo ofntorage. A w-iridnw for tiiking in 
beans is made in one aide of tho hoiiHu, two or thruu fcot ntiove 
[hu drying llnoi', tind a nimilnr opening in tho tirst story woald 
bo very cunvciiicnt. A large stovi>, for burning coal or wood, >S 
set op near the front door, and the pipo, ailer pasiiing to ibo 
rearUKdcr the drying floor and up through an opening in tha 
eamo, returns again to tJie ftoDt, aiid is carried out through the 

"Willi a Vtrgi' leaod itove, having a pipctof prnpi-r:<ixi% thn hoal' 
ing power may be increabiiKl by currying the pipe entirely unmnd 
the building, tbnw or four toot from tho walls, before it passes 
up through thu floor, and again to the roar, before going oat 
through thu root^ A dumpt'r should ho placed in tho pipe near 
tJto upper end to savo heat and iUol. 

"The opening in liiofloor through which tlie pipn paa!ie«, is three 
fvct dqtiunt, and iH protuctcd by a boxing ur nurb to krcp tho 
bcauH fitim falling tliruugh. Th« upaco about tlio stove is pro- 
tected h}' H itiniilarguard, and should be nt least eix Ibot square, 
aH tho front door opens into this area. 

" The beans on the spikes, as they are cut from the plant, are 
thrown through tho window upon the drying flnnr; ami a:* tho 
bolls open tbcbeanitareiiiirri-'d and fall through upon the ground 
flour, ready to be fanned and sacked for shipping. Tho buUa 
and spikes will make gond luol. 

" Froslnd Beans — Are worth tVom one-half to two-thirds the 
price of good beans, but must never be mixed with them when 
sent to tnarket, «« a verj- few frOMltid branc in a lot of good will 
ivduce the value very much, from tho inability to separate them 

" Yiel'l, Price, etc, — Tho yield will depend much npon the 
oultnrt^ hffllowed upon the crop, npoti the season, aud Uie cilto 
exercised in gathering and ri])uning Ihti necdM. Prom fifloi'n to 
twetity-five bushels to the ac^ro iit an average yield. Some colli. 
Tntni-it will raise more, others less. Farmorn will do well to pay 


matthia to thte crop, Tor wbicb a c^ruiio dcroaiid oxi^w, and 
at maiitit-rxtiiig cash prioes. It will |iiiy bt^ttvi- lliKii niiiiin); 
an, foimtijas. whi-at, barley-, or ultm>.-<t uiiy oilier luriu yvo- 
teCL II ia nol a diiHcuh erup lo gL-l to mnrkei— can b« taJcen 
If tMB, or B»nt l>y rivvr or rMiln>iul, witli mure prulit Ibsn 
■r^nvps, M the ralni.^ is grmitor t'ur tho isnmi.' qnatititf. 

-Ckftor bvanM haw aim proved a profitublc ctx>p. Thu 
vaffaet price, however, has ductuaiod oooei durably. Th« crop 
W IKS was totally uni-qual t» supply the d«mniiil fur oil, ami 
tt Kaolied the exlraunlinary tiguri; of $H 00 per bushel. 
Iiu> •ttraulamt tbw pixMluction und importnlioii of I'oroign oil 
m4 baam to »uch an oxicot that the crop and importations tbv 
NMKding yaAT 4.t86t() proved mora than eaffimnt to supply 
*e dnuad, and a small narplus was carried over to the next 
iaiBB. At tJte commencement of the harvest of I8C6, the 
■uktl opettcd ul 13 50 to 94 00 pur ha^licl, rapidly duclioing, 
hmnr, a* tliv i-xti-nt <n' tlif crop «tra* dcvci"|)wl. until at odc 
ia* alc4 Were niudf at S I Su por bn«hcl, and udrancvd later in 
ihtMMon to $S 00 an J $2 25. Importers of tbroi^ii oil 8tiffcr«d 
ln?j loasea ; and where their stocks wore still >■ in bond," they 
nft breed m ship to Enropo for a market Prioca in 1867 
itow<d romarkuUe re>;ularily, rangin^f from iS 00 to 92 40, 
vhb f^mkt atmdincwi ilttrin]; the Acason. 
■i'ar medicinal purposes only, the demand for castor oil 
mHi andonbtedly be limited; but it U i\v3 lietl Ivbrirator tnoiDtt, 
•d at cooi|ieting prices with Inrd oil would, donbllCMH, supur- 
wde it in all vtuttr* wheiv n'quii-vd for heavy bearing*, and tbo 

I imiiii 1 wotild bo nearly nntimitcd. 

" Flaneod or CuMor Boans, lor Mvd, can bo procured at (be 
■tkM |Fric«, which to-day is 92 Zi for Flaxseed, and 92 40 for 

ICtaCor Beana. 

"ta more Mtuthcru lalitudco, cironmMlanoes would probably 
— jer it nccewary to dnviate from these inMtriictiotis in regard 

It* linM of planting. hnrvMting, etc., etc.. which any intelligent 

I pbater would at once discover. U is thought they are snffl- 

Ltfaatly explicit lo enable any one to nucoeitsfully attempt thoir 


Tba Oil may be extracted from the seeds, (sec V. S. l>ii<m) 

k tkn« ways: by decoction, cxprcwiion and by the agency of 



the surface, is Bkimmod 0% stninod anil hottlod for aec Tl 
was ilie plan UHod on llie jilutitation^ in Soulh Caroiioa durii 
llu) war i>r tiiilL'pciiOviict'. It wniild not do Iit Opvralions (M1.J 
lurgu Hailv. Sect, al«o, Knc^c. Brilaiiniu-a, art. " Btcinu*^" Tt 
oil is considered nfood for UJumiaaiiDii; purposes. A writer i 
ihc Souilieru Cultivator, p. 29, vol. 7, rot'ere to the discovery ( 
a procutiH fc)r Hvparutinfr stt^ftrine from ilie pure oil in tlie 
uiiil luukitii; the tormcr into candlc«. 

The Cak<! k-ll al'tor thv cxpi-vmuoD of ciMtor oil i* very 
vautttgi'ously applied to land a» a mannrc i'or wheat and otl 
crops. An intoi-esiin^ conimunicatioo upon tlus isubjccl mi 
be foand in the first volnmo of Uie Fariner'ii Krister, from 
O. Peachy, J'3nq., of Wtlliamsbiirg, Va., the resulu of whi 
t!xp(.-nmuni« :<liow liiu griwt value of the arlick'. Id one 
perimi<nt ho applied IVom fifty to sixty bushpls per aero 1 
soven and a half acn» of land sown with ton biwhcls of wIk 
ami llie product wui< lw<'iiiy->)ix bunlitilH of wheat per acre. 
thiH case the land wtiH so poor that not over five hu^hrts con 
ho expected fmm it without dressinR. lie rccommonds aboni 
forty buHhelA as an ordinary dreeaiiig. Mr. Poachy does not 
think the iiommoii imprcHHinn correct, that the chief efficacy of 
the cako roeidtfs in the portion of oil which it retitins- Hi* 
pre«s, he says, "is a very powerful one, and leaves a very 
xmall portion of oil in th« cake. There ir*, moreover, other 
refuse matter in such an oHtabliiibinent a* oum, which contains 
u vast deiU more oil than tho cake, which I have used ax nia- 
nure, and been uniformly disappnintod in its effects. Acci<lcnt 
has etiubW me, I think, (o Kolve the diiliculty, and to declare 
my belit>f that the fortiltxing quvliiiiM of the oil cake reside 
chitiiy in the farina it contains. Some time last year, a vt*»el 
laden with Hour waK stranded near Jamestown, and the flour 
ruinvil. 3lr. John Mann, who owns a farm in the neiKhhor- 
hoO'l, toolc two or tlire<i of the barrels and top-dressed a auall 
portion of his wheat with it. I vin» nwt an oye-witnes« of it» 
etfects; but I was informed that it produwd ais srcat an in- 
creafu of that jtortion of hit erop as my oil eaUn would have 

" By eiperiment, I find that titVy hnshelit of tho eako will 
weigh 1,800 imunds ; and of tliis quantity 1 have discovered 
that ton-eighl«enths is farina or flour — equal to five harrola of 


The roUoD srod, I think, contains more farina, in pro- 
[|KtiM to tbo oil, Ibaii thv caitor bvan, iind, I bvliovc, would 
! u great an effect afUir l>mng >Ic|irivcd of it« uil tm it 
|vHld ilo in ita original atat«." 

TW lc»ve» uf the r-af^tor oil applied to tbo bivast of nursing 
i fin ars ropiirUid la bo ijalactaiftrrjut: and lo icK-r^ii!»> |>ower- 
iMI]rtli«flow of milk, and lucd for this pnrpom in Uio Wmi 
[bdia I'land^. 8\-o Art. Cbarloaton M>»d. Journal. 

STINGING NETTLB, (Jafropha ttmulosa, JAx.) Growa io' 
lij fia* land ; viciniiy of Obarloitton ; collected in St. John's ; 
|kUai»d, Nvwbem. Fl. Aug. 

The l<«Tm are prickly and highly in'itating \vheii apptiod to 
(hv titin. It might be employed like the neitle, ( Urtiai,) tin n. 
nuter -irritant in cptlupsiui* and dinoiiM-it rLS|uiniig Htimiiluting 
. TliB plant* of lhi« family fiiriiinli, gcnvrally, a 
I ajpalatinj: and highly acrid oil and thoy «faiMilJ bu examined. 
THBKt: SKKDKIt MKKUUKY, {Acaiypha t'lrjiitka, L.) 
Omar* is dry, fertile lands; vicinity of Charlestoo ; oolletitod 
bSC JoliD'a Brrkflcy; Nuwbern. Fl. Sepl. 

BL BoC UiHl. NoWh, ii, 6t'K Suid by Dr. AljfinM. of Cout>aw- 
iMetM, to bo «xpccf>rant and diiin^tici hi; bii» vmployod it 
Meanfolly iu caaes of bnmid asthma, ascitoe aad aoasarca. 
AyAtaMtx ninri, h. S. Pla. C'hap. 

It ba« a bittvr and n»lringcnt root, fluoc^'wtj^tlly prei«RribL-d in 
I ima^m; balf an ounco rubbed in milk, given twice a day, m 
I tfi effect a cur« in a few days; and that both it and the 
jMii^ alinota are Aaid to be diareLlo; the leaves are very bitt«r, 
mi arc a guod »tumachic ; Ainaliu. Marliul niuteH that they arc 
(Mployvd in Brazil a» a Hpocific in diabetes. Griffith. 

MANCIIINEBL, (Jlipp'mant maiKinrila, L.) South Florida. 
I find it doealy related to (jaecn'i) bctigbt, iStillingia,) and it 
lo ibe Kvpharbiaeta. Wilson describes it is a pnisoiiouti, 
tropical tree, of the spurge family, it atlaina a 
It uf ri^iiy feet, and wr» et^lvenied a great curiosity in the 
L.boaM» of Itritaiii. Thv frail U iho itizc of an apple. A 
Iky, cauAtic juict' abounds in overy part of tho troo, and if it 
tMcbcs tbe human eye, ie in danger of causing blindness; and 
it k (alia on any {art of tbe human akin, will bliater it; if upon 
iMn, il will make it bluok, and nftorwanl ent a hole through 

it ; yot this forme, udilt the nnlhor from whom t quote, »oiiw 
the wdl known cnfivti-houc ut" c-inunicix'i;. Tht; tiinl>fr of tl 
mKC'hiiipol it) vory dui-nl>l<.'' and tukv>s » linv pnli*!), utid it, mxv 
esteemed lor various kindu of cabinot-work; but Iho woi 
meo require to dry and conBolidat« it by Hurroiirtding it wi 
uriilicial tlrofl before fclliuff tho trro;;, cUo thoy migbl W- bli 
tert'd aud blinded by ite juic«. And tbe L-itbinct uiakcr» m 
cover iheir faoeb wiib fine lawn while working it, else lb< 
mi^ht ^t tbvir eyea inflamed, and temporarily blinded with i' 
cxbulationa and suwdunl. Tliu fruit violently iullamea 
mouth and tliniut of nny ]kt!I(iii who Iu^Ich it, unil it id i^xC' 
iiigly dungorous. Any availubb part of tho plant in no drv 
fully iictivi! timt it irannot, livcn in the ndiullBBt doMiM, be *iilVI 
introdntted into ntedieinc. A noUon prevuils among tht.- Aimri- 
cariN that thi; dvw whieh liilU boiirath tbo tree in itiHnmmatory 
and blinteriug ; but tbii< HreniK to be, the author nddi>, nn utMurd 
Oicagf^eruliou. Tho nsmu Uippomant »igni6cti hortftr-niadneea, 
ascribing to the tree a maddening effetl upon the horse. Kund 
Cyclopcedia. It^ roaemb]aucc^ to our St'dUnijia, uliii-h \k n uicru 
shrub, is cIobc, aud the tree wants a oaref^il iuveiiti^liun al 
tlio hands of thoxe living in Ploridu. 1 Imvi- L-oll(tctt!<l lint milk 
FroTn ilie EaphorOia und Asckpuis and liardeiitd it, though out 
ill iiiitliciiuot amount tu t«i«t hn qualities. The sulfity is said lo 
yield H largo amount of milk, which may furnixh c^aout«houc. 

(iUl-:KK'SiJELIGUT; YAW UUOT, i^i^tUlin^ia si/lvalica,L.) 
Collected iu the pine barn-ne of St. John's Berkeley, in grvat 
abundance i Uicbland; vicinity of Charleston; Newbern. 

U. 8. T>\i]). (>S7 ; Frost in So. Jt.urnal Mivi. and I'bnnu., O 
18(6; Mer. and «k- L. I)ii;t. de M. Mud. vi, 535. Dr. Wood 6&; 
that iIk! SlillingJH wwi inti-uduced lo tho notice of tho profceeion 
by Dr. T. Y. Sinumit, of Cbarkslou. (Am. ilad, Keoord, April, 
1S28.) Sec, also, a paper by Dr. A. Jjopen, formerly of South 
Carolina, in N. 0. Med. and Surg. Jour, iii, 40; but MilU had 
staled in hie Atalistjcs, published in I82j, ihul " thu root acts 
as an emetic; ii ia a monl powerlul elcanTter of the blood; 
u«od with eompleto hucoom in dii«eaMeK whoro IhiM fluid has b««ii 
corrupted. The properties of thin root nre invaluable." Thin 
plant oxuditt a milky juice, vory pungent to the taste, and 
flowing in great abundance IVom tho bruised surfaoo. It \» asod 




M MB* extent ia Sooth Carolina as an alUvmtivc in ctcrolaln, 

bmikUw, in cntat)Oon«<ltR«ai«>n, in chronic hepatic atTeoiiaDS, 

mi in tb« compoeitioD ol' diet drinks ; 'it adds lo tliu eSlcacy of 

mparilU. I am informed by physicians residing In Soutli 

Chrdlna, that limy have treated aeoondary ttyjiliiiix huocomk fully 

*itb h. It i* ImUcvmI lo be posacaacd of valiiulik- properties, 

greater ntt«nLit)n nhoukl he ]>Aid to it by thoae living in 

eovntry where il la ca»ily obtaiiiu(]. A tincture i« made 

Mkk the root two ouncvH, of diliito<l alcohol a pint. Doso a 

tfrschm. A decoction is made of the bruised root one 

vat«r one and one-qaartcr pint*. Boil to one pint^ 

iM« or two fluid ounc«B several timcM a day ; an overdose 

Mthartic or vmctic. I>o8e of the powder littoon to thirty 

foua. The milky juicos Bbonld be csamiaod. I have Insfua- 

AteJ that from the Aaclepiax and EttpAariHa. See tbeae genera. 

Staee the publication of the fin»i edition of thiH work, I have 

ip h y ed tbe decoction of the root ol' thin plant a^ an ulleru- 

finm ^philiitc eorwi, oct-nrring in piilient« in tho City Hotipi- 

fel,Ckai4e<6ton, the epro«d of which nothiu):; ulsu could ari-csU 

h ffoved completely aatis^tor)'. PbagAdenio chancres wor« 

nfidly eared onder iltt uae. A strong doooction wax given 

tknc tioMS a day with four di'Opt* of nilrio acid in cai^b do«v. 

TWMknriDg woe pobliohcd in tbv "Fluridinn" newHpapi-r : 

*Tbe berli known as <JUL-«n'H Delight, (Stillingia,) in a sure 
fnrattite of cbiDs and fever. It tihould be taken just before 
vJB«t as the chill is coming on, and it will soon put the pa- 
in a praftaSA perspiration. The manner of preparing it is 
c a Kirong t4!a of the root, either in a gmtin or dr^- slalfe 
doco* of a wineglamfnl until it producer! perspiration." 
TAL1X>W TRRF. (Slillin>jia $(t»fera. L.) Nat. from China; 
•oHected in St. John's, lurty-livo milca fVom the ocean. 1 have 
«•■ it growing abundanUy near Charleston, on the King xtrect 


■ Ktf. and de L. Did. lie M. Med. ii, 476 ; kou Croton sebif. of 
^BDifc. An ointment made from this is applied in nocturnal 
^■^a. Tfio Chineec, according lo Tbnmbcrg, employ the con- 
^^^pl ofl extracted from the plant, iu maniifacturing candles. 
r Tb Bcporfvn of the PaU>nl Office, for 1848, spnak very favor- 
' lUr of it, and recommend its introduction, Mcming not lo be 
nuvor itM being already Eband here. Soo their mvthod of 
In^ tbo oil. 


In my rt^port on the Medical Rotuny of Saiitli Carolina 
thfi Amcricnn Mclii-al A>»ori:itlon, in 1S49, 1 hiul, Kit alinvt 
rpported the fact of this tree being uli-eaHy nataralizeJ. Tb 
seeds, wben burned, give out a great deal of li^fhU It con 
be plnnted with prcjiit. In the Patent Office Report. 1851, ; 
M, Lherw IK alMi n jiupcr on tin.; \i«.t^» of the S. aibi/era, w-illi i 
notice of the Pe-ln, or InsMt Wax of China. By D. J. Ma 
gowaii. M. D.. dutvd Nin):n">' August. 1850. In thtH article, : 
is staled that the KiicycloptBdia Amuricana ret'ont to it^ hoinj 
j^rown along our eoast- "Analytical ehcmirtry shows anir 
tallow to eonaiat of two proximate principles — steariae an 
elaine. Now, wiiat rvnilcrA tht- iVuit of Ihiii tree peculiar 
inti.'rc»lii)g, is the fact thai hoth lhc.->a principle*) exist in ii 
sopurutcly, in nearly u pure state," "Nor in th«! true prixe 
merely for the stcarino and elaine it yields, though limm pr 
ductn constitute tiR chief value : its loaves are employed as i 
bloekdye; its wood, being Lard and dunihle, may be casil] 
used for prinling-hloeks and varioui< other articles ; and, finall] 
tile ret^so of the nut i* finployvtl as fuol and mainin-." Df 
Roxburgh, in hie Flora Indicti, had conde-mnod the plant a» < 
little value, because, in simply crushing and boiling the i 
the two prinHpk-st refcrrttd to as existing logellier an.' not pr 
crly -separated. I ha<l myself, in my report, publinhcd in 1844 
and also in my paper in l)*r Bow's Review. August, ISi'.l. reuoni^ 
mended this plant to the candli^ and soap manufketurcrs for thi 
large amount of oil it contained, and bwause of its abundanc 
around Charleston. I alao gave some of thi? wseds to a mani 
&ctnror of ea.*toroil, to expcrimi-nt with, in 18ftl. i will iioi 
quote from the papnr mentioned, ant! aUn refer the readier to a 
paper on the siiliject in the Charleston Mc-ilicul JuurnnI, by 
W. Ravcnul. 

" The Stillinfita sebifera is chiefly cultivated in the provinces 
of Brangsi, Kr/ngnain and Chelikianij. In some districts near 
Jtangekan. the inhabitants dofVay all their taxes with ita pro- 
duce. It grows alike on low, alluvial plaiin* and on granite 
bills, on the rich mould, at the margin of canalit and on the 
sandy sea-beach. The saniJy enluai-j' o\' IhtiujcKan yirltlft little 
«lse. Some of the tn-cs «iv known to be several hundred yean 
old, and, though pru«truted, ^till send lui-th branchc-s and bear 
fVuit. Some are made to liill over rivulets, forming cunvetiionl 
bridges. Thoy are seldom planted where anything else can bo 


eoDTeniently cnltiTsted — in detached places, in comt^ni about 
bcu^<«. roadi>, canals and fields. GraftioK i-^ performi:'! nt t)i«> 
cl'iit'O of March, or early in April, when tL«r in^ artz at^jut 
tbive inches in diameter, and also wb«n \hty ntuiii t)i<:ir 
KTowth, The Fragrant Herbal recommends ior iriai ttj*- i>rv> 
lirf of an old gardener, who, instead ^.i srhit:- -j jiTii'^rrvi 
breaking the small branches and tiri£rr. -^ ■■ • r '-i^r'. :..'; lo fau- 
fT wonnd the bark. In midwinter. *■-■=-! :;■': ii-.- w' r-^ 
Ibev are CDt otf. with their twi^n. bv a -:j.r: '.-^'-•■-. t: '.• 
■tiatbed to the extrerait}' of a long i«L.t t:. -. .- :- .' • :-•. 
bind and paiibtd upward against ih; '■'^-^- :-'■■•' ' ■_■ i-' ^^■^- 
iame time such aa are fruitle&s. Ti^: 'j-;-;,i- i.-- r-- -; 
jKinndod in a mortar, to loosen the ^c^i* i—'U :.■■ •■:.-- '■ /u 
which they are separated by sifting. T iii'.-l:'^.- .-■- i^r.rr.'u 
Vita of the white, i^baeeous matter *^-t. ';.: i .-.,• •--r> :.-.- 
iTf steamed in tubs having eonrex :t*^ t-,- t,^ j'-.. rr.- y.^^:'. 
met raldrons of boiling water. Wir- — .-r- ■ i-r--". .:--■ 
ire reduced to a maiih in the mortk- v : ,j-r - -..-■..- . 

t>uul<oo pieves. kept at a aniiorm ir- ;-—_■-■ - ■- ■ »•■ .■■■ 
A*iii:;Ie ojieraiion do«i n'Fi •■aSoe 1' :--.■■-• — : ■ w ...--^ 
ul'i'W: ihc steamins and -:f\ine ar-^ ---^-r-^, -- ■■'.-■t:<- '. ^ 
iniiltf thuii ppxnred Itcn.f- a -■.._.', r..^ - . ,- . 
iht fit-Tc. iir.i!. 10 pnriir ;:. ;- ^t:".- . ;.■ —.. . r- 

the ]ire?*. Thc-e rivrlT-.- iiii:;r i-.^r^ ■ :v'.. . . .-.* , 
■liamcter and tbrer ir.vbe* ilt-cp. wi. -. ^-. _ , -■ 

■.■7iT a lilili- Mraw. tin being filled t-.- . .. - 
bfl'i>* of the ^l^aw an.- ilrawn up ar.d «;.— j- - ■ i ■ v>f -iiiticiviit c-oiiTiislt;ii(i', are plai-^- j 
the press. Thi- apjianilni*. which is oi '..i^ -, ..-;- ,-^- ■ 
i>ton?^lru<ti-"J of two large bt'umB. plauwi uf-i- .. 
P.-rtn a trough capalik' of containing aiwi; .-• _ .' 

with thtir M.'bacvoHH cako«. Aton«eudi:>r -. -«.■ , 
otLer it i- used for receiving wedges, wni-; *- - 
drivi-n into it by f>oiidi'rou!« rtledge-LamitMm » ,- , 
klic men. The tsllow ooEon in a mellbd <fUi«- n . ■■ .-■, ^ . 
beltw, where it conU. It iw again melUx. ».- ,<j. ■-- 
tmeared with mud, to prevent its adheriLjc . . - ■. ..■ -„ 

Me. in masnrn of about eighty pounds «m<.i ^ > ^ - . 
opaqje. tustcle^<s. ami without the odur tt 
drr hi{{h pr^'ssuru it scarcely itluiut> Uii 


104° Fahrenheit. It may be regarded as nearly piiro stearine; 
the alight difference is, doubttess, owing to the odmixture of 
oil expresBed from the seeds in the process just dost-ribed. The 
seeds yield about eight per cent, of tallow, which sells for about 
five cents per pound. The process for pressing tho oil, which 
is carried on at the same time, remains to bo noticed. It is 
contained in the kernel of the nut — the sebaceous matter which 
lies between the shell and the husk having been removed in the 
manner described. The kernel, and the husk covering it, are 
ground between two stones, which are heated to prevent clog- 
ging fh)in the sebaceous matter still adhering. The mass is 
then placed in a wiunowing machine, precisely like those in 
use in western countries. Tho chaff being separated, expoaea 
the wbite, oleaginous kernels, which, after being strained, are 
placed in a mill to bo mashed. This machine is formed of a 
circular stone groove, twelve feet in diameter, three inches 
deep and about as many wide, into which a thick, solid stone 
whool, eight feet in diameter, tapering at tho edge, is made to 
revolve perpendicularly by an ox harnessed to the outer end of 
its axle, the inner turning on » pivot in the centre of the ma- 
chine. Under this perpendicular weight the seeds are reduced 
to a mealy stale, stetimed in the tubs, formed into cakes, and 
pressed by wedges iu the manner described; tho process of 
mashing, steaming and dressing being repeated with the ker- 
nels Jikcwipo. Tho kernels yield about thirty per cent, of oil. 
It \» called \sing~yu, sells for about three cents a pound, answci-s 
well for lamps, though inferior for this purpose to some other 
vegetable oils in use. It is also employed lor various purposes 
in the arts, and has a place in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 
because of its qnality of changing gray hair black, and other 
imaginary virtues. The husk which envelops the kernel, and 
the shell which encloses thom and their sebaceous covering 
aro used to feed tho furnaces — scarcely any other fuel being 
needed for this purpose. The residuary tallow cakes are also 
employed for fuel, as a smalt quantity of it remains ignited a 
whole day. It is in great demand for chafing-dishes daring 
the cold season, and, finally, the cakes which remain after 
the oil has been pressed out are much valued as a manure, par- 
ticularly for tobacco fields, tho soil of which is rapidly impov- 
erished by tho Virginia weod, Artifif^ial illumiDatioD in China 


is geaeratly procared by vegetable oils ; but caodles aro alno 
(MDplojred by those who can afford it and for lantemfl. In 
religious coremoniea do other material ia need. As no one 
Tcntares oat after dark without a lantern, and as tho gode can- 
not be acceptably worshipped without candlcB, tho quantity 
coDBumed ia very great. With an important exception, tho 
candlea are made of what I beg to dosiguate aa vegetable 
tteariae. When the candles, which are made by dipping, are 
of the required diameter, they receive a final dip into n mixture 
of the same material and insect wax, by which their consist- 
ency in preserved in the hottest weather. They arts generally 
colored red, which is done by throwing a minute quantity of 
alkanet root, (Anchusa tinctoria,') brought from Shangtnng, into 
the mixture. Yerdigria is sometimes employed to dye them 
green. The wicka are made of rash coiled round a stem of 
coarse grasf, the lower part of which is slit to receive the^in 
of the candleBlick, which is more economical than if put into a 
socket. Tested in tho mode recommended by Count Rumford, 
these candles compare favorably with those made from sperma- 
ceti, bntnol when the einmsy wick of tho Chinese is employed. 
Stearinc randies cost about eight ccniH per pound. 

ollata, L.) Collocled in St. John's Berkeley, Charleston Dis- 
trict, in dry soils ; vieiiuty of Charloalori ; Newborn. Fl Aug. 

Frost's Elems. Mat. Med. 82; Bell's Pract. Diet. 199; Am. 
Journal Med. Sei. xi, 22 ; XT. S. Disp. 321 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 
iii, 119;Royle, Mat. Med. 5J2; Mo r. and do L. Diet, de M. Med. 
iii, 179; Clayton's Phil. Trans. Abrid. 331; ZollickotT* r. Mat. 
Med. 1819; cit. in Bart. loc. sup.; Coxo, Am. Disp. 272; Grif- 
fith Med. Bot. 69.^. It is emetic, diaphoretic and cathartic. 
Dr. Zollickolfer thinks that, as a diaphoretic, combined with 
Dover's powder, it is notinferior to ipecacuanha. He tried it in 
seven cases. Twenty grains of tho powdered root would pro- 
doce eracsis, sometimes followed by by percath arsis. Mr. McKeen 
Btat«i> that twelve grains of the root in substance have double 
the purgative power of an equal quantity of jalap. "Combined 
with opium and the sulphate of potaaaa, it is an excellent dia- 
phoretic in dropsy." See Diet, de Mat. Mod. Dr. Froat, Prof, 
Mat. Med, South Carolina Med, Coll., thinka it quite as active 
ao the ipecacuanha, and fully entitled to the consideration of 


Ibo profeBeloo, he liaving dbwI it witb benefit in hix own prac- 
tic«. "Even ahouM ihiij- not be tm|iloye(l, every pli3i.iei«n 
flhonlil bo irn^tructi'tl in thvir proper! ivk, iiiii), when oi^-ii.iion 
rvquiroH, know Iho Htibxtitutu he can upply to in civw of need." 
Op. cil. 82. A dniehm to eighty or onp hundred fcrainv may be 
added it) a half pint ol' hot water, wrhivh may be j;ivfi) in tabic- 
cpoonOj] doses every flto or ten minntea lill vomiting is induced. 
Tills is a convenient mode of admin ietral ion. According lo 
experiment, the contused root will excite vesication and indam* 
niation if applied t" lUe nk'm. Muj. John Leconlc, of New 
York, informti mo that he bun bii^u much jiIeaMtd with iljt effeciH 
■a a »iidorilio. Doho hs an t^melio, twenty grtiinH ; an « calhartio, 
(on grains; iu> ft diaphon-lio, fwur gruinK. Thin plant in viwily 
obtnined. and can be coiiveniontly prtMcribi-d an a mitmtitutv 
for ipccttcuaoha. It should bo used with caution in caaaa of 
iofionsibility of the stomach. 

ijhxacmmhii.) Grows in Abbeville, Kdgefii>td tiiid CoII»ion 
Dinlricis; Nowbern. Fl. Jnm>. 

U. S. Dii<p. 'Z23; Biirton'x UoU. But. 120. An energetic and 
tolerably certain cmotic ; but liable sometimes to produce ex- 
cessive nausea by accumulation ; lience, thought by »omo 
writers "wholly unfit to supersede tlie otGcinul ipecitouanhn." 
This opinion, however, liais been tjuesUoned by Hewnon, Royal 
and oiherti. Burton sutil it wan equal, and in some roNpc>ctB 
aaporior. Lind. Nat. Syint. Bot. 114; Shcc. Floriv Carol. &&5; 
Mir. nnd do h. Diet. de. U. Med. iii, 182; Coxe, Am. J)iap. ZT2; 
Schoopi; Mat. Med. 74; B. S. Barton. Collee. 26 ; W. P. Barnni, 
Vt'g. Mat. Med.; Crifflth's Med. Bot. B92; Frost's Elemn. 81. 
It sometimes has ilsuction extended to tho bowels, und operates 
with a (ronsideruble degree of uctivily. Doec as an emetic, 
fifteen to twenty grains ; a» a diaphoretic, Dvo grains. Bigelow 
notices among it^ conetituonte caoutchouc, reein, mucus and 
fwcula. Am. Mod. Bot. ii, 109. It is evident, from the variisly 
of opinions expressed in relation to this plant, that it should bo 
given with caution. Both xpecieti nre considered to bo mor« 
active than the imported ipecacuanha. 

SPURGE; KYIS-BRIG ET, {Euphorbia ht/pcrici/otia, L.) 
Grows in the upper districts, according to Elliott; vicinity of 



ChvltBlau, Barlt: c»IIeclcd in St. John's; fciund by Dr. Boykin 
■ Gwpp*. K. C. Fl.JnIy. 

V. 8. Dwp. 321. nigtil}- reoo mniDri(lo(l by Dr. ZoIHckolTor, of 

BlknDOTv, in dy^nu-ry, allcr <lnc doplotion. U«(s) io diarrhoia, 

■tMnbafpa nnd ktirorrhtrA ; n hnlf ounco of ibe dried loavrn 

ittatowl in a pint of boiling; wnlor, of which a flaid half oiiiic« 

HMke Uhen every honr in dysontor}-, nnd Iho name qunnlily 

rfbr •rerr vracoalion in diai'rh<ea, and two odqccb morning, 

MOB and aighl, in anionorr)i««, flour albus, etc. 8e«, sJbu, M^r- 

«dd« T - .].'>ni. to the Diet, de M. M«d. Iflir>, 283, wbvi-v 

[Ir. Zsl' "^ :<ui-iN.-H» in twvlvi- (iiihos in rvftirrvd to j uieo, 

\m. Joornsi or Ucd. SoL Not., 183£ ; M. nnd dc h. in, 181. It 

f>aiHM aone n»rct>ti<- power, nho, which contributes to render 

ii penHarij applicable in those diseasios. Journal Mi-d. dc la 

fiipMdti, 161, 1823. Mnitius myf H lui-t tlic >itino proportic« aa 

ibc E.b»taru, the milky jniceof vi-bich ia dmmI in Brnzil in 

npbiiilic slrerv. IIv tiiiH otUsn tCKtcd itt v.iltie in ulcers of the 

nam, Jonmal do Chim. v, 427. Tho jnivo applied to (he ey« 

turn terere smarting, and it is thought to cxuho ihe Kovcrv 

■Bntlnn Ut which grazing honefl are i^ubje«t. From xvTcral of 

Ik* ifarge tribe a gam (fvpkoHtium) in obininei) by incifdon, 

riUaaorretc* by exposure to Ihv air. Il is a dangcroaa jrri- 

t>iLu4 baa to hts handled with caatiOD. Mixed wiih March 

bvtakca ft, it may bo used exicrnally. Our Eaphorbljui vhould 

ktUBiaed fur caoutchouc, Hnd the juice in vcHtigutvdciu-efuIIy 

«<«utioDsly : iM>, aim, tlie juke oftha StUlin^ia. 

^SrOTTBO EYEBKIGUT, i^Euphorbia xMrHlata, h.) Culti- 

«Mtdaalb: rjcinity of Charleston; collected in St. John's. N. 

a ajnly. 

Ktr.aad de L. Diet, do M. HM. iii, ISi; Ainslio, Mat. Med. 

U. ii, 76. Tb« jnice is employed with great soeoeM in cleuns- 

fagtbe comes of tbe vpota and pcl]iele« (lc« pelllculM) follow* 

iaaU^mx. Hftat aayit the ancicnt« recommended tbeM 

in dueaaaa of tbe «ye. Dr. Kotlickoffor spoaka of thta 

, alao, aa poi rati tig valuable pruportictt. All are endowed 

a «m«tic power. 

Bi^ftirfi'if haliMeofia, Grows near tbe Uoreeshoe bridge, 

JAlbcpoo. unA on Hvtcbinaon'x Island. See KU. Skuteh. PI. 


Dte. Alem. de Itotaniqnv, ii, 21, "A ralnuble purgative." 


According to M>>r. and do h. Diet, (id M. Mini, tii, 181, it ie au^ 
(\ll in i)y|ihiiiA when mercury is coDtra-irtdicalod. Dr. Kodd 
as^ur^ iht- profotsiun of ile olilily. Sec Bull, dw Sci. do l"'er. 

Ruphorliior thymi/otia, L. Included Toy Thomas Waller, in bii 
Flbm Curolinn, vinoiig tlic South Carolina apecica. Mich, na; 
it growH on th« MiM<i>t«ip])i. M(r. iukI ile L. Diet- de M. Mi-d 
ill, 188. In India the iKiwdei- in administered iu tb« Tcrminouc 
diHordere of infants. Ainelio, Uat. Med, Ind. 275. 

MrrcuriaUB annua. Grown around OhsrleBtx>D. lutroduocd. 

A poiflouous, narcotic plant, with emoiic propertiee, t>ut 
\cea, active thnu the M. jterenniit. Ri'edit [lurgntivo. It par- 
t*kei>, to a certain extent, of the acrid <[UalilieH of the Buphor. 


I>«Cand. sajrs an at:ri<l principle line boon detected amoog thiy 

SPINDLK TItKK, {KaDnymiis ATiidru-tinu*.f Rare; ffrows id 
nwitmpa; tTOIIoeti'd in St. John'it Borkiiley. N. C. PJ. May. 

Grillilli'x Mud. But. 2'Z». Kmctiu, dinuutiont and uuti-Aypht* 
Utiv. ll i>* ttl^o tbout;bt to bu niirwtiu. Tbu secde arc said 14 
bo nau«eout>, purgatiTo and emeiir, and are used in eoroo placoa 
to destroy vormin in the hair. The loaves are poisonous lo 

W.'MIOO, {Kminymus atrojiurjmreua.) Posaesaos properties 
fimilur to llic above. 

Dr. Wood, in the 13th Kd. of tho U. S. Disp., states that Mr. 
G. W, Carpcnior had introduced a bark Bomo twenty yeai-9 
Binee ae a remedy for dropay, under tbo name Wahoo, bo 
baving obtained a knowledge of its virtues in the Western 
States. Dr. W. afloeriainod that it wan derived from this plant, 
which must be dinliiigni.shnd from tho Ehn of Uie 8oulhrrn 
StMcH, whioh in also ciilk-d Wuhoo. The bark irapane its 
virtues to water and alcohol. By analyslN of Mr. W. T. Weonel, 
it was found to contain a bitter principle, which he named 
mon^min, asparagiu, resin, Hxed oil, wax, starch, albumen, 
glucone, pectin and Mlt». (Am. J. Ph., Sept., 18fi2.) Mr. W. 
P. Clothier found tbo substance, which is tho eutnipninc of tho 
KclocticA, to purge actively without griping. Dr. Twyraan, of 



Mo, iBfbnn«d Dr. Wood that he had found the b«rk, aa s 
' otbanic, mther lo rewniblo rhubarb than to posscea hy- 
<H go gm > prapenie^ and ht> ifaou^hl thai Itc had obuiiiix) rroiii 
it good rvktilut ad »u alterative lo iho bopalte t^nclioiiH. The 
faeoction or inru^uti » utteil in drojiiiy, made in the pro)M>rtion 
I «f Ml onnm to a iiint of wali-r, and given iii the dos« of ■ wino- 
ghnfal several linnv a day. V. S- Diop. Svc a pnpcr by 0. 
A-Santoe, upon tbv dm. species; Am. J. E'hartu. xx, SO. (_Blad(lfr-nut Familif.) 

THKEE LKAVED HLADDKH-NTT, (Staph^ra tri/olia, L.) 
tianp «rood», Korlb Carolina, Tennessee and northward (Cltap.) 
TIm out iif oiir tree n-H«nible« closely that of the .S'. pinnafa, 
which te n»cd in Catholic (.>»uiitri(;A for malcing rnnarios. 
Boearies are also made of the i>e«lti of the Pride of India tree, 
(JEitidL) Tbo nuts of tbo S. trifotiata resemble a large, inflated 

Ofr^a raoaniflora, Walter, (irows in swainpH and Inundated 
linilii, cvllvctod in Si. Jubn'^, where it \» found in nbnndani-w ; 
ndoUy ofCbarlc«ton; Newborn. Ft. Jnly, 

niBoi. McI. Notes, i. 295. The onlcr baric of the oldest 
(bahp, near the root, is extrenudy lifclit and friable, and absorbs 
■liiurv. It baa been used with advantage aa a eabaiittito for 
■pricand other Htypiieu. I learn that it \» inueh oonfided in 
far this parposr by (hone liring in Parlington District, South 
(hnliiw. When mbbed on the hand, it produces a sonsntion 
miiar lo that prcxluced by the application of an afllrin^tent 
laid. It has aW bci'n applied to ulcers when the indioaliori in 
lOciAlrise them. This plant merit« f\irthor attention. 

Tm, ( CWoaw %itrfri»«, Banks. J/j/oranVw, Wild.) Pine 
tarrtn poudet and RWamps, Florida and lower districtA of South 
Cunlina and Georgia. 

TIhi Hteois, when dried, are found to sail a>lmirabty for pipe- 
Unnt — a hitatod wire being paiwetl through the pith. Much 
wmA by onr fxuldten in vam|M; and now (18S8) boconiin<; to 
Mneextentan article of trade. 

CLUSIACK^E, {tialiam Tree Famit^.) 

JTKLLOW BALSAM TKEK, iausia fiaca, L.) South Florida. 
rUseo, to bis Kurnl Cyolop<edia, bays that llie balsam tree, 



Ovsin nwm. gpown in Csrolina and in lh« West Inrfift IaIukJi 
"A biilHttm I'csi'mblini; lurpontine *xndo8 I'mm every psrtnf tlif 
1r«tf, ni)i| iiiLH bpcn miU'li used asa plaHli'rrorthecDniof iiciBtici 
The Wtjet Indiaiip call ibm balsam liog ^um, lW>m a hcMvif that 
wild hoe's rub tbGiuAGlveii agaiiint il ta obluin a c-ui-u nf thcit 

f'nndla alba, 
eauetlti, L. 
South FIdridft. Chap. 

Tbin irs un aitiinsitic tree, bearing hliick bfrrltis. Kverj part 
of Ihc plant is ammaUcj the flowers ivtuin mueh of tbuir otiiir 
wh«Q dried J and if tiiej bo moiHtunvd with warm waU*r, tho 
eoent bocomee very jioweribl, a]>pnjiieliinR thai of tnusk. Tho 
Ijark j(iv<!R oul iitt virtiioi* to iiloohol and partly to water; but 
the int'uHion th(iu(;h bitlei", )im very little aroma. Petroa and 
Rubinut I'how that it contains volatile oil, roain, bitter extract- 
ivc, canellin, j^um, etc. lis propevlit-u are owing to the flret 
three cons ti In cuts, but pnucip^lly to tbi; oil which Ik uH«d to 
adultoruto oil of ilovwi. Tht^ cniiellin i» a eaceh urine oubNtanco 
which is vi'rj- analugouN, if not identical with mannite. Ca- 
nella is employed to cover the tanle of several disagi'oeable 
tasted arliclet) of the Materia Medicu, and euters into the com- 
poaiiion of tlie Pulvis Aluos cum Cunvllu; added to thu tine- 
tiire or infiiMion of ncnna it ci>vci-» the naueeouti taste of tho»w 
articles, and provcnis tbcm from pripinj;. It is more useful as a 
condiment than a medicine; Swarts says it is thus employed 
by the Caribe, and that it Ibrnis an ingredient of many dishes 
among the negroc*. In Martinique the berries constitute the 
baiu» of a much eitteemod cordial. The abov« account is iiab- 
Btantially that of Griffith. See, also, U, S. Uisp,, SwartE, Trans. 
Linn. 800., i, 96, and Woodvilltj'a, Stukt^', and Stcpheution and 
CburcbiH'H Medical Ilotany. 

PORTULACACB*. {T/ie Purslane Tribr.) 

GARDEN PURSLANE, (Portwto-rt o/er<if<w, Waiter.) Grow* 
in yards and rich soils; vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. 
John's; Newbeni. Fl. Aug. 

Linn. Veg. M. .Mod. 88; M<;r. and di- L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 
4Ci8. Il i» an ti -scorbutic, diuretic and anthelmintic, and vuuiitMl 




so antitloiv for iKMEonitij; from can than dee. According to 

Uracwi, tlw hurb wsc used in Btrant;ur}'. It will coagulate 

. Tho AiiKTit-au UigpeDSalorifH do not vouclig^ru it tho 

«•»• Douci^ that it liaa r«c«ivtid iu rarious imltIm af Buropi'. 

It Km long ti«cb UHi.<d lui u nalud And poihcrb. Tbu yooDg 

ikouU mrv galbi-n-d wlivii froin two to tivi- iiicbvi* long. Raral 

Cjfinfaedim. A blue (.-olur is olit«inod from Ihix pinot. Th« 

fcHowiag i« giwn by aii Bgri(*ultur«l jourtiHl : Boil a butthol of 

gtrdeo pandvy or pnndiinp till suA, in an iron pot or kuttlo, tind 

■train oir tli« liijaor ; bvil n pound of logwood, nUo in iroB, for 

l«o Ikoars, fitrain off tho liquor and mix ibo purslane water; 

tbts disaolvv half a pound of alum in Aoft. watvr, nufticient to 

CMcr ihrtM-' pounds of ynni ; put it in a bmitM or coppor kultlc^ 

and wnmcr tht- viini iti it f»r ihmi; liuum ; thrti wring and put 

btatbodyp; viminer tliiH llireu lioim, with fn.'quont »tirring. 

Hwdtptb of the polur may b« riiricd by raryioi; thv quantity 

<f the logwood. A very desirable blau dye i« obtained. Sc« 

Ob» and Southern Cultivator. 

Dr. C. B. Lucas, of Si. John's, S. C, informs mo ( 1868) that 
teiml children, and a dog also, were made sick, with \-omiting 
uJ clcpn-^iiou, Iruin drinking tlie milk of a cow which had 
b«D fed on puralauc Thu nuimu milk givou lo th<i dog on tho 
■en day again pi'oduced vomiting, which occurred almoitt in- 

81LEXRCK.B. iThf Dianthus Tribe.) 

l*Diformly insipid, 

VIKGINIAN SiLENE, {Saene Viryiniea, L.) Growa on the 
majpa of ro«da; vieiaity of Charioaton ; collected in St. John's. 

eimth, Uod. BoL 188; Uarton's Collcc. i, 39; 0. S. Di^. 
I2M : If (-r. and do L. i>iGt. d« M. Bled, v't, 342; D« Cand. Vrnju, 
H: Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 12&. The deooction of tho root acta 
■fan anthelmintic. 

S^JAJ^WOitT. (Sap<mariaofficinali», Unn.) Nat. in upper dia- 
tricCi; Newborn. F1. Aug. 

U. S. Olsp. 1293. Thia plant imparta lo water the property 
«f foming a lulher. trota a principle it contains called eaponin, 
vUdi t> ollivd to the active oonetituent of saraapariila, and aa 
a Mbaliluto for which it i« l>«quently used. Thb is obtained 

eating the watery extract vith alcokol nod fiv»por»tiR^ 
It IttiA liecii Uiktd ill (lerinitriy iii viicciiral iin<l miroluloui; affu 
tioiiH, oil Ian PI) 11!* iTaptioiiH, iiml by >">mo is thought dnporior 
sarsiipuriilu in cfticacy. Thi; docoi-tion or tho estracl may 
givon. Wadv's PI. RariorM, 33; Me r. and de L. Diet de 
Med. Tii, 220 ; Floro Mvd. ri, 311. It ie re^rdt^d as diuretji 
aperient and eudoHGc, recommended in engorgement of tt 
abdominal viscera, stomach, inteAtines, lymphatic glandri, an 
in ic to nis, cachexy, etc. On atN^ouiit of It* itiidorilic propcrljc 
it in udviflL-d in sypliills, rheutiitttiAm and j^mt. Pcrrihlc {javo it 
combined vrith mcrcQi^*; while f^'enh, ndminiKtcring it in <lo 
of onc-hftlf ounce of the deoociioii, or from Iwenly-fonr to forty-^ 
eight graiiiN of the i>xlntvi. Joiimal de Ohim. Med. vi, 747, and 
vii, 710; Ludolff, Ditw. do Had. Sap. Offlc. Erfordite, 1756, J. P. 
Carthcueen, Dlbs. do Sap. i-Vankfbi'l ; Amielhon, "Si Ie fltru- 
thinm de^ anoiena eat verilablemeiit In tiitpoiiuiri: doM modvmoA." 
Mem. Xat. dea Sei. et des. ArL4, i, 587. J 

Dr. Wood (ttates that Buckholx had obtained gaponin trom* 
Ihe dried root oi' which this principle constituted thirty-ibnr 
per cent. (Jour, de Pharm. Ser. x, 339.) Il ict ttiiid to po««cM 
poisonoiitt properties. Tho Soapwort i» given as an ultcrativn 
in tho form of decoction and extract, wbioh aru tiikon trocly. 
Audry *ny» ihitl the inHpisAaUKl jiiici*, given in tho quantity of 
half an oudoo in the couri'ii of h diiy, will j{L>nerally cure gon. 
norhcL'u in about two wocka withont any other remwly. Ac- 
COr>]ing to Dr. Bonnet and M. Malnpi-rt, thiK and other plants 
Dontninini; saponin tire cajiablo of producing poisonous uffeelM. 
V. 8. Diap., I2th FM. 

A decoction of lhi>« plant Ii.ik been nscd in some connlHes as 
a niiltHtitutc for soap, and \>t well capable of clcanaiog woollen 
fabric^: the leaves woisj considered lasative. Wilson's Jtiiral 
Cyc. Consult " iiitpiitdus" and " .-Kjcu/u*," in thi» volume, for 
Other plantH used as substitutes for Hoap. Tho Sapindtis (soap- 
wort) also funiiiihi'A one apeciBS, S. miinjinaius, which may bo 
nsef^il. Konnd in Florida and fieorgiji, near the coast, 

BARILLA PLANT, {Saltota toda.) I would particularly nd- 
vise the planting in the Southern Stateeof this plant, (ciiltivaU'd 
wo largely in Spain, Sicily and Sardinia.) on aecount of its great 
rahie in the ready munufaclure of crude xodit— which is now 
supplanting, on account of itx cJk«ai>ne«s, the ate of polAdh in 


iht mn a fact are or M«p. Bcaidea, soda ^ve» a hard toftp- 

■ to ihi- RiinlvsiH of fire, ■'good biirilIiiLt>nlaitii> twl^^Ly 

t rtrsl nlkxli. ii--"u'K.-iiitL*4l wilh iiiuriiiLvii mnd ^ulpliiiti'i* 

dbatt, eod»," etc. OuatUv lyv* mmitf from it »n* asvd in Uio 

iMdbiiii; proc«s» of bard toap niuiiuliMturo. 

SAi;TWOItT, iSatsola kaU, L. ,s'. CarUijtiam of Walt,) It 
growf in Georgia and northward ; and I have littl« doubt if 
ridi tb soda, aiid innj bo made of greai um! to us ju the pro- 
tattion oftlii.i nioft importiuit pruducL 

Thi- liarillae, Uiv Hike's, "alwny* ixinlnin » MnnI! propnrtiori of 
(Qtaih. to which thdr peculiar value, in making u less briitlo or 
wan ptftsUc hard eoapthan the BcUtiouaBodiis, may, irith git>al 
fntialiUity, b*^ aacril>ed."' 

The iullowuii; i^ the method of preparing soda A-om the >%/• 
•fh: KKmatiiifat^'tured aoda, tfao variety mofltaDcieully known 
t»b«rilla. the inriiit'nitRd unh of tJto Salmlu soiin. Thin plant iit 
(slliratcd with gnat i-aix- by th« Sjuininrdi^ *'MpW!i«lly in Ihc 
Tioniiy of Alii-anl. The !H;«)d i» xown in liglit, low Hoiln, which 
tNtmbaiibed toward tho i>va«hor«. and fumisihvd with sluices 
foradmitliD^ an occasional overflow of salt water. When the 
(luu are ripe, the crop is cut down and dried; the scods are 
HtWout, and prcMTved; tho n>dlof the plant itt burned in 
n>i*l^iac«», at a tempiTatiirc JiiHtnutlicieiit ti^tcaunv Ihcn-theii 
ttwttf into a stale of >^craifu»ion, ku u» to ccinoroto on cooling 
ilia t^ular masses, moderatotr compact," etc. ■'Another mode 
^ wuiufacUiring crude soda is by burning sva-wocd into 
kdf." Ure. Cmde soda, and tho sods asb of oommcrco, aro 
■ade altogether by (he docompoeiiion of ooa salt. 1 am not 
■aare wboiher our native Sabota kali grows in abundance upon 
Hw waot of the Caroliniut and Georgia. Sec " Com " {Zea mat/a) 
tor eoonomicH) mode of malting aodii from corn-coba. AIim, 
trtwl'' " Kelp," in thix volume. 

JUnetitms for making '• Jlomt-madt" Sotia.—tbe Bicbmond 
Diffiatcb pubbshcs the following ; " Tho pruparslion more 
ftowty rcMmblcd ealeratus than soda, and is a com)>»rativcly 
pan article for making bread. It ia more valuable in view of 
Iha aeardty and high prioo of aoda in onr drag storos. AAor 
■■kii^ a otning lyo from a'>lu'9>, boiling down lo dryncAd and 
lanfag till whilt}, take (lie n-xiilue and udd its own weight of 
Olid water, set in a cool pluw for scvvnd days, my a week, 


Btirring friMiaently; tbon iitrain throuxk a tino clotlt, und boil 
down ugaiu to lii-ynws, etiiTinif fn>qut-iitly, and, finally, c^irk nj 
thi; {lowilrr no (iblaiiiud iti u lioille. Tlienit i>|ioriilioiiH nliould 
b« conducted in iiii iron vomhiI, not in gltum or stoiicwMru." 

I iiisevi the fbllowing from m journal of the day, Uopiof; 
they may prove us«ful: 

" .Soap Beceipts. — In tim«s of war and blockade, wbpn people 
are thrown olmoett entirely upon their own ro§ourceis every 
iKiin looking to domestic economy and home production ahonld I 
bo carcfrilly obnt^rvi'd. Our people have passed through a Irj'- 
iog ordoal. but Ihcy have leiirn<tl Icwwnn whii^b will bo ofprao- ' 
tical utility in afler timc». nabit<( of economy, and elomont« of 
Bolf-rt'lianee, whieh bavc been pUHhed a^ide by the prcssnre of , 
an extravagant sentiment, by an increiiNin^ luvc tor easy and 
luiuriouB living, are now, from the iofluencoB of Decessity, being 
n-Minmd, while they are found to embody all of practical utility 
which they pomtejised in d«y« of yore." 

Looking to the geiicnil principle of domoxtic economy and 
home eiTort. I annex ihe followin^r rocoiptB for making Boap, 
which I find in the Wilmington Journal. Onoof thene ha^ bntti 
patented at the North. If tried, they will, no doubt, he foundai 
Talnuble: '^ 

" Family Soap. — Tnko six quarls of 8ofl water, six ponnde of 
bar soap, one-quarter of n pound of sni-sodn, tbreo toaepooDsful 
spirits turpentine, one and a half toa-'lKionsfiil hartshorn, on« 
teaspoonnil of camphor, two teaspoonsful of salt. Cut the xoap 
up fine, boil the water, and add nil the tngredlentx, and boil 
thirty minntes; lake off, iiiiil pour into blinllow vetiHwh to cool 
and harden. 

"Another. — Five ponndit bar noap, four pounds eal-soda, two 
ounces borax, and one ounce hnrtsliorn. Dissolve in twenty- i 
two (Quarts of soft water, and boil fifteen or twenty minutea. ^H 

"JfUy Soiip. — After pouring out of tlio vessel the ahovn soapfC^ 
pour in water enough to wanh olT Iho HidcH and bottom, and 
boil twenty minutetj. Then pour oil' to cool, and you have ex- 
cellent jelly soap for washing clotlicn, ctc. 

" Soft Soap. — Take ton pounds potai^h well pulverised, fifteen 
pound)* grease, and three buckets boiling water. Mix, and Mtir 
pota.-'h and water together until diiMolved. Then add the 
grciiRe, Htirring well ; put all Into a barrel, aitd every morning 


mU two ttncket^ cold waler, niirriiig it wull emih time, until the 
fttrrwl M Mfiirly I'ull, or mixed to the oonninlcncy of soft eoftp." 

GMMttlt Hickon*, (^Carya,) for miinn (net lire ofpotatth amd pot- 
tA KNip from )t.-<h««. 

SPl'ItRKY, (Sper^ta anrnsii. W»lt.; Linn.) Grows in 
nltiTatai lands, lowur country of South Carolina; vicini^ of 
ChtfWion ; colloctcd in St. Jobn's. 

a^. »nd do L. Diet. de. M. Med. vi, 497: "Cow6 which feed 
•■ it giTv uiilk of a richirr quality, atid in larg<;r <i its iiti tics." 
TW Medti of a variety of tlii» plant growing in Gcrmnny con- 
liMicgrecu during tall and winter, a rv far onpcrior to paMturo 
y i racs . and yield ao oil tiuitabic for lamps Dpon expression. 
Tlicyare aUo gnxtad up with rye, and need for making bread. 
Pudtiy eat spurrey iu any form, and are thonght to become 
wy prulifio nf ugg:^ wbt-n fed u|)on it. Rural Cyclopcedia, and 
TUtr*> Agrivulturut Chi'miKlry. 

CaiCKWEBD; STITCHWORT, (Stdlaria media, Smith.) 
Lrtradnccd. Yard* and gardcitH. 

TW heri>a^ 19 |{rG«dily devoured by hog», niid is said to tw 
Mtriiire, and suitable for being boiled and eaten in the manner 
eftptoack. It baa the n^palaiioii, when boiled in vinegar and 
■It, of pDsMmiDg virlau to duun»o uruptiona of Ihu hands and 
falha. The flowers eerve, in some decree, as a natural baromo- 
ttf. for when rain is approaching tfaoy remain closed, and in 
iby wraihcr tJii-y are regularly open n«m aboal nine o'clock Id 
lie morning litl noon. WilHon'a Rtirmi Cydopicdia. 


The ■pwles belonging to this order are generally aromatic 
»a4 p«ing«nL 

ACUB BUSir, iXanthari/lim.) 

Amtrieanum, T. and Gray. 

fraxineum. Willd. 

rami/lonfui, Mich. 

Ctavn Ifcrfiilis, I^nn. 
Barbara's Hortun Americana^. The Horapud root is applied 
11} ali-fH in order to heal them. The plant poesesxes stimu- 
luing p(iM-erf), and in a "powerful fsudoritie and diapbor«ttc ;" 
wnarfcable, act<onlt«g to Barton, tbr its extraordinary property 
of «xritine #«llvation, whether applied iinmedialely to the gums, 
«r lAken inlornally. It U reported t4i have beea uaed saeoeaa- 


fully iu [isrolyaift of tho muscliM of llio moutb, and in rbcumatic 
alTcctioDK. AIko, in low fornix of fpver; the tincture of ihe 
bvrrii;* being eomctimcH vmptoycd as a carminntive in doeefl of 
ten to thirty drop^, iDcrc««in|i; the quantity whvii ilHnlimulaliug 
effect iii d(«irod. Dr. Kin;;, of Oiiiciiinati, ^atv» that it wa» 
beucfivially employed in cholura in tem^poonlul dosi'ii. See [>r. 
B«t«8' arliclo; Tildon'N J. Mat. U«d., /^pril, 1867. Mer. and do 
L. Diet, do M. M<>d. vi. 173 ; Jounial God. de Med. xl, 226. Dr. 
Gillespie aKserlx that it is a good tonic and febrifufco. Accord- 
ing to Cam, the Indians employed the decoction an ao injection 
in gonorrha>a: "Voyaf^e to Caiiadii." It huA been girim in 
vyphili.i UK « mihstitiitt! for ^imiai-um, aod sili^o for mezereon. 
, 9co Anc. Journal dv Mvd. ii, :il4. A pctmliiir principle, xantko- 
pierite, in aflord^^^d by it. U. H. Disp. Its acrimony is imparted 
to boiling water, and to alcohol. According to Dr. Stuplca, 
bewdes tlbroun Hubatance^ il contaiim volatile oil, a grconir<h, 
Axed oil, ri'Kln, gum, coloring inutt<.!r, and a pi'culiar cryNtallixa- 
blv priucipio, which hv cuIIh xanthnxijUn. Tho latter is given Id 
doves of two to fix gntitiN. Journal Phil. Coll. I'harm. i, 16&. 
It is stimulating; producing;, when swallowed, a sense of heal 
in the stomai'h, arti'rial cxcitcmi'nt, and a tendency to diaph 
rcM!*. Il (injovM conwdi-riiblH r(;piiluliou in chronic rhcnmatitim. 
Dose of powdur from tiMi graioN to half a drachm. It has been 
tried by many with advaolagt* in this diseaso. Barton's Collcc. 
i, 25, h2 ; Tbachor's Disp. sub. A. spitioxu ; Hig, Am. Mod. Hot. 
iii, 162. A fluid extract is alno prt-parod and givt^ii in donc^ of 
flfloen to forty-five drop>^ (Tildcn's Jour. Mat. Med.) In rheu- 
matism an infusion is giVon, made of one ounce of the hark l« 
one quiirl of boiling water; one pint to be admin iKi-ercd in 
dividiHl doscH diirinu tho twenty-four hnurs. Hep. from Snr- 
gcon-Gcn. Ollfce, 1862. It should not be confounded with Aralia 
spinosn, KOmetim«g cnllcil prickly a»h. 

jV. Carotiniiinum, Liini. and T. and G. .1". tricnrpiim. Ell. Sk. 

Thifl §peL'io» is supponud to bo possessed of similar propertii-a 
with the above. It is the IVickly Ash of tlie Southern Stales. 
T. and G. 

Chapman, in his Flora of the Soutiieru StatcH, does not io- 
clnde X Anifjriemtum among our Southern plnnt.-<, but what is 
said of tho medicinal properties of ..f. Americanwm. applies to 
this plant. 


I plaoU have tbo repnlation in Amorica or beinfc powor- 
■t sttdoriflc and iltaphoretio, an<l cxcito copioas salivation, 
o«Jjr when madv lo act Jirortly on Iho montli, bui whon 
['UfcM internally, and liavu bvnn found highly effioaciouii in par»> 
tljw aT thv mawJei of thv mouth, Haral Cyc This may ac- 
Hit for their aiility in toothache. 

1 kav^e ssccrtaiDcd (1868) thai th« dooootion of this plant ie 
fttBMTely nsed by [>hy3inan« in South Carolina asa remedy in 
1 inpty- In a letuir fnim a medical fritind, he roports to me an 
[•g;raTat«d caao which recororod andor it4 oso. A saturated 
of tito b«m«s or root made with whiskey Is alao 

aOP TREE, i^Ptdea tri/oUaUt, L.) Pia. and nonhwurxl. 
\ Chip. N. C. 

A tmall genua of slimbs peculiar to America and In<Ua. 

[tWapeiOM is said by 8«hivpf) Hat. Kiitl. Am., to bo anthclmtii- 

' ticaaroog tnnision of thelcsvM and young ohootj^ being used. 

TW fhtit is aromatic and bitter, and is stated to be a good aub- 

HSmtkr hopa. 

SIUARUBACE.K. iQHOssia Famtli/.) 

AUAXTHUS, {AlianUtas glaiiduloM.) Onltintod. 

Jf. H«t«l, of Toalou, l''ranc<!, has asMrtainwd that the pow> 

4a«d baffc, in dows of 8«ven lo thirty grains, are veiy efficient 

, ■ Uk expulsion of the lape-wonn. The volatile oil ohlaiiieil 

L it ia ao powerful ibat pentoua oxpo<iM>d to tlw vapoiv in 

m iaritig the extncta, are liable to he xdzcd with vertigo, cold 

I wtau and vomiting. Tho nrain is purgative. 

Tba tTM also aMuraed great importance io an oconoaiioal 

fiial of view ; its leave* having been found u> be suitable food 

Ar a species of silk worm, (Bombyx Cinlhia,) im[M]rted from 

Ite. (Joom. de Pharm. Mars. 1859.) V. H. Di>^p., 12th Ed. 

Sone aoppoee that the omaaationa fVom the leaves catwe 

(1UA.S3IA, <^'inuni6a glatiea, D. C.) South Florida. A 

! tf««. Chap. 

nif apMTV of qnaitffla, though not the ofllHnal, should be 
. for any bitter tonic properties it may contAiu and for 



liERANlACEvK. {The Oeranium Tribe.) 

Charnctcrixuil tty nn utttriiigcul )>riiicipIo, nmf an Di-oniaUc i 
rc§iDOue Art or. 

maculatiim. Linn.) bitTusciJ. 

Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 137 ; Coxo. Am. DL-.[i. 304 ; Ebcilo, Mai." 
Med. i. 382; Bell'e Pract. Diet. 2J8; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 18ti; 
Thachcr'« Am. Disp. 224 ; V. S. Disp. 350; Royle, Mat. Med. 73 ; 
Biirt. M. Bot. i. 110; Po. Mat. Med. and Therap. ii. 751; Am. 
Joiiriiiil Pliurin. W, 19(1; Joiiniat Phil. Coll. Pliarm. i, 171; lid. 
jind Viiv. Mnt. Med, 135; Sutuvjif, Mat. Med. 11)7; Barton's Col- 
Ipc. 7; Culler. .Mem. Am. Aciid. i, -Ififl; Mer. biuI do L. Diet, dc 
Mat. Med. iii, 3611: Journal Pbni-m. xiSi, 287. It ii^ u powerful 
a&tringeiit, adapted to passive bemorrhac:!?!!, clironic diarrbcea, 
and eholera infantum, tt isinjcetod with advantage in ca^H 
of ghwt and leiiporrhoja, and is u§ed a« a wa«b for old ulcers. 
Bigelow speaks of it as a very powerful afttringent, very similar 
to kino and enti;cbu, uiid a useful aubslilutv for the mont cxpcn- 
Eire articles. It forms mn excellent local upplienlioii in son> 
tbroms and olceration« of ihe month, and Is nilnpted to the 
treatment of such discharycs aw continue from debility after ibc 
removal of thttlr exeitin;; causes. Golden and Sgba'pf kI«o 
e[KUik hiffhly of the root in dysimU-ry; nnd Dr. B. S. Barton, in 
cholera infantum, used the dccoetion, in mitk. Eberle wasaue- 
cossftil with it, in bis treatment of aphthous affections of tli« 
mouth, and of ulcerations of the fauces and tonsils. Griffith, 
Med. Bot. 209. The ahseiiee of [in])Ieasaiit tOHtu nnd other of- 
fensive qoalilies, remarks Dr. Wood, renders it peculiarly s«r- 
vicc-able in the cases of infuiitn artil ]iersotiH of very delirnto 
stomacliH. By Slaphi's oxamhiiition, Jonrnul Phil. Coll. Phurm. 
i, 171, it oontiiitis tannin, gailie ai^til, inucilai-e, a small propor- 
tion of (i7mi(/iH, and red coloring matter ; (Wnu the bark, a small 
quantity of resin and a peculiar eryslnlllicnhle principle. 

Dose of the powdered root in aubstarieu, is twynty to thirty 
grains, one to two ounces of lliv tincture, and ten to fidiMMk 
grains of the extract. The d&coolion \» mado by boiling odo 
ouncu of the root in one pint of wnter. the doso of which is one 
to two tablvspoonsful. The extroet is said to t'e the best fbrra ; 
alcohol and proof apiritB, however, readily di«»o)vv the active 


y ia eipia, w»d tbe tincture keepa b«et. Tho roainoi<l Geraitin, 
m pcvpared by the Am. Chom. InBlilule, it) given in dn»es of 
trt gtmins to ui adalL, or one graiit every hour, to krrc«t intes- 
tiul iJi«etHrgc«. They nso & solntion of tbts poi^der io bema- 
tim and ss a w»sh in apthonB soro throat; m a wash to tbe 
m aad in ointmonts wtwre a«trin^«nte are required. Dooc of 
1Wen*B extract, tbrc« to fin«CD grains. 

ZYGQPRYhhJiC&X. (Bean Caper TrOx.) 

fftjintni mnrfiim, L. S. Pla. Clia]i. 

lUa pDwc««f4 lite Hamt^ properlicM wt tite Q. o^rin(Ut,\Agfiata' 
nteorGoaiacnm.but in aminordc^rco. Tbo wood ispalerand 
Sglitcr, and i» seldom imported, aolesa mixed with tb« true 
Upni-Titft'. and as an adnlterationof It; maybe dislinguUlied 
liTibtfrnallcr Mitc of the billeU. and tbe leas decided green 
liat nf tbo heart wooil. GriflTiLb. Tbe uaea of Lignura-viue 
1*4 tkf i]Dalitic8 of Ouatac as a medicine. iU action on the ktd- 
1^ IB aiDeoorrh<£A, and in rheumatism and gon), are woil 


BAL9AMINACE.15. {Tkr Balsam TViic) 

AtCOfding 10 l)e Cnnd.. lltc f>|>ccit» are diaretic. They are 
cUtiy mn ark able for the elastic form with which tbe ralvce 
if tWfrnii separate at maturity, expelling the soede. Lind. 

TOCCir-llE.NOT; JEWKL WEEP, {Impatims pallida, 
SmII^ T. and G. AVi me tangere, EIL 8k.) Grown in inundated 
twunpti incinitv of Cbarleaton ; collected in St. John'ft. PL 

B«]I PUnUH Vku de Pnooe, 166: "The whole plant ia very 
acrid, and i» u^ed u» a eatapbua." £lem de Bot. ill, 6S. Six 
ptiaa of tbo dried learcv will produce naiwea Tbe D. S. Diip., 
ISM, tpe*lu (^r it a» a dangnrws plant, pj ai w aid of acrid 
ptwpcnieo; when taken iatemally, acting ai aa emetic, c«th«r- 
, lie awl dlnretic. 

OXAIilDACTUl (TV aarm TVOe.) 

aT«apnMT«Uy acid. 

iLna aiHJ iMHtliNard. Cha^ 


The plant tit a vor)' ngroeablo nnd wholcsomv huIu'I, und 
■tifWrn rrfrigrrnnt, iinii tifrrViUf", nnl unti -i-j-1ir prvpcrliox. T 
jnioe eoogulatea milk, and precipitntoa lime from solutio: 
When boiled in milk, it givea off its acidulon^neefl to the whey 
and fritlier this whey, or the expresoed jnice of the plaol. mo 
diloU'd witli water, intiy bo u^eJ an u gfiDd n^^rig4lralIl driuk i 
tbVQCe. Rural Cyc, The herb is powerfully and most agreeably 
acid, making a rotlniHhinf; and vrholvxomo conwrru with tin 
aagari its flavor rctuvmblra groen l^-a. 

I>r. Wood states that it owoeite acidity to &in03'<iliif«<^j>(tf(i-fsii, 
which is sometimes separated for use, and sold under the 
name of salt of aorrel; the prooesa of making which is famished 
by him. It is sometimes called e«eential salt of lemonn, and in 
URod for remoTing iron mold and ink stains. Thiu and other 
Hpuoiee are rolVigerant ; aixl ho alno adda ttiat their iiifiiition or 
a whey made with thi^m in milk, may be oshuI ax a plcaKanl 
drink in robrilu and iiiflammator}' discitKcs, and (bo fresh plant 
oaten raw is asettil in scurvy. U. 8. Disp., ISth Bd. 

PURPLE WOOD-SORHKL, (Oxati* tmlacra, h.) Grow* 
in rieh sfiils; vicinity of C'harieiilon ; uoUuctod in St. John'ii. N. 
C. PI. May. 

U. S. Disp. 66. It contains the oxalate of potaah, which im- 
parts to it its pleasant, acid tasto. 

Oxalis eorniculata, L. OxalU fv-rcata. Ell. Sk. Vicinity of 
Charleston ; simihu' in properties to the Ox. vutlacea. 


KOSACE.*:. {The Soae Tribe.) 


None of the species are uiiwlioluaome; thoy are genernlly 
chaiacterised by the poHsei<8ion of an lutringcnt princij>le. 
The subjjrdcr, Amygdaliuv, are bettor known for yielding Prn»- 
Bio or hydrooyaniir acid. 

PotentiUa, (ciiHadrnsis.) Grows in meadows, iu lower uid 
upper districts; St. John's, South Carolina. 

i>r. Richard Moore, of Bumter District, South Carolina, In- 
forms me that Ibis plant, on account of ita bitter, mucilaginous 
qualities, has been foitiid, by rcp(»atod experiment, to be a most 
eflieient and ii»d'iil remedy in the treatment of chronic colds, 
thn-atcaing pbtbinis. The decoction is used. He refvra to the 
|)la»t uR the P. reptans (./). 


•n, Ait) Diffast-d; <'olt«;tod in Sb. John's; vicinity of Chsrlo»- 
IM; Newborn. PI. May. 

Bberie. Mat. Ued. i,386; Po. Hat. Mod. ii,453; Ed.and Vav. 
Xat. MmI. \M ; Royte, Mat. Med. 374 : V. S. Disp. 603-4 ; Ball. 
a^ Gar. Hat. Med. 267: Big. Am. U«d. Bot. li, 160: Chap. 
ncrap. and Mat. Med. ir, 474 ; Thacher's U. S. Diep. S4l ; Lind. 
\at. &jU- 1*4 -, &tirUm'^ CoIIm. it, 157 ; Griftltb, Med. BoL 270. 
Bigdov eonHidcn it n powerful aftlrtiigimt, and is AalittAml of 
In dbacy, adminiittvrud both iiitt^niiilly anil oxtcnially, in a 
wiieiy of caww udmitting of reliof from this elii!*a of n-inedicsL 
Dr. Chapman ml«o npvakR highly of it in tho dvclining Miigv of 
tgwmtery, after tho symptoms of active inflammation ura ro- 
■■nd; he asaerts that nothing in his hands had dono so much 
Webedt the inordinate dlschai^^ in cholora infantum — two or 
tine dotes anffioioj; la bind up the bowcU. Tho decoction ia 
■Mia of one oanoo of the root in a pint and a hitlf of water, 
Med down to one pint, of which the <lom for u child iit two or 
thm tea^poonsfnl : for an ndnlt, a wiiicglatHful wvcrul tim<w a 
day; orange peal may be addod. Doso of tho powdcrod root, 
tVNty or thirty grains. No analysis has yol been made I 
kn Kitlc doubt, from my own exami nations, (8«o Liquidambar,) 
ttat lh« BStringoncy is owing to tannin. I have froquotitty 
■id a tea made of the roots of tho Blackberry to check the 
danfcf of teething children, and in refractory cases of dyaen- 
toy, after rocrcuriah and other treatment had been employed, 
md have alway-i been pleaaed with the result. I consider it one 
9t the moat ndefu! of ovr astrinffenlti. 

I>r.8ii«<y]. of Ga.. (So. Mvl Surg. J. 1867,) maintains that its 
■riU»Ma in disorders of tho bowels, does not depend princi- 
|illy vpon the tannie acid it contains, but that its moot power- 
M cfliwt. in these instances, are attributable to the bittor, 
tttaalaat, or tonic properties, distinct from its astringent effect*. 
Haama that a small i^uantity of the fluid uxtract taken into 
ltbtMoma«h incroaae* thcappotJie. He al*o om-x the hark of 
'the root grated In wst«r in diarriiccas. Ttldcn's Joarn. Hat. 
XmL Aog. 1867. 
Ibavv known cases of chronic diarrhoM and dysentery- which 
tn*i after nniog a strong tea of blackberry root, which 
reaialed other and pcrai«tent efforia for 11>eir relief; and I 


have had cases of similar benefit following ita cmploynicnt, dc 
t^ed to me l>y otliors. 

Id tht! ol<l woric on " Horbit," by Nicholm* Culpopptr, gentle 
man, '-(jtndent io I'hj'eic and Astrology," iho uutbor observe 
of ono of the geuns Jiuhvs: "Kither the decoction or powd« 
of the root being Inlien, is good to broak. or drive foi-tli graTcl, 
and the alone in tlie reius and Icidticys." "Tht! Iiomes, nnd tlx 
flonvT^, are a powerful rvmudy uguiiint the poison of th^^ rac 
r«nonioii8 Herpente." V. 46. 

I bare noticed a yrttow fruilod variety in Pnirfivld r>iHtrict,' 
S. C. at Ailci'n's place near Winnsiboro', 

I rccejTcd tlie following communieation from Rov.M. A. Cnr- 
tto, in answer to inquinea oo the eubjoot : 

"The While Biarkberries,so-caUed,gBnerallyofadirty amber 
eolor. arc: ocoaitionpilly met with in dilTeront Slutcit, from Now 
York U) Carolina. Tbo 'Now RoobcUc' of thv gardens, is of 
this kind. Une found in North Carolina is coming into cuiti- 
vatioD. Xtflonly adrantageia ibat it makes aprettier jelly than 
the black." 

{RubuB trioialis, Mich.) IJiffiiflod ; vicinity of Charleston ; col- 
leotud iriSl. Jubn'H; Newbi-rn. Fl. April. 

Wat»on'« Pnict. Physic, 820; U. S. Disp. WA; Pe Mat. Med. 
and Therap. ii, 643 ; Royle Mat. Med. 375 ; Chap, on Dis. of 
Tlioiae, and Abdom. Vi.«<:ora, 279; Hriliah and for. Med. Re- 
view, January 31, 18-I&; Ball, nnd Gar. MaU Med. 2€a Thiit 
is, no doiibi, jroHitorwed o\' antringcnt propcrtictt similar to tbo 
above; a docoction of the root if eaid to bo a safe, unto and 
Hpoody euro for dyBcnlery — a remedy derived from tbo Oneida 

Ah BlaekberTfj wine is muob usod as a substitute for more 
costly foreign wines, 1 will introduce the following recoipe for 
making it, communicated by Mrs. Summer, of South Carolina, 
which was said to have been introdaced fi'om Virginia by the 
Itcv. Richard JohnHOii. Blackberry wine, aa well u.» cordial 
made from the wild cherry, is apioasaiitlyitimulatingbuvenige, 
Qscful as a cordial, capable of being muilicatod and very ser- 
viceable in families, as well as in camps and hospitals. It can 
easily bo made with whiskey, or this muy be omitted, ll is 
only Htrange that so useful and pleasunt a drink, and one 



vUoithe nach nr orcry odo, should, nnUl recently, havo t>e«n 
mSuIf made : " To every tiiroe pinis of Iwrrics, add one iiaAri 
^waUt; 6uflerit to stand twentj-four Iioiiih, almiii llirougli 
t«nhad«r, then throuj^b u jelly-bag. and to every gallon »rihv 
jiipi aald time pountlri of gnod brown iitigaj-, the whitm of 
Ikne «g^ beaten to a froth, and stirred in tlicjtiiett; a tiltJo 
^k», wttb two dosco cloTo«, beaten together, aud ouQ nutmeg 
piUd, ahoold be put in a iimidl linen bag and dropped in. 
AAcrall aro mixod, pal It in asbone jug. filled np, and kept lull 
wA MUBO of the ^aiue juie«. reserved jlor tJiat purpose, until il 
' (iioiM working, whiolt will be in two or ibree woelu. Cock il 
ti^tly, and keep It in a eold pUico for three or four months, 
Uma pour it ulT into botllea. with n little loitf nugar in eat^h 
bottle: cork and wal cloee. If the wine in kopt for twelve 
■ will bo Mill batter." It La not easy to over-vidue Ihu 
ptMt stUJty of no mild an alcoholic drink, eombining slightly 
artimgent vegetable propcriiea and wbicb may bo placed 
«itUD the reach of uhnoAt every one. I bnve Heen thie wioe of 
Mthan agrcieuble flavor and ta^tc »« bo be preferreil lo luoro 
nfa«i wineew Cbeap, good wines are certainly the grealosi 
kom that could be conferred on any country*. See "tirape." 
Tkit, and -■ Apple," Pynti. 

Tha following iti an approved method of making Biackberri/ 
viar-, in vogue in Si. John's Berkeley, South Carolina. I ineerl 
it ia a vork of this kind for ita general utility, and oh il Ibrnia 
■ ■pproTed liqaor which " cheers but not inebrtatea." Black- 
WnW, aizquarta; boiling water, two quarta; brown nugur, 
Itvpuands. The whiu-A of oix eggit frollied, luliLsl when the 
fig i* nearly lull. Munb the lierriux, pour in (he water — let il 
Wlin twenty-fonr houm. Strain through a hair »wvv and add 
Aa cagar. Leave the jog open for two woeks, until fortncn* 
titioa oeaacfl — • glaw of alcohol may then be added. An addi> 
litaal pound of sugar would probably secure the wine from 
iWantooa ftrmenutioD. 

Tka following modification is considered the most Mire nieunH 
•faaeariog a good nviull: To every three (|nart« of borrios 
««ll maabud add one quart of boiling water — aome prefer to add 
ba water ; allow il lo remain twenty-four hours ; strain through 
ahair seive; to every gallon add two pounds of brown tugar — 
li vtcry five fn^llons odd (ho white of four vgga well beaten ; 


■ill th« jag; keep some of the preparation and add t» tho j 
every morninjr milil r<Arm<MitH(.ioii oi-jiw-s, lliim add one ••la^s 
ftjcohol, cork up LJjjtitly iitilil tliu monlli of Marvh, hooping it i: 
a cool place. The nexl it) very itinipio, if good. 

BlacMierry \Viiu\ — The following is itaid to bo an excellant 
reoipc fur the manufacturo of »uporior wine from blaokl>erriuic.- 
HcuHun; the hcrrioH and bruise tliom, to erery gallon adding 
one quart of boiling water; let the mixture stand twenty-fonr 
hours, stirriog occaHonally; then strain ofl* the liquor into a 
«ask, to every gallon adding two pounds of aogar; o(»rk tigiu 
and let stand till following October, and you will havo wine 
ready for une, without any further Ktriiining or boiling. 

A corn>(«pondL'nt in the Mohili- Kc<gti>tpr gJvo« tho following 
method of making blackberry cordial : 

" Cordial for Sickness in the Army. — To alleviate the suRerin 
and perhaps nave the lives of many of our soldiers, wbooe lavk- 
DCBs may be traced lo the use of uowholeKonte water in lime- 
Mone regions, 1 rcpommend tho use of hlackberry cordial. Th 
following is a good recipe: Bruise the berries and strain the 
jnioo through a bag ; lo each quart of the Juice allow n half 
pound of loaf sugar, a heaped toap>poonful of powdered cin> 
namoii, tho sunie of powdered cloves and a grated nutmeg; lioil 
these ingredients fineen or twenty minutes, skimming tbcra 
well. When cool, siir into enoh qtinrl a half pint of brandy ; 
then butllc and cork well. In ch"<i brandy and loaf sagar 
cannot be had, Hubntituto good whiskey and sugar bouse mo« 

" Compound Syrup of Blackberries — Htdicatfd Blackberries. — 
Ueeflal as a drink in d)a^rha^a, and to supply soldiers in camp^ 
cither OH a remedy in mild caBCs of dinrrhieaor as a vehicle To: 
mvdicince. To two qntirlx of the juice of blackberries, add 
Jialf an ounce each of cinnamon, allspice and nutmegs, and on« 
quarter of an ounce of cloves, well pulveriaed. Boil them to- 
gether for fill«en to twenty minuteit in a preserve pan or kettle, 
lo g«t the strength of the spices; strain through a piece of 
flanmil, then add loaf sugar to make very 8we«l, and while 
still hot add to every two quarts of the jaice one pint of brandy. 
The doee of this for an adnit is about two tablespoonal^I ns 
peated. One-fifth portion of the mixture is brandy." 

The following subatitutu for tho apiccd nynip of Bhubarb, 19 




finm by Dr. Parrisb, (Pnct. Pharmacy p. 2S0,> uwd in th« 
fcihin iiT I liiMi I II Blnckborry root <oithcr Hpocii-n) right 
■■ns; cionantoD, cloves snd nutiDcgn, vavh thrtru ■Jruchni)'; 
mtftr, four pounds; vater, four piou — boil the root^ und tho 
I in thi; water for oiie hour, exprees and §train, then 
I tb* mgar, form a xyruji and aguin strain, then add Frvnch 
if, six flaid ounc4->s oil of clores and oil of cinnamon, of 
I fuar dlopB. Doe« fur n child of two yritra old u ton^oon* 
> tsUwpoon fbran adult, to bvrcpcsK-d. 
Tha blarkberry root is an easily obtained and TBliiiihlcuit- 
triagvoL. A decoction acU as an aitrinf^nt. and will chuck 
diarrhtKa. The rind of pome<o^natc, which is caeily portable, 
beiM in milk, in an exoellont r«in<.Hly in diarrbcea in the amiy, 
U Iw oaed during M^arcity of iDcdicinex. Th« tnt- growx 
itiwliiillj in the SoathvTn St4it«»; nil parts of il arc mv- 

ttam freqnont trials, ] know of no remedy for diarrfaow and 
^vmtciT of teething children, superior to the decoction of 
IfcanM of thin 8p«cte^; aliw, dnriiig the conTaloNCi'nce from 
4jMaleiy in adnltn. It might lie much more extensively used 
N Mr planiationa. 

Tba folkiwing preparation ftoni MackbcrricM will bo found 
vtAii as a Uiarticf, anil to pnitrcnt cDiislipalioD. Half a pound 
•f btowD 8D);ar to every poand of the IVait boiled together for 
OB hoar, tili the blackberries arc soft, stirring and manhinff 
(bca well. This i>hoald be precterred, and will prove a mo^t 
ignMable lax»tiv« for children, on account of the §acchnrine 
■atter tonlaincd in it and the mechanical imtation of Ihu 

■AtfetferriV^ — Preaerre these as slrtiwlHrrie* or carrants, 
Mthfr liquid, or as a jam, or jelly. Blackberry jelly or jam is an 
•mOMt tn«dicino in Mimmcr eomptuint* or dysentery. To 
■ake tl, cmsb a quart of fully ripe blackberries ulth a pound 
tt th* b««t loaf-vugar ; put it over a gentle fire and cuok it until 
tkirk; then put to it a RiU of ibo beet fourth-pitiof brandy ; 
«irit awhile over the Are, strain, then put in pot«. 

'JtorHirjy Syrap. — Make a Himple itynip of a pound of sugar 

tacKl) pint of water; boil it until it io rich and thick; then 

tM to it aa many pints of the expressed juice of ripe block- 

I M there arc pounds of sugar; put half a nntnieg grated 


to each ([uart of the syrap; let it boil fifteen or Ivmttg 
lulnutve, then &dil to it hftlf a gill of fourt h -proof brantly 
encli quurt of oyru]); net it by to btiooine coM ; thun bottto i^ 
Ibr iiitcf. A Uiblospoonfiil for » chi\d, or % winv^lam for an sdult 
u a doeo. 

" Blackberry Cordial MedicatM. — It is rooommendod as a d< 
lifjhti'ul beverage, and a remedy for diarrii'ea or ordinar 
diseafe of the bowels : 

" To half a bushel of blackborrieo, well mashed, add a quart 
of a pound of alUpice, two ouiii:i.'a of ciniiamoii, two ou»cc« of 
cloven \ pulverizH wull, mix and boil nlowly until pn)p4!rly done ; 
thun Htrnin or oqiiceaiu tho juice through homopun or flannel 
ntid add to each pint nf the juiec one pound of louf-su^ur; 
boit again fur Eomo time, take it off, and while oooling add half 
A gallon of bc8l brandy. For ao adult, half ounce to ail|H 
ounce ; for a child, a loaspooiiful or more, accordiog to &)^" " 

Blackberrij Mly is made by waahin;; Uie berries, to eacth 
pound adding a hnlf pound of migar, gilaet' on a xtove anj 
simmer, pour off tbujuion wliich iit to be boiled down to a jclly^ 
tlie seeds boinjf thus excluded. 

The loaves of the blackberry and raMpborrycarufally dried arftij 
recommended a» subttlitmce for tbreign tea. Upon experimental 
I find tho to* drawn from them agreeable and picaoant, aD<l 
perhapo slightly slininlnting or Mivlutive, an tho ea»e may 
but the berh taste i« rather too promioont. 

VIKfilNIAN. OR WILD BASl'BEUUy, (fiufru* occideK 
talis, Linn.) (ii-ows in the u]iper districts; oolk-et«d in 8tJ 
John'Ki Nuwbeni. 

Mi'r and de Tj. Diet, de M. Mi'd. vi, 131. Projicrtio* idcntieal 
with the above. It in thought to he aitpccific in dysentery. 

STRAWBERRY. (Pra^aria vesca, Ex.) Call. 

Flore Med. iii, 169; Griffith Med. Hot. 277. Geeuerspeaka i 
the good efTeela of the fruit in cuIcuIouh dietorderii, and Lia-' 
nn-us oxtolls Hh eilieacy in gout, havinj;, ho Niyn, prevented 
paroxysms of it in himiscif by partaking of thiti fruit very 
fKtcly. Tboy are also HUjipoised to poHHofs vormifaifo properties, 
and to bo uaefol in phthisis. The leaves are astringent, and are^| 
recommended in bowel complaints ; and Iho roots are much 
uflod in [Europe a^ diureticH ; ipven in dyituria, in 
infuifion, made with an ounce to tho pint of water. Qp. cit 


lalliwiiiil ID his work un Spormntorrhov, p. 311), hUIim that 
ili*«berriea ajv qni(c K-rrJc-cnlilit in ix^licvinf; irrilahle con- 
£t>OB« of the bladilvr an<l urclhrn. I{ouK»ra(i mentions tliU as 
vm of himMlf, see bia C^n/eMiotu; and I have knovn of per- 
•BHtn ill-hcmllh tluring the winlcir who rapidly recovered as 
■W as tbU Irait oaulj be procured — owio^ doubtlean lo tbe 
■ac4 of tbe ro<^tablo aridit tbey oontaiu. 

lOMiu, Krbart.) liicb woods; Florida to Vir^nia. Chap. 

It WM tntn>duced ioto En;i;land io 1629 and poaeeesed a fame 
9fui U> ibc hantboin. The palp has a fine Raror. Riinil Cyc. 
tU* plant ia well known, and il« coonointeal volov and iippli- 
MticNi Kqairv no de^ription. Thv uih! of ibu fruit ofton acta 
fcwiiiiallji upon dyspeptics, who are b«De8t<id by acids. "The 
4U Outtlioa strawberry is a well known uDd much eMeemed 
nrkty. The pulp h colored and jniey, and lia-t inline vinonti 
Imrr ' By pini^hing att all the fim tlowora of early bloom 
nrittics, the flower* will appvar and fructify the present 
Raral Cyc. They roqniro constant watering to bear 

WRITE A\ ENS, j .. CariliniaHum, Walt. 

Ghfith, Med. But. 279 ; Raf. Med. Fl. i, -^20. This pisot ia 
pnMMd of Ionic and Bstrin^^unl pr<ipvrlic<^ roconnneudud by 
Imaad Big^low in dytip«|>«ia, und debility of the viacera; ctn- 
fiifid, also, witb suixreM id loucorrbtxA and cbroiiio humon^ 
kagei^ It is not supposed, bowKver, to be jwtwoMc*! of much 
pnrar; one dracbiu of the powdered root may be u»cd, or a 
4Kortioo made by onn ounoe to one pint of water, of which the 
4tm ia one ounce several timea a day. In doroestio pracUoe, tt 
i> |^«a in the phapc of a weak dovociion, aa tea. 

Mtf^tria, L.) Diir«se<l in caltiratod lands; Newbero. Fl. 

Parrii Mrd. DiM. Art A. Bop.; Po. Mat. Mwi. and Thenip. ji, 
n: Le. Mai. Med. i, l:!51; Roylc, Mat. Ked. 602; llnflTmnD'a 
(**. FhyK. Chim. i; Obs. i; Ell. Boi. Med. NoteM, i, 403, note; 
U.S. DiflfK US; Ed. and Vav. Mat. Sled, i, 281 ; Hnll and (Jar. 
Mai. Med. 4.31 ; Rergii, MuL Mod. 2^-, M«r. and do L. Dice do 

JL M^l.63; Woodv. Mvd. Bot.; Ann. do Chim. I.xxjtr,332; 

Ooz«, Am. Disp. 18 ; Shoe. Flora Carol. 96 ; Dum. filt^m do BoL 
i, 442. The root and leavei), befon' tbi^ flowcnt aiv procure' 
are acrid and aAtriiigciiit, iind urc MrviciNtblo id paoHtvo he 
orrhagti^ diarrliaw louourrhafu aiid gonorrhcea, and ar« high: 
recoiQinvndctl as a dcubsLruont in obtttrnctiona of tlie spleen, an< 
in dtHeneoti arioing from torpor of the liver, a'^ drops}-, jatindibi 
otc. The root« and loavi^s have'been found effioacioutt in inTol 
nntary dincharge of urine (enuresia.) Ray'» CaL PlanUimro 
Am, llorbal, by J. Steams, 89; Lighifoot'D Fl. Scotics- It i 
styptic ; it Mren^lhen!) the ton<: of the Htoniach. and it has beei 
omployod in ohronio diarrhu'^u. The plant, digv^steil in whe; 
affi>rds a vary gratefiil diet drink. Sao Linnaas Veg, 11. Hi 
SS. Tho Indians used it in intormittent fever. Colonel S< 
bom, of Pendleton District, S, C, wrilee me word ihat he hi 
known the plant, boiled in milk, ^ven eucoeesfnlly in an: 
bitea, and i^jariee arising fW>ni the sttngsof spideis. The dooa 
of tbti powdur iH on» drachm; of the infiiaion of tax ounces of 
root in ont'. quart of boiling water, ibo docw is one ounce, 
popular practice, tho Ivavos are applied as a cataplasm to ooi 
Umions and frosb wounds. Itis used by the steam practitiono: 
See Howard'ci lm]>. Sysi. Bot. Med. 284. Tho leaves and stalks 
impart a beautiful and permanent gold color to animal wool, 
previously impregnated with a weak solution of biamnth, and 
the flower»« are empluyod by tanners for curing '*6fl and delicate 
skins. I have ohtainud a delicate yellow dye from the leaves 
(1862) which might bo nsot^l in coloring kid gloves, morocco 
KkinA, elo. ; alum xhonld bo uxed to fix the color. 

apirtrti Iri/oliiiXit and stipulaijea. Set? Gillenia. 

HAKHHACK; STEfiPLK-BUSH, (.Spiraw totMntota, Linn.) 
Grows in the upper districts, and in Georgia; N*wb«m. Pl.^ 

July. m 

U. S. Disp. 682; liaf. Fl. ii, 91. A viilunWo Ionic and 
antringent; administered in diurrbiua, cholera infantum, «nd 
other complaints where medicines of this class aro indicated. 
Wood Hays it is peculiarly adapted, by its tonic powera, loca.tes 
of debility, a.i it doeti not diftugrue with the xlomach; but it 
should be avoidud during tho existence of iiiAammatoiy action 
or febrile excitement. It was employed by tho Indians, and 
brought to the notice of tho profesBiOD by l>r. Cogswell, of Conn. 
l>r. Ivceis of tho opinion that tho root is tJie least valuable |>or- 

» of , 


tin; tonnin, g»llic acid, and bittvr oxlriictivo arc among iU 
tnotli (*■«[>[«, and iL( rirltiUH arv vxtraclod hy water, ilor. and 
& U. L>i<-t. dv M. 3I(-d. vi, 5i)7. Accordinji; to Mead's TtH>«it», it 
ti girxo with sacc«BS iu the Mtcond ata|^ of dysentery and 
airtcea, haTing virtues attributed to it analogous to tboM of 
^■■Jnfc See, alao. Journal Unir. dea. Sci. Mtid. xxiv, 238, and 
Ikaisia New York Med. KopoH. (Meral, op. citJ) The 6zlract 
it aid to be fully isjual to caUwbu, and might wry w«Il take 
to flac«. As it doM not diaa^^o with tb<* »tomaofa, it \* con- 
•dciedaroryTaluabli' addition to t bo materia me-lica. Gnffitb, 
Xai, hot. 280. From tire to fiftein grain!) of tbe extract may 
Wult«n, or two oanoes of the decoction, prepared by tJte ad- 
Mo* of otie ounce of Ibe plant to one pint of water. The ex- 
ttaM b prefcmblv; nuido by cvnporating tbu diM;oction of the 
lesTW or rooL Tbi» is taken cold, and r«pciat«d Kcrcral 
I daring tho day. Groat n«Q might bo made of ihw plant, 
ftftinlarly by pntctilioni-rfl rcaiding in the country. In a 
CHnauticatioD from Dr. S. B. Mead, of IHinoi^ he informB mc 
thit he has employed it in obi^tioale diarrhixaa in place of 

ffUTE-BARK, (>^i>if<t<)pH/i/oIui,IJnii.) Grown along atreamB. 

tmfitb's Med. Bot. 2S3. This is not eo astringent as iho & 

ttmatoaa, though ltaflneei)De (Med. flora) «aya it is posseaMd 
<f aaular propvrUes. It has an nnploasant odor, which nin- 
<fan it ol^ection^le as an ioternal remedy. It is, howcrer, 
fflaeb employed as au,extemal application, in Iheform of fomeo* 
Utioa, or a* a catapUuim to nk-ers and lunutra. Tbe seeds are 
alarnally biltvi-, and arc Mud to bc_ tonic. Tfa« bark »eparate* 
it thia layerti. hence the name. 

INDIAN I'HYSiaJ.^^^^"/^^''' -"*""• 

GfavB in tba opper d'uMitU; abo ia Gco^ FL Jtdy. 
&g. Am. Med. BoL iU, 10; BarU M. Bot. ICS; U. & Di^ 
It k a mild emetic aceordiag to aoau writen; largdjr 
as a ssbatitote for ipMaeaaaha. Bigelow tbialca it Is 
Mt a eartatn enctie, b«t Zolliokoffer. Barton, Eberle and Grtf- 
fck unilo in teattjyiag to iu raise ; the latto- calbvty diiptorea 
Baame'a oofaTonsU* npon. In oall dosas. it acu a* a geatU 
looic, Mpeeiaily in torpid cosditMMa of tbe sumach. Aoeonl- 


ing to Mer. and do L. IMct. do Med. 509, (mio Spiraa trifol^f i 
propenie-i parlake also of a stimtilalinji; cliaraeter. t'oxi", Ai 
i>Up. 306; CirsiiiiV Illiist. Med. Bol. pU Ift, AH. 1S47. SlireoTi 
(Er. in the Am. Jonmol Phurm. vii) Ibuiid ia H fllarcb, gum, 
ruwin, wax, fatt}' inattvr, r«d coloring matter, and u pcimliar 
principlp, Bolublo in alcohol and dilatu acids, bnt iosolablc in 
water and ether. According to the elatemenl of Ur. Staples, 
it nontaiua no cmninn. It may bo' <'Oiivcniently given an an 
emetic, by boiling tliu root and giving ono or two ouiioert of tli« 
d«cooUoD at a done till vomiliifg itt indui-od. "Tbv tincture of 
tbo root is an infuHiblo remedy for milk eicknoHS. "CherokoQ 
Doctor." Tho doso of tho powdered root is thirty gi-ains, per- 
ei§ted ia till vomiting lakes place; two to fbnr grains act aa a 
tonic, and sometimes us a sudorific. Thi- inluxion will oeca- 
tiionally produce liypercini'«i« and mtbarBic Tjind. Nat, SyHt. 
144; Vrosfn FlumH. 80; Inuug. DisB. of Dr. Dc Im Motta, of 
Charloxton, pablishod in I'hiladt^lphia; Schoepf. M. Med. 80; 
Hart- M. Med. 26 ; Griffith 'a Med. Bot. 283 ; tiriffllb, in Journal 
Phil. Coll. Pbarm. iv, 177. 

AMERICAN IPECAC, I ^'C""'" *X'';"f'^ ^"It- 
' ( Spirwa, of Micb. 


Grows on tbe Saluda mountains; N. €. Fl. July. 

I.ind. Nat, Syst. Hot. 144. It is emetic and probably tonic, 
and i§ posaossod of properties similar to those of the S. trifei., 
thongh it is said to be more iicrtain in ito i-ITecta, and not tO 
have been deteriorated by cultivation. D. B. Dtsp. 3&3; Grif- 
fitb's Med. Boi. -IM. 

COCKSPUK THORN ; UA W, {^Cratagua ma jrtUi.) GrowB 
in swamps. 

Mer. and de L. Dfol. de M. MM. ii, 460. Dr. Darlington rc- 
gardii it an ono of tlie bent thorn plants for bodges ; it in much 
uticd in Delaware. Fl. Costrica. It in bettor than the Washing- 
toil thorn, C. coritafa. Thoeo antl the species of Pear, /"yrw, 
Hliotild be oxuminod for the alkaloids propylamin and .inMlitia. 
See Sorbvs acuparia. ^a 

CKAUAPPLK, (firms fOTO7iflnVi,I;inn.) Newborn. Fl. May." 

It is not omjiloyed nioilicifially. The fruit is very acid to Ibe 
taitte, and iti often made into preserves. The acid juic«ia knowa 
under The name rerjuice, and has been applied to sprains nnd 
lmii»e». PMoridziitr has been obtained from this genus — said 


H hn* nocMded in inlormittcnU wlicrv ijuinia knd no effeut. 
fitt^ Xew Reme^lte^. Ten to flll««ii frrninit inn)' ho nWen dia- 
afrtd ia a littk- amtuoniit uiid wttler. Milh, in b\e Statistics of 
& C, «ayfl that the fruit niukw the fincHt cider: ibat the 
tiam >ir<inl u yi'Duw ilyu, und llml the ndil juice of the fi-uit 
il Mad ID recent lipraiuH, and a« un a»trin(j«nt and ropellant, 
TW bark, with tbut of Iho white hickory, gives a yellow dyo. 
Htm mast ho used oe a moniiint. Tho yam sboold first be 
W}ol vitli soap and wati:r, thon wrun^ out and boiled in the 

APPLE, {P^rua maius.) Caltivnted. Tho appk-, poar, {P. 
fmmwmit,} antl qtuocc, ( P. •ydonia.) grow wry woll in tbo Soath- 
■■ State* in il<Hirici< rcmuri-d from tin- i^citcouHt. The palp 
■VDmsdiDg the «ci-d>i of tho latter is otU'n diiuKtlwd ia voter 
wd Mrv4 a» a mucila^ 8«« authors. 

Ptrry from pean is made very niach like cidep. llitt's 

Mthod of keopiDf^ peant and apples is deM;ribcd by Wilooti in 

Us Sural Cyfc Art. " Fruit storing. " Having prepared U nam. 

Urof nrtbrnwarv jars, and a quantity of drj' moss, (dilTeront 

fabnof Ujfpnum and UpAayKtim,) bo plact-d a layer of moss 

aad of pears alternately, till the jar was filled ; a plug was 

tkta itkMrted and waled ai-onnd with melt«d rotun. Theite jant 

•Bt MOk in dry tiand to tho depth of a foot — [irel'umng u deep 

qSw Ibr knojnng tJn'm to uiiy fruit room. Millar'n plan is also 

iwcribid. After itwcutiog and wiping;, in which operation great 

nast be taken not to bruise the fruit, the pears are packed 

il cklM baskets, having some wheat straw in the bottom and 

id ifae side*, to prvvcnt bruising, and a lining of thick, 

wft paper, to hinder the muHly Savor of tho straw from infecU 

lb* fruit. Only one kind of fruit i>> put in eaeh basket. A 

ig of paper and >ttr»w ii fixed on the top, and the basket 

than d«posit<-d in a dry room, »i-vuru aguinnt the acocaa of 

IhM; and the \vr« air i« let into ihi^ room tbtt Ix'tter tho fhiit 

viD keepL Some p)'eM.'r\'e apples and p(>ars in glased oarthen- 

«a(v Jan. wiili tops, by placing dried sand between each layer 

nt fmil — tbe jai-s lu bo kept in a dry, airy sitnation, secure 

from fn>»t. 

Tbej^nm exuding from the uprieot In-e iliwtolved in water 

aa a substitute for ^um arabic as aiHadhesive agent; sec, 

Bietia apht/Ua. I find that fVom tlie wild orange, in boi)> 




ing wittur, tu-.ta udniimbly BA It gliio I'nr pnpor. The wood 
the p(>:ir Hiid tiji)ilA in very ImH, uin) will ]>rol>ubly Mi|)[ily M>r 
pf our biMt mnlt-risl for wood cngrnvins ; »i'« .4«r(rtm7nrr, wit 
which it is cloHoty rvlnted. The pear and apple are employe 
to make wooden type fop mammoth loiu-rs. The »p]>le b 
bt»l tiinU-rial for |jliine MtockH, tut it bcvuinvii harder tiiid luor 
poli»h«d thi' more it i« upwd. 

The bug, or pliiiit louee, which in ibo shup*' of » honiy coi 
orin){ destroyx the uppie trcs?, itt gcnerntly an af/Ms or an 
soma; see Wilson's Kiiral Cyclopa>dia. u full accouiit; ale 
papers on the "InefiOU dcstruotivo to Trew," in tlie Patent' 
Office Htfport on Agrieulturv. Tn thcue iho remediea are given. 
" The bctit of thv methodn, uit lo at oiici- clicajmi-Hi*, i-loanlinvM 
and efficit'iK-y, are syringing with vQn]t sudi* and tobai.-co water, 
minatuly brushing with spirits of tnrponiJDo, bi-unbing with a 
mixture of floaj) leea and one of oil of turpentine, and brnshin|f 
with brown, iinjmro, pyroligenotis acid." WiUon. See "peaeh," 
"penr," model of keeping, et«. Plnnltng aprJMits nenr by will 
divert tbi' inwi^ts to their fruit. Turning hogs in ori-haixts, 
which (^maumi; the lulli-n IVuit, is one of ihu menns of destroy- 
ing the Iurva<, whieh produtex the fiy of the n^.xt Mmxon. 

A species of wine is mitiie from apjile eider by adding sugar 
mid alcohol. Cider rniiy be kejit by digging iimlrr ground dry 
oellarf, and ^■ov<?ring from tho sim. Vincgur mniie from cider 
is of the host (luiitity. It is eai^lly made in a warm place by 
adding a little mother of vinegar lo the sour eider in a barrel. 
It is ready for use in a few weeks. Tho sli-englh and purity of 
vinegar, an determined by the franierti of the United Sintes 
PhnrmucoiKBia, i* a« follows: "One fluid ounce is satnrateil by 
about thirty grains of fry*iallif;ed birarb. of potassa. It affords 
no precipitate with solution ot* chloride of barium, and is not 
colored by sulphohydric acid," 

Good cider ih deemed a pleusunt, wholesome Hijuor during 
the heats of summer: ami Mr. Knight h:i» n.ioi'rted, and also 
oniinenl medical men, ibnt strong, uslringont ciders have been 
found to produce nearly the same ofTect in cases of putrid fever 
as Port wine. 

The unfermeiited juice of the apple consists of water and a 
peculiar aeid called atah'c acid, eombined with tho ^al'[.-harino 
principle. Where a Just proportion of the latter in wniiting, 


tke Bqaor will bo poor and watery, wilhoat Ixxly, very diffiunlt 
W pp»*rve »nd manage. In the pi-oco»s of ri>rmeiitation, tb« 
•Kvti«rino prineii>lu in in port i-onvcrlorl (u uloohol. Where 
ibe pm|Mrtion of tbc xscchariDC principlt' is wnntioK, (be de- 
te i tne y matt be xuppliH oithor by Iho aildilion of a saco)iurin« 
•sIvtancD liclbr« Ivrmentalion, or by the addition of alcohol 
■fler fonncDtatioii- for every one muNt know that atl good 
or rider rontuus it, elaborated by ferinontAtioii, eitlier in 
ihm csak or in the reiturroira at the diiitillfry. Tho best and 
AMpeM kiud i.t iho nrutntl spirit — n highly rei-itficd and l&Bt«- 
•piril, obtained from New England rum. Soinv, huwovor, 
afcj cet to any u<ldittun of «ith«r HOgar or alcohol to supply defi> 
eitscw*. forkful that thosg subetancca arc the very elementa 
«f which all wini>, cider, and vinous Uquora are coinpoHvd. 
TW Mrength of the cidor dependii on the npucifie gru^'ity of 
ike jake on expre«*ioii : thiu may hu caxily axovruiinud by 
■tigliiBg, or Ity the hydromolor. 

Xtvark. in Now Jtnoy, is reputed one of tho moat famous 
i in America for it" cider. The cider apple ntoat celebrated 
) ia the Uarrison apple, a native fruit ; and cider uiudv from 
Us* (rail, when fined and tit for bottling, fruquunlly brings too 
4o(lv«p«r barrel, according to Mr. ('oxe. Tlii« and the Uu^ba' 
Tirjinia Crab are the two moet celebrated cider appk-tt of 
AaMrioa. Old trees, (growing In dry !«oilit, producii, it iit oaid, 
Ibe tw*t eidor. A good eider apple ii« xaccharino and a^tringitiit. 

Tr> make gOOd eider, the ftnt rixiaisite in suitable frait ; it is 
«^Bally n)-«reKtary that the fruit alionld be not merely raellowr, 
lot tkitrwighly auiture, rotlen apples being excladed ; and ripe, 
ITpamble, at the saitable period, or aboal the drst of Norem- 
lar, oe from the first to the middif, after the exeo«<ive heat of 
the aeuon id past, and whik- Kiifli^^ient warmth yet rumainii to 
camble the fcrmentntiAn to progreM slowly, as it ought. 

The frait ihijuld li« gathered by hand, or shaken from tho 
ITM io dry weather, when it is at perfect maturity; and the 
(nMDd «honld be corer»l with coarse cloths or UuHsia mata 
haaeath, to prevent braiatng, and coni^equent rottennenA, before 
the grinding commenee«. Unri|i« iVuil nhould bi> laid in large 
«. proteettid from dew» and rain, to iivrat and hurry on its 

ktnrity, wh<'n th*- suitable time for making approacho*. The 
Milivr fmits Hhonld be laid in thin layers on stagings, to pro- 


serve them U> the fiuitahle period fbr making, protected aliko 
from rnln and dews, and where tliey may bo benofllcd by cii 
rents of t-ool, dry air. Hiuih varit>ty ahould !» kept sepsrad 
tbat IhoM ripvning at the »amo period should be ground 

Id grinding, tiio most poi-f^ct machinery ttboald be ascd to 
reduce the whole fVail, aldn and seedis to a fio« pulp. This 
tthonld, if poMiiblc, )io porforiniMl in oool weather. The late 
JoM'ph Coopi'r, of Ni^w Jcmey, ban ob«er\'od emphattoally. that 
" the ion^er a rhrrse Hrs affer bi-ing ijronnd, hi-fort pmodn^, the letter 
for the cider, provided it rscapiv fennrntation nnftt the preiisin^ is 
completed;" and hv l^rtlior obncrvc", "ihul » soiir Hppli*, at\cr 
buin^ bmixcd on on« nide, bi-cumiM" rioti and fiw(M;t nftcr it has 
ohaiiged to a brown color, wbito it yot retains iti> acid loetc on 
the opposite side." When the pomact> united to the juioo is 
thus fiufferod for a time to remain, it undergoes a chemical 
cliange; the sftcobariiie principle is developed; it will be fourid 
nob and ttwcel. Sugar In in this case produced by the pro> 
lon^d union of the bruited pulp and juiei-, n-hieli cxuld novi-r 
hnv<.i boon formed in thiil i]iiuntity hud thvy In^en sooner >>epa- 

Mr. Jonathan Kice, of Marlboroiigli, who made the premiam 
dder no much nilmiitid at Coueord, Mii^achudetLi, uppeuni m> 
Honsible of the im|)ortnnt cffiM-ts of mature or fuUtf ripe fruit, 
that, provided thir^ is the case, he is willing even to fbrogo tbo 
disadvantage of having a portion of ib quito rotten. Let me 
observe, that thin rottenness must be the effeet, in part, of 
brui.ies by impropi-r modes of gathering, or by improper mix 
tures of ripe and nnripo fruit. Be always chooseet cool weather 
for the operation of grinding; and initiead of sufTering ihu 
pomace to remain but twonty-lonr hours or forty-eight houre at 
most before pressing, as others hawo diroctod, ho suRwrs it to 
remain fVom n wtvk to ten dayn, provided the weather will admit, 
alirrUig the umsH daily till il is put to the prcHH. See hin com- 
munication in vol. vii, p. 123, X. K. Farmer. 

The fir«t fermentation in cider i-t termed the vinout<; in this 
the pugar is doeompoaed, ami loses its swoetnei"', and is con- 
verted into alcohol ; if lliit fermentation goes on too rapidly, 
the eider is injured ; a portion of alcohol posses off with the 
carbonic acid. 




The ilMigii of frequent nckuigs ja |iriiitiip»lly to rMtnun tbo 
i fenacDtaUoa ; hut il s«ema to bo genentlly »ckn»wlcid|!n'l (tint 
it wc*k««B the lii^uiir. It in not gi^iioratly prnvlicwd, although 
tW Sne*t cirJftr i* uftvn produoetl by thiA modu. Tartons othor 
de* *n) adoptMl with thu riew of nsM'niining fcrmciitatioa — 
)of which is th« followini;: Aft«r u tVw gallons of ci4er are 
pQwrd into iKc ho^hoad into which the cider is to t>« placed 
nHied off. a T*g 6\x inches loog, previously di]>ped in 
brimatonc, is attached by a wire to a very long, tapei-tiig 
'Img i on tho mnli'h iMiiiig lighted, thf bung ii* looHoly iiiM-rlod ; 
iflcr tbio it vnummci}, ihu cank in rolliMl or liimbU-d till the 
fifwr has imbihcJ tbo gait, and then lillod with tho liqaid. 
TUs checks the fermcnlation ; yet tho French nrilprs n^ure 
n that tbe effect of nincli Bulphuring must iiecesAarily render 
■aek BqaoTw unwholiwome. 

Bliek oxido of roanganiMw biiH » nimiliir nffiwt; th« onido 
Uddt IB rvodcrod frJablo by being rcpunt^^lly faeatod rod bot, 
sad as often saddonly cootod by immoi^rion in n>l<l w«t«r. 
Wbca finely {>itlveriz«d, i( is oxpo^cd for a. while to the atmoe- 
fktn, till it ban iini>ibed again the oxygen which had been 
a iytl hd by Rri'. An ounMt of powder iti deemed Huilicient lor 
ahmL If the cider is desired to be very sweet, it mast be 
aiM before fermeniation, otherwise not till nflerward. Mr. 
Ugh, from bis long experience and obstirvation in a couutry 
(Hanfenl^ire, England.) famous for iu cider, has lately, in a 
tattar In the Hon. John Lowell, ttlaled that the aootoua fcr- 
taliUon gvnorally tnkoH plaro linring thv prngreKt of tho 
tnow, and that the liquor from the commcoccnK-nt in imbibing 
Mj r gi a at its sDrface>. Ue highly rocotnmenda that new cb&r- 
Mal,Iii a finely pulverized added to tho liquor as it 
tMHa from the prt-iM, in the prb|M>rtion of eight pounds to Ihu 
lagihiaii, to he intimately incorpormlvd ; "this makea thu 
fefODf at first as black as ink, but it finally bucomea remarkably 

Dr. Darwin has reoummondcd that the liquor, as aoon as tho 
palp bas risvn, aliould be placed in a cool situation, in casks of 
nnarinbls Mtrength, and the liquor closely confined from thit 
k^fuUBg. The experiment ban been tried with good sucoem; 
Am Atmeolation fioo* on slowly, and an excellent cider is gen- 
cfally the roeall. 


A handfal of woll powdered clay to a barrel U said to cheek 
the rormoriUtiuD. This m Mtjtlod by Dr. Ml-mhr. And with the 
view of provoDling Ihe oscapo of tbe oarbonie noid, and to pre- 
vent the liqaid from imbibiii;>; oxygon from Iho aimosplicrc, a 
pint of olive oil has been reco in mended to each lto};sliead. The 
exoollciil cider exhibited by Mr. Rice waa prepared by addiitg 
two galloiiM of New Kiiglaiid rum to eueh barrel wheit tintt 
made. In February or Mureli it vw> racked olf in oli-ar 
weather, and two qnarts mOT-e of New Eiiglnnd rum added to 
eaeh bartx<l. Cider well fonm-iiteil may bu frOBen down to any 
retiuieito degree of utrongth. In fremng the watery partD are 
separated, and tVoeee firbi, and tho alrongur parte are drawn off 
from the centre, I finish by addiog the following general 
rules — they will answer for all general purposes ; they are the 
coneliiAionn IVom what Ih previously stated : 1. Gather the rrutt 
according to the foregoing rules ; lut it bo Ihoniui/hly ryir when 
ground, which should hi' about the middle of November. 
2. Lot the pomace remain from two to four dayi^, areording to 
the state of the weather, stirring it every day till it is pat to 
(ho pruns. 3. If the liquor ia deficient in the saccharine prin- 
ciple, tlie dufoi'l may be remediod in the beginning by the addi- 
tion of saci'faarino Hubitanei^ or uk-ohol. 4. Let the liquor bo 
immediately placed in a cool cellar, in rfmarkably strong, tight, 
SWf^f eaak*i; ader tho pulp had all overflown, confine the liijuor 
down by driving the bung hard, and by sealing; a vent munt 
ho lell, an'd the spile carefully dmwu at times, but only when 
absolutely necessary to prevent the cask from bursting. Tho 
ehaixsoal, aw rewm mended by Mr. Knight, deserves trtii!, 

Krcsh and »wcet pomace, direolly I'nun tlm prudu and boiled 
or steamed, and mixed witli a Kinall porLion of meal, in a valuablj 
article of food, or for fattening horses, cattle and swine. 

Sour cHfilu are puritlwi by pouring in a small quantity of hoi 
water and adding unslacked lime ; bung up the cask and con- 
tinue shaking It till the lime ia slacked. Soda and chloride of 
lime artj g<iod for purifying. When casks are emptied lo be 
laid by, let lliem be thoroughly rinsed with water and drained, 
then pour into each u pii>t of cheap alcohol, ebalce the ca»k and 
hung it tight, and it will remain Hwuet for year?. Muety casks 
»hiiuld be condemned lo other uses. Cider should not be 
bottled till perfectly fine, otherwise it may burat the botllef>. 


Cm botUra should be strong and filled lo the Ijolioni of llifl 
wtk. Alter sUuding au hour, they i^hoiild bv oorkod with 
relTCt n>rlu. The lourur end of the cork in hold for an iost«nt 
ta bat water, and it is Ui«n instanlJy uAor driven down with a 
aoUcL The bottles mast bo <rith«r Hcalod or laid on their sides 
bb«3Ks, or io the bottom of a cellar nod covered with layer* 

MoM or th« above information relative to cider making ia d«- 
madfirom the American Orcliardist, by W.Kenriok, of Boetoo, 
MafehaireHa, whose ^tsl of ap|)ie and other nursery treesoom- 
fHteoda altaOM L-vorj- kind d<.i»iriibli' for any purpom. 

Tho readar will find very explicit inotructions for the mans- 
&rtBR of cider in the Penny Cyclopa-dia, vol. vii, p. ICl; in 
Ikr Lib. of Uaetnl Know.; British llusb. vol. ii, p. 364; Iiow's 
Pnet, AgT. p. 379; Croker, On the Art of Making and Man- 
afis|[C^der; in the <juart. Journal of Agr. vol. viii, p. 333, by 
Hr. Towers; and in lt;axter'A Agr. Lib. p. 13ft, by Andrew 
CiMM. B*q., of Somerset. The following innlructiona for 
Mfciag cider are by a Devonshire lady; Oather the fruit when 
■ipa; let it njmoin in a heap till the apples be-^n to get damp, 
ihM grind them in a mill, (similar to a malt mill :) take the pulp 
ori pil it into a large pre8» like u chcew pre».-s only on u much 
hig wata le ; place a layer of reed in the bottom of the vat and 
a byef of pulp allernat«ly until the vat is full. The vat ia 
■fore. and the (^nd« of the reed must be allowed to turn over 
mrj layer of pulp, so in^ lo keep it IVom being pressed out at 
lfce«idea. The layersof pulp niuHthe five or six inches thick. 
nco you have linixhetl makingyoar ehecHe, presa it an hard 
Wjroa rut, and let it n-main throe or four honm ; then cut down 
lbacont«r«of it, and lay them on the top with a reed as belbro; 
then pTBM it again and allow it to remain for angtlier ihrec or 
harkonn. Kopeat ibis process aa long as nocnwary, or until 
chana m quite dry. It takes seven bags of applee for one 
lesd of cider, and the vat ooght to be large enoagli to make 
three to fonr kognlieaiU at a lime. The best M>rl of apple 

noke mild cider ia the hard liilturnweeu Any sort of sour 

will do to make the harsh cider. The liqoor must be 

through a fine sieve into a large vowel, and allowed to 

t for Ihrec or foar days, taking off the scum as it rises; 

rack it. and put it into casks stopped down quite oIom. 



Before the cider i«t put into tbe cask, a mntcb 'n mode of uei 
linen, iiml attiK^Iietl to n wire, in lighted imil piit into the 
and Iho bung in put in M keap ihu wim Iroin fiillini; into it 
AHvr II fvvr minutes tbr match ih rcmuvol iiml the cidor poured 
into the caAk while yet fullof the smoko. 

A person would i-eqniro three or Ihwr years experience hetor 
bo would be qualified to Buperiotond the innkinfi; of itvreet < 
mild cider. Miieh dcpcndH on the year, or miber on il 
ripening of tbe applet); it should be the gecond, not the jfr 
fallinij ; uaiX \ha "grt'cn liitter-^woot," and tbo " poekel-apple," 
arc thi> bewt for makini; il. After ponmling, isingliuiii and. 
brimnlone are uecd to sweeten and fine it, and many other ii 

The sweet cider, abovo described, is distinct fi'om the olhc 
two kinds of rider, (tbe harsh and mild.) Cider, according (o 
Ilrande, contains about nine eight -sevenths parts per cent, of 
alcfibol. It IN a wboleiKiine beverage for Ihotttt who ui<e much 
bodily I'xerciitc. Williib's Dimi. Rue.; McCullunh')! Com. Diet. 

Tbo Sumter Watchman, \^^'.i, n-eonimends a jelly made from 
cider: Boil cidor to tbe coiwiBtency of eynip, and lot il cool — 
noBUffar need be added — "Aid to be excellent for convaleacenls. 

Under this genus, 1 insert the tbilowing fVom Chaptara Cbem? 
istry Ap)ilicd to Agriciiliure, as the subject of the manufiictun^| 
of J,ii)iiors from fruits, grain, etc., is important in the prcsenfc 
exigeniy of hi^h diilicA, (-Ic.: " liood waliT is unduubtcdly the 
most wbulcKumcT drink; but man tms almost every where con^f 
tractod tbo habit of using tormented liquors, and this habit has^ 
created in hira a want of them ; so that if lie be deprived of 
their use, he loses his stron}(th and onoryy, and beeomeH less 
able 10 work. The best fermented drink is wine ; but cxeuptin;; 
the wine couiiirios, where tbe low price of ordinary wino 
rendcrx the une of it common, the lahornr ha^t seldom tbe means 
of pnicuring it daily. It is, therefore, necessary that its plao%^ 
should elsewhere be suppliixl by such other liquors as will prajH 
dace nearly tbe same efl'ocl, and this is done by tbe fermen- 
tation of grains, fruits, milk, tbo sap of trees, etc., IVom tbe 
product of which there is tbrmcd in Europe a great variety of 
liquors ; some of those have become very important articles of 
voHBumption and of commerce. Tbe peasants, in the greater 
part of our districts, have acquired the habit of preparing the 


pan tntm the rtrmeoialion of moKt of tbeno substsncra ; and 

I tb« on);- object 1 have in viow U to Aimitth information in 
n^iard to extending and porli-<-liiig llii'^^c [iroci^sHiii, I t>liall 
mt§a» myseir to poinlin^ out khl-H mctlKxli' w arv rsHily t-xv- 
tOsd, and which rvqniro the employment of >>ii<th suhstiinvcii 
mtj as are evcrjiit bvn in the hands of the njfrioutturiat : 

"AU mueiliiginouH frotts, all fleshy stono froil*, axcoptin^ 
ttow which yield oil, all jUirainB which contain [^Intcn, sa^ar, or 
■aich, are ca|Miblo of nndergoinj^ the spiritous or alooliolJc ter- 

■Tb« vxpromcd jiiico of savcbarinu fruittt may bo made to 
fam«nt by «xpo«arv lo n soOtcicnt degree of hoat. Thv method 
tommonly punaod is that of rniHbing or grinding; tho 
fnilP, and ttiu« fermenting the pulp with the jnice; in tbia 
■aadMr arv treated apple«, pears, ^apos, cherries, ot«. 

" Por iwch froita as are not very jpicy, but contain, however, 
<aaie migar ami fnncilage, and for ftucli aa can be iimdo to keep 
heUar by bving driml, i^mo witter i» empltjy«d to mix and 
dimtre the f^nnontablo principlei<. In thix >-lai>i* of tVuils may 
la fiac«d tboee of the service tre«. the eornetian cherry, the 

lanllii, tho mtilherry, Ibo privet, the juniper, the N'enpolitan 
m4kr. the thorn apple, the wild plum, vtiv, and with tliem thv 
tnei tt^ita of the plum and tir; tree, and somo ofthe other 
Mm and shrubs before mentioned, 

"-To produce the dcvelopmenl of the Knccharine principle in 

tratd forna by ^rminntioti, they must be moisloned with 

•tirf ; the sptritous fei-mentBtion is afterward excited in Iheni 

hy immersing them in water containin;; the yea«t of betT, or 

ksTes made of wheat flour. The operation of germination 

■ay even be suppreued by mixioju; the raeal with a portion of 

barcn aad of lukewarm water. This dough may be allowed 

10 frrnieot for twunty-l'our bourn, and may then be grndiially 

dSatcd with walor^ fermcnlalion will take pinoe in afew hours, 

. md will go on regularly dnring two or three days. An di- 

ilbr the mannfacton of eider, perry and beer for;;eneraI 

iption arc much le«e necossarj- here than thone for pro- 

•oriBg for rarraerii, (or Koldien, 1 add,) wholesome liqiiora at a 

■g cxpnn*e, I Hball confine my ob#«rvalions to thin nhject, 

ifbmisb llielHwt lifpior, and that in the greatest quantity ; 

bat •when thin is drnnk dear, it servM hnt little pur]M»e fbr 


qnODCliitig ihirH; whrn mufle nito of in Uuga (|uunlilicis it im- 
piiim ttio iitrurigLh. Thu liijiiOr ciiUmI pitjtieflt, whicli i* iiimid- 
fMrtiiiM^d \iy our lariuvrs, siiiiplinn uilvunt«£COut>ly the place of 
wiiio, MTviiig 118 a tonio. ntid nt th*^' nnmo timv qiienchin^ ibirst. 
Viquette i^ made from the prunscd and formoQMd mash of red 
grapes, hy incanis of waier filtrated through it till it acquires, in 
Bomo do^ree, the color and appearance of wini.<; it ts, eren ii 
tbiA state, a bettor drink than n-aler, iiia»inu<:ti an il is aligli 
tonic; its ^(ood qualities may, however, be much inerensod 
fcrtnenuition. Piijuflie can be ki'pt, but a short timo uticliai^i 
and, from thi^ tcndcncj' U> aour, it is nccoHttar; that il Bhoald 
mado ouly in such qnantitiee as are immediately wanted, am 
that the manufacture of it ehonld be continued at inlenr. 
tkroufi;bout the year. For titia purpose the presMd muHli 
red grapes ia put into u tiwlc, aii-c bciii^ taltttn to crowd it in till 
the cank is complitti-ly full, afU-r which it in hcrmvl it-ally vioevd, 
CO AH to exclude air and moisture, and sot in a cool, dry place. 
When the pii/uette is to ho prepared for use, the head is taken 
out uf the cat'li, and water ie tbrowu upon tlic maah until t 
whole Jtmaa ia mnbtened with it, and the wutor titand« upoi 
the top; fcrmtinlntion noon ImIm-h place, lui bucomoH eviduul by 
thi> liglil fuairi which ariaeHi it is eompictcxi by the end of tbo 
tbuvth or fifth day ; iVom thie lime the liquor may he drawn olT 
for daily use — the |>laco of the portion removed being Hiipplicd 
by an equal quantity of waterthruwii in ujion the top of the 
inaAli. In tliia manner u cask of uiuHh, of thu capaeily of Kixty 
»tx gallond, may fiii'iiinh ubimt four gallons of drink per <li«in, 
.ind will I'Ontinui,! In yit-ld il fur about twenty dayi'. 

"Ais the niaifli of white grapes csmnol be mude to ferment 
with the juice, this last is separated and put into ca«ks to for- 
meiit by itseli! and the fnt/uttte is then made by adding to tha 
maoh the neceasarj' quantity of water. Thix liquor in more 
npiritouB than that nmde from red grapcf^ and keeps bettor; it 
i«, therefore, reserved foruMC during the latter purl of the summer. 
If instead of throwing pure water upon the ma»h as is every- 
where done, thiA liquid should flrsL be !>li^htly sweetened and 
healed, and then reeeive the addition of a little ytniKi, piquettti 
of a very superior quality would he obtained. In the absenoa 
of yeast <ir leaven, the ceum wliieli uriMUH upon wine, especially 
white wine, during foiTnentation, may be used for the 




pMfpoae; ihia foam orauiim may bo dried, and ttiuM prracrvvd 
fcr »• vitliont nndfrgoin^ any <-hitni<e. 

- WHI mndo piqveHc is a v«ry wholt-Aoroo driok for oonnlry 
pas|ile, for ite tonic properties, as well as its powor of quenching 
tkinC; il U Jar jtrr/eraUe, a» a daily drink, lo minr ; btit tbm 
wwr c ^ i« only jiwal, rii In mo^t f^iintncs ihiit uru muvt fi'iiiUn) 
■ Ktsprs, if Ihc barvrst full short, thcro can tic but liltle 
pfsrftf made; il is nccc«»ry thon to be able lo eup[^y ita 
|ton from soma other source, and this is dono by the fermen* 
ttlins oC certain tVaits. 

'Apple* ftud Pear?. Ah being the f>iiit^ (hat are most abiin<l> 
Mtly produced, nra the most Tiiluald« for tho piirpOM of inunu- 
fatcring L»in»nt. A mixturo of th« two produces a more 
vtolnomp artit^lr ol' driuk than does citlicr treated (rcparatcly. 
Tk* juice* of plamo and other fruits mny likewise he added, 
as their asUin^eDey renders the liqaor inoro tonic. Excellent 
fi^MT marj bo produced, bolU IVom apples and pears, by foh 
btwiiig the well known method of making cidor, whidi consi-itH 
hi grindin); the fruit wilh a millHl<ine and fernie nting the pulp 
aaJjaico together ; but tipfin firm", where weni^ldoni tind tfac 
■nBaof pnuwrvin}; lienors unchanged, it is noccsaary ibal the 
pwiiain he simple, and such as can bo made use of for pn!> 
fsmiglhein us they are ne«dc<I. laball, therttfori;, reoommend 
Uie f»ll'ivring method : liegin lo collect the »p])lcH and pears 
«Wh lall from the lre«-» lowani ibc end uf August, and con- 
tiaoe lo do BO till Ihej have arrired at nuitarlty ; oat ihem in 
piseee as &.«t as they arc gmthorod ; dry them first in the sun 
ud after ward in an oven from which the bread hns been drawn. 
If ihe iVuil be well dried in ihis manner, though it may grtiw 
ittk colured. It may hv kept unchanj;^ for several year*. 
VWd drink t# (o he prt*pared frtim cIicm! dried fruili*. put alxtut 
sHy pdnnds of them into a cack, which contain sixty-six 
faOoos; fill the cask with water, and allow il to remain tour or 
Cradmys; after which, drsw off tho ferment«d liquor for use. 
Tb« liquor thu!' )irepared is very agreeable to the ta»tv i when 
P«t into hotllt-ii it fernienta so a6 to throw out the cork as 
frothinfC Cham|>«iKtie wine does. Though wholesome and 
agreeable, it may hci.omn Hlill more ciiidncive to health by 
nag with the apples and poare one-twentieth of the dried 
berries aS \\m Mrvice tree, Atiuianehier canadensis, {Annta botrya- 


pium, Ell. 8k., which grows in the Carolina^,) and ono-thirtic 
of juiiip«r burricH; Irnm ihi'M tho liquor aoqiiirci* a alightlj 
bitteir tnel^c. nnd thii fluvornf thi' juniper bcrrion, whii^h m vet 
refi-csbing, and il i« bcindc» n^nilcrod tonic and anti-imtroicent 
The use of thia drink is one of the surttst tnoans that can 
taken by the huabandinao I'or preaetvitijt himself from t be 
dijMMMc:! to which he is hublo in autumn, and for the attacks of 
which bv is preptu'ing ihv way during Uiu grvutoiil heats o( 

• Aller the Fpinti>ii» portions of the liquor bavo hwn drawnj 
off, very a-^TociMi; piquette may bo mado from the ptilp whiH 
romuiiis in the cask; for this pnrpoBe it is only nec-c««ary tc 
oriir*h tho ft-uil, which is already soft, and to add to it as mutb 
lukewarm wtitor. to which a small quantity of yea^^t has been 
added, as wit) lill tho caHk, fermentation cc;mmvnc-ing in n short 
lime, and terminating in thrc<; or four days- To flavor this 
h'quor aiid i-endor it sligh'ly tonic, there may bo added to it 
before fermentalii>n a handful of vervain, three or four pounds 
of eldiT berries, and of Juiiipiir berries. -_ 

" Cherries, and |>arlieuliirly the flmnll bitter «berriea, when^f 
ground and a(t<'rwanl fcriuonted in a rusk, in Ihir samv rnaiiner 
uthe niafth of grapirs, and then pn^flsed to separate tliejnioo 
fVom tho pulp, furniiih a liquor oontaining mu<d) »])irit. The 
wine made fW>m c-heriieH, when distilled, iilfords an oxc«llent 
Itqiior, whieh, although not exactly tho same as tho good 
KirtchwaaHtT of the Black Forest, is yet a valuable drink, and is 
sold in commeree under the same name. 

" The herrie* of the Service tree, dried in an oven, and put 
into u eH»k in the proportion of about sixteen or eighteen 
ponndK of fniil to twcnty-siit and a half gallons of water, 
flirniflh, after four or five days fermentation, a very good drink. 
PhiniH and figs, dried either hy the snn or in an oven" may Im> 
made u.te of for the same purpose. In order to render lh« 
liquor more wholeitome or more agreeable, several kind» may 
be mixed together, and thtm the defects of one kind may ho 
compensated fbr by the good qualities of the other. A few 
handfuls of the red (Vnit of the bird-eatcher service tree couo* 
ternetthc flat, swei-tiMh taitle of Oitrtiiin other fniiln, 

"In our farming distriots the herrios of the Juniper arc care- 
fully collected and fermented, in the proportion of about thirty 


dT b«rriM to thirty-«ighl nnd it hKll' gallons of water. 
'1W 4iiiik pTDotircd fmm these is one of the mo«t wholesome 
pMable, bat it rcqairM a little use (o recoocile one to the odor 
■MiCsTor of it; tho»e, however, who drink it, prefer it aA«r u 
ifcon line to ni)}- other tIi)uor. Thu juice of the juniper ooa- 
tiftstufo tnnch to health thai I caiitiot too xtrongly rccomtnctnd 
iu bring Riixitd, in gresti'r or Iuh^ quxntitioti, with nil fVnita 
wikk »ra to bo Kabjocleil to fermentation ; its flavor alone will 
ikgnm the tMta of Hoch liquorv S8, without being unwhole- 
mmt, an tbt. eicki^h or otborwiac unpleasant. Connt Ohaplal 
fnWhfy rvl'en hero to the juniper growing in Uolland, from 
wUeh gin Is procured. Our common red cedar, growing in 
Siiitt Cftmlina, iJtintpenu Vir^iniana,) ia elosely related to Uie 
bapttto janiper, and the hvrrie«, perkapn, may W iivud in 
iatvriiig lirinkgt and the leavoH emplo^H in plaeo of savin. 8«e 

"ThiB riods of Onin)rcH or Lemons, aromatic plants, Angelica 
nm,(grow in South Carolina,) Peach leareti, etc., may likewise 
W nixed with any of the»o fVaits whieb are naturally too liweel 
aadthu serve to raixe the flavor of the fermented liqnor, and 
BHdcrit mure strengibeuiog aud clfioucioiitt in preventing the 
•nuk of diMAM. 

"1 do not doubt but that by the application of the true 
fHmifha of science, iind by employing only ihone products 
■Uch aatare yields as abundantly aud wiihouiexpuaae, wo can 
finKvre for the husbandman a variety of drinks more healthy, 
■on agreeable, and iHrtti^r a4lapte4l fur ijuunching thintt than 
llMveak and imperfectly fcrmrnlod wincw made from gruun 

"f hare Iimite>d myself to pointing ont the simpIiMt methods 

■ whieh such article? as are within the reach of every peasant 

■ay be made use of; if tioch liquors a,n are more iipirilons be 

^wfatnd, Lheycan be obtained by die*olrtog from four to sis 

I of the coarsest kinds of sugar in from five aud a half to 

' tn and a half gallons of warm water, and tlirowing tJie ctolution 

the mash when the ea.<tk is filled with it, nuppotting the 

\ta0k tooutttain nixty-six gallons. To this may be uildi-d any 

iHibvr of pounds of rai*ins. 

'liiqaors suitable for drinking may likewise be manufactured 
tbe sap of severa] kinds of trees. In Gemtany, Uolland 


unci )K>tno iMirt*t of Prnssin, u» noon ux tho returning w.irmlb i 
■priog bogini" to winnc the ascont of tbo mp, boles two or ihn?*' 
Inobeadeep an? bored willi a giinlul in tho iruiika of the Bindi 
tre««; throagh the strawe which are introdiicod into llie giinlot 
holm there flowit out a clear, aweft jiiini.', which ntlor hitving 
bwn fornipntud for n fow dnyi*, bwoinos n ■prighlly liquoi-, thai 
is dronk by tho inhnbiluntu of thui^L- cuuntrieit with much pleas- 
ure, ll is thought by them to be very Hervic«ablo in oouoter- 
acting ftff&elions of thekidneyit, titomnch, otc. A niiiglf trco will 
f\irniHh «iiu»iitity of drink Huflideiit to last three or foar por- 
BOns a we*!k. Tho nnlire-i of thu Ooromunilol eoant fabricato 
their calorf from the sap of thu roootinut troe. Th« ravages of 
America pi-cpare their chica from the jaico of the raaise, and the 
<lrink of the Qegroee of Congo is made Jkim the juice of the 
palm treet 

'■ It (.-annot be doiibt«d that tlie sap of all those trees which 
ud'ord a itaoobarine Hubfttaiioo can be made lo yield a HplntouH 
liquor, but I mention only ihiite few ua inatanccd, becauM our 
own wants may be ubnndantly Hnpplivd iVom our fruits and 

"The fcrmeDtatinn of Ityc and IWley has afforded, tVom time 
immcmi>rial, a liquor which hnft r<ii|iplied iht- place of wine for 
tho uso of the oommoii puopln in nearly all thiiio countries in 
which tho vino cannot be made to flourish ; in thotto whero wine 
is made nbuodaiitly, the use of Boer is still very ostensiTe, twlIi 
on account of Ihii iiiilriLive qualities which it poftsttMNe^ in » high 
degi'Cc. and its power of quoiiehing thirst. Tliough beer may 
be brewed upon fo small a scale as to supply the wants of a 
single family, I shall enter into no explanation of tho process^ 
In RuHsia a wholesome drink called qun-is is made. One-Icnth 
part of the rye to be omployeil in its manufacture is steeped in 
water till it becomes soft ; it is then spread thinly upon planka 
in a pltice warm enough to produce germination, and it la tlterv 
Bprinkli'd of-oa-iionally wilh warm water. The rcinninder of tho 
rye, alter having been ground, is mixed with the germinated 
grain, and the whole is diluted with two gallons and a hatf of 
boiling water; the vessel is then set into an oven, IVom which 
bread has junt been drawn, or exposed to an equivalent degruo 
of heat, during twcnly-four or thirty bom's; if the vessel be 
put into an ovon which it is necessary to heat ovory day, it may 


he RflioTcd during baking, and roturRod »i;ain ntUir tho broad 

k ukrn ouU A Her ttiU tfret operation, the fvrmonUd milKiiMiioe 

iBdi1au-<l by mixing wiLli it two and a half galloas of water »l 

tkc tcinpcratarc n( li" or ]5^. (If of tli« C'enti^^rade, &3° to 

59': if of R«»urour,to from SB" lo B5®.) ThismixlnrowBlirred 

br haii an hour, snd ihun allowed to oottlv. Ait soon as a de- 

fOMt U fornitid and the liquor bcoomoK clear, il m thun thrown 

islBS cask, where tenneiitation lakes place; this is complotiHl 

is a Uw tiny*, whun tlie ca^k v* ntmovod into a cellar, and itiu 

f«cM KiOR beoomvM c-lirar. Il in in ibiai stale tbui il is drank by 

iha p«S8ant«; but it i:> inu<-li iDipn>rtrd by W-ing drawn off ill 

j^» aa EOOD as it has tbrmod ite deposit in thv <:a»k, ami botllud, 

tiktr kaviujc been preserved in ibeso veMels till it has l>i«4.-omv 

dear. Th« liquor prepared in this manner has a viaous and 

ifearpAaYor, whivb i" not onpli:ti-'>itnl. Thu color of 1 1 is not 

TOTprwiflo, being ol'ayollowtsh white. The ttnp«trfecrtioiiH of 

fMn migfal easily be remedied by adding wild applcst, or jwans 

•r jmjper berries, to the fenneoted substances. The foriuontcd 

tfwr might \m rnukiMl off Ncvcral time« from ttd lees, and clan- 

M fcy the namo proee** which ww ucv for wine. Tin- different 

4tyMt» wliicli are formed during the mannfnetTiru of quang are 

mtktij of mall, and afford a uouHahiii^ and fattening food for 

■MBak." The reader Li referred to same authority for other 

ttfcaib of nianufa«:turing drinkii, bovitragott, etc., from artioled 

kraUed on our farmH. 

On ibe subject of fermentation, Cbaptnl give* the following 
Una wliiefa may avail tia in our ex|K'rintoQta upon ll>e produc- 
t«M of wine. It NivmH to mv that they conrey some doclriniii 
itadar to tho>>e brought torward by Profv^sor William Humo, 
ifSoalh Carolina, in his ingenious eitnay: 

"■Generally speAkiog, the French Grapes, when ripe. contaiD 
mtb proportions of sugar and the Togeto-animai principles as 
«« weii adapted for producing tlio vinous tenneolation; but 
vhan t^ Mimnier iit cti\d or damp the proportion of «ugar u 
Ih», ajul the prvdoioinani-o of the mucilage (it i« from this mn- 
lihpi that vinegar is formed) rooden the liquor weak. In this 
mm ibo sm/itl quantity of alcohol wAicA is drevii/pai is Not svfieiaU 
Itfnbirve the wine (torn spoauneous decomposition, and at the 
itiam of boat a new fcrmenlatiim lake.i jilace, the product of 
which i« Tinogar. This evil may be easily obviated by aiiiliuial 


Dissiu; it Is only necMear; to sdd to tbe liquor aacli a quaoU' 
of Mgur as would n»turally huvA btxtii found in il iindcT in 
circutn»l«ne<M." PrufeKHcir Hume adviitci* the sildition of al< 
hoi, I ImUovo, to pnwcrvv thv wine from the acotic formcntiU 
Soo, aliw, "TrcaU«) on Rural rbcminlrj-." liy Ed. Solly. F. R. 
Prom Loud. ed. Philada. 1853 ; nrticleit on mannfnc-lure of wi 
brandy, etc., from ft-uiu and vcj^otables. Several articlos 
maouiiictiira of wioo can bo found in Pateot Office Ii«pi 
See '• Grape." 

A harn-Mt drink Ih niad« by adilitij^ l«a gallons of water lo 
half u gallon of molsmcM, a quart of vin(.^gar, and four ouno;it of 
ginger. Lot tbo wat«r be frueh from the spring or well; stir 
ibc whole well together, and a rdVeshiDg drink is obtAioed. 

PiCAK, l^Pi/rui comntunia.) 

Kniil trees, particularly thv \war, wore formally ■nt^odua^d 
into Led^o-rowt. It wiim objected that ilpprcdalioni* would ho 
made upon tbe hedge. Uerard. who wrote on the subject tbi-eo 
hundred years ago said: "The poore will breake dowse our 
hedgiM, and wee bave the least part of the fmit. Forward, in 
the name of (indj groile, set, plant, and nourish up trc-es in 
nvory corner of your ground. The labor i°i eiinnl], tho n>»t w 
nothin>;. the commodity is groat; yoiiDtelvos shall have plenty, 
tho poore shall have somewbat in time of want to relieve their 
iiocensity, and God shall rewarde yuiir goode mitides and dilli- 
gonco." Sec! paper on " Best lree» fur hitlgtw." in Pat. Office 
Jtoporta, 1854, p. 416. To mani>fai?turo perrv, eider, etc., con- 
suit Wilson's Rural Cycj Ure'« Dictionary of Arte, etc.; Be«, 
also, '-Apple," 

l>r. John Lindley has written a most instructive article on 
Fecundation in plants, physiologioal principles, and methods ujmio 
which friiitw are produced. 8ee his '' (luide to the Orchard and 
Kitchen Garden," and a condcnaation in Patent Office Reports, 
185t!, p. 244. Ue says that some fruits of eseellentqnalitiesare 
bad beai-ers, and recommends the tbllowing modes of remedying 
thene defects : lat, by ringing the bark ; 2d, by bending braiifihcs 
downward; 3d, by Lniining ; 4tb, by the use of difl'eront kioda 
of stocks. All these praeticcn are int^iniiod to produf.ii tho «amo 
effects by different ways: '■Pby^ii'logi"!--' know that whatever 
lands to cause a rapid diifusiou of the »tp and ^ecrotiont^ of any 
plant, caaaca also the formation of lc«f buds instead of flow' 




^•4>; ftod that whatovor on the oonlrary booda to cause 
■MUMOlatioii of »ap and secrotioas, has the ofTcct of prodiicinji; 
■wef builit in abundnnce;" so itiat a flower bud in oiIbd oaly a 
edntraded branvb. By arrealiug the motiOH!* of tho fluids aud 
montUom to a tree, wo promote the produi'iion of flower buds. 
8m^ also, same volume, tor mode of pi-c»crvation and iraospor- 
ladSBof ee«da, with the longevity of seeds, their utility and 
pnaiaative powen. A long list is given of the length of time 
whidi aeed^ caii b« prinMrved. 

MOUSTAI\.ASH; MT. SUMACH, (fyrw A»u-ricana, D. 
C <ShAu microcarpa. Ph., tirupanii, Ux.) Highnst moun- 
Bias of Nonb Carolina. FrniC ««id. 

TUa plant yielda malic acid. [ iowrt the ro)lowinfi[ fVoia 
Cta'a [Motlooftry, CFarmer'a Hncyclopoidia :) 

Matte aeiJ. Tbia vegetable acid exists in the juices of many 
baits aad platita, alone, or assooiatod with t)ie citric, tartaric, 
■ad oxalic lu^idH; aud oecaaionatly combined with )>otaAh or 
linSh Unripo appk-i, pears slow, burbui'ritiM, the berrivM of the 
MontaiiMwb, eldtr-bcrrini, currants, goo«e-borrics, strawbots 
not, ta^berries, biifa«rrios, bramble- berries, whortlobeinries, 
flfenies, ananafi, afford malic acid ; the house-look and puralane 
entahi tb« malat« of lime. 

The aoid may b« obiaitivd most coiiTCiiicnlly from tbo jtiieo 
of tbe beraios of Ibe niountain-ufih, or barbcrrius. Thin mu^t 
btdarifted by mixing with while of egg. and besting the mix- 
tars to ebullition i then tillering— di^>s ting the clear liquor 
whk carbonate of lejid till it tN>t.-iiiiicn nvutral ; and evniiurnting 
tbe Mliue solution till crvHtulH of iniiliitt' of lead be <jbt:iimid. 
Tko* arv to be washed with cold water, and purified by ro- 
njUalluatton. On dissolving the white salt in water, and 
IHaia^ a stream of Milphurelted hydrogen tlirongh tlic M>la- 
tioB, the lead will be all HepnrntiMl in the form of a sulphuret, 
ad the liqaur, aRcr filtration and evaporation, will yield yel- 
hnr, |rraaDlar crysiali^ or cauliflower concretions, of malic aoid, 
lAidi may be blanched by redissolutioo and digestion with 
' baae-Mavk, and ruci^'slaltization. 

Malic acid has no smell, but a very sour tast«, deliquesces by 
atwurption of moiiture from the air, \» soluble Id alcohol, fluaa 
, at l&U^ Fahr. is dccompotti-d at a honi of 3'1S^ aud affords by 
DD a peculiar acid — the pyromaOt. It vousisu, in 100 



pnrtn, of -41.47 carbon, 3.5 1 bydrogen, and 55.02 oxygen; bavii 
uHLrly tlio stniov coin[)Ot>ilJoti ha citric aoiil. A crude malic 
migbt bo cconomiciilly cxtruutvd tVum ihe fruit of tbn luouiitM 
asb, (Sorbus acvparia,) applicable to many purpoeoii ; but it 
noi hitherto boon manufacturod upou a great scale. De: 
tLW:ta do Bot, G55. Tbe floware aro jmrgalive. The oil fhw 
ihc yoiiti); briinchos 'n. oaustio, tuid h umploycd aguinfl rin, 
worm. M- Duiwaiict- saytt that thi- Ivavi'n arc used for taniiin, 
leather. Thu bark, ntyf RHttiiunqui'. i^mclls and ta«tc6 like chorry 
bark, but more astringont; is anli-tMptic, and ooDtnins prussic 
acid, ased like cinchona it) fevcra and other diaeaitea. This 
plniit, Pifrux eomiavnis, and ttpecies of Oratirgus, yield an aika> 
loid (,'iUlftd graxlina oe jiroptflamin, considered by !>r. Awi'nariua, 
of St. Peti-Titburg, lo tm a true tipecific for rliuuinalie alfcuiiODD, 
acute and ohroriic. He addtt iweiity-four dropH of propylaniin 
to six ounce* of luitit waU^r with two driH-hme of «ugur, and 
gives doses of a tiibk'Jtpoiml'ul every two hours. Parriiih, I'ra<;l. 
Pharm. and Proctor in Proc. Am. Ptmrta. Awsoc. 1857 ; Am. J. 
Pharm. xsxi. 12S and 222. 

[_Anu-laiidMr can-ideims, Jj. Aronia botryapiinn, of Ell. Sk.) 
Upper country ; SarriLKiii* PI., St. John's, -S. C; woods F1&. t 
Mixt)., Chapnian : Nowborii, Crooni's Catalogue. 

Upon c.'cniniiiing with a sharp ioi«truttR-iit the Hp uptime nit 
various Soutlierii wooiJH, deposited in the rniiHeiiin of tbo Elli 
Society by Profensop L. R. Gibbeit, Dr. A. M. FoBter, and W. 
Wragg Smith, Kwq., T was struck with the singular weight, 
density and fineness of this wood. I think I can confidently 
recommend it as one of the best to bo experimented with by 
the wood engraver. It is al^o, it will be observwj, t-liuiely 
uUicd 10 the appli?, pear, etc., which are all hanl. From my 
brief exumiiiation of the (ixcellunt and iiiteful collection nbovo 
referred tcp, i would arrange tbo hard woods as follows, those 
just <;it«d taking the first rank : next in order, Doj^wood, Far* 
clebcrry, (^Vaccinium arboreutn.) Jiedberry, (AiaUa Hudificra,) 
and Katmia laUfoUa. Tbo Uolly (Ikx opaca) 1 tlnd to be cjuite 
hard when well dried. The beeoh, i^Fagua gyloatica,) the horn- 
beam, (Oatrya Virginica.) iDdigeiious plauts, have nil been rocotn. 
mended for the purposes of the t-ngraver. 

While engaged iu completing a number of wood engravinga 



br ur Prix« RMtay for tho South C*rolinft Alodienl AssooifttioD, 
1 1 wed » piciN> of vr*il KaMiiod ^ogwowl, and oblAiDed ft voty 

I jpod impression fW)m coarse fif^iTK eiit with tlie graver's tools. 

I I fad Chat nono, so far expcrimontcd witb, equal tho boxwood, 
' k«t I kftve not yet (My teet«d the woods put to hcil»uii. 8m 

ffrlbU, «tC. 

Sm appltf, {Pjfnu ma/m,) for sttimttlating boTuntgbs mudu from 
A( ftvtt of tho evrvicu Irov. 

HvKvt Virginiarut. Sev Crrasua. SiTorol Soatb Carolina 
y u ii ftiraish fruit, wbich is vatablo, and often employed for 
Orion domwtic purposea 

fflinriiRRRV I C^asusserofina.T.A.QnY. 
TILD CUERR\, | p^^^ Viryinutm. Kll. Sk. 

IXibaed in upper uiid low«r diHtrict* ; \owborn. Fl. May. 

U.S. W»p. 576; Jounial Pbil, Coll. Pbarm. x, 197. and xW, 

ft; BIwrie, MaL Mod. 300; Boll's Pract. Dk-t. 389; Po. Hat. 

ltd. and Tbcrap. it, 639; Lo Mat. Med. ii, 4S7; Phil. TraD«. 

n6y ud Micbaux, N. Am. Sylva, ii, 205 ; Ball and Gar. Mat. 

Kfd. 273; Collen, Mat. Med. 268; Llnd. X«t. Sysi. Bot. 147; 

ViMilr. M«d. Boi.; CiriHitti, .Med. But. 28S; Car!>on'8 IllusU 

]bd. Hot. pt. I. This i«, undoubtedly, one of tho most valuable 

or our iBdi;i;<^0U8 plants. The bark unites with a tonic power 

ikt properly of calming irritation and dtniiuiMiing nerrous 

odlability, " adapted to caseu wbero the dlgetitive povreni are 

Bpaired, and with general and local irritation tMiciiiug at tke 

■netime." It is peculiarly suited to tho bi-etic tovcrattoud- 

■igacrofnla and convnmption, owing to tho reduction of oxeita- 

bilHy which it induces, it is euppoeod, by the hydrocyanic acid 

cntained in it. Kberle states that the cold infusion had the 

Act of redncing bis pul^t from seventy -Ave to 6fly strokes Ja 

tt< minnte. In a cane of hy[WTlr«phy with incroai*«d action of 

lie hi-art. I tried the infusion of this plant, taken in largo 

iftaatitie^ according to I)r. Ebcrlo's plan, but without very 

I ntiifiirtory rc«ults. It was pcrsieted in for three weeks ; the 

Iktient, a gentleman aged twenty-flve, of nervous t«niporament, 

Itrialcing •eTeral ounces of It thrftu tlrniM a day. T be force of 

rtfce circulation waM at linit diminished ; but the abatement waa 

aot progrDssivv ; the individual waa not made any wor»o by it, 

^TiDCtatvof digilallM had been likewise used with no beneficial 

Dr. Wood speaks of the omploynient of the wild cherry 


in the gonoral dobilitj following inllnminaUiry fever. It 
valuable, also, in dyepopeiu, attended with iiouml^c symptui 
M^r. and dc L. Diet, de M. M^d. v, 159 , Bull des Sci. M«d. nP 
303. Thu bark iti indicfttttd wlienever a tonic h ntxeaaary, ttom 
impairment of" the coni'litu tiun Uy stypliiliet, dyxjM-pMa, pulmonary 
or Inmbar a'sccfis, etc. I «in ioforoicd by a coTK-tiponiifnl 
that he finds equal parts of this barb, rhubarb, and tho giitn 
exudinj; from the peach tree. lAtnyijdalve communis,') whith like- 
wiae att'ords Frossic acid, when conibiued with brandy and 
white sugar, an excellent remedy in dysentery and dian-bisa; 
ono onni-t! of eaeh in added t.o one pint iif brandy, wilh a t<uffi- 
cioni quantity of white HUgar, a tablci<poont'iil ofwhieb it laken 
every half hour. The sensible, as well as tho medicinal prop- 
erties of this plant, are impaired by boiling; cold water ex- 
traotaits virtues best. The inner burk is officinal. The bark 
of all parta of tho tree is oited, but that flrom the root is most 
active. Tho bark is Btrongur, if eollecti-d from the r^oi in 
autumn, and it detcrioratvK by kocping. It h tonic, sednttvc^ 
expectorant. The officinal infusion is thus made; Itark bruised, 
half an ounce to one pint of cold water; macerate for twenty- 
four hours. Dose, two or three fluid ounces three or fi>nr timea 
a day. To mnku the ollk-inal ayriip : Tuko nf wild chrrry bark, 
io coarse powder, five ouiiees; sugar, refined, two pounds; 
waler Mufiicicnt lo moixLun the Imrk thoroughly. liOt it aland 
for twenty-four hours in a close vessel ; then transfer it to a per- 
colator, and pour cold water upon it gradually until a pint of 
filtered liquor is obtained. To this add the augar, in a bottle, 
and agitate occasionally until it is dissolved. I>o«e one-half fluid 
ounci'. By Proctor'f analyiiia, it t'Otiluins starch, n;i>in, tannin, 
gallic stfid, fatly matter, lignin, wills of linio pulsiwu and iron, 
and a volatile oil aasocialed with hydrocyanic acid. This proved 
ttital to a cat in le»N than live minuloa. See Journal Phil. Coll. 
Pharm. vi, 8; Am. Joiirnul Pharm. x, 197. The leaves, also, 
arc sedative ami antispasmodic; used iu coughs, angina p«(v 
toris, etc. The dose of the powdered i-oot is ft-oin twenty graina 
to one drachm. The inthsion is tho most eonvfuient form. A 
syrup is also made; beside sevenil weoret |)reparations. 

The method of making " Clie.rry" cordial by tho Southern 
matrons in the lower eoiuilry of South Carolina, is as follows: 
l-'ill iho vosKcl with cherries, (not washed, if gathered clean,) 



ami cnrer with whipltoy. After peroral weeke pour off nil 
tW clror liquor and proea ibo cUoi-riM through a sieve. Pul 
ouo the joiee thus presfod out five pints of brown au^^ar, and 
W8 wHb syrup enough to sweeten the wliole. Pour fire pints 
tf w»t«r on the tJiivk part; boil «nd «tr«in U> mnkv the xymp 
wttb %bo tafrnr. "Blaekberry cordial" is mndo in tho Kitmo 
Mtyi or it can bo stewed, strained, swoet«ncd and whiskey 
■4M. In the above, the su^^r is w be boiled in the water 
vImIi u obtained fVom the thick part as directed. 

Pivm fvniuil i» thiiA niado in S. C. : Pill the vewtel vrilh plums 
iftxr Mieking rach one. Pour whiskey enough to cover ihein. 
After ax weeks preserre tbo ptams to half their weight of 
m/^- Put all together and shake tho Jug well. The common 
vU platD i* iiM-d. 

Thripim which exudes from the rwl cherry, tlie plum and 
pcath. is a»ed in place of gum arable in incrousing the brilliBucy 
of Manh and (u scatin); envelopes. 

Tbe wood of this tre« is highly valuable, being compact, fine 
gntnnl anil brilliant, and not liable to warp when perfectly 
«anatd. Wbt^n chosen near the ramifications of the trnnk, it 
ritib Diahngany in the beauty of IIh curls. Farmer's Encyc. 

wti I. *.!> . vi'v 1 Crra»vs CaraUniana, Mich. 
WILD OKANOE, [ ^„„^ Carolit^iana, L., EII. 8k. 

TUtisone c^ the most ornamental of oar indigenous evor- 

|nM traea, and is planted around dwelling bouses. Tbo berries, 

luk and lr«rc-;i pos-iejw in a high degroe the taet« cbaracter- 

iBBg the genus. It deserves an analysis. 

TUs tn*. the (lower* of wbiob are mnch ffeqnented by bees, 
pvwi abundantly on the seacoaM of our Stateis and is certainly 
••e of the most beaotitVil and manageabto evergreen* that wo 
^•••is. It can be eat into any shape, and is of a most altrac- 
tn« grren color Tt forms an impervious hedg« and grows 
npiilly. The black, oval herrica contain an atmndanco of 
9rwme aetd, a« doco Ihe whoh- tree ; but I do not know of any 
W to which it is applied. Dr. Thnnip»on han found great use 
from Prumc acid, largely diluted, a» a local application in im- 
|Ktip>. He Kscd the infhsions of bayberry; no doubt tho 
lalkricma of tho wild orange would be equally usefbl. In tbo 
Atent Ofice RepoHa, Agriculmre, ISM, '5fi, p. 376, are papers 

on "Liv« fencwi," or the planting and management of qiiick-urt 
bodgpH. In this Ike roatlvr will find u mont Inll xnd twLir^luctojy . 
kcoount of the doeirable plants lor h«dgOH, both American an 
Kuropeao. This is not tho placo for a full description of the 
planla and shrubs ; but 1 will at any rat© give a list of aoino < 
them, and refer the reader to the article. All are of connte nc 
sdapled to our climate. The Engliah »loe, or black thorn, {PruHUs' 
spinwat) Uie hawlboru, {<'}ratie</m oxyncnnOia,) »iid thu buck- 
thorn, (fthamnus catharticus,} hnve hoeii plantitd in thiit vount 
with indiffvrcut huvcohk on aucount of tho iotonso host of 
Southern sun. "Tho 'Washington Thorn,' (C corJdta,) grow- 
ing in mountains of G^corgia, was also brought into notice aa a 
hedge plant toward the close of the last century, and was euh- ^ 
sequently employed for that purpose in variona flections of thoS 
Union ; but owing to improper management, and the tuidi-ncy 
to disarm itHcIf of itfl spiiiea aAor a oortuin ligt-, it hnn hct-n 
dtHContinaod. Siinilur rcaultv havu alt«nd(^d tho adoption of 
Othvr »pc<;icii of tbortiy IrooB and shrubs in tliis country, with 
tho exception of tho • Usage orange,' the ' Spanish bayoni-t," 
( Yucca,) and the ' Uherokoo rose' " These are natives of thud 
continent. Sec article for modes of management, planting 
etc., of hedges, with illustrations on wood. Tho Art>or Viife, 
{"niuja occiilenftilin,) one of niir native plants, growing only in 
tho higbvHl mountninit, is said to be " indigenous, and to grow 
abundantly on Iht' banks of tho Uudson, making the finest orna- 
mental hedgo known to this climate," The holly {Ilex opacit) 
and tbo hemlock spruce {Ahics canadensis) should ho mentiotivd j 
also the willow box, (SuxuJ aeviperoiretis ;) prickly unh, (J'on- 
thoxt/lum fraj:ineum ;) honey loeuet, (fl/e(/iV«f/ir'« trincatifhus)— 
all thuae are either ualivcvt or art; cnltivntod in the Suuthen^^ 
StntuM. See Willow and Oougu Orange. ^H 

PEACH, {Amyijdalus.') The piiucli producoH abundantly in the^ 
Southern StaU'iJ. Tbo root, leaves and kernols are somclimo* 
employed in medicinu, and in seasoning drinks, condimcnba, 
etc., being indebted for any virluea which'y po»acss to tho 
hydrooyanie acid contuincd In them. A tea of tho leaves is a 
fHvorito lioiDCfltic palltalivo in wbooping-oough, and in moat 
pectoral afTuetiuns. A tea or syrup made with either the Wrk, 
leaves or fiowers, will act freely as a purge. Dose for a child, a 
toaspoonful repented every half hour till it oporatett. 

■»7 be- ma'to by adding honoy. The losvo>« are salringont ftod 
ciflAic, au'I OMci ID dom«6t)0 practice to ai-r«ist blvAding—em- 
phjud powdered as a ennff id the fioae in oputHxis, to slop 
Umdia^. The kemel, wliioh is staid to yictil ah mnoh ampgdalia 
wUueralmondA, b iMod in MMOning, and in making the cor- 
Hal koewn ax ralllia; alnio in adding to tonics. Tbo loaves are 
■cd ia Mssoning <;rttum» in imilaUon of vaoilla bean. The 
l | wr known as peach brandy is distilled from the ftiiit. Tha 
Imtb* pat in layers with cotton, and boiling water poured ovar, 
wiH dy« yellow. The cotton or thmad itliould find bo boilwl in 
s nlatioo of ainm. Thv Iouvck of artichoke (Cynara) also dye 
■ ytUow rotor ; mic " Rhvs" Fomigation with tobacco smoke, 
i^inging with tobacco water, and washing with strong lime 
wiMr, src rpqaisile for destroying aphides whenever these exist 
m acii swarms as to make a copious disoharge of honey -dew. 
Wiaoa'a Knral Cyclopeedia, Art. Aphis. 

Dnfin^ Ptaelu*. — Several modea of affecting this are pursued. 
WbM done in-doont. furnaces vhoiild bo placol in thl^ cellar, 
Aw which the heated air may rise into (ho building suitably 
prmdcd with sbelvee, etc. 

la cone of the Southern States, says Ur. Kenrick, the pro- 
Mai« &eilitated by a pn^vioug scalding. This is effected by 
imantBg batkuts of the fruit a few minutes in kettles of boil- 
bgwater. They are alVrward halved, the stones separated, 
anil being laid with the skins downward, the diying is effected 
Id the sun tu three days of good weather. They then may bo 
ttmtd (n boxes. 

Ia franec, a» we are infonnvd, peaohea and other fhilLa are 
tbv dried whole : The poaches or other fniiui, btting par«d, are 
boiled for a few minntes in a syrap coneisiing of one pound 
•f Mgar dissolved in three quarts of water, and after being 
dniani, by being laid i^infjil}' on boanl-dinhei), they are placed 
fa tli« oven alter the brL-iul in taken out, and when suffldeully 
diy tb«y are packed in bozo*. The Ibllowing is the mode of 
rifrtng practiced by Mr. Thomas Rellangoe, of Egg Harbor, 
Sew Jeraey : Ue has a email hon*« provided with a stove, and 
•Inwerv in the Hide* of the bouse laihed at their boltoms, with 
vmd intcrvaLi. The peaches should be ripe, and cut in two, not 
fcried, an<l laid in a single layer on the Inlbft, with their skins 
downward, to save tbe jnice. On shoving in the drawer, tJiey 


arc MOD tiriwl by thi- hot air produptd liy tho move. In ihM 
itny grunt qumititK'x cnay i'UC'C'CK>'iTi.*ly, in a Kii>);lL- Kcaeon, 
prepared, vritb u very littlo expt^nee, in th« prcpurxlion of th4 
bnildtnft and in fViel. 

The following may be adopted for preserviug pejMrhcn in citos,^ 
by which th«y ke«p wcJl and retain the fiavor: Add half : 
poiiod of iiiigar to each pound of pi.>ttcheH. The itugar ih pat' 
into a prcspiring kettle, wilb half* pint of wator t<> «Ter5'_ 
pound of KUgnr, boated, and Ibo eurfacv shimmed. Into tbifl 
^rnp the peachts, after being pared, are placed and boikd tes 
minaloa. The [i^uchea are ttit'ii put into the cans ivbiio hot 
Hiid immi>d)ately scaled up. 

I publinli, for thu lin>l time, in tbiH edition, a ntiggeslion de 
rived from tlie observation of Mr. John Comniinn, n gentle 
man of much practical experience, which, if it proven to bo 
bo true upon further trial, will be of the very gi-calvst adTXii- 
tage to the whole country, as it will enable ue to add largely 
to the production of oiir I'niit tn:e«. ThiH a method to prevent 
the immcoec destruction by iiisecttt of the fruit of tlie [leaoh. 
It oonsiebi in intorsporeing by planting among the trocM alter- 
nately China berry or Pride of India trcee, {Meiia aMttfraeh.) 
The gentleman who communicated the observation to me has 
noticed that peach tree* tihaded by this tree wore never ir 
feotcd by the aphis. Their preventive effect may depend upon^ 
the roots, or more probably upon the berries of the China tree 
covering the ground and proving deleterious to the worm which 
attacks ttiu peach. Tho t^xpcrimeut ia one easily made as the 
Pride of India im readily pn)pHgated and grows rapidly. Some 
persons adopt the plan of boring u, hole in fruit trecK and 
inserting calomel, which is said to bo suece^ftful. 

The gum which exudes from the peaoh, plum or cherry, 
anKwcrs the purpose of gum arabic in increadiiig the brilliaiiey 
of eturch ; aliM) in sealing enrelo^tes. Pencil leaves arc uned a» 
a substitute for bops in making yeast biscuits for bread, and^f 
the lenvcH are otlcn dried and powdered to flavor tobacco, to 
inci'eftso its bulk, and to diminish its strength. The loaves are 
cited by M. Ousemnce in his Treatise on Tanning, Pbilada., 1867, 
as among those employed for Tanning Leather. 

BUFFALO BERRY TUEU, {Shepardia magnoides, H .) 
Kuttall. 1 do not know the family of the plant. 

>as I 

Tbc IVnit, resembling cnrranta, of b fine ««ftrlet color atid 
y nw ia^ in cluat«nt. bare a rich lasle, nnd nre coiixtili^rod 
nlaftMe &>r makioj^ iuto tarU aud pniwervva. ParmiT's Ency- 

LCGUMINOSJi OK F^BACK.K. {The Bean Tribe.} 

Ite mb-ordeni arv dititingiii«liL-d hy nutritive, piirgntiTO and 
MM i a g gn t |)rc»p«rti<>8. 

TELLOWWOOD, {Cladratlit tinctcria, Itail, Virgilia ivtea, 
^ts.) HiU-«i<Je>i, Tenn««ee and Kentucky . 

Tka wood if yellow and dyw) a Itvuutiful MtfTron ^-olor. 

JAMAICA DOGWOOD, (^I'ifcidia erytbrina. L.) S. Florida. 

1W piseidia is said to b« aaed in America for Mupefi'ing fii<b, 
rfekkare taken aa readily by thin ineuna as with nuxromton. 
WibMi't Rural Cj«loj"i'diii. K yiuld* » higtily nnrcotic and 
faphowlJE tinctoro. GritHtfa. Tbc powdered bark roUiiTM 

To III* aboTc. which was contained in the first edition of thbi 

wvfc, 1 wM tb» following from tho I'ith Rd. of tho U. 8. DtNp.: 

DtWin- Hiimillon, of Plymouth, England, in a communication 

I tstka t'hann. Jonro. ir, Au;;.. 1844, Bpeake of thtK plant aa a 

povarfU Barcoiic. capable of proilucin^ sk't^p and relieving pain 

inaafxtTaordinury manner. Whnn a riwdemt of the Wt-ot Indies 

ktkadobiMm-d it* ■.•ffccta lui a narcotic in taking; 6sb of tbo 

iH^rat kind. H« wa« induced to try it as an anodyne in tootb- 

mkt, and he foand a saturated tincture exc>eedtngly efflcacioui^ 

.•i4 wily alTonlitig rvllof when taken inlonmlly, but nniformty 

l^riagtbe pain when introduced upon a dotwit of col ton into 

tttcariOtta tooth. The bark of the n>Qt to be cffectDsl. should 

^tagaUi«r«d dnrini; iheperio"! of uiflorc»cence in April. When 

it baa an unpleasant acrimony like raezereon. It yielda 

[tetirtaea to alcohol, but not to water. He prepared the tino- 

Itan by maewtaiing an ounce of the bark in cuarMc |Miwdor, in 

Rnid ovncce of rectified spirit, for twenty -four honn, and 

!■ fill«rrd it. The doMO is a fluid drachm. He first tried it 

UmselC when laboring undot- severe toothache, taking the 

Btity menitoned in cold wat«r on going to bed. He flnt 

. a violent »«a!>atioD of heat iutemally, whieti gradually ex- 

to tbo sur&c-c, and mui followed hy prufuw.' |)enpirntion 


■omo and niitritiouft. Fl. Snolicii, of Lightfoot. Smno nrc saii 
to pr>-»<lnw vertigo and lympnnili-* in cattle whioh feed on Uie; 

KABillT-l-'OOT; Fl'liL!) t^LOVliK, {Tri/olium a 
Iniul) "Grow* iparingly in the upper distriota," Colko 
in SU .rohn's, Chnrloston District; Newbern. Fi. April. 

Wade's PI, HarioroA, 56. Dickewon obson'ea that the dried 
plant iH highly aromatie, «n<l rolninM it^ odur. It Han bffon nrted 
in dyMnLi^ry. Wilh«ring, 636 ; V\. Senticu, 406. 

WILD BUFFALO CLOVER, (Tri/oUum rf/Uxtim.) Upper 
districts; vicinity of Charleston ; oolle«t«d in St, John's; N, C, 

It affects very sensibly the salivary glands. I have noiicwl 
horaea in Virginia violently tuilivnted from eating this or other 

WHITE CLOVER, (^Trifnlinm repen*. L.) Vicinity of 
Charleston ; collected in St. John's ; Newlwrn. Fl. May. 

Bll. Bott. ii. 201. This al40 afl'ept« the salivary glands, some- 
times prodneing eorapleie salivation. Fl. Scotico, 404. Jta 
leaves are a good i-unLtc hygrometer, aa llioy are always relaxed 
and (tttceid in drj- weather, but erect in nioinl and rainy. 

MILKVBTCU, { Astra f^atxis.) There are live i-pecies of this 
genus within our limits. I refer to them because the seeds of 
A. boHintu^ ptanted in Germany and Knglnmr. are found to bo 
(he very he*t MitbKtitiite for coffee yet triwl. au>l so used — roasted, 
parchod, and mixed with coffee. Our specie* of Yieia, tare, 
velob, and Lathyi'iia should also be tried. 

KDIBLE PSORALEA, {PsoraUa aculmta.) The bi-oad 
mot, growing in Misitoiiri, is eaten by the tnhahitanta of the 
plain, and thi; llcKky Monniainw, Riirul CyeIop<Bdia. 

CAROLINA WILD INDIGO, {Jndi^fera Caroliitiana, Walt.) 
Grows in dry soils; vicinity of Charleston; collected in 3' 
John's Berkeley; Newbern. Fl. May. 

Not inferior, aayn Nnttall, to the cultivated indigo. It clooa 
not, however, poKHosH no murh coloring matter. The decoction 
of the leavCK ii> naid lo acl an an emetic when given in large 
(jnaniitics; in smaller doses it is cathartic, " F. 1. S.," a cor- 
respondent of tho Charleston Mercury, says: "Oar country 
ladies gather wild indigo, and ferment from it a blue powder 
equal to the oommei-cial indigo, whieh ilye--* a heaiitifnl and laMt- 
ing bine. A nohition of thin powder in water is a spcody and 
certain relief for cramp and asthma. The red smaach dyea a 



rich dark or light purplo, im '%» ivquirod." See Wild Indigo, 

Mfyr/rrn anil, L. Intruduood. 

FonDcriy caltiTat«d and employed in tfao manuliicturv of in- 

IXBIGO, {Indigo/era linctoria.) Introduced. Ooco caltiv»> 
M in Sootb Carulinn tw u Urge cxUitt ; Bde Indi^fera a»iL 
OlUictMl to St. Jifbn's Burkdtiy. PI. Jun«. 

Pi«ytao'« View of Soutii Cui-oliitiL ; Miiiat and do h. Diat. da 

H. MmL iii, 601. Aix-ording to Liiunnvc, ihu di-viiclion of ibe 

KNt pwM«M» th« property of acting aguinsl poiiwn, and is neo- 

U tfi aepbritic dioeuaea. In Jamaica, it is employed to destroy 

nnuB. The Intvcn ilr- aUcrttive, and are giveu in bepatiu ditt- 

«vd«s. Ain»li«, Mul. Mod. lod. i, 180 ; ii, 33 ; Journal de Bo- 

miq», T, 11 i Ann. do Cbim. bcviii, 284 ; U. and de L. Siip- 

flM. 1M«, 383; Martiue, SvHt. Mat. Mod. 126; Porollvt, 

Jbm. sor la cultm'e d^s indigoferos tinotorianx, Paris, 1833; 

E/SermtnicT, Ruaum^ des obs. fiiitos aur plasieura esp^cos indi- 

gofirea du GuadcJoupe; hvv Jounml d« Pharnt. xix, 2!>7 ; A. 

Ssat Hillar«, - llist. of Indigo, from tiio first account oC it till 

t&eyaar 1833," (Ann. d«aSci. Nat. vii, 110;) Uem. on Indigo, 

m tbe Compteii K«HduK HeMom. of Acad. Nat. 8ci. 19lh D«c. 

18M, 44& ; Dnmasi' Mem. upon Indij^ its nompoMiiou, etc., in 

tW Joamal do Cbim. Uwl. iii, m, 1837; D. Erdmann. Rwh. 

•pta lodigo, (in French, also,) in tbe 'iGth vol. Joarnal de Pharm. 

M, l&M, and the report apoo the proposed extraction of indigo 

fiaa piolffonvm tinaoritim. See Journul do Pbarm. xxxvi, 27-1. 

Ia£fuit«olf hit* acqain-d some cvletirity in the trt-utmont "I* 

«^pay— nnult« dunbilal, aa largo quantities may bo taken — 

M ilHitiiary or syrup was used. Dungl. N'cw Komedios, 361. 

fieiSlli. See, also, Koth in lVr«iras Mat. Mediea. The remains 

if th« indigo plantations, will) the vats in wbioh indigo waa 

papaivd, am lUill to be seen in the lower disiriota of f^tuth Car- 

ofina, bordering on the Santee River. Since the introducUun of 

fMtoa and rice it i* cultivated, tbongb not v«ry lai^ly. 

Or the caltivation, pr«.<panition, etc, of indigo, Woad, i^Jfalis 
ftadvrw,) seo Chaptal's Chemistry applied to Agriculture, p. 
IHi Ur»V Dictiouary of Arts, Manufactun-n, and Mine", arti* 
L dw" Indigo," -Calico Priming;" aL*o. Penny Cyclo|>o:dia. I 
I maai twatvnl my««lf simply with a rclbranco lu Uie aonrc« of 


information. Thts 1. anil ih aliio uaed Tor ihti production of it 
digo. The Ho. Oaltirator. tuI. ii, p. &8, contains b full ftccoui 
of the preparation of iodigo. To Hvoid tfao <lclct«riou8 offo 
of fermented indigo, Dr. Roxbnrg, of India, elatw that he 
Goeda perfectly by the "scalding pi-ocoes." Tlds is doubt 
800, &li<0, Soutliorn CiilttvAtor, p. 15, vol. 6, report of* Comi: 
tne of the Gvorgiit Agricultural AnsoL-iation. They recotnroa 
tbo Indigofeni arijeiilea, or wil<l indigo of Ciw>rgia, which iit n< 
incladed by Chapman in bin Fl. of 80. StatinM. I insi^rt the fot 

Tho directions for preparing I obtained, many years ago. 
from an old and rexpectablo planter in South Carolinn. Tho 
maniismpt whit;h hn ditlivored to inc wim from thv pon of one 
who had buon extonxivdy «ngtigi;(I in thu cultivation aud prep- 
aration of indigo for market, hvforc Iho Revolution. It baa 
never been publiabed; and may, therefore, impart iDroraialioR 
on a process little known by the present generation : 

" The pigment, or dyeing substance of the indigo, in obtained 
fr(im tin; hiai'eR. Theru are several speoiett of this plant. The 
Froncli indigo, Tndic/o/era ti/ictariu, yi«ld« the greatest qanotity, 
and is cuUivalcM] in India; but the ijiiaiity !■ inferior to the 7i>< 
digofera argenlea. or wild indigo. The former is distlnguittliod 
by its pinnate leaves, tho smaller ribs expanding from the prin- 
cipal rib like the fuathers of a quill, simitar to the leave* of the 
pear and of ihv lime tree, and by a more slender, ligneoui* »tou. 
It risen, in a rich soil, and when well cultivated, to tho height 
of six feet. 

"The seeds are sown au early in tho Hpringas the climate And 
season will warrant. In the West Indica, the planting cam- 
menecM in March, in trenr^bes about a foot asunder; and the 
wood w erit down in May. In South America, tiix months clapso 
bcforo it can he ouL In tho former, generally fourcuttingv are 
obtained of lliu aame plant in the vourHo of a year ; but in the 
latter, never more than two, and often only one. The cutting 
takes place when the plant is in blonsom, and is done with the 
siclcle. Kreflh plantings of tho seed are required yearly. 

" Commence the cutting of the weed in the evening, in tim« 
to have the steeper set before it in dark. The ]>lantii arc laid in 
strata, and pn-ssed down by weiglitf. When a «ufliciont quan- 
tity of them are laid, pour in water to tho height of about four 


tbem. On« inch and a half above tli« Aurface of 

iwal«r boro a holo thmugli the Hide of tlie vut, a»<I dirocU^' 

' lb* trooifh which w to cunvoy the liquor into ibo IxiaUr. 

^Vb«a the fcrmcntAtion bn» coniuiencwl tliu li<)uor will riiw and 

I over. Let it remain onlil tbo MtrMim has cowed, or nearly 

This, in hot weather, will bo I'l-ou ten to fbarteen honrs 

l'iA«r iha water hjut bvtiii [tourvd ii|iori the w«ed, or o» thv Tollow- 

aomtnf;. JmiMdiatd^ ilmv off into tbo bcuter, and cotn- 

Nc the agitation. Continnc Ihis lor abotit twenty minutes, 

' tad Ums let in the lime water until yon have plenty of grain, 

' hi Ut Tfiry ooarae. Thu itgiiation must bu i.tirnAd on, and 

i fc«y t at two b« made of tho |>lute. Am noon im a ubungu in the 

«el»r is perceived, from a muddy grtton to a purple or blue, the 

I hMtisg sboald oease. Thi» opera lion usually roqulrea an hour. 

' Then can be no certain rale im to the quantity of lime water 

to ht mwl, or tlw Ivn^^th of lime for continuing thn ngit«tion. 

If the indi;^ be not tnfficipDlly Meopod, it will r<H]inr(' more lime 

«it«r, and longer boaiin};, and eice verm. IIikvin<; obtained tbe 

Im blue tint you wUh, atop the agitation, and poor in an addt- 

taul quantity of lime wnter, which will cauae the gntins to 

BiUtct and wttlo in a short time. Bv cnn'^fol, bowcwr, not to 

aM n mncb as to give tli« liqnor ■ yellow or rod tinge: U 

ikonld be of a clear, but pole green. As the sediment subsides, 

•MUBCooe drvwing off the water tfarongb the upper plugs, and 

Mosloeacb NuecetHively, until the raud nlone remains iit the 

iMtom of tho vat or boater. In the uToniiig lhi» illiquid be ro- 

mmd intu the drainer, and by thu morning following it will be 

*pB drained and rrnokod, which it ihould he Iniforv it is taken 

en. Uaving fir»t pressed out the water n'mujning in it, work 

'if the mud; give it a oeoond preesure, and work it op again 

' MlQ It beeomee stiff, .\llcr this, -lubniit it to a third prewnre, 

femtting. Should your indigo iuvtine lo mould on thL> drying- 

hoardA. u it is apt to do in nuny or damp weather, the mould 

■wt be wiped off) otherwise it may turn to a gray color. T^et 

I UrMMtn upon the dryiogboarda until yon plainly sou tho qual* 

ttji afterward it may tie [lut np in small barrels. In continued 

! daap w«ath<;r, during tho manipulating and drying proceee, 

[pat the greontub indigo in thcKun, and turn It IVequcnily. As 

Hk aa it bcfjins lo crack, take it in. 

*'G«od indigo is known by lis Ughtoeev, or amoll apecifie 


grnrity, iodicnting the ab»enG« of earthy impuritiett; by the 
miH« not reAdily parting vrilti ita coloring mitttur, vrhvn tfUiiud 
by drawing a streak with it over a wbilo siirlncu ; but ubovo all 
by iho purity ofthv color itself. The first quality, eautemed by 
tbiti Ib»1 t(wt. iit cullod, in commercial innguage, Jintt blue ; Ute 
ntsxt, oniinary Hue ; Ihoa fine purple, etc. The most inferior is 
known as ordinary copper" 

The moBi satiMfaetory infarmatioii cnu be got in tho Patent 
Office Repbrtx, antl (r>ttn Mr. Spul<liiig, Licbii', C'haptal, the Kn- 
oyclopcDclia, eK;^ etc. Several varieties are cultivated. The 
Indigo/era disperma in used in Guatemala, and inukoa the btfuit 
and most beautiful article. The Indiijof<:ra tinctoria, formerly 
cultivated in Soalb Caroliiitt and Georgia, i» the meat produeUv», 
and the inereaae in qiiunlily will make up tho deficiency in 

The following is tlic account of tho method of cnltirating and 
manufacturing indigo, furuished by Mr. T. W. Glover, of 
Orangeburg, S. C. and published by Mr. Tuomey, in his Geology 
of S. Carolina, 1818: 

" Indigo was planted in South Carolina at any early period, 
and was extensively cultivated, and constituted an imporiant 
item in tJie exportd of the eolotty, till rice, in the lower country, 
and cotton, almoHl everywhere, niiperNodod it. 

" In Orangeburg DiMtriet it bn» never been abandoned, and 
the tbllowin^ exhibit will show the number of acres plautAd, 
and the amount made in three several years : 

Yean. Acna planted. AmouQt mada. 

1831 9!>3 27.700 Ibe. 

18-(1 1,091 34,150 lbs. 

18-12 1,337 35,935 Ibi*. 

" Tho avvmge production pnr nere, therefore, wa« '29 Iba. it 
1831, 31 Ibx. in 1841. and 2S lbs. in 1S42. Some plantci-s, Iww- 
ever, in 18*2 made upward* of 60 lbs. per acre. 

"Tho price of Carolina indigo varies tVom 40 to 80 cia., and 
much of it ia vended in the interior or in the neighboring Stat«a. 
Light and itaudy land, which will mil yidd more than &00 lbs. 
seed cotton per acr^^, is generally appropriated to this culinre, 
iho bettor soils being reserved for cotton. 

" Two species of indigo have boon cultivated hei-e— the tamo, 
which in ail annual plant, and the wild, which ianuptenuial. The 


latter, reproducing seveD years successivoly and afi'ording u 
better and finer dye, has almost entirely supplanted th<] former. 

"Theseed is plaotod about tlio 15th April, in trenches cigliteen 
inches asander, made sometimes with tlio plow, and it is after- 
ward worked with the hoe. The wild indigo may bo cut onco 
dnring the first year, but it is frequently not touched till the 
second. The ground is hoed over every subsequent year, 
about the last of March, aod before the plant appears. One 
bushel of seed is enough, and is used for four acres planted in 
drill The weed is cut (after the first year) twice annually, 
early in Juno and again in September; and the hoe is used, 
even after the second eutling, that the land may be left free of 

"Manufacture. — Three vats or tanks, made of wood, and 
WBt«r tight, are employed in the manufacture of indigo. Kicst, 
the steeper, which is sixteen tbet square and twenty-six inches 
deep ; second, the beater, sixteen feet by twelve, and four feet 
deep ; and third, the lime vat, which is ton feet square and three 
feet deep, into which is put two bushels of lime, and, in the 
proceBSofmanufacCuring, one-half bushoi is added to each sub- 
sequent vat made. When the plant begins to bloom, it is out 
with hooks, early in the morning, and two wagon loads are put 
xa the steeper, which is filled with water by pumps, or, if the 
locality admits, by troughs from a hill-side. Laths are placed 
over the weed, which is entirely immersed under the water, 
where it remains until eufiiciently steeped. The indications by 
which the sufilciency of the steeping is judged are various, and 
mainly depend on experience. If the fermentation stops, or the 
leaves eease to be brittle, or the water subsides, it is drawn 
from the steeper into the beater, the former being elevated above 
the tatter to admit tho free passage of the liquid through 
troughs. When in the beater, a wheel, with arms placed on a 
shaft, is used to stir and agitate the liquid for about fifteen 
minutee. Lime water is then added from the lime vat till a 
cloudy hue appears ; with an addition of lime water, it is again 
agitated thirty or forty minutes, until granuiation begins. 
After beating, or this process of agitation, the liquor remains at 
rest aboat four hours, when, ft^m its affinity for and combina- 
tion with the lime, and from its greater specific gravity, the dye 
staff is precipitated and the liquid is drawn olT. The drug 


<lvipo:stt(i(l nt Ibe bottom of iho bcntor i« iheu Roltect«d and 
morod into u box five feet equaro and fourl«cn incbes dee| 
valli-d thv drainur, which in placed oii a bed of »ni>d, and insid^ 
of which, aod in conlnot with the sand, ia a coareo dotb, (ca 
ton osnaburgh)'.) From the drainer the indigo is placod iu 
box three tiet lon^ and loiirtuen tiiehva wide, called the prva 
in which a stoat cloth i« also piti nnil folded over the iadif 
It i.t then pressed until »utlicii»nUy ilry, und i-ut into piec 
about two inches square, which arcplauod HqMiniiely foreev« 
(ilay», and then put into biirrolii for ibo mnrkut. 

iHtiirt and .U<inu/actur£ of Indigo. — A writt-r under 
eigDUturv of " Oconee " aaj-s : " The 8oila beet adapted to it uro 
the rich, eand; louini*, ibungh it grows on moat lands toodo 
ralely well, provided th«y are not w«t. The ground should 
be well broken, and kept light and fVeo from grass by the plow. 
The nature of the manure used eserts a great infliiwHMs upon 
tb« quantity and quality of its coloring principle. Thouc sub- 
stanci'nt that act ax nlimnlunts to vegetation, such as lime, pou< 
drctte, ashcji, etc., etc., favor the growth of the plant witho«t 
injuring the coloring tnatlt^r. When barn-yard manure haa boon 
largely used, a crop of grain ebould tirut l>o raised on the laud. 
"The seed shoLild be mixed with aahes or saiid, and »owu in 
drillH fourteen inohea apart, four quarts of sued to the acre. In 
this climate, (Middle Gi-orgia,) the »ccd should \><b sown the Brat 
of April, Whou it tirat comes up it should ha veihtt grass piekud 
out with the blind. When an inch or two high the graos 
between tho rows should be cut out with the bou or scraper, 
and the soil loosened about iht* i-oots. Three weedings ai-o 
(■nough before the fii-Ht cutting, which should commence as (toon 
as the plant throws out its blontn. It is 8o i.>asily injured by 
tho »un aflor being cu(> that the operation should bu commonood 
and end in the aflcmoou. After cutting with tho rvap-hook, it 
is put under the shod until it can be put in the vats. In Ueorgia, 
the two cuttings yielded sixty poundn of indigo to an acre, pro- 
vided the roots wero not injured in the first cutting, which, at 
tliroe acres to the hand, would bo one hnndri?d and eighty 
)>ounds (8180.) The price varies fVom 30 oont« to %'i 'Zb p«r 
pound for the best (J ualemallt- 
■'Like other plan tA, it has its enemies. The loaves »ro fr^ 
quently aecn covered with yellow spots, owing to some change 

(■ \k» ktmo^thore. Il oflcn b»ppoii» Uuit in oomtoqnenoo of a 
iyii of lw»t and drouth, the plant is not fully d^velopMl; 
. tW iMtcs Are not more than onc-tliird tboir prafiur »!».■, yot 
H (shtUt all lh« properties of a pei-tVot plant. If tlin pluot \» cut 
H U \tot tinpcrftMit Ntnitf the crop is loiti, fur the indigo it not woU 
H ^r u to fw O. An iiisucl (tlie Aiin) ufUn iluttruys tko &i-8t crop of 
^ Imtia Next, a louM dc^tix^'n th<! plant l&t«r in the srasoa ; 
Uit, boircTar, is not so bad as tho first. The oat worm alao 
OBUUU some doprodst^ons upon it. 

' MnutfiU^ttriHg Process. — Two methods are used, the cold and 
IkbiM. The cold h tUo sat^tj the plant must bv in a cvrtain 
Mau to BM tfa« hot. 

■ t«i. By Cold Watfr. — Tfa« w«vd ia pnt in tbo vat and cot- 
ovl«iti) cWr wntvr, when) it rcmaiiiit until the color of the 
B|w4 bveomw a light oliTo ; thitt is abuat tvn hours; th« weed 
■MtfaepTMeed down by hosvy scantling laid apoa it. Draw 
tbtfiqnidoff iuto tb« churn or beater Tho churning must now 
Wraamenced, and k«pt up until tbo fluid booomoa lighter in 
hfgeteral abade, and the blue iVcuhL ar« neOD in th« wal<^r; 
vliicli sooocr bt^injt from small quuntiticK of limo water being 
•dMfrom time to Lime during the proovKs of boating. The 
qaotilj of lime water that in used ehonld bo not mora than 
MMeotb of the liqnid that itt in tho vuU If tliu lime water be 
all thtowo in at oac«, the lime moro Ibaii saturates the cjtrbonic 
iai,aiKlthe carbonate (hu« formed will bo precipitated, and 
Ikaa i&jnre ibo indigo. After the fecnla shows itself distiQotlj 
ikihe water, the vat is allowed to bo still for four or five houra, 
lk«a Ibe clear water is dranni off by faucets at difiercm height^ 
Ha> to allow the indigo lo be precipitated in the bottom. 

■2d, The Hot ProcfiS. — Thw weed is put in the vat, boiling 
vitvisleton M> as to saturalv tho plant, and fnlly cover it. 
IW waed is kept down by smntling thrown upon it Allow 
tk» water to itand &om five to fifteen minutes, according to the 
iftct above mentioned. Draw it off through a fauoet and sieve 
iato the bealcr ; repeat until all the coloring matter is extracted; 
Wat or cbnm a« ahovo, omitting tite lime water; remainder of 
lb« process the same. 

■ Tbe precipitated indigo still requires some further operations 
la bring it to a state of perfection, <_thougb it can be dried and 
wat Ui the mlirbet a« it now isl) It oontains particlea that are 


impcrrvctly oxydatcd ; coDHeqni^nlly it has noilbcr ibo color uor 
proiwrtios of the best indigo. Continued be«lini{ would bring 
tbcMo to a proper i<l«t<^ ; but tt would cause tlie particles first 
OXfdated to imbibe au additional qiiuitily or oxygen, by which 
the color U too much deepened, and ihe orlide would be rejected 
in coiamcrec a» Imrnt. To avoid thii<, throw over the litjuid tt- 
cula a voiamo of warm watvr dotiblo the quantity of thi; fecula^ 
stirring it uU the wUle; by this moans the pvrfitct indigo will 
bi- prfci pita led, lliy olher held in auapenciOD. This waU-r i» 
drawn off, and limn nddvd, istc, ac above, by which tho green 
I'olor bocomc« a yellow brown, and the iudigo is rendered insol- 
iibloanil pmeipitated. That indigo may bu puro aiid brilliant, 
it should be twice washed— once in cold, and once in hot water. 
AlYor washing, allow the fecula to settle, then draw off tliu 

"The 1a«t pari8catioii now \* to mix the fecula wiUi another 
qnantity of water, in a vat having several laucct^i. While it is 
Buapeiidcd, the earths are precipiiated; draw off while stirring, 
and allow to settle. The last operation eonusts in putting the 
fecula in a coarse bag of Itemp or wt>ol, and this bag in an open 
baiikel to drain, placing weights upon it nnlil it becomes tightly 
oomprcssecl. These last operations are not requisite if a vciy 
common article is to be made^ but it is well to follow all the 
purifications. The increase in price will cover tho increase of 

" Indiyo Vat. —Description. — For every set of ton hands there 
should bo what are called a set of works. Thtwc formerly co«l 
about one hundred dollars or more, and were a vat or tank, 
made of plank two inches thick, well joined. Tbia vat is twenty 
feet square, stands upon posts four feet fVom the ground, and is 
kept tight by wedgen ilriven into tlio sleepers upon which the 
plank rests, The vat Ib three feet deep, and it* eallftd the steeper. 
Alongside of it is another vat, twenty feet by l*!n, occupying 
the space between the bottom of the sleeper and ibn ground, 
into which the water is drawn in which tho indigo is steeped 
when ready to be beat, or churned, as we may say. At the end 
of this lanl vat a small tank or cask must be placed, to furnish 
lime water in the process of beating. Tho liquor ifl drawn fn>m 
the steeper by a spigot at the bottom of the vat along thu beat<^r. 
Lengthwise of this is etrotcbed a beam, resting on it» upper 


,mm1 r«volvin^ on joaroalti, and ftirnii*hR(l with crOHs nrms, 
I llw ends of which are fixed open backot» without Itottoms, 
ntaiDing about two tcallom^ each. Two nii-n, MtAodinj; on this 
^beun, with a haiid*fiik« fixeil to the long boam, altomatolf 
B^ the open buckets right and Icft^ thus charning the liquid 
'mtilU brgins to show n Miic rccila. which is produced by email 
.ftutitiee drawn Trom the hme cask." 

tW IbUowing is tho method succewflilly used on the planta- 

im u St. John's Berkeley, Soath Carolina, to prepare a dye 

tiBtba wild and uaturulisvd indigo: 

"Cat the plant, pilt in a barrel, and cover with water. In 

! timx tfarea day» it coRimeiiGOM to foam, and it in then ready to 

Aiirw; take out the leaT(i«,and pms tholiquidoulof thorn. It 

v Kbaa to bo whipped up io a churn with a. stick made like a 

I duller. IVben it loams, a greased feather applied to tho sur- 

bet win check the foam. In order to test whether the procesH 

kfitlM^ntly adt-anctil and the blue color exlructod, it may be 

Mted in a whil« plate put in tho sunlight; the thickened 

twuiJii win be visiblo. About a quart of strong lye-water, or 

fae aaaked in water, should be first thrown in to aettte it. 

Ibb theald be dooe before it is chui-ned. If the coloring sub* 

Maee appeam to bo ttofBeicntly xepanited by the tvHt mentioned 

:lhm^draia the Mupcrnataut water carefully away. The ra- 

■ or aodimoDt, should be placed in a bag to drain. Tliia 

t the indigo. This indigo may subsequently bo moulded 

latoedcea. I have seen yam excellently dyed by it; also wool, 

wkMi was dyed before it was carded, and made into cloth, 

[(Mt.) The wood^ bavo been eagerly acArcbed for indigo 

inta daring the recent war. 

Tk« following proc««a of manufacturing indigo in Mmall qaan- 
tisi $K family nso is extracted (Vom the Sbutborn Agri- 

*CBt the indigo when the under leaves begin to dry, and 
r dew iM (HI them in the morning; put them in a barrel, 
^this with rain water, and place weight« on to keep it 
aadtr water ; when bubblee begin to form on the top, and tho 
r bogina to look of a rodUh color, it is soaked enough, and 
: be taken out, taking care to wring and M)ueese the Iobtos 
, an as In obtain all the strength of the plant ; it mnnt then 
itlmmod (which may be done by means of a tolerably open 


bMket, with a liandlo to raise it up and donii) until the liquor 
ie quit« in a foam. To Ofcertain whvtliur it ia done vnough, 
talco out a #pooiil'ul in a plato, and put a ainall quantity ttfverif 
strong lye to it. 11" it cnrdluit, the indigo is cIiTirnod enough, and 
3-0U mnpt proceed to brcalc thv liquor id tho barrel in thi- oama 
way, by putting in lyo (vrhiuh muHt l>o a« atroag as possible) by 
email qaantitiee, and coo tioaing to churn until it ia all eafflciently 
curdl&d ; care must be taken not to put in two much lye, as that 
will vpoil it. When it eurdleH fVeely with the lye it mtiat be 
Bprinklod well over tho U»p with oil, which immcdiatvly cause* 
tho foam to subsido, allci* which it must stand till the indigo 
eultles to tJio bottom oCtho barrel. This may be diBCoTorcd by 
the Appearance of the water, which must bo let off gradually by 
boring holes IJrat near the top, and alterward lower, as It con- 
tiniics to rtuttlo; wlivn ttii* water in all let olT, and nothing 
remains but tho mud, take that and put it in a bag (flannel ia 
the best) and hang it up to drip, afterward Hpr<.^adiIlg it to drj' 
on large dishes. Take care that none of the foam, which is tho 
fltrenglh of the weed, escapes; but if it rises too high, eprinklo 
oil on il." 

SvTon or eight speciea of indigo are found in tho 17Dit«d 
StatOB, most of which grow in the South. Thi' wild indigo, 
^Dt/er's baptisia,) common in IVnni^ylvania and other illddl« 
Slates, yields a considorable proportion of blue coloring matter 
of an iTiferior kind. (Fhira Cet^trica.) See Saptista, Amorpha 
and Robinia. 

Blue Dyes. — Tbo matorials employed i'or this purpo*« aro 
indigo, Prussian blue, logwood, bilberry, {Vaceinium myrtiUia,) 
Mer-btimefi, {Stmbacus nigra,') mnlberries, privet-berries, (it'i/u- 
atnim vulijare,) and somt! oDier berries whose juice becomes 
blue by the addition of a nmall portion of alkali, or of the ealta 
of copper. I ishall here dt'seribc tho other, or minor blue dym: 
To dye blue with such berries as iho above, we boil one posnd 
of them in water, adding one oonco of alum, of copperas and of 
blae vitriol to the decoction, or in their stead equal parts of 
verdigris and tartar, and pass the stuffs a sufficient time through 
the liquor. Wlieu an iron mordant akme is employed, a sl«el- 
bluo tint is obtained ; and when a tin one, a bine with a violet 
caat. The privct-borrius, which have been employed ax sap 
colora by the uard-painters, may bo extooHivoly uaud in tho 


^TiiBgorsilk. Tho Ixirrioeortho AfViciiDni(;btsliade(>Sb^iiHm 
fVHOUv) bavo been of lal« years considerably Applied to silk on 
ibtciMtinBat in prodacing varioua shadea of bine, violet, red, 
hfoni, (4c~, bat partioolu-ly noleU 

I iatrodnce tbe followin)( )!:ener«l directions, at the risk of 
MHM rep«titi'>D, teom an article in ibe Cbarleaton Courier dated 
fiowattfTiUe. 1862: 

Pint. It in im[tortant to cleanse tlie wool, or ottier iniiterini 
t» W dy«<l, IVom t^nciMo and nil foreign matlvr« whirb might 
fnvaai it (rom taking tbe dye. Wool inuiit bis well woaIiviI in 
KWp ead*, ritwiMl in wurui water, equccxcd n« dry lui 
and then pat wot into tbc dye. Cotton and linen mast 
k thvrongbly wot in boiling water.and tbennquoezed or wrung 
Mt of it and pal into the dye wet~ 

SecMMily. Use A copper caldron for all UgliL and delicate 
aim, and an inm pot for black and nil dark colon*. The shaitts 
tf oohir will be rcgiiliiti.-d by the ittrx^ngtb of the dye, the num- 
Wof timrc the article i» dipped, or the length of time it re- 
Mbw in the dye. 

Thirdly. Many dyea that will color cotton will leave wool and 
iscD aotiu^d, and some that will color wool deeply will dye 
(BttuB a rery light ctliade. 

FMrthly. What is iited for brightening and making tho 
•oIhs durable are called mordants. Tho murdnnts used hero 
■neoj^roa, (sulphate ofiroD,) blue vitriol, (ftnlpbatc of copper,) 
ilia, wheat bran, lye, and lime water. Tbo«e who cannot ob- 
tab ooppenu, UM the water trota one of the mineral springs, 
vUeh U atron^y impregnated with iron. 

Fifthly. The beM aeasons fbr dyeing with bark are the spring 
Mmmer, whil« the aap is in the tree Autumn is the beet 
lor dyeing witli lvav<w, and winter is tlie H«maon for dye. 
m^ with roots, b«c»iise the sap of tho tree then goes into the 

Sixthly. Bark and roots most be cat into small pieces; let tho 
OiUroo be two-thirds dlled with tbe pieces, then Oil up with 
*Bt«r, and boU for sereral hours until the color is as deep as 
Atnred. If It-avea and twigo are used, fill the boiler with them 
Md ooTer with wiiU-r, Two or tbroo boun* awady boiling will 
•xtract the color from bark, roots, au<I Iciivim. Then ittraiu off 
Ac liquid carefully from ibe sedimoot, and put it hack into m 


clean Mler, add to it lh« ainm or copporaii, or both, ncoonling < 
Uie color deeired ; let it bo comploidj diw«lvcd ntid nclt mixa 
Id th« dye, after which immerse the leet wool, yam, or clotb 
tho dyo, and proceed sccordiiig to the definite direotiotu 
eai-h color. By mixing dlfTeriMit bdrkit, rootH, find lcftTei> t'>-~ 
gcithor in the tutmo dyo u variety of sbudcA of difforunl colorii 
ftre obtained by tboHo who are skilled in the ut of prvpairing 
domestic dyee. The following named troca are much naed here 
fur djoiiig wool and cotton: 

Sotciarnifi, (^Lanrua Sasnnfras.') The bark and roots arc used 
for rlycing worsted a permanent and boaulifiil yt-liow an<l oraiigfl 
color. [Jsu a copper boiler nnd five ounces of alum to one 
pound of wool or wonstoii yam, 

Kalmia, (angusti/olia.) or dwarf laurel, dyes cotton ■ fine dnib 
color Um a copper boiler. Tho leaves and twigu of tho Kal- 
mia and about one tableapoonftil of copperaa to three gallons of 
dye. Scald the cotton material in thu dye fur twi-niy minutes, 
then Hhko in cold water and hung to dry in the air. 

Willow, (siitix ciprrala t) Thr hark dyc» wool and lioea ■ 
deep bliio black, and dyon cotton » dark sluto color. Ubo an 
iron boiler. For black, throe ounces of copperas to fourgalloDs 
of dye; for slate color, onu nunco of copperaa ia tiufficienL 
Boil in th» dyo for twenty iiiiinitutt, rinttu in cold water and 
hang to (try. The dyo miiy bo deopcnod by a n^petition of thu 
same process in frosh dye. 

Ked Oak, {Qiiercus sinuoaa.'] The bark and roots dye a fiao 
ahade of chocolate brown. Use an iron boiler and two ounces 
of copperas to fbur gallous of dye. lloU twenty minutes in the 
dye and riniw iu cold water. Thia dyes coUon. The Sfmnivh 
Oak dyoB anothvr »lmd<' of brown. 

Whito Onk, (^(jutrcus alba.') 1'hc bark dyes cotton load volor. 
Use an iron boiler; two ounces of copperas to four gallons of 
dye; scald in the dyo twenty mioat«e and rinse with cold 
water. Oak bavk will not dye wool. 

Pine bark, (all the variclic« found in our wood8,>dy« cotton 
BJntv color ; combined with the Kalmia, it dyes dove color. For 
each color, put one onnco of copporas to lour gallons of dye, 
and boil in it for twenty minutes. Itinsc tho slato color in cold 
water and the dove color in cold lye. 

Sweet Gum bark dyei« cotton do vo color. Umc a copper boiler; 


■ ipaalill of eopperafi to tliriN' gxllonn or Uyo, iinil «cu]il in Uio 
4yt far twflDty miniucsi rineo in cold water. To produc-« 
Mtflff thajf, riaso ihc cotton eluS in cold lyo-wat^r, and b&ng 
U ^i; is lh« air. 

fliliiii Com, illoktu Sorijhitm.') Tlie a««d dye« toool lead 
nitr, umI will not dye cotlon. Uso uo iron l>oilui-, n little cop- 
pnetsod rinee in ly«. 

Hsfiie, {AetT eampettrist) The b»rk dyoHboth wool and cot- 
In a fiae dark ttluide of |iurple. U§e so iron boikr and two 
MBCMof L-oppens to four gullone of dye; scald in bot dye for 
tviaty minattM and riiwo in cold water. 

Beach, (Fague SgliMttiea.) Tbu bark dyes dow color. Uso 
a iron boiler and one ounce of copperas to four gallons of dye ; 
mat in cold water, or in lye for anotber shade. 

Sumach, {RAM Oiabnim.') Tbe leaves and berries dye black. 
Gw an iron boiler nod four ouncvK of copporati to four j^Uoiih 
<f 4y«. Boil tbv eoltou yarn or dutJi in tbv dyv for un hour, 
ami rioaa in cold water. (See " Sumacb," for dyo» williout cop- 
fnt; rinc^r and old iron E>crTO tho plac« of copperas.) 

Walnut, {Jugians n^ra.) The bark and roots dye LoUon 
6mm bcDwn and root color, according to the proportion of bark 
wtd root* and copperas uMtd. Tbo leaves boiktl into dye color 
ottoa ptirplcand wool bUick ; when omkI without boiling tbe, 
kant dye wool fawn oolor. The j^en shells of the ftall ^rown 
■•tsdye black, with coppenis. What is dyed black roust be 
amtd in cold water; the cotton to be dyed purple must bo 
riuad in lye. The fawn, bn)wn, and root color inuitt be riiLHCil 
is mU water. The proportion of coppurns uxvrl tor blnt-k is 
two IMIMW8 to fbor ^llons of dyo; for the other shades, uso 
■■eh Ims copperas. 

To Bake a cold dge for wool, fill a tab with alt«mat« layers 
tf walnut [eares and wool, then pour on water till all is covered. 
I next day take out the wool and dry it in the sun, th<>n ro- 
il in another tab with iilternni« layers of frcch walnut 
iMraa. Strain off tho witier from the old walnut leaves and 
it over the wool and fresh walout loaves i let it remain 
till tbe next day. Ilepcal this proeoss for one week, ixtd- 

1 am Bocb water, from day to day, as to make the dye suffi- 

■t to cover the wool and fresh leaves. Thia is a finc^ pcrtna- 
it/<i»N colored dye. 


Uaddcr dycA iroo/ n,^. Mix four qii»rU of wlieut bran wit 
four fTiill'fiiH iif witUtr, anil net it to ftTmcnl, When it i» qnit 
eour, .itrniii ott Ibo wati^r aiii] dissolve in it u. lump oi' alum 
sixe of s fowl's ogg. Sot the liquid on tho firoio a copper kettlg 
and just bofort.' il boiln mix well into it a half pound of ft-esE 
miiddor for every pouni of wool. Then pat into tbo dye 
wet wool or worsuid atuff to be dy<dd, and lot it remain In 
roeretcd in Ihedyeforaii hour, turning and pntHHing it frvquuntlyj 
during whicli hour tliu dyo miiKl i)o ki-pt vury bol, but niunl nc 
boil, lent the color should iio larnJKhud. Whon tho wool is taktvi 
from the dyo pot, it inm<t be rinKod immediately iu cold strong 
lye, or in liinw watur, and then dried. 

Sj>ani»h brown in used for dyeing fotton red. Put a pound 
ui' <Spsoifrb brown, powdered, into a little hag, and rub it oat in 
a j^allon of hot water till the bag is completely emptied of its 
ooutunts. Then put tlie cotton yarn iiiU> llie painlod water, 
and rub the oolor into Uiu yarn till uU th« (s>li>ri»g maltor is 
tranjirerrod from tbt! water to tlio j'ani. Afttr wtiick, put two 
tnbl(ii<pi>on»fu1 of linaeod oil into the wator and boil tho yarn in 
il for fifteen minnti-s, then bau^ the yum to dry. li' linseed oil 
vnnnot bo obtained, boil the painted yarn iu new milk for fifteen 

fiolferinii fink. Cut u piece out of the end of u pumpkin 
largi^ enough to admit Iho band, take outall the «ccdn and leave 
tho Htrings in. Mash jHtkcbonics into pulp and till the c»vity 
of the pumpkin with them, atir them np well with the slrings 
and put the worsted yarn into tho mixture, then cover it up 
close with the pieoe of pumpkin that wan cut out. Thv next 
day take out the yarn and dry it in Ihn «ir; when dry, put tbo 
yarn buck into the pumpkin ast licfure, and cover it up again till 
next day. Repeat this proccNS every day till tho desired shade 
of pink is obtained, then rinse the wontted out in eold, strong 
Tinegar. and dry it for use. It will take a week to dye the 
deepest ahade of pink. 

GlycKria torixf.nto»<t GrowH in pine landn. Fl. Jnne. 

Uer. and de L. Diet, de M. Mod. 387. In Pondicberry, this 
is given to hor»es in place of oats. M^-m. du Muiwum, vi, 326. 

TOltKEYPEA; GO.VTS HUE; CATGUT, (r.yAro^ta Kir- 
^iniVina, Ph.) Vieiiuiy of Charleston ; K.C; grows in dry soils. 
Fl. July. 


laodlej'a Ued. Flor». 244 ; Gnffith, Ued. Bot. 238. The moU 
mnued bj- Indiane, and art- now employed in popular prac- 
tice M ■ renntfu)^ ; a dcoocUou lit said to act na powerfullv and 
M*IBc*enllj' OM Iho pink root, (^fj^Va.) AttentioD in iitviivd 

Or. Wood, in Ibo 12tb £d. V. S. Di«p., qiiotm from tho Am. J. 
liato-, xxviii, 218, an ac«oant of tho expcrionce of I>r. B. 0. 
Jmiw, of Atlanta. Ga., with this plant, ile used it with advan- 
t^w u milil. Htiinuliitiug tonic and lasative, and be foaod it 
uptiallf uncfDl in typhoid fevur. Ho pre[iiari.^ It by boiltog 
ligkt ounces of tbu plant with two of Ruimsc artitux, in foar 
qouU of water to a quart, and «lniining; adding, wliAii tho 
|ref«ration b to be kept, an cqial bulk of dilDt«d alcohol or 
budy, and half its weiglitof eu^r, and macerating for M-vcrat 
<■;«. The done is one or two tablcepooosfltl. 

BASTARD INDTflO, tAmorj'lut/niluma.'L.) Florida,S.and 
\. CaroHoa, and Mifisif><^ippi, 

Thifwaa formerly tii!«d ta Carolina ai* no indigo plant, and 
cMltnue« to bo ext«nHiT«ly cultivated in Britain as an ornsnum- 
talihnb. ^ilxon'fl Iturut Cyelopwdia. 


{Riiinia fnaidaeaaa, L.) Grows in the mountains of N. and 

S. Cunlina; vicinity of Charleston; colloclwl in lower St. 

Jolm* B<TkrI<-y, ooar Ward's plantation; Now born. Fl. May. 

Itf-m. £l6m. do Bot. The lluw^nt arc- aromatic; and umollioitt. 

Aaaoti-epamiodic eyrup ii> prepared from tlium; and G«ndrin 

■tatea Diat when given to infants, it proda<.-c« sleep, vomiting, 

•■4 acme ti men dight convulsivo movements; he relates a camt 

vfare it was swallowed by boys, in whom aero-narootie effocta 

wtn induced. Mi^t. and do L. Diet, de M. Mod. vi, 101 ; Desfont, 

Tnit« dea Arbrea, ii, 3ft4 ; Ann. d'Hort. ix, 168; 

Mont, xxir, 68. 

Dr. Wood, in tho I2th Ed. U. S. Disp., atatM that tho bark of 
the root is raid to be tonic, and in largo doaea, emetic and pur- 
gative, and he rojforts (torn the Ann. de Tberap. 16C0, p. 64, 
tkrcv owea of )>oiM>ning, in children, tVora eating tho root; they 
all rYCOToriKl; the aymplomn were like thotw produced by ao 
owrdtHO of Ik'lladonna. One of them who lIap[H^ned lo bo 
laboring ander intemiiitont fevor at tho lime, had no return of 
Um patuxysm. Ue addn, *■ these Ibcta render caution advisable 


in ttio UHC <^f tlio rool, yet are ^SO well onlcalntM) to stiniulato 
jiiiiuiry." Millt kltlos thttt "ibe boNt bow8 of thu Iniliuns were 
'iniidd iif lhin lrc«." 

Tbo iiinor bark i« tibrouA, ftiid may bo npnn into cordngo; tfa«' 
wood i» of B fine, (.'umpaot griiin, and i« used for mntiiifncluring 
puiposps. M«m. BUT la Itobinia, Uom. do la ijoc. d'A;:;rict]lt. 
1786; PraD^ois, liOttors od the Uobioia, fane, 1803 Griffith, 
in his Mod. Bol. 239, eaye tbat it has not received Eufficiont 
atteution, for " every part is endowed with eoue good (loality. 
On account of \m duriibtlity, tbo wood ix miieb um.i1 for trvtf- 
iiailH in ttbip-bnitding ; Ibv Ivnvev, prepared in the samo mHonvr 
118 those of the indigo, may be omployod as a subatitnto; tbey 
afford an oxcellf^nt nourisbmont for catllo, either in the &-eah or 
ID the dried fltute, Willioh, Itomestio Encyc. i, x. Grottnier 
(Dmc. do la Chino) wyx that thoy are uitnd by the Chini'eu to 
product! Ihn IioutiliAil yi-)low color mi ri'inarkablv in tbi^ir ttiiltH. 
It in propari'd by roasting half a pound of the half expanded 
flowers in a copper pan over a gontio firo, and stirring tAom 
couliuuallyi after turning yellow, water is poured over, and it 
is boiled till !l aequires a deep color. It i» then iilraiited, and 
hiilf an ounoii of iiliim, and llio rmmc iiuunllty of «bell time aro 
added, when the dye i« St for use. It i^ possible that thifl author 
may have confounded this plant with the H.flaM. M^rat says 
the flowers furnish a palatable dlfeb when fried. The seod8 are 
noinewhat acrid, but afford a largi^ quantity of oil oti expregnion. 
Hy Infbaion in water, they btieoine perfeuily mild, and contain 
an cxrullent farina. 

Thin tree, both the leavcM and flowers of which are beautil^il, 
has attracted great attonlion in England, and its eoeds are 
largely imported, to bo planted a« a hedge and ornamental 
jilant, and for various purposes. Almost a mania prevailed 
npon the Bubject, "No other ti-ee grows moi'e rapidly than 
thla, excepting oorac speeiea of the willow and the poplar." A 
HDoker at Chinwlik grew twenty feet in one season, with a ctr- 
eumferoncv of three iuchcK. When the tree is felled suckers 
spring iVom the trunk in groat profusion. 

Lar^e quantities are exported to Liverpool for fat<tentng bolts 
in Abi|i-building. 0. W, Johnson and olhers write of illbuM: 
"The wheelwrighl and the coach- builder have employed it for 
azle-trooK of esirriagos; Iho turner has nsod it for various pur- 




;4f Lib art, and hxs be«n ddigbt«d with ito aioooth loxiuro 
tai buutitully Julktilt- »lraw color ; forieo-makent h»To iiitcd it 
br nil fcndng and linrc Tuiind it to «tiiit<l \vut and dry near 
CbcgTODiid bcIl«rthsD any other timber id common use, and to 
Waidorable us cedar i landscape gardcoere have planted it for 
■ Mnbinntion of oroameDt aod Qtility. * * Farmers might 
tiyitfor thr formation of hedg^H, uiid were they to trutiHplant 
iiAiMBtbcnurmiry nhvnit has n Itvight of alKtiit four fci>t,tiioy 
•mU find it forming a hodgu quite equal in oompaotneoB, 
Knaglh, economy and niuiageableneae, to hedg«e ooneisting of 
DMatHl approved pUnta. and a hedge available an a fence far 
MriMT thaa any other, and oapnble of being ruiMtl to any de- 
anhle rlevation. The flowcrv of tho nuacii) tree are ased in 
Si. Doninf^ for making a diHlillod liquor, nnd il« roots, and 
Imtm^ and juic«a contain a eonsidorablo proportion of sugar." 
IHtea'c Eocyc. RuraJ. The plants are easily pro]>agnled by 
pooriag Ixiiliug water over the beana in the fall ; let them re- 
Bsh twrnty-tour hour* and plant. They grow mix or Mtvon 
foA tba first season. 

TliclbUowing highly interecting account of this tree, and tho 
■■ia of cnltivatlng it in the United States, ia given by Dr. 8. 

-Tbe eoltjvatioo of the locu»t iroo on Long Itiland, and in 

«tto parte of the Slate of New York, hat been nltended to 

«tth considerable profit to the agriculturul inti'reet, but not 

witfc that Mmcstnees which the importance of the subject de- 

■andiL Tbb may have arisen l>om the difficulty of propiu 

pling it by tranii[rfantiug, or not understanding how to raine it 

lhHlb«>eed. •*•••• 

'Tbc liK'Uitt ia a tree of quick growtli, the wood of which U 

kard, darahio, aiid principally n^ed in nhip building. To a 

mstry itituatM hkn tlio United Stattnt, with an extensive lino 

tf aeaBoaot, pcot-tratl^d by numerous bays nnd giving rise to 

■uy Ktrat rivers, whose banks are covered with forMts of ex- 

Hancdinaiy growth, whose soil is fertile, rich and variegated, and 

rtoM olitoate la agreeably diversified by a gradation of lein- 

p«atars; to Boch a country, inhabited hy an industrious and 

MlcrprUing people, commerce, both foreign nnd dumcHlic, 

ABM eoDatitote one of the principnl em|)ioyiatio(s. As long as 

iWeoBDtfy posHmes the nvciiwary timber for ehip-bnitding, 


ftnd the other advantages which our xitiintiOD uffurdii, th« j 
OnimvTit will cnnliniio to bo formHsblp to nil oilier power 
W« Iiiivc within oatxjlreu four mntonuls neccesarv for the cob 
plvtion of strong; uod durable niiral i>truciur«e. These arc tt 
live-oak, locuet, cedar and pine, which can be abundantly nupp)!* 
The former b beat for the lower limbei-K of « ship, white 
locuat and cedar form the upper-workn of Ihc framr. Thu pin0~ 
SuppliuH thu tinibur fur dui^k.H, iiiaHtH and ifpai%. A vessel built 
of livo-oak, lovuot and ci-Jar, will 1a«t longw than if GonF<trucled 
of any other wood. Xaval archiiocturo has arrived iu this 
place, and olhor parts of the United States, lo as gn-ul j)etv 
fiictton, perhaps, as in any other oounLry ou the globv. Oa^| 
' fir-built fVi^ates' have been compared with the Britiffh oak, and^ 
Htucxl the test; and in Hailiti|r. nothing hfts iKinullcd the flt-ct- 
nosB of some of our i>hiirp veNBoR The pi-VMrvalion and bullt- 
vatioD of these nvcceeary artii.-lc» in xhip-building is a matterof 
t((.-riuiiii consideration. It might not be amiss to suggei«t to thf 
Cungniss of the United States to prohibit the (.-xpiirUiLion o 
them. The pine forests appear almost iiiexhauKiibIc, and th« ^ 
will bo BO ill all pi-ubiibility for many gcnvratione tocomo; bsjH 
the stately cedant of Mobile and llu- lofty Ibrosts of Gcori^ia, 
where the live-oak is of a sturdy growth, begin lo disappear 
before the axe of the woodsman. The locust, a native of Vi^H 
ginin iind Maryland, is iit such demand for litreign and dume«ti« 
coDsiuuption Ihnt it iit called for before il tun attain its full 
growth. It has born cultivated as far eastward as Ithode 
Inland, but begins to depreciate in quality in that Htate. IriAeobs 
attack it there, which are not so plenlifully found in IhiN Stato, 
nor its native situations, Thwse give the limber a wonn-eaten 
appearance and render it loss useful. The looust has been ex- 
tensively cnltivaled in tho soulhorn parts of the State of New 
York, but the call for it has been so great that few treen have 
attained any size before they were wanted tor use. Hence they 
are in great domain], nnd of ivady ttale, and no ground can be 
appropriated for any kind of limbi^r with no muib advantage 
as locust. Beside its application to ship building, it is exieo- 
sively used for fencing; and for posts, no timber will last longot^fl 
in or out of tho ground. On Long Inland, where wood ni 
ecaree and fencing limber in great demand, the lociiHt becomes 
of much local importance from this circumstance alone, 


pM^rat nf iu greal fionftnmjiliOD In ihift dty among elilp* 

kiOden. In naval plraetnrw ii i^ nut vxclniuvdy npptiod to tbc 

kwrior or fntm«. In many pUcra where i*trvngth is wanting, 

btaH limber will b«>ar a utrain vrhich would break oak of the 

mm* itae. Thua an oak tiller has bc«n known lo break nvar 

tkt hoA of the ru(]<]i:r in a gale of wind, which haa uovcr Itap- 

f«id with a lociiMt one. Titlern for larg« »ea vthntulx arc now 

■tliimly nuulo of IovukI in Now York. It in (hi- beat timber 

•Im Air pine or iree-nailis (i-ommonly culled LruiinvlH,) and pre- 

ir^e to Ibe b«at of oak. The troc gent-rally growH i^lraight, 

with few nr no larx? limbs, and tho fibreit of the wood am 

'.I and |>anklli:l, which makes it split w«]l for making trvc- 

-^.-, u'itb little or do 1os8 of rtubstance. These aromadu iu 

a>iu>i(UnM« quantities for exportation. 

'Tb«kKui^l tree doL-s Mill War tranapUnting wull in thin part 

qfcar country, l>ut ibi--* in all prohabiliLy ariHen front the custom 

ft tutting off tho roots when taken np for that pai-poM). Moat 

•f tht TOO?a of the locuHt are long, cylindrieal iind run hoHzoo- 

HOf MA far nuder the euiliuie. In transplanting, so low of the 

nwt* are left to the body of tho troo mmoved that little or uo 

nppon ia given to the top, and it consequently dies. If caro 

vu lakan not to di<«troy so much of the roots a much larger 

poporti^D of thoMo traniiplante'] would livo and thrive. So 

fftti has bc«a th« difflouliy iu raising the locust in this way 

UUmoiher method of propagating it has b«en generally ro- 

MMd UL Whcuvvcr a large tree was cut down for unv, the 

pBMdforaom* distance around waa plowed, by whiuh vp«- 

ntkn the rooia nvar tbu tuirfaco were broken and forcKid ap. 

Fmn these roots snckors would ohoot np, and tho ground soon 

hMDtne Gowred with a grove of young trees. Those, if pro- 

UMMllroin cattle by being fenced in, would grow mo^t rapidly, 

tai tha roots eontinuing to extend, nen sboota would ariso, 

udm tlie oonrso of a few yvar^ a thritly young forvnl of fooust 

biw ha produced. Tho leaves of the locust are so agreeable to 

toma and cattle that tJio young trees must bo protected IVom 

iWir approach. When growing in groves they shoot up .'Straight 

ttdtleoder, aa If striving to out-top each other, lo receive tho 

Mtot banefit tirom the rays of a genial sun. 

' Another diffii-'uUy has arisen in propagating the locust from 
iaability to raisa it from the seed. The ewed docs not alwaj-a 


como to porfection in this pari of the Stiitu of New Yrtrk, 
if it does, it will oot epruut, atik-ss pivpnix^d bl^furc planting 
Tb« otetbod best adapted to tbie purposo was propostsl by Di 
Samael Uard; but it is not generally kuowD,or if known, ie nof 
oeoally attcDdcd to. Wbeo tbis atuill bo well undcretood «c 
practiced, tbe locu&t will be easily propagated, and tben, ins 
ofraiKlng gn^'oit of thom, llio wa.tlu ground along fuiittiti an^ 
placoe wboro the Lombardy poplar uncumbont tliocarih wit 
be selected to transplant them, as by having them separate 
and single there will he an econoniy in using the soil, the tt 
will grow much better, and the timber be stronger. 

On account of iu rapidity of growth and it^ use in making 
citMB-tius on railroads, I would suggest that it bo planted ulon^g 
railroad ombaiiknients for this purpose. ^| 

ROSE ACACIA, (Jiotinia tiispida ; also, Kd. rosM.) • Moun- 
tains of Georgia and North Carolina. Chapman. ^ 

Wilnon iipi-ukif of it ai* a "remarkably beautiful ahnib." lUH 
ftbootK of cat-h year, or newoHt and frt'shtntt twigis carrj- tho 
floworv ; so that its old wood may hv annually pruned away to 
any extent whicb the taate of the oultivatoi- or tbe sitaation of 
tho plantM may require, The flowei-s are lar^, odorless, and of 
a bi'autiful rose color. See, alHo, nearly all the En^isli and 
Kcotc'h authorities. 

" Dr. Bur<]'» method of preparing the floeda was to pour boil- 
iug water 00 them, and let it stand and cool. The hard, outer 
coal would thus be softened, and if the seed swelled by ihia 
operation, it might be planted, and would soon come up." 

CLAMMY LOCUST, {Rahinia iwomi, V«nt.) firow* among 
the mountains of ,S. and N. C, and in (iuoigia. Fl. May. ^ 

Mijr. and du L. Diet, dv M. Mud. ti, lUl. The young branches^ 
ikfTuril an abundant, glossy exudation, secreted by little super- 
licial glands, which is dissolved hy other; Vauquelin considers 
it a peculiar product: An. do Chim. .txvil, 223. Chevalier, 
however, doubts it: Diet, dea Drogues, ili, 15. 

JAPAN CLOVKR; WILD CLOVRR, (i«t;w«i«a gtriata, 
Hooker and Arnolt.) hitroduccd ; Mi»!t. to X. C. 

This plant has rocontly (1868) atlrucied grx-at attention as a 
now foragi! plant, springing up cvorywhcro and attracting uni- 
versal iiHjuiry from farmers and planters in every portion of (he 
Southern couDtr}'. I have received lettorci from a numher of 


IftnMM Kxktng tor inform»tion ooncorning it, lu it sromod to 

[bfealb* placo of other plaots, ami wiiHt^-oi]ily cgtt«n by horses, 

lcMl» Mid lio^ It cau«C8 8li;;lit Milivation ill the ti^rmor. It 

[pMra abanctaotly on waste lands, under pine Ba[)linga, and 

<mt joint, out anJ B«rniuda grassct^. It ia a mi-ttoko to 

i», koweviT, iJukl tl Ut of rooont iiitr»dii<-tioii, *» my 

thni4 Ur. ir W. IUvuiidI, of Aikvn, S. C, hud noticed it in St. 

Jalui'* ftl^^ltdc}', 8. C, many years sinui;, and I htA mnt him 

\ ifsmnaas from Fairfield Dintricti S. C, fiftwii years ago. Ur. 

S. bsTin^ aaoertainod that it was a Lcspedeza has r<»cently 

abuintd iJi« specific name fVom Frof. <iray, and the formt^r, in 

IB ■rticle written fn the Aiken Press, fir^t proposed the name 

fifiii Clover for it, a« it iM a iintivo of that, difitaiit (country. 

Dr.ioo. Rmchman has aUo made it thu i>iilijcct of a c-ommiinica- 

tin ia the Charleston Coaricr. 

It covers the oarih as with a carpet of greon ; it is highly 
■Mrkking and has prored a great acqniaition to our people. 
Tbt teed in not winged, and it inuHt he rapidly propagated 
Ikissgfa the in)itmni(intalily of animalx. Sue, uho, Dr. L. B. 
Bocknan's paper before the Agricnlt. Club of Augnvta, Ga., 
UKl I introdnee tbi; following vlip x^ aepeeimen ofnumorona 
Mtkn concerning the plant. It is ih>m the Laurensrille {S. C.) 
'W34 dmyr. — A new grii^, wbSeh la generally nallivd in Ilii» 
' ncttoii by the name of Wild ClOTer, ii npHnging up luxuriantly 
■H erer this district, aud, wo s«e fVom our excbaugo«, all over 
At Southern States. It growe almost everywhere, and swms 
leiake hold even on the washed and galled parts of land, aa if 
it voaM redeem both the looks and fertility of the country. 
It tpptaiv to be a dwarf clover, is very thick set, and covers 
lb» earth with a b«auiiful carpet of green. Wo bare beard 
that a single root SMid* out as many aa &ix hundred branchca. 
It it mncb rebshed by calUo, and is aaid to be ox terminating 
tk« Benaoda, Joint, Sodge, and all other grasson. We soo that 
it li attracting much attention in Middle Georgia." 

A frtend iu Urangebnrg writes : " The plant grows best on a 

lick day Mil, but doea well on sandy landa — and even in the 

, vp to the roola of trl•«t^ but is not seen on lands workM 

IvUta ft year or two. It nOTnetimes grows to two feet high. 

■The 8C )6ttthew*s planters (where it abounda) speak of it as a 



ble*tinii,a» tbddor hwi beon «carc«, and it pau oai very enrl 
and cuttli; un<t horvci arv fnniJ of il ; itllhough, liko Clover, i 
MiliviiteH thorn al first- I h»vo it lawn with a number of mnli 
and cattle foedinj; on it ; but like rye tbey do Dot appear 
destroy it." 

Mr. Itavenel lias publisbed an article on thiti plant in " T 
Land wo Love," 1668, January and February. I have exai 
ined tlic rooto, nbicb are long and fibrous, and whieli p«ni!ti 
and niiiirinh won in Huiidy roadi) and in yiirdK. The HOod nhoiild. 
bu gathered lor oulc. 

»OLLAK-PLANT,(J?Ai/nco5(rt (omcnfMa?) Diffuaed in d 
pine lands. 

This plant, receiving its uamo probably from the Hhnpc of 
tJie leaf, in re{iiitbd, in the neighborhood of Aiken, S. C., and 
elmtwhcrv, to bi3 a valuahlu agent in arresting troublesome 
diarrhcea. A toa is givon Hovcral timm a day. Several casea 
bavo come to my knowledge whoi-o it was sucocesfully em- 
ployed — no doubt ou account of the tannin contained in it, a« 
is evident Ikim the taste. 

Grows abniidantly 


TARK, ( Vicia aativa, Linn. Walter.) 
around Ch»T-k-8loii. N. C. Fl. June. 

Id England, a decoction of the sooda in water is nwd as i 
eodorific in small-pox and measles. The sc-ede aro a good fotxl 
Tor ptguonM. Fl. Scotica, 3!>(> ; Mitr. and de L. Diet, de M. Med 
vi. 892. 

GAIEDEN BEAN, (ndafaba.) Cultivated. 

Piium sativum. Pea. 

Great uho ia made of the varieties of the pea on onr planta- 
tions in South Carolina, aa artieles of food for men and auimala. 
Tliv ttpwien eullrd lliu oow.pea is most in um\ 1 have been 
unablv to find any aoenrute hotanicnl dcicription of this very 
valuable plant. It scom», howrror, from my examination, to 
be included under the genus Vicia. 

A soup made of the eow-pea, which is a very oommon di«h 
at the South, is much used by nursing women to inci-eanu tho 
amount of milk, as it is believed to be endowed with «ome 
speciiil virtues as a galactagogiie. It fallod ooni])lot<;ly in a 
ease where I had it uaud most assiduously. Hav, also, cantor 
oil plant. 



Darid Dickaon.oncof ihcinoutuccessfulplaiitoniin Gootxia, 

|ta kt« (client, rvpiiltlUbiil in So. Oultivutor lor Jaiimnry, ISGS, 

»j« tk&t tho chioi' thing added to the Hoil by a clavor crap, ure 

I atbes And ammooift. " In the Sonth tbo cow-pea will anintw 

lh>Mawead,irsow» early, manured with two huudreil poiinds 

'tf Pcnriftn Goado, and turned iindur frt>ni tUfl l^>t of July to 

I Ife Ut dI* Aiigufll: Chun at tbo samo time soudcd again wtdi 

pMi, iraiiK DDc hundrexl poondM guano. Food oti' with hogs and 

kef nttlo, which will gcDorally pay for all oxpcnnoH, and leave 

tbc land twenty dollars better. * * All ai;knowIedg« the 

(■fHiruncv of tarninK under ^rren crops. Thv only thing lost 

If tfceir dryih); is ihwr ammonia." " Tbo farmers of the Sorth- 

tn 8tatea arc improving ihiiir laudtt nlmonl. nniirvly l>y in- 

(iwoing their snpplivK of ammonia, growing hay. clover, oatM 

wd lyc, and k<-oping stovk to oat thc6c i^rope annually ; not 

piniig bgt losiD;;; phosphates and jjaininfj; nitro)|^n — ^making 

Ih* laad rich, and the land making the owner rich. Ammonia 

■ Ike foandatjon of EngUtilt agriculture. Ammonia ttxtm lh« 

ttniMpbor^, ammonia from Pi-nivian Gniuio, ammonia from the 

bjnip, kay anil dovcr, etc., rclumiu}; merely the bono earlh to 

tb BoU, which ha< been extracted by ammonia, which last is 

iflMMaaily increasing in its relative amoant." 

Amfkkarpa tnanmca. Grows in rich lauds. Fl. July. 
B[L Bou Med. Notes, it, 322. The subterranean pod is cutd- 
' m«4 a« a vegetable. 

liiwAa ktfpofftnt.} Brought by tJie nogrOflafVvm Africa. El. 

VcT. and de L. Diet, de U. M^.; Supplem. 53, 1M&. Tbo 
Ant prwwTes ita genainativc powers for forty \-ears. Boudich 
BxecR. 392. lArgs qnantitiett are exportfxl from Senegal on 
aMowit of the oil whieli ii> expnsMcd from them, and which is 
mmA rained. Erraandel ''on thn cultivation of the groundnal, 
»i it* emitloymcnt an a »nbvtituti- for eoffeo." Journal de la 
trr. Rlrang. is, 169 ; Ihi Buc. Mom. on the a«» of A. hypog., 
rxamination of iu oil, (in French ;) aee Journal de 
I. viii, 231 i Itivoli, Lettre sur I'Araohis hy|iogieA, Milan, 
linnmcn. Notice sor I'ArachiA, Hontpellier, 1838, Ao- 
■ iM^ng to the analysis of Pagen and Henry, it in very difficall 
Ibe oil to become rancid. Jonrual do Chira. Hrd. i. 435; 


Add. d« Hist. Xat. iv, 206 ; Gumin, MtSin. cnir I'Arachis. Bil 
liotb. I'hysicfl JBcon. i. 145 ; T<»wor, Mem. s«r I'Araeliisi, A^nj 
Don. Tlio si!«d», parc-hi?il uod ground, t-»n wiUi ililliculty 
ditttiuguished tVom cotToe, a* I huro niy»c)f cxficrivnced. 
eome [lortioiis of South Carolina it It employed »» ii KubniUut 
Tilt! okra i Hibincia fst-ulenfu*) sciTes ibe samo purpose 

lu a iQlier from Mr. W. li. Siiume, dal«d Woodlands, If 
ba wriuw a.* followH: 

" Yoii Hponk of the ^ouridfiiit tt» a t>uh^iiiule for coffee, 
am I'OlTeo it it » very inferior thing lo ilH uae H.t chocolal«. Tl 
munufncluro of chocruluto rakiMi i>iit of tbc groiindnut alone ar 
without a particlu of cocoa, ih an immcniw anil niM!>t jirofltable 
part of ^'ortbuni manutaL'turo. Wl' mslii' it in my family of • 
quality not inferior to any you buy. To prepare it ibr tho table 
it in bcuiun in a mortur. At the North, 1 have beea told that 
tho hullri art! ground np with the mil, and I do not dnuht that 
this in an improvi-nient ux qiiulifying ihu I'XCeuding riobiieiMof 
tho DDt, which I have uttiiully found too rich prepared iw vhooo- 
late in our way." 

The groundnut and bene make rich aod DUtritious soup, aud 
act aa subetitutee for meat. They are oft«n parched, and beaten 
np with sugar, and served as a i^-ondiraeut or deoscrt. The 
grouudiint is cultivntvd to some extent in tho .Southern ijtates, 
and great use in made of it on the plantatioDs aa an article of 
food, and for various doraeotic purposes; it is exported with 
profit, but troublesome to prepare. I am not aware of any uno 
belnj^ made in the Carolinaa of the oil which it aflbrdH on cx- 
proftHion. The authorities cited above will alford much valuable 

The above was published in my report on Med. Botany of S., 
1&49. Since tho war it is lar^^ly employed. The superinteod- 
ent of tho RockKsh Factory in Nonb Caralina, writes that ho 
has "umd the poanut oil by the side of the sperm, and that 
it works ihlly as well," 

The N. C. Advertiser publishca the following: "The vine, 
wben the pea is removed, makes an exeellent forogv for oattle, 
said to be equal to the best Northern hay- From tho nut ia 
expressed a valuable oil. During the wor this oil was exten- 
eivcly nned in our maehiuo shops, and its lubrieatory propertiett 
are pronounced hy competent authority to be superior to ihoso 


I id vbalo oil, for tho reason that it does not gam si all. Oue 
: fMHty or ibe oil U «xt«iiaively <Mii|ilaye<l In tfau ix>nii>oai- 
tte at ntMltcines; ttDath«r itt iuxmI for burning purp0i<R>i, und 
pHMMOt the virtuo ol' not emokioff; while a third makes a 
imOj excellent salad con dim out. Such, and »o varied and 
ivprtaot, arc the uses to which thie Nntple product eao be 
4nMed — usee which the uninfonned, who have, perhaps, re- 
pt4«d it only in the lij(hl of an imlifri.'^tiblu bulb, would ocvur 
■ifeet to proceed (torn it« cultivation." 

IW oil waa expretuwd by iwruw pniitoure by parties nvar 
Bicaittf^ 8. 0. Mr. Dyton obtaiDvl Ibrvo quarts oi' oil from 
aUshd o( the nuls. 

Dr. Wood stateo that it is » non-drying oil and will not do 
Wpsinting. but ii* used for various purposes in the arts, for 
Isbrieating maehiiiL^ry and in the manufacture of woollen cloth; 
aid vrald scri'e, adds Dr. Wood, for burning in lamp*, giving 
cna a better light than aperia oil. Am. J. Pharm., July, 18G0. 
" - "I *p., 12th Kd. 

KT LOCUST; HONBY LOCUST. (G/c<fi/j«-Ain friacfla- 

Hm, L.) DiffuMd. Am far west u Uieaiasippi ; I have seen it 
!i tiM k>«er and upper districU of South Carolina ; N. C. 

Bmt is aonelimcH mftde by fermenting the sweet pods while 
Auk. Tho pom of the wood lire very open. When perfectly 
HMieed, tbo wood is extremely fanrd. It is far iuferior to the 
Uadk walnut or wild cherry for cabinet-making. Hedges of it 
I m nodervd impenetrable by its long thorns. Uichaux, in 
Finwr'e Eneyc. MilU' StAtistios of S. C. 

TILP SKXXA, {Gauia Marglantiica, L.) Grows along the 
laatsof rivem; vitiuity of Charleitton; N. C. Fl. July. 

Fnat'it ElemM. Mat. Mc<I. 13I>; Griffith'* Med. Bot. 261. It is 

mU to be a« vafe and aJ* certain in it« operation a« the import«d 

, bat tuore apt to gripe ; thiit may bo oorrccU-d by infusing 

I wed or aoine other aromatic with the Icavos. It is pre- 

ffmd in large quantities by the Shake^^ and is generally coU 

battd alter the seeds ripen; one ounce of the leaveo ih added 

Iteoae pint of hot water, of which the doae ia one tw throe 

repeated. I have npecimens of the leaves of the offi- 

|<taal Kcona, whieh is oullivalcd successfully by Mr. W. Locaa, 

p( Saoth Carulinn, fur use on bis plantation. He says that it 

I not appear to degenerate. 


STYPTIC WKED ; FLORIDA t'OFFRE, (Caima oiyiJmtaliSi 
I,. Catsia C^roliniana, Walu) Common aroiuid old bnildinfi 
colUvf^ ill SI. Jobo's; Tininilf of Cbai'leatou; M. 0. It u) 
coming ii post to thu farmer. Fl. .Inly. 

M^>r. and do L. Diet, du M. M(>d. ii, 130; Mitrograve, in 
Hist, of Urasil, menlionit it an s rcmisly in tlio priiiioit of Ten 
omona animalB and in strangury, in the .Siipplcm. to MiiTal, 
150, 1846, properticB arc ascribed to it similar to tbow of ih« 
fiirsula, which is diuretic, acting on the lymphatic Byntcm, 
employed in obetmclions, debility, dropsy caneod by derange-' 
nieiit of the digestive nrgann, and n8 » vorn)ifiig« aleo; forty 
grains, parchrd likf colTee, arc; usnd. It its nwfiil ai* an applica- 
tion, in the form of a decoction of the Icavw, in itih, oryMpola- 
touB eruptions, irritation and inflammation of iho n-cium. The 
Degi-oee apply the lc«vcs, Praearcd with grcaw, as a drwuding for 
aorcf). (irifHlb, Med. Itol. 262; Bouditcb, Expcr. 3!t2; Chor^ 
novU, Form. 222. Once thought to be very valuable as a aab- 
Hlitule for cofipo; ruote Huid to bo injurious to hoge. 

GOLI>KN CASSIA, (Cassia chajiuecrista, h.) Diffiiaed in dry, 
aandy eoila; ooUeotcd in St. John's; Ticiaity cd" Charleston ; 
NewbiTM. Fl. July. 

Trans. Am. Phil. Soc; Bhrc. Flora Carol. 3»0; Mor. and du 
L. Diet, do M. Mpd. ii, 129. The leaves are said to bo parga- 
llve. It grows in abundance in .South Carolina and elsewhere 
am) Khnulil be examinud. It in i-iiiploy<'d in portioim of tliA 
country for the recovory of worn-out landn; lhosi> that nro 
sandy being particularly bpTic6tcd by it, Sco Groenway's ac- 
count of its domestic uses. Op. ant. c\t. 

CoKsia tora, L. DifTosed in cultivated soila; viciaily of 
Charleaton. Ft. Hept. 

^upplem. to M^r. and de L. Diet, dv M. UM. 1846, 150; 
AinKlic'n Mai. Med. Ind. ii, ■lOH. Vt>e<\ in India. 

liKOBUD; JUDAS TREF, {Vrrcis eamflnms, L.) SwampH 
vicinity of Charleston ; collected in St. John's; N. C. Fl. March. 

Shcu. Klora Carol. 380. " The wood is of great value for 
mechanical purposes, as it polishes exceedingly well, and it* ad- 
mirably veined with black and green." Mills, in bis Statistics 
of S. C, states that the blossomn are used ua a nnhid. 

Pilhenolobitim mujuis-rati, Benlh. Tmja unyuis-cnti, Willd. S. 
Fla. Chap. Raid to bo a good remedy in urinary complatnta 


Md abvtrnction of th« lirer fttxl H{ile«n ; a decoction of tbe 
hnfc IE xetj aetriD^nt. Jklacfudyvn. 

SBVsiTivM VI vw I Sehrankia an^Hstata, T, und G. 
SK.\SmVK MXE, j SchranAiat>Zinata,mLSk. 

Gn«3 ID pine Innds: N. and S. C. Fl. July. 

Tht b«v«» nf ihU plant po«iee«a a reraarksbia decree of B«n- 
Ailiiy or tmialiilily.vlotiiti); up iiDuioilialely upon cmiljict vcitli 
lay Ririacc. 1 havo rcpoatrd upon tliii* plaut, anil in a inviutiire 
nrifiod tb» cxpcrimoDls with c-b lorn form niiJ nulpliuric vlhcir 
ipn tht Jfimosd sauitiva. made by Prof. Murcot, of Goncva, in 
Ihnnlkni of the relations esiatin^ botwoen animal and vege- 
UUc inilobtlily.* Aflor tryiii)^ a number of tiabHiancett, iiu 
•Ming the litu-lun.iit of upiutn, c-ajiniciuiii and caitiplior. ami ihti 
«alBtiuD» uf lai'lar vi&vtiv, miI|>. Dii;rpliiiii:, nml hyd. p<.>laAb, 
vilknt prodnving any imprcMtoo, I UMurtaini'd that the two 
Mvthttlic ai^nto alone, wbcn placod on tbe main pt;tiolu of 
Ibluavwt, had, in at*out five minutes, thoir influonvu i^adaally 
■iMMicd to thooo abore. causing the leaflets to ooDtract teruitim. 
naojcli Mnsibility to impre«aiooa waa impaired by each .tao- 
tttutt^ attempt, yet it waa never entirely IohL The nwilt of 
■y otiMn-ation.i diftVred fnnn tbot<a of Prof. Marcct, but agreed 
■ith I>« Candullc in his analogous experimeuts with nitnc and 
«^ acids, in its not disclosing uty imprestiious trannniitt«d 
donward, or at any rale beyond tbe juuctioii of the branch 
aftrimeat«d on with the main limb of the plant. A drop of 
the oil of aniseed placed on a Ivaf-alnlf nccniiM) lo havo th« 
ttm uf arrewtini; the trunxit of any influence beyond it; hence, 
nmay be led to suspect that the imprceaion is oODfeyod by 
arguit of sensation or of uootractility or irritability, arranged 
sot ftr (Vum the surface. In the examinalioii 1 was assisted by 
bt. Bene ilavpnol. 

In aensitive plants, Jlimosa, for example, the iDOvom0Dt« of 
Ika leavea, tays Mr. C. Maukentiic, quoted by Wiioon, bavo their 
wigin in certain culargemcuta situated at the articniaiion of 
lkaUa4et« with ibc petiole, and of the petiole willi the atem. 
If by a loDgitodinul section the lower half of this swelling be 
naovad. the petiolo will remain depressed, liaving lost the 
power of eleTating itaelf. If the superior half be removed, ih« 

•Bad before tbe Soir. dc Pkyi. otd'lllit 
K6UL Joutaal. July, IMU. 

Nat., Od. lUUi, IMO. See, 


pi>tio]« will remaio ooiwitaiitly elovated, bavinp; lost tbi? poi 
of ilfpresHiiig itMlf. Tht-Mi fiiclK provA iliat Uie tnotiotm of tb^ 
peiiolc cl(;|iviiil Uii llin ultornuUi turgnitcviicii of tbv up]>er an^ 
tower hull' of the vnlargt^moDt, Hitunbcd ul tbo point of articnll 
tion, and that contractility is not the priociple of those md 
tionH. Tbo irritation of a burning lone, for example, in 
cither above or bolow. This interior movement, M. Dutroch* 
tbund, v>a» tni,nt<initt«il e4[ually woll, cvon though a ring of bar 
has been removed ; tbnt it i« iranNiniitsiblu ev«n Uiougb the 
bark and pith bo romorod, to that nothing rctnainH to ix>mniD- 
uitmto botweon tbo two partH of the skin except tho woo-ly 
fibres and vweole; that it is traoBmisBible even when the two 
parls <;ominuDicat« mei-ely by a shrud of bark ; and that it may 
bo tranemitti'd even whvn thuoommunic-ation i>xi»U by tho pith 
only ; bill, thiit it i» not trantimisMblo when the uomniunioation 
vxiKtH only by the portloal piircnc-hyma. From thc^o Tory in- 
tiiruHting vxpurimviitn, it rL-eulis that tho interior movoment 
prodnced by irritation is propagated by the ligncouK fibres and 
the vessels. The propagation is more rapid iu the petioles than 
in the body of the stem, the rapidity having been computed. 
Absenc'i> of light during a eeiluin time oomplclely destroys Iho 
irritability of thw plmit. The return of the sun's influence 
roadily rostoros the plant to its irritable state. "It appears, 
tboretbre, that it is by the action of light that the vtlal proper- 
ties of vegelaiiles are supported as it in by the action of oxygon 
that thoNe of animals arc prmervcd ; eonnc<|uvntty, etiolation is 
to tho fomn-r what asphyxia is to the lall^'r." Rural Cyc, 

M. M. Bert and Blondeau have been experimenting on the 
contractions of the SeDsitivo I'lant, as I see by a paper sent me 
by Prof, (iray, of Boston, (1868.) 

M. Blondeau experimented on plants with the induced gal- 
vanic cummt of n Ruhnkorff'sooil. He iiubmitlcil three plants 
to tho inlluonco of tho oWtric current. The fir«t was operated 
on for five minates; the plant when left to itself seemed pros- 
trated, but atlor a while (a quarter of an hour) the leaviM 
opened and It seemed to recover itself. The mteond wa« acted 
on for tun minnteiii. This specimen was prostrated for an faonr, 
after which it slowly recovorod. The third specimen was gal- 
Tanized ibr twontj'-five minutes, but it never recovered, and in 
twenty-four hours it bad the appearance of a plant struck by 


If^tuag. A fourib plant wati otheriMd, and tJ)«n expo««d to 
Ube current. Strange to say tho latior bad not any cffi-ci, ihe 
ktsTM remunt-d ntniglit and ci]>6n ; tlmtt proving, »ays U. Blon- 
dn«, that tbv mode of contmotjon or tho Iiiuvch of lh« neailivo 
flut is in «oms wmy alfivd lo tho mnwiilur (-untrttution of tuii- 

CALYCANTHACjE. (TAe Caroiina Allspice Tribe.) 

FlMr«n sronnKtic »nd froi^ant. 

SITBBT SUJit.'B. (Calycanthue I-'loridug, hian.) SpcrimeDS 
tnm AikcD : 1 bare obMrved it growing wild in Fairlivld D'lei- 
trirt.S.a Fl. May. 

ttocofUiii mOHtarotnslfoKnd swc«t Kcntnlof our iniligvnnas 
fku»i cultirattMl on this uovount in giird^rni!!. Dr. Jno. 
IhnUiB, of CliMtvr District, S. C, sends mc n ooni muni cut ion 
na his ooiTcspondont, Mr. McKcown, who unys he has I'ro- 
fmUj'ased it with BatisTaclion. an an anii-epaf^modic tonic, in 
Ike nr? of chronic a^o«. A Htron); dccoetioD ol'thv »p«d or 
ktrfc of the root ia given. Tho wood in strongly camphorated, 
HfKciaUj the root, and ilr. Nuitaii thinks will probably pro- 
Htt this drag aa abnndsnlly us iha Lauru* eamphora. The 
Medswidolu mature. 

IIYRTACE.E. (TU Myrtle Tribt.) 

Bifntia, MlebelL Allspice family. 

SeTrraliipecJeaortliis genuaare found in Bouth Ploridu. S«o 
ChafMBan's SoDthem Ploru. Th« ml fhtin the Wrries should Iw 
cniwBed,s» ihi^y are cloetely related lo tho clove Wearing trees, 
CtiTDpfailBS. The limber nfmOHt £uj)rni>u is useful and good. 
liikctbe myrtles, (heir bark abounds in tannin, tbcir soil parts 
CMuain a more rolalile oil, and the fruit of some, tboagh ren. 
•oiuewbat disagreeable by the aroma of the oil, are vdible. 
■*■ Rani Cyc. 

SASIFRAQACP^. {The Saxifrage Tribt.) 
D% 0«nd. voosidvrs the whole order as more or loss astrio- 


Biutkrra VSIina, Hx. Hevthera caulrarens, Pu»li. Moun- 
tSBS of }{orth Carolina and Tennessee. Tho root* are ox- 

tremoly astringent, and wore afod as styptics and in aptliona 
toro mouth. Rulinuttqiiv Hod. Ror. Properties same as tlioa 
of Jt. Americana. 

ALUM-ROOT, (Heuckcra Americana, L.) Grows in dt 
Boilit; Richland; collvutiHl in ^t. John's; CbarlMton Dtstric 
found al§0 in (roorpa ; Ncwbcrn. 

Coxe's Am. Disp, 112: Und. Nat. Syst. Bot. 163; U. S. Di» 
390; Barton's Collec.; Siich. Flora Uoreal. Americana, i, 171? 
"A powerful astringent." The powder was employed by the 
alMrigines in wounds and cancerous nicors. Bart. Jd. Dot. ii, 
l&tf ; MtT and do L. Diet, de M. Sled, lii, 490. It \a also admin-, 
isltfri^d us a snbaiilute for Colocynth. It is used in decootio 
Unciuro or synip, wherever an aatrinxout is required— as in*] 
diarrha-u, piles, moiiori-hHi^ia, etc., «tc. Thcso plunl« may *cr 
the purpoHon of Rbuiany, Eino and Catocha. 

Hydrangea arborescens, L.. J/ydrangea vulgaris, Mx.. llydranga 
oiTilata, Ph. Florida to Mississippi and northward. 

Dr. S, W, Butlor, of Itui'lington, New Jersey, introduced thifl 
plant into notice Ihiough the New Jersey Medical Report. He 
stalen that his father whilst on u miM^ion to the C'hunikeos, 
learned of ihem the merits i>f IhiH plant in the tivatmont of 
gravel anil Ktotic, and has hiniHcIf employed it for many years in 
ao extensive practice among a people peculiarly subject to those 
complaints. Ke considers it a most valuable medicine, pos-ioased, 
perhaps, of specific propenies. Dr. Parri^'h, in his Prnctiml 
Pharm. in noticing the above, has niodilied Dr. B.'s formula for 
its prvpamlion Ihim: TTydrungeu, Hixlnen ounces; wat^ir, aix 
)iints or suftioicnt, boil th« root in Huccciiwivo portions, mix them 
and ovuporulc to half'n pint ; mix this with two pints of honey 
and evaporate to two pints. Id the summer season push tlie 
evaporation somowhRt further and add a half a pint of brandy. 
The dose of this fluid exLraci is a leii.Hpoonful twice or tbruo 
times a day. Di-. P. says be has prepared it for eevi;i-al yoara 
and has dispensed it under Ihn direction of several practitioners 
to niinii-roiiN putii-ntx, and with gi'ncrul satisfactory results, in 
irritable cunditionH of the nrelbra, though its value as a bpccifio 
reniftly nquircs confirmation. Op. cit- £05. 

In the I2th Ed, U. %. Disp. an analysis by Mr. Laidley, of 
Richmond, Va., is referred to, (Am, J. Pharm. Jtxiv, 20.) Dra. 


Alice, IIon>l(rr nnU Monkun, nre also said to have confirniod 
tWopinion of its utility "in Mbuluua or gravelly depo^ils." K. 
J. Mwl. BepoM. Sept^mbor, 1854, October, IftM. and Marcli, 
Ua&. Jo orerdocw it occasioDs vertifi^ sod opprveKioa of lb« 

BrRSEMACE.K. {Tfu: Torchwood Tribe.-) 
V}BCii\Y001),X^mgns Flortdam, Nult-j Sonlb Florida. 

Snriy all tb« spoi-ii>9 alToi-d fini- mAterialx in Iwth Ibuir rut^n 
mi ib^ wood lor trap-ani ine«n'ro and duliijhtrul p»»lilcti. 
Wiiuo'i* Buml Cyc. Our spooiea should be examined. A South 
JbMriesD niHi'icit yi^lib H glim vrbich mates one of the best of 
kKiwi «arninh«x. Frnnkinc«iiso ia lUiid to be got IVom tbe 
Am tada. Tbe Buna-a gumm^fera, Jac(|. of Florida, also 
}itU«*bal»am called Chibou rctun. 

ANACAKUUCE.E. (TAc Catfuw Tribe.} 

TrcM abounding in a resinous, sometimes Kcrid, highly 
pliMiioBajaice, are the ordinarj' repreaeniatives of this order. 

POLIOS OAK, {Mu» toxuntlendroH, T. A Gray; Bhti/i radi- 
rau of aatbors.) Diffu«vd ; common in pino lands; vicinity of 
ChariestOD ; Newberr. Fl. July. 

Tfoua el. Fid. Mat. >!ed. i, 524; Ueli's Fract. l>ict. 453; 
Btffe, Hat. Med. u, 116; Fe. Jlal. Med. ii, 603; Ed. aod Vac. 
Mat. MM. ^45 ; U. S. Disp. 718; Ball, and tiar. Mat. Med. 241; 
Bttrtf, Mat. Med. » I ; Itergii, Hat. Mwl. !, 248 ; Mrr. and de L. 
Wet- de U. M«d. vi, 78 ; (IHilii, Toxicologin (ii-ii. t. 45 ; Ann. do 
Cktn. XXXV, IM ; An. Journal do Med. Ixxx, ViS; Rberle, Mat. 
Xtdii. 117; Ell. Bot. 363; Aliberi, KI«ras. do Thorap. i, 4S2; 
Kg, Am. Med. Bot. iii, 20 ; Da Fresno!, qaoted in Add. of Mod. 
T.I8S,aiid483; Med. and Phy«. Journal, 1,308; vij, 273; and 
1,486; Duncan's Disp. 294 ; Bu'l. FlanUH V^n. de France, 146. 

It pnnlnciiK in Lhone who eoniv Into it« ricimty an oryHipi^lu- 
iMc inflanimation. It is stimulant and narcotic, employed in 
fanlysfi and herpes ; of the former disease, eerenteen cases are 
npoited by one physician to have been stHxteasfullr treated with 
k. The juice which exaden on plucking the Ateiu make*) a good 
atkiiblo ink. It is dissolved by ether. Htgelow thinks it is 

Bpfwed of a resin and an t-xKCnliul oil. Purging with neutral 


Halts, tbe uso »r opium, blood-lulling and cotd appliciUions 
ac«lal« of l«ud arc iMnploycd in vane of poi«>niDK Trom thea 
plBnti<. Ttio bruisi'd Icavca of ibc VoUinsom'a canadensis (wblc 
grows in the Southern States) are also employed for the eraj 
tioDB caused by Lbe uniariniiOQii fVotii ibu ]>oboiiouM fumuchl 
and tlie Vertii^na urtici/olia, growing in tlio .Soath, i)> likewit 
eoiiitidurvd an antidote. Dr. A. Lircaey, of Penn., as quoted bj 
Dr. Wood, strongly reoommonds a sjiturati-d tincture of lobelia 
a« a local application in lliiit uflV-clion. He app!iei» it by means 
of linen olothn, (Boi«ton Mvil. and Surg. Joiirnul iv, 262.) I>r^| 
Procloruseit ikD alkidino Holution upplic^l iniroodiatirly after ex-^ 
poNui-ii with oxi-oUcnt effect, and ho find« that Monecl's HolotioD, 
introduced by a pointed instrument inlo the vesicle, renders it 
abortive. (Am. J. PLarni. Ififi.t, Nov.) U. S. Ditp., 12ih Ed. _ 
Horsefiold, in hiit Dimm., xtatcs that In^ udminiHtcred the inrufuoB^| 
in conniimptivo wnil anjiHwrcuijH pntlcntK. I'li FrcNnoi n"port» 
cases of hprj>ctio •.■niption cured by prcpiiralionN of this plant;^^ 
n\fo four ca«es of palsy. Dr. Alderson, of llull, has given it^| 
with good effect in doses of one-half to one grain, three times a 
day, io paralysis. Mer. and de L. Diet, dv M. Med. Suppli-m. 
1^6, 627. Dr. Baudclocquc employs it with suticess in thftM 
chronic ophUmlmiaof »crofltloiminrunl»,a coliynum being mado 
of the alcoholic tincture. Four drachma in tuoouoccMof wator 
is UB(^d, afterward iiugnionting tbe dose. liov. Med. Nov. 183fi; 
A. Uowroarth's Hist. R. Toxiood. in Kseai Mtid. du Docteur Al- 
derson, fjond. 17Q3; Foniana, Trntti^ de la vipei-e, ii, 169; Ali- 
bert, M. Mud. i, ■l&O. Soma have inoculated tbemselviis with il 
without injury. Bibliuth. Mud. xxvi, 39(>. "On cite un cas 
mortel par suite d'atloucbemcut dc« parties eoxuellus apri^j 
avoir nianie des rameaux de ee vegetal;" Mer. toe. cit. Sooj 
Annul, in Journal du Cliini. In employing it tbr ringworm Do 
KrcHuoi increaeud the done of the extract till it auiouoted toj 
eight grains u day. ''Novel effects concerning a dangeroit* 
Anaerican plant," by tileditch, (in French ;) bco Juuriinl do 
Physio, 1782 ; Du Fresuoi, in Aclea do la Soc. do Med. de Brux- 
vlles. i, 136; Wurnur, nur U^B.Toxicod.; Aetesde La Soc. £!ixin. 
de Florence, iii, VM ; and observationn by Wilhnmt on tbe effects 
of this plant, in Journal do Med. de Courv. i, 209; Employ. It. 
Tox. in Tlieais, at Uontpellier; Ann, de Cliniqne, vi, 343. 
Uoinnitig's case of parulyais, cured by B. rad. in Dull, dea S& 


Feras, IT, 262. It is employed in mulndiefl nristngfVom 
cacnl iltbilit}', and d«fecUTe innervation. A Fi-eiich writer 
tinirtii lo tlie pfficKcy of thU jilutit in homu-opatliic diwcA, in all 
iBllliliniin diKO«Mi». Dr. Aldcnum pix-fi-rx Ihu itifimioit of the 
noratlMTcs; Van Hons the oxtruct of the drifd Imvon. By 
•Hlyafi, it contains a very combastiblo '■ bydrocarbomite," 
taaiis, pMic acid, reain, ^mmy suiMtance. focula, etc. Grif- 
tth'* Ni'd. Bot. 185; and Sicpbenimn and Cburcliill, iii, 167; 
Boll. d« Sc M«l. vi. »S ; Bull di- In FbcuIl t. 439. An aerimo- 
niMt vapor, combined with cnrimroIte<l bydr'>j^n, cxbalott Jrom 
sgrovng ptaot ot'tbo poison ouk numiK-li duntif* Ibo nif^ht, cud 
laa>Ile«t«d in a jar, and is capable of inflaming and blialeriog 
IhtikiB of persons of excitable constitution who plungo tl>eir 
■ma into iu The yellow, milky juice turns dark, mid fonns 
ODBof tbn licKt iiiddilite iiikn for marlcing linen, and in titted by 
Ae JapantMA as u Tarniab. Uural Cyc. Sv« Tarnish Mumacb, 

SMOOTH SUMACH, (Mus glabra, Linn.) Growe in tbo 
(yy«r districts; fonnd near Columbia, and Augusta, tia., in wet 
ok. N. C. hi. Hay. 

'IT the bark of the root is boiled in equal parlo of milk ond 

valcT, tbraiing, with flonr, n cataplasm^ it will cum burns with- 

Mt tesring a tK-ar." The excrcvccDCos huvo bc«n preferred, as 

Mastftugcnt. to tannin or gallic acid. Ur. Walters employed 

mi Mfcatitated them for galls ; their »ouniete is supposed to b« 

•vlag lo inalio acid, which is contained in the pubcwtence- 

Isofding to Dr. CoExeiin, also, of \ew York, lliey are ai>lrin- 

fMt and rofrigcranl, furnishing with walcr u eooliog drink, 

WtM in inflammation and ulceration of the throat. The 

ocnMBnces on tbo leaves of the Ji. glabra, which I hare 

fUtcred <t86S) on Tiger Creek, Spartanburg District, are a* 

krgtM persimmoDs — resemble IViiit iu aiijifumnce — aru |>owcr- 

hBy aMringvui, and contain moving budica rcocmbling Mods 

aU^jKd to the inner walla, surrounded by a white, cottony snb> 

probably embryo animaK Thc^e glaiiilalar cxcres. 

wv »h<>wy. 1 wfjitld rccomroirnd ihcm as a perfocl sub- 

riiC«(a for tannin. 1 havi> dried and powdered them. They 

at* a pare astringent. From the experiments of Dr. SienfaouM, 

(U. S. Di«p., t2lU FaI..) it apjiear^ that the tnnnic aoid of sumach 

^ta Mentical with that of golU ; malit: ueid and binoxalatcof lime 


«oexi«t in the boiricw, (W. J. WalimB,) ii»ii Prof. Rogers »a( 
geH!.H thi> prouaring of malic iicid fnim thi« HOiircc Dr. Pahni 
sUwk Ktutws ttiat an infuHion of tho inner bark of tfaorooti^ 
omployed as s ffftr^lo, and is considered almost as a specific : 
tho Eoro throat attviidin^ morcurial ealivatton. An infuMon 
the leaves sweeieneil wilh lioney is flcrviceable, ap])liiMl in it 
aumn way, and for eloMnmng tlie moulh in putrid f^TcrK Tli 
b«irk in c^>neidorod a febrifuge. r<in<l. Nnl. Sy«t. Bot. 166; 
S. D\<sp. 598; Am. Journal Mod. Sci. 561 ; Mer. and do L. Die 
dc M. Med. vi, 77, where its employment as a gargle is allude 
to; Rev. M^iiioale, i, 1830, 3«7; Griffith, Med. Boi. 106. TW" 
decoction of the root ia used by the Indian doctont iu the treat- 
ment of gonorrhoea and gleet, and aa a wash iu uloeni. (n 
otbvr wordH, it \» an aatringeiit. Tho biirk of tbi», tho R. copal, 
and Iho ft. typhinitm, unil fif tho finropuiiu npecies, aoln aa a 
mordniit for red colorn, and raiieh ui^e i« tnnde of it in the tan- 
ning of morocco leather. A vinegar may bo prepared from tbfi 
berries of thia I'pociQs, 

I introduce the repliea of several oorrespondenta of llie' 
CharloHtoii Courier (1S62) lo inqutrioi> ootioeriiing the Humacb. 

Dr. Ahner Lewis Haiamond wril«fl: 

"Tho Jihuit Glahni 1 considor identical with that so exton* 
(dvely grown for export and manufacturing purposes in Sicily. 
The difTeronce, *» »ecn in the size of the leaves, tree, etc.. iaat- 
trihotable, no donbt, only to a diffurence in loeality, aoil and 
oulilvaliun, and to no other. 1 have seen it lloarisliiiig aliko on 
the mountain slopes and in the valleys of Virginia; on thi!rich 
table lands and bottoms of Kouiuoky, TennoHHOf and Illiuoi«; 
on tli« flinty ridges and barren miaenil landa of MiiMMiri. Under 
culliralion it Huckum freely. Looking nt itn value and irapor. 
tancu as a munu filial uring agent or mutorial, and ilo inMy pro- 
duction, [ Iiave long wondered lit it« lotnl ncgloct, and feel no 
hesitancy in Haying that with the itamo caru given to its culti- 
vation by our peopb a« by the Sicilinns, it could be as suc- 
ooMfully and pnitilahly riiim>d in tlie one as the other country, 
and ahould. under existing circumstancos, be nogleeled no 
longer. Uundreds and tbousunds of baga, at heavy t<xpcn»v, 
are annually imported into the United Stutei* for tunning and 
othur piiriKwee, yielding to llie ;jrowcr« ( after expense) a rcmu- 
ncmling pi-otiL Tho berrivit, the bark of the tree and roo(«, 



hare fin- ymra fnrnUhcd the coiinlry jMNiplu horv und in the 
Teft « most sub^tnntinl >ly«Mti)ff, (m brilliant dla^'k.) while its 
pn|«red Uaves (^roDcid} have bocn as etcadity used (to the 
Ulcxte«)lot'th« available quantity) ID the preparation of mo- 

A corr«<^ndent from South Carolina Hayit : 
■T<NrarUel« and a «ubMqn«ni cominunicatjau lend mo to 
llBtv* tfa«re i» more importance in Ibe tiumaoh than I crcraU 
iMfclil I I it. I haTo gaihcrvd bu.theU uf the bvrry on the 
MMBtaiDS in this State for the purpoM of having the wool dyed 
Uiek for the woof of onr liome -made jeans. I will try it« hmo 
is tk«Biak«»' wax (an r^commendod.) There can l>c any 
fmthy gathcrvl in Ihia iioction. 

'Sfainild any one wixh to try dyeing wool, tb«y will find it 
Mtof tiM handaomvM black dyw known to me." 
^^^Dr. Vm. JeUKon, of Charlvnton, wHtco : 
^^B"9uHaeb — Rftue Glabra — fifrnrvd also ax Ubus Virginicvm, 
^Bitter known as smooth snotacb, and varioualy called I>enn»yl- 
^Hna aamaob, upland xumacb. is a native of mo«i parUt of the 
(ntiiMnt of Niirtli AmvHcu. Grows in dry, uneullivalvd placeA, 
fawmg early in July, and succeeded by denito elnstora of 
triaaon berries, which, when mature, (aboat early autumn,) are 
wntcd witb a whitish and very acid eflIor«soen<;e (often used 
II aafci rintigar in country localities.) The bark and leaves are 
mitfoU, and »aid to be nsed in tanning leather and in dyeing. 
BnRaMnctes are produced under the leaves resembling galls in 
ikancter. ThcK<' have been used by Dr. Waltern, ofXow York, 
1*0 tboogbt Ibem in overy respect prvft'rablu to imporlod 
■Bh The only officinal part it* the berries, which are u«cd aa 
a nfii^rani and fobrifui^, thnngh Dr. KahncAtoek speaks 
k%Uy of an inftanion mado tYotn the inner rind or luirk ofihe 
not. for a waih and gargle in the sore mouili attending inor< 
fall a mercurial salivation. The writer's own oxporienev baa 
Wa lo niie the berries in impure water, or when that wax not 
ItW obtained, to pnt them into the mouth to allay the thimt 
■iuadant upon riding through the hot, nnsbolleretj and fre- 
(untly waterlem prairie* of ihft far Wcwt, lie alio know8 that 
B >fT«p made with th<' bvrrii>« is puceecfnlly used in the fall 
laics, while a drink made with thera it< a favorite remedy in 
■any loeatitiea in febrile attacks. In the sickly year of ISAX 


the writer uaod thom (.the berries) oonstantly, altbongh 
qtiontlj' cban^D^ bis atmosphere from the free, 0|i<.'ii jiruir 
to the ooDiiDed pestilential air of a oily irltli yellow fevt 
ravaging il, and without experiencing tb« oltgbUMt indU 

JamcH Peekham, of Columbia, South Carolina, adds : 

"I have ollon wondered that no one here lias enfraged in if 
oaltavation, or rather in gathering and preparing il for market 
as it grows all over the country." 

The folloiring was communicated by Ur. C. H. Woodin, of 
Charle«toti : 

"I nfltJoe in the Courier an inquiry in ntgard to thv uve of 
the sumuoh, whieh grows ho nbtinduutly iu tliu lower portions 
of Otir Stale. Your oorroBpimdi-iit inforinn us lliat it i!> very 
benoticini in mnhing shocwnx, eonscquently it was cuUed »koe- 
mach. But the sumach is not only used for making wax, but it 
is extensively used in the New i'iiiglaiid and Northern Slates 
for tanning purpose*. 

"The sumach letifix inviiluahio in tanning fine hog skina and 
ekirtinf;. and it is shipped in ffvenl qnanlities from South 
America to alt the principal (nnticriw in the Xorth. 

"The process is thi-*: It is well known to every tannerthat 
the niOHt important thing in making good leather Ja to have il 
property colored, and that it is not crisped or parched on the 
grain in the • handlem.' " 

The Blioeniivc leaf is put into a vat which is Intcoded for s 
"handler." and tlieu the vnt ii« filled with dean, frciib water, 
and when it has stood until the strength is entirely out of the 
loaf, the Hkin or stock is taken iVom l]ie" bait," rinsed in the 
"pool," and then placed in the "handler." The stock is then 
turned or bandied at in othor proccNi-'M, until the gmin is 
properly colored. It is then taken through the regular pro- 
ooBs of tanning, and when it is scoured il ii( pcrlcelly white. 
Tbo stock should be tanned with white oak, or some other kind 
of mild bark. "The advnnlugc of the sumach is this: That 
the stock comes out fair and good, while in other processes the 
grain has to bo made white by acids, which injures the stock 
very much. Tanners intending to make fair leather would do 
well to make a nole of tliis infurinatioii." 

See "SwcotiiOjii" i^LiqmdanJtar) for my examination of this, 
the Humuch and oihwleaws, as subHtilutea fur OMk bark. 

Svnutch bcrrie* in lay«n with wool and boiled will dyo 
tU ct leitliovt copperas. ViDcRiir and nisty iron will oi^en lix 
Mton without the aid of coppflros. Samac bernoA ground up 
an rnntA for flavoring toba«oo. The powdered loaves iirv tcomc- 
tiww nixed Wttlt lohneco lo (limiTiiith llio lilrcn^th. Tho writer 
la»«(tcn need tfaent in lliiii way. In Duiiville, Va., th« peaoh 
kafisofUn employed aim to flavor tobiicuo. 

D8K. I Attu ivrnCr, L.. Hll. Sk.. Rkm vetxenata, D. C.) Grown 
IB iW Bpp«r di»u-iot« and in Qcorgia; collected in Su John's; 

Iitvity of ChariosLon. FI. Juno. 
Ker^aod de L. Diet, de U. Mud. vi, 82 ; Lindley, Phil. Trans. 
, Ahriilg. a07 ; Shcrard, do. ftOg; K.ilm « Truvcls, i. 77 ; M«r- 
■a* Atntract, 130; Culler, Am. Aeud. 427; Big. Am. Ucd. 
it.i,86; Dart. C'utl. 24; Tb»U-hcr'« Dit«p. 321; i>ou Big. B. 
„na, Koar. Journal do Slwi. xv. 13; U. S. DiHp. 718. Thi« 
itogiTve out a poi&ouoUs oxbalatioo ; eotnc aro even ad'L'Cted 
hjr the atmosphere around it. It is thought to be identical with 
4Mm Japan, which furnishes a tin« varnish much uB«d in that 
vtHMWy. Dr. Bigelow ascertained that the juico, which flows in 
bree quanliliea tram our tree when wounded in the spring, 
<fcd» a brilliant. gloMxy. hinck vurniHli. Mrr. and do L. Diet. 
4i IL Ueij. Sapplem. l8tC, »2ij. Hov Thunbrrg's Voya^'c, vi, 15, 
ftra BOlioe of the oil extracted Irom tlie seeds. Liod. Nat. 
SjiL IS8; Linn. Veg. M. Med. 56. It ia myptic and astringent 
ia4 the resin i» ai»i aa an ointment in piiee. Uigelow, in his 
tion of the juice rofarred to above, believeii that it 
ofarcvin and an etwenlial oil. lie Aral boiled il till 
tW TOlaiile oil bad escaped ; the reiuaimler being rciiuced 
ihHft to the stat« of a resin, wim applied warm u« a varnish. 
Or. Renoa reports an iot>^ri.'«tingca'<<e of poisoning from this 
|tui; and it ia said that some iniiividunls have been injuriuaely 
■fttted by the fumes from the wood of this and the Hhn^ radi- 
Mai, accidentally burnt on the fire. A swarm of beciA waa 
fwiieaid by alighting od one of these tree«. New York 
Mkixal Kepos. 


(£Uh .M^f/^javi, Linn. Walt.) Diffused. Vicinity of Charleston; 

utd Miwidsippt and northward ; eollcctvd in St. John's; 



Ell. Bot. 302 : B<l. luiil Vkt. Mat. UM. 136. \ wii«li \» uf 
pliod to ring.worniH. The root iit u«ud tiy thv Chippoway Ii 
dinn* m xn itntt.vciierciil. Tfai; (txcrfHcc-nces on the Itruvce »r 
powdvri'd and mado into an oinlmcnt ae an application 
homorrhoidB. GritHlb, Mvd. Bot. It does not afford copt 
The leaves were mixed with t«hai'«o aud used by the India 
for amok iiig. The sumacli ia said to form no ingreilii-iit. in 11 
manufaetiire of " Killickinitlt" tobacco ; since thn war tfc 
leavM dried havtt befii inuoh iiited by noldiorsin camp to rcndt 
tobacoo milder and incri-iiMtt iu bulk. The borrivs arc quit 
»OHr, and afford, with w.ilur.a cooling drink. 

VVilsoa asi^ortM in tho Rural Cya that the H. eapaUiita dc 
contain i»);iaf. ''Thu rtMin from ihio ehriib exists in smooth' 
brittle, translucent, roundish, small mosses; has liutle taste and 
soaroely any odor; is fusible by boat, inflummablu by igiiitioa^l 
ihaolable in water, very aparingly soluble in alcohol, and fiillj'^* 
solable in auljdmric elher and eionio enHimliul oil». It ih th« 
oharucteristio ingrcdienl of the well known cupul viiniish, ai 
article requiring opoi'OHe and carc-fiil mutinractiirc, but difl 
tingiiiitbMl tW the brilliant-y, diinibility, hardncKS and re«istan( 
of itx vxquiNlte polish." Coni^ult " Liquidnmbar" for detail of 
experiments, lly my experiments the fcaL^^of the Rhvi coiituin.^— 
more tannin than oitbu-r tho itwoot gum, myrtle, or any of thfl^| 
flftotHi or twenty that I cxiiminoil by roagonis, I am also eon- 
vEncod that the uxcrcscenccH abundant on the Jihyu ijlabrn (or 
smooth sumach) would fbrnisb an cxoollont material for the 
supply of fannm. Upon drying and examining them, I find the 
tannin in a highly c-oncont rated 8tate. Tbey would bu ituitubly 
need wherever an anlriiigent is required in medicine, and ohonld 
be added with the leavuit to tho tun-rat. See article " Quovms 
tinatoria" in ihiit vuhiniu, tor trees t'uniishing tannin ajid gallic 

DW.\RF SUMACH, (flAas pumiia, Mioh. Ph.) Upp«rdl 
trictn; Newbeni, Fl. Angiist. 

U. S, Di»p. 719 ; Ms. Flora Americana. According to PiirshJ 
it is tho most poisonous of the species. 

STAGUOKN SUMACH, iRhmtyphiana.'WiiU. Flora Corol.)| 
S. and North Carolina. Fl. July. 

Mer. and do L. Diet, tie M. Med, iv, 82; Mo Analysis, it 
Journal do Cbim. Mod. iv, 511. Lassaigne says that ihia oot 



Uins msUc add. The incised baHc yields retiiii. It in employed 
Ui|irepaniig inomcco Ivather. See H. vimix, aW. 

ttk*M metopium, L. A true lin«on tu Iwciily fout high. South 
Fla. Chap. 

This, which it also a Weet India epQcies, iUmiefaos a gum 
kaown as "Doctor's guru," which, in Isr^ doaen in emeto-oa- 
tfcartic. and la said in Hmaller oneo to be a uitclbl rumudy in dU- 
mitn of tb« bowolti and ntvpiratory orgund<i. A Hpor^nfiil uf Dio 
6«sb joieo in mixed with two oancoM of boiling wutori the do«e 
i( a toBspooofuI Riven occaeioDally, (Jam. Pbys. Jour.) Uue- 
coanili, ^Fl. Mod. Anlill., ii., 49,) »lates that the bark is an 
vmlbnl ftstnngent. Griffith. 

TW A&w <iroiiuUica grow§ in West Florida and Missif«ippi 
w»i iwrthward, is aromatic but not poinonoun and should b« 
cti^aed. Oar R. iMiitoidig, Nult., which Buckley found In 
the httoriur of .Alabama, may spproximatv in quulilie» to tb» 
Xetfiaal of Buropn " vrhiofa flimi»hoH mo«t uf Iho Humuth of 
eemmtrc«," and the wood of which is Ihv baeia of a bright 

JBbf e«fiaria. This species of snmaoh ia jexotic, and is the 
jdMJpa) plant cultivated in Sicily for export. I inseK the 
tdkwiog, in case it elmll be found expedient to "exploit" or 
fkMttorUmmn oar wild sumachs which are fonod so abnud- 
Mtly ia rank meadows throughout the South ; particularly 
■lawlatit, 1 have ohscrvcHl, in th« Dismal Swamp. Vs. 1 think 
itii scffleiently abundant there to supply almost any amount 
fer the purpOtteA of the tanner or dyer. 

*Id xiio heitl Auniavh one hundred grains of the leaf should 
pn thirty to thirty-five grains of pure tannin. The proper 
•liftolion of the land can bo ascertained by testing the leaves 
wSfc Mlfdiaric ether. 'Use as mnoh sulphuric ether aa will 
tmain the snroacb, or pa-sa it Ihrougb the numuch till it runs 
thw, tbeo draw off the ciher by heat, and the deposit will bo 
pre tannin.' A rongh tcMt for tannin is prepared with a soln- 
tin of svlphatv of iron, or may depend upon its coagulation at 

-The cumach is tbna cultivated near Palermo: The sofl Is 
|npand as fbr potatoes, with furrotva from two to two and a 
lilf Am apart, in which in January o'J^-^ebruary are pla'wl 
Iks jvang sucken two and a half feet apart. In Angost of th« 

.. '- . -■■ : ".;.ip| ■ 'ii.; - 
;..■■ .-.■ :■.!.:; i- mnii:. : 

■ - -■■._-. .\l'UT I'l-;; ,■ 
■ -,:. : ■..iv-liiii. wln'ii <': ■ 

V . ; - : i;i> vullK- I'Xi'i ; : 

■ ■ i L .-ii iw.i riiillsir.: . ., 
■ ■_■ !T- ;: ■! :i I'i'iili-i'. W- 

■ ■!■ V ,. j, t.ilVW dill llll' |i. .'A- 

r.; ■ ilv ".vu- til|(-i] with rii.e 

■. ■:•.:• . ■. = '■._■ :ii-'l oiiU'n-i| !\i- 

V - ■■ r" ■■ :;!■;. i;];:!! it si-i.'iut i 

" ■ ■ ■ : '■;!■ Imiirs >iiir.i. — 

.;'i , ;■ ;..;i:!li_v. Tlii'v UlI.,- 

■:, 1" .- .■■;iVi-i art- ri';iiiilv :■ - 

- . . :. Tlii-^e hi-^i lire tlun 

-. :'■'. \< |p!;»i-ciI in liiiiTS III' 
.- ■■ -lilj'tllii'lit. 'I'w'i t Ihiii- 

-..'.''■ :** '■■'[i--L'lvri''l u ^*p<'n] 

_ - - n-iriii-'liiiir llii- i'ni|i|r)y- 

: ■ ■ . St'i' :irtk')r 'I'lnitiiti 

rii));ir;itivi' i'\]ii'i'iijriiil-- 

r ■!■ tuimin. lii/tli ili,--,' 

. a'.'I will i.-;isil_v su|i|iK a 

- ; J- I sil,i,'j;i'>L— ill |il:i(-i' .,i' 

, ., ■ ■■ w:!! t'uniish ti hlnck i|_vi'. 

- - " :ill iiri.'lliii'' lilifi's i-; \hc: 

T :i]i['iiciiIioii vui'v with 

.■ >..,i. W', or crilli.M, 'J'lu- 

:ri''';; ;iti>'ii ifI' fiiiors; (liii-i. a 

■■■ ,-v ■:r..iiii;: it with ii ilioji. 

■-. ■ ^'.Vi'P'.i. ^';i]l., ^.|' ~lll||;l,'t|, 

.is -I', witli i-iipin'rit^i ati(i viTili- 


gris, or immediately through the latter." Wiluun's Rural Cyc. 
Seo, also, Ure's Diet, of ArtH, article " Calico Djcing." Any of 
our plants containing either tannin or coloring principles can 
be used as dyes, with alum or iron ; vinegar also addu to the 
intensity of the color. 

There is a paper by John M. Marston, on the cultivation of 
ibe sumach in Sicily, in Patent Office Reports, 1851, p. 60. I 
believe that the great abundance of sumach in Virginia, would 
supply for a long time all we would require — besides, it grows 
abundantly io our savannas, and among myrtles throughout 
the country. Mr. Marston thinks that the nupcrioiity of the 
Sicilian sumach lies in the mode of cultivating it — "all the 
leaves arc Ihe production of ihe young sprouts that spring up 
from the stump every year." The middle Southern States be 
thinks adapted to its growth. " The export of sumach to the 
United Slates last year was 65,000 bags." 

I quote as follows from the letter: 

"Sumach is an article of commerce to the Sicilians of great 
iinportanee, as it is also with the Americans. And, it is my 
opinion that this article, so valuable for manufacturing pur- 
poBea, for tanning, etc., can be produced in the United States in 
sufficient quantity -to supply the world, if the mode of its cul- 
ture be understood, and proper attention be paid to it. 

"I have no idea that it is the same kind that grows in the 
United States, which there runs to the size of trees. In Sicily 
they plant the roots or small plants from two to three feet 
apart ; rows about four, so that the plow or harrow can save 
the hand labor of the hoe. They hoe it two or three times 
before the rains finish in May, and gather it in July and August. 
The leaves are the only parts made use of. After being sepa- 
rated from the twigs by threshing, (or, in this country, both 
ways — by threshing and treading off with oxen and horses,) 
the leaves are then ground to the state of fineness in which 
yon see it in the United States, being passed through sieves or 
bolting-cloths of sufficient fineness, and put into bags of one 
hundred and sixty pounds each. The proper season fbr plant- 
ing the roots or plants is in November, December and January. 
When the season is rainy, the plants take root better. Tho 
root or stump is cut off from four to six inches above ground. 
Tho scions or sprouta spring up four to six out of each root; 


and when at matarity, which in ihto iMlitntl is in July or Aagost 
ihuy are all cut oil' at tho »tuiup«, and htid in Knmll hnndiVils tc 
dry, say for a day or two. Do not i<prcnd thorn out inunh, 
tho BDD will tarn tho loavcn yellow, and f^at t-Aro iiiiidi 
t«kon that no rain fblla on thom. Perhaps, in this oountrj-, if 
may aoewcr to plant nearer together than would bti adviKabk 
in America, on at^couiit of the greater beat ol'the eun here, ar 
ihon Rhadv ibe ground better. The learea are ground in nilb 
mostly by horso-powcr; but water or steam-powor would 
niu<:h cheaper and bettor. The perpci(dicii!ar rniining &ton< 
weigh nearly three thousand pounds ; they run double or vinglf 
round an upright abaft. The nether or foundation etono 
heavier, and ont'-third j^reater in diameler than the running' 
fitonoi*. The grindJDg «iirface of lb«e lallt-r is ulightly rough, 
being oceaiiionally touched with tho pick or cold-vhtHoL Hard 
granite etonos answer; here they use a volcanic utone, which is 
as bard as marble. There follnwH round the running stones a 
little piece of wood that keeps the leaves always under the 
BtonOB. When ground tiue enough, it ia silled or bolted in a 
large, tight room, with a door to enter and fill ibc bags. In 
Sicily tho article i* more or Iobh adulterated with iipuriouH xtulf, 
BQoh as other kinds of leaves, and an article called buixa, which 
rmemblGa tho juniper bunh of New England ; this has no value 
in itself. I betiovt! ihe lirjit year they do not cut off the sprouls. 
In the second and following yearo, a curious IW>ak of nature 
produces a single plant a foot or so distant from the original 
root ; and this litlle plant it is which they usually make use of 
to transplant. Now, the plow or harrow would prevent these 
from growing, a» they would be lu tho track, and this may be 
the reason why they hoc it. Still, 1 think the plow or harrow 
must bo used in our country, and some way or other contrived 
to save these little plants if wanted." ^i 

The above was printed in the first edition of this volume. ™ 
It will be observed that 1 had called attention to the exploita- 
tion of tho snmach, as above, in the first edition of this work, 
printed in 1863, and al^O to tbo great abundance of the plants. 
I hope that my suggenlions have been productive of good. It 
is now become an extensive biimncwi throughout tho State of 
Virginia, ^ving employment to many persons, and in time I 
hope that a large nnmber of our population may derive profita- 



Ut vn^oymont trom the laatne, and by cultivating or coll«aling 
■ffriiciB&l {tlAiit«, vfliea dejiou Tor tli«ir purvliatw in Hmall qnau- 
lilMAhaU bn vMaMinbixl in the Urge oiti«n. 

l>r. H. Bser, of ChiiHiMion, in a communication made to me 
re^cMing a neries of popular articlos upon those subjects, 1868, 
■UU>: " I sc« that Vii^iala exports a lar^ amount of tuinach, 
••4 by soBDe of my last circulnrn from LivoqKiol, I eee it qaot«<l 
M 8*. per GwU" The azialyela was aa follows : 

Vegetable matter 83.10 

Tkania IbJ&O 

S»d^ 1.40 

The following l«tt«r, which I find in the Norfolk Jonrual, 

win, ao doubt, iotereJtt ail dealers in enmaoh. It is IVom Alex. 

& Macrae, mercbntit of Livfrpool, and is dated Sept., i6i>8 : 
'1 bmvo to-day reotiircd a aampla of Philiuletpfaiii brand 

Aaeriean tamach — a very miperior quality. Our firnt chemical 

Malyaa nuUce it : 

1tai^«......... .........^0^ 

Bud - 0.7» 

V*VHable fibre. ^. 78.-I6 


"The beat auroachs in tbia market average 16 a 20 per cent. 

if luain, and f-vW at £13 a £24 per (on. I, therefore, make the 

nlae of tbi; Fhilailclphia £16 per ton, at which prii;« Ihvro 

ihevld be a handaorae remnnvntion. 

'If, OS yon aay, sumach leaves ure to be hud in Virginia for 
Ihspthering, what a trade has been ocglec't4.>«l, which at once 
maj be dereloped." 

I Kc it itated that Fredericksburg has received one thousand 

taon tUa aeaaon ; and a merchant of Fauquier County paid out 

ha ynr S6.000 for Humach, a commodity which any i>ur»on 

•MM liocoMd to gather fruo of charge by merely requeatiog 

, dw priTilege from lundownerv. 

The Norfolk Virginian, (1868,) sayH of the "xumoch trade:" 
"This new item of intemtt to our iDtluHlriaJ claK»o» is now 
attracting much attention in this State, throiighout the entire 
ifBglh and breadth of which it flonrisboH in profusion in a wild 
rtalc^ The mittvrial is used largely for the esseotial principle of 
Usaia, whkh it ooolninji, and lactoriea for ita extnutUon liave 



bMn MtitbltKhtHl in tbiti 8lutoand cli'On'bcm. Onr attention 
Iwcn piirticulurly caltod tii ihc wtsblishmi-iit of Mri'sn'.-'. ChimnRD 
tmd Crooker, in Iliunpton. who have ^no itito ttiv btn-iticKg on 
l&rge 8cal«, nnd from wfaoHc circular we ntsko ibe Jbllnwin, 
exU&cts, fop the jjuidaoce of tboa« who may wish to eo^^age 
Its oolleotion : ' Suinacb must b« of a fj;ood (Hi)or, free from Alera 
dirt &>id berried.' • « • « 'It »hoald be gathered IVom I 
July until froirt, after which it will liim n-d, uiul then it »nlt 
bo wortblcniH. It «hoiil<l be cured an much at poMible imdcr 
eholt<^r, or in the HhKdc, to prtservv it« color and »tri'ngih 
carefully tbroehed (and not cut) on a plank Aoor, or ahoet, 
keep it tVee A-om dirt aud ennd. The sttckK, stomt^ and berrii 
should be carefully ratted and picked out before sending to 

Thiiy alao give the following direction for gathering and cb: 
ing the product : 

"Oathor as you would fodder of this year's growth, exe 
the btoHsoma and b(>rric6i dry it ooder shelter; »l-ir it oa you 
would hay ; be carttfiil it does not bent; do not dry it in the 
aim — both will aoil it; when dry put it in bulk. When dry, 
windy dayrt (tet in, then lay it in buds us you would wheat o: 
oats, {hrc(ih it with a flail, when the iL'Bvesand alenis will bn-wl 
up fine; take out the large stems aud throw thcDi away ; u[| 
the Ane in tailed threshed sumach, lie curebtl not to bnrc an 
Mnd on the Hoor before thresliing. There is nu weight in tin 
large stems, lieing mostly pith and no Btroogtb ; to brinjj the 
to market will only reduce the price of your sumach, and when 
you gather the large stems you have to watt that much longer 
for your siimacb to cure. The strength of the wumach k in ih< 
Icnf and leaf stem. 

" With thc^e instniutions a large class of the population i 
the surrounding country can spend their leisure time in ligh 
but very remunerative employment, at no cost beyond the labor 
of gathering." 

VITACE-.B, C Vine Tribe.) 

Vitit bipinnata, T. and G. {Ampelopsig, Mx.) Hargfna 
Bwsinpi°, Florida and northward ; abundant, bearing black bor- 
rioe in bunches. 
Attracted by the awoeliah tap>t« and the purplish black hue 


rf tk« berries of this plant, whiivli in bloMily rfliit«il to the 

gn|M, I Bacct'cded (I863J in ^xti-aetitig « bcuutit'ul darkpurpk 

tf tb* follovring ]>ri:>ccii(!i : Thtt liorriAA were niK^bt'd iu a mortar, 

viMigBr wM mdded, with * kriaII qiiuritlty of powderud nluni. 

Tb« ■izlar« wAf then boiliil, mid thu yuni, or othor miktorial_ 

ftariovly wrong ont ol' wutvr, put in wbilo hot. Tho color of 

■tides dyed is said to be fixed rooro firmly by i<ubet.<qaently 

Sffiof; tfa«m whua tJiorongfaly dried in boiling salt and wal«r. 

Vitu, QmyKi. T>r. Fair, of Columbia, S. C, iDfiirinc mo that 

tk* T»poi of the winter grap*- (_ I', eordi/olia') is powerfully diur- 

mic Ue had used it in several ease*. See Poreira'a Mat, Med. 

aatt Griffith's Ued. Bot. for mncb informatiOD oonceming the 

C^^«, witte, elc- 

H}' ftieiid. the late Major John I^eoonttt, in a |>ap«ron tho 
"Ineman Grape Vine* of the Atlantic. State*," CxpressM tho 
■paiOB that s grape adapted to the ]>rodii(!tion of wine in tho 
SMtbtn States would tre ill adapted to the \orthem States, 
«Uch are colder, and lees humid, and dry. " Thus, the Scup- 
pwMDg grape can nerer perfectly ripen north of Vir^ni«,and 
th« fox grapes of the North will Hearcely grow in the lower 
parU of Carolina and Georgia ; tlie Iflabellu, or C'alawha varie- 
tiatf tku last, which were originally brought from the upper 
<«gioB« of South Carolina, do not flourish in the low country, 
■d wiH aearcely live in lower Georgia." To remedy tho want 
tf the «wc«t principle in a gnipo, nothing more is iieceHi^iry 
Am to boU down the mu»t, before fermentation, until it is con- 
(UmUy reduced. 

Xi^ Veconie conoiden it quite poxsiblu to make wine that 

*S kwp without alcohol ; a1«K>, that oar American grapevi do 

■M it^ire (he pruning adopted in EnrojH'. See, also. Patent 

Oiw Reports, SSS, 185T, for a critical account of the specie* of 

fftfm growing in the Atlantic fjlnles, and Chapman'* Flora of 

f^ Southern United State*, under genus "Viiis," for grapes 

*nl«iiiv«ly Southern. "Bland's Grape," K pa^ni^a, ho highly 

pnixd by Major Leconte, as being equal to any vnriety of the 

Hnojiean grape, which be xaya grows in the mountains of 

ffonh Carolina, ia not included by Cbapmim us a native. It is 

Ik r. Vir^iniatta of Polrol. Dr. A. P. Wylic, of Chester, S. 

C, has been for several years engaged very successfully in tho 

tnaa^irMding of the different specioaof grape. The rarietirs 


be baa obtained by hybridising poaeeas as high flAVoraetfa 
best forcij^n grnpes, (1868.) 

A writer ruconimoiidfl the use of natural caces a» wine cc 
Dm. Gall aiid Petiol's "method of wine making, uoording 
thv ntiidurti priiiciploii itiln|iLKi] in GvrmKny und Friuictt," 
publJMhvd in Patent OtKw JU'poMn, I8&9, p. »&. Tho me 
voluinu aleci diwcribus (ho conetruction of collnni and vate, 
Governor Uammond, of H. C, has had a large orllar built I 
wines, sugar cane jaice, etc. These seem to mo essential. 

A correspondent snys that foreign grui)es must be laid la 
itlraw during winter. 

II. W. Ruvont'I, iilxi) of Aiken, 8. C, who has been invvsti- 
giiting the niitivv griipo with hi" known nbiliiy a» a botanist, in 
» pupiir publitfhc'd in PaU-nt Ollioc Itoportn, 1857, and in bis 
essay on the " Clnmilicatiou and nomenclature of Fruits," before 
tho S. 0. Agricult. Soc., gives an enumeration of our foar 
American species of grapes so far studied, growing w<»t of ilie 
MiwiMKippi. Under thflttd, via: V. lahrutca, L., fox grapo, V. 
ctftwalis, iAx., aummor grape, V. ordifoUa, Ux., winter or frost 
grapo, I'. Vulpiita, L., bull grnpo, or Bullaee, be classes the 
rarieticis whit'b have proceode<l fi-om ihcm, and to wbicb all the 
Others can be redacted ; tbia abri h the opinion of the best botao- 
i«ta of the day. Dr. Chapman ha» added another, the V. can- 
ftflM, of D. C.joonfincdtolowor l''l«. The V.rvpestria of Scheele 
is found in Texas. 

Mr. Ravenel makes a statement which is instructive: "All 
the species of j4mi;n'rrtn grnpi^ are diima polyjatnous ; that iii, 
some of the vines bear ntamiualc or barren flowers only, and 
are forever sterile; others bear perfect flowers, and are fVuitnil. 
All the species td' the Kantgrn hemisphere are hermaphrodite; 
thai is, every vine bears perfect flowers, containing stamens and 
pistili in the same eorolla, and arc fruitful. In the abseijc« of 
other evidenco, this fact would be conclusive of the ptirentai^e 
of an unknown seedling, uhother it be of exotic or indigenous 
origin," The varioties of foreign grapes are referred to a single 
species, V. vinifera, L. 

Pri)fe«H(>r C. T. Jackson, in a communication in Patent Offioe 
Roportd, p. 42, 18r>9, rcraark», in reference to the pretwrvnlivo 
power of sugar in making wine, an follows : 

■■ We mnsl Hnd out tho proportion of saccharine or alcohol- 


pcojanog matter in tbe American grapea, for if tlicy will not 
jrodaee alcohol In ^uffidvul pruptirtion^ to km-p thv wine front 
wtog, w* tboitlii h»vo to add «acvbnnnc mnttfi' iti iwiiie form 
M makn a eoand wino." In many portions of ibo country, it is 
fcnd Bcoeasary to add sugar to wine. Jackson says ibat those 
pifta "which cont&in teas than 1& per c«nt. of sacebarino 
matyr will require xugiu- or ulooliolic spirit to be added to 
ttea, in order to maku n wini: I hat will k«up." See, also, not icv 
«f Prof. Wm. Humv'H papt-r, further on, itud I'«t«nt OlGco Ro- 
ptna, 18U, p. &9, for pnjportionx of bcIiIh and iiiigHr in Amori- 
•sa grapce, caltivntion, preparing wine, ^thering grape", ap- 
finl«B, and making of wine in detail, p. 06, et aeq. 

Sm a paper witti foil dea^^ripliou and mode of cullivittlun of 
mM, with manufacture of wine iii-ur Cincinnati, in Patent OIHcfl 
Btfwta, 1848, pp. 6-14. Tho valuv and amount of yield per 
Mr* » also given in this paper. 1 will extract a portion of it: 
Siecting And preparimj the groMud. — A Itill-^ide with a southern 
■pMt '» preferred. If the declivity i» gentle, it can be drained 
Iqriodiled, concave avenncc; but if too Hteep for that, it must 
bl Uncbtd or terraced, which ia more (ixpenaivo. In the 
■atoMs or winter, dig or tn-neh tbe ground with the >>piide nil 
cnr two feet deeji, taming tbe surface under. Tbe ground 
will be mellowed by the fVo«<lci of winter. 

Amfinj;.— Lay ofT th<! ground in rowti three l>y six fiiet; pat 
dovn a Miek, twelve or tilli'>itn inche* long, wbvrv each vine is 
Is jpow. Tho areDuee should bo ton foet wide, dividing the 
lia^vrd into equarea of one hundred and twenty feet. Pl«nt 
A each stick two cultiugs. M-pnraled rtix or eight ineheo at tbe 
MUin of tbe hole, but joined ut the top. Tbn>w » spadeful of 
■Vb,v«^lable moald into each hole, and let tbe tup eye of the 
Htting be even with tbe surface of tbe ground, and if tbe mat- 
tviidry, eoTcr with half an inch of light earth. Tho cuttings 
•hMM b« prepared for planting by burying them in the earth 
iMnediatoly after pruned from the vincH in tlie njmng. By the 
ittter end of Uareb, or early in April, which is the right time 
iv planting, the buds will be swelled so as to make Ibem strike 
MM with great certainty. Cut olT clow to tbu joint at the 
Inw bod, ftnd about an Inch in nil n)>ove the upper. 

Amuajr- — Tbe fir«t yc«r after planting out tbe vine down 10 
ftifagle eye, (some leave two,) the second leave two or thrve. 


nnd tho third three or luur. Alter th« firat yc»r, r Hiake, i 
and a half or B«Tcn feel long, roust be driven finiily duwti 
«aeh plant, to which ilie vino.i mucii bo Icept neatly liod wil 
willow or Atruw tut lh«y grow. TinUi Ju Pchniary, oroxrlj'j 
March, in tho right timu for i>pring pranini; io this elimi 
Summer pruning conei^ts in brewking off the lateral «|»r 
and ahootR m n^lo leave two strong and tbrifly oane«i or vine 
one of which in to bear fruit the enduing tteanon, the other to I 
cnt dovrn in spring pruning to ft wpur to proiluco new shool 
Th^«e may )x^ let ruTi to the top of the Mtakci<, and trained 
one to the other, until the wood iit matured, say in Angasti 
September, when the green ends may be broken ofT. Ona < 
tiieae vin«H iii seleeted next spring for bearing fruit, and cut^ 
down tram four to i^ix joints, and bent orer and lasienvd lo tha 
Htake in tho form of a bow. Tho other in cut away, as well as 
the fmit-bcaring wood of tho lai^l year, learinp spurn to throw 
out new wood for the next, and thus keeping the vine down to 
within one and a half to two feet of the groacd. Mip off the 
ends of the tVuit-hearing branches two or three jointa beyond 
the branclu'^ of gi-apeH, but do not liike off any leave». If both 
the cuttings grow, Lake one up, or cut it off underground, oh 
tHit ono vino nhould be lell to each «take. 

Culture- — The vineyard must bo kepi perfectly clean fVom 
woods and grass, and hoed under two or ihree times during the 
seaaon. Keep the grass in the avenues around down dose. 
About every third put in manure by a Ircnoh the width of 
a spade, and ihrco or four inches deep, ju«t above and near each 
row; till in with two or three iDchoeot' manure, and cover il 
up with earth. 

Win I? mi Amy. — Rather tlio grape* when very ripe; piek otT 
the unviound and unripe latrines. The bunches are then washed 
in » washing tub, or passed through a small milt, breaking the 
akin, but not tho »ecd. and thrown into the press, and the screw 
applied until the skins and seeds are pressed dry. 

Femientatio}i. — This prooass ia very simple. The juice ia put 
into clean eanks in a cool cellar, and the eaaka filled within 
about four or live inched of the hung, and the bung pnt on 
loostdy. The gas oBi'iipi-!", but the wine does not run o%'cr. Id 
two to tijur wcckis, generally, the lermcntation ceases and tb« 
wine eleara; then fill up the casks and lighten the bunga. In 


T «W tt» r y or March rack off into clcuin caj*kfl. In Ch« spring a 

fbmentaliOD will a^in tako place; after that thu 

itself and is ready for bottiin^ or barrelling. Uho no 

bnuljr or cagariftbe grapes are sound and well npeni'd. Kuvp 

li^el or corked Utcht, and in a vool cellar, and Ihe wine will 

tefcorc hy agv for many yeara. A paper on " Norib Carolina 

flapra." p. 48, may b« conHult«d in PuUint Oflice Report on 

Jfric«lt«T«, 1861. It given an acconnt of wiito made fttim Uio 

■U fox icrapei, and otbcnt, and diMii»eo« Rome of the nalire 

wittiei. Johnston's Oh?mii>try of Common Life, ro). 2, Chap- 

hf* CheaJMry, in ila relations with Agncultorc, cbaptvr on 

"iiiiauitation," Ure's Dictionary of Aria, article, Wine, " For- 

MBlatioa," eie., may be i^nHulted for inlbrniatjon as to (he pro- 

■Mta of urine inakiuj;. See l>eBow's Iteviuw itnd I>cBow's 

"UaMrial RcMiareiMofihe South and Wwt.'iu thruu vutumcs, 

fir aitieln on caltivation of gra|>e and wine making at the 

Swth, also. Patent Uftico RQiwirtK, 18()». p. 72, for » very full 

■d detailed acconnt of cultivation of |;;rapo. manufactnre of 

ni>»(ira<-tion of vats and cellars, by i>r. Weber, of Wa«h- 

ingtoii. [ regret Ibat I cannot condense this article. 

In UiMonri and Ohio it ia foand that tlie C^((Zir-6<j grape, a 
attin of the Atlantic seac-oust, it Itahlo to rot, and to be af> 
ftei«l by mildew. A writer in Patent Office Ke[iorts, 1854, p. 
tfl, rmmmendH »4!v<tb[ bardier varieties ric: The Utili/ax, 
(wintaiM aodxpii-y,) Xorton't Vinjinia HYiIliiiy, (wino ticQ-and 
tnaaiiD,) th« Boi-khMsr Indian, which ix eaid to produce a wine 
m iaferior to tlie best Itnr^ndy. The m-iter giva^ »onie di- 
iMiiHM aboat the culture, and adds: " In the plaee of putting 
tb**Uing iiMMtcly'on your euskii during fennentution, put ou 
iit bang-bole fir«t a grape leaf) ain) upon I bat a Hinall bag tilled 
Mk fine and not quilo dry sand. In good collars and large 
tttkt your wine will, and mnet not clear in leas than aix or 
Qfkt we«ka. Kat-k off in March, then again in niidfiummor, 
■li ■gain jnat before the time of the next harra«t. Before 
tnr^ racking. baT<^ your coak well eulpburntcd. Then your 
fUM IN real wine and may be bottled; it will koep a» lon^ as 
JM ploaso and improve considerably for a (wrics of yvara," I 
teradic« the aboro, aa it teeme to contain some practical di- 
The "rot" in grnp«t ia cauMoi) by an ftxc<-KH of moiaturu abogt 

the roots, tind moist and damp weather. Vineyards locat 
upon " stiff, colli, clayey tfab-auila, whieh uiiavoictahlj rettun 
ux<.'«<Kit of moifiturc and protlnce itijiirioiiti pffvcts, van be 
Tiatnd by tliorougb il raining, or by oeleotingHoi) wbicb is wanne 
li^htor and rictiur in the ingnidiunl most favorablu t« tbe VIE 

The " milduw" la often a most HoriouB cause of disease 
grapes, extending ovef entire §ooi)ona of oouutry, aa almost ' 
diitcourago tbo cultivation. It in coiinidurcd to bo a parasiti^ 
fuoj-UM. Seo a paptir on thin Hiibjoct in Patent Olicc lU-porta, 
1854, p. 311, by J. F. Allon, of MaMnchneotts. In tbe N«w 
Kn^Iand Status tho prcuonco or absunce of this ftiDgus deiK'ndit 
njion the condition of the weather, and the progreea i» maturity 
of the vine in Aogast and July. Tliero thu fungiiti apiiciint during 
fofifiy weatbwr, n-aembling a whiii; nioidd. In RuporUfor 1853, 
p. 311, an ongravvd illriKtration iit givon of this mildew fangua. 
" When a grapo becomes affected by it, the iVuit will either dry 
or crack open, onlesa checked or ileUroyed before it makos 
much progruM. The oo-«aUod dictoiwe is a living plant, moat 
rapid in its growth and wondorfiil in its powcn of reproduction 
and multiplication. When u vine has once been infecti-d by it, 
the seeds or spornloH in countIe«s millions tie waiting a fhrorablo 
atmospheric change to spring into life; and when thin doiM 
occur, so rapid itt their growth tnnt in tine day the under eid«of 
the leaf will bo almost covered." Tbc plan of dusting the 
[eaves with sulphur is imprueti cable. The writer saya he baa 
found a wash quite offettual in destroying this fungus, and it 
can bo applied on a large stale with the garden engine j on b 
smaller, by the syringe or the nose ol' a watering-pot. 

" To prepare thi^ wash, take one peck of lime, not slacked, 
and one pound of Hiilphnr; put them together in a barrel, and 
pour hot water ovor them suAieient to slako the lime; pour on 
itits thive gallonx of xofX water, and atir the mixture well to- 
gether. In twenty-four hours it will have Hottled and become 
perfectly dear. 'Phis should bo driiwn off as clear as possibtv. 
Half a pint of this mixture added to three gallons of wator will 
be euffii-iently nirong, and may be applied over the frait wbcn 
mildew first appearn. ft can bo rejicated every few daya, if 
occasion requirfs. Tho fir«l application I havo found would 
kill the mo«t of it ; a second and third are all that I have over 
fbund necea»ary for tbc seawtn. Tbo fruit and foliage have 


i^oed fully on the Knrop«un varietivn. Tlic Am«rican or nsr 

I Tsnetics ar« lora sulijvct to tho xltiivkx of this foiiRUs than 

Bnn^tMD. There in al*>o » ililToronce in these, the Catawba 

I iiabella buin}; more atta<.*kod than nome other kindti. That 

' llii BiMew or I'uDgtm requires a pecaliar cODdition of ibe at- 

—iphflre to allow of ita vejuietatin^ is a hopofiil fact for the 

of Ihe Europeau grapo ^ron-iiig rejjions. A aeriea of 

nnpropiliou* to itM gruwth, may dntroy millioDS of 

[lyiwka or wod tcw«I« depoHited upon their vincjitrd*." 

I h*Te aeen grapot uttackeil witli a dixeiuw, un apimr^nt btaek- 
|«iiog or rot of the iatcrual portioD of the fruit, nliicb had 
MrerbMD attacked until ihe arbor was covered over, and Ihna 
I tba R<|abite amount of light was diminished. In this caae, 
Ikqr hacotne diiea.'wil froui too luueh shade and moUiure, and 
iWnoicdf i* plain; hut in aomu eaaea this occum undc!r u full 
wpplyof tight. The rt.S.ComniiHsiion to the Paris Kxpiwition, 
ta tliair report published in P. O. Rep. lor 1867, Minte that tho 
l(|Buiion of eolpbar to the leaviM' i» tho be»t remodj for 
fimMi affecting the vine. 

Wiltoa in bis Raral Cfc. furnishes fVom several sonrcee reuipea 

ii hii article on "Wine," for making " Wine IVom the leaves, 

tada *liMt$, and Undrils of iKe viae ; if judlciouiilj prepared, it 

M to excellent that Jfr. MacCullooh eompnreil il to ' white her- 

■il^^'" See^ aUo, JlacCuiloch's TrvatiHo on Wine Makinjic 

BRdlent wine is also prepared from the uni-ipe berries, loc. eil., 

«b«i« the method is given. It is as followe; The claret vine 

lMTM,a» he obMn-e^ will produce a red color, and ibiti tree 

eoaid bo ealtivated for the exprwist purinmu. Having repeatedly 

prrpuvd rol and while leaf wine, we vnn with the gnoutc^t coo. 

tAfiux offer a few abbreviated exlract« from Ur. MacCullocfa's 

knk. previously obiierviog that the specific gravity of the liquor 

bW here also be taken ais the criterion of strength; the pro- 

fWtiona are c«l«ulaivd for ten gnllona of wine. The leavn 

[•banld not have attained their full growth, and muat be plucked 

rwitb their etvauk On forty or fiAy pnuniU of ftui;h tnaveit, seven 

^wght j^alloiM of boiling wulor are poured, in which they are 

< infuse for twenty-four hours; tho liquor being then strained 

. the leaves are to be forcibly prosMd. A gallon more water 

^iito he aildi^, and the leaves again are to he pressed. A screw 

«iae.preas with hair baga, la very useful in the prooeii& Sugar, 


-ry , 

Tttfying from twcnty-fix'« ponndo to thirty poundsi, ia then to I 
«dd«(l to tho mixed Itqnoi-s; tho quantity is to bo miuiu np 
ton ^allooa and a half. Such are the e^soDtials of Mr. llaoCi 
loob's directiouH. Wi; ne^d only adi), oontiiiuea the editor, thi 
if a fennoiiling, lively wine ho contemplated, the manutactv 
must be oondiicted n» in the pruuL-sc for Chainpugiie, and tfe 
Rmullor of tho two proportions of the loavo", etc. is to ho ea 
ployed. The Bpeciiic gravity of the must should b« 1,110 
1.116. The fermentation must be carried on for a Bhort time ij 
the open vessel, or till the fp-avity be reduced to 1.090 ; and tho' 
barrel will require lo be filled, and hu kept fnll, in order to carry^ 
olT the froth and lenvun timt Hm lo the top of tho liquor. Bs 
wo approhend that ^rapo k>ave« aroboltor qualified to produce . 
dry wine, and, therelbre, the larger proportion of leaveM, etc., 
should be employed, and sugar to the extent that will rais« the 
gravity to 1.120. lu thiH eaae, the fermentation mnst be oon- 
doctecl in the manner already ntuled for tho ))roductioD of a dry 
wine from green grape-x; and whon pi>rt'(i(;teil, and the wine be- 
comuv bright, it is lo be fined and racked off during ch^nr and 
oold weather, then returned lo a clean and swpol CAsk, and 
bunged close. A second fining and racking may be required. 
Grape wine made fioin the gr*eii berrivs, we have found deli- 
cioiiii in flavor, and quite lit for the table in two yearn or lew. 
But tlii^ lii)uor obtained from tho leaves contain)^ a quantity of 
vegetable extract which eonveys n flavor that time alone can 
subdue; hence, we reeommend, the author adds, that it be al- 
wayii retained two yearn in tho cask, and be buttled in tho 
Nxieond winter. It ought also to rcmnin rlnring one entire j-car 
in the botllw. Wilson's Uurnl C'ye. art. " Wine." ^M 

The following brief statement of tho mode of making win«^^ 
by J. S. lieid, of Fayette County. Ind., appears so simple, that I 
quote it here. (See P. (). Kep. IfiM, p. 308:) ^ 

"The mode adopted by me of making wine is mt follows^^ 
From tho lat to tho l&th of October, I continue pulling the 
grapes, ulwuy^ selecting tho ripest ones first, and alter mashing 
them in a tub made for the purpose, subject them to a small 
press made in the form of a Rider-priM>a. The barrela into 
which the Juice is put are well waHlied with i-olU wat^'r, dried 
and fumiguli'd with sulphur bel'oi-o the must is put into them._ 
1 then plaee over the bung-hole a piece of tin or sheet-iron 


Imtai with miiill linlos. Thv mwA \» thrn ullowotl to formont 
ilrrly Ibr «boat throo woeks, until the scum i.-iiuhc<I )n- tb« IV^r- 
aMMios apparoDtl; ceauo«. Tho tni-rols are then tilliMl nnd 
t«i)(cd tij^ht until apriag, wboo I ratAi the wino off into clou- 
M^ wKsbed oat wiib oold water and Juntpor berries, and At- 
■Ipud with sulphur as befora, to dv^iroy uny bud fiavoi-. It 
li then nsady for market; but during tbitt time the caaks ro- 
fVV U* be fm^uutitly uxnmiiiml, and fillvd up, keeping them 
itaap full to tliu hung." Thu ruitdur can liiid in th» Patent 
OSn Bvporbt of 18iK>. p. 'i(H, a brief HtalcmciDt by D. Ponca, of 
BaMoric County, (ra., of the method of making Obampagao 
vine in France. 

Dr VCm. Hnine, l'rofuH.-uir in the Stale Military Aoaderoy of 
Baufc Canilina. read a )>apor beroru th« 8outb Canilina Medical 
laodiiion, on tho " Manufacture of Wiuc» in the South," and 
Mitrad a worins of Loctnnia before tho Atk«n Vtno Gmwing 
tmt Eoft. Society, which bavn been revised and pnbli^ihod in 
]>(Bow'a Review, March and April. I8fi2. Id those well writU'n 
■(titles be givos t)ie resulia of experiments, containin^an expo- 
■tkiBof a plan to obviate the dinabilitieA of climate opposod to 
ikt mnDfavturo of wine in Sontb Carolina, etc. 

ta brief, Proll Home adviscti that the two (lualitic* of svect- 
Mvaad acidity in wines (which vary in different varieties and 
M £lle«eiit seasons) ahonld be ascertained and coiieidcrcd by 
ihe wiae maker. The latei^t date compatible with the full and 
p«fact maturation oftbegrnpo should be «i»1eotod forgathering, 
• that they should be m little aciil and contain as much sugar 

Ckflkn should be oonstruoted in order to prarcnt acidity 
tuiug the rermentation. and if necessary alcohol, brandy, or 
sUriEey nbuuld be addi-d, to pruAcrve thu pr<^|iaration ftom 
taming M>ur, and ulao to procure diffi-ront varielieit of wine. I 
vaaM refer ibe reader to thi: nrticli» for an agreeable and 
ferdUe exposition of the author's riows. Qe r(.^ecUi tho idva 
that It is DAcIoss or improper to modify the juice of the grape by 
afankol under its rarious forms. Many wince are to a certain 
cxtcAt fiutltiooB, but not adulterated. The wntersays: "I 
hsTB dearly shown that the purely manufacturod winoi of 
Aiken are eitlier loo acid or too weak in spirit — that these 
Jdcct* proceed from immaturity of thu gmpe and from tho 


bigb tomperaUire of llie must during f«mi«i)lHti<>ii. The itij 
temperaiura induoca two eviU which ure injurious lo vrtiie, vii 
tha lotut of nk-ohol by it« ooDTernton into ncolir iicid, and it« lo 
by mon mpid ovajwraUoti during the ospoHuro of fbi-m«Dt 
tion," Cool cellara are certainly one obvious dc^ideinttum. Tl 
addition of alcohol to wiue aa a pretiervatiTe a^m has huvn 
forrdd to by wrilws: "Th« object aud inU-iiLiim of B{idln| 
alcohol lo rvoutil grape juice is tii prcncrvi; it through the inimtl 
of AugUHt, Suplcmbcr and October unghaQf^ed by fcriuciitatioa 
Daring the month of Novcinber the oool weather !« eufflciont^ 
Mtabliehod and continues In Aiken to conduct the vinous fcr-' 
mentation without llio appi-ehenflion of the aovtio ; heuce wine^ 
not vinegar, can ihoii he made." (Huino.) 

Tbo reader cuii find a f^od acj^ount of fcrmootatiOQ and ll 
rationalu of manufiicturo of various liquor* in Solly's IIdt 
Chemistry, p. 164, rf seq. Drs. tiall and Pctiol nl«o refer toil 
process of " ameliorating " the wine made frora the wild grape 
by the free addition of KUgar dinHolved in water, adding al»o 
tartaric add if the aoid it dcficiuiil, The liimks or pomaco 
which remains itf again tivated with sugar, water or acid as long 
as any wino extract remains, and bo an enormous amcmiit of 
wine is made at small cost. In this ]irooesa the grapea are 
mashed, not pressed. See dotaib. P. O. Rep., 18R9, p. 97. Tablea 
for calcalating thti acid and sugar iirc dv«cribod. I rugntt not 
being able to give this niuthoil in t'lill. 

In coiineciion with Prof. Hume's project of adding alcohol to 
wine, I extract the following from an article on the '' Grape and 
Wine Culture in California," P. O.Hep- 1858, p. 'MS. "An. 
geliea is a »wcel wine, which is never allowed to ferment. It ta 
made by adding brandy to white wine, which is the llrst and 
purest juioe that runs from tho ])ress, in the ratio ofona to ihreo, 
as it comes from the press. Jl in thus kept from firrnxrntiition^ and 
always remains ateeft. It is imniudiutcly put into close ciitiks aud 
drawn ofTua Moan a^ it i« vicar, which is generally within four or 
five weeks. The casks for Angelica wine have to be prepared 
with great care by sulphuring. " Aguadienle " (brandy) unljr 
can be used in making Angelica, a.s it haH the true grape flavor, 
which most other brandies have not. This brandy is dtHtillod 
from wine made from leaves or from tlie pomace (shins of the 
grapea) of the pret^oud grapes. It takes about live gallons of 


«tw to m&ke one of iigtiadiente." By this it will also be Avon 

tkat Ut« xhapi- in wbkli the iil(y>hol iti fuldcd is material. Lot 

lOmparc tbc (bllowing with our (ltflicultii» here in Soath 

>u>d Gtorgia. [t4ilivM »ro tny own. Hutthew Ketlor, 

ftlha» Anirolo*. Cat., ksv"; " Thi- ni«nufiii'Hin' of wine, in • 

ieliniBt«, is Himplt? and ma^* be dum- by any ooe of ordi- 

' in(elIi}^oce. But ifA<it the eitmateaiid «ot7 art not adapted- 

fw9*»atmre vf th^ grape, then, inde«d, it becomoe a (lompticated 

Int. OMoftlie mOMteK.ii'nlial ibiiig^ t» be obberved in iiomanu- 

faent* i« tbc pro(>or ri^gnlntion of tvinperatare, particularly 

4mi^ (he phenomonoD of Ibo firet fnnni'ntalion ; and to thia 

tlw kaM attention is paid. If tbc muM is too vool, the furmen- 

laliiNi is slow, and apt to flour; while if tltero is too muub hi^at, 

nwill mon go into the avctouo »iat«. Mucb which abounds in 

■Kharinfl matter, and a dofidcnt in fcrnn>nt, requires a hijtbiT 

dipvtof trinp<?ratare than ibat which haw thc*o substances in 

•fpoNta proportions. The strongest mast, even when it con> 

Hi* much foment, can support a higher temporatare than the 

«ilk, because the great rjimnlily of alcohol which is developed 

iMtdi the action of tbo ferment and prevents the tendency to 

ptM to tbe aectoas fermentation. Tbo b«Ht gcnwul temperature 

iikBtwceo GZ" and fi4' Fahrenheit. There is little difficuHyiu 

■DDtaining the tomperaturo in a cellar, bat it niny be obBervod 

ibtiike aotof fermenlalion elevates ihe temperature. To arrivo 

•t that which in tb« uiOHt convenient, it id neoemary to pay at- 

tHtioB to the tetnperalaro of tho graponat tbc time of masbing 

tk^: if picked early in the morning or at noon, it vaHefl many 

ttfntn. To obviate thii, tbcy may bo picked a day in advance, 

«they aboold be cooled in a large vat, and vUx verett. These 

W ftett eofnprohond all that is necessury to make wine, bat 

Ibejara SMbject to many variations and mnch detail, like moHt 

Mh«r procMa oo of manofacture." The neecesjiy for the display 

if jadgMeat, and the value of experience in modiiyin)^ pro- 

Mnu, la true of the manufaelure of indigo, of Augar fmin the 

Aflwent variety of eanea, etc. Ko rigid mien ailupU'd to evei^* 

dimalvcan be depended upon. That vatx should be cntenlial, 

I nvMilf, wiiboat erperionoc, felt sure from seeing their oocoa- 

litj in koeptng portor and ale in Charleston, or cider in the 

i^ier ooantry. We do not manufacture any of them in Chariea- 

tM, fiat io order to bottle or keep them tinder favorable cir- 

«■— taweea, a cool oethu- \« CMMnlial. 


The vrriU<r qnotoil above gi^fis tlie molbod of mftkingwiocil 
Loe AngolOA, as followt): ''Tbv f;ra|>vi« urc dcpnvcd of theii 
atems by lixiid ; they are ibcn masbod betwooo wooden or iro 
rollers ; some iread thom out in ibe ancient aiyle. A ponton i 
Ihv juivo runii into a cooliiig-vut, williout preMiinj^; the cruHhC 
gnpi-» urt> put into a NiTUw-pri-'tui nad forcud out rapidly, all ik 
result bfiiiR niunt for whiti- wtno. A« tin- ^Hpun arc bli 
and the coloring matter vxtHle only in the «kiti, and rcqairoi i 
some doiMireo the proKonco of alcohol todi)Woivalt,il'tbepr«fisii 
be done qukkly the wine will be white; but if slowly, or if tl 
grapes i-ume brokoii from the vineyard, the muat will akc 
color ; for as aoon as the tl-uil is broken, and the juice comes i 
contact with the air, fenniititution comiuencctti, and itimulLancol 
with it, th<: pruHLMicu of alcoliol, in a greater or less deg 
which extruoiH the c^oluring matter. The mn»t is then trui 
ferred into the fcrmontinK luim, aod the first active fermeotA-* 
(ion goes on, aet-ording to circumstances, for from four to len 
dayH. The masdn^d grapes are put into vats to ferment, from 
which rcinlt't rod wine. Tbi« in in part disltllcd into brandy. 
Some pcFHonH distil red wine with the "marc" into brandy Im- 
tnediatcly alter fei'raontution, but if k'ft to pass a secondary 
fermonlation it would jicid more alcohol. The wine in racked 
off in January and Pebruury, again iu Mundi and April, and for 
the third time in ScptL-mber. It Khonld bo taken off the leoft 
ailcr the lirat lenncnttition Hnbni'les, wh«^n the wine has settled ; 
for it cannot gain anything by being allowed to stand on the 
lees longor than is nbttolutcly necessary. The proportions of 
Sflcc/iarine mailer and Jerment in oar grapes are wdl balanced, 
therefore there i» no extraordinary ai-t in making wine ; us it 
will make iteelf with eomuioii (■are, and without ibo addition of 
any extraueoux Hubntaiioe. The pun'--<t and l]iiit>t winen in the 
world are inado from the juieo of the grnpe alone ('/) More 
capilat is needvd to make proper collars, procure nccexsary ma- 
terials, and to enable us to hold our wines till they have age, 
when they would compare favorably with the besL Sec, also, 
P. O. Itep., 1859. p. 94, et aeq.; ulso an extended account of grape 
culture and wine ninnufacture, with wood-cuts of prcMHu:*, ole., 
in Report 1846, p. -108, by J. A. Warder. M. D., of Ohio. The 
di-seiuitHi atfceling the grape are aliw de»cribi'd. 

1 obtain the following from the Southern Field and Fireside : 
Although this subject has been widely discussed, and ban- 


tn^ of methods recommended, stit) I aec no satU&clory ortiule 

■titteQ which lius treated this qii>.'i<Uon a» W uiir Soutli«rn 

ptftMRtid cHmati;. Almoiit nil tbi- writers haro confined thcm- 

mlrm t<i the Northern and Western wines and their modex of 

podarrion. leaving out the ides that Geoi^a, Alabama and 

sMth Carolina bad more resoureea for wine pmdaciug tban 

ll the North and We»t combined, not Kpcaking of tbo im- 

— ly superior gwulity of ile products. I trust that the fol- 

fcntog hint« may bo of aorvivo to some beginaero, and bo 

mffiaiT to many mafiters in the art. 

Tbm exist a large iiamber of variettea of wine, differing 

ibemsetrea by the color, perfume, tiinle, oon«i'4teoi!e, etc., 

■ieften many such varielieo uru produced by the aamv grape. 

Oftn ibose Tarietiett of wine drjHind upon many c-iix-am- 

jfcnmi iioeh ait diffcreneo in noil and Kab-«oil. exposure, mode 

ifcalttTation, etimalii; infliicnoo, deforce of maturity of the fruit 

«hM pranod, and above all, by the mode of making tbo wine, 

Acfint prooc-ss is the leathering of the grapes, and this shonld 

Wencof the most carethL The (trapes should be thoroughly 

i^ and the best signs of maturity are iheite: Tbw stem of the 

dMcn ehangeH to brown, the l)l^rn(!l• bc<r»mo nnft, and when 

Ibc bknm is rvmoved the nkin is smooth and nearly transparent, 

tfcefiaTor m vinous sweet, and the seeds Oee from the pulp and 

4lj. At lbi» point the grapes should be gathered. Tf giithervd 

■eaer the wine will b<i of an inferior (jnality, and apt to form 

viaegar; if later, ibe wine will bo le«s in quantity and eyrap> 

Ifce. When the grapee bare attained the right period of ma* 

teritT, Mrlect n dry, clear day, and do not begin the gathering 

tatil the dew is well evaporated, and the grapes perfectly dry. 

Urn sharp knives or scissors, and remove all green and decayed 

berru* tiroro the branchea, and put them in clean wooden pails ; 

then, if the precM is »omt< dintanoe from the vineyard, put them 

m wtiodeu lubii, which mutit not be too large, to as not to be 

dScsk to handle, and transport by wagon. Now it is necessary 

e some remark apon the process to be followed aotrording 

node of wioe to be produced, and to the variety of grapo 

«Bploy«d. Our native grapoa of the Labnuca or fox type are 

■artly enltirated in ihii motion of the country, and the wine 

Ibtf produce ii> of the Hock or (thine wiho order. The great 

nfaw of that wine coDsista in its delicate aroma, or boiujwt, and 

to sttaiii il mnttt bo nn cjuwntial obji^ol in ib* making To tt 
vlaM bsloag tbo Oatuvrbft, litabolla, Dianii, Dulawsro, utc, ut 
tho former of which being most gonorally cultivated. I 
desuribe the process in its best manafaoturo. 

When tlic grapes are gathered they must be maabed belwc 
wooden rollem. The juice is received in a clean cask or vt 
but tb« hulU, Meod« or Htvniit aro carofully avoided to comu int 
contact with tbo juice. AiW tho whoto is mai*bod it is pros 
Tho juico which runs out at tho time of nuuhing should bo lf« 
Mpnrato IVom the jnico which comes IVom tho pressing, as thi 
former will make a wino maeh more delicate than the latt 
Tho pressed juico will be of a marked color. The oaaks or vat 
abould be of as large size as oonaietent with the quantity of 
crops. They should be made of tho best white oak, with strOD 
iron hoops. The greotest clranlineAn Ik necttSHsry. Wa-sh the' 
ooska well, and further fiimigaU ibom by burning a wick of 
aulpbur, and keeping the bung closed. Avoid sulphuring too 
modi, as it will give a bad flavor to the wide if done to excess. 
Fill the cask full, then close it with a tight bung, Id the oeotre 
of which is 6ttod a siphon, iJio lower end of which rests in a 
vessel filled wiih water. The juiue of thu Catawba, an well as 
that of all tbe grapes of that i.'luHn, should never bo fermented 
upon ihu hulls, as it thvn loses its delicate flavor, and only pro- 
duces a barsli wine — neither a hook nor a darut. The above 
methud is ulso ajijilit^ablc to tbe jiiicuof any grupi'-H of which a 
whil.t) oi' pule witiu in ilonirud. Jnico tliui^ treated should bo 
telt in the cank until the fiillowing spring, alter the blow'Oming 
of tho vine, at which period it will undergo a slight fcrmentn- 
tion. It can then be drawn oil' in clean casks of required sise 
for market, or in bottles -, but it will be to its advantage to leave 
the wine in casks for two or three years before bottling. 

Tliu process of making red wine is diifereul — the grapes 
being maohed, with hulls, seeds, etc., in a fernien ting-vat, (acask 
having one head taken out will answer for a small vintage.} 
A faucet is put at about eight or twelve inebes from tho bottom ; 
usually a bunch of cuttings is placed in tho interior to keep it 
troo from the seeds, eU.., in drawing off, leaving a space five or 
six inchivs between thi- mn^t and the lid, which is well fastened, 
and has also a valve- lor the ovaprjration of the gas. This may 
he also arranged with a siphon, as in the manipulation of tho 


«Uu win«, the end of wliieh tiip)>on rottt in wnUsr. In 

I ftw tiouni nUor the miiKt bat> bcvn put in thr vnt the lii|iiid 

«fll commence to form«Dt. the gae will bo thrown off in InrgA 

qntntitieA, And brinf; opon the surface the stoma, halU and 

mis, which form what tho French terra chapeau, (hat.) This 

lit ofton vtTy conaiAt«nt. As soon aa the ehnpeau abows 

of going to piocon i« the time to draw off thtj wine fh>m 

T>L Tbo roiidnam w then prmtiwd, and goncrally innkwi a 

contAining much tannin, and not a« dolicatv ax the wine 

dnwn. The latt«r wine is kept separate, or mixed with 

tte other wine, as desired. As eoon sa the wino is drawn in 

(tea caaka pat the bnn^ in lightly for a few days, then bung it 

li^t. A still easier method ia to put a falae bottom in tbo ler- 

■atiiig-^i'at. which is made from well seasoned wood, and holes 

btnd all oror. This fiilite bottom Im put upon the hulls to pre- 

ttat tbcir rising. Its position mu»l bu regulaltKl hy the amoant 

4f pooaoe in the vat, and kept steady by sticks. The vat b 

ronred aa before with & tight bead and siphon, and the period 

4f the drawing off th« wine is visible when tbe termontAlioD 

«M(JL In general, the fermentation will last fVom eight to 

Viitn day». This method is applicable to all the colored 

p^Oi of Lho avtiwdit, or summer grape type — audi nn Lenoir, 

Clinton, Jfteqne-«, etc. Tbo cellar should be dry, nod of an utvo 

Wi|Kralare of nbont fifty to sixty degrees. Aller the yoang 

tti vine b pat into the cellar it will undergo a light ferment*- 

liofi. The casks have to be filled occasionally, and kept fall to 

tkboDg. K* soon as dissolution of the sugar and the other 

CMMftvsots of the wine has taken place, the undissolved matter 

wtt MttU at the bottom, and is oalted lees. When the wine 

fcteomaa quiet and setUcd, it is time to draw it off in clean 

fi-*T In the above romaHca I have endeavored to comproes 

lb* wJM making to a small compass, by which it will be »e«n 

tWt it is for letw complicated than presumed. I give the 

fifbf«nt wines obtainetl from oor native grapes. 

Tnrietics belonging to the Vilis tabrvtm, or fox grape : 

OtUaehtu — A light colored hock, ofVjn equal to Ihu celebratod 

BUn« winea 

jOlMua.— Also a light colored wine, much more dolicat« than 

J}eiau;ar^ — Prom «ma\l expcrinienla yields a wine of 
tniiPCHU-l c-l»88, rcinarkubly rich, and rtry ofUn iniikeA a b«Mit 
ful, ifpiirkling witu;. 

Isabella. — MhIcc« a wioo of a p&l« red color, if fui'inuntud 
upon tho juice, and a darker wiao of a clarot order if furmvnt 
opou the huJlH. 

Jlartford proUJic and Corkcurd. — A dark, b&rsh wine. Thc«o 
varietios are not well calculated for wino. 

Varietiea belonging to Vitit testivalis, or summer grape: 

Clinton. — Itfakcti a high-Lioditid wiiii> of tho olurei order. Tltifl 
rarioty i§ duHtincd to bo relied upon as our red wino grape : 
DO dixtant period. 

Jacquee. — Givea a very dark wioe of the Burgondy order.' 
Its juice caa be muuipuluted an for wbite wines — there being ft 
large smouriL of eoloriug mutlnr in iho juice. 

Lenoir with Clint(»i. — Will give a delicate olan^l or porU 
Warrm. — Makes a wino of tbo Madeira claae. 

Pauline. — Somewhat similar to above. 

Taylor or Balld. — A wliite variety of the Clinton, and donl: 
loss will soon be our stAudiug, or while wine variety. 

T/ie Scupp^nfinif. — A variety of I'ift* airdifolia. Yields 
wine of llie niu>(cal order, but unfortunaltily Hugar and alcolifi 
are ton generally added, and thereby a good wino is spoiled. 

Uany other vanetiee of our native grapes will soon be ex- 
perimented upon nt( to the wine making qualities; but with the 
above liHl we can obtain almoiit all the claiuuia and colon of 
wine that are imported in tbix country. 

Tho CommiHHiunerH to the Parin ExpoMtioo recommend (P. 
O. Report, 1867,) the introduotion into thi§ country of a coarse 
but very productive grapo called in France " Kn Hegat." It 
yields a very cheap wine. 

In Bpartnnbnrg Diatrict, 8. C, they make out of the garden 
grape a very pleuvant wine, which is thopurejuico of tho grapo, 
by tbe following simple proccwt: 

Squuoxo Uie grapes through a bag; to each gallon of juice put 
one pound of sugar, (more may be added ;) set it away in jars 
or cwtks for two or throe days, occasionally skimmiog off all 
tbe aupernataut fVoth, scum, etc. Theu niniin into a cask, 
adding some honey and biaudy. A gallon of brandy mU|y b* 


mUnd to twelve ^lons of juico. This wino itt w»\d to equd the 
bnt qnftlity. Very good wine is bIso idmIo by sdding aug&r 
aii4 bnniiy to apple eider. 
A correaponilcnt of Ihv SoutliLTn Field siid Fireside wrilvtt UK 

"Odtifiatiom of Orapes. — Grovrioff Scuppornong grnpvH in ibo, 

Sa«Ui id eA*y, plAAsaikt and very valuable. JUy pIsD is tbis : In 

Fcfanury takti lb« viti«s ihat yon bare root«d the previcMia 

Jtn, and Mt them in aoino place where you want Lkem, say in 

mn ten fwt each way, with somcvoiivenicnt place for them tO 

ifraad tbeir branrhes on, and soon oriM^t a f^ood arbor U> each 

•at, bmI if th«y are well treated tboy will $oun cover the whole 

Wi The beat [and Ibr this vine ia light, aandy toil, and the 

kMt nannre is grass or w«im1i>, ho&d up when green and put 

nte the arbor; aUo, rotten wowl, Hoch ai> old bourdit, raiU, 

Mkkit etc. piled nndor the vines. It is also y^w\ to have a pvn 

■nmd the roou titled with all the scrap loath^T, old «hoca, 

\mm, briukbttji, eto. When the vines begin to grow they must 

W praned «ver^- Hpriiig. for the tendrils will rap around the 

bna^M. and when the branches grow largu, die or brr^k ofi; 

ft wilt in jure the vine verymuoh; bnt wbcn ihuygetold a largo 

fiiMran) would require a gr^at deal of labor, so thiif part 

griinally nMfivi.'K but little iitienllon when the vineyard in old. 

TUt grape ia not oiily aaeful lo preserve and pleasant to eat, 

hit the mo«t dolicioae wine can bo made IVom them. When 

lh«y are fully ripe gather them, and they can l)e ground in a 

pMdar, or if that is not oonveniont, mash them in a trough ; 

ifcfB prcMi them well, putting three-quarters of a pound or a 

fMsd of Migarto the gallon ; in this every one is to be governed 

OWD taste. When well Aweotoneil, lint it in caxkit and 

H off from one to another, until it is purified ; thon bung 

it TM7 liffhtly to prevent evaporation, and set it in a barn or 

MttaratKor twelve months; it is then good enough for anybody 

le drink." 

X*nM Farmi»g and Making. — Mr. R. Buohacan, of Ohio, who 
koae of the moHt eminent vine-growers of this eounlrj-, thinks 
that " wine farming will, in a few yean!^, beeomo ximplified, and 
ahaoctaa easily understood as com farming. There is do my^ 
tojr in it. Experience alone must teach tho proper position 
akd mnl ; the right distances apart for the vinos ; the moat ju- 


diciods methods of fiprin^ and eomm^ pruning; and as for en 
tivBtion, k«ep i)i<3 j^round clean wiili the plow or cultivator 
like com. Cvrtftin riili'n uru given in liookn for vinururd cat 
tore, »■ punund in the Ohio vull«y. Tliwto (iro Iho Biin>p 
Bjrelcmti, aiiupled to our own counliy. 'It wilt l>c safe to fblloi 
^eae rute^^ until by exporimenving wo can find better. Thei 
U inoro room for progreas in thia branch of agriculture than in 
almost itny other. 

" Making the win« ix ax Himplo v making cider. The groat 
bunches are out tVom tho vinoH, and all unsound or unripe 
berries picked off the buncb and tbrown into a bucket, to 
make — with the addition of sugar — vinegar, or an inforiorwine. 
Thv perfect grapes of each day's cutting are taken to the vin»- 
hoiiNe, and in tlie evening, aA«r being mashed iti a barrel with a 
beetle— fltvm and berrii^a — or pasMed through woodon rollera in a 
small mill, arc put on the prow ami the juice rxiraclod. About 
one-third runs off without any prcMiro, The outer edgos of the 
pomace are out off for eight or ten inches after the first pressing, 
■cpanit«d with the hunds, and thrown on top, when the power 
of the nerew H applied, and another prex^ing made. This ia 
rcpi-ati-<l two or three titnea The juice from the luiit pressing 
being very dark ami a«tringonl, is put with the iufcrior wine. 
The other is put in large casks filled about flvo-sixths ffall, to 
ferment and maki.- the ^od wine. No sugar or brandy cihoald 
bo added tu the hewt Calawha juice, or muHt, as it makes a 
better wino without, and ia airong onougli to keep well. One 
end of the ifiiphoii i» ]>laced in tliu bnng.lvilo of the cask ; (he 
other being crooked over, rosW in a bucket of water. 

"The fermentation oommencofi in a day or two. and the car- 
bonic acid I'ticnpes through the water. In ten or fourteen days, 
thv wiphoii may be removed, the casks filled up, and the bung 
driven in lightly; in araonth tightly. In midiitimmer lh« wine 
is drawn off into another cask, and ihe leitit of the wine, with 
tho pomace of the grape", are u«e<l to make brandy, 

"The wino will bn clesir and pleasnot to drink in a month or 
two after tho first tcrmcntHtion ceases. The second fermenta- 
tion oocurs in the spring, about the time of tho blossoming of 
tho grapes ; this is but slight, and it will bo merely neoesinary to 
loottcn the bungs ; when it is over, the wiue will be clear in two 
or three monlliH, and safe to battle, but that operation had 


iter be deferred unlil Norember. And ibii is the whole 

or making oiill wino — lliu wine for general line; and, 

kg A Datnrnl prodact ol' llic pure juiuc of th<! grup4% it ■» 

rholoeome thaD any mixed or artifivial winu, bowever 

I Avvf aoil hiKh-prieed it may bo. 

■Let thd grapes be well ripoDcd; the proHO, caskH, and all 
mIb perfectly clean, and then keep the airtVom the now wine, 
I If hariii]; the caaka coustantly bung-1'ull, and there is no danger 
rfu> tpoiling. Thin ist tlte whole secret. 

^U b presumed lliut iu> one will go into wine fiirniing largely 
mint; but take the prec-atilioa tu teat, by the euliivalion of a 
(ow acTM, the eap«biiiUefl of the soil, poeilion and climate, and 
ihakikd of grapee best xuited to it." 

1 an induced to )pv« place to ibe following article by Ur. P. 
l.BeHcnianis of Augusta, Ga. Aa it treata of the Cnllivation 
•T the Grape at the South, and i» written by a man of pruclicid 
H^erianoe, (frum IboTranii. of the Richmond Co.. Gu., Agncult. 
Chb, IS67.) I will ooDdeD!« some of the information contained 
ia the Crai portion. Ue tttates : 

iM. That ih<>ra is a till u lack of information on the pMinliar 
Mbarv of the grape, and in regard to the selection of rariuiina 
ftrth« Sonthera Stale«. 

• U. The oonntr)-, by ite natural productions, ncems to be em- 
pkstieally the liome of the grape, and he ur);c« upon ub the 
aritiration of thu nativu varietive, the employment of the for- 
eign having been repeate*lly found not ada]>ted lo vineyard eul- 
lara. Foreign grape* nllerly fad afl^-r one or two iieiiitons of 
frmtng; the seedlings al»o are i>ol ht^ter than ihcir pan^nl*. 

id. Ue advisea the |>Uuting of only a lew but well tried 

'Stttce tbe adrent of the Catawba, which gave the start to 
Anetieaa grape growing uud wine making, and which for 
■aay ywwa, with the Isabella, made up !)» list of the then 
«iM grapes, vine cultnre ha» maile immeofe jirogruins an well in 
Ike application of sonnd principles in its culture, as by the pro- 
4aeiKni of namherle^ new varieliee, some of which are now 
birty riTalling in (luality many of the good European rarieltea. 
Afcwyeara more of this sU-aily march of impruvfiiivnt, and 
Aaacrica will have no need to a«k any gra|K-it from Euro|M or 


"It is true that the cultivation of the gnpe hait Dot be 
vorr remunerative sinco 1861; but reports from alntOHl«TU 
ee«tioo of the uounlrj are more lavorutik-, nnd givv tu< 
hope that tlia p4)rioil at dooay, which ha» been io fktal to vii 
i-ultunt, hnit ut lUMt roachod ii» limit, and that a more Ibvorat 
urn ix commoDC-iDg. 

" While on this topic of decay a few words are reqatred. 
Various i-easons tiave been given as to the oauNU of decay. 
Neilhttr wet nor dry weallier, old or young vinos, soils too 
poroiiK cir too retfinlivo, long or nhort pruning, thorongh culti- 
vation or ontiro nvgU'Cty had anything to do with tho gcnenii 
oauM of decay. One or tho other of the above may vaueo par- 
tial docay, but it cannot infliionco tho grape crop throughout 
the country. A toil retentive of humidity will, by itself, be 
conducive to decay in the ft-uit ; another, of too arid a nature, 
will fail to supply the retjuiitite tia|i lo tin; vine wh«n moat 
needed, and by eitbvr oau^e the gmpo crop will fail. Still wo 
have seen, during the past four yearn, the reverse of what 
we could expoct. I-"or instance, grapes would rot in a soil 
which all vignerona would si-lect for the site of a vineyard ; and 
produce flound tVuit in alow soil undcHaycd with stilT pipeclay. 
This is c-onlrarj to all past expcrionco. 

"Some years the rot would commence upon the appearance 
of a rainy season in June; at others, it would be nri-a.iifd U])on 
the ccni^ulion of rain. Old vines in general will fail Hooncr than 
younger one«, their vigor being ini])airwi by prcvioui" cxccMuve 
crops. Whenever a wine is allowed lo overbear ilself. it sel- 
dom recuperates atterwards, oven if the supply of nutriment in 
more abundant than is generally the case. We should be satia- 
ricd with a moderate crop of iVnit; w« can expect thie for a 
long |HM-{<id of yeurH; but if the vine is allowed to produce in 
one your tliren times tin niweh fruit an it should naturally pro- 
duco, it is to the detrlnn'ntof its Allure fertility and vigor. 

"Overbearing, at tirst or nocond production, is one of the 
great causes of tlio early exhaustion of our viueyards. The 
land used for a vineyard is generally impoverished by previoua 
croppings. The vine finds in it a few remaining conHttttienta 
requisite to ilH growth and production of fruit ; being n Mrd- 
cioHS tbedcr, it absorbs thv«c rapidly and in a short time. A 
yoar or two of heavy producing of fruit exhausts the soil of 


HtritiTC e]«Taents-, and Ibc Tine, finding no longer a sapply of 
iMtiiiiraent, bcgine lo dui-lini: in rignr und fertility ; and, once 
dBMol in growth, it seldom rocupcrateB, even if ibe allvr>lft:ai- 
mmtt b sacfa as to return a new supply of nourijtlim«iit to th« 
mL The tendency to overbear should bo otitickisl; but bow 
in prreoQB have Hofficient courage to cm oiT a portion of tho 
I rMch i e a in early »phng? It is ciuteniiMi to rcmoTo one-faalf of 
4* hraaefafiii a» ttoon lut thuy apfxtar; ibr romHininfi; batf will 
kt •»!• dov«lop«d, tbc burrics larger, (lie quality improved, the 
ni^t of the fruit as large in the end aa if all the bruixihiw 
«tf» hit, and the vine will not exhauat itself so much. By 
OTWMiainiD^ nature fails; and it is easier for a viD« to perfect 
■ 4oH« buochea than to atlonipt to do to for double that num- 
k<r. Osr finest s|)edineiin of fruit:), sucli us pears, pcacheA, 
Ifftaa, tte^ arr tbc VontiMiiiencv of a mudcrato crop of Oilit 
ifM tbe tre«», eau.-H-d oilhur naturally orarlilicially, by remov- 
mg a proper proportion of tho flowers, or, belter still, tho 
i«m bads, as soon aa they appear. 

'Uisa wrong polif^y lo deaire to enjoy too aooh ; Fafiaa 
fail •bonid be the motto of the fruit grower. To revert to the 
■iJTH. of deray, the main eaune iwcniK to bo purely * ciimatie' 
md can be eomporod to an epidemic in man, or eptsooty in ani- 
■aia; ii will make its appearance suddvuly, and ollen ti* »nd- 
<ia>l5- ns>e. Thi» wait thu experieiiuo of Preneh vino gruwera, 
tho ehamoter of tbo diiinwo there dilTored from the 
grape nil. We may hrnecfurllt have a loni; period 
'tf hmimI fruit cropK, and perhaps bo visilod again by the rot, 
r a ino^ or ehortor t^me. Uut one thing is certain, that the 
ay ilib year was less destructive than at any period »inoo 
, t^ year of its flr>tl appearance. 

the grape be cultivated here with a &ir pnxqvect of 
fnUn ia a quMtion thai i» firat asked by now boginners. It 
. btWMW«r«d in the afllrmative, provided Iho right varieties 
Ffet planted. 

-The Oameord has boon pronounced at the North and West 
^itc gr»p* A>r the ' million,' and the poor man's wine grape. This 
I Arr tbow sections, but not tor the Southern 8iat«s. We 
' have a |frB[w iadigonouH lo the oimnlry, wbieb is more deserv- 
Lhg thM appullatiou for us ; one that will thrive on a roeky bill 
I V^ ae iu a rich boltomi never failing to produce a crop of 

fWit; nuTor having boeii known U> rot, and, above a)!, nopdinje; 
no experionc(»d hand to trim ii. I refer to the Sruppemosi^. 
Its capacity of production iti fabuloait when compared to othor 
vineyard Tarietie«. Vinoe planted i>ix ycara ago upon laod that 
would not produce ten bushels of corn to th« acre, in averas" 
yeam, have produced one and a half bu§heli of fruil each, and 
tbia U the fourth crop. Thoy wurc planted without rcRiini to 
the arbor trainioi;, under which mode the Seupiwmong attiiitia 
ita largest nixe, but simply traiood upon a wire trellis four feet 
high ; the diniaiice twenty feet in tlie row. What will an acre 
product: at thin rate, and what will it produce, if properly 
(rained, and planted in a rich noil ? 

" Instances of a single Tine covering one acre of pound arc 
Dumcrous, and Nxty barrels of wine itJ« product in a single »ea- 
SOD. Thei>e are exceptions which vino growem must not all 
expect Id rea]tx«; but they are merely given as ao ovidnnc« of 
ita wonderful furi.ility. Iia oalture U the simplest of all modes, 
and the outlay rcpiircd to cttlablitih an acre is insignificant, aa 
compared with the price" of the new varielie*. Knongh of the 
fbrmer to plant an aero can be procured for the price of n half 
dozen new comers. 

"The next betit wine grape U tlie Clinton, whose merits are 
now ^iifSciontly known to give it itwrank among the great wina 
grapes of the country. It is of Xorthcni origin, but improve* 
as it is brought southward. It is vory prolific and makoa a 
heavy bodied claret. Other variotjes are eomitig into notice, 
and bid fair to make valuuhle udUitiont< to ihis class of grajMi : 
such aro Ihe " Tree Seedling," clu. 

" Our good table grape" aro hocoming numerous. Firxt cornea 
Ddaware, which seem to thrive evurywhoro SoutJi. IsabHla 
bids fair to even excel the Delaware; it« quality is superior to 
any of its class ; so far it has not decayed, although, from the 
short time of its introduction South, we cannot form a, decided 
opinion as to il« ultimate behavior; atilj, two y«ir»' frniling, 
during which it bore perfectly sound cropn, and this during a 
period when many other varieties, of like recent introdaciion, 
decayed, is a fair beginning and Hkely to end well. Hartford 
Prnliflc is as yet our bi«t vcrj- ("arly grapit. At a profitablo 
niarkel fruit it Al^md" lirHt in ■'irdor. Tbe I'linc-bun and berries 
aro large, of Unv appearance, lair quality, and stands carrying to 

rt betlvr than aay oilier variety. It if not »0 tiflhlo to 
i^ Its berries s» in Northern .Stateo. It^ enriinviw will alwnyw 
•■kc it mmnurad a high pric«. 3Iila is bolter in quality, fully, 
t MKa Utile earlier, but not W tine in appcftrance. 

" Cttcofd will long remain aa one of our good gra|>eB. Its 
(Ua ia «mLber too tbin W stand carrying to distant mark«t8; 
lai il i« rery prolitio, of &no quality, and irill doubtl«iM niuko a 
^1 wine, altboiigti no exporimoDls have uti yot biM'n tried 
MfM a lai^ »cale. 

' Ottario. or L'nion Village, whon well f^rowD. rivals in eize 
U* Black Uamburg. It )h a splendid looking grape, of good 
quality, and haa decuysd losa than many of the Iteretoforc a>n- 
•idovd reliable grapes. When (lie Warren and Black Jvly find 
■ Rulabk soil anil situation, no grape ean (.'omparu with either 
in tk« p«caliar laxturo of the ft'uit. The vincin« flavor of thes« 
wietiea belongs only to the typo of avmmer grape, ( Vitit i7«- 
Inliijfrani wkiob ibcy originate, and they are all well d^ 
vnb«') by Downing, when he calb them 'bagn of wine.' Other 
nhetiet havo their inerits; but they alonu have given mora 
■tiAnion generally than others j and we miutt be tiatisli^d 
■itilkem. especially if we expii^t to derive pnitit from gi-ape 
pnii^; and, until butter variotira are produiiod, we must 
lake ibrm. a* they oombine variuty enough to satisfy the most 

&*(iJioUI> t»i!rlC. 

"lltbridizing hait becnmnch e x peri men lud with of late; but 

my few of the ao-ciUlod hybrids arv really «o ; thoy are. in [uo«t 

■ittlaiKea, Irati uatlvm of either the Labmsca or JBaivalis type. 

Ta Dr. Wylie, of ChwtOT, & C, belongs the credit of having 

iebwnd tba bcot reoulLA. The thanks of all American gnipu 

grawera RboDld bo given him for hiH vlforttt in improving onr 

tatitre varieties by fctcntific and patient labon*, and th« fruits 

labors will, at no dintant day, largely hunefit the 

Uia experiment* have been, by taking the native 

tftaat aa tba fumale, and osiog the pollon of the fbreign 

nriatiot v* mates. The offsprings show more foreign char- 

Mtan than native ones; proving that the experiments wure 

Mcmeafiil. By this pruco!^:^ he has produced Dtlaiearea witb 

Ite a4Mt Bxquisiio flavor of the JTuaoo/j. dinlone as largo as 

and with a .Vasait or CluiS9«ias flavor. By cro«>s im- 

<u, taking his hybrid varieties as male, h« ba« pro- 


dnccd from tlio wild Halifax a ino«t ftx^niniU; wino gnipo ; an 
ihv most pleasant loiituro witli his hybrids, is that thoy bai 
Dot been in the leact subject to itecay, alttionj^b be stat«l^ tbi 
the ground id which tJiey are plaat«d la not a suitable one 
a vineyard. 

"Tbv btt«t Hoil foravineyardiaadry caloaneouM loam, onui 
Uiiiiing uatiiral i>alt» itnd a proportiontLlo qiiatitily of vogvtabl^ 
matter. It is t'qtilo to expect a heavy grape crop opon soil 
poor to bo uesd for the cultivation ut' corn, 

" The diffcrtiiit varioti«8 oC grapes will make dilTerent wine 
Nearly all ilie varietiuH belonging to the Fox grape ( Vttis 
briuca) will inako a Hock. They are bolter nuittid to the pr 
duciiun of white w)n«M than red ono», whvn u8od by them solves.' 
The Catawba, tho Vonango, etc., give a rough wino, when for* 
mentod apon the skins. The Concord, &om iu thinoeea of 
akin, contains less acid matter, and will, therefore, make a pala- 
table rod wine. The Liihrusi^as should have a. j)urtion of ^E»U- 
VtiUs mixed with them, when a red wine it dcitirod. Foria^| 
Btance Catawba and IkiiIioIIu, with a third ; Clinton, Warren or^ 
Black July, will give a superior red wine. The Jjstivalis class 
are more akin to tho French wine grapes. The Clinton will 
gf TO a fine Claret ; Ohio, or Jncques, somuthitig moro rcavmbling 
a Burgundy; Paulino, Warron and Black July will produce 
wines varying tW>m a Sautorne to a Madeira. Scappernong 
will make a delicious Muscatel. Enough for nil laatet* ; and it 
i» to be hoped that, a« we have Uio olomcntn of kdccom in onifl 
hands, we shall no longer allow them to i-cmain unproductive." 

Tlic objection to the Scuppcrnong as a wino grape is that the 
iVuilprodncesalmost singly and not in bunches, and hence is diffi- 
cult to gather. This, as well another grapes, grow remarkabljj 
well in our common pine land when cleared and prepared- 
favored po^ibly by the characteristics of the soil combined with 
the protection afforded by the pine foroHl. 1 hope that iu a few , 
yeai'A grape culture will be regarded u* an itiduHtrini renom 
by those ro«iding in tlie«o com pii rati vely sterile regions, and 
that it will yield umploymont and profit to ourpoople. 

Mr. S. McDowol, of N. C, directed attention to tho "B«lt 
no frost, or Thermal Belt," on the slopea of the ijoutbern Alle-^ 
ghanies. It is a vernal xonc which exhihilH itself ujion our 
mountain sides, commencing about ihrvi; hundred feet verlicQ 


Mffat KbOTo ihc valleys aod travenuDg them, tie saya in bis 
tntfT, in a {Kiri««tl3r liorizootal line Uiroughuitl llioir entire 
tfu^h, like a vs«t greeD ribbon ou a black gi-onnd. Its breadth 
m bar hoodrv-d feel. Here there i» uo I'rost, "and the most 
IMider of our native grafWH ban not tailed to produce abuiidanl 
tnf* in twcnty-«ix uODwculivo years." Theee sltould ho 
wl m id Ibr gnipo caltnrv a« the low vaileys are unnuiied to it- 
' Sm Uw pbilottophy ol' the aubjeot aa demribed by tiim, in P. 
U. Rep.. 1867, p. 89. 

JfCSCAlUNK; BUI.LACE,(F.>i*t'ti(i(;)tna, L.) A wine may 
It Bade fVom thUf^pe. Two peckKof the mashed grapes ai-o 
to one gallon of boiling water ; allow it to forment thirty- 
lb loim; add a tittle .■>ugtir to eavb gallon and lay it aside. It 
■OH not be mated cIohoI}' at first. 

AM. IVY; VIRGINIAN CRKEPKlt, (^Ampclop^is quin^tfc 
titfJix.) Fla. and northward. 

Used by the "Koletica" Dr. Wood states, aa an alterative, ' 
vmit, aad expeotoranL The bark and llie Iwiga ant the part« 
(splnjcd. Dr. McCall hax rvt^ently in ihi' Mt^'mphis Med. Jonr. 
iwoDuneaded a d«ooct3on or iDl'iiKton of the bark in dropsy. 
HtUlicvoK it to aet rather by stimnlating absorption than as a 
£dm]& (Penins. and lodepend. lied. J., Juoe, 18&8.) Soo 
CaDiap., 12th Ed. 

Tbu -Iry," (Maitra Adtr,) an exotic, which by its tendriU 
to and oorent the walU of brick house*, has been oxten- 
and micce««fully used at the South daring the Into war to 
tmon the color of silk dresses — a strong decoction of tbo 
Istrw, an I am informed, is employed. It owca this property 
*f imparting luntj-e and frcshncvui to Hitk no doubt to the ruNin- 

Wf gum which it oonlains, a principal vonvtitaent of whicli 

COBYLAOEiE. {T/te Nut Tribe.) 

Fnipcrliee welt known. The seieds oily, and generally eat- 
ahl«i the bark astringent, and often containing coloring matter. 

IBONWOOD; HOUXBEA-M. ^0*(rya nrs/iHion, Wiltd., KIL 
9t. Oitrya carptnujt, Mich.) Richland ; N^^'wboru. 

M. Bou Med. Notes, ii, 619; Sboc. Flora Carr>i. 3&6. Its 
kavca afford a grateful food to cattle. The wood is tough and 


white, and bums like a vandlo. T hnre raggostod this (arti' 
in De Bow's IUvi(>w) os a aubstilulo for wood employed by e 
graven>. It is employed by turners, and wrought lulo mi. 
oogB, wtieola, etc. A permaoent yellow color is imparted 
yarn by tlin iim»r bark. 

Thi! bircb lioriibi-iim, ((?. betulus,) growing in Kiigliind, in ve 
much UNod am ii bi-dgo pliint, and ii<i Miid t» "aftonJ a morv a 
Ibrtn tt^Tnpcnttnru orHlindo than n brink wall." Otir B|H-des "is' 
th« most elegant of nil tho liornbctimK of Brilain." Wilson. 

"Tbe sap of the hornbeam (Carpinus aglveetris) is obtained in 
ttie months of April and May. At this period it i» coIoHcah, 
and dear as water; il« litaie is slightly naocbunnv i itx oilor 
rcrtombto» thai of whoy ; it reddi-n* turnsole imper. The sap of 
this tree oontaios water in very larRo quantity, sugars, ex- 
tractive matter, (probably azotized,) and free acetic acid, ace- 
tate of limt!, and aoetate of potash in very smal) quantities. 
ThiH eap, Ictl to it«oIf, prewntii in nuii'ci'Hiun nil the phenomena 
of the vinous and then of tho accloas furmt'otation." Vauquo- 
lin'A Annaleit de Ohimie t. xxxi, p. 20, first series; BooHHin- 
ganlt'it Rural Economy, p. G7, Law's edition, 18117. 

BKAKED HAZELXUT, (0)ryi(« rosfrala. Ail.) Grow* on 
the mountainv. PI. Man-h. 

Griltlth. Med. Bol., 585; Duhamel'H Mem. Am. Journal Pbar: 
T)r. Heobener, of Bethlobom, hat employed the short, rigid 
hairs of the involucre as a substitute fur those of muL-una, and 
ha* found Uicm equally anthelmintic. 

i havii eolk-eted this plant in fruit on Tiger River, near Roid- 
ville, S. C. The haini nm estri'iuely fine, and pierce tbe skin 
with faoilily. I have little douhl with reapocttu their acting io 
a similar way with mueuna. 

HAZELNUT, [Corybia Americana, Wall.) Kicb soils; along 
the margin of woods and thiekots. West Florida and north- 
ward. Ohnpman. N. C. Kdiblo. 

1 have Heen tbe hanehiut growing wild near Snmmorvillc, 
S. C, in Laurens District, and in Powhattnn County, Va. Onr 
Amorioan hazelnut is said to bo preferred to tho Albert. Wilnon 
says tliut the oil which is obtained IVom hazelnuts by pniKSure 
ie little inferior to that of almonds; and under the name of 
nufoil i" often preferred by painters, on account of its drying 
more readily than any other of the same quality. CbemiBts 



it aa the basin of !htgraot oilti, anifloisllj prepansl, 

bfcsa^a it easily oorobioes with and retaiiifl odon. TbiH oil i» 

fentd oerrioeable io ohiilinate c^nughs. Tf niitN l>o pitt into 

wflfcni pots uiil w<.4l elo«ed, and uflcrwnnl buriod vightcoo 

i i eht i or two fvAt in Hw earth, thuy maj hv kvpt sound through 

tbe *iot«r. In many parts of England hazols {^C. avelUtna) are 

pfautcil in eoppiccv ami kndgo-rovrs, to be cut down poriodicaliy 

far Gharooal, polf«. li«bin};-rods, Die Itoinj^ extremely tough 

aad tf«xible, the branches are uwd for makiog hardies, crates, 

and Bpringlea to fasten dowo thatch. Tbey are formed Into 

tftn, handles for implements of husbandry, and when xplit are 

Wat fatio boopa for cu»ka. Charcoal matic from hazol Is much 

ia mtae>l for forges ; and whun propariMl in a particalar roaa> 

■0, b nsed by paintora and onifravcrs to draw ibeir outlioeti. 

1\m tootf »rv umkJ by cnbinot-makoro i'or veuoeriog; and in 

Italr lira cbipe of haze] are put into turbid wine for the purpoM 

«( ftntag it. Raral Cyc. Our MpMiiex will doiibllu^iH anitwer for 

althw« parpo«i». IIomp4c«d oil uIho in used by puinlortt. In 

the eauitrim whore yoa«t a scnrco, they twiut the slender 

biuclkM of haxol together, and steep them in ale yeast during 

ib faaentation ; they are then bung ap to dry, and at the 

atxthrewing are put into tlie wort iualead of yeurtl. Fanner's 


WHITE BKKCU,(Fagiu Stflifatiea, Fagw V. Anuricana, h.) 
Itk^ihaded swamps, fiichland ; oollMtod in St John's ; New< 
Wm. FL March. 

Shec Fh>ra. Carol. 559 ; GnfBth, Med. Bol. 585 ; Fl. Soolica, 
^U3; Liun. V^. UaU Med. 175. The burk h iwttringenl, and 
bibeea uaed, aocordiug to Itr. Faruham, in ial«ruiitt«nt fever; 
M it is not poMMsed of any decided powont. The fruit pru- 
rertigo and hcadaeho in the hnman specim. It is oU 
I. iD the Fl. Scotica, that "the fat of hogs, which feed on 
I, Is soft, and will boil away." The seeds yield an oil liiUo 
ier to olire oil, and fit, also, for burning. The pulp re- 
Diining al^r vxpruKsion may be Goovertud into flour, similar in 
and color to wheat, but swocter. A. narcotic principle, 
callsd famine, has been fonnd in tho hnsksL The yooog learea 
in ■omeilmes used by the common people as a potherb. The 
is Taloable to cabinet-makers and turners, for manulw^ 
log purponea — being capable of receiving a high polish. 


Rvttry kind of implement, plane ^tockn, tool handles, ina^ 
niuili: of ItiU wood, wliicb resiBts great proasure. In Kiiglnni 
the buceli if vxlennively used for umbrellu baiidlea. Htm Did 
ens' Household WnnlH. Liebig auiUti that tb» a»hes of Uii 
beech contains u larger proportion of pliniiphulv of lirap th 
those of any other tree. Soi> bin Agriailltirat C'bcmi«iry. Il 
ia obiKirved in doath Carolina that the lands on which it grows 
are not naually suited for cotton ; and we may, pei-ha)Mii, at(n- 
bute it to llieir UepriviDj; the 6oil of this, so necc-Mtary a con- 
titiluent in the muturaiion of that plant. In thi- Iowit country 
of South Curolina, the litiech is one of the midt Ri»gnili(-i.-nt of 
oar forvMt trvett. Ohapmiin only iiicliidun in bin work F.ferw- 
yittea. Ait. 

By distilling, says Ure, beech tar {P. si/lvatica') to drynen 
with other proecMcs, paraphine is obtained. "It would form 
admirable candles," the author adds, while referrlnjc to the pro. 
daction of pnraphine as au article of commerce fn>iu pi-at. I 
iniwrt tliia here (1602) an dejiottiUi of peat are funnd within the 
Southern Slates. Tbv tiHhcs of pout. aleo. are worth eomothing 
as manure. They usually. Norton states, contain five or six 
per cent, of potash and soda, and considerable quantitiea of 
lime, magnesia, iron, elo. Soot, a subotance somewhat allied, 
contains a large quantity of ammonia, and is useful as a ma- 
nure,' so much so that when laid on heaps of grutui thv ptwtis 
are destroyed. Hicbaux says that our beech huun* « strict 
analogy with the European beech. The beech iibonid be felled 
in the summer when the sap is in full ein<nljitii)ii ; cut at this 
season it is very dettirable. In the Fayus sj/lvcslria, white beecbf 
"the duramen or perfect wood, bears n remiirkubly small pi 
portion to its alburnum. The biirk of old trues is used by t 
ners as a substitute for oak bark." In Hnglaud beech wood ia! 
employed for many purposes — the nuts or matit being given to 
hogs. 800, also, Kural Cyv. The woml of ihu red beech ia 
Stronger, tougher, and more compact than that of the while. 
In the 'State of Uaine, and in the Briti!>b pntvinues, where oaks 
are rare, it is employed with the sugar maple and yellow birch 
fijr the lower part of tho framt^s of vcsseli'. The beech is in- 
oorruptible when eonslnnlly in the water. Tlie aahe* of both 
•pedes of beoth yield a very large pz-oportion of potash. Mi. 
chauz, who describes the procesa of extracting tbo oil, aay» 




tt equals one-iuxtb of the nnU twod. Th« qatilit}' of tho 

60 depetuLt apon thv euro with whkh it is mndc, and upon the 

puiljr of tho veMel in which it is prepared. It should be twico 

dnwn off darioti; tiie first three moDtkti, without disturbing the 

4n]^ uid lh« third tinifl at the end of alx months. It arrives 

U prtfrotion only when It b<'Comit* limpid iniv<!nil momhi* ufter 

it» extraction. It improres by ag«-, lai<tii unimpitiroil for tvn 

yMfs, u>d may b« pntserved longer than any otb«r oil. Tb« 

■BBoerof uiftkiiiu; boeohiiQt-oil moet commoDly parsa«d in tbe 

diHheta of the W(»Ati>rii Stat«fi where the tree abounda, u som«> 

wfcatdifferaot from that de«cril>ed In Micliaux's Sytva. Instead 

atresofting Ut thv rather tediotist prueesit of gathering the nutn, 

mi pcwMiag them through scrcw-prvMen, tho farment turn out 

tWrbogs immediately aflor tho fir»t frost, who soi;rct<i the oil 

o4er their skin. Unless they bo fed some time before killing, 

if«» Indian corn, the bacon has little solid conastency, booomw 

&qaid npoa the slightent application of heat, and keeps that 

Me.KMmblingin that renpeci the iard of Itogs fod upoD acorn 

■all. Tb« nuta are only plentiful every third or fourth year. 

I lure oboorTixt that the bcecb growing in the swamp* of !^ 

Owfiuft mature a very scanty supply of uute. I uhUiin tho 

Mowing from a journal, (1862:) 

Bndt Trre l^avts, — The leaves of the beeoh trees, collected at 
inaoiB, in drj- wuulhar, funii an admirable article for filling 
Wds. Tho smell \* gnilvful and whok-trnme ; they do not harbor 
ittaiB. aro very clastic, and may bo roplenishcd annually 

ClIINijL'APIN, iCaftoKea pamila, W.) Diffused in upper 
uA lewvr country ; iometime-t attaining a height of thirty fSeet; 
TitiaKy of GharleMon ; St. John'n : Xewb«m. Fl. Jnly. 

V. S. IH«p. IB9. The bark has boon used in intermittent 
l>nr, bat is probably possessed of very little value. Thu fruit 
B tatable. The wood is finer grained, more compact, heavier 
Nd Bvea more durable than that of the che«ti>at, and is ad. 
■iiaUy adapted for fence-pontd — lasting in the ground more 
tt*a forty year*. Farmer'* Eneyc. The bloom of this t«e 
nd of the poniimmon is said to destroy hog". Sea ft^Iowing. 
CHESTNUT. iOul.iitM wexa. L.) Fairfield District, Florida 
inri nijnhwnrd. In South Carolina only found in upper dis- 
Ihcts, ou<> of oar noblest trees. 


The fruit of ibU treo nod the nhlnqiinpin {C. pvmUa) ai« we 
known. Eat«n either i-aw or boiled. The roob* contain un i 
txiu^^eiit principle; timl of the (;tiin<[uapiii boilH in milk 
much uxeil in liie dinirhcen of tcctbing children. 1 wonid ndvwc 
« tva, mado of this to be used exleniporanf^ously in diarrltcea by 
poldiers in cunp. The late Dr. Neliton Burges», of Suwier 
Dialriot, 8. C, informi-d mo that at iho rttcommcndation of Dr. 
Ji>[ii'[>, he biis UKcd tbo dccoctiou of the root and bark of tbe 
cbiDquapin froquontly as a substitute for qtilnine in iotermiUeDt 
and remitteni f«Ter, and with decidedly satUfactory results. I 
mention this hoping that it will be examined by otberii. t can 
hnve no clue to Ibe rca^onii of ilH utility, mgnriling it here- 
tofore Hiinply aa ati antringent. Hot water it> ponred over thn 
root and hark, and a large quuiitily taken during tbg twen^- 
four houra. 

Dr. J. S. UnEieker, of Cincinnati, reports the use of a decoc- 
tion of the leaver of the ohcMlnut in hooping cough. He tuytt 
that be hait given it in about thirty caneti, in all of which il gave 
deoided relief in two weeks. He unutu a decoction mad» wiiJi 
three U> four drachms of the leavoi in a pint of water gicoo ad 
libitum. Caul(rphi/lUn, in dottcB of onc-foarth to ibur grains, has 
also been much nfwd recently in this disease and in asihraa. 
BoHtoii Med. and Surg. J.. Jan., ISGH. See, aW, Bati.-^ in TildenV 
J. Mat. Med. Sept., 1868, article containing a hixtor)- of the 
Blue Cohosh, {CoulophyUnm.) 

The bark of both treed containe tannin, and may be ased in 
tanning leather. In Italy. cheGlnuts are baked a« brirad, and 
there and elsewhere are planted as food for hogs. 

Wilson, in hiii Kiiral Cyo., says that coppices of chestnut afford 
an excellent produce every ten or Iwolve years, for hop-polaa, 
hoop« and all kindK of ctaHtic prup^ and handleit. "Thu wood 
of young cbestnutH nerves hotter for gatc-]>ost« or for any othor 
purposes which involve constant contact with the ^ound than 
any other kind of wood, except yew or larcb. It is lauded as a 
good aueeedaneuin for tbe coamor kinds of mahogany in ih« 
making of furnitarc-" It rank» nearly equal with oak. "Cask 
staves of chestnut possess the double recommendation of not 
being liable to shrink and of not imparting a foreign color to 
liqiiora which the casks may contain. The wood of the chestnut, 
though britllo, is rcr^' durable in weather. I am infhmiwl that 


fc>Bi nila made of iL will lost over twenty years. Tlie tru«i( 
MB taaHj bv ni*e<I frOia tlic «i-«d. 

BLACK OAK; yllEKCITROX OAK, iQucrcux tinetoria, 
B*Mntn.) Upper dUlricta ; rare in lower; collectod in Ob»rlm> 
IM DtotHot; St. John's; North Carolina. R. April. 

Pe. Mat. Hed. and Tlierap. ii, 194 ; Am. Mod. Record, iii^ 363 ; 

Batloa'a Baaay to Fortn. Hui. Med.; Alilicrt, Nouv. t^U^mn-do 

TbAnip. i. 93 ; M<^r. and de L. Diet, de H. Uml. v, 590 ; Edinb. 

Ibd. Joamal, 72 ; U. 8, Di«p. 581 ; Mivh, N. Am. SyK-a, i. 91 ; 

Jovnal <l« Pharm. et do Chim. v, 261 ; Itoylc. Mat. Med. 659 : 

Bail and Gar. Mat. Med. 39«; tirifflth's Med. Bot. 98S; Am. 

H«ftwJ, 153. Thtt bark, a powerful and valuabli- atilringonl, la 

■l*0|iO«M<*»<rd of pargat4V« pnipcrtirx, in which rc^pwil it hiw 

H adnotcgc not met with in the; Q. falcata. They hnvo both 

bMD «ffloacion<t in lencorrhcea, amonorrhtEa, chronic hyeleria, 

toiilBua, rhenmatiam, polmonary ooniiumptioD, tabee mesen- 

Icrica, cynanf hu tonoillurifl and aHlhma. Oak-balls produced by 

Ibewara aloo poworlul astringents, and an-- employed in many 

MMsreqairin;!^ such remedies— aa in diarrhtaa, dyitentary and 

knerrhage; also, in raild ea»e«ofinterTDttlont fever. The doee 

tf the powder ii) forty grains. The powder of this, or of the 

kric. mixed with hog'H Ian], in a very nimplv iind efTootiial 

raDfdy in painfnl hemnrrhoido and n d»i>»vtion in MTvii'i-'ublc u-h 

a fiHBtntation lor prolap^iio titt-ri and an!, and for dcflactioDH 

Kfrnn those parta. Acoordinfr to Dr. Gallon, it is applicable in 

nlazations or impairml conditions of the mucoos membrane*, 

On accoant of its tonic, eonstringin^ etTc-ct, and as a Raixlo in 

liritammation of the fauces, prolapsus nvniffi, ete. Mr. Liears 

has oaed it with " wouderfhl suceefts " in the cure of reducible 

hernia. U 1» appli<!d lopiislly in mortification, and to ill-con> 

ditioncd ulcerx. Miinumic and MCrofuloun cbilden arc iMithod 

with f^rcat advantage in n >)«th made of the bark. Although 

this «p«ct«9 acU slightly on the bowolii, it oonluns more tannin 

aad gallio acid than the Q. alba and Q./aUxtta ; benc« it is better 

fltftad to cotes requirinjo; an external astringent. <juercitron ia 

obtained fh>m this and the Q. falcata (which see) iudiacrimi- 

aately, and la sent to Kurope in large qoanlities to be employed 

la dyeing wool and silk of a yi-llow color. 

The bark i* a wdl known and important dyestnIT, and in much 
cnpioycd in dyeing wool, nilk and paper-hangings. It issaid 


by Hr. BaiieroR, who introduced it into notice, to bo equal i 
pow<!r to ten fimex it.i weight of woad. Witli abasioof aluntin 
adovootiun ol'tho bnrkgivcA a bnghl ycHowdye; with oxide 
tin, it givw a variety of tiDtit from pals lamon to doep onnije 
and mth oxide of iron, it yields a drab color. Tho i 
tegamont oi' the bark is what contains th« coloring tmutcr, 
Wiliton's KuralCyo. "Oak-gulla put into a aolatioo of vitriol 
watoFfpTo it a pnrplfl color, which as it growaBlrongerbeoonn 
black." IntbsioDH of oak-galls (tannin) an! excellent tests 
iron. Oallie acid is also yielded by the gfllt-nut», and by oai 
bark. The principal barks which are koown to yiold it are 
thoeie of the oak, willow, plam tree, the poplar, the elm, tha 
monntnin iinb, the birch, the uldcir, the ayoamore, the beoch and 
the cherry Ircu. But it by no ineanrt, addti Wilson, follows the 
proportions of tJinnin. It lii readily, but very slowly obtain 
from a culii, long-kept and nvontuully evaporated dccociion c 
galls, or of the tanniniforoue barks. Wilson's Rural Cye. an 
kaedioal authors. 

The best tteanon for felling timier is andoabtodly midwinter, 
the next being inidttummer, when Ihe sap h chiefly confined to 
the j'Oung HhootK, the circuinfuroiico of the soft wood aiid th 
bark. The wor«t timo for telling timbor m tbo spring, jii 
beforo tJio dovolopmont of tho bads, when the tree is fulloat ol 
sap. Where much value is attached to the soil or oator wood, 
felling ought to take place when there is least sap in the tree^ 
Id general, all the soft woods, nuch as the elm, lime, poplar, 
willow, should be felled during winter; hard woods, like ihel 
oak, heeoh, ath, titc., whun the trunks art; of largo siizo am 
Tuluod chiefly for their heart-wood, may bo foiled at any tim 
When tho bark, however. Is to be taken into consideration, 
in the oak, tho tree should be felled in spring, as then the barl 
contains four limos tho quantity of astringent matter to that 
fblled in winter. Brande's Dictionary of Scieiioe ; Farmer's 
Encyclopaedia. J 

All oak bark for the tanner ought at latest to be removed 
fro tu the tree before the third week of June, "when the sap 
has begun to Hmo and before the leaf is completely developed; 
and every Ion of it, aays Wilson, which is removed after tb 
first of July, is nut only impoverished in tannin, but weighi 
two hundred weight lesK than if it bad been removed befo 




the end of Hay. Otb«r tree^ may in EnjiilaTid be p«elcd 

«rii«r. The rwulcr inlcro^twl in pnxtuping Harks should rfind 

tbt aritclo. Raral Cyo., " Barking." Tlie hwl meiliod« of vtA- 

lMtiB|> &Qd etorinf; sro dewribod. Tbv in»itraro«nt» n«od in 

OBJMting bark are a mall«l M> buat thi? Imrk and n vrndgo, both 

■wl* oC »ab. to insoK bonoath the Ioo«oncd baric. Tlio wodge 

ii ifWila whapad. Slight wetting dooe not injare barii. It is 

Mid in &rf, open air, ujwn support^ sn that walt*r will not 

«dlMt apoa iu The bark Ahoald bi> tVequDntly turn<>d. When 

tlbnftaently dry ta aroid fennentaiton, it sbould be carried 

la&ilry-hoaiK: orf>hade, or utacked in thiiMinio m»iinur lui hay — 

k lUekaDot ai> larjfe w lo incur Ihv rixk of I'^rrnipntatinn. in 

the Pamier'a Kacyc the plan of removing barb is described. 

It ii fialed that tannic aoid moflt aboands when tbe bnd^ are 

miralni,, and loasi in winter, and in cold xpringe. Four or five 

ptoadaof t^odonk bark oraroragciinaliiy an! n-qiiinsl tn form 

OMpmuul of leather. Tbe bark xoparaUi-i from the tree more 

WB^diiriiig spring. See Am. Farmer's Cycloptedia. 

3e« article "I^eatber." in WiWn's Rural Cyc. for mode of 
pvpariftg the varivtivH of Inatbcr, lanntng kidakinn for Freuoh 
gl****, etn.; also '* Rhus," in this roluine. 

1W editor of the Southern Pield and Firewde, April. 1862, 
•latMin anbwer to inquiries ** that the bark of the btriek poplar 
ti wtd in England for tanning, but not, we believe, in thia 
anniiy. tl haw probably atiniit half tbe mrKugth of blH<^k onk 
Wk. Blaoklx-'rry liriarit, niot" and nUtmn waxhtK) i-lcan (thin it 
■tfihe obwrvcal oonlirnto nty own obHcrvutionn) mipply a good 
M n( the tiinnin<; principle ; and our M>minon bi-oomicdgi^ or 
«»», baa been largely employed in the nmnnfacture of leather 
ia&iropean nations where timber barknare ioMiffioieut to meet 
■bpablic wanlH. Bnmaeh ia exported largely fVom Sicily for 
InalBg goat and tthefpiikinM. Ouk I eaTC«, fennel and Mayweed 
■tooMl in tannic acid, and wo intend experimenting with the 
hritof oid li<--ld pine for making lenthcr. That it (-oniains tan 
*> know ; but whether it wi'l bo profitable to peel and use it 
taiyotto be determined. Larch i« much used in Great Brilaia 
n4 hemlock at the North." 

FriND a tiHefal eommnnicatinn in the Sonllicm Field and 
Rnaide, Oetot)er 19, 18^1, it in siat4f<l that oak bark haa xold in 
Iht District of Oolnmbia at ten dollars a cord for years ; and 


thai "soT«rftl million dollant worlh of Bnraacb {RJtus) is 
nuttlly importixl from the kouIIi of Rurogti! iiilu tlie UuU 
Stutec tbr iiiriDin^ purpoecs." Tho ^tu growx cbumlKiiiljr i^ 
tb« Soiitheni Btat«a, as well aa many other plant* conbuDJi 
tsmiin. I Iiiive noticed, in trat-ereiDj; that partoftbo 
Swamp nttar Xurolk. Va., llmt the Hfius is the moHt charac 
iatic growth. Svo SHinack. It contil be procured in any amoaot. 
Tho writer of the arlick just rdlerrcd to rail* iitti-ntioti to the 
great amount of goatstiinB and morocco manulaclured and ex- 
portwl from Franco and Knglaiid, where tannin is scare*, to 
this coutitrj-, where the materials for producin); it are abundant, 
at loast in the HoiiUu^m Htatiti*. I quotv fVom the writer in the 
Sonlborn FioM im'l Fimniclo .i^t fullowtt, und alito rrfer Iho reader 
to my own cxaminntion of ncverul of the plnnt.1 growing in 8t. 
John's Berkeley, S. C, Oclobor, 1S62. for thu rolativo amount of 
tannin in pUute. See '• Ligiiidambar," in thi« voliimfl: 

" But such ie tho demand for Icnlhcr one may well nee oak 
and chealniit bark hewed off at any time in the year- Sumach, 
fennul and pine bark are much used in Europe. Whether any 
of our coHimon pine barks contain tan enough to warrfint their 
uKo hiiH, wo bulieve, never been te«tod. Larch bark is much 
uBod in Scotland, although only half the Htrongth of oak. Mon- 
teath, of Stirling, applied chemicnl tests to the infusion of dif- 
ferent barks with the following results: Oak (coppice) contaioB 
moftt tannic acid; ash and hornbeam next; Spanish oheatnul 
third; willow fourth; birch, boech and Inrch fitlh ; Apruce and 
silver fira sixth; mountain ush and brouin noventh; and next 
Scottish pine, hniniblc or briarit, laburnum, and the Kawduftl of 
os^ timber." My oxaminationa were made before I saw tbia 

Dr. Daniel Lee in the papera published In the Southern Field 
and Fireside, tVoni which I have drawn largely, eartivsily ad> 
vises 08 to he more economical with rugard to our supply of 
barks for tunning. ''Tt id poor ecoDomy," he says, "for the 
South tiidcnlroy nearly ull its valuable tan-bark in clearing oak 
land, ciiltiug rail limber and firewood, and thereby deprive our 
cbildnui and grand tliildrcn of tbe power to manufacture their 
own leather. The lime has come when this error must be cor- 
rected, or serious injury will be the conne'iuvncc. To iwnd a 
million dollars woit.h of hidc.-« to the North, have tbom tanned, 


sad lk« leather made into itho«is bool^, huJiIIcm and h«rni>)>sfbr 
Boatbvm con »u nipt ion, ii> to puy nbotil vight or nine millioa 
liallan for the mppori of that Korthcro econotoy wbirb nerer 
viatan ihe bark that f^ws on oak or hemlock trees, aud thnt 
mdattty which turos ibis bark ioto gold." I know tbU oriticjnm 
is futly^ just ; Rtill, tlie planter at the t^oulh cannot oHon luni 
t» the storing avay or tialu of all the oak or other bark oti hiit 
plt C i vbeo be i« compollcd to ot«ur aw land, and can gxarvdy 
MBonplish tbat prup^rly ; wbcroa« ut Iho North the runner ie 
I— nil 111 i1 to ttvvry oxpudioni to add to bi« rgeourceik 

I have eod<-avor<xJ, in thts examination made by me to ohow 
ibu tho leavoaof many of our native Ireea — sueb as the sweet 
pm, myrtk, ot«., are rich in tannin, and being cai^ily prnonnid 
M^ be MibBtiitntod for burkx, which arv difliciilt t» prepare. 
Xr. J&o. ComminN, of Charl<!»1on, infonnH me (1667) llutt ho 
Mnployed mynlo and otbcr IraTcs extensively and profitably 
ia taaaio^ leather during the late war. but whether it was 
•neiaal with him, urthe rosultof my 'nnn^^estion aud publication. 
Idottoi know. Tannen in the .State of New York, Dr. Lee 
fUimc tare tan>bark enough to roanitraciurc tlm-e timoHa* ranch 
halker as the lour milliouB of puopiv in that State eonKumo. 
'Leather is largely exported iVom New York and Massa- 
•buHU U> Rnglaitd, the Southern States, and tbu groat prairie 
Tart." Ho condemns " the faubil of felling oak tree* when the 
kricwill not peel." See " Quercvs." " JthiK," " Myriat." and 
*LupadambaT," for notice of plants suitable for tanning leather ; 
•In Wilson's Kural Cyc. art. "Carrying," for method of pre- 
)Mriag and dressing leather, and Ure's Diotionarj- of Arts. 

"ifrthml o/ tu UN HI (/.—For doing a small busine&a hot water 
aad hot oOKe may be bo«t run ugton tho bnrk to cKiruct all itM 
Imjc acid in a short time ; but in a large way cither a copper 
hsucr should pass through the leech holding bark, or it slionid 
W boiled by steam. A copper pan iii sometiroen used, set on an 
teA, Par heating OOKO. A mill for working hiden operate-* pro. 
(istly like a fulling-mill in Mcouring and fulling cloth. When 
try and weighty, Spanish hidat um tanned. Hide-mills have 
h»fy hammers, which are elevated eight or ten inches by a 
molring wheel, and Ihll with an oblique stroke on the hides, 
that cauMM them to tnrn like cloth in a l'ullinj|;-mill. Any bori- 
■onial siair will work a hide-mill, and a hoi^e-power will drive 


the «>h»lt. Our fViend, Prof. Rutliorford, h«a oonAtrnottMl 
horse-powor ft>r litYy dollar* on hi" farm (wbicli joinit tbnt 
the writer) thut would drive h hidp-mill ae csnily as it itoi 
tbreshes whc»t, and cuu h»y and Rtraw for horMfl. As thia ; 
» cb«ap and valuable power for Tanu use, it bas been our pa 
poBP to describe il, which wo shall yet do, 

"Any mechanic, by seeing tho model of a hide-mill, eon 
caeiily innko one. It needs un cant iron double cmnk Ukei 
ftiltiiig-mill. The whole affair can be mtulc of wood. Our tat 
ning ill thtt South tx many years behind the prof^rowt of ibo 
age." Tho reador inM'ro»t«i in this subjoci may conouU witt^ 
advantage lire's Dictionary of Arts and Manuiactures ; also : 
excellent article on tanning and leather, in Nicholson's Jfine 

I nm Induced to inrart, in connootion with the subject 
materials for tanning, a communication entire upon the snbjc 
fVom the pen of Dr. Daniel Lee, in the Southern l-'icld and Fir^V 
Hide, November 30, IStil. Il contains practical inslruelion oi 
the iiubjeot of manufuctnru of leather on a "mall "CiiUi by farmer 
and plant«rit: 

"It will lie better for weveral farmers, havini:; from iivo to ten 
hides each, to unite in the purukase of a bark-mill for finding 
tan-bark, and in constructing s few vats tor their common use, 
than for one to be al the whole expense for so small a buiineM 
as his own alone. The moHt primitive way of tanning; [« In 
troughs dug out of largo trees like pine and poplar; but uo^| 
lasiiiit:* and hncoii liogHhcailx will form the eliuapeAl tun-vat-t for 
the farmer's UNe. Dig out the earth two-thirds the depth of 
the hogshiMtds ; pound moist clay over the bottom on which the 
hojKsheads ar« to stand. Throe or four will do for the tanning 
pari of leather-making. Let them not come within six inches 
of oai'h olbor, so that moist clay may bo pounded closely 
around each bog^beud to within three inches of the top. U^ 
bark cannot be ground, it should be broken or cut fine with (ui^| 
axe, so as to 1311 two of the hognheiidat. Heat r-lear MpHn^ or 
rain-wttier boiling hot in large polH or kettles, till the bark in ._ 
both hognheads is covered with it> Lot the bark steep andlH 
aoak a week or more, while the raw hides are prepared fur the 
ooKo and tanning. One hogshead will do for this, but two arc 
better. Tliey ought to Bland some yards from the Imrk-vatt^ 





1 Umc spattering into tbe ooee injures it. Sarround IIicm) 
1 day like Ibo ko^)i«iiilH atutd tor tunning. 
"Artfer the honts, t&tl und dflw-vlikwK ure rcmnvod from » 
I gracs hido, it is fplit inio two hulves or sides, from tJie tail to 
tkt aoeo oo liie pat«. If the hide is dry, it must aoak and 
Hftm first. AtUr it ia split it goes upon llie beam, and th» 
•poBtiTe scrapes and I«ar« olT all tli« flvHli, aod part of the 
jfaffw tr mrmtrrwriT irhifli cuvtira ihv ll«»)i aidv of oTviy ekin. 
ll ii oov ready for tlie linto, A liulf buiihol of roouatly «lakvd 
B»c, or iwinu less of quick lime, will do for a hof^hcad nearly 
hU of vatvr. Tbe lime and wat<.^r should bo well stirrod with 
ftcina boe or " plunge " before patliaK sides or skins into the 
nae. Th«y should bo often moved ubout in Ike lime water by 
a ItTcr •omv sewn or eight foot long, and haulod nut oiivo » 
4a.j with an iron or wooden hook such as tanners oso. As soon 
a* t^ ttair will slip, sides should be worked over the bc<am and 
tiMcd in tbe soak, or water hogshead, to remove tbo hair and 
•n the bme. The hogHhoud u.««d aa a »oak, washed clean, is 
MW to MTV* aa a heo-dnng rat or haiL It ferments, and i^ 
Bft (or use in one or two days, after Muiking in a half hogf- 
tlad tr mors of watpr. Much pains and care are u»vd in work- 
tag odes and skins oat of the bait, as they go from ibis into 
tba tail OOK& They will Aoon taint and spoil in warm weather. 
Vadted and washed <'b'an, tbe «ido» and -ikintt are next handled 
tnor three times a day in tan ootv uniil ihry art> evttnly ixd- 
omLaad get a handsome, fine grain. The handling is done Id 
lUs wiw: Place three or foar pieces of plank four feet long 
4am as a plaU'orm, so ait to nlope over tbe hogshead, and lot 
«Mfhiai the leutber, when lilV'd out of it upon the plank, mn 
ktik into the hogshead, and not waste upon the ground. Short 
fken of scantling or sticks of clean wood lie on three Hide* 
of Ibi plank, over which the ed^os of the two side* laid down 
VUod. and tbos form a sort of Iroogb open only at the end 
ihil Ii«s over the edge of tbe bogsbeod. All the aidon are 
diaini up Mfiaratt^ from the liijuor with u hook, and itpread by 
kaadun ibe platform, and am thruwn back into tho ooitc again. 
If the latter is weak, it is half or more pumped out, and frmih, 
•tioag ooin is pumped in. Tho two hogsheads of back, with 
kaliag h'lt water, will keep up tbe slruii;;ih aa fiu^l a« ten or 
ivelTe Mdca can poaaibly absorb it, al^er starting with two 



hogsheads of good ooe«. Yon cannot heat old ooze in an ir 
Tomel, an it would upoil it; but yon may, |>orlin|>«, obti 
a ooppur still, in wliit-b tun ooxe niuy l>u hinted without tt 
least injury to tbo liquor or the otill. Thv h<^atpd oozo is p«^ 
on tho bark, as it is much bettor than wat«r, whoro it is allowa 
to bocomo about as cool as the- ntmoitphcro. 

"^As Iho tanning adrancoe, skins and hides require loss baiMl 
ling. Wc should bang thom across sticks an inch or less in 
ainetor, in and under the oozo. The endsof theeoati«kaor j 
should rVKl on u light fram<' in the hogshead, and lour iiic-hes i 
more hi>low Iho tup. AUnwtng two inehe* fi>r each Htiitlc in 
side, fitlcon sides would occupy thirty inches in width in tU 
hogshead. Uatts and butts hang down near the bottoui of tt 
hogahead, where the ooKe ia -itrougest. A iimall haiid-pnrn[ 
should be pat friiqueiitly by the Kide of the leather and of the 
hogshead, to lilt the oom; at the bottom to the top. Bidea are 
handled a week or too bvture sunpcnding them HU|uirat«ly in 

"As pumping is easier, and less wasteful than dipping, wc will 
state the way in which a cheap and good pump van be made: 
Its whole length should be some six feel, aud tbo mali^rial, 
plank, not over iin inch thick. The opou spuce on Ihci iiisid« 
for the ascent of ooze or water should be about thrc« inches 
square. Two strips of plank thrcp inches wide, and two five 
inches, the latter lying on the furiuor on both sides, will form 
an aperture in the centre of three inches Aquaro. The plank 
ought to ho closely jointed, and cither painted or covered with 
lar or melted pitch to make all the joints water-tight. Of 
course the nailing should he close and ]>erfeGt. A box of half- 
inidi plunk comen up two inchnt) inside from the bottom of tbo 
pump for the Icuther vulvu to roxt upon, 

" One side iif tho viilve is very simple, but not t>asy to describe. 
Imagine a funnel made of thin, flanky sole-leather, four incbea 
in diameter across the top, and as many deep down to the D«ek, 
and that its centre is nailed op tied fa»t lo a rod Lbut ia let servo 
as a pi'^ton in the pump. The weight of wulcr or other liquid 
to bo raised in pumping can set this pliable loathcr cup to adapt 
itself to the square tihapo of the aperture in the pump; and to 
prevent this cup or funnel falling back in lilting of«e or water, 
three narrow strips of leather, sowed to the top of the funnel 


I tkr«« Md«s. (ono on each.) are rtftilod will) ftmail nails to tho 

above, eay six inchea trom the I\innel. A Etmall but 

JMnm^ wooden pin paaaea liiroiigh iliu mni of thv rod which, 

nM ID ihc hand, cnnblc* ono to lilt <-a«il]r all thp liquid in tho 

|f«B>p. The iliwhargo Irom tho pump is made in tho osual way, 

|« fiMt or more below the top of it. Any one who can oae a 

I cso make a porop of tbia kind take oo^e fVuni llie bottom 

i«f MM nu, tub or bo){abead filled with'bark or leather, and put 

I it«ip«dittoiialy into another, where all stand on a level or nearly 

«. A tbia caM kvepH the tan-bark or loalhcr rruni tillinir tho 

BtUa apace nquinid by the pump, which nf put into the vat or 

bufabawl, asd taken ont as often as needed. Any blackemlth 

«k nake the heamlnfc-knives used by taniierM. but not thooe 

MUl by carrier* in tiuinhing h-jithtir. Thi^ funni,^r arc curved, 

mi aA«D havt! Kmall tceih to tear up iho tough membrane under 

thaikin. All-tan bark should be elcan tiod dry, for dirt and 

•■tk Uacken leather. Carelom ptmons ofloD get vlay and mad 

iato taiHvato. than which nothing is more injurious. Fow arts 

dtaaad equal neatness io their operatives With the moat im- 

pnnd apparatus and good bark, the labor of tanning is small. 

iaaxpert will work one hundred grown hide<» into the bark or 

<«• ia a ntouib, for which we generally paid tweiily dollars; 

mi the labor of tanning two hnodred sides was about tho same 

iftvttiey came to the bark. 

"If a ^irmi^r can gut his btdea tanni-d and curried for half of 
lhekatb«T tbcy will make, it i« probably bL-ttertbnn Ufatlcnipt 
Mtu thv-m hrmwlf. Lnt him improve bin jiaxturiw by cultivu- 
liag tho boot grai^«cs, and rnim: more fat (.alllv fur home cun- 
narption, and thus have throe or four hides for tho tanner 
where he ba» ono now. Thtd will oall first-elass tanooriea into 
eiiMeiiet: ihat will give a pound of good aole-leatherfora |)ound 
tf dty bide, or nearly thai. Every farmer uught to i>|>an; all 
th* tan-bark he can ; for we Speak advisedly when wo say that 
IkeSunthero States are even now short of oak bark if they are 
UDuanfaciure all the leather whieh they eooaume in aaiidloii, 
India', faamegt*, Mi<ldU--hagN, buggy and eurriage trimmiiigo, 
a^M, bat-linings, book-hinding«, shoos and boots. It has been 
the minfortuiK of the Cotton States to underrate all other indua- 
tna> but that of jiroducln^ their |;r«at altiple. llcnee the 
Kareiiy of good mechanics and artimns. tieoce wo make no 


effort to divoreirji' our agriculture, anJ thereby mocl initDy pt 
lie wsiitH, wliile iMAliiigoar laiiii from the scourj^fl of eterE 
plowing. That ttyi^m of huKbunilrf which aocumulatea 
cIciiioDt« of crops and fertility io every aero Gultirsl«(l, in i«tiU j 
myth to most pUntero. Southern tiatioii«lity will c^cpouc, 
happily correct many errors. We hIikII learn to make im m 
cotton unti ooni iiii twtr acr&n iiH wo iiovr do on six, and at thj 
same time we tthall produce tenfold more of the Deoeesarioa 
comforts of civilieoci life. Our doprndenoe on foreign induatv 
and skill for 60 much of what we consume enooura^is the wor 
to tietiere thai our 8ubja)(ation is only a question of time. Siv 
the mechanical tradca are neoca^ary to our happinOM,woBhc 
encourugo our aouA to become itctentilitt mccbanica, as well 
farmciv, lawyeni, doctors, and priosts and soldiers." 

Un account of the importance of the subject I iusert here the 
following directions for " TfinaiJi^ «i« the Plantatioim," by T. 
Affleck, from the Ara. Ag^cultunttt, aim republinhw) in tba 
Southern Cultivator, vol. i, p. 188, the paper by J. S. WhittcD, 
and one iu vol. vi, p. 177 : 

" Tanning leather for the use of the plantation is an it«m of 
good maiiajiement that should not be overlooke*! by anj- planter. 
Nor would it be m much overlooked as it is if the simplicity of 
the proctwt wa« genuraJly known — that process, I mean, that 
will suffice for making leather for borne U]*e, The tanner by 
profvwion, in order to prepare an article that will commaod 
geod price in market, and hare a merehantablo appcaranoe, pat 
the hides and skins through a greater numberof manipnlatioo^^ 
and that be may work to better adTanta>^, has bis arrang*-^ 
meiilii on a more extensive scale. 

"The val>s loots, and implements really ni>eded are f«* 
simple. Pour vats will f;cncnilly bo found all-suffirient^ one for 
a i»oi of fhesb water, and for baiting ; one for timing ; another 
for coloring; and a fourth for lanntHg. The he«t siae, in tha 
clear, St> Mven feet long, four and a half feet wide, and live feel 
deep. They xhoiitd Ut placed so aft to be caxily and conveniently 
filled with water from a spring, running "i ream, or (■iHtem. Dig 
the holes nine feet by nix and a half and nx ; if the foundation 
is clay, the depth neod not be over five feet. Form a rtiff bvd 
otdaff mortar in the bottom on which to lay the floor, and on it 
erect the sides and ends of the vat, of plank of almost any kind. 

MAciMtly thick to rvsut lfa« promuro from wUhoat — two 
JMbM vill bti thick enough. Wben this is done, and ibu wliola 
■ded IJutf fill ill th(! VttCJtnl Kpaoe all rouad with ut^t trmpered 
tkfMortar, niinniing it viruciuully. H is on thi--<, luid n<il tb« 
|luk>, tbal dflpcodoncc i* pl«cisl fur rendering the vut piTfiK-t. 
TWn well made a vat will be good lor a long lifotime — tbeooM 
ftmnung tli« decay of any bat the top roand of plank. Such 
. hold fift«en large l>e«f hides, (Lhirly aides,) besides a 
_ _ ji Mnali vkinii. 

'Tlw nutoriai asvd for (aniiing in tbu bark of llii.- red or black 
|«i^*lfip[ied nhoti thv tup llown tn llio spring, Btouked and 
I inti, of which about four pounds arv Muppouod to be neoeasary 
I M pndacc oue pound of leather. Thero is an article occasion- 
illy iMed ull«d "cat«cba," which is an oztracl made from the 
mod of a mimiuia tree, a native of India, half a pound of whiuh 
U*W(T« the i^ami- purpoae. Galls, willow hark, tlio bark of tbo 
^uidt cfawlniit, and common «Im, m» also siiaiiiuh, arc all uiied 
kytbe tanoer. It has bvon ro»'ntly found that the root of tha 
pdBMto answers an equally good purpose with the best oak 

'Btfk has lo be ground oa wauted ; or if the quantity needed 

asnaA, and it is not thought adviHable to incur the ctxpcnso of 

■ bark mill, (ftom tlO to $18,) it may he pounded in n largo 

msrtar, or beat up on a block. It will require oue-ihird nioro of 

^ad«d than of ground bark to afford trqually strong ooze, 

wfai^ it the iufuHion of hark. 

"The principal toolit ri-qutsJte are a 6u)'bing'knifc, cnrrier'a 

a brush lik« a siifl' horxn-bnish and n fleshing- heani. The 

btng>bearo is made hy splitting in two a hai-d wood ftick of 

ahoat a foot in diameter; inserting two stout legx, some thirty 

BcWs loogi in one end on the split Hide, mo that tho other end 

wrntt oa the ground, with tho round side up, the elevated end 

Wtog high enough U> reach the workman's wai»L A dcshiog> 

knife Buty be made by lK>nding an old drawing-knife to suit tba 

rmrnA a( the Scwhing-twam. 

'■The skins of bulls, oxen, cows and horse* arc called hides; 
I of (»lves, deer, sheep, etc., aro known as sjana. 

and drit-d bid<it receire the same irvaUnenl, except 

washing piYK-CM. Those that are salted and dry, (and 

< hide ckoald bo dried with less than from two to four quart* 


or nalt bHtig rubbed on Ibe flwb side — dried wilhont xalt, it 
•ztrcmcly ilifficiilt to soflvn thoni ;) n-qiitra to be M«e|; 
beaten and nibbed Bctcrai times allernutely, to brlug tticm 
condition hufHcieiilly aoft for laniiin^. 

"Graen or flvab bidea miiHi bo Honked in pnrc vrat«r from 
twvlvo to twenty-four boiirt, lo oxtrat-t ull the blood, etc., aod 
Bofleo tbo rxtr*iieoti», flculi}' matic^r, which must then he re- 
moved — throwing one hide at a lime on the floehiiiK-beain, grain 
or hair aide down, and ccraping or shaving it off with the flt-sb' 
ing-l<iiir<-, which initnt be eoraewbat dull or tht! xkin id apt to be 
Cut. They ure tbeii jiiit in ihu liiuiiig-vnt. which is supplied 
with Hiroiig lime water by tilling thv vat u little over ball' Hill 
ol' water, an<l adding tberuto >nur biHfhirU of unslaked (or or 
air-»laked) lime. »r at tiie rate nf tw(i-lhin]» of a buofael uf lima 
to tbp baiTcI of wat«r. This will sudico for filteeu bides; each 
time that they are removed and a feesb lot of bidex put in, add 
another binthel of lime, which will keep up the strength tor a 
twelvenkontli. Before using stir the lime well up, and while it 
iR tl)UH mixed with the waiiv put iu the hidm evenly, ao that 
the lime will .-icttloon every purl of thciu. Tbcy are to remain 
bore fi-om ten to fifteen d»y». or for three or four days alXcr itiu 
liuir will rub off with the finger oomplotety :uid with ease. 
While in the liming- vat tliey niii«t be muvcd up and down every 
other morning, to expose them to the air, and to the ecjnal 
action of the lime. Being now ready fr>r uiibairing, cnl eaieh 
hide in two by slitting them along the centre of the back with s 
knife, forming them into sides. Throw ten or twelve of these 
aides on tbo fle«hing-beam, und ctrip The hair off with the knife ; 
and as they are unhaircd, throw each one into the vai of frewb 
water to bait or soak. When the lot of sides and nkina in band 
have all been unbaired and ibnronghly «'a«bed, throw tbem 
again, and at <>no«, on tlie flesh ing-buam, with tbo grstin or hair 
aide up, and work them over (rub and prciit them) with tbo 
knife until ull the gummy or niu ell a gin out matter itt worked 
out. TbiH shoubJ bo ivpeatcd two or three times during ten or 
twelve days, being each time baited anew in IVesh water. And 
thi« working over must only be done when the siden feel soft 
and Kmooth lu the touch ; as they will ai tiniea fnini «omc an* 
explained cause, feel rout^h. at which time they must not be 
worked over. While they are thus boiling they must not be 


or tbey will HOtm e{>oi). Tanner* arc in thv prnctire 
'•idtng one ifaouiiaiidtb part of snlphunc acid (oil of vitriol) 
I Um latit bftit, wbioh has tbe effect of Bwelling the poms mad 
ling tbo fibres, aod ibus roiideriii)^ ttio akinn more su»cep. 
to tbe action of the ooiu!. Forty-night liuunt gwnnnill]' 
finr tbb last baiting. 
■ la the meantime, xome good, Htrong ooxc should b« prepared 
[llr tbe int tanning prooens, called coloring. Pill a vat s little 
■ tbaa half fall of water, anil add bark, in the proportion 
^ifonr and ono-lialfbnsheU of ground, or two busbelitof ponnded 
Wk to the tiarrcl of water, which will bring the vat up to 
abuat two-thirds full. Wbun the bark hiw iKiaked from four to 
ba day 6. ibe «dcs arc put in and allowed to rcmniu Itftoon 
bjrft; during whirh Ibeyniust bo omrr well and carefully fleshod 
tad worked over, anil moet be drawn up and down overy morn- 
si^ fer the tint week at leant, and thi^ bark well jilunged or 
l6md ap. to bave ibem color eveidj. 

'After thi*. the vat being now iwo.thinlM full of tbiet tiaiue 

«tKSft«r drawing ont the hidea lay a good (muting of frotd) 

Iw^ofeay an inch thick, on top of th« wiiler, on which it will 

Imi; by on thin a aide, spread out evenly, and if it has to be 

hffird over in any juart lay on more bark until it io all well 

■■tnt. taking care to pbice those biilu.-) at lhel>ott»ni of the vat 

' that wcrv at the top laitt time. On Mr. Mide lay an tnch- 

I aaliag of i)ark. and on that another aide, and soon, with altor- 

Ujcnt of bark, Dotil the vat is t\ill, or tbe sidee all laid 


'In this| which i« called the linil Iwrk, thosidm must lie four 

tk»> They arc then drawn oat, and the «pent Ixirk taken 

*iiit with a skimmer or drainer. Tbv «)dt'» arc then rcjilaccd as 

Mora, with alternate layers of fresh barb, in the same ooae, 

wkk-k h«* acquired some additional strength, nolwithtttttiidiDg 

Iba anonnl of Innniii and extraetive maltcr coolained in the 

kark that ha* bvoomo intimately combined with tbe animal 

ibre nf ttie hide. In ihix iweond bark they remain «x weeks 

n^turl>Ml, when ihcy receive a third bark in the same way, 

ia which ibey are leil anothersixor eight weeks. Three barlu 

■iU*«JB<-e to tan deer, hog, calf and other small itkina; fbur 

hwka will make good sole-leather, but five are preferable. 

I tanning prvccss beiug completed, sokvlvatlicr is taken 


out of the vat, rinsBd ofntctuikllj, and driod in ih» khade, har 
ing tlie sides up by iwo of iliPir coruei-- to joists, wiicrc lb* 
nuiy ri^miiiri iinlil waiitt'd. TkoBO dJdoH intended for Dpper at 
b»rti<»4it luiitliL-r, (which wre ihooe of eows, etc., the largest M 
tliii^kufiit biilliH'k liiden being iiijii'i] for wde-leuUior,) ud iilao de 
bog and otbor »niull i^kinn, buing tboroiighty rinsed. spre 
OQt OQ a Htrong tabic, with the grain or bnir isidc up, 
scoored with a stiff bi-ueb, like a very stiff horac-brutth, ocvii- 
sionally tbrowiug on pure water, until all ibe ooxe is scoured 
out. Tannera use tlie edge of a Alone, made Hmootb, to auist 
in rubbing oiil the ooee, and all the water that cao poHsibly be 
rubbed out. Thi-y alfo hmc wbut tht'y cjiU u flicker, being a dull 
edgo of copper of about hix or seron iuchce long sot in a piev« 
of wood, to serve as a handle. 

" Aller they are all served tbus, and rubbed as dry as possi- 
ble, th« lal)l<^ it> cleaned off and the nkins thriiwii back upon it 
gmin Hide up. and aru rubbed with Litnncr'ii oil (nodlinh oil) as 
long as the Icnther will reoeivc it. Ilarnctts IviUbcr muitt bo 
oomplvtely snturated. A» tbey sro oiled fold them up and lay 
tbem ai^ido. When thi<y nro all gone over lay one on tbo tablo 
at a time, flesh side up, and with a rag riih on all the dubbing 
that the leather will absorb. Thin hides retiairn but n tiinall 
qoatility ; haruesti leather must have a heavy coating. 

■'Dubbiug, wbieh c-onnintn of equal parts of tar and tallow, 
molted together and well mixed, must be made the day pre- 
Tlons to being Dsed, Lard may be nsed in place of tal low ; but 
will require a ieaiier proportion of it. Kaeli side of leather is 
then huug up by two corners to joints, there to Kmnin until 
perfectly drj', or until wanted. 

" If ii-on or «t(,-cl touvbeit a hide during tho proco«s of tanning 
when in th(> lenst wet. or own moist, it will discolor it, forming 
an indelible black mark. 

"To blacken hameait or other leather, take the •ikin when 
coinpletoly dri<-d, and if any greasy spotc appiar. Hhnwing that 
more oil or duhhing has been applied than the leather could 
absorb, wet the Hpots with a little strong oose, and scrub them 
out with the brush. Then apply a coat of copperas (sulphate 
of iron) dissolved in ooze, until the leather has a good color all 
over. After this, when dry, put on another good uoat of oil- 
The leather may thi^n be ^moothod otT with a rounding edgv of 
polUhod ateol, or glass, or stone." 


Tlie following is (torn tbo Soutbcrn Cultivator: 
"EktIi^ luinod mjr bidws for a namlMr of years, and be- 
brriag it to my intorost, I sappow it wilt b« profitable to olliers 
«bo luT« many raw hides. 

"1 bar« sucoeeded well, and ililnk my leather tirinor, and 
■cm valuablo for iiegru nhoat und thv t'oar»c hamoM on my 
bra than tan-yard Ivatbor. My plan i» a much cheaper oua 
tku Mr. Affleck's. 

'I tao trom ten to fifteen bides a year, of Tarioiis oizeaL I 

karatwo raw Ave hy -tevon fcot, four fiivl ducp, sunk in tbo 

gtoaad Dear a falling I>r3iii-h, »» uonHtnictcd at tbo bottom ibai 

leiadrawaplagHnd wa^b and empty thom. I begin in March; 

Mak my bidm ton dny« in runnin» n-ator. Two or tlir<?« (imea 

I tdto them ODt and giro tbcm a good rubbing or washing. They 

*n then ready fur the limo, s» w« call it. X tbeo put them In 

QDf of my vats and divide equally among them tVom three and 

sa»4ilf to five biuiiliuU of good udhiw and two or three qiinrtM 

«f Gn*, and cover the wholo in water. Thu lye hiid better bo 

•lniBg.and if yon err, orr on that nide. Every few days I take 

ttmapiOr rather stir thom up and mix thom again, eo that all 

fut» Bball be equally acted on by the lye and tho atmoaphero, 

ii tba lop aud the bottom of the vat. If your lye is right, in 

ka or twelve day« your hidc« will be thickened to two or throe 

IteMlfaetr first ihirknefH — feel more like n Hbret of jolly than 

■TtUng else— and the hair will tilip i.'A<>iily. Then ^lip off the 

Ur, and with a drawing-kntfe or a currying-knife sorape off 

tlw tooM fleah and cellular matter on tho other side, and a« 

MMh of the lyo ax you can, without bruiaing tbe hide ; and 

thtt pat them bai-k into frovh und clean wutor. Every other 

iay Uke them up and givo them a good rubbing or scouring, 

brtcfl daya. Tbay are then ready for the bark^ and by that 

lime you ran nlip tho bark off yonr oak trees, and have it ready 

Ibr the bidM. 1 never grind my bark. I take it from tho treu, 

aad with a drawingknifo lake off tho rough on tho Out«ide, and 

JMt beat it enough to muse it to lie flat in tho vat. In my other 

ntl do all my tanning, and comments with a layer of bark, 

of leatbor, aod so on ; and ao lay it in the vat that every 

«f «ach side of the leatbor shall lie against bark ; and when 

done, I iromernu thin entirely in water. 

Th« first year you bad belter Ifuil au ooxe in kettles or pota 


BRd ii«e Ihul iiistoKl of wnt«r, ami anorn-krd hIwh^-h [ircHcr 
your old oo»« tn iiito next yenr iiitUtml »f wiilur. I lot llii>» It 
until tho fim of August, uQiI pul in » Apcond bitrk pnwiscljr ' 
the first, aad let it lie until somu tim« in October or NoToml; 
wh«n my loath or is flilljr tHunod, if ifaeso diroclions havo bo 
fullowcd. When the leather is well tanned it proficnls a y«lloi 
sponjty appearance, through and tbroagh; olherwise you 
see a whitv or hard Htreak in the cuutru. When I take it up' 
Hcour tho IIU9SI! woll out of nit. That I intend fur itolvdviithc 
f htrjiighten aiiddry; that tor upper luathor T wiwh woll. ihcD 
grc-iiso well with Iho choapest oil I havo, and after dr>'i»g eight 
or ten days I moisten it, cnrry off the spongy, soft part l>om 
the flesh side, and when nioisi, bimt it or break it over soni* 
rough surfaoci until it i« comparatively foft, and th« grain fidt 
is all puckered up or wrinkled into small wrinkles. Tbon, when 
my leather is Ihoi-oughly dried and shrunk, it is flt for nse." 

We have been reading some aeoounts of a new busiuess which 
we think may become iinroenaely profitable in Virginia. It ia 
the extra<^t!ng of ihu aHtnngent or tanning propertied of the oak 
bark for the production of leather. Tlin informntion wc h*vO 
flonrincea an that thn hunineKH will yield vnry large prufiti*. An 
article we have bcfuro u« on the subject from a Georgia p«per 

" Pivivni.xthfl of the leather made in the United State* is pro. 
duced in the New Bns^land and Middle States. In the prvsocu- 
tion of this business, Boston and its immediate vioJuily alone are 
said to tonmime about four hundred thousand cords of orud« 
hark Munually, and the t*iii>rmouit consumption which thiit fact 
Uluslratci% Is very rapidly eschnusting all the nccei<9ible HoarcM 
of supply of the orudo innterini, and ruii^ing its value, as the 
distance from which it mu«t be brought and the difliuultjes of 
gathering it increase. ^H 

"These facts suggested the idea of inventing machinery to c]^™ 
tract and condeuse the tanning properties of tho bark in the 
original forest; so that a cord of bark itt reduMd toaninglu 
barrel of forly-KTe gallons. ThiM extrunt ii^i worth in the Norlh- 
oru citiea ten centa a pound or a dollar per gallon — the gallou 
weighing ten poundrt — and the whole barrel, therefore, worth 
forty-fivo dollars ; and the demand for it in Uurope and America 
call hardly be mat by any probable supply. The manufacttira 

«f ikis b*rfc extract, commencing durinjir tbo war when the t'or- 
Ms of tba Sonih w«i-e iim<;cesnitilti, hnn boon ooiiliiioi) piiiicipaDf 
to tfac bcmlock tbreHts of Ui« Norlli and Kattt, wiiidi pnxlncsu 
me tbotuwRil barM* daily— ^iW it t foiir-tifbhi nf which go to 
Empc and tho remainder is usod principally by tlio tannori of 

"Thf maeiiiriory for laAQtUlutiirintc this extract is very heavy 
|a4 rtftf^lirti, and cosIh fnirn Might t<> Din« thousand dollarti. H 
if dritvn by a lw«nty-Iivc honk: ]>ower sUmmunginu. Tho bartc 
■ 4ftb«. as «ti*ippv)d from (he trvo, isliivt loakvd inn Uink. with 
■akf kept al a tcmpnraluro of ono huiidrod and Hovonty do- 
p9es by steam. It is then pa«eei] botweon iron rollers, which 
(MiprMv it lo th« thinneM of wrapping paper, crushing orory 
Ghrn and air and water cell in iho bark. In lhii« condition it 
Ub iato another lank, when- it U bnikon ap and bi^at«n, and 
tinted in warm water by paddiv whcolfi driven ut a velocity 
•foae hundred revolutions a tnimito, and thoroailer treated 
■Atbewater lia« attained the point of i>>a!uration. At this 
diuity it tA carried to a condenstT and tVirthor reduood to the 
detirtd point of atrenjKth for barreling and aliipnittnL 

"If all tbv^c figurea and data are oorroct, evidently tboro i* an 
•sealtcBt chant-v for profit from (be oak formto of tho •Sooth. 
Here than tbi^— ^n the spring of the year the tannic acid has 
be« foond by esperimcnls to be much stronger in tbe young 
«ak IcavMi thau in tbe bark, and wc see no mason why they, 
loot might not be brought into requisiitou for the maiiufactaro 
Bftkis concentrated tanning extract." 

A letter from a gentleman in New York familiar with tho 
faiiMM says: "The tanning properties of a cord of oak bark 
nriaead ta tbe oonnstcocy of ten pounds to the gallon, which 
■akes it imperishable weighs four hundred and fitly pounds. 
TUi is worth in Philadelphia ten cents jh-t pound, and in Xew 
tgtfcand Bo«ion it command* a midy sale at twelve and a half 
wbile in London and Liverpool it «ells at fourteen oenl« 
Id per ponnd. Tbe demand abroad fur American oak ex- 
tract will for many years exceed our ability to supply, while 
Ikat for homo eooKumption will tent our utmost onertiy lo nttwt. 
Oak pxttKCt at t«n cents per pound, when bark can be bud at 
fn> dollars per cord, will yield to the manufacturer a not profit 
tf twealy-dve dollars per cOrd ; and as one machine is capablo 



of making two pounclft per hour, or rorty-eEglil pound* erei 
twi'tily-four hnurx, it ia euMy (n voinpctu thu rclumi' which niu| 
be rcnlixcd hy running it Cor n singlo yoar. Th(^s« liguroii ma: 
s«em incredible to yonr poopl«, but I ofaallonge any one to aho' 
wherein they are incorrect." 

Wilson's KufrI CyclopCEMJi*, article "Cborcoal," f^mi^hea 
tnble of the proporlions, eolorand quality ot'chartroul fiirnish 
by varioun true* ; iilto methoiir* ofprcparingttat tbciron-wo 
with tbo modo of making lampblack. Th« willow, alder 
dogwood ar« uinployod for preparing charcoal for the mann 
&otnro of gunpowder. See fialix, "i*inw»." 

SPANISH OAK, {Quercua/alcata, Mx.) According to EUiot, 
oommon on the seaooast; colleoted but sparingly in St. John's; 
Riohland ; f^rows also in Georgia ; Ttcintty of Charieston ; Nt^w 

Chap. Therap. ami Mat. Med. ii, 483; U. S. Dii«p- &81 ; Ba 
Knaayon the M. Mvd.; Aiibvrt, Nout. filemi^ d« Therap. 193; 
Phil. Med. Mns. II ; M^r. and de L. Diet, de M. Med. v, 6B6; 
Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 170. This is possosaed of the astringent 
qnaliticM i;harn«torixing the gvnuA; it ha« not, however, the 
rnirgativ<!|>ropt.irly found in the Q. tinrtoria. It id emplovtsl as 
an astringent wash ibr gangrene. A decoction is administered 
with great eaccesn in dysentery, pnlmonary and uterine hem- 
orrhage, and some have said, in iniermitteni fever. Bee Q. liite- 
twin and <Uha. In domestic prattiei', whore an eainly oblaiaed 
and efHc-ient astringent ix rtKiuirod, this, and the more oommon 
species, the Q. rubra, are of no little value. They are used to s 
large extent on the plantations at the South. 

This and many other oaks produce an excrescence called gall 
nuU, or oak'galU. These contain tannin and are nsed for 
making ink. ]n a letter fVom a gentleman residing in Ffal 
Rock, N. C, 1 am informed that he ohtainH the greatent raliof 
in pilei* by the application of the iVosfa oak-gall rubbed up with 
mercurial ointmonl~ He found it belter than any application 
he had over rnwd. They Knt used when fresh. 

WUITK OAK, (QwrwM aU>a, h.) Diffused; St John's; 
vicinity of Cbarloston; Newbern, Kl. May. 

n. 8. Disp. 682 ; Hoyle, Mat. Med. 659 ; Griffith, Med. Bot. 
586. The bark is officinal, and is generally u«ed in nimilar 
cases with the above, with the vxoqitious before mentioned. 



< it i« prercrrcd to tfa« oihom on aucoiiHt q( iU not aot- 

iagOD dio bovrol». The decoction is sometimes employed iw mi 

iafeetton in lencorrboeaand j^onorrbcea. The bark conlain* tan- 

ais,g&Uie ftctd, and bitlert-xlraotivii, (he former predominating. 

TW blirk itt officiiiiil, lh« young bxrk being preferable. The 

|«UUr bark, and the dt-licatv and Hiidy lob<.Ml Ieavv«, with the 

D«at sppeanncD of tho tree, eorvo to di«tiDgaiMh this 

the other varietieB of Ihe oak, Dian which it i§ more 

lieeeptabta to the Hlomniih. All, howtiver, are valuable for 

jcitma) applic-ution. Tt is astritig^-nt and «i>niewliut tonic. 

Pnvder: dove, from one-half drat^hm to one draehm. Extract: 

dsM. half that of the powder. Decoction : bark bruised, one 

o»ee; water, three faalf-plota; boil lo one pint. Dose, one 

vinc^acaftal. Surg. MeT^u^lin and othen (^ Lynchburg, re* 

pnrt thronirh the Surgeon -Generar^ Df6cc C. S. A. a favorable 

■•tiei <if the decoctionii and iiyrups of the Qutrca$ alba and 

Saint viUostU in chronic diarrh^c^n, xtating that the tiuoturea of 

t. 7. and of CornHS POmda mako an excoliunt aittrtngent tonic. 

This M one of the moxt valtisble of our forvet trees, and it ia 

In^y employed for manufacturing purposes, and in the do- 

BMtic economy of the plantatioDA iu the Southern 8late». The 

wind w hard and durable. The following I obtain from a jour- 


X Charleston letter to a Jiorthem paper says : "A singular 
floving back of one of the great eurreuls of trade is indicated 
Vf Ibe bet that during the prewiit month eight large Teseels 
hare eloarr^l at this port, loaded with lumber fi)r Maine. This 
b 'carrying coals lo Xewc-iwitle.' yet tbr while oak of South 
Carolina is superior for ship (imbors to any tree in the forests 
of Maine, while the roots of ihe yellow pine are far l>ett«r than 
tliowe of the tamarack for ships' knees, both in xha^ie and dnra- 

The following tabic is (he nixult of the eicperiments of Bar- 
bv upon (he "Absolute sirctif;th of different kinds of wood 
draom in the direction of their fibres." Wilson's itural Cro. on 
the strength of materials may be consulted. Article from Ren- 
wick's RIemeuls of Mechanic*: 

Boiwood 20.000 lb.. 

A>h .,- 17.000 

TMk 14,000 

Norwmy Pir 12.000 

B»6cli — 1 1 .000 

C«"«d« Fir 11,000 

KiMift Pir 10,700 

Pilch Pino lO.-WO 

" AbsoldU) cobwivo strongth 
ri^fht angleR to tlie fibres :" 

T*«k J18 lb«. 

Am. Whitn Pine 767 

Norws^f Fir 6« 

JfcmiU SIS 

Sn^lUb Oak BS8 

'Fho following; table g'tTes tho 

ti«g\Uh Oitk -10,000 11m. 

Am. Wliito I'inn .0,900 

r™r Tf" 9,800 

U^hog%aj « -.»... roo 

Blm „ 6,800 

CutdUd VM -140.000 

And OaU. — 80,000 

of wood drawn iu a direction «t 

Ciinixln Oak » 688 Ai. 

Piii-h Via* M8 

Elm.- _ 5O0 

A«h- -aoa 

" i'94poctJvo Rtrongth of v«rioiis 

Wr<>uellt>iruu,Sw«lii>li...ZS,000 1t)J>. 

■• Kniclii>b...-ltl.O0O 
CM«-tr<Wi ....„ 16.000 

r«»k _..4,9O0 Ibl. 

Aih ».4,030 

CftdHdw 0*k — 8,600 

Kogtioh Oak ....8,860 

Pitoli Pinfl „ 8,250 

Bmsch _ _...8,I00 

Nurwny Kir «..........,3,9(>0 

Am. WWtB Pio« 2,200 

Elm „ I.0I8 

So^lixh onk rcKiHtcd a groat^r nmount of prv«(mr(>, by R«r- 
nic^B flxpcrimente, than many other kinds of wood ; three times. 
a» macli aa elm, for exampln. Si-t^ a In o, article "Timber," I 
Rural Cye., for mot hod of pn-m-rving, r«lative strength, et& 
III F.iiglund llie tthipn-right coimidcro that thruo ye«r« arc re- 
quired thoroughly to acadOD timber. I'imber is bont prcAorrod 
by immerHion tii water for six months, and tho eipo«uro to 
abadc (or another nix months. The white oak cleaves and splits 
readily, ami is used in making plantation baHk^ts, J haTo seen 
it used in place of cane in makinf^ chair seata. The white oak j 
lB8t» longer in weather than hickory. f 

Whitf Oiik Balinij. — Wtiite oak itlats, hnKket fimhioii, tako tbu 
place of gunny bugging, and hoops of ihc same wood lake the 
plactt of i-opn. With machinery lor cutting tho slaU, two hands 
can got out enough for ono bale in twenty roioutee. 



I will introdooe undor the ^cnora '* Querais" and " Qirjiu " 
vkil I have ihoflght useful on (lio aiibject or ashe.i, pearlaiilicK, 
fotwfa, MM|>, eic. iDformaiioa M ntquired on ibnou iuvuluahia 
MhAaaCM. For pnKrM!ii*-.t, *«» TTrc'it Biclionary of ArlM. For 
'Mxta," M* " SaUoia," io this vnliimo. 

^Atfment for dsferns, as hard as mnrblo, nnd imponctrable 
t^ «at«r for«vcr," is made of wood aAh«« two parin, ctay tbroo 
fin», nod on« pan, mixed with oil — all ingrcdignta easily ob- 

"Conceiitrated Lye" is a wry pure preparation of caustic 
Mhi, or voda aali puritiud. The following is the inelhod of 
nakiag hard soap with thin niib^tiinoo, wbiuh is preferable to 
foUeh or any of its proparaiionK ; it i« al»0 very economical : 
"OvB half box of concentrated lyo, fonr pounds of grease, ono 
ponul of ro^in, five gallons of water. lk>il all toother until 
lb soap i^ inade— a point eanily deteriniued; then add a batf 
jdntoT rait diwHOlvwl io ii qiuirt of water, boil a few iniiiah« 
hi ffl r. and pour off into tubs to faanlcn. Thitt will yield altoul 
thirty pounds of excellent bard soap, at ii eo«t of iitiotit two 
■s>l a balf centa per pound." 

The following ^oeral doduulion, which is instructive, i» made 

ia Vibun's Rural Cyclop<wlia, art. " Anhes;" "Tree*, in a gvn- 

mi way, make a plentiful yield of poU«h. somewhat in the 

^tftw of their liardnefta, their heaviness and the closencu of 

ikeifuxture; and the chief of them may upon thJa principle 

he 4iitnbiil«d into fonr cIiihhcs — first, the oiik, the ash, the yew, 

ilk liMH.-h. the cbc«tnal, the pmr, the crab, the blarkthorn and 

Ike brootn ; Kocond, the elm, maple, hornbeam anil white-tbnm 

lUrd. the pines and firs; and fourth, the birch, aider, poplar, 

hasel and willow. When nix loads of the ashes of the first class 

m auffieient for an aero of land, ten or twelve loads of the 

■dMK of tho fourth class may be required." It will thus be 

■n wfaat room there is for sek-ction tn using trees for ashes or 

Ivlbe prodnction of potash. For fnrthcr information on pot* 

Hh, Mi>e«, aoapei, hickory, consult " (itrga " in this volume. 

Table of mean retudia of cxpeHmentH of Uenar*. Kerwan, 
Vaniuelin and PerluoM, opon ten thnuwand purlx of each plant — 
.aaouotof putusb in each— <Chaptal:) 

KItn _ _ S9orpoiuh. 

Oak « „.IS " 

BMoh „ 12 " 

V ine „ .._.^ .„.,...„.„„ . 6S ■ ■ 

FoptaT.„„. „„„.„. 7 " 

ThUtiM „ 63 - 

Fnrn „... aSorpolMb 

Cow ThUtlo 19« " 

Wormwood 780 " 

Vi.lcbo»..„ 2W *' 

Bwiu 200 " 

Fumitory ....890 " 

In tietoollng plants to burn for potash, wliicli oftn ho doi 
any plantation, tlioM which aru thiM nwn to yiolil tntwil at 
be cbo«cn. "Graiuwii, leaven, tho bIrIIw of Fruncli bisans, of 
pvos, molone, gourde, cabbages, artiohokes, potatoes, maixv and 
garget, are very rich in ihta alkali." Thistle*, Di-lUes, brooro- 
bealh, bramhleti, fnnitt, Hhonld all bo colb-ctod. The Famitory 
aiid wormwond (oxciH^lingly rich in imtoifh) art- boLli growu in 
tho Southern Stairs, The platile arc 6nt dried and then 
biimcd and tho ashes l«acbod, which should be rvpr-ntcd. Hot 
walor is better than cold. - The poiauh tian easily be extracled 
from the lye by evaporation. "The process," says Chaptal, 
'■ may be ftommonoi'ii in n copper boili-r, into wbioh a very lino 
Hlrcam ul'tlie lye :>hr)iild flow to replace that which uvsponttM ; 
■when tho liqnor htis acquired tbo con*i»teucy of honuy it ahoultl 
he put inl^i iron boilcru ti> complpto th« opfrration. Af tho sub- 
stance thickens, can; must be taken to remove that portion of 
it which a<llier»B to the atdoR, and to aiir the whole carefnily 
with iron l^pa1lll^l^. When Ih^ 8iil)«tRncc wjnj^-als and bocom«s 
solid upon being ixpo.scil to is poured into ca«b< and 
and thrown into commerce, under tho name of salts. The whole 
process is simple, and may be conducted upon our larms without 
any difliculty-" Pearlaab may be procured from the potash by 
calcination. See trcatitiCH on the Arlft. 

The following obnervationei may be found useful to th« aoap 
manufacturer, even if ho he a planter or farmer, whioh I quote 
from Thonilon'n Family Iferbal: In tho largo maniil'actories 
the lyo for making soap 'should bo made no stronger than to 
float a new laid egg when tho workmen begin to form the mix- 
tnre. Tho oil or tallow is fli-sl boiled with a weak lye untU the 
whole is foi-med into a saponwoous compound. It ia then kepi 
boiling with a ttlrongitr lye until it ao<[uire^ a (loniiidorablo oon- 
sistonoo, and scums to be separating from the fluid below. This 
floparstion is a very material part of the operation, and to otfect 
it completely a quantity of oommon salt is added ; the materials 


' KiatinnallT baited fbr three or lour hours, and then the firo 

^ii vithilrswu. Tbo soap will now bo found auited al tli« top 

ii[tb(> Itqnur, or whkl U callod Itii- wu^le lye, which ia of no 

.Autlier aav, Biid i^lbcrcforv druwti olf. TbciiuApifl uow mellvd 

I f>r ihft U«t tim« with a lye, or cv<>ti with wuier. It te then al< 

tawed to cool, and aAerward caal into wooden frames. Tho 

bat melting is itDportaot, a6 ^ving oompacincw, A solatioa of 

■Ipbaie of iron will mottle soap by dispersing it before the 

«Mf bard«aa throughout ih« maaa. 

X moat ccomimieat niudc of vraabing, which baa boon ciu- 
pliffMl br fannrrs, which trducrt the tab«r ofdayt to that of a fete 
Imn. mi^ht bu adopt«d in artnien. The washing of an entire 
NpDient, when in fi;arriMin or in citiett, might be done syale* 
nuiically aud collectively with far letts exposure and losa of 
itine. 1 ubtain the method from some of the jnuriiaU: 

Ob the night pret'cling the day intended lo be itct apart for 

vaiking, the clothes, white and colored, coai^o and tine, arc put 

in tibe of clear water, where they remain all night. A largv 

rinvsMel, tlie larger tlie better, is half filled wilb water, whiob 

i> taiwd to th« boiling point. To one containing aixty gallons 

pttwo tea»poon»fal of sal wda, one <|uart uf sul\ ft->up. and one 

qnart of lime water, made by pouring three gallooa of water on 

oav quart of lime the night previous, so that it may have had 

tiBe lo settle, and in proportion if timallor vi-iwli" are used ; aiir 

ibe water and ingrcdiiMita well together, when the clotbea aro 

|M io, and boilod rapidly for an hour; they arc thon taken out 

ud rinaod well. The ^ame lime water may be kept until it ia 

■It eoiHiamed. The reeeiptK.for making the soap ih as followa: 

Tlb0 ingredtcnta for one hundrud pound^t do not ooitt more than 

ant dollar and fifty eont*. Take nuc pound* of pola-th, lour 

poands oflard, one-foortb pound of rooin: heat up the rosin, mix 

all together well and set anido for tlvo days ; then put tbt whole 

IB a ted gallon taak of warm water, and alir twice a day for lea 

4aya; at thi- expiration of which lime, or nooner, you will have 

0«« hundred poundx of excellent soup. Strong lye water or 

c»ac«ntnited lye may perhapM take the place of the polavb. A 

gill of alcohol added to a gallon of soft soup, applied to clotbcs 

ia the usual way, and soaked several hours bvloro waahitig. fur- 

aisbMan economical method. 

Lye fmn wood luthee added to lallow, eight ounces to two 



faiB^ acitcd orer a fire, tt is mid, greatly incrrasM 
MB* of tlM caodJM m»dc from it. 

KED OaK, iQuermg rvbra.) DifTiiscd ; grows in great abuo* 
iamrt ; St. John's ; ChurlcHtan ; Nowb«rn. Kl. April. 

CS-Dv^Criffilli, Med. But. 537. Employed like tlieothf 
m ■■ Mlitiiiiiil , as a drying astrlngenl powdvr it may bo 
&k flmat o( tbt Cinchona bark. It in easttly oblatncd and (»>n- 
VMMBt^ pcvscribMl. I tiavu my>it'ir foiiiid thw bark ot tho tre« 
«t «aa» •erricc among ti<'gro<iit, in several caaea wliere a tonic 
MtiJMgiBt uyMtion was reqiiirod, usin^ it in caaes of prolupnri!) 
•Uri, wiMre Ui9 orjo-an became cbafi^d and painful from uxgumuro.^^ 
ne decoction of the bark, with aulpliate of coppur, i.i omployodS 
«m lb* plariiations to dye woollenA of a gn^cn or black color, 
amA for tanning tuatliitr. Hickory bark, with copperas, fur* 
wh w am oUt« oolor; maplu gives a purple dye, the t«a leaf 
{B^fta tiHttoria) a yellow, and white oak a bniwn. Walnuta 
JWtTW or roots, withont ooppemA, rcpealctlly boiled, yield afl 
M>rlr dv*^ Blaoksmiib'sduitt maybe iiMcd in ptac-o of copponM. 
TW wood i* not sn durabk us that of lh« Q.alba. but it ia miiolt h 
•Md ftir domeelir purposes. f 

The following laolhodn of makiiig-'ink were fiiniiiihed to Dr. 
tW'hman by Mr. K. Kuffln ; only native plants arc required ; _ 

TVcc itiffrrvnt noiUa to make t/aod Ink. — No. 1. Take oneH 
NKMnre (or onv handful of each bnlf pint of ink intended to bo 
MUde) of maple bark and as much of pine leaves, boih freali and 
|^«U>usly and separately chopped to pieces of not more than 
telf ka inch lon^. Put them into an iron vunnel and add two 
MtMlKVS of water. Moanurv thu then depth of the water and 
■Mrit th« hvight of surface on a pointed stick thrust to thaA 
WihMtt. Then add six more measures of water, (making eight' 
t» atl-t Boil very slowly \oy ximmcr) until throc-tourlh% of lh« 
^■1 bA tfva[>orated, which may be known by its then snrfaeo 
fiJ4i:^Hig (he mark on the measuring otick. Then remove the 
««rmI ftwn thu fin\ and udil, for every half pint of rcmaiiiiog 
^HA, MM leaspoonfiil of coppvnt*, uk mricli sugar and a table- 
^MMlkl of vinegar — slir and let stand from twelve to twenty- 
^iw kMki^ Then sirain the Suid (ink) IVom the solid refutta 
t4ia^h a eoame oloth and bottle for use. 

>Uk 1. — rtnl, make a strong Inftisiun of the inner bark of red ^ 
^Ik ^ MWtdioi; in water twenty-four houn«, a baiidful of] 


(koiqwd barkforeacb half piniofwftter. (Or, otberwise, mttka 
■ i]«ouction. by boiliDg an bonr snti evaporating lo the samu 
({MBtity of water.) Detiant the duid and add aWut ii teji- 
ipMNiful af coppiTUA for «vvry half jntit of fiuid and ktsvp li>r tho 
■w iKst to be direvt«d. 

TaW of ripo vldor lKTric« four mcasnroi^ in a wa^bbasin. 
Mvh thpm woil in tbo band)). Put the mixluro of pulp and 
laid jmce into an iron vwsel. Uoasure tbo depth of the wbolo 
■MB, ■■ directed for Ho. 1. Tbon add one meamire of tbo before 
pnpwed infuaion of rod oak bark, and bml very alowly unlJl 
mpmmtion bu^ rcdurod the (|uantity of fluid to vrbnt it wb« at 
im of the manbvd oldur bcrriea alonu. R(tiiiov« tbu pot from 
tkcfire; Put in n teiifpouiiful of copperas f<tr i:\iiry cxpvcted 
half pint of flnid. and lot lb« mixture stand for IwcIto or twi^nty- 
fcat boars. Tben strain through a courxo cloih, utung strong 
pnMon. Bottle ifao fluid for ase. 

!i(i.3.^Pill an irr>n {>oi lialf full of vr bite oak bark, (ooarsn nr 
ftM,)on« fourth full ol rvdoak bark, and one-fourth full of maplu 
harit. Fill tho pot with water and boil slowly and for a lon^ 
liar. A towpoonfnl of copp«nu will Mt it. Strain and bottle 
feriw. *' 

Tt Jjfe a hlw. Color tcitbovt InJigo. — Maku a strong dyv of red 
nk bark, another of maple bark, and bavi* in a Ibird rci^el u 
wak voppt^ra.-' watt-r, and in a fourth vcmcI u vreiik lyt-. Wwt 
Ute cation tbomiigbly io each vumel of dye and rinni.- it out in 
(border in which thvy ai'o monliouod, having each dnid a« hot 
Mtbc hand can bear, repeating tbo procoM until the color is 
nCoietitly det-p. By making (Iw thread a doi>p copperas color 
int mmI llien going through the proceaa you cau have a good 

fJMrm* noiUanti. Willd. Kocky soilv in tbo Alleghany Honn- 
km of South Carolina. Used as « sabatitato for the above. 

LIVBOAK, iQuffcta vireiu, AHon.) Grows abundantly on 
the acacoast, for tbo space of sixty miles ftom the ocean ; New- 
hero. F). June. 

U. S. Vinf. S81; Ebei-k% Mat. Med. i, 3T6. This tree b of 
foick groirlb, and ultiiin« u lurg« niic in South Carolina. Its 
(nat value for manufacturing par]>0scat, ship- building, etc., w 
well known. It is often e2|»orti^d for thcw pu rj"'*'-'*' '*• g''P«l 
aiivBOtsge. Its branehes extend out to some distance, nnd it 



affordfl one or our moftt treiiarable, ntK^iitficctit, «n<l ornamvnUil 
tilmi]<! tr(Hi<, !*uiU;(l for Kvonncti. Tho AOom<> Are ediblo. 

Density of Wood. — I introduce tho following under 
HpocioH. Count Cbaptal, in hia CbemieCr; applied to Agricv 
tnre, mokea iho following reruarlu: "Soil, i-xponurii, climst^ 
and MaAOii moiliTy in a riMniirkablo maniiur tlic ^hrv- of vogvta- 
blcH of lIi6 Kunm kind. Tvgotiiblctt rHi»i;d in • dry and arid eo^| 
have a muob bardcr and moro compact toxtnre tban tboM o^^ 
the ntmo kind rai»ed in a moiet and neb soil ; tbey have mora 
pcrrumc, contain a ^eater <]nant)ty of volatil« oil, are dccom- 
poeed with more ditRouUy, and during the oombuitlion glru oatn 
a m&ch more inloDse Leai. Every oue ItiiowA (hut tbii'kvt^| 
having u southern uxpoMurc vivid bt-ttvr fuol than thoKc which 
lit] toward tbc north ; tho wood is mor« solid, and aI\or liavii 
been cut, it will roaiet for a longer lime the action of air an^ 
water. Tbia fact waa obitei-ved by Plfny, in regard u> th4 
woods of the AppenineM." 

The difference between tho bardocMt of trcoe fpvwing in 
BwamjiH and highlands i«, 1 bolievo, rct<<rr«d to by BoussingaulL 
The locality and the season of the year should have an influ-_ 
once up^n the tree, upon its atruotnre, and secretiODS, and thoj 
should be considered, in ruferencc to tho growth of timber fa 
abipfl, impk'uiunin, etc. The bi;»t (jme for catling wood is 
tho end of tho winter, when the texture is hardened and coi 
densod by the cold. Bousstnganlt, in his work on Scientificn 
Agriculture, describes a French method of prwerving timber, 
Huperior to the Kyani/.t'd, by the ubwrplion of tbc salt* of iron. 
I would refer the curlouK reader to a paper, giving a moat re-^ 
murkablu aceoant of tbo enormous siee and height of tbe trcetjjH 
and tbo vegetable wonderH of California, in Patent Offico Re- 
ports, p. 4, 1851, by Wm. A. Williams. Trees sixty-eight fuel in 
circumference, nod three hnndrod and eighty feet in hetgbt, 
without a branch for two hundred and nixty feet ; Timetables 
relatively large. Seo BonsiMiri^anlt'N work for similar state- 
menlM. The general reader will find interesting referenem to 
such mitttern in Prof. O. VV. Uolmes' book, tbo '' Philosopbei* at 
tho Bivakiiist Table;" also, paper in Patent Offici- Ke|iorld ot» 
Agriculture, p. 6S5, 1851, by Tburoas Kubank, ComiiiiBi>ioncr, 
OOfltainiiig extractn from wrUingH of M. M. Nnudin and Leooq, 
(rc]H>rL to the French Academy.) on tho taming of plants by 


ttltivrntiofi ; tbey "tamed every individual apccira of the ti«rc« 
fanily uf lhi«tlw>," coovvrting them into a savory vcgetableL 

It is wdl known, »a_VB a writer in the PaWnl OtRae Rajiortu, 
US3,p. S6i, that the nioKt valuable tiubur i-t iliul whicJi hna 
ktuin«d iiA growth with most li^^t und air. Thu wagun- 
■iker ukea care to combine loiighiicM uud durability by 
M^vting hi» wix>d from lr<M):<or Mwoud growth, or Irom trees 
«f int growth that from infancy have stood alone, or far a|)art. 
I kant ascertained, in conversation with raachintala and wood- 
<ttt«n. that thoy B«parat« many species of uscfal trueH into two 
nrietie^^ and make carefUl selection in cattin^f for the »hop. 

SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK, {^QiKrcus prinus, L.) Vicinity of 
ChariesWR; Xiiwharn. Thin may be uaed inediciDally m a 
fabstitoU- for the <>. oOa. 

COESTN UT OA J(, (^um-u* catlanta, W.) 3. and N. O. 

Tkit is said to bo the bcKt for tanning as it j^ves a bright 
appearance to the leather. Thu wood is soft and easy to split, 

CORK TEEE, {Quercui suber.) Exotic 

The Patent OfHoe has dialributed for years pant Hnodif und 
pbau of tho <!ork tree. See RejiortH, ISA-I, p. 3i, fur mode of 
nitvn and iptthoriug of cork ; and article on " PropvrtioH and 
Cw of Cork Tree." Patent OlBce lieporta, 18&8, p. 335. 

F«r netbod of ntiMing a4.-orn.bea ring oalu, for fevding of bogs, 
l«ririiM, etc.. see WiU..n'w Knral Cyclop, art. "Acorn,*' "Oak." 
b MOH portions of England hogs aro raised almost entirely 
■pn acoTDB, and with but a limited supply of grain just b^ore 
Hag. "The farmers of (■ lonc«stershin< bestow nearly as 
' ■■til i-ani upon the fruit of their oak trt^OM n* ug>on the pro<lu<.-o 
*flkeir orchards; they seldom sell their ucoroM, yH nmtally 
wifttte their value at from Is. fid. to 2s. per bnshol," etc. 
Tihon. See, aUo, Boulchor's "thoroughly practical" Treatise 
M Forest Trees. See Doussingauit's Agricultural Chemistry, 
■d Vilson's Rsral Cyc, for method of preserving limber. 

BETUIiACE.«. {TheBircA Tribe.) 

buk astringent ; sometimes employed as a fobrifage. 

{Sdula Unta, L. > Uonntain mahogany. Slountain ridges of 
&ud N. Carolina. 


V- 6. Di«|). 1233. The bark and leaves posMsa a very aro> 
matift flavor. Ad uifuiilon of Ihoni is U8i-rul as an agreeable, 
gciilly Ntitniiluiit, and diaptiurulit- drink. Tbo uil, obtaiiii'd by 
diHtillation from ibo burli, him bcvn tthown by Proctor lu be 
similar to tbst of th« Oauilhcria procumbaie. (Sv*; indvx.) Il 
also affordd a saccliarinv liquor. Am. Journal Pbann. xv, 243; 
Jil). Bol. ii, fiI7. Tito wood, |)o(-si;s»ing a fine ^rain, which b 
ansccpiiblft ol' u bfjiulifiil )>i>Iitib, iti tiiacli used by cubioel- 
makera. Il wonlil lie adnpted to ibe tine worlc on itiiiroud cura. 
Ik tho hanitisonicHi i>t' Uir- i>{i<.-cit'i*. uiid bno the li[ii*Ht limlx-r. 
"Thi! tiinbt-r. wbun Irci«b (^iit, bun a njcy tint, imd arterwiinl 
deopon* in cnlor by cxpoKuro. It hoH a fine, i-iuw: grain, «d<1 w 
BUBtn'pIibl© of a very liyh polish. It is oscd for Mjfas, arm- 
chairs, the f^mce of coach panels, and various other purpoeea." 
Wilson; Uicbaux's Travels, eto. 

"The Sap of ihe Jiin-h tree reddona turoRole Intensely. It 
colorlowi, and ha* a wwrct taaUf. Tlio wnti-r which forms a 
greater part of il huldit in :iolitlion «iigar, vxtraotivo mutter, 
acotato oC lime, acetate of Hliimins, and acetate of potash. 
When properly contentraied by evaporation, it fercuents on the 
addition of yeaat, and then yields alcohol on distillation. Tfaa 
preitence of the acetate nf alumina may appear cxtraorditutry 
in tho aap for this reason, that alumina has not yet beeo dis' 
covered in the ashes of the birch tree." Bouasingault's Rami 
Eeon. p. 05, ed. 1867. 

KED BIRCU, (Betula nigra, Linn. fl. raim, Mx.) Vicinity 
of Cliarli'Mlon ; collected on the .Santoo Rivor, St. John's B«rk»- 
ley; Ncwbcrn. Fl. March. 

Ind. Bot. Dr. (iroeo rtates that a strong decoction of tho 
bark cured oases of pnirid soro throat. It is u-teful aliio in 
plenrisy. Liudley says that the blac-k birch of Niirlh Ami-riea 
is one of tbo hardest and most valuablu wi> piiH»c»«. This 
might suit the purposes of the enj^ravur, and in tho con«traC' 
tion of any implements requiring wood of lirra texture. Wo 
have also llie yellow and the olii-rry birch. Tho shoots and tho 
twigs of the B. lanulo-ia, or li. niijra. said by Wilson to gro»- in 
tho Carolina*, arc u»vd for hoops, and "made into excellent 
street bi-oome." lis wood is compact, nearly vrhiti', and nlreakW 
longitudinally, and useful tor various ocououiual purpo«eti 
CorwuW'Alnut terrulata." 



ALDKR, {Alnaa aerrvtata, Aiton.) Orows ntnng riTaletn, 
|CkKrin«u>n District; Riohlaod ; Xewhorn. FI. April. 

V. B. biap. 1234. The biurk iit nxiriiigent. N. Y. Journal 

Ibd. V. 7, 8. li bad for ■ long lime boon D<^lect«d ; but in the 

[ tide re fer red to tbo dwoi^iinn ii*Kpokon hijijhly of as an atlera- 

ttivf sad astriogent in scroiuU nnd futan«aus discatw?^, and it is 

]wil ta hsTe bcvn very Kuccomfnl in htvnialitria ; in th«ee affec- 

prodaciDg bencficinl rwultA where all other mean«i had 

I liDfd. Sh«c., in his Flora Carol., spoiie of tht> aldur tagx us 

IWiiigor grot iiervioe on account of ihi-ir attttrutivn powers; a 

'4tMMton of tb« leavw) halt al»o btten aat-X to supprmt bomorr- 

Ugr, and thcf hnvo boea found etr««tunl in relieving dyRpop«ia 

and liovel FDmplninlM. An untringnril iK^coction may bo tnad« 

of tfcc bark, leavoo, or lagu— acting iUho h* a diuretic. A linc- 

toR may *tto he a»cd. Poulticen tnado of tbont aro usod an a 

lonl application to tiimorn, sprain*, swollin^ etc. Tbo leaves 

S> applied externally to wounds and ulcer". Tbe inner bark 

tf ifcc root ia emetic, and it baa been ^ivoo in iDleriuillontH. 

biinwd by tannera and dyers; the shoots, cut in March, ivill 

taprt a cinnamon color to cloths and tlannttlN. The black 

■Mfrimaied lo colnr ffannrU : *' Take tbo bark, boil it well, then 

ifeim or fltraiD it wdl ; wet the cloth in a pretty strong lyo and 

4ipitinlo tbo aider liquor; let it remain till cool enough to 

mig,aiMl it givca an indelible orange color." The wood doos 

•M absorb wiit«r cia:'ily, and in employed in making pont^, and 

vj- rtmctnro liable to be iiubmergod. The English ^/niu (j4. 

jMuaao) is planted along the side of wat«r-coarses, rivulefs 

■d saad-baaks. to prevent the encroachment of water by tbe 

lard<aing and binding inflnenoo of the roots upon the soil, and 

ibe ■« a border to conceal unsightly or boggy Iatid». Tho 

mdiasnited for pipex, pump-treeii, and all kt»d« of subaque- 

l»ood-work. "where it will harden like a very stone," says 

l|U writer; now snpcrM-dcd. tutyn Wilson, "for even theae 

popwes by ibe Kyanized wood of more close grained tre«a." 

Tht (rood of this is also urod for various puq>oscs of the 

ttner, for ibc cogs of wheels, etr, ■' Charcoal made of ita 

■inbrhaa long been highly valued for the manufuctnre of gun- 

pmrdrr." WilKon'ii Rural Oyclopa-dia, art. AtnK«. T do not 

taoa bow rIoM-iy our A. w-rrul'itu and A.inndif resemble the 

bgtieb tree. Tbu bark of aldent in a»tringent, and is ti»cd by 


tanitora vid dyon; see Wjlaoo. It is. in other vords. rich i 
tannin. Thft biroli, (,Betvla ni^ra, U.) in fact »ll of our apem- 
no doabt, coiituiiL & oerlaiu proporiiou of the fcomDiy, oily an 
etanoo p<,-culiar to the B. alba of Kogland. The fiowcra of 
Uttor nro Jiighly odoriferous, and the oil i§ collected!. Th« ba 
it sW uMil by iht) launer. Kui^aia skina are said U> W laiin 
with it, honctt the peculiar odor. Our i)|>ec)efl of biruh niny ni 
doubt hv ui>4>d tor nimtlur purftoftvii. I have little doubt, in oon- 
udcmtion of the puHHtnttion of «u iistririgciit and oily, rpttinons 
principle, that U tinuliirc of thu cuilcirin wuiild xcrvo m» an 
cellent wttriuf^'ut, ntiinulalliig diuroiiv, to bu umd in i^lect, gi 
orrhaia, and in chronic diMia»eH of tho penito-urinary apparalUn. 
Birch wine is also made in England from the sap of the blrcb. 
The papery sheebt of birch bark were uaed a6 a writing maieri 

ov» , 

URTICACE.B. (TV XdlUs Tribe.) 


DWARF STINGING NBTTLE, (Urtica wens, h.) Imro- 
duood. Grows around It^iufort; collected in Kairfield Dtslrlcl; 
Kll. Bays at ^^t. ilaryX Geor}{iu ; viciuity of Charleston ; N. C , 
Fl. February. ^ 

Murray's App. Med. It. 592; Bull. PlantM, Veu. do France™ 
17U. It cnuHOS an exoc«i>ivu di«churgu of uriDc, and Serapion 
itaid that thirty grninH of it would purge. In the Suppleineat 
to tho Diet, do Mat. Med. by Mer. aud de L., 1846, p. "19. we 
have an account of the remarkable htemostalio viKuea of llila 
and tho v. dioica, also found lu South Carolina. It hud origi- 
nally obtained some favor in ibis ten^uot, and wan uned by 
Sydenham, but had for a long time falleu into dlcirepiitOL It 
has been reserved for M. Cuinentct to ruxtorc the piibliu confi- 
dence in it; and it itt now ngiiikcn favorably of by Ohomcl, Lanf^e 
and Deabois. fiitinextet advisus it in hemorrhage, and reports 
five CAHiin of uterine h«morTba;;e in which bleeding was in- 
stantly urrcHtcd; two to four ounces of iho juice were giTcu, 
taken iDtornally and in the form of injection. It has hI»o been 
saccoBsfully employed in npitling of blood and cpistazia, mod 
cases of two months duration wtTO cui'cd. Tho objoctioiiS vf 
others who were mil so ttuttt-cssAil have been fatisfaclorily an- 
Bwered, its pretended therapeutic action being denied by l>n». 
Kiuciakewios and Fiard, who report a case of poiauning from 

ibe intertuil uM of two onnces of the coneeobUed decoolion^ 

Th« AQpporten bave (iroduced well 8uslKined argiimctit* do- 

»troTiDf; the force of tlwH^ BLaiemonlA ; Knd Mcrat hitimclf speaks 

CkTonbljr of it in no official report mndo to tho Ai-ademy, aud 

yabl h hwl in tb« Rol]. de Tborap.; ho fhrniuhoe & case of Dftsal 

fc^nrrti«e«. accurrmg in a giH who was giviug birth to a child, 

md who waA at the eame time flooding, both of wbicb-lie 8U0- 

MBd«d in arroiiliiig with the Juicw of lliiit plant, wbun uTCiy- 

Ifctsgclse had fiul«d. Hiny others hav« umd it with very 

kwmbla reeulu in ihif and in Ifucorrbcna. " Speruns," adda 

Ibt anthor of the Diet, de M. U«d., " que ('experience oon- 

fitana oca bmiroux resaltsta." See Amuaat'a, Chevalier'A and 

Moat '• Rapport "Barl'emploi da sue d'ortie oomme aiitihvm- 

WTagiqnc." mailo in 1S4B, in the Bull, de I'Acad. Hoyalo do 

Mad. ix, 1015. I>r. Menicufoi, of Korae, iiilraduveH into tho 

n^na a spongo aoafcol in the jui«e ; and it may bo at tbv eame 

tiaa admin i«t« red intvrnally. Sec Abcilb^ Uvdicalc, Mai, 1846. 

N. (inineatet attributoa itv hn)inui>tntic virtuo* to a constitoent 

vtuck coaf^Iates milk in tho ouniu way tbut puixODR do. See a 

btterof Herat, relating a case of ntvrinu homorrhago existing 

brtwo moittbit, which was cured by the juioo of the U. dioica 

(in pROcb.) Idum. x, 364, 1845; Uer. and de L. vi, 8T&; Joiir- 

aildeMed. vi. 492. By Btiuly«>>s it coDtainit a carbonati^ am- 

wmoMf efalorophyl, mucu^ black coloring matter, gallic acid, 

tHoia and nitrate of potoah, leas abundant than in the U. dioiea, 


Indticed by theae notieea to teat it myself, 1 snecceded in ob- 
iHuag a qaanlity of tho U. vrma from Fairfield Dtstriot, 8. C. 
Uitedby Dr. It. A. KJnIoub. of Charleston, I proocedud U>ox- 
fOn and diride the right common carotid arlorios of two sheep, 
ifm the bleeding orificL^s of which was applied tint cororcd with 
kipange suakod in the oold infiision and the decoction rcepeot- 
tnif. The n-ouItM were aa follows: the first died ftom im- 
pn^ nanipolation ; in (he sooond, the bleeding ceaaud en- 
tiniy-4h« animal woa killed, however, a short time afterward. 
_Th( jnoe of the plant seemed to have some effect in eoagula- 
: fneli Mood t>ourvd out into the hand. Upon giving the 
iahkion, made with two ounces of the plant to a pint of 
t, in dosvD of a winc^lnHnful four tinius a day, to a patient 
Gl«i with chronic hematuria, wlio bad used lanuin, gallto 



acid, and tho infiiHioii of buchu tnefToctnally, she coiitc«KM:d 
kaviDj^ dorivcd dw-idud rcHof from ll, bnt complaiiu-d of i 
haviii}^ broiighl uut un i;rii|ilioii over tbe body. Tbe ezpv 
menu in both cnHcti uro obvivuNly too meagre to enable me 
pronounce positively as to the ainomit of power tho plani 
pO«8iMiie«. Dr. W. B. Johnson, of Marioo, Ala., huH found tbu 
pluiit very efBcacious in uterine bemorrhagc. U. S. IM«p. from 
S. O. Med. and Snrg. J. vi, 452- The irriiant effect ol" Uie 
DOttIo applied to the Mu Is tiuid to be owing to the presence of 
froo formic uvid in the Hhurji huirK. Xh K. Oi^ji., 12lh Ed- th>ni 
Am. J. Pharm. xxii, 181. Cclstis umployud the Urliea iu para- 
lysia. De Eo Modica, I. iii, 27 ; Bull.des.Sci. Mod. ix,77. Fla] 
ellaiioii with the branches, which, it is well known, oontain 
tiling!^ which produoo great irritation, followed by infiunimatJOD, 
has boeu recommend ud for bringing oat cntaueooa and febrile 
oruptioD», an in ttcarlutinu, in apoplexy, in inaeiisibilily of orgaiM, 
in poisoning by opium, in cdironic rheumatiiim, and in fket whero> 
ever a powerful extonial stimulating ruvulntve U required. For 
tbis purpose it has oven been cmployud in the algid period of 
incurable cholera morbus. Dr. Marehand, Seance do TAcad. 
Boy. de Med. ii, July, 1832 ; J. Stevoght, Uies. de Urtica. 17OT; 
J. FranouH, Traclulu^ Singulariii de Urtica Urente, etc Dilleng, 
1726. Both tbiH and the U. dioka nra found in the Houthera 
States, and I would invite further and particular examination 
into prapertics which are of eo valuable a description. I observe 
no notice of these experiments in the American works. The 
minute structure of the sling is said to be very curious. 

COMMON OR RED DEAD NETTLE, (6Vf«:a dioica, L.) 
Grows along roads and fencoH; vioiuily of Charleston. Fl. Aug. 

Bern. £!leni. de Bot. iii, 33S. It is applied exlcnoircly as a 
stimulating and aiiti-scptic aittringont nud detersive, the hort> 
and seed bcin^ used ; the decociion is also alluded to in thia 
work as being used in bcmorrbage, bloody urine, etc irrtiva> 
tion with this also was employed in rbeumatittm, pnriilyKiis, 
etc. (See U. ureiis.) The root i^ advioed in jaundice and 
nupbrilic diseosen. Fl. Scoticu, 57. A rennut was made with a 
strong decoolion. One quart of salt was added to three pints of 
tho decoction, and boiled for use, a spoonful of which was sufR- 
oient to coagulate a large quantity of milk, ^tearna, in tlie Am. 
Herbal. 136, refers to its uaeiu jaundice, nephritic disoi-dcrM, and 

tM benorHuige. "The juive itnnAid np Urn dom tbopt blecdiog, 

■od a leftf pat on tb« tongue, &d<1 prass«d sK&inet the roof of 

thcaoalli, will answer tbfl a«me purpose." Thornton '» V&m. 

Hcrtel. LiBiueus, in his Veg. Ual. Med. 511, alludes to its em* 

pl^went in bemorrhagu ; it wu considered litliontripi<!«nd eoi- 

mtaagogae, luid odupUtd to thoiw in whom thv hemorrhiigio 

ihttnii proTMilod; ull of whioh opiiiionM I quota, as corning 

frra oM aiitbora. "Stout dipped in the jaiuo bocomon more 

tczibte." The nocds prwiuoo an oil. which, takon in moderate 

9BBUlic«. exciter the *y»(eiD, etpodally "Ujt jAiiairxdc Camonr." 

TbmiL; or thirty grains of tho«0 indaeo vomiting, aoO a few of 

llwm, tukeo daily, are said to rednco oxc«tisJTe oorpuleooy. Mer. 

•ad lie L. DieL de. H. M^d. vi, 613. By Salladin'a nnulyaio, in 

Joonttl do Chim. Mod. vi, 492, the plant eonlainit iiitrato of 

tea, hydmchtoratv of eoda. photph. potash, iicvlato of lime, lig- 

aeoos BuUter, wiih silieslo andoxnluteof iron. PnlliM, Voyage, 

) 1. 190; Umelin, Flora ijiberica, ii ; Matfaiole, Comm. &tiO. It ia 

•■id that animaht which feed on the plant become both falter 

■■4 otrongrr. Miira. dn Ha'rlem, xxvi. The xtallcH haw a tibre 

hin hemp, and have been employed for miiking unrdago; the 

iwt boiled in ainm will dyo ii yi-llow color. See UookuV Mi- 

eweop. Dts9. xxii, 12, and Uu«ttard, Mem. de I'Acad. des fjoi. de 

i^uw, 1751, 330, (br a daacript^on of the atracture of the iting, 

lad the Pol«rsburg Jfiamiil, 1778, 370, for a notice of the value 

oTUl* Rtalka in making ropoo and paper. Tho U. 8. l>isp., 1303, 

bstvly notices the plant. Lato experiments may havo oscaped 

, ibe alteotion of its indefatigable authors. 

TW nettle .plants are known to be closely allied to those bear- 
kg textile fibres, and indeed thread can be made fVom all the 
Mtcles. Bxperimcnts may he made in tho Soiilliera States upon 
ths yield of fibre from the l/riiea u/tim and dioica, which grows 
lyolaoeooaly. Uoiling in alkaline solutions and lime water is 
Med in Uie preparation of such plant*. See next article, 
Bsbm; also, " Apocgnvm." 

The common n«tt1«, rv<raarks Mr. liawson, wbo ranks it with 
tax, hemp, cotton, phormium and other fibro-yiuldiog H;ouomical 
plania, has been long known as affording a large proportion of 
Sbra, wMelt has not only bven made into rop«>i and cordage, but 
■bm into fewing thread and hiMiulilnl while liiienlikt- cloth of 
iapenor quality. The fibre, he adds, is entily separated from 


other parts of the ntalk, without their undergoing the procencs 
of watering and bleaching, althongh by such the tabor necessaij 
for that purpose is considerably leseened. Lilce those of many 
other cotnmOD plants, the saperior merits of this generally wiy 
counted troublesome weed have- hitherto been much over- 
looked— njuoted by Wilson in Rural Cye. It is stated that the 
roots poesoas astringent and dinrelio properties, and have bean 
found serviceable in poultices for tumors and decoctions for 
other complaints. The leaves, chopped up with meal or wiUi 
boiled potatoes, are used for feeding dacklings, yonng turkeys 
and full grown poultry, especially in winter, and are said to ihi>- 
mote the laying of eggs. Nettles are sometimes boiled and 
eaten in the manner of greens. Laborers use the young tops 
of nettles as a pleasant, nourishing and mildly aperient potherb, 
either in soups or in accompaniment with salt beef or ptM-k. 
Rural Cyo. 

In China they use the Neilgherry Nettle called, also, "vegeta- 
ble wool," Urtica keterophylla, in the manufacture of coarse, stiff 
fabrics. It poBsesees a bright stiffness like coarse mohair, and is 
capable ol' being dyed. The bark of the young wood steeped ia 
water, renders easy tbe separation of the fibre. P. O. Rep. 
Agricult., 1867. 

RAMIE, CHINA GRASS, {Beehmeria tenacis^ma, Bakmaia 

This, sometimes spoken of as a Mexican plant, is a native of 
Ohina and Japan, and belongs to tbe Nettle family, (ordw 
UrticacecB,') which has markedly strong fibres. It has been 
highly recommended as a substitute for Cotton, and successfully 
used in the manufacture of cambrics and other fine stuSb. No 
mention of it is made by Mernt, Griffith or other writers whom 
I have consulted. 

Some years since a new substitute for cotton was thus referred 
to by a Paris correspondent: "Great excitement prevails in 
those manufacturing districts of France where cotton is most 
used, on account of the discovery of a substitute for it. This is 
the Ohina grass or white Urtica^ (nettle weed,) which may be 
cultivated cheaply in ail parts of France. The experiments 
with thin new textile fibre have been going on for a year or 
more nnder the direction of a competent committee appointed 
by the Cbumber of Commerce of Rouen. And this committee, 


with the wocd, tbo raw flhru, and variotui Bp«oimonB of woren 

id colored and nncolorod dot hen in hand, Imvo ^bown to tbo 

tChunb«r, bejond all queation, that the 8iib«titute is a jL;enuiDe 

tm» in tytry point. Thvy declnn>, iriihoat reservation, thai 

•aov of tb« t|ualitic-« of cotton ttro nvnntiiig." 

I obtain the fallowiDi; from onv of the journaiN of thu daf: 
*Tfa« MezicflD plant, which is spoken of of lftt«, a« po4«ibl,v a 
riral to the cotton plant, is slowly making itself known to tho 
VBcU of coramcr«fl. In New Orteane the Kamie fibre i« befcin- 
liai^ to beoome an artiolu i>f (mdo, and a deinnnd for the fibre 
iaalio npringing ap in lh<'> W<-»1. Of tho moritit of Raniiv, it i» 
Mated to bo an good a« linon oatobric or «jlk." 

Another journal, (1868,) meotioos that "at an aj^rioultural 
kii rvcouily biald in Alabama, it won one of ibe special tvaturea 
of ihft wxhihitjon. ll» libre« are Hwd to be mnvh fini-r and 
ftm^rtbao the beet flax; that thoy ar« as fino as soa island 
eetton. and that. aAer cleansing, they become very soft and 
vlula, and take colon bk readily as the finest wool or silk. 
Smial arttclm of clothing made Irom this fahric were exhibited 
at the fair referred to, and were particularly noticed for the 
i&wgtJi and beanty of the material. Its cultivation has been 
■MMMfiil on a nnmbor of plantations in Alabama. 

"Race ita intiYxInetion inlo the United Kuite« in March, 

MCT, the Ramie hue excited mnch intcrc«t among J^uropcan 

■■DiGMIdrera. The supply IVoro the Kast is entirely inade<|unlo 

toil] the demand, and unequal to the fibre here produced in 

qoahty; lltey are, thertfori-, very dcitirous of seeing it aticce**- 

Uly enllivaieil in lUinic Konntry where the yield will In? large 

and r^^lar. The soil and climate of tho Sonthern State* are 

panicalarly adapted for the cultivation of Kamie, which requires 

a looM, oandy soil nod lemperalv climate. In any of the roiton 

Stale* Itamie can W harvested at leant three timc<* a year; each 

bart'cst or calling will produce between nine and twelve bnn- 

drcd poandtt, making an average annual crop of about three 

Iteaaand poaiid«of frude nnprepared fibre, worth at present in 

Bcrope ten c«nt« specie per poood ; in preparing Uto fibre for 

■aaiifacturiug parpoaea it losea abonl one-half, and increaHea in 

nlut In eixty-fivc cents per pound. The fibre, whuu prepared 

fartfaa apinner, in beaalifiilly white, ^oft and glossy, clcwu'ly re- 

•catbtiBg flo«B silk in appearanve; it is much stronger than the 


biMt flxx, Hiid i-endily receivoa the moat difficult dyes without ii 
jury to iU «tri'n<jtli or lustre." 

Mr. P. T. Kiiapp. who hiut »■> extvii»ive pUitiution of it in : 
Beroard'fl tamh, La., thinics itbmtin its propagation: " To I 
up the earth in beds of about fire or six feci width, and to mi 
lay thfl ftalka, when mature, in two rows, a foot apart, and 
METo the rootd for Hale. Tha Htulkit are laid lon^tudinally, la| 
ploffono anothor part of llm way, and, by having two rowit, 
BOme miss in ono row, tho pmbubility ih that olhont will come up 
in the other row, so as to make it continuous in tho bed«^H 
When these plants come up and mature, tho fir-it growtli roacb-^ 
iiig about two and a halt' feel, be will layer them down, and 
thus huTo the whole bed gruw np thick and hj^b, like that we 
have juHt described. 

"Of the prod utiti fen OSS of the Kamio tb<.<ro cau be no dout 
nor of ita thorough security and safety in this climate and 
far north m TennusHixi. The fibre can be cleansed and prepar 
m^ readily as tbnl of heinp or linen, and as it is eqoal to 
latter in linuncsM, and liir "upurior to it in luAtre, almost equalling' 
silk, there can be no doubt that it will Hoon tako tho load of - 
CoMon in the worldx market." ^M 

1 obtain a reiont account of the Cultivation, etc., of this plant :^ 

Thf Hitmii: Plant. — The ramie, ^landing single, \» iiiclinud to 
muki; mniiy Kide^-bools or laienilis which in tanpucially the ca 
the firHt M'ason. As eoon us it has buuo once or twice cut downfl 
cloiie to or rather about one inch under the ||;round. and Uiaf 
rooLit have become stron^r, a larj;e number of ratoona will 
sprout from thi> ro<>tt» and hiilbouns, and few or no iiide-HhootaJ 
will show thcmstflveft. Thu shoola or ratoons from tJto root 
will stand clnsu and push each other up. The«o clo«o standir 
shoots contain the best tibre ) ihcy am boUow, almoxt ah mud 
so as cane. As soon nu the fibre has the proper strength tt 
stem begins to color a little darker near the jjround. The size 
which the plants i-each in a certain time varies according to 
richnt'iti* and kind of soil, an well us weather and mode of culti- 
vation. Ar> a general rule it may be xnid a" soun uk the stonu 
havo ri-acdiud a little more tlinn four feel, the tibro will bo of 
good quality, but does noi- get hurt if leA. nncut till it 
eight to ten feet in length. 

Culture. — It cannot be loo much recommended lo huv< 

liuve th^l 


[ ftee* of land iDtotidod for tbo ramto dveply ciiltiv«t«cl ; Bab* 

d to foortccn inches wodI'J Dot bo loo docp, and ibis in the 

.laborioBB work in ihe wkole ctiliiTution. The lintt year 

vMds hftve to be oat out, but this will give but Utile trouble. 

The secood year the pliiiit will liavu aomuny ratoonfi that othvr 

pUot* will liavr no room to vi-i;ptutc. From thii* time the culti- 

«Bt*on will pro very little trunbic, except one plowing be- 

tWMo the rows early in tbe spring aod alter each cutting, and 

BaBiir« over tbe fields during the winter season. The field 

■Bffaltobe likid off in pieoea of about twenty rowH in width, 

■Bd a fmMage \e(\ t'or a cart or wugun. The n>W(i ought to bo 

•bant four feet apart, and tho plantif in tho rows half that dis- 

moe- When tbo field is ready (or planlini;, a furrow is made 

tntf foor feet, about three to four inchi-s deep, and in these 

tefowa (tie |>lant>> arvphic«d, with little more care than negroex 

plaat «w«et potatocj^ Thu furrows ofl);ht to be made no that 

Unraia will not stand too lon^;, yet all hcnvy wai^bing ought to 

W praTonted. Itooted plants as well a« layers ought to lie 

•onrod with earth nearjy to tho top ; roots ou;cht to be covered 

nth earth two or three inobea deep. In case some plants or 

nMshuatd not gruw, the vacancies should Iil- Ailed as soon as 

fMiMe^and alwayn tho bott plutils taken fur ihiH purpose, so as 

& get an oven growing field. As soon as the plants haro 

nacbrd seven tooight inches in height, thoy Hhoiild be topped 

(MID the nnrsoryj to force out side-shoots. When these latter 

tfB grown to about five or ux inches in length, tbo plant liaa « 

liad of basby appearance; then the plant is hilled nearly to the 

t«p. It ts now U-n to grow until it hai« reached nearly the 

knght of three feel, when it is cut down even with the ground, 

■r better, ono inch below. The tibre of this lir«t growth can bo 

■•ed, but is not pertbct yet, because the roots and bulbs are not 

kr^ enough, and there are as yel too many side-shoola. 

A few daya after Uus cutting, a great many ratoons will make 
tbetrappraraoccon ibc surface. The whole work now eoiwtsta 
iKk«c(Htig o«t all weeds. The seeund growth will l>e, under 
•Hailar circumstances, a great deal more rapid than the first 
waa aad caa be cat when about four fe«t high ; oa«h growth 
will have fewer fltde-ehoou and soon they will disappear alto- 
gether. The planting in the field ought to be done in the spring 
bat CMtn b« continued until the Wginningof September. Thoa« 



which iirr plantei) late should be covered in winter wilb kItv 
or loavuc, Ix't'imw! tliey are loo young and tfiider lo re«i«t 
vers tro§ls. Thonu pliintud early in Hjiring and nuiniHor do D< 
need aoy proUctiun, as Uioy willm^diLTooUiiigbteoti totwent; 
four inchea deep. All rofaw matter fiillins off in cleaning Un 
fibre ought ta he fed or cured and put in the barn tor vrinter 
ose. All the mannrc coming from the plant ought to be care- 
fiiUy gathered and pot bavk on the Sold. In lhii> way, Hoch n 
field will give a rich retam i'or many year* without need or 
being roplunted. The experience id regard U> soil is yet limited, 
but it irt certiiin that a rioh sandy loam suits the plant very 
well. The plant u>n bo grown (to far north as the earth dOM 
not freeze more than tiiur indiMM deep in winter. The hiwl por- 
tions of this conntry will be the *[>ulhern part of Texatf, and the 
StateaofLouiaiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Goorgia, South Cairo- I 
lina and Florida. 

C'se 0/ the Riimic—TUc rumiu itt iiseftil in two waya. 1 1 con- 
tains, first, a silk-like fibre of uncommon strength and linenviM; 
and, sooond, the rufusu fiirninhee an excellent food f<ir stock, 
which in quantity compares favorably with clover. The fibre 
vrill not only replace the cotton, but is bound to be a strong 
rival to flax. In stroni^th il« fibre i* nearest to xilk, and u» soon 
as there i>i a little more experience and iDtull>;;cnce brought 
into requisition, by the cultivation and manufacture of the tex* 
tile, it will be found to be the best aubstilule for silk. ^^ 

gnppi^He thi^ plunt to have none of ibis useful fibre, itti eultii^| 
vation would be of immnnxn value as food forHlock, in a great 
many portions of the South. Another mo«t important point in 
introducing the ramie here, is its easy cultivaiioti. The first 
year it requires no more work than sweet potatoes, and then 
the main work in in liarvexling. The quantity of fibre will bw 
moni and the price double that of eoitoii. 

In c(we a fiold kIiouIiI he plowed up after a aeriw of years 
for Home other purpose, then the roots and biilhn will make ex- 
collont food for hogs, or can be mail ufactti rod into a durable 

The ff ncds have to be kepi in good order, because if nnwn and 
hog* are once aocuBtomed to it, they will break down a ]KK>r 
fence to g«t to it. Huring the winter ctowsi can be turnod into 
ramie fields, but hugs and horses should bo kept out. So &r 


' Ihi* ptmnt has no dcslmctivc onemicM. Thi; «o-<.-b11c<] nettle 

' ironoi makrs il« appvarsnctt eOiti« Ma»on», but never hurla tko 

I ftbra : it *■ Rftti«fied wiib the lower learn of the plants and is in 

tUsvaT baraleaB. Besides, if Ihey were as dcetrucliye aa tho 

MIlBii worm tbey ciiuld not injure the crop wry much, as each 

Mllfagiit matnrnd in a voy »Uort period of time.. 

Tbc plants attain a height of tvelvo feet and grow very 
tUckly to);trther. I have examined specimens of the fibre 
wbidi wirrv ^viTal feei in lenf^tb — whit«, gU>»»y and line. In 
the Patent OfBee Rep., 244. 1803, is an acoonnt of its value for 
— iiftoHiriPB parpoKCN. with a reforenve to Dr. J. P. Roylv and 
Vr. B0xlKir;gb'» Tn'stiwcs on the Oriontal Kibro*. Dr. Roj'le 
■ajt that the ( 'hins f;rass cloth is made IVom Ibis plant and that 
tbf dbrc has sold in Kngland at from £80 to £120 a ton. 

ban article in F. t). Itcp. A^rieult., 1867, it is stated that the 
8. nuiiininf in ul*o ui^cd. Tbe plant* havu bean raised in 
VwbtDgtoD fh>m tbe »fied», which abould be protocted from tlie 

LOT NKTTTjK, {Pila-a pvmila, fimy. Urtiea pumila, L.) 
Omra in wet *o\h, Ticioity of Cbarlvaton; Richland ; Fla. V\. 

6tWtli, U«d. B'li., 572. Thi« i» quite smoolb ; i«i said to be 
■ vxeelliMit appiieation to inflamed pa^t>^ and to relieve the 
<Rption caused by the Rhus, Griffith invito* further invetti- 

PKLTITORY. {Pariftaria Pemi»ylv<imf<i. Mulil.) Growing 
a the apifvr dinlrictM of S. and N. C; with P. dcbilit, Font, and 
P. FJanJaiM, Xntl. growing in Fla., should be exiimined for the 
po wtm ion of «nlphur, as some opccicH are said to contain more 
Mlphur than any other plants. Planche, Jouro. do Pbarm. vlll, 
aC7; Griffith. 

HEMP, (Oanaoto sativa.) Kx. Nat CuUivated in the upper 

Tba value of this plant for mannfaoturing purpowx, for 
Baking fopeti and conJoge. iH well known. It may become a 
moM important question whether or not we van raise it in the 
Atlantic' .Staler with as much profit ws in Kentucky, or to n.-pay 
the labor bestowed upon it. I have not bu4.-n abltt to asrt'rlain 
Wbetber tfae joico of ibe [ilaul, us cultivated here, poetesses the 



iiitoxidatiDg propertlee of tite Kaat India species, (C Indie 
though it liHH boeo asserted tkal "wat«r in which it is somke 
bticomoH vioh-ntly poinonoiw." Soe a pBpor iti Putvni Offic 
R«porti<, 1848, p. 674, Irom tliv TiOiiiNvillu Journal, containing i 
ftill deacription of varii>liuK, mode of prod nt^t ion, and prrpur 
tion of hemp. Count Chaptal says, in his Ckemibtry applie 
to Agriciillure, that M. Proust had determined, aAer iiumoroua 
exporiinttiitd, that llie atallc of hemp fumi^hetl the l)««t cbarooal^J 
for thv maniifiK'tiird of gunpowder — -butter than thu willo«n^H 
From the HoudK is extracted an oil, generally employed hy 
painters. The fine oil obtaiiiod fmm the seeds is ppvaliarly 
adapted for burning in chambers, as it is perfectly limpid, and 
poweases no smell. The KuasiaoH and Poles, even of the hi.t;her 
class, bruise or roanl the seeds mix thi-ui with nalt, and eat_ 
Iheni on bread. It expels vermin tVom ]>lantBtions of cabbi 
if plantc^d on iho boi-ditnt of fiitldo; if plunti»l wiih thai vcg6? 
tabic, no cutcrpiUnr will infest it. Willioh'a Dom. Kne. The 
Hoods may bo wwn in April or May, fi-om two to three buKbvb 
per aero, either broadcast, and hoeing out the plants to a dii 
tance of sixteen or seventeen inches, or by the drill, at a dis> 
tunt^e of thirty inches. In the aiitiimii the plants are [iiiltcd, 
the mule plants tnt, and the female plants six or seven weeks 
afterward, when ihcyhavo ripened their seed, Thns there »r© 
two harvests of the honip crop. The male plants are readily 
known by their faded flowers, and yellowish t^lor. They aro_; 
then tied in small hnndlun and carried to the pool, wbitre tbe^^| 
are to he slecpi>d. Kemp, like flax, puinoni* the water in whieh 
it is i^tccpcd. The same process is followed when the female 
plants are pulled ; only these, before tboy are 8t«op«d, huvi 
their seeds beaten out. 

Tho process of steeping commonly lasts fonr or five days, : 
is continued until the outside conl of the hem]) readily sepu- 
ratc-s. It is then Cttrefiilly iind evenly spread on some gntsa 
turf, wliere it rvmiiins for three or four weeks, being turned 
over about twicf every wook, by which the decomposition of 
the woody part of the stem is maienally accelerated. It ii, 
next carrii>d to the barn, where It is bruised by the brake, i 
machine constructed for the puqiose; it in thun bound up intC 
bundles, and carried to market. i_L"w'b Prac, Apr. p. 348.^ 
Thcn> is a paper on a species of AfVitan hemp by Mr. A. Uunter, 







i(TiBiie. High. Soc. vol. tii, p. S?;) othvra on tbocultiTiiUon of 
[Wap in America, by Mr, W. Tongp. (Ann. of Apr. voL xxiil, 
yf. l;>in Italy, {'MA. vol. xvi, p. 439, and vol. ii, p. 216j and in 
' Oiteloitia. (Ibid. Tol. Tiij, p. 243.) It wema tliul 100 [mrta of 
Itaiian ki-mp-!>o4Ml yield 20 to 2b par ovnl. of o:I. (Com. Agr. 
dMst. S^iv. lSk<, p. 69.) Sw flax. 

AnMin^ oar oativo subAtiintcs for bemp ars tbe Jpoa/nvm 

BWirtJoiin ; ibe Canada Golden flod, {^iilago eanadenaia,) h., 

iAfnetra, of Rll.;) Iha SunflovriT (Hdiatttbvn) alTords idngli; 

BiBMt*. which aro Miid to bu km thick and aif stronj; as Mmnll 

fBckthnad; also oar Aie<iepia» Sgriaca, Vrtiea dioita and 

XtBct fiamentam or bcar-grasa. S«e these plants. Klliott fays 

ikU bnr-graM p0ii«L-M«8 lli« ^trongoet fibre of any vegi^ablc 

vhatMerer. Ii^ rootfi arv exicnoive, and beur traimpliinling. 

6m Prep, of Hemp, l-'umivr'ii Kncyc. Bee, nUo, filex of lh« 

Kenucky Farmrr. Paper w made of watite hump, whilnned. 

Tbe Mvds alTord an oil, whieb, boiled in milk, is nroommoodMl 

*pku.\ coagbs, and ia also said to be neeful in iuoontinonco of 

■im. In India an inioxieating liquor ia made fVom the loavea, 

nauriiiing opium in itn cfivvts. 

HOP, (J/itmu/iu Ivpyiltu, L.) Grows in the mountains o'f 
BMth Carolina f Dr. McBridu) and on ihe Uittitiixtippi, and gen- 
mllrcnltirnU-d in i^outbcrn Slates. 

fid. and Vnr. Mai. M^. 185; Chap. Tborap. and Mat. Med. 
i,3l& and ii, 456; Eb. M. Med. ii, K5; U. S. Disp. S74; Big. 
i«. Med. Hot. ii, 163; Kreake, Ued. Pbya. Journal, xtii, 432 ; 
tknpMin'a Lond. Oisp. 200; BJgHby, \AinA. MlmI. Repos. r, 97; 
hjoriyV Tnaug. Vt'it*. Phil. An. 1803; Ivc» in Sillimau's Jour- 
aal. ii, 30S; Thornton's Fam. livrbal. 820. This plant is cer- 
tainly poe>>esi><-d of some narcotie power. According to T>r. 
Latham, an inHision of it is a good substitute for landanum. It 
ia employed En do«e«of on« and a half drnehin* in allaying the 
dlitrMatng aymplomit of phtbiais. It iui^'incntit the sni-reliona, 
nwaorra pain and irrilubilily, and indu<-«)t slevp. Dr. Maton, 
Fell. Koy. Soc. Coll. Phys., says that largo doses prodnc« hrnd- 
uAm. It is tbouj^ht to be a HjteeiAc in removing asthmatic 
palaa, without inonaoing the secretions. Uer. and de L. Diet. 
■leH. U^d. (ii.M4; Pliny, lib. xxi, c. IS; Flore Med. Iv, 196. 
It is given with good effect as a (Stomachic, in iTiap|>ctency and 
waakaeaa of the di)[eal[ve organs. Mat. Med. Indica. 120; Bull. 


tiM. Sci. H«i]. xvi, 145; Journnl dan 8«i. Med. xli, 376; Bdiot 
Journal, iv. 23; DUn. Mt-dici dc Hiirottli tiicdiui Tinboo mcdiv 
Kdinb. 1803; Bromelius, "Lupiilo^^iV Stockholm, 16S7 ; Ob 
of Preake od the llop, LoDd. Lupulin, obtaiDod from it, u i 
to dimioiah tbe force of tho pulsi^ See Jonraat de Cbim. 
il, S27 ; Journitl do Pharm. viii, 228 and 330. In tbe tiuppU 
to iU. and de L. Did. de il. Hed. 1846, a coao is reported of i 
girl being poinoiiud by Ibe bop. Rvv. 8civnlifique, Marn, 1845^ 
Joitroal do Pbarm. Mum, i642. Much umo m madv of lite hop 
poullicD in allaying pain, applied ovor the part. lU doravtttic 
value in preparioff tb«? li<iuor koown as ycasl ie obvious. »» ^«ll 
as for olber purposes wtiere fermentation is to be establiebed 
ill the maiuifupliire of many alcoholic drinks and malt liquorn. 
Tho Riodtcirial jiropertios of the bop arc t>aid to depend upon 
the Iwpulin, a peculiar refJnouH nccretion coiitain«d in tbe glutidit, 
which i« obtained by tbreihingand nlliog tho «trobiIc». By 
aiialyaie it oonaistA of volatile oil, bitter principle, or tupatin, 
reain, etc.; when administered internally, tbia has all tbe good 
efffOU of ihe bop; given in pill, in do->efl of si<i to ton grains, 
or in tincture in iboNi^ »t' a half to one drni-hm ; and it may kiM 
bo added to poultice!*, oinlmenti', etc. Iven' Rxpi-rimenU; Grit 
fitth, Med. But. 674. The tincture of hpulin is said to bo pref- 
erable; done, one to two fluid drui/liins. The usos of ih« hop 
pillow and the tincture of hope, <m wilatives and mild nnroot- 
ic«, are well known ; but lor tho medicinal application consult 
the various works on the Materia Modioa. 

The Patent Office Rep. 260, 1857, contains a \ery full treatise 
pn tile bop, ootidiiniwd from variouH souroiM — an analysis of llie 
plant, the b<Ntt mode of cullivation, gathering, «to. A» th« 
i-aising of the hop is of grvat importnncc. I would refer culti- 
vators to this article. It is said to bo one of the very moot 
exbiiusting among cultivated plnnts, both in respect to the or- 
ganic and niiiu'rul Goni<titucnts which it t'stracln from theiioil; 
80 that valleys containing tho rfcim of the currounding country, 
should be selected. See. also, Wilson'w Rural Vy*.:, art. " Hop," 
"Beer," "Ale." Uis account of cultivation, diseases, eta, of 
the bop la l\iU and inslructlve. The stem of the hop contains « 
fibrn liki! hern]), whSi^h i* UHcd in making a htrong white (doth 
in Swfdrn, tliungh it requires king uti-i-jiing to nei>ariiie the 
fibre. The bop plant is rich in lannio. and bus boon uiwd for 


tbe ash yields 8S- or potash, 15. of lime, niagoeuft, 

, etc. The sQpkers of tbit hop iint Huid to Ibrm an agreeable 

|T(Celabl« for llie table wbcu dreMed like a«>paraju;ua. Uoucy- 

w frajneat on bop plants fVom the pi'rforiUtoiiit of th« 

kiL ll U i«id to b« vet)- abuiidaiil on cotton plunlit. 

An artid* ako on the vulliralion of ihu bop can be found io 

I tUcBt Office Iteports, 1»54, p. 354. 

1 ^Mt« from the paper tncniionod aboTO as follows, as I oon- 

mtrr iafonuBiioD on this topic important: 

TW hop i* m per«iinial plant of easy cullivntion, snd will 

ptw in any part of the Wenl«ni BtaUw. Uh duni<!»lir ii^et aro 

■ •bvions, that i»o farm or garden «honld ha wiihont one cw 

■on roots. It requires a rich, d««p, mollow soil, with a dry, 

prriaus, or rocky sub-soil. The cxpoMuro in a Northern climato 

ifcnid be toward the south, as on the slope of a hill, or in any 

nB *lieit4!re<l valley. It may be propagated by seeds, or by 

AHmmis of the nMtri ; but it is more usual to plant the yonng 

Amu which rise from the bottom of the stems of old plants. 

IhcMaro laid down in the earth till they strike, when they 

m cat off and plantod in a ntrntory bed. Care must be tnkon 

Id hire only one sort of bops in the same plat or field, in ord«r 

Ibal they may all ripen at the same time. The ground having 

keen prepared for planting, it is divided by parallel Hues six 

itutafmrt, and nhort atiekd are inserted into the groniid along 

tkx Bnoi at soriiii fv«t disiaitue from each other, and «t> tu U> 

Wlaraau tbe rows, as is frequently dona with fruit trees and 

«(ker pUnta, in what is called the " Quincunx form." By this 

MSlhnrI every plant will be just seven feet fVoro each of its 

Mi^bors, although tbe rows will be only six feet apart, and 

WBse<]flently about ouc-vighth nf land will be avtually saved, a« 

ladicatud in tbe diagram b^'Iow: 
K • • • • • 

^^^^ a » • • 

^^K^ ■ • • • • 

^^^^■^•tKk a hole may be dng two feet square and two feet 
PmPIKd lightly lillod with the earth dug out, mixml with a 
eonpo»t prepared with well rotted dung, limv and mack. Fresh 
diBjf shonld oerer be apphod to hops. Threo plants arc next 
plaeed in the middle of thir* hole six inches asunder, forming an 
•ntlatorat triangle, A watering with liquid maiiurv will gT«ally 


aeiust theirtnkitiffroot, uid thvy will mood bcgio U>Khow"TinM.'^ 
Slicks thi-ee or four t'««t long »re thrn ttttick in tho middluof 
tbf Li)i-(.'e plaiiU aud the vioea aro tied to theiu with twine or 
bttfS, till they lay hold »nd twine arouud them. During their 
growth tho ground itbould be well hoed nnd forked up nronml 
the roots, nnd Bomo of tho fino mould thrown around tho (tlema. 
In favorable seasonH a few hops may be picked IVom thc»0 younf; 
plantei in autumn, but in general there is nothing the firet year. 
I^ite in niituniri the ground may be carefully dug with a ttpadfl, 
and tho earth turned towurd the plunfn, to ri-main during the 
winter. Burly in spring the second year the hillocks around 
Ihe plants Hbonid be opened, and the root* examined. The last 
year's shoots are then cut off within an inch of the main ntem, 
and ull the tiuekor« tjulle eloae to it. The latter forms an agree- 
ablo Tcgolablu fur the table when drcosed like aH)mraguH. The 
earth is next prcseed round the roolo, and the pnrtM envcreii so 
as to exclude the air. A polo about twelve feet long id then 
firmly stuok into the ground near the plants ; to this the vinea 
arc led, and tied as they shoot, until they have taken hold of it. 
If by Bcoident a vine leaves the pole it should bo oarelblly 
brought back to it, and tied until it takee new hold. 

Mr. J. J. Bennett, of New Vork, says : "The manner in which 
i cultivate hop* is an follnwK; Allvr plowing the ground in- 
tended for hope, I use about ton loads of lcHchi>d a^bcs per acre 
for a top-dressing, allor which it ehould be well harrowed. The 
rows should be eight feet apart and the hills seven feet apart. 
In setting, a line in used with marks indicating the distance be- 
tween tho hills. AtXcr the line it drawn, aiuiiII t^tickH are xei to 
each mark. Root* are to be out, two joints on each piece, three 
pieces to the bill ; cover about two incheit. The ground may bo 
planted with corn the lir.-»t year, »n the hops will not run until 
the second. It should bo nown the liritl of May in drills three 
and one-half feet apart; sow with seed-drill. Tho first ye«r 
corn may be raised: plant one foot fbim tho teasel row. I weed 
them twice the first year ; the second year they are to be oalti- 
vuted and hoed twice. The Arst of August I cut such as are 
ripe, which will be known by the shedding of the blossoms, I 
cut at four dilTi:r(!nt times, the stems to be about four iocfaea 
long. They are to he n|iriiiul un shclvee nhoul eight inches deep, 
one tier above another. There nhould be a good oirculatioo of 


«r, thst they intty cure well. I paid for cattivftliiig fiw acros 

ftttij-two doll&rrt ; paid Tor faarveitliHg eighly-liro dollaix." See 

« fall <le«riptiQn of hnp*, mnde of cutUvution, preparations, 

tivrationa, etc.. in Johnion> Chomislry of Common Life, 

. •.. ii. p. 36 ; also Ure'ts Dictionary of Art« and Maaufactarefl, 

ankles -Uop," "Ale," "Boer," etc. C'onwilt I'ereira'a Mat, 

Mfiiiea, Cttaptal's Cht^mistry applied lo Agrioullur«, Boofciin- 

palt's Treatise on Aj^lcuhure in its relatione witb CliemiMtry, 

adT(ia«r'a Agricultoru for mode of planting, pruparation, etc. 

Sw; abo, Phillipn' History of Cultivat«Ml Vogclnblce. 

Tfa« great tmportaoco of cultivating this plant on a large 
v^lcfor manulJaemre of yeast sboald be impressed upon the 
peopk. Tlie mode of making bop Ueor is as follows : For a half 
Und of biwr, take half a pound of bopa, and liatf a giillon of 
•■h**««. The lntt«r tnu-tt be pourM) by iuulf into the caeka. 
BimI the kopit, adding to them a leacupful of powdered ginger 
baboot a pdulful and a half of water ; lliat in. u (jnantity suf- 
timt to rxtravt the virtue of the hupH. When "ufliciently 
bnevd, pat it up warm into tho cask, nhaking it well in order 
MbIx it witb the motassos. Then fill it up witb water qulto 
■pie the bang, which mast be toA open, to allow it to work. 
Xm nut be carefhl to keep it oonntantly Riled up with water 
■IreMver it work« over. When sufficiently worked it may be 
billVil. adding a spoonfhl of molasecM to each bottle. Thorn- 
Mi^ SoMthem Gardener. 
Ak and beer cau be made in the Sontbem States, though not 
r«itfc thaaame advantage a.i in colder climatoe. Though withoat 
' ftaetical experioove, I am forced lo the conviolton that the d»- 
iidefrntaiii it cool ccllai^ In the rural dlMtrictH what are called 
dfy cellars are con»truct<-d in the clay, ju»t above the wawr- 
bwing stratnm. the top onclosod or covered with a closed house. 
Tbe temperature of these c«'llar« is <iait« low, and they are used 
in ksvpingmilk. butter, melons, cider, etc. I think their t«m- 
pefBtBiv would allow the manufaotore and preservation of 
eithar wine, ale or beer. Ale has be«n made near Cliarii.r)iton, 
at Mount rieA*ant ; but to prevent fermentation, cvlUm are re- 
qaired. The reader interested io the sabjeot can find a deocrip- 
tioa of the Rnglitk niiithod of making matt li<|uont in Ure's Dic- 
tHoary »f Arts anil Mauufaotures, in Wilson's Rural Cyclo- 
(■rL "Alo,") in Solly's Rural CliemixU-y, p. 178, see art. 


*' FenaentBtion luid DUtillntion ;" «Iim> TfaorntOD'^ Famil] 
Herbal. "Mentha," p. &65, CMIO. uit Brvwing, and (.'omhruat/^ 
Theory and Practice of Bntwiiig. lu KngliunI ihuy iwo Ot 
tiana latea, purpurea nod rubra m i>ub«titittcii Cur hups. Cona 
this Tolutn«, art. " PerBimmoD," {Viospyrot,) "SaswifriiB," (iol 
rw»,) " Blackberry •' »Dd "Cherry," iCerasus,y "Apple," (P^ 
for liquors. 

MULBBRBY, Qjtforvg alba, h.) Nat. Diffused; viduitjr 
Charleston. Fl. March. 

Bell's Pract. »ict. 319 ; V. S. I>ii.p. 463 ; D6m. ftU-m. do Bol." 
The root is bitter and very astringent, and is oecf'ul in relaxed 
Alal«» of (he bowels, diarrhoea, etc. Lind. Nat. Syst. Bot. 186. 
It oonuics THyrox$lic aeid with lime. Turner. G40. See analysis 
in the Joarnal du Chiin. itifti. x, 676. The hiirk is a purgative 
Tertntfugv, bnlismore important on necountoflholeavvx being 
the tavorito food of tho silk-womi." That this plant la easily 
cultivated in the Southern States may some day niab« it a aooroe 
of great profit in the productien of sjlk. The iKania lony again 
be revived, under auspices which may deprive the term of the 
alight suspicion of reproach which is attached to its object*. 
If^r. and de L. Diet, de M. Ued., Sapplem. 1846, 4M; OrilBth, 
Hed. Bot. ft79. 

As "this is the ripeeic* upon which the siili-worm i^cds," tbi 
following brief directions concerning the manafnctnro of Sill 
from the Bural Cyc, may be useftili and as the production 
the raw siNc is in the power of almost any one, if the feualea of 
numerous familius throughout the Southern States would devote 
their leisure to it, thv uggregnlo amount of silk produced would 
coDtiibute still farther to render us independent aa a people, m 

After the worm has enveloped itself iit the cocoon, seven o^ 
eight days are allowed to elap»e before (ho balls are gathered. 
The next process is to destroy the life of the chTysalides, which 
i« done either by exposure to the stin, or by the heat of an oreD, 
orof Ateam. Tho cteoons are next Keparatwl from tho Aosa, 
or loose, downy tiulMtance which ciivdopc* tho compact balls, 
and art! then ready to be reeled. For this purpose they are 
thrown inU» a boiler of hot water for the purpose of dissolving 
(he gnm. and being gi-ntly prvs««d with a bniKh. to which the 
threads adhere, the rceler is thus enabled to disengage tbem. 
The enda of four or more of the threads thus cleared are passed 


Ihtvn^ bolea in an iron b&r. &ft«r which two orthcM compound 
tkitad* krv ttrifitcd togetlior, and raad« ti%sl to the r«e<]. The 
hagtb of reeled Bilk obtaioed from a Htngle coooon vurioH from 
tkm bnndred to six hundred yardH; and it hnx bocn c«tiniatc<l 
Ikftl twdvo pound* of coooonn, the produce of tbo Uthtiv* o( 
t>o tfaonrand eight hnndrod warms, which have oonsumod one 
laadrad and fifty-two pounds of mulberry leaven, give ono 
fMsd of r«ekd nik, whieh may be coDvertod into sixt<^en yardn 
<( fr*$ it ya/ila. Those cocoons whioh have been perforated 
ChkK ht rotlL-d. but muitt be >ipiin on account of thv lirvakM in 
^ Uuvad. The produce of thcw balls wbon worked i» eallml 
fniti. The raw ttilk, bcfbr« it can be as«d in weaving, muHl be 
t«ntrd or thrown, and may bo converted into singles, tram, or 
«f|;»inne. The tinitte produced merely byiwiating tberawBilk 
<»gtv»more firmne«tO iU texture. Tram is (brmed by twist- 
Bfingelher. but not very closely, two or more threads of raw 
dlt,and nsuully conatttuteci the weft or Hhoot of manufketored 
padk. Organxine i* principally iiMid in the warp, and in formed 
if tviiiting firvt each individual thread, and then two or more 
«f tlie threads thus twisted, with the tlu-o wing- mill. The silk 
vfcra thrown is called hard ailk, and ronst be boiled in order to 
fiwhti-ge the gum, wl)ti>h oiherwi«c renders it hanth to the 
lOBrib and unfit in receive the dye. Aflcr boiling abont foor 
hBtn m soaped water, it is washed in clear wat«r to discharge 
llw toap, and is sc«n to have acquired that glosMness and soft- 
sen of texture which forms its principal characteristic. The 
ysn ts DOW ready fbr weaving. Rural Cyc. I saw in Italy 
tim manolactare of silk going on in mo#t of the large towns, 
and many in the country prepare raw eilk for the manufaeturer 
■ad weaver. 

The anocemful roaring of silk-worms, remarks Wiliwn, is a 
^•ttnet art, and r«qnire« peculiar attention. They are subject 
to s variety of maladtea. In many places It is usnal to import 
lb* tfgt from some district that hna acquinil reputation for 
^ ibctr prodaciion. Those are packed like grain, and are cbo^m 
in the rame manner. The eggs are in many places hatched by 
the beat of the human body. The silk ts contained in the fbrm 
of a fiiiid fwcmbliog varuish, in long, cylindrical sacks many 
.tn«» the limgth of the animal, and capable of being unfolded 
[fay inimersioR in water. This fluid is easily forced out, and 


iiilvuntflgo i8»omcitinicci taknn of IhU ciroumsbtnoo to \>t 
tkrvad* much <w»n<«r ihan umiul, whk-li ur« ijxintindy *lrun 
and ifflpervious to vrutcr. Ranit Cyc At tbo aRricultar 
aaeetingH in South Carolina itnd Georgia, arlicloa of homo-ms 
silk aro occasionally presented. 

A correspondent tVom Sumter, S, C, ftimisbee the following: 
"In Boutli Carolina filk growing was succeas^lly and pro- 
fitably flxocuc«d. Tilt! mother of thi; oelehratod Piiickueya car- 
tifld to JRnglaiid iH>niii nilk produced o» bi-r plaiiliilion iii South 
Carolina, and it wii» ihcrv woven into ti:$«u«itt, and the gowna 
oiade of it were prwuntod by hor to the motbor of young 
G«org« tbo Third, and to Ibu Earl of Chesterfield. As early as 
tbe year IGGO, tbo silk-norms of Yirginia furnished the corona- 
tion robe of Charles tbe Second. Tbe mulberry was indigo- 
noiitt in the colony, and the Hucceea of mlk InduRtry was Ailly 
CNlutiliKlxHl, unlil it yi<.ild(>d to the tobuceo plant, very probably 
because t!io latter wan found more prufiUiblDaDdorthounnkilliNl 
and careless labor of tbe imported Africans. lo 1732, ma- 
cbinery, egge and trees were inti'odueed into Georgia; and in 
1735, (jueen Carobne, of Kngland, wore on a great Stato occa- 
sion, a beautiftil robe of Georgia silk. In 1749, that colony 
oxporti^ large quaiititioH of eoeoons, and one large tiilk i^titab- 
mont «reet*:d in 8a^-H^tlah, reteived and used annually during 
the years 1758 to 1766, from t«n to twenty thouMind potinda of 
cocoons. Tbe war withdrew the fostering caro of the parent 
government, and reduced the demand for export, and the r«- 
tarn of peace found tbe silk business sasponded by cotton 

■ "In Cowdin'a recent report to tbo Department of State, (Cow- 
dlDf U. 8. Co mm i SKI oner to Parin Kxpoi<ition,) it is siud that 
'nik buHhandry and muiiuiiie luring had almoAt ceased to exitti 
in the United Blates at tbe oommenceincnt of this century.' 
S&ce then tbey have not kept pace with the advance in kin- 
dred pursuits. Nevertheless, Ihey liave always been proseculoct 
to an encom'aging extent in various parts of New England, 
New York, New Jersey and Peuunylvania. As, for example, 
MauHlield, already referred to, bait done a large buHineas iu aev- 
ing silks, and produced in 1839 five Uiua of the raw material. 
Washington, Pcnn., always kept up the buttineiw. It waa iiilr»- 
duced into ibe State Prison, at Auburn, N. T., in 1841 ; and, tbo 


Int yttr. tbe product of Mwing rilk was sbont $13,000. Il 
«M aiiMdUf incrcanng in the country when, some iweoly-dTo 
jmn ajpo, tu growth ww cbeok&d by a diaasirons siHtoulatjve 
ftmr in Uie Monu muUieaulis ahrub, which, for & few yeure, 
nged thronghoul thu UtiJofi like ui e])iUeiDic. 

"Tho Kaciion full h«»vily apoii the wholu tin^inogii, tiOToring 
it tcmporKrily wiih odium and ridicule. It biu) aince traoD 
dowly Kooveriag from this season of delusion and folly. 

■In iBM. the product of silk raisMl in the United Stale§ was 
Munated at alfout aixtj thoosand pounds, valued ai $250,000. 
U 1M4, it had incntu^ud to about four hundred thousand pounds, 
■orth $1,SOO,0<K). By thu oonsufl of 1800, whon the ofTocts of 
ifat >poGnlaiivu mania alluded to hud culminated, the annual 
pmlort was reported at only fourteen thousand seven hundred 
udnztj:-ihrec pounds. Then it be^^n to revive i and by the 
etaas report of 18t!0, it appears that the manufacture of b«w- 
iifHyu vaa carried on estenaiTely in Oonnecticut, Hew Jer- 
mf, Maosachusetta, Pennsylvania and New York — tbo States 
boag natovd in the order of the value of their produottt. The 
atinaal production in thcaH' StatOK, including tram, orgaosino, 
Ma, waa placed at upward* of $&,0flO,0()0. Ribbons were made 
Is a aaall extent, as were also silk stuffs. Unt, aside from 
mriog ailka, the chief stik manufacture coneieted of ladiea' drewt 
InBUUngs, coach laces, etc., of which the cities of Philadelphia 
aod New York urv rejwrliid no produoing about $2,3uO,(lOU. 

"Siaoo 1S60, thu bu.iinenv in all ilD departwentif hua raado 

■Undy progress ; and tbc current period is mure favorable than 

I nay preTious one for its cuergclic prosoootiOD. Our country ia 

•fiedally fitted for silk culture. The experiments in (ieorgia 

■d South Curidina proved Ihat iheir soil and climate were p»- 

Lciliarly suited tu it. .May we not hope that aflor the lapse of 

[cigkty-five years it will be resumed." 

JVgm an Bamtf <m the OuUure and Manufacture of SUM. By 
B. P. Byram, Brandenburg, ileado County, Ky. — Experience 
of pa>t ages baa fully provc-d that the climate of the United 
Stam i» as well adapted to the nature and habitti of the nilk- 
wonn and the production of silk, a» that of any other country. 
Several varieties of tbe mulberry are indigenous in our soil, 
and tlMwe generally U3«d iu the native countrj' of the silk-worm 
•oweed equally wi»ll in oar own soil and climate. Hence, t>om 


tbe nature and habile of American people, we miiet m>od 
vomc tliogri-4iteal silk growtng imtioii oii Uio ourtli. Tlir lint 
Mtvp tunnrtl tlitt pntductioii of Mlk in to sceurc » supply of 
Hiitnble food lor Iho Bilk-womi. 

Having trtod all th« variotios inlroduood into our country, I 
flnd tbo JiCorus multieaulis and the Canton varieties, nil tilings 
eonaidered, moBt §uitable for that purpose. 

Propagation of fhe Mulberry. — Alihouj^h Iha «xperieiioo 
iwiDO }'t:tirn jukit Iihh rondvrMl tliiit HitbJM'l fumilivr to many, yt 
thoitc now nioAl liki^ly to eiigag« in tbe loptitttaU biiHiiiM* < 
silk growing may be Ir-sH aoquuinUtd with tb« propogatioo 
tbe tree. I shall give iomo brief diractioDS on tbe enbjecC: 

Almost any soil that is high und dry, and that will mutni 
luilian ooro, is suitable for the mulberry. That, however, whiot 
is inclined to be light or sandy ih the best. 

Tbv Mormt mnltiaiwlu may be propagated by cutting* or layer 
(or a good varioLy may be raiNnd fi'om tbv eeod.) Cutting* ma] 
be of one or more buda, planted perpondicularly in « Uk''^ 
mellow bi'd of good soil. They shonld be planted when th< 
spring has fully opened, or about t,he usual ume of planting 
oom. They may be planted in tbe row», ilioul Iwolvu inches 
•part, anil the rowM atu tmRiciontdintaDCO to admit of thorongh 
cultivation with u plow or euliivator. The ground ebould bo 
kept mollow until punt midsummer. tSoleci a suitable piece of 
ground for a permanent orchard. It would be well if broken 
up in tbe fall, and again plowed in the spring, and, if followed 
with the s<ib<soil plow, it would be advantageoui^ Aller a 
thorough harrowing it should be laid ofl' in rows, each way ei^ht 
feet by /our, with tbe plow. The trees at one year old IVom 
the nursery should bo taken up, the tops cut oS* near the roots, 
and one planted in each of the squares or hills. Uaviug tried 
various methods of planting and dilferent distances, 1 prefer 
ihotte here given, This will admit the free umc of the plow and 
eultiviitor bath ways. 

In latitudes norlh of 38" or 40°. whcro land is dear, they may 
be planted much nearer. If a suffioient quantity of outtjnga 
IVom old trees cannot at once be proeured, the trees fW>ia tho 
nursery shonld be taken up in the fall and buried in a cellar, or 
upon the north side of a bank or hill, in ulteniate layen* of trcos 
and earth, and the whole protected by a nhed from the raini of 


«ut«r, ss tbe planU Mldom auffit-ieDtly mxturv th« first msaod 
tnm tbc cntiingK to withstand lUo wimera of a Northern clU 
■ate, p«rti<;ul)U-ly thnt jxirtton above tlie ground. South of 38^ 
of Iktitnde th<>so prrcAiitioos may not bo nvccMMir)-. 

Ttte Canton mulberry is & more hardy kind, rcKomblingin 

MBM degree tbe varieties known as tho rotnmon Itnlino, pixv 

tuing alarg«. full, thick leaf. This variety is propagat«d IVom 

Me4 Mid fVoRi Inyen, bat does not readily etrike root tVom 

•rtliags. In ]$JS T pivrcumd a qnnniily of thin Hcod fhtin 

CWOB, whif-h pn>diii-«d a mnrfy of planlH. Th<i»nprndii«ing 

ft*gre«t«at qnantily of fniit yivld an infttrior leaf. They are 

Mv propapttinr; thi* Taricty very extcnriively at the silk 

gnnritig establishment at Beonomy, Pennsylvania, whieh, in 

ooncrtian with the Moras mtilticaulis, constitute the principal 

tbod used at this oslablishment. 

The rtntt sboald be gathered when ftilly ripe, and the seed 
VHbcd odt and dried. If south of the 39ih parallel of lati- 
udc, tliey may be planted thv name season. North of thtfl, 
Ihajr liionld be planted iu the following spring, in a bed of rich 
auth propanxl m for Iteota or onions, and planted in ilrilU about 
MMom inchtt apart. Tho young planu nhould be thinned to 
OtdHtanee of from one to three inches fh>m each other. They 
itmM be well ouliivated, when they will attain the height of 
Atm or four feel ibe Bret M'aM>n. In the lall, in a Kortht-m 
dhaale, tlie yonng trees nhonid be taken up and protcete<l 
teiag Ibe winter, as directed for the Monts mvlticaulis. [Tliis 
iiiRrt BncesKary in the !^)uthcm .Slat«B.] 

la ihe following spring the branches may be taken off nAir 
Ifeaaaiu slera, the top shortened, and the whole tree planted, 
flHHpleteiy covering the routa and main fintn IVom one to two 
deep. In thi^ way two or more tmv9 may be produced 
Mkch iilanU If a full sup|tly can be procured, tho roofr of 
ih» yonag plants may at once bo removed to the orchard. They 
nay b« allowed to stand much nearer than the multieaiilu, 
iMViog only sntScient room for cultivation. When mkn) ift re- 
spired it would foe well to plant oot a portion from the seed-bed 
», ad standanls for this ptirpos*, alway* ■dealing tho«c 
gfnll hnirt-ahap«t\c*vef. The leaves of the white Italian 
pndacvc a good, heavy cocoon, and sbonld always be used in 
the laat ago of the worm» when other larger-lt«ved varieltea 
CMUwt be obtained. 


CitUicatum.-~-'Vho muiherry orchard »hoal<l bo emnualiy cult 
TJitcd. Tho ground kopt tncUow and t'roe from wocds antil tl 
middle o)' July. Tti« fields sLould be divided into dii'ee eqa 
parts, and afl«r tfae second aeasou from planting, on«-tUird 
year itboiild be cut down near the ground. Tbit* will oaiise 
Dioro vigoroui* growtb, and an aliuniJaot i-rup of fuliagu. 

Ftcding apartfinents. — Varions planx liavc boon proposed 
adopted for cocoon erii^it, or feediog-HhixlH, for tho silk-worma," 
none of wbich, 1 ibink, are without objoctioD, except a perfeofc 
laboratory, f»o ooDstructod as to be abl« to fblly vonti'ol the *tifl 
mospbere and temperature within. This, however, would ba^ 
too expensive, and require too much skill and jndj^menl ibr 
general adoption. Ojien or abed-foediiig lias boeu employed 
with »urccsi« of liitf yi^uri*. and for gunoral use may be tho moxt 
auccoHnful for family CHtiiblislimiintit. This, howovor, oonlincfl 
tbo wholo buHinesN, particularly in tbo Northern Slalen, to oe 
or two crops in tho seaeon. ijouth of Ohio more can besncoe 
fully fed. 

Thene sliedfl may b« t-heaply made by (tetting Home durablo' 
ponlA in the ground, iw.y IVom nix to eight feet high, with a roof 
of dbinglee or bonrdn. The roof should project two feet OVfl^l 
the Bides. There §hoald be some temporary protection to tbd 
tit\A» und -lidoH of the abed ; perhiip-H the bl^al and cheapi-nt am 
bo made of strong eottoncloth, (ONtiaburg;) throe or four widt 
should be sewed together, with small rods acrosit tho bottoE 
whieb will aoswcr as weights, and also as rollers, whii'b. by thi 
aid of a pulley, may be rolled or lei down at pleasuri^ The 
width of the »heilii must be governed by the riize of the hurdles 
or f»eding-truytt used. The width tliat 1 have adopted is trom 
eighteen to twenty feet. The length aecording to the extent • 
the feeding con lem plated. 

Where it is designed to curry on an extenaivo buitineMt, 
building should be eonslrueted exprewily for the purpoee. 
should be on an elevated siiiialiot), eonvcnii-nt to the mulber 
orchard. Tbero should bo a cellar under tbo building. At 
materiat commonly used fur building may be employed. If 
wood, weather-boarded and plastered. It would be well to 
up the npace between the two with tan-bark orunburnt briob 
or something of the hind, which will render the lemperutur 
more uniform. The width of the building should be twenty o| 
twenty-eight feet — tho former admitting of two, and tho 







tt three dmUf rangf» oS bardies or trays of sviuble sise; the 

\tapii SDil«d to tlie extoot of ibe busioees destgued. It should 

be twQ MortM high, and m) cuiiHtnioud tva 10 bo thoroughly 

*ntilated. Th«rc shonid bo two doubl« doora in oKch ond, willi 

40OCS, windows snd TcntiUtore in tho sides. Tho wiudowti 

thoald ext«ad to oear the tops of the rooms. There should bv 

£ding veotihtlora n«ar the floor. The windows may bo tillwl 

with oiled pa|>«r or doth, which will admit the light aod ex> 

(hda the MID. It would al»o be imporiuiit to bBve uuder each 

ber of hnrdlim, through tho door, two plank* of ten inoheit 

«UUi (*ch. bung with hinges, that they may hv raiMd ut 

flcanrc by a polity. Also an apri^ht vcniilaior on tho roof, 

ttmei with blinds, through which s constant draft may be 

la oa« end of the bnildiog, in each of the two doors, tber« 
AmU be a ventilating wheel made of thin boards (plank) 
■Mfcafter tbe form of the whceln applied to tfa« stflrna of onr 
tfw-ppopeUera. Those wheels nbould be about two feet in 
Cuneter. Thvy «hould be put in motion for a few miuolae 
mijli'iar, or oflcnur in still weather. Both may b«! made to 
(on by one crank, connecting oach by bauds and whirls to tbe 

^ airvfumaf-'O, such as is now employed in heating churchex 

aitd other buildingi>. Hliould be euiintructxid in the cttllar, and no 

■rraaged a* to draw from the fceding-roomit all th« air ntjceo- 

iary to supply the furnavc. Tbe air, when boated in the cham- 

Ur, sboold be conveyed through the whole length of the room*. 

ia a sqaare pipe with openings at short distances Itom each 

otber, which should iucrease io size ab they rec«de ih>in tbe 

hrsaoe^ These openings may be so conneeled a.<t to be all 

cto«d at ooee, or a valve applied ut the air-ehamber may be 

mhI to cot off tbe eommunicaiion of bentcd air when the lein- 

panton is anffieiently high in Ibo roomi*, HiifTcring the hot air 

to ew«pe OolBidv of the building. In the Ia»t agesof tbe wonn'« 

tlte furnace will be foond of great benefit, even when tbe heat 

is DO! required in tho rooms, for the purpose of drawing olf and 

coDMinfng the impure air or the cocoonery. 

At Economy, tbey not only make qmi of air furnnce«, but in 
an adjoining bnildlog they buve a large air-pump cuoslantly in 
•ptimtion, connect«il with tbv cocoonery by u pipe with amall 


openings throngb tho )«agtb of tho ImiMing. Tbiii pnmp 
kept in moiiOD by a stoani engine. 

Widi good e^^, when proper mennft bRv« been employed 
tboir prvHt^rvHtioTi, anil thw fvi'iling upurtmeiiut ttiorouglity rei 
(Uated, 1 do noi knovr of n Hinglu inotunvo wbvro tbo worms 
bare proved unhealthy. Frr>m tbu vonviclion thut proper 
reftai-d bad not generally been paid to the ventilation of cocoon- 
eries, ill (be summer of 1842 I commenced a seriea of osperi- 
mcuLi, by whit:h 1 aitccrlaiticd tbiil tlii? fttlk-wonn during its laet 
age fionHUDted nttarly it« own weight of Icavea daily ; and that 
thoamaoDtor oxbulationn or impcrcopttble pumpirmion gircn 
off in proportmn to the quantity of food consumed, was about 
0(]ual to ibat ascertained to eseape from a healthy man. 

I found from the moat careful esperimontH, that the weight 
of one hundred IhoiiHund Mlk-worniH. abnut five dayx before 
their time of winding, whh four bundrod and fifly-oight pound*, 
and that they would codbuiuc daily three hundred and Mventy- 
two pounds of leaves,* and that their increased weight in 
twenty-four tioura from the food consumed was forty-six pounds, 
and that the enormous amouut of two hundred and six pounds 
was given ofl* in the same time, in the form of cxhalutions or 
ira perceptible pentpirution alone. This, then, I think, fully ex- 
plains the cnu^^e of diiscaM) complained of by many, and efltab- 
itiblisbce the importance of ventilation in every possible form. 

In one corner of the building there should bo a hatching' 
room, with which the furnace below should be connected, so aa 
to receive a greater or lesser degree of heat, as may be requirci 
without reference to the temperature of the foeding-rooms. 

FiMurts. — In liltiug up the hurdles or feeding ahelvt^H for a 
building of twenty feet widr. it will require a double range of 
pOKi», two and a hitlf »r three incbcK square, on each side of 
the centre of the room, running lengthwise, and the length of 
the shelves apart in the ranges, and each two eorrenponding 
pouts, crosswise of the ranges, about the width of the (wo 
shelves apart.. On each double range aomiw the pnste are 
nailed xtripe, one inch or more in width and about fifteen inches 

* U*d tbns» worma bann fnd In ihr ordinitr; mnnner tbuj wuuld h>v« 
CiHieiiiuL'd niiiny inuru Icuvui in tli<j wsnie time. But topmcrtoihi^ grmiitt 
poaible uccurac;, throagb (be whole EtperiaiQnt tbcf wnre («d mihur apar- 



' ■pwi, OD which tbo tnkjs or hurdlc^H rest, which may bo <lrftWD 
|««tor slid ID &» m»y bo Ibnnd DoocitMtrjr in ft;viling. The uiilofl 
•r passftftM of » buildiDg of tho above width will b« loor feet 
«rh, BllowiD)]; two feet fbr the width of e»ch singlt bardie. 

The k«rdl«« that 1 have used for many years are of twine 

Mtwork. A fVaine ie fint made five feet long and two feet 

«Ue, of boards »«ven-tightliH of an luch thick, and one and a 

Uf iochrv wiilr. There «hou)<l be two bntcii^^ acrovi the framo 

•taqoal dixtAncM (if five-vighthH by seven-cighiha of an inch 

ifnra. On a linr. aboot half an inch IVom the innor ed^e of 

the fnmt, are driven tacka nmrtg down to their beads, at each 

4iitaBcea aa will make the meehi-s of the net about tliree-quar- 

ten of an inch »4iu8r«. Good hemp or flax Iwine ia paaaed 

■iDaad thtiMf tauk», tVirming a net by pai««i»g the filling doiAU 

o««r and audvr thv wargt, or ihut part of the twine that niua 

kagthwirc. Thitt twinu i'hou]<l It: m^mnwhiit nmaller than that 

munag IcDgthwiAo. On a damp day the twinu become* tight ; 

ItkeaiciTe the netting two good ooats of shellac varnish. This 

cawois the whole together and roodera it firai and durable, 

Tbeiamiah is made by diitnolving a quantity of gum ahellac in 

•koho) in a lin covered vennel, and piaci^d near the fire. U 

ttmld b« reducod, when utuxl, to the consistency of ]taint. 

Another eet of frames in made in the same way and of tbo 
■■» «xe, and covered with atrong cotton or low oloth ; this is 
iMVTvd with small laoke. Upon them the net Ihimes rest, 
which serve to catch the litter that fallti through from the worms. 
Hnrdkii made and nufiported in lbi« manner ailmit of n more 
frt« cirtulation of air, and ihv litler ii! Wnu* liable (o mould or 
(eniient, and can be removed and cleaned at plesBiirc. With 
tUs ktnd of hurdle and #creen I make use of winding-ft-ames, 
MNMtmcted in the following manner: a light frame iet made of 
boanla one and a half ineheit wide, and the length of the hur- 
dle*, and two feet and four inchv* wide; this is filled crosswise 
with thin lalbH about one inch apart in the clear. The manner 
of ming ibeso will be hereafter explained. They answer the 
twofiild purpove of winding-iVames and mounting-ladders. 
Tbe rare and expense required in fitting up a house on this 
jplaa may prevent its general ii(lii)tlton. The nicMl common 
istbod ihat has been heretofore eniplnyed iii permanent nhelves; 
hat tlia labor required to keep the wurots pro[»erly cleaned 
randera this plan obJe<itionable. 

At Economy, Ponn., the roaring of the Btlk-wonn la now 
cArmd on to a j^at extent, aod more oacoeAflfully then in toy 
other part of the United States, or perbap* the world. Tb«ir 
hotutee are two etori(>B hi^b. The worms are f«d on Hmnll tmyt 
ftboot eigbt«eQ or twool^ incheH wide, and about tbrc« fvet 
long. Tbey are supported in the same tnanaer im the hurdles 
sboro dcAcribed, and are about «x inchr« apart. When th« 
wormK are about ready to wind, they arc trannforred to Ute 
Upper story, to pormanvnt HhulvoH about eixlecn inobee apart, 
whore tboy form Ihoir cocoons in bunchce of straw placed op- 
right betweeo the shelves. The worms are cluancd at Icoat 
onoo after every moulting, and after the last, eropy day. Por 
thiii purpoflo they have nets woven or knit of cotton twine, 
something largrr tliuii the itiKO of the trays, with meehes of 
various sizes suited to thu tige of the worms. For the last age 
they are about thms^uarters of an inch square. Tliey ar« 
DS«d without framea. When it is required to remove the worms 
from tfae^r litter, tfao nets are laid lij^htly over them, and ihvn 
plentifully fed. When the worms have arisen wi>on tlio fr^-sb 
leaves, ihey are removed by two persons taking hold of the 
fiiur corners of the net niid Iruniifei-riog thi-ni to elran trays, 
held and oarried otf by a thinl pi^^rAon. One buudrod thousand 
are cbnngpd io this manner in two hours. 

Description of the Hilk-worm. — It will be ncocasary for the in- 
experienced cullurist to have some knowledge of iho forms, 
changes and appearances of the silk-worm beforu ho enters 
upon the duties of his interesting charge. Tbu oillc-worni is a 
apt^c'ics of caterpillar, whose life is one cimtinual sm.'cession of 
chnngoj*, which in dm- tinu- bccnmcs a molh or winged insect, 
like others of the genus. The time occupied in going through 
its different forms of uxiMencc varies in different eoiiotriee— 
governed by climate, tinnpcrntitre and the quality and quantity 
of the food upon which it is fed, and the ualure of the particu- 
lar variety of the insect. 

Thu worm changes or casts its skin (of the common varietiot 
four times before it attains ils full gniwlh. Thvw changes are 
called moultings, and the periods intervening between the 
eoveral niouUings are tonnvd ages. When it is first batehed it 
is of a blaukiAli color, which nlXerward becomes lighter, varying 
almoft daily In different shades, and in different vurioiiM 
through every age, to the close of the last, or near the time of 


iplafliDg, when !t aflsameti a grayisb y«lloff, strait rftnup^rcnt 

lUviiif* Lriod ftll tbo varictiM tbat have tmoD introduced iato 
I Ar United Stat««s those I considor the bvot arc known us the 
OuMK ImpfTtat, prodacinf; a lar^o, flalmon-onlored, p«antit- 
A>ptd oocoor; aud a kind called the Peuont, producing a 
■utvfV of wliito and italmon-colDruiI oocoonit. Ttiix Turicty 
pmlncM a lar}^-r and nmre lirm cucoon limn any of thai oame 
Ibst I have 0C«D. 

Time of hatching. — Rearing. — ^Whon the leavoii of the mnlbeny 
have pm forth to the Bise of about ao inch in diameter, it may 
b* ^nerally infvrr«i] that the proper time for hatching Ibo 
vera btw arrived. The [mpent or cloths containing the oggs 
AmM then be brought out and placed in the lutteh tug- room, 
ipOD a tabic or tray« mado for ihu puqionc;. When artificial 
■MMsra employe!, the tomperataro should bo grad^taUy raised 
*ata the time of batching, which will be in about t«n daya, to 
75*otW of Fubrenhcit'a thermometer. But few wonnfi will 
■ake their appc'arnnce on tlie Aral day, but on the second and 
lUrd Ibe mo«t will come oat ; should there bo a few remaining 
on the fourth day, they may be thrown away. ae> tliey do nut 
dways prvJucv strong and healthy womi% When i\w worms 
bt^n to make their appearance, young mulburry leavi-s cut into 
■tfniff stripe ufaould be laid over them, to which thoy will readily 
■ttarh thcmttelvoa; these should bo carefully removed, and 
pisoed eoMjMctli/ upon a cloth screen or tray prepared for them, 
. mi other ksvea placed upon the eggs for the worms tbat still 
lin, which should be paused off as before. A singular fact 
t*ilbtobMrv«d, that all the wormti will batch tictween sunriiio 
I ad bofore noon of i-scb day- Cnn »lioubl be taken to keep tho 
Venus of oacb day's batching by themM'lvos, as it is of the 
gnstost importance to have the moultings and changes of nil 
thawonns as simnllancous as possible. Tt is also important 
that the worms tbat have been Iraosferrod to the trays sboald 
ta*< bo fed antil the hatching for the day is completed, so that 
1 may be fed equally. Young and tender leaves should he so- 
lo feed the woriUK with ; Ibese should be cut with a sharp 
< into [Keeea not exc««>ding a ([uarter of ait inch s(|uarc, and 
ity siiled orer them. They should In; fed in this way six or 
lit times in twenty-four hourx, as nearly as possible at regular 
\ (lAted periods. 


It will be impoiMible to lay down any definite rules lV>r tl 
quantity of Icavw nocciwaiy f»r a givun inimhcr of worm* 
oach euc coed in); day ttiroui;h every ug«. AncruUltk uoqauiB' 
aDc« with their nature sod habits, the iDtcllif^unco and ja 
ment of the atteodaat will be tho best guide ; tbey ehonid, ho' 
6Ter, have on much fta they will eat, but ftft«r a few days care 
aliould be taken not to give them more than they will generally 
Con8iimi\ as tbU will increaiie the accumulation of littvr, which 
will endanger the health of thu wormH. In the laai age tlioy 
eat vorueiouKly, when they Hhonld be wull itiip|ilied. A quantity 
of Ivavod Bhould always be on hand in ease of wet wrather. 

When the average range of the thermometer is between 70* 
and 80" the §everal moultings will taico plaeo near the fifth, 
ninth, fifteenth and twenty -second days after batching. U may 
be known when the wonn^ are about to cast their skins, as they 
oca«<v to eal, and remain stationary, with their heada raised, and 
oeeanioDally shaking then. Thin oiiuration will be more dis> 
tinctly observed in- they incroaMO in cixo through their nuccmkI- 
ing agc-s. Assuming the above temperature m» the »tiitidard, the 
quantity of leaves for the first three days of this (tho fint) age 
must be gradually increased at each feeding, after which they 
will require less at each succeeding meal until the time of mouli* 
i»g arrives, vrhan for about twonty-four hours tliey eat nothing. | 
But a.1 it is neldom the cato that all cant their «kin« at ope and 
the i<anie time, some will still be dixpo^ed to eat. when a fttw 
leaves must bo cut fine and sparingly scattered over 1 hem, so 
tliat those that remain torpid may be disturbed as little as 
possible. Thi-y muM now be careftilly fed in this way until it 
In discuvt-rcd that some have inoiilu-d, when the feeding must 
cease altogether until the most of them have rocovercd. This 
rule must me particularly regarded through all the succeeding 
moultings, otherwise some of the worms will be far in advance 
of others j and this want of unitbrmity will increase through* 
out each succeeding age, and lo the period of winding, which 
will not only ri'Hult in grttat liinonvenience in gathering the 
coeoonn, but will matcriully injure thn worms, and eoiist^quently 
loMson the crop of silk. j^ 

When the greatent portion of the worms have moulled, and ap^^ 
pear active, leaves a little willed are laid over them, by which 
they ai-e ptioed tnclean Irays. If any still remain that have 
moulted, they must bo transferred in the same maimer, bj- 


sying more leavctii upon lh«ni. Tli<! romiutiil •)f wormx tliiit 
h»T« not cbnngol ibcir»kiii» :«lioiild bv IcA ii)ior. the litl«r mid 
•ddcJ to those of tWncxidKf's moulting. HycloHoly ro^i-ding 
iImm nilee tbrou^liont the ecvei-al sgctf, ibv u-Qrm& will ^un- 
fially all comnieiice the formation of their coocrons about Uio 
•tine period. 

AAcr having gone tbi'ougb tkiid faniinhtid all the wormii villi 

li^untJtjr of leftvm, it is woll to go oviTuncuODtl time, xiid udd 

Vmon where thej* eecm to roqniro it. Very young mid tender 

Ijnns nnat be givon lo the worms in ibo first ago, ullor which 

older DOM cnn bu givon at th«!y adraace tn age until after tlio 

bit raoidting, when tbey should b« fed upon oound, Aill-grown 

Inra^ After ihviMK-ond iiioultingiba leavi-H, where largecropH 

, trvM. may be nil by running them Iwiuo through a (loinmon 

rUvjf hay or t>traw-cuttcr, of llovoy's, or odo of u t>hntlur 

The wonniK will frequently heap together and bi-come' loo 

lUtk, a» they iiiiroa^' in nhc. When they arc fed the leawA 

; ha eproad, nnil ihn »piiw! vidnrgvd, or thwy may bo reiiiovud 

hf kavea or Iwign of the miillicrry lo plui^t^s unofcupicd. If 

tfciy aw permitted to hv crowded, diiH-asv is apt to follow «ud 

llw whole crop is endangered. It will sonietimee be observed, 

*h«ii the light ftilU more directly on one ^ide of the hui-dte 

. thu the other, that the worms will ineJine l« loavu Ihiil nide 

laai become crowdi^I on the opposite, when tbti hurdle Hhould 

'httaraefl around. 

Up to the last moulting it iH be^t to feed the worms cniiroly 
[•poa the leaves of the maltieovii*, after which iho Canton or 
l«hll« Italian should be u«6d if a full supply can be obtuini'd — 
flhefbnner being ootMomed with greater aridity, and the acuu- 
milation of lllier i» c-oiutequontly leiu. The Canton and Indian 
I jvmIucu the heavient voooon, while ihu maiticaulig yitildn a liner 
■aarfairoDgvr fibre. In pursuing tbiHcoamu the udrantagcs of 
Hhoth ar« in some degree securf^d. 

H The worme oboold be removed IVom their litter irawediatoly 
iA«r«ach moulting, and in Ihuir fonrtb age the hurdlen nhould 
Iw elMtned a Nv<'ond Umo, and afieV tlio luat moulting Ihcy 
iboald Iw rviuoved nt lfa«t vvi-ry (teoond day. Whore tiet« are 
kK aacd in the laM agco, the wormH are changeil by laying over 
the »mall branches of the mulberry. UcoenUy hranch- 


TiM^ing, as it is termed, has bcon introduced wiih soroo site 
nnd frith groat ecoDoioy of time ; in Ibo laat sgea of ilie worn 
care should bo taken to lay the bnivchea as erenly ua poiwibi 
esp«dit]ly where it is designed to nso tho twine huRlltM,oth< 
wiso it will be diffienli for the wornifl to uccnd tlirough tti 

Whcu tho worms are aboat to spin they present something i 
a yellowish nppoarancie; they rcfui-o to cat, and wandorabonti 
pnrsnit of a liiding-place, and throw out fibres of ailk upoo tl 
leaves. Tlichiin)](.'8 nhotild now be thoroughly x< lean v>d for tl 
last time, and nomi-thing prepareil for ihotn to form ihvir o<^ 
coonit in. Varimm planx have been proposed for this pur|»i)int. 
Tho lalh framps, before described, 1 prefer. They arc used by 
resting the hack edge of iho frame upon iho hurdle, where the 
two meet in the doiihlo range, and raiding the fh>nt edge up to 
the underHide of the hnrdic abnve, which is held to 'n» place by 
two small wire hooks attached to the edge of the hurdle. A 
covering of poper or cloth should he applied to the lath fnimw. 
In UHnjj the hurdles and screens I rcmovu the scn-cn from under 
the hurdle, turning the underside up, and lotting it down di- 
rectly upon tlie windiDg-ttame. Tbia affords double the room 
for the wiirnislo wind in. Lath frames of thisdencriplion hare 
advanlngcH that uo other fixtnres for winding po«.«e»« that I 
have ever scini trii^d. Tho frame resting upon the baoksideof 
each hurdle renders this side more dark, which places the worms 
instinctively seek when thoy meet with tho endit of the laths, 
and immediately ascend to convenient places for the formation 
of their cocoons. From these frames the cocoonA are guthered 
with great facility and ft*e from Utter ami dirl., and when thoy 
arc required thi^y are put up with gri'iit expedition. 

Wiiori; hnitich-t"w<ii«g lias been adopted by some, no other 
accommodation has heon provided for tho winding of the woreaa 
than that afforded them by the branch** from which they have 
foil. This is decidedly objection able, as the worms are always 
disposed to riso nntU their course is obstructed abov& When 
this is not the case they wander about for hount upon tho tops 
of the branches, and only descend aller th(.'4r stronglh becomes 
exhausted, and the result is the production of a crop of loose, 
inferior cocoons. Next to lath frames, small hunches of atjvw 
afford the beet accommodation for this purpose. Itye strav is 


Ifrcfemd. T*ke a small bancb. about tho eiee of Ihe little fin* 
ger, ati<l wilb iK>me strung twine tie it firmly ubuui Imirati Eiieli 
tnn ihv bull of the atrair ; cue the bunch olf itk>uL Lulf aii 
iack hrn^r than tbu dutauce bulwwii Uie burdlvA. Thoy are 
Ouupdacwl aprigbt with ibdr biitt-vndH downn-nn], with thair 
MfM apreading oat, iDtcHacing pncb otbvr, and pressing against 
Ibie hardies above. They should be tbiokly sot in double rows 
ikool nxte«n inches ^>art across tlie bardies. Those may be 
prcKTved for a uumber of years. 

Alter Bkost of U10 woria^ bitva uriiwii, Uift fuw rtimaining 
tuyba nmovvd to hunlk-:^ by tliuniRolviiii. In thriN} or four 
ivf9 th« cocoons may hi- guitK-rcd. Wbilu gathering, those 
fainted for eggs should bo selected. Th<i«w of linn and See 
lutare, with round, hard ends, aro the besu The smaller co> 
«(Mf most generally prodace the male, and those larger and 
nan fnll at the ends the female insect- Ksch healthy female 
inoUi >ill lay fn>ui four to six hundred eggs. But it is not alwnys 
■A lo calculatv on nni»-half of the ooooona to produce fvmalu 
vKIh. Thar«lbr«, it is well to Haw an extra number to insure 
•apply of eggs. 

ne oocoons intended for egge should be stripped of their 

lMorIoo«c tow, whifih eoiwi*ta of irrognlar fibrod, by which 

tbcworm attaches it« work to wliutvvcr place it in about to 

Ann he cocoon. Tho»o should bo ptacuil on hurdles, in a thin 

l^tr, and in about two weeks tho moths will come out ; alwaye 

io ikii forepart of (he day, and generally before the sun is two 

knnhigb. If laid upon a uet hurdle (which is beat) they will 

inavliately fall through ihe meshes and i-einaiu simpendi-d on 

Ihs nDder«id« when they are not liable t» beccmL- ontimglod in 

Ue cowionB. As won af tin: mah- fnnU tho frmalv they become 

nitwi. They »honld hv taken can-t'utty by the wings, in pairs, 

md placed apon sheets of paper, lo remain until near night, 

vheo the female will be anxious to lay hor eggH. Then take 

Mcli gently by the winga and separate them, placing (ho fc- 

Lnate* at regular diHtauees — «boot two inches IVom each otht'i^- 

^OB alMota of ]>ap<-.r or fine cotton or linen cloth ; Ihesu xhould 

tuwg overs line, nr 1^1 attached to the eide of tho house. In 

I or time nighia tho moths will complcto their layin:;, when 

•boald b« removed from the papers or etolhw. Fre<[uenily 

Llbemaloa appear first in the greatest numtwns vomu of which 


itboiiM l>c rescrrcd ctkcli day In etite there shotild »n^'r\viint Im 
Mil cx<T«nH of remnlftA. Thoy ttliotild be shut nut fnim tho light 
oUuTwivu ihcy Hre liablo to irijiiro ihvmKclvcvi by u connlAill 
flntt«ritig of thvir wingti. The Tcniulo is largest, and iioldfl 
move« or flutters. 

Killing the chri/ialides. — After iho cocoon* h»v« been gathc 
I'noAe that Are iDleniled for oale or for future reeling shoulil 
Habmittod to Kunie prooeM by which thn inotti!< will hv kill«<l,' 
otherwim; they will jirrlbrHto nnd xpnil tht' cocootiB. This is 
done by rariom* muthodif- Tho most nimplf and convciiieiit is 
to spread thorn thinly on boaiMls, and ojtposa them to the direct 
rHyn of tho Kun. In a hot day many of thoin will be killed in a 
few hours ; but they iDUttt be t>tirrod occasionally, or »onie will 
be liable to eecapo th« heat, aud afterward come ouL Ai 
iilROQomy, they place them in an air-tight box containing about 
ten bushels, (the box should always be full, or if not, u piirttlion 
in fitted down to the cocoon,) Bi>rinkiiiif{ i-renly thrcini^ tbo 
whole, beginning at tho bottom, about tbrue ouncoH of camphor 
slightly moiKtcnnl with alcohol, and finely pulrcrizeJ. The 
box i^ then cWcd, and thv »c»me of tho top covered hy pasting 
tttrips of paper over them. They remain in this way about 
three or four daya. They are then spread out thinly in un upper 
loU Locuie, whore they should be octadionully wtirrcd. It will 
roquir« itomu weokx lo thoroughly euro iheiii. Before cam>4 
phoi-ing, the dttad and had ouvoouM must bo taken out, othorwis 
they will Mpoit the gmid onoH. 

When it is convenient, it is best to reel aa many of iii4 
cocoons as poHsibie immediately after they are gathered, 
they reel much more fVeely before they are exposed to (ho ss 
or ilriod. 

iSitcMxsion of crops. — Prfsarvalion of egg». — Repeated attempts 
have been made to feed a eucoeMiiofi of crops of worm« tbrougb- 
out the entire season from the same stot'Ic of cggrt. Id most 
inHtanees suouesH hiia failed to attend these efforts. When 
proper mcuns are employod, and due care observed, the egg« 
may be preserved, and worms successfully raised until tho feed 
is destroyed by the IVost. lu many years experience I have 
never tailed in this respect. In the spring ol 1^-10 I communi- 
cated to Miss Rapp, of Kconomy, my method of prc«crving 
cggM, which she immediately adopted, and has pursued it until 


lift present time witli perfeot siicceiM, fiiMling from oiKbt«eQ to 
Unly-llTe oropa eacEi year. Tliv fullowing ia «o extract of a 
UUer from the Po81in(i»tvr ut Economy, dated Jaiiiiiu-y 19, 

-Bflwiwn May and Soptcmb^^r wo rai^ied near two millioDV 
oi aonns, iii t'i){bte«D BQte, of iiear equal uumbers, about s 
veek apart, prodacing threo handrcd aiid wvonty-one bnsbels 
rfeocoou*. TUo Ia«t crop hatched tliu 9tb of September, and 
tpon tbc Kith of Ontuber. Wo foiintl no diSoreiice in llie 
Mtk of tbo diffcrvnt Mbt. We are of tbe opinion tbat Uto 
kte keeping of the eg^ does not brinjj; dkHea»e on tb« worms if 
Atf an kept Hj^ht, and gradually bi-oughl forward as they 

It may be remarked that tbe qualities of the mulU^rry loaf 
an tncli in the latu-r {tart of the aeaHon that im heavy cocoodh 
■iUaot bu pniduocd ait in tltc fir»L A bn^ihcl of the first crop 
isMdmt Bvonomy, in ihe sttason rerorre<l to, produucd tnrcnty- 
tklM and a quarter ounoati of rc«toil ailk, nnd tho la^t crop, 
mtnd in October, bnt ninct«On oanves. About one month of 
th» beat pari of tbat season of fc«dinf; was lost by tbo oevero 
fivst tbat occorred on the 5th of May, which entirely killed the 
fBoiig kaTM, and most have materially injured Iho crop of tbe 

My method of preserving vgg« ia to placu tbum in the tco- 
kocte in Kebniary, or onrty in Uarcb, or «ooner if the woalber 
ii nna. For this purpose a box or equnro trnnk is made, ex- 
tending from within Ofie foot of tbe bottom of the ice to the 
lop. Tbifi may be made in joiota, so that as tbe ice settles tbe 
DppfT joints* may bv removed. Tbe eggs should be placed in a 
tia box, and this «nclo«od in a wood one, and su^|ic[idt<d In lb« 
Innk near tbe ice. Tbe communication of warm air nhould be 
oa off by filling tbe opening with a bundle of Ktraw or bay. 
LTfca eggn ahouM be atred for a few minutes a» often as once in 
r or two woi'kH, always choosing a cool, dry morning ; when 
>na for saccooding crops may be made these should ba 
in another box, and gradually raiHH in the trunk for 
reral days, avoiding a too nudilen transition from the ice to 
I temperature of the hatching- room. 

The ice-honse at Kconomy is connected with the cellar, the 
illoni ol thv furinor being eighteen inchei below that of the 


latUr. A lon;> wooden box, extending into lh« i«e-hoDse, level 
with ibo bottom of tb« cellar floor, coniuins nil the >imiill 
boxeeot' egga. Tim door of tho box oiMining in Ihc cHlur 
ke|il well closed to prevent the udmiiwiioD of wurii) «ir. Tl 
employ iinolber ice -house, stink doop in the M-llar, with Ehi>Iv 
P'adually rising tVom the ice up to the top of tbo givJUDd. u 
wbicb the eg^a of succeoding ci'opa uru placed, and raised o 
fihelf higher every day antil ttiey uro titlcon into the hatcbiii 
room. The (viiiil m^iu^on they Imvo liiiti''h(!d ubout Jin^ nvtiCfs 
Uggit, or one buiidred tbotiaind wornm nrtiry fiicir ditya. 

Disntgat (>/ lAf Silk-worm. — The »ilk-worin, liku ovorj* otlic 
Animal or iniiect, i» Uiible to disease and premature doath. Kit- 
ropcan writerit bnvo vnuraernted and described six particular 
diaeuees to which it ie subject. But in our more conji^&ial cU- 
muto nothing ia wanting to insure a hosUhy stock of a\ 
worms and a profitable return from their labora, but to gi 
them aufflcienl room, n regular and full supply of euilable food^ 
a strict rcgiird to clcitnlincss and a proper ventilation of tlieir 
apurtniiintK. In oxcesnivoly hot, damp or sultry weather, in 
the lust age, the tliseaso known a" the ifHlows somcttmvx octnir*. 
Whyro open feiuling is suloplftd, some fine air-dahed lime may he 
eiftod on the worms once or twice a day before fet.dii*g, and tbo 
diseased and dead worms picked out and thrown away. In a 
regular cocoon orj', pi'()p<Tly vtrnlilated unil supplied with an 
air-furniicc, dry air should bo made to circulate li-cely. Bat if 
the temporaturo is above 80* or 85* the ventilating apparatus 
ebould bo constantly employed until a change of weather oocnrs 
or the dtseaee disappi'ars. 

A feeding- bouse should be so arranged aa to cut off all com- 
municittioTi of ritiM i\\\(\ mice from the worms and the coooons. 

Reefing. — We have now arrived ntwnnthur brunch of tho silk 
husiuesx, which more properly comei» nndor tho head of inann- 
fncturing. Every farmer who engages in the silk cultun?, in 
order to iivail himself of an additional profit should provide hia 
family with a suitable reel, by the use of which, aflcr a little ex- 
perience, be will be enabled to offer bis silk in market in a form 
that will greatly eiihnnco its value and mueh reduce tbo trouble 
and expense of trunsporliilioTi. Reels can now be procured IB 
ulmust any of the principal t-itii---* at u «mall cost, or they can bA 
uinde by any ingenious farmer or carpenter. The reel no 
uniformly used is that known as tbo Picdmontose. 


AD itUiinptA to tm|>rorc ibis reel in iu gciii^nil priiiciplos, I 
tcSere, haxa fiiilcd. At Ki«>iioi»y, howovor, tticy bavo niiulo »n 
(dililioit wUivh may bo found nMolal. It voDsixts of two pairs of 
vUfla, nsilie of wire, in the form of iiti uKpol to ii rcvl, itbout 
bcr incliw long, and two iiad a htilf iuvhus aerosH from arm to 
tfm. Rising the circumfcrcnco about six inchos. Tiicso nbirls 
< '. in an iron frame, and run each upon two points or 
~. Ksch pair is oquidi^tiint on s dirodt lino, about eight 
iMAesap«rt, between tbe first ((uides and those on the travonte 
hat, htstexl of makiu]{ tho usual number of lum^ around «ach 
Ihmd aa they pasa bolween the guides on tbe reel. With IbiH 
■mBgemeiil vaub thread is taken fi-oia the ba.4in and pa-'^Nc-d 
iknDj^ Uie flntt guideei, Uien carried over and arorin<l the two 
«Uifa,aixl irburc thuy pa-i^ eaeh olhoron tbv lop the turns are 
■•le aecudHury lt> give lirninLH^ to tliv thread, tht'n piiHsin;; di- 
Kcdy lliroajj^h the f^uidM in the lnivar»e bar to the nrmfof the 
(Ml, naking each'throad ld reding independent of iLu other. 
Tbtnabiee the nwlor, when a remnant of cocoons are to bo 
iiMlutiou leavinjc; tbe work, to unite both threads'into one, 
ntainini; the neoesAary size, whereas both would be too fine if 
eooUaaed on the re«l in the ordinary manner. 

Dinetitim for Retting. — In family establttthmontii a wmmon 

di^or iron furnace should be procured, to whieh should bfi 

lu«(f a 9he«t-iroo top about twelve inches high, with a door on 

IM iiiie, and a small pipe on the opposite side to convey off th« 

Bdfec. Thix top should retain the same bevel or flare a8 tho 

fcniaoe^ wo as to be about twenty ineliea In diameter at the top. 

IW pan should tio twenty inchei* Mjuam, and !tix inches deep, 

dividrd into four aparlmcnti', two of wbidh i>hoiihl be one inch 

itTgbr one way than the other*. They should all eummunicate 

whb Mch other attbv bottom. Iu lar^jo filatures a small steam 

afpne Ut propel the reeb, etc., and to beat tbe water tor reeling 

vmld b« necessary. 

Before the operation of reeling is commenced the cocoons 
wuM be Htnpped of their Aohs, and aetsorlod into three separate 
parcel*, according to quality or of different degruM of finnnnm. 
Tb« doable coeorjnf, or thone formed by two or more worm» 
ifiioDin^ together, the fibres crossing each oilier, and rendering 
them difficult to reel, should be laid aside to be manufactured in 
b didStront manner. 



After' lli<> <>ncnnnit liikvc bcuii nsKnilivl ilk iilK>ve dirifli^l, th' 
Upcniliuii of ri-t^'lin^ mny ho com mo need. Tlic bscin eliould 
ii«'»rly filled wiih ilie softrst wator, iknd kept al a jiroper bei 
by burning cliartwnl, or some oilier convinienl infiiliod of k«| 
ing iifi a ro)(;uIiii' heut. 'riii< jiredntt l.t!in])uraiartt uinnot 
ai)Crvrinin«:d iiniil th" rcfliiij; in i-ommoiu-i-d, owing li> ibo diffifi 
cril (^iiulilti'M wl" the (.■Oi:()i>n>'. ThfiBc of Ibc bo«l quality will 
qiiiri? a gn'alur dci^i-eu of licat than ihoHi; of a mora lutmo »n 
OpoD textui'o; hence Ibo iraporlance of aMJotinglhom. Coooo 
also require lenit heat, ntid reel much bettor whon done before 
the cbrysnlides are killud and ti.e (■ocoons bfcomc driH. 

Tho heat of the water may bo raiiiMl l« near tho boiling 
pnint, (it i«bnnlii never bo ailowed to boil,) whon two or th: 
banditriil of coii><yn<s may bo throwa into one of the large ap* 
menln of the basin, which must be ((■-'"^'7 presMod nnder watei 
for a few ininiileH with a liltle bnisli made of broom-corn, mitlr 
the endit shortened. The heat of the water Xill luion itoll«n the 
gum (if the ("ilk, and thereby loum^n iho ends of the filametilK; 
the roi'ItT xhoalil then gently ctir the ooeoons with the bruxh 
until tbo looNo tibrex adhere to it; Ihoy arc then separated iVont 
the bruKh, holding tbo filameiitH in tbc loft hand, white (be 
cocoons arc ctircfully combed down between the flngflrs of the 
right hand as they are raised out of the water. Thix iii con- 
tinued unlil the tloHN or falfe eiidn are all drawn off, and the fine 
fiilk begins loap|u'ar; the lllires are then broken off, and laid 
over tlie edge of the basin. Th« llosa i» then cleared IVom tho 
brunli, and laid a^ide a:< refintu Hill:, and tbo operation contiouoi 
uutil inoNi of" tho ends are thus collected. ' 

If the i^ilk is desig^ned for Bowings, about twenty-five fib 
ehonld compose a thread ; if intended for other faliriw, froift' 
eight to flt\een should be reeled together. The tinest slkH 
should always be reeled from the hent toeoonit. The cocoonn 
composing the threads are t.aktii up in a Km all tin skimmer 
made for the puT'pino, and pimnod from the lar^e apartment of 
tho basin to those directly under the guides. An the end* 
beM>me broken they are past^i'd back into the t>pure apartiaeDl, 
where they ai-e again coUactod to be returned to the i-cel. Tbo 
requisite number of fibres thus collected for two thrctids are 
passed each Ihroitgli the lower gntdoH. They are then wound 
around ea<-h other two or Uiruo tintuM, and each carried thmiigb 



twn ipiMc^ in tho Inivoric bar. and then attached lo tl 
'ofl(i« revl. Tlii> tarninf; ^lioulil nowbc commcnrad wil 

! •dttir >Dd fltcadr mfttioii uiiiil lli« Lhrv»u!i nin Trvoly. Wbilo 
die f»el i» ttimirg, the p<TMin ftUvndin^ [h*» cocoons miiHt con- 
tiuailr bo sddinfr trv*h ondo ais thny may ho rcquirad, not 

|*iiiitif[ nniil ih« number mlic bc^an with is reduced, because 
ikc fntcTtial dbrcfi arp much finer (bao those componinf; the ex> 
tmal layers, in adding new ond« the rcelcr muni attach iliem, 
kj- Kcntly pressing them with a little tnrn between the tlnimb 
ad Auger, to tbe tbreadit an they are ruitiiinf;. Am the xilk is 
imM off the i*bryalidi-it nhoiild Ik' taken out of (bo baMn, 
MhenriM tht-y obociini and thicken thn water, and injuro tbfl 
(olor and luatre of the "ilk. Whi^n the water bocomci di»- 
calvral it HhuiiM always be changed. If in reeling the sitk 
Inrn the cocoon in burro or bandies, it is evident the water is 
lOT hot i OP vrhen the ends cannot be easily collected with the 
bwk, or when found not in run friwly, the water ia too oolil. 

Apail nf cold water xhnuld nlwavN be at hand, to be addct 
HIb* buin Bi> it may be required. When tho cocoons yield 
ikHrRhm frwiy, the reel may bo turned with a quicker mo- 
tiM. The qnickcr the motion the smoother and better will be 
llwHik. When from four to »x ounc-ei< haw been reeled, thu 
a^l may W taken itff that the silk may dry. Tho end should 

IU bilrned *n a« to be readily fonnd. Sqiiccnc the silk together 
m4 loowa it upon the bars, then oo tho opposite side tic it with 
a band of refnae silk or yarn, then slide it off the reel, double 
and a^in tie it near each estreniiiy. 

The qoality of I he nilk deprndM mach upon th« art and ttkilful 
■•■agrmeni of the rreler. All that is required to render one 
perfect in Ihf art of reeling ii< a little practice, accompanied at 
liw bvginninir with a degree of patiettce, and the exercise of 
judfuunt in keeping np the proper temperature of water, and 
the ibreada of a nnirorm siae. 

tnvfa<iure of PcrjOfated CocooMit.— The perfbratMl and douhia 
can be rinniifaeturcd Into vurioua fabric^ tnch aa wtock- 
, glnreti, oiidi-mhirta and the like. Bvfun^ the cocoon!> can 
be apao ibey mDMt b« put into a dean bag made of come open 
dotli, kih] plaerd in a pot or kettle, and covered with soil water, 
vhk soap ( hard or soft) added suflJcieot to niake a strong soda, 
ftnd boiled for aboat three or funr hours. If they are required 




to be very nice und whtU', tbu water may bo cbitDged ani 
ftnnll qiiiiQtily murv of Koap ikMihI and s^aiti boiled for a fi 
minutc«. After iho)- are boiled tliey may be hung up a 
drained ; they should lh«Q be rinsed while io ihe bag, iti ft 
waler, and bung out to dry, withonl tltHturbiiig ihc.m id 
bag. Wben completely dry they uuy be »piiii on t)i« vommi 
dnx-wlieol by tii-st UikJn^ tlie coooon in the tingi-'rw ntid xlightl; 
looKcning Ibif fibrtw t.hiil ln-eome flulti-ncd down by boiling, a 
and then npinning oiV (tvta the pierced end. The ailk will 
cnlirHy oil', leaving the nhcll bare. Tbe double cocoons m 
be spun in the Hanie mEinner. but should be boiled wparaicly. 

A Bp«cie6 of edible mulben^ is planted pretty generally 
feeding hogs, I am informed that it couliniieA to bc<ar durin 
several months, from April lo July or Augittt, and iavoiittidered 
highly advuntageouM. Thiit in called the Eiier-i/atriag Mulberry. 
The following account 1 obtuin from Uie Sontbern Field a 
Fiii-Kido : 

Eva--iii-'trinij M'ilherrif^.—'VXwrv iiri' now tbi-eu varieties 
ever-bearing mulberries prewntcd to iw for Holcc-tion oi- for geOf- 
eral adoption. Downing's Ewr hearing a a soedting of tbe iNui- 
ticaulia, wliic-h it reecmblcs in wood and foliage. It \», therefore, 
necessarily somewbat tender, and not niiii^d (o a more Nurlhurn 
climate. "Hr. D. ba-t given un an amplo dutcnption of Us fniit 
in bin Fniit Treei* of Ami'rica, and mm-it« much crodit for o: 
inaling mi> excellent a fruit. 

Uerbemont's or lli-^ks' Ecrr-bearing is a much hardier vftriaty- 
and superior to the pi-ccoding in size and quality of ita frul 
which is prodacod during a considerably larger period of tim' 
It is a prodigious bearer; the berries are usually nearly two 
tiiehes in leugtb, sweet and delicious. At tbe South the fruit 
uontitmea to ripen tVom tbe 25th of April until the IMIi of 
Aagunt, and hei-u at tbe North tbe erop extends to a late period 
in ibc antinnn. This U-ee has dark red wood and tudvnl 
leaves, very dintinct from Powning'n. 

White Ever-lM'aring, »weot berries, partakes eoneidcrably 
tbe character of the while Italian. It grows vigorously and 
yields iinniense quaiitUies of IVuit. i 

The firHt two varieties have been in fruit with ns this season. 
Of Dowuing's, from a young tree, we gathered but a few ber- 
ried, of which we prefurnxl the more vinous and dcvidecl flavfi 





l>iitit of the lltcki). Tbo Imtlor do«i noL inntcnully vury in 
qniity flrom tb« coinmnu wild ApiX'iflA, of which ii Ih b variety, 
ASiriiig in ila extciidod jH-riod of )>i«r!tig. Ouryoting Irvc, of 
iboel twicr tho iig« of Downio^'tt, bcgitn to ripen t)i« tint of 
]bf. >it<I ha« jnst stopped fruiting fur thu Hc-ason. The IVuit 
It worth ^trowing on platitntionB tor poultry and evritio, as it is 
TOT prolitic. A mulberry orchard of thie kind would l^imieb 
A> latter a foil eupply of food for aboni thrw moDlh». It io to 
U Uamd at all nursorieti, and wo TCnlare to oommoDd it to our 
•pkaltanU frivnd* as u valiiahlu farm crop for the vliuap ruar- 
^ of good bogf. 
|1W jnlcc of tha mulberry in oaud to givo a dark liogo to 
When property r«rnic«lcd tho fruit yioldi* ii plnw- 
■M Tiaotu liquor, mallxTry winiMind Ik mixod with upplujuiuo 
U fhriD nialbcrry cider. Tho bark of tho root i» a ponorfnl 
mkartic. Kaamors's Kncyc 

tXUlilON MIJLBKKKY, {Morut rubra, L.) Grows a(oDg 
^- aad xwamp«; vicinity of Cliarteston ; Itichland; Florida. 
>..- fLMarah. 

V.& Diap. 463. Tho fmit in nliblo, Inxutivc and cooling, and 
• pvlfAtl drUik and eyraps aro mnde from it, adaptod to fobrilo 
ttMB. Tlie bark of the niiill>^rry ran be eociTcrtcd into cordage, 
npM and brown paper. Thv inner hark of the root of the 
iittk mnlbcrry, in done* of from half to a whok- tt-aitpoonful of 
Ifci powder, if said to net as no excellent pur<;ativu. A xyriip 
of ibe ripe fruit is an excellent laxative for children. A tincturo 
•tf the Inner bnrk of ihe root is considored a ralnablo luxatiro 

Tirtarie acid ie obtained from tho mulberry, lb(^ grnjie. eur- 
nfet,*tc. It is almost always found in vogvtahh-s combined 
vttfc poiassa. with which it forma a nearly inwlulilo Halt; it is 
the union which occaaioos it to be so easily procipitatcfi from 
tke li^iaorB in which it is contained, especially when tbey fcr- 
ftl. The coats of tarUir wliEch are fonnd dvpositcd upon th« 
df ca»ks are a eombinution of tartaric acid, potasea and 
mattvr. Ohupla). Hvc Poreira, and treatises on 
for moda of formation of Creurn of tartar. 
acid, also, is fbund in the nkiiis of thv red t'urranl, of 
frfonu, dierri'.'^, strawberries and ruKptiernisi. In these it 
H^nd nnil«il with malie aeid. Tho orauftu and letoon, of 


coursfi, f^iniish it in ibo iarj^eet proportion. Tin- proc«s« adopt 
by Schoole for oblaininji; and crystal! inin): citrk- acid is lo sat 
ntn tbi- Jitiuu with liinv, llio iiinolubli.' nalt, thus formed, 
dvcompoHod by eulphario acid diluted wilb wat«i-. Tbe llqv 
in thvii ivaporatpcl, and the acid oblainful in u er^-mtulliitu for 
Si-d Cbaplal, Vn". works on Churaislry and M.-it. Mcdit a, Pwrvil 
V. a. IMspensatory, et*. 

Tho production uf citric acids in tbo warmer portions of thj 
Koiitbern Statw ih quite pmciii-ablv, an tJm Ivinon grow6 ubuii- 
danlly. Citrii; iM^id euppHri* the place of lomon juiw; for domiwtic 
purpovcrt, and in iho arte, by its bi;ing frc«d from miicilaj^ 
wbiub ruiid«rs the jiticu liable to undergo 8pc«dy cbaiigv, and 
from a diminntion of its bulk by coneentration. Cbaptal. 

To give a flavor to food, citric acid in preferable to viii^ar, 
on account of tlii> iiroinatic pHnciplo it cootainv. Diwtolvcd in 
water, it formM a very wholcMomv drink j ''about thirty grains 
of tbo acid, diHAolvcd in a pint of wat«r, and sweoti'ucd with 
Kiigar, composci; an oxccllont lemonade." l-'i-om its rofrcshinf; 
and anli-piitrescent propcrlios, it is invaluable during the bot 
months, and espLciiilly as an article for sea sioree of vea^ls in 
warm latitudes, Obaptal ; and particularly for the prevention of 
scurry. "(litrio acid i» also piiriioulnrly HMCful in ihoartJti" 
like oxalic acid, "it itt employed in forming rfSfrves in printed 
};oodi*, nnd in rcmovin); spote of ink or rust." (Jhaplal. Seo, 
al»o, acetic acid, viuogar, etc., and Orange, '•Cilrus," io tbiti 

Ell,, in his Skcicbefl of the Botany of S, C, says the wooil is 
preferred, in the building; of hoatx, t.o that of any other tmo, 
except the red cedar, (Junipcrus Virffiniana.) Tho other woodit 
Huitubic for Hbip-building fonnd with us are, the live-oak for tho 
timbers and knees, and the cypress, cedar, willow and several 
species of pine for tbe timbers as well as tbe span — beinj^ pre- 
ferred on account of their strength, HgiitneHt^ or peculiarity of 

Wilnon cay of tbif tree that the wood is fine ftrained, com- 
pact, strong and solid, and by many persons is esteemed fblly 
equal to the locust. It is employed in naval architecture at 
Pbiladi'lphia and Italtimore, for the upper and lower parts of 
the Iranie, for knees and floor timbers, and for truc-nuiU; it ia 
hardly inferior lo the locust, but ia scarce in tbe dhip-yanin. 


|Fb>rp4«ts it U conBidoml nearly at liwtiTi); iu> tho locust, but It 

||rD«'i° Rior« fttowlj-. sod rvquirv^ u richer eoil. Ki-om ospori* 
nude in Fmnr« it was ascertained that the leavi>« woro 

fMlMgooil for the filk-worm wt tlioite of the M.all/a. A niuoh 
^nsDtity wofl cikUtiitMl ihiin frum wurmi> ftni uri iho whitu 

[■tlWrrr, anil there wm » grviitur imirlnlity- Rural Cyc. S«e, 

[Um, my article in Ag^>^ number, 1861, nl' [)uBnw'« Rovtuw. 
Bmusotutia papyrifera, the pupcr mulberry of our yardc, bo- 

|tN^ to this family, (Chapmsn.) Fustic is alno f;nt from tho 
' fiuuily. An the paper mulberry ia planted in this ooantry, 

ll will inaert the ae»>unt given by WiIhod of iia uaes. The 
iduiden of the Poeifie mnke u kind of clolhiii); fVoin thi;i tree, 

' in the following maiinor: iwigH of itboiit an innh in dinmulAr 
wvcnt and 'Icprivcl of (hoir bark, which is divided into xiripit, 
ud laA to macerate for »otao lime in runninj; water ; ullur the 
tfUtnoifi has bc«n ecrnped off, and wfailoyel moist, tho MtripH 
IK Ui-i oat upon a plank in such a roaDn<>T that th«y touch at 
tlieir «lge«, and two or Uiree layern of (lie itamo are placed 
«pM them, taking cnru to prenen-o an oqnul thivknees through- 
oat At the end of twenty. four hoars the whole mivtit is adhe- 
mt, when it is removed to a lar^o flat, and pcrfeclly smooth 
I Ubk and is beaten with little wooden clubs till it has attained 
thr requifiile thiekncos. It is easily torn, and retjuirea to he 
vubed and beaten many timuii befure it uoiiuiroii itM full Nup- 
pfeaeM and whitcneiw. The paper whioh is used in Japan, and 
Buy otJicr oountriM in (he East Indies, is made from this 
fiuit; Syr this purpose the annual shoots are cut off ufWr tho 
Ul ef the leavt^d, tied in hundtci^, and boiled in water mixed 
«itk a^ee ; after which the bark in ntrippcd off by lon-^iudioal 
iMwioaa, and deprived of the brown epidcrniU. The bark of 
the more under shoot* furnishes a very white p»i>or fbr 
■riling. Hair pencils must be used in writing on this paper. 

8Dk-Torm> eat the leaves of this tree also. Itural Cyc 
PIG, (/Tlow carictt.) Kx. Cult, Flourishes in South Caro< 

tiaai Norfolk. Va. In the garden of Mr. T. Fan- Capeni, 

Charleston, the Fig trees are thirty feet in height and three in 

circaoir«tvnc«. They are trimmed to the height of ten feet. 
Sbec. Flora Carol. Tho milky juice of many plants of the 

Family Moracen contains much caoutchonc. Wu have three 
.Mtivc specica growing in S. Fla. The fruit is well known j the 


JRic« hu been sobstitatod for eympathvUc ink, as* the clmroc 
wrillon with it are not vitiblo till oxpoaod to the sun. X 
dei-ovlioti uf ihu gnxin branches and loaves imparts a dovp 
color, of ft brown shudo, to cloth prejiared with a solution 
biflmuth. I huvo hviird it siUiltid oh a ctiriono fftOt, that there 
but ono maio tig in AmcHisi, which gnjwit in liOuiKJuiiit ! So 
botanists devcribo the plant m cuntuioiug both ittamviui w 
pistils within the fVuU or poricarp. 

Figs are excellaDt pabnlum for vinegar, which mfty be con- 
Btanlly i-e|)Ieni»be(l witb the ovcr-ripunud fruit. 

The foUowtog easy proo^ss of making whiU) viovgar fro: 
honey may not be amiss, oven in a work of thU kind, whi 
proftiHetvtt lo tcitch economical inodea of bcooming indcpcnde 
of foraign Hiippliua. It is obtaJnoii from Wilson's Kunil Cyi 
Tho matoriaU can bo easily oblninod. Pour very good kinds 
household vinegar, pgrfet-tly miitabK' (or pickling, and for oih 
domestic purposes, may easily bo made trora ruttpoctivvly— 
honey, browti sugar, British wines, and soar ale Fintt, as to 
hont'y or whiU* vinogar: dissolve ihree-qnarlers of a pound of 
boncy in ruin wator, utid put il into a sevoci-gallou ca^k, with a 
quart of mall »tiirit; abake it woll, tlien HU up the caak wi 
rain water; shako it woll, and keep near tho kitchon tire, who: 
it must stand without being moved or shaken. Lot it I'emat 
tive moiitliri in IhiM plnr^e, and tho vinegar wtU be made. I>ruw 
it off by piercing tlio lower ptirt of the cusk, and lei it run lill 
the ooucrution whiuh \* futmod at Uis lop, and Is lu-nned 
'■ mother of vinegar," begins to nppnar. You may then begin 
tho process again without ciraoing Ihi^ cask. Propurly toa«t<-d 
bread, sularated with yeast, wonid tako the phivo of iho mtlt 
spirit referred to above. See arlicle " Vinegar," in Itnral Cy&j 
for other methods. 

The friiii is weil known, and when properly prepared 
markot in tho warmer porliou of tlio Sou thorn tState<s might oon- 
Htitutcs an article bolb for export and for home consumption. 
Many jiersons boHevo implicitly in tho power of tho atmosphere 
about this tree to render meat tondor. Our "Southern matrons" 
now put up tliia fruit in a most palatable shape for winter usa, 
dried in the mm, nfler being boiled in a synip. Tbe orlonlinl fig 
is tho bent for this purpcjw. Mola-'fc^ can nlno be made tjx> 
the fig and watermelon. Mr. C. tf. Owen, of Charle«tOD, m 

I a 



Jl ftom the wliitu fi^r. Onv |>uok yioldiMl llirvu pinUi. From n 
. b« oblntnwl ituvvn qaarU, uccoMing to ifao fuilowing di- 

'Wash the fi^ tlwn put tbem in a porcelain vcsraJ; ooTcr 
nth pare water, boil carefUHy one bour. Wbeo cool, BtraiD 
tfena^ha moslin ololh; then boll «^iu aulil ii is boiled down 
MKptnper coiittiAUtiiujr, vrlitcb you vwi i!iu>il)' tell by ilippiiig up 
• ^Hxmrul and cooling. Tbn nlMvii i:« nil llio prnpnrution nu«eet- 

f. In boiling Tor the lutt timu, (akv th« ovum oft." 

I * P.J. S.," aoorrccpondoiit of the Charleston Mvi-viiry, writes 

iMkrws OD "our roaources :" " Voa Kpokc, in the article abovo 

to, of difTereot ooloring eubsIanc«B. The juice of the 

lofofir 6/iuj((; id abundant, ami ofa deep, brilliaul red color; 

Ikilf pagu wrillun with it a Il'w davM nincv had tho ap}>oaraiioe 

'fanag b«cn done wilb rwl ink. Thu pomr^ruiuUe, which 

lin great abundunco in Southern Goorgiu, fumi«h«:<, in lb« 

a4iif tbe fruit, ajet black fluid, which writoK very smoothly, 

rttaiBs it» jetty hue. The metallic poa used may darken 

I color." 

. Itare 9e«n blue cakes resembling indigo, inteoded for dy«ing 
I marked fig blut?— probably extracted (k>ia the skioa of the 
tg. Since the war the Mtems of tho tig and titi {Ct^ftonia) haro 
■«d ftrorite materials for pipe stcmH. I bavo aacvrtained 
It the aabw of the leaves of tho fig are useful in polishing 
l-atcDMla, et«. 

n-MACE.B. {The Elm Tribe.) 

IBMPPERY ELM, (L'lmut/iilva.) I bavo observed it in Faii^ 
District. It is someiimos found in the lower distncts ; 

Ib. Kerbal. 139 ; Fro*t'H Rlem«. Mat. Med. and Therap. 238 ; 
h& I>i»p. 727 : Dr. McDowell's M«d. Kxuni. 244 ; Wont Jour, 
.and I'bys. Sc; .Michaox, Kl. Americana, i, 172; and N. Am. 
i<r%. iii, 89 j Griffith, Med. Hot. 5G3. A decoction of the bark 
vac mnch oucd by the Indians in the cure of leprosy. It is an 
•acdkot demiUcent (.'mphtyed as an cmolUetit applicaliou, and 
ialOBaUy {i especially rocommiindrd in Kuprcssion of urini.', in- 
tUmmatitm of ibe bladder, dysontoiy and diarrhoMU A decoc- 
tioa made of Ihix. cnmhincd with tho root ofthe nasiHifraa, and 
ia «t«omod a« a valuable drink to increatio cutaneous 


trmBpiration, and to improve tbo (mu^ nf xho di^tftiTO organi 
Griffith considers it s ^^ood eiib^^ilitiitc for aenoia. ntid ho ha* wit 
neaeedilfl beneficiul KfTt'cts. cxtornnlly fkpplicd. in otKlinatt-rs^ 
of herpetic and syphilitic ei-uptiona; hv i» ineUnod to mwrit 
hi^chtii- curative powers to it ihun nrv frouorally admitted, 
forma a ^ood vehicle for eneniatu, wIhtc u mucilaginous fluid i^ 
required. The bnrk, cut in the form of a bougie, has bcou nsa 
in dilatiug&inaaes and conlractioQs of the urclhra. The sut 
nliince exuding from the bark ii called u/oun. it couJd he 
largely collecti'd for ihe awe of aoldifra — suiiablo wlK'ivvcr 
a highly inut.'ilagiri»uH Huhntuncc in required, fjoe Beae "Oei- 
nvi'tiit." ThU is ihu bust wood w« have for hloeks, and is ex- 
cvliuot for rail>«, ac it splits easily, and is of long duration. It is 
more durable ihau the while elm. 

I append the following to the second edition : 

Dr. C. W. Wright, of Cincinnnti, mutes {Weslt.-ni Lanoet) that 
KlijiptTy I'lm biirk Imn tho property of prcfurving liitiy bhU- 
stances from rancidity ; a flict derived nriginally from tlic Id- 
diiins who pi-epared bear's fat by luulling it with tho bark in th« 
proportion of a dmchm of the laiter lo a pound of the former, 
keeping them heated logelher for a f^w minutes, and then 
Hlraiiiing olf the fat. I>r. Wright tried the hame p^ocv>^a with 
iiinicr and hird and found them to rumain perfectly sweet f»ra 
long lime. (Am. J. I'harm. xxiv, 180.) U. S. Disp. 12th Ed. Dr. 
McUowel, of Virginia, u^ed itie bark furlhe dilatation of fietalas 
and strii'turett, (Med. Kxum. i, 244,) and Dr. H. R. Storer, of 
Boston, Hubfcqucnlly for dtlaiin^ the ok uteri. (Bu«t. Ucd. and 
Surg.J. Iiii.300.) See U. S. Disp. 

WHITE ELM, ( Vlviw Americana, Mx.) Vicinity of Charics- 
ton ; N. C- 

Mer. and d« L. Diet, do M. Mt'td. vi, 7!>9; Ooxe, Ara. iy'isp. 
ttll; I'hil. M«d. Mu!.. 11. Thu U. fulm pn)halily referred lo. 

The wood of the white dm, like that of the common Baro- 
pean elm, i« of a dark brown ; and cut Iransvcraoly, or obliquely 
to the longitudinal fibres, it c:ihibits the same numerous aiwl 
tine undulutioDs, but it splits more easily and has less compact* 
Duss, It is, however, uned at the North for the naves of coach- 
wheels, because it ift dinieull to pificure the block gum. In 
Maine it ic uned for the hecN of vchscIh, lis bark io said tn bo 
easily dutuchcd during eight months of the year; soaked ia 

vftter and i^ppliHl bjr poandiiig, it i» usod in tho Northom 
Sale* fur the bolUimo of common chain). Mic-liuux. 

VAUOO, (VImM atata, Mjl) Rich eoils; j'lopida; South 
uA North Canriina. 

The wood ia fioe grained, mora compact, heavier and fltmngcr 
thtn tlut of Uie American wliJle elm. It U employed for conoh- 
«h«ebi, and i» civrii prcfArred ti> the bluck gnm, M botng moro 
faanlaad toitgh. Micbuux. Funnci-'s Edcjtc. 

Tb« fuUowin;^ fital«mvni has beoD published : 

** Wdkao Jtope. — We have seen a specimen of rope made of 
wiboo bark, by Mr. T. J. Howard, of this county, lie liaa 
■Mltbe waboo rope with great success in bagging cotton, and 
■* rati Mirt;Iy ri>COinniend hi-* I'onlrivanoi) to the attention of 
pUnirrv. The common iraprofiion is that tho bark is ool in 
good condition, «xt«pt in tho spring of the year. Thin is a 
■iatake. It oan be uaod to great advantage at thiA aeuaon In 
btjdiag eotton. The manner of oaing the rope made of wahoo 
Wifc it altogether ^imihir to that which liaa been Ju ordinary 

8CGAB-BERBY; HACKRERRV, (OellU cocuh^ntalis, L.) A 
tno, grvwing along the margin of Ktrfamx and in damp 
;voll«clu(l in SU Jului*^; vicinity of Charlostuu ; Sowbern. 

JUr. and de L. Diet, de M. M^d. ii, 170; Fl. W-id. i, 90 ; GHf- 
IftkMed. Bot. 563. It yteldn a gum rvsenililiiig thiU of iliv 
(brtylree; the root and leaveH ara Aomowhat aromatic, and 
vtrs naed by the Indian:* in flypliiliti. The berries haTo a *wcet 
iod plewant ta«t<!. 

The wood of thi» InM) rcscmbliM cloncly, »ayv Wilson, that of 
ikt C. ougtralit. Tho timber of the latter is exceodingly dunt- 
Ht, and was formerly employed by Hritisb coach-makers for 
Mktng the frames of their veliiclcai and by the Italian muiiical 
iMU«in«nt-maken« for making llntVH and pipow. Raral Cyc. 

MYBIOACK.K {The Gale Tribe.) 

Aromatic and soroetiraea astringent. 

WAS MYRTLE; BAYBKRRY, (.»fynV<i ari/^a, L.) Grow* 
shmdantly in tht- swamp* of tho lowvr vouulry; Kewboro. 

Fl Kay. 



mi. Bot. Hed. Notes, ii, 276; Uatson'o Veg. Praet. 198; V. I 
Di*-!.. 20fl ; Pi-. Msl- Med. «nd Thirap. 78fi ; IHr. Am. MeJ. Bfl 
iii, 32 ; Am. Joiitiiul MiO. Sci. ii, 313; Ik-r^ti, Mat. Ucd. ii, 641 
NicholMin'ti Joiirnnl, Jv, 187; Kalm'a Travelit, i. 129; Dtintt 
Billiman's Jniirnnl 1; Thiurlier'H V. 8. Dia[i. 28A; Mvr. and i 
I.. Diet, df M. M.-d. iv, 531 i Do Cwid. K»»iti, 712; Lind. Nl 
Kyst. Itot. 180. Thu root ie a poworAj) nxlrin^nt, nmi n d( 
tion is f>inplo_r(>d In dinrrhwii, dy-pnlcry, hcmorrtiaii*' from il 
ntei'Ufl, in drop^ioH wliit-h HacC'c«d t'cvcrs, and as a K'"V''^ 'n *^Tt 
throat. Il ia also given to some cxtDiit by llie Togelable prac- 
tiLioncrH. (iriOitli Hlaloa (Ucd. Jloi. 583) iliat tlio bark of tite 
mot isalHU MiiHuliLiit tiiid nund,and in doctesof a dni<;hm (siunva 
a Heiinalion of hcai. in tlit! xtomacli, lullowi^d by vomiting nnd 
nomulimusdiurolH. Tlu: pnwder in nn active (^rrhini!, uiid iho 
IvftTOB bavo sumo celebrity in dumt^stiv practice, as being anti- 
spasmodic, itnti-§corbulio and iwtringODt. Dr. Dana found tho 
powdered root powerfully stornntatory. Bij^low rays tbat Ibe 
hark and k-ovfis contain gallic acid, tannin, resin and a Hinall 
qitniitity of miieilngtv Tlio berries atTord a large nmnimt of 
wax, which risi-n to tbn mirlnw when thi-y am boiled, not r»- 
markablo for adhcsivfini'Mn or nneLucmity. Dr. Roxtock consid- 
ers it a &«>d, TOgetablo oil, rendered concrete by oxygon j and 
by the experiments of Dr. Dann, it constitutes onctbird of (lie 
whole berry. It is employed for candles, emitting a fhigrant 
oilor, and il also forms tbe basiH of a fine soap. It appears to 
posnevs some astringent aod slightly narcotic propertiea, and 
tiDA boen udminiHtered by Dr. Falineato»k in an upidemJc of 
typhoid dyKciiti^ry. He gave it In doses of one to two drachms, 
and bo is of opinion that ii» active pnneiplc residca in tho green 
coloring matter. Am. Journal Med. Scl. ii,313. HnHiiesqiie states 
tbat a tincture of tbe herriirtt, with bcrueltnim, in beneficial in 
flalulent colic. Do ('and., Kusuy \i\ion the Louisiana Hyrtle, (in 
l-'M^nuh ;) see Ann. do Chim. xliv, 141, and xlvi, 77 ; C, L. Cadet, 
Mem. on the Myrtle of Louisiana and Pennsylvania, Paris; 
Thicbault dc Bernaud, Hum. sur le drier, nu abr<- a cirv, Parts, 
1810. Soo my own experinionU< upon the ap]>licability of the 
laavesaa a substitute tor oak bark, under " Liquidambar," aweel 

Dr. Wood, U. S. Disp., 12th Ed., wiys that a volatile oil might 
probubly bfl collected from tbe leaves by distillaiioo, and uscil 


' <«ni|jir pnrpr>4<^ io th'MO to wliich oil or )>iinonlo io spfiliod. 

pawilvr of the bark bae a pocuiiar xrotnatie odor and irri* 

tolM ihenoitlril!* nnd lliroal wlivii ii)liak-<l. Il vk'tdn iu virtues 

I* mUiT and hIcoIiaI. Chi'inicnlly uxamtiied by Ui-. (i. SI. 

Bubriglit it WM found 10 contain volnlili; oil, nturi-li, ligniii, 

Ipm. albamcri, oxtractivG, u rod uoluringxub^ianc-p, laiinicinid 

(iffic ariids, an «criil rmin solublti iit ailcuiiol and not in vlhci-, 

aul % peculiar aixid pi-indplo bavins acid proportlM, anttlftgoas 

tM MfUHia, for wkicb Diii name of wi/ricinic acid Is proposed. 

{km. J. Phurm., May, 1863.) Tlio Kck't-tic* ii8« llvo bark in 

Arrfccra, janndloc, Herufulu, eU.--, uiid an alcoholic- uxiraci 

ap^ropnaiely CHllmt mynirin, >» givt-ii in dmn.-.* itf nboal livu 

Xn***- Tbo riono of the powder is ttboiiL tbirly (^in)>, of a, 

4«ociioa made witb an otincc of tho powdc-rvd bark to a pint 

ti «>t«r; tlie <Io»o is one or two fluid ounces. I'. S. DUp. 

*Tli« nortbcni iialion» formerly om[iloyud tlii» plant in place 
tthuf*, Biid it in still in u.te for that purpose in some of tlio 
wcMnn »lv9; tinlotti It ia boiled a long tinio it iit reporU'd lo 
MMnon hcadaclif." Xichotxon aiKO !<ay:t, in liiei Kti(-yd(i]ia<dia, 
«f tW iV. or/V'^1, that "it i* nnud in tunning cjilf-tikins; galh- 
mti in antnmn, it will dy« wodI yullrtw, for which it ia 
OkI both in Sweden and in Wales ; tbo WeUh lay branches of 
fl qua and nndor their bods to keep off Hess and moths." 
BMn»B|^ait, in his Uural Chemistry applied to Agriculiura, 
I^, Mys of the wax-bearing myrtle: -'The IVuit yieHa as 
ouch an twenty-fivA per cent, of wax, and a single shrub will 
fieU fmm twtfnty-fuiir to thirty p4iundr> iit bei'rivi*. Tha crude 
«ax is ffrtQtt and brittle, and to bo mad« into candU^s I'uquiros 
Ifct addition of a certain quantity of grease." I'roust dincov- 
«Nd ibat vegetable wax formed part of the green fecula of 
■■■r plants. In the common cabbage it occurs in large quan- 
lir. CM«ine is said to predomtnale in the fluid vegetable oil ■>. 
SmvM tbiKi'nIiJM'l, (jtiu4!n'n IM'iglil, (St fUiHgia srhi/fra.) Tbo 
IbHm of tbo I'ride of Imlia (AVd'ii) uhio yield an oil wh«D dried 
mi boilod. Wax baa also been colleotod by scraping tbe sialic 
•f the angnr.(-ane. StM " Sorghum," in this vuliimo. 

( faaTe repeatedly seen tbo wax produced fh>m tbe myrtle in 
ktgt amouutM. The berries are boiled, and the wax rises on 
{ha Mtrface of the water. The boiling should be continued a 
Llimc, and tbo berrivs iilirrcd und bruised. The wax may 


be remoltcd to purify il. Fonr ponnJn of this will make lor 
pouiitliK of]>. The candles made of it arc dark green ili 
color. Cniidlcii and Hoap wei-« made in oonsidorable amonnl 
during thu wnr by those r<>3idin|; in tho low country of Soai 

Wilson, in Iiis Kural Cyc^ qnotcs Hamilton, who nayA thfl 
the wax, aflor being slcimnivd off Iho water, sbonid bu slrained 
through a coarse clolh to froo it from foreign malt«r. When no 
more wax riitee, tho borries arc rcmovi^d with a lekimmcr anil a 
frt-sh KUpply put into the tMimo water, tHlfinj; cjiro to add boiling 
^fator to supply the place of that evaporated during the pro- 
c«9», Tho vfax should be dried, and melted a^ain to free it 
fi-oni impurity. See Charleii Louia Cnder's ilomoir, in8erl«d 
in thii Aniialua de Chrinte, who said that the m^i'lle bad been 
HuccoM fully onttivalud near Burlin, and Uamillon recommends 
itx cultivation in Eriglnnd for il^ wax-prod uoiiig properties. 

In K. S. Holmes' >Soulbnrn Farmer, p. 2:ifi, is ibu following; ' 

Large amount of Soap produced from. Myrtle Wax- — I find th 
foitowing rodpe for making soap IVom myrtle wax r.Vyr 
ceriffra) in an old number of tho Southern Agricuitnrist, 
one of the complaints of soapmakLTn is the difficulty and 
pcn»e of obtaining tho gre«.i«, It will ho wtll for u» to avtdf 
ourselves of a prodnetion of ualnro, found abundnnily in o«r 
lower country. Tho fiuit is now matured, and may b« had in 
abundance for the picking. I have seen very good candles 
ma<lu of myrttn wax. I Iruel our planters, residing in tho 
vicinity of the myrtle, will pmllt by thoiift advautagea boforv 
tho Hcaiton for picking has pa^Hwl : 

'*To thrive bufhels and a half of common wood ai<hcH add half 
a bushel of unslaked lime. This being well mixed together, put 
into a cask capable of containing itixly gallona and fill up with 
water. In forty-eight hours the lye will be strong enough to 
float an egg. Then draw off, and put from Mix to eiglil gallon* 
of it into a copper kettle capable of eontnining twenty-tive gal- 
lons. To this add only four poundi> of myrtle wax. Keep pon- 
etniitly boiling for six hoiire. For tho first three or four hours 
pour in occasionally a supply of strong lyo, the whole frt-qucnlly 
well Htirrcd with a ladle. Atlcr six hours boiling, throw two 
quarts of common largo grain salt into the kettle; leave one 
hour more to aimmer over a slow tiro. The Uqnor ronat bo 


1 in tuba to oool ibr twoiily-four boiir«. T]ik« out tho soap, 
f«i|M> it cimn ; [>ulil 10 dry. 

"Tb* pnidiioi} of this soap when it was weigbed tbe ucxt 

[ 4ay va> ibond to be fbrty-oine pounds of good, cwlid soap, from 

I tW OMU-naU and by ibo proceaa above mentioned. Al tho ond 

|«(sx ir«^-kft ihv 3N}iip bml only lost u few pounds from tbe 

•npacslion of its watury piirticloi. 

■*Ib many parts of our State tbe myrtip troe is abundant, 
\mA bfna tbree pecka to a bushel may bo gatbcred from a hand 

Tbere have beeu recent orders from Ibe NorUi for «cvvral 
[(towaad pounda of tlie wax, (I86S.) 

SiDOe my i:xuminali>Mi and reootninocidalion of tJio myrllo 
I kiT«*a« a tiinniiiit<!n>iti> iigeiit, [ Ht^u itiat it ba^ boon ns«d by 
I Kr. J. Commino, of CbarluHton, in tanning loalhor. Ho etatcs 
I tfcat 1m used it oxli^nnivcly during the war and found it to 
Hwall tbe purpose* rc"|U)ric<d. 

I kad obnervcd, also, an tinnenal amount of a^tringenoy in 

I Uwbeiriee of tbe myrtle. Tbo water io which tbey are boiled, 
< vitb copperas, is used as a dye. I havo seen an exeelleot dark 

hnvii obtained with very little copperas. If walnut loafes, 
buk, or tlic nnd of tlie fniit i4 added tho color i« rory black. 

I I m tBlbrmcd in Si. Jobn'a Borkoloy, S. C, tbat a btw dye is 
I thtaincd wilhnut a mordant, by using tho sumo water ropcutud. 

h in boiling tbe berries for the extntCtioD of tbe wax! Tlita 
Mou an unexpected result. 

Si/riea GiroliHetuis. Grows in dry soils; Biohland; oolleetod 
iiEL John's; Newbem. 

CriAth's Ued. Bot. ASS. Sup))Osed to po^eaa similar prop- 
■tltf with lb« abovv. It can wareely bo diHlinguifhvd from 

FBRX Hl'SH ; SWRET FFRN. (GmpUmia a^Acnifdia, AiL) 
l(it.vf Nonb Carolina and northward. An aromatic sstringool 
mti by Barton and others as a pleaswit drink in tbe summer 
MBplainta of children. Shoepf says on the antborityofCoIdon, 
Ihu chewing tbe root will cheek a spitting of blood, and tbat it 
■IMdul in rachitis and the debility following fevora. Griffith. 

JUGLAXDACE^ (.The WalnM Tribe.) 
BUTTERNUT; OJLSL'T, {Ju^ans aHena,L.) Grows in 
Lih ■oontaioa of South and North Carolioa. Fl. ApriL 


V. H. Dinp. 710 ; Ai«liiv<-n G6ti. Sis wiie, x, S99. and xi, -HI 
PjfijifB lilcms, Mat. Ucil. 131. -Tlio iiinfr baric ofthc root i 
lurds one ol' thg moM mlM und vfflcioiit lasalivvft vru posxetA.I 
TI>o oxtnif-C was » favoi-iio remedy in General Marion's c*ai 
during; the lievolutionary war. It is very ofllcaciaus in hat 
itual <TOiia|i)>attoii, in dcmo» of luii to thirty grains; tho At 
nctin^ as u liixalive, th« nittximaiii juirging. Big. Am. He 
Bot. ii, 110; M:c. N. Am. SjU-n, lt>0; ivliure it is »;i«ilciii of U ^ 
mild calliarllc, oponititig wiilioui |Miiii or irnUiiian, and 
ecmbliti^ rhuljarb in lU prnpurty ol' cvuciiftting without dubili. 
luling ih(> itliiRviitHry catml. Dr. l{ur>h ornployt-d it during tlio 
war. Wood Mij'f it is hij^liiy esteemed in dyiscntury ; I.iiid. Nat. 
Syfl. 18i. Tho riiul of Uiv Ijuit and tlie xkin ol' the Icurni;! aro 
vxirc^indy astrin-^uni, antholtnintic and catliitrtic ; the oil vx- 
triiolod ffum tho ti-iiiiis uf a very dryiu^ nature. U6r. nnd do 
L. Diet. <!*> .VI. Med. lii, GST, (J. e^thaftica.} ile remark* that 
the iiuiLT biirk iif iho root ia iiiTid and cuaslic, and |)iirgfs, but 
ocnutioiiN ni'ilhor huat tioi* irritation ; adapted to bilious H>nni> 
tnlion" anH to dyscolory ; often fomliiiicd with eAlomnl. It iit 
givoii m animal- in v. diaoaBc culled ■yellow waliir;" Biill.dcs 
Sui. Mer], Fer. xii, 338. To extract the cathurliv principle, the 
bark is builed in waier for several hour*; removo tho extraneous 
muttL'i' mid Uoil down lliu iletociioii to the ooiasistonee of honejr 
or miilasfcn — -pillii nmy tw rnndo of thii^ A ttyrup may ul»«o be 
mtulu. Tho bark is sironf^sL in tho early anmmer. The (»ow- 
deri:ii leavi's are rubefhcient, and aet ns a autnititiito for cno- 
tUandwi. Cosfi, Am. Disp, 365. The bark of the branches af- 
fonlHatarge tpiantity of soluble mutter, chiefly of the extraelive 
kind, watur Hovming to ho a solvent. Wothorill tbnnd in it fixed 
oil, rt'sin, wiccharine matter, lime, potash, a pemdiar prineiple, 
and tannin. Dr. B. S. Barton, in bis Cullcetiomi, '23, 32, )hiiik» 
it is pOBsesftod of some anodynopropcrty. Dr. Gray aoevrtainod 
thai four Ireoa, eight to ten inches in diarai^ter, prodiieed in ono 
dny nine quarts of sap, from which wa^ made one poand and n 
quarter of imjor, equal, if not superior to that produced fVom 
the nmple. This plant is ai way* given in the form of extract or 
decoction. GriHilirB Mud. Bot. 089 ; Thftchor's Disp. 245 ; Uush'a 
Med. Ob", i, W'i; !'«. Mat. Med. and Thwap. ii, 767; Lind. Med. 
y\. 387. Thowoo<l of the bntlcrnut is used for the sleepers and 
postM of frame houses and banin, for posUi and rail fcocet, 
troughs for cattle, etc. For corn-shovels and wooden di«ho8 it 

Hprcivrred to the red AowflHufi; nlaplw^ bnonuHt) it i» li^Iilur «iii] 
bw Usbit) to split ; ooQMquunlJy, holtow-wnru ttnil ulhvr artivliM 
•ade of U wll •( higher prioM. In Yrrmoiit tlii^ woix) it iiood 
^brthepKo^ofcoachiM and dtHMOM, bL<iDg wiOl ii'luptcJ for thi* 
^^krpoM, not only for il« lii;htncM, but booatiMt it is not liable to 
^H|Ut. It raveivos p«int id a superior manner, its pores bciiijjc 
HMijr open, mori] so llian poplar and ba«swood. Xx. Am. Sylva ; 
FuTDcr's Encyc. ' 

BLACK, WALNUT. IJttglaiu nigra, L.) Diffused in lower 
■•d vpper ooufltry of Soulb and KorLh Carolina; Nowbern. FL 

Her. and d« L. M. Ml>i1. iii,687; tiriflUh, Mttd. Hot. vi, 
Ul Tb« Uirk is stypLio and ut^rtd ; thv rind of the unripu fruit 
Maud 10 n-nirtve rinjj-wwnn* and tvttor ; and ibc di-fnctlon m 
pn« wilt) nuuviw iu> u v^^rmifugo. " A kind of brvad i>> ob- 
tantdfrom (bv fl-uit." In a communii-ation received from J. 
Ani^a^ 11. i>.. of Chestor District, South Carolina, his oorre»> 
fMdant, Mr. MeKeown, infonna mo tbai a bit of liitt, dipped 
in Uie oil of the walnut keriiol and applied to an aching tootli, 
» u fiflectnal palliativo; ho haw oiaployvd it for thirty yeara 
wuk grvat saliofacltoD. 
Tht fiillowiD<; appeared in one of th« journals during tbe year 

^^m W^Umvt Uaoes in the treatmeat of Daeaaen. — Dr. Negriett, phy> 
^Hna at Angicrs, France, lias piiblinhed a Htalument of bin suu> 
^Bai{B th« treatmuiil of m ivfuloiii diseawu in difTurunl forms by 
fiepanliORii of walnut Iohtm. li« has triod walnut Icavoa for 
Ma y*arw, and of filly xix paticofi, afflivtod in different forma, 
ttirty-one wt-rv complcloly cured, and thoro wore only four wbo 
ipprartd to bare obtained no advantage. The infusion of tbe 
nlaot tno leaves is made by cutting them and infusing a good 
{■leh between the thumb and foi-etinger in half a pint of boiling 
', mod then swcetciniug it with nagnr. Tou grown person, 
Ne^nt prescribed from two to tbrev tcaciipsful of this 
ly. Tbio niudicio« is a Mligbtly aromatic bittor ; its efHoieDcy 
Bwriy tmiform ia ccrofuloas disorders, and it is slated never 
bare catuwd any naplMsant effects. It augmeou the activity 
rf tbacirealatioD and digostion, and to the fanctions imparu 
■arfa 9n«r){)'. It is hiippoecd to act upon the lymphatic system, 
«■ andcr tta influencv the inuHolea become firm, and the skin ho- 
a mddicr hoe. 


Dry loavos mny Iw used thr»ai;lioul the winter, bnt a nyre 
mailo of grt'on loaves is moro unimiilio. A khIvu mnde tif 
strong exU-uct of tlic leaves mixed dIqiu witli elciin lunl mid 
few drrijiH of Uie oil of beryaiuot is most excellont tor isorcx. 
Btrong dftcoction of the lettvos is esc«lIcDt for washing tbo 
Tb« iwlulary cffoct«i of tliiH riitdiiiiin do not ap[>eur on a snd 
den — no visible effect may be noticed for iwonly days, bm po 
severance in it will effect a cure. A* walnnl tn-c Icnvew a 
abundant in America, sod an tho cxtriu:t of them » not dan 
geroiis or unpleasant to use, and scrotliln not iineotnmon, a trial 
of ihitt simple medicine should bo made, in directing attonlioi 
to it good results may be expociod. 

A gray dye may be prupared with yonng, nnripe walnnt*. TK 
wulniilii {ilionld be bcutvii in u mortar, boiled witb water- 
yam is provioufly preparod with lycwator. 800 "ItAHt" 
I obtain tbo Ibllowin^ IVom a journal, (1SG2:) 
To Dye Wool I'tint a Durahle Black wirkovt C\)pi>eras. — PI 
in a kettle a layer of walnut leaves, then a layer of yai-n, thoi 
A layer of leaves and another of yarn, and so on till the kettlo 
tit full ; poiir on water till all is covered, and boil all day. Tb« 
next morning pour off the liqnor into another vessel, and put 
frosh leaves with the yarn in layers »it before, and pour Ibe 
name liquor over it and boil a^nin all day. Then bang (hvyam 
ID th« air a fuw days, after vrhicb wwb it and it will b« « Hoc 

Tho walnut loaves should bo gathered in the autumn just a^| 
they begin to fall fVom the trees. 

Both the black and white walnut possess a durable wood, and 
are secure IVom the annoyaiioe of worms. The stem of lliofl 
blaek walnut is easily perforated, and like the till (CHJtcnia) N™ 
much used for pipc^siems among the noUIiortt in camp. Thv tig 
\* hIho used for the same piir|)OKC. 

At a Convention of GuiMtnithM, held at Atlanta, Ga., August 
29, 1^61, nomv factn were olicitod which arc interesting in tbia 
conneclion: ^S 

Mr. Hodgkin», a gunsmith, slated '-that the greatest diflS 
culty waa to get wood for the slocka ; that wood of one or two 
years was not sufficiently scunoned. It ought to be cut twenty 
years. Tlio burk nboiild bo taken off the tree at once. Some 
thought it bust to cut the timber in the stiDimer, others 11 


hU or wioior." tion. Wayno rend tlie fbllowinf; from lh(> Ord- 
—wrw UanD»l : 

''Tbe Ri>»t »iiilftblo 8Ca«on for felling limber io Ihnt in wbicli 
re^iktiun i* at reet, which is tho case in midwinler or mfd- 
•nsBtcr. Rcc«iit cxperimonu incline ttrgivo ibe preforence to 
Uh) taller Mivnon — »tky the month of July ; but tho UAiinl ))rac- 
titclf U I^ll trce« for limber belwi^«n llie firat of UvcL-mbcr 
u4 tbe middle of Hain'b." 

"Gen. WftjDO, on bein^ inqnircd of, g*^'c it as bis opinion 
Uut ikore was no srtilic'iiil )>ror«s« of eciteoning n-ood ibut 
VOttld anther for making guiiHtoeks. 

" Mr. Esther Hiid lha( maple cimbor coitld be ooAitoncd rapidly 
by being boiled in oiL It pruventvd il8 oriicking. It mwii fiea- 
tmti iboroDghly. itn<) would not xprinj^. 

"Ur. Lamb stated that wnlnitt waj> the bc«t for stocking 
gnu, bat harder to 8«aBon. It required a great nouber of 
jrtin — say twenty yean-, or nearly so. Maple waa nexl, and 
pmiinnion ilie next. ThuHo tould bo Acast^cd by arlilieial 

Tbe reader will find mmc infonnntion on the Iciting of timber 
io ffUiH>n'>> Rural Cjrc. The fVnit is edible, and pleasant to lh« 
bate. Tbe wood ia very compaet and dumble, with » black, 
(m grain, Misceptiblc of n high poli^nh, and forming a valuable 
nbMitatc for mahogany, from which, when seasoned and var- 
■iifctil, it can scarcely be distingni»hed. It is muck uwd in this 
Snth in the manufacture of tables, etair-raJlings and thu inner 
mA of bouHUN. The writer has ae«n aa beautiful l)Ouk^.'aww, 
tiUn, stair- mi lio)^ and ('nl>i not -work mailu from the wood pro- 
fUtd on oar Southern plutitaltonv, when well seasoned, as any 
imported from elsewhere. Tho roots, partioulai-ly those of old 
torn which have died, have a pecaliarly rieh black eolor, and 
■vueflil in making fnmiture and gonstocks. 

The tmok of a walnnt trec^ lapped nn tho lllh Febraary, 
jielded a Kap conlaining »omc cane sugar The i^ps of tbe 
•yeamore, of the Acer nfyvnd'), and of tbe lUao tree, contained 
(it aame species of sugar; bol that of the birch tree held in 
•rfation some gr^>e sugar. In the aycaniure and hin-h tree M. 
BiotobAerred an eatrt-mety inl4Tei>tJng fact. He a«eerlainiMj, 
urn felling Ihoao trr-c*, that tbe Kfcatcr portion of the dwwndtng 
ap was accumulated toward the middle of Ike tmnk. That of 


tho hii-ch Lrcfi W&4 oord and saocliarino; Ihe sny> oT thut port! 
of lli<- iriink whit'h wns buried in 1I10 f^uiid t-untiiinnd oi 
migar, but n mdiKiiKKx- jKinttoHniiig tiic piincipiil ctmracWrs 
gnm. (AnnaloK du Munuum d'Hisloiru Naturollc t. iL) It 
probably uii oflVct of- tho fica>OD. fur KDi<;bt BtAt««i that 
never could discover the least trace of noceliarino matter duri. 
vriiitcr ill lh« alburnum cither of the fttem or uf the roolA of tl 
Bycnmorc. BousRingault'tt Rural Kcon. in ita relation to Cbe 
ifttry, etc., Law'o edition, 1857. 

Wnliitil leave«> eojikod lu water for Honio hourit, tli«n boil 
mid uj)|)lied tu ibu niciiin of horaea and other uiiimBlK, will ji 
vent their bniiig biltun Or worried by flicH. 

In Piiwrn Otticf. Ri'ports, 1855, is u paper on the IVr^ian w 
nul, or Madeira nut, (Juglans ngia.) which sppeara lo bo wol 
adapted to the climntfi of the Middle or Somhorn Stat««. I 
produces an immense amount of oil and cake. It is ])referri 
to linseed oil, and ^\vs% an esct-IIent lij{ht. The huek of t 
walnut it> utted in dyeing woollen Htuffs. 

IIICKORY, (Ofrj/u amar<i,l>oTf.inii,nlha,ac.') Ell. Sk. Tin 
barko lire a-Hlriiigriil. Mr. Fred. Slearna, of I>etroit, hu)t calloi 
attention to the Imrk of the several *.pncics of Hickory, in 
paper ou the medical plants of MichiffiiD, pubiistied in U: 
Proc. Am. Pliarm. Absoc., 1859, p. 249. Mr. Cbamiibary, oft 
Hamo 8tate, had found great, ndvanuige from ehewiiig the ioDev 
bark in dynpopAia, and lias u^ed a tineluro made from tho samo 
bark in intormiltont fever. Many in the nci)j;hborhood oeed U, 
the infuHion also being found equally efTeclual. U. S. DUp., 12lli 

A dyo for woollens niiud on tho plantation is maile from lb 
of most of the speciep. The fruit of many of tho hick.iry trooB 
IB plea^^ant to thu taste, piU'tii'ularly the C. alba, shell-bark 
hickory, which is an article of trade- It should be spared i 
clearing land. 

To ixilor ydhw. — "Take tbroe-fourthn of hickory hurk. wi 
the oulHide fhaved otT, and one-fourth of blat^k oak bark done 
in the *time manner; boil them well together in a bell metal 
kettle until the color is deep; then add alum sufficient to make 
it foam when stirred up, then put the yarn in and let it simm 
a little while; take it out and air it two or three times, bavin, 
a pole over the kettle to hang it on, bo that it may drain in 




uk; witm dry rinae U iu bi>M watoi*." Tlioi-nloii'M Homliiirn 

)ud«Drr, p. 183. Uickory bark wilh sngiir nmkrtt n good ycl- 

dyw for wool witlionl coppiTiiM, The wriu^r- lia« in-<'ii iicsw> 

aud oilier hUiAW dyed on th« |iliiiiUitiotis wiih citbcr 

hirkary or uxk barkx. oiihcr »luin or <.>oniinercial copporas boin;; 

■iiri Tliis L-rab'itppIn (lyt-* a catiary (Mior. The hii-kory bark, 

•tffc roppcniK, ilyi-* y»ni« iin »Iivi> color — wllb alum, a greon — 

tke Tarns nii)»l \nf put in lior. Th« wood ol' the hickory jidds 

ircfT fine lye when rcdiiPod to aslHW, and 1 will include innoli 

Ikuieiiaid of soap under this genua. The wood is bIao ruluabla 

^fcr mwy purposes in the meohnnical arta on nccount of its 

bt. plinliility, tougbiiCMt and durubilily. In (i<-orgi» and 

I Corolinns eiplit hickory in iioud in niiikini^ chair botUimit and 

(iluUiIion ba-'ikclM. lj> I'tinii-^yh-ania «n oil is extrnolcd from 

lb> onls nf the C amara, huttornut hickory, which is used for 

iW lamp, and for otbor infi-rior purposcK. I would sn^ifciil that 

,A* ante of any kik-cjoi^ would oorvo, if broken and boiled, for 

' U* aanafacture of soap ; auUj^cted to the teat of experiraeiit, 

(oier, 18G3, i could notexlrautthi^oilafier boiling the broken 

Mt> several hours. 1 insert the following fi-oiu Micliitux : 

•ftii^rtir.i atwt vtt!t of Au'tory icixxf. — The wood of all th« 
ifenn of hickory' bean a sinking rvM-mblunco, boih an to tibro 
t§i the nniform reddiali color of the bourU Ii posflesaL-s great 
mjghl, vtrcnglh nod iinuniiiil plinhility and tough ncitH. When 
ex[>aK«l to heat and mointun! it ia itultjvct to rapid devay, and 
> peculiarly liable to injury from worms. 
"Throa^faout the Middle States it isselucted tbr thoaxlc-ttX!<9i 
' rarriniircs, for the handloM of axon and otiior curpcntvn' tools, 
for large acre* !*, pnriii^ulurly iboae of book-bindurK' presses. 
The rog* of mill-wbuclti nro made of hickory heart, tboronghly 
in«d ; but it im prcii)rr only Tor auch wheels as arc not ex- 
. to mointnre; nnd for tliin n^aaon aome other wood is by 
ay millwrights preferred. The roilH wbieli form the baeka 
of Windsor chairs, coach-whip handle.->, muMket-Ktoi'kH, rake- 
teeth, flails for ihrcebin^ grain, the bon'i> of yokiMi, or the ellip- 
tlnl pieces which pass under the necks of cattle: all those arc 
oli j« cta cuHiomarily made of hiekory. At llaltimore it is used 
tar the hoops of sicTi-s, and in mure esteemed than the white- 
oak, which is cqaoDy rlaslic, but more apt to peel off in ■mall 
: into tlM Mb§tanco Hflcd. In (lie eoiiniry near Augusta, 


hiuknrv, will hav« moro Uian Tour Umea tlie strength o 
nijn! tiniinlly (.-iiiploved in buliiii^ o.nion. (irceii or Huiitid vfimri 
i* liuril to bruuk wlimi ]ii)lli.-il lt*iii|t h tvi^u. On our iioailiofi] 
plnnt«tioii« oak, htclcory, uth uiiil grnpC'Vinuri itro much uaoii i 
pl&cci ol" ropa in b.ilini; hay, foddcir," ctt;. 

TLe rollovvin;{ [irnclical ivmarke on the maQufactiiro of pal 
sail and aoap, 1 introdiico here in connection with tho hicknr 
from an nditoi-iul by Dr. Lee, in tho Southern Field utid Firo^ 
Bidu, Jiiromry IS, Ifil>2, (For "Sodii," kbh ■' Stt»>U" in this 
book, nnd " Qmrcu*.") Tho aitliori wo may obtain by burning 
porn-cotin yield miiri! jjotiLsb than any other :tvailablo sub«taD<-e; 
and tho alkali I'rotn this Hourco is rapidly converted into Mti>ra- 
tns or good Boap. Uorci-cobs arc mentioned bt-cauMC we often 
Noo thoin WKAted in quaniitieH whuri'> ho|j;s iiro led nnd vrhero 
much corn is nhdlod. Soap-mnkoni ut tho Korth buy all kinds 
nt' n-ood-ii«hcti, and find no dillliiutty in makin^fsoap flrom thorn ; 
liiit many ^^anthcrl1 iirgroc^ who make a littlu Hoap, do Roi un- 
dorHtand the art undor conifidcmtion. They require ashes from 
hickory, walnut, poplar, nr somo other wood rich in potash to 
sncceod in producing good soap. The quantity of limo nnniod in 
the directions f^iven in Iho article we copied xh two nr tlirce 
tiniOH larger than it nr-ed ha. A peck of reci^nlly slaked lime is 
abundant for a harrtd of iihIick. Limo that ha« been Ion:; slaked 
nnd cxpOHcd to ihu air will not an<w>'r. The object ol' the limo 
iit to d(!C0nip»MU all the carbonnlo of pota«^h disRolved out of tho 
oehcs, so that tho pure alkali will combine, with grenm or oil, 
to form Boap. When tho amount of potash in wood is flinall, an 
in pines and decayed, wood tho wholo of the alkali nnileti with 
csrbonio acid, or some other, if f\-ee, when thu wood in burnt. 
When a^hes are kept aoinu limo. If puitly cauMic when first 
burnt tVoin wood they part with their uaustii^ity by imbibinjf 
carbonic iictd fniin the ulmnnphere. ns fn^hly burnt limo will 
do. Hence, recently burnt ashes will often make soap with- 
out lime, hut will nol do if kopt »ovcral months. As caustiQ 
lime hn^ ii stronger alHnily Ibr carbonic acid than potaab or 
soda bni;, soa|>-makers And no trouble wliatever in making t*0Kp^_ 
fVom old ai-hos, or any ashes that have not been wet and wa*hiHl^| 
Uaving stated the reason why lime iit used, we will girn tho 
nimplei^l and btisl practice in the iirL of combining potash with 
an animal or vegetable oil or fat, whieh chemieul compound is 


ir potosli ift osod, and hard ir eocia iti used. KoniEO 

ciaand bofiiMlmids aro often UM-d lo <lri[> und IcmcIi aalien t», 

tilflwiul'l Htuiiil tin lioni'da oi' [iluiik, hu nn uvt to vra.-iti< thi) 

lye. T1mi> dono. n tew iiioho)< Ol' dt-aii hmcim-sirttw nliitiiKI bo 

phnd o wr all llio bottom or tho biirrol and pri-KKod down. For 

. K hag;;»lM«d of osheA, a good bunhel of rwoiuly ulakod Hmo 

I'SlMnId b« spread evenly on-r »ll the »traw ; bul a peck of lime 

l«ildofora bitrrel of oabe*. More lime will do no harm, and 

[ mme a»bt« may require a little more. Now All np the barrel of 

uhf, p^Bnd tlicm (luwn tnailcrtiloly niul pour mi boiliiij^ water, 

fftkat wbicb in hot, until thu ly<! riinit out at lliu bottom. If 

tk aobnt arc jjood, thii lyo will make n»up with very litllu 

hflisg; bnl if tbp pntwh in too diluted, mmu of the wutur 

■ut be cva|>oratod bolbro the chcmiuni union between tlio 

iftali and ;;rcafio will take placo. If too littlo gn-n*v i" put 

ntbcpoi or kettle, more must be added; and if there ia too 

■Kfc br all to combine with the potash, the cxoom mrntl be 

naoted alter the soap la eold. Where salt is cheap, it n 

\ Ivgel^ Med in the manufacture of bar aoap. Turpentine and 

KKiaaro nlMi luivd in thin branch of bu&tneaa. The cxplana- 

litmi iu reieruuce (o Aoda and turpentine &oap will le given 

iiwwbcpa. Salt IK at timos too expensive to be luwd in itoHp- 


Is an article on Soap and l^otash from tho Atlanta Oommon- 
waahh, in the Southern Field and Firomde for October, 1861, 
grast slnsM iit laid upon the ejti^u with whioh we can raanulao- 
tfliv pota«h in large quantity within the limiLt of the Southern 
StotMV *»d tho con»oqucnt prodiietion ofsoap: " But whether 
wm make our soap or u»tabli«h manufacturc-ti, we need lye or 
pstaah in large quantities. To have this wo must burn tho light 
Umi of wood, for itomti wood is better than other sorts, and wo 
■«st «ftvu all the a-thoH and tak« good care of them. The ashes 
•fcoold not only be Kuved for this purpoee, but to be used as ma- 
NKT*. It i« a shame that wo have been so long and so willingly 
4v|MBdent on tho North for so targv a catalogue of tho com- 
noaest articles, and ovon for tho article of soap.*' 

TIm following on the same subjoct is IVom tho Richmond Dis- 
patch, which I condense : "The great scarcity of Soap at the 
proeut lime arises from the want of potash and H>'ta asb. 
wilt make soap. The latter ia found in its natural state 

Coro-«tslk» 17 

OaklMrk uidelml««TM 21 

(iiafToii) in Egypt uid Soath Americ*, bat tbe prindpal snpi^y 
hts b««n obtained fmm Great Britaio, proGored by tbe baming 
of eea-weed». Tbe former (potash) U Bnpplied mostly from 
Canada and tbe State of Xew York. Tbere in in the Sonthwn 
States any qaantiiy of material to make potash, and I woald 
call the attention of fanners to its prodacUon. Il reqaire« bnt 
a simple procew in ita numafactnre — a few large iron panti and t 
half doxen vhiskey barrels, vith heads oat, and an iron lad)^ 
being all the apparatus reqnired. 

" Moat weeds famish potash, in a greabv or less degree, to 
every one bondred pounds. The following plants will funuah 
of potash: 

Oak wood 811ba.lPoUU> (tem 66 lia. 

Wheat m«w 4^ 

Barlej Btnw...... 6 

" These articles can be obtained by the farmers at little coat 
Select a ahaded position, gather in a large heap, set fire to it, 
keeping tbe fire op until several bushels of ashes are obtained; 
fill each barrel aboot one-quarter flill of slaked lime ; fill it tbes 
with water, stirring the ashes well ; let it stand over night, or 
for about twelve hours, ttirriitg frequently; strain offtbelyeas 
clear as possible ; pour in the kettles ud evaporate over a wood 
fire. Tbe kettle should be kept constantly full fi>r two days, (a 
little experience will soon teach the quantity of lye it will re- 
qaire to make them half fall with potash.) Tbe evaponttion 
should be continued until tbe mass obtaiDS tbe consistency of 
browD engar ; then increase tbe fire, by which it will be fused ; 
continue it until quiescent and luoks like melted iron ; with s 
ladle transfer it to iron pans or baking ovens, and allow it to 
cool; it may be than broken in pieces and packed in tight boxes 
or barrels. The experiment will pay well any enterprising 
farmer. Tbe article cannot now bo obtained at any cost, and 
can bo sold at a high rate. We hope this may induce some to 
try it. The expense of fixtures is small. Pine wood fomiahee 
bnt little potash." 

Ure, in his Dictionary of Science and- Manufactures, art 
Potash, p. 457, says : In America where timber is in many places 
an incumbrance upon the soil, it is felled, piled up in pyramids 
and burned, solely with a view to the maonfacture of potashes. 
Tho asboB are put into wooden cisterns having a ping at tbe 


bottom of one of the eides andor a fjiho bottom; a modorato 
^MOtily of water i« then poured on the mnss, on<I Bomo quiutc- 
ba* » *lim-<l III : af\«r Mtimiliiig Tor h fow houi*!!, ;io ns to talte 
>p tk« tolnblv m»tt«r, tho clunr liquor is drawn off, evnpoi-ated 
ta dTTHcM in iron puts, und linally fuwil at a red hl^al iatu coni> 
pKt niw6C«, which arc gray on ttia outaiile, and pink-colored 
witlitD. All kinds of regotables do not yield, bm adds, the same 
praponiona of pntaasa. The more Aooculciit tho plant, the 
■are iloec it nffoi-dj for il ta only in the juices that the vege- 
ubltt *alt« n'-^idi', whioh are oonvurt«d by inoiaei'atioD into a)- 

ic matter. lIcrb&<;ooas wcods are more produolivo of pot^ 
than the gramiuifcrous species, or sbraba, acid tbc«u tfaan 

; and for a like reason twigs and leaveit nro more produo- 
lintlian limber. Bnl plants in all oaAct* uro riuhont in alkaline 
mIu when tliey have arrived at luatiirity. Tbo soil in which 
HmjgtQW, »leo, inAuenoeA the quantity of Halinc matter. The 
ftfltsiag tahlo rshiliitn the average product in potiiesa of bov> 
tnlflaaia, according to the rcerarchca of Vaiiquclin, Pertuiti, 
Eirwaaand DeSanasuro: 

U tOOQ ftrU I In IQi/) pari* h 1000 parU 

Hmv Ir. „.„_0.-l5 TfaUtlM -,„ 6.(M] Bstlnrtl (.■bumoniilu— 

Fakr 0.76 F1ii£«Uirot 600 A-»t]irmua.tula,l,.lt'M 

TmMI O.TS Sniiill nuliw _G.08 (lutiflowpr Hal k)~.... 20.00 

ninlBiwl I.4'> Vir-o ronti -a.&O Common noitln.. 36.03 

(^. I. is Borlcy Uriiw 6.8*1 V.-uli jilnitl aT.50 

l«im«d_ 2.2<;,Dfv beech Imrk CO" Thislli-i, fiill {ro-Ui.3.VS7 

W3mr _....3.M F«fo H.2« Ihy itinw of wlii-At 

.7,17, Iwfiirci-Bring 17.00 

Kta aad rnwls S 00 

"~ i«r«w ~»9l 

t of oak twif^s.-.J-ZD 

LBrin rush... 


r™ ni 
■Ik of 

aiaise IT. U: Wormwood. _T8.«> 

Bma >la1lu -WI)0|Fiinilt.>rj- 7B.0Q 

s of tobacco, {KXatoe'i, clientoRl-husks, broooi-heAlh, 
tan*, tansy, sorrel, vino leaves, beet leaves, oraoh and many 
iMhvr planU abound in potash hkIIi>. In Burgundy the well 
known <tndrea ijrai-fteei are made l>y incinerating the le«H of 
wine pre>«e<l into cakes and dried in tho Hun ; the aNhM contain 
fiiUy sixteen per cent, of jtotaasa. To manufacture mrb^nate of 
ehloratc, etc., from anhes, see, also, Urc's Dictionary. 
) Bom-xhack and cob contain potash, and an economical soap 
' M mvie from ooni-shaokfl. Sco "Zra," in this volame. 

Count Chaptal, "Chemistry applied lo Agriculture," p, 290, 
I i«r«r« to the method of u«ng economy in washing and blcacb- 
' iog cloths, linen, etc., by a soapy liquor, a aolution of oil and 


soda, it) pIsco of orJiniuy soup. Uu also introdncufi and di 
Btrribea a plan tor waHhini;; nn<l (^IcanHinj^ houschoIJ linon ai 
ooLloii yarn by Bleain tVom alkaline BolaUons. Theospensoj 
ibrcu-Aoventlia of ihe espeuso of the common method. 

I iiitru(luc>C lli<! following from CJIiuptttl's Choinistrj- ftppUf 
to Agriculture, as it shows tbv very dilTvrviit compontion 
difTereDl plants — the potato, for csamplc : 

"It appears that tbo ihi^e earths which form the basis of 1 
most ft^rlilo Hoil entvr into the composition of plants. Ber 
tnann Iims provod this by lui tinnlyMs of H«vi-ral Icindi* of jp'iiin, 
and Rockort, by tbi' rusiiltsof bis exprrinn'ritM tipon ii varii-ty 
of vegetable producliuDs, in a way to pat it beyond donbt. 
Abom one hundred parts of aehee well leached, and coose- 
quontly diNongngid of all their salts, yielded : 

Siika. Ltmt. AluHtiaa. 

Allien of whMt *» ST 16 

" onU _ 68 M It 

>< boTli-y „.„ m 18 16 

" rye 68 21 16 

" iioiatoi<ii „,..„ 4 OS 80 

■■ rod cloTor _ 3T 33 80' 

"Snft soaps," e&ys Ure, "are usually made in tlus oouniry 
with whale, seal, olive and linseed oils, and a certain quantity 
of tallow ; on the Continent, with the oils of bvrup^iticd, sesaiue 
(bene, which ix pliinti-d in tbo Southern States,) rapedeed, lin- 
seed, poppy-flwd and colza, or with mixtures of several of lhv*e 
oils. When tallow is added, as in Great Britain, the object is 
to produce white and somewhat solid grains of stearic ttwup in 
the transparent maits, called tigging, because the hoiip then ro- 
semblos the granului' texture of a 'fig.'" "The jiotusb lyes 
tdiould be made perfectly cauHtic, and of at leant two ditTerent 
strcngtbN," I'tc. See TJro, p. 668, for method. Any of tiie seods 
of our oily {.ilunts, the ouliivution of which 1 bavo so often rvo- 
omnicnclvil, can be presHcd in a flannel bag in an ordinary cotton 
press. If the pressure is exercised in a warm room Iivatcd by 
a stove, the escape of the oil will be much fucilitatud. 

A lye made of wood ai<htts will stop the rust in wheat, if tho 
seeds are sonkcd in it bitforo being planted for two or tbrcu 
bount. It is a useful subHtituto at this time for the brinu which 
is usually made of sulphate of copper or salt 

Aa ibe Concentrated Lye may b« mailo from ash^ I am in- 
4ieed to Insert the following on this sU-importaDl subject. 
B«ia \» atintidanl in the Sotitboi'D States, and vcgetablu wax 
■Mimbcui be obtained. Soc •*Myrmi" and Artw', (_" Se*amum.") 
9m Bothod of preparing concootrated lye undur whit« o»k, 
•flBfmwfltta," in this volnme. 

YtOaur or Roain Soup. — Diseolve one pound of concentrated 
Ijv in uno half galloa of water and fiet it a^ide ; heat in a keule 
Meg^lon of water and three and a half poundit of fat or tab 
bv, nod comint<nc« to innUe the aosp Jui<t a« aboro for bard 
■sap, with Btnall qoantitieH of lye and a very email fire, until 
Ae«np is ready for ealt. but add no eali. Put in now one and 
lln<-fonrth poand of powdered roein, and let it boll down hy 
MUtantly alirrtOfi; until the soap siieka on the kettle and gut« 
my ihiek. It ix now tintnhod, and may be put into a mould. 

Bani Fanct/ Soap. — PtKwdve on« pound of the concentrated 
treio two and a half pounds of hot water and let it cool; then 
■fit by a low heat five pounds of clear t'm or tallow, pour in 
thalye in a very small stroaui and stir it rapidly; keep stirring 
wtfl all has aaauiued the appearance of thick honey, and falU 
■ff the »tirt«r in large drops. It ia then fintiilied. Corer it up 
aadntthe batch in a tvarm place; or better, cover it with a 
illen blanket to keep in the beat aod let it stand for twenty- 

Drhoor*, when It will have sot In a fine, hard soap, which 

ay be perfumed and variegated with colont by Htirring the 
. colore or iK'rfumet into the mixture ju»t befont cover- 
ts- If lard or oliro oil U ommI, no benttng of the same i* 

A^ Soap. — To one pound of the concentraled lye a^ld throe 
|Klio«t9 of eofl water, and four and one-half to five pounds of 
fal or tallow; boil until the masn geta transparent and all tlio 
bt ha* di«B|>peared. Now add fifteen gallons of water, boil u 
fcw tntnates and the «u»p will be ready for uae. As soon as 
mid, it will be a perfect jelly. If too thick, add more water, 
«Ucb can bo done to make the eoap to any oomristeney desired. 
Twenty-five gallons of good soft soap can be made in this way 
Mt of one pound of the ooncentrated lyo. 

Pump trater b soltened and made fit for washing as follows: 

4va one rake of the concenlmted lye in one gallon of water, 

< it for UHO in u well-corked demijohn or jog. To a 


SALICACE^. (TAc Willow Tribe.} 

Burk jTAncmlly atitringcnt, tonic and stomachic. 

BLACK OR SWAMP WILLOW, («aiu: myra, L.) Grot 
alon^ slrcaniB; Richlund ) vicinity of Cliiirleston ; uollcclvd 
St. John's; Newborn, Fl. May. 

BeU'a Praot. Diet. 403; U. S. Wsp. C22. Soo work of'yonnpcr 
Michaiix, Ball, luid Gar. Mst. Mod. 337; U^r. and do L. I>ict 
do M. Mid. vi, la^ : Griffith, Med. Uol. S83 ; Sclmepf, Hat. Med. 
43 J Ell, Rol. >(<'il. Not«R, ii, 671. Tim willou- in >tii))i>0Aed lo 
ftinibh us with Olio of the Itwl tmbnlitulert for PvriiviiLii Iwirk ; 
Uie 8. alba, which may bu invludcd iimoog the many varicliM 
foDod in the Southern State*, and which un< not yet m-cnrutoly 
di9tiugQi6hed, seems to ho held in high estimation. But this 
upecieti, aloo, i(t considered valuable; the bark poAsessing some 
power aa u pni-gatiTtt, auti-intermittont and vermifuge. It al^i 
fiimtsh<.',-< tho prin<:iplu (■iilled solicin, which, iVtim the rentiltt of 
late cxpcrimcntic, i« found to ho much Ivsh valuuhic than quinia, 
but is a good hitter tonic. Sec Journal Phil. Coll. Pliarm. for 
Uie mode of preparation. The bark of the root and branche« 
isofllcinal It is tonic and )«omewhat astringent, Thu ili^coc- 
tion made with one ounce of burk to one pint of boiling water, 
of which the dose ia two fluid ouocch, ehould he boiled ten 
minute*!, iind strained while hot. Dose of galiein from Iwo to 
eight grains and increaficd. It might well attract attention us 
• Hubtitituto for quinine. The large alema of thi« tree uro light 
aod diiralilu, and arc uocd for the tiiniiern of boat:!. 

There aro several other spccicn in the Southern States. Th^i 
willow — oeior willow, (see article in Farmer and Planter, Scpt^H 
I8B1,) is cultivated extensively in Germany, Franco and flol^^ 
fpum for making baskets, bats, screens, elc, etc. Adnr moat 
carcl\il oxperimont it has been found (hat the hoHt species to 
introduce into the Soulhem States for the purpoitc, arc the 
Salix forleyana, Salixpurpumi, purplo willow and Salix. triandra, 
long-leaved willow. F'jrf-rs' willow is verj' productive and hardj 
one of the most valuable epocic« for common work, whcro 
peeled rods arc used. It does not whiten well. 

Purple iVilluie. — Kxperiments have shown that this spcciea' 
in iho most valnable and pmliluhlc for usiem in this country. 
With good ordinary culturtt its shuoto will average too foot id 



W^[tb; will thriTe b«M in iloop. moiHt stril, where it will cusily 

^ yield from four to flvo tons per acre of the most excellent rods, 

[Weil qualified for the finest work. The purple willow, asido 

from being the most valuable for man ufm- luring all the fiue§t 

Und* of willow-wnrc, is the best speoiea for hedgen, and is most 

•xKnsirvlf aw6 for thiit puqtOHe in Gennaiiy nnil Holland. 

Hw leaves snd the bark b«ing so very bittvr will »ot be toat-hod 

bf cattle, while the eboots may be Tormed into any shape, and 

the hedf^ thereby made impregnable, t'ine hedges or sei-eena 

of l»eniy-fivu feet in height may be grown ftwm willow cut- 

tii^i of lhi» ttpvcioH in live yi»rH, ihuA atTording itlmoKt imme- 

4atc »b«ltor, BO indupeiisiibtc at all neuHcmA of the year. Wo 

tan MOB, tho writer add^, eereone in RiiHHtu, of ibe willow, 

Ibtty-Aot high, summnding parks from three lo fonr hundred 

MRS in extent, alToriiing the motft perfect Bbelter againitt tho 

fwteping windh and alormB. Ita soft, green and glossy tbiiage 

will make it an object of g^at beauty and attraction. 

IVi laat mentioned, the Sitlix Iriandra, long-leaved willow, 
«S {TOW with almost i^qual vigor in any mil of depth ; ripens 
IB riiootfl very early and whiiena beauiiftdly ; iit tough and 
}Mle, and a general favorite with our German basket-makers 
Ihr iplil-work. This willow is most extensively cultivated iu 
Gctmaay by the thousands of aores. Its cultivation ia highly 
ealeened by the people and much encouraged by the govern- 

Satix caprea, though not valued a.i un Ofier, is <lc«erTing of 
■Ucotion, as it will grow in wot situations where other trees 
viU hardly exist. It Aimishes food for bee-s ut a time when it 
it moat needed. In early spring, before other flowers appear, 
tbb tre« is a maae of dacxling bloom, most eagerly sought alter 
by beM. Thi-t willow Is also valuable for hoops. 

The cottingK, in our eliiuale, nhould he pre)>an!d in fall or 
early winter, and if planted ut that time the cndi« will form the 
ealloaity preparatory to Mnding out root«. In setting the cut- 
tingi in the ground prepared for them, care should bo taken to 
hare them set deep enough; a *fmull portion only should re- 
taaiu above ground, the strongest roots always start from the 
low«r end of the outting or sot; by doing so the most rigorona 
growth w ill he obtained. 
In establishing a willow plantation, cntUngs of vigoroua up- 

landfirowth. Thai have had «n»hiindnncc of room, wliouldoulj-l"' 
puitliused and used, and, if obtainable, si-lcct wood of otm year - 
gpowtti, with a porlion of two years wood from tAiv lower ex- 
treiniiy. Deep fcoils, free from Klandin^ water, but jfll so soft 
that [ilowing is iiii|>racijca1i1e, will grow enormous grawths of 
8. triandra, requiriug no t^irther culLiratiou but keepinj; tho 
wcirdN down for ihu lirM year or two, allcr whtob time the wil- 
lows will bo of »ufKeiviit slrvngth to take «aro of themutlTed, 
and provide Ibr theirown shadoiind wdl-boiDf;. Wo have in the 
Sonthem States large districts of deep allnvium, often inclining 
to Hwampa, which are so mnch drained as to do away with their 
awampy cbamctcr, and with no other preparation than remov- 
ing the treat, may make oxocllent willow plaulationa. Sir J. 
W. Hooker obaerrea: "The Diaiiy important unca rendered to 
men by the ditltTt^nt cpccios of willow nerve to m»k them 
among the first in tbu Hist of onr economical plants." The edi- 
tor of the Southern Farmer and Planter then qnotc* a state- 
ment by W. P. Knport, of Geneva, N. Y., ahowing a net proGt 
of 4533 per acre from planting the <*ier willow. 

See, also, Chuplurct Chvmistry applied tu Agricnlture for the 
method of planting willow along bonier:* of land liable to inan- 
dation, to Ichwii the force of the water, to strongthon the M>il, 
and reclaim the land. A border of willow and poplar is planted 
OTor the banks or along the RidcH of the wnterc-otiriictt, and the 
plants are croppi^d at Ihc topn 1^0 a» to increase the thickness of 
thoir growth. 

In u paper in Patent Office Kcports on Agricultarc, p. 46, 
I8B1, by W. G. Hayncs, of Putnam County, N. T., it ia aUted 
that four or five million dollars worth of willow wero imported 
annually into the United Slates from France aud Ciermuny. 
The prices ranged from $1 to €1 30 per ton weight. The writer 
contlnea hit) attention to the "three kind» boHt adapted for 
bai*ket-making, funning, tanning and fencing." Ho says: "The 
Sfi'^' viminiilif in that »>pocimcn of all others bc«t adaptod for 
bnekcI-makcrA. An acre of this properly planted, and cuIU- 
vated upon snitablc soil, will yield at leafil two tons weight per 
year." Sec the pn]ior cited for yield. The )>eoplo of Kiigland, 
till 1808, relied entirely for thdr nujiply upon Conlinenlal Rti- 
rope. The Stilix alba, or Bedford willow, is mawh planted liy 
the Duke of Bedford. " Thu bark is held in high estimation 



ft>r lanniDg. the wood for itbocntskor8' lii«t«, bool-trcM, cot 
boards, ^D and pistol Mloi-kfi, and houKo timber; thv wuad Iwiog 
ftiM grained, and HiigFe|>tiblo of as fine a polish as roeowood or 
BsliOgany. An acre of this kind of wood, Wd years old, lias 
BoU in England fur £lih." Tlie "Salix tiiha is extensivel^fl 
mm! bjr rvtircd triulosinvn who build in tlio country for tliO 
pnpose of srcuritig shade in a short Umc, and by the nobility 
■mud tJieir flsli-ponde and null-dams, and along tbdr valor- 
maoKA and avenuea. This ia the priitctpnl wood used in the 
■ann&dare of gnnjMwder in England." Il requirwi tvroke 
IkMuand cuttitigs to pliint ouo m'jv. Mnch tnnd worth for littlofl 
etM night be planted in willow. " 

The noxt sp^iea la the Huntingdon willow, (_8. eaprai,} 
"mhith a a good bnHkot willow, and is nnts] exteniiivoly in 
bgUnd by the farmers for hoop-polen und fviic-ing. Tla-ir 
niatRT of planting for fencing is by pItiHng ibvcnds of lbo| 
fotifaigK in the gniund, and then working i1i<;m into a kind 
lnl(ii-work, and passing a willow witho around the tops orj 
*iiil! as to kc«p in shape for the first two years. They cut 
ttc lOfks oif yearly, and sell them to the basket- makers, thusi 
katiDg a kaav und crop from the same gniund." Another do-J 
Knption of fence is also made from the Salix eaprea, "knowaj 
in Ungtand by tlio name of bardie fenoee>, which may be re>j 
■ored ai the picamtre or dieierelion of tlie propriolor." 

la Rtigland. Wilson ouys, an acre of osier will yield gr<-alL-r 
yroBt than on« of wfai-al. Tho Siil'r pHrpvrtA, ii.t wbj* staled, ig^ 
itta nilgabiv. "The cutting of n basket twig'shotild be mad^fl 
•li^tngly within three buds of the point whence the shoot 
ivaed; and the culling of a hoop willow may be made so low. 
■a lo leave only the swell al the bultom of the shoot. Rn»kvL 
hriga are commonly vortcil into three fizoM, and tied into bnn- 
dlca of each two fe«l in circumference ; and when Ibey arc to 
be ppcled, they arc imt on their thick end, a few inches deep in 
•landing water, and lett there till commoniy the latter part of 
dw following Hay. The apparatns for peeling is simply two 
rmnd rods of iron, nearly half an inch tbick, pixtoeu inchea 
loD^ and tapering a little upward, welded together a little al 
(KM end, which lit Hhurpcned, m> that it niny be eai>ily thrust 
down into (he gronnd, When thus plated in a pioee of firm 
gnmnd, thv peder sits down opposite to it, and Utkni tbc willow 


in the right huiid by thi> xniull otid, nnd piiut a foot or more of 
tbo grext cn<l inlu ttit! iriNtriimiTiil, llto proiiga oC w)tto)i lit 
proMos tog«thcr with the k-ll hnnii, aud with the right druw^ 
the willow toward him. bj which operntion the bark will >| 
ohce be separated fVom the wood; tho tmall end w then treated 
in the same manner, and the }>eeling ie completed. After bv>n| 
pooled thoy will keep in a good condition for a long time, till a. 
proper market be found, liural Cyc. h 

Charcoal ma<]e of willow or oak i§ a useful auli-fieptic a^icent,^ 
poSNV^aing the power of abitorbiii^gusoA, and ueic-ful in dytipcp- 
eia and ill-cundition^rd NtiitL'ni of the gaotrointeKtinal muMUA 
mvmbrani^s. It is also iti^icd us a mcchanicnl laxative, in doHos 
of ten to fillecn grains. It is supposed to act ax a prophj'lactie 
in yellow fever, and to prevent the acetoun fermentation when^ 
ndded to cai^ks of wine, elder, etc En preparing it, the con 
mon churcoul from grenn wood in reduced to p()wdor. Thist 
reheated and burned to igtiition in n tightly covered vi-wsol. U 
is then kept for uho in cloitoly stopped bottles, as it will absort 
moisture and gases fVom the atmosphere. It is used also as 
general purifyer. Brackish water strained through a layer i 
i>iiiid and powden-d charcoal Ia madtt tiweot-and pnro. 

For making gunpowder charcoal, the lighter woods, such 
the willow, dogwood and aider, answer best ; and in their car- 
bonization eare should be taken to let the vaporn fVeety f^ajHS, 
cspcctally toward the end of the oporatioti, for when tJivy^_ 
ani re-iiliHorbed, they greatly iinpair the comhu.ttibitity of thJH 
ehni-i oal. The charcoal of some wood contain)) nilicu, and if, 
therefore, used for polinhiog metnia Or. Muiihet publii<hcd thq , 
following tabic of the qiiunUty of charcoal yielded by different 
woodn : 

Ch<»tnut V8.3 of oharooal—glony, black, compact, Orm. 

Oak SS.a black, dote, Tnry Arm. 

Walnut ..» 30 6 iliill b1ii<!k, i^luie, Una. 

Hollj.- ID.'I iliill tiUch, loiw and bulky. 

Beeoh ...lO.O dull blauk, apungiy, Brm. 

AjeamoN.. IS. 7 fine bkck, bulk;, madnr&taljr firm. 

Kim 19,6 fill" bliK^k, inndvrat^lj' Urm, 

Norway pirn.' U'.H sbiiiiiig bluck, bulky, very toft. 

Sallow or wlllaiT....I8.4 vrlvnt blnrk, bulky, looim, vofl. 

Aali t.^ 17.9 khiniii^; bluck, spungy, flrm. 

Blrdi IT.4 vclvnt black, bulky, flrm, [Am. Fiirmtr-4 Sw^ 


On Ute flabject of JV'ifre, and the maloriala for jfunpowilur, I 

will iniroduca llie rullowiiifj; from Clmiilaln Clio iiiiH try, Uftpltcd 

te A^riciiUure, ji. I&3, and reiui- the i-i.'iiil(ir to Prol'. Lto'imto's 

paji^ OD nitrv tiodit, puMixhcd in Coluniliiu, lBi)2. Diirvrvnt 

kmiU of WXXMJ, be Myft, y i«ld coal of very diffvrvnl quality ; iho 

faoM ocMd i» bcsry and •onoroiiit, nnd in produced from wood of 

Trty compact 6br«. Tho boat it iifl'ord« in quick und strong, 

mmI its combnfltion, tbongh Tigorou*. Ia«t« a long time. The 

Tbairnal of the gre«n oak of lli? South burns at toast twice a« 

long a* that of thti nbite oak of the Xorth, and iho cfTeoIii pro- 

dwed by the heat it afl'oniA aro grciil in the einme pniporlion. 

Ihe %ht, )>oroiiH, whit« woodei ufTord a brittle, »\>ongy coal, 

of Iflm weight, and which may be ratiily reduced lu jwwdur; 

tkttculcqn^iitncs quickly in our fireplaces, but U UDuful foreomo 

fvfom*, particularly in the mannf^lura of gunpowder, for 

whidi we it ia prepared by the foIIowiDg proccw : a ditch of 

fn or six feet square and of about four in depth is dug in a 

irfsail; the ditch in heated by meane of a fire made of spUt 

««oJi tbe fthootA and k'ave» arc stripped iVoni the long branches 

altUern, i>nplani, hazels and willows, of which the coal in 10 be 

■■ile,and ok r^oon as the ditch is Eiuflicicnlly hcutcd the hranchc-H 

uvthtowb gradually in ; when carbonisation is at its height the 

fit ifi covered over with wet woollen doths. This charcoal is 

Aore light and inAammable than that of the denser wooda, and 

b KWMpUblo of being more eottily and complulcly pulverir.nd. 

X. ProoKt, wbo b«» made numerous exponmcnlK to anoertaiii 

Ifce fcinda of plants which furnish the best coal for powder, 

KMwi that procured Crota tbe stalk of hemp to be preferable to 

•ay other. 

The most perfect proce^sis of oarbooization is by meoos of 
s dow Bppantaa^ for thiH purpose a stone or brick building 
ia eODStract«d of eighteen to twenty-five feet square ; this is 
nutted over and the inside of it lined with a brick wall ; through 
tb««xi«tit of it cast-iron cylindurn are laid in such a manner 
tkatooaoftho two end« shall hnvo an external communiua- 
tioB, while the other carries the smoke into one of tho chim- 
neys. As sooD as the building is filled with tbe wood for 
carbonization tbe cylinders may be hoatod. Tho vapor which 
U diMilled from the wood U received into sheet-iron pipes, 
^■ccd in the top, which convey it into tubs where it is ooo* 


donec>(]. Outint Chuptnl MU>«m8 thiH to be the bi'sl and mo 
flooRoinicsl a|)parutus for iDKking charvoail: busifU-K, it nllni 
the preeorvation of tfao pyrQllj^noous acid, which brin^EX a 
price, and may also bo purified and converted into vincf^tir. 

In Kiiglaiid, ebai-coal is prepared in two JifTcrvtit waye. 
one, billctii of wood are formed into a lu^ap, which is ©over 
vith lorf, and a fuw Hmall oponinj^H only led Tor Iho admbuiq 
of tkv air r(,ti]iiiHit«i to iiiiiintain it in a ^lUUt of low oombniit 
afl^r it is lighted. When ibe wbolo hcup is vn fire, the hol4 
arc stopped, and afler the mass has cooled tbo residue is obt 
coal. ThJM ia ftubfltnntially the method adopted on our plant 
tatiotitt. tn the other modo, the wood is diAlillcd in iron cylin- 
dcTV, in which cane the proiluutrt aru pyrolij^noouM aotdft and 
crapj-rMimatic oil ; and what rcmuin>t in lh« retort in tharcoal. 
The quantity of the distilled pi-oductf, ai well as of tbo charcoal, 
dcponda on the kind of wood employed. One hundred purt^ of 
dried otik yii^hlit of py ml igneous acid, 43. pitria; oarbouato of 
potap«a, 4.5 ptirtn; empyriMinmtie oil, 9.0^ paria; charcoal, 26.2 
parts. Farmer's Bncyc, Urc's Diet, of Arts and Rural Cj"< 
See, also, " Qiicrras" and "i*inus" in this rolumo. 

Five hundred cords wiliowwas contracted for, lobtidolivcrcil 
on the line of tbo oanal, at the government powder factory, at 
Augusta, Ga., daring the roci-nt war. "The willow may be of 
any nixo, the smaller branC'lics being preferred ; the larger stiek^^| 
mui-t be split into parts not largur than ihc arm. It inuBt b^^ 
cut into uniform lengths of three ioel, and each cord will roea- 
aiiro fourteen feet long, three loet high and three feet broad, 
ooTituining one hundred and twenty-six cubic feot. Th« 
miiAt be carefVilly peeled oif at the time of cutting." 

Pitrificiitwn a/ Wtiler hy Charcnat. — The reader is refe 
Chaptui's "Chemi"lry npplivd to Agritjultiiro" for raudi thftt 
is practical in the domestic economy of oar plantalionA iu tha 
South on the manufacture of wine, brandy, etc. In his chapter 
on tbo "means of preparing wholesome dnnka for the use of 
country people," he giveM the following method Ibr rendering im* 
pure water pure. It would bo found of great service at the pres- 
ent time, and our generals in the lield might thuH, at little coat, 
purify water fi>r thi' use of their campK, for want of which xim- 
plo expedient, moves, possibly ditiastrous, have oRen to he made 
in faeo of an enemy. "The water made use of is often muddy, 


•r k«* n tw*l fmiOl, citlior of which faults may be oorrcolcd hy 
Sltninjr il thnxigti t-hiircoal ; ihe pmccns may hn itun'oritKHl in 
UuluUnwinK manner: plaov a ]at^ cii--<k apri^bt, in llto i.-oolc«t 
fliotuon you can cvnimaml. knoi-k "ui tho bv'ud, ami form iu 
Ifce bottom of it a bod of clean eand upon which place one of 
tkucoal, and above these fa§Ien eeourely a double head pivmod 
«itfa koln^ Whvii ihiH is (lone the caAk may bo iminciliittely 
UM with the n-alt-r which i>t to be purified. Th« liltratod 
Ind may be drawn off by mvnnH of u Htop oock placed at the 
bMomof tha b«d of mikI ; it will bv found to bavo become 
4iirBiMl inodorous in its passage through '.ho tand and char- 
«aL The preserration of thU apparatus requires hut littlo 
eart^ when the cbai'coal ceases to produce the desired clfect, it 
bM Ui Mtbrr wuli wa>hcd or rt'plneed by a new portion." 
1%i«p(aa can be put in practice by any one, and at any timn. 

WEKPIXG WILLOW, (iii/wr Jiabilomra.^ Complotcly oatu- 

It ferms one of our most beautiful and g^raceful ornamental 
MM. Only the pistillate plant is found here; and hence it 
iloH not maturv itM fniil a« the othei-o do. 
IPHITE POPLAR. (P^ptiius alba.) Intro.lnceii. 
TUa la an aquatic plant, yet will grow on dry soils. It is 
Mdy priopagale<d by nuekers grown rupiilly, ia very tenacioua 
*f lifs, and !• "IK! of the trei-s pl]int<»l to prevent the encroiieh- 
Bcatof the eea or rirer*. by bcin^ planted with willown on the 
maf^fin. See^ also, willow, {^Satix.) 

The poplar bas a very white, light wood, very suitable Ibr 
iaaring; also eminently suited, on account of its lightness, for 
tfc« manofactare of trays, bowla,etc. "It is excellently aditpted 
fer the purposas of the bellow H-maker, and of ibe mauufoo- 
tKnr of wooden aoles of tihoco ; it is j^od for tight cari« ; excel* 
bat abo for lathH an<l luii'king-ca^'A; very superior for wooden 
Voavtractioni unilvr water i and in fiu;t a» uvailablu for an 
■lowwt innnmorable variety of purposes, from the mean ones of 
, utd poles to tbo noble ones of tools and furnilare. Ponley 
Mert« it to be ixrrfectly snilahle for almost oveiy article 
tuaally made of mahogany, and quite capable of being stained 
•ad dcMtoretl into a very cIom! imil.ttion of that vahiable wood." 
Wilaon. The vnto^ of oar wild, tulip-l>e»ring poplar iLirvxlm- 
Am) ia adapted to tnmilar purposes, being light, and caaily 


vorkod, and nsed by tlio oabinct-mabcr for many porpmcit. 
IB fflatod hi ihe Fai-mor'B Encyclopnedia that by H|iliitin!> 
wood of tlie w)iit« pojilai- iiilo thin nburingN lilcv tapv or braiil, 
the ttliilf onllud uptirtrrlf, uited fur baU, \* ntKiiuriiutarod. These 
shaving nri* always niailo from grvon wood. Odo workman 
can, with tho aid of iv vliild to carry off tho ithaviiif^s, keep 
SDVornl plaitcrs employed. Tbi» might bo mode a source ol 
successful industry in the Sonthtmi States. 

Paper from Wuad Pulp. — A company of two handrvd gf^ntlc- 
mon, rnprcHCiitiiig ibfl iiews|Miper and book [tubliMhcrH Ol* ~Svw 
York, Donton and Ihin city, puiit a Tivit (18B6) U> tho Maoayunk 
Wood Paper Pulp Works, ami wilnes«cd tho entire prot-ess ot 
fonvortins cord wood into paper pidp, and it* manulaclurc into 
paper. The pulp works arc very oxtcD«wo, buildings and 
machinery havio]^ cost 9500,000. Tho grc«t fcalure of the 
works is tbi> economy in tho ii«o of chemicals, which disin- 
tograto the wood and bleach the pulp, the rcfuso being carried 
to tke evaporating bouse, where tlie cheDiicals are rendered fit 
for using ftgftln, only twenty por cent, of fresh stock being 
uddcil to make it uqaal to its former e>trt.>ngth. A pojilar Irou 
was taken from ibc bill-vide forthoir bcnclit, and converted into 
clear, white, soil paper, in the space of five hours. At tlie ad- 
joining:, (irujLt Rock Papor MilU, excellent printing paper is 
made with mgbly por ocul. of wood pulp and twenty peroenl. 
of straw pulp. From ton to fifloen tons of wooii pnip ar« 
tnrned out daily. The works havo bat recently gone into ope- 
ration, and already tho price of paper U roduccd threo oenta 
per pound. 

Upon examining tlie excresoenoes caused by an insect io 
large numbers on the Icaviis of the ootton-wood tree, (P. heiera- 
phytla, L.,) I tiud them poMHcsscd of great biltftrniiHd, ant) sue 
gest an examination into their tonic proporticB. 


iti auK- I 

Diffused from 

RWRKT GUM, [Liquidambar styracifiua, L.) 
Fla, to Maryland. Fl. Mai-cL. 

U. S. Disp. 27.3 ; Pe. Mat. Med. and Therap. u, 184; Ed. and 
Vav. Mat. Med. 303 ; Journal Phil. Ooll. Pbarm. vi, 190 ; Roylo, 
Mat. Med. 5t)2; Bcrgii, Mat. Mod. ii, 798; Linn. Veg. M. Mod. 
Ill former tiniott the rosin was used in scabies; audit Js said 


(&■. HeriwL by J. Stearus) to be usofiil in resolving bard 
tnnioni in the utenis. The IndtanH esteemed it an excellent 
frbrituf^, nnd i^mploycd il in heuliiig waunilA. Mar. iind tto L. 
Diet, de M. vMe<l. if, 138, and th<- Huppldin. I$46 ; Ann. do M;<;>nt- 
fdlier, 1805, 327; Joum»l i)o Phitrm. vii.SSS.and vii, 54!^; Bull. 
iiTber*])., October, IKU, wbc-re D. L'tlvrilicr pn>|KMO(* tu treftl 
Ueniion^«j(ise and tencorrboaoti wiib liquid styrax. A kind of 
flO, oiled copalm, is extracted from it in Kexico, which, when 
•abnivd, is called oo|Mlin retain ; this is an excitant of the 
Kwoas RystcRi, and il ia given in chronic calurrl)i4, and in affuo- 
tiou of tbe Inngv, int«8lini-« and urinary pattMugVH. ThiAt w 
corjiil and stomachic; it uxcite« botb pvi>piri)tioii and nrino; 
)ti»^Ma£ed in perfamciy. In South Carolina and (reorgia 
lh( leoaperatare in not high enough tbr tbiit troo to ftiruiah 
■■digatn. Dr. Griflfth experimented with it in the inlttudeof 
Bdlimon^ and obtained a emtdl quantity by boiling the tirigs 
lai bnutchea; he found that it exintii in greate!>l abundance in 
Ikyanng treett junt befure llio appearance of the leaves. It in 
thtu tbe coo«i»t<'nc« of honey, of u yi-liow ciolor, and of a 
{■hurat, baisainio odor nnd tiisto. The acid obtained from the 
gua is not bcDzoie, aa the English a«sortf but cynamic. Soe 
Am. J. Pharni. The tree is of rapid grovth, and is orno- 
KMal— frequently aseuniing the appearance of a sugar-loaf. 
Tbe wood i* tutft, but not durable. A decoction of the inner 
baric of the gum in a quart of milk, or a tea made with boiling 
valer is one of the mottt valuable and imefid mucilaginouB 
astriugents that wo possess. It can bo employed with advan- 
tage in cases of diarrhcea and dysentery. Dr. U. W. Wright, of 
iioaicrille, Ky^ slates that the bark of ibe tree is used with 
^^b»t adTiinlAgo iu the Wi'riient Stales in the diarrhtea and 
l^leiitAry of Hunimer, especially in children. A syrup from the 
bark is prepared in tbc same manner on the oyrup of wild 
th t r r j b*rk. The do^ i» a fluid ounce f-tr an adult, repealed 
afttrMwh stool. Am. J. Med. Sc. N. tS. xxxii, 126. The editor 
of the Va. Hed. J., August, l^fi, says that the use of a decoo- 
lion of the bark in milk is oomraon in many parts of Virginia 
M a n.-mfdy in tho diarrhren of oliildren. V. 8. DIsp., ]2tb 
H. In Georjpa, also, a common domestic remealy for diar- 
ilNeas ia made by boiling in water equal partH of iho barks of 
tlie red oak and sweet gum — a small proportion of spirits may 


oftCQ be added with advHDtngo. Dr. WiHgbt clkims thut the 
§yrup is rutuiiiud by un irrilnblo slomucli whon alinoflt cvorjf 
oUior form of usliingfiit incdii-inn is rcjocttMl. Soc, aisQ, Par- 
ri»li TrMi-t. Phartn., [i. 2^0. 

Xicavcs of native trets for Tanning Leather rtcommended in 
place of Oak 6arAr.— Duritig tht) moDtbBof October and JJovent- 
ber, 1861, 1 had the leisure to make aoiue ezperimenta u^ton tb« 
riilslivo »moui)t of tlio uHlritigont priociplee in thu katft.* of 
suvuiul of our tno«t ubundttiit iiatiw iraei. The rvpntod power 
of tht.1 dogtbnnd nnd olbor pinnte for tho rapid tAumng of 
loalbor uttroctod my utiunlioD to tho eubjoct. 1 publish the 
following, that the grven leaves may be collected and naed 
bcfoi-e they fall. They can bo much more readily obtaiDed than 
oak bark. I made two aeriua of t>xpei'imi.'i)i8, wiUi a solution of 
each k'uf in boiling wiilcr, in nupurutu tv»t<glai>ticH. AlVor thoy 
had remaiBcd a Hufhcicut time for thu coloring mattora and the 
aKlriu^Dt principles Vi bo extracted, I subjected each to tho 
appropriate reagents. Solulioii§ of ii-on aa well as gctatino 
were cm])loycd, which reiipoiided perfectly, and gave delicate 
8hiideH of differ 01 ICC. The leaf, well uhewfid and tastod, aim 
givoM a very gooil iilcu of it^ iintriTigoni'V, iiiiil cani4e<)uei)tly 
affordis an approximation to thu tannin and ifaUie acid it (.'oa- 
tains. U will be seen that tho leaves of tho sumach, sweet-gum, 
myrtle, blackberry, Clethra tomifntosa and Andromeda nilida, 
(both ulxuiclaiit in our dump pine buri-enH, along the margin of 
ponds,) nnd tho fruit of the uiiripu permmmoo, contain the 
lurgcst amounts of tannin, and purhapu gallic acid. 

1 took special care to select trees, for the most part, whieb 
grew plentifully, and I particularly recommend thosejast mcD- 
tionud to be intdd in liuu of ouk bark for tanning leather, on 
account of their abundanco uikI the oaae with which the iVeah ' 
loaves can bo gathered, and biciiiine "I" the ccarcily of the oak, 
and tho injury to these valuable timber lrco». If tho oak in 
deprived of its bark the wood should always be converted into 

Tho dogfeonel, {Kupaiorium fa:niculttceum(f) see £upalo- 
rittm,) occupied a very inferior position as a tanniniferouB plant, 
aud I hnro rince learned that it.ft reputed value was only illu- 



(ftbtire amount of AMrin^neif (tarnUk) exprested by nvmcrala.) 

I dahra alnifaiia, L. (C tomentosa, Lum.) Diffused in 
Imp piii« UndM. 

1. Andromeda nitida. 

L Frait of unripe Fei«immoii, lI>it>epgros Viryittiana; ) oolor 
rfMilotioD, blaish black. 

I S>i.-«l-Gtim, {f/iquidamhar it^raciJltUL) 

t\. SwMnp MyrtI*. {M>iriiM erri/era.') 

1 SwMt Swump Buy, or Luarul, {Magnolia ^lauca.} All the 
ikon rich in Umnin. 

4. Oak Leaves, Blau-k Jock, (Qwrmx Kit/ra, L.) 

i U8V«s of Persiramon. 

Su Sweafrns, (Xaurtu tiatM/ras,) a trace. 

* /ViniM (ilaber, (Jnb-berry.) Tannin not very evident. 


1. SuBiBcb, {Jthvs copaltina, L. Mid R. Glabra.} 

t Shck\)vtTy, (fiKfriw viUoaus aud iriviali«,) both vorj rich in 

1 Sweet leaf, {Hc^pea tinctoria,) tannin slightly presoQt. 

4. Dogfennul, {Evpatorium /(enieulac^vm,} a tniv«. 

5. Sassafrae, a tmeo. 

& Gall of the earth, (Ercnanthes alba,) vciy bitter; tannin, 

Both the Icavca and the excrcficcnccs on the leaves of the 

■MOtb Suniucli, (ifAu< glabra,) growing alon^ streams iu tltO 

■UKr dUtrielA, are very rich in tannin and sbonld be uecd< 

nie Alder, (jttitiu semlata,) abundant along waterconrsoa, it 

•tw aetringont. Tb« reader can find a li^t of the plant* and 

tiMS yielding tannin in Ure'^ " Dictionary of Art^, Manuikc- 

tore and Hines." Soo, aim, Ouk {"Querau") and Sumach 

("fiius") in this volaine. 

^ U. Puiuauce, in " his New and Complete Treatiee on the AftA 

Haf Tanning, CuiT^-ing aud Ijeatlior Dreading, Philadelphia and 

HLoDdon, 1847," 8tat«s that the foliage of very few trees are 

. «Bipl>ay«l in the manufactaro of leather. Ho does not refer 

to the Carolina myrtle or ^um 1%* tanninifeniu* plaut«. I will 

[Delude under this section a list of those trees, the leavoa of 


which he mciitionit as hcing ufled fbr tanning. Very few of th« 
KpDcio» ciU!<l hy him grow in tlio Soulh. bnl Ibi; phinli* Ixitnng 
lo th(! guneia Siilix, SorOue, (aumfaria,) Punica, Fagu^ Corniu, 
Belnla, Humex, Qaercug, Prunus, Anii/ijilahis, (^Perska,) Geranium, 
iJCiKiUieni, (piennii,) TV/j'ii, Arliutun awi Subus. 

tlv i-iloH tbc following, thi; Aowvrit «nd flowor tope of which 
may bo usimI for litnning. I select OBly those vbich are in- 
djgeuous or naturalised within the limita ! have preaoribed lo 

Aijrimonia eupaUiria, Ifypericum perforatum, (SU John*6-wort,) 
Polygonum persiraria, Phmtago major, (Plantaio,) Uumutua Ittpa- 
lus, (Hop.) The hkuiIh of ihv grapu nod thu rooU of Statiee 
Oiroliniana, (Mansh ItoHcmary,) also contain taooiD. 



W., Callatrichf. hderophylla, Rll. Sk.) Grows in shallow water; 
COlIvL-tcd in St, John's ; rifiniiy of Charleston, l-'l. May. 

Shoe. Flora Carol. 32C. It te coneidered by the plnntvnt a 
valuable dioretic remedy in dropsy. The tincture of the whole 
plant in itplrltt* in employed. A ilcwoction is given lo borsee 
wbvn diiiru»it( i» dvairud. 


tiUM, {I^'ijssa aqvatica, L. The rooia are iiumerned iii inun- 
dated Boila ; collected in St. Johu'it ; obttorvcd in Fairfield Dis- 
trict; vicinity of Charleston; Newhtrn. 

The I'oola are white, .iporigy and light, and aro Hometimes 
used in the Southern StutOM (IS a Kubnlituto for cork; lam in- 
foruiL-d by a fricrnd who has had bottle corks cut fVom thi^m 
that ilicy iiiii-wtrr pcrlccily, and the floats Ihr the iiet« of liBhtT - i 
mtju art; gencrttlly made of the tupelo. ^H 

The gi'niis cxhibils a conitlani peculiarity of organ iaatioD^^ 
(" the fibres are united in bundles* and interwoven likva braided 
cord,") hence the wood in exlrnnu'ly diflicult lo eplil, unless oal 
into billela — much uned for hiibx of wheels; also preferred fbr 
tlio siiteboards of carts. Am. Sylva. Trays, bowls, dippers. 


mortatK. snd otker ati>nfils arc mftmiraotured rrom it. 1 had 

KCtMn me tilled II u« n siiitHklo miilt^riiil during llie war ri>rRho«H 

. in mjr ulick in llcBow'x Iti-viow, Augu^il, ISfll, aiid have vincv- 

kada Diiialwr modv from thv wood of Ibe roott for nogrocs 

rradin^ OD ptantations in South Carolina. Il is r»coinmendod 

that ooiy the oole oi' tho ehno be made oi' n-ood. an inch in 

ttiick«eea^ eowekin, with the bair tamed ineid«, being nailed on 

Ihk over a iaei ; the faardneas of this which is an objection, 

may U> diminished by souking in Aalt and wator. I havo iiaed 

«fa>.'«Tidcin, though catiraa [h next be^l to lenlhur. The wood 

«bnalil b* well waroncd, or it will finn'W ; boiling will prevent 

UmiftlM! fre§h wood in usod. It is advised that when th« 

Uuk-garo is nsod in tho manut'ucturo of shoos, "tbr oomptotc 

pnt«Clion a^iainst moisUiro, a slip or inner solo and lining of 

t*j water-proof material may bo added." 

1 iiitrodtico the (bllnwing from tho '■ Farmer and Planler," as 
Ml tuappraj>riai4.-. Kvury one wbo ha» viaitt'd Ktiropc hiut nnnn 
tie tabct worn by tho pou.-taiitry : 

h iwinnt hr denit^d that a n[im)K>r of di;*«tiAoti mnnl reHiitt 
from lh« wearing of leather »ih<w» by laborers, when engaged 
in oot-door operations during cold weather, or in wot sitnations. 
r> (f«nnaDy, Belgium and France, in order to prevent those 
irSa, at leaitt to dome extent, the use of woodon olioun has long 
NM4 bwR introdueed, and llii-y are extenaively worn by tbv 
whole farming and la)>uring population. 

The governments of Humpn buvo wry mnoh eticouragod the 
■ua&clore of the same, and their prcroruDce over leather 
AoM is much recommended by all boards of agrieultare and of 
health. There Ih hardly an operation on the farm and ftboat the 
brm-bouKCM, the garden, etr^„ in whioh Ihuy could not Iro moftt 
fiTifitalily uM-41. They are perfectly iteeure itgaitiMt iho pono- 
tntion of water, and being nlnayi* dry, will keep the feet worm 
ud thereby prevent many dictiai*e«. Tboy are light and vtxy 
W Wtfftr, of a pleasant appearance, may bo blackened or var- 
nisbeii. They ean bo worn with or withont stockings; and, 
vilh many other advantages, they combine such durability aa 
to hbrt almo-tt a lifetime, at a cost of IVom twenty-dvo to thirty- 
tnwn cvnis. They are ccrlainly oniilled to the attention of 
th' tanuent and hiboring population of the South. The wood 

Jin* ] 

fbr tboir manufttcitaro i* to ho liml in grenl ubundAnco in most] 
of our Southern Statrs. 
The Ibllovrin;; ie on thu itfimo subject: 

Shoes without Leather. — MvssrM. II owes, Hyatt k Co., shoo anil 
leather deal >>r», id the Oily of New York, tnanulucttirt; a planta- 
tion broj^an, differing tVom the old sIido, in hariag hoIw of &oin9 
light, tou^h wood — probably tho root of tbe avamp popli 
They patented the invention and warrant the brogan to outlmt' 
th<! buHtofthe leatber-BOled. I'latilera on ihu UliMiNHijipi bad 
tried them, and found that they were wariner, more duraklv, 
and more imperviouH to water thuii thi; lealhcr-tioled. Th« »olo« 
wore made by niuchinory. Thu tipjwr leather was rtret nccuneiy 
looked to thu inner »o\v, and the undvr n>\c aeearely fa«bcocd to 
tho upper by about n dozen iron fltrows, ec«ario^ tho npper 
leather between the two eolos. With soles of wood and uppers 
of canvae we can be independent of leather in timca of warant^^H 
blockade. ^^ 

Ur. W. Gilinore SimiHK Kiig^esu to inc the use of ih« lupolo, 
on ueeount or itH lightnei^^s, fur making uarlridgo boxo». Surg. 
Curringloii, Med. Director tato C, S. A., Uichmond, Va., em- 
ployed the tupclo to test itH advantages as a material for the 
manufacture of artificial limbs, and (ien. Wallier informs mc, 
186G, that he uses a leg made of the while tupelu, and tliat it 
flurpaases every other for ItghtnoHO. 

It IN nuce^Niiry t^i diHtinguish betvroon tho wood of these 
Tho roots of (he white lupelo t'uruishes a material so light a» 10 
resemble cork very oloscly. The body of the tree nlito fiirnii<hc« 
u very light wood. It always growH in ponds. Thu HUck tu- 
pclo or bluok gum, aomctimea grows on highlnndit — Iho wood ia 
also very light, iiut it powon*e» a firmer l«xtoro, by the inter- 
Inccmont of th«i tibroti, &* I have obeervcd — honc« the adapta- 
bility of the wood of tho root for making bowls, shoes, oaves of 
cartH, ete. The wood of the root is in eaoh lighter then that of 
tho body ol' tho tree. 

Tho N. capitiita, of Walt., tlie Ogeeohee Lime, growing in tbe 
Hwampsof Florida and Georgia, near the coast, ha» afrait which 
i« agreeably aeid. I>r. J. If. MclUchamp writes mo: "A very 
delightful acid preserve is made ft-om the largo drapca of ibis 

BirdH are fond of the fruit of this genus. 

rhat it I 


TUYMELACE^. (^The Meztreum Tribe.) 

Aeeording to Lindley, Uie great fcAtura of this tribo is the 
cmastlcilj of the barh, irhicti acta opon tlio akin aa a voslcatot-y 
andtaawMt estt^ttAivu {Miiii in lln^ mouth whim i;hcwo(). 
tutrit, h.) l>iffnwd i grows DcarAugnelA at Colleton's Ne«k, 
{n.) Bartram found it near Savannah ; N. C. Fi. Feb. 

Mrr. and de L. Diet. d« H. M<-d. ii, 6!19; IT. S. DiHp. 12A3; 
Coxe'i Am. Oisp. 259 ; Sheo. Flora Carol. 513 ; Big. Am. Med. 
Bm. Ei, IKT : Barton's Collvc. 32 ; Griffitli, Med. Hot. r>63 i RaT. 
Mel FL i, 15$. Tbo b«rrics arc «>aid to bo narcotic and poi- 
WMQi, and tho bark haH a nanecous odor and acrid taste, 
jricMing iu Tirtues to alcohol ; eight grains of the powdered 
bitfcwillpti>daco Ttolonl vomiting, (bIlow«d by purging. When 
^lifd to th» skin, it lilintoni likf ini-xenHin. Tlie juice Iiaa boi^n 
Iffliod to the nerve of a painful tooth vritli relief, and in di«- 
ttN* where aerid maitticatoric« arc M^rvioeable. Bigclow my* 
Its decoction i* sudorific and expectorant, and he conolden it a 
pti lubstitutc for minci^. The bark in al«o oncommenlr tJ^ugb, 
isd was ased by the Indians lor cordage ; the wood is rery 
tori and pliant. 

TU twig* are n'markaWo fbr toughness, are a* strong and pU- 
lUeas lho«e of the lime tree, and are employed in Amorim for 
l&e mannfactare of various small arliclcn ItK bark, also, has a 
bOBMgeDeoiu cbaraoter with the twigs, and is ased fbr making 
Nfm atid baskeu ; and both, bat especially the twigs, occasion 
the plant to be popnIaHy called in Canada lestherwood. This 
plant is an cxoeMve favorite with snails! Wilson's Rural Cye. 

I.AUBACE.E. {TTu Cinnamon Tribe.) 
Tito qnaliticfl of the spceio* of this order are tinifomi, being 
inivereally aromatic, warm and stomachic. 

8A3SAKHAS, (Sasiofras nflciiutU;, Nees. Jjaanu Mtt4tfnu ot 
BL Sk.) Diffused. FI. Unrch. 

Bell's Fract. Diet. 411; Kbcrle, MaL. Med. ii, 320; Drayton's 
^v, 68; Ed. and Tav. Mat. itixi. 341 ; D. H. Disp. 640; Jtoyle, 
Hat. Med. 518; Pi\ Mat. Med. and Thorap. ii, S&3; Callen-a 
Hat. Med. ii, 200 and 579 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. ii, 142 ; Murray's 
Apparat. Iv, Kt5; Kalm'4 Travel^ II; lioffmao's Ob«. Phya. 
Obam. 31; Clayton'^ FliiL Trans, viii, 333; Brcmaioc, "Saaaa. 


ft»1ogis,"iD 1627; Woodv. Mod. Bot.; Unffitli'aUcd. BoL &&2 ; 
Thorn In II 'ci Pitiu. Hiirb. Thu pluiil coiitninfi sti i:»M^iitiul oil, ob- 
tained by dixtillHtiun, wbii-h io hi'nling, xudorific and diurclip, 
and which is UHod to dixf^uiM) Iho tasUtof mciiiciaes. In ttio 
Stipplcin. to Diet. i\« M. Med. 4^6. 1846, it is i-eport<.-d thut l.b« 
•Mi'ntial oil, whou pist-ed in a temperatui-o of 40° Fahr, will 
fbrm cryetalB, which, being exposed to heal, reluni to pure oil ; 
l\-oiu the Jleport la the Lond. Med. Journal vil, 2501, 831 ; llo- 
ttpai-chcd on the Katt. Oil of SamufiUK, in the Comjit^sa Rciidiiii 
IWid. df» 8o. d« I'.Aoad. dc« Si'- xv'm, 705. Aflor tho onxiucnt 
niado hy i\w Spuiiiai'dH in Florida ifa«!>at*r»i wa» u^ed in tbu 
ti'vutmcnt of syphilis, tho wnrm inf^ision being applicable in cu- 
taneous diseaeo. hj acting on Iho omiiiiclorioa. Tbo rooi is em- 
ployed in Iho Caralitiafl in com bin at ion with guaiac, Har»it[>urilla, : 
and Cliiiia briar, (.S'miZajr,) in ibo formation ofdictdrinltH. It l» 
diaphoretic and diuretic, ui^efiil in i-hcumHtimrn, and Atibeit 
sp«>ake highly of it in gout. Tho pith of tho young branohcK, 
ac'coi-ding to KbeHe, contains a great deal of mucilage ; which is 
" an exceedingly good application in acute ophthalmia, and no ^ 
lo!«it uHicfiil in laiarrliid uud dyiti<nlerio affiictionei;" it U not a^ 
footud hy ali^ohol; (iriHith (Med. BoL !>&2) alno npcakei luTorably | 
of it a» au upplicutiuri to inllamcd eyes, being effectual in the ro- I 
nioval of tbo irritation so constant in this complaint. It is ad- 
vantageously given as a demulcent drink in disorders of tho roa- I 
piratory organs, bowels and bladder ; being more efficaoioas tban | 
that [irepnrod from the IcavcH of Senr, (iSV^tuniur/t Indiettm.) It J 
might hu usi^d u^ a nubstilutu fur ucncia. The oil cxtiiictvd from 
thin (ilaiit in one of the hi-avi<:Ni of th« volatile oiI«. Dr. B, S. ' 
Barton states that it hun been found lui etticuciuus application to | 
wens. Coll. i, W. ti. VclHch, "Iji>;num Hussufras ct radice di- 
versum," Misccl. Cur. Nat. 332, 1670; C.J. Trow, Brcvis Uist. 
Nat.; Arboris Sar^eufras iJictH>, (Nora acta Acad. Nut. Cur. ii, 
271 ;) ii. JJ. Kbret do Arboribus f^assalVati dictis et JfOndini culU^ 
(Nova acta ii, 236;) Ubs. on the t^assalVae, in Obs. surla Phy- ' 
iiique, xxiv, G3; Bouasire, M^m. sur I'lluilc volatile de Niuw. 
(Journal de I'liarin. x\v. 64A.) And, alno, A. Buehnvr upon thll^^ 
CryKtallixution of Uie Oil of Sa--*.safrai!t. ^H 

The roots yield a drub color with copperas; no doubt a much 
ligblor shade may be obtained by alnm or vinegar as a niordaiit- 
I believe that any of our plants containing either tanniu 


foto red joicM may bo niwd an dyes. Iron mcrt>nscB th<< shade 
bf Ibnmnfc uuinat« or gallale of iron. See " fi/tits," etc. 

Tbc leaves of eajMAfhtK i-ontaiii an unonuiil pmjtorlion of mu- 

eilftge, aind two or three tvavos, dltHolvcd in wiiUt, yit<\ii u mn- 

eilaginoiui drink. 1 msde grctat use of the Lou prL-purud willi 

trnmin* root, g*thnroit oxtMinporuncously, wliHu Htirgtion to tbo 

llotoombo Legion, S. C. Vol^^ It wsih given whonovur * WBrm, 

sranalit:, mucilfl}pnou!« t«a vras ix-quirod, in fcvor, pneumonia, 

braorliitu, cotarrfae, muntpts otc. Tho nurau dotailud for each 

nopuy provoral the materials upon the spot whoro tbc com- 

pnyor r«Ki")^''t was posted. It served every purpose of tlie 

utiviM usu&lly snpplied by the medical purveyors of tke army. 

I kkrc aim lued il in ]iea ofgum ambic and tlaxDced, no largely 

n^oired on unr plantations. The eottim KOtM i» said to mako 

Utqually economical dvmuloeiil tea. 

Is camp sateafiiM tea was often drunk daily by many of tho 

oio«n and 8oldior» as a favorite itubstituto for ^rcen tea. It is 

timi^ht to purify tbe blood, but the impression that it lends to 

impair the health and intellect if persisted in must be en'oueous. 

Tl«oil it contains b diuretic. 

Tlie Former'^ Eneycloptsdia saye of th« soMafhui : 

" Tb« wood (itrippod of Its bark i» very duiablv, strong uad 

mins Rorms, etc. It forms excellent poets for gates. Bcd- 

rtflods made of it are never infested with bugs. It is, however, 

0aly occasionally employed for any useful purpose, and never 

Amum] in the lumber-yarda of large towns. The pith and dried 

laaraeof tho young bnknehoM of the ttOMHafru.'* contain much mu- 

eUage. rwembling that of the okra plant, and arc extensively 

■acd in New Orleans to thicken pottage, and mako tho cele- 

bvaMd gumtn> fovp." 

A cheap and wholesome Beer for the use of soldion», or as a 
taUe bevr, \a prepared from tho aaasalVaa, the ingredicnla Ix-ing 
I eawly obtained. To eight bottlea of watvr arc added one quart 
of Moliaaw, one pint of y«aKt, one LableHpoooful of ginger, one 
■•d a half tablespoon fill of creiam of tartar, lhe«e inKredi«ni« 
Mnj^ well slirr«d and mixed in an open vessel ; after Mamiing 
tweoty-fonr hoors the beer may be bottled, and used immedi- 
ately. The reader inlcreslod in the nianufaetore of beor, ale, 
pnrt4>r, t:tc., will find the melhod» detailed in Solly's Biintl 
Chamiatry, Crv'a Dietionaiy of Arts and Muuuiiicturcfl, and in 
Wilaoo's Rami Cyelopoidia. 



I H(J<I the inoLhod of proparinfi; 

Tlte Ft-endt Army Betr. — Tbe IbMowinj* is tbo rucipo of Ihfe' 
bcor that h&» boon inlrodticed into tbe French Amiy upon tbo 
rocommeDdation of tbo Medical Board. It is deacribcd u \ 
very wholcHomo bcvorago, of pliitttmnl and refVeshiDg tast«, and 
promotiDf^ di^^:«lioti in a romiirkabie ddgrue. It may prove an 
agreeable bevera^ botb in and outside of thu unny : ^| 

Wnur „ 100 litrM «.» »boui 100 quftrta.^^ 

HolAMes _ ^ » 600 gnunniM... about 1 pound. 

Hop* 100 gTfimmck. ^...ftbnat S ounces _ 

Manhninllow root- M ji»niinu. about \\ ounc4.^^ 

Tna9t £0 ^ramrriM about 1} ouiitc. 

Mulct! an iiifii»ion of Uic bopa and marabmallow root with 
about twenty limCM their weightof tbo boiUog water. Aootboi 
part of tbo water Ik used to dilute tlio molasi^eii, and another tol 
dilutu tbo yoantt. All tbo fluids are tben mixed, and put into 
vesHel for fermeDtation. AAer five or six day» it will be rcitdj 
fbr uflo. 

Tbo following modification of tbe recipe may sometimes 
preferable : 

W»Wr too titrw 100 ^narta. 

Honc^jr „ MO -j-rnniiiics ».l lb. lOuc 

Brown eognr 600 ^mininM ..-.I lb. 10 m. 

Si>|iii _ ^ i>00 Rrstntna* .„._._-_..- Bos. 

YiObst 60 t'ruiii[iie« _..._...!) oc. 

I have no doubt tbe inuoilaginous leaves of tbe sawuilVaa or 
the Beni would serve aa a subtititute for tbe iiiarHbmallow. See, 
also, " I'orMnimon," (^Diospyros,) "Apple" and "Hop," in this 
volume for manofaclnro of domestic liijuoi'*!. 

jOin odon/erum, Noes V, Ebb. Laxirus bemoin, L., Ell, Sk.) Grows 
along rivi]lct«. 

Collected in 8t. Juhu'D, CharloBton District; Ilichland; Neic|^ 
bero. Fl. April. ^B 

Mer. and do I*. Diet de M. Med. iv, 61 ; U. S. Diap. 1233 ; 
Lind. Nat. Syat. Bot. 201 ; Giiffith'n Med. Bol. r>53; Barton, 295. 
This iH another of our highly aromutie, iiidigenoun sbnih:*; tho 
bark is, besides, stimulant and tonic; " cxteosivcly UMed, 
JJorlli Amerioa, in intt-rmiltcut fovorH." 

Thin tree contiiims a remarkable amount of aromatic propert 
in every portion of it ; it yields bensoin. Boneoin \» atw found 
in our grasses Anthoxanthum otl/iratitm, (itwect Hcvntc<) vcrni 



I,) Holcut odoratus and MeUilotus officinalis — the principle 
MpptKTB to give fragrance to bay and pasture land, and 
I IB commuDicated aDdecomposed to the nrine of the cow. 
n's Rural Gyo. The berries contaio an aromatic oil, which 
iMMemed in some parts of the country as an application to 
, rbeDmatic limbs, etc. It is said to have been employed 
; the Bovolntionary war, as a substitute for allspice. B. 
L Bkrton states that an infUsion of the twigs has been found 
ions as a Termtfuge; the flowers are employed in the 
I of those of the sassafras. 
A. decoction of the plant forms an ezcellont diaphoretic drink 
r'k poenmoniaB, colds, coughs, etc., and as such may be largely 
■d among soldiers in service. 

Ufl soldiers of the upper country of South Carolina, serving 
• ^ Um Holcombe Legion, of wfaich I was Surgeon, came into 
MBp ftilly supplied with the spice bush for making a fragrant, 
•nmatic, diaphoretic tea. This, and a tea prepared from the 
■nafrsB, I used entirety as a substitute for gum arabic and 
iaiseed in colds, coughs, pneumonias, etc. Soldiers may supply 
tfcnuselves with these, as they move camp, in any locality. 

POND SPICE, (Zaurus, Walter. Tarantkera geniculata, 
Vees.) Grows around pondB; Ticinity of Cbarieston ; Nowberni 
Via. This, also, is aromatic. A species growing in China af- 
ibrda much tallow. 

ARISTOLOCHIACE.S. (TAe Birfkwort Tr^e.) 

SBBPENTARIA; SNAKBROOT, {Aristdochia serpentarta, 
II) Diffused. Richland; Ticinity of Charleston ; Newbern. Fl. 

Bell's Pract. Diet. Uat. Med. 420; Trous. et Pid. Mat. U^d. i, 
336; Ed. and Vav. Mat. M4d. 249; Eberle, Mat. Med. i, 280; 
Le. Mat. Med. i, 163 ; Frost's Blems. Mat. Med. 520 ; Royle, Mat. 
Ked. 532; U. S. Disp. 658; Pe. Mat. Mod. and Thenp. i, 231; 
Jonraal de Pharmacie, vi, 365 ; Journal de Chim. Med. vii, 493 ; 
Sydenham, Poochey's Trans. 4th edition, 33 ; Ball and Gar. Hat. 
Med. 375; Cullen, Hat. Med. ii, 85; Bergii, Mat. Med. ii, 765; 
Mer. and de L. Diet de M. Med. i, 415 ; Big. Am. Med. Bot. iii, 
82; Murray, Apparat. Med. 1,348; Chap. Therap. and Hat. Ued. 
ii, 411; Lind. on Hot Climates, 104, 254; Shec. Flora Carol. 
203; L'md. Nat Syst. Bot. 206; Bart. M. Bot. 251; Woodv. 


cfut io^_ 
•fed iBH 

Med. fiot.; Griffitli's Med. Bot. 829; Linn. Vo;;. M. Hod. 166] 
Bnll Plaiiti!* Vnn do Prance, 83; Tliornton's Kam. Uorb. ThU 
ptaot, which yioldx n rolnUIc oil, ram{ilior, malate and phosphal 
of limo, ifl well known nis a tunic, ttiurotie and diaphoretic, 
groat value in the low etii^B of fcvor, and in typhu*, after 
nitUent, in cblorosii), and in atonic affo<.-tiun!4 of ihv iiite»UnH 
enual ; indicated where we wish to etimiilaU: and c^xcilv al the 
eania tinie a free diapboresiH and diurcHiv. It iti also nscfut io , 
promoting tht- cutaneous oxcretiona in oxunthoraatou« dive 
wlifir* Ihe eruiilious are tardy. Dr. Chapman roconini«odod 
in "bilioiiN pleuriny." The infuitton is aervicoahle in r«)»traiDiD| 
vomiting;; much um is made of thin plant among the negroua 
in the South, particularly in the low xtagvi* of ])n«uraonia, to 
wfaith thoy are puriicwlarly liable, I have rcpi-at-cdly ohen-rTcd 
the good effects of both His and the eeni>c;a "uakenwt, {Pdygata 
tentija,') in this affection. The dose of the powdered root i« ten 
to thirty grains; of the iiifunion, of one ounce to one pint of 
■wiling water, two ounces may he taken iu> oflcn as occasion ro- 
quirt-s, Il» oHcolJian^ increased by coiiihininK it with eamplior. 
Dr. Thornton, (Kam. Herb, rif- *'«/>-.) ii»ed it in typhu* fever; 
two druchmn of till- tincture, combined with ten ^rainw of *tb« 
powder and five drachms of the tincture of opium, may be 
given every hoar. It is said to add muoti to the effieac}- of 
hark ; and it forms an ingn-dii-nt uf Kiixnm't* Tr. of bark. 

8(!veral vegelablL- infiiHioni> wurpaisM even nea Halt in anti.>tcpli« 
power. Sir John Pringic eays that acveral bitters, such iw mi^| 
pentaria, chamomile, or Peruvian bark, exceed salt, he inferred, 
one hundred and twenty times — " flosb i-uinatniog long untainted 
when imnicraed in their infusions; camphor in more powerful 
than anything else." Wilson's ICnnil Cyclop. This aiiti-«cpt)o 
power of certain v(.'getiibio subistances should bo compared with 
their medicinal vlTccIn when prescribed internally. All the arti- 
cles just mentioned are, it will be remembered, employed in ly-^ 
pboid and low fevers. Among vegetable products, vinegar Ufl 
aliw antiseptic, and in the latter stugoH of low forms of fever, 
dysentery, etc., is highly useful. Among the aetringonU i»08- 
ses^ed of anti septic prnpcHiiit, the tannin may be the poteol 
agent, on account of its affinity for albumen and gelatine. 

ArUlolocAia hasrata. H'kU, shaded soiU. Fl. .lune. 

C S. Dti<p. 658 : Am. Jutinml Pharm. xiv, 121. ItisenidtO 
ha sitnLlar in propcrticti U> tlio A. tfTpfntaria, 

DUTCH SI A>-S PU'B, (AritMochia sipho.} Sbao. Fi. Carol. 
SA. Simitar in pro|H>rtieH to tlie others. 

Jiul(floi-Ai/i tomrmt'j.M, Siiu«. Fla. to Mta. of N. C Similar 
in pfoftenie^ lo ihc oilier apc«ioH. 

HOOT, {Asarvm Canadeiuit, L.) Rich i<uil ; vollcutt^ in St. 
JnliDa. FI. April. 

U. S. I«*p. 126 ; I'e. Mat. Med. and Tlierap. ii, 243 ; Froet'a 
Khw. 220; Uod. Journal Phami. x, ISG; I>ict. Tlniv. doa 
Dn>)(ao* 8implv«, Ann. 17.13 ) Cullcit Mat. Moil, ii, -173, &53 ; 

tMir. awl d« L.Di<.td«M.M«d. 1,41)3; Big. Am. >Ud. But. i, HU ; 
Bc^if. 31al. Mttd. 72. in op. cil.; BarlunV Callttutioti, 2S, 48; 
Core, Am. DUp. 308; Lind. Nat. Sy»t. liot. 206 ; tinffilh'K Med. 
&JI.527. An aromatic, Btimulant Ionic and diaphoretic, "»p. 
pksUe in similar casen with icrpeoUma," It ia employed in 
BUM tvi)uiriii^ a medivinfi of this class, and m used in cholio 
vbae DO tnltummallon «xLtta. It ia valuablo in ooliU, votigha 
uiit Cunnle ulwtracliooH as a warm, dilTuHihlo itlimiilant and dia- 
t^rttie; wmatimm combined with snakcroot and puccoon 
rwt, (Sangmnaria.) Dr. Firth gave it with bonofit in th« 
Maaaa of chitdren arising iVom oold. The leaver <lrivd and 
powdered, faare poworfbl errhino properties. Thtiy wuru imcv 
flMshJered actively emetic, (Shec PI. Carol. 21!);) but ihiH has 
been drnied by Bigfluw and Barton, op. cil. Dr. S. H. Btnvk, of 
loiiiaiui. han nM-ribcd utaivu diuretic propertioH to il, and has 
aa«d it with extraordinary Huccess in two eaoes of dropny, uou> 
BMttetl with albnminouH urine, lie iised a decoction made by 
boiling four oaoces of the root in two pints of water for thirty 
ninntc*. and gave two tablespoonafUl every four hoars. N. Y. 
JovnuU Mnl. xxxii, 2S9; n.S.Di»p., I2th Ed. Therdotioofiea 
ncd as ■ substitute for ginger, Ut whieb it in Haid to bo fully 
e^nal. According to Biguli>w> examination, it contains a pun* 
gent, volatile oil, and a rc-sin which communicate to alcohol the 
nrtaoa of the plant, feeula, a gum, mucus, etc, op. cit. I&3, 1. 
By the Anal, of Mr. Koshton, quoted in Griffith's work from the 
Am. Journal Pharm. x, 81,and more recently of Mr. Proctor, 
Aid, zii, 1>7, it is ftliown that the active principle is an aromatio 
lial oil, and that it contains neither iiAtnn nor camphor. 


This plant may be given ntfaer in powder, tincture or in: 
Hiou ; (loso of ttic powder, tliirly jp-nins. It uay be boiled 
milk and tlnink frvolj. A symp m«y uIm bi> mud<^ 

UlSAltT SNAKKKOOT, (,Asanim Virgimctim.) Grwwa 
rocky aoilt Fl. July, 

Shoe. Flora Carol. 218; Frost'ei Elemfl. Mat. Med. 319; *\ 
Btimiilntjiig dinphorvtiu, fnlly nquul to thu Ari*t. Sfrp." Proi 
bly poit«e8«iNl of nimilur propcrticn to Iho other. Milue, in fa' 
Iiiii. Boi. 73, ttlliid(;(( tu this 'pccnvK an one of the etrongevt of 
the vegetable orrhinot) — the roots and lonves b«ing used, "The 
fi'Oeh leaves applied to the noati-ils apeedily terminate attaeka of 
Blight oold by the dlticharge which they induoo." ThoM who 
liDufT liiid il a valiinhli; addition to Lohaeoo — the drind leavoa 
being powdered and mixod with it. The dcwoction and infnsion 
of this were considered omotic, and great relief waa mid to have 
boon ftffbrdod by it in periodical headaches, vertii^o, etc.; one 
Heruplc of the fresh or one drachm of the dried root and leaves 
waa employed as an emetic and ealhartio. 

Asarvvi ari/nhitm, Mich. Grovrn in shaded, rii;h no>l# ; ool- 
leotod in Si. John's Berkeley, near Whitehall PI.; vicinity of 
Churlcatiin. Fi. May. 

Shee. Flora Cam!. 217. This, no doitbt, partakes of the prop- 
ortioK of tho others, if it ie not identical ; Linna'Da pi-opooea Et 
ae a snhsUtate for ijiticnc ; and Dr. Cnllur Hsyv that tho 
powdered root, in moderate ilowt^s, acU as a gentle emetic, ono 
and a half draebm given insubHtanco. Tho "tincture pOBsesaea 
both emetic and catbarlio virtues." This, like the former, iH a 
very powcrftil atemniatory ; wht^n the powdered leavca are uitcd, 
tho diKoharge fVom the none will nometimeii last for three days, 
hence it has be«n applied in this way with great advantage in 
stubborn diNOnicri* of the head, palsioB, etc. "'A case in whiish 
thrre wait puraly»i« of the mouth and tongue waa eureil by on« 
application of it." 

AMARANTACR^. (TAe Amaranth Tribe.) 

The Icave.s of many of the specieia are wholesome and muoila- 

FORTY-KNOT, iAi^hi/r/intkca rcpena. Ell.) 
in tho streets of Charleslon. 

Rll. Hot. Med. Notes, i, 311. 


Dilfased ; grows 
It ta poMCttitwl of w«ll markied 


Bfiaiviie propvrtiei^ >ui<l in cmplojrO'l in iHoltury tmA dysnry , and 
~mUi»j»™vff1lycntnpl»int» ol' n\A pcnton*. In PairdvliJ Di^iriot, 
S.Cit has ls(t>lj- been employed with docidcil «uccw»S id dovoral 
OMB of dropsy, but sharing the fato of nil olhor diuretics ia 
bdttj K)aetiiu<.-8 iDeilicient in caAea depi^ndiug apon orgaaic 
(bUjgCor pr<tduc«.'d by i;sii»«« otlier Lhaii llio»u connected with 
tW (ireolaUoD. It ia givimin ducootion — a handful of ibo h«rb 
Wkpiot of watvr— of which awinci^lft^wful ix taken three timoa 
kdiT. 1 havo Qi^ed thia plant a>^ a diuretic in ibo City Hospi- 
tal, Ctiarl««ton, andcr my care 18C7, and find it to l>o poMooMd 
«( 4md«dly diuretic properties. 

I SALTWORT, \^Sid*ola kali.) Sandy shores; Georgia and 
Inmg the |»lanta used in procuring ttotfa In Spain, are " the 
diAmtapeciMof StiltoUi, SalieomM, and Butix marilima. The 
Jbbni marilima ii> burnt in iconic plaoLi* on thi- l>»rdi>rs of the 
I &tti& In this country (^SroUand, Boe Thornton's Fam. llcr- 
I hi) we bom the varions species o{ fuci, and in Fraoce tbcy 
K Inn tbe (^enopodivm maritimum. In order to obluu it the 
W Oftoaale mast be treat«:<! like potattb of commerce, with lime 
r tod ardent spirits t» dMoribLiI before." Within the limitaof 
I tb« Southern States we have all the above planta, save C. mart- 

Irouni. Little doubt, however, exists in my mind that our 
•neral species of woi-ni seed, {Chenopodium,) will be found to 
OMtain potash or soda in largo umounl. Some plants, " which 
in tbcir native soil yield only p'lUMh, alfonl ai.M> soda if they 
an cuUivati-d in the neighborhood of the ooa." " The .noda is 
BOK or loss pure according to the nature of the particular 
^ant tram which it ia obtuiaed," (Thornton.) TbespecJwof 
Salieomia are found on the uoatt of Florida and northward. 
Bati* maritiina, h. "Salt iniirxlicH, Apalaohii^ola, aiid uonh- 
ward." Zaattra marina, L. West Florida and northwanl. 
(Clt^>naa'8 So..Flora.) See '^ Supiniius" and " Suponaria," in 
Ikia volame, p. IS9, wliere the salsola bos been treated of ia 
Mwnaction with tbe "soap worL" 

Wllaon says abo of tho SiiUcrUx kali that it Is the best of our 
•ativc plants for yielding "kelp, banllu, |M>tiui>h and Hoda, and 
vu formerly collected in considerable qnantitiM on our western 
eoatts, and burned to yield soda for the manufacture of gluKi, 
a&d for other purposes. It grovra IVecly IVoin seed, and docs 


not roqniro any great nicoly of mimngomont, yet noror ban 
carefully ciiltivati-d." Rural Cyu, Soo. al«>, " /^iz-im,"' in tl 
v<ilunio, for method of preparing barilla aod eoda from 

I introdiKW tlio following bniif prooe** for tlip manufactttro i 
soda, aa wc haro bcvoi-kI pliints in the Southern StatM which 
furn!i«h it: Far the best mode now adopted is to procure ft 
friim noa water, Iml llils may not always be attainable. " For 
tho mnnufactiiro of koiIu, tlw marino plants are gathurod at the 
season when Ihtir vogftalion hiw liirminiit^il, and thoy aro left 
to dry. A pit four f^'^cl rfifgiiarc and three foet dw>p in dog in tfao 
earth ; this is boated with split wood, and tho salino plants are 
afterward thrown gradually iu. Combustion is coatinoed dar- 
ing Hcvcn or eiglit days ; the ashes becomo ftised in the pit, and 
remain in this Htate till the end of the process, when thi- o^in- 
buation is (!omp1i^t(>d ; iIk' whole is allow«d to oool, and then th« 
block of eoda is dividod into large piocen for ihv marl«tt." " In 
order that soda may po8«e»s all th« ntqiiisitc strength, it is 
necessary to separate it from the carbonic acid with whieh it is 
always united, and by which itn properties arc weakenod. This 
la easily done by mixing tiuick-lime with a solution of soda ; the 
acid has so strong iin uHinily for lime as to quit tho soda to 
combine with it. Tho lye pwdurtid from this mixture ia canxtic, 
and leaves a burning impression upon thv tongue ; tho soda tbna 
[luritied acta more readily upon tho bodies with which it oom- 
binvs. ThiH :node of preparation in indiitpensable when aoda is 
to be employed with oil in the mn.nnfai'^turK of hard nonp ; it is 
uselsss when it is to be eombinnl at a strong boat with earthy 
bodies, as is tho case in glass works." Chaplal also copies fVttm 
M. IVSaussure's Treatise on Vegetation a very extensive table, 
giving the oonstitoenls of a great many plants, trees, etc., which 
the reader may consult. Among the plants used in preparing 
Roda on tho Mediterranean are the Snlirnrnia Euroftea, the S-xl- 
soln traijiis, the Statice Urnonium, tho ,1i!n/i/«r p/frtulacoiila, tho 
SaU'Aa kali. We have growing in Houth Carolina and Ueor^pa 
the Slalsola kali, and the Statii-e CaroUnana, Walt, which should 
bo tiwited, the Atriplex ha»tata, and the two species of Salicontia, 
mentioned above, which also grow on our ooast. To show the 
iilliiiniro of tho natural familioa in phytiical resemblances and 
riaiiirul pmporiios, I find (ytrnop'/ditun, AtriplKX, Saliextntia and 


»11 in one tritM, ond ouch rioh in ])OthHh or HodiL. Th« 
fiuaitonr {J'timaria) if one of the plunts richer in poUub than 
tke wormwood, {Cheitopodivai.) 

GLASSWOUT, {Sulieornia heriacea, L.) Sail mm-shi^s along 
tbt ooux of Georgia and Carolinti. 

W« hnxu two apecies of this genus, which ia celebrated, com- 
Bcreially, for th« production ofallculine salts. Wilson states of 
S-ktrbaeea that the whole (ilatit abounds in ealine juices, und 
pwrnmrfl a Niline tacce; atiil that it was formerly burned iu 
csntmoD with thu richlj alkaline fud in the manufaeturo of 
kelp; tbat it is greedily entt-n by Hlitii-p nnil catUtt, and that it i« 
■taetinuB gBth«re<l aud ascd as a «ubsliluto for rock Bamphiro 
bSwUuid. See " Sabota." 

CHBNOPODUOEiE. (The (hme-foot Tribe.) 

SoiM ar» wtio!«0ome^ otbera poaseas an esseotial oil, which is 
t«Dte>ad BOti-spaHraodic. The beet and spinach, cultivated in 
Ibe Soatbem Stat««, belong to Ihix order. 

JAGGED SEA-ORACn,(^frt>^/ai:tntVi;>], L.) Growsalong 
alt streaniB. Fl. July. 

Sice. Flora Caroi. 247. The expressed juice, in doses of fonr 
to eight gniio!*, i* Miid t'> act ana powerful jmrgaiive. Aocord- 
ing to SchcBpf, it ie used as a substitute fur gamboge in dropsy 

iP.RCSAliRM OAK; VfORHnKKti. (Chenopodiitm anikel. 
mintuitm. L.) DifTusftd j oulUieled in St. JohnV; ricinity of 
Charleston ; Xcwbern. Fl. July. 

LiBoieus, Vrg. M. Med,; Po. Mat. Mi-d. and Thenip. ii, 27J; 
fibeHe,Mat.Mid. SI8; Ell. Bot. i, 331 ; Chap. Th<-ra|>. and MdU 
Mad. ii, 71; i)raytoD'B View of South ('arolina, 65; Promt's 
Mat. Met. 191 ; U. S. Disp 206; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 183; 
a. Joarnal Pfaarm. v, ISO ; Bur^cii, Mat. Med. i, 183 ; Grifliih'ri 
Mod. BoL 63S. It ia well known as '-one of oar most efficient 
hidigcnou!) antholniinlicH," adapted to the expubion of lunibrioi 
in cbildrea. Kbi:rlu employed the oil of the xeodrt with ttuvevss 
[b these eaAe«, aAor every other n^mcdy hud failed. The doite 
to a child nnder five years is two drops; to an adult thirty 
dmpa,girenoD sugar grated in water. Theexpressed juice may 
be BMd, or a de(;<K:tion of the leitveM in rnilk. a wineglassful at a 
fiir the oil imprt^atoa the whole plant. The dose of the 


Rec<l, for » chil'l two yetira old, in from one to two Hcruple 
inixvd willi syrup or briiisod in cuirtor oil. Tlio disliili-tl Vf»t 
may al^o bo utcd. Theap plants arc much employed on tl 
plantations in Houth Carolina and Georgia for their antholmi 
tic properties, the seoda being collected in the fall. Dr. Wc 
elates that the plant is cultivated in Maryland. 

The wormwood, (^ArteintJtia,) of which Iheru ia a species (_j 
cavdata) growing in West Florida and northward, ia said to 
rich ill potash. ThiH plant should aleo bo cxaminod for tb 
active priiieiplu Kinfoninu, and for an ossuntial oil. The Chetwpo- 
dium, of which wo have several species, although not botongini; 
to the ettmo natui-al family, is perhaps equally nch in potash. 
The "wormwood is highly recommended to be converted into 
charcoal, to be uaed in the inuntifuctiirc of gunpowder." See 
" Salix." In faet, all Llio Chenopodiumx are alMO rich In alkaliito 
Mlla, potash, etc, and may be used for its manufacture. The 
Persian insect powder, a species of I'yretlinim, (or Persian cham- 
omile,) destroys insects with great certainty. I think il likely 
that some of the plantH just mentioned, the milfoil, lAchillfa 
mUlefolimn,) the tansy, {Tanacfhtm niltjare,) or ox-eye daisy, 
{Lcucnnl/iaHum vulijare, L.,) all growing in the Southern Htaleri, 
may possibly bo found to answer thti purpose of destroying 
insects, caterpillars, etc., on plant« and animals. They contain a 
putigi.<nt oil. There is a notice of the PifreiKrvm (ra»eum, pur- 
pureuii and carneum) in Patent Office Ileporta, IS67, 129. 

Hee, alao, Dcutatoma for plant lioatile to inaocla. ■ 

I liuvu aeveral timoji wtulcd that the allied ArtrmMa, worm- 
woihI, wum exceedingly rich in potn-vh. The natural sRinities 
iiru buru borne out, lor tho family Chenipodiactcc contains mnoy 
plants furnishing soda in lar>to proportion. Such are SaliMia, 
Salicomia, Atrip!ix and salt-marsh C/tmopodiums; a notice of 
species of all these genera ia included in tliia vuIuqia. They 
abouhl I'L'ceive the attention of the nitre manufacturcn!. Nitrato 
of potash "in found in the common horsoradiah, in the nettle, 
and the auiillower." Farmer's Encyc. 

JEIIUSALEM OAK OF SOME, iChencyodium botrya, Vh( 
Grows near Columbia. Fl. August. 

U. S. Disp. 206; Le. Mat. Med. 235; Ed. and Vav. Mat UM 
30-1 ; BtTgii, Mat. Med. i, 181 ; Mcr. and do L. Pict. do M. Ui 
n, 22B i Shoo. Flora. Carol. 388 ; Dom. Eleni. do Bot. 250. Ti 


jwe of tbtit is bIw carminatirn, itcctoml, ommenagogQe Riid 

v«Tiairap> ; the 08«cnt)sl oil is itDti-Kpasmodio, tonio and Tormi- 

fi^p^ An infusion, as a lea, is r>;6oliitivu and uxiiintturant, and 

m mttfal in flatulent colic, spasraodio cougli, liuntorul Mtbma, 

Hid in liyatcria. The expressed jaioe of this itpucics is given 

in lioMA of a labtespoonf^il, in molassGa, lo ohildroD afTooted 

mth KonuEi, ar tlii> ae«d» are rvduced to u pnwdur, aod made 

into an ck'c(nar)- nrilh tiyrup. Sen Afitnc, Ind. ItoU76; Lina, 

Vtg. M. Med. 41. "It ix iiwcrtcii ," oliwrves Shoe, l-'lora. Can>l. 

SSJ, "Uial thp whole stcds produce worm* in the stomach, a n<l 

if a ftroA be baked in a loaf ol' bread tbej will genurattt worms. 

i Sacfc is the belief; what credit may be due to it, f le.iva to the 

tecrminalion of tho-te who cilliur liavc^ or may hoi'cafler, put 

11 to tlM trial !" 

'loopoJiitm •iuJ/T<Kfiouirs, Pli. Vicinity of Char lost on ; ]^m 
la (icergia, mt'onling to Pnr»h ; Ncwlwrn. Fl. July, 

Liad. NaL 8y»l, BoU The i'»«ential oil of this is also tonic 

sod anti-epcsmodic. U. S. Di)<p. :!0(!. Plunk reports five case* 

of cbereA cared by tho infuxion made with two drachnia to oiio 

caMof water, of which a cup full is to be taken morning and 

i^L Her. and do L. Diet, dc M. M^d. ii, 221 M. Mack uwA 

k, vith equal HUGceEB, in the hospital at Vienna, in this and in 

tther ncrrouit affections; see, also, the supplement to tlie work 

lut mvntiiinMl, 1846, p. 105. It U employed by U. Mariiusin 

til* 'injix-tion of the mocous mttmbrnno of the lung*. " MM. 

KDFiel and Barthez used it in the chorea of InfanU parlicularly. 

Alio, des S<H. Sat xii, 220 ; Roiiehardal, Ann. de Tliorap. 1844 ; 

^ b'uelte de Mod. <le Saluburfj, Bill Med. xii, fillt. It is found, 

^K bf chemical aoalysis^ to pocuosa various prodoct^i, the most itn* 

V feflsnt of which are gluten and a volatile oil. Bull, des Ho. 

B Itii. de Fi-rus, vii, 22A. The infusion omits a very strong, 

■niinatii; odor, and la used in pwta of this country in the place 

of to. 

LAUB'S QOARTER, {duiwpodiitm ailiim, L.) Richland; 
»irinity of Charlwion ; N. C. 

iiir. and de L. Diet, dc M. MM. ii, 223; I'bys. Uod. Trans., 
CstcQtiA, ii, 40, It is a sedative and diuretic; used in hemor* 
Aioiii*. Chovallier remarks the singular fact that the C. vulva- 
n<i,a lorcign speciuH, i-Khftleis pure amnMitia during its whole 
txistcncv. This is the only obi>orv&tioD on record of a gaseous 


cxhnlntioD of azoto by perfect ve^taUeti, and lli« favilily wilh 
whii-h t.}iii< priui-'iple U ubsndoiied h_v ninmiiiiin may, perhaps, 
explain {lie pivsi.-mir of jixotic proilui-tn in iIk- vci;ot»hlo king- 
dom. Ann. d(W Sci. Nut i. 444 ; Lind. Nut. Synt. Uol. 209. It 
might be interoHting to ubsvrvo nbotbor BDytJiing of this kind 
ti>k<M piftce iu out- epecio^. 

The ubove vroa printed by me in liH9. Worrn-Med plmiL )« 
will to be very rich id jiotaab — and wormwood b«H btiuii [iluilod 
for the manufnelHroof g!«w»— if i*o, the note on the mibjcot of 
tbp ('. vulvarM exbuliiig aitinioiiiu ig corroborated by iho abovo 
obt-crvution. I hnve leuriiotl, Juiii', lRt)2, that nn ontorprieo vraji 
eet on foot several yearu since near Columbia, S. C, to cultivate 
the wormwood on a large scale for the prodnctjon of potAob. 
Seo "Poke weed." The e<ugar-maple ia very rich in potash, 
prohuhly the other maples also. See Salsola, Quirciu, Zta, 
Phyidarcii, etc., in this volume. The young Hhootet of Uie 
Lamb's ijuarter hare been unuil for making Houp. 


OIL NUT, {Pyruloria olriftra, Gray. UamiUonia oleifera, 
Muhl.) Ute. Ga, and northward. 

Thu nut of this plant alTurdH a great deal of oil, which tdiouhl 
bo examined. 

PHVTOLACCACBjB. (.The Virginia Poke Tribe.) 

■ FORK WEED ; JEW POKK, (Phtftolacca dccandra, U) IHP 
fii»ed in rich spots; Newbern. Kl. Jnly. 

V. S. Diap. 537; Big. Am. Med. Bot. 135; Bell's Pract. Diet. 
355; Bart. M. Bot. ii, 213; Am. Journal Pharm. xv, 169; Mur- 
raj-'» App. Med. W, 335 ; Kalni, Travels in N. Am. p. IflT ; Graf- 
tVnreid, Mem. Bei-ue, iii, 185; Schtepn M. Med. 71; Browne, 
llisl. Jamuini, 232; Amun. Acad, iv ; Millor'a PicL, art. PhyU 
Doc; S[irog>-!, Dititt. Cirven. 24; Itt'Ckmun, Com. l~Ei4, 9; Alli- 
oni. Flora Peil. ii, 132; Frunklin'n Works, i; Cutler, Mem. Am. 
Acad, i, 447; Hu«li, i, 259; Thacher'n V. S. DUp. 300; Shulii'a 
Inaug. Diss. N. Am. Journal, vi ■ Journal de Med. do Corrisart 
Tjciiiux, xvi, 137 ; Ann, do Chim. Isii, 71 ; Mer. and de L, Diet, 
dy M. Mod. V, 298; Coxo, Am. Dia. 480 ; Lind. Nut. Syet. Bou 
210. The juice of the leaves or berricA, iiispibnuied in the luin 



Un ooDHistonco of an oxtract, will, it is said, discacH hard 

ir apiiliod to the pnrt, " and destroy canocni hy ettting 

oflt by III* rooU!" (Am. llerbal. by J. StearrjR.) Mixed 

with brandy, it U extolled in the cuiv^ of rlnMiinattnni, vii»ing 

^n »ad pmducing diHcbargu of the uiitttnt-oiiH and urioajy 

McreCkiDik One uoiiev of thu dried root infuHod in a pint of 

wiD« » raid to net kindly as an emetic, in doses of two table- 

■yoDKafal. Bii^low al«o was of the opinir>D tJiat it resembled 

ipaOiciianlui in its mode of operation ; but Inter oxperinxiiitiint 

l^n SB nn&vomble rei><>rt, a-* it i^" nriiin>tini(.'B nncortain, acting 

IM powvrfnily by accumulaUon. The pulverized root is also 

OHtw in dODiw of one Ut two drauhmi*. "Tbc tincturo of the 

\ rff* bcmcr M'eni« to have acpiired a well-founded reputation aa 

I anneriy in chronic und^philitie rhcumntiDni, and for alloying 

, iTyUlitic pains." By some thou;;;ht to be more uaofal than 

[gttim The decoction has been nscd in scrofula also. A Rpirit 

f Atikd from the berries killed a dog in a few momenta by ita 

Tioleat emetic effect; and, according to De Candolle, it is a 

poverfol purgative. Thu Pnmch and Portuguese mixed it with 

tbdr wine, to give it color, and llii« wa» prohibited hy royal 

nCoance of LouIa XIV, "on pain of death, as it injured the 

Ivrorr Liod. Nat. Syst. BoU 210 ; Uer. and de L. DicU dv U. 

HnLtlatea that two spoonaJ^l of the Juice of thu old plant, 

wtucb ta acrid, will purge violunlly ; np}ili(-d exiemally, it will 

irritate the skin, and it is used in the cure of saoioas olcortt, 

caianeous eruptions, itch and bemorriioids; for the latter aiTeo- 

tint, all inftasioD is injected per recta m. Drs. J on ea and Rol- 

Mt.Qf (ii-or^a. atuui-e at* (adds Merut) that they cure nypbilis 

vilh it, in all it« stage*, without thu use of mercury. Dr. Minge, 

«( Norfolk, Va., I am informoii, has found a tincture very bcno. 

icttl in secondary' syphilis, made with an oanee of the bruised 

not added to a pint of equal parts of whiskey and water— a 

4mtti spoonful of which is given three times a day and grad- 

«lly iacreaaed. Dr. Kush relates that several studc»ta of Yale 

Cgllege were severely purged (Wnn eating the fleali of pigeons 

aUeh bad fed ou the berrtea. From the analy»iH in Annal. da 

Cbiaie. Ixii, 71, it is shown to contain an enormous quantity of 

pxatfa. 42 in lOD purlfi. and it is pro|M>si>d to eultirate it for Che 

■toafkelure of this article. Krom later examinations of I}r. B. 

OMoeOy, (Am. Jonr. Fhann. ix, 16S,) it appears to contain gam 


reein S62, stnrth 20, potu»h 2, a Bmnll quantity of fixed oil and 
66.5 of woody libiv. Accortlinjt to tlip U. S, Disp., it is also 
somewhat narcotic, and, slb an emetic, is coosidered very slow 
tn its operation, aometimee not acting for aeveral tiour^ and 
then IVcquontly upon ibo bowels: bnt th« vomiting pro<Iuc«d 
by it is not utti-ndwl with pain or npnHm. In over ilomwi, it* 
effects arc quite dangerous. As an »lt«rativ«, tho do»o is IVom 
one to five grainit ; a» an cmotic, ton to thirty gmin>! ol" the pow- 
dered i-oot. Dr. (iriflith has aleo UHud it with eucci^ss in syphi- 
litic rbeumstii^m. (Ucij. Hot. 536.) In the Bupplomont to tho 
Diet. TTniv. do M. Miid. 1846, 557, it is said to havo boon nsed 
with good offoet in paralysis of tho intCBtinos. Precis des Tra- 
vaux do rAtad. do Uou«n, 18S, IS'AS; Compti-s Uondus Ueb- 
dom. dea Sci. iv, 12, January, 1837, The oiutment, prepared by 
mixing one drachm of the powdered root or leavoa with one 
ounce of lard, haH hi-im npplind with udvanlngu in diiioftiM^ HflW't- 
inp; the scalp, as psora, tinea capitin, etc. Dr.