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Full text of "Results of spirit leveling in South Dakota, 1896 to 1910, inclusive"

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The Branner Geological Library 



> 



ILELMTB'STAWO'iRlDi "JWIOF-VNIVEBSTTY' 



-TT— 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

QKOHQB OTIS SMITH, DmBnom 

Bi7i.i;Bnif 172 



EESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVELING 
m SOUTH DAKOTA 

1896 TO 1910, INCLUSIVE 



R. B. MARSHALL, Chief Gboobaphbe 



WASHINGTON 

GOTERNUENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1911 



283374 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 6 

Scope of the work 5 

Personnel 5 

ClaflBification 5 

Bench marks 5 

Datom 6 

Topographic maps 7 

Primary leveling 7 

Canton, Elk Point, Olivet, and Parker quadrangles (Bonhomme, Clay, 

Hutchinson, Lincoln, Turner, Union, and Yankton counties) 7 

Dead wood, Edgemont, Harney Peak, Hermosa, Oelrichs, Rapid, and 
Sundance quadrangles (Custer, Lawrence, Meade, and Pennington 

counties) 13 

Belle Fourche and Empire 3(K quadrangles (Butte, Lawrence, and Meade 

counties) 44 

Index 53 



ILLUSTRATION. 



Page. 
Plate I. Designs for bench marks 6 

3 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BENCH MARKS 






RESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVEUNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 

TO 1910, INCLUSIVE. 



R B. Marshal^., Chief Geographer. . 



INTRODUCTION. 

• Scope of the work, — All results of spirit leveling in South Dakota 
previously published by the United States Geological Survey and all 
the results of later work are included in this report, rearranged 
by quadrangles. Elevations are based on heights of bench marks 
along precise level lines of the Coast and Geodetic Survey as ad- 
justed in 1907, and on checked primary leveling of the Missouri River 
Commission. 

Personnel. — ^The field work in the western part of the State from 
1896 to 1906, inclusive, was done under the general direction of E. M. 
Douglas, geographer. That for the remainder of the State, previous 
to 1903, was under the general direction of J. H. Renshawe, geog- 
rapher, and from 1903 to 1906, inclusive, under H. M. Wilson, geog- 
rapher. Since 1907 the work has been under E. C. Barnard and 
Sledge Tatum, geographers, under the general direction of R. B. 
Marshall, chief geographer. The names of the various levelmen are 
given in the introduction to each list. The office work of computa- 
tion, adjustment, and preparation of lists was done mainly by S. S. 
Gannett, geographer, and D. H. Baldwin, topographer, and since 
1907 under the general direction of E. M. Douglas, geographer. 

Clarification — No precise leveling has been done by the United 
States Greological Survey in this State. 

For primary lines standard Y levels are used ; lines are run in cir- 
cuits or are closed on precise lines, with an allowable closing error 
in feet represented by 0.05 VU? in which D is the length of the circuit 
in miles, sufficient care being given to the work to maintain this 
standard. For circuit closures careful office adjustments are made, 
the small outstanding errors being distributed over the lines. 

Bench marks. — ^The standard bench marks are of two forms. The 
first form is a circular bronze or aluminum tablet {C and £*, PI. I), 
3i inches in diameter and one-quarter inch thick, having a 3-inch 
stem, which is cemented in a drill hole in solid rock in the wall of 
8(Mne public building, a bridge abutment, or other substantial masonry 

5 



6 SPIEIT LEVELING IN SOrTTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

structure. The second fomji (•;P,n. I), used where masonry or rock 
is not available, consists .cT^V*, hollow wrought-iron. post 3^ inches in 
outer diameter and 4*-fe€!t in length. The bottom is spread out to 
a width of 10 incji^4-in.4)rder to give a firm bearing on the earth. A 
bronze or alumi.aiCHii-tronze cap is riveted over the top of the post 
which is spt k^ut 3 feet in the ground. A third style of bench mark 
with abfii^Vjated lettering {B and />, PL I) is used for unimportant 
points. • This consists of a special copper nail 1^ inches in length 

4rf>'in through a copper washer seven-eighths inch in diameter. The 
•. 'tablets as well as the caps on the iron posts are appropriately lettered, 

"and cooperation by States is indicated by the addition of the State 
name ((?, PI. I). 

The numbers stamped on the bench marks described in the follow- 
ing pages represent the elevations to the nearest foot as determined by 
the levelman. These numbers are stamped with three-sixteenths-inch 
steel dies on the tablets or post caps, to the left of the word " feet." 
The office adjustment of the notes and the reduction to mean sea 
level datum may so change some of the figures that the original 
markings are 1 or 2 feet in error. It is assumed that engineers and 
others who have occasion to use the bench-mark elevations will apply 
to the Director of the United States Geological Survey at Washing- 
ton, D. C., for the adjusted values, and will use the markings as 
identification numbers only. 

Datum. — All United States Geological Survey elevations are re- 
ferred to mean sea level, which is the level that the sea would assume 
if the influence of winds and tides was eliminated. This level is 
not the elevation determined from the mean of the highest and the 
lowest tides, nor is it the half sum of the mean of all the high tides 
and the mean of all the low tides, which is called the half-tide level. 
Mean sea level is the average height of the water^ all stages of the 
tide being considered. It is determined from observations made by 
means of tidal gages placed at stations where local conditions, such 
as long, narrow bays, rivers, and like features, will not affect the 
height of the water. To obtain even approximately correct results 
these observations must extend over at least one lunar month, and if 

• accuracy is desired they must extend over several years. At ocean 
stations the half-tide level and the mean sea level usually differ but 
little. It is assumed that there is no difference between the mean 
sea level as determined from observations in the Atlantic Ocean, the 
Gulf of Mexico, or the Pacific Ocean. 

The connection with tidal stations for bench marks in certain 
areas that lie at some distance from the sea coa^t is still uncertain, 
and this fact is indicated by the addition of a letter or word to the 
right of the word " datum " on tablets or ix)sts. For such areas cor- 
rectioas for published results will be made from time to time as the 



INTRODUCTION. 



precise-level lines of the United States Geological Survey or other 
Government organizations are extended. 

Topographic maps. — ^Topographic maps of the following quad- 
rangles wholly or partly in South Dakota have been published by the 
United States Geological Survey up to May 1, 1911. They may be 
obtained for 5 cents each or $3 a hundred, on application to the 
Director of the Survey at Washington, D. C. 



Aberdeen.^ 

Aladdin (Wyoming-South Dakota-Mon- 
tana). 

Alexandria. 

Belle Fourclie.2 

Byron. 

Canton (South Dakota-Iowa). 

Columbia 30' (South Dakota-North 
Dakota).* 

Columbia 15'.* 

Conde.* 

Deadwood.* 

De Smet. 

Edgemont (South Dakota-Nebraska). 

Elk Point (South Dakota-Nebraska- 
Iowa ) . 

EUendale 30' (South Dakota-North 
Dakota)/ 

EUendale 15' 
Dakota).' 



(North Dakota-South 



Harney Peak. 

Hecla (South Dakota-North Dakota ).» 

Hermosa. 

Huron. 

Mitchell. 

Newcastle (Wyoming-South Dakota). 

NorthvlUe. 

Oelrichs (South Dakota-Nebraska). 

Olivet. 

Parker. 

Rapid. 

Redfield. 

Redwater.* 

St. Onge.2 

Savo ( South Dakota-North Dakota ) .» 

Spearflsh.* 

Sturgis.* 

Sundance (Wyoming-South Dakota). 

Vale. 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 

Canton, Elk Point, OUyet, and Parker Quadrangles. 

BONHOHXE, CLAT, HUTCHINSON, LLNCOI.N, TUBNEB, UNION, AND YANKTON COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list were determined by primary 
leveling extended from bench marks of the Missouri River Commis- 
sion and the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and accord with the 1907 
adjustment. A correction of -fO-755 foot has been applied to the 
values published in part 3 of the Report of the Chief of Engineers 
United States Army, for 1894, at and west of Elk Point, a junction 
point with a precise level line of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
crossing the Elk Point and Canton quadrangles along the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 

* Conde sheet, on scale of 1 : 62.500, has been reduced and forms part of Aberdeen sheet, 
on a scale of 1 : 125,000. 

'Redwater and St. Onge sheets, on scale of 1:62,500, have been reduced and form 
parts of Belle Fonrche sheet, on scale of 1 : 125,000. 

* Columbia 15' Ilecla, and Savo sheets, on scale of 1 : 62,500, have been reduced and 
form parts of Columbia 30' sheet on scale of 1 : 125,000. 

* Spearflsh and Sturgis sheets, on scale of 1 : 62,500, have been reduced and form parts 
of Deadwood sheet, on scale of 1 : 125,000. 

* EUendale 15' sheet, on scale of 1 : 62,500, has been reduced and forms part of Ellen- 
dale SCy sheet, on scale of 1 : 125,000. 



8 SPIRIT L.EVELJNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

The leveling was done in the Canton, Olivet, and Parker quad- 
rangles by Alfrejd Tyler in 181)6, and in the Elk Point quadrangle 
by D. C. Wray in 1898. 

The Iowa elevations in the Canton and Elk Point quadrangles 
and the Nebraska elevation in the Elk Point quadrangle are given 
in the spirit leveling bulletins for those States. 

OAVTOV aVADBAVGLE. 

OenteryiUe Mwt alonf OUoaf o ft Vorthwestern By. to line between R. 6S W. 
and B. 61 W., thenoe tonth to line between Tpe. 96 and 96 V., eait to line of 
Rt. 48 and 49 W., north to line of Tpi. 96 and 97 W., weet to line of &t. 61 
and 6S W., and toutbweit to OentervUle. 



T. 95 N., R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec. 6 

" YNKTN 1254 " 

T. 95 N., R. 50 W., northwest corner of sec. 6 

" YNKTN 1422 " 

T. 95 N,, R. 49 W., northwest comer of sec. 6 

" YNKTN 1390 " 

T. 95 N., R. 48 W., northwest corner of sec. 6 

" YNKTN 1438" 

T. 96 N., R. 48 W., northwest comer of sec. 6 

« YNKTN 1485 " 

T. 96 N., R. 49 W., northwest corner of sec. 6 

" YNKTN 1638 " 

T. 96 N., R. 50 W., northwest corner of sec. 6 

" YNKTN 1372 " 

T. 96 N., R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec. 6 



iron post stamped Feet. 

1, 254. 341 

iron post stamped 

1. 422. 576 

iron post stamped 

1,391.018 

iron post stamped 

1,438.373 

iron post stamped 

1,486.110 

iron post stamped 

1, 538. 474 

iron post stamped 

1.372.981 

iron iK>st stamped 



" YNKTN 1217 " 1. 217. 483 

Sec. 18, T. 97 N., R. 62 W., northeait to Davii, tbence east to line of Ri. 48 
and 49, thence northwest to tec. 8, T. 98 V., R. 49 W. 

T. 97 N., R. 51 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1273 " 1, 273. 726 

T. 97 N., R. 50 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stami>ed 

" YNKTN 1299 " 1, 300. 050 

T. 97 N., R. 49 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNICTN 1337 " 1, 337. 759 

T. 97 N., R. 48 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1274 " 1, 274. 951 

Parker lontheast alonf Chicago, Xilwaukee ft St. Paul By. and highway to 
comer of Tpt. 98 and 99 N., Ri. 61 and 68 W., thence east along township 
line to line of Be. 48 and 49 W., thence northweit to sec. 7, T. 100 K., 
B. 49 W., thence west and soath to see. 16, T. 100 K., B. 63 W. (portion of 
line). 

T. 98 N., R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

** YNKTN 1335 " 1, 335. 722 

T. 98 N., R. 50 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron jwst stamped 

" YNKTN 1349 " 1, 349. 833 

T. 98 N., R. 49 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamiied 

" YNKTN J372 " 1, 372. 722 

T. 98 N., R. 48 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1329 " 1, 330. 511 



I^IMABY LEVELING. 9 

T. 100 N., R. 49 W., northwest corner of sec. 7; iron post stamped Feet. 

" YNKTN 1484 " 1. 484. 804 

T. 100 N., R. 50 W., northwest comer of sec. 7; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1504 " 1, 505. 750 

T. 100 N., R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec. 7; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1534 " 1, 535. 090 

See. SO, T. 90 v., B. 61 W., north alouf range Une to line between Tpi. 00 and 
100 v., thence eaet to line of Be. 40 and 60 W., thenoe tontheast to lec. 84, 
Ta 00 A*, A« 49 w« 

T. 99 N.. R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1448 " 1, 448. 967 

T. 99 N., R. 50 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1461 " 1, 462. 306 

T. 99 N.. R. 49 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

YNKTN 1419 " 1, 420. 049 



u 



PABXER aVADBAKGLE. 

Tankton northeait along Ohioago ft Vorthweitem By* to Oentervllle, thenoe 

northweit to Parker. 

Wakonda, in front of town hall, sec. 33, T 95 N., R. 53 W. ; iron post 

stamped "YNKTN 1390" 1,391.191 

Hurley, in center of park, sec. 27, T. 98 N., R. 53 W. ; iron post 

stamped " YNKTN 1293 " 1, 293. 841 

T. 98 N., R. 53 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

"YNKTN 1300" 1,300. 719 

Parker, in foundation of courthouse, sec. 17, T. 99 N., R. 53 W., 

bronze tablet stamped "1371 YNKTN" 1,373.361 

Hurley south and weit to leo. 16, T. 07 JX„ B. 64 W., thenoe eait and south 

to T. 06 v., B. 68 W. 

T. 97 N., R. 53 W., northeast comer of sec. 20; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1281 " 1, 282. 116 

T. 97 N., R. 54 W., northeast comer of sec. 21; iron post stumped 

" YNKTN 1360 " 1, 361. 247 

T, 96 N., R. 54 W., northeast comer of sec. 1; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTX 1382 " 1, aS3. 940 

Irene, near township comers, sec. 1, T. 95 N., R. 54 W. ; iron post 

stamped "YNKTN 1371" 1,372.590 

T. 95 N., R. 53 W., northeast corner of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

YNKTN 1323 " 1, 324. 282 



(4 



Parker along Ohioago, Xilwankee ft St. Paul By. northwest to Marion, thenoe 

sonthwest to T. 08 N., B. 67 W. 

Freeman, southeast comer of Windmill Square, sec. 35, T. 99 N., R. 
56 W. ; iron post stamped " YNKTN 1514 " 1, 515. 203 

Parker northeast to sec. 16, T. 100 K., B. 68 W., thenoe north and west to 
sec 10, T. 100 v., B« 64 W., thence sonth to sec 16, T. 07 V., B. 64 W. 

T. 100 N., R. 53 W., northeast comer of sec. 21; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1402 " 1, 4a3. 865 

T. 100 N., R. 54 W., northeast comer of sec. 12; Iron post stami^ed 

" YNKTN 1358 " 1, 360. 098 



10 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

T. 99 X., R. 54 W., northeast corner of sec. 21; iron post stamped Peet. 

" YNKTN 1454 " 1,455.998 

T. 98 N., R. 54 W., northeaFt corner of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1412 " 1, 414. 121 

T. 98 X., R. 54 W., northeiist comer of sec. 21; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1346" 1,347.9(56 

T. 97 N., R. 54 W., nortlieast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1302" 1,303.384 

Xarion weit and north to sec. 18, T. 100 N., &. 66 W., thence northwest to 
•eo. 0, thence sonth to leo. 16, T. 97 K., R. 66 W., thence eait to sec. 16, 
T. 97 K., H. 64 W. 

T. 99 N., R. 55 W., nortlieast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1444 " 1, 445. 838 

T. 100 N., R. 55 W., northenst corner of sec. 9; Iron post stami)ed 

" YNKTN 1397 " 1, 398. 725 

T. 99 N., R. 55 W., northeast corner of sec. 21; Iron i)ost stamjied 

" YNKTN 1474" 1,475.082 

T. 98 N., II. 55, W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1525 " 1, 526. 320 

T. 98 N., R. 55 W., northeast comer of sec. 21 ; iron post stami)ed 

" YNKTN 1434 " 1, 435. 248 

T. 97 N., R. 55 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

"YNKTN 1015" 1,616.119 

T. 97 N., R. 55 W., northeast comer of sec. 21 ; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1683 " 1, 684. 282 

Beo. 16, T. 97 N., H. 66 W., lonth to leo. 80, T. 94 K., H. 64 W. 

T. 96 N., R. 56 W., northeast comer of sec. 1; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1456 " 1, 457. 204 

T. 95 N., R. 55 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron \K>st stami)ed 

"YNKTN 1311 " 1,312.042 

T. 95 N., R. 55 W., northeast corner of sec. 1: iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1481 " L 482. 330 

Bee. 18, T. 98 K., &. 67 W., eait 8 milei, thence north and west to lec. 18, 

T. 100 N., H. 67 W. 

T. 98 N., R. 56 W., northeast comer of sec. 21 ; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1599 " 1. 600. 826 

T. 99 N., R. 56 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1445 " 1, 446. 897 

OLIVET QTTADHANGLE. 

Yankton alon^ Chicago, Milwaukee & Bt. Paul Hy. northwest to Scotland, 

thence northeast to sec. 84, T. 98 N., H. 67 W. 

Menno, crossroads, near mill ; iron post stamped " YNIvTN 1327 " 1, 328. 414 

T. 98 N., R. 57 W., northeast corner of sec. 24; iron i)ost stamped 

" YNKTN 14<)3 " 1, 404. 659 

Beo. 9, T. 97 N., H. 67 W., south 6 miles, thence east to corner of Tps. 96 

and 97 N., Hs. 66 and 66 W. 

T. 96 N., R. 57 W.. northeast corner of sec. 4; iron post stami>ed 
" YNKTN 1290 " r !» 29L 764 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 



11 



T. 96 N., R, 57 W., northeast comer of sec. 1; Iron post stamped Feet. 
YNKTN 1307" 1,308.675 



4< 



B99, 86, T. 96 JX,, R. 67 W., north to see. 1, thence weit alon^ township line 
to Une between Re. 60 and 61 W., thence north 6 miles, thence east alon^ 
township line, and lontheast to Scotland. 



T. 95 N., R. 57 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

•* YNKTN 1442 " 

T. 95 N., R. 58 W., northeast corner of sec. 1 

"YNKTN 1338" •_ 

T. 95 N., R. 59 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

*• YNKTN 1399 " 

T 95 N., R. 60 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1526 " 

T. 95 N., R. 61 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1596 " 

T. 96 N., R. 61 W., nortlieast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1584" 

T. 96 N.. R. 60 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1446 " 

T. 96 N., R. 59 W., northeast corner of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1355" 



iron post stamped 



iron post stamped 



iron post stamped 



iron post stamped 



iron i)ost stamped 



iron post stami)ed 



iron post stami^ed 



iron post stamped 



8ec. 94, T. 97 N., R. 68 W., northwest to sec. 1, thence west to sec. 6, thence 
ionth to comer of Tps. 96 and 97 N., Rs. 68 and 69 W. 



1,443.301 
1, 339. 182 
1, 399. 780 
1. 527. 195 
1,597.060 
1, 585. 152 
1, 446. 876 
1, 356. 441 



Olivet, southwest comer of foundation of courthouse; bronze tablet 

stamped "YNKTN 1221" 1,222.004 

Oomer of Tps. 96 and 97 N., Rs. 68 and 69 W., north alon^ range line to Tps. 
98 and 99 H., thence west along township line to Rs. 69 and 60 W., thence 
north to line of sees. 1*18, T. 100, R. 60 W., thence west 6 miles, thence 
south to oomer of Tps. 97 and 98 K., Rs. 60 and 61 W. 
of Tps. 97 and 98 N., Rs. 68 and 69 W. 



T. 97 N., R. 59 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1281 " 

T. 98 N., R. 59 W., northeast corner of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1312 " 

T. 98 N., R. 60 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1351 " 

T. 99 N., R. 60 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1316 " 

T. 100 N., R. 60 W., northeast corner of sec. 12 

"YNKTN 1301 " 1 

T. 100 K, R. 61 W., northeast comer of sec. 12 

" YNKTN 1371 " 

T. 99 N., R. 61 W., northeast coi-ner of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1393" 

T. 98 N., R. 61 W., northeast corner of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1433 " . 

T. 97 N., R. 61 W., northeast corner of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1528" 

T. 97 N.. R. 60 W., northeast corner of sec. 1 

" YNKTN 1396" 



, thence east to comer 



iron post stamped 



iron post stamped 



iron post stamped 



iron post stami)ed 



iron ix)st stamped 



iron i)ost stamped 



iron post stamped 



iron post stami>ed 



iron post stami>ed 



iron post stamped 



1, 281. 956 
1, 313. 548 
1, 352. 174 
1, 317. 359 
1, 301. 825 
1, 372. 434 
1, 394. Oil 
1, 434. 488 
1, 529. 414 
1, 396. 645 



12 SPIRIT LEVELJNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Bm. 9, T. 97 H., R. 67 W., north to sac. 21, T. 99 H., B> 67 W., thence weit, 

north, and weit to leo. 8, T. 99 H., R. 69 W. 

T. 98 N., R. 57 W.. northeast comer of sec. 21; iron post stamped Feet, 

" YNKTN 1351 " 1. 352. 250 

T. 98 N., R. 57 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1355 " 1, 356. 542 

T. 99 Nm R. 57 W., northeast comer of sec. 21; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1366 " 1, 367. 586 

T. 99 N., R. 58 W., northeast corner of sec. 24; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1328 " J 1 1, 328. 732 

T. 99 N., R. 58 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1330 " 1, 331. 427 

Milltown, at east end of James River Bridge; iron post stamped 

YNKTN 1200" 1, 200.821 



« 



Line of uos. 1 and 18, T. 100 H., R. 67 W., weit to line between eeca. 1 and 

18, R. 69 W., thence lonth to Tpe. 99 and 10 H. 

T. 100 N., R. 57 W., northeast comer of sec. 12; iron post stamped 

•* YNKTN 1410 *' 1, 411. 696 

T. 100 N., R. 58 W., northeast comer of sec 12; iron post sttimped 

" YNKTN 1349 " 1, 350. 350 

T. 100 N., R. 59 W., northeast corner of sec. 12 ; iron post stamped 

YNKTN 1315 " ^ 1, 316. 432 



(( 



ELK POIKT QUADRAKGLE. 

Elk Point north to leo. 6, T. 94 K., R. 49 W., thence eaet to line between 
Ri. 48-49, thence lonth to line between Tpi. 98 and 94, thence eait to 
Ohatiworth. 

T. 91 N., R. 49 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; Iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1121 " 1, 122. 176 

T. 92 N., R. 49 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stami)ed 

" YNKTN 1293 " 1, 293. 943 

T. 93 N., R. 49 W., northwest comer of sec 6; iron post stami)ed 

" YNKTN 1347 " 1. 347. 978 

T. SM N., R. 49 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 13S3 " 1, 383. 261 

T. 94 N., R. 48 W., near northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1358 " 1, 358. 425 

T. 93 N., R. 48 W., near northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YN'KTN 1314 " 1, 314. 845 

Bnrbank north to lec. 6, T. 94 K., R. 60 W., thence weit to line between 

Ri. 61 and 68, thence lonth to Vermillion. 

T. 91 N., R. 50 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1137 " 1, 137. 472 

T. 92 N., R. 50 W.. northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1235 " 1, 236. 018 

T. 93 N., R. 50 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

*• YNKTN 1274 " 1, 275. 101 

T. 94 N., R. 50 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1394 " 1, 394. 340 

T. 94 N., R. 51 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1228 " 1, 228. 694 



PBIMARY LEVEUNG. 13 

T. 93 N., R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped Feet. 

" YNKTN 1147 " 1. 148. 056 

T. 92 N., R. 51 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; Iron post stamped 

*• YNKTN 1183" 1, 183. 635 

Elk Point wuth to uo. 6, T. 90 H., R. 49 W., thenoe east to line between 

Ss. 48 and 49 W., thenoe eonth to Jefferion. 

T. 90 N., R. 49 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" YNKTN 1128 " ^ 1, 128. 929 

T. 90 N., R. 48 W., northwest corner of sec. 6: iron post stamped 

"YNKTN nil " 1,111.685 

Jefferson, northwest corner of school yard, at northwest side of walk, 
in stone set 4 feet underground and covered by a 3-inch pipe 
marked " U.S.B.M." ; copper bolt (Missouri River Commission 
bench mark 358/3, re-covered by Coast and Geodetic Survey) 1,110.459 

Deadwood, Edgemont, Harney Peak, Hermosa, Oelrlchs, Rapid, and Sundance 

Quadrangles. 

CU8TEB» LAWRENCE, HSADE, AlfD PENNINOTON COUnrnKS. 

The elevations in the following list were originally based on a 
bronze tablet marked " 4543," set in the city hall at Deadwood, and 
are stamped with the letters " DW." The elevations have been cor- 
rected to agree with the preliminary Coast and Geodetic Survey 
heights of bench marks near Edgemont. 

The leveling was done between 1897 and 1900, by J. C. Barber, 
C. E. Worthington, and J. T. Stewart, with the exception of the line 
from Tilford to Deadwood and the leveling in the vicinity of Dead- 
wood, which was done by L. F. Gottschalk. 

DEADWOOD QTTADHANOLE. 

At Deadwood. 

Feet. 
Deadwood, city hall, north entrance, in stone lintel on west side of 

door; bronze tablet stamped '* DW 4543" 4,544.872 

Deadwood, city hall, under window, northwest comer of building, 2 

feet east ot comer stone; top of water table 4, 540. 12 

Deadwood, Chicago & Northwestern Ry. station ; top of rail 4, 532. 9 

Deadwood, north side of Deadwood Avenue, east side of Deadwood 

Creek, south face of southeast corner of Smith building, occupied 

in part by fX)st office; bronze tablet stamped " DW 4535 " 4, 536. 641 

Deadwood, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. station, in front of 

ticket office; top of west rail 4,534.7 

Deadwood via Chicago, Burlington ft Quincy H. H. to Englewood. 

Kirk, in front of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. station ; top of 

rail 4, 990. 7 

Kirk, 150 feet west of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. station, 45 
feet southwest of railroad tracks, 15 feet north of wagon road, 30 
feet southwest of telegraph pole, in top of north side quartzlte rock 
3 by 2 feet; copper bolt stamped " DW 4990" 4,991. 284 



14 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Kirk, 2.25 miles south of, near stone quarry, east side of railroad 
tracks, 25 feet south of north end of cut, top of small projection, in Feet, 
niche on face of rock wall, 3 feet above rails; deep rock cut 5,324.92 

Englewood, 1.25 miles north of, 60 feet south of wagon road crossing ; 
cross on flat rock 5,423.11 

Englewood to Roohford. 

Englewood, 0.5 mile north of, 100 feet south of crossing of two 
branches of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., 30 feet east of 
Burlington & Missouri lliver division track, in large rock 15 by 15 
by 10 feet ; bronze tablet in top of center stamped " DW 5537 " 5, 538. 3 

Englewood, in front of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. station; 
top of rail 5,590.4 

Englewood, 0.5 mile south of, 35 feet east of track, 220 feet south of 
cattle guard, west side of center of ledge of light rock, just south 
of rock mound; cross on flat stone 5,674. 15 

EiUglewood, 1.5 miles south of. center of rock cut, 20 feet high on east 
side of track, 350 feet south of whistling ix)st, 2.5 feet above tracks ; 
cross on top of rock 5, 840. 83 

Dumont, 0.8 mile north of, CO feet west of wagon road crossing, 10 
feet east of wagon-road running north and south; iron post 
stamiKMi "DW 6178" 6,180.742 

Dumont, opposite frog in switch, in front of section house; top of east 
rail 6, 15a 3 

Bulldog ranch, 75 feet east of track, 50 foet northwest from wagon 
road, 15 feet southwest of iK)st in mound of rock marked ** U. S. 
L. M. 73," in top of small flat rock; bronze tablet 8tami)ed "DW 
5863 " 5, 864. 398 

Nahant, 0.5 mile south of, 200 feet west of track, 30 feet southwest 
of wagon road, in northwest side of rock quarry, 14 feet above 
wagon road; copper bolt stamped " DW 5(M)4 " 5,605.621 

Rochford, 1.6 miles northwest of, 2.000 feet north of junction of North 
and South lUipld creeks, 240 feet north of bridge 02, rock cut on 
east side of track, 100 feet from south end of cut; cross on rock 
near ground 5, 383. 08 

Rochford, 1.2 miles west of, junction of North and South Rapid 
creeks, 200 feet west of truck, 10 feet north of wagon road, 40 feet 
southeast of stream, on north side of rock 7 liy 7 by 6 feet, 2.5 feet 
above ground; small cross 5,362.78 

Rochford, west end of town, 30 f(*et north of junction of road along 
north bank of liapid Oeek with road from Hill City, in rock out- 
crop on point above 22 feet above track, 2 feet south of rock 
mound; copper bolt stamped " DW 5299" 5,300.408 

Rochford, 300 feet west of railroad station. 10 feet north of track, 
15 feet northeast of northeast corner of planking in road crossing. 
1 foot from small mound of rock ; projection in face of rock cut 1 
foot above ground 5,229.04 

Kochford to Redfem. 

Rochford station, 3.5 miles southeast of, 100 feet northeast of bridge 
79, 150 feet southeast of fork in wagon road. 25 feet northeast of 
road, in top of northwest one of two large slate rocks; copjier bolt 
stamped "DW 4970" 4,971.438 



PBIMABY LEVELING. 15 

Rocbford station, 4.5 miles southeast of, 220 feet soutlieast of bridge 

77, 8 feet southwest of tracli; projection in wall of rock cut 1.5 Feet, 
feet above tracks 4,900.42 

Mystic, 3,500 feet northeast of, 300 feet south of signpost marked 
" Mystic," 40 feet west of track, 20 feet west of wagon road ; wire 
nail in root of large spruce tree 4, 830. 14 

Mystic, 1,500 feet west of sawmill near section house, 400 feet north- 
east of post office, 100 feet northwest of wagon road. 200 feet 
northwest of tracks^ 7 feet above foot of rock outcrop on point. 
In east comer ; copper bolt stamped ** DW 4865 " 4, 866. 725 

Mystic, 4.5 miles southwest of, north end of divide l)etween Castle and 
Slate Creeks, 3,500 feet northwest of bridge 68 over Slate Creek, 
350 feet south of garden patch, 15 feet east of wagon road, 30 
feet west of track, 50 feet southwest of " P. T." post, 30 feet north 
of end of waste dump; iron post stamped "DW 5514" 5,515.464 

Redfem, at section house; top of road crossing 5,632.4 

Bturgii to Whitewood. * 

Sturgis, about 0.5 mile northwest of Chicago & Northwestern Ry. sta- 
tion and 105 feet northeast of the first road crossing; iron i)ost 
stamped "DW 3484" 3,485.868 

Whitewood. 1 mile -southeast of, 50 feet south of Sturgis and White- 
wood wagon road, 70 feet southwest of road crossing, 0.25 mile 
east of northwest corner of sec. 27, T. 6 N., R. 4 E.; iron post 
stamped "DW 3500" 3,591.488 

Deadwood along: public road to Sturgli. 

Deadwood, 2.26 miles east of, west of powder house and east of over- 
hanging rock. Just north of road crossing ; spike in root on north- 
east side of 20-inch dead pine tree 4,490. 37 

Deadwood, 4J25 miles east of, south side of road about 1 mile east of 
Deadwood fair grounds, and about 75 feet east of wagon bridge 
over Peedee Creek ; iron post on a flat bench stamped " DW 4454 "_ 4, 455. 125 

Deadwood, 5 miles east of, south side of road, opposite limestone 
ledge between two projecting ledges, southwest of projecting ledge 
with large anvil-6hai)ed rock on top ; spike on north side of IS-inch 
pine 4, 2S6. 11 

Sturgis, 5.8 miles west of, at point where road makes a sharp turn to 
the east toward Boulder Park, after leaving the main divide on the 
north side; spike in root on north side of 15-inch burr oak 4, 146. 39 

Sturgis, 3.8 miles west of, top of large limestone bowlder on south 
side of road, 460 feet east of the " Barroom " and 50 feet south- 
west of bridge across Bear Butte Creek; copper bolt stamped 
" DW 3814 " 3, S15. 510 

Sturgis, 1.25 miles west ot, on south side of road and about 400 feet 
northeast of deserted log cabin on west side of mouth of canyon, 
at extreme north end of each ledge of Bear Butte Canyon ; top of 
north end of stone 3,577.34 

Sturgis, at first road crossing west of station, northeast of signboard, 
north of Chicago & Northwestern Ry. track ; spike in root on south- 
west Bide of scrub oak 3,484.75 



16 SPIRIT LEVEUNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO I9I0. 

Deftdwood tU OenteftnUl Park to Whitawood. 

Deadwood, 4.5 miles north ot about 63 feet east of southeast corner 
of a large two-story dwelling known as the ''ECalfway House/* Feet 
Just east of forks of road; iron post stamped " DW 4360 " 4, 361- 325 

Dead wood, 6.5 miles north of, 500 feet southeast of round stone water 
tank at Centennial Park, southeast of intersection of Deadwood- 
Spearfish road with old Spearflsh-Whitewood road; iron post 
stamped "DW4005" 4,006.023 

White wood, 1 mile south of, 16 feet northeast of mile board, 18 
feet east of Chicago & Northwestern Ry. track ; iron post stiimped 
DW 3751 " 3. 752. 831 



ti 



Btnrgis TtA Spring Ottek pnblio road north a1>oat 6 milai. 

Sturgis, 5 miles northwest of, 400 feet southwest of large red bam 
with two ventilators on top, about 2,050 feet north of southwest 
comer of sec. 17, T. 6 N., R. 5 E., on east side of Spring Creek 
road; iron post stamped **D\^3308" 3,309.441 

Bnnkel alonr Ohloaffo, BnrliBfton ft Uatnoy B. B. to Eafleirood. 

Runkel, 450 feet east of station, 15 feet north of track, just southwest 
of sawmill, on top of 10 by 15 by 8 foot limestone bowlder ; copper 

bolt stamped " DW 4498 " 4, 490. 713 

Mowatts siding, 75 feet east of east switch, north of old log cabin, in 
limestone bowlder 10 feet north of track; copper bolt stami)ed 

" DW 4720" 4,721. 840 

Elk Creek station, in front of; top of rail 4,842.0 

Elk Creek station, 0.5 mile west of, 30 feet south of railroad, 60 
feet south of point where Galena and Greenwood road crosses 

track; iron post stamiKMi " DW 4882" 4.883.374 

Anthony station, at west end of; top of frog 4,979.0 

Perry, 1.5 miles east of, 30 feet northeast of switch, at junction of 
Este branch Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., on top of point of 

ledge; copper bolt stamped ** DW 5269" 5,270.703 

Portuguese siding, at signpost ; top of rail 5, 342. 65 

Perry, southeast comer of platform, at road crossing; top of rail 5,401.6 

BrowTisvllle, 650 feet southeast of station, 20 feet west of track, 60 
feet northwest of road crossing, 80 feet southwest of second switch 

block from station ; iron post stami)ed " DW 5496 " 5, 497. 343 

Brownsville, in front of station; top of rail 5,503.6 

Woodville, 1.5 miles east of, 3.5 miles northwest of Brownsville, 20 
feet east of Elk Creek-Klrk wagon road, 25 feet north of railroad ; 

iron i)ost stamped " DW 5743" 5,744.304 

Woodville, switch block in front of station; top of rail 5, 935. 1 

Woodville, 80 feet southeast of switch at station, 35 feet south of 
main track, in top of a large quartzite bowlder ; copper bolt stamped 

" DW 5938 " 5, 939. 633 

Englewood, 0.5 mile north of, opposite Burlington & Missouri River 
R. R. transfer station; top of rail 5,547.5 

Englewood via Bpearflih branch of Ohlcago, Burlington ft Uulnoy B. B. to 

SpearflilL 

Englewood, 2 miles northwest of, 40 feet north of track and 40 feet 
west of Dumont-Lead City wagon road, about 75 feet northwest of 
bridge over railroad; iron post stamped "DW 5862" 5,863.285 



FBIMABY LEVELING. 17 

Feet. 

Terry. In front of station; top of north rail of main line 6,165.3 

Terry, 225 feet north of station, 30 feet east of north end of a short 
switch, on ledge about 2 feet above the surface of ground ; bronze 

tablet stamped "DW 6165" 6,166.486 

Portland, In front of station; top of rail 6,431.0 

Portland, 600 feet northwest of station, at forks of wagon road 60 feet 
northeast of railroad (the only crossing between North and South 

Portland) ; iron post stamped "DW 6426" 6,41^.297 

Crownhlll, in front of station; top of rail 6,154.8 

Grownhill, 60 feet south of station, 40 feet west of track; iron post 

stamped "DW 6153" 6,154.274 

Elmore, in front of water tank; top of rail 5, 217. 5 

Elmore, 120 feet west of water tank, 80 feet south of section house, 

40 feet south of track; iron post stamped. "DW 52X8" 5,219.816 

Spearfish, 14 miles south of, 500 feet northwest of switch block at 
Savoy, in center of top of 12 by 12 by 20 foot limestone bowlder, 
between Spearfish River and railroad, 40 feet northeast of rail- 
road; bronze tablet " DW 4954" 4,955.378 

Maurice, opposite section house; top of rail 4,465.1 

Spearfish, 8.8 miles south of, 40 feet west of railroad, 240 feet north- 
east of section house, 330 feet southwest of water tank, in top of 
limestone bowlder between section house and water tank; copper 

bolt stamped "DW 4470" 4,471.144 

Spearfish, 3.5 miles south of, 460 feet south of Spearfish electric-light 
plant and 50 feet east of track, between track and Spearfish River ; 

iron post stamped " DW 3892 " 3, 893. 364 

Spearfish, in front of station; top of rail 3,638.1 

Spearfish, southwest comer of Star & Bullock stone building on cor- 
ner of Sixth and I Streets, in water table; bronze tablet stamped 
" DW 3647 " 3, 648. 655 

Spearflah along pnblio roadi to Oentennial Park. 

Spearfish, 4.5 miles southeast of, 50 feet south of crossroads and 260 
southwest of water tank, about 50 feet southeast of southeast 
comer of sec. 18, T. 6 N., R. 3 E. ; iron post stamped " DW 3942 "__ 3, 943. 396 

Spearfish, 6 miles southeast of, 40 feet southeast of southeast corner 
stone of sec. 16, T. 6 N., R 3 E., 20 feet south of wagon road ; iron 
post stamped « DW 3815 " 3, 816. 388 

Woodward ranch via Gold Springi to Bulldog ranch. 

Woodward ranch, 1.25 miles south of, 1,000 feet southeast of Scotfs 
unfinished cabin, 6 inches below top of limestone outcrop, 200 
feet southwest of spring; witness tree 15 feet southeast, 10-inch 
pine ; witness tree 125 feet west, 10-inch pine ; copper bolt stamped 
"DW 6681" 6,682. 638 

Castle Creek, head of, in west side and 2 feet below top of limestone 
outcrop 10 by 10 feet, 150 feet northeast of intersection of Castle 
Creek, Cold Springs, and Newcastle roads; witness tree 150 feet 
north, 18-lnch pine tree; witness tree 200 feet east, 18-inch pine 
tree; copper bolt stamped "DW 6536" 6,537.446 

89807'— Bull. 472—11 2 



18 SPIBIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Gold Springs, 300 feet north of, in limestone ledge 15 feet higher than 
creek bed, 150 feet north of point where (.!*heyenne-Deadwood road 
crosses creek, 100 feet west of road, 200 feet west of road running 
south to head of Castle Creek ; ledge shows out of ground 10 feet Feet, 
in length and 2 feet high ; copper bolt stamped ** DW 6417 " 6, 418. 398 

McQuaig road and Cheyenne- Dead wood road. 1 mile north of inter- 
section of, east of road; nail in root of pine tree ; 6,567.1 

McQuaig road and Cheyenne-Deadwood road, intersection of, 2 miles 
west of Colton ranch, in shelf of limestone cliff. 10 feet high and 
15 feet long, on south bank dry creek channel, 100 feet south of 
the road intersection, 3 feet below top of cliflf on the part farthest 
south and west; coinyeT bolt 8tami)ed " DW 6464" 6,465.913 

Colton ranch, 800 feet west of, 20 feet north of road; nail in side of 
big pine tree 6,300.05 

Besant, 2 miles west of, on north edge of highway; nail in root of 
pine tree 6, 591. 36 

Bulldog ranch, 2.25 miles west of, 300 feet south of dwelling at aban- 
doned sawmill, 20 f€»et east of wire fence at road intersection ; nail 
in root of spruce tree 6.064.09' 

Bulldog ranch, 0.7 mile west of; nail in root of balsam tree at edge of 

timber 5, 964. 92 

Bulldog ranch, on CUcago, Burlington ft Quincy R. R., east to Haaby. 

Bulldog ranch, 1 mile east of. In middle of road ; nail in root of large 
pine tree - 6,008.02 

Bulldog ranch, 3 miles enM of, south edge of highway 150 feet east 
of log house; nail in root of large pine tree 5,817.58 

Dayton ranch. 0.4 mile east of, ridge south side of highway, 50 feet 
north of fence; nail in root of large pine tree 5,730.01 

Rassumussen ranch. 0.25 mile east of, 20 feet from gate ; nail in root 

pine tree 5, 493. 35 

Nasby, 200 fet»t north of dwelling, 50 feet northwest of road inter- 
section; iron i)ost stamiied '* DW 5456" 5,457.518 

Kaiby loutheait to Merrltt. 

Peterson ranch, 150 feet east of dwelling, on west side of road; iron 

post stamped " DW 5322" 5.323.502 

I'eterson ranch, 1 mile southeast of, 20 feet wost of road, SOO feet 

south of top of ridge; nail In root of 15-iuch pine 5,394.66 

Merritt, 0.8 mile west of, stone at fence corner northwest of inter- 
section of Silver City and Merritt roads; point 1 inch west of piece 
of white quartz in northwest end of stone 5.135.34 

Merritt, at iK)8t office, 60 feet northefist of ranch on north side of 
road; iron post 8tami)ed " DW 5059" 5,060.540 

OMcafo, Burlington ft Cinincy R. R. bridge 74, about 1.6 miles nortbeait of 

Myitic, to Silver City and Pactola. 

Castle Creek, 150 feet west of junction with Rapid Creek, 35 feet 
north of tonall highway bridge over Rai>ld Creek, 40 feet east of 
oabln; wire nail in southeast side of 18-inch pine stump 4. 771.92 

Caittle Creek, 4,500 feet southeast of mouth, 40 feet south of small 
l4ghway bridge over Rapid Cr«ek, 12 feet west of south end of 
hil^ trestle bearing flume, 10 feet ^utheast of wagon road ; point 
on West &ce of colufimar rock 18 inches above ground 4, 726. 26 



PBIMABT LEVELING. 19 

Silver City, 2.8 mileB west of, 5 feet north of road up Rapid Creek, 
30 feet west of Junction witli Merritt Road, routlieast corner of 
bigh point of rock, on small shelf 2.5 feet above road; location 
marked by spruce 1 foot in diameter west 145 feet and three pine 
trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 2.5 feet in diameter east 
120 feet, one 15 Inches in diameter northeast 100 feet, and one 1 Feet, 
foot in diameter north 65 feet ; bronze tablet 8tami)ed '* DW 4698 "_ 4, 699. 428 

Silver City, 1.6 miles west of, 40 feet southwest of highway bridge 
over Rapid Creek, at mouth of deep gulch coming in from the 
southwest; spike in root west side of 18-lnch spruce tree 4,660.38 

Silver City, 1,200 feet east of post office, 110 feet southwest of high- 
way bridge over Rapid Creek, 15 feet southwest of junction of road 
down Nugget Gulch with road down Rapid Creek; Iron post 
stamped " DW 4592 " 4. 593. 433 

Silver City, 1.9 miles east of, at mouth of Jenny Gulch, 220 feet east 
of highway bridge over Rapid Creek, 40 feet northeast of highway 
bridge over ditch, 200 feet east of head gates ; spike in north side 
of 15-inch pine tree 4,547.48 

Pactola, 1.8 miles west of, 15 feet southwest of road to Silver City, 
350 feet northwest of Junction with road running up Bear Gulch, 
220 feet north of house, near two pine trees marked ** U.S.G.S. 
B.M. W.T.,'* one 20 inches in diameter southeast 35 feet, one 2i> 
feet in diameter west 25 feet ; iron post stamped " DW 4518 " 4, 519. 371 

PaotoU northwest to Merritt. 

Pactola. 1.2 miles northwest of, 50 feet southwest of road to Merritt, 
80 feet east of plank f^ice, at top of steep hill ; spike in west root 
of 15-inch, pine tree i 4,742.58 

Traft ranch, 900 feet southeast of, 150 feet from top of divide be- 
tween Rai)id and Deer creeks, 20 feet southwest of road from 
Pactola to Merritt ; spike in root on north side of 15-lnch pine tree. 4. 886. 48 

Pactola, 3 miles northwest of, 0.25 mile northwest of Hughes ranch, 
35 feet southwest of road from Pactola to Merritt, 190 feet north- 
west of fork In road ; two witness trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. 
W.T.," 6 inches diameter northwest 200 feet; iron post stamped 
- DW 4934 " , : 4, 935. 545 

Ireland ranch, 500 feet northwest of, 25 feet southwest of road from 
Pactola to Merritt; spike in root northwest side of 2.5 foot pine 
tree .1 5, 054. 17 

Merritt post office (Jones ranch), 3,000 feet southeast of, in fork of 
road from Pactola to Merritt, 8 feet below and 140 feet northwest 
of top of divide between Jim and Deer creeks; large wire spike in 
root southeast side of 13-inch pine tree 5. 197. 18 

Merritt eait down Jim Greek. 

Merritt. 0.8 mile northeast of, 4 feet south of road down Jim Creek, 
350 feet east of fence ; wire nail in west side of 20-inch pine tree__ 4, 997. 45 

Merritt, 2.5 miles northeast of, "25 feet south of wagon road down Jim 
Creek, 65 feet south of old cabin 330 feet east of fenc^; wire nail 
in root north side of 2.5-foot pine tree 4, 823. 05 

Merritt, 3.25 miles east of, 500 feet south of old sawmill, 30 feet 
north of road down Jim Creek, tree used as southwest gatepost in 
wire fence; spike in root south side •..•^... 4,745.65 



20 SPIRIT LEVEUNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Riley ranch (on Bogus Jim Creelc), 0.25 mile northwest ot 8 feet 
southwest of timber road, in saddle on top of divide between Jim 
Creek and Bogus Jim Creek; spike in south side of 12-inch pine Wet 
tree 4, 776. 02 

Vemo tU Oreaawood to Huby. 

Nemo, 0.8 mile southeast of, 35 feet northeast of road down Box- 
elder Creek, 900 feet northeast of bridge over Boxelder Creek; 
spike in west root of 18-inch pine tree on rocky point 4.653.57 

Nemo, 500 feet northwest ot 10 feet southwest of road to Greenwood 
on top of slight ridge; spike in root northwest side of 24-inch pine 
tree 4, 706. 12 

Nemo, 3,500 feet northwest of, junction of road from Greenwood with 
road from Elk Creek; spike in root of 15-inch pine 4,740.17 

Greenwood, 2 miles southeast of, 10 feet northeast of road to Nemo, 
at Junction of county road from Elk Creek to Nemo; near three 
pine trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 20 Inches In di«m- 
eter southeast 105 feet, one 20 inches in diameter northwest 35 
feet, one 18 inches in diameter southwest 70 feet ; iron post stamped 
" DW 4786 " 4, 787. 188 

Greenwood, 1 mile southeast of. top of divide between Greenwood 
and Nemo, 8 feet north of county road; spike in east root of 18- 
inch pine 4, 997. 11 

Greenwood, 100 feet southeast of large dwelling, at northwest comer 
of- highway bridge over Boxelder Creek ; spike in root on north 
side of 18-inch pine tree 4,924.50 

Greenwood. 1.1 miles northwest of, 30 feet west of road to Deadwood 
at point where timber road turns toward Nasby. across road from 
group of old log cabins. 250 feet northwost of highway bridge over 
Boxelder Creek, near two pine trees, one marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. 
W.T.," 15 inches in diameter southeast IS feet, one 30 Inches In 
diameter northeast 40 feet; iron post stamped " DW 5020" 5,021.213 

Johnson ranch. 1.8 miles northeast of, feet northwest of county 
road, 150 feet northeast of road cropsing over Boxelder Creek; 
spike In root southwest side of 15-lnch pine tree 5,101.17 

Anderson ranch, 1,000 feet southeast of, 10 feet southwest of road; 

Iron post stamped " DW 5204" 5,205.158 

Nelson ranch, 2.000 feet southwest of, 60 feet southeast of road, 180 
feet southwest of forks in road running south across Boxelder 
Creek; spike in north root of 24-inch pine 5,300.13 

Slate Creek ichoolhouBe via Oastle Greek and Gold Spring to Bulldog ranch. 

Slate Creek schoolhouse, 1.5 miles northwest of, 25 feet northeast of 
Intersection of Hill City and Lookout roads, center of east side and 
1 foot l>elow top of highest slate outcrop; copper bolt stami)e<l 
" DW 6146 " 6, 147. 358 

Kinney ranch, 500 feet east of, 125 feet south of bridge over Castle 
Creek, on Hill City road, west side of road east of Castle Creek ; 
iron post stamped ** DW 5737" • 5.738.497 

Reynolds ranch, 1 mile south of, intersection of Rochford, Hill City, 
and Castle Creek roads; iron ix)st stamped " DW G029 " 6, 030. 542 

Shick ranch, 0.5 mile east of, 275 feet west of Intersection of Rochford 
and Castle Creek roads, 50 feet north of road. 6 feet from highest 
point of outcrop, in slate ledge 12 feet higher than road ; copper bolt 
stamped "DW 6007" 0.008.481 



PBIMABY LEVEUNG. 21 

Johnson ranch, 700 feet northwest of, 2.5 feet north of section comer 

on township line, 250 feet north of Castle Creek road, 60 feet west Feet 
of road to Smith ranch; iron post stamped "DW 0363" 6,364.508 

Castle Creek, head of, in west side and 2 feet below top of limestone 
outcrop, 10 by 10 feet, 150 feet northeast of Intersection of Castle 
Creek, Cold Springs, and Newcastle roads; copper bolt, stamped 
" DW 6536 " 6, 537. 445 

Thowell ranch, 0.5 mile west of, 25 feet sonthwest of fork of road to 

ranch; iron post stamped " DW 6769" 6,770.366 

Cold Springs. 300 feet north of, 150 feet north of point where Chey- 
enne-Deadwood road crosses creek, 100 feet west of road, in lime- 
stone ledge, 15 feet higher than creek bed, whifh shows out of 
ground 10 feet in length and 2 feet high; copper lK)lt stamped 
" DW 6417 " - 6, 418. 399 

Besant, 2.3 miles west of, north side of road near edge of small park ; 

iron post stamped " DW 6547 " 6, 548. 551 

Besant, 0.2 mile southeast of, south side of road; iron post stamped 

" DW 6433 " 6, 434. 586 

Fish timber camp, 100 feet south of. 50 feet west of stable, south edge 
of road; iron post stamped "DW 6284" 6,285.521 

Bulldog ranch, 75 feet east of track, 50 feet northwest from wagon 
road, 15 feet southwest of post, in mound of rock, marked " U. S. 
L. M. 73," in top of small flat rock ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 
5863 " 5. 864. 398 

Bpearflsh vim, Bpaarflih and Be&r Chiloh road to Powen tawmill ilte. 

Spearflsh, water table of Star & Bullock Building; bronze tablet 
stamped "DW 3647" 3,648.655 

Brown ranch. 200 feet southwest of, south side of road; iron post 

stami)ed " DW 4224" 4,225.358 

Brown ranch, 4.1 miles southwest of, 2.3 feet north of comer common 
to sees. 1, 6, 31, and 36, Tps. 5 and 6 N., Rs. 1 and 2 £}.; iron post 
stami)ed "DW 5131" 5,132.324^ 

Powers sawmill site, 400 feet north of, north side of road; iron post 
stamped " DW 5437 " . 5, 438. 252 

Elmore via Okeyemie Oroulng to Block ranch and return. 

EHmore, west of section house; iron post stamped " DW 5218 " 5, 219. 816 

Cheyenne crossing, 20 feet northwest of, intersection of road to 
Elmore with old Deadwood-Cheyenue stage road ; iron post stamped 
" DW 5308 " 5, 309. 330 

Block ranch, 75 feet northeast of, mouth of Deadhorse Canyon, west 

side of road; Iron post stamped "DW 5610" 5,611.349 

Block ranch, 1.8 miles northwest of, west side of town line, 1.000 feet 
south of comer common to sees. 24 and 25, R. 1 E., and sees. 19 and 
30, R. 2 E. ; iron post stamped " DW 6140 " 6, 141. 356 

EBOEXOVT QTTADBAlfOLE. 

iTanhoe vim, Mlnnekahta to Hot Bprlngi. 

Ivanhoe, 2.000 feet northeast of, 60 feet southeast of crossing of 
Pringle-Minnekahta road, 10 feet northeast of comer fence post; 
Iron post stamped " DW 4443 " 4. 444. 594 



22 SPIRIT LEVEONG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Feet. 
Minnekahta, In front of station; top of rail 4,102.8 

Mlnnekahta, 800 feet, northeast of station, 100 feet northeast of 
switch stand at east end of Y, 50 feet north of track, 5 feet south- 
east of comer fence post; iron post stamped " DW 4159 " 4, 160. 503 

Minnekahta, 3.5 miles east of, 850 feet east of road crossing. 40 feet 
north of track, 16 feet east of north-south wire fence; iron post 
stamped " DW 4061 " 4, 062. 507 

Erskine, road crossing at platform; top of rail 3,816.6 • 

Erskine, 2,500 feet northeast of, 150 feet northwest of Minnekahta- 
Hot Springs road crossing, near bridge 5. 30 feet north of wagon 
road at nearest point, 2 feet south of rock mound, top of south cor- 
ner of limestone ledge; copper bolt stamped " DW 3794" 3,795.585 

Minnekahta along Ohloago, Burlington ft Cininey K. B> via Edfemont to 8. ft 

O. ranch. 

Minnekahta, 800 feet northeast of station, 100 feet northeast of 
switch stand at east end of Y, 50 feet north of track, 5 feet south- 
east of fence comer fwst; iron post, stami)ed "4159 DW" 4,160.563 

Arnold ranch, 300 feet northwest of, 50 feet west of railroad, east 

side of wagon road; iron post Btamr)ed "4058 DW " 4,058.334 

Arnold ranch. 3 miles south of, 350 feet north and 300 feet east of 
railroad trestle 6, east bank of creek, 300 feet east of railroad ; iron 
post stamped " 3891 DW " J 3, 892. 414 

Chilson, 0.4 mile west of section house, 75 feet south of wagon-road 
crossing; iron i)08t stami)ed "3795 DW " 3,796.516 

Edgemont, 2.9 miles northeast of, 150 feet south of Red Canyon, 75 
feet east of wagon road, 50 feet west of railroad ; iron post stamped 
** 34C0 DW " 3, 461. 451 

Edgemont, north end of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy II. R. Hotel 

park, 50 feet west of main track ; iron iwst stami>ed " 3449 DW "_. 3. 450. 584 

Edgemont, 4 miles northwest of, 450 feet southeast of railway pile 
bridge 206, 100 feet southwest of railway track, northeast side of 
wagon road; iron post 8tami)ed "3403 DW " 3,464.527 

Marietta, 80 feet southwest of, near track at section house, 25 feet 
northeast of wagon road; iron iH)Rt 8tanii)od "34S6 DW " 3.487.506 

Marietta, 2.7 miles northwest of, 300 fwt southeast of trestle 213, 100 
feet southwest of railroad track, 200 feet north of wagon road; 
iron post stamped "3544 DW" 3,545.652 

Argentine, 175 feet south of water tank, 100 feet southwest of main 
track, 40 feet northeast of wagon road; iron post stamped 
" 3632 DW " 3, 633. 506 

Moss Agate Creek, west bank, 1.8 miles southwest of junction with 
Cheyenne River. 100 feet west of steep bank, 70 feet al>ove creek, 
and quarter of a mile west of it ; iron post stami)ed " 3C12 DW "— 3, 613. 564 

• 

Edgemont via Xaitland post oAce and Caacade Springs to Hot Springs. 

Edgemont, 2.1 miles southeast of, at top of bluff, 25 feet south of 
road; Iron post stamped "3671 DW " 3,672.481 

Eklgemont, 5.8 miles southeast of. 75 feet southeast of intersection of 
Edgemont. Ardmore, and Maitland post-office roads; iron post 
stamped "3578 DW " 3,579.612 

Edgemont, 8.6 miles southeast of, 25 feet north of road, top of ridge ; 
iron post stamped "3576 DW" 3,576.382 



PBIMARY LEVELING. 23 

£>igeinont, 16.6 mlJes southeast of, 0.2 mile eiist of Plum Creek, 0.3 
Ihile south of Cheyenne River, top of small ridge 25 feet south of Feet, 
road; iron post stamiied "3350 DW" 3,351.475 

Maitland post office (Brady ranch), 200 feet southwest of, quarter 
comer on south side of sec. 24, T. 9 S., R. 4 E. ; iron post stamped 
" 3327 DW " 3. 328. 069 

Maitland post office, 2 miles northeast of, top of highest ridge on 
Maitland and Cascade wagon road, 25 feet north of road; iron post 
8tampe<i "3521 DW" 3,522. 481 

T. 85, R. 4 E., southeast comer of, quarter of a mile northwest of 

Coffey Plat schoolhouse; iron imst stami)ed "3261 DW " 3,262.415 

Cascade Springs, 300 feet west of sanitarium, in sandstone rock 3 feet 
higher than creek, l>etween wagon road and creek; bronase tablet 
stamped "3406 DW" 3,407.413 

Cascade Springs, 3.4 miles northeast of, west side of canyon, 200 feet 
east of deserted house, 25 feet north of road; iron post stamped 
" 3835 DW " 3, 836. 364 

Cascade Springs, 5.9 miles northeast of, 3.6 miles southwest of Hot 
Springs, 25 feet west of road on ridge; iron i)ost stamped "3826 
DW " 3, 827. 323 

Edfemont up Cottonwood Creek 6 miles, tbence loutheait to Prove, thence 
along Chicago, Burlington ft Quinoy R. R. to Ardmore. 

Edgemont, 3 miles southwest of, 75 feet northwest of Cottonwood 
Creek, east side of railroad track; iron post stami)ed "3528 DW "_ 3,529.477 

Edgemont, 6 miles southwest of, 800 feet southeast of Cottonwood 
Creek, about 800 feet north of draw running northwest and empty- 
ing Into it, and about 900 feet north of two high buttos; iron post 
stamped "3634 DW " 3,635.318 

Edgemont, 9.2 miles southwest of, junction of roads running south 
and southwest, at top of divide; iron ix)st stamped "SKiO DW "___ 3,840.390 

Edgemont, 12 miles southwest of, 2.5 miles west of Provo, 10 feet 
north of abandoned wagon road to Provo, 1 mile south of sheep 
corral; Iron post stumped "3710 DW" 3,711.422 

Provo, 500 feet southeast of. 35 feet northeast of wagon road cross- 
ing; iron post stami)ed "3708 DW " 3,709.498 

Pra\'o, 3 miles east of, 50 feet north of Chicago, Burlington & Qulncy 

R. R. track; iron post stami)ed "3<)32 DW " 3,633.359 

Provo, 6 miles east of, 2 miles northwest of Rumford, 60 feet south- 
west of railway track; iron post stamped "3532 DW" 3,533.412 

Rumford, 0.5 mile southeast of, 75 feet south of southeast end of 
siding, 65 feet southwest of main track, 300 feet east of wagon 
road; Iron post stamped "3500 DW " 3,501.271 

Rumford, 3 miles southeast of, 60 feet east of wagon road, 600 feet 
south of bridge over wagon road, 650 feet west of track ; iron post 
8tami)ed "3487 DW " 3,488.251 

Rumford, 5.9 miles southeast of, 2 miles north of Ardmore, 25 feet 
east of wagon road, 500 feet west of railway track; iron post 
stamped "3527 DW" 3.528.177 

Ardmore, 525 feet northwest of station. 80 feet north of road, 125 
feet northwest of schoolhouse; iron post stamped "3553 DW" 3.554.213 



24 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Ardmore up ZBdUn Greek to Oole ranoh, thenoe north and east to Romford. 

Ardmore, 3.2 miles southwest of, 75 feet northwest of crossroads, 0.5 

mile north of State line between South Dakota and Nebraska ; iron Feet, 
post stamped "3666 DW " 3,667.239 

T. 12 8., R. 3 K, quarter comer on west side of sec. 16, 2,100 feet 

north of State line; iron post stamped "3672 DW " 3,673.372 

T. 12 S., R. 2 E., quarter comer on west side of sec. 13, 1,000 feet 

southwest of Slmler's ranch; iron post 8tami)ed "3679 DW" 3,680.075 

T. 12 S., R. 2 B., southeast comer of sec. 8, about 0.7 mile west of Cole 
ranch, northeast of bank of Alkali Creek ; iron i)ost stamped " 3756 
DW " - 3, 757. 510 

Cole ranch, about 4 miles northwest of, 200 feet east of east prong 
of Alkali Creek, at west end of low ridge; Iron post stamped 
" 3899 DW " 3, 900. 257 

T. 11 S., R. 1 E., southwest comer of sec. 18, at top of divide between 
north and south forks of Camp Creek; iron post stamped "4138 
DW " - 4, 139. 361 

T. 11 S., R. 2 E., near southwest corner of sec. 14, 10 feet north of 

road; iron post stamped "3909 DW" 3,910.203 

T. 11 S., R. 3 E., southwest comer of sec. 16, top of low ridge; iron 

post stamped "3720 DW " 3,720.991 

T. 11 S., R. 3 E., 1,000 feet north and 300 feet east of quarter corner 
on south side of sec. 14, top of low ridge; iron post stamped 
"3673 DW" 3,674.608 

Rumford via Hat Creek to Xaltland poit oflce. 

T. 10 S., R. 4 K, southwest comer of sec. 26, 1 mile southwest of Bar 
T ranch, 100 feet southeast of schoolhouse, 125 feet north of 
Hat Creek, in rock 8 by 12 inches and 6 inches above ground; 
aluminum tablet stamped "3443 DW " 3,444.041 

T. 10 S.. R. 4 E., near middle of sec. 10, 200 feet south of Pine 
Creek, 400 feet west of Hat Creek, 100 feet south of schoolhouse, 
20 feet west of wagon road, in sandstone 15 by 10 inches, 7 inches 
above ground; siluminum tablet stamped "3383 DW " 3,384.433 

HARNEY PEAK QTTADRAKOLE. 
Redf em to Hill City. 

Redfern, 2.6 miles southeast of, 75 feet east of crossing of Rochford and 
Hill City wagon road, 1,000 feet north of dwelling between bridges 
61 and 62; spike in northeast side of pine tree 5,436.72 

Hill City, 4.3 miles northwest of, 9<)0 feet north of bridge GO, 3,000 
feet east of county road crossing, 300 feet north of spring meadow, 
400 feet west of house, 30 feet north of wagon road from Redfern to 
Hill City, in east side of rock outcroi), 10 feet above road, 3 feet 
north of small rock mound : copper bolt stami)ed " DW 5349 " 5, 350. 506 

Hill City, 120 feet south of station, in center of south end of lawn, 
2 feet north of fence; iron post stamped " DW 4976" 4,977.714 

Hill City, south end of town, 3,000 feet south of station, 75 feet east 
of track, 500 feet north of switch on branch line to Coats and Cow- 
boy, 75 feet south of abandoned sawmill, in top of white quartz 
rock, 2 by 2 feet at surface; bronze tablet stamped " DW 5026 ".— 5. 027. 604 



PBIMABY LEVEUNG. 25 

Hill City to Outtar. 

Hill City, 4 miles soutb of, 1 mile southwest of switch at lumber spur, 
470 feet northeast of crossing of Hill City-Custer wagon road, 235 
feet southwest of southwest end of bridge 42, 100 feet north of 
limit ix>st between railroad sections 10 and 9, about center of rocic 
cut, 10 feet west of and 6 inches above track, top of rock projection Feet, 
from main wall of cut ; copper bolt stamped " DW 5240 " 5, 241. 537 

OrevlUe, 25 feet northwest of track, 25 feet west of mail-bag catcher 
stand, 00 feet north of switch stand at north end of siding, on top 
of flat bowlder east of small rock mound; chisel mark 5,338.31 

Oreville. 2,500 feet south of sawmill, 200 feet southeast of Junction 
of Spring and Tenderfoot creeks, 250 feet south of crossing of Hill 
City-Custer wagon road, 100 feet west of bridge 37; copper nail 
in north side of pine tree, near ground 5, 366. 30 

Custer, 6 miles northwest of, 1,000 feet north of tin mine, 500 feet 
northeast of Tenderfoot Springs, long rock cut in curve on east 
side of track, in white quartz rock, 2 by 2 foot face, on top of 
south end of cut; copper bolt stamped " DW 5686" 5,697.253 

Custer, 3.5 miles northwest of, 250 feet north of crossing of Hill City- 
Custer wagon road, 50 feet east of road, in center of quartz outcrop, 
1 foot south of loose rock mound. In top of 2 by 2 foot rock; 
bronze tablet stamped "DW 5749" 5,750.720 

Custer, in front of ticket office, top of rail, main track 5,304.4 

Custer, 950 feet southwest of station, 440 feet south of track, 500 feet 
east of axle grease factory, north side of group of rocks. 5 feet east 
of large blazed i)ine tree, 1 foot north of rock mound, in top of rock, 
5 by 5 foot surface, 5 feet high on lower side; bronze tablet 
stamped " DW 5822 " 5, 323. 665 

Oiuter to Print le. 

Custer, 1.2 miles south of, 100 feet east of track on inside of curve, on 
opposite side of track from large Jagged rock, at west end of rock 
ledge; copper nail in root on west side of pine tree 5,374.83 

Custer, 1.8 miles south of, 900 feet south of log house, north of 
yellowish-brown house, 20 feet west of white reference post marked 
" P. S. 10°," north end of large rock in cut on west side of track ; 
chisel mark 5, 426. 59 

Custer, 2.7 miles south of, 0.5 mile south of top of divide, 85 feet 
northeast of Custer-Pringle road crossing over railroad, 800 feet 
north of log house, 25 feet east of wagon road, 2 feet southwest of 
rock mound, in rock 4 by 10 by 2 feet high; copper bolt stamped 
" DW 5469" 5, 470. 652 

Maj'o, 175 feet north of railroad section house, 75 feet northeast of 
road crossing, in rock 100 by 30 feet. 25 feet high, near southwest 
comer, 6 feet above ground ; copi)er bolt stamped " DW 5190 " 5, 191. 482 

Pringle, 3,000 feet northeast of station, 300 feet south of Custer- 
Hot Springs road crossing over railroad, 250 feet north of whistling 
post marked ** Pringle," 30 feet west of track, in south side of rock 
100 by 30 feet 20 feet high, 4 feet above ground; copper bolt 
stamped "DW 4879" 4,880.355 

Pringle, in front of ticket office ; top of rail, main track 4, 880. 4 



66 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 19ld. 

Prlsfle to IviAhoe. 

Pringle, 1 mile southwest of, 40 feet south of road crossing near top of 
divide, 3 feet northeast of telegniph i)o]e, i>olnt on southwest comer Feet, 
of limestone rock 4,951.89 

Loring siding, 6,000 feet north of north switch stand, 180 feet west 
of crossing of Prlngle-Mlnnekahta road. 280 feet northwest of 
bridge 11, in limestone rock 20 by 15 feet, 5 feet high, 15 feet 
northwest of pine tree, in top 3 feet from northwest comer; cop- 
per bolt stamped " DW 4697" 4,698.525 

Argyle, in front of section house; top of rail 4.795.2 

Argyle, 1,550 feet southwest of section house, 30 feet east of track, 
near north end of small cut, 2 Inches above ground. In southeast 
end of sandstone rock S by 3 feet ; copi>er bolt stamped " I)W 4798 "^ 4, 799. 660 

Berne eidlnf , 8.6 milee northwest of Cutter, along public road to Bear Springs 

public road. 

Pleasant View ranch, 0.5 mile southeast of, 0.5 mile northeast of 
Wright ranch, 800 feet south of small bridge on Custer-Deadwood 
road, 30 feet southeast of road from Wright ranch to Custer, 
50 feet west of large pine tree blazed on west side, in large rock at 
north end of ledge 50 feet long, near center of top rock, about 15 
feet above road; chisel mark 5,702.88 

Wright ranch, 0.8 mile west of, 100 feet southeast of junction of two 
roads, 200 feet east of timber; spike in top of root on east side of 
detached 2-foot pine tree 5.767.37 

Wright ranch, 1.5 miles west of, 1,300 feet east of small butte covered 
with white quartz rock, 3,000 feet east of fork in road, rocky ridge 
running across road northwest and southeast 80 feet south of 
county road, in large outcrop 30 by 30 feet 6 feet high. 7 feet west 
of northeast corner and 4 feet aljove ground, near three pine trees 

marked {iiHv wrji [, one southeast 18 feet, one northeast 35 feet, 

and one northwest 35 feet ; bronze tablet stami>ed '* DW 5871 " 5, 872. 599 

Wright ranch, 2 miles west of, 45 feet west of fork in road, 1,700 feet 
west of small quartz<'overe(l butte on north side of road ; spike in 
root on north side of 2-foot pine tree 5, 999. 7 

Wright ranch, 3 miles west of, 3,000 feet west of placer mine, 400 feet 
northwest of fork in road, 150 feet north of road to placer mine, 
40 feet northeast of Custer-Bear Springs road; spike in root on 
north side of pine tree 18 inches in diameter 6, 009. 68 

Henderson ranch, 2,000 feet east of, 75 feet northwest of fork in 
county roads, 30 feet north of Custer-Bear Springs road, near 
three pine trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 15 inches in 
diameter southeast 133 feet, one 30 inches in diameter north 23 
feet, one 24 inches in diameter northwest 49 feet; iron iwst 
stamped " DW 6060" 6,061.550 

Peterson ranch, 1,400 feet northwest of, 50 feet west of right-angle 
bend in Custer-Bear Springs road; spike in root on northeast side 
of 2-foot pine tree 6,183.09 

Peterson ranch, 1 mile \vest of, at foot of steep hill, 8 feet south of 
county road; spike in root on north side of 1-foot pine tree 6,282.80 



PKIMARY LEVELJNG. 2V 

Peterson ranch. 1.25 miles west of, hi gap on top of divide between 
heads of French Creek and Hell Canyon, 10 feet north of Custer- 
Bear Springs wagon road, 5.25 feet northwest of southeast corner 
of sec. 33, T. 2 S., R. 3 E. ; near two pine trees marked ** U.S.G.S. 
B.M. W.T.," one 1 foot in diameter, west 11 feet ; one 15 inches in Feet, 
diameter, east 30 feet; iron post stamped "DW 6443'' G, 444. 540 

Bear Springs, 1.8 miles southeast of, 300 feet east of top of divide be- 
tween Bear Springs and Bull Spring gulches, 5 feet north of 
Custer-Bear Springs road ; spike in root on southeast side of 1-foot 
pine tree 6, 629. 95 

Bear Springs, 1.25 miles southeast of, 30 feet northeast of Custer- 
Bear Springs road, 0.5 mile northwest of crossing over top of 
divide between Bear Springs and Bull Spring gulches, on east side 
of small park ; copper nail in root on west side of 15-inch pine tree- 6, 515. 44 

Bear Springs to Buck Spring publlo road. 

Alkali Spring, 1 mile northwest of. 520 feet northwest of fork of roads 
to Bock Spring and down west side of Hell Canyon, 65 feet north- 
east of Buck Spring road, near top of limestone rock 24 by 4 feet 
and 2^ feet high; location marked by two pine trees marked 
•* U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 10 inches in diameter north 150 feet, one 
18 inches in diameter southeast 180 feet; bronze tablet stamped 
" DW 6224 " 6, 225. 638 

Alkali Spring, 3.25 miles northwest of, 0.8 mile northwest of top 
of divide near southeast comer of park, 30 feet north of Custer- 
Buck Spring road ; spike in root on northwest side of 30-inch pine 
tree 6, 231. 59 

Alkali Spring, 2.5 miles northwest of, 4.000 feet east of road crossing 
over west fork of Hell Canyon, 25 feet south of Custer-Buck 
Spring road, in scattered timber on top of ridge, near three pine 
trees marked "U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 10 inches in diameter 
southeast 30 feet, one 10 inches in diameter west 05 feet, one 10 
inches in diameter north 4^) feet ; iron post stamped " DW a325 "— 6. 326. 910 

West fork of Hell Canyon, 2.000 feet west of, 20 feet southwest of 
Custer-Buck Spring road ; wire nail in root on north side of 15-inch 
tall dead pine tree 6,252.75 

Buck Spring, 5.25 miles northeast of, 2.3, miles northeast of point 
where Custer-Buck Spring road descends into bottom of Gillette 
Canyon, 25 feet west of road, near two pine trees marked " U.S.G.S. 
B.M. W.T.," one northwest 40 feet, one southeast 75 feet; iron 
post stamped " DW 6193 " 6, 194. 651 

Buck Spring. 4.2 miles northeast of, 1.6 miles northeast of point 
where Custer-Buck Spring road enters Gillette Canyon, 8 feet 
southeast of road; spike in root on west side of 15-inch pine tree__ 6, OSS. 92 

Buck Spring, 4 miles northeast of, 30 feet north of Custer-Buck 
Spring road, on north side of clump of large trees 1.1 miles north- 
east of point where road enters bottom of Gillette Canyon ; spike 
in root on south side of 18-inch pine tree 5,082.92 

Gillette Canyon, top of slope, east side, 20 feet northwest of Custer- 
Buck Spring road at top of steep descent into bottom of canyon; 
spike in root in southeast side of 18-inch pine tree 5, 828.94 



28 SPIRIT LEVEUNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Buck Spring. 3 miles east of, 30 feet southwest of and about 10 feet 
above Custer-Buck Spring road, 250 feet east of i)oint where road 
crosses dry stream bed in Gillette Canyon after descending steep 
hill, in top of limestone outcrop 2 by 2 by 2 feet high; location 
mark by three pine trees marked "U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 15 
inches in diameter east 250 feet, one 10 inches in diameter north- 
west 12 feet, one 12 inches in diameter south 45 feet; bronze tablet Feet, 
stamped " I)W 5627" 5,628.738 

Buck Spring, 2 miles east of, 30 feet north of Custer-Buck Spring 
road, 400 feet northwest of mouth of deep narrow gulch up which 
road runs, on bank 25 feet above road ; spike in root on north side 
of 15-inch pine tree 5. 699. 13 

Buck Spring, 1.8 miles east of. 6 feet northwest of Custer-Buck Spring 
road, 200 feet east of top of divide between Gillette and Buck 
Spring canyons; spike in root on southwest side of 18-inch pine 
tree 5. 800. 03 

Buck Spring, 100 feet southeast of, 330 feet southwest of Kemp dwell- 
ing house. 45 feet west of road down Buck Spring Canyon, In top 
of north end of limestone rock. 4 by 6 feet, 18 inches above ground: 
location marked by two pine trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," 
one 14 inches in diameter northwest 200 feet, one 15 Inches In 
diameter southeast 20 feet ; bronze tablet stamiied " DW 5432 "___ 5, 433. 697 

Buok Spring to Hell Canyon and Past Creok public road. 

Buck Spring 0.7 mile south of, 45 feet northwest of road down can- 
yon; spike in root on east side of 3-foot pine tree 5,340.66 

Buck Spring, about 2 miles south of. 8 feet northwest of road down 
canyon, 6 feet southeast of dry rocky stream bed ; spike in south- 
east side of 20-inch pine tree 6 inches above ground 5,175.06 

Buck Spring, 3.2 miles south of, 150 feet east of dry stream bed in 
Buck Spring Canyon. 60 feet southeast of and about 10 feet above 
wagon road, near foot of a point topped with high vertical rock, 
where road again enters canyon after crossing ridge to northeast, 
in top of gi'ay sandstone outcrop 3 feet wide and 2.5 feet high; 
location marked by three pine trees marked *' IT. S. G. S. B. M. 
W. T.," one 20 inches in diameter southeast 6 feet, one 5 inches in 
diameter southwest 50 feet, one 12 inches in diameter north 27 
feet; bronze tablet stampe<l " DW 5050" 5,051.670 

Buck Spring, 4.5 miles south of, 100 feet southeast of dry stream bed 
of Buck S])ring Canj'on, 500 feet south of old stone chimney near 
water hole 50 feet southeast of and 20 feet above road ; spike in 
west side of 22-inch pine tree 4,897.04 

3-C-S, or Campbell ranch, 700 feet southwest of, 80 feet east of fork 
in roads, 1,000 feet east of Junction of Gillette and Buck Spring 
Canyons, on top of small rocky i)oint ; iron post stamped " DW 
4727 " 4, 728. 767 

Babcock ranch, 0.8 mile northwest of, 1.2 miles southeast of Coe 
ranch, 30 feet south of Custer-Newcastle road, 200 feet east of junc- 
tion of road from Babcock rjinch, 400 feet east of timbered ravine 
down which Custer-Newcastle road runs; iron post stamped **DW 
4950" 4,951.636 

Barthold ranch, 0.25 mile east of. 500 feet northeast of Cx)on Creek, 
60 feet north of intersection of two wagon roads; iron post stami)ed 
" DW 4670 " 4, 671. 741 



PBIMABY LEVEUNG. 29 

Drew rancli, 2^200 feet northwest of, 15 feet southwest of road from 
Barthold ranch, 35 feet southeast of northwest corner of sec. 2, 
T. 5 S., R. 1 EL, on southeast bank of gulch; iron post stamped Feet. 
** DW 4373 " 4, 374. 721 

Drew ranch, 1.8 miles south of, 30 feet west of road to S & G. 
ranch, 800 feet southwest of two buttes capped with limestone 
bowlders, about 1 mile northeast of point where road crosses 
stream in Tepee Canyon, top of lon^ hill; iron post stamped ** DW 
4422 " ^ 4, 423. 676 

Drew ranch, 2.8 miles south of, 75 feet east of road to S. & G. ranch, 
180 feet northwest of stream in Tepee Canyon, 300 feet northeast of 
remains of old log cabin, small outcrop of sandstone rock, 20 feet 
above bed of stream, on top of rock 1 by 1 foot in center of outcrop, 
2 feet southeat^t of mound; chisel mark 4.201.77 

Hell Canyon and Pass Creek, 3.2 miles north of Junction of, 15 feet 
west of road from Drew ranch to S. & G. ranch, 1,100 feet south 
of Junction with road down west side of Tepee Canyon, on top of 
ridge covered with scattered quartzite bowlders, 6 feet east of 
bowlder 12 by 8 by 5 feet, in top of rock 4 by 2 by 1 foot ; bronze 
tablet stamped " DW 4294" 4,295.486 

Hell Canyon and Pass Creek, 1,200 feet west of Junction, 75 feet 
southwest of Junction of road down Pass Creek with road from 
Drew ranch to S. & G. ranch, 24 feet southeast of road, 90 feet 
south of south bank of creek bed ; iron post stamped '* DW 3846 "__ 3, 847. 834 

Sullivan ranch, 1 mile east of, on south bank of Pass Creek, 250 feet 
east of mouth of small running stream, 40 feet southenst of road; 
spike In root on north side of 15-lpch cottouwood tree 3,899.80 

Sullivan ranch, 2.6 miles east of, 240 feet south of stream bod in Pass 
Creek Valley, 45 feet south of county road crossing over stream bed. 
800 feet west of point where road runs up out of valley onto a flat 
prairie, on small i)oint of land 10 feet above road; iron i)ost 
stamped "DW 3988" 3,989.722 

Sullivan ranch, 5.8 miles east of, 3,800 feet northeast of southwest 
comer of sec, 35, T. 5 S., R. 2 K., 25 feet north of county road from 
S. & G. ranch to Custer, 65 feet west of Junction with dim road 
from northwest, about halfway up a long hill; iron post stamped 
" DW 4253 " 4, 254. 797 

Past Creek to Loring tiding public road. 

Richardson ranch, 1.8 miles southwest of, 800 feet east of southeast 
fork of Pass Cre^k, 5 ^ftei couth of county road from S. & G. ranch 
to Custer; spike in root on northwest side of 2-foot pine tree 4, 427. 96 

Richardson ranch, 1 mile southwest of, 15 feet northwest of road 
from S. & G. ranch to Pringle, at Junction of road from southwest, 
in saddle on top of ridge; iron post stamped " DW 4594 " 4, 595. 808 

Richardson ranch, 500 feet southwest of dwelling, 65 feet southwest 
of county road ; spike in root on north side of 20-inch pine tree 4, 583. 47 

Richardson ranch, 2 miles east of, 20 feet east of road, 800 feet 
north of Junction of roads. 900 feet south of Junction with private 
road from Richardson ranch, on top of ridge about 1.25 miles west 
of Pleasant Valley; iron post stamped " DW 4796" 4, 797. 890 



30 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Eighteen Mile ranch, 0.8 mile west of, 1,200 feet north of Tutt ranch, 
15 feet southwest of county road, 100 feet west of Junction of road 
from Eighteen Mile ranch with road up Pleasant Valley, west side 
of Pleasant Valley, 3 feet northeast of wire fence; iron post Peet. 
stamped ** DW 4649 " 4, 650. 8SH 

Eighteen Mile ranch, 1,800 feet northeast of, 180 feet southwest of 
fork In stream bed, 90 feet northwest of water hole, on northwest 
end of brown sandstone 5 by 3 feet and 1 foot high; circle and 
radial lines, chisel mark 4,092.37 

Eighteen-Mile ranch, about 2 miles southeast of, 6 feet west of road 
from Eighteen-Mile ranch to Horgan ranch, 1,500 feet north of top 
of divide ; spike In root on east side of 2i-foot pine tree 4, 851. 53 

Horgan ranch, 2 miles northwest of, 15 feet west of road from Lorlng 
siding to Eighteen-Mile ranch, 350 feet south of top of divide over 
which road crosses; Iron post stanii)ed *' DW 4916" 4,918.046 

Horgan ranch, 0.8 mile southwest of, 27 feet southeast of road coming 
into ranch from southwest, 400 feet southwest of Junction with 
road from Eighteen-Mile ranch, near north end of circular outcrop 
of flat rock, on top of southeast side of sandstone rock 5 by 3 by 1 
foot; chisel mark 4,-792.85 

Point 8 miles east of Bich&rdBon*B ranch tonthwott by KoBeath rancli down 
East Fork of Hawkwrlght Croek, thenco north to Pau Croek Valley. 

McBeath ranch, 1.4 miles northeast of, 20 feet east of road to Custer, 
on south side of ridge of timber through which road passes, 6 feet 
east of dry sandy ravine; copper uall In root on northwest side of 
15-lnch pine tree 4,639.79 

McBeath ranch, 1,000 feet northeast of, 35 feet southeast of road to 
Custer on southwest edge of timber, 300 feet southwest of i)olnt 
where road runs down dry rocky stream bed, near pine tree, 
marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W. T.,'* enst 30 fet't ; Iron iK)st stampeii 
** DW 4512 " 4, 513. 841 

Cedar ranch, l,Ji00 feet northwest of, 370 feet south of gate In wire 
fence, 0() fet't east of road; copper nail In root on west side of 
15-lnch dry piuo stump feet high 4,400. 59 

Cedar ranch, 5(K> ftH?t west of, 140 feet west of gate in wire fence, 20 
feet southwest of road : spike level with ground in root on northeast 
side of 12-lnch pine tree 4,349.55 

Cedar ranch, 2 miles south of, 20 feet west of road down llawkwright 
Creek, 180 feet west of and about 30 feet above bed of east fork of 
creek, 600 feet north of point where road runs up out of valley and 
crosses ridge; near two pine trees markcnl ** U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," 
one 5 Inches In diameter south 70 feet, one 8 inches in diameter 
west 40 feet; iron post stamped ** DW 41G5 " 4,166.790 

Cedar ranch, 4 miles south of, 40 feet west of crossing of road over 
Hawkwrlght Creek, 5<)0 feet south of spring ; spike in root on south 
side of 15-luch cottonwood tree 4,035.11 

Cedar ranch, 4.8 miles south of, 25 feet northeast of road down 
Hawkwrlght Creek, at Junction with road from northwest, about 
3,000 feet south of fork in creek, 0.5 mile west of creek ; Iron post 
Stamped "DW 4021" 4,022.825 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 31 

McBeath ranch, 2.5 miles west of, 70 feet northwest of road from 
McBeath and Cedar randies to Pass Creek, at junction with road 
tip ridge from the southwest, on top of watershed between Pass 
Creek and Hawkwright Creek, where road starts descent into Pass 
Creek basin ; pine tree 15 inches diameter marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. Feet. 
W.T.." southeast 130 feet ; iron post stamped " DW 4373 " 4, 374. 790 

Pau Creek Valley north to X&rth ranch. 

Roger's shack, 1.25 miles northeast of, 120 feet southeast of old 
S. & G.-Custer County road, 25 feet northeast of plank gate in wire 
fence on south side of Lindsay ranch pasture; spike In root on 
north side of 2-foot pine tree 4.640.83 

IJndsay ranch. 0.8 mile east of, 18 feet southeast of old S. & G.- 
Custer County road, in small saddle on top of ridge, 40 feet north- 
east of crest, 000 feet south of fence on north side of pasture ; near 
two pine trees marked *' U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 5 inches in diam- 
eter northwest GO feet, one 12 inches in diameter northeast 90 
feet; iron post stomped " DW 4801" 4,802.541 

Lindsay ranch pasture, 4,000 feet north of northeast corner, 40 feet 
west of old S. & G.-Custer County road, 450 feet north of junction 
with road from southwest, south side of belt of timber; wire spike 
In southeast side of 12-inch pine tree 4,858.61 

Reynolds ranch, about 1 mile southwest of, 120 feet southeast of old 
S. & G.-Custer County road; wire spike in root on southeast side 
of IMnch pine tree 5,154.61 

Roynolds ranch, 0.,^» mile southwest of. 30 feet east of old S. & G.- 
Custer County road, at junction of road from southeast, 0.25 mile 
.««outli of point of fork of road to Reynolds ranch ; iron post 
stami)ed " DW 5208" 5, 20i>. G92 

Rf»yn<»I(ls ranch. 1.2 miles north of, .S,^) fet't southeast of old S. & (J.- 
Custer County road, 165 feet northeast of cross roads in draw form- 
ing head of Pass Creek; copper nail in northwest side of 12-liich 
pine tree 5, 30<J. 46 

R<*ynoIds ranch. 2 miles north of, 150 fwt southeast of road to Y 4 
ranch, 0.5 mile southwest of timberetl butte; copiier nail in north- 
west side of 2-fiM)t pine tree 5.4:33.91 

Reynolds ranch, 2.S miles north of, 20 feet east of road to Y 4 ranch. 
0.5 mile northwest of timbered butte. near south end of strip of 
prairie; location marked by two pine trees marked "U.S.G.S. B.M. 
W.T.." one 6 inches in diameter s(»uth ISO feet, one 12 inches in 
diameter northeast 200 feet: iron post stamped *' DW .5401 "______ .5. 4l>2. (UU 

Reynolds ranch, 3.S miles north of, 50 feet east of road to Y 4 ranch, 
\i'A) feet southwest of gate in fence; wire si»ike in root on north 
side of 18-inch pine tree 5, 4SJ). .57 

Y 4 ranch, 0.5 mile southwest of, 30 feet north of road from Pass 
Creek. 25 feet east of ravine, 60 feet north of fence; wire spike in 

root on south side of 2-foot pine tree 5. 517. .S6 

V 4 ranch, 0.5 mile northeast of, 20 feet southeast of road to Puster, 
in siiddle on top of small ridge, near two pine trees niarketl ** U.S. 
(;.S. B.M. W.T.," one 5 inches in diameter west 145 feet, one 12 
inches in diameter northeast 200 feet; iron post stamped " I>\V 

«>d4X «>.• — — ••••'««•>"»« — — >•>>. — «- — — <- — ..•• — — ••. — ^-■>~-.- _ — ._.» 1>, vhz«a, Oovl 



32 SPIRIT LEVEUNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Y 4 ranch, 2.5 miles nortlieast of, 10 feet southeast of road to Custer, 
2,500 feet southwest of Junction with old Custer-Newcastle stage Feet, 
road ; wire spike In root on north side of 18-lnch pine tree 5, 673. 06 

OaxT naoh along OniteisHtwoAttle pvbUe road yU Vonrmile, XAnb naoh, 
and Ward ranoh, aoroM Hell Oanjon to point abont 0«8 milo north of Babooek 
ranoh. 

Carr ranch, 300 feet northeast of, 3 miles southwest of Custer. In 
spherical rock outcrop 100 feet southeast of road ; witness trees, one 
45 feet east, 30-lnch pine, one 30 feet south, 15-lnch pine; bronze 
tablet stamped "DW 5475" 5.476.689 

Fournille, Hendricks ranch, 500 feet east of, 3 feet west of mile board 
at the Intersection of the Dudley road with Custer-Newcastle road, 
4.5 miles southwest of Custer ; Iron \yo8t stamped ** DW 5336 " 6, 337. 561 

Fourmile, 2 miles west of, 0.5 mile east of Marsh ranch; nail in 
root of 18-lnch pine 40 feet south of road 5, 475. 17 

Marsh ranch, 800 feet west of, top of large flat rock on east edge of 
road, level with road, In west bank of dry creek channel, 125 feet 
north of crossing; piue witness tree, 30 Inches In diameter, 70 feet 
east of south: pine witness tree, 30 inches In diameter, 50 feet east 
of south; bronze table stamped " DW 5453" 5,454. Oas 

Ward ranch, 300 feet south of, 50 feet north of road; 18-lnch pine 
witness tree 30 feet east; bronze tablet set in rock stamped 
" DW 5614 " 5.615.495 

Ward ranch, 1 mile west of, on south edge of road; nail In root of 
15-lnch pine tree 5,597.88 

Ward ranch, 2 miles west of, 1 mile north of Smith ranch, at Junction 
of ravine with Hell Canyon on south edge of road, 75 feet east of 
road down Hell Canyon; 10-Inch pine witness tree 50 feet south- 
east, 20-inch piue witness tree IGo feet northeast; bronze tablet 
stamped " DW 5090" 5,091.596 

Smith ranch, 3 miles west of, 800 feet west of Intersection of middle 
and south roads over Hell Canyon, on top of divide between west 
IIoll Canyon and oast prong of Tei)ee Canyon, in limestone 3 by 2 
by li feet high, 100 feet northwest of road; 15-lnch pine witness 
tree 200 feet north, 12-lnch pine witness tree 65 feet southwest; 
bronze tablet stami)ed " DW 5358" 5,359.529 

Smith ranch, 5 miles west of, 25 feet north of road, 100 feet west 
of middle prong of Tei)ee Canyon ; nail In root of 12-lnch pine 5. 100. 04 

Smith ranch, 6 miles west of, 25 feet south of road. 900 feet east of 
section comer, on line between ranges 1 and 2, near foot of ridge; 
20-inch pine witness tree 285 feet east, 24-inch pine witness tree 250 
feet northeast; iron post stamped " DW 5094" 5,095.542 

Smith ranch, 8 miles west of, on north edge of road, 300 feet west of 
top of ridge, 0.25 mile west of road running to Babcock ranch; 
point on large flat rock 5.044.72 

Point on Cnster-Deadwood public road 0.6 mile louthoaat of Pleasant View 
ranch, half mile northeast of Wright ranch, and 80 feet eontheaet of road 
from Wright ranoh to Ouster northwest to James Dwyer's ranch. 

Mahnke ranch. 0.5 mile south of, 35 feet west of Intersection of old 
stage road from Custer to Deadwood and road running to Hill City 
via Tenderfoot, 0.5 mile southeast of Junction schoolhouse ; 15-lnch 
pine witness tree 120 feet northeast, 18-lnch pine witness tree 120 
feet northeast; Iron post stamped " PW 6106" 6,107.490 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 33 

Mahnke ranch, 1.5 miles north of, 10 feet east of road ; nail in root Feet 
of 12-lnch pine tree 6,032.11 

Vonderlehr ranch, 275 feet north of, east side of road where it turns 
northwest on north side of valley ; 24-inch pine witness tree 120 feet 
northwest, 24-inch pine witness tree 900 feet northeast; iron post 
stamped "DW 5818" 5,810.481 

Vonderlehr ranch, 2 miles north of, 20 feet east of road, 300 feet north 

of top of ridge at Spring Creek ; nail in root of 24-inch pine tree— 5, 043. 55 

Jackson ranch, 800 feet west of, at west edge of road, 100 feet west 
of small creek ; 30-inch pine witness tree 170 feet northeast, 36-inch 
pine witness tree 265 feet northwest; iron post stamped **DW 
5833" 5, 834.468 

Jackson ranch, 1.25 miles north of, 50 feet west of road ; nail in root 

of 10-inch pine tree 5.949.55 

Simpson ranch, 400 feet northeast of, in rock outcrop on point of ridge 
on east side of road ; 18-inch pine witness tree 85 feet west ; 15-inch 
pine witness tree 35 feet north ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 6123 ". 6, 124. 371 

Gillette ranch. 350 feet east of, in rock outcrop 20 feet long and 4 feet 
high, 15 feet above and 25 feet northeast of road at angle of road, 
175 feet northwest of bridge over Slate Creek ; 24-inch pine witness 
tree 370 feet south ; bronze tablet stamjied ** DW 0243 " 6, 244. 553 

Gillette ranch, 1.1 miles north of, triangular stone 18 Inches high with 
2 feet base, 40 feet west of road, 75 feet east of Slate Creek; top 
surface 6, 106. 99 

Cramer ranch, 0.4 mile north of, 20 feet south of road forks ; 36-inch 
pine witness tree 325 feet northeast ; 30-inch pine witness tree 425 
feet southwest ; iron post stami)ed " DW 5901 " 5, 902. 373 

Dwyer imncli east to Tig •rvllle, on Ohioa^, Bnrlington ft Quincy B. B. 

Jim Dwyer ranch, 800 feet northwest of, 275 feet north of road ; iron 
post set for township comer on base line, marked '* Sec. 1 N., R. 3 
E.," on northwest side and *'R. 4 E," on northeast side, stamped 
" DW 5837 " 5, 838. 898 

Jim Dwyer ranch, 1 mile east of, south of road ; nail in root of 10-inch 

pine tree 5, 863. 35 

Mrs. Dwyer ranch (Tigervllle), 100 feet east of road intersection; 

nail in root of 24-inch pine tree 5. 486. 52 

Poliit IJU mllot Mnthoast of Bear Springe on Ouster road to Bear Springs, 
Preaoker Spring, and head of Oastle Creek, thence north to Beadwood- 
Vewoastle road, thence east to Bulldog ranch on Chicago, Burlington is 
Qnlnoy B. B. 

Bear Springs, in flat limestone outcrop 12 by 15 feet, 130 feet east of 
creek, 500 feet southeast of cabin, 50 feet below timber line, 3.50 feet 
southeast of road, 600 feet northeast of road; 18-inch pine witness 
tree 400 feet northwest; 40-inch pine witness tree 250 feet north- 
east; copper bolt stamped ''DW 6490" 6,491.644 

Bear Springs, 2.25 miles north of, in center and upper side of flat 
limestone outcrop, 135 feet northeast of road, on top of divide be- 
tween head of Gillette Canyon and Hell Canyon, outcrop 60 feet by 
30 feet; 15-inch pine witness tree 175 feet south; 12-inch pine wit- 
ness tree 3'10 feet northwest ; copper bolt stami^ed " DW 6912 " 6, 913. 7 

Bear Springs, 3.8 miles northwest of, 75 feet north of road; nail in 
root of 15-inch pine tree 6,006.03 

89807*— Bull. 472—11 3 



34 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Bear Springs, 4 miles northwest of, 25 feet east of road from Gillette 
Canyon to Bear Springs, on southeast side of Gillette Park at foot 
of ridge dividing branch of Gillette Canyon toward Bear Springs 
from branch to head of Spring Creek, 800 feet south of the inter- 
section of the two branches of Gillette Canyon, near the intersec- 
tion of the roads running to Bear Springs, Spring Creek, down 
Gillette Canyon, and north through Gillette Park ; witness tree 190 
feet northeast of 20-inch pine tree ; witness tree 400 feet southeast Feet, 
of 30-lnch pine tree; iron post stamped " DW 6611 " 6, 612. 630 

Preacher Spring main road and Gillette Canyon road, 5.1 miles east 
of intersection on Preacher Spring road ; highest point of rock 12 
by 12 inches 30 feet south of road G, oHl. 96 

Preacher Spring main road and Gillette Canyon road, 3 miles east 
of intersection, 150 feet north of road ; nail in root of 24-inch pine 
tree 6, 463. 42 

Preacher Springs main road and Gillette Canyon road, 3 miles east 
of intersection, at intersection with a ravine from the south with 
Gillette Canyon, in second limestone outcrop from the north, at 
foot of cliff and 40 feet south of northwest point of cliff, 5 feet 
al>ove level of surface in outcrop 10 feet high; 30-inch pine wit- 
ness tree 280 feet north ; 24-inch pine witness tree 300 feet south- 
west; copper bolt stamiied "DW 6374" 6,375.451 

Preacher Spring main road and Gillette Canyon road, 1 mile east 
of intersection; nail in root of 18-inch pine tree 50 feet east of 
road 6, 209. 26 

Preacher Spring main road and Gillette Canyon road, 0.3 mile west 
of intersection, in east end and 8 inches below top of limestone out- 
crop 5 feet long and 2 feet high, 75 feet north of road and 6 feet 
higher than road ; 18-inch pine witness tree 25 feet north ; 24-inch 
pine witness tree 125 feet northeast ; copix»r bolt stamped " DW 
6129 " 6, 130. 641 

Graham ranch road, 1 mile northeast of intersection with, 20 feet east 
of road ; nail in root of 24-inch dead pine tree 5, 965. 19 

Graham ranch road, 25 feet west of intersection of, 4 miles east of 
Graham ranch ; 30-inch pine witness tree 45 feet north ; 30-inch pine 
witness tree 125 feet northeast : iron post stamped " DW 6167 "— 6, 168. 623 

Graham ranch, 3 miles east of, 20 feet west of road; nail in root of 
18-inch pine tree 6.222.60 

Graham ranch, 1 mile east of, on south side of road; nail in root 
of 15-inch pine tree 6,093.00 

Graham ranch, 1,000 feet south of, in blue limestone outcrop 12 by 12 
inches, 15 feet east of road on east side of Hay Canyon, 20 feet east 
of foot of hill ; 24-inch pine witness tree 135 feet north, 30-inch pine 
witness tree 2S0 feet southeast; copper bolt stamped ** DW 5752 'L 5.753.694 

Moon ranch, 1.25 miles south of, 45 feet east of road ; nail in root of 
18-inch dead pine tree 6,147.67 

Moon ranch, 65 feet south of cabin, in limestone outcrop 18 by 24 
inches; 10-inch pine witness tree 170 feet north, 24-ineh pine wit- 
ness tree 85 feet west; copper bolt stamped " DW 6273" 6.274.932 

D. W. Thompson ranch, 2,5 miles south of, 75 feet east of road; nail 
in root of 40-inch pine tree ,__ 6,404.77 

D. W. Thompson ranch, 1.25 miles south of, 50 feet west of road ; nail 
In root of 30-inch pine tree 6, 387. 10 



PBIMABY LEVELING. 35 

D, W. Thompson ranch, 0.7 mile south of. 25 feet east of Intersection 
of Newcastle road with road south; 12-inch pine witness tree 50 
feet cast, 18-inch pine witness tree 285 feet southwest; iron post Feet. 
stamped "DW 6480" 6,481.610 

D. W. Thompson ranch, 0.25 mile south of, 90 feet east of road; 

nail in root of 15-inch pine tree 6, 512. 67 

D. W. Thompson ranch, 1.25 miles east of, in limestone outcrop 24 
by 18 feet, 6 feet higher than road, 40 feet southeast of intersec- 
tion of Preacher Spring road with Newcastle road; 36-inch pine 
witness tree 250 feet west, 18-inch pine witness tree 185 feet 
southeast; copiper bolt stamped "DW 6588" 6,589.585 

Woodward ranch, 2.25 miles south of, stone 2 feet by 1 foot, 40 feet 
east of road, beside stake ; highest point of stone 6, 570. 13 

Intonection of Proacber Bpring, Ditch C^Mk, Spring Greek, and Bear Bprlng  

roade north to head of Ditch Greek. 

Bear Springs, 5 miles northwest of, 2.8 miles southeast of head of 
water in Ditch Creek, 12 feet east of road, 100 feet southeast of 
limestone outcrop, .300 feet north of top of ridge; highest point of 
18-inch black bowlder with broken corner 6, 599. 46 

Bear Springs, 5.5 miles northwest of, 2.25 miles southeast of head 

of water in Ditch Creek. 2 feet northeast of comer of SE. J and * 

SW. i sec. 36, T. 1 S., R. 2 E., and NE, i and NW. i of sec. 1, 

T. 2 S., R. 2 E., 100 feet west of road, 25 feet east of dry creek; 

24-inch pine witness tree 425 feet southwest; iron i)ost stamped 

" DW 6571 " 6, 572. 657 

Ditch Creek, head of, in limestone outcrop 10 by 10 feet and 2 feet 
high, 85 feet east of road and 15 feet higher than road, 400 feet 
south of spring at head of Ditch Creek ; 24-inch pine witness tree 
180 feet northeast, 15-inch pine witness tree 280 feet west; bronze 
tablet stamped " DW 6410 " . 6, 411. 606 

Sheridan via HiU Gltj to XcAdam ranch. 

Sheridan, 3.2 miles southwest of, 100 feet south of J. R. stamp mill, 
75 feet northwest of Lambert house, 60 feet west of intersection of 
road; iron post stamped "DW 4736" 4,737.463 

Hill City, 120 feet south of railroad station, in center of south end of 

lawn, 2 feet north of fence ; iron ix)st stamped " DW 4976 " 4, 977. 714 

McAdam ranch, 100 feet northwest of, south edge of road; iron post 

stamped "DW 4947" 4,948.359 

Bichardeon ranch via Lame Johnny Greek to Tlnsley ranch. 

Richardson ranch, 600 feet northeast of, 3.5 miles from Custer; iron 

post stamped " DW 5187" 5,188.514 

Wood ranch, 0.8 mile southeast of, 400 feet south of abandoned saw- 
mill, 100 feet west of road, 25 feet south of rock ledge 5 by 15 
feet, 2 feet high, in solid rock ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 5027 "- 5, 028. 591 

Tlnsley ranch, 800 feet east of, in granite rock, 10 feet diameter, 4 
feet high, on south side of road, 300 feet west of top of divide; 
bronze tablet stamped " DW 5109 " 5, 110. 536 

Clinkenbeard ranch to Pringle. 

Olinkenbeard ranch, 300 feet southwest of, at intersection of Prlngle, 
Hot Siirings, and Buffalo Gap roads; iron post stamiied " DW 
4582 " 4, 533. 509 



S6 SPmiT I^VELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Bowman ranch, fork of road to, north side of road; iron post Feet. 

stamped **DW 4716" 4,717.583 

Pringle, 0.4 mile north of; copijer bolt stamfied " DW 4879 " 4, 880. 355 

Point near Dwyer ranch. 

Jim Dwyer ranch, 800 feet northwest of, 275 feet north of road; 
iron iK)st set in township corner on base line, marked " sec. 5, 
T. 1 N., R. 3 E.," on northwest and " R. 4 E." on northeast, stami)ed 
" DW 5837 " 5, 838. 898 

HEBXOSA QITADBAKOLE. 

Bench mark near Sheridan. 

Sheridan, 0.2 miles south of, 200 feet northwest of Barthold ranch, 
west of intersection of Sheridan, Ilill City, and Keystone roads; 
Iron post stamped " DW 4601 " 4, 602. 471 

Beardeley ranch via Xesrstone and Olendale to Sayward. 

Beard sley ranch, 0.5 mile northeast of, 25 feet north of bridge over 
Battle Creek, in granite rock east side of road; bronze tablet 
stami)ed "DW 4734" 4,735.348 

Keystone, 225 feet west of south end of business street, 150 feet south- 
west of Nick Shoemaker house, north side of road, bench of rock 2 
by 5 feet, 3 feet higher than road ; aluminum tablet stamped ** DW 
4340 " 4. 341. 224 

Jlaruey schoolhouse, 300 feet east of, in large rock 50 feet southeast 
of intersection of Keystone, Rockerville, and Glendale roads; 
bronze tablet stamped " DW 4198" 4,199.356 

Glendale, 0.4 mile south of, 100 feet east of intersection of Glendale, 
Si)okane, and Hay ward roads, in rock 8 by 10 feet and 3 feet 
high; bronze tablet stamped " DW 4244" 4,245.339 

Hayi^^ard, west side of town, 175 feot east of Battle Creek, 50 feet 
south of intersection of Glendale, Rockerville, and Hermosa roads, 
in rock 15 by 8 feet, 3 feet high; bronze tablet stamped " DW 
3812 " a 813. 417 

Hayward north to Bockerville. 

Hayward, 3.5 miles north of, on ridge west of road; iron post stamped 

" DW 4507 " 4, 508. 258 

Rockerville, west end of town, southeast side of intersection of Hill 
(^itv. Keystone, and Rockerville roads; iron post stami)ed " DW 
4369 " 4, 370. 215 

Bench marks near Baker ranch. 

Sheridan, 2 miles northeast of, 50 feet northeast of intersection of 
Sheridan, Pactola, and Rapid roads, in stone 3 by 3 feet projecting 
18 inches above ground ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 455i5 " 4, 554. 481 

Baker ranch, 800 feet southeast of, north side of road; iron post 
stamped "DW 4495" 4,496.163 

Ohloafo k HorthweBtem By. bridge over Spring Greek to BockerviUe. 

Spring Creek, 0.5 mile north of, 90 feet southwest of crossing of 
county road and railroad ; iron post stamped " DW 3326 " 3, 327. 584 



PRIMARY LEVEUNG. 37 

McMinn ranch, 850 feet northeast of, northeast side of intersection of 
road down Spring Creek with Rapid-Hermosa road; Iron post Feet 
stamped "DW 3350" 3,351.323 

McMinn ranch, 1 mile west of, 25 feet north of road ; copper nail In 
root of 18-inch elm tree 3,382.34 

McMkm ninch, 2 miles west of. northeast comer of bridge over 
Spring Creek ; copper nail in root of 15-lnch cottonwood tree 3, 420. 60 

McMinn ranch, 2.8 miles west of, 675 feet north of Erb ranch, 40 
feet north of road, in sandstone 5 by 15 feet and 2 feet high ; bronze 
tablet stamped "DW 3457" 3,458.387 

Blair ranch, 400 feet northwest of, 45 feet northeast of Intersection of 
Spring Creek, Rapid, and Rockervllle roads; iron post stamped 
" DW 3511 " 3, 512. 426 

Blair ranch, 0.9 mile west of, north side of road ; copper nail in root 
of 15-Inch pine 3, 704. 93 

Wright ranch, 1 mile east of, top of divide between Spring Creek and 
Rockervllle Gulch, north side of road; iron post stamped "DW 
4329 " 4, 330. 311 

Wright ranch, 800 feet west of, north side of road ; copper nail In root 
of 12-lnch pine 4, 341. 31 

Bookervlllo yIa KoHowb, Kurphj, and Petanon ranohet to Eennofa. 

McNown ranch, 0.5 mile northwest of, 100 feet north of road, in lime- 
stone rock 6 by 2 feet outcropping In side of rocky hill, 20 feet 
higher than road ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 4324 " 4, 325. 700 

McNown ranch, 0.9 mile southeast of, 25 feet west of road; copper 
nail In root of 6-inch pine 4.249.81 

McNown ranch, 2.9 miles southeast of, 1.7 miles northwest of Murphy 
(Red Earth) ranch, 20 feet north of road on top of divide, In sand- 
stone 4 by 2 feet, 15 Inches high ; bronze tablet stami^ed " DW 
4063 '* 4, 064. 405 

Murphy ranch, 1 mile southwest of, 1.4 miles northwest of Peterson 
ranch ; 300 feet northwest of junction of roads, on bank of channel 
In gulch ; copper nail In root of 8-lnch pine tree 3, 600. 19 

Peterson ranch, 0.2 mile northwest of, northeast side of Junction of 
Rockervllle road with Hayward-Hermosa road; iron post stami)ed 
" DW 3525 " 3, 526. 381 

Peterson ranch, 0.8 mile south of, 100 feet northwest of Hayward- 
Hermosa road ford of Battle Creek, north bank of Battle Creek; 
copper nail In root of 20-inch oak tree 3,456.87 

Beatty ranch. 0.6 mile east of, 450 feet southwest of Intersection of 
the Squaw Creek and Battle Creek roads; Iron post stamped 
" DW 3349 " 3, 350. 261 

Hermosa, 150 feet southwest of station, 60 west of track, in south- 
west comer of station agent's private yard; iron post stnmiJed 
" DW 3300 " 3, 301. 0S3 

Olendalo ▼!& Bpokant and Varmer, Say, and Clark ranohai to Fairbnm. 

Spokane, 500 feet northwest of post office, 300 feet north of school- 
house, in granite rock 8 by 10 feet and 18 inches high, on west 
side of road; bronze tablet stanuied " DW 4521 " 4,522.319 

Farmer ranch, 1.6 miles southeast of, on north bank of nivlne 60 feet 
east of road, in rock 3 feet high ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 
4086" 4,087.3a^ 



38 SPIRIT LEVELIKG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Ray ranch, souUiwest side ot intersection of Spokane, Hermosa, and Feet. 
Custer roads; iron post stamped "DW 3650" 3,651.371 

Clark ranch, 0.3 mile east of, 350 feet north of Dry Creek, 50 feet 

south of cut-off road to Fairbum ; iron p^:st stamped " DW 3780 "— 3, 781. 914 

Clark ranch, 0.7 mile southeast of, south side of road; copper nail 
In root of 12-inch elm tree 3,696.64 

Laning ranch, 2.8 miles southeast of, top of ridge 1,000 feet east of 
gulch running into French Creek, north side of road, 375 feet 
southeast of quarter-section comer; iron post stamped "DW 
3700" 3, 701. 225 

Smith ranch, 0.5 mile north of, southwest side of road crossing, 2.5 
miles west of Fairbum; Iron post stamped " DW 3430" 3,431.212 

Fairburn, 200 feet northeast of station, 40 feet northeast of county- 
road crossing; iron post stamped "DW 3310" 3,311.660 

Olark ranoh ta RiohArdson ranch via Hara and XcCUlland ranohea. 

Fay ranch, 2.5 miles northwest of, 500 feet southeast of top of ridge, 
in white limestone, 2 by 4 feet and 1 foot high, on west side of road ; 
bronze tablet 8tami)ed "DW 4223" 4,224.520 

Hare ranch, 2.1 miles w^est of, 1 mile southwest of divide, between 
French Creek ravine and Squaw Creek, in granite ledge 3 feet 
higher than road on west side of road, on south bank of channel in 
ravine; bronze tablet stamped " DW 4064" 4,665.528 

McClelland ranch, 0.1 mile west of, granite ledge north of and 4 feet 
higher than road ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 5010 " 5, Oil. 555 

Oombe ranch to Gould ranch. 

Combe ranch, 0.3 mile south of, on west side of road; iron post 
stamped " DW 4696 " 4, 697. 681 

Kenoyer ranch, 0.6 mile east of, on north side of road in rock 24 
inches high, at point of rock outcrop 10 feet high; bronze tablet 
stamped "DW 4244" 4.245.487 

McVey ranch, 1.7 miles east of, 300 feet north of intersection of 
Fairburn, Buffalo Gap, and Custer roads; iron post stamped 
" DW 3862 " 3, 863. 520 

Dowe ranch, 1.3 miles southeast of, 150 feet north of road down west 
branch of I^nie Johnny Creek, 200 feet southwest of road from 
Fairbum, 600 feet west of intersection of roads, 1 mile southeast 
of Lame Johnny Creek, in siindstone outcrop 60 feet long; bronze 
tablet stamped "DW 3745" 3,746.222 

Gould ranch, 0.4 mile northwest of, 2 feet northwest of northwest 
comer of sec. 21, T. 5 S., R. 7 E., on Buffalo Gap-Rapid road, 
250 feet southwest of Junction with road up Lame Johnny Creek ; 
Iron post stamped " DW 3482 " 3, 483. 372 

Parker ranch via Highland ranch to Otey ranch. 

Parker ranch, 1.8 miles west of, at intersection of Custer, Buffalo 
Gap, and Lame Johnny Creek roads ; iron ix>st stamped " DW 
4312 " 4, 313. 460 

pighland ranch, 0.4 mile northwest of, 75 feet east of intersection of 
Custer, Buffalo Gap, and Pr ingle roads, in rock outcrop 4 feet wide 
and 2 feet high; bronze tablet stami)ed " DW 4373" 4,374.607 

Otey ranch, 0.4 mile north of, on south side of road at intersection 
of road to Reeve ranch: * * «*tamped " DW 4617 " 4, 618. 514 



PEIMABY LEVEUNG. 39 

FairbUTB Tia BiohardBon and Orlmley ranchei to Htlioii nuioh« 

Falrbnm, 3 miles east of, 50 feet southeast of southeast comer of sec. 
28, T. 4 S., R. 8 E., 50 feet southeast of Intersection of roads, 250 
feet north of bridge over French Creek ; iron post stamped " DW Peet. 
3184 " 3. 185. 307 

Richardson ranch, 750 feet east of, 500 feet south of north quarter 
section corner of sec. 14, T. 5 S., R. 8 E., on west side of road ; iron 
post stamped " DW 3298" 3,299.341 

Richardson ranch, 3.1 miles south of, 1.4 miles south of French Creek 
divide, top of ridge, 20 feet west of road; iron post stamped 
" DW .^79 " 3, 180. 133 

Grimley ranch, 0.5 mile south and 0^ mile east of, north side of road 
on top of ridge; iron post stamped "DW 3021" ^__ 3,022.249 

Nelson ran-'h, 2.3 miles southwest of, southeast comer of sec. 21, 
T. 6 S., li. 8 E., 450 feet northwest of road; iron post stamped 
*' DW 31S3 •• 3, 184. 180 

Wood rancb to Wind Cavo ranch. 

Wood ranch, 600 feet southwest of, 500 feet east of bridge over 
Beaver Creek, 5 feet south of south fence, on large outcrop of rock, 
1 foot above ground ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 3365 " 3, 366. 436 

Johnson ranch, 1.7 miles west of, on south side of road at Junction 
of cut-olf from Buffalo Gap-Custer road, foot of round hill with 
limestone ledge at top; Iron post stamped "DW 3502" 3,503.446 

Martin Valley ranch. 2.2 miles west of, south side of road, in ledge of 
limestone 20 by 30 feet; bronze tablet stamped "DW 3810" 3,811.608 

Wind Cave ranch, 0.5 mile southeast of, 250 feet west of intersection 
of Buffalo Gap road with Wind Cave-Hot Springs road; iron post 
stamped "DW 4168"^ 4,159.580 

Wind Cave ranch, 3.3 miles southeast of, west side of high ridge, 
in limestone rock on south side of road; bronze tablet stamped 
•' DW 4233 " 4, 234. 706 

Orlmley ranch via Obeyonno Biver and Korrii, Smith, Stinger, Oramberg, and 
Bennett ranches to point 8 mllee south of Brennan. 

Harrison Flat schoolhouse, 1 mile north and 1 mile east of, southeast 
comer of SW. i sec. 8, T. 6 S., R. 9 E. ; iron post stamped " DW 
2964 " 2, 965. 193 

Harrison Flat schoolhouse, 3.2 miles northeast of, 1.7 miles south 
of mouth of Cottonwood Creek, west side of Cheyenne River bottom 
where road comes down blulf ; nail in 10-inch cottonwood tree 2, 792. 21 

Cottonwood Creek, 500 feet southwest of mouth of, west side of Chey- 
enne River bottom, south side of Cottonwood Creek bottom, 50 feet 
southwest of junction of trails running down Cottonwood Creek; 
iron post stamped " DW 2776 " 2, 776. 102 

Ayres ranch, 0.2 mile southwest of. on west line of Pine Ridge Indian 
Reservation, 700 feet south of Cheyenne River, quarter mile east 
of west comer of sees. 13 and 24, T. 5 S.. R. 9 E., 150 feet north 
of road in side of Indian monument ; iron post stamped " DW 
2738 " - 2, 730. 355 

Cheyenne River, bed of, at northwest comer of Pine Ridge Iqdian 
ReserraUon 2. 729. 40 



40 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Ay res ranch, 3 miles northwest of, top of divide between French 
(Yook and Cheyenne Klver, 25 feet north of road; iron post Feet. 
Htami)eil " DW 3270" 3,270.181 

Morris ranch, 75 feet southwest of, miles east of Fairburn on 
north side of road, north side of French Creels ; Iron post staiui)ed 
" I)W 30aS" _ 3,009.210 

Morris ranch, 3.3 miles northwest of, about 0.5 mile northeast of 
Junction of Alkali and Dry crt*eks, 500 fet»t south of junction of 
road to Battle Creek with Dry Creek-Hermosa road; Iron post 
Bt^unped **DW 3070" 3,077.066 

Smith ranch, 0.5 mile north of, southeast comer of sec. 32, T. 3 S.. 
H. E., 0.25 mile west of road from French Creek to Hermosa; 
iron i)08t «tami)ed " DW 3162" 3,163.078 

StlUKer ranch, 1 mile southwest of, 75 feet southeast of intersection 
of roads to Ilermosa. Battle Creek, and Cheyenne River ; iron post 
Htampwl "DW 3212" 3,213.032 

Htln^er ranch, 0.6 mile east of, stmtheast comer of NE. i sec. 7, T. 
3 S., U. E. ; iron iK)8t stamiKMl " DW 3137 " 3, 138. 199 

Ktlnger ranch, 1 mile east and 2.7 miles north of. 0.3 mile south of 
southeast corner of se<'. 30, T. 2 S., R. 9 E., 30 feet southwest of 
road croMslnj?; iron iK)st stami)ed " DW 3278" 3,279.075 

Vohmer ranch. 250 feet east of, on west side of road, 725 feet south 
of northeast corner of sec. 7, T. 2 S., R. 9 E., 450 feet south of 
SprluK Creek; iron |K>8t stnuujed " DW 3i;i3" 3,134.095 

(traml)erg ranch, 1 mile northwest of, at southwest corner of NW. i 
WH\ 31, T. 1 S., R. 9 E., 100 feet north of crossroads; iron post 
stamped " DW :i21«" 3,217.075 

Heniiett ranch, 0.7 mile northeast of, at soutlieast corner of SW\ J 
s*»c. 17. T. 1 S., R. 8 K, 100 feet south of road ; iron post stamped 
•* DW 3155" 3,156.074 

Brenuaii, 2 miles south of, 250 fe(»t southeast of county road cross- 
ing. 20 f<H»t southwest of county road, southwest corner of (Jetchell 
ran(*li, 1 foot south of north cpiarter corner of se(\ 14. T. 1 S., 
R. 8 E.; Iron post stamiied " DW 31(50" ._. 3,161.605 

Buffalo Oap to Brennan. 

Beaver Creek, on bridge. 15 feet above strejini; toj) of rail 3,260.1 

Buffalo (lap, 4.2 miles northejist of, M50 f(»et northeast of bridge II 
112, 200 fe(»t southeast of track, 100 fet»t southenst of wngon road, 
2.5 feet east of fence cOi^-uer post ; iron iM)st stamped " DW 3205 "__ 3, 266. 605 

Melvln siding, ISO feet south of, north switch stand, west end of ma- 
sonry culvert 11 121, In top of southwest corner of coping stone; 
bronze tablet stami)ed " DW ,^390' 3,397.735 

T. 5 S., R. 7 E., 075 feet east and 30 feet north of south quarter corner 
of sec. 4, 700 feet north of sectlou house 10, 00 feet west of track, 
40 feet east of county road ; iron post stamped " DW 3(504 " 3, 605. 576 

Falrbum, 2.5 miles southwest of, 1,190 feet south of east quarter cor- 
ner of sec. 27. T. 4 S., R. 7 E., 3 feet northwest of railroad fence, 60 
feet southeast of angle in county road; iron post stami)ed " DW 
3420 " 3, 421. 612 

Fairburn, 2(X) feet northeast of station, 40 feet northeast of county 
road crossing; iron post stanqx^d " DW 3310 " 3. 311. 660 



PHIMABT LEVELING. 41 

Hermofn, 5.8 miles south of, 270 feet north of section house 12, 60 
feet southeast of county road crossing 6 feet northwest of fence cor- Feet 
ner post; iron post stamped "DW 3430" 3,431.818 

Hermosa, about 3 miles southwest of, 880 feet north of southeast cor- 
ner of sec. 12, T. 3 S.. IL 7 B., 180 feet north of bridge H 159, in 
colter of county road lane at bend in road; iron post stamped 
" DW 3458" 3.459.655 

Hermosa, 150 feet southwest of station, 60 feet west of track, in 
southwest comer of station agent's private .yard; iron i)ost stamped 
« DW 3300 " 3, 301. 683 

Hermosa, 4.3 miles north of, 740 feet west of east side and 35 feet 
south of north side of sec. 8, ^. 2 S., R. 8 B., 115 feet southwest of 
county road crossing, 400 feet southeast of dwelling house, 50 feet 
northwest of track, 4 feet north of fence comer post; iron post 
stamped "DW 3503" 3,504.642 

Spring Creek, 200 feet south of, 200 feet south of section house 14, 
east end of stone culvert H 185^, on projection on top of south end 
of coping stone; chisel mark 3,294.39 

Spring Creek, 0.5 mile north of, 90 feet southwest of crossing of 

• north-south county road and railroad, 25 feet west of county road, 
40 feet southeast of track, 80 feet southwest of crossing signpost 

marked U.S.G.S. ; iron post stamped " DW 3326 " 3, 327. 584 

B.M. 
W.P. 

Br^man, 2 miles south of, 260 feet southeast of county road crossing, 
20 feet southwest of county road, southwest corner of Getchell 
ranch, 1 foot south of north quarter corner of sec. 14, T. 1 S., R. 8 
B.; iron poit stamped "DW 3160" 3,161.695 

Brennan, l,3db feet south of section house 215, 75 feet southwest of 
county road crossing, 80 feet west of signpost marked " Brennan " 

and scribed U.S.G.S. ; iron post stamped " DW 3114 " 3, 115. 680 

B.M. 
W.P. * 

0ELBX0H8 aUABKANGLZ. 
Bench marki near Hot Springs. 

Hot Springs, 4.1 miles north of, east side of Junction of Buffalo 
Gap-Hot Springs road with Hot Springb-Wind Cave road; iron 
post stamped " DW 3847 " .. 3. 848. 767 

Hot Springs, south entrance to county courthouse. 2.5 feet enPt of 
steps in vertical face of wall 2.5 feet above ground ; bronze tablet 
stamped " DW 3462 " 3, 463. 569 

Bench marke near Buffalo Oap. 

BuflCalo Gap, 5 miles east of, southeast comer of NB. I sec. 25, T. 6 
S., B. 7 B.; iron post stamped "DW 3221" 3,222.095 

Buffalo Gap, 120 feet east of railroad ticket office, 150 feet north 
of wagon road along south side of sec. 29, T. 6 S., R. 7 E. ; iron post 
stamped "DW 8258" 3,259.585 



42 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Hot Springs vU OUoago ft Korthwettem Ry. to Buffalo Gap. 

Hot Springs, county courthouse, south entrance, 2.5 feet east of steps, 
2.5 feet above ground, in vertical face of wall ; bronze tablet marked Feet. 
" DW 3462 " 3. 463, 560 

Hot Springs, in front of union station ; top of rail 3, 444. 8 

Hot Springs, In front of Chicago & Northwestern Ry. station; top 
of rail 3,429.2 

Hot Springs, 2.3 miles southeast of, 100 feet southwest of track, 300 
feet south of bridge, H. S. 23, 150 feet southwest of wagon road. 
In northeast end of sandstone rock 20 by 10 feet and 4 feet high; 
copper bolt stamped " DW 3313" 3,314.750 

Evans quarry, 450 feet north of post office, 200 feet north of falls of 
Fall River, 550 feet east of bridge, H. S, 17, 50 feet north of and 
about 15 feet above track, in irregular sloping rock 10 by 3 feet, 

3 feet high, 2 feet south of north end ; copper bolt stamped " DW 

3225 " 3. 226. 529 

Evans quarry, 1.8 miles northeast of, 40 feet northwest of bridge, 
H. S. 15, 15 feet southwest of telegraph pole, 2 feet south of rock 
mound, on top of small rock 2 by 1 foot, 1 foot out of ground; 

chisel mark 3, 341. 08 

Buffalo Gap, 5 miles southwest of, 1,000 feet southwest of section 
house, 60 feet west of county rpad crossing, 25 feet southeast of 

northeast end of snow fence; Iron post stamped " DW 3315" 3,316.702 

Buffalo Gap, 2 miles southwest of, 290 feet west of county road cross- 
ing, 30 feet south of county road, 1.5 feet south of stone marking 
northwest comer of T. 7 S., R 7 E. ; iron post stamped "DW 

3410 " 3, 411. 717 

Buffalo Gap, in front of station; top of rail, main track 3,258.8 

Buffalo Gap, 120 feet east of station ticket office, 150 feet north of 
wagon road running along south side of sec. 29, T. 6 S., R. 7 E. ; 
iron post stamped "DW 3258" 3,259.585 

KAFID aiTADBAKOLE. 
Brennan along Chicago ft Northweitern Ry. via Rapid to Sturgii. 

Rapid, 3 miles southeast of, sec. 23, T. 1 N., R. 8 E., 1.200 feet east 
of northwest comer and 30 feet south of north line, 50 feet west of 
track, 40 feet east of angle in county road ; iron post stamped " DW 
3218 " ^ 3, 219. 650 

Rapid, In front of ticket office; top of rail, main track 3,199.6 

Rapid, courthouse yard, 80 feet southwest of southwest corner of 
courthouse, in center of top of United States Geological Survey 
astronomic pier; bronze tablet stami^ed **DW 3228." (Center of 
plate carefully centered over original cross cut in pier) 3,230.144 

Rapid, 3 miles west of, 40 feet southeast of crossing of Rapld-Roch- 
ford wagon road, 400 feet east of section house 17 ; spike in west 
side of Cottonwood tree. 6 inches above ground 3,267.85 

Rapid, 5.2 miles northwest of, 65 feet southwest of crossing of Rapid 
and Blackhawk county road. 50 feet west of track, 80 feet south 
of crossing, signpost scribed (U. S. G. S.) 

(B. M., W. P.) 

4 feet north of fence comer post : Iron post stamped ** DW 3457 "_ 3, 458. 786 
Blackhawk, in front of ticket office; top of rail 3,494.9 



PBIMABY LEVELING. 43 

Blackliawk, 100 feet northwest of station, in west corner of yard on Feet. 
northwest side of building; iron post stamped " DW 3491 " 3. 492. 695 

Blackhawk, 2.4 miles northwest of, top of divide between Blackhawk 
and Ptedmont, 90 feet east of county road crossing, 50 feet north- 
east of track, 25 feet south of county road along east and west 
section line, 1,150 feet east of northwest comer of sec. 31, T. 3 
N., K. 7 E.; iron post stamped "DW 3622" 3,623.741 

Piedmont, 1,400 feet southeast of station, southwest end stone culvert, 
H 238 northwest side of stream, in top of wing wall 1 foot below 
top of coping stone, 140 feet northeast of telegraph pole marked 

(U. S. G. 8.) ; bronze tablet stamped " DW 3460 " 3, 461. 805 

(B. M., W. P.) 

Tilford, 2 miles southeast of, about 75 feet northwest of point where 
Elk Creek wagon road crosses railroad track, 0.25 mile east of 
mouth of Elk Creek canyon, 150 feet northwest of Junction of Elk 
Creek wagon road with Sturgls-Rapid road; iron post stamped 
" DW 3565 " - 3, 566. 453 

Tilford, in front of station ; top of rail 3, 581. 2 

Tilford, 2.25 miles northwest of, 45 feet northeast of railroad cross- 
ing, on east side of Sturgis-Rapid wagon road; iron post stamped 
" DW 3693 " 3, 694. 911 

Sturgis, 5.5 miles southeast of, about 500 feet southeast of Beaver 
siding mile board, on west end of south caip of bridge H 256 ; top of 
iron driftbolt 3, 665. 14 

Sturgis. 4.5 miles southeast of, 960 feet southeast of switch at 
Myers siding, 50 feet north of track, 100 feet south of Sturgls- 
Rapid wagon road ; iron post stamped " DW 3622 " 3. 623. 503 

Myers siding, at switch; top of rail 3,618.3 

Sturgis. 2.8 miles southeast of, top of west end of north cap of bridge 
H 264, under which Sturgis-Rapid wagon road passes; iron drift- 
bolt 3, 634. 43 

Bench mark at Faotola. 

Pactola. Junction of road from Rapid with roads from Hill City and 
Silver City, 3 feet south of comer 15, mineral claim 891; iron 
post stamped " DW 4459 " 4, 460. 343 

Riley ranch to XcDonald ranch. 

Riley ranch, on Bogus Jim Creek, 2,000 feet northwest of, 10 feet 
southeast of road from Merritt, center of top of rock 8 l>y 7 by 2 
feet; pine witness trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 24 
inches in diameter northeast 75 feet, one 12 Inches in diameter 
north 75 feet, one 18 inches in diameter northwest 30 feet ; copper 
bolt stamped " DW 4801 '' 4, 802. 333 

Jim Creek, 1,500 feet northeast of mouth, 190 feet north of highway 
bridge over Boxelder Creek, in east corner of flat rock 15 by 25 by 
4 feet; pine witness trees marketl "U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 18 
inches in diameter southwest 36 feet, one 15 inches in diameter 
northwest 36 feet, one 18 inches in diameter northeast 20 feet ; 
bronze tablet stamped " DW 4413 " 4, 414. 286 

Estes ranch. 1.5 miles southeast of, 1,800 feet northwest of Elliott's 
sawmill at west end of highway bridge over Boxelder Creek ; 
spike in root east side of 2-foot pine tree 4, 458. 83 



44 SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Estes ranch, 150 feet northwest of dwelling, 12 feet northea&t of 
country road up Boxelder Creek, 30 feet northwest of Junction with 
road running down Estes Creek; spike in south root of 18-inch Feet, 
pine-^ 4, 564. 81 

McDonakl ranch, 575 feet northwest of, 15 feet west of county road 
up Boxelder Creek at Junction with private road from ranch ; wit- 
ness trees marked " U.S.G.S. B.M. W.T.," one 18 inches in diameter 
north 70 feet, one 18 inches in diameter southeast 20 feet, one 12 
inches in diameter southwest 45 feet; iron post stamped "DW 
4614 " 4, 615. 241 

Paotohi to Kockervill«. 

Pactola, Junction of road from Rapid with roads from Hill City and 
Silver City, 3 feet south of comer 15, M. C. 891 ; iron post stamped 
" DW 4459 " 4, 460. 343 

Harvey ranch. 800 feet north of, on top of divide, east side of road ; 
iron post stamped " DW 5021 " 5, 022. 516 

Wetzell ranch, 2 miles south of, 2.5 miles north of intersection of 
Rapid, Pactola, and Sheridan roads, 30 feet east of road on top of 
divide; iron post stamped "DW 5042" 5,043.543 

Wetzell ranch, 3 miles south of, 1.5 miles north of intersection of 
Rapid, Pactola, and Sheridan roads, on toip of ridge 25 feet east of 
road ; iron post stamped " DW 4864 " 4, 865. 368 

SinfDAKOE aiTADKAKOLE. ' 

Bench xo&rk on XcQnalff road. 

(I 

McQuaig road, 3.7 miles west of intersection with Cheyenne-Dead- 
wood stage road, 15 feet south of road fork; iron post stamped 
DW 6539 " 6, 540.563 



<t 



Bench nuirki near Pratt ranch. 

Pratt ranch (Bear Gulch), 1,000 feet east of, 45 feet south of road, 
on north bank of Potato Gulch, in quartzite cliff ; aluminum tablet 
stamped ** DW ns3«" 5,836.260 

Pratt ranch, 1 mile northeast of ; wire nail in root of 15-inch pine tree 
north of road 5, 845. 86 

Belle Fourohe and Empire 30' Quadrangles. 

BUTTE, LAWBENCE, AND MEADE COUVnES. 

The elevations in this list were originally based on a bronze tablet 
stamped " 4543," set in the city hall building at Deadwood in 1897, 
the elevation of which is now accepted as 4,544.872 feet above 
mean sea level. In 1908 the Coast and Geodetic Survey precise line 
redetermined United States Geological Survey bench marks near 
Edgemont, thus furnishing a more reliable connection with mean 
sea level. A correction of +1.4 feet obtained by computation in 
1911 has been applied to all elevations in this list. 

The leveling in the Belle Fourche quadrangle was done in 1903 
and 1904 by Chester Irvine, and in 1904 by M. S. Bright and C. H. 



PBIMABY LEVELING. 45 

Birdseye; that in the Empire quadrangle was done in 1904 by 
Chester Irvine and H. M. Hadley, and in 1910 by H. L. Caldwell. 
The leveling followed section lines almost to the exclusion of the few 
roads in this area. 

BELLE FOTTECHE 80' QITADBAVGLE. 

Point 900 feet east and 2,400 feet north of eonthwett corner of eeo. 21, T. N., 
&• 4 E., northeait to northwett comer of eame lection, thence north 4 milee 
to northweit comer of eec. 88, T. 10 K., K. 4 E., thence eait to northweet 
comer of eec. 86 and eonth 4.8 miles to point 0.2 mile eonth of quarter 
comer between eeci. 88 and 24, T. N., K. 4 E. 

T. 9 N., R. 4 E., 45 feet southest of northwest stone at comer of Feet. 

sec. 9; iron post stamped "2880 DW" 2,881.368 

T. 10 N., R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped 

" 2891 DW " 2, 892. 317 

T. 10 N., R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 35; iron post stamped 

" 2920 DW " 2, 921. 438 

T. 9 Nm R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 1; Iron post stamped 

" 2872 DW " 2, 873. 327 

T. 9 N., R. 4 E., northwest corner of sec. 13; iron post stamped 

" 2877 DW " 2, 878. 407 

T. 9 N.. R. 4 E., 0.2 mile south of quarter comer between sees. 23 and 

24; iron post stamped "2865 DW" 2,866.257 

Vorthweat comer of aec. 16, T. N., &. 4 E., weit 1 mile, north 2 milei, eaat 
S mllei, thence lonth 1 mile to northweat comer of sec. 88, T. 10 N., K. 4 E. 

T. 9 N., R. 4 E., trlangulation station No. 18, about 1,200 feet south- 
west of northwest comer of sec. 17 ; iron post stamped " 3041 DW "_ 3, 042. 560 
Tps. 9 and 10, Rs. 3 and 4, comer of; iron post stamped " 2925 DW "- 2, 926. 415 
T. 10 N., Rl 4 E., 30 feet south of quarter comer between sees, 19 
and 30; iron post stamped "2904 DW" 2.904.978 

Horthweat comer of lec. 18, T. 9 K., B. 4 E., eaat 2 milea, lonth 1 mile, 
•ait 1 mile, and lonth 2 milea to point 400 feet weit of northweat comer of 
aoc, 88, T. 9 V., &. 6 E. 

T. 9 N., R. 5 E., northwest comer oi sec. 20; iron post stamped 

" 2871 DW " - 2, 872. 018 

T. 9 N., R. 5 E., 400 feet west of northwest comer of sec. 33 ; iron 

post stamped "2981 DW " 2,982.602 

Point 1,100 feet lonth of quarter comer between aeca. 28 and 24, T. 9 K., 
R. 4 E., lonth 2 milea, eait 1 mile, and aonth 1 mile, thence eaat 8 milei and 
north 0.6 mile to quarter comer between aeci. 8 and 4, T. 8 K., K. 6 E., 
thence north 6.6 milea, weit 1 mile, eouth 1 mile, weit 2 milei, north 1 mile, 
and weat 1 mile to northweat comer of aec. 1, T. 9 K., K. 4 E. 

T. 9 N., R. 4 E., southeast comer of sec. 36 ; iron post stamped " 2874 

DW" (Jog of 65 feet in north and south lines) 2,875.566 

• T. 8 N., R. 5 E., 35 feet southwest of northwest corner of sec. 8 ; iron 

post stamped "2876 DW " 2,877.202 

T. 8 N., R. 5 E., quarter comer between sees. 3 and 4, about 400 feet 

south of Owl Creek bridge; iron post stamped "2821 DW" 2,821.760 

T. 9 >., R. 5 E., 25 feet west of northwest comer of sec. 34 ; iron post 

stamped "2854 DW" 2,855.594 

T. 9 N., R. 5 K, 5 feet northeast of fence at northwest comer of 

see. 22, west side of lane; iron post stamped " 2826 DW " 2, 826. 976 



46 SPmiT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

T. 9 N.. R. 5 E., 3 feet east of northwest comer of sec. 10 ; iron iJost Feet 
8tanii)ed "2902 DW" 2,908.838 

Tps. 9 aud 10 N., R. 5 E., northwest comer of sec. 4; Iron post 
stamped "2858 DW" 2,859.548 

T. 9 N., R. 5 E., northwest comer of sec. 8; Iron post stamped 

" 2871 DW " 2, 872. 434 

Noithweit corner of •ec. 80, T. 12 N., K. b E., Muth 2 milei, west 8 milat, 
and lonth 7 mllei to north weit comer of lec. 10, T. 10 N., K. E. 

T. 12 N., R. 5 E., northwest comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped 

" 3164 DW " 3, 165. 446 

T. 11 N., R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 1; iron post stamped 

"3194 DW" 3,195.276 

T. 11 N., R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 10; Iron i)ost stamped 

" 3196 DW " 3, 197. 554 

T. 11 N., R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 27; iron post stami)ed 

" 30i4 DW " 3, 045. 498 

T. 10 X., R. 4 E., northwest comer of sec. 10; Iron post stamped 

" 3028i DW " ' 3, 029. 948 

Comer of Tpe. 9 and 10 K., Be. 8 and 4 E., weit 2 milea, north 1 mile, and 
weit 1 mile, thence north 12 milee to northweet comer of lec. 84, T. 12 K., 
K. 8 E., thence weit 6 milei to northwest comer of eec. 84, T. 12 N., K. 2 E., 
thence eonth 14 milee to northweit comer of sec. 10, T. 9 N., K. 2 E., thence 
eaat 1 mile and aouth 8 milei to northweit comer of leo. 86, T. 9 V., K. 2 E. 

T. 10 X., R. 3 E., northwest corner of sec. 35; iron post stamped 

" 3054 DW " 3. 055. a37 

T. 10 X., R. 3 E., northwest comer of sec. 22; iron post stamped 

" 2956 DW " 2, 967. 331 

Ts. 10 and 11 N^., R. 3 E., northwest comer of sec. 3; Iron post 

stamped "2948 DW " 2,949.3 

T. 11 X., R. 3 E., northwest corner of sec. 22; Iron post stamped 

" 3043 DW " 3, 044. 273 

T. 11 X., R. 3 E., near northwest corner of sec. 3 (no comer post 

found), at heap of rocks; iron i)ost stamped "3117 DW " 3,118.369 

T. 12 X., R. 3 Em 30 feet northwest of northwest comer of sec. 32; • 

iron post stamiied "3120 DW" 3,127.567 

T. 12 X^., R. 2 E., quarter corner between sees. 26 and 35; iron post 

stamped "3114 DW" 3,115.226 

T. 11 X., R. 2 K, nortliwest comer of sec. 10; iron post stamped 

" 3104 DW " 3, 105. 344 

T. 11 X., R. 2 E., 800 feet west and 180 feet north of northwest comer 

of sec. 27, on summit of divide between Owl and Indian creelcs 

Iron post stamped "3297 DW " 

T. 10 X., R. 2 E., 30 feet southwest of northwest corner of sec. 10 

iron post stamped "3034 DW " 

T. 10 X., R. 2 E., between comer pits at northwest corner gf sec. 27 

iron post stamped "3114 DW " 3,115.341 

T. 9 X., R. 2 E., 1 foot west of nortliwest comer of sec 11 ; iron post 

stamped "3250 DW " 3,251.297 

T. 9 X., R. 2 E., at corner of sees 22, 23, 26, and 27 ; iron ix)st stamped 

3076 DW " 3,077. 608 



3, 298. 360 
3, 035. 462 



tt 



PEIMABY LEVELING. 47 

Vorthwest oomer of mo. S4, T. 18 K., B. 4 E., west 6 miles, thonoo •onth 18 
miles to northwest oonier of seo. 8, T. 9 K., K. 1 E., thenoe east 1 mile, 
sonth 1 mile, and east 6 miles to. northwest oomer of seo. 10, T. 9 K., 
B. 8 £. 

T. 12 N., R. 2 E., northwest corner of sec. 31; iron post stamped Feet 
" 3130 DW " w 3, 131. 300 

T. 12 N., R. 1 E., northwest comer of sec. 34 (no comer found), in 
small draw 10 feet west of Alzada road ; iron post stamped '* 3238 
DW " ^ 3, 239. 408 

T. 11 N., R. 1 E., northwest comer of sec. 15; iron post stamped 
** 3123 DW " - 3, 124. 359 

T. 11 N., R. 1 E., 450 feet north of northwest comer of sec. 3, T. 10 N., 
R. 2 E. (no comer post found), 150 feet northwest of clump of 
three trees, in small creek bed ; iron post stamped ** 3187 DW " 3, 188. 373 

T. 10 N., R. 1 E., between comer pits northwest comer of sec. 22 ; iron 
post stamped "3322 DW" 3.323.507 

Tps. 9 and 10 N., R. 1 E., 1 foot west of northwest comer of sec. 2 ; 
iron post stamped "3181 DW " ^ 3,182.571 

T. 9 N., Rs. 1 and 2 E,, 3 feet west of northwest cpmer of sec. 7 ; iron 
post stamped "3126 DW" 3,127.491 

Bpearflsh along oonnty road to Belle Fonrche, thenoe to The Forks. 

T. 7 N., R. 2 E., 1,200 feet south of quarter comer between sees. 34 
and 27; iron post stamped "3601 DW 1903" i 3,602.274 

T. 7 N., R 2 E., 1,200 feet north of quarter corner between sees. 10 
and 15; iron post stamped "3343 DW 1903" 3,344.620 

Willow Creek bridge, 4(X) feet south of, at fence comer, 40 feet north 
of crossing of roads; iron post stamijed "3360 DW 1903" 3,161.384 

T. 8 N., R. 1 E., 300 feet east of stone at comer of sees. 11, 12, 13, and 

14, forks of road; iron post stamped "3373 DW 1903" 3,374.132 

Joost schoolhouse, 100 feet north of; iron post stamped "3274 DW 
1903 " 3, 275. 399 

The Forks (Robinson ranch), at Junction of old Miles City stage 
road with road from Aladdin (coal bank), in sandstone rock 6 by 8 
inches, 17 inches above ground; aluminum tablet stamped "3398 
DW " - 3, 399. 435 

BeUe Fonrohe alon^ Three Y ranch road to Middle Greek Bntte. 

Belle Fourche, Butte County Jail, northeast corner of; iron post 

8tami>ed "3036 DW 1903" 3,037.678 

Belle Fourche, Butte County courthouse, southeast comer of yard, 

in stone; azimuth tablet stamped **3011 DW " 3,012.638 

Belle Fourche, 2.9 miles west of, 10 feet south of road, on rise near 

fence; iron post stamped "3098 DW 1903" 3,099.299 

T. 9 N., R. 1 E., NE J sec. 22, 30 feet south of wagon road ; iron post 

stamped "3204 DW 1903" 3,205.187 

Three V ranch, 2.5 miles north of; iron post 3,180.091 

Belle Fonrohe alonff oonnty road via Bichardson ranch and Oiles Orossinff to 

Belle Fourche. 

T. 9 N., R. 2 E., comer of sees. 22, 23, 26, and 27 ; iron post stamped 
"3076 DW 1903" 3,077.608 

T. 9 N., R. 3 E., 0.2 mile north of quarter comer between sees. 29 
and 32 ; iron post stamped " 3029 DW 1903 " 3, 029. 933 



48 SPIBIT IjEVEUNG in south DAKOTA, 1896 TO 19l0. 

T. 8 N., R. 3 B., Just south of northwest comer of sec. 4 ; Iron post re«t. 

stamped " 3004 DW 1903 " i 3, 005. 101 

T. 8 N., R. 3 E., quarter corner between sees. 7 and 18; Iron post 

stamped "3187 DW 1903" 3,188.404 

Belle Fonzohe along raUroad to Bt. Onge, tlienoe along county road to Cen- 
tennial Prairie. 

T. 8 N., R. 3 E., corner of sees. 26, 30, 31, and 36 ; Iron post stamped 

"3149 DW 1903" 3,150.238 

T. 7 N., R. 3 E., 0.2 mile north of and 2,300 feet west of southeast cor- 
ner of sec. 9; iron iwst »tami)ed "3314 DW^ 1903" 3,318.366 

St. Onge, 200 feet west of station, 2,000 feet east of southwest comer 
of sec. 23, T. 7 X., R. 3 E. ; Iron post stamped " 3428 DW 1903 " 3, 429. 213 

T. 6 N., R. 3 E., comer of sees 2, 3, 10. and 11; iron post stamped 

"3614 DW 1903" 3,615.306 

Belle Fourohe along county road via Snoma and Big Bottom to Bt. Onge. 

T. 8 N.. R. 3 E.. 900 feet north of comer of sees. 14, 15, 22, and 23 ; 

iron post stamped "3097 DW 1903" 3,098.534 

T. 8 X., R. 4 E., quarter corner between sees. 17 and 20; Iron post 

stamped "2920 DW 1903" 2.921.430 

T. 8 X., R. 4 E., corner of sees. 13, 14, 23, and 24 ; iron post stauii)ed 

"2940 DW 1903" 2,941.254 

T. 8 X., R. 5 E., comer of sees. 15, 16, 21, and 22 ; iron post stami^ed 

"2.SSG DW 1903" 2,887.354 

T. 7. X., R. 5 E., 1,100 feet east of corner of sees. 4, 5, 8, and 9 ; Iron 

post stamped "2984 DW 1903" 2,985.433 

T. 7 X.. R. 5 P:., center of sec. 29; iron post 8tami)ed "3132 DW 

1903" 3,133.349 

T. 7 X., R. 5 E., 350 feet east of northwest corner of sec. 19 ; Iron post 

8tami)ed "3149 DW 1903" a 150. 247 

T. 7 X., R. 4 E., 200 feet west of quarter corner between sees. 31 and 

32; Iron iwst stami)ed "3C64 DW 1903" 3,665.369 

Oilee ranch along county road and acroti country via Owl Creek Bridge to 
oomer of leci. 16, 16, 21, and 88, T. 8 K., R S E. 

m 

T. X., R. 3 E., comer of sees. 26, 27, 34, and 30 ; Iron post stamped 

••2983 DW 1903" 2,984.273 

T. 9 X., R. 4 E., 400 feet north and 1,600 feet west of southeast comer 

of sec. 30; Iron i)08t stami>ed "2000 DW 1903" 2.961.327 

T. 9 X., R. 4 E., 900 feet east and 2.400 feet north of southwest corner 

of sec. 21; Iron post stamped "2033 DW 1903" 2,934.323 

T. 9 X., R. 5 E., 1,000 feet north of corner of sees. 23, 24, 25, and 26 ; 

Iron post stami)ed " 2865 DW lOa't " 2, 866. 257 

T. 9 X., R. 5 R, 500 feet west of corner of sees. 28, 29, 32, and 33 ; 

Iron post stamped " 2981 DW 1903 " 2, 982, 602 

T. 8 X., R. 5 E., 2,100 feet north of comer of sees. 3, 4, 9, and 10 ; 

Iron post stamped " 2821 DW 1903 " 2, 821. 760 



PBIMABY LEVELING. 49 

EKFntE QUADBAVGLE. 

Northwest comer of •ae. 28, T. 8 V., B. S E., eait 1 mile, gopith 1 mile, eait 
1 mile, eouth one-half mile, east 1 mile, and touth one-half mile to northwest 
cemer of lec. 81, T. 8 N., B. 6 E., thenoe eait 10 milei to northweat comer 
of aec. 86, T. 8 K., B. 7 E., thence north 8 miles, east-l mile, north 1 mile, 
and west 10 miles to northwest comer of sec. 13, T. 8 N., B. 6 E., thence 
north 1 mile, west 8 miles, and north one-half mile to section line 8,100 feet 
north of northwest comer of sec. 10, T. 8 N., B. S E. 

T. S N., R. 5 E., 30 feet northeast of northwest comer of sec. 25 ; Iron Feet 

post stamped "2815 DW " 2,816.402 

T. 8 N., R. 6 E., 40 feet northwest of northwest comer of sec. 32 ; Iron 

post stamped " 2788 DW " 2, 789. 278 

T. 8 N., R. 6 E., 40 feet southwest of northwest comer of sec. 35 ; Iron 

post stamped " 2812 DW " 2, 809. 497 

T. 8 N., Rs. 6 and 7 E., 30 feet southwest of northwest comer of sec. 

31 ; Iron post stamped "2783 DW " 2, 784. 331 

T. 8 N., R. 7 E., 50 feet southeast of northwest corner of sec. 33 ; Iron 

post stamped "2710 DW*'— 2,711.271 

T. 8 N., R. 7 E., 40 feet southeast of northwest comer of sec. 35 ; iron 

post stamped "2079 DW" 2,679.125 

T. 8 N., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 23; iron post stamped 

" 2777 DW " 2, 777. 456 

T.. 8 N., R. 7 E., near northwest comer of sec. 16, at fence comer 

south of road ; Iron post stamped " 2726 DW " 2, 726. 126 

T. 8 N., Rs. 6 and 7 E., 40 feet southeast of northwe'st corner of sec. 

18; iron post stamped "2728 DW" '2,728.211 

T. 8 N., R. 6 E., 40 feet southeast of northwest comer of sec. 14 ; iron 

post stamped " 2751 DW " - 2, 751. 336 

T. 8 N., R. 6 R, 50 feet southwest of southeast comer of sec. 7 ; iron 

post stamped " 2903 DW " 2, 904. 307 

T. 8 N., R. 5 E., at quarter comer hetweeh sees. 11 and 12 ; iron post 

stamped "2819 DW" 2,819.210 

T. 8 N., R. 5 E., 2,100 feet north of northwest comer of sec. 10 ; Iron 

post stamped "2820 DW" 2,821.760 

HoTse Creek Bridco at Stealer ranch east 8 miles and south 1 mile, thence east 
miles to northweit corner of sec. 88, T. 9 K., B. 7 £., thence south 8 miles 
to northwest comer of tec. 16, T. 8 K., B. 7 E. 

T. 9 N., R. 5 B., southeast comer of sec. 23; Iron post stamped 

"2903 DW " 2, 904. 335 

T. 9 N., R. 6 E., quarter comer between sees. 30 and 31 ; Iron post 

stamped "2857 DW" 2,858.484 

T. 9 N., R. 6 E., quarter corner between sees. 28 and 33; iron post 

stamped " 2810 DW " 2, 811. 492 

T. 9 N., R. 6 E., southeast corner of sec. 20; iron post stamped 

" 2805 DW " 2, 806. 312 

T. 9 N., R. 7 B,, southeast comer of sec. 29; iron post stamped 

2840 DW" 2,841.216 



it 



Vorthwest comer of tec. 16, T. 9 K., B. 6 E., east 8 milei, north 8 mllei, 
east 8 miles, and south and east 6 miles to quarter comer between ■ecs. 88 
and 88, T. V., B. 6 E. 

T. 9 X., R. 6 E., northwest eoriuT of sec. IS; Iron post stamped " 2S50 

DW" 2,851.344 

89807*'—Bull. 472— U 4 



50 SPIMT I^VEUNG IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

Tps. 9 and 10 N., Rs. 5 and 6 R, comer of; iron post Htamped " 2898 Feet. 

DW 3904" 2,899.278 

T. 9 N., R. 6 B., northwest comer of sec. 4 ; Iron post stamped " 2909 

DW " - i 2, 910. 357 

T. 9 N., R. 6 E., 30 feet south of northwest corner of sec. 16; iron 

post stamped " 2871 DW " 2, 872. 267 

Vorthweit oomer of lao. 16, T. 9 K., B. 6 Z., eatt 6 milei, north 1 mile, and 
eait 2 miloi to northweit comor of mo. 11, T. 9 N., B. 7 E., thenoo Muth 1 
mile, west 1 mile, •onth 1 mile, weet 1 mile, and ■outli 9 miles to northweet 
corner of eeo. 88, T. 9 N., B. 7 E. 

T. 9 N., R. 6 E., 380 feet north of northwest comer of sec. 13; iron 

post stamped " 2897 DW " 2, 898. 294 

T. 9 N., R. 7 E., northwest corner of sec. 17; Iron post stamped 

** 2776 DW " 2, 777. 072 

T. 9 N., R. 7 R, northwest comer of sec 10; iron i)08t stamped 

" 2902 DW " 2, 903. 489 

T. 9 N., R. 7 E., northwest corner of sec. 14; Iron post stamped 

" 2908 DW " 2, 909. 272 

T. 9 N., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 21; iron post stamped 

" 2873 DW " 2, 874. 224 

Point 40 feet louthweet of northweet oomer of seo. 86, T. 8 V., B. 6 E, eonth 
8 milei, weet 6 miles, south 0.6 mile, east 1 mile, south 1.6 miles, east 1 mile, 
and sott:(h 8 miles to comer of Tps. 6 and 7 K., Bs. 6 and 6 E., thence east 
8 miles, north 4 miles, east 1 mile, north 8 miles, and northwest 1 mile to 
point 60 feet southeast of northwest oomer of seo. 88, T. 8 K., B. 7 £. 

T. 7 N., R. 6 B., northwest comer of sec 14; Iron post stamped 

"2890 DW " 2, 891. 391 

T. 7 N., R. 6 E., 300 feet east of northwest comer of sec. 17 ; iron post 

stamped "3025 DW" 3,026.374 

T. 7 N., R. 5 E., northwest corner of sec. 14 ; iron post stamped " 2908 

DW " 2, 909. 401 

T. 7 N., R. 5 E., northwest corner of sec. 25 ; Iron post stamped " 2934 

DW " 2, 935. 383 

T. G N., IL 6 E., northwest correr of sec. 6 ; iron post stamped "3037 

DW " 3, 038. 414 

T. 6 X., R. 6 E., northwest comer of sec 3; iron post stamped "3068 

DW " 3, 069. 419 

Tps. 6 and 7 N., Rs. 6 and 7 E., comer of ; iron iwst stamped " 2^83 

DW " 2, 984. 467 

T. 7 N., R. 7 R, northwest corner of sec. 33 ; Iron post stami>ed ** 2942 

DW " 2, 943. 454 

T. 7 N., R, 7 E., northwest corner of sec. 16; iron post stamped " 2819 

DW " 2, 820.470 

Vorthwest oomer of sec. 10, T. 9 N., B. 7 E., north 16 miles to northwest 
oomer of seo. 27, T. 12 K., B. 7 E., thence east 6 miles to northwest comer 
of seo. 87, T. 12 K., B. 6 £., thence south 14 miles and west 1 mile to north- 
west oomer of seo. 4, T. 9 K., B. 6 E. 

T. 10 K, R. 7 E., northwest corner of sec. 27; iron post stamped 

" 2935 DW " 2, 936. 250 

T. 10 N., R. 7 R, northwest comer of sec. 10: iron iH)8t stamped 

"3093 DW " 3, 094. 135 



PRIMARY LEVEUNG. 51 

T. 11 N., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped Feet. 

" 3004 DW " 3, 005. 204 

T. 11 N., B. 7 E., northwest corner of sec. 10; Iron post stamijed 

" 2927 DW " 2, 928. 280 

T. 12 N., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped 

" 2957 DW " 2, 958. 437 

T. 12 N., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped 

" 2979 DW " -' 2, 080. 303 

T. 12 N., R. 6 K, nothwest comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped 

" 3045 DW " 3, 046. 299 

T. 11 N., R. 6 E., northwest corner of sec. 10; iron post stamped 

" 3063 DW " 3, 065. 337 

T. 11 N., R. 6 E., northwest comer of sec. 27; Iron post stami)ed 

" 2986 DW " 2, 987. 277 

T. 10 X., R. 6 E., northwest comer of sec. 10; Iron post stamped 

*• 2W3 DW " 2, 944. 372 

T. 10 X., R. 6 K, northwest corner of sec. 27; iron post stamped 

•' 2929 DW " 2, 930. 330 

T. 9 X., R. 6 E., XW. i sec. 3, Dry trlangulatlon station; iron post 

stamped •*3006 DW " 3,007.223 

VorthwMt corner of mc. 10, T. 9 V„ B. 5 E., north along •ectlon linei to 
northwest comer of mc. SO, T. 12 V., Rt. 4 and 5 E. 



T. 10 X., R. 5 E., northwest corner of sec. 27 

" 2942 DW " :. 

T. 10 X.. R. 5 E., northwest corner of sec. 10 

" 2976 DW " 

T. 11 X., R 5 E., northwest comer of sec. 27 

"3160 DW " 

T. 11 X\, R. 5 E.. northwest comer of sec. 10 

" 3<M9 DW " 

T. 12 X., R. 5 E., northwest corner of sec. 27 



iron post stamped 

2,943.217 

Iron post stami)ed 

2,976.314 

Iron ix)st stamped 

3,161.226 

iron post stami>ed 

3,050.414 

iron post stami)ed 



ti 



3169 DW " 3, 170. 282 



Horthwoit comer of lec. 88, T. 7 K., K. 7 E., east along line between Tpa. 6 
and 7 N., thence north along line between Be. 8 and 9, thence weet along 
line between Tpe. 11 and 18 N. to northwest comer of eec. 10, T. 11 K., 
X. 7 E. 

XoTE. — ^The original error of this line was 2.66 feet. The line was 

adjusted by correcting 2.06 feet of this error between sees. 17 

and 18. T. 8 X., R. 9 E., where doubt exists, and the remainder by 

distribution. Reliance can not be placed on those elevations until 

they are checked by further field work. 
T. 7 X., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped 

"2942" 2,043.454 

T. 6 X., R. 7 E., northwest corner of see. 3; top of corner stone . 

marked " 2901 " 2, 808. 03 

T. 6 X., R 7 E., northwest corner of sec. 2: toj) of corner stone 

marked " 2894 " 2, 801. 27 

T 6 X., R. 7 E., northwest comer of sec. 1 ; top of corner stone 

marked " 2839 " 2. 835. 73 

T. 6 X., R. 8 E., northwest comer of sec. 0; iron i)ost Rtanii)e(l 

" 2793 " 2. 7S0. 713 

T. 6 X., R. 8 E.. northwest corner of sec. 5; toj) of corner stone 

marked " 2745 " 2. 742. 31 



52 SPmiT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 

T. 6 N., R. 8 E., 40 feet northwest of iron bridge, on Belle Fourche Feet. 

River; iron post stamped "2555" 2,552.122 

T. 7 N., R. 8 E., northwest coi;ner of SW. i sec. 24; top of rock 

marked " 2781 " 2, 778. 08 

T. 7 X., R. 9 E., northwest corner of sec. 19; iron post stamped 

" 2761 " 2, 757. 819 

T. 7 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of SW. i sec. 7; top of rock 

marked " 2766 " v 2, 763. 10 

T. 7 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of sec. 7, top of corner stone 

marked " 2741 " 2, 738. 16 

T. 7 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner of sec. 6 ; iron post stamped " 2733 "_ 2, 730. 556 
T. 8 N., R. 8 E., 600 feet northwest of southeast corner of sec. 36; 

square cut in top of large rock marked " 2774 " 2, 771. 14 

T. 8 N., R. 9 E., west side of sec 19, on section line; large rock 

marked " 2752 " 2, 749.35 

T. 8 N., R. 9 K, near center of sec. 18; large rock marked " 2788 "— 2, 785. 83 
T. 8 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner of sec. 17; iron post stamped 

" 2701 " 2, 700. 536 

T. 8 N., R. 9 K, northwest comer of SW. i sec. 6 ; top of rock marked 

" 2745 " 2, 744. 41 

T. 8 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" 2770 " 2. 769. 428 

T. 9 N., R. 9 E., on line between seca 31-36, northwest corner of sec. 

31; rock marked "2810" 2,809.40 

T. 9 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of sec. 19; iron post stamped 

" 2851 " 2. 850. 555 

T. N., R. 9 E., uoi'thwest corner of NE. i sec. 7 ; top of rock marked 

" 2875 " - 2, 874. 57 

T. 9 N., R. 9 E., northwest corner of sec. 5 ; iron post stamped " 2818 ". 2, 818. 950 
T. 10 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of SE, i sec. 19 ; top of large rock 

marked " 2905 " 2, 904. 51 

T. 10 X., R. 9 E., northwest comer of sec. 19; iron ijost stamped 

" 2834 " 2. 833. 571 

T. 10 X., R. 9 E., on west line of sec. 18 ; large rock marked " 2.S')6 "__ 2, 855. 20 
T. 10 X., R. 9 E., west line of sec. 7, at top of high hill ; large rock 

marked " 2871 '' 2, 870. 52 

T. 10 X., R. 9 E., northwest corner of sec. 7 ; top of large rock marked 

" 2846 " 2, 845. 41 

T. 10 X., R. 9 E., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

" 2876 " 2, 875. 131 

T. 11 X., R. 9 E., on west line of sec. 30, 5(X) feet south northwest of 

corner of sec. 30; wooden stake marked "2825" 2,825.38 

T. 11 X., R. 9 E., northwest corner of see. 11); Iron post stamped 

"2795" 2,794.286 

T. 11 X., R. 9 E., 700 feet south and 300 feet west of northwest 

corner of sec. C; top of rock marked **2S73" 2,872.35 

T. 11 X., U. 9 E., 700 feet south and 300 feet west of northwest 

comer of sec. 6, in large rock; tablet stamiWl " 2S74 " 2. 873. 783 

T. 11 X.. R. 8 E., northwest corner of see. 3; iron post stamped 

" 2910 " 2. 909. 445 

T. 11 X., R. 8 K, northwest corner of set'. (>, at top of hill north of 

trail; iron post stamped "2920" 2,025.58 



INDEX. 



^' Page. 

AlkaU Spring 27 

Anthony 16 

Ardmore 23 

Aiigentine 22 

Aigyle 26 

B. 

Baldwin, D. H.,workof 5 

Barber. J. C, work of 13 

Barnard, E. C, work of 6 

Bear Springs 27,33,35 

Beaver Creek 40 

Belle Fourche 47 

Belle FouTche quadrangle 45-48 

Bench marks 5 

IriBte showing 5 

Berne 26 

Besant 18,21 

Big Bottom 48 

Birdseye, C. H., work of. 44-15 

Blackhawk 42-43 

Bonhomme County 7 

Brennan 40 

Bright, M. 8., work of 44 

Brownsville 16 

Buck Spring 27-28 

Buffalo Gap 40,41.42 

Burbonk 12 

Butte County 44 

C. 

Caidwell, H. L., work of. 45 

Canton quadrangle 8-9 

Cascade Springs 23 

Castle Creek 17, 18 

Centennial Park 17 

Centennial Prairie 48 

CenterviUe 8,9 

Chat worth 12 

Cheyenne 21 

Cheyenne River 39 

ChloB«o, Burlington & Quincy R. R 13, 

16,18,22,23,33 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry 8,9, 12 

Chicago 6i Northwestern Ry 8, 9, 42 

Chilaon 22 

Clay County 7 

Coffey Flat 23 

Cold Springs 18 

Cottonwood Creek 39 

CrownhlU 17 

Custer 25 

Custer County 13 

8g607»<-Bull 472-11 



^- Page. 

Davis 8 

Deadwood 13 

Deadwood quadrangle 13-21 

Douglas, £. M., work of 5 

Dumont 14 

£. 

Edgemont 22-23 

Edgemont quadranfl^e 21-24 

Elk Creek 16 

Elk Point 12,13 

Elk Point quadrangle 12-13 

Elmore 17 

Empire quadrangle 49^52 

Englewood 14, 16 

Erskine 22 

Evans. 42 

F. 

Falrbum 38,39,40 

Fourmlle 32 

Freeman 9 

O. 

Gannett, S. S. , work of 5 

Gillette Canyon 27 

Glendale 36 

Gottschalk, L. F., work of 13 

G reenwood 20 

H. 

Hadley, H. M., work of 45 

Harney 36 

Harney Peak quadrangle 24-36 

Harrison Flat 39 

Hayward 36 

Hermosa 37, 41 

Hemiosa quadrangle 3(>-41 

Hill Cit y 24 , 35 

Hot Springs 41-42 

Hurley 9 

Hutchinson County 7 

I. 

Irene 9 

Irvine, Chester, work of 44, 4.'> 

Ivanhoo 21 

J. 

Jefferson 12 

Jim Creek 4A 

Joost 47 

K. 

Keystone 36 

Kirk 13 

53 



64 



SPIRIT LEVELING IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 1896 TO 1910. 



^ Page. 

Lawrence County 13,44 

Lincoln County 7 

Loiing 26 

H. 

Haitland 23 

Marietta 22 

Marion 9,10 

Marshall, R. B.,workof. 5 

Maurice 17 

Mayo 25 

Meade County 13,44 

Melvin 40 

Menno 10 

Merritt 18,19 

MUltown 12 

MInnekahta 22 

Moss Agate Creek 22 

Mowatts 16 

Myers 43 

Mystic 15 

N. 

Nahant 14 

Nasby 18 

Nemo 20 

O. 

Oelrichs quadrangle 41, 42 

OUvet 11 

Olivet quadrangle 10-12 

Orevllle 25 

Owl Creek Bridge 48 

P. 

Pactola. 19,43,44 

Parker 8,9 

Parker quadrangle 8, 9 

Pass Creek 29 

Penniugton County 13 

Perry 16 

Piedmont 43 

Portland 17 

Portuguese 16 

Prlngle 25-26,36 

Provo 23 



^' Page. 

Rapid 42 

Rapid quadrangle 42-44 

Redfem 15,24 

Renshawe, J. H., work of 5 

Rochford.. 14 

RockerviUe 36 

Rumford 23 

Runkel 16 

8. 

St. Onge 48 

Scotland 10 

Sheridan 35-36 

Sliver City 19 

Slate Creek 20 

Snoma 48 

Spearfish 17 

Spokane 37 

Spring Creek 36,41 

Stewart, J. T., work of 13 

Sturgls 16,43 

Sundance quadrangle 44 

T. 

Tatum, Sledge, work of. 5 

Terry 17 

The Forks 47 

Tigerville 33 

Tilford 43 

Topographic maps 7 

Turner County 7 

Tyler, Alfred, work of 8 

U. 

Union County 7 

V. 

Vermilion 12 

W. 

Waukonda 9 

Whltewood 15 

Wilson, H. M., work of 6 

Woodvllle 16 

Worthington, C. E., work of. 13 

Wray, D. C, work of 8 

Y. 

Yankton 9 

Yankton County 7 



O 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

GEORGE OTIS SMITH. D[BBCTOB 
BlTU.KnN 473 



RESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVELING IN 
KANSAS AND NEBRASKA 



1896 TO 1909, INCLUSIVE 



R. B. MAKSHALL, Chief Geoobapheh 



WASHINGTON 

QOVERNMKNT PRINTINO OFKICE 



CONTENTS. 



IntitMluction. . 



Page. 
5 



Scope of the work 5 

PeiBonnel 5 

Claasification 5 

Bench marks 5 

Datum 6 

Topographic maps 7 

Kansas 8 

Primary leveling 8 

Joplin district (Cherokee County) 8 

lola and Parsons quadrangles (Allen, Bourbon, Crawford, Labette, and 

Neosho counties) 9 

Independence quadrangle (Montgomery and Wilson counties) 10 

Atchison, KansaR City, and Oskalooea 3(K quadrangles, including 
Easton and Leavenworth 15^ quadrangles (Atkins and Leavenworth 

counties) 12 

Garden, Lakin, Syracuse, and Tribune quadrangles (Finney, Grant, 

Hamilton, Kearney, and Stanton counties) 18 

Nebraska 23 

Primary leveling 23 

Elk Point quadrangle (Dixon County) 23 

Nehawka, Omaha, and Weeping Water quadrangles (Cass, Johnson, 

Lancaster, Otoe, and Sarpy counties) 24 

Nebraska City quadrangle (Cass, Nemaha, and Otoe counties) 26 

Browns Creek, Chappell, Gothenburg, North Platte, Ogalalla, Paxton, 
and Sidney quadrangles (Arthur, Cheyenne, Dawson, Deuel, Fron- 
tier, Keith, Lincoln, Logan, and McPherson counties) 27 

Index 41 



ILLUSTRATION. 



Page. 
Plate I. Designs for bench marks 5 




GEOLOGIC*!. SURVEY BENCH MARKS. 



RESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND 
NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909, INCLUSIVE. 



R. B. Marshall, Chief Geographer. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Scope of the work, — All results of spirit leveling in Kansas and 
Nebraska previously published by the United States Geological Survey 
and all the results of later work are included in tliis report, rearranged 
by quadrangles. Elevations are based on heights of bench marks 
along precise-level lines of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and of the 
Missouri River Commission, as adjusted in 1907. The elevation of 
bench marks in the western part of both States are based on railroad 
data, and are, therefore, only approximate. 

Personnel. — The field work previous to 1903 was done under the 
general direction of J. H. Renshawe. geographer; that for 1903 to 
1906, inclusive, under H. M. Wilson, geographer; and the later work 
under W. H. Herron, geographer. The names of the various level- 
men are given in the introduction to each list. The office work of 
computation, adjustment, and preparation of lists was done mainly 
by S. S. Gannett, geographer, and D. H. Baldwin, topographer, and 
since 1907 under the general direction of E. M. Douglas, geographer. 

Classification. — No precise leveling has been done by the United 
States Geological Survey in Kansas and Nebraska. For primary lines 
standard Y levels are used; lines are run in circuits or are closed on 
precise lines, with an allowable closing error in feet represented by 
0.05 VD, in which D is the length of the circuit in miles, sufficient care 
being given to the work to maintain this standard. For levels of 
this class careful ofiice adjustments are made, the circuit errors being 
distributed over the lines. 

Bench marks. — The standard bench marks are of two forms. The 
first form is a circular bronze or aluminum tablet (C and E, PI. I), 
3i inches in diameter and one-quarter inch thick, having a 3-inch 
stem, which is cemented in a drill hole in solid rock in the wall of some 
public building, a bridge abutment, or other substantial masonrv'^ 
structure. The second form (F, PI. I), used where masonry or rock 
is not available, consists of a hollow wrought-iron post 3^ inches in 

• 5 



6 SPIBIT LEVEUNO IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

outer diameter and 4 feet in length. The bottom is spread out to a 
width of 10 inches in order to give a firm bearing on the earth. A 
bronze or aluminum-bronze cap is riveted over the top of the post, 
which is set about 3 feet in the ground. A third style of bench 
mark with abbreviated lettering (B and D, PL I) is used for unimpor- 
tant points. This consists of a special copper nail 1^ inches in length 
driven through a copper washer seven-eighths inch in diameter. The 
tablets, as well as the caps on the iron posts are appropriately lettered, 
and cooperation by States is indicated by the addition of the State 
name (G, PI. I). 

The numbers stamped on the bench marks described in the follow- 
ing pages represent the elevations to the nearest foot as determined 
by the levelman. These numbers are stamped with yVuic'^ steel 
dies on the tablets or post caps, to the left of the word '*feet." The 
office adjustment of the notes and the reduction to mean sea level 
datum may so change some of the figures that the original markings 
are 1 or 2 feet in error. It is assumed that engineers and others who 
have occasion to use the bench-mark elevations will apply to the 
Director of the United States Geological Survey, at Washington, 
D. C, for the adjusted values, and will use the markings as identifi- 
cation numbers only. 

Datum, — All United States Geological Survey elevations are referred 
to mean sea level, which is the level that the sea would assume if the 
influence of winds and tides were eliminated. This level is not the 
elevation determined from the mean of the highest and the lowest 
tides, nor is it the half sum of the mean of all the high tides and the 
mean of aU the low tides, which is called the half-tide level. Mean sea 
level is the average height of the water, all stages of the tide being coTisid- 
ered. It is determined from observations made by means of tidal 
gages placed at stations where local conditions, such as long, narrow 
bays, rivers, and Uke features, will not affect the height of the water. 
To obtain even approximately correct results these observations must 
extend over at least one lunar month, and if accuracy is desired they 
must extend over several years. At ocean stations the half-tide level 
and the mean sea level usually differ, but little. It is assumed that 
there is no defference between the mean sea level as determined from 
observations in the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, or the Pacific 
Ocean. 

The connection with tidal stations for bench marks in certain areas 
that lie at some distance from the sea coast is still uncertain, and 
this fact is indicated by the addition of a letter or word to the right 
of the word ** datum" on tablets or posts. For such areas corrections 
for published results will be made from time to time as the precise- 
level lines of the United States Geological Survey or other Govern- 
ment organizations are extended. % 



INTRODUCTION. 



Topographic maps. — ^Maps of the following quadrangles wholly or 
partly in Kansas and Nebraska have been published by the United 
States Geological Survey up to May 1, 1911. They may be obtained, 
except as noted, for 5 cents each or S3 a hundred, on appUcation to 
the Director of the Survey at Washington, D. C. 



KANSAS. 



Abilene. 

Albany (Colo.-Kans.). 

Anthony. 

Arapahoe (Nebr.-Kana.). 

.Vi'hland.* 

Atchison (Kans.-Mo.). 

Beloit. 

Burden. 

Burlingame. 

Burlington. 

Caldwell. 

Cheyenne Wells (Colo.-Kans.). 

Clay Center. 

Coldwater, 

Concordia. 

Cottonwood Falls. 

Dodge. 

Eldorado. 

EUia. 

Ellsworth. 

Emporia. 

Eskridge. 

Eureka. 

Fort Scott (Kans.-Mo.). 

Fredonia. 

Garden. 

Gamett. 

Granada (Colo.-Kans.). 

Great Bend. 

Hays. 

Hebron (Nebr.-Kans.). 

Hiawatha. 

Hill. 

Holdrege (Nebr.-Kans.). - 

•Hutchinson. 

Independence. 

lola. 

Joplin (Kans.-Mo.-Okla.). 

Joplin district (Mo.-Kans.-Okla.), double 

sheet (10 cents). 
Junction City. 
Kansas City (Kans.-Mo.). 
> Sitka sheet, on scale of l:62fi00, has been reduced 



Kingman. 

Kinsley. 

Lakin. 

Lamed. 

Lawrence. 

Leavenworth (Kans.-Mo.). 

Lyons. 

Mankato. 

Marysville. 

Meade. 

Medicine Lodge. 

Minneapolis. 

Mound City (Kans.-Mo.). 

Ness. 

Newton. 

Norton. 

Olathe (Kans.-Mo.). 

Osborne. 

Oskaloosa (Kans.-Mo.). 

Parkerville. 

Parsons. 

Phillipsburg. 

Plain ville. 

Pratt. 

Red Cloud (Nebr.-Kans.). 

Russell. 

Salina. 

Sedan. 

Seneca. 

Sitka. 1 

Smith Center. 

Spear ville. 

Superior (Nebr.-Kans.). 

Syracuse. 

Topeka. 

Vilas (Colo.-Kans.). 

Wamego. 

Washington. 

Wellington. 

Wichita. 

Wyandotte (Okla.-Mo.-Kans.). 



and forms part of AshJand sheet, on scale of 1:125000. 



8 SPIRIT LEVELING IK KANSAS AND KEBBABKA, 1896 TO 1909. 



NEBRASKA. 



Arapahoe (Nebr.-Kans.). 

Browns Creek. 

Camp Clarke. 

Chappell. 

David City. 

Edgemont (S. Dak.-Nebr.). 

Elk Point (S. Dak.-Nebr.-Iowa). 

Fremont. 

Goehen Hole (Wyo.-Nebr.). 

Gothenburg. 

Grand Island 3(K.> 

♦Grand Island W.' 

Hebron (Nebr.-Kans.). 

Holdrege (Nebr.-Kans.). 

Kearney 3(y.» 

Kearney 15\^ 

*Kenesaw.* 

Lexington. 

Lincoln. 

Loup. 

Minden.' 



Nebraska City (Nebr.-Iowa-Mo.). 

North Platte. 

Oelrichs (S. Dak.-Nebr.). 

Ogalalla. 

Omaha and vicinity (Nebr.-Iowa) (10 

cents). 
Patrick (Wyo.-Nebr.). 
Paxton. 

Red Cloud (Nebr.-Kans.). 
St. Paul. 
Scotts Bluff. 
Sidney. 
Stromsburg. 
Superior (Neor.-Kans.). 
Wahoo. 

Weeping Water. 
Whistle Creek. 
Wood River 30' .» 
*Wood River 15'.» 
York. 



KANSAS. 



PB.IMABY LBVELINa. 



Joplin District. 



CHEROKEE COUNTY. 



The elevations published in the following list are based on bench 
mark "CIII" of the Coast and Geodetic Survey at Carthage, Mo., 
at the southwest comer of Main and Limestone streets, a cross cut 
on the rounded top of a 6 by 6 inch limestone post buried in the 
ground 2.3 feet west of intersection of the inside lines of sidewalk. 
The elevation of this bench mark, as corrected by the 1907 adjust- 
ment of that survey, is accepted as 942.000 feet above mean sea 
level. 

The leveUng was done in 1904 by D. C. Wray. 

All bench marks dependent upon this datuin are stamped with 
the letters *'CRTHG" in addition to the figures of elevation. 

For additional data for the same area see Bulletin 459, ''Results of 
spirit leveUng in Missouri.'* 

 Out of print. 

1 Grand Island sheet, on scale of l:G2dOO, has been reduced and forms part of Grand Island sheet, on scale 
of 1:125000. 

s Kearney 15' sheet, on scale of 1:62500, has been reduced and fonns part of Kearney 30' sheet, on scale of 
1:125000. 

* Kenesaw, Minden, and Wood River 15' sheets, on scale of 1:62500, have been reduced and form parts of 
Wood River dff sheet, on scale of 1:125000. 



KANSAS. 9 

JOPLUr DZSTRIOT. 

T. 35 S., R. 25 E., northeast comer of sec. 11, 24 feet west of comer stone; Feet. 

iron poet stamped "1016 CRTHG" 1,016.027 

Galena, west side of Euclid Avenue, between Seventh and Eighth streets, 

2 feet north of southeast comer of foundation of schoolhouse; aluminum 

tablet stamped "976 CRTHG" 976. 157 

Baxter Springs, 51 feet west of southeast comer of city hall, in third course 

of stone below water table; aluminum tablet stamped "842 CRTHG".. 842. 316 
T.33S., R. 25E., SE. \ sec. 12, 45 feet south of comer stone, at west side 

of State line road; iron post stamped "914CRTHG" 913.851 

T. 32 S., R. 25 E., northwest comer of sec. 19, 4 feet east of comer fence 

post, southeast of crossroads; iron post stamped "904 CRTHG" 903. 765 

T. 33 S., R. 24 E., northeast comer of sec. 1, 40 feet south and 15 feet west 

of comer stone in center of crossroads; iron post stamped "893 CRTHG '\ 892. 813 
T. 34 S., R. 24 E., northeast comer of sec. 1, 40 feet south and 30 feet west 

of comer stone in center of crossroads; iron post stamped "862 CRTHG ". 861. 730 

lola and Parsons Quadrangles. 

ALLEN, BOURBON, CRA.WFOBD, LABETTE, AND NEOSHO COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list are based on an aluminum tablet 
stamped **968 lOLA^' in the northeast comer of Northup's National 
Bank at lola, Kans., the elevation of which is accepted as 971.489 
feet above mean sea level. The initial point upon which this work 
depends is the bronze tablet estabUshed by the Indian Territory levels 
in the school building at Chetopa, Kans., the elevation of which as 
now accepted is 4.850 feet higher than published in Bulletin 175. 

The levehng was done in 1902 by Fox Wood. 

PA&SOITB QlTADBAirOLB. 

Ctetopa north alone lClMoiirl,^aniai A Tezai By. to Brto, thence alone highway 

to La Harpe. (Donble-rodded line.) 

Feet. 

Erie, in east wing of courthouse; bronze tablet stamped "892 lOLA" 895. 080 

T. 26 S., R. 20 £., northeast comer of sec. 31, in north end of stone pier at 

south end of iron bridge over Big Creek; aluminum tablet stamped ''940 

lOLA!* 943. 033 

T. 25 S., R. 19 E., southeast comer of sec. 36, in south side of schoolhouse, 

near comer of sections; bronze tablet stamped "1068 TOLA'* 1, 071. 293 

T. 24 8., R. 19 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "1032 

lOLA"  1,035.267 

ZOLA QlTADBAirOLE. 
Szle alone highway eait and around Tpi. 27 and 28 8., B. 21 E. 

T. 29 S., R. 21 E., 0.25 mile east of northwes** comer of sec. 6, north 

side of schoolhouse; bronze tablet stamped "896 lOLA" 899. 075 

T. 28 S., R. 22 E., 0.25 mile south of northwest comer of sec. 31, east side 

of road, north end of bridge over Big Walnut Creek, in rock abutment; 

bronze tablet stamped "897 TOLA" 900. 242 

T. 27 S., R. 21 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "952 

lOLA" 955. 171 

Porters ville, northeast comer of schoolhouse; aluminum tablet stamped 

"1008 lOLA" 1,011.130 



10 SPnUT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

Savonburg, in west wii^ of schcwlhouse; bronze tablot stamped ^^1057 Feet. 

lOLA" 1,060.758 

T. 27 S., R. 20 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "1022 

lOLA" 1,025.206 

T. 27 S., R. 19 E., southeast comer of sec. 36, in northeast comer of church; 

bronze tablet stamped "1004 lOLA" 1, 007. 132 

T. 26 S., R. 18 E., southeast corner of sec. 36; iron post stamped "997 

lOLA" 1,000.496 

North Valley, southeast comer of sec. 36, T. 27 S., R. 18 E., in southeast 

comer of Bchoolhouse: bronze tablet stamped "909 lOLA'* 911. 314 

Fortheait eomer of T. 26 S., &. 19 E., weft throarh Humboldt and south •long ranee 
Une between Sa. 17 and 18 X., thenoe alonir townahlp Une between Tpt. 88 and 89 S. 

Humboldt, 3 miles east of, northwest comer of Central Avenue school- 
house; bronze tablet stamped "976 lOLA'* 979. 612 

T. 26 N., R. 18 E., southwest comer of sec. 30, in southwest comer of school- 
house; aluminum tablet stamped "953 I OLA" 955.823 

T. 27 S., R. 17 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "981 
lOLA" 983. 909 

T. 28 S., R. 17 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "957 
lOLA" 960.138 

Urbana, southeast comer of church; aluminum tablet stamped "954 
lOLA" 957.304 

T. 24 S., R. 20 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "1091 
lOLA*' 1, 094. 358 

T. 24 S., R. 21 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "1062 

lOLA" 1,065.993 

T. 23 S., R. 21 E., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "1043 

lOLA*' 1,045.707 

T. 24S., R. 20E., northeast comer of sec. 1, on north side of schoolhouse; 
bronze tablet stamped "1024 TOLA " 1, 027. 143 

T. 24 S., R. 20 E., sec. 7, northwest comer of schoolhouse; bronze tablet 
stamped " 1059 lOL A " 1,062.041 

La Harpe west alon^ railroad and highway and around T. 86 S., Bm. 18 and 19 X. 

lola, in northeast comer of Northup's National Bank; bronze tablet 

stamped "968 lOLA " '. . 97L 489 

T. 24 S., R. 17 E., southeast comer of sec. 26; iron post stamped "1010 

lOLA" 1,012.742 

T. 23 S., R. 18 E., southeast comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "1050 

lOLA" 1,052.860 

T. 23 S., R. 19 E., northeast comer of sec. 1, in northeast comer of school- 

houfle; bronze tablet stamped "1022 lOLA'' 1,024,845 

Independence Quadrangle. 

MONTOOMERY AND WILSON COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following Ust are based on an aluminum tablet 
stamped ^^824 INDEPENDENCE^' in the northwest corner of the 
courthouse at Independence, Kans., the elevation of which is accepted 
as 827.637 feet above mean sea level. The initial point upon which 
these levels depend is the bronze tablet estabUshed by the Indian 
Territory (now part of Oklahoma) levels at Coffey ville, Kans., the 



KANSAS. 11 

accepted elevation of which is 4.854 feet higher than that published on 
page 88, in Bulletin 175. 
The leveling was done in 1903 by Fox Wood. 

IHDEPEimXFCS QITADRAKGLB. 

CoffoyflUe WMt tdong highway 6 mllei to Deerinir, thenoe north 80 mUes, thenoe east 

6 mllei, thence lontli to CofleyvUle. ^ 

Cofifeyville, Ried Building; bronze tablet stamped "731 INDEPEND- Feet. 
ENCE ' * (see Indian Territory levels, Bulletin 175) 736. 226 

Coffeyville, 4 miles west of, on township line, south side of bridge across 
Onion Creek, in east pier; chiseled cross 740. 79 

Deering, in southwest comer of store of H. L. Towles; aluminum tablet 
stamped "763 INDEPENDENCE" 766.954 

T. 34 S., R. 16 E., northwest comer of sec. 6, in northwest comer of Meyers 's 
residence; aluminum tablet stamped " 882 INDEPENDENCE. ../..... 884. 884 

Independence, northwest corner of courthouse; aluminum tablet stamped 
"824 INDEPENDENCE" 827.637 

Sycamore, southeast comer of schoolhouse; aluminum tablet stamped "829 
INDEPENDENCE" 831.847 

Neodesha, southeast comer of Fourth and Main streets, in north side of 
brick building (Dr. F. T. Allen's store); aluminum tablet stamped "817 
INDEPENDENCE" 820.270 

Tps. 29 and 30 S., R. 16 E., on line between sees. 3 and 34, 12 feet from east 
rail, in east end of concrete railroad culvert; aluminum tablet stamped 
"842 INDEPENDENCE" 845.770 

T. 30 S., R. 17 E., 0.25 mile east of northwest comer of sec. 6, in northeast 
comer of Mrs. Ann Clegg's house; aluminum tablet stamped "871 INDE- 
PENDENCE" 874.066 

T. 31 S., R. 17 E., 0.1 mile east of northwest comer of sec. 6, in northeast 
comer of schoolhouse (District 80) ; aluminum tablet stamped " 901 
INDEPENDENCE" 904.404 

T. 32 S., R. 16 E., northeast comer of sec. 12, in wall of schoolhouse; alumi- 
num tablet stamped " 843 INDEPENDENCE " 895. 524 

T. 33 S. , R. 16 E., northwest comer of sec. 1, in northwest comer of church; 
aluminum tablet stamped " 758 INDEPENDENCE " 762. 141 

Liberty, southeast comer of Methodist Church; aluminum tablet stamped 
"757 INDEPENDENCE" 761.377 

Deeitnir weit nlonir highway 6 mUeg to Fawn* thence north abont 80 miles to see. 86, 
T. 88 S.f*&* 14 E., thence weit 8 mlleg; retom line louth from Elk City and Havana 
to southweft comer T. 84 S., K. 14 E., thenoe east 6 miles to Fawn. 

Tyro, in northeast comer of schoolhouse, aluminum tablet stamped " 896 
INDEPENDENCE. " (Reported destroyed in 1909) 898. 627 

T. 33 S., R. 15 E., sec. 36, in northwest corner of schoolhouse; aluminum 
tablet stamped "831 INDEPENDENCE" 833. 633 

T. 32 S., R. 15 E., northwest comer of sec. 30, in northwest comer of school- 
house; aluminum tablet stamped "821 INDEPENDENCE" 823. 642 

T. 31 S., R. 14 E., near sec. 23, southeast corner of schoolhouse; aluminum 
tablet stamped "918 INDEPENDENCE" 920. 626 

La Fontaine, in southeast comer of schoolhouse; aluminum tablet stamped 
"918 INDEPENDENCE" 920. 731 

T. 29 S., R. 14 E., near sec. 36, in southwest comer of schoolhouse; alumi- 
num tablet stamped " 928 INDEPENDENCE " 930. 512 

1 The error distributed in this line is excessive. 



12 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

Buxton, northeast corner of Christian Church; aluminum tablet stamped Feet. 
"979 INDEPENDENCE" 98L 384 

T. 30 S., R. 14 E., sec. 33, in northwest comer of Henry Cox's residence; 
alummumtabletstamped "891 INDEPENDENCE" 893.636 

Elk City, in wing of brick schoolhouse; aluminum tablet stamped "833 
INDEPENDENCE" 835.887 

T. 32 S., R. 14 E., sec. 30, residence of C. Curtis, in west foundation of front 
porch; aluminum tablet stamped ** 853 INDEPENDENCE " 855. 832 

Havana, in schoolhouse; aluminum tablet stamped "762 INDEPEND- 
ENCE" 764. 178 

T. 34 S., R. 14 E., sec. 31, in south side of house of M. M. Freidlin; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "757 INDEPENDENCE" 759. 595 

Atchison, Kansas City, and Oskaloosa 80^ Quadrangles, including ' Easton and 

Leavenworth 16^^ Quadrangles. 

ATKINS AND LEAYENWOBTH COUNTIES. 

The elevations are based on bench marks of the Missouri River 
Commission. 

The leveling was done by S. K. Atkinson in 1906 and by G, E. 
Heebink m 1908-9. 

KATffSAB CITY 80' QITADRAKOLE. 
Standard b«iioh Barki of the Mlnonrl Rlvor Cominlnlon. 

P. B. M. 247, Connor, about 2.5 milee above, 1,265 feet below first road 
croeaing below Pope^s Siding, 1,315 feet below bridge 79, across small 
creek, 220 feet above center of small bridge where the Oilman or bottom 
road turns east away from track, about 0.5 mile east of houses of E. Piper 
and Mr. Tull," 33 feet west of center of track on line of right of way; copper Feet. 

bolt in bench mark stone 756. 023 

Top of cap 760. 073 

P. B. M. 248-77-1, Leavenworth Jimction, 2 miles below, opposite foot of 
Spar Island, 970 feet above milepost 303, 1,610 feet above railroad trestle 
81, on second bench from foot of bluff, 120 feet from Missouri Pacific 
Ry. track; top of copper bolt in bench-mark stone (could not be found 

in 1909) 799.886 

Top of cap 803. 964 

United States OeolOflcal Survey eleratlonf— Point S.5 mllei north of Connor west to 

Seo. 20, T. 8 S., K. 88 E., and north to Bowling. 

Lipps, 310 feet west of post-ofl5ce box, on south side of road, 6 inches below 
surface of embankment, marked by large piece of limestone; iron stake 
marked " 803 '* 802. 49 

T. 9 S., R. 23 E., at intersection of Dal ton and Maltby Roads, on highest 
part of section comer stone; square marked "882 '* 882. 18 

T. 9S., R. 23E., southwest comer of sec. 32; comer stone, marked "928".. 927.71 

Lansing, 2 miles south of by 0.4 mile east of, Leavenworth and Kansas 
City Road north of Maltby Road, in limestone 3 by 3 feet by 1 .5 feet 
forming abutment of small bridge; aluminum tablet stamped "8G0" 860. 255 

T. 9 S., R. 23 E., southwest comer of sec. 31, on stone; chiseled square 

marked "878 " 878. 10 

Lansing, 0.5 mile south by 1.5 miles west of, intersection of Brighton and 
Lamboum Roads, quarter comer west side of sec. 26, T. 9 S., R. 22 E.; 
gas pipe with bronze cap marked " 963 " 962. 385 



KANSAS. 18 

T. 9 S., R. 22 E., quarter comer on north side of eec 34, near Spring Hill peeu 

schoolhouae, at T road south, on stone; chiseled square marked '^956".. 955. 54 
T. 9 S., R. 22 E., southwest comer of sec. 28, at west end of New Lawrence 

Road, on stone; chiseled square 1, 018. 19 

T. 9 S., R. 22 E., quarter comer on east side of sec. 29, east end of old 

Lawrmce Road, set 3 feet in ground and projecting 1 foot above ground; 

uoa pipe stamped ' * 1043 " 1, 042. 787 

T. 9 S., R. 22 E., southwest comer of sec. 20, on granite bowlder; chiseled 

square marked** 966" 966.99 

Bowling, 1 mile northeast of, on southeast comer of Atchison, Topeka & 

Santa Fe Ry. bridge 17; bolt painted white and marked "U, S. 914 "... 914. 02 

LBAVXVWOBTH 16' (KAVSA8 CITT 80') QITADRAKOLE. 
mnonzl "Rtwt Coaunlaslon bench marki. 

P. B. M. 249, Leavenworth Junction, 93 feet above center of station, 100 
feet above head block at junction, 18 feet east of center of track, 29.5 

feet above lower head block of siding; bolt in bench-mark stone 756. 837 

Top of cap 760. 902 

P. B. M. 250-78-1, Leavenworth, on shelf of bluff If miles below station 
opposite East Leavenworth, on lower side of small ravine, 200 feet from 
river and 20 feet west of center of siding leading to coal mine; copper 

bolt in bench-mark stone 808. 290 

Top of cap 812. 356 

P. B. M. 251, Leavenworth, north side of the Great Westem Stove Co.'s 
brick building, one block south of Union Station, 3.4 feet west of north- 
east comer and 5 feet above ground; copper bolt leaded horizontally 
set in rock, with letters "U. S. Q 415 P. B. M." cut in rock, large enough 
to be readily seen and deep enough to last many years 782. 300 

P. B. M. 252, Leavenworth, in brick building occupied by Rohlfing Bros., 
grocers, southeast comer of Third and Cherokiee Streeti^, on west end of 
stone window sill, Cherokee Street side; top of copper bolt leaded verti- 
tically and marked "U. S. 415 G P. B. M.'* 787. 136 

P. B. M. 253, Leavenworth, in retaining wall at northwest comer of Main 
and Cherokee Streets, 59 feet north of south end of wall, 78 feet south of 
south end of station; copper bolt leaded horizontally in fourth course of 
masonry above ground, lettered '^U. S. O P. B. M." 775.409 

P. B. M. 254-79-1, Fort Leavenworth, 30 feet below south face of west abut- 
ment of Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. bridge, 27 feet from center 
of Missoiui Pacific Ry. track, and 8 feet above grade; copper bolt in 

bench-mark stone 788. 228 

Top of cap 792.314 

P. B. M. 255, Fort Leavenworth, in west abutment of Chicago, Rock 
Island 4 Pacific Ry. bridge, south side, 3.5 feet back from east face; 
copper bolt leaded horizontally in fourth course of masonry above ground 
at southeast comer, lettered "U. S. O P. B. M." 788. 682 

P. B. M. 256, Fort Leavenworth, northeast comer of Government ptone ice 
bouse on river bank, 7 inches west of east face, and 5.2 feet above ground; 
copper bolt leaded vertically into building, lettered "U. S. O P. H. M.'\ 776. 177 

P. B. M, 257, Fort Leavenworth, 0.8 mile above; 1.25 miles above Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Ry. bridge across Missouri River, 525 feet below 
wagon-road crossing, 505 feet below center of bridge across small creek 
at lower edge of wagon road, 150 feet below point of bluff, 28 feet from 
center of road on side toward bluff; copper bolt set in bench-mark stone. 773. 519 
Top of cap 777.587 



14 SPIBIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

P. B. M. 258-80-1, Fort Leavenworth, about 2.25 miles above Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Ry. bridge, 350 feet above lower head block of 
Wade siding, on bluff side of track, 2 feet inside right-of-way fence ; copper Feet. 

bolt in bench-mark stone 769. 361 

Top of cap 773. 439 

P. B. M. 269, Kickapoo, 1.8 miles below, 9 feet above upper end of Missouri 
Pacific Ry. bridge 95 over Salt Creek, on bluff side, 24 feet from center 

of track; copper bolt in bench-mark stone 773. 966 

Top of cap .• 778. 022 

P. B. M. 260, Kickapoo, 0.25 mile below, 285 feet below trestle, 1,035 feet 

above milepost 316, 85 feet above upper end of small bridge, over drain 

for cut, on bluff side of track, 9.7 feet from center and 2.5 feet above grade; 

copper bolt leaded horizontally in face of natural ledge, lettered "U. S. 

O P. B. M." 794. 670 

P. B. M. 261-81-1, Kickapoo, on upper side of small ravine, 30 feet from 
vertical bank of small stream, bluff side of track, 80 feet from center; 
George Sharp's house bears S. 88° W. (Mag.) 130 feet distant; copper 

bolt in bench-mark stone 801. 567 

Top of cap 805.630 

P. B. M. 262, Oak Mills, 0.9 mile below, 70 feet below center of railroad 
bridge over small creek coming out of valley, on bluff side of track, 3 
feet east of wire fence directly opposite south point of bluff; copper bolt 

in bench-mark stone 774. 637 

Top of cap 778. 677 

P. B. M. 263, Oak Mills, in northwest side of stone building facing northeast, 
65 feet southeast of John Davitz's store, 6 feet above ground and 8 inches 
from front face of building; copper bolt leaded horizontally, lettered 
*'U. S. oP. B. M.'' \ 790.370 

P. B. M. 264-82-1, Oak Mills, in John Davitz's front yard, 19 feet below 
his store and 2 feet inside tight board fence; copper bolt in bench-mark 

Btone 781. 084 

Top of cap 785. 150 

P. B. M. 265, Oak Mills, 2.3 miles, 0.9 mile above Little Walnut Creek, 
180 feet below railroad bridge 99, 16 feet toward the river from wagon 
road running parallel to river, near forks in road, on bluff side of track, 

65 feet from center; copper bolt in bench-mark stone 785. 551 

Top of cap 789. 589 

P. B. M. 266-83-1, About 5.5 miles below Atchison, 30 feet below lower end 
of iron bridge across Walnut Creek, on bluff side of track, 68 feet from 
center and 45 feet north of T. B. M. 541; copper bolt in bench-mark 

stone 784. 806 

Top of cap 788. 832 

Leavenworth weft to Hund, thence lonth 1 mile (United Statei Oeologioal Survey 

bench marki). 

Hund, 40 feet south of Union Pacific R. R. tracks, 20 feet west of wagon 
road; iron post stamped * ' 834 " 833. 341 

Hund, 1 mile south of, on stone abutment of nteel bridge 130; chiseled 
square marked " 846 " 830. 12 

0SKAL008A 80' QUADRAKGLB. 
Spring dale south to Ackerlnnd, thence east alony railroad to Bolln^. 

Springdale, 1.5 miles south of, at crossroads near mail box 60, in north root 
of forked oak tree; nail 948.209 

Ackerland, 1 mile north of, northeast comer of sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 20 E.; 
eec tion stone marked ' * 1006 " 1, 006 



KANSAS. 15 

Ackerland, 300 feet east of atation, intersection of railroad with main north Feet. 

and south pike; point on track, marked " 1041 " 1, 040. 08 

Ackerl&nd, 1 mile east of, 2 miles west of Jarbalo, on southwest comer of 

railroad bridge 32, bolt painted white and marked **U. S. 971 " 970. 89 

Milepost 15; top of rail , , 965. 96 

Jarbalo, 1 mile west of, railroad crossing; joint on south rail, marked '^919 " . 918. 55 
Jarbalo, 120 feet east of station, 30 feet south of tracks; iron post stamped 

•^871" 871.223 

Jarbalo, 1 mile east of, southwest comer of bridge 29; bolt painted white 

and marked "857" 856.75 

Jarbalo, 2 miles east of, in southeast comer of bridge 26; bolt painted white 

and marked "866" 865. 05 

Milepost 11; top of vertical rail 874. 19 

Bowling, in front of sign; top of rail 916. 6 

Bowling, 200 feet northeast of station, 3 feet south of main track; large 

iron cylinder set in ground, marked "U. S. 914 " 913. 37 

Comer of Mct. 14, 16, S8, and 28, T. 9 S., H. 80 E., loutli 1.6 mUei, thtnce weft 8.6 

miles, theaoe north to mc. 17. 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 26 and 27, 5.2 feet from 
ground, near crotch in 20-inch elm tree at T road; 40-penny nail 998. 20 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 27 and 28; iron post 1, 049. 008 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 28 and 29, cross comer, in 
telsphone post; two 40-penny nails 1, 065. 84 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., center of sec. 29, 10 feet from comer fence post, 18 inches 
above ground, in brace of comer fence post; 40-penny nail 1, 104. 32 

ZASTOF 16' (OSKALOOSA 800 aXTADBAHOLE. 
Point near Bowline north to point near Hnnd. 

 

Bowling, near, in old ravine near where road crosses creek bed of west fork 
of Little Stranger Creek; stone marked "U. S. 913" 912.78 

Lansing, 5 miles west of, at intersection of roads, northeast comer of sec. 
24, T. 9 S., R. 21 E., 50 feet west of bridge 92, south side of road; iron 
pipe with brass cap stamped "972" 971.451 

T. 9 S., R. 22 E., northwest comer of sec. 18, at crossroads near High Prairie 
srhoolhouse, on limestone; chiseled square marked "1075 " 1, 074. 80 

T. 9 S. . R. 22 E., quarter comer on west side of sec. 7, south side of Compton 
Koad; marked "1066" 1,066.24 

T. 8 S., R. 22 E., southwest comer of sec. 31, at intersection of roads, in 
Possum Hollow; in stone; aluminum tablet marked "924 " 925.310 

Snnd weft atonir Union PadUo Ballroad to point 7 miles weft of Eafton. 

T. 8 S., R. 21 E., near quarter comer on east side of sec. 13, on Union Pacific 
R. R., at intersection of road with railroad crossing; pole marked "U. S. 
873 " 872. 6 

I'leasant Ridge, southwest comer of box-car station, in platform; 40-penny 
nail .• 1,050.37 

Eaflton, main crossing; top of rail 903. 7 

Easton, intersection of Riley Street and main north and south road; on 
southwest comer of H. Boyle's place; iron post stamped "904 " 903. 443 

Easton, in stone step of Methodist Episcopal Church, 0.3 mile west of inter- 
section of Riley Street with main north and south road, at end of Riley 
Street; aluminum tablet stamped "909" 908. 590 

T. 8 S., R. 20 E., quarter corner between sees. 18 and 19; iron post 1, 171. 265 

90744*— Buil. 473-11 2 



16 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSl\S AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

Pleasant Rld^e northeast to Oak Mills. 

T. 8 S,, R. 21 E., center of sec. 3, intereection of roade, in center of road, in 
lime8tx>ne section comer at northeast comer of Squire's place; aluminum Feet, 
tablet stamped **1098." (Bench mark has been disturbed.) 1, 098. 212 

T. 7 S., R. 21 E., center of sec. 34, west side of road on piece of limestone; 
chiseled square; marked "1086" 1,085. 86 

T. 7 S., R. 21 E., quarter comer between sees. 23 and 24, northwest comer 
of Joe Adams's place, southeast comer of intersecting roads; iron post 
stamped *'1008" 1, 007. 843 

Oak Mills, in John Da\atz's front yard, 19 feet below his store and 2 feet 
inside of his tight board fence; iron pipe set 4 feet in ground, cap terminat- 
ing in round knob taken as bench mark, stamped "Missouri River Com- 
mission P. B. M, No. 264 -82-1 " 785. 150 

Oak Mills west and sonth to Easton. 

Oak Mills, 1.5 miles south of and 1.5 miles west of, on half section road at 

comer of Henry Paseway's place; lai^e granit« bowlder marked **U. S. 

1028 " 1, 027. 88 

Oak Mills, 1.5 miles south of and 3.5 miles west of, at crossroads, quarter 

comer on east side of sec. 21, R. 21 E., T. 7 S. ; iron post stamped "1054 " . 1, 054. 039 
T. 7 S., R. 21 E., center of sec. 21, at intersection of roads; stone marked 

" U. S. 1054 " 1, 054. 26 

Potter, 2 miles east of, southeast comer of NE. J sec. 19, T. 7 S., R. 21 E., 

at crossroads; iron pipe stamped "1008" 1, 007. 607 

Easton, 3.5 miles north of, on west side of main pike, in front of Henry 

Seute's farm; center of large stone marked "997 " 997. 05 

Easton, 3 miles north of, 0.25 mile east of Mel wood, at fork in road, near 

Max Blecher's mail box; iron post stamped " 924 " 924. 217 

Easton, 1.5 miles north of, on bridge 158, northeast comer of, on railing; 

nail with white square, marked "906" 906.34 

Easton south to point 1.5 miles south of Spxlngdale. 

Easton, 1 mile south of, southeast comer of bridge 179; bolt painted "U. S. 
887 " 887. 40 

Springdale, 4 miles north of, southwest comer of front door step of \V. A. 
Hastey's place; marked "U. S. 923 " 923. 59 

Easton, 3.3 miles south of, at base of telegraph pole; highest point on rock 
painted "940" 940 

Easton, 4.6 miles south of, west of road, northwest of white house on east 
side of road, in root of tree; 40-penny nail 881. 15 

Springdale, on main east and west road, in front of John McQuillan's resi- 
dence on north side of road ; iron pipe stamped "1048 " 1, 046. 173 

Springdale, 1.5 miles south of, forks in road, northeast comer of Ezra 
Martz's place; stone marked "U. S. 979" 978 

Springdale west 5.5 miles, thence north to point 1 mile north of Cummlngs, thence east 

and north to point near Pamell. 

Springdale, 1 mile west of, in brace of corner fence post ; 40-penny nail 1, 056. 45 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., comer of sees. 14, 15, 22, and 23, in corner fence post; 40- 
penny nail 1, 042. 24 

Edmunds Church comer, 50 feet from comer fence post, in root of elm tree 7 

inches in diameter; 40-penny nail 1, 063. 63 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., 35 feet north of and 15 feet east of quarter comer between 
sees. 18 and 19, on east side of north-south road; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. Nq. 7-190^ " , -..-:.. 1, 092. 209 



KANSAS. 17 

Feet. 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 7 and 18 1, 076. 36 

T. 9 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between eecs. 6 and 7, at croesroad, in 
comer fence poet; 40-penny nail 1, Oil. 94 

Tps. 8 and 9 8., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sece. 6 and 31; iron poet. . 1, 090. 055 

T^. 8 and 9 S., Rs. 19 and 20 E., comer of sees. 1, 6, 31, and 36; at croes- 
road; top of comer stone 1, 100. 16 

T. 8 S., Ra. 19 and 20 E., comer of sees. 26, 30, 31, and 36; top of comeretone. 1, 123. 36 

T. 8 S., Rs. 19 and 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 30 and 26, in tele- 
phone poet; three 40-penny nails 1, 092. 20 

T. 8 S., R. 20 E., center of sec. 30, at crossroad, in telephone post; three 
40-penny nails 1, 124. 30 

T. 8 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 18 and 19; iron post 1, 171. 265 

T. 8 S., R. 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 6 and 7, at croesroad, in tele- 
phone post; two 40-penny nails 1, 125. 17 * 

Corpus Christi Church, 0.5 mile west of, at crossroad, in comer fence post; 
three 40-penny nails •. 1,120.46 

Corpus CTiriflti Church, 1 mile west of Tps. 7 and 8 S., Rs. 19 and 20 E.; 
iron i)08t stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 9-1906" 1, 092. 178 

T. 7 8., Rs. 19 and 20 E., quarter comer between sees. 30 and 25, at cross- 
road, in comer fence post; four 40-penny nails 1, 128. 98 

T. 7 S., Rs. 19 and 20 E., comer of sees. 19, 30, 24 and 25, T comer, in root 
of 8-inch locust tree; 40-penny nail 1, 045. 96 

T. 7 8., Rs. 19 and 20 E., comer of sees. 13, 18, 19, and 24, on southeast 
comer of east abutment of iron bridge; painted square 966. 80 

T. 7 S., R. 19 E., quarter comer between sees. 13 and 24, on east side of 
north and south road, 10 feet from comer fence post; iron post 991. 808 

T. 7 S., R. 19 E., quarter comer between sees. 12 and 13, in west root of 
tree; 40-penny nail 1, 087. 00 

T. 7 8., R. 19 E., center of sec. 12, in comer fence post at northwest comer 
of crossing; two 40-penny nails 1, 030. 15 

T. 7 S., R. 19 E., quarter comer between sees. 1 and 12, T corner, in tele- 
phone post near E. W. Kaufman's general store; three 40-penny nails. .. 984. 09 

Cummings, 1 mile north of Tps. 6 and 7 S., R. 19 E., quarter comer between 
sees. 1 and 36, T comer, in yard of house at end of T road; iron post 1, 063. 746 

Tps. 6 and 7 8., Rs. 19 and 20 E., township comer; top of section comer 

stone : 985.17 

Hawthorne, opposite station, in telephone pole east of tracks; three 40- • 

penny nails 960. 82 

Bridge 13, northwest abutment of; painted square 969. 08 

Bridge 12, southwest abutment of; painted square 1, 010. 62 

See. 19, T. 7 S., R. 81 E., weit to Potter, thenee northweit alonir Atehiaon, Topeka Sc 

Santa Fe Ky. to Hawthorne. 

Potter, 1.8 miles east of, south of road ; cross on stone 982. 88 

Potter, in front of station; top of rail 934. 3 

Mount Pleasant, northwest comer of station; top of rail 946. 1 

Mount Pleasant, 2 miles northwest of, at railroad culvert 5; top of south 

rail 963.7 

Hawthome, in front of station, in telephone pole east of track; three 

40-penny nails 960.82 

Hawthome, northwest abutment of bridge 13; painted squaie 969. 08 



18 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

ATOHISOF 80' QUADBAVOLB. 

Punell Bortheait alouff Atohlion, Topeka Sc Santa Fe Hy. to Atohljoa, thtaoe wmth 

alone Mlnonzi Padllo By. to P. B. M. 867, MlsMul Blror Oommliiion. 

Feet. 

Pamell, 35 feet weet of general store and poet office; iron poet 1, 054. 477 

Bridge 10, Atchieon, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., northwest comer of north 

abutment; painted square 954. 78 

Bridge 9, northwest comer of north abutjnent; painted square 929. 76 

Bridge 8, north side of east abutment; painted square 907. 42 

Pamell, 3 miles north of, near railroad crossing; iron poet 907. 729 

Bridge 7, north end of east abutment; painted square 871. 80 

Bridge 6, north end of east abutment; painted square 860. 60 

Bridge 5, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., west abutment; painted 

square 849.96 

Bridge 106, Missouri Pacific Ry., west end of north abutment; painted 

square 790.640 

Atchison, 3 miles below union station, 130 feet below milepost 327, on side 
of track near blu£F, 59 feet from center of track, 10 feet above grade, 16 feet 
toward river from wagon road, and 8 feet southeast of 10-inch crab-apple 
tree; copper bolt in bench-mark stone. (Top of copper bolt set in regu- 
lation bench-mark stone 18 by 18 by 4 inches thick, 3.5 feet underground, 
over and concentric with which is set an iron pipe 4 feet long provided 
with a flange at the bottom 10 inches in outer diameter and cap at top 
terminating in a rounded knob, which is also taken as a permanent bench 
mark. The top surface of flat stone is marked "B. M/'; copper bolt . . . 796. 356 
Top of cap 800. 418 

Oarden, Lakin, Syracuse, and Tribune Quadrangles. 

FINNEY, GRANT, HAMILTON, KEARNEY, AND STANTON COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list are based on the bronze tablet 
marked "2832/' in the southwest comer of the courthouse at Garden, 
the accepted elevation of which is 2,832.034 feet above mean sea 
level. The initial height from which this bench mark is established 
is the top of the rail on the main track of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Ry., in front of the telegraph office at Garden, using the 
railroad company's elevation, 2,829 feet. 

The leveling in this area was done by M. C. McFarlane in 1897, 
J. C, Barber in 1896, and F. C. French in 1898. 

GABDEN QITADBAHOLE. 

GardtB alonr Atohlioii, Topeka St Santa Fe Ay* to Sec. 7, T. M S., &. SS W. 

Garden, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., in front of telegraph office; Feet, 
top of rail 2,829 

Garden, southwest comer of courthouse ; copper plate stamped " G. C. 2832 " . 2, 832. 034 

Garden, First National Bank, southwest side of main entrance; bronze tablet 
stamped " G. C. 2830 " 2, 830. 185 

T. 24 S, R. 33 W., on north and south line through center of sec. 15, 48 feet 
south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track, between Garden and 
Sherlock; iron post stamped "G. C. 2853" 2, 853. 022 

T. 24 S., R. 33 W., 450 feet north and 70 feet west of east quarter comer of 
sec. 7, south side of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron post 
Stamped "G.C. 2870" 2,869.964 



KANSAS. 19 

LAKXH QITADRAKGLB. 
BeBeh mazks eitabUahed near pnbUo land oonan. 

T. 29 S., R. 37 W., southwest comer of sec. 18; iron post stamped "G. C. Feet. 

9098" '. 3,098.008 

T. 29 S., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped ^'G. 0. 

2978" 2,977.752 

T. 29 S., R. 36 W., southeast comer of sec. 16; iron post stamped ''G. C. 

3016" 3,015.693 

T. 29 S., R. 36 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped '*G. C. 

3023" 3,022.951 

T. 29 S., R. 35 W., southeast comer of sec. 16; iron post stamped **Xj. C. 

3010" 3,010.008 

T. 29 S., R. 35 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped ''G. G. 

3020" '. 3,020.262 

T. 28 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped ^'G. 0. 

3049" 3,049.049 

T. 28 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped ^'G. G. 

3106" , 3,106.486 

T. 28 S., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 9; iron post stamped ''G. G. 

3053" 3,053.185 

T. 28 S., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 29; iron post stamped **G. G. 

3050" : ;... 3,049.598 

T. 28 S., R. 36 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped ^'G. G. 

3048" 3,047.667 

T. 28 S., R. 36 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped *'G. G. 

3059" 3,059.232 

T. 28 S., R. 35 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3020" 3,020.412 

T. 28 S., R. 35 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3048" 3,047.640 

T. 28 S., R. 34 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron poet stamped "G. G. 

2999 " 2, 999. 367 

T. 28 S., R. 34 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3007" 3,006.790 

T. 27 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron poet stamped "G. G. 

3092 " 3, 091. 805 

T. 27 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3078" 3,078.245 

T; 27 S., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 16; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3055" 3,054.867 

T. 27 S., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3060" 3,060.400 

T. 27 S., R. 36 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped **G. G. 

3094 " 3, 093. 825 

T. 27 S., R. 36 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3016" 3, 016. 146 

T. 27 S., R. 35 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3076" 3,076.041 

T. 27 8., R. 35 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3119" 3, 118. 557 

T. 27 S., R. 34 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped **G. G. 

3074" 3,073.887 

T. 27 S., R. 34 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. G. 

3064" 3,054.285 



20 SPIBIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

T. 26 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron poet stamped "G. C. jfeet 

3089" 3,089.083 

T. 26 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron poet stamped '^G. C. 

3177" , 3,177.267 

T. 26 S., R. 37 W., south side of sec. 16, 120 feet west of Hartland-Ulysses 

wagon road; iron post stamped **G. C. 3048" 3,048.417 

T. 26 S., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron poet stamped *'G. C. 

3069" 3,068.838 

T. 26 S., R. 36 W., southwest comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3084" 3,083.716 

T. 26 S., R. 36 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3080" 3,079.725 

T. 26 S., R. 35 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped **G. C. 

3026" 3,026. 328 

T. 26 S., R. 35 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron poet stamped *'G. C. 

3098 " 3, 097. 876 

T. 26 S., R. 34 W., southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped "G. C. 

2990". 2, 990. 128 

T. 26 S., R. 34 W., 620 feet east of southwest comer of sec. 31; iron poet 

stamped *'G. C. 3010" 3, 009. 998 

T. 25 S., R. 34 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped "G. C. 

2967 " 2, 966. 901 

T. 25 S., R. 35 W., northwest comer of sec. 3; iron poet stamped "G. C. 

2984" 2, 984. 394 

T. 25 S., R. 35 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron poet stamped **G. C. 

2975" 2, 975. 357 

T. 25 S., R. 37 W., near south side of township, west side of Hartland- 
Ulysses wagon road; iron post stamped "G. C. 3039" 3,038.718 

T. 25 S., R. 36 W., 40 feet southeast from north wej^t comer of sec. 2; iron 

post stamped "G. C. 2990" 2,989.798 

T. 25 S., R. 38 W., 650 feet west of east side of sec. 3, south of Atchison, 

Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron post stamped "G. C. 3112" 3,112.044 

T. 25 S., R. 37 W., line between sees. 7 and 8, north of Atchison, Topeka & • 

Santa Fe Ry. track; iron poet stamped "G. C. 3063" 3,063.102 

T. 25 S., R. 37 W., 600 feet north of southeast comer of sec. 10, north of 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron post stamped **G. C. 3040 " . 3, 039. 891 
T. 25 S., R. 36 W., 1,050 feet south of northwest comer; iron post stamped 

**G. C. 3013" 3, 012. 963 

T. 24 S., R. 36 W., 60 feet ea^st of line between sees. 26 and 27; south side 

of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron past stamped "G. C. 

2991 " 2, 990. 914 

T. 24 S., R. 35 W., 6 feet west of line between sees. 17 and 18, south of 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron post ntamped "G. C. 2969 " . 2, 968. 966 
Deerfield, 2,200 feet west of station; 6 feet weyt of line between sees. 10 

and 11, T. 24 S., R. 35 W., south side of Atchii»on, Topeka & Santa Fe 

Ry. track; iron post stamped "G. C. 2940" 2, 940. 104 

T. 24 S., R. 34 W., 1,417 feet south of east quarter corner of sec, 6, south of 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron poHt stamped **G. C. 2908 " . . 2, 908. 059 
T. 24 S., R. 34 W., 1,100 feet south and slightly west of east quarter comer 

of sec. 3, south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron post 

stamped "G. C. 2892" 2, 892. 095 

T. 24 S., R. 36 W., southeast comer of sec. 3; iron post stamped "G. (\ 3125" 3, 125. 493 
T. 24 S., R. 37 W., northeast comer of sec. 21; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3244" 3,243.950 



KANSAS. 21 

T. 24 S., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped ''6. C. Feet 

3267" 3,267.141 

Hartland, 0.5 mile west of ; iron post stamped "G. C. 3040". 3,039.891 

T. 24 S., R. 37 W., near quarter comer on west side of sec. 34, triangulation 

station; iron post stamped "G. C. 3249" 3,248.939 

SYRACUSE QUADRAKOLB. 
Bench niArki eitabUihed near pubUc-la&d conars. 

T. 29 S., R. 38 W., soutiiwest comer of sec. 18; iron post stamped **G. C. 

3139" 3,138.822 

T. 28 S., R. 41 W., quarter comer east side of sec. 33; iron post stamped 

**G. C. 3375" 3,375.345 

T- 28 S., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3408". 3,407.600 

T. 28 S., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped *'G. C. 

3446" 3,446.344 

T. 28 S., R. 41 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped '*G. C. 

3329" 3,328.581 

T. 28 S., R. 41 W., southwest corner of sec. 13; east side Syracuse-Johnson 

wagon road; iron post stamped "G. G. 3341" 3,341.298 

T. 28 S., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3222". 3, 222. 096 

T. 28 S., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3276 " 3, 275. 937 

T. 28 S., R. 39 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3117 " 3, 117. 370 

T. 28 S., R. 39 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3187" 3,186.517 

T. 27 S., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3477 " ! 3, 476. 965 

T. 27 S., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3396" 3,396.443 

T. 27 S., R. 41 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3351 " 3, 351. 435 

T. 27 S., R. 41 W., southwest comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3304" 3,304.393 

T. 27 S., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped^ G. C. 

3264" " 3,264.377 

T. 27 S., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3193 " 3, 192. 658 

T. 27 S., R. 39 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3164" 3,164.082 

T. 27 S., R. 39 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3126 " 3, 126. 269 

T. 27 S., R. 41 W., southwest comer of sec. 36, east of Syracuse-Johnson 

wagon road; iron post stamped "G. C. 3304" 3,304.343 

T. 27 S., R. 41 W., southwest comer of sec. 13, east of SjTacuse-Johnson 

wagon road; iron post stamped *'G. C. 3284" 3,283.775 

T. 26 S., R. 39 W., northwest corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3409" 3,408.531 

T. 26 S., R. 39 W., quarter comer of east side of sec. 14; iron post stamped 

''G. C. 3322" 3,321.580 

T. 26 S., R. 40 W., northeast comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped **G. C. 

3470 " 3, 470. 236 



22 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

T. 26 S.f R. 40 W.J northeast comer of sec. 3; iron poet etamped '*G. C. Feet. 

3437" 3,436.912 

T. 26 S., R. 42 W., northeast comer of sec. 5; iron post stamped *'G. C. 

3434" ; 3,433.710 

T. 26 S., R. 42 W., northeast comer of sec. 2; iron poet stamped ''G. C. 

3430" 3,430.363 

T. 26 S., R. 41 W., southwest comer of sec. 36, east of Syracuse-Johnson 

wagon road; iron post stamped "G. C. 3265" 3, 265. 164 

T. 26 S., R. 41 W., 30 feet west and 30 feet south of northeast comer of sec. 

23, on wagon road from Syracuse to Johnson; iron post stamped ^'G. C. 

3362 " 3, 362. 130 

T. 25 S., R. 38 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped ^*Q. C. 

3254" 3,254.289 

T. 25 S., R. 39 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3176" 3,175.511 

T. 25 S., R. 39 W., southeast comer of sec. 3; iron poet stamped "G. G. 

3381" 3,381.016 

T. 25 S., R. 41 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3430" '. 3,430.353 

T. 25 S., R. 42 W., northeast comer of sec. 4; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3489" -• 3,489.429 

T. 25 S., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 16; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3522" .- 3,522.101 

T. 25 S., R. 41 W., 30 feet west of Johnson wagon road; iron post stamped 

"G. C. 3392" 3,392.481 

Syracuse, about 8 miles south of, triangulation station on west side of 

Johnson road; iron post stamped "G. C. 3508" 3, 507. 505 

T. 25 S,, R. 40 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3489" 3,488.934 

T. 25 S., R. 38 W., 70 feet southeast of northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post 

8tamped"G. C. 3147" 3,146.576 

T. 24 S., R. 41 W., near center of sec. 2; iron post stamped "G. C. 3247 " . . 3, 246. 611 
T. 24 S., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "G. C. 

3435" 3,435.419 

T. 24 S., R. 42 W., east side of sec. 1, at fence comer 50 feet south of Arkan- 
sas River; iron post stamped "G. C.3267" 3,266.986 

T. 24 S., R. 41 W., 10 feet east of fence between sees. 3 and 4, 47 feet 

south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron post stamped 

"G. C. 3254" 3,254.315 

T. 24 S., R. 40 W., 1,765 leet south and 30 feet east from northwest comer 

of sec. 7, 47.5 feet south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. tracks; 

iron post stamped "G. C. 3230" 3, 230. 315 

T. 24 S., R. 40 W., 15 feet west of line between sees. 15 and 16, 46.5 feet 

south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. tracks; iron post stamped 

"G. C. 3198" 3,198.401 

T. 24 S., R. 39 W., 15 feet east and 10 feet south of northwest comer of sec. 

19, 46 feet south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. tracks; iron post 

stamped "G. C. 3175" 3,175.261 

T. 24 S., R. 39 W., 12 feet west of line between sees. 22 and 21, south of 

Atchison, Topeka* Santa FeRy. track; iron post stamped "G. C. 3152". 3,152.234 
T. 24 S., R. 38 W., 150 feet east of west side of sec. 30, north of Atchison, 

Topeka (& Santa Fe Ry. tracks; iron poet stamped ''G. 0. 3123" 3,122.988 



NEBRASKA. 23 

TSZBITHZ QUADRAKGLB. 
B«iieh mark! ectabUihed near pubUo-laad ooznen. 

T. 23 S., R. 42 W., 12 feet east of fence between sees. 31 and 36, 47 feet 
south of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. tracks; iron post stamped Feet. 
"G. C. 3278" 3,277:882 

T. 23 S., R. 42 W., 1,848 feet south of northwest comer of sec. 27, 48 feet 
south of Atchison, Topeka & Sant% Fe Ry. track; iron poet stamped 
"G. C. 3303" 3,302.939 

T. 23 S., R. 42 W., 12 feet east of west side of sec. 19, 48 feet south of Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. tracks, 1.8 miles east of Coolidge; iron post 
stamped **G. C. 3337" 3,337.015 

T. 23 S., R. 43 W., 423 feet south of northwest comer of sec. 22, 48 feet south 
of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. track; iron poet stamped ^'G. 0. 
3353'' 3,352.684 

NEBRASKA. 

PRIMABY LEVEUNa. 

Elk Point Qnadzangle. 

DIXON COUNTY. 

The elevations in the following list were determined by primary 
leveling extended from bench marks of the Missouri River Conmiis- 
sion. A correction of +0.755 foot has been added to the values 
published in Part 3 of the Report of the Chief of Engineers, United 
States Army, for 1894, at and west of Elk Point, a junction point 
with a precise level line of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, which 
crosses this quadrangle along the Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul Ry. 

The leveling was done in 1898 by D. C. Wray. 

Elevations in South Dakota and Iowa in this quadrangle are 
given in Bulletins 472 and 460 respectively. 

ELK POINT QUADBAHGLE. 

^OBca F«XT7 south to corner of Tpg. 89 and 80 N., Bm, 6 and 7 E., thenoa w«at to 
Una of Bg. 5 and 4, thenoe- north to Une of Tpi. 80 and 81 N., thence east to Une of 
Ba 5 and 6. 

P. B. M. 355-1 y Missouri River Commission (redetermined by Coast and 
Geodetic Survey), west bank, at foot of bluffs, about 0.5 mile below Ponca 
Landing, in farm yard of John Austin, about 300 feet southwest from his 
dwelling house and 250 feet south of road between Ponca and Ponca 
Landing; copper bolt in bench mark stone set 4 feet under ground, cov- Feet, 
ered by a 3-inch iron pipe marked "U. S. B. M" 1,119.332 

T. 30 N., R. 6 E., one-fourth mile west from southwest comer of sec. 36; 
iron post stamped "YNKTN 1348" 1,348.685 

T. 29 N., R. 6 E., northwest comer of sec. 6, in schoolhouse yard; iron post 
stamped "YNKTN 1211" 1,212.244 

T. 29 N., R. 5 E., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped '' YNETN 
1466" 1,465.987 

T. 30 N., R. 5 E., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped " YNKTN 
1466" 1,467.181 



24 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBBASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

Ponoa northwest alone hlffhway to T. 82 N.p K. 4 E. 

T. 31 N., R. 5 E., southwest comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped " YNKTN Feet. 

1296" 1,297.211 

T. 31 N., R. 6 E., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped " YNKTN 

1166" 1,167.105 

Nehawka, Omaha, and Weeping Water quadrangles. 

CASS, JOHNSON, LANCASTER, OTOE, AND SARPY COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list are based on bench marks of 
the Missouri River Commission in the vicinity of Omaha, Nebr., 
and on stone lines at Plattsmouth and Nebraska City run from the 
main precise level line bench marks 336 and 327 on the Iowa side 
of the Missouri River. 

The leveling in the Nehawka and Omaha quadrangles and in 
the north half of the Weeping Water quadrangle was done in 1902 
by M. A. Steele; that in the south half of the Weeping Water quad- 
rangle was done in 1902 by John Wilson. 

OICAHA QUADRAKGLE. 
At Plattsmouth. 

Plattsmouth, at railroad bridge across the Missouri River, 10 feet south and 
on line with first trestle bent west of west pier; copper bolt in bench mark Feet, 
stone (Missouri River Commission bench mark "336 B ") 954. 059 

Plattsmouth, in courthouse yard, 6 inches east of masonry base of cannon; 
iron post stamped "990 OMAHA'* 989. 245 

Plattsmouth, in front of station; top of rail 1, 063. 1- 

NEHAWKA QUADBAHOLE. 
Mynard gouth via Xlisonrl Padflc Hallway to Murray. 

Mynard, in front of station; top of rail 1, 086. 8 

Murray, in front of station; top of rail 1, 146.0 

Murray, in northwest comer of schoolhouse yard, 23 feet north of northwest 
comer of building; iron post stamped "1189 OMAHA" 1,188.216 

WEEPINO WATER QUADRANGLE. 

Sonthweit comer of See. 15, T. 11 N., R. 12 E., along highways to louthweit comer 

of Sec. 2, T. 10 N., R. 12 E. 

T. 11 N., R. 12 E., southwest comer of sec. 15, 36.5 feet north and 21 feet 
east of center of crossroads; iron post stamped "1251 OMAHA" 1, 250. 910 

T. 11 N., R. 11 E., southeast comer of sec. 16, 10 feet north and 2 feet east 
of 15-inch cottonwood tree; iron post stamped "1302 OMAHA" 1, 302. 027 

T. 11 N., R. 10 E., southeast comer of sec. 16, 33 feet west and 36 feet north 
of center of crossroads; iron post stamped "1282 OMAHA" 1, 281. 278 

T. 11 N., R. 9 E., southwest corner of sec. 15, 32 feet ea^st and 37.5 feet 
north of center of crossroads; iron post stamped "1256 OMAHA" 1, 256. 022 

T. 11 N., R. 8 E., 0.25 mile south of northwest corner of sec. 24, 2 feet east 
and 2 feet south of comer fence post at south corner of intersection of 
north-south and east-west roads; iron post stamped "1143 OMAHA" 1, 142. 710 

T. 12 N., R. 12 E., northwest comer of sec. 34, 40.5 feet north and 44 feet 
west of northwest comer of schoolhouse; iron past stamped "1218 
OMAHA" 1,217.352 



NEBRASKA. 25 

T. 10 N., R. 12 E., southwest comer sec. 2, in southeast comer of school- 
houBe yard, 66 feet south and 57 feet east of southeast comer of building Feet. 
(achoolhouse38); iron post stamped "1119 OMAHA" 1,118.515 

Centar of T. 11 H., R. 9 E., wonttk to oonter of T. 9 V., &• B S. 

T. 10 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of sec. 27, 34.5 feet east and 42 feet 
south ofcenterofcrossroads; iron post stamped "1329 OMAHA** 1,328.295 

CoBtor of T. 11 H., B. 9 E., north 6 miles, thence east 6 nllei, thenoe wrath 6 milea. 

T. 12 N., R. 9 E., southeast comer of sec. 21, 37. 5 feet north and 31. 5 feet 
west of center of crossroads; iron post stamped "1113 OMAHA" 1, 112. 627 

T. 12 N., R. 10 E., northwest comer of sec. 33, 22 feet east and 22 feet 
south of center of crossroads; iron poet stamped "1221 OMAHA" 1, 220. 530 

SonthoAst oomer of See. 14, T. 11 H., &. 11 E., lonth 6 miles, thenoe west 8 miles, 

thenoe south 7 miles to oenter of T. 9 H., R. 11 E. 

Weeping Water, in front of station; top of rail 1, 080. 

Weeping Water, 97.5 feet north by 95.5 feet east of northeast comer of High 
School Building, in school yard ; iron post stamped * * 1084 OMAHA " . . . . 1, 083. 838 

Center of T. 10 V., R. 11 E., west 6 miles, thenoe north to oenter of T. 11 V., R. 10 E. 

Elm wood, 3 feet south by 3 feet east of northwest comer of water tower; 
iron poet stamped "1295 OMAHA " 1, 294. 573 

Dnabar west along Missonri Paoiflc Ry. to point near center of T. 8 H., R. 18 S., 
thenoe north to center of T. 9 N., R. 12 E., and letnm. 

Dunbar, in front of Missouri Pacific Railway station; top of rail 1, 049. 98 

Dunbar, in front of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. station; top of rail. 1, 049. 35 
T. 8 N., R. 12 E., corner of sees. 9, 10, 15, and 16, 2 feet east of southeast 

comer of crossroads; iron post stamped * ' 1101 OMAHA' ' 1, 100. 435 

T. 9 N., R. 12 E., southeast corner of sec. 16, in southwest corner of school- 
house yard; iron post stamped "1215 OMAHA" 1.214.798 

DuLbar west to Syraoose, thence north to center of T. 9 V., R. 9 E., west through T. 
9 ir., south 12 R. 9 E., and east through T. 8 V., to Syracuse with checked spur 
east Into R. 8 E. 

Syracuse, 1 mile north of, at northwest corner of sec. 15, T. 8 N., R. 11 E., 
2 feet south and 8 feet east of southeast comer of road crossing; iron post 
stamped "1132 OMAHA" 1, 131. 690 

T. 9 N., R. 11 E., northwest comer of sec. 27, in northwest comer of school- 
house yard; iron post stamped "1262 OMAHA" 1, 261. 566 

T. 9 N., R. 10 E., southeast comer of sec. 16, 25 feet north and 1 foot east 
of northwest comer of road crossing; iron post stamped "1259 OMAHA" . 1, 259. 736 

T. 9 N., R. 9 E., northeast comer sec. 21, in southeast comer of schoolhouse 
yard; iron post stamped "1310 OMAHA" 1, 309. 446 

T. 9 N., R. 8 E., southwest comer sec. 24, east of schoolhouse; iron post 
stamped " 1313 OMAHA" 1, 312. 057 

T. 8 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer sec. 14, 20 feet east and 1 foot north of 
southeast comer of road crossing; iron post stamped "1150 OMAHA" 1, 151. 741 

Unadilla, 2 miles south of, at southeast comer of sec. 15, T. 8 N., R. 10 E., 
12 feet west and 1 foot south of road crossing; iron post stamped "1231 
OMAHA" 1.230.697 



26 SPIBIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBBASKA, 1806 TO 1900. 

Patanyxa tovth thronf h B. 9 S., tbeaoe east in T. 7 V. and north in B. IS £. to point 
noar Dvabar, with oheokad ipur •ast Into R. 8 S. and south into T. 6 V. 

T. 8 N., R. 9 E., northwest comer of sec. 35, 35 feet due east of comer stone; Peet 
iron poet stamped " 1316 OMAHA" 1,315.915 

Douglas, 0.5 mile south of, at southwest comer of sec. 11,T. 7N., R.9E., 
6 feet south and 3 feet west of southeast comer of road crossing; iron post 
stamped * ' 1265 OMAHA' ' 1, 264. 658 

T. 7N., R. lOE., southeast comer of sec. 16, in southeast comer of school- 
house' (district 107) yard; iron post stamped "1289 OMAHA" 1, 288. 890 

T. 7 N., R. 11 E., southeast comer of sec. 15, 8 feet north and 1 foot east of 
northwest comer of crossroads; iron post stamped "1064 OMAHA" 1, 063. 368 

T. 7 N., R. 12 E., northwest comer of sec. 23, 20 feet east and 2 feet north 
of southeast comer of crossing of roads ; iron post stamped ' ' 982 OMAHA" . 981. 326 

T. 7 N., R. 8 E., northeast comer of sec. 14, near schoolhouse northeast of 
road crossing, in southeast comer of schoolhouse yard; iron post stamped 
" 1424 OMAHA' ' 1 , 423. 944 

T.6N.,R.9E., southwest comer of sec. 2, 2 feet south and 2 feet west of 
southwest comer of crossroads; iron post stamped "1333 OMAHA" 1, 334. 472 

Cook, in southeast comer of water table of Farmer's Bank; aluminum tablet 
stamped "1062 OMAHA' ' 1, 061. 622 

Nebraska City Quadiansle. 

CASS, NEMAHA, AND OTOE COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list depend on a bench mark estab- 
lished by the Missouri River Commission 3,884 feet north of the 
railroad station at Nebraska City Junction, Iowa — a buried stone 
with copper bolt 3 feet underground, surmounted by an iron post 
with a cap terminating in a rounded knob, marked *' Missouri River 
Commission." The accepted elevation of the top of the cap is 
924.589 feet. 

The leveling was done in 1905 by F. W. Hughes. 

HEBRASKA CITY QUADRAITOLE. 
Point 8 miles west of Nebraska Cltj Junction west to Nebraska City. 

Nebraska City Junction, 2 miles west of, 40 feet south of crossing, 30 feet Feet. 

east of center of road ; iron post stamped ' ' 923 AD J 1903 " 923. 191 

T.8N.,R. 14E., center of sec. 23, 460 feet west of railroad crossing, opposite 

bridge over Four Mile Creek; iron post stamped "927 ADJ 1903 " 926. 671 

Minersville, near center of north line of sec. 12, T. 7 N., R. 14 E., northeast 

comer of church; iron post stamped "933 ADJ 1903 " 932. 406 

Bwney, near center of NE. J sec. 30, T. 7 N., R. 15 E., 120 feet northwest 

of grain elevator; iron post stamped "913 ADJ 1903 " 912. 717 

T. 7 N., R. 14 E., about center of south line of sec. 25, 200 feet northeast of 

bridge over Camp Creek, 2 feet southeast of 2-foot walnut and 20 feet 

southwest of 2-foot walnut at T road north; iron post stamped "929 ADJ 

1903 " 928. 357 

T. 6 N., R. 14 E., northeast comer of sec. 4, opposite Pleasant Valley 

schoolhouse; iron post stamped "1012 ADJ 1903 " 1, Oil. 482 

Julian, southwest comer of SE. J sec. 32, T. 7 N., R. 14 E., 100 feet north 

of center of road, opposite main street through Julian; iron poet stamped 

"1041 ADJ 1903" 1,040.443 



NEBRASKA. 27 

T. 6 N., R. 13 E., northwest comer of sec. 1, 30 feet south and 30 feet east Feet. 

of croeeroads; iron post stamped " 1152 ADJ 1903 " 1,151.596 

T. 6 N., R. 13 E., northwest comer of sec. 4, 40 feet south and 30 feet east 

of crossroads; iron post stamped "971 ADJ 1903" 971.064 

Vebxaaka City north alone Mlnoul Paoiflo Hallway to point near Wyoming thenoe 
west and sontb along highway! ?1a Bnnnyside and Baker ichoolhouiea to mo. i, 
T. 6 N., B. 18 S. 

Nebraska City, at north entrance to poet office, in second step above pave- 
ment, 1 foot east of building; aluminum tabletstamped" 1030 ADJ 1903". 1,029.699 

Walnut Creek Mills, 0.25 mile south of northwest comer of sec. 31, T. 9 N., 
R. 14 E., 600 feet south of Walnut Creek mills, 180 feet south of railroad 
crossing, 20 feet east of center of road ; iron post stamped "999 ADJ 1903' ' . 998. 826 

Wyoming, 250 feet south of station, in edge of orchard; iron poet stamped 

"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8 1120 ADJ 1903 " 1, 119. 803 

T. 9 N., R. 13 E., northwest comer of NE. i sec. 21, 40 feet south and 20 

feet east of road forks; iron post stamped "1111 A'DJ 1903 " 1, 110. 610 

Siinnyside schoolhouse, 0.8 mile west of, northwest comer of sec. 4, T. 8 N., 
R. 13 E., 20 feet south and 30 feet east of center of T road; iron post 
stamped "1218 ADJ 1903 " 1, 217. 809 

T. 8 N., R. 13 E., southeast comer of sec. 17, 20 feet west and 30 feet north 

of center of crossroads; iron poet stamped "1150 ADJ 1903 " 1, 149. 579 

T. 7 N., R. 13 E., 50 feet south and 20 feet east of northwest comer of sec. 4; 

iron post stamped "1230 ADJ 1903" 1, 229. 417 

T. 7 N., R. 13 E., northwest comer of sec. 21, 30 feet south and 30 feet east 

of center of crossroads; iron post stamped "1149 ADJ 1903 " 1, 148. 708 

Point 7 mllef lonth of Baker ichoolhonae west to led. tt, T. 7 H., B. 18 S. 

T. 7 N., R. 12 E., northwest comer of sec. 23, 20 feet east and 2 feet south 

of southeast comer road crossing; iron post stamped "982 OMAHA'' 981. 342 

At Vebraika City. 

Nebraska City, in front of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. station; 

top of rail 966. 88 

Browns Creek, Chappell, Oothenbnrg, Noitli Platte, Ogalalla, Paxton, and Sidney 

Quadrangles. 

ABTHUB, CHEYENNE, DAWSON, DEUEL, FRONTIER, KEITH, LINCOLN, LOGAN, AND 

HTHEBSON COUNTIES. 

The elevations in the following list are only approximate, as they 
depend on the height of the Union Pacific R. R. bridge over Lodge- 
pole Creek, near milepost 410. The railroad company's elevation of 
the bridge, derived from Omaha datum, is 4,016.12 feet. 

The leveling in the Browns Creek quadrangle and in part of the 
Sidney quadrangle was done by H. M. Trippe in 1896; that in the 
Chappell and Ogalalla quadrangles and in the remainder of the Sidney 
quadrangle by Ross C. Cornish in 1897; that in the Paxton quad- 
rangle by C. E. Hewitt in 1898; and that in the North Platte and 
Gothenburg quadrangles by E. E, Sands in 1899. 



28 SPIBIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

SIDITEY QVADRAirOLE. 
Bench marks oitabliihed near pnbUc land comen . 

T. 12 N., R. 46 W., southeast comer of sec. 9; iron poet stamped "SIDNEY Feet 

3908" 3,908.216 

T. 13 N., R. 45 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3897" 3,897.384 

T. 13 N., R. 46 W., southeast comer of sec. 2; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3757 " 3, 757. 233 

T. 13 N., R. 46 W., southeast comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3983 " 3, 982. 950 

T. 13 N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of sec. 25; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

4078" 4, 077. 901 

T. 13 N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of sec. 33; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

4117 " 4, 117. 222 

T. l3 N., R. 48 W., southeast comer of sec. 25; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

4131" 4, 131. 229 

T. 13 N., R. 48 W., southeast comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

4167" 4, 167. 252 

T. 13 N ., R. 48 W., southeast corner of sec. 22 ; iron post stamped ' * SIDNEY 

4162" 4, 162. 220 

T. 13 N., R. 48 W., northeast comer of sec. 3; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

4013" 4, 013. 457 

Lodgepole, T. 14 N., R. 46 W., sec. 30, stone monument in park; bronze 

tablet stamped "SIDNEY 3833" 3, 832. 755 

T. 14 N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of sec. 12; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

4011 " 4, Oil. 418 

T. 14 N., R. 47 W., west side of sec. 27, on main line Union Pacific Railroad; 

iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3878" 3,878.088 

T. 14 N., R. 47 W., sec. 30, near milepost 403, Sunol switch; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3921" 3,92L025 

T. 15 N., R. 47 W., southeast corner of sec. 26; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3913" 3,913.356 

T. 15N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of sec. 28; iron post stamped "SID^^EY 

3960" 3, 960. 192 

T. 15 N ., R. 46 W., southwest comer of sec. 27 ; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3928 " 3, 928. 099 

T. 15 N., R. 46 W., southeast comer of sec. 25; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3896 " 3, 896. 123 

T. 15 N., R. 46 W., quarter comer on east side of sec. 13; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3885" 3,884.953 

T. 16N., R.46W., southeastcomerof sec.36; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3933 " 3, 933. 187 

T. 13 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 7; iron post stamped "4284 ".. 4, 284. 262 
T. 13 N., R. 49 W., southeast corner of sec. 30; iron post stamped "4288 " . . 4, 288. 272 
T. 13 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "4233 " . . 4, 233. 829 
Sidney, T. 14 N., R. 49 W., Union Pacific R. R. station; doorsill of ladies' 

waiting room 4, 093. 540 

Fort Sidney, T. 14 N., R. 49 W., in astronomical monument in parade 

ground; copper bolt stamped "4086 " 4, 086. 279 

T. 14 N., R. 49 W., near southwest comer sec. 25; iron post stamped "4(J25 ". 4, 025. 083 
T. 14 N., R. 48 W., sec. 29, northwest comer stone in foundation of school- 
house; copper bolt stamped "4015 " 4.015.395 

T. 14 N., R. 48 W., southeast corner of sec. 7; iron post stamped "4165". . 4, 165. 415 



NEBRASKA. 29 

Feet. 

T. 15 N., R. 49 W., sec. 28; iron poet stamped ''4226" 4, 226. 447 

T. 15 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron jwst stamped "4190". . 4, 189. 761 
T. 15 N., R. 48 W. southeast comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped "4163". . 4, 162. 851 
T. 16 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 26; iron post stamped "4194 " . . 4, 194. 088 
T. 16 N., R. 48 W., in wall of schoolhouse in northwest comer of sec. 26; 

bronze tablet stamped "4122" 4,121.645 

T. 16 N., R. 48 W., southeast comer of sec. 11; iron post stamped "4109". . 4, 108. 898 
T. 16 N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of sec. 8; iron post stamped "4030". . 4, 030. 328 
T. 16 N., R. 47 W., southwest comer of sec. 12; iron post stamped "3993 " . . 3, 992. 736 
T. 17 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 32; iron post stamped "4281 " . . 4, 280. 795 
T. 17 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "4202 " . . 4, 202. 643 
T. 17 N., R. 48 W., southeast comer of sec. 21; iron post stamped "4145". . 4, 144. 664 
T. 17 N., R. 47 W., northwest comer of sec. 30, in southeast comer of school- 
house; bronze tablet stamped "4101" 4,101.046 

T. 17 N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "4041 " . . 4, 040. 734 

T. 18 N., R. 49 W., sec. 34, North's ranch; iron post stamped "3898" 3,897.670 

T. 18 N., R. 48 W., sec. 26, Radcliffe's ranch; iron post stamped "3728". . 3, 728. 256 

T. 18 N., R. 46 W., sec. 31, Hanna's ranch; iron post stamped "3509" 3, 509. 253 

T. 17 N., R. 46 W., NW. J sec. 4, north side of river road; iron post stamped 

"3542" 3,541.944 

T. 17 N., R. 46 W., near center of sec. 12, at crossroads; iron post stamped 

"3477" 3,476.839 

T. 17 N., R. 45 W., at gate on road near northeast comer of section 30; iron 

poet stamped "3504" 3,503.667 

T. 16 N., R. 46 W., at forks of road near southeast comer of section 2; iron 

post stamped "3608" 3.608.215 

T. 16 N., R. 46 W., at gate on road near east side of section 27; iron post 

stamped "3689" 3,688.629 

B&OWITB CBEEK QUADEAITOLE. 
Btnch marks •• tabllahod near public-land comen. 

T. 18 N., R. 49 W., southeast corner of SW. J sec. 3; iron post stamped 

' ' 3699 " 3. 698. 789 

T. 18 N., R. 48 W., on river road near northwest corner of sec. 11; iron 

post stamped "3564" 3,564.177 

T. 18 N., R. 47 W., east side of sec. 19, southeast corner of Nichol's house; 

tablet stamped "3613" '. 3, 612. 762 

T. 18 N., R. 47 W., NE. J sec. 5, Ramsburg's ranch; iron post stamped 

"3545" 3,544.951 

Belmont, near northeast comer sec. 18, T. 19 N., R. 49 W.; iron post 

stamped "3638" 3,638.225 

T. 19 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of NE. J sec. 14 (Bearline's ranch); 

iron post stamped "3613" 3,613.211 

T. 19 N., R. 49 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "3596". . 3, 596. 147 
T. 19 N., R. 48 W., south side of sec. 27, Carl Wagner's ranch; iron post 

stamped "3577" 3,577.259 

T. 19 N., R. 47 W., near southweft comer of fcc. 16, 3.25 miles north of 

Remsburg's ranch, forks of road; iron post stamped "4044 " 4, 044. 274 

T. 19 N., R. 47 W., southeast comer of NE. \ sec. 25; iron post stamped 

"4025" 4,024.604 

T. 20 N., R. 49 W., southwePt comer of sec. 32; iron post stamped "3689 " . . 3, 689. 198 
T. 20 N., R. 49 W., southeast corner of sec. 36; iron post stamped "3727". . 3, 727. 331 



30 SPIBIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBBASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 



T. 20 N., R. 48 W., NW. J sec. 19, Delano's ranch; iron post stamped 

"3902" 

T. 20 N., R. 47 W., SW. J sec. 7, at crossroads; iron post stamped "4239 " . . 
T. 20 N., R. .47 W., sec. 32, at side of road, between Remsburg's and 

Hibler's ranches; iron post stamped "4099 " 

T. 21 N., R. 49 W., near north side of sec. 12, crossroads; iron post stamped 

"4135" 

T. 21 N., R. 49 W., near north side of sec. 26, forks of road; iron post 

stamped "4370" 

T. 21 N., R. 48 W., sec. 9, Peer's ranch; iron post stamped "4041" 

T. 21 N., R. 48 W., sec. 13, Haine's ranch; iron post stamped "4018 " 

T. 21 N., R. 47 W., SW. J sec. 4 (error in General Land Office work; this 

should be SW. J sec. 3), J. W. Rodger's ranch; iron post stamped *'3946 " . . 
T. 21 N., R. 47 W., southwest comer of sec. 28, Hibler's ranch; iron post 

stamped "3989" 

T. 21 N., R. 46 W.; sec. 8, Margesson's ranch; iron post stamped "3897". . 
T. 22 N., R. 49 W., by side of Alliance road, near north side of sec. 2; iron 

post stamped "4117" 

T. 22 N., R. 49 W., SE. J sec. 27, atforksof road; iron post stamped "4125".. 
T. 22 N., R. 48 W., NE. { sec. 1, at side of road; iron post stamped "3977 " . . 
T. 22 N., R. 48 W., NE. J sec. 27, at forks of road; iron post stamped 

"4040" 

T. 22 N., R. 47 W., SE. J sec. 21, southwest side of Alliance road; iron post 

stamped "3955" 

T. 22 N., R. 47 W., northeast comer of sec. 1; iron post stamped "3901 " . . 
T. 23 N., R. 49 W., near northwest comer of sec. 14, Rail's ranch; iron 

post stamped "4093" 

T. 23 N., R. 49 W., near center of sec. 25, Johnson's ranch; anchor of gate 

south of house 

T. 23 N., R. 49 W., SE. J sec. 12, James's ranch; top of southeast anchor 

post of windmill tower 

T. 23 N., R. 48 W., sec. 17, Fleet's ranch; iron post stamped "4026" 

T. 23 N., R. 48 W., northeast corner of sec. 3; iron post stamped "3969". . 
T. 23 N., R. 47 W., near southeast comer of sec. 29, 20 feet north of cross- 
roads, 0.8 mile west from Smith's ranch; west anchor of gate 

T. 23 N., R. 47 W., near east side of sec. 28, south side of gate on road from 

Smith's ranch to Hague's ranch; iron post stamped "3950"- 

T. 23 N., R. 46 W., sec. 29, at crossroads south of Wild Horse Lake; iron 

post stamped "3901" 

T. 23 N., R. 46 W., near southwest comer of sec. 24, at side of Alliance road; 

iron post stamped "3890" 

T. 23 N., R. 45 W., near east side of section 17, Hill's ranch; iron poet 

stamped "3886" 

T. 22 N., R. 46 W., SE. I sec. 4, at forks of road; iron post stamped "3895 " . . 
T. 22 N., R. 46 W., near south line of sec. 13, at forks of road; iron post 

stamped "3878" 

T. 22 N., R. 45 W., near northwest comer sec. 34, Bubble's ranch; iron 

post stamped "3856" 

T. 21 N., R. 46 W., near center of S. i sec. 1, at crossroads; iron post stamped 

"3865" 

T. 21 N., R. 45 W., NW. J sec. 29, Orlando post office; iron post stamped 

"3854" 

T. 20 N., R. 46 W., SE. J sec. 3, Slater's ranch; iron post stamped "3872 " . . 
T. 20 N., R. 46 W., near center of sec. 22; Richardson's ranch; iron post 

Stamped "3866",,., , , 



Feet. 
3, 902. 152 
4. 238. 846 

099. 361 

134.906 



3, 
3, 



370. 150 
040.543 
017. 769 

945. 612 

988. 979 
896. 956 

116. 682 
124. 45 
977. 447 

039. 822 

954. 693 
900. 592 

092. 374 

060.9 

043 

026. 143 
969. 078 

966.9 

949. 923 

901. 116 

890. 078 

886. 347 
895. 482 

878. 259 

855. 703 

864.729 

854. 115 
872. 398 



3, 865, 895 



NEBRASKA. 31 

T. 20 N., R. 45 W., near center of N. J sec. 17, at bend in road soutjieaflt of Feet. 

Twin Lakes; iron post stamped *'3815" 3, 814. 691 

T. 19 N., R. 46 W., E. i sec. 11, in sand hills, at forks of road just south of 

Blowout; iron post stamped "3881 " 3, 881. 624 

T. 19 N., R. 46 W., near center of sec. 23, at side of road; iron post stamped 

' * 3948 " 3, 948. 043 

T. 19 N., R. 45 W., southeast comer of SW. J sec. 31; iron post stamped 

**3952" 3,952.091 

T. 18 N., R. 46 W., NW. J sec. 10, south edge of terrace on side of road; iron 

poet stamped "3977" 3,977.165 

T. 18 N., R. 45 W., southeast corner of sec. 17; iron po«t stamped "3935".. 3,935.007 

CEAPPELL QXTADRANQLE. 
Bench marks established near pnbllo-l&nd comers. 

T. 12 N., R. 45 W., in section 21 on Nebraska-Colorado State line, 0.5 mile 

west of Lodgepole Creek; iron post stamped ' * SIDNEY 3691 " 3, 590. 886 

T. 12 N., R. 42 W., sec. 6, milepost 365, Union Pacific R. R., iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3413" 3,413.057 

T. 13 N., R. 41 W., sec. 27, milepost 357, Union Pacific R. R.; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3341" 3,340.735 

Bigsprings, southeast comer of sec. 25, T. 13 N., R. 42 W.; iron post stamped 

SIDNEY 3370" 3, 370. 061 

T. 13 N., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 1; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3613" 3, 613. 028 

T. 13 N., R. 42 W., quarter comer on south side of sec. 17; iron post stamped 

**SIDNEY 3592" 3, 591. 778 

T. 13 N., R. 43 W., quarter comer on south side of sec. 14; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3648" 3, 647. 963 

T. 13 N., R. 43 W., southeast comer of sec. 18; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3717 " 3, 717. 196 

T. 13 N., R. 44 W., southeast comer of sec. 10; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3793" 3, 793. 021 

T. 13 N., R. 44 W., sec. 31, milepost 383, Union Pacific Railroad; iron 

poet stamped "SIDNEY 3636" 3,635.921 

Chappell; railroad station, sec. 15, T. 13 N., R. 45 W.; iron post stamped 

''SIDNEY 3696" 3, 696. 084 

T. 14 N., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3652" 3, 651. 791 

T. 14 N., R. 42 W., southeast corner of sec. 3; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3694" 3, 694. 097 

T. 14 N., R. 42 W., southeast corner of sec. 6; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 
3723" 3, 722. 121 

T. 14 N., R. 43 W., southeast comer of sec. 10; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 
3764" 3, 764. 154 

T. 14 N., R. 43 W., southeast comer of sec. 7; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 
3768" 3, 767. 974 

T. 14 N., R. 44 W., southeast comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3804 " 3, 804. 321 

T. 14 N., R. 44 W., southeast comer of sec. 10; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3796" 3,796.152 

T. 14 N., R. 45 W., southeast comer of sec. 2; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3874" 3,874.043 

T. 14 N., R. 45 W., southeast comer of sec. 5; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3916" 3,916.072 

90744°— Bull. 473—11 3 



82 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 



T. 15 N., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron poet stamped *' SID- 
NEY 3739" 3,739.322 

T. 15 N., R. 42 W., sec. 26, forks of wagon road; iron poet stamped "SID- 
NEY 3763" 3,763.163 

T. 15 N., R. 42 W., sec. 3, mouth of Ash Hollow, near Rachael Patterson's 
grave; iron poet stamped ''SIDNEY 3314" 3,314.206 

T. 15 N., R. 43 W., southeast comer of sec. 27; iron poet stamped "SID- 
NEY 3729" 3,728.662 

T. 15 N., R. 43 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3833" 3,833.220 

T. 15 N., R. 44 W., southeast comer of sec. 27; iron poet stamped "SID- 
NEY 3792" 3,792.15 

T. 15 N., R. 44 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3829" 3,829.382 

T. 15 N., R. 45 W., southeast comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3923 " 3, 923. 068 

T. 16 N., R. 41 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3309" 3,308.466 

T. 16 N., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 12; iron poet stamped "SID- 
NEY 3593" 3,592.772 

T. 16 N., R. 42 W., southeast comer of sec. 27; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3304" 3,304.008 

T. 16 N., R. 42 W., sec. 31, near mouth of ravine; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3357 " 3, 366. 969 

T. 16 N., R. 43 W., quarter comer on east side of sec. 22; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3332" 3, 33L 748 

T. 16 N., R. 43 W., sec. 18, Charles Simpson's ranch; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3365" 3, 364. 230 

T. 16 N., R. 44 W., quarter comer on east side of sec. 10; iron poet stamped 

"SIDNEY 3393" 3, 392. 674 

T. 16 N., R. 44 W., near northeast comer of sec. 5, south bank North Platte 
River; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3427" 3,426.700 

T. 17 N., R. 41 W., southwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3628" 3,628.244 

T. 17 N., R. 41 W., near southeast comer of sec. 34, on wagon road; iron 

poet stamped "SIDNEY 3632 " 3, 63L 775 

T. 17 N., R. 42 W., SW. J sec. 29, side of wagon road; iron post stamped , 

"SIDNEY 3643 " 3, 642. 903 

T. 17 N., R. 42 W., NE. J sec. 18, road crossing; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3741" 3,740.829 

T. 17 N., R. 43 W., quarter comer on south side of sec. 11; iron poet 
stamped "SIDNEY 3710" 3, 709. 258 

T. 17 N., R. 43 W., southwest comer of sec. 8; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3720" 3,719.491 

T. 17 N., R. 44 W., southwest comer of sec. 32; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3455" 3,455.088 

T. 17 N., R. 44 W., southwest comer of sec. 24; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3428" 3,427.794 

T. 17 N., R. 44 W., southwest comer of sec. 1; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3601" 3,600.520 

T. 17 N., R. 45 W., sec. 23, Coumbe's ranch; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3423 " 3, 422. 450 

Hartmann, sec. 34, T. 18 N., R. 44 W.; iron post stamped ''SIDNEY 
3595'' 3,595.077 



NEBRASKA, 33 

OQALALLA QUADRANOLE. 
Bench marki eitaliUihod near public land comart. 

Ogalalla, railroad station, sec. 6, T. 13 N., R. 38 W.; iron poet stamped Feet. 
"SIDNEY 3216" 3,215.884 

T. 13 N., R. 39 W., sec. 11, at Union Pacific. R. R. milepost 344; iron post 
stamped "SIDNEY 3242" 3,242.138 

T. 13 N., R. 39 W., sec. 17; at Union Pacific R. R. milepost 347; iix)n post 
stamped "SIDNEY 3265 " 3, 265. 151 

Brule, sec. 15, T. 13 N., R. 40 W.; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3291"... 3,290.766 

T. 13 N., R. 40 W., sec. 19, at Union Pacific R. R. milepost 354; iron post 
stamped "SIDNEY 3333" 3, 333. 172 

T. 14 N., R. 39 W., near southeast comer of sec. 13; forks of road; iron poet 
stamped "SIDNEY 3533" 3,533.079 

T. 14 N., R. 39 W., quarter comer on east side of sec. 32; iron post stamped 
"SIDNEY 3489" 3, 488. 754 

T. 14 N., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 14; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3653" 3,653.213 

T. 14 N., R. 40 W., quarter comer on south side of sec. 17; iron post stamped 
"SIDNEY 3579" 3, 578. 688 

T. 14 N., R. 41 W., southeast comer of sec. 15; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3712" 3,712.077 

T. 15 N., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3107" 3,106.813 

T. 15 N., R. 37 W., NW. i sec. 6; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3373".... 3, 373. 345 

T. 15 N., R. 38 W., NW. i sec. 13; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3306". . . 3, 306. Ill 

T. 15 N., R. 38 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3146" 3,145.921 

T. 15 N., R. 39 W., sec. 26, at schoolhouse; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 
3161" 3, 161. 352 

T. 15 N., R. 39 W., southeast comer of sec. 20; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3184" 3,183.873 

T. 15 N., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 11; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3216" 3,216.144 

T. 15 N., R. 40 W., sec. 6, at Fairchild's ranch; iron poet stamped "SID- 
NEY 3233" 3,233.232 

T. 16 N., R. 37 W., southeast comer of sec. 20, near Mannon's ranch; iron 
post stamped "SIDNEY 3435" ^. . . . 3, 436. 088 

T. 16 N., R. 37 W., S. J sec. 8; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3472" 3,472.029 

T. 16 N., R. 38 W., S. i sec. 26, by side of wagon road; iron post stamped 
"SIDNEY 3430 " 3, 430. 175 

T. 16 N., R. 38 W., SE. i sec. 9, by side of wagon road in Wild Horse Val- 
ley; iron poet stamped "SIDNEY 3485" 3, 484. 798 

T. 16 N., R. 39 W., S. J sec. 2, at side of wagon road; iron post stamped 
"SIDNEY 3520" 3, 520. 056 

T. 16 N., R. 39 W., near center of sec. 16, at junction of wagon roads; iron 
post stamped "SIDNEY 3523 " 3, 523. 032 

T. 16 N., R. 40 W., NE. J sec. 36, Winslow's ranch; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3405" 3,404.659 

T. 16 N., R. 40 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3529" 3,529.104 

T. 17 N., R. 37 W., SW. i sec. 27, at side of wagon road in valley; iron poet 
stamped "SIDNEY 3490" 3,490.013 



34 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

T. 17 N., R. 37 W., west side of sec. 10, at side of road in valley; iron poet Feet 

stamped ** SIDNEY 3504" 3,504.235 

T. 17 N., R. 38 W., SE. J sec. 29, at side of road in valley; iron post 

stamped *' SIDNEY 3633" 3,533.370 

T. 17 N., R. 38 W., east side of sec. 6, in small valley; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3588" 3, 587. 711 

T. 17 M., R. 39 W., NE. J sec. 23, at forks of wagon road; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3575 " 3, 574. 886 

T. 17 N., R. 39 W., SE. J sec. 4, at side of wagon road in valley; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEW 3612'^ 3,6U.980 

T. 17 N., R. 40 W., SE. J sec. 36, at north end of valley; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3564" 3,564.185 

PAZTON QUADRAirOLE. 
Bench nutrks eitabllahed near pablio land comers. 

T. 12 N., R. 36 W., southeast comer of sec. 5; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3279" 3, 278. 980 

T. 12 N., R. 36 W., southeast comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3244" 3,244.348 

T. 12 N., R. 35 W., southeast comer of sec. 12; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3203" 3,202.947 

T. 12 N., R. 34 W., southeast comer of sec. 12; iron post dtamped "SIDNEY 

3183 " 3, 183. 178 

T. 12 N., R. 33 W., near comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3158" 3, 158. 217 

T. 13 N., R. 35 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

32 20 " 3, 220. 358 

T. 13 N., R. 34 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3166" 3,166.122 

T. 13 N., R. 33 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3138 " 3, 138. 387 

T. 13 N., R. 32 W., southeast comer of sec. 18; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3116 " 3, 116. 445 

T. 13 N., R. 34 W., southeast comer of sec. 7; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3114 " 3, 113. 978 

T. 13 N., R. 33 W., southeast comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3016" 3, 015. 914 

T. 14 N., R. 36 W., near quarter comer on south side of sec. 6; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3090" 3,089.620 

T. 14 N., R. 35 W., near center of sec. 5; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3322 " 3, 322. 228 

T. 14 N., R. 36 W., near center of sec. 24, on south side North Platte River; 

iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3082 " 3, 081. 521 

T. 14 N., R. 35 W., quarter comer on east side of sec. 30; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3067" 3,067.224 

T. 14 N., R. 34 W., northeast comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3138 " 3, 138. 266 

T. 14 N., R. 34 W., northwest comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3021 " 3, 020. 537 

T. 14 N., R. 33 W., southeast comer of sec. 17; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

2989" 2, 989. 402 

T. 14 N., R. 34 W., southeast comer of sec. 18; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

2913" 2,912.698 



NEBRASKA. 35 

T. 14 N., R. 36 W., sec. 24, south bank of North Platte River in south edge of Feet. 

grove; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3032" 3,031.521 

T. 15 N., R. 36 W., near quarter comer on east side of sec. 6; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3421" 3,420.600 

T. 15N.,R.36W., NE.isec.30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3284" 3,283.600 

T. 16 N., R. 35 W., near center of sec. 6; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3332 " 3, 331. 566 

T. 15 N., R. 35 W., southeast comer of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3248 " 3, 247. 703 

T. 15N., R. 34W., SE. Jsec. 6; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3320" 3,320.304 

T. 15 N., R. 34 W., NE. i sec. 19; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3291 ". . . . 3, 291. 146 
T. 15N., R. 33 W., near cejiter of sec. 5; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3130'* 3,129.963 

T. 15 N., R. 33 W., NE. i sec. 20; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3129". .. 3, 128. 815 
T. 15 N., R. 33 W., near quarter comer on south side of sec. 32; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 2992" 2,991.929 

T. 15 N., R. 32 W., near southeast comer of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3162" 3,161.566 

T. 15 N., R. 32 W., ^ear center of sec. 7; iron poet stamped "SIDNEY 

3102 " 3, 101. 565 

T. 15 N., R. 32 W., near quarter comer on south side of sec. 31; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 2915" 2,915.289 

T. 16 N., R. 36 W., near quarter comer on west side of sec. 20; iron poet 

stamped "SIDNEY 3464" 3,464.186 

T. 16 N., R. 36 W., near southwest comer of sec. 3; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3454" 3,453.716 

T. 16 N., R. 35 W., near quarter comer on west side of sec. 18; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3381" 3,380.548 

T. 16 N., R. 34 W., near southeast comer of sec. 7; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3314" 3,313.719 

T. 16 N., R. 33 W., NW. J sec. 18; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3148 " 3, 148. 062 

T. 16 N., R. 32 W., near quarter comer on east side of sec. 17; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3182" 3,182.342 

T. 17 N., R. 36 W., NW. } sec. 3; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3474". . . . 3, 474. 042 
T. 17 N., R. 36 Wi, near southwest comer of sec. 23; iron post stamped 

''SIDNEY3450" .' 3,449.628 

T. 17 N., R. 35 W., SW. } sec. 4; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3411 ". . . . 3, 410. 538 
T. 17 N., R. 35 W., near center of sec. 32; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3450" 3,449.760 

T. 17 N., R. 34 W., NE. J sec. 20; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3319" ... 3, 318. 592 
T. 17 N., R. 34 W., SW. } sec. 33; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3371 ". . . 3, 371. 066 
T. 17 N., R. 34 W., NE. J sec. 12; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3285". . . 3, 285. 013 
T. 17 N., R. 33 W., near quarter comer on north side of sec. 4; iro^h post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3262" 3,262.336 

T. 17 N., R. 33 W., near center of sec. 1; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3236" 3, 236. 430 

T. 17 N., R. 32 W., near northwest comer of sec. 31; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3118" 3,117.967 

T. 17 N., R. 32 W., near northeast comer of sec. 17; iron post stamped 

*'SIDNEY3264" 3,263.853 

T. 18 N., R. 35 W., near center of sec. 33; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3421 " 3, 421. 241 

T. 18 N., R. 34 W., SW. } sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3353".. . 3, 352. 535 



36 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

NORTH PLATTB QVAD&AKOLS. 

Spndi east alone Vnlon Paoillc Railroad to MazwtIL 

Feet. 

Spude, east end of stock yards; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2852'' 2,852.446 

North Platte, foundation of front steps, First National Bank; aluminum 

tablet stamped "SIDNEY 2805 " 2, 805. 049 

Milepost ' ' 287 Miles West of Omaha, * ' quarter mile west of ; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2779" 2,779.500 

Gannett, at Union Pacific signpost; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2769 "... 2, 769. 022 
Pawnee, near east end of switch; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2747 "... 2, 747. 203 
Famam, 1,248.7 feet west of center of bridge 20 and 16.7 feet south at right 

angles from center of main track, in Depot Park, at west line of Broad 

Street; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2729" 2,729.024 

Maxwell, west end of station; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2714" 2, 714. 457 

(In 1910 pexteission was granted to move this to a new location. No record 

of the transfer has yet been received.) 

Qenoh marks oitabUihed near pnbllo land oomtrs. 

T. 12 N., R. 30 W., SE. { sec. 5, on main road south from North Platte; iron 
post stamped "SIDNEY 3067" 3,066.926 

T. 12 N., R. 29 W., sec. 18, west of schoolhouse on main road to North Platte; 

iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3056 " 3, 056. 047 

T. 12 N., R. 28 W., sec. 5, south end of Platte River bridge; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2714" 2,714.485 

T. 12N., R. 31W., NE. isec. 3; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3028" 3,028.230 

T. 12 N., R. 29 W., NE. \ sec. 13, in Boxelder Canyon; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2786" 2,785.601 

T. 13 N., R. 28 W., north side of sec. 3, on Maxwell wagon road; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 2888" 2,888.475 

T. 13 N., R. 30 W., sec. 21, on main road south from North Platte, near 

woven wire fence; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2822 " (this bench mark 

has been moved 10 feet south from its original position; the elevation has 

not been changed) 2,822.211 

T. 13 N., R. 31 W., sec. 24, on road running west from Platte River bridge; 

iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2833" 2,833.450 

T. 14 N., R. 29 \V., NE. i sec. 30, in x-alley northwest of white schoolhouse, 

iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2822" 2,82L754 

T. 14 N., R. 28 W., near north side of sec. 27; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

2866 " 2, 866. 912 

T. 14 N., R. 28 W., SW. J sec. 2; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2912" 2, 911. 744 

T. 15 N., R. 28 W., SW. Jsec. 23; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2954 " 2, 953. 659 

T. 15 N., R. 28 W., ^\V. J sec. 2, near house; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3000" 2, 999. 632 

T. 15 N., R. 31 W., sec. 22, west of schoolhouse; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

2930" 2, 930. 106 

T. 15 N., R. 29 W., SE. } sec. 5, on old stage road; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2999" 2,999.338 

T. 15 N., R. 29 W., NE. } sec 18, on old stage road; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3053" 3,053.330 

T. 15 N., R. 30 W., southeast comer of sec. 34; iron poet stamped "SIDNEY 

2978 " 2, 978. 133 

T. 15 N., R. 31 \V.,NE. i sec. 7, on old north-south wagon road; iron poet 

stamped "SIDNEY 3087" 3,086.543 

T. 15 N,, R. 31 W., southwest comer of sec. 16; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

3075" 3, 075. 231 



NEBRASKA. 3 7 

T. 15 N., R. 30 W., sec. 19, at Ellis schoolhouBe; iron poet sUmped "SIDNEY Feet. 

2046" 2, 945. 822 

T. 16 N., R. 29 W., east side of sec. 22, near red echoolhouse; iron poet 

stamped "SIDNEY 3038" 3,037.880 

T. 16N.,R.31W.,nearcentero£8ec.9; iron poetstamped "SIDNEY 3127" 3,127.329 
T. 16N., R.31W., NE. i8ec.33; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3139".... 3,138.649 
T. 16 N., R. 28 W., near quarter comer on south side of sec. 22; iron poet 

stamped "SIDNEY 3012" 3,011.586 

Myrtle,T. 16N., R.29W.,8ec. 12; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3049".... 3,049.452 

T. 16 N., R. 28 W., SE. i sec. 8; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3035" 3, 035. 205 

T. 16 N., R. 30 W., S\V. { sec. 10, on road north from Ellis ranch; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3105" 3,104.870 

T. 16 N. , R. 30 W. , sec. 21, on road north from Ellis ranch ; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3077" 3,077.258 

T. 16 N., R. 30 W. , south side of sec. 31, on road north from Ellis ranch ; iron 

* post stamped " SIDNEY 3043 " 3, 043. 281 

T. 17 N., R. 28 W., sec. 35, road crossing on line between Logan and Lincoln 

Counties; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3002" 3,00L950 

T. 17 N., R. 29 W., quarter comer on east side of sec. 1; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2960" 2,960.470 

T. 17 N., R. 29 W., NE. J sec. 10, near Chapin's house; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2974" 2,974.350 

T. 17 N., R. 31 W., sec. 8, crossroads east of Newberry's ranch; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 3200" 3,200.253 

T. 17 N., R. 31 W., SW. J sec. 34, near top of high hill on road from Seely 

post office to Newberry's ranch; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 3183" 3, 182. 615 

T. 17 N., R. 30 W., NE. i sec. 1, 0.5 mile north of Clothier's house; iron 

post stamped " SIDNEY 3066 " 3, 066. 100 

T. 17 N., R. 30 W., northwest comer of sec. 36; iron post stamped "SID- 
NEY 3141" 3,14L424 

T. 18 N., R. 28 W., SW. J sec. 36; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 2946" 2, 945. 770 

T. 18 N. , R. 28 W. , southeast comer of sec. 32 ; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 

2947" 2,946.832 

T. 18 N., R. 29 W., near southwest comer of sec. 34; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 3019" 3,019.280 

T. 18N.,R. 30W.,sec. 33; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 3168" 3,167.599 

T. 18 N., R. 31 W., NW. \ sec. 33, on road north from Newberry's ranch; 

iron post stamped *' SIDNEY 3232" 3,23L849 

QOTHEVBUBO QUADRAITOLB. 
BeBoh marks eitabllihed near public Im^d comen. 

T. 6 N., R. 24 W., northwest comer of sec. 6; iron poet stamped " SIDNEY 
2563 " 2, 562. 895 

T. 6 N., R. 25 W., northeast comer of soc. 4; iron post stamped '* SIDNEY 

2692" 2, 591. 955 

T. 6 N., R. 26 W., northeast comer of sec. 5; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 

2651 " 2, 550. 925 

T. 6 N., R. 27 W., NE. \ sec. 4, on nvad south from Stockville, near town- 
ship line; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 24S2" 2, 482. 453 

T. 6 N., R. 28 W., northeast comer of sec. 1 ; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 

2672" 2, 671. 513 

T. 7 N., R. 24 W.. quarter comer on north side of sec. 6; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2668" 2,667.895 



38 SPIRIT LEVELING IN KANSAS AND NEBRASKA, 1896 TO 1909. 

T. 7 N., R. 25 W., southeast comer of sec. 13; iron post stamped " SIDNEY Feet. 

2527" 2, 526. 900 

T. 7 N., R. 25 W., southeast comer of sec. 15; iron poet stamped " SIDNEY 

2636" .' 2, 635. 898 

T. 7 N., R. 26 W., southeast comer of sec. 12; iron poet stamped " SIDNEY 

2674" 2, 673. 852 

T. 7 N., R. 26 W., southeast comer of sec. 17; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 

2650" 2,650.136 

T. 7 N., R. 27 W., south side of sec. 11, on wagon road at divide between 

Mitchell and Medicine Creek canyons; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

2705" .* 2, 704. 661 

Ingham, 293 feet west of center of railroad water tank, 318.5 feet east of 

center of bridge 28, 114.5 feet at right angles from center of main track; 

iron post stamped *' SIDNEY" 2679 2, 678. 796 

T. 7 N., R. 27 W., near northeast comer of sec. 4, on wagon road between 

Moorefield and Stock\dlle; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2671 " 2, 671. 369 

T. 7 N., R. 27 W., sec. 24, on wagon road at divide between Mitchell and 

Medicine creeks; iron post stamped ** SIDNEY 2677" 2,677.083 

T. 7 N., R. 27 W., north side of sec. 30; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 

' 2638" - 2, 637. 513 

Stockville courthouse; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2482 " 2, 482. 451 

T. 7 N., R. 28 W., S\V. i sec. 11; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2733" 2,732.561 

T. 8 N., R. 26 W., quarter comer on south side of sec. 10; iron post stamped 

i^ "SIDNEY 2818" 2,817.937 

Farnam, in front of railroad station; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 2729". . 2, 729. 024 
T. 8 N., R. 26 W., NE. J sec. 3, in foundation of Curtis ranch house; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "SIDNEY 2770" 2,769.851 

T. 8 N., R. 24 W., near northeast comer of sec. 2, on line between Frontier 

and Dawson counties; iron post sUmped " SIDNEY 2743 " 2, 742. 590 

T. 8 N., R. 25 W., south side of sec. 12, on Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 

R. R.; iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2687" 2,687.468 

Eustis, water tank at railroad station ; aluminum tablet stamped " SIDNEY 

2624" 2, 623. 729 

T. 8 N., R. 25 W., sec. 3, on Chicago, Burlinj^'ton & Quincy R. R.; iron 

post stamped " SIDNEY 2691" '. 2, 691. 325 

T. 8 N., R. 27 W., southwest corner of sec. 15; iron poet stamped " SIDNEY 

2767" 2, 767. 453 

T. 8 N., R. 28 W., sec. 2, at ranch house in (Xirtis Canyon; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2625" '. 2,624.743 

T. 9 R., R. 28 W., NE. J sec. 25, in Curtis Canyon; iron post stamped 

"SIDNEY 2678" 2,677.749 

Moorefield, in park, 50 feet east and 26 feet south of east end of station, 

at right angles from center line of main track; iron post stamped "2826 

SIDNEY" 2, 825. 848 

Ctulis, in park, 50 feet east and 26 feet south of oast end of station, at 

right angles from center line of mixin track; iron post stamped "2500 

SIDNEY" 2, 500. 071 

T. 9 N., R. 28 \V., north side of sec. 12, on wagon road down Curtis Canyon ; 

iron post stamped "SIDNEY 2738" 2, 738. 086 

T. 9 N., R. 27 W., sec. 34, on wagon road from M(K)rofiold to Hill's ranch, 

near township line; iron post stamped " SIDNEY 2851 " 2, 850. 925 

T. 9 N., R. 27 W., sec. 15, quarter mile northwest of Plill's ranch; iron post 

stamped "SIDNEY 2741" 2,740.581 



NEBRASKA. 39 

T. 10 N., R. 28 W., NE. J sec. 12, at head of Curtifl Canyon; iron poet Feet. 

stamped "SIDNEY 2954'' 2,934.167 

T. 10 N., R. 27 W., SE. J sec. 20, near Beerley's house; iron poet stamped 

"SIDNEY 2850" 2,860.082 

T. 10 N., R. 27 W., NE. i sec. 5, on wagon road at head of Conroy Canyon; 

iron post stamped " SIDNEY 2989 " 2, 989. 333 

T. 11 N., R. 28 W., NE. J sec. 36, at Abercrombie's windmill; iron poet 

stamped "SIDNEY 2876" 2,876.072 

T. UN., R. 28W.,NE. isec. 1; iron poet stamped "SIDNEY 2769" 2,768.897 

T. 11 N., R. 27 W., near north side of sec. 29, near Norlander's ranch; iron 

post stamped " SIDNEY 2802 " 2, 801. 839 

T. 11 N. , R. 27 W. , N W. i sec. 9, on small hill east of road up Conroy Canyon; 

iron post stamped " SIDNEY 2743" 2, 742. 566 

T. 12 N., R. 27 W., NW. i sec. 34, 0.5 mile north of Ericson's ranch; iron poet 

stamped "SIDNEY 2665" 2,664-534 



INDEX. 



A. Page. 

Ackerland .- 14-15 

Allen County 9 

Arthur Coonty 27 

Atchison 14.18 

Atchison quadrangle 18 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry 17-18 

Atkins County 12 

Atkhison, 8. K., work of 12 

B. 

Baldwin, D. H., work of 5 

Barber, J. C, work of 18 

Barney 26 

Baxter Springs 9 

Belmont 29 

Bench marks 5-6 

plate showing 5 

Blgsprings 31 

Blowout 31 

Bourbon County 9 

Bowling 13, 15 

Browns Qreek quadrangle 29SI 

Brule 33 

Buxton 12 

C. 

Cass County 24.26 

Chappell 31 

Chappell quadrangle 31-32 

Cherokee County 8 

Cheyenne County 27 

Coffey viUe 11 

Connor 12 

Cook 2C 

Cornish, RoflB C, work of 27 

Corpus Christ! Church 17 

Crawford County 9 

Cummings 17 

Curtis 38 

D. 

Dawson County 27 

Deerfield. 20 

Deering 11 

Deuel County 27 

Dixon County 23 

Douglas 20 

Douglas, E. M.» work of 5 

Dunbar 25 

E. 

Ea<(ton 15. 16 

Easton quadrangle 15-17 

Edmunds Church 16 

Elk City •- 12 

Elk Point quadrangle 23-24 



Page. 

Elmwood 25 

Erie 9 

Eustb 38 

F. 

Famam 36,38 

Fawn 11 

Finney County 18 

Fort Leavenworth 13 

Fort Sidney 28 

French, F. C, work of 18 

Frontier County 27 

G. 

Galena 9 

Gannett 36 

Gannett, S. S., work of 5 

Garden 18 

Garden quadrangle 18 

Gothenburg quadrangle 37-39 

Grant County 12 

H. 

Hamilton County 18 

Hartland 21 

Hartmann 32 

Havana 12 

Hawthorne 17 

Heeblnk, G. E., work of 12 

Herren, W. H., work of 5 

Hewitt, C. E., work of 27 

Hughes, F. W., work of 26 

Humboldt , 10 

Ilund 14 

I. 

Independence 11 

Independence quadrangle 11-12 

Ingham 38 

Tola 10 

Ida quadrangle 9-10 

J. 

Jarbnlo 15 

Johnson County 24 

Joplin district '. 8-9 

Julian 26 

K. 

Kansas 8-23 

Kansas City cjuadrangle 12-13 

Kearney Count y 18 

Keith County 27 

Kickapoo 14 

L. 

Labette County 9 

La Fontaine 11 

La Harpe 10 

41 



42 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Laldn qiiadnuigle 1^21 

Lancaster Comity 24 

Lansing 12. 15 

Leavenworth 13 

Leavenworth County 12 

Lea\'enworth Junction 12, 13 

Lea\'enworth quadrangle 13-U 

Liberty 1 1 

Lincoln County 27 

Llpps 12 

Lodgepole 28 

Logan County 27 

M. 

McFarlane, M. C, workof 18 

McPberson County 27 

Maxwell 36 

Mhiersville 26 

Missouri, Kansas JL. Texas Ry 9 

Missouri Pacific Ry 24,25.27 

Montgomery County 10 

Moorefield 38 

Mount Pleasant 17 

Murray 24 

M]mard 24 

N. 

Nebraska 23-39 

Nebraska aty 27 

Nebraska City Junction 26 

Nebraska City quadrangle 26-27 

Nehawka quadrangle 24 

Nemaha County 26 

Neodesha 11 

Neosho County 9 

North Platte quadrangle 36-37 

North Valley 10 

O. 

Oak Mills 14,16 

Ogalalla 33 

ORalnUa quadrangle 3^-34 

Omaha quadrangle 24 

Orlando 30 

Oskaloosa quadranple 14-17 

Otoe County 24 . 26 

P. 

Palm>Ta 26 

Pamell 16, 18 

Parsons quadrangle 9 

Pawnee .* 30 



Page. 

Paxton quadrangle 34-35 

Plattsmouth 24 

Pleasant Ridge 15, 16 

Ponca 24 

Ponca Landing 23 

Popes Siding 12 

Portersville 9 

Potter 16,17 

R. 

Renshawe, J. H., work of 5 

S. 

Sands, E. E., work of 27 

Sarpy Coimty 24 

Savenburg 10 

Sherlock 18 

Sidney 28 

Sidney quadrangle 28-29 

Springdale 14,16 

Spuds 36 

Stanton County 18 

Steele, M. A., work of 24 

StockvUle 38 

Sunnyslde 27 

Sycamore 11 

Syracuse, Kans 22 

Syracuse, Nebr 25 

Syracuse quadrangle (Kans.) 21-22 

T. 

Topographic maps 7-8 

Tribune quadrangle 23 

Trippe, H. M., workof 27 

Twin Lakes 31 

Tyre 11 

U. 

Unadilla 26 

Union Pacific Ry 36 

U rbana 10 

W 

Walnut Creek Mills 27 

Wilson, H. M., work of 6 

Wilson, John, work of 24 

WiLson Coimty 10 

Weeping Water 26 

Weeping Water (luadransle 24-26 

Wood, Fox, work of 9, 11 

W ray, D. C, work of 8,23 

W y oming 27 



O 



L 



k- 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

QEORaS OTIS SMITH, DmzCTOK 

Bniit^^riN 474 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON 



u 



E. EGGLESTON SMITH 



WORK DOHE IH COOPERATION WITH THE 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF WASHINGTON 



WASHINGTON 

QOTBBNHBNT PRIMTIKG OFFIOS 
1911 



-4 



CONTENTS. 



Pa«e. 

Introduction 7 

Explanation of terms used in this report 7 

Methods of sampling 10 

Ck>mparison of methods of sampling 10 

Methods used in collecting samples 14 

Preparation of sample for the laboratory 15 

Character and quality of the coal 16 

Introduction 16 

Chemical properties 16 

Methods of analysis 16 

Analyses of the coals 17 

Effect of different constituents of coal 19 

Ease of ignition 21 

Physical properties of the coals 22 

Results of physical tests on coals sampled 22 

Summary 27 

Effect of exposure on moisture 28 

Coking coals of Washington by Pishel test 31 

Impurities 34 

Sulphur 34 

Moisture 34 

Ash 34 

-^ Comparative quality and distribution of the coals 37 

Commercial use of the coal — 38 

Detailed descriptions of mines, samples, and coals 76 

Distribution of mines 76 

Order of description 76 

aallam County ^... 77 

Fuca 77 

^ Cowlitz County 79 

King County 80 

Prospect north of Issaquah 80 

Grand Ridge 81 

Issaquah 83 

Superior 84 

Ford and Bagley 85 

Denny-Renton 89 

Renton 90 

Danville 93 

Ravensdale No. 1 94 

McKay 96 

Moigan 98 

Black Diamond No. 14 ; 99 

Lawson 101 

3 



4 C0NTFNT8. 

Detailed descriptions of mines, samples, and coals — Continued. 

King County — Continued. Page. 

Surface exposure at Franklin 102 

Rummer 103 

Gem 105 

Surface exposure southwest of Franklin 105 

Rose-Marshall 106 

. Independent 107 

Sunset- 108 

Naval 110 

Eureka Ill 

Bayne 112 

Carbon 114 

Prospect drift west of Bayne._ 116 

Occidental 117 

Big Six 119 

Surface exposure at Palmer Junction 120 

Prospect shaft east of Ravensdale. _ 122 

Prospect drift near Bameston. 123 

Denny-Renton 123 

Prospects southeast of Issaquah 126 

Prospect southwest of Preston 127 

Niblock 128 

Kittitas County 129 

Prospect northwest of Beekman_ 131 

Lakedale 131 

Beekman 131 

Busy Bee 136 

Patrick-McKay 136 

RoslynNo. 3 137 

Roslyn No. 2 slope 139 

RoslynNo. 2 140 

K. &E 142 

RoslynNo. 6 142 

Koslyn No. 4 • 144 

RoslynNo. 6 145 

RoslynNo. 7 146 

Summit 148 

Cle Elum No. 3 extension 148 

Cle Elum No. 2 extension 149 

Cle Elum No. 2 150 

CleElumNo. 1 151 

Lewis County 152 

Prospect north of Carlton Creek 152 

Prospect south of Carlton Creek 153 

Prospect A, Summit Creek 154 

Prospect B, Summit Creek 155 

Prospect C, Summit Creek 156 

Surface exposure east of Cowlitz River 156 

Prospects near Ladd and Glenavon 157 

East Creek-Ladd 158 

Mendota 160 

Richmond 162 

Superior No. 1 162 



CONTENTS. 5 

Detailed descriptions of mines, samples, and coals — Continaed. 

Lewis County — Continued. Page. 

Superior No. 2 163 

Twin City 164 

Chehalis 165 

Sheldon 166 

Crescent 166 

Pierce County 167 

Burnett 168 

Black Carbon 170 

PittsbuFK 171 

Wilkeson 172 

Gale Creek 176 

WUlis 177 

Brier Hill 178 

Snell 179 

Carbon Hill 180 

Melmont 186 

Fairfax 188 

Montezuma 190 

Mashel 191 

Prospect east of Ashford 192 

SkagitCounty 193 

Thurston County 193 

HannafordNo. 1 194 

Perth 196 

Black Bear 197 

King (Great Western) 198 

Whatcom County 199 

Index 201 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Plate I. A, Subbituminous coal from the Philippine Islands, showing char- 
acteristic weathering cracks; B^ Pocahontas (West Virginia) 

coal, showing structure 7 

II. Af Mortar and pestle showing adherence of powder of coal from the 
Roslyn bed at Clealum, Kittitas County; B, Mortar and pestle 
showing adherence of powder of coal from the Ro6l}ai bed at 
Beekman, Kittitas County; C, Mortar and pestle showing poor 
adherence of the powder of noncoking bituminous coals; D, 
Mortar and pestle showing adherence of powder of the best 
coking coals of Washington; E, Mortar and pestle showing 
adherence of powder of the Pocahontas coal, from West Viiginia. 30 
III. Map of a portion of western Washington, showing distribution of 

coal mines and prospects discussed in this report 76 

rV. Ay Bunker of the Clallam Coal Co. at Fuca, Clallam County, at low 
tide; B^ Exposures of beds of anthracite on Summit Creek, 

Lewis County 78 

V. Ay Forest undergrowth in the coal district near Bayne, King 
County; By Typical forested area of the Puget Sound country, 
looking east from Lizard Mountain, near Bayne, King County. 80 
VI. Ay Glacial bowlders on the south bank of Green River, near Frank- 
lin, King County, Wash. ; By Exposures of the Puget formation, 

in which the coal occurs, along Green River, near Franklin 82 

YII. Ay Abandoned bunker of the Issaquah Coal Co. at Issaquah, King 
County; By Washer and bunker of the Pacific Coast Coal Co. 

at Burnett, Pierce County 84 

VIII. Ay Town of Carbonado, Pierce County; By New beehive coke ovens 

of the Carbon Hill Coal Co. at Carbonado, Pierce County 168 

6 



SUBBITUMINOUS CO«L FROM THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



, POCAHONTAS (WEST VIRGINIA) COAL, 



COALS OP THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 



By E. Eggleston Smith. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The field work on which this report is based was done between 
the months of June, 1909, and March, 1910. The anthracite coal 
field at the head of Cowlitz River was examined for the purpose of 
classifying the coal land in the Rainier National Forest, the work 
being done entirely by the United States Geological Survey. The 
remainder of the work was designed to procure as complete data as 
the funds available would permit concerning the character, quality, 
and relative values of the coals of the State of Washington, and it was 
carried on in cooperation with the State Geological Survey. The 
field work was done under the administrative supervision of Henry 
Landes, State geologist of Washington, and M. R. Campbell, of the 
United States Geological Survey. 

During the same period a party under the supervision of G. W. 
Evans, of the Geological Survey of Washington, mapped the surface 
geology of King County with special reference to coal, and investi- 
gated the underground geology as shown in coal mines, the mining 
conditions and methods, and the preparation of coal for the market. 
The writer spent parts of July, August, and September, 1909, assisting 
this party in field work. The results of this investigation will be 
published by the State. 

The writer wishes to express his thanks ix) all the mine managers, 
superintendents, and foremen who kindly cooperated with him and 
assisted in collecting the samples and the geologic and other data 
used in preparing this report. 

EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 

In the descriptions of mines and samples in this report certain terms 
are used which have more or less definite local meanings and as these 
terms and their meanings may not be fanuliar to all readers they will 
be given. The term ''water level'' is applied to any gangway or drift 
which has natural drainage above the surface of the surrounding 
country, or in a general way to the workings lying above a water- 
level gangway or drift. The lowest water level in a series is spoken 

7 



8 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

of as the first water level, the next above as the second water level, 
etc. The term ''level " is applied to gangways or drifts that lie below 
the natural drainage of the region and to workings above such gang- 
ways, from all of which water must be pumped. They are spoken of 
in descending order as first level, second level, third level, etc. 

The terms ''niggerheads," * 'sulphur" balls, and pyrite nodules 
are applied to masses of marcasite and pyrite which occur in much of 
the coal. The term "binder" is applied to any hard, black carbonace- 
ous shale which resembles the coal and which is not easily separated 
from it either in mining the coal or in preparing it for the market. 

In the mines of the Northwestern Improvement Co., in Kittitas 
County, the block-and-battery system of mining has been installed. 
The rooms are arranged in groups of ten each. As the gangway 
advances all the coal from the alternate groups is removed. These 
alternate groups are called batteries. The remaining groups are 
worked out as the gangway retreats. These groups are called 
blocks. The batteries and blocks are numbered independently of 
each other in consecutive order from the main slope. 

For many years the need of a simple, consistent, and satisfactory 
scheme of classification for coal has been felt by all who have been in 
any way connected with the coal business, from the geologist and 
mining engineer to the dealer who places the coal on the market. 
Recently the United States Geological Survey has adopted a scheme * 
which seems in a way to answer the needs, and new names have been 
coined and old ones redefined in order to make the schemes suitable 
for practical use. The groups of coal recognized and the names 
applied to them are as follows: (1) Anthracite, (2) semianthracite, 
(3) semibituminous, (4) bituminous, (5) subbituminous, and (6) 
lignite. The higher grades (anthracite, semianthracite, semibitumi- 
nous, and bituminous) are generally well known and need little or no 
description in this report. The type coals of the di.Terent groups 
are easily distinguished, but as there is a complete gradation between 
the groups the attempt to classify coals that belong in the dividing 
or debatable ground between the groups is difficult. 

The generally accepted criterion for distinguishing the groups from 
bituminous upward is that of fuel ratio, or the quotient of the fixed 
carbon divided by the volatile matter, but it is questionable where 
one group shall end and another start. This question has not yet 
been settled by the United States Geological Survey and conse- 
quently the terms employed in this report will be used as they are 
used in the trade in the eastern fields of the United States, with the 
meanings indicated belov/: 

1. Anthracite may be defined as a very hard, jet-black coal having 
a dense homogeneous texture, a bright irregular conchoidal fracture, 

1 CUbpbM, M. R., A practical classification tor low-grade coals: Econ. Geology, vol. 3, No. 2, March- 
April, 190a 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 9 

burning with a short blue flame, and having a fuel ratio * of 10 or 
more. The coal from the Scranton-Wilkes-Barre district in Pennsyl- 
vania is typical anthracite. 

2. Semianthracite is below the grade of anthracite, but its limits 
are not well defined. In general, it is fairly hard and bright, but it 
resembles bitiiminous coal in that it is more or less affected by minute 
jointing. It contains a considerably lower percentage of volatile 
matter than bituminous coal and has a fuel ratio of about 6 to 10. 
Coal from the Bemice Basin, Pa., and Spadra, Ark., is representative 
of this class. 

3. Semibituminous coal ia the next group below the semianthracite 
and above the bituminous. This group includes some of the best- 
known coal of the country, such as the Clearfield coal of Pennslyvania, 
the Georges Creek coal of Maryland, the New River and Pocahontas 
(PI. I, B) coals of Virginia and West Virginia, and most of the coal 
of Arkansas. The fuel ratio of coal of this group ranges approxi- 
mately from 3 to 6. 

4. Bituminous coal includes all so-called ''soft coal'' which is 
lower in fuel ratio than semibituminous coal and which does not 
contain sufficient moisture to cause it to crumble (mechanical 
breaking down not being considered). In the State of Washington 
coal from the mines operating at present in Pierce and Kittitas 
counties and from the Black Diamond and many other mines in King 
County is typical bituminous coal. The coals of Iowa and Illinois 
and many of the coals of Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, 
and Alabama belong to this class. 

5. Subbituminous coal has generally heretofore been called ''black 
lignite." The criteria for the distinction of coal of the subbituminous 
group are in general (1) grayish black or black color; (2) almost uni- 
versal absence of a distinct system of joints; (3) high percentage of 
moisture, which is given off readily on exposure to the sun or air, 
thus producing the peculiar irregular weathering (see PI. I, A) si)oken 
of as "slacking," and (4) the tendency of many of these coals to 
separate on weathering into tliin plates parallel to the bedding. Of 
these features the color and the manner of weathering are the most 
characteristic. The color distinguishes the group from lignite; the 
manner of weathering separates it from bituminous coal. Fresh 
blocks of subbituminous coal, w^hen exposed to the air or to the direct 
rays of the sun, tend to break up independently of the joint planes 
into smaller and smaller fragments having irregular faces. The fresh 
coal has a bright luster and an irregular conchoidal fracture; the 
resultant fragments are lusterless and their surfaces do not show an 
even fracture of any kind. Certain subbituminous coals have high 
heating value and will stand transportation in closed cars without 

1 Fnuser, Persifor, Jr., Classification of coals- Rept. MM, Second Geol. Survey Pennsylvania, 1879, pp. 
128*158: Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. 6, 1879, pp. 43(M51. 



10 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

"slacking," but will check slightly when exposed to the direct rays 
of the sun in open cars. Such coal is evidently near the border line 
between the bituminous and subbituminous groups. In the State 
of Washington the coals of Issaquah, Coal Creek, Renton, and Tono 
are typical of this class. 

6. Lignite is distinguished from subbituminous coal by its color, 
texture, and amount of moisture. It is brown in color or has a dis- 
tinctly brovmish cast. The texture is usually more or less distinctly 
woody, although some lignite, notably that of Texas, is amorphous. 
The amount of moisture is greater than that of subbituminous coal 
and ranges from 25 to nearly 45 per cent. The lignite of North 
Dakota is typical of this group. The name lignite is perhaps more 
loosely used at the present time than any other in the list. On the 
Pacific coast, especially in the State of Washington, this term is 
applied to all the coals commonly classed as "lignite,'' "brown lig- 
nite," "brown coal," "black lignite," "lignitic coal," and very fre- 
quently to a good grade of bituminous coal. The writer has often 
heard the coals from Black Diamond and Carbonado referred to as 
lignite, though they are among the best bituminous coals in the State. 
It is hoped that the classification, with the corresponding nomencla- 
ture just given and used tliroughout this report, will be adopted by the 
local operators and dealers, for its general features are already in 
use and it only prescribes, in addition to these features, certain 
fairly definite limits for the lower groups and introduces the term 
subbituminous to replace the many terms like "black lignite," "lig- 
nitic coal," and "brown coal." 

METHODS OF SAMPLING. 
COMPAKISON OF METHODS. 

In attempting to compare the coals of a reigon like the State of 
Wasliington, where the character of the coal is so different within 
short distances and where mining operations are in so widely different 
stages of development, it is evident that some standard method of 
sampling must be adopted. Of the three methods commonly em- 
ployed — ^sampling at the place of consumption, sampling in carload 
lots, and sampling from the mine — the last seemed to be the only one 
that could be used economically under the present conditions of 
development. 

Commercial samples are more nearly representative of the coal as 
it is placed in the market; but as different methods of preparation 
for market, varying length of exposure to the air, changing condi- 
tions in the different parts of the mine from wliich the coal is obtained, 
and other variable factors affect the character of the coal at the con- 
sumer's plant, this method of sampling is not very satisfactory, par- 
ticulariy for a low-grade coal. 



METHODS OF SAMPLING. 11 

Carload sampling, if carried on under the supervision of a man 
skilled in the work and preceded by. a careful study of the condition 
of the bed, the character of the coal in the different parts of the mine, 
and the method employed for the preparation of the coal for the 
market, affords a means of obtaining better average results than can 
be obtained by sampling at the place of consumption. The coal can 
be so chosen as to be fairly representative of the average output of 
the whole mine or the sample can be made to represent the average 
of any particular part of the mine. Much, however, depends on the 
experience and personal equation of the sampler. This method also 
permits a choice of shipment, in either open or closed cars, which 
will place the sample at the laboratory in about the same condition 
that it would reach the consumer. On the other hand, the great 
cost of this method of sampling and the responsibility and judgment 
required of the sampler make it almost prohibitive under ordinary 
conditions and not so reliable in its general results as mine sampling. 

Mine sampling can be applied to all kinds of operating mines, 
abandoned mines, and prospects in all stages of development to which 
access can be obtained. In fact, it is the onlv method that can be 
employed where the coal is not being used commercially. It costs much 
less than the shipment and testing of commercial or carload samples 
and for that reason is much better suited to ordinary requirements. 
Mine sampling provides a ready means of making a comparison of 
coal from different places in the same bed — a comparison which can 
be made by the other two methods only by the expenditure of a large 
amount of time and money. 

Wherever car samples have been taken by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, mine samples have been taken at the same time from 
the working parts of the mine from which the coal came. This prac- 
tice has been extremely valuable in giving data for comparing the 
merits of the two methods of sampling and in affording a means of 
estimating rouglily the commercial quality of coals from prospects, 
developing mines, and other mines, from which carload samples can 
not be obtained. 

Most of the following discussion of the value of coal-mine sampling 
as compared with carload sampling is taken from an article by M. R. 
Campbell.^ In comparing these two methods of sampling the effect 
on the impurities in the coal is most important, although there is 
undoubtedly some effect on the other constituents. These impuri- 
ties, named in the order of their importance, are moisture, ash, and 
sulphur. 

Exposure to tlie atmosphere has different effects on the moisture 
in coal, the degree of change depending on the amount of initial 
moisture, the kind of exposure, and the length of exposure. The 

1 The value of ooal-mine sampling: Eoon. Geology, vol. 2, No. 1, January-February, 1007« pp. 48^57. 



12 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

standard method of mine sampling as set forth by Campbell, sup- 
plemented by precautions to avoid certain difficulties, should reduce 
the variation in moisture in mine samples to a minimum. The ordi- 
nary method of car sampling is subject to all the conditions produc- 
ing alteration in the moisture content. The comparison of a laige 
number of mine samples with car samples has made it possible for 
Campbell to divide into four great groups the coals which have 
certain relations in their moisture content. The following is Camp- 
bell's statement^ regarding coals tested at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition at St. Louis in 1904: 

Group A: This group includes all coals in which the average moistiu'e content of 
the car sample is less than 3 per cent. Of this group 18 samples show an excess of 
moisture in the coal from the mines and 6 samples show an excess in the coal from the 
car. The total excess in the mine samples is 9.47 per cent and in the car san^les 5.48 
per cent. The difference is 3.99 per cent. This divided by 24, the total number of 
samples, gives an average excess in the mine sample of 0.17 per cent. 

Group B: In this group are included all samples having an average moisture con- 
tent in the commercial coal of from 3 to 8 per cent. Of this group 18 samples show an 
excess of moisture in -the commercial coal and the other 18 samples show an excess in 
the coal from the mine. The niunber of samples is the same in both cases, but the 
total amounts are quite different, the excess in the car samples being 24.60 and in the 
mine samples 10.23 per cent. The difference between these amounts, or 14.37, divided 
by 36, the total number of samples, gives 0.40 per cent as the average excess in the 
car samples. 

Group C: This group includes all samples having a moisture content in the average 
car sample of from 8 to 10 per cent. Of this group 4 samples show an excess in the 
commercial coal, and 11 samples an excess in coal from the mine. The total amount 
of excess in the car samples is 2.24 per cent and in the mine samples 10.69 per cent. 
The difference, 8.45 per cent, divided by 23, the number of samples, gives an average 
excess in the mine sample of 0.56 per cent. 

Group D: This group includes all samples having a greater amount of moistiu'e in 
the car sample than 10 per cent. The mine samples show an excess in moisture over 
the car samples, as in the previous group, but the excuse for considering it separately 
is that the average amount of excess is much greater than that of the preceding group. 
Of Group D 8 samples show an excess in coal from the car and 22 samples show an 
excess in coal direct from the mine. The total excess in the former case is 10.50 per 
cent and in the latter 48.56 per cent; the difTerenre, 38.06 per cent, divided by 30, 
the number of samples, gives 1 .27 per cent as the average excess in the mine samples. 

Tabulated, the results are as follows: 

Table of coal groups arranged according to the crccss of moisture in mine and car samples. 



Groups of coal. 



A. Coals having less than 3 per cent In caxc samples. . 

B. Coals having from 3 to 8 per cent in car samples. 

C. Coals having from 8 to 10 per cent in car samples. 

D. Coals having over 10 per cent in car samples 



Excess 
in mine 



samples, samples 



Excess 
in car 



Per cent. Per cent. 
0.17 




0.40 



>The yaloe of ooal-mine sampling: Eoon. Geology, vol. 2, No. 1, January-February, 1907, pp. 50-^ 



METHODS OP SAMPLING. 13 

The meaning of the above-descrihed groups is not well understood, especially the 
reason why an intermediate group, B, should show an excess of moisture in the car 
samples when coals of both larger and smaller content show less moisture in the car 
lot than in the mine samples. The reasons for Groups C and D are evident. They 
include coals having a high moisture content, and it is only reasonable to suppose that 
coal of this character would lose some of its moisture in transit, especially when the 
shipment occurred in midsummer, as was the case with most of these samples. It is 
possible that the coals of Class B were shipped in bad weather and hence gained 
moisture in transit, or it may be possible that coals of this intermediate grade are in 
such a condition that they will absorb moisture from the atmosphere more readily 
than those having either a higher or lower moisture content. It is possible also that 
Group B is not a natural group, but merely due to fortuitous circumstances. If that 
is the case, a larger series of t^ts would probably show that no such group exists. 

The effect of the two methods on the amount of sulphur in the 
sample is slight. The following report is Campbell's statement ^ on 
this point: 

Of the 105 samples analyzed during the two years, 75 show an excess of sulphur in 
the conmiercial coal, 28 show an excess in coal direct from the mines, and 2 show an 
equal amount in each. The total excess in car samples is 261.67 per cent, and in mine 
samples 246.25 per cent; 261.67 divided by 246.25 equals'1.06, the coefl5cient of excess 
of sulphur in the car samples over the mine samples. If, therefore, the amount of 
sulphur shown in any analysis of coal direct from the mines be multiplied by 1.06, 
the result will be approximately the amount of sulphur that may be expected in 
conunercial coal from the same mines. 

The amount of ash in the samples obtained by the two methods 
depends on the personal equation of the mine sampler and the car 
sampler^ on the character of the roof and floor of the mine, on the 
methods of mining and hauling to the surface, and on the methods 
of preparation for market if the sample is taken after it has been 
cleaned. The results of the comparison of the ash as given by 
Campbell ' are as follows: 

The total excess in the car samples is 1,062.66 and in the mine samples 825.95 per 
cent; 1,062.66 divided by 825.95 equals 1.29. This may be called the coefficient 
of increase, and can be used in converting the ash in analyses of mine samples into 
analyses of commercial coal; thus, if the ash in the analysis of the mine sample be 
multiplied by the coefficient, 1.29, the result will be approximaflly the amount of 
ash that may be expected in commercial coal from the same mine. 

The percentage of volatile combustible matter in a coal undoubt- 
edly changes on exposure to the air, and the amount of change depends 
on the length of exposure, the size of the particles, and the amount of 
weathering. It has been shown by R. T. Chamberlin ' that fresh coal 
dust gives nearly four times as much volatile combustible as old dust. 
The rate of change is undoubtedly controlled by the size of the par- 
ticles and the amount of air in circulation among them. 

1 The valae of coal-mine sampling: Econ. Geology, vol. 2, No. 1, January- February, 1907, p. 52. 

* Idem, p. 63. 

* Notes on explosive mine gases and dusts: BulL U. S. Oeol. Survey No. 383, 1900, p. 62. 



14 COALB OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

The following conclusions may be drawn concerning the compari- 
son of the standard methods of mine sampHng and car sampling. 
First, no exact ratio can be established between the amounts of mois- 
ture in the two kinds of samples, because of the varying conditions 
of original moisture content, methods of transportation, and time of 
transportation. Second, a more or less definite ratio exists between 
the amount of sulphur in the two kinds of samples, which may be 
used as a possible basis for estimating the amount of sulphur in com- 
mercial coal from the analysis of a mine sample, although the varia- 
tion of many of the samples from this ratio is great. Third, a more or 
less definite ratio exists between the amounts of ash in the samples, 
which may be used with considerable accuracy in determining from 
the mine sample the possible ash in a commercial sample. 

METHODS USED. 

In collecting samples from mines operating on one bed the writer 
took one sample from each mine having a daily output of 200 tons 
or less. An additional sample was taken for each additional 100 tons 
of output ; that is, a mine producing 500 tons daily would have one 
sample for the first 200 tons and three samples for the additional 300 
tons, or a total of four samples. 

The following method was used in collecting such samples. After 
ascertaining the parts of the mine at which the coal bed was most 
nearly normal, points were selected for sampling in the center and 
the periphery of the active workings which would give samples rep- 
resenting very closely the present and the future output of the mine. 
At the place where each sample was taken a fresh face of coal was 
selected and cleaned of all coal dust, powder stains, and other impuri- 
ties by removing from half an inch to 2 inches of the coal. In 
slightly dipping beds, where the floor of the mine was wet, a piece of 
oilcloth was spread so as to catch the coal as it was cut and to keep 
out impurities^nd moisture. In highly dipping beds the oilcloth was 
supplemented by a small canvas bag on a hooped stick which could 
be held immediately under the part of the bed being sampled and 
which caught most of the coal as it was cut from the face. The 
sample was obtained by cutting a channel across the face as nearly 
perpendicular to the floor as possible and of such a size as to yield 
about 5 pounds of coal to each foot of the bed sample. All material 
in the bed was included except partings, lenses, and binders more than 
three-eighths of an inch thick and lenses or concretions of "sulphur^' 
or other impurities greater than 2 inches in maximum diameter and 
half an inch in Xhickness. In some places a layer of the foreign 
material resembled the surrounding coal so closely that it could not 
be separated in preparation for market and was therefore included in 
the sample. Some beds also contained tliin partings which could not 



PBEPARATION OF SAMPLE. 15 

be entirely separated from the coal by picking and washing. Several 
of these partings were also included in the sample, so that the amount 
of ash would be about the same as that contained in the commercial 
coal that had been carefully prepared for the market. In the sections 
of the beds which are given with the descriptions of the mines (see 
pp. 77-199) an asterisk (*) or dagger (t) indicates the parts which are 
included in the sample. Only half of some layers was included, and 
such layers are indicated by a dagger. Some samples were wet when 
they were taken from the mine. As most of the sampling was done in 
the winter or rainy season, it was not possible to dry all samples before 
being ground and sealed in the can. When the weather was so dry 
that the sample could be dried without being exposed to the air very 
long, it was air-dried until all visible moisture had disappeared before 
it was prepared for the laboratory. 

The samples of washed coal, lump coal, and steam coal were taken 
from the surface of the storage bins and from the surface of railroad 
cars which had just been loaded. The coal was collected in small 
quantities at more or less regular intervals until 75 to 300 pounds was 
obtained. 

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE FOR THE LABORATORY. 

The mine sample was prepared for the laboratory either in the mine 
or in a protected place at the entrance to the mine where the atmos- 
pheric conditions were similar to those of the mine. Each sample 
was kept in an oilcloth bag until the sampler was ready to pulverize 
it. The coal was ground in a bone grinder to the size of a pea, or 
pulverized with a piece of flat steel and an iron pestle until it would 
pass through a sieve with a half-inch mesh. It was then thoroughly 
mixed and quartered. Opposite quarters were rejected, and the 
remaining quarters were thoroughly mixed and quartered as before. 
The operations of mixing and quartering were repeated until the final 
sample of about one quart was obtained. This was then plared in a 
screw-top galvanized-iron can made to hold about 3 J pounds of 
coal, and was sealed and mailed to the Geological Survey^s labora- 
tory at Pittsburg for analysis. 

The samples of washed coal, lump coal, and steam coal were thor- 
oughly mixed. The pieces were then reduced to a diameter of three- 
fourths of an inch and mixed and quartered in the usual way until 
a sample of about 25 pounds was obtained. This was ground in a 
bone grinder to the size of a pea and then mixed and quartered until 
a final sample of about 3^ pounds was obtained, which was sealed in 
a screw-top galvanized-iron can and sent to the laboratory. 

If the exact location of the place from wliich a sample was taken 
is not known, its location with respect to a known land comer is 
given in the description of the individual mines and prospects, so 



16 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

that its position can be readily determined. Mine maps were not 
available to determine some locations, and their exact position with 
regard to a Government land comer is not known. For such places 
the location of the mine is given as nearly as possible by distance 
and direction from the nearest town. 

CHARACTER AND QUALITY OF THE COAL. 

INTRODUCTION. 

The character and quaUty of the coals of the State were ascertained 
by determining their chemical composition, calorific value, physical 
properties, and impurities. The relative heating and commercial 
values of coal depends largely on the character, relation, and pro- 
portion of its chemical constituents. Its ability to stand trans- 
portation, and hence to a considerable degree its commercial value, 
depends largely on its physical properties. Its relative heating 
value and its adaptabiUty to special uses is strongly influenced by 
the impurities it contains, so that a knowledge of the character 
and amoimt of these impurities is all-important in determining the 
commercial value of the coal. 

CHEMICAL PBOPEBTIES. 
METHODS OF ANALYSIS.* 

Two kinds of analyses were made at the Survey's laboratory — the 
proximate analysis and the ultimate analysis. A proximate analysis 
determines by a conventionally standardized process the coal's 
percentage of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, and 
sulphur. An ultimate analysis determines the idtimate constitu- 
ents — hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and ash. 
Calorific determinations were made when called for, and the heating 
value is expressed in both calories and British thermal units, the 
calorie being 1.8 times the British thermal unit. In mines that 
are working on the same bed it was customary to take the ordinary 
number of samples from each mine and make only a proximate 
analysis of each. If these analyses showed no considerable variation 
in the composition of the coal an ultimate analysis and a calorimeter 
determination were made of a composite sample consisting of equal 
amounts from each of the original samples. If the analyses showed 
marked differences in composition, ultimate analyses and calorific 
determinations were made of the samples showing the variations 
and a composite sample was made of the remaining samples. Various 
conditions determined whether a proximate or an ultimate analysis 
should be made of a particular sample. Generally speaking, a 

I For a full discussion of the methods of analysis used at the Oovemment laboratory see Prof. Paper 
V. S. Oeol. Survey No. 48, 1906, pt. 1, pp. 174-195. Also Lord's paper on air-drying. 



GHABACTEB AND QUALITY OF THE GOAL. 17 

proximate analysis was made of a coal that was weathered or 
altered by volcanic action or that was believed to be high in ash, but 
an ultimate analysis was made of a coal that was not weathered or 
altered and was believed to be a good commercial coal. Ash deter- 
minations were made on samples which were believed to contain so 
much ash that it was doubtful whether or not the coal they repre- 
sented had any economic value. 

A laige number of mine samples and many samples of washed 
and prepared coal contained much more moisture than was inherent 
in the coal. In order to compare the heating value of the coal 
from a wet part of a mine with that from a dry part, or with that 
from a dry mine, or the coal from a washer with dry coal from the 
mine, some system of drying the samples to a uniform condition 
must be adopted. By continued experiment it was foimd that 
proper comparisons can be made by weighing the coal in a shallow 
galvanized iron tray and drying it in an oven through which a 
gentle current of air heated from 10° to 20° above the temperature 
of the laboratory is passing until the weight becomes practically 
constant. The difference in weight between the original sample 
and the partly dried sample gives the amount of moisture driven 
off by air drying. This process is not intended to produce the same 
effect as the exposure of the coal to the air and sim during trans- 
portation. It simply appears to be the best method of determining 
roughly the amoimt of moisture loosely held by the coal. 

In actual practice analysis is made of the air-dried sample. The 
figures given opposite the items **As received," ''Dry coal," and 
''Pure coal" are calculated from the analysis of the air-dried sample 
and are included in the table for convenience in comparing and 
studying the analyses. The figures opposite "Dry coal" represent 
the analysis calculated for the coal when free from moisture; those 
opposite *'Piu*e coal" represent the analysis calculated for the coal 
when free from moisture and ash. The term * 'pure coal " is somewhat 
misleading as the coal so designated includes sulphur, but the term 
is used simply on accoimt of its brevity and convenience. 

ANALYSES OF THE COALS. 

Analyses of samples of coal collected by the writer in Washington 
were made at the laboratory of the United States Geological Survey 
at Pittsburg, and the residts are given in the table on pages 41-75. 
Samples 6760 and 6761 were taken by J. S. Diller* in CowUtz County 
in 1904. These were analyzed by W. T. Schaller in the laboratory 
of the United States Geological Survey at Washington, D. C. In 

1 DlUer, J. S., Coal In Washington near Portland, Oreg.: BuIL U. S. QeqL Surrey Nq« 200, 1906, pp. 
411-112. 

91320^— Bull. 474—11 2 



18 COALS OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

1905 M. R. Campbell* collected mine and carload samples from 
the Renton mine, in King County (Nos. 2455, 2456, 2686, 2687), and 
the Roslyn mines, in Kittitas County (Nos. 2457, 2458, 3098). Two 
mine samples (Nos. 2459 and 2460) were collected by M. R. Campbell 
at about the same time from the Carbon Hill mine at Carbonado, the 
results of which have not been published but which compare favor- 
ably with the analyses of samples collected by the writer from the 
same mines and from the same beds. Sample 6487 was collected 
in 1908 by J. B. Umpleby from the No. 5 bed at Ravensdale. 
Samples 6486, 6488, 6489, 6490, 6491, 6492, 6493, 6494, 6495, and 
6496 were collected by J. B. Umpleby at the same time from pros- 
pects and mines in Lewis and Pierce coimties. Samples 520-D 
and 6485 were collected from Taylor and samples 552-D, 787-D 
were obtained by K. M. Way from Carbonade. These samples, 
together with those collected by Umpleby, were analyzed at Pitts- 
burg, Pa., and the results are given in the accompanying table. 
Samples 11736, 11737, and 11738 were collected by George W. Evans 
after the completion of the author's field work from mines that were 
not then in operation. Samples of coal from Whatcom and Skagit 
counties were analyzed by the Bureau of Naval Equipment,^ Wash- 
ington, D. C, and are given in the table on page 76 to aflFord a com- 
parison of these coals with the other coals of the State. 

In the table the locations of the samples are given by township, 
range, section, and quarter section. On account of the absence of 
accurate maps the locations by section or quarter section of some of 
the prospects sampled may be incorrect, but they are as near as could 
be determined with the means at hand and the knowledge of the 
legal subdivisions. Under the column headed ** Thickness'' the total 
bed as sampled, including the partings, is given under the heading 
"Coal bed." Coal which was either not exposed or of no commercial 
value, underlying or overlying the part sampled, is not included in 
the thickness given. This thickness minus the thickness of all the 
partings not included in the sample is given in the column headed 
"Part sampled.'' 

The general opinion of the members of the laboratory staff is that 
the methods used for determining the values given in the proximate 
analysis are not sufficiently refined to warrant the use of the second 
decimal place in recording the results. Therefore those percentages 
which are not directly involved in the ultimate analysis are given to 
the nearest tenth. In like manner it is believed that the methods 
used in the determination of calorific values are not accurate enough 

« ReporttSrthe tTnIt€<l 8tAle« /uel-testing plant at St. Louis, Mo.: Bull. V. S. Geol. Survey No. 332, 1908, 
pp. 272-277. 

* Reports of the elTlciency 6t vWU)6!^ f«als, 1896 to 1898, and expenses of equipment abroad, 1902-3, and 
icoeotahemlcal analyses otooAl«t4he-iitf\y yard, Washington, D. C, 1906, pp. 6-7,9<>-99, 119-121. 



CHARACTER AND QUALITY OF THE COAL. 19 

to justify the use of unit value and hence the amounts of calories are 
given to the nearest five and British thermal units are given to the 
nearest ten. 

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONSTITUENTS OF COAL. 

In the table under proximate analysis four constituents of the coal 
are given and under ultimate analysis five, with ash common to both. 
They are as follows: (1) Moisture, (2) volatile matter, (3) fixed car- 
bon, (4) ash, (5) sulphur, (6) hydrogen, (7) oxygen, (8) nitrogen, and 
(9) carbon. The influence of each constituent is in general as follows : 

The moisture in a sample of coal consists of (1) extraneous moisture, 
which occurs on the surface of the different particles or grains and 
which is the result of seepage from adjoining rocks, water from wash- 
ing of the coal for market, precipitation on the coal when exposed to 
the open air, or sweating, which is a precipitation of moisture from 
warm saturated air coming in contact with relatively cooler coal; (2) 
moisture inherent in the coal — that is, residual water from the original 
organic matter, or water evolved by chemical change. Moisture is the 
constituent which has the greatest effect in reducing the heating value 
of the lower grades of coal. This reduction is due to the fact that 
moisture is inert and does not produce heat, and that it absorbs heat 
from the coal during its rise in temperature to the evaporation point 
and during its conversion into steam. It is evident also that for each 
unit or per cent of moisture contained in the coal there is one unit 
or 1 per cent less of combustible matter which might have been there 
if the moisture were absent. By considering this fact alone it becomes 
evident that each per cent of moisture decreases the efficiency of the 
coal 1 per cent or 20 pounds per ton. In addition to this it. should 
be noted that the amount of heat recjuired to raise the temperature 
of the water from the normal to the boiling point and then to convert 
it into steam is 620 calories of heat for each kilogram of water, or 282 
calories per pound, which ia equivalent to about 0.035 per cent of the 
heating value of a ton of pure coal for every per cent of moisture in 
the coal. In high grade coal the loss due to moisture is very small, 
but in low grade coal it is an important quantity. Other conditions 
being equal, coal containing 40 per cent of moisture will have about 
41.4 per cent less heating value than one which is absolutely free from 
moisture. A relatively small percentage of moisture does not mate- 
rially affect the adaptabiUty of coal for many uses, but a large 
amount, such as that contained in subbituminous coal and lignite, 
causes the coal when placed upon a hot fire to swell and crumble to 
pieces, so that it can not be used with forced draft without great loss 
of fuel and great danger from fires from the hot cinders tlirown out 
of the smokestack. 



20 COALfi OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

The volatile matter * of a coal consists of two parts — (1) combusti- 
ble and (2) noncombustible. That part of the volatile matter which 
unites with oxygen and produces heat is composed chiefly of hydro- 
carbons, sulphur, and hydrogen.' The hydrocarbons have a heat of 
combustion ranging from about 1 .3 to 4 times that of carbon, and there- 
fore increase the efficiency of the coal. Other things being equal, 
the greater the percentage of combustible volatile matter in a coal 
the higher its heating value. The effect of the percentage of hydro- 
carbon on the heating value of coal is shown by the well-kno^vn fact 
that anthracite coal, which contains a relatively small amount of 
volatile combustible matter, has a ma/kedly lower heating value 
than semibituminous coal (Pocahontas, New River, etc.), which 
contains a much higher percentage of volatile combustible matter. 

In the coals of Waslungton sulphur usually occurs in small quanti- 
ties, ranging from a fraction of 1 per cent to 3 per cent. Wlien free 
it has a heating value much less than that of carbon, and would there- 
fore tend to lower the efficiency of the coal. Free hydrogen has a 
heating value more than four times as great as that of carbon. The 
presence of this gas in the coal would raise its calorific value. 

That part of the volatile matter wliich does not produce heat and 
which is regarded as ^4nerf consists of oxygen and nitrogen. The 
effect of these gases is to reduce the heating value of the coal, the 
principal effect of the oxygen being, according to Du Long^s formula, 
to reduce the hydrogen available for heat by so much as is necessary 

to form water with the oxygen present (H — -^). Nitrogen is believed 

to have generally no effect other than to decrease in proportion to its 
amount the percentage of combustible matter in the coal, and there- 
fore to decrease the total heating value. Oxygen in excess of the 
amount wliich may unite wdth hydrogen to form water reduces the 
heating value because it replaces an equal amount of combustible 
matter. (See p. 21.) 

Carbon is the principal combustible in most coal. Other things 
being equal, the higher the amount of fixed carbon the higher the 
heating value of the coal up to a certain limit. Carbon has not, 
however, so high a heating value as hydrocarbons, and therefore some 
coals which have a relatively large amount of hydrocarbons have a 
higher efficiency than those wliich have a large amount of carbon. 
This appears to be true only of coals having a small amount only of 
incombustible volatile matter. Those containing less than 55 per 
cent of fixed carbon generally have a lower heating value, due to 

1 For discussion of the volatile matter in coal see the report of S. W. Parr, Bull. Illinois State Geol. Survey 
No. 3, 1906, pp. 31-49. 

2 The occurrence of free hydrogen in coals is believed to be very rare. II. T. Chamberlln (notes on explo- 
sive mine gases and duste, Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 383, 1909, p. 31 ) reports the flndhig of a small amount 
of firee hydrogen in a gas issuing from a staudpipe for anthracite coul nctir Wilkes Burre, Pa. 



CHABACTEE AND QUALITY OF THE COAL. 21 

larger quantities of other volatile constituents, principally moisture or 
oxygen, otherwise combined in the coal. 

Ash is one of the important factors that determine the heating 
value of the coal. It is generally inert and does not produce or absorb 
heat, so that in this respect its effect is negative. Each per cent of 
ash in the coal not only replaces 20 pounds per ton of combustible 
matter, but means just 20 more pounds of useless material to be 
handled, and if the ash is fusible it acts as a positive detriment to the 
coal. 

The constituents of coal shown in an ultimate analysis have a more 
or less definite significance as to its heating value. As stated above, 
sulphur tends to decrease the calorific value of the coal, but if it 
exists as free sulphur it has a small heating value. The amount of 
available hydrogen above the ratio needed to satisfy the oxygen in 
the formation of water increases the heating value. The effect of 
oxygen, as already stated, is to reduce the heating value. David 
White* states that its effect in reducing the heating value is about the 
same as that of ash and that oxygen and ash are of nearly equal anti- 
calorific importance. Nitrogen is inert and as a diluent reduces the 
heating value in proportion to its amount. Carbon has a heat of 
combustion about equal to that of pure anthracite and when not in 
combination with oxygen is the principal heat-producing element of 
coal. 

EASE OF IGNrriON. 

Many of the coals of the State of Washington ignite much more 
easily than coal from the eastern part of the United States. A 
splinter from almost any of the purer Wasliington coals can be burned 
readily with a match, but the flame produced is usually not self- 
sustaining. The coking coal of Pierce County swells and sputters in 
the flame and shoots out burning gases in the form of little jets. 
Coal samples from Black Diamond, Ravensdale, and Roslyn bum 
with a long flame while a match is burning under them, but the flame 
dies out very soon after the match is removed. The subbituminous 
coals can be burned, but not so readily as the other coals. The coal 
from Fuca, Clallam County, is easily ignited, and the flame is self- 
sustaining in still air. The low-grade coal from Chehalis will give off 
a very dense smoke, but will not bum independent of the match. 
The cannel-Uke coal which occurs in pockets in the Mendota mine 
bums very readily and the flame is self-sustaining. This coal* gives a 
much larger flame and more soot than any other cannel coal with 
which the writer is famiUar. 

In general, those coals which have the larger percentage of volatile 
matter 4n the analysis of the moisture-free sample ignite the more 

» The effect of oxygen in coal; Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 382, 1909, p. 8. 



22 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

readily. A small f raojment of a coal containing about the same pro- 
portion of volatile matter as fixed carbon will sustain a flame after it 
has been ignited by the flame of a match. The coal from Clallam 
County has nearly 10 per cent more volatile matter than fixed carbon. 
The coal from Mendota, already referred to, is believed to have a still 
higher proportion of volatile matter. This appears to be the reason 
why these coals bum so readily. The coal occurring near Chehaiis 
has much more volatile matter than fixed carbon, but the percentage 
of moisture is high, and this fact probably accounts for the difficulty 
encountered in igniting the gases from the coal. If the moisture 
could be driven off, the resulting coal would probably bum easily 
when ignited by a match. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COALS. 

RESULTS OF PHYSICAL TESTS ON (^OALS SAliPLED. 

The coal of the different groups has certain physical properties 
which, taken collectively, serye as a j)ractical basis of considerable 
value for determining the character of the coal. The more important 
of these properties are as follows:* (a) Color: (1) of the coal, (2) of the 
streak, and (3) of the powder; (b) luster; (r) structure: (1) beds and 
(2) joints; (d) texture; (e) fracture; (/) coherence; (g) adherence 
of powder; (h) flexibility; (i) elasticity; (;) hardness; (k) impact; 
(Z) specific gravity, and (m) mineral accessories. To these properties 
may be added those which result from combustion — kind of flame, 
odor of smoke, and character of ash. Tests for most of these physical 
properties were made by the writer on about 100 samples during the 
field season and on about 20 other samples while in the office. 

The color of the coal ranges from pitcli black to brownish black. 
Anthracite coal and the best grade of bituminous coal are pitch black. 
Impure bituminous coal, or bituminous coal with which a large 
amount of ash is intimately mixed, and subbituminous coals are 
grayish black, although fresh fractures of high-grade subbituminous 
coal are pitch black. Lignite has a distinctly brownish tinge. Coal 
from the vicinity of Centralia and Chehaiis has only a faint touch of 
brown, and the classification of this coal is doubtful because it is very 
near the boundary line between low-grade subbituminous coal and 
high-grade lignite. No true brown lignite was observed by the writer. 

The color of the streak on unglazed porcelain varies from black 
through dark brown and reddish brown to a liglit brown wliich is 
nearly yellow, and its relative blackness appears to indicate approxi- 
mately the comparative value of the coal. Antliracite and the higliest 
grade of bituminous coal have a black streak. Bituminous coal has 

1 This list of ph}'sical properties is taken from a table made by a committee of geologists of the United 
States Geological Survey after extended experimentation with coal from all parts of the United States. 
The table is Issued In pamphlet form for the field use of the members of the Federal Survey. 



PHYSICAL PBOPEBTIES OP THE COALS. 23 

a dark-brown streak — the darker the streak the better the coal. 
Subbituminous coal and liigh-grade hgnite have a reddish-brown 
streak; the darker color is characteristic of subbituminous coal and 
the lighter color of high-grade lignite. The change of the reddish- 
brown streak from dark to hght is approximately in proportion to the 
decrease in heating value and the increase in the moisture content of 
the coal. The only light-brown streak is given by the camiel-hke 
coal which occurs in pockets and lenses in the low-grade subbitu- 
minous coal near Centraha. The streak of this coal is nearly yeUow. 
In general a large amount of ash intimately mixed with coal will 
produce a lighter streak than that given by a sample of the same 
grade of coal which does not contain so much ash. The difference of 
intensity of color of the streak of bituminous coal in different parts 
of the same bed is possibly due to the presence of ash in varying 
proportions. 

The color of the powder ranges from black to reddish brown. With 
the pow^der as with the streaks, the degree of blackness seems to 
indicate approximately the quality of the coal, and the same general 
range of color applies to about the same classes of coal, except that 
the color of the powder is never so intense as that of the streak. 
Ash affects the color of the powder of bituminous coal much as it 
affects the color of the streak. 

The difference in liister does not seem to foUow closely the change 
in quality of the coals, although it serves to distinguish certain* 
classes. With few exceptions anthracite and high-grade coking coals 
have a vitreous luster. Low-grade bitimiinous coal or coals having a 
high ash content have a vitreous luster not nearly so bright as that 
of the better grades. Subbituminous coal may have a slightly vitre- 
ous luster when freshly fractiu'ed, but it becomes dull on weathering. 
Coal from the vicinity of Centralia and ChehaUs, when freshly frac- 
tured, has a dull, slightly satiny luster, which becomes dull and 
earthy in a short time. The luster of a fresh surface resembles that 
of impiu'e cannel coal. 

The bedding does not vary with the character of the coal. The 
antliracite and bitimiinous coals of the State have a bedded and 
banded structure. Some of the bitiuninous coals have a foUated 
structure, but this foliation occurs only in regions of extreme folding. 
In many places, notably near Centraha and ChehaUs, subbituminous 
coal has massive structiu*e. 

The joints of the coal of the different groups are similar within the 
group. In the anthracite beds only the major joints are visible. 
The coal is considerably crushed in places and has irregular diagonal 
sUps. The joints of the coking coal are very prominently developed, 
and the minor joints are so prominent that it is difficult to distinguish 
a system of major joints except where they pass through bony layers 



24 COALfi OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

or extend into the roof or floor. In many places the coal is so badly 
broken that it can be easily crushed in the hand. The noncokii^ 
bituminous coal has well-developed major joints. The face cleats 
(joints), which frequently extend into the roof and floor, are usually 
either in the direction of the dip or at a small angle from it, and the 
butt cleats are nearly at right angles to the face cleats. The devel- 
opment of the major joints is more prominent in coal low in intrinsic 
ash — that is, ash intimately mixed with the coal — than in bony coal. 
The major joints range from an inch to about 2 feet apart. These 
are much more prominent in the purer coals, and they are scarcely 
developed at all in the very bony coals. The subbituminous coal is 
generally broken by major joints, but the joints are much farther 
apart than in bituminous coal having the same percentage of intrinsic 
ash. The fa^e joints are the more perfectly developed and usually 
occur from' 6 inches to a foot apart. The butt joints are generally 
very poorly developed, as are also the minor joints in the few places 
where they are present. The low-grade coal near Centralia and 
ChehaUs has a system of major joints, in places well developed, cor- 
responding approximately to the dip. The joints are usually a foot 
or more apart, but may be found only an inch or two apart. The 
butt joints are scarcely noticeable, so that the coal breaks with a 
splintery end between the face joints. So far as the writer observed, 
minor joints are absent. 

The texture of the coal appears to change with the ash content, 
and the differences are probably due to the manner of the original 
deposition of the coal. Pure anthracite has a dense texture. Bony 
coal associated with anthracite consists of layers of pure coaJ and of 
bony shale which give the whole a laminated texture. Good coking 
coal is so minutely jointed that it is difiicult to determine the texture, 
and noncoking bituminous coal is laminated in proportion to the 
amount of intrinsic ash. Subbituminous coal is generally laminated, 
although in places the lower grades show a woody texture. The 
texture of the coal in the vicinity of CentraUa and CheliaUs appears, 
at a casual glance, to be almost earthy, but close examination shows 
it to be shghtly woody. 

The fracture varies considerably, but is generally uniform in the 
same group. Tt appears to vary with the hardness, the amount 
of ash, and the amoimt of moisture. Anthracite lias an irregular 
conchoidal fracture with ver}' bright faces and sharp edges, wliich 
becomes splintery where there are bony layers. Bituminous coking 
coal has a cubical fracture, wliich is somewhat hackly where the 
joints are oblique. Bituminous noncoking coals have an irregular 
fracture which becomes progressively more splintery as the amount 
of intrinsic ash present in the coal increases. Subbituminous coals 
exhibit irregular conchoidal fracture, the amount of irregularity being 



PHYSICAL PEOPERTIES OF THE CQALS. 25 

about in inverse proportion to the amount of moisture. The fracture 
of the coal near Cliehalis and Centralia is somewhat conchoiHal, but 
mostly splintery. This coal resembles cannel coal in physical 
appearance and this similarity probably explains the character of 
the fracture. 

The coherence of the coal varies with the amount of ash and tlie 
degree of devolatiUzation or metamorphism. Coals high in ash are 
generally tough. Coals low in ash which have been altered to a good 
grade of bituminous or anthracite are generally brittle. Bituminous 
coking coal is as a rule very crumbly. Coal low in ash and high in 
moisture is generally, but not invariably, tough. 

As explained on page 31, the adhesive power of the powder is in 
direct proportion to the coking quality of the coal. Anthracite coal 
does not adhere at all. The adhesive power of bituminous coking coal 
ranges from medium to good. Many bituminous coals show slight 
coking tendencies, and their powder adheres slightly, but they will 
not produce commercial coke. The otlier bituminous coals and the 
subbituminous coal give powders which do not adhere, but which pack 
to a greater or less degree between the mortar and the pestle. 

The elasticity of coal appears to depend both on its hardness and on 
the amount of moisture it contains. Anthracite is fairly elastic. 
Medium-grade bituminous coal, notably that from Roslyn and the 
vicinity of Black Diamond and Bayne, is very elastic. The pick, if 
not properly sharpened and squared, will often rebound from a face 
of these coals wiUiout cutting at all, and sometimes tlie strength of 
tlie recoil is very noticeable. High-grade bituminous coal which is 
finely jointed does not show elasticity because of the closeness of the 
joints and tlie distribution of the force of impact tliey effect. The 
elasticity of subbitumiDous coal and lignite probably increases with 
the amount of moisture. 

The hardness of the coal appears to vary directly with the amount 
of devolatiUzation or metamorphism, and inversely with the moisture 
content. As a rule the higher tlie percentage of fixed carbon and the 
lower the percentage of ash the harder is the coal; a notable exception 
among the Washington coals is that of the Fuca mine, Clallam County. 
This coal is somewhat high in moisture and very low in fixed carbon, 
which is only 90 per cent of the amount of volatile matter, but fresh 
samples compare favorably in hardness with the best grade of bitu- 
minous coal in tlie State. 

The character of the impact depends on the hardness and the joint- 
ing of the coal. In general, the harder the coal the more metallic 
will be the impact, and the softer tlie coal and tlie more frequent the 
joints the duller will be the impact. 

The specific gravity of the coal depends on the amount and kind 
of ash, the absence of moisture, the extent of devolatilization, and 



26 C0AL6 OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

consequently on tlie percentage of fixed carbon. Antliracite has a 
specific gravity at least 10 per cent greater tlian bituminous coal, and 
bituminous coal a somewhat higher specific gravity than subbitu- 
minous coal and Ugnite. The bituminous coals of the State which are 
high in ash have a high specific gravity, as is shown by the greater 
specific gravity of tlie bony layers that are separated from the purer 
coal by washing. Coal containing a large amount of moisture is low 
in specific gravity, because the moisture, wliich forms a definite part 
of the mass, has a lower specific gravity tlian the average of tlie otlier 
constituents of coal which it replaces. 

The mineral accessories vary considerably, but none except resin 
indicate the character of the coal. Resin was not found in the State 
by the writer except in coal that is only sUghtly altered from its 
original state of deposition, such as the low-grade subbituminous coal 
of Thurston, Lewis, and Cowlitz counties, and to some extent the 
high-grade subbituminous coal of Lewis, Thurston, and King counties. 
Sulphur is found in coal of all kinds, from lignite to anthracite; tlie 
largest amount is found in the Fuca coal, which in the sample analyzed 
contains 5.97 percent. In this bed the sulphur is disseminated tlirough 
the coal, or occurs as thin lenses of marcasite or pyrite and as ^'nigger- 
heads" in places several feet in maximum diameter. In tlie other 
coals tlie sulphur usually occurs in '^sulphur" balls and ^'nigger- 
heads" of varying sizes. The presence of mineral charcoal in the 
beds was not observed. 

The character of tlie flame depends on the amount and character 
of the volatile combustible. Anthracite, wliich has a low percentage 
of volatile combustible, burns with a sliort blue flame, and oxidation 
of the combustible matter is practically complete. As a rule the bitu- 
minous coal of tlie State lias a high j)ercentage of volatile combustible. 
It burns with a long yellow flame and produces a large amount of 
smoke in an ordinary furnace. ITnder forced draft it produces a very 
high temperature in tlie uptake. wSubbituminous coal and lignite also 
have a large percentage of volatile combustible and burn with a long 
yellow flame and the accompanvinir large amount of soot and smoke. 

The odor of the gases resulting from the combustion of anthracite 
coal is mostly sulphurous. The promin(»nce of this odor is probably 
due to the relatively small p(»rcentage of hydipcarbons in the coal. 
The odor of gases from bituminous and subbituminous coals is bitu- 
minous and is due to their large content of hydrocarbons, although 
sulphur frequently occurs in suliicient quantities to be distinctly 
noticeable. Lignite gives out, in combustion, an odor between bitumi- 
nous and resinous. 

The character and amomit of ash depend on the amount of the 
original ash of the vegetable matter and on the amount of extraneous 
mineral matter represented by such impurities as partings, lenses, 



PHYSICAL. PEOPERTIES OF THE COALS. 27 

'* sulphur '^ balls, and roof and floor rock, which can not be readily 
separated in mining the coal and preparing it for market. Except in 
a ver}'^ few of the high-grade bituminous coals and the low-grade coal 
in the vicinity of Chehalis, tlie amount of ash is generally medium or 
high. Coals having a white ash contain only a small amount of iron; 
a red ash indicates the presence of a larger quantity. The tendency of 
coal to clinker is beUeved to be due to tlie fusibiUty of the iron in the 
ash. Inasmuch as the use of coal for some purposes depends to a 
considerable extent on freedom from clinkers, coal having a white or 
light-colored ash is preferable to coal forming darker aslies. The 
fineness or coarseness of the ash depends to a considerable extent on 
the amount of intrinsic ash of the coal; those coals which have a low 
percentage of such ash bum completely, leaving a powder, and those 
which have a high percentage do not bum completely, but leave what 
is called a **core." 

SUMMARY. 

Anthracite coal has the following characteristic physical properties: 
Black color, streak, and powder; pitch black, brilliant luster; massive 
or bedded structure with only major joints; dense texture; irregular 
conchoidal fracture with very bright faces and sharp edges; consid- 
erable elasticity; very hard, distinct, metallic ring on impact; high 
specific gravity ; short blue flame with relatively little odor and no 
smoke on combustion. 

Bituminous coal has the following characteristics : Black color and 
dark-brown streak and powder; bright vitreous or dull luster; struc- 
ture generally banded by layers of slightly different character and 
more or less broken by joints; texture locally dense, but usually 
banded in proportion to the amount of intimately mixed ash; fracture 
varying from cubic through hackly and irregular to splintery; adher- 
ence of powder proportional to the coking quality of the coal; elas- 
ticity depending on the purity of th^ coal and the absence of joints ; 
hardness variable but generally intermediate between that of anthra- 
cite and that of subbituminous coal; impact dependent on joints and 
less metalUc than that of anthracite; specific gravity somewhat less 
than that of anthracite and greater than that of subbituminous coal; 
long flame and considerable smoke, with a distinctly bituminous odor 
on combustion. 

Subbituminous coal exhibits the following characteristic physical 
properties : Black color, with a reddish-brown streak and powder ; mas- 
sive structure, in places slightly bedded and generally free from minor 
joints; laminated, woody, or earthy texture; fracture generally con- 
choidal, but in some varieties cubical ; adherence of powder very slight ; 
considerable elasticity : hardness in inverse ratio to the moisture con- 
tent ; dull impact ; low specific gravity ; occasional occurrence of resin : 
long yellow, smoky, resinous or bituminous flame on combu 



28 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

and "slacking'' on exposure to the air through loss of moisture. 
In point of coherences the coal is generally tough, but it may occa^- 
sionally be brittle. 

I^ignite has the following physical properties: Brown color, with 
reddish-brown streak and powder; dull, woody, or earthy luster, in 
places slightly satiny, resembling cannel, when freshly fractured; 
massive structure between partings; structure -having only lai^e 
joints; fracture generally conchoidal, but locally splintery, resembling 
cannel; coherence usually tough; no adherence of powder; elasticity 
noticeably high; dull impact; low specific gravity; frequent occur- 
rence of resin; long yellow, very sooty and smoky flame on combustion. 

EFFECT OF EXPOSURE ON MOISTURE. 

Coal high in moisture gives up a small percentage of moisture on 
exposure to the air when not kept continually wet by precipitation 
or by artificial means. It is also believed that subbituminous coal 
and Ugnite, which have a very large percentage of moisture, give up 
a much larger amount if exposed immediately to dry air or the sun 
than they do after standing for some time exposed to mine air or 
moist air or after weathering when not exposed to excessive drying. 

Two samples (Nos. 9089 and 9573) from the upper bench of the 
Hannaford mine at Tono were collected from the same face. Sample 
No. 9089 was perfectly fresh. It was obtained when the top coal 
was being drawn in a room of the lower bench. The can containing 
the sample was broken, however, in transit, exposing for only a few 
hours the sample to the atmosphere of a small mail sack which was 
not exposed to the stin. The coal was then transferred to a new can 
and sealed air tight. The work in this room of the mine was aban- 
doned soon after the writer's visit. Nine weeks later a second visit 
was made to the mine to obtain another sample. The original chan- 
nel from which the first sample was obtained was found intact. Two 
inches of the coal to the right of the channel was removed, after which 
the second sample (No. 9573) was cut by channeling across this face 
in the same manner as before. This sample was exposed to the 
mine air about nine weeks and was, therefore, presumably slightly 
weathered. The total moisture content, however, of the two samples 
was nearly the same, and is about the same as m other samples 
obtained in this mine. This indicates that very little moisture evap- 
orated from the coal during its exposure to the mine atmosphere. 
A computation from the moisture content of the two samples shows 
that 23.8 per cent of the total moisture of the first sample (No. 9089) 
was retained after air drying, as compared with 66.5 per cent of the 
second sample (No. 9573). In the other samples the amount of 
moisture retained was as follows: No. 9095, 26.3 per cent; No. 9094, 
24.3 per cent; No. 9096, 26.4 per cent. The average of the three is 



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE COALS. 29 

25.7 per cent. In July two cars of nin-of-mine coal from the lower 
bench were shipped from the mine to Pittsburg, Pa., and the analysis 
(No. 8752) of the coal as it reached the laboratory is given in the 
accompanying table (p. 75). This analysis shows that 71.9 per cent 
of the total moisture wluch reached the laboratory was retained on 
air drying, or 58.7 per cent of the total moisture which left the mine, 
w^hich is about 2^ times the average held by the mine samples. 

M; R. Campbell referred the wTiter to a similar change which took 
place in a car sample of North Dakota Ugnite collected by him in 
1905 and tested at the fuel-testing plant of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey at St. LouLs, Mo.^ In two mine samples, No. 1971 
retained 15.4 per cent of the total moisture on air drying and No. 
1972 retained 20.8 per cent. A car sample contained 68.1 per cent 
of its total moisture after air drying, or about 47.3 per cent of the 
total moisture it contained before drying in transit and storage. 
Campbell reports that the coal was shipped in a closed car from the 
mine to St. Ix)uis, but that all the storage bins were full when it 
arrived at the laborator}^ and the sample was dumped in a pile in the 
open air. It had stood exposed to the air for some time when it was 
finally analyzed and tested. 

The effect of exposure during transportation on carload samples of 
the same kind of coal is shown by the test and analyses of the other 
samples from North Dakota in the same report. In a mine sample 
(No. 1730) 19.5 per cent of the original moisture was retained, but 
in the carload sample No. 2365 from the same mine 52.1 per cent 
of the moisture content of the coal on arrival at the laboratory, or 
42.5 per cent of the content when the coal left the mine, was retained 
after air drying. Mine samples Nos. 1935 and 1938 and car sample 
No. 2243 were taken from another mine. Sample No. 1935 retained 
20.3 per cent and No. 1938 held 20 per cent of the moisture after 
air drying. The car sample No. 2243 retained 64.7 per cent of the 
moisture that reached the laboratory or 53.5 per cent of the moisture 
that left the mine. 

The result of these comparisons indicates that subbituminous coal 
and lignite which contain a large amount of moisture give up a greater 
percentage of their moisture in the laboratory process of air drying, 
if taken from a fresh face and sent immediately from the mine to the 
laboratory in air-tight cans, than they do if exposed to the circulation 
of air in the mine, or in transit to the laboratory, or in storage while 
awaiting analysis. 

The conclusion is that upon exposure to the atmosphere in the mine, 
in transportation, or in storage, the relation to the coal of at least a 
part of the moisture content is so altered that it is not given up read- 
ily in the ordinary method of air drying. It is not known whether 

> Preliminary report on the opemtions of the fiiel-tcstinR planl of the United States (Jeological Survey 
at St. Louis, Mo., 1905; Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 290, lUOG, p. 135. 



30 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

this is a physical or a chemical change. It is hoped that experimenta- 
tion will be carried on which will determine the character of this 
alteration. 

Inasmuch as the amount of weathering and the amount of moisture 
retained by the weathered sample will vary with an innumerable 
combination of conditions, the only uniformity in the air-drying loss 
of low-grade coal will be found in samples from unweathered coal 
analyzed as soon as received at the laboratory. The air contained in 
the interstices of the coal in the can probably has some effect on the 
moisture, but if the sample is ground in the mine so as to pass through 
a i-inch to ^-inch mesh and packed in the can the amount of air is 
reduced nearly to a minimum. A finer reduction of the fragments 
would probably allow the air in the pore spaces to affect the finer par- 
ticles more readily, since tlie mass of a fragment is much smaller in 
proportion to its diameter and the surface exposed to the air is much 
greater in proportion to the mass in small pieces of coal than in large 
pieces. A mixture of large pieces with the spaces packed with smaller 
fragments would be the best way of reducing the effect of the air to a 
minimum, but this method wpuld not produce a representative sam- 
ple and consequently should not be used. 

Samples of coal high in moisture, analyzed in commercial labora- 
tories, show considerable variation in the amount of moisture from 
the same mine, due probably to different methods of sampling, to dry- 
ing in transit, and to alteration of the relation of the moisture to the 
coal by exposure to the air — all causes which may be ultimately re- 
duced to lack of uniformity in the methods of sampUng and trans- 
portation to the laboratory. Discrepancies are generally due to the 
following circumstances: (1) Samples are not taken from fresh faces 
of unweathered coal; (2) sami)les are not cut uniformly from the face 
of the coal; (3) the coal is not ground and sealed in the mine or under 
atmospheric conditions similar to those existing at the face where the 
sample was taken; (4) the coal is not always ground and sealed imme- 
diately after being cut and is frequently exposed to the air for a con- 
siderable length of time; (5) the coal is not always pulverized to the 
same size and thoroughly mixed, quartered, and packed in an air- 
tight can; (6) the sample is not always sealed in an air-tight can 
packed full, but is frequently shipped to the laboratory in a box 
or sack which admits of more or less circulation of the atmosphere; 
(7) the sample is not always sent so as to reach the laboratory in the 
shortest possible time and is therefore exposed to the air for varying 
lengths of time; (8) the coal is not alwaj^s analyzed as soon as it reaches 
the laboratory. It is hoped that in the future commercial samples 
will be taken by the metliod herein described, so that the results will 
be mutually comparable, as well as comparable with the Government 
work. 




MORTARS *ND PESTLES. 



A. Showint 

B. Snow.n, 

I>. Sn<"' 






PHYSICAL, PROPERTIES OF THE COALS. 31 

COKING COAL OF WASHINGTON BY PISHEL TEST. 

M. A. Pishel ^ found by experimentation on a large number of sam- 
ples of coal from different parts of the United States tliat the best cok- 
ing coal, when finely pulverized in an agate mortar, adheres very 
strongly both to the mortar and to the pestle and can be removed 
only by rubbing or washing, and that noncoking coal does not adhere 
either to the mortar or to the pestle. This test was appUed to nearly 
all the coals sampled by the writer. In making the test a dry sample 
is selected from each bench in the bed, or from each part of a bench 
if the bed is not uniform. A small quantity of the coal is pulverized 
in a mortar until it will pass tlirough a 100-mesh sieve, and after the 
pulverized coal has been poured from the mortar the amount and char- 
acter of the adhesion of the powder to the pestle and the mortar are 
observed. Stages of adhesion range from that of a deep covering of 
greasy or gummy powder, resembling iron filings clustered on the poles 
of a magnet, which adheres so strongly to the surface that it can be re- 
moved with difficulty, to that of thin films of powder wliich will 
scarcely soil the finger. Between these two extremes was found to 
be complete gradation. Coal wliich adhered fairly well was found to 
produce a fair grade of coke. Coal wliich adhered only slightly 
formed a poorer grade of coke and then only under the most favorable 
conditions for coking. The scale of adhesion given by Pishel in de- 
scribing liis test is used in Table 3 of this report. By this scale coking 
coals are graded in respect to coking quaUties as poor, medium, good, 
and exceUent. 

The author experimented while in the field with mortars of dif- 
ferent composition to ascertain if possible whether the coal would 
adhere to substances other than agate. Porcelain, glass, earthen- 
ware, and iron mortars were used, and the powder of coking coal ad- 
hered to all; the powder adhered to a piece of flat glass just as well 
as to the mortar, but it was more difficult to reduce the powder to the 
proper degree of fineness on the flat surface. It appears that a ' 
powder must be of a certain degree of fineness in order to show the 
property of adhesion. Pocahontas (W. Va.) coal, powdered both on 
smooth and rough surfaces, was found to adhere provided the surface 
was not too soft or too rough to admit of the reduction of the particles 
to the proper size. In general a hard smooth surface is preferable, 
because the use of such a surface insures a finer and more uniform 
powder. (See PI. II.) 

The following table shows the results of the tests on the bituminous 
coals of Washington examined and on a sample of Pocahontas coal 
from Virginia: 

> A pptotioal t(«t4or coking coals: Ecoq. Geolog>', vol. ^, 1908, 44>. 265^275. 



32 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



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34 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

IMPX7BITIES. 

The impurities wliich have the most important effect upon the 
quality and commercial value of the Wasliington coals are sulphur, 
moisture, ami ash. 

SULPHUR. 

The amount of sulphur in the coal of tliis State is generally very 
small. Only a few samples show more than 2 per cent. The sulphur 
is either disseminated through the main mass of the coal, or occurs 
in the form of lenses, nodules, and irregular masses of marcasite or 
pyrite. In the latter form the marcasite or pyrite is associated 
with other minerals, such as silica and iron, and is considered as 
ash when its amount is too small to be easily removed in preparing 
the coal for the market. 

MOISTURE. 

Moisture is present in amounts depending on the metamorphism 
of the coal. Anthracite has very little moisture. Bituminous coal 
has from 2 to 12 per cent, about half of wluch is given up on air 
drying. Subbituminous coal has from 9 to 25 per cent of moisture, 
and gives up from one-tlurd to three-fourths of this when air-dried. 
As a general rule coal that is high in moisture slacks on exposure to 
air and sparks readily under forced draft. It is therefore of much 
less commercial value than coal that is low in moisture. 

ASH. 

The amount of ash in a coal and its condition and origin have 
very great effects both on the preparation of the coal for use and on 
its market value, and accordingly tlie cost of reducing the amount of 
ash in a coal as it is mined is one of the most important factors in 
determining the economic value of a coal bed. Washington coal 
as it comes from the mine has a large amount of ash, due to varying 
combinations of inorganic material derived from the vegetable matter 
from which the coal was formed, extraneous material wliich became 
mixed more or less intimately with the carbonaceous material during 
accumulation, vein material deposited after the coal was formed, 
and broken or shaly roof or floor material that "slacks,'' scales off, 
or mLxes with the coal in mining. 

The ash derived from the vegetal material which formed the 
coal consists of the remains of the organisms contributary to the 
formation of the coal, and it may be termed " original '' or '' residual." 
Those plants wliich contain a large amount of inorganic material will 
tend to produce a coal of liigh ash content, other conditions being 
^qual. 



IMPURITIES. 35 

Addition to the residual ash is brought about by several processes 
and conditions. The rate of accumulation of the layers of peat from 
which the coal was formed is one of the factors. If a layer 1 inch 
thick accumulates in so short a time that the organic matter does not 
have a chance to decay, the resulting coal will be lower in ash than 
if the layer had resulted from a relatively long period of accumulation 
and far advanced decay. 

Ash that is more or less intimately mixed with the coal but not 
derived from the original organic d6bris is either of eolian origin 
or has been laid down as sediment or deposited from solution. In 
some places ash of this kind has been deposited in the form of minute 
veins by precipitation from mineralized waters after the coal was 
formed. Many beds of peat, such as those of the northern part of 
Iowa and those of the salt marshes bordering the Atlantic coast, 
contain a large amount of ash in the form of dust or sand derived 
from the adjoining regions. The amount of meteoric material 
included in coal depends on the length of time required for the 
deposition of the organic material; on whether climatic, physio- 
graphic, and geologic conditions of the adjoining region were favor- 
able to slow or rapid formation of dust or sand; and on whether 
meteoric conditions were favorable to the transportation of dust to 
the bog or marsh in wliich the coal measures were forming. 

The intimately mixed ash resulting from sedimentation is brought 
from adjacent land areas by surface waters. This sediment is 
usually very fine and is deposited as silt in the interstices between 
the fragments of organic material as they accumulate in the bog or 
marsh. A very small amount of this extraneous matter is not visible 
in coal, but larger amounts produce the various stages of impure 
coal, bony coal, bone, carbonaceous shale, and the like. 

Incoming water carries in solution varying quantities of mineral 
matter. If the water of the bog or marsh is not drained off, but 
is removed by evaporation, the minerals will sooner or later reach 
their saturation point and will be precipitated, forming minerals 
that mix with the particles of organic material and form a part of 
the ash. 

The ash that is separate from the coal occurs as partings, lenses, 
nodules, concretions, and veins. It originates at the time of the 
formation of the coal, in part from eolian or meteoric dust or sand, 
but principally from mineral matter dissolved or suspended in water. 
It may also be formed in the bed after the organic material has been 
deposited during the different stages in the alteration of the coal. 

If at any time in the formation of a coal bed conditions are such 
that the organic material in the bog or marsh decays completely, the 
ash of the bed will accumulate in a layer free from carbonaceous mat- 
ter. This layer will be a parting in the bed if it is not removed before 



36 COALfi OP THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

the further deposition of the coal-forming substances. If conditions 
for a sliort time allow the carrying of extraneous material into the 
area of accumulation greatly in excess of the rate of formation of 
the coal, it will be deposited in a layer or lens in the coal. 

In places small veins of calcite, selenite, quartz, or other minerals 
occur in the coal. These veins probably originate by deposition 
from mineralized water in the joints of the coal at some stage in its 
devolatilization or development. In the State of Washington veins 
of calcite up to half an inch in tliickness occur in the lower part of 
the bed No. 2 at the Ladd mine (p. 160). Ash also occurs in the 
form of nodules, such as "niggerheads*' and "sulphur" balls. The 
mode of origin of these nodules is not known, although it is believed 
that they were formed during the deposition or subsequent to the 
formation of the coal. They vary from a fraction of an inch to several 
feet in maximum diameter. Several layers of tliis material occur in 
the Roslyn bed as definite partings and extend for some distance. 
The great specific gravity of impurities of t]us kind, together with 
their other physical characteristics, makes it possible to separate 
them from the lighter coal by wasliing and from the lump coal by 
picking. ' 

The amount of ash in commercial coal depends to a large extent 
on the character of the roof and floor and the amount and prominence 
of the joints. In some of the mines in the area of low-grade coal in 
Thurston, Lewis, and Cowlitz counties the rocks overlying and 
underlying the beds are very poorly indurated and are consequently 
mixed with the coal in mining. In some places the rocks are indu- 
rated, but they disintegrate on exposure and break off in slabs wliich 
mingle with the coal. Unless great care is taken to remove this 
extraneous material, the amount of ash is likely to be so large as to 
materially reduce the value of the commercial coal. In the areas of 
high-grade bituminous coking coals the coal is minutely jointed. 
The joints affect not only the coal, but many of the partings, and 
frequently the roof and floor, so that it requires the most refined 
methods of washing to remove the impurities that become mixed ^dth 
the coal during the process of mining. 

With very few exceptions, the Washington coal beds contain one 
or more partings of sand, shale, or clay^ some of which material mixes * 
with the coal in mining and therefore' increases the ash in the com- 
mercial coal. The percentages of ash in the analyses accompanying 
this report are almost invariably highypr than they would have been 
if clean coal had been taken. The partings are either too thin to be 
removed economically or they resemble the coal so closely in phys- 
ical properties that they can not be completely separated by any 
method so far devised. 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 37 

COMPABATIVE QUAUTY AND DISTBIBTJTION OF THE COALS. 

The coal of the State ranges from low-grade subbituminous to 
anthracite. In general, variation in the character and quality of 
the coals is regional rather than local, although many of the beds 
are locally burned out or altered to coke.* In his reports on Wash- 
ington coal, Willis ^ makes the following statement regarding the coal 
in the Green River district near Black Diamond: '^Beyond the area 
of this mechanical influence the coal changes into lignite by transi- 
tion within a single bed.^' The name of the bed concerning which 
this statement was made is not given. The writer looked for evi- 
dence to verify this statement while in the field,' but was unable to 
find any. It seems possible from Willis's report that he considered 
that the subbituminous bed at Danville might be the continuation of 
the McKay bed at Black Diamond. The identity of these two beds 
has not been established, and at present all the evidence available 
points to the conclusion that they are different beds. In general, 
anthracite and bituminous coal occur nearer the main axis of the 
Cascade Mountains, and subbituminous coal occurs farther from the 
range and nearer the center of the Puget Sound depression. In the 
depression between Puget Sound and Columbia River the coal is sub- 
bituminous. None of the coals at the mines and prospects visited 
by the writer were typical brown lignite. The coal at the Union 
Coal Co.'s mine, near Littell, and that in Cowlitz County are brown- 
ish black in color, and probably they are nearest to true lignite. The 
coal at the Hannaford mine, at Tono, is the only distinctly subbitu- 
minous coal in the district. The Mendota coal is on the border line 
between the two groups, but should probably be classed as a low- 
grade subbituminous coal. It is slightly brownish black, contains 
much more moisture than the average subbituminous coal, and much 
less moisture than the lignite of North Dakota. In the western part 
of King County subbituminous coal occurs in an area lying between 
Renton, Daiiville, and sec. 13, T. 24 N., R. 6 E. This coal is grayish 
black, contains a large amount of moisture, and slacks when exposed 
to the direct rays of the sun. East of this area and south of Snoqual- 
mie River, in King County, most of the coal is bituminous except 
where it is altered locally by igneous action to coke. At Kummer, 
south of Franklin, several beds contain a large amount of moisture 
and slack on exposure to the sun. The coal of Kittitas and Pierce 
counties is bituminous. In Pierce Countv the coal from the lower 
part of the formation carries less ash and has a greater heating value 
than that from beds higher in the formation. The bituminous coal 

> WiUls, Bailey, Some coqI fields of Puget Sound: Eighteenth Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, pt. 3, 
1806, p. 402, and WUlls, Bailey, and Smith, Cr. O., Taooma folio (No. 54), Geol. Atlas U. S., U. 8. Geol. 
Survey, 1899. 



38 COALS OP THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

at Ladd appears to be the southward corxtinuation of the bituminous 
area of Pierce County. The coal of Clallam County has been described 
in previous reports as lignite, but the coal of that area with which the 
writer is familiar lacks the physical properties of lignite and should 
be classed as bituminous. It is possible, however, that coal from 
other beds in the district is subbituminous or even lignite. The coal 
of the Bellingham and Skagit River regions is reported much jointed, 
very friable, and so high in fixed carbon that it is considered a very 
good grade of bituminous or, possibly, semibituminous coal. Speci- 
mens of coal from Skagit County, which the writer saw at the Alaska- 
Yukon-Pacific Exposition, indicated that it was nearer semibitumi- 
nous than any other coal seen in the State. The anthracite district 
at the head of Cowlitz River, in Lewis County, is the only one visited 
by the writer, although a second anthracite area is reported on Glacier 
Creek, near Mount Baker, in Whatcom County. 

COMMERCIATi USE OF THE COAL.. 

The commercial value of the Washington coal depends chiefly on 
the composition of the particular coals and on the distance of the mine 
from markets. 

The anthracite is not used at the present time for lack of trans- 
portation facilities. The demand for anthracite for domestic use is 
great, but the prevailing price is so high that the better grades of 
bituminous coal must be utilized instead. 

The bituminous coal has various uses. The coals from the McKay 
field in King County, from Pittsburg and the easternmost beds at 
South Willis, from beds Nos. 3 and 4 at Ladd, and from the Roslyn 
bed at Clealum and Roslyn are free burning and noncoking. They 
burn rapidly and produce a very hot fire, but the fire must be fed 
more frequently and with smaller quantities of coal than when cok- 
ing coal is used. Coals of this type that are not too high in ash have 
a good heating value, and are valuable for domestic use and for gen- 
erating steam, and the Roslyn coal is used extensively in the eastern 
part of the State. The coals from the remainder of the eastern part 
of King County, from the rest of Pierce County, from bed No. 2 at 
Ladd, from Cokedale, in Skagit County, and from the west end of 
the Roslyn field coke to a greater or less degree. Coal from Coke- 
dale, Snoqualmie, Burnett, Wilkeson, Carbonado, Fairfax, Monte- 
zuma, and bed No. 2 at Ladd have been used for coking, and at the ' 
present time practically the entire output of the Wilkeson, Fairfax, 
and Montezuma mines is being used in the manufacture of metallurgi- 
cal and foundry coke. Coke of various grades hiis been made from 
the other coals, and those that have not been coked show fair coking 
tendencies by the Pishel test. (See p. 81.) All these coals are high 
in volatile matter and produce a hot fire; they ignite easily and, on 



COMMEKCTAL USE OF THE COAL. 39 

account of their coking tendencies, hold the fire much longer than 
the free-burning coals. They are used very generally for domestic 
purposes and for generating steam. The coal from Burnett, Wilke- 
son, Carbonado, the west end of the Roslyn field, and several other 
places in the region is used to a considerable extent in the manufac- 
ture of illuminating gas. Some of the coal, notably the washed coal 
from Wilkeson, Fairfax, and Montezuma, is used in blacksmithing, 
but the finer kinds of welding are done with coal imported from the 
Eastern States. 

Experiments on both classes of bituminous coal, designed to test 
their suitability for naval use, indicate that their content of volatile 
combustible matter is too high to permit their use in the boilers now 
in service, because they produce too high temperature in the uptake 
and an excessive amount of soot. The introduction of furnaces that 
will consume the gases before they leave the combustion chamber 
might make possible the employment of many of these coals on naval 
vessels. They are now used by Pacific steamships whose require- 
ments are not so exacting as those of the Navy, by railroads, and 
for domestic and commercial purposes. 

Subbituminous coal is produced in the vicinity of Issaquah, New- 
castle, Renton, Cedar Moimtain, and Danville, m King C'oimty, and 
near Tono, in Thurston County. On account of the large amount of 
moisture in this kind of coal, it swells and crumbles readily when 
placed on a fire. With forced draft, the pieces resulting from the 
cnmibling are blown out with the smoke in considerable quantities, 
so that much of the fuel is wasted and in inflammable structures con- 
siderable risk of fire is entailed. Owing to the high percentage of 
combustible volatile matter in the coal, a large amount of soot is 
formed and the temperature in the uptake is rather high. This coal 
is used mainly for domestic purposes, or by steam boilers having 
natural draft. A fire made with this coal in furnaces and stoves is 
very hot when there is sufficient natural draft but cools very rapidly 
when the supply of air is shut off. As a rule the coal does not hold 
a fire nearly so long as bituminous coal. Subbituminous coal is used 
by some of the steamships of the Pacific Coast Steamship (^o., and 
to some extent by railroads, besides supplying the domestic and com- 
mercial needs of the cities and towns near Puget Sound. 

The low-grade subbituminous coal from Thurston, Lewis, and Cowlitz 
counties is high in moisture and crumbles readily when exposed to 
the sun or air. It must be used within a short time after it is brought 
from the mine or it will crumble to pieces and fall through the grate. 
When placed upon a hot fire, it crumbles and swells ver}" rapidl}', 
and forms a great many sparks. Ownng to the high percentage of 
volatile combustible matter contained in it a great deal of soot y 
formed imless proper j)recautions are taken to assure the compU 



40 COALfi OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

combustion of the gases. The great amount of moisture in this coal 
gives it a lower heating value than the other coals in the State, and 
consequently it is not in very great demand except where better coal 
is scarce and high in price. Most of this coal is used by the local 
trade or is shipped south, away from the centers of mining of the 
coal of better grades. It is used almost entirely for domestic pur- 
poses and for stationary boilers with natural draft. 

The rapid growth in the utilization of producer gas for the genera- 
tion of power is opening a way for the use of low-grade subbitumi- 
nous coal and lignite. Campbell^ sets forth the value of these low- 
grade coals in the production of producer gas, and points out as 
essential features the facts that low-grade coal yields practically 
double or more than double the amount of power in the producer that 
it will yield in a steam plant, and that low-grade fuels, such as North 
Dakota and Texas lignite and Florida peat, yield more power in the 
producer than the best West Virginia coal under the ordinary type of 
steam boiler. These experimental results make it hopeful that it will 
soon be possible to build and conduct producer plants satisfactorily 
on a commercial scale. Low-grade coal, which now is disposed of 
with difficulty, will then find a ready market. 

1 Campbell, M. R., Recent improvements in the utilitation of ooal: Eccm. Cieology, a'oI. 2,April-lffa7, 
1907. 



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sot^t-^oo V«*Vt^ «dt>^r^oo 



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^M'<«ira ^ratoM oSfhcco) towOrN -^i^aDC 

r^t^t^od r^tCfloo ooorT eO(or>^ad «o«50q6 ocot-Too 






SS7^ ?^^3^ SSS^ $S9S S^g^ SoSS^ 

oa>t»ao pioooo) ^^a»c4 eo^oo ^^ic^A^ e>*^a»c5 






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fdriSS g^rfgS SSS^ S&S8 SSS8 s^ss 



SSS^SS SSSoSS 8&SS SSS^S S^SSo^ 89SSS3 

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lOiOiQtO lOkO^ViiO 



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«a««ot» KoDAo •^^^•o «*^^ 'r^'«rM5 «cow'«' ^'^»'*«o fot»r«oo t»f»r^oo f-ir-i^co 

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^^:^S Jil^'glSS sisjsd ss:s^ ^sssd SSSS^ 9^$S^ ^$S^ ^^9S ^9^S$ 



CO CO BO V 



co«e<«io 



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OOtOffOW Co CO rt W COCOCOCO COCOCOW COCOCO^ CO CO CO V CO CO CO V cococo^ 



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52 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



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tc«t«ao toioot^ 


















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c^ i-i cS to c: 1^ o c^ 



SSQfi OOOO QOQ9 

S^9P nv^i-i SxSoD 

eoi5a6t» ^*1-«r>9^3 S^ran 

c>fc*ci'<* cicoeqio aooObV 



lOtOOO >OQ»043 *<3QOO 

u5r«^<t« t^Q<~>Q r«oS9 

ofOO»^<-i om^io a»^c95 

®«t^od t^rxTbJod ^loiot^ 



_ • • • • _• J • • 









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Xi-«<«'^ QC^e^Q aco-^^ «--ie*ir*i>» OQ^oQ m>O(0t» (Q9'^^9 
•-<iC4c^^ S5>o«o» t4>o;ct« iQiOkOiO ^S*oto Krot^oo iowScso 



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c4e<ie< 



HcQce 



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a»Oiot>- cioc>ici toeo'^'O <c>ox3) r««x^ e*ia6r^c^ coMOOk 

xQ^x ocjcoco ^^t^t^ cin^oQ go^Qo^ e^co^ci t>^a6csqb 
^•2)io*Q 9^^a5 9^Y>c lOtoiOiO ^'•rd^SS tou5<o«o eoMeewS 






^^C4C0 Xr<-I^X i-iX;Cr-i I^COm^ C4XO0& ootoco occ«h^ 

■^jSirt'C-^ i-<r<c5c>9 cjcj'^ci «5t>^x>^ irfiQ;Ct-i «^c4eit» «f9!QS$C> 
e«9c«5wr eoecco'* eorteo^ cocow^ wcoco'* eoeoeow elel«^ 



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p|8 pig t^ii I^Sl T^|i 111* ' 
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Bayne, Pocahontas bed. 


3 

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Name of mln 
expos 


Occidental at 
3 bed. 


Occidental at 
6 bed. 


g| 

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Occidental at ; 
posite samp 


Prospect at Pi 
tion. 



ANALYSES. 



53 



gi§§ SgSS S^S^g 9§! 

OeoiO^ t»e<i5ot» o<-ieoO ^0( 



>opQ 000( 
' fc ^ 35 "r! ^ e ' 



IS! 



o»oaa»^ Oi-4<-ico ooooi^ t-ti-i^^'^ ooO'<«i mcsco^ f-iesic4^ 

f-i ^H^Hpi^tH f-i 1-^1-H^^rH fH^H^^»-t ^H rH ^H ^H ^H f-4 ^H f-i 



•ON ■<* t«-C5i 



i8S§ S§fi SgSS SSSg S3^§ iggs SSi^S 

Or-«cao oc5«oo 9o^t^ i-i^(oo» iqi-«oco oooc^o lot^ob^ 
totoiOQcr totosotoT ViQiot^ o«oot^ tctouar^ cor^t^od' «Dcd^ooo 



rH^es V cTnw^ 



(D<SDOQ0 <Ot»t^t^ 



»  • • 
rjr-WiO 



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sss^ 



cSra^ic •oS<s9 



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•oua^io 



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SSS3 s^i;^9 $9S^ i3S^^ s&s?: SSS3S ?:[e{^s ssss :s:s:ss ss^^ 



^Hl-H^^1-< (-^ «4 C>4 d 



CO CO CO 



• _ • • 

i-tC*CO 






I0^4>0 






;5S2 : ^^8 



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ooo 



* • • 

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•0 0>M 

• * • 



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v^eof-ieo '^O'Vh- r*>^<-ito 'vctco^ oa»QOto r«r-iC4Pi oeocoo oo^eo«o ic*o^ao eoo^-^ci 

Ǥ5so V^'vwj toSSS 53^^S eoeort" $SiOto 5$^^^ m^^$ 999to ^SSS 

t»^a»t» ciraeoeo «sc>««*o r*>c«esioa r-i^o»o ^'••cooo fc^c^o O'*®** a»r>-"i»N t^ooooo 

sassii ^sxSt^ »o«o«o» gaJgjg ^feSSs ^S^SSSi iS^sis sd£Jrs sd^iid si^^Q 

CVCSC4CO rococo^ COCOCO^P CO CO CO iC CO CO CO ^ COCOCO^ ^ 1" ^ »0 COCOCO'^ C0C0C9*<* 



ooo 1 ' 


too 


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ION 



?lll llll 111? •SSl'i -sill -sill ll'i'i I?! 

St: go ©5 8® l^^Z^ «5 8^ ©ego St: go Si; go 21:8 

^Z.>*% *^Mb§ *^Hb§ ^^b§ ^Hh§ ^^h§ ^^hS ^HhS ""^hS ^^hS 

«A^S wAUd B]-ai<9 tnZ3U3 m^US nJS^a 0Q.SU3 B^aus m^ws eQ>»^d 

^<qph -s;-<Qfr, -<-<Qa. -<<Qpu, -^-^QpL, -<<ft^ -<<fi(L, -<<jQpk -<-<Qpk •<-<Pa< 






a» 


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64 



COAIB OF THE STATE Of WAOmirGTOH. 



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Si, " 



3 



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§§89 !§§§ SSil §3i8 8§88 aS§8 8188 



•^•HM^ r^i«««o o^f^^ Qoe««i ^eiM« o,^,^m ^««if 



mt m^ ii§§ 8Si§ 8sss g8§g gsis 

^tS^tS VWtC fi^S^oS «»iO«r^ ifiSt^tS ^iSf6t> Mefeitf 






«S8!5 



y 



^li 



^1 



V 09 CO 1^ 









<9SS KS99S 






• ••• •••« 



S&SS :;S32S3 3r:;ts r^t^sS S3S988 {;Sp:si 8;r9r! 



C$ "v4«H 



• • • • • 



ddcivo nconflo 









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v^<cr«>^ «r«'^n <«*io^r« aot«Oftio *o^e«e «>«v40ft M9aoe«t« 

444:i cinUi ^^ii ^fifiU ^^lii 9?^s ^^Ui 






o>^^at toroAio ci>H«eeo cio^to -^^OkC* o«DOv4 •9«>r^M 

^!4^:< c^^^tSl ;S!9S$t9 SJii!^;; S;3]$S3 SJSiSiSi ^:^:^:d; 



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I-a-^i.^ Its'-'«i Ii'T'''-. It**' 






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Si: J? 8 



*• *= c, ^ i^v-i-w t.ur«^ v^S^ &k«?:*^ C ^ f. ^ &fcX*^ 

■j.^j-S K .Sk.= K-=^S KJSbS ao-fa^S n-S^a ggiZUS 

• • — — < "'T'^-M-M -?;'^ta.,-« -^-r;-^-^ -t;<G»-« '^•<i_i,,h ^.■^,^mt^ 






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ANALYSES. 



55 



Se^iv5 »^i>.S'* SSn§ 



CI M W lO 



0«-n-'« 00«-«'* 



\n\ 



ao«-i<-i( 



tsr^t^QO locDor- kootooo 



12.14 
6.10 
6.25 
5.93 






10.02 
0.99 
6.00 
8.06 


1.84 
1.98 
2.01 
2.28 






1.38 
1.43 
1.45 
1.95 


09.64 
75.12 
75.89 
85.90 






57.86 
60.08 
60.81 
81.71 


5.23 
4.70 
4. 09 
5.31 






4.92 
4.68 
4. GO 
6.18 



'^tQlOwS 


OOdaOO 


OO'^JIQOC 






f^ 


w^^^t^C-i 


10.09 
11.53 
11.05 


cicirt • 


24.34 
25.28 
25.58 






58.8 
61.3 
62.6 
72.2 


43.6 
45.2 
45.8 
61.5 


dcoteus 

• « • • 


to t^ 04 00 

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10,550 
11,000 
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1 


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As received... 

Air dried 

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As received 

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Dry coal 

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• 






As received... 

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Pure coal 


As received... 

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56 



COALS OP THE STATE OP WAfiHlNQTON. 



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ANALYSES. 



69 



Si; 






IgBS SS2! 

I d5 ,-4 1'. ifit^ot 






CCQQU 









C-a««*0 ,-^.-^»i^^ OOft^ CftOJOf .-(MW»0 .^-^»-i'r C^ C^ M lO i-it-iC^-f 



NMCI ■^ 






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s^r<.t»30 (0;0070 loovao •O'Oior^ coocc^ ^oo'-^oo oor>-co oooao o;ct»x 



^•^ o»c5 ^-fffics Mj'^uj^ ffloir-c^ 
— •Sh-'* ■^rtSooO tOiCt^o) q5oo»o 



COI-QM Q'OCS-f Q^aCCC 052>C» 
f^Oi^Sir ^^ff0»O iTbOs'Ci^ -HwrtS 



aC^SiOO O»O0:&X PIXOOO *-40X^>-4 



i-ooot^o o>t»cor« oooi^o> ooot^ao 



ooSS oSSo ^SsSSo t>-i-o6« 



30?5'=5ai e«3QOi-<c2 O't<occ2 QlCtr''3 

l>-QC3ScO t-lrHMO ^^l-l.-«« OOO^ 



CI M C4 Oil 



»^i-«»Mp« 1— l^^«Md r-i^i4r-iC<l 



,_,,_,r-(C^ C*C^(MC^ NC^eiC* C»CMC<C» 



SS8S S9S§& SSS^ ^SS$ 



-rt-»Q® t'-eooM dOJOi- 
ccociOJ PSoSi-i* »oi--*ao 






{^«r;o<3; Cjes-^jg tiQC3fi| ca^'2*' 
»»t«r<-QO ^;C;soo •oSooo >o^uot'> 



O!£iO30 oooqo oS'^x oooac 



'''S^iCO SirtSai-i eO-^t-O QP0l>-O 

frtrioB oOh-«DO» >-ia05O.-H c'5»-i»o 



SSJgfH SSSSr: SSgr:^ S?S5^3 



«0«0>C*0 •*^f»iO »0'«<««<0 ^fccus 



^Tf^iO »0'^"<f«0 '^^^•O M3tO»00 



0&0«-« '•''IH^IS «?'*«<»'<0 »-i..<Mt^ SSoabo CO^-I-'O »Ouiu5o i8«0»0t'» ^^"^"O mSc^^ 



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GC'O'^iO »O^Op^ OC««C<h- OCiOOM* -^OSt-O COOSOOO 00030^ WCCCIOS •O'^COO C»M««t>- 

3' '*'Qri !Q52t:Si cji"»oq5 litrsi'd Qcsicot© i>Ioooic^ ^^fjctj'f q»4?4c4 gjQrJQ Q':;^!:j 
•OMfO •^««"'*© ■W'^'^O COWMiQ 25«0«o3 ■*^fO »Ow5>rf'J5 35»OiO!0 "^iOiCW 'QiOiOO 



CCrOOO'O C»IO»-lO» ^OOCO QCOCCO t^C^-^O tOCiX'^ Ol^»-tOi t^CCCfi— * NOOM'I* -<a>"3C0 

e?eScSc8 RSSm^ 25?<S5 SSec^ JSc^^S ?5?4?iro SS^cS R^^M ^?3c?« p5eo^5e8 



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ANALYSES. 



71 



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eoeocoo' eoeo^*o c«e*n»e^ cfffn^o' cf^ci''^ — T^cf^ 



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cicJcici cicjcici i-i.-i,-Hcl 



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cio'cicj dddcs ^e-ioioi 



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10.77 
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10.93 
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12.45 
12.77 
12.93 


13.65 
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^£33si sl3:ss sssig^ sd^iS ds^ss ;3Si328 s^s^^ dsjssd ssis^ 9^9d 

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ks!is Sfcsd £i2S22SS ssds ^^^2 £i!;;^d ssisiji sidssss sd^ss ^;idss 

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I0009 «-r-i"X •— -^5^i? c>icic4«4 .-ic^ic>^«o Ci»-P*L- pi«PQ« 

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ANALYSES. 



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0<-«*0 MC4I>.aO 1-iCO !■«••-< •QQQ^ P^eOOO^ Cja»^«-i ^a*^"-" CO'-'I-Q <fi»f5» lOQiOQ 

»-n-30'^ tot*t»o w^'*P3 c*«^fl5» »oi-t>.o o:3"to mo'v* rHio«o35 »or~aowb ■*oi»o 

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COALfi OP THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



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76 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



Proximate analyses of coal samples from Whatcom and Skagit counties, Watk. 
[Analyzed by Bureau of Equipment of the Navy Department, Washington. P. C.J 



Place. 



Blue Canyon, T. 36 N., R. 5 E 
Ck)kedale, Fairhaven: 

T. 35 N., R. 5E... 

T. 37N., R. 4E 



Condition of sam- 
ple. 


Mois- 
ture. 

0.310 

2.980 
1.790 


Volatile 
matter. 


Fixed 
carbon. 


ABh. 

14.885 

2.010 
3.679 


As received 

....do 

do 


22.265 

35.030 
31.479 


62.395 

50.980 
62.744 



Sulphi 



DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS OF MINES, 

COALS. • 

DISTBIBUnON OF MINES. 



SAMPLES, AN 



The general distribution of the mining districts and the locationaF 
of the mines and prospects from which samples were obtained are^ 
shown on the accompanying map (PL III), which is based on the 
General Land Office map of the State with corrections and addi- 
tions from the topographic atlas sheets of the United States Geo-j 
logical Survey. The numbers of the mines and prospects refer tt)", 
the numbers in the Ust of mines and prospects ^ven at the edge of, 
the map. The system of railroads shows the connections between 
mines, centers of consumption, and tidewater shipping points. 

ORDER OF DESCRIPTION. 

It has been the custom in reports on the coal of the State to group 
the mines according to the counties in which they occur, and the 
county will be the unit used in the pubUcations contemplated by 
the State Geological Survey. Therefore the mines and the samples 
are here arranged and discussed in the same manner, the counties 
being considered in alphabetic order. The mines and prospects in Kit- 
titas County have been discussed from west to east, in Pierce County 
from north to south, in I^ewis County from east to west, and in 
Thurston County from south to north. Those in King County are 
arranged nearly in the order of a rude circle beginning near Grand 
Ridge and passing through Renton, Bhick Diamond, Bayne, and Tay- 
lor to Snoqualmie. The parts sampled are indicated in the sec- 
tion by an asterisk (*), a dagger (t), or b}^ the insertion of the 
sample number. 

» Samples were taken from all tlie working mines in the State except those at Park, Whatcom County, 
and at Kopiah, Lewis County. The Blue Canyon mine of the Whatcom County Coal Co. at Park has 
been in operation for many years. This coal has been rejieatedly analysed and its character is well 
known. A visit to the mine of the Wilson C^al Co. at Kopiah was made by the writ/er, but admission to 
the mine was refused. In Cowlitz County there are several small mines which the \iTiter was unable to 
visit and sample because the funds available for this investigation wore exhausted. Considerable 
development work has been done at different periods in Skagit County, hut no mines are at present in ' 
operation there because of the great number of faults and the lenticular character of tlie ix)al beds. 



IE DISTRIBUTKi:::^ 

Seals JPfBjfeS" 
5 

19U 



81 ? 

82. 83. 84 DRIFTS 

85. 86. 87 PROSPECTS 



r/a versus co.. wanriMervw. ai c 



t 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 77 

CLALLAM COUNTY. 

The coal fields of Clallam County were studied by Ralph Arnold 
in 1904 and are described by him in two reports.* 

The only mine at present operating is situated in the Clallam Bay 
field east of the town of Clallam. Most of the work being done at 
the time of the writer's visit was for the purpose of development. 
The analysis given by Arnold of the coal from Clallam was prob- 
ably that of a sample taken from another bed than that which is 
mined at the present time. The sample collected by the writer was 
obtained in February, 1910. 

FUCA. 

Fuca, a drift mine 6 miles east of Clallam on the shore of the strait 
of San Juan de Fuca. No. 1.^ 

Operator: Clallam Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — Several coal beds are reported as occurring in this 
vicuiity, but only one is being developed. An exposure higher on 
the liiU but on a bed underlying the one now being mined is reported, 
but it was not sampled. The beds strike nearly north and south 
and dip about 60® W. The bed now being mined, believed to be 
the middle one of the three referred to by Arnold in his reports, 
occurs in conglomerate containing pebbles up to 1 inch in diameter. 
The mine is situated on the face of a very steep sea cliff which rises 
sharply from the water^s edge to a height of about 400 feet. The 
entrance to the mine is about 50 feet above low tide. The gangway 
has been driven on the strike of the bed to a distance of about 450 
feet. A small fault was encountered which offset the bed a few 
feet. Practically all the coal between the level of the gangway and 
the surface has been worked out. The bed varies in thickness from 
1 foot 6 inches to 2 feet 6 inches, the average being about 1 foot 10 
inches. At several places in the mine lenses of coal from 5 to 50 
feet long and vaiying up to 2 feet in tliickness have been found 
beneath the main bed and separated fi'om it by several inches of 
shale. The coal bed is so thin that a large amount of rock work is 
necessary. In the gangway about 4 feet of the roof is brushed 
down for head room. The following section was measured where 
the sample was obtained : 

Section of coal bed in Fuca mine. 

No. 10030. f 

, Sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale 2J± 

*Coal 1 11 

Shale.. {^^2 ^ 

Sandstone. 

Coal bed 1 11 

1 Coal In Clallam County, Wash.: Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 260, 1905, pp. 413-421: Geological recon- 
naissance of the coast of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington: Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 17, 1906^ 
pp. 451-408, pis. 55-58. 

> Numbers refer to location on the map, PI. III. 




78 COALS OF THE BTAITE OF WASHINGnOV. 

Preparation far market. — ^A bunker of 100 tons capacitj has been 
erected at the entr^mce to the mme. (See PI. IV, A.) It extends 
over the water at high tide about 40 feet, and the coal can be loaded 
from it into barges when the water is not too rou|^ Hie ooal'is 
passed over 1-inch and ^-inch bar screens. The ovenuBB frant'l 
larger screen is hand-picked to remove "sulphur" balls and 
from the roof and floor, and the undersize is washed in a 
jig to remove the fine shale produced in mining. 

Sample far analysis. — Sample 10030 was taken at a point a 
feet above the gangway in chute 6, about 400 feet from the 
of the mine. The sandstone both above and below the coal 
massive and very resistant and makes an excellent roof and 
The shale immediately overlying the coal does not adhere to it ai^id 
does not come down in mining; the shale underlying the coal is mad 
as a ''mining" ^ and must be separated from the fine coal by p&cka^ 
and washing. The analysis of this sample is given on page 41. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal is pitch black, yery haid, 
and brittle, and has a vitreous luster. It is massive and laminated 
and breaks with an irregular splintery and conchoidal fracture. 
Although it contains nearly as much moisture as subbituminous coal, 
it gives off little on exposure to the air and hence does not air slack. 
It contains about the same amount of ash as the subbituminous coal 
of llentou and Coal C'reek. The percentaji^c of sulphur is h%her than 
in any of the other coals described in tliis report, owing to the occur- 
rence of many minute leasees of inarcasite or pyrite disseminated 
tlu'ough the main mass of the coal. The bed c<mtains many Uodulca 
of pyrite, from 1 inch to several feet in length, wliich can be readily 
separated from the coal by pickin<^ and washing. The amount of 
sulphur in the coal in dilferent parts of the bed varies considerably, 
according to the relative abundance or scarcity of the larger pyrite 
nodules. In many places the amount of sulphur in the coal may be 
as low as 2 per cent, and elsewhere as liigh as 10 per cent. It will be 
noticed from the analysis that the percentage of fixed carbon is con- 
siderably less than that of the volatile matter, the actual ratio of the 
two being about 9 to 10, a proportion suggestive of that wliich charac- 
terizes camiel coal. A splinter of the coal can be ignited with a match 
about as rcadil}- as cannel from the eastern part of the United Statx?s. 
The coal is dilferent in its characteristics from any other coal in the 
State or any other coal with which the writer is familiar. Although 
it resembles subbituminous coal in moisture content and heating 
value, it should be classed as bituminous coal on account of its ability 
to stand transportation without dishitegration. 

> " Mining " is a term iise<l in coal mlninp to indicate a ifoft layer on which work Ls begun in opening a 
bed. 



ii 



n 



S3 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 79 

COWLITZ COUNTY. 

The coal fields of Cowlitz County are not very well known on 
account of the dense surface covermg and the scanty outcrops. Coal 
has been reported at several places along the Northern Pacific Rail- 
way in the western part of the county, especially in the vicinity of 
Castle Rock and Kebo, and several small mines, opened to supply 
local trade, have been operated periodically for several y^ears. The 
location of some mines and prospects and a short discussion of the 
geology of the district has been given by Henry Landes.* 

In 1904, J. S. Diller ^ visited a mine (No. 81) on Coal Creek 12 miles 
west of Kelso, a few miles from a slough leading to Columbia River. 
The following description is taken from his report: 

The cool bed is 6 to 7 feet in thickness, with two small partings of sand. The top 
bench has 12 to 18 inches of bony coal, the middle bench 2} feet of better quality, 
and the lower bench 18 inches of coal in part good. The coal bed is overlain by soft 
sandstone. 

In the mine the coal looks bright, but on exposure it loses its luster, cracks somewhat, 
and partially slacks. Some part of it is well banded and contains small pieces of 
foBsil resin. 

Two specimenirfwere taken for analysis, one from the middle (No. 6760) and the other 
(No. 6761) from the lower bench. 

[The analyses of these samples as made in the United States Geological Survey 
laboratory by W. T. Schaller are given on page 41.] 
Mr Schaller reports that — 

" The bottle containing No. 6761 was broken when received at the laboratory. A 
moisture determination of the coarsely ground sample gave 17.79 per cent, showing 
that the coal had lost moisture in transit, due to the bottle being broken. For this 
reason no data are given for the coarsely ground No. 6761 sample. 

An aluminum sulphate occurs on the joint planes of 6761. The values for volatile 
combustible matter, fixed carbon, and ash in the coarsely ground No. 6760 are calcu- 
lated from the corresponding figures of the finely ground sample." 

The high percentage of water, ash, and sulphur present arc all against its utility. 
The coal was used in ninning the engine of the mine and appeared to bum well, but 
as to later developments in the mine no information is at hand. 

The bed of coal is interstratified with a lot of shales and shaly sandstones well 
exposed along Coal Creek near the mine. The strike of these beds near the mine is 
northwest-southeast, with a dip of about 15° SW., and it seems probable that if the coal 
on trial proves of sufficient value to work it could be traced to higher ground where gravity 
would be of greater service in operating the mine. There are igneous rocks cutting 
the coal-bearing beds in that region and the strata are faulted locally, but neither 
igneous rocks nor faults were seen near the mine. 

To judge from the above description of the coal it resembles the 
lower grade of coal in the vicinity of Centralia and Chelialis, in Lewis 
County, although it is considerably higher in its sulphur content. 

• Landes, Henry: Ann. Rept. Washington Geol. Survey, vol. 1, 1901, pp. 27?)-281: vol. 2, 1902, pp. 255-257. 

* I>tller, J. 8., Coal in Washington near Portland, Oreg.: Bull. U. S. Qeol. Survey No. 260, 1905, pp. 
411-412. 



80 COALS OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

KINO COUNTY. 
GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

The extent of the coal fields of King County is not well known. 
The surface is covered by dense timber and undei^rowth (PL Y) and 
by gravel and glacial drift (PI. \lj A) so that it is very difficult to 
trace the outcrops of the formations (PL ^^, B), and the character 
of the rocks is so variable and the quaUty of the coal so different 
within short distances that it is almost impossible to correlate coal 
beds on these criteria. Variations in quaUty of the coal from subbitu- 
minous to bituminous are regional rather than local, except w^here the 
beds have been altered by volcanic action. No coal bed so far as 
known can be said to be subbituminous in one part of a field and bitu- 
minous in another part. Both bituminous and subbituminous beds 
are constant in character within the fields in which they are known to 
occur, but variations in the character of coal of adjoining fields believed 
to be closely associated are often very marked. It is believed that 
the detailed work performed b}'^ tlie State Geological Survey during 
the summer and autumn of. 1909 will do much toward establishing 
the correlation of the beds in different parts of the county. 

The samples taken from this county were collected at different 
times between July, 1909, and January, 1910, but mostly during tlie 
months of July, August, and September. Several samples obtained 
by other collectors from the mines at Renton, Taylor, and Ravensdale 
in the last few years have been analyzed by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, and the analyses of these samples are given as a means 
of comparison with those taken by the writer. 

Gas is present in many of the minas of this county. In the mines 
at Black Diamond it is so abundant as to necessitate the use of safetv 

ftp 

lamps in all the workuigs. It occurs in small quantities in the sub- 
bituminous coal at Coal Creek, but chiefly in the bituminous coal 
nearer the main crest of the Cascade Mountains. 

PROSPECT NORTH OB^ ISSAQUAH. 

A prospect shaft 3 miles north of Issacfuah. No. 2. 

Opened by United States Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Subbituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^The coal bed probably belongs to the group of coal beds 
exposed at the Grand Kidge mine, to the south. It strikes N. 73® E. 
and dips 79° NW. A shaft has been sunk on the bed to a depth of 53 
feet. The following section was measured at the bottom of the shaft. 



A. FOREST UNOEHGHOWTH IN THE COAL DISTBICT NEAR BAVNE, KING COUNTY. 



Ft. 


in. 


3 


1 




2 


2 


9 




3 




3i 



KING COUNTY. 81 

Section of coal bed at United States Coal Co. '» prospect 3 miles north of Issaquah. 

Vo, 9891. 

Shale, (carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Clay, white, plastic 

♦Coal 

Clay, yellowish, white, plastic 

♦Coal, bony 

Shale, slaty, carbonaceous. 

6 6i 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9291 was taken at the bottom of the 
shaft. The two clay partings in the bed can be easily separated from 
tlie coal and wefe not included in the sample. The hanging wall and 
the foot wall of the bed, which are made up of carbonaceous shale, 
are firm and strong and do not mix with the coal. The analysis of the 
sample is given on page 41. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is grayish black and 
banded and has a splintery fracture. It contains a small amount of 
gas which could be heard escaping from the bottom of the shaft. 
The coal contahis a large amount of moisture and probably weathers 
rapidly on exposure to the direct rays of the sun, but large blocks 
exposed to the air under the cover of trees for several months showed 
no signs of breaking down. The coal has about the same heating 
value as the coal from the mines at Grand Ridge and Issaquah. 

GRAND RIDGE. 

Grand Ridge slope mine, on the Northern Pacific Railway, 3 miles 
east of Issaquah. No. 3. 

Operator: Central Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal beds. — Five coal beds are being worked, ranging from No. 1, 
at the bottom, to No. 7, at the top. They strike N. 34° E. and dip 
28° NW. Sections of beds Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, where the samples 
were taken, are given below: 

Sections of coal btds in Grand Ixid/jc mine, 3 milrs east of Issaquah. 

Ko. 11786, bed Ko. 8. 



Ko. 8944, bed No. 1. 

Sluile. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 3J 

Shale 2i 

*Coal 1 

Slmle i 

*Coal 1 



Saudstone, ma«.sive. Ft. In. 

*('<)al I 7 

Shalo, carbonactH)UH 3 

Clay, white 6 

♦Coal ." 1 11 

Shale 1 Clay, white 5 

(\,al 1 y\ ' Bone and coal 1 2 

Shale i ^^»'^le 4 

(jiial I 7 S.indstone, massive. 

Slialc. 6 2 

G llj ! 

91320''— Bull. 474—11 (i 



* 



* 



8S COAIM 0¥ THE STATE OP 1 

Stetioiu o/eoal btdi in Ormtd Ridge mitu, S wUL 

Stt. UU, bad a«. t. 

S1m1«. rt. 

8hftl« «nd cmJ in straaka S Shak.. 

•Coal 2 •C 

•Coal, bMded 2 

Shal«. 



Shale. Ft. In. 

Shala, (wbonaceouB 

•Coal 3 

Sale. — 



Preparation for nuaiet. — At the time 
the writer beds Noe. 1 and 2 onlj vere be 
scale. The coal from both beds was b 
which passed over l^inch bar -screens w 
lump, and that which passed titrough t 
Jeffery-Robinson washer. 

Samplea for analyaia. — Sample 8544, i 
from the north end of the north gangway on the first water level 
about 220 feet north of the rock tuDDcl to bed No. 2, At this point 
four distinct shale partings ranging from half an inch to 2} inches tie 
present. By careful picking and washing these bands may be aep- 
arated from the coal, und they were therefore excluded from the WB- 
ple. Both hanging and foot walls are fairly strong and do not flnx 
with the coal in mining. Sample S545, from bed No, 2, was tlfan 
from the north end of the nortli gangway on the first water level slioot 
100 feet north of rock tunnel from bod No. 1. Both hanging and fbot 
walls are firm anil do not mix with the coal. Sample 11736, from bad 
No, 3, was taken from the left side of chute 4. Sample 11737, bom 
bed No. 4, was taken on the north side of the rock tunnel. lUs 
sample was damp when it was sealed in the can. The location at 
sample 1173S is not given, Init it Is reputed as being wet when it ma 
sealed in the can. 

In preparing sample 9883, 40 ])ounds of coal which had just passed 
tlirough the washer and was still wet was taken from the surface of a 
50-ton bin. The fragments were reduced to a uniform size of about 
three-fourths of an inch and the sample was quartered, opposite 
quarters being rejected and the remainder ground in a bone grinder 
to the size of a pea. This was in turn quartered by the usual method 
until the final sample, about a quart, was obtained. This sample 
was sealed without drying in an aii^tight can and mailed to the 



IK OF GREEN RIVER NE*R FRANKLIN. KING COUNiy. 



B. EXPOSURES OF T 



KING COUNTY. 83 

chemical laboratory. The analyses of the samples are giveu on 
j)age 42. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is grayish black and 
has a reddish-brown streak. It is banded and laminated and breaks 
with an irregular splintery fracture. It slacks slightly when exposed 
to the direct rays of the sim, but does not contain enough moisture to 
cause it to slack noticeably when shipped in closed cars. Coal from 
bed No. 1 compares very favorably with that from Coal Creek and 
Renton. Coal from bed No. 2 is higher in ash tlian that from bed 
No. 1 because of the slightly bony nature of the lower portion of the 
bed, and hence has a lower heating value. The analysis of the washed 
coal Oaboratory No. 9883) represents the quality of a mixture from 
the two beds. The great amount of moisture in the washed coal as 
received is due to water from the waslung. The coal makes a good 
fire in stationary boilers without forced draft and is classed as sub- 
bituminous. 

ISSAQUAH. 

Issaquah slope and drift mine, at Issaquah, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 4. 

Operator: Issaquah Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal beds. — Only two of the numerous coal beds worked by this 
company were exposed so that samples could be taken. The com- 
pany ceased operations at the mine several years ago (see PI. YLI, -4), 
and most of the workings were flooded with water so that the samples ^ 

had to be taken above the water level of the valley. The beds ^^ 
strike N. 74° E. and dip 26° NW. The following sections were 
taken where the samples were obtained : 

Sections of coal beds in Issaqtiah mine. 



No. 8642, bed Ko. 4. 



Shale. Ft. in. Sandstone. V(. jn. 



No. 8643, bed No. 6. 



*('oal llj 

Shale i 

♦Coal 1 

Shale i 

♦Coal 5 

Shale with streaLs of coal . . 1 

*('oal 7 

Shale i 

*('oal 1 9 



11 



« 



Coal ^. 1 

Clay .>:. 5 

*Coal ,r.... 2 

Clay .>. 2i 

*Coal 11 

Shale, carbonaceous 7 

Sandstone, white. ' 

Coal bed J 4 C! 



Preparation for marJcet. — The coal frorq^Jiis mine was passed over 
bar screens, after which the lump coal ^s picked by hand and the 
screenings w^ere washed in a Jeffery-R^^tiinson tub washer. 

Sampler for analysis. — Sample 85-^ - was taken from the side of a 
small entry west of the main slope on bed No. 4, 50 feet down the 



84 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

slope from the entrance to the mine. All the partings of the be<I can 
be separated from the coal by careful picking and washing and 'were 
therefore not included in the sample. Although it had been expose<i 
to the weatlier for a considerable length of time, the roof appeared to 
be firin and strong. The bottom of the bed was not exposed, and the 
character of the floor could not be determined. Mud carried do^Ti 
by water from the overlying rocks had filled the joints in the coal 
and in order to remove this mud the sample was thoroughly washed 
in a small stream before being ground and quartered. It was sealed 
in tlie can without being dried and for this reason the percentage of 
moisture in the sample as received is higher than it would be when 
mined under ordinary conditions. Sample 8543 was taken at the 
end of a 700-foot water-level gangway on bed No. 5. Both clay 
partings in the bed can be separated by picking and washing ami 
consequently were not included in the sample. The sample which 
was taken near the surface and was wet by seepage from overlying 
rocks and soil was still moLst when sealed in the can and the analysis 
of the ^^ample as received shows moisture of more than ordinary 
amount. The analyses of these samples ai'e given on pages 42-43. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is grayish brown, has a 
slightly banded structure, and breaks with a conchoidal fracture. It 
slacks slightly when exposed to the direct i*ays of the sun but does 
not contahi enough moisture to cause it to weather when shipped in 
closed cars. Its heating value is about the same as that of the coal 
from the Grand Kidge mine but is slightly lower than that of the coal 
from Coal Creek. This coal is classed as subbituminous. 

SUPERIOR. 

Superior drift mine, 1^ miie.s southwest of Issaquah, on a spur of 
the Xortliern Pacilic Kailwav. No. 5. 

Operator: Superior Coal & Improvement Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kifjil of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal Ms. — One coal bed is worked in this mine. It strikes N. 70® 
E. and di|KS .30° NW. Another bed, about 300 feet to the north, is 
thought to .\e the same as the bed No. at the Issaquali mine. 
The following sections were measured at the points from which the 
samples were tak-ni: 

Section.'^ o/ro(. *.''//.%• at Sujuricr mifu\ Ih miles southivrst of Issaquah, 

No. 8548, matn bbd. No. 8547, bed No. 0. 

Coal, roof. Ft. in. j Ft. in. 



Clay (small Icn.^) 2i i *(oal 1 



.» 



*('oal, poor -5 7 

Randstono, shaly, very ban' 

(varies r^ to 3J'0 2i 

'\\ki\ 3-< 

('oal, floor. — - _ 

Total worked 6 9} 



( 'lay, brown 1 

*Coal 1 1 

Clay, yellow 4 

*Coal 8J 



Total worked 3 7 J 



A. ABANDONED BUNKER OF THE I5SAQUAH COAL CO., AT ISSAQUAH, KINQ COUNTY. 



B. WASHER AND BUNKER OF THE PACIFIC COAST COAL CO , AT BURNETT, PIERCE COUNIr. 



KING COUNTY. 85 

F^reparadon for market. — ^Temporary bunkers have been erected. 
The coal is being picked by hand, pending the further development 
of th.e mine. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 8548 was taken on tlie first water 

level 900 feet from the entrance to the mine and 60 feet up tlie rise 

on the west side of the last entry. A partmg which occurs near the 

center can be removed by picking and wai^hing and was therefore 

not included in the sample. The roof of the mine is coal, but it is 

separated from the bed at tliis particular place by small lenses of clay 

which come down in mining and which must be removed from the 

coal. The bottom of the bed was not exposed, and the floor at this 

point was in coal. The sample contamed films of mud in the joints 

of the coal and these were removed by washing before the sample 

'was ground and quartered. The sample was sealed in the can while 

wet and the analysis of the sample as received contains a slightly 

excessive amoimt of moisture. Sample 8547 was taken 60 feet from 

the entrance of the 75-foot drift on coal bed No. 0. Both partmgs 

can be separated from the coal by picking and they were not included 

in the sample. The coal was slightly moist when taken from the 

mine and sealed in the can, and for this reason the amount of moisture 

in the sample as received is a little too high. Analyses of these 

samples are given on page 43. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal from these beds is grayish 
black, gives a brown streak, and is very slightly banded. It breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. The upper bench of the main bed is 
considerably more banded than the others and probably contains a 
liigher percentage of ash. Although the coal weathers slightly on 
exposure to the sun, it should stand transportation for some distance 
in closed cars. Its heating value is about the same as that of the coal 
from Issaquah and Grand Ridge and is somewhat lower than the 
average of that mined at Coal Creek. 

FORD AND BAOLEY. 

Ford slope mine and Bagley water-level drift, at (I'oal Creek, on 
the Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad. No. 6. 

Operator: Pacific Coast Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal beds. — Five coal beds are worked at present in these mines — 
the Muldoon, No. 3 and No. 4 beds, in the Ford mine, and the Bagley, 
Nos. 1 and 2 beds, in the Bagley mme. The beds strike N. 78° W. 
and dip 36® to 43*^ NE. The beds are very irregular and the thick- 
ness and number of the partings differ considerably in sections meas- 
ured only a short distance apart. The distances between the beds or 
the benches in the beds are not at all similar in the opposite ends of 
the workings. The layer of bony coal overlying bed No. 3, about 700 
feet east of the cross tunnel from the Muldoon, is 1 foot 5 inches thick. 



86 



COALi? OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



Half a mile to the east this layer is about 30 feet tliick. The laver of 
bony shale wliirh separates the upper and lower benches at the saiuv 
place thickens from 8 J inches to 1 foot 6 inches in a distance of 6uO 
feet to the east. Near the west end of the old working this parting: 
increases in a short distance from a few feet to nearly 90 feet at the 
entrance to the old New Castle mine. The following sections were 
measured where the samples were taken: 

Sfctions of coal beds in Ford mine. 



Ho. 91<t, Maldoon eoal b«d. 

Shalo, rompart (r«M»f). 

Shah*. Ft. in. 

*<'<>al, bony 1 

*(ViaI 2 2 

Shah*, gray-bn >wii 1 

*(Vial 8 

Sliah% Rjay-brown, stn^aks of 

coal 

*('oal 

Shalo, brown at con tor, grades 

to coal ea<h way 

♦Coal ' 1 

"Sulphur" band 

Shale, poft, nlackn 

Shale, compact. 



2i 

8 

5 

8i 
1 



r> 2} 



Vo. 0165, Maldoon coal bed. 



Shale, compact, walew off. 

Shale, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

t( 'oal, bony 

♦Coal 

Bone, Handy 

♦Coal 

Shale, nlate-colored 

♦(V)al 

Shale, nlate-colored 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony 

Shale, brown, carbonac^eous. 

Coal, bony 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, clayey 

♦Coal 1 

Coal, bony. — 



Ft. in. 
1 

10 
1 
6 

i 

1 

• 7 

2J 

6 

1 
o 

1 
1 

i 



G 1 



Vo. 0164, lower bench of bed Ho. 3. 

Shale, hard black. 

♦Coal 

Shale, bUu'k, carbonaceous. 



Ft. In. 
1 9J 

1 9J 



l 



Vo. 91M, Maldoon oonl bed. 

Shale, compact (pood nK)f), 8late- 
colored. Fi. 

Shale, black, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

♦Coal, bony 2 

♦Coal ■> 

♦Clay, "sulphur'' band \ 

♦Coal 10 

Shale, brown (clavey ) 1 

♦Coal * •'> 

Shale, brown I 

♦Coal r,] 

Shale :^ 

♦Coal 9] 

♦Shale and bone \ 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, carbonaceous, black to 

brown. 
Sliale (good bottom), - 



Ho. 0168, upper bench of bed Ho. S. 

Shale. Ft, 

♦(^oal 

fShale, black, carbonaceous... 

♦Coal 2 

♦Coal, bony 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown 

♦<^oal 

Shale, hard black. 



4| 



n. 

S 

3 

1 

I 

4 

\\\ 



s 



Ho. 0167, bed Ho. 4. 

Sandstone, white, shaly. 
Shale, brown, carbonaceous. . 

♦(^)al 

Shale, yellow-brown . . . 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony 

♦Coal 

♦Coal 

♦Coal, slightly bony, soft. 

♦Coal 

Shale, yellowish brow^n. 



•1 7J 



Ft. 



1 

1 5 
4 10 



in. 
1 

SJ 
1 

2 

2i 
9 






KING COUNTlf. 



8V 



Sections of coal beds in Bagley mine. 



Vo. 9170, Bairley Ho. 1 b«d. 
Shale, brown, carbonaceDUs. 



Ft. in. 
3 
1 



No. 0171, upper bench of Bairley Ho. 2 bed. 



Ft. In. 



i 



Sandstone, white (good roof). 

Shale, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous 

*Coal 

♦Coal, badly crushed 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard, nearly black 

♦Coal, bony 

Shale, sandy, " sulphur " 

band 

♦Coal, bony, with streaks of 

shale 5 

Shale, brown to yellow. 

Coal bed. 2 7i 



3i 
i 

1 



♦Coal, banded 1 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous.. 

♦Coal, banded 1 SJ 

Shale, yellow J 

♦Coal 6J 

Shale, brown J 

♦Coal, bony 3 

Shale, brown J 

♦Coal Hi 

Shale, brown, "sulphur" J 

♦Coal 5i 

Shale, hard. 

5 

Ho. 9169. lower bench of Bagley Ho. 8 bed. 

Shale, hard, carbonaceous. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 7 

tShale, soft, very carbonaceous 1 

♦Coal 2 5 

Shale, carbonaceous (fair bottom). 

4 1 

Preparation for marJcet — The coal from all the beds is passed over 
a 2i-inch bar screen at the bunkers. The oversize is picked by hand 
for steam and domestic coal. The tindersize is washed in a Jeffery 
tub washer. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9163 was taken from the Muldoon 
bed at the east end of the first air course above the gangway on the 
first level, about 5,400 feet east of the slope. The bed contains 
three partings, which can be separated by careful picking and wash- 
ing, and these partings were not included in the sample. A thin, 
soft layer of bony coal and shale between the upper bench of coal 
and the roof comes down with the coal in mining and is removed by 
the washer. A band of pyrite and a thin layer of soft shale at the 
bottom of the lower layer breaks away from the floor and is separated 
by the washer. Sample 9166 was taken from the first level gangway 
on the Muldoon bed 5,760 feet west of the slope. The bed contains 
numerous thin partings, of which only parts can be separated from 
the coal by picking and washing. In order to obtain a representa- 
tive amount of ash, three of the partings were omitted from the 
sample. A thin layer of carbonaceous shale occurs between the coal 
and the roof and another between the coal and the floor. Both of 
these mix with the coal in mining and must be removed at the bunker. 
Sample 9166 was taken from the first level gangway on the Muldoon 
bed 1,400 feet west of the slope and 80 feet up chute 13^. The bed 
contains several partings, which generally can be separated from the 
coal by picking and wasldng. Half of tlie upper parting and the 



oiMU ov n 



This bowks fnun tha root 
must be picked oat at tin 
the npper. bench oi bed No. 
of the cniae tannel frmn tl 
partingB, the upper tfuee i 
washing only witii difficoU; 
amount of ash half ci the i 
below were inchtded in th 
the lower bench of bed No. 
lower bench ia aeparated fi 
ea b«yth benches are worki 
bone separating them must 
was taken on the first levi 
east of the cross tunnel froj 
bed are two partings whid 

not incfaided in the sample. A. thin layer Af carbonaeeons dule 
between the coal and the roof and a portim (tf the fioor mixea with 
the coal in mining and must be remored at the btmkier. ' Qtniflt 
9170 was taken from Ba^y No. 1 bed on the first water4eTel gang- 
way at the entrance to ^e rock tunnel from tiieBa^ey No. 2 to ^ 
Muldoon. The bed contains five partings which can be separated 
from the coal by careful picking and washing, and which were not 
included in the sample. It is not being worked at the present time. 
Siunple 9171 was taken from the upper bench of the Bagley No. 2 
bed, 36 feet up chute 24 of the first water level. Several partings 
can be separated from the coal, and these were not included in the 
sample; a thin layer of carbonaceous shale between the bed and the 
roof breaks down witli the coal and must be removed at the bunker. 
Sample 9169 was taken from tlie lower bench of the Bagley No. 2 
bed at the same place from which sample 9171 was taken. This 
bench is separated from the upper bench by about 5) inches of shale. 
Both benches are worketl at the same time and the shale between 
them must be removed from tlie coal. A small band of soft shale 
occurs in the center of tliis bench. About half of it can be separated 
during preparation for market, and tlierefore only half was included in 
the sample. The analyses of tliese samples are given on pages 43-44. 
Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is grayish-black, has a 
slightly banded structure, and breaks with an irregular conchoidal 
fracture. It contains about the same amount of'moisture as the 
coal of Issaquah, Grand Ridge, and Renton. It slacks slightly when 
exposed to the direct rays of the sun, but will stand transportation 
for a considerable distance in closed cars. The coal is good for domes- 
tic purposes and for steam and stationary boilers without forced 
draft, and should be classed as a high-grade subbituminouB coal. 



KING COUNTY. 89 

DENNY-RENTON. . . 

 

Denny-Renton drift mine, at Renton, on the Columbia & Puget 
Sound Railroad and Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railway. 
No. 7. 

Operator: Denny-Renton Clay & Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal bed. — The coal bed worked at this mine is known as the 
Kenton No. 1. It overlies the two beds worked by the Seattle 
Electric Co. at the Renton mine, strikes N. 32° E., and dips 14° SE. 
Tlie bed is worked in two benches and a sample of each was taken. 
The following sections were measured at the places from wliich the 
samples were obtained: 

Sections of Renton No. 1 coal bed in Denny-Renton mine. 
Ho. 9164, upper benoh. 

Shale, sandy. Ft. In. 

*Coal, slaty 1 

*Coal 1 1 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, hard, carbonaceous 1 6 



Coal bed 2 



Vo. 9165, lower bench. 

Clay, yellow. Ft. In. 

*Coal 11 

Shale (clayey) 3J 

Coal, bony 5 

Coal, bony, shaly toward top 8J 

*Coal 1 6 

Clay 2J 

Coal, bony 3i 

Clay, sandy J 

Coal 5 

Clay, sandy 1 

*Coal 2 1 

(/lav, plastic, yellow, 

6 Hi 

Preparation for marJcei, — ^The layers between the coal are tliick and 
are separated in the mine, where they are used as gob. The coal as 
it comes from the mine is picked at the bunker before using. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9154 was taken frOm the gangway 
about 300 feet north of the south Une of sec. 17. The upper layer 
of the bench consists of shaly coal that can be separated only with 
difficulty from the coal immediately underlying it; this layer and 
the shale separating the two coal beds were not included in the sam- 
ple. Sample 9155 was taken at two places on the gangway neac the 
north line of sec. 20. The sample from one part of the bed was 
taken 540 feet south and 160 feet west of the north quarter comer 
of sec. 20 and the sample of the other part was taken 120 feet due 
south of the same comer. This bench contains three good layers of 
coal, separated by layers of clay and by layers of coal too thin to be 
mined economically. The two benches of coal are separated by 2 
feet 8i inches of material, which must be removed; the tluree layers 
in the lower bench are separated by thick partings, which are tlurown 
into the gob. Several of the layers of clay absorb moisture upon 
exposure to the air and swell to about 1^ times their original thick- 



90 



COALS OP THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



nesSj making it very (iiincult to keep the gangways and rooms opesiL 
The samples of coal were moist when taken from the mine and pre- 
pared for the laborator}^; and therefore the percentage of moisture 
in the sample as received is a Uttle too large. Analyses of these 
samples are given on page 44. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The color of the coal is grayish- 
black, the streak reddish-brown, and the structure laminated. It 
breaks with a spUntery fracture, which is almost conchoidal. A con- 
siderable amount of moisture is present in it and it slacks slightly when 
exposed to the air. Its heating value is about the same as that of 
the coal from bed No. 2 and from the upper bench of bed No. 3 at 
Renton, but is slightly lower tlian that of the average coal from the 
lower bench of bed Xo. 3 and from the Coal Creek mines. It is 
classed as a subbituminous coal. 

KENTON. 

Renton slope mine, at Renton, on the Northern Pacific Railway, the 
Puget Sound Electric Railway, the Columbia & Puget Sound Rail- 
road, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railway. No. 8. 

Operator: Seattle Electric Co., Seattle, Wash. 

IQnd of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal heds, — Renton No. 2 and No. 3 coal beds are being worked 
in this mine. The older workings are on the lower or the No. 3 bed. 
The beds strike about N. 10° E. and dip 12° SE. The followmg sec- 
tions were measured at the places where the samples were taken: 

Sections of coal beds in Renton mine. 



Ho. 0158, bed Ko. 2. 

Shale, brown. 

*Coal 

Clay 

*Coal 1 

Shale, brown 

Coal, bony 1 



Ft. In. 
2 4 

^ 
1 5 

7 

G 

1 1 

2 

2 

6 

5 

8 4i 
ZTo. 0160, lower bench of bed No. 8. 

Shale, brown (slightly carbona- 
ceous). Ft. in. 

*Coal ^ 

Coal, bony, and carbonaceous 

Bhaie 5 

*Coal 1 9i 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 



Coal 

Clay 

Coal, bony, 

Clay 

Coal, bony. 



Ko. 0166, lower benoh of bed ZTo. 8. 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

No. 9168, lower benoh of bed No. 8. 

Shale. 

*Coal 

Shale, hard, black 

*Coal 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 



Ft. in. 
2 8i 



Ft. In. 
10 
4 
1 10 



No. 8465, bed No. 8. 



*Coal 

Coal, bony. 
*Coal 

Shale 

*Coal 

Shale 

Coal, bony. 
♦Coal 



Ft. In. 
2 2 
llj 



8J 

IJ 
6 

1 

11 
3 



84 



KING COUNTY. 



91 



Section of coal beds in Renton mine — Continued. 



Vo, 91M, upper bench of bed Ho. S. 

Sandstone, white. 

Mixture of white clay and brown 

shale, to 4^^ in mine. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 2 3J 

Shale, brown 1 

♦Coal 8i 

tShale, brown, carbonaceous. 2 

♦Coal 8 

Shale, brown 2J 

♦Coal 5 

Shale, carbonaceous. 

4 6i 



Ho. 9157, upper bench of bed Ho. 8. 



♦Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown 

♦Coal 



Shale, black, carbonaceous. . 



Ft. In. 
3i 

. 3 ^ 

3i 
3i 

. li 

4 6i 



Ho. 9161, upper bench of bed Ho. 

Shale, clayey (heaves). 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale (heave.s). 

Ho. 8466, bed Ho. 8. 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 



8. 

Ft. In. 

2 8} 
1 
2i 

i 

7 

i 

1 2 

4 10 

Ft. in- 

2 7 
1 
9 

2i 
10} 

1 5 
6 
4 

1 4 



8 



Preparation for market. — On account of the low dip of the beds the 
larger partings can be separated in the mine. The coal is mined in 
benches and the larger partings thrown in the gob. At the bunker 
the coal is passed over a shaking screen with 2-inch and 3-inch per- 
forations. The oversize is picked on the lower end of the screen and 
on the car. The undersize is washed in a Jeffery tub washer, and is 
screened and sold as nut, pea, and barley coal. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9158 was taken from bed No. 2 
about 140 feet up the first plane north from the fifth level south. 
The bed contains one clay parting which can be separated by picking 
and washing, and this parting was not included in the sample. The 
roof of the mine is strong, and does not mix with the coal. The coal 
bed is underlain by several layers of shale and more or less impure 
coal. These layers are taken up in the main gangways and entries, 
and the impurities are thrown into the gob or separated at the bunker. 
Sample 9159 was taken from the upper bench of bed No. 3 on the 
seventh level, 500 feet north of the main slope. The bed contains 
several partings, and as it would be difficult to separate the center 
parting cleanly from the rest of the coal about half of it was retained 
in the sample. The bed is overlain by a mixture of white clay and 
brown shale, ranging up to 4 feet in thickness in this part of the mine, 
which frequently falls with the coal, and is separated and thrown in 
the gob. Sample 9160 was taken from the lower bench of bed No. 3 
at the place from which No. 9159 was taken. The bench contains 



92 0OAJJ3 OF THE 8TATB OF WASHnTGTOV. 



near the center a layer of bony coal and carbonaceous ahalei iriudi 
is separated in mining and in preparation for the market, and im 
therefore not included in the sample. The lower bench of the bed 
is separated from the upper bench by about 1 foot 5 incfaea of shale, 
which is separated from the coal and thrown into the gob. Samide 
9157 was taken from the upper bench of bed No. 3 at the north end 
of the gangway of the ninth level north about 2,900 feet east and 1,300 
feet north of the main portal of the mine. The bed coubuns one 
parting, which can be separated from the coal and was nsA included 
in the sample. This bench is separated f^m the roof by «bout 3) 
inches of carbonaceous shale which comes down with the coal, and 
must be removed in preparation for the market. Sample 9156 was 
taken from the lower bench of bed No. 3 at the place where 9157 
was taken. It is separated from the upper bench by 1 foot 5 inchea 
of shale, which is removed from the coal during the mining, and ia 
throvm into the gob. The coal in these two samples was slightly modati 
owing to the seepage of water from the rocks above, and inasmuch aa 
the samples were not dried before sealing in the cans, analyses show 
a slightly higher per cent of moisture in the ''as received" determina- 
tion than should be expected in average coal from this part of the 
mine. Sample 9161, taken from the upper bench of bed No. 3 about 
600 feet above the sixth level south on plane No. 6 of the new work- 
ings, contains three shaly layers, which can be separated in mining 
and in preparation for market and which were therefore not included 
in the sample. A bed of soft shale between the upper bench and the 
roof absorbs moisture upon exposure to the air and swells to about 
IJ times its original thickness. Sample 9162 was taken from the 
lower bench of bed No. 3 at the location from which sample 9161 was 
taken. It contains one layer of bone, which can be removed from the 
coal and was not included in the sample. Tills bench is separated from 
the upper bench by about 3 feet of shale, the upper part of which 
absorbs moisture when exposed to the air and swells to about IJ 
times its original thickness. Analyses of these samples are given on 
pages 44-45. The samples noted below were also taken from this 
mine:^ Sample 2455 was taken by M. R. Campbell October 9, 1905, 
from bed No. 3 in the sixth level gangway, 2,400 feet south of the 
slope. All the partings in the bed were separated from the sample. 
Sample 2456 was taken at the same time as No. 2455 from the seventh 
level gangway, 150 feet north of the slope. All the partings in the 
bed were excluded from the sample. Carload sample 2687 con- 
sisted of pea coal from the w^asher and No. 2686 was made up of 
run-of-mine coal. These carload lots were sent to the Geological Sur- 
vey fuel-testing plant at St. Louis in 1905, and the analyses of the 
samples are included in the table on page 45. 



1 Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey No. 332, 1908, pp. 272-274. 



• KING COUNTY. 93 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is pitch black when 
freshly fractured, but turns grayish black in a very short time. It 
has a reddish-brown streak, is slightly banded and laminated, and 
breaks with a slightly conchoidal splintery fracture. It contains a 
considerable amount of moisture, and slacks slightly when exposed 
to the sun, but will stand transportation to a considerable distance 
when shipped in closed cars. Bed No. 2 and the upper bench of bed 
No. 3 have a heating value somewhat lower than that of the lower 
bench of bed No. 3, which is about the same as that of the better 
grades of coal obtained from the Coal Creek mines. This coal should 
be classed as high-grade subbituminous. 

DANVILLE. 

Danville, a water-level mine at Danville, on a spur of the Columbia 
& Puget Sound Railroad. No. 9. 

Operator: North Coast Colliery Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal bed. — Only one bed is worked at this mine. It strikes N. 42° 
E. and dips 75® SE. The following section wag measured where the 
sample was taken: 

Section of coal bed in Danville mine. 

Ho. aass. 
Shale, hard. 

Shale, rather soft. Ft. in. 

Coal, broken and apparently dirty 1 11 

*Coal 2 2i 

♦Coal, broken and apparently dirty 3 9 

Shale, yellow, slightly carbonaceous. 

Coal bed worked 5 Hi 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9323 was taken 20 feet to the south- 
west along the bed from the end of the rock tunnel from the fan. 
The mine had been abandoned for more than a year and the exposures 
of the coal along the gangway were very badly caved, so that it was 
difficult to obtain a good sample. Considerable movement has taken 
place along the bed, so that it would be difficult to prevent the impure 
coal overlying that part of the bed sampled from mixing with the 
better coal. About 7 inches of rather soft shale overlies the upper 
bench of coal, and a layer of carbonaceous shale underlies the bed. 
Where these were exposed in the mine they were soft and broken and 
would mix with the coal in mining. The analysis of this sample is 
given on page 45. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is grayish black, is 
slightly banded, and breaks with a splintery and conchoidal fracture. 
It has a relatively large amount of moisture and slacks slightly when 
exposed to the sun, but will hold up well for considerable length of 
time when shipped in closed cars. It is a subbituminous coal and 
has about the same heating value as the coal from the upper bench 
of bed No, 3 at Renton and the coal from Issaquah and Grand Ridge, 



94 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



RAYENSDALE NO. 1. 

Ravensdale No. 1, slope mine at Ravensdale, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 10. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — Three coal beds are being worked. They are, in ascend- 
ing order, Nos. 3, 4, and 5. Bed No. 9 has been tapped by a rock 
tunnel, and a gangway 100 feet long has been driven to determine the 
character of the coal. All the beds strike approximately N. 45° E. 
and dip northwest at angles varying between 22° and 40°. Both the 
main and the auxiliary slope are on bed No. 5, and a rock tunnel about 
200 feet long connects No. 5 with Nos. 3 and 4. Beds Nos. 3 and 4 are 
separated by about 10 feet of carbonaceous shale and impure coal. 
The sections measured at the places where the samples were taken are 
as follows: 

Sections of coal beds in Ravensdale No. 1 mine. 



Ho. 98M, bed Ko. 8. 



Ft. In. 

7+ [ 
4 



ti . 



Shalo 

Coal, bony 

*Coal (containing " nigger 

heads") 2 

*'Sulphur" 1 

*Coal 2 2J 

Shale and bony coal 8 J 

*Coal 8 

Shale } 

♦Coal (*' Sulphur" band near 

center) 2 2i 

Shale, hard, carbonaceous 



Coalbed 7 lOJ 

No. 8270. bed Ko. 8. 

Shale, gray. 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. Ft. in. 

3J 

i 
3J 

i 
5 

2 

..1 1 

11 

2i 

1 



*Coal 

*Shale, sandy, brown. 



iro.0871,bedZro.8. 
Shale. Ft. in. 

*Coal 3 2\ 

*Coal, bony 1 2i 

Shale 6 

*Coal 4 2i 

Shale, sandy 1 

*Coal, dirty 1 5 

Shale. 

10 7i 

No. 9878, lower bench of bed No. 8. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

*Coal 4 2i 

Shale, sandy l-\- 

*Coal, dirty 1 5 



Shale. 



5 84+ 
No. 9887, bed No. 4. 

Shale. FL In. 

*Coal 3 7 

Shale, irregular § 

*Coal r 2 

Clay, yellow i "jh whi te . 



♦Coal 

♦Shale, brown 

♦Coal 

Shale, sandy and bone 

♦Coal 1 

Bone and bony coal 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 2 

Clay 

♦Coal (reported to be 3 feet). 2-f 



n 



No. 9874, bed No. 8. 



h 



Clay, black 

♦Coal 1 

** Sulphur" band and ct>al. 
♦Coal 1 

Shale, sandy 



Ft. In. 

7 



♦Coal.. 

Shale. 
♦Coal. . 

Shale. 

Coal. 



1 
7 
1 
2 
2 
3} 

J 
6-f 



Coal bed wc' 



4 4i 



KING COUNTY. 95 

Sections of coal beds in Ravensdale No. 1 mine — Ck)ntinued. 



No. tSIS, upper iMnch of bed Ho. 5. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 3 2i 

Coal, bony. 



Ho. 9877, bed Ho. 9. 

Ft. In. 

Coal, bony 1 5 

*Coal 2 2i 

Bone, poor 1 7 

Shale, very slightly carbonaceous. 1 7 

Shale. 

• 6 9} 

Preparaiionfor market. — No attempt is made to separate the part- 
ings from the coal in the mine. At the bunker the run-of-mine coal 
is passed over a shaking screen having 2§-inch and J-inch perfora- 
tions. That which passes through the holes is sorted in a revolving 
screen, and the different sizes are passed through a spiral dry washer, 
which has not been found very efficient in separating the impurities 
from the coal. The coal from the spiral separator and from the pick- 
ing table are mixed in the bunker before shipment. The entire output 
of the mine is used by the Northern Pacific Railway. 

Samples for analysis, — ^All the samples were collected on the second 
level. Sample 9266 was taken October 20, 1909, from the face of the 
east gangway of bed No. 3, 775 feet east and 400 feet north of the 
center of sec. 36, T. 22 N., R. 6 E. The bed contains three partings, 
which are nearly regular, and which may be separated from the coal 
by careful picking and washing. The roof of the mine is poor and in 
many places breaks down and mixes with the coal. The floor is 
fairly firm and does not mix very much with the coal. Sample 9267 
was taken from bed No. 4 at a point 100 feet up chute 16 of the east 
gangway. The irregular layer of shale which occurs in the center of 
the bed and a considerable amount of shale from the roof is mixed 
with the coal in mining, but these impurities can be removed by care- 
ful picking and washing. Sample 9270 was taken from bed No. 5 
about 15 feet east of the sump at the bottom of the slope. Only the 
upper part of the bed was exposed. Two thin partings near the top, 
which could only be partially separated from the coal by picking and 
washing, were included in the sample to offset the amount of ash wliich 
might be left in the coal from the other partings. Sample 9274 was 
taken from chute 31 about 20 feet up the rise from the east gang- 
way on bed No. 5. The bed contains three partings, which can be 
separated from the coal and which were not included in the sample. 
About 7 inches of black clay overlies the coal and is mixed with it in 
mining. This clay must be removed in preparation for use. The 
sample represents the part of the bed being mined in the part of the 
workings from which the sample was taken. Sample 9271 was taken 
from bed No. 6, 150 feet up chute 59 on the east gangway. This 
section represents the entire thickness of the bed. The two shaly 
partings can be separated in preparation for use and are not included 



*l^- '. 



^ > 



* 



:■ 



^ VTY. 99 

ft 

'^'^ McKay bed 

^angway on 

f which does 

lain by about 

the floor and 

taken from the 

>ut 15 feet above 

jiale contained in 

^^, and was not in- 

e given on page 47. 

)f the McKay bed is 

aks with an irregular, 

the butt joints. Else- . 

reous luster. and massive 

int of moisture and does 

ur is present in it in some- 

11 the same bed farther east 

(h is given off from the coal 

. he working rooms and makes 

i he McKay bed yields a non- 

jares very favorably with the 

htained in the Eastern States. 

1 is pitch black and has a dark 

.utery fracture; it may be readily 

•al by its shghtly banded texture. 

lint of moisture as the McKav and 

I ho sun, but its ash content is some- 

. it is a noncoking bituminous coal of 

DIAMOND NO. 14. 

lopc mine at Black Diamond, on the 
lilroad. No. 13. 
oal Co., Seattle, Wash. 



"C 



is are being worked at this mine. The 

(^ McKay and the upper one as the Little 

At the surface these beds are separated 

lud bony coal, but the distance between the 

*ly toward the deeper part of the workings. 

it 3,200 feet down the dip from the surface, 

by about 90 feet of sandstone. At the main 

75° W. and dip SO"* SW.; beyond the electric 

T the workings the strike is nearly N. 25** W. 

The beds are uniform in thickness through 



98 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Character and qiudUy of the coal, — ^The coal of the lower bench is 
pitch black in color and has a dark-brown streak. It has a vitreous 
luster and is massive without any distinct banding. The fracture is 
irregular and, along the planes of the butt joints, somewhat con- 
choidal. The coal from the upper bench resembles that of the lower 
bench except that it is slightly banded. The McKay coal has a 
relatively small amount of moisture and does not crumble when 
exposed to the sun. It is noncoking bituminous coal of rather high 
gradC; and compares favorably with many of the noncoking coals 
from the eastern part of the United States. 

MORGAN. 

Moigan, slope mine 1 mile northwest of Black Diamond, on the 
Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad. No. 12. 

Operator: Pacific Coast Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — ^Two beds, the lower of which is kno'^iMi as the McKav 
and the upper as the Little or Upper McKay, are being worked in this 
mine. Near the surface the two beds are separated by about 10 feet 
of shale and sandstone, but in the lower workii^, which are about 
3,000 feet down the dip from the surface, the sandstone increases in 
thickness to nearly 90 feet. The beds strike about north-south near 
slope, from which point northward the outcrop swings gradually to 
about N. 20° E. The dip is about 25^ W. Both beds are uniform in 
thickness throughout the workings, and the partings are fairly, regular 
for a considerable dLstance. The following sections were taken at the 
places from which the samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Morgan slope. 

No. 0106, McKay b«<l. Vo. 0106, Upp«r XoKaj bed. 

Shale. Ft. in. I 

* Coal, go<xi , clean, bright ... 6  ^*^*^®» }^^^^' ^^ ^ 

Coal, shaly and bone 1 ' *CoaI 1 4 

Q^^ ' oi Shale, lens 2 

Shale. 1 *^^«al 3 2i 

6 3i : ^^^^^- • 

I 4 8i 

Preparation/or market. — Xo attempt is made to separate any of the 
partings from the coal in the mine. At the bunker the coal from the 
two beds is picked over different sets of screens. It is not necessary 
to pick the coal from the lower bed except to remove pieces of mine 
timber and fragments which may have broken from the roof and floor; 
the upper bench is picked more carefully to remove the shale partings 
which in many places are present in the coal. 



KING COUNTY. 99 

ft 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9106 was taken from the McKay bed 
on the north side of chute 46 about 1 2 feet above the north gangway on 
the sixth level. At this point the bed has a very good roof which does 
not break or become mixed with the coal, but it is underlain by about 
3^ inches of shaly coal which sometimes breaks from the floor and 
must be separated at the bunker. Sample 9108 was taken from the 
Upper McKay bed on the south side of chute 11, about 15 feet above 
the north gangway on the sixth level. A lens of shale contained in 
the bed can be separated from the coal by picking, and was not in- 
cluded in the sample. Analyses of these coals are given on page 47. 

Charuder and quality of the coal. — The coal of the McKay bed is 
pitch black, has a dark-brown streak, and breaks with an irregular, 
slightly conchoidal fracture along the lines of the butt joints. Else- . 
where the fracture is irregular. It has a vitreous luster, and massive 
structure. The coal contains a small amount of moisture and does 
not slack when exposed to the sun. Sulphur is present in it in some- 
what higher amount than in the coal from the same bed farther east 
and north. A small amount of gas, which is given off from the coal 
very slowly, accumulates at the top of the working rooms and makes 
necessary the use of safety lamps. The McKay bed yields a non- 
coking bituminous coal which compares very favorably with the 
better grades of bituminous coal obtained in the Eastern States. 
The coal of the Upper McKay bed is pitch black and has a dark 
brown streak and a somewhat splintery fracture; it may be reaclily 
distinguished from the McKay coal by its slightly banded texture. 
It contains about the same amount of moisture as the McKav and 
does not slack when exposed to the sun, but its ash content is some- 
what liigher. Like the McKay, it is a noncoking bituminous coal of 
good quaUty. 

BLACK DIAMOND NO. 14. 

Black Diamond No. 14, slope mine at Black Diamond, on the 
Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad. No. 13. 

Operator: Pacific Coast Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — ^Two coal beds are being worked at this mine. The 
lower one is known as the McKay and the upper one as the Little 
McKay, or Upper McKay. At tlie surface these beds are separated 
by about 4 feet of shale and bony coal, but the distance between the 
two beds increases greatly toward the deeper part of the workings. 
At the ninth level, about 3,200 feet down the dip from tlie surface, 
the beds are separated by about 90 feet of sandstone. At the main 
slo[>e the beds strike N. 75® W. and dip 30*^ SW.; beyond the electric 
slope in the west end of the workings the strike is nearly N. 25** W. 
and the dip is 30® SW. The beds are uniform in thickness throughout 



100 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

the xome, and the partmgs and unpurities in the beds are f au-ly con- 
tinuous. The following sections were measured at the places from 
which the samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Black Diamond No, 14 mine. 



Fo. 9106, KoKaj bed. 

Shale, brown, sandy. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 5 i 

* Coal, bony, soft 3 



3i 



Fo. 9114, ITppwr KcXay bad. 

Shale, brown. Ft. !n- 

♦Coal, bright, black llj 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 7 

♦Coal 2 9i 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 



Preparation for market, — No attempt is made to remove any of the 
partings from the coal in the mine. At the bunker the coal from 
the two beds is picked over separate screens. It is not necessary to 
pick the coal from the lower bed except to remove pieces of mine 
timber and fragments which may have broken from the roof and 
floor, but the upper bench is picked more carefully to remove tlie 
shale partings which in many places are present in the coal. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9105 was taken from the McKay- 
bed 70 feet from the gangway in chute 59 on the eighth level north. 
At this place the bed contains a layer of bony coal near the bottom, 
which is used as a "mining," and which can not be readily separated 
from the coal without washing. It is believed to be so low in ash 
that it will not materially decrease the quality of the coal from the 
remaining part of the bed. Sample 9114 was taken from the Upper 
McKay bed 20 feet beyond chute 16 on the eighth level gangway north. 
The bed contains one shale parting which can be separated at the 
bunker and which was not, therefore, included in the sample. The 
shales which overlie and underlie this bed are mixed to some extent 
with tlie coal and must be removed at the bunker. The analyses of 
the samples are given on page 47. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal of the McKay bed is 
pitch black, has a dark-brown streak, and breaks with a somewhat 
conchoidal fracture along the lines of minor joints. Except at the 
joints the fracture is irregular. It is massive and has a vitreous 
luster. It contains a small amount of moisture and does not slack 
when exposed to the sun. The amount of sulphur is somewhat 
higher than that of the same coal farther to the east and north. A 
small amount of gas is given off from the coal very slowly and accumu- 
lates in the abandoned rooms, making necessary the use of safety 
lamps. The coal is a noncoking bituminous coal and compares very 
favorably with the better grades of bituminous coal obtained in the 
Eastern States. The coal of the Upper McKay bed is pitch black, 
and has a dark-brown streak and a somewhat splintery fracture; it 



KING COUNTY. 



101 



may be readily distinguished from the coal of the McKay bed by its 
slightly banded texture. It contains about the same, amount of 
moisture as the McKay and does not slack when exposed to the sun, 
but has a somewhat greater amount of ash. Like the McKay it is 
a noncoking bituminous coal of good quality. 

LAWSON. 

Lawson, a slope mine 1 mile northeast of tlie Black Diamond, on the 
Columbia & Puget Sound Railroad. No. 14. 

Operator: Pacific Coast Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Ejnd of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — The Upper or Little McKay and the McKay proper 
occur as practically one bed of coal in this mine. Only the McKay 
is mined, however, except in the gangway, where the upper bed is 
taken out to give additional space in which to handle the cars. The 
beds are separated by about 10 inches of hard, black carbonaceous 
shale, which is used as a roof for the McKay bed throughout most of 
the workings. The beds strike N. 25® E. and dip 60® SE. at the west 
end of the workings, and strike N. 69® E. and dip 30® SE. at tlie east 
end. The McKay bed is uniform in thickness throughout the mine. 
The following sections were measured at the places from which the 
samples were taken: 

Sections of coal beds in Lawson mine. 



Ho. 9104, KeKay bad. 

Shale, black, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous. 



Ft. in. 
11 

4 9i 

5 8i 



Fo. 9107, ITpper KcKay bed. 

Shale. Ft. In. 
*Coal with few layers of car- 
bonaceous shale 2 2} 

Shale, black, carbonaceous . 1 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, brown, sandy 1 

Coal, bony 2i 

♦Coal 1 2J 

Shale, black, carbonaceous 11 



Coalbecl 5 ^ 

Preparation for marJcet, — No attempt is made to remove any of the 
partings from the coal in the mine. At the bunker the coal from the 
two beds is picked over separate screens. It is not necessary to pick 
the coal from the lower bed except to remove pieces of mine timber 
and fragments which may have broken from the roof and floor. The 
upper bench is picked more carefully to remove the shale partings 
which in many places are present in the coal. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9104 was taken from the McKay 
bed on the side of the gangway between chutes 73 and 74 of the sixth 
level. The bed has a fairly good roof and floor and what impurities 



102 COALS OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

break from them are separated at the bunker. Sample 9107 was taken 
from the Upper McKay bed at the place from which sample 9104 was 
taken. The bed contains several partings of shale and bony coal 
which can be separated from the good coal by very careful picking and 
washingi and these were not included in the sample. The analyses of 
these coals will be found on page 48. 

Character and qwalUy of the coal. — ^The coal of the McKay bod is 
pitch black, has a dark-brown streak, and breaks witli a slightly 
conchoidal fracture along the lines of minor joints. In other direc- 
tions the fracture is irregular. It is massive and has a vitreous 
luster. It contains a small amount of moisture and does not slack 
on exposure to the sun. A small amount of gas, which is given off 
from the coal very slowly and which accumulates at the top of tlie 
working rooms, makes necessary the use of safety lamps. The coal 
is noncoking, and compares very favorably with the better grades of 
bituminous coal obtained in the Eastern States. The coal of tlie 
Upper McKay bed is pitch black, and has a dark-brown streak and a 
somewhat splintery fracture. It may be readily distinguished from 
coal from the McKay bed by its slightly banded texture. It contains 
about the same amount of moisture as the McKay, and does not 
slack when exposed to the sun, but the amount of ash is much greater 
than in the McKay, owing to the presence of thin layers of carbona- 
ceous shale in the upper layer of the coal. Like the McKay, it is a 
noncoking bituminous coal of good quality. 

SURFACE EXPOSURE AT FRANKLIN. 

Surface exposure at Franklin, on opposite side of Green River 
from the old Sullivan mine of the Pacific Coast Coal Co. No. 15. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal "bed. — This coal bed is known as the McKay. The outcrop 
from which the sample was taken is the southeastemmost limit of 
the McKay bed as known at the present time. It strikes nortli and 
south and dips about 52° W. The bed is somewhat tliinner at tliis 
point than to the nortliwest. The following section was taken where 
the sample was obtained: 

Section of McKay coal bed at Franklin, 

VO.MB4. 

Ft. In. 

*Coal 4 3i 

Shftie, carbonaceous 3i 

Shale. 

4 7 

Sample for a^Mlyria. — Sample 9484 was taken by removing about 
2 inches of coal from the surface of the bed and channeling according 



KING COUNTY. 103 

to the usual method. The bed had been exposed to the air for a 
considerable length of time, and portions of it were overgrown with 
moss. The coal is separated from the floor by about 3^ inches of 
carbonaceous shale, which may break from the floor and mix with 
ttie coal in mining. The analysis of this sample is given on page 48. 
Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal is pitch black and has a 
dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It breaks with a somewhat 
conchoidal fracture along the lines of tlie minor joints. Elsewhere 
the fracture is irregular. It contains a small amount of moisture, 
and does not crumble when exposed to the sun. The heating value 
of this sample, though taken from -a surface which had been exposed 
to the weather for a long time, is greater than tliat of any of the other 
samples taken from the McKay bed. The coal is noncoking and is 
classed as a high-grade bituminous coal. 

KUMMER. 

Kummer, water-level drift on north bank of Green River, about 
one-fourth mile south of Kummer, on the Columbia & Puget Sound 
Railroad. No. 16. 

Operator: Denny-Renton Clay & Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coalheds, — Several beds of coal and carbonaceous matter are 
exposed, and the better beds of coal are worked in conjunction with 
several layers of clay, which are used in the manufacture of brick and 
terra cotta. The two coal beds from which samples were take'n are 
very close together. They strike nearly north and south and dip 
about 40° E. The following sections were measured at tlie places 
from which tlie samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Kummer mine. 



Ho. 9118, bed No. 1. 

Ft. In. 
Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

*CoaI, bright 3 8i 

Shale, brown, soft 1 

*Coal, bright 5 

Shale. 

4 2i 



No. 9115, lower bed. 

Ft. In. 

♦Coal, slightly bony 9 

♦Shale, hard, black, carbo- 
naceous J 

♦Coal 3i 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 3 
♦Coal, hard, containing some 

bony layers 2 9i 

Shale, hard, black, carbonaceous. 3 8^ 



Coal bed 4 IJ 

Preparation for marJcet, — Xo attempt is made to separate the 
impurities from the coal in the mine. The coal is picked at ttie 
bunker to remove the shale that breaks from the roof and floor and 



black, and }ia3 a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is 
massiv^e and sliglitly laminated, and breaks wiUi an irregidar fracture. 
Although it contains a moderate amount of moisture and crumbles 
when exposed to tlte direct rajs of tlie sun, it will stand sliipment to 
considerable distances in closed cars. It is a high-grade subbitumi- 
nous coal and has a heating value somewhat higher tlian tliat of any 
of the otlier subbituminous coals in the State. Its amount of fixed 
carbon is considerable liigher tlian tliat of any other subbituminous 
coal in tlie State, and somewhat liigher than Uie McKay coal, which 
is considered a liigii-grade bituminous coal. The coal from tlie other 
bed is nearly pitcli black and has a dark-brown to reddisli brown 
streak. It has a banded, slialy structure and breaks witli an irregular 
fracture. It contains considerable moisture and weathers when 
exposed to the direct rays of the sun. Owing to its excessive amount 
of ash, tlie coal is at present of httle commercial value. It was used 
at one time as fuel for the boiler which operates tlie bimker and 
hoistingmachinery, but asitwasfound unsatisfactory its use lias been 
discontinued. It is a high^ade subbituminous coal, but its great 
amount of ash reduces its heating value to a figure much lower than 
that of any other high-grade subbituminous coal of tlie State. 



KING COUNTY. 105 

OEM. 

Gem, water level and slope mine at Franklin, on the Columbia & 
Puget Sound Railroad. No. 17. 

Operator: Pacific Coast Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed, — ^The coal bed operated at this mine, known as the Gem, 
lies about 500 feet stratigraphically above the McKay bed at Franklin. 
It strikes N. 2"" W. and dips from 53 to 55"" W. The thickness of the 
bed varies from 2 J to 4 feet in different parts of the mine. The fol- 
lowing section was taken at the place froni which the sample was 
obtained : 

Section of Gem coal bed in Gem mine. 

No. 9108. 
Shale, bony. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 3 6i 

Shale, bony. 

Preparation for marJcet. — ^The bed is incUned at an angle too high to 
permit separation of impurities during mining. Bony coal and shale 
from the hanging and foot walls and **niggerheads," which are 
frequent in some parts of the mine, are removed by picking at the 
bunker. • 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9103 was taken 10 feet up chute 9 
from the entrance to the lower water-level gangway. Both the 
hanging and foot walls are firm in tliis part of the mine, but in other 
parts they are mixed to some extent with the coal and must be sepa- 
rated from it in preparing it for the market. The analysis of this 
sample is given on page 48. 

Cfiaracter and quality of the coal, — The coal is pitch black and has a 
dark-brown streak and vitreous luster. It is somewhat banded and 
laminated and breaks with an irregular fracture. It contains a small 
amount of moisture and does not weather when exposed to the air. 
Ash is present in greater amount than in the McKay bed but to about 
the same extent as in the upper McKay bed. Wlien loaded on cars 
for shipment, the lumps can not be distinguished from the lumps of 
the upper McKay. Like the coal from other mines in this immediate 
vicinity it is noncoking. 

SURFACE EXPOSURE SOUTHWEST OF FRANKLIN. 

Surface exposure on south bank of Green River, about three-fourths 
of a mile southwest of Franklin. No. 18. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (?). 

Coal bed, — ^The coal bed is exposed in an open cut about 20 feet 
above the bed of the river. A drift has been driven on the strike for a 



106 COAtfi OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

distance of about 70 feet in the lower part of the bed. The coal at 
the end of the drift was covered with mud and water which had seeped 
through from above. The coal at the surface when dressed for 
sampling appeared much more free from impurities than the coal 
in the drift, and the sample was therefore taken at the surface. The 
bed is believed to be the same as the Gem wliich is worked at Franklin. 
It strikes N. 22° W. and dips eo*" SW. The following section was 
taken where the sample was obtained: 

Sedum of Gem ( t) coal bed in surface expoture thrrf-fourths of a mile 90uikwe8i of Franklin, 

FO.M87. 

Ft. In. 

Coal, minutely jointed 5 

Coal, cubic fracture 8J 

Coal, bony 1 

Bone with thin stringers of coal 5 

Shale with thin layers of bone and coal 8} 

Shale, black, with layers and stringers of coal 1 2} 

Coal, bony 1 2J 

♦Coal 2 8} 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

7 54 

« 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9487 was taken from this bed. The 
layer sampled is overlain by bony coal and underlain by carbonaceous 
shale, both of wliich would probably adliere to some extent to the 
coal and should be separated from it in preparation for the market. 
The analysis is given on page 48. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is nearly pitch black and 
has a dark-brown streak. It is slightly banded and laminated and 
has an irregular fracture. The sample as received at the laboratory 
has a somewhat high percentage of moisture, but whether the coal 
will slack on exposure to the sun is not known. The surface of the 
exposure was kept moist continually by a spray from a small stream 
which falls down along the footwall of the bed, so that the coal was 
not exposed to the action of the air. The coal is noncoking and 
should be classed as either a very high-grade subbituminous or a low- 
grade bituminous. Its heating value is about the same as that of 
the better grades of subbituminous coal obtained in the State. 

BOSE-MARSHALL. 

Rose-Marshall, slope mine, about 1 mile west of Cumberland, 
Wash., on a proposed extension of the Northern Pacific Railway, 
No. 19. 

Operator: Rose-Marshall Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — The coal bed is known as the John Harris bed and is 
supposed to be one of a group mined at Franklin and Black Diamond. 



KING COUNTY. 10*7 

The beds strike nearly north and soutli and dip about 60° W. The 
following section was measured where the sample was cut: 

Section of John Harris coal bed in Rose-Marshall mine. 

No. lOSU. 
Shale, roof. Ft. in. 

Coal, with layers of hone and clay 5 

♦Coal 1 1 

Shale, carhonaceoufl 2 

*Coal, cubical fracture 5 

Coal, hony. 

11 3 

Preparation for market. — No bunkers for cleaning and storing the 
coal had been erected at the time of the writer ^s visit. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9293 was taken by cutting channels 
across the face of six lumps of coal stacked under a small cover near 
the entrance to the slope. The mine was filled with water above the 
point in the slope where the bed was first encountered. These lumps 
wliich were sampled had been exposed to the direct rays of the sun 
for at least a part of the day for about three months, but the coal was 
bright and fresh and showed no indications of weathering. Sample 
10512 was obtained by G. W. Evans in April, 1910, after the mine had 
been reopened and placed in operation. It was taken 500 feet down 
the slope from the surface and on the left-hand side. A layer of 
carbonaceous shale in the bed, which can be separated from the coal 
by picking and washing, was not included in the sample. The coal 
was moist when taken from the mine and sealed in the can, and the 
analysis shows a slightly higher percentage of moisture than an 
analysis of a dry sample. The analyses of these samples are given 
on page 49. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is pitch black in color 
and has a dark-brovm streak. It is banded and has either a slightly 
irregular conchoidal fracture or a somewhat cubical fracture. It 
contains a small amount of moisture and does not weather when 
exposed to the sun. In heating value it compares favorably with 
many of the bituminous coals of the east and with the McKay coal 
at Black Diamond and Franklin. 

INDEPENDENT. 

Independent, slope mine, about 1 mile south of Cumberland, 
Wash., No. 20. 

Operator: Independent Coal Co. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — One coal bed, wliich strikes N. 30® E. and dips 55° SE., 
is exposed. The section given below was taken at the foot of the 
slope, wliich has been sunk to a depth of only about 20 feet. 



108 COALS OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

Section of coal bed in Independent mint. 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. Ft. In. 

*Coal, bony (sample No. 9474) » . 8 5 

♦Coal (sample No. 9286) 2 2J 

♦Coal, bony (sample No. 9286) 1 24+ 

Covered 1 2i 

Shale, carbonaceous, black. 

8 i+ 

Samplesfor analysis, — Samples 9474 and 9286 were taken from the 
two benches of tlie bed at the foot of the slope. Sample 9474 was 
taken from the upper bench and sample 9286 from the lower bench of 
the bed. About 14 inches of the lower part of the lower bench was 
covered and could not be sampled, so that the character of this part 
of the bed is not known. Both hanging and foot walls are firm, and 
will probably not mix appreciably with the coal. The analyses of 
the samples are given on page 49. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal from the upper bench 
is grayish black and has a brown streak. It is banded and breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. The amount of moisture present in it 
is relatively small and the coal does not weather when exposed to the 
air. The amount of ash is very high, but the heating value is suffi- 
cient to make the coal marketable. It is a noncoking bituminous 
coal and resembles the coal from bed Xo. 5 at Ravensdale. The 
coal from the lower part of the lower bench resembles that from the 
upper bench but is higher in ash. The coal from the upper part of 
the lo vf er bench is i)itch black; has a dark-brown streak and a vitreous 
luster. It is only slightly banded, and breaks with an irregular 
splintery fracture. It appears to be much lower in ash and to have 
a mu(^h higher heating value than any of the other layers in the bed. 
The coal appears to be of high grade, and resembles that from bed 
No. 5 at the Green River Coal Co.'s mine. This portion of the bench, 
if worked with the upper bench, would give a product with only a 
moderate amount of asli. 

SUNSET. 

Sunset, water-level mine, about 1 mile southeast of Cumberland. 
Bunkers are located on the Northern Pacific Railway about 1 mile 
from the mine. No. 21. 

Operator: Sunset Coal Co., Cumberland, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds, — Three coal beds have been worked. Bed No. 1, the 
highest in the group, was worked by a water-level gangway, which 
has been abandoned and closed up. Beds No. 2 and No. 3 are 
benches of a lower bed of coal, and are worked together in some 
parts of the mine. Bed No. 7 outcrops farther to the north on the 
hill and several hundred feet lower down in the formation. The 



KING COUNTY. 



109 



beds strike about N. 60° E. and dip from 42° to 60° SE. The thick- 
ness of beds No. 2 and No. 3 varies considerably within short dis- 
tances, and the partings are somewhat irregular. No. 2 and No. 3 
are the only beds worked at the present time. The following sections 
were measured at the places from which the samples were taken: 

Sections of coal beds in Sunset mine. 
Wo, 8868, bad ITo. 1. 



Shale. Ft. in. 

Coal, bony 7 

♦Coal 4 8i 

Coal, bony. 



Ko. 8866, bed No. 8. 

Shale, soft. 

♦Coal 

Sand, brown 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceoiiB , 

Clay 

Sandstone, carbonaceous 

Coal 

Coal, bony 



5 3i 

Ft. in. 
1 3} 

1 
1 

H 
3 

3i 

4 

4 

3 8i 



ITo. 8864, bed No. 8. 

Shale, carbonaceous. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 61 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 8i 

Shale, carbonaceous, soft, 

black 21 

♦Coal, bony 91 

3 4 
No. 8876, bed No. 7. 

Bone (roof). Ft. fn. 

♦Coal, bony 2 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 21 

♦Coal 6 

♦Coal, bony 11 

♦Coal, bony 2 5 

Bone, with some coal (floor) 1 

7 1 



Preparation for marJcet, — No attempt is made to separate the im- 
purities at the mine. The partings are separated from the coal by 
picking and washing at the bunkers. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9263 was taken from the side of an 
air chute on bed No. 1, about 30 feet down the dip from the surface. 
The air chute comes to the surface about 20 feet below the crest of 
the first ridge east of the entrance to the mine, and this was the 
only place where a sample from tliis bed could be obtained. The 
coal had been exposed to the atmosphere for a considerable length 
of time and was somewhat weathered. The bed lies between two 
layers of bony coal, which cling more or less to the coal and should 
be picked out at the bunkers. Sample 9264 was taken from bed 
No. 2 about 1,450 feet from the entrance to the mine. This bed 
contains two partings, which can be separated by picking and wash- 
ing and were not included in the sample. Sample 9265 was taken 
at the same place as No. 9462, but from bed No. 3. It contains a 
parting of sand, which can be removed by washing and was not 
included in the sample. Between this bed and bed No. 2 is a layer 
of soft shale, of which a part can be removed in the mine and the 
rest separated at the bunkers. The bed is luiderlain by about 16 
inches of shale and more or less impure coal which may be mixed to 
some extent with the coal in mining, but it can probably be removed 



110 

by canhil 
No. 7 atK 
located oa. 
'The had tn 
blftck flhali 
The roof a 
theMwI. 

8 is pitch 1 
the coal is 
peacock co 

an iiregular, aplitttegrjr fracture. Ocmaiderabla moisture wu foond in 
the aunple taken from 'bed No. 1, but this mobtnre nu^ be due to 
absorption during weathering. Tlie coal frcnn beds No. 2 and No. 3 
contains a small amount of moisture and does not slat^ on eeqiosuTe 
to the air, but that from No. 2 bed is rather hi^ JiLaahrAiring^iHob- 
ably to the i»esence of a bony layer near A» bottMHflf-thebed. Alt 
three beds are -bitaminous, and tile ooal conqiares bvorably irith 
that takm from beds Nos. 1 and 3 at Bayne. Goalirom beds No. 2 
and No. 3 shows fair cokmg tcaidenciee sod is aometimea wed in 
blacksmithing. The coal from bed No. 7 is grayish black 'and has a 
reddish'brown streak. It is banded and laminated and breaks with 
a splintery fracture. Inasmuch as its heating value is greatly 
reduced by the excessive amount of ash contained in it, this coal may 
be of little economic value until the better coals are exhausted. 

NAVAL. 

Naval, water-level and slope mine at Cumberland, ou the Nortiiem 
Pacific Railway. No. 22. 

Operator: Naval Coal Co., Cumberland, Wash, 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^Two beds of coal, No, 4 and No. 6, are worked at tliis 
mine. They are separated by about 12 feet of carbonaceous shale, 
which is left standing after the two beds are worked out. The follow- 
ing section was measured in the places where the samples were taken: 

Section o/ coal brd« in Naval mine. 

Clay shale. Ft. in. 

Shale, white 3J 

Bone 3J 

*Coal taample 9287 ) 11 

Shale } 

•Coal (eample 9287) 1 6 

Shale, carbonaceoua 10 

Ooal, hard, bony 2 

•Coal, tat, bony {sample 9285) 1 7 

•Cofti {sample 9284) 2 4 

18 111 



KING COUNTY. Ill 

Preparation far marTcet, — No attempt is made to separate any of 
the impurities in the mine. The coal is picked at the tipple over 
2-inch bal* screens. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9287 was taken from bed No. 4 at 
the first crosscut above the water-level gangway in a chute 144 feet 
north of the rock tunnel. The bed contains one shale parting, which 
can be separated from the coal and was not included in the sample. 
Layers of shale and bone, in all about 7 inches in thickness, overlay 
the bed and mix to some extent with the coal. These impurities 
must be removed at the tipple. The shale floor is firm and does not 
mix with the coal. Sample 9285 was taken from the north water- 
level gangway, about 330 feet from the rock tunnel, from the upper 
bench of bed No. 6. Sample 9284 was taken from the same place as 
sample 9285, but from the lower bench of the bed. The bed is 
between two layers of bony coal, which appear to be firm and should 
not mix to any extent with the coal. The analyses of these samples 
are given on pages 49-50. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal from bed No. 4 and the 
upper bench of bed No. 6 is grayish black and has a reddish-brown 
streak. It is banded and laminated, and breaks with a splintery 
fractin'e. It contains a small amount of moisture and does not 
weather when exposed to the air. The amount of ash in both beds is 
somewhat high, but the heating value is sufficient to make the coal of 
commercial value. The coal of the lower bench of bed No. 6 is pitch 
black and has a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is 
slightly banded and has an irregular splintery fracture. It contains a 
small amount of moisture and does not weather when exposed to the 
atmosphere. In ash content, which is moderate, the coal comparer 
favorably with the best coal in bed No. 5 at Bayne and the coal from 
bed No. 3 at Occidental. The coal from bed No. 4 and from the upper 
bench of bed No. 6 shows a tendency to coke and that from the lower 
part of bed No. 6 should produce fairly good coke. This coal should 
be classed as a fair grade of bituminous coal. 

EUREKA. 

Eureka, abandoned water-level mine about 1 mile south of Bayne. 
No. 23. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed, — The coal bed belongs to the same group of beds as that 
exposed in the mine of the Green River Coal Co. at Bayne. It strikes 
N. 85® W. and dips 38° SW. The bed, as exposed in the gangway, 
contains a great number of partings of shale and bony coal, and only 
a portion of it is pure enough to be mined economically at the present 
time. The section following was measured. 



112 COAUS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Section of'cr^ bed in Eurthi ahaiukmed* mine. 



Ft. in. 

Shale, bbick. caibonaceno? 1 1 

♦f^ 1 

Shale. bn^wB 2J 

♦Coal 2 1 

*l'«T5il, crushed, and ('art>*>naceoii? ehale? 1 

** Sulphur" band and smdy shale 2j 

♦Oial \ 9J 

Hi»ne and :«liale 5 

Kix\\ 3i 

Shale 2J 

Coal 5 

Shale i 

Coal 3J 

B<»ne and ^jliale 2^ 

Mixture b<nie and shale rnishe*! 1 7 

Bone 31 

<\xil, rnished. b<>nv 6 

Shale, carbonaceous 2J-f 



10 lOJ 

Sample for anahjsls, — Sample 9294 was taken from the siile of the 
ganorway 1 74 feet from the entrance to the mine. Two partings which 
occur in the bed can be separated by careful picking and washing, and 
were not included in the sample. The analysis of the sample is given 
on page 50. 

Character and qualify of the coal, — The coal is pitch black and has 
a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is banded and breaks 
with an irregular fracture. It contains a small amount of moisture 
and does not weather when exposed to the air. Although the amount 
of ash in the sample is large, the heating value is high enough to make 
the coal of considerable commercial value. The coal is bituminous 
and of about the same quality as that from beds No. 1 and No. 2 at 
Bavne. 

BAYNE. 

Baj'ne, water-level tunnel and drift mine at Bayne, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 24. 

Operator: Green River Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — Three coal beds, Nos. 1 , 3, and 5 in ascending order, are 
being worked in this mine. One is separated from another by several 
hundred feet of sandstone. The beds strike N. 30° W. and dip 34° 
NE. They are uniform in thickness and the partings are fairly con- 
tinuous. The following sections were measured where the samples 
were obtained: 



KING COUNTY. 



113 



Sections of coal beds in Bayne mine. 



No. 9118, bed Fo. 1. 

Shale, black. 

♦Coal 

*Shale, black, carbonaceous, 

hard 

♦Coal ,. 1 

Shale, soft, carbonaceous. . . 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal, with small "nigger- 
heads" 1 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. . 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous: 

♦Coal 

Shale, black 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous. — 



Ft. in. 
10 



i 
9i 

3i 

3i 
1 

1 
2 
3} 

4 
3J 
2 

^ 



No. 9109, bed No. 6. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

Shale, black 7 

♦Coal 2 2i 

Shale, soft, brown, carbona- 
ceous 2J 

♦Coal 2 7 

Shale, carbonaceous. 



No. 9110, bed No. 8. 

Shale, sandy. 

♦Coal....: 

Shale, carbonaceous, very 

Boft 

♦Coai; 

Shale, gray • 

♦Coal 

Shale, gray 

♦Coal 

Shale, gray 

♦Coal 

Shale, gray 

♦Coal 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

Nob. 9868, 9868, 9875, bed No. 5. 

Shale, soft, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous. 

No. 9488, highest bed on hill. 
Shale. 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous 

♦Coal, slightly bony 

Sand 

♦Coal, stringy and slightly 

bony 

Clay, yellowish. 



Ft. In. 
1 81 

24 

.94 
1 

4 

2 

5 

24 
1 

1 

7 

4 8 

Ft. in. 
2 



Ft. in. 
2 
1 

1 

4 



1 Hi 



Preparation for marJcet. — No attempt is made to separate the part- 
ings from the coal in the mine. At the bunker the coal is passed over 
a shaking screen having 2-inch perforations; the oversize is hand 
picked and the undersize washed twice through a new model of the 
Pittsburg jig, which is supposed to remove 95 per cent of the im- 
purities. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9112 was taken on the north side of 
the main rock tunnel where it crosses bed No. 1. The bed contains 
numerous partings, most of which have a higher specific gravity than 
the coal and can be separated by carefully adjusting the washers. 
The top parting only was included in the sample. Sample 9110 was 
taken from the face of the south gangway on bed No. 3, about 70 feet 
from the main tunnel. Tliis bed also contains numerous shale part- 
ings, which can be separated from the coal by yery careful picking and 
washing, which were not included in the sample. Sample 9109 was 
taken on bed No. 5, 55 feet above the gangway and 15 feet to the left 
of chute 9. The bed contains one shale parting that can be separated 
from the coal, and was not included in the sample. Both the roof and 

91320*'— BuU. 474—11 8 



114 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

the floor of the mine are very firm and do not mix with the coal in 
mining. Samples 9275, 9268, and 9269 were taken from the lower 
2 feet of good coal from bed No. 5 in a small drift at the outcrop of 
the bed on the hill above the entrance to the mine, to show the effect 
of weathering upon this grade of coal. Sample 9275 was taken at 
the entrance to the drift 1 foot beyond the first set of timbers. The 
coal was weathered and much jointed, the joints being filled with mud 
and iron rust. Sample 9268 was taken 9 feet beyond the first set 
of timbers. The coal, which appears to be somewhat shaly at this 
point, was weathered, and the major joints were filled with mud and 
iron rust. Sample 9269 was taken 15 feet from the first set of tim- 
bers. The coal was bright and firm and represents about the best 
coal that could be obtained from bed No. 5 in the mine proper. 
Sample 9483 was taken from the highest bed on the hill above the 
Bayne mine. It was very poorly exposed in a small prospect, and 
appeared to be faulted out of its regular position in the group. It 
contains several partings which can be separated by careful picking 
and washing, and these partings Were not included in the sample. 
The analyses of these samples are given on pages 50-51. 

Cfharacier and quality of the coal. — The coal from beds Nos. 1, 
3, and 5 is nearly pitch black and has a dark-brown streak and a vitre- 
ous luster. It is massive and laminated and breaks with an irregular 
fracture. It contains a small amount of moisture and does not crum- 
ble when exposed to the air. All the samples, except the one taken 
from the lower bench of bed No. 5, show a high percentage of ash. 
A small amount of gas is liberated after the coal is shot, and this 
accumulates in sufficient quantities to necessitate the use of safety 
lamps until the rooms can be tested and brushed out. This coal is 
bituminous and of good grade; the large amount of ash accounts for 
the low heating value. The coal shows coking tendencies, and is used 
at the mine as blacksmithing coal for rough work. Coal from the 
small prospect at the top of the hill contains Kttle moisture, but the 
high percentage of ash makes it of little economic value at the.present 
time. 

Comparison of the analyses of the three samples from the drift on 
bed No. 5 shows a decrease in moisture and sulphur and an increase in 
volatile matter in the coal as the distance from the entrance increases. 
The increased amount of ash in the second sample is probably due to 
the greater thickness of the films of mud in the joints and to the more 
bony nature of the coal. 

CARBON. 

Carbon, a water-level mine about half a mile northeast of Bayne, on 
the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 25. 
Operator: Carbon Coal Co., Bayne, Wash, 
Kind of coal : Bituminous, 



KING COUNTY. 



115 



Coal ted, — ^The bed worked at this mine is believed to belong to the 
same group as that mined by the Green River Coal Co. at Bayne. It 
strikes N. 45° E. and dips about 10° SE. The upper bed, or bed No. 
1 , is the only one that is being woiked. Bed No. 2 is separated from 
No. 1 by a parting that increases in thickness from a few feet at the 
far end of the gangway to about 25 feet at the entrance of the mine. 
The following sections were measured where the samples were taken: 

Sections of coal beds in Carbon miiie. 



ITo. MU. bed ITo. 1. 

Shale, clayey. 

Coal, bony 

*Coal 

8hale, sandy 

♦Coal 

Shale, clayey 

♦Coal :.. 

Shale. 



Ft. In. 

1 
2 9i 

^ 

1 

5 + 

4 4i+ 



ITo. 94M, bed Vo. 8. 



Shale, brown, sandy. 

♦Coal , 

Shale. 



Ft. In. 
2 ^ 



Preparatian for market, — ^The coal contains numerous ''nigger- 
heads" varying in maximum diameter from 2 inches to several feet, 
most of which are separated from the coal in the mine. The coal is 
picked at the bunker and washed through a jig. 

Sample for anelysie. — Sample 9485 was taken from bed No. 1 at a 
point 630 feet west and 590 feet north of the southeast comer of sec. 
15, T. 21 N., R. 7 E. The bed contains two partings, which, since 
they can be separated by careful picking and washing, were not 
included in the sample. About an inch of bony coal overlies the bed 
and is mixed with the coal to some extent in mining. It is necessary 
to remove this at the bunker. Sample 9486 was taken from spherical 
nodules of coal, which occur frequently throughout the bed and range 
from 2 inches to a foot in diameter. Coal of this character appears 
to be brighter and more nearly pure than the remainder of the bed. 
Analysis 9492 was made of a composite sample consisting of equal 
parts of the coals tested in samples 9485 and 9486. Sample 9489 
was taken from bed No. 2 at a point 380 feet west and 844 feet north 
of the southeast comer of the same section. At this place the bed is 
separated from bed No. 1 by about 2 feet of coal, clay, and shale. 
The coal is worked only in the gangway, where the floor is taken up 
to give sufficient height for handling cars. The analyses of these 
samples are given on page 51. 

Character and guality of the coal. — ^The coal from both beds is pitch 
black, and has a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is mas- 
sive and slightly laminated, and breaks with an irregular hackly 
fracture. In general, the coal from these beds contains a small 
amount of moisture and does not weather on exposure to the sun, 



1X4 



eodAH 



ntospBOT nimrr wwr or bathx. 



Pro^wet drift about oii»-fourtlL mile west <A Bayne and about 600 
feet weat and 140 feet south of the nortiieast oomer of ko. 21, T. 21 
N., R. 7 E. No. 26. 

Kind of ooal: Bituminous. 

Coid bed. — This ooal bed belong to the same group as that exposed 
at Oooidental and at Bayne. It is very nearly horizontal, and lies in 
the center of the synoline passing throu^ Lizard Mountun. At the 
point in the drift where the sample was taken the bed strikes about 
N. 60° B. and dips neariy 8" NW. The partings in the bed are not 
uniform in thickness Ihrou^out the length of the bed exposed in Ihe 
drift. The following -seotion was measured where the sample was 
taken: 

SMtum (/ oool M tn pnwp«et (friA WMt q^ AqpM. 

Shale, carbonaceouB. Ft. tat. 

"Coal., 8) 

Shale, black, carbonaceous ) 

•Coal 1 6 

Shale, brown, sandy 24 

•Coal 8J 

Shale, eandy 1 

•Ooal 11 

Shale, sandy, carbonaceouB 1 

•Coal 1 31 

Shale. 

5 6) 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9488 was taken 72 feet from entrance 
on the upper side of the gangway. The bed contains four partings, 
which can be separated by careful picking and washing and which 
were not included in the sample. Tlie analysis of tliis sample ia given 
on page 51. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is pitch black, and has a 
brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is massive and slightly lami- 
nated and breaks with an irregular hackly fracture. It contains a 
small amount of moisture and does not weather on exposure to the 
air. The analysis shows a rather high amount of asli, but the heat- 
ing value ia high enough to make the coal of commercial value, and 
it should compare favorably with the coal from other mines in the 
immediate neighborhood. Coking tendencies are apparent in coal 
taken from this prospect. 



KING COUNTY. 



117 



OCCIDENTAL. 

Occidental, two slope mines and one drift, at Bayne, on a spur of 
the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 27. 

Operator: Occidental CoUiery Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds, — Sixteen beds of coal and carbonaceous material, 
numbered in descending order, are reported in this group. Beds 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 14 have been developed at different times. 
At the time of the visit to the mine the openings on Nos. 4 and 5 
were closed, and these beds could not be sampled. The beds strike 
N. 45° E. and dip about 38° SE.; both beds and partings are about 
uniform in thickness throughout the workings. The following sec- 
tions were measured at the places where the samples were obtained : 

Sections of coal beds in Occidental viine. 
ITo. 9479, bed ITo. 1. 

Shale. 

Clay and coal, irregular streakH. 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, slightly bony, altered 
locally to **niggerhead8"... 

♦Coal, bony 

♦Coal, bright 4 

Coal, bony. 



Ft. In. 
1 

5 

3i 

1 

1 



6 10} 



ITo. 947S, b«d ITo. 8. 



Shale, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal, slightly bony near cen- Ft. in. 

ter 1 5 

Clay 1 

♦Coal, hard, bright 1 11 

Shale 2J 

♦Coal 1 5 

Shale, black 8J 



5 9 
ITo. 9481. bed ITo. 6. 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 2J 

'^Sulphur" band 1 

♦Coal 1 5 

Shale, brown, sandy 3} 

♦Coal 7 

Shale, brown, soft. 

Shale, smooth. 



iro.947e,bediro.l4. 

Goal, bony. Ft. in. 

♦Coal, hard, bright 1 6 

Shale. 



ITo. 9480, bed ITo. 8. 
Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal, bright 

Shale, sandy, brown, varies 

up to Si inches 

♦Coal 

Clay, soft, pale yellow, varies 

from 1 to 5 inches 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous. . 

♦Coal, bright 

Shale, brown 

♦Coal, bright 

ITo. 9476, bed ITo. 8. 

Shale, black. 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 

Bone 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, sandy 

♦Coal 

Shale, floor. 



Ft. in. 
1 1 

1 
2 



2J 
3 

i 
5 

i 

6J 



3 9 

Ft. in. 

114 

i 

i 
1 9} 

2J 
11 

i 
5 



ITo. 9477, bed ITo. 14. 

Shale, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal, hard, bony 1 

♦Coal, soft, bony 

♦Coal 2 

♦Coal, hard, bright 1 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous. 



14 



Ft. in. 



i 

94 

6 

1 

84 



6 14 



118 COALS OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

PreparoHan for market. — Coal from the beds No. 2 and No. 3 
is picked, and then washed through a small jig at a dimip house near 
the entrance to mine No. 3. Numerous '^niggerheads" occur in 
bed No. 2; the largest of these are separated from the coal in the 
mine, and the others are removed at the bunker. Coal from bed 
No. 14 is hand picked at another dump house at the entrance to 
the slope of bed No. 14, or what is known as the new mine. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9479 was taken from the abandoned 
workings on bed No. 1 on the side of an air course 550 feet from the 
entrance to the first water level and on the counter gangway 250 
feet above the water level gangway. The bed contains a layer of 
bony shale, altered locally to ''niggerheads," which may be separated 
from the rest of the coal and was not included in the sample. The 
coal is overlain by about a foot of irregular bands of clay and coal, 
which will come down to some extent in the rooms and must be 
removed at the bunker. Sample 9480 was taken on bed No. 2, 
about 70 feet up a chute 310 feet from entrance to the gangway. 
The bed contains several partings, which can be separated by careful 
picking and washing and which were not included in the sample. 
The roof is of carbonaceous shale, and is not mixed to any extent 
with the coal in mining. Sample 9478 was taken from bed No. 3 
about 100 feet above the first level on the manway 30 feet north- 
east of the slope. The bed contains two partings which can be 
removed by picking and washing and which were not included in 
the sample. Sample 9475 was taken from the same bed about 660 
feet up the rise from the first level in chute 7. The bed contains 
four partings, which can be separated in preparation for market 
and were therefore not included in the sample. Both roof and floor 
are firm and do not mix with the coal in mining. Sample 9481 was 
taken from the south side of an old air course on bed No. 6, about 
112 feet from the surface. The air course is located about 300 feet 
northeast from chute 7 on bed No. 3. Two partings which occur 
in the bed can be separated from the coal in preparation for the 
market, and were not included in the sample. The roof of the mine 
is firm and is not mixed with the coal in mining, but the bed is 
imderlain by 2^ inches of soft shale which parts from the floor with 
the coal and must be removed at the bunker. Sample 9477 was 
taken from bed No. 14 at the New mine about 200 feet down the 
slope and 30 feet to the west, where a small room had been opened 
to supply the boiler with fuel. A parting near the bottom of the bed 
can be separated and was not included in the sample. The roof and 
floor are firm and are not mixed to any extent with the coal. Farther 
west and southwest along the gangway the bed is badly crushed, 
and the roof and floor become mixed to a considerable extent witli 
the coal, introducing impurities which must be removed at the bunker. 
Sample 9476 was taken from the same place as sample 9477, and is 



KING COUNTY. Il9 



• 



composed of coal from the 1 foot 6 inch bench of good coal in the lower 
portion of the bed. Analysis 9491 was made of a composite sample 
containing equal parts of samples 9476 and 9477. The analyses of 
these samples are given on pages 51-52. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal from beds Nos. 1, 2, and 
3 and the lower part of bed No. 14 is pitch black and has a dark-brown 
streak and a vitreous luster. It is massive and very slightly laminated 
and breaks with an irregular fracture. It contains a small amount of 
moisture and does not crumble when exposed to the sun. This coal, 
except that from the lower bench of No. 14, contains about the same 
amount of ash as most of the coal in the vicinity of Bajme. Gas 
occurs in the coal in such quantities as to make necessary the use of 
safety lamps after shooting, or after the workings have stood vacant 
for some time. The coal is bituminous, and is used to some extent 
as blacksmith coal, as it will coke in the forge. It has about the same 
heating value as the better grades of coal from the immediate vicinity. 
The coal from bed No. 6 and from the upper bench of bed No. 14 
is grayish black, and has a dark-brow9 streak and a dull luster. It 
is banded and laminated, and breaks with a splintery fracture. 
It contains a small amount of moisture and does not weather when 
exposed to the sun. More ash is present in it than in the other sam- 
ples obtained at this mine, and its heating value is correspondingly 
lower. This coal is bituminous, shows good coking tendencies, and 
is of about the same value as that obtained from the beds of mine 
No. 1 at Ravensdale. 

. BIG SIX. 

Big Six, a drift mine about 1^ miles east of Bayne, on a spur of the 
Northern Pacific Railway. No. 28. 

Operator: Bix Six Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed, — ^This mine, which has been closed for some time, is located 
on what has frequently been caUed the Pocahontas bed. The bed 
strikes N. 12° W. and dips about 31° E. The main rock tunnel to 
the bed is badly caved and was not considered safe at the time of the 
visit. The main bench of the bed could not be sampled, but a sample 
of the upper bench was obtained from a small drift made near the fan 
house on the outcrop of the bed, where the following section was taken: 

Section of the Pocahontas bed in Big Six mine. 

No. 9f78. 
Shale, hard, carbonaceoiifi. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 5 

Shale, brown 2 

♦Coal 1 1 

Shale, brown '. 1 

♦Coal 4 

Shale, carbonaceous, sandy 1 

Shale, sandy. 

3 2 



120 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9278 was taken about 30 feet from 
the entrance to the drift. The bed contains two partings of shale, 
which can be separated from the coal by careful picking and washing 
and were therefore not included in the sample. A foot or two of 
shale separates it from the main or lower bench of the bed. The 
analysis of this sample is given on page 52. 

CTiaract^r and qualifi/ of the coal. — ^The coal is pitch black, gives a 
dark-brown streak, and has a vitreous luster. It is massive and 
dense and breaks with an irregular fracture. It is low in moisture 
and does not crumble when exposed to the sun. The ash content is 
about the same as that of the average coal in the same region. The 
coal is bituminous, of fair grade, and is reported to make good coke. 
It has about the same heating value as the better grades of coal from 
the same region. 

PROSPECT AT PALMER JI'NCTION. 

Prospect at Palmer Junction, on the Northern Pacific Railway. 
Xo. 29. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Cixil bed. — The coal bed appears to belong to the group exposed at 
Durham on the north and at the Big Six mine on the south. It 
strikes S. 2° W. and dips 38° E. The total thickness of the bed between 
hanging and foot walls is 30 feet 3f inches. A drift has been driven 
on the strike in the upper part of the bed to a distance of about 160 
feet. A section of the bed follows. 

Section of ami bed iti prospect at Palmer Junction. 

Shale, sandy (hanjjinjj wall'). Ft. in. 

Shalo, black, carbonareous 2J 

Coal, bonv 6 

Shalo, brown 2i 

Shale, carbonaceous, with strin^'^ers of coal 7 

( oal, bony 6 

Shale, <?rdy 7 

Shale, carbonaceous, with stringers of coal 5 

*Coal, bony (sample 928S ) 1 ^ 

Shale, hard, pray 1 

*C'oal, bony (sample 9288) 8i 

Shale, gray 1 

Bone 2 

Shale, gray 1 

Coal, bony 3J 

Shale, brown J 

Coal, bonv • 5 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous 3 

Shale, carbonaceous, with stringers of bony coal and bright 

coal 1 

*Coal, bony, with stringers and lenses of good coal (sample 

91H2) 1 4 



KING COUNTY. 121 

Ft. In. 

Shale, brown, carbonaceous 3i 

Coal 1 

Shale, brown 5 

Sandstone, coarse 3J 

Shale, carbonaceous, with lenses of coal 1 

Shale, brown 3J 

Coal 2i 

Shale, sandy 1 

Coal 1 

Sandstone, soft 7 

Coal, poor 5 

Coal 2i 

Coal, poor .» ^ 

Shale, sandy 3J 

Shale, sandy ^ 

Coal, crushed 8J 

Coal , 7 

Shale, brown, with irregular lenses of coal 8J 

Coal 2i 

"Niggerhead " 5 

Coal 3i 

Shale, carbonaceous, with stringers of coal 11 

Coal, bony 1 

Shale, sandy 1 

Coal, bony 3i 

Shale, soft, brown 6 

Coal 3J 

Coal, bony 6 

Coal, very poor, bony (coal in thin lenses) 1 9i 

Sandstone 3i 

Shale, sandy black 3J 

Shale, black, carbonaceous 1 

Coal 1 

Coal, bony 5 

Coal 3i 

Shale, carbonaceous, with stringers of coal 8i 

Coal, poor 1 

Shale, hard, sandy 3J 

Shale, soft 1 

Coal, lens about 2 feet long 1 

Shale, carbonaceous, with lenses of coal 9i 

Coal, very badly crushed 6 

Shale, black, hard, carbonaceous 3i 

Shale, carbonaceous, with irregular lenses of coal 4± 

Shale (footwall). 

30 7 

Samples for analysis. — Samples 9288 and 9482 were taken from the 
surface of the bed just above the entrance to the drift, after about 6 

inches of the cOal had been removed. Sample 9288 was taken from 
the upper bench, which contains a small parting not included in the 
sample. Sample 9482 was taken from the lower bench. The analyses 
of these samples are given on pages 52-53. 



122 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal from these two benches 
is pitch black, and has a dark-brown streak and vitreous luster. It 
is banded and laminated, and breaks with an irregular splintery 
fracture. It contains a small amount of moisture and does not 
weather when exposed to the sun. The amount of ash is very large, 
forming about one-third of the total weight of the coal, and the heat- 
ing value of the coal is so greatly reduced in consequence that it is 
only about the same as that of the lowest grade of coal in the State. 

PROSPECT SHAFT EAST OF RAVENSDALE. 

Small prospect shaft about 3^ miles east of Ravensdale. No. 30. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^About 5 feet of the coal bed is exposed in the bottom 
of the shaft. The bed has been disturbed by local movements so 
that the sections on both sides of the opening do not agree, and the 
dip and strike are somewhat uncertain; as near as could be deter- 
mined from the present opening the bed strikes about N. 80® W. and 
dips from 80 to 85° S. The following section was taken on the west 
side of the opening: 

Section in Prospect shaft .5} mites east of Ravensdaie. 

ITOt MM. 
Shale. Ft. In. 

*Coal 1 9i 

Shale, and carbonaceoufl shale 2 

•Coal 9i 

Clay, lens J 

♦Coal 5 

Shale, carbonaceous 2i 

♦Coal 1 5 

♦Coal , bony 7 

Shale. 

5 4i 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9292 was taken at the place where 
the section given above was measured. The bed contains three part- 
ings which can be separated from the coal, and these were not included 
in the sample. It is overlain by crushed shale, which will mix with 
the coal in mining. The analysis of this sample is given on page 53. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is pitch black, and has 
a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is slightly banded and 
has an irregular conchoidal fracture, resembling that of the McKay 
coal, and this circumstance, among others, has led to the belief that 
this may be the McKay bed. The coal contains a rather large amount 
of moisture and a moderate amount of ash, so that its fuel value is 
considerably lower than the McKay. It has about the same heating 
value as the average coal from the Ravensdale No. 1 mine, and may 
be a continuation of one of these beds. 



KIKG COTJNTT. 123 

F&08PECT DRIFT NEAR BARNESTOX. 

Prospect drift run 70 feet, near Bameston, on the Northern Pacific 
Railway. No. 31. 

Kind of coal: Natural coke(f). 

Coal bed. — ^The bed upon which this drift is run is one of a group of 
coal beds exposed in a small ravine west of the north end of the horse- 
shoe loop on the railroad. All the beds are more or less affected by 
igneous intrusions, and in some places they are almost completely 
burned out. The following section was taken about 10 feet from 
the entrance to the drift. 

Section of coal bed in prospect drift near Bame$ton. 

ITo. 9111. 

Igneous rock. Ft. in. 

* Shale, black, with thin fltreaks of coal 1 2J 

Igneous rock 6 

* Shale, with streaks of coked coal 3 

4 ^ 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9111 was taken where the above 
section was measured. Both the hanging wall and footwall of the 
bed are of a porphyritic igneous rock which appears to be rhyolite 
ar andesite. The parting in the middle of the bed appears to be of 
the same material, but it is much decayed and can be readily broken 
in the hand. This parting follows about the same position in the 
bed for a distance of 30 feet from the entrance. It then turns abruptly 
and lies immediately under the roof. The analysis of this sample 
is given on page 53. 

Character and quality qf the coal. — ^The coal has been altered by 
igneous action. The upper bench of the bed is changed almost entirely 
to natural coke, and the lower bench is partially altered. The analy- 
sis indicates a large amount of fixed carbon and a small amount of 
volatile matter. The coal contains a high percentage of moisture, 
nearly all of which is given off when exposed to the sun. This mois- 
ture appears to fill the pore spaces in the coked part of the bed, and 
has probably been absorbed from the adjoining rocks. Nearly one- 
third of the weight of the coal is ash. It has a low heating value, 
and considering the uncertain nature of the igneous intrusions in this 
vicinity the bed is of no economic importance. 

DENNT-RENTON. 

Denny-Renton, tunnel and drift mine at Taylor, on the Columbia 
& Puget Sound Railroad. No. 32. 

Operator: .Denny-Renton Clay & Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal hed. — Five coal beds are exposed in this tunnel, which is being 
operated for several large shale beds that are of special value in the 



124 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



manufacture of brick and terra cotta. The coal beds are worked in 
conjunction with the shale in order to supply fuel for burning the clay. 
In descending order the beds are known as Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 
They strike X. 70"* W. and dip from 60 to 70*^ S. The formation 
is badly broken by igneous intrusions which follow the coal beds for 
some distance, parallel them in the shale, or cut across the coal at 
various angles. Wherever the igneous rock comes in contact with 
the coal it is altered more or less to natural coke. The igneous 
rock is either rhyolite or andesite, and is more or less decomposed. 
It makes excellent brick of delicate tints, and is used when encoun- 
tered in the coal beds, so that the cost of mining the coal is not 
increased by its presence. The following sections were taken where 
the samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Denny-Renton mine. 



ITo. 917S, bed Ho. S. 



Scale, carbonare<)iiH. 

*('oal , 

Coal, bony. 



Ft. In. 
3 8i 



Ho. 9178, bed Ho. 4. 



Shale, black. 
Shale, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale. 



Ft. 



In. 

2i 
8J 



2 11 



Ho. 9176, bed Ho. 6. 



Shale, carbonaceous. Ft. In. 
* Coal, irregular Htreaks of 

*'sulphur" 2 2J 

Shale, brown 1 

♦Coal 2 5 

Shale, black, carbonaceous (i)oor 
floor). 



8i 



Ho. 618-D, bed Ho. 5A 



♦Coal 


Ft. 


In. 

54 

1 


Shale 




♦Coal 


1 


1 


•'Rash" 




1 


♦Coal 


2 


Coal, bony. 







3 10 



Ho. 9176, bed Ho. S. 



Ft. 



Shale, carbonaceous. 

 Coal, slightly bony. . . .. 

Shale, brown, hard 

 Coal, one-third badly 

squeezed 

Shale, hard 

 Coal, , lime in jointei 

Shale, brown 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, carbonaceous (poor floor). — 



in. 

6 

1 

^ 
2* 
11 

1 
3i 



Ho. 9174, bed Ho. 5, 

Shale, black, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

**Niggerhead" 

♦Ciml 



3 9i 

Ft. in. 
1 11 
3 
1 U 



Shale, black, carbonaceous (ixx)r 
floor). 



Ho. 619-D, bed Ho. 4.1 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony 



Ft. 
2 



1 

in. 

3i 
4 



Ho. 680-D, bed Ho. 6.^ 

♦Coal 

 Shale and sandstone . . . . 
♦Coal 

Shale and sandstone . . . . 
♦Coal 

"Rash" 

♦Coal 



2 

Ft. 



7i 

In. 
5 

i 

5} 
1 

14 

2i 
11 



3 24 



1 Washing and ooking tests of ooal, Bull. Bureau of Mines No. 5, 1910, pp. i;^14. 



KING COUNTY. 125 

Preparation for marJcet, — The coal from all the beds is mixed at 
the bunker and picked by hand. The small coal is then washed 
through a Jeffery tub washer, so that most of the partings and all 
the ^'sulphur'' balls are removed from the coal. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9173 was taken from bed No. 2 
in a small crosscut from bed No. 3 about 2,600 feet due north of the 
south quarter corner of sec. 3, T. 22 N., R. 7 E. It is overlain by car- 
bonaceous shale and underlain by bony coal, both of which mix to 
some extent with the coal in mining and must be separated. Sample 
9176 was taken from bed No. 3 about 50 feet west of the place where 
sample 9173 was obtained. The bed contains three layers of shale, 
Mrhich can be separated by careful picking and washing and which were 
not included in the sample. The roof and floor are of carbonaceous 
shale; both are more or less crushed and break off very readily. 
The floor of the mine is especially poor, and some places as much as 
a foot of the shale mixes with the coal, so that the output from this 
bed should be very carefully picked and washed. Sample 9172 was 
taken from bed No. 4 in chute 29 of the east gangway. The bed is 
overlain by about 2 inches of carbonaceous shale, which breaks with 
the coal and must be separated at the bunker. Sample 9 1 74 was taken 
from chute 27, about 45 feet above the east gangway on bed No. 5. 
A layer of pyrite near the center of the bed can be separated at the 
bunker, and this impurity was not included in the sample. The bed 
also contains scattered through the coal small nodules of pyrite, 
wldch may be removed by washing. The roof of this mine is of strong 
carbonaceous shale, but the floor is badly broken carbonaceous shale, 
and this shale mixes with the coal in mining. 

Samples 518-D, 519-D, and 520-D were taken in 1908 by Karl M. 
Way in connection with two cars of coal shipped from this mine to the 
United States Geological Survey for testing purposes. Sample 518-D 
was obtained from coal bed No. 5 at a point in the mine 2,400 feet 
northeast of the drift mouth. Sample 520-D represents the same 
bed of coal and was obtained at a point 3,000 feet northeast of the 
drift mouth. Sample 519-D was obtained from coal bed No. 4 at 
a point 1,500 feet northeast of the mouth of the mine. Sample- 
585-D represents a car of run-of-mine coal from bed No. 4, and 586-D 
represents a car of the same kind of coal from bed No. 5. Sample 
6485 was taken from bed No. 5. Sample 9175 was taken from 
chute 5 about 25 feet above the east gangway on bed No. 6. The 
bed contains one shale parting and numerous small nodules of pyrite 
which can be separated by careful picking and washing and were 
not included in the sample. The roof of tliis bed is of carbona- 
ceous shale, and is fairly firm. The bottom is of badly broken car- 
bonaceous shale which slabs off to a depth of about 1 foot in places 
and must be separated from the coal. The analyses of the samples 
are given on pages 53-54. 



126 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



OuiracteT and qtLolity of the coal. — The coal from beds No8« 4, 5, 
and 6 is pitch black, gives a dark brown streak, and has a vitreous 
luster. It is minutely jointed, banded, and laminated, and breaks with 
an irregular fracture. It contains a small amount of moisture, and 
does not weather on exposure to the air. It has a moderate amount 
of ash and the same heating value as the average coal from the vicinity 
of Bayne and Occidental. Coal from bed No. 3 resembles that from 
Nos. 4, 5, and 6. Owing to its higher amount of ash, it has a cor- 
respondingly lower heating value than other coals from the same 
mine. This coal has also a greater amount of sulphur than that 
found in the other beds. The coal from bed No. 2 is i»tch black 
has a reddish-brown streak and a slightly vitreous luster. It is 
massive, banded, and laminated, and breaJcs with an irr^ular 
splintery fracture. It contains about the same amount of ash as the 
other beds and compares in heating value with coal from mine No. 1 
at Ravensdale. 



PROSPECTS SOUTHEAST OF ISSAQUAH. 

Prospects in the Tiger Mountain district, about 6 miles southeast 
of the Northern Pacific Railway at Issaquah. No. 33. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — The beds are exposed on the north side of a ravine in a 
densely wooded country. Their relation to beds in other parts of the 
county is not definitely known, for they are more or less broken by 
faults and intrusions of igneous rock and the outcrops are very 
limited. The beds strike N. 43*" E. and dip 44^ NW. The following 
sections were measured where the samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in prospects in Tiger Mountain district. 



ITo. 9S90. 

Shale, compact. 

Shale, slaty 

*Coal 

C'lay , dark, plastic . . . 

*Coal 

Clay, white, plastic. . 

Coal, dirty 

Clay, shaly 

Sandstone, massive, white. 



Ft. 



In. 

6 

2 

2 

8i 
11 
11 

3 



6 7i 



ITo. 999. 

Sandstone, massive, white. 

Shale, carbonaceous 

*Cx)al 

Shale, brown, soft 

*Coal 

Pyrite 

*Coal 

Clay, brown 

♦Coal 

Clay 

♦Coal 

Clay, sandy 

Coal 

Sandstone, massive, white. 



Ft. 



In. 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 
9 
2 
6 
1 
4 
2 
6 



9 



KING COUNTY. 127 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9290 was taken from the larger and 
better of the two beds. The coal is so badly crushed that it could be 
crumbled almost to a powder in the hand. A parting of clay which 
occurs near the center can be separated from the coal and was not 
included in the coal. Sample 9289 was taken a short distance down 
the stream from No. 9290 in the other bed. This bed contains 
several thin partings which can be separated from the coal, and they 
were not, therefore, included in the sample. The analyses of these 
samples are given on page 54. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal from the prospect 
highest on the creek is pitch black, with a black streak and a vitreous 
luster. It is massive and dense, and breaks with an irregular fracture. 
It contains a moderate amount of moisture, probably absorbed from 
the overlying soil, which is given off readily on air drying. It has a 
moderate amount of ash and compares in heating value with the 
average bituminous coal of the State. The coal from the lowest 
prospect is pitch black and has a reddish-brown streak. It is banded 
and laminated, and breaks with an irregular splintery fracture. It 
contains about the same amount of moisture and a greater amount 
of ash than that of the other bed and a correspondingly lower heating 
value. The amount of sulphur in the coal is greater than that of 
xno&t of the Washington coals. Both coals should be classed as 
bituminous. 

PROSPECT SOUTHWEST OF PRESTON. 

Prospect about 1 mile southwest of Preston. No. 34. 

Coal bed, — ^The bed is very poorly exposed, and its relation to 
other beds in the vicinity is not known. The following section was 
taken at the end of a small drift run on the bed about 25 feet. 

Section in prospect southwest of Preston. 

H0.8M6. 

Coal and shale, mixed. ^t- 

*Coal, badly broken 3it 

Coal and shale mixed. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 8546 was taken from the bench of 
crushed coal here exposed. The joints of the coal were filled with 
mud from the overlying soil and the sample was washed to remove 
the mud. It was sealed in the can wliile still wet and the analysis 
should show a higher amount of moisture than if the sample had 
been dry. The analysis of the sample is given on page 54. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is so high in ash and 
sulphur that it is of no economic value. The relation of volatile 
matter to fixed carbon indicates that tiiis is a semibituminous coal, 
but taken as a whole the bed can hardly be considered more than 
carbonaceous shale. 



128 



COAUB OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



NIBLOCK. 

Niblock, a series of water level drifts about 1^ miles southwest of 
Snoqualmie; on a spur of the Northern Pacific Railway. Xo. 35. 

Operator: United Collieries Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (coking). 

Coal beds, — Four coal beds have been worked at this mine at dif- 
ferent times. The mine has not been in operation for several years, 
but it will probably be reopened in a short time. At the time of the 
writer's visit beds Xos. 3, 4, and 5 were the only ones from which 
samples could be obtained. The coal measures strike N. 13® E., 
and dip rather steeply to the west. Bed No. 4 lies about 100 feet 
stratigraphically above No. 3, and bed No. 5 about 60 feet above 
No. 4. The following sections were measured where the samples 
were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Niblock mine. 



Ho. lOOn, b«d ITo. S. 

Ft. in. 

Coal, very finely jointed 1 

Shale, soft 6 

Shale and clay, mixed 8 

*('oal, bright, clean 4 

Shale, carbona(!eous. 



6 



Ho. lOOSS. bad No. 4. 



Sandt?tone, shaly. Ft. in. 

*Coal, clean, brif^ht 1 IJ 

Clay i 

*Coal, clean 1 4 

Shale, carbonaceous J 

*Coal 8i 



Ho. loots, bed No. 5. 



B one 

♦Coal, bright 1 

Bone 

*Coal, clean, bright 

Shale, carbonaceoi > 

♦Coal 2 

Coal, bony 

Coal, ht)f t 



Ft. in. 
2 



9 
1 
10 
2 
5 
4 
1 



5 10 



Shale, black, rarbonaceoiiH, with 3 3i 
coal, bottom. 

Pre juration for marJcet, — The beds are too liighly inclined and the 
coal too finely jointed and broken to admit of the separation of impuri- 
ties in the mine. The coal was picked and washed at the bunker, and 
the best washed coal was used at the coke ovens on the property. A 
new bxmker and washer is being installed by the United Colliery Co. 
at Seattle, and to tliis bunker all the coal will be shipped for cleaning 
and preparation for the market after it has passed the picking table. 
Much of the coal will be manufactured into briquets. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 10031 was taken from bed No. 3 
about 25 feet up a chute 500 feet from the entrance to the highest 
water level on tliis bed. The bed is overlain by soft shale mixed >^ith 
clay, and by a layer of finely jointed coal. A good sample could not 
be obtained from this upper layer of coal, and therefore only the main 
bench of coal was sampled. The bed is overlain and underlain by 
soft carbonaceous shale, which mixes to a considerable extent with 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 129 

the coal, and must be removed in preparing the coal for the market. 
Sample 10032 was taken from bed No. 4 on the middle water level 
where the rock tunnel from bed No. 5 to bed No. 3 crosses bed No. 4, 
at a point about 800 feet from the entrance to the tunnel on bed No. 5. 
The two partings in this bed can be separated by careful picking and 
washing, and were not included in the sample. Sample 10033 was 
taken from bed No. 5 at the junction of the main rock tunnel to No. 5 
with the gangway on the coal, at a point about 160 feet from the 
entrance to the mine. The bed contains several partings, which can 
be separated from the coal by careful picking and washing and which 
were not included in the sample. The analyses of these samples are 
given on page 55. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal from this mine is pitch 
black, with a nearly black streak and a vitreous luster. It is dense 
and breaks with an irregular cubical fracture, but owing to its minute 
joints it crumbles very readily, so that the proportion of lump coal 
is very small. The amount of moisture is small, and the coal does 
not slack when exposed to the air. Samples from bed No. 6 show a 
large amount of ash, but it is possible that much of this ash may be 
removed by very careful washing. The coal is considered one of the 
best coking coals in the State, and has also been used not only in 
making coke, but to some extent as blacksmith coal. 

KITTITAS COUNTY. 

The extent of the Roslyn coal bed on the northeast side of the field 
is well known, for it has been worked nearly the full length of the 
field along this side of the syncline in the mines of the Northwestern 
Improvement Co., but the southwest edge of the field is covered by 
gravel, and the geology of the coal-bearing formation is therefore 
obscure. One bed of known workable thickness underUes the 
Roslyn bed, but its extent and value have not been determined. 
The structure of the northwest end of the field is believed to be com- 
plicated by faults and folds, but it is thought that a part of the struc- 
ture can be worked out by careful field examination. 

The principal coal bed of this field, the Roslyn, changes consider- 
ably in character and quality from the southeast end of the field, near 
Clealum, to the northwest end, near Beekman. Near Clealura the 
coal is banded and laminated, and breaks with an irregular splinter}" 
fracture, so that it resembles very closely some of the la3'ers of bony 
coal which it contains. At the northwest end of the field the coal is 
either dense or only slightly laminated, breaks with an irregular 
cubical fracture, and is more jointed and more friable than that at 
the southeast end. The amount of ash in tlie clear coal at Clealum is 
considerably greater than at Beekman, and the heating value is cor- 
respondingly lower. A considerable difference in coking properties 

91320**— Bull. 474—11 9 



130 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

is also reported; the coal at Clealum shows only slight coking tenden- 
cies, whereas that at Beekman makes a fair coke. Investigation 
indicates that this change in coking quality takes place between 
Clealum and Roslyn and coincides approximately with the change in 
the character of lamination of the coal. Of the change in the Roslyn 
bed, George Otis Smith* makes the following statement: "These 
analyses, which were furnished by L. S. Storrs and are given below, 
show the variation in this seam from a lignitic, noncoking coal to a 
fairly good coking coal." The term lignite as used in the preceding 
quotation was applied to almost all the western coals now known as 
subbituminous, and even to some of the lowest grades of true bitu- 
minous coal. 

Gas occurs in considerable quantities in the coal and in the over- 
lying rocks. It works out gradually as the gangways and rooms are 
being driven, or comes from the roof in the form of small blowers. 
Several small explosions and two large ones have resulted from the 
gas. In some of the mines the workings are very dry; the coal 
crumbles readily and makes a large amoimt of dust, which accumu- 
lates on the ribs and mine timbers. This dust, like the coal, is high 
in volatile matter, and very inflammable, and will explode with great 
violence when nwxed with the proper proportion of air. In order 
to guard against such explosions, the gangways in most of the lower 
workings are sprinkled several times a week. A small gas explosion 
at a time when the mine is dry and filled with dust would probablj^ 
produce very serious results. It is the belief of the investigators 
of the United States Geological Survey, the State inspector of mines, 
and the mine officials that the violent explosion at shaft No. 4, at 
Roslyn, on October 3, 1909, was brought about through those 
conditions. 

The coal of the Roslyn field is low in moisture, and does not slack 
or crumble by weathering during transportation or storage. No 
preparation for market is given the coal beyond the separation of the 
thicker partings, and the '^sulphur" balls in the mine and the picking 
of the lump coal at the tipple, but the percentage of ash would be 
much smaller if the coal could be thoroughly picked and washed after 
coming from the mine. The coal mined by the Northwestern 
Improvement Co. is not cleaned except in mining, and carload sam- 
ples would doubtless show a percentage of ash considerably higher 
than those given in the analyses accompanying this report. 

The samples collected from this county by the writer were obtained 
in November, 1909. Analyses of five samples collected from Roslyn 
and Beekman by other members of the Survey are included for the 
purpose of comparison. 

1 Mount Stuart folio (No. IOC), Oeol. Atlas U. S., U. 6. Geol. Survey, 1904, p. 10; Snoqualmle folio (No. 139), 
Geol. Atlas U. S., U. S. Oeol. Survey, 1906, p. 13. 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 131 

PROSPECT, NORTHWEST OF BEEKMAN. 

Prospect, about H miles northwest of Beekman.^ 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (?). 

Coal bed— The bed strikes N. 65° E. and dips 12° SE. It is 
believed to underlie the principal bed of the Roslyn field. It is too 
thin to be of commercial importance. The following section was 
measured at the end of a 25-foot drift driven on this bed: 

Section of coal bed in prospect 2\ miles northwest of Beekman. 

iro.M04. 

Ftw In. 

Shale, hard 1+ 

•Coal 1 2i 

Shale 2i 

Coal 21 

Shale, soft 7 

3 21 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9404 was taken where the above 
section was measured. The layers of coal and shale associated with 
the main bed were so badly weathered that their behavior under 
average mine conditions could not be determined. The analysis of 
the coal is given on page 55. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The sample collected was some- 
what weathered. A sample of unweathered coal from this bed 
would probably show a higher grade of coal than that indicated by 
the analysis. The coal should probably be classed as low-grade 
bituminous. 

LAKEDALE. 

Lakedale, a water-level mine 1 mile northwest of Beekman, on a 
spur of the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 36. 

Operator: Consolidated Coal Co., Yakima, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^The coal bed worked in this mine strikes N. 80° E. 
and dips 10° S. Some investigators have thought this bed to be 
the Roslyn bed or the bed underlying the Roslyn, but comparison 
of the section with those of the Roslyn bed given in the following 
descriptions, or with that of the bed measured at the prospect on 
the property of the Roslyn-Cascade Coal Co. (p. 136) will show that 
this is probably a third bed. It is believed to underlie both the Roslyn 
beds exposed farther east. The section following was measured at 
the place where the sample was taken. 

1 Not represented on PI. III. 



132 COAU5 OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

SectUyn of coal bed in LakedaU mine. 



Shale, cftrbroacfoos. bUck. Ft. in. 

*C<ml. bi^y n«ar center 1 

^hAle 6) 

•C<ul 6i 

•Slule, hanl 1 

•CoU 7i 

•CoU, U^ny J 

•Coal [ 9i 

Shale, hard, biown. 

3 7 

Preparxition for marhtt. — ^The partings can be removed to some 
extent in mining, but most of the remaining impurities is removed at 
the tipple by picking as the coal passes over bar screens. 

Sample for anaJysis. — Sample 9405 was taken 10 feet above the 
gangway, about 150 feet from the entrance. The bed contains two 
bony layers in the lower part which can not be readily separated from 
tlie coal, and wliich were therefore included in the sample. The 
shale parting between the upper and the lower benches can be sep- 
arated in preparation for market, and was, therefore, not included. 
Both the roof and the floor are firm and do not mix with the coal. 
The analysis of tliis sample is given on page 55. 

Character o?i<? quality of the coal. — ^The coal is pitch black and has 
a dark-brown streak. It is massive and laminated and breaks with 
a cubical fracture. In general, the coal resembles that of the Roslyn 
bed at the west end of the field. It contains a small percentage of 
moisture and will not weather while being transported to market. 
The high percentage of ash is due to the presence of the two bony 
lavers of the lower bench. The coal is classed as bituminous. 

BEEKMAX. 

Beekman, a slope at Beekman, about 3 miles northwest of RosKti 
on the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 37. 

Operator: Roslyn Fuel Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed, — The Roslvn bed is the only one worked at tliis mine. 
In the eastern part of the workings it strikes N. 70° W. and dips 14° 
SW. Near the end of the west gangways the bed turns south, so 
that it strikes S. 75° W. and dips 8° SE. Several partings, wliich 
vary in character and position in different parts of the mine, are pres- 
ent in the bed. The roof and floor of the mine are very firm, and do 
not mix with the coal in mining. Shale occurs in a layer 1 or 2 inches 
thick between the coal and the roof and mixes to some extent with 
the coal, but can be separated in mi ning and in preparation for market. 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 



133 



The following sections were measured at the points where the samples 
were taken: 

* Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Beehnan mine. 



Ko. 9411. 



Shale 

Shale, soft 

♦roal 

♦Shale, little "sulphur" 
»('oal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

Shale, sandy. 

No. 9413. 



Ft. In. 

2+ 
1 



1 
1 



3 

i 
2i 

4 
3 

1 
21 
1 

8i 
1 

2i 



7 2-1- 



Ft. In. 

Shale 1 + 

♦Coal 2 6 

♦Shale, brown, carbonaceous 1 

♦Coal 2 

♦Coal, bony J 

♦Coal 1 li 

♦Shale 1 

♦Coal 5i 

Shale, hard. 

4 6J-h 
ITo. 9418. 

Ft. In. 

Shale 2-f 

Shale, streak of coal 1 

♦Coal I 1 

♦Coal, bony i 

♦Coal 3 1 

Shale, hard 1 

♦Coal 2 

Shale, hard, carbonaceoUvM. 

6 ^^\- 



iro.9414. 



Shale 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, hard. 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, hard. 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard. 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 



No. 9415. 



Ft. In. 

1-h 

1 
2 5 

h 
3J 

h 
1 9i 

1 

^ 

6 3-f- 



Shale. Ft. in- 

Shale, soft IJ 

♦Coal 1 3i 

♦Shale, bony i 

♦Coal 1 2i 

♦Shale, bony i 

♦Coal 3 

♦Sandstone, "sulphur " band J 

♦Coal 5 

♦Shale, bony J 

♦Coal 1 9i 

Shale, bony 4 

Shale. 



No. 550-D.i 



5 ^ 

Ft. In. 
1 



♦Coal 

♦"Mother coal" } 

♦Coal 2 3 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 4 

Shale } 

♦Coal 6i 

•Shale } 

♦Coal 1 li 

Shale i 

♦Coal 2 

Shale. 



No. 551-D.i 



♦Coal 

Shale, hard. 
♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 



Shale. 
> Washing and coking tests of coal: Bull. Bureau of Mines, No. 5, p. 16. 



4 9 

Ft. in. 
2 9i 

i 

1 10 

h 

H 

4 lOi 



134 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Preparaiionfor market — Only the larger "sulphur" balls and local 
enlaigements of the partings are removed at the mine. At the tipple 
the coal is passed over shaking- screens having If -inch and 3-inch 
perforations; the oversize is picked as it is loaded into the railroad 
carSy and the undersize from the If -inch and 3-inch screens are sold 
as steam coal and as egg coal, respectively. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9411 was taken on the gangway of 
the second level west between rooms 26 and 27. At this place the 
bed contains five thin partings, three of which are over one-fourth 
inch in thickness and can be separated from the coal by picking. These 
three partings were therefore not included in the sample. Sample 
9412 was collected at the end of the gangway on the second level east 
near the property line. Three thin partings were found at this place, 
but they resemble the coal so closely that they can not be readily 
separated, and were therefore included in the sample. Sample 9413 
was collected 150 feet beyond room 21 on the gangway of the third 
level east. One parting of bony coal near the bottom of the bed was 
removed from the sample. Sample 9414 was obtained between rooms 
17 and 18 on the gangway of the third level west. The three shale 
partings do. not differ very materially from the coal, and it was 
thought that by removing the laigest of these partings the resulting 
amount of ash in the sample would represent the amount of ash in 
the coal after picking. Sample 9415 was obtained at the foot of the 
slope, about 250 feet below the fourth level gangway. Several thin 
partings in the bed could not be separated readily by picking and 
were included in the sample. Sample 9410 was obtained from the 
surface of a railroad car after the coal had passed through the shak- 
ing screen with if -inch perforations. The best coal from the mine is 
much jointed and breaks very readily, so that a considerable percent- 
age of the output passes through If-inch holes. The fragments of 
the partings as they come from the mine are too laige to pass through 
these holes, and in consequence examination of the coal on the sur- 
face of the car shows almost clean coal and a very small percentage 
of shale or bone. It is believed that the shale partings can be better 
separated from the fine coal by the shaking screen than by washing 
or picking. Analysis 9459 represents a composite sample consisting 
of equal portions of all the samples collected by the writer from this 
mine. Samples 550-D, 551-D, and 693-D were taken by Karl M. 
Way, of the United States Geological Survey; sample 550-D from 
the face of the main slope, 1,000 feet southwest of the entrance to the 
mine, sample 551-D on the second level west, 1,300 feet southwest 
of the entrance, and sample 693-D from a car of coal shipped to Den- 
ver, Colo., for testing. The analyses of the samples are given on 
pages 55-56. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is pitch black and has a 
dark-brown streak. It is massive and slightly laminated and breaks 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 136 

with a cubical fracture. If the coal is so carefully picked as to 
remove all nodules or lenses of pyrite over 2 inches in maximum 
diameter and one-half inch in thickness, the picked coal should con- 
tain a very low percentage of sulphur. It has a heating value nearly 
as high as that of the best coal of King and Pierce counties, and 
equals in this respect much of the Alabama and Kentucky coal. 

BUSY BEE. 

Busy Bee, strip pit 2i miles northwest of Roslyn. No. 38. 

Operator: Busy Bee Coal & Improvement Co., Roslyn, Wash. 

Eond of coal: Bituminous. 

CoclL bed. — ^The coal bed lies only a few feet beneath the surface 
throughout most of this property. A steel scraper, operated by wire 
cables from a logging engine, has replaced the ordinary horse scraper 
previously used in removing the material overlying the coal bed. A 
sample of the coal was taken and the following section of the coal 
bed measured where the cover had been about 6 feet thick: 

Section of Roslyn coal bed in Busy Bee strip pit. 

Vo. 9406. 

Sandstone, yellow. Ft. in. 

Shale 3 2i 

Coal (weathered) 7 

♦Coal 9i 

Coal, soft, with layers of Hhale 1 

♦Coal ' 1 3 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 3i 

Shale J 

♦Coal 9i 

Coal. . , 7 

Shale. 

7 8i 

Preparation for market, — ^The coal is passed over a 2i-inch bar 
screen. The oversize is picked and sold as lump, and the undersize 
is sold as steam coal. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9406 was taken where the section 
given above was measured. The three partings can be removed from 
the coal by picking and were not included in the sample. About 7 
inches of the upper portion of the bed was weathered and was not 
included in the sample. The lower 7 inches of the bed was not 
exposed. The analysis of the sample is given on page 56. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal is pitch black and has a 
dark-brown streak. It is massive and laminated and breaks with a 
cubical fracture. This sample is lower in ash and has a higher heat- 
ing value than any sample collected from the Roslyn bed in other 
parts of the field, but this fact does not necessarily mean that the 
coal is better here than elsewhere, because the entire thickness of the 
bed was not sampled. 



136 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



PATRICK-M KAY. 

Patrick-McKay, slope 2J miles northwest of Roslyn on the North- 
em Pacific Railway. Nos. 39 and 40. 

Operator: Roslyn-Cascade Coal Co., Bellingham, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — The Roslyn bed is the only one at present operated on 
this property. It strikes N. 75° W. and dips 9° SW. The lower 2 
inches of a 3-foot layer of shale between the bed and the overlying 
sandstone breaks after the coal is removed and is thrown into the 
gob, but the rest forms a good roof throughout most of the mine. 
The floor is firm and does not mix with the coal. A second bed 3^ 
feet thick is exposed 260 feet vertically below the outcrop of the 
Roslyn bed on this property and in prospects to the east on the north 
side of the ridge northeast of Roslyn, but the prospects were caved 
and neither sections nor samples could be obtained. The following 
sections of the Roslyn bed were measured at the points from wliich 
the samples were taken : 

Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Patrick- McKay mine. 

iro.94ie. 



i 



Ko. 0418. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

*Coal 1 3 

*'* Sulphur "band 

*Coal 1 1 

♦''Sulphur" band Trace. 

*Coal 3 

Shale, hard 1 

*Coal 1 10 

Shale. 

4 6i 
No. 9417. 

Shale (good roof). Ft. in. 

Shale 2i 

*Coal 1 2 

 ' ' Sulphur " Trace. 

*Coal 1 3i 

* Coal, bony J 

*Coal 2 

Shale 1 

*Coal... 1 5i 

Shale, hard 1 

Shale. 

4 6 



Shale. 

Shale, soft 

*Coal 

*" Sulphur "band. 

♦Goal 

♦Shale, hanl 

*Coal 

Shale 

*Coal 

Shale. 



No. 9407. lower bed. 
Sandstone, yellow, massive. 

Shale 

Coal, bony 

Sandstone 

*Coal 

Shale, hard 

*Coal 

Shale 

Shale, hard 

*Coal 

Shale. 



Ft. in. 
2i 



1 
1 



2 

i 
3 

i 

1 
3i 



Ft. in. 
4 



6* 

8 
i 

H 

2 
9 



8 11 



Preparation for marJcet. — The coal is passed over bar screens with 
J-inch and 1 J-inch spaces. The oversize is picked and sold as lump 
coal, while the undersize is sold as steam coal. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9418 was taken on the gangway of 
the first water level west at the entrance to room 18. Two '* sulphur" 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 137 

bands, too thin to be separated by picking, are present, but a parting 
of bony shale in the lower part of the bed can be readily removed by 
picking and was not, therefore, included in the sample. Sample 9416 
was taken from the west side of the slope, 50 feet above the entrance 
to the first water level east. ' The lowest shale parting of the bed, 
which is the only one that can be readily separated in preparation 
for market, was not included in the sample. Sample 9417 was taken 
at the end of the gangway on the first water level east, about 1,000 
feet from the rock tunnel to themain slope. The lowest shale part- 
ing is the only one which can be separated by picking, and this parting 
is therefore not included in the sample. Analysis 9460 was made of 
a composite sample consisting of equal parts from samples 9418, 9416, 
and 9417. Sample 9407 was taken from the lower bed on this prop- 
erty, about 1,300 feet north of the center of sec. 6. The coal occurs 
in two benches separated by 5i inches of shale, which can be used as 
a " mining.'' The bony coal overlying the upper bench has been con- 
sidered to be of workable quality, but judging from its weathered 
appearance it probably contains more than 40 per cent of ash, and if 
mined and sold with the two other benches the coal from these 
benches would probably lose much of its commercial value. This 
bench may, however, prove to be of economic value in other parts of 
the field. The analyses of these samples are given on pages 56-57. 
Character and quality of the coal. — The coal of the Roslyn bed is 
pitch black, massive, and very slightly laminated and breaks with an 
irregular fracture. It has about the same heating value as the coal 
from the same bed in the northwest end of the field. The coal of the 
lower bed is pitch black, massive, and slightly laminated and breaks 
with an irregular fracture. It contains a small amount of moisture 
and does not slack when exposed to the sun, but analysis of the coal 
shows a somewhat larger percentage of ash and sulphur than the aver- 
age of the Roslyn coal. It resembles the best coal of the Roslyn bed 
in the western end of the field. 

ROSLYN NO. 3. 

Roslyn No. 3, incline, slope, and shaft mine at Ronald, IJ miles 
northwest of Roslyn, on the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 41. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — The Roslyn bed, which is the only one worked in this 
mine, has about the same thickness here as elsewhere in the field. 
About 3 feet of shale lies between the bed and the overlying sand- 
stone. Of this layer the lower 2 to 6 inches breaks after the coal is 
removed and is thrown into the gob, but the remainder forms a good 
roof throughout most of the mine. The floor of the mine is firm and 
does not mix with the coal. The sections following were measured 
at places where the samples were obtained . 



138 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



Sections of the Roslyn coal bed in Roslyn No. S mine. 



VO.MM. 

Shale. 

Shale, crushed. 

. *Coal 2 

"Sulphur** and shale 

♦Coal...: 

* Coal, shaly, crushed 

♦Coal 1 

Shale. — 



FU in. 



3 
1 
6 
1 
4 



4 3 



iro.M88. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

Shale, crushed 1 

♦Coal 1 3i 

♦'•Sulphur" band \ 

♦Coal 1 1 

Shale (little "sulphur") .... i 

♦Coal 21 

Shale i 

♦Coal 1 5i 

Shale. 



5 2 



Ho. 94S0. 

Shale. Ft. 

♦Coal 1 

♦"Sulphur" band 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, hard, carbonaceous. 



in. 
8 

i 

4 
10 



Ho. 9481. 

Shale. Ft. fn. 

Shale, falls easily (gobbed) 7 

♦Coal 1 3 

♦"Sulphur" band } 

♦Coal 1 3i 

Shale \ 

♦Coal 31 

tShale, hard 1 

• ♦Coal 1 81 

 Coal, bony 1 

♦Coal 51 

Shale. 



5 9 



iro.»4Ss. 
Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, soft 1 

♦Coal 1 

 Coal with " sulphur " band ... 1 
♦Coal 1 3 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 3 

 Shale, hard 1 

♦C5oal 1 51 

•Shale, hard 1 

Shale. 



4 31 



4 4^ 

Preparation for marlcet — The partings that separate freely from the 
coal in the mine and the rock that falls from the roof are thrown into 
the gob when the cars are loaded. The coal is not picked at the 
tipple, because it is clean enough for locomotive use. 

Samples for analyses. — Sample 9428 was taken on the old fifth 
water-level gangway west, at the entrance to room 48. One 
parting near the center of the bed can be separated by picking and 
was not included in the sample. Sample 9429 was taken on the old 
sixth water-level gangway, between rooms 6 and 7, east of new slope 
3. The two lower partings can be removed from the coal by picking 
and were not included in the sample. Sample 9432 was taken from 
the first level west, about 150 feet from the gangway up room 3 of 
the fourth battery. Three bands of impurities are present, of which 
only the center one is large enough to be separated by picking; this 
parting was not included in the sample. Sample 9431 was taken 
from the face of room 12 of the third battery on the first level west, 
100 feet from the gangway. Only a part of the shale from the four 
partings in the bed can be separated by picking. An additional 5J 
inches of coal at the bottom of the bed in this part of the mine is 
spoken of by the miners as a * ^swamp." Sample 9430 was collected on 
the east side of the manway between the foot of the shaft and the 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 



139 



third level, 150 feet up slope from the base of the shaft. The lower 
parting can be separated by picking, and was not included in the 
sample. Analysis 9463 was made from a composite sample contain- 
ing equal portions of all the samples collected from this mine. Analy- 
ses are given on page 67 . 

Character and quality of the coal. — In general the coal is pitch black, 
massive, and slightly laminated, and breaks with a cubical fracture, 
though a part of it is slightly banded and breaks with a splintery 
fracture. It has about the same heating value as that obtained from 
other mines in the northwest end of the Roslyn field. 

R08LYN NO. 2 SLOPE. 

Roslyn No. 2, drift and slope mine at Roslyn, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 42. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed, — This mine is operated on the Roslyn bed, which strikes 
about N. 70® W. and dips about 12° S. At the top of the bed a layer 
of shale 3 feet thick separates the coal from a massive layer of 
sandstone. Fragments of this shale, the largest a foot in thickness, 
break after the coal is mined and are thrown into the gob. Occa- 
sionally they break with the coal and must be separated before the 
mine cars are loaded. The floor is firm and does not mix with the 
coal. The following sections were measured at the places from which 
the samples were taken : 

Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Roslyn No. 2 slope. 



In. 

7 

2i 

6 
1 
3 
1 
10 



No. MM. 

Sandstone. Ft. 

Shale 

Shale, carbonaceous 

 Coal, streaks of "sul- 

phur" 2 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, hard. 

5 

iro.M84. 

Sandstone. 

Shale (good roof). Ft. 

Shale (put in gob) 1 

 Coal, streaks of '* sul- 

phur" 1 1 

 Shale, "sulphur " band . Trace. 

 Coal, streaks of *' sul- 

phur" 1 i 

♦Shale Trace. 

♦Coal 4 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 2 

Shale. 



6i 



in. 



Li 



V0.94S5. 

Shale. 

Shale, soft '. 

♦Coal 

t "Sulphur" band mixed 

with coal 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, soft 

. ♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale. 

Ho. 9486. 

Shale. 

♦Coal 

♦"Sulphur" band 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

(?) 



Ft 



In. 
2i 






Ft. 
2 



9 

in. 
6 

1 
1 

1 

6 



2i 



140 COALS OP THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Preparation for market. — The partings which separate freely from 
the coal in the mine and the rock ** falls" from the roof are thrown 
into the gob when the cars are loaded. The coal is not picked at the 
tipple, because it is clean enough for locomotive use. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9433 was taken on the fifth level 
west from slope No. 2, about 250 feet up room 7 of the second block. 
Both shale partings of the bed can be separated by picking and were 
not included in the sample. Sample 9434 was taken on the sixth 
level west from slope 2 on the side of the barrier pillar separating 
this mine from mine No. 3, and 360 feet up the rise from the gangway. 
Only the lowest shale parting is of sufficient size to be separated by 
picking, and this parting was not included in the sample. Sample 
9435 was collected on the sixth level west from slope 2 on the gangway 
between rooms 2 and 3. The bed contains five partings, and it 
would be difficult to remove more than half of the impurities resulting 
from these partings. In order to obtain a representative amount of 
ash the lowest parting and one-half of the first parting below the top 
were separated from the sample. Sample 9436 was taken from the 
side of the slope between the eighth and tenth levels, west from shaft 
4, about 10 feet below the air course below the eighth level. The 
lower part of the bed was not exposed on account of rock ** falls," 
and the condition of the mine atmosphere was so poor that time 
could not be taken to obtain a full section. The lower parting, 
which is the only one of sufficient size to be separated by picking, 
was not included in the sample. Analysis 9464 was made of a 
composite sample consisting of equal parts of samples 9433, 9434, 9435, 
and 9436. The analyses of these samples are given on page 58. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is pitch black, massive, 
and slightly banded, and breaks with an irregular fracture. The coal 
in the upper part of the bed contains tliin irregular lenses of ^ ' sulphur," 
which could probably be easily separated from the coal by washing. 
These lenses were excluded from the samples, wliich, therefore, give 
small amounts of sulphur in the analyses. The coal has about the 
same heating value as that obtained from other mines in tliis part of 
the field. 

ROSLYN NO. 2. 

Roslyn No. 2, incline at Roslyn, on the Northern Pacific Railway. 
No. 42. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^This mine is operated on the Roslyn bed, wliich strikes 
N. 50® W. and dips about 12° S. About 3 feet of shale separates the 
bed from the overlying sandstone. The lower 2 inches of this shale 
Ibreaks after the coal is removed and is thrown into the gob. The 
remainder forms a good roof tlxroughout most of the mine. The floor 
of the mine is firm and does not mix with the coal. The following 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 



141 



sections were measured at the places from which the samples were 
obtained : 

Sections ofRoslyn coal bed in Roslyn No. 2 mine. 



ITo.eMS. 



Shale. 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard, 

♦Coal 

Shale. 



Ft. 



In. 

2i 
2 3i 
Trace. 
5 
2 
1 3 



4 

Ft. 



In. 

2i 
3i 

i 
2 



Ho. 9448. 

Shale, hard. 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, "sulphur" Trace. 

♦Coal 5i 

♦Shale i 

♦Coal 1 5 

Shale, yellow. 

4 7i 



Ft. 
2 



iro.94M. 

Shale. 

♦Cool 

t "Sulphur" band 

♦Coal 

t Shale 

♦Coal 

t Shale 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, hard, carboxiaceous 

Shale, yellow. 

4 
Ho. 8457. 

Ft 

♦Coal 2 

Parting 



In. 
3 

i 
3i 

i 
3i 

4 

5 



Coal. 



5f 
in. 

i 

2i 



li 



Preparation for marJcet. — ^Partings and impurities which separate 
readily from the coal are removed at the mine, and the coal is used by 
Northern Pacific Railway locomotives without further picking at the 
tipple. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9442 was taken from the eighth level 
about 15 feet west of the east rope slope. The lower parting of the 
bench was not included in the sample. Sample 9443 was taken from 
the seventh level west on the gangway at the entrance to room 80. 
All the partings in the bed are so thin that they can not be readily 
separated from the coal and were, therefore, included in the sample. 
Sample 9444 was taken on the tenth level east, 75 feet beyond room 
43. By careful picking about half the material in the partings could 
be separated from the coal, and therefore only half of each parting was 
included in the sample. Analysis 9468 was made of a composite 
sample of equal parts of all the samples collected by the writer from 
tliis mine. Sample 2457 was collected by M. R. Campbell in 1905, 
about 6,000 feet from the entrance to the mine, and does not include 
one parting which occurs at this place. Analysis 3098 was made from 
a car sample of lump coal shipped for testing purposes from mine No. 
2 at about the time sample 2457 was taken. The analyses of these 
samples are given on pages 58-59. 

Character and quality of the coal. — Most of the coal is pitch black 
and massive, and breaks with a cubical fracture; the rest is sUghtly 
banded, and the fracture is somewhat splintery. It has about the 
same heating value as coal from the other mines in this vicinity. 



142 coaijS or the state of Washington. 

A. A E. 

A. & E., a drift and slope mine 1 mile northeast of Roslyn. No. 43. 

Operator: Yakima-Roslyn Coal Co., Roslyn, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal led. — The mine is on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 70® W. 
and dips 11® S. About 3 feet of shale lies between the coal bed 
and the overlying sandstone. The lower 2 inches of the shale 
breaks after the coal is removed and is thrown into the gob, but 
the rest forms a good roof throughout most of the mine. The floor 
of the mine is firm and does not mix with the coal. The following 
section was measured: 

Section of Roslyn coal bed in A, 6s E, mine, 

Vo.M(MI. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, Boft 2i 

*Coal 2 5 

Clay i 

*Coal 2i 

Shale, black J 

•Coal 1 8 

Shale, dark. '■ 

4 7 

Preparation for marJcet — Partings, roof fragments, and other im- 
purities which can be readily removed when the mine cars are 
loaded are thrown into the gob. At the tipple the coal is passed 
over a 3-inch bar screen, from which the oversize is sold as lump 
and the undersize as steam coal. 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9402 was taken 160 feet up the 
ninth room from the slope where the section given above was meas- 
ured. Both the shale partings can be removed by careful picking, 
and were not included in the sample. The analysis of this sample 
is given on page 59. 

CharoAiter and quality of (he coal, — ^Most of the coal is pitch black, 
massive, and slightly laminated, and breaks with a cubical fracture. 
The remaining part is slightly banded and has a somewhat splintery 
fracture. It has about the same heating value as coal from the 
other mines in this vicinity. 

ROSLYN NO. 6. 

Roslyn No. 6, a series of drift mines at Roslyn, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 42. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal led. — The mine is on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 65® W. 
and dips from 7 to 10® SW, About 3 feet of shale lies between the 
coal and the overlying sandstone; the lower 2 to 6 inches of this 
shale breaks after the coal is removed, and is thrown into the gob, 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 



148 



but the rest forms a good roof throughout the major part of the 
workings. The floor of the mine is firm and does not mix with the 
coal. The following sections were measured at the places where the 
samples were taken: 

Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Roslyn No. 6 mine, 

Vo. 94SS. • 



Shale. 

Shale, soft 

•Coal 

f* Sulphur "band. 

♦Coal 

Shale 

tCk)al 

Shale 

♦Coal 

♦*' Sulphur" band. 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 



Ft. 



In. 
2i 

i 

i 

1 
1 • 

i 
6 

6i 



No. 8440. 
Shale. 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coftl 

Shale, hard. 



Ft. 



^ 

In. 

2i 
3i 
1 

2i 

i 
4 

2 

8 



Vo. 9441. 

Sandstone. Ft. In. 

Shale, slate-colored 2 1 

♦Coal, lenses of * ' sulphur " . . 2 8 

Shale i 

♦Coal 3 

Shale 1 

♦Coal, lenses of "sulphur".- 1 GJ 
Shale, sandy. 



6 



8 



Hi 



Preparation for marJcet. — The partings and impurities which sepa- 
rate readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the 
coal is used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9439 was taken from the stump 
pillar between rooms 1 and 2 on the seventh level. In order to 
remove an amount of impurities equivalent to that which could be 
separated by careful picking, the two center partings, half the coal 
between them, and half the upper parting were not included in the 
sample. Both the shale partings were removed from sample 9441, 
wluch was taken at the east end of the seventh level, and the top 
and bottom partings were removed from sample 9440, taken from 
the east end of the fifth level. Analysis 9466 was made of a com- 
posite sample containing equal parts of all of the samples collected 
from this mine. The analyses of these samples are given on page 59. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^Most of the coal is pitch black 
and massive, and breaks with a cubical fracture, although a part is 
sUghtly banded and has a somewhat spUntery fracture. The coal 
has about the same heating value as that of the other mines in this 
part of the country. 



144 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



ROSLYN NO. 4. 



Roslyn No. 4, a shaft 640 feet deep at Roslyn, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 44. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal led. — This mine is on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 70® W. 
and dips 15° SW. Fragments from the lower 2 to 6 inches of a layer 
of shale about 3 feet thick separating the coal from the overlying 
sandstone break off after the coal is removed and are thrown into 
the gob. The rest of the shale forms a good roof throughout the 
greater part of the workings, and the floor of the mine is firm and 
does not mix with the coal. The following sections were measured 
at the places from which the samples were taken: 



Ho. 9487. 

Shale. 

Shale, gobbed 

Coal, Btreakn of "sulphur''. . 
*Coal, thin streaks of "sul 

phur " 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

•Coal : 

Shale. 



Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Roslyn No. 4 mine. 

iro.MS8. 



Ft. 



in. 

7 
2i 

51 

1 

3 

i 



Vo. 2458. 



•Coal 

"Sulphur" band 
•Coal 

Coal and shale. . . 
•Coal 



5 

Ft. 
1 



7i 
in. 

^ 

i 
4 

4 

9i 



Shale, roof. 

Shale, gobbed 

•Coal 

Shale, containing "sul- 
phur" 

•Coal 

•"Sulphur" band 

•Coal 

Shale 

•Coal 

Shale. 



Ft. 
1 

•1 



In. 

91 
3i 

1 
5i 

} 

li 
1 



5 lOi 



4 lOi . 

Preparation for market. — The partings and impurities which sepa- 
rate readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the coal 
is used for locomotives it does not need further picking at the tipple. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample No. 9438 was taken from the gang- 
way on the eleventh level west, near the center of the second battery; 
the top and bottom partings are not included in the sample. Sam- 
ple 9437 was taken from the gangway on the eleventh level east, 
between rooms 3 and 4 of the second battery, both partings being 
removed. Analysis No. 9465 was made from a composite sample 
containing equal portions of these two samples. Sample 2458 was 
collected by M. R. Campbell in 1905 from room 3 of the second bat- 
tery, on the ninth level west, about 2,000 feet from the bottom 
of the shaft. Two partings occurred in the bed at this place, 
neither of which was included in the sample. The analyses of the 
samples are given on pages 59-60. 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 



145 



duLTOcter ani quality of {he coal. — The coal is pitch black and mas- 
sive and breaks with a cubical fracture. In the mine it is under 
considerable pressure from the roof and is worked without shooting. 
It has about the same heating value as coal from the other mines in 
this part of the field. 

R08LYN NO. 6. 

Roslyn No. 5, a slope mine 1^ miles southeast of Roslyn, on a spur 
of the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 45. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

CocH bed, — The mine is on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 45° W. 
and dips from 20 to 30° SW. The coal is separated from a massive 
overlying sandstone by about 3 feet of shale, of which fragments 
ranging up to a foot in thickness break off after the coal in mined and 
are thrown into the gob. Occasionally they break w^ith the coal and 
must be separated from it before the mine cars are loaded. The 
floor is firm and does not mix with the coal. The following sections 
were measured at the places from which the samples were taken: 

Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Roslyn No. 5 mine. 

Ho. 9488. 



Ho. 8487. 

Shale. 

Shale, with streak of coal 

♦Coal 

"Sulphur" band... 

Coal, crushed 

Clay 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard. 



Ft. In. 
1 

2 ^ 
1 
1 
1 

1 11 



4 9i 

Ft. In. 
1 1 



Ho. 9484. 

Shale. 

♦Coal 

. ♦Sandstone and ''sulphur".. i 

♦Coal (middle 3^ inches is 

high in sulphur) 1 7 

Sandstone and ' ' sulphur " . . i 

♦Coal 1 

Shale i 

♦Coal 2 5 

Shale, carbonaceous. 



5 3} 
Ho. 9480. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 1 3 

♦"Sulphur" band, irregular. Trace. 

♦Coal 1 2i 

♦"Sulphur" i 

♦Coal li 

Clay..»...: i 

♦Coal 2 3i 

Shale, hard, carbonaceous.  

4 Hi 



Shale. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 2 8 

♦Bone 1 

♦Coal 3 

Clay, soft J 

♦Coal 1 8i 

Shale. 

4 9 

Ho. 9486. 

Shale. 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal 1 

♦Sandstone, "Hulphur"band. 

1 



Ft. In. 
3 



i 



♦Coal 

♦"Sulphur" band 

♦Coal 

Clay, soft 



i 



♦Coal 

♦Coal, bony. 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard. 
Shale. 



2 
1 

2 

J 

7 
5 



i 



4} 



91320**— Bull. 474—11- 



10 



146 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

PreparaJtion for market. — The partings and impurities which sepa- 
rate readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the coal 
is used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9427 was taken from the barrier 
pillar between mine No. 5 and old mine No. 1, at Roslyn and on the 
gangway of the first level west of slope 5. A 3-inch parting of 
crushed coal, clay, and pyrite, which occurs in the center of the bed, 
was not included in the sample. Sample 9423 was taken from the 
barrier pillar between mines No. 5 and No. 7, about 10 faet above 
the second level gangway of mine No. 5. The lower parting in the 
bed can be separated by picking, and was not included in the sample. 
Sample 9424 was taken on the third level west at the entrance to 
room 50. The two lower partings in the bed can be easily separated 
from the coal and were therefore not included in the sample. Sample 
9426 was taken on the third gangway east at entrance to room 42. 
The bed contains four partings, all but one of which would be diffi- 
cult to separate from the coal by picking, and only the second 
parting from the bottom was removed in the sample, Sample 9425 
was taken from the air course below the fourth level, about 30 feet 
west of the slope. Only the lower parting could be separated by 
picking and therefore was not included in the sample. Analysis 
9462 was made of a composite sample containing equal parts of all 
the samples taken from this mine. The analyses of these samples 
are given on pages 60-61. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal in this mine is pitch 
black, massive, and slightly banded. In general it breaks with an 
irregular fracture, though a part of it has a tendency toward a splintery 
fracture. It has about the same heating value as coal obtained from 
the mines at Roslyn. 

ROSLYN NO. 7. 

Roslyn No. 7, a slope mine one-half mile northwest of Clealum, on 
a spur from the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 46. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^The mine is located on the Roslyn bed, which strikes 
about N. 65° W. and dips from 20 to 30° SW. The overlying sand- 
stone is separated from the coal by about 3 feet of shale, of which 
the lower 2 to 6 inches breaks after the coal is removed, and is thrown 
into the gob. The remaining shale, however, forms a good roof 
throughout most of the mine, and the floor is firm and does not mix 
with the coal. The following sections were measured at the places 
where the samples were taken: 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 



147 



S^etionM 0/ Roglyn eoai bed in RoMlyn No. 7 mine. 



Shale. 

♦Coal 

Shale 

*Coal| streaks of ^'sulphur 

•Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

•Coal 

Shale. 



Ft. 

1 



n 



in. 
2 

i 

^ 
i 

2 

1 
6 



4 
Ft. 



HcftiM. 

Shale. 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal, crushed 

•Coal 

Shale 

•Coal, partly crushed 1 

Coal and shale streaks 

•Coal 

•Shale 

•Coal 1 

Shale, — 



6i 

in. 

li 

4 

10 
1 

6i 
2 
2 

i 

^ 



Ve. MSI. 
Shale. 

♦Coal 

"Sulphur" band 

•Coal...! 

Shale 

•Coal 

"Sulphur" band 

tCoal 

•Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

•Coal 

Shale. 

Vctftlt. 

Shale. 

Shale, carbonaceous streaks. 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Coal, banded 

♦Coal : 

Shale. 



Ft. 

1 



In. 
2 

i 
2i 
1 

i 
1 

i 
4 

i 
6J 



Ft, 



H 

fn. 

1 

i 
1 

li 
1 

4 

2 

6i 



6i 



Preparation for marJcet — Partings and impurities which separate 
readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the coal is 
used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9422 was taken on the gangway of 
the second level west, 6 feet up room 40. The upper and the lower 
partings of the bed can be separated by picking and were not in- 
cluded in the sample. Sample 9421 was taken on the gangway of 
the second level east, 15 feet from the barrier between mine No. 7 
and mine No. 1 at Clealum. The bed contains five partings, most of 
which can be separated from the coal by careful picking. A parting 
of shale, '' sulphur" and coal occurs near the center of the bed. In 
picking, about half the coal in this parting will be thrown away, and, 
accordin^y, in sampling, only half the coal and the layer immedi- 
ately underlying it was included in the sample. Sample 9420 was 
taken in the air course below the gangway of the fourth level west, 
about 800 feet west of the slope. The two upper partings in the 
bed, which can be separated by careful picking, were not included 
in the sample. Sample 9419 was taken on the gangway of the fourth 
level east, 330 feet beyond the entrance to room 12. The upper 
parting, which is the only one that can be separated from the coal 
by picking, was not included in the sample. Analysis 9461 was made 



148 COALS OP THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

of a composite sample containing equal parts of the samples taken 
at this mine. The analyses of the samples are given on page 61. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal is grayish black; mas- 
sive, and banded, and breaks with a splintery fracture. On account 
of the banding, it is difficult to distinguish some parts of the coal from 
bony layers containing a high percentage of carbon.. The coal has a 
heating value a little lower than the coal obtained from this bed at the 
mines further to the northwest. 

suMMrr. 

Summit, incline 1 mile north of Clealum. No. 47. 

Operator: Summit Coal Mining Co., Portland, Oreg. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^The mine is on the Roslyn bed, which here strikes X. 
75*^ W. and dips 11 ^^ S. The following section was measured at the 
point from which the sample was taken: 

Section of Roslyn coal bed at Summit mine. 

Ho. 840S. 

Sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale (5 inches to 1 foot 6 inches) 11 

Shale with streaks of coal 5 

*Coal .* 2 5i 

Shale i 

*Coal 2 

Shale } 

♦Coal 1 9i 

Shale. ' 

5 10 

Preparation for marlcet, — ^The partings and impurities that can be 
separated readily at the mine are thrown into the gob. At the tipple 
the coal is passed over two 2-inch bar screens, the oversize, after 
picking, being marketed as lump coal, and the undersize as steam coal. 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9403 was taken down the gangway 
50 feet from the new tunnel about 40 feet below the surface. Both 
shale partings of the bed were excluded from the sample. The analy- 
sis of the sample is given on page 61. 

Character and gnality of the coal, — ^The coal is grayish black, mas- 
sive, and slightly banded, and has a splintery fracture. Its heating 
value is somewhat lower than that of the coal obtained from the same 
bed farther to the west. 

CLE ELUM NO. 3 EXTENSION. 

Cle Elum No. 3 Extension, incline and drift mine about 1 mile north 
of Clealum. No. 48. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 
Kind of coal: Bituminous. 



KITTITAS COUNTY. 149 

Coal bed. — ^The mine is worked on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 
70** W. and dips about 9° S. The coal is separated from massive 
sandstone by about 3 feet of shale, fragments of which, the largest a 
foot in thickness, break oif after the coal is mined and are thrown into 
the gob. Occasionally it breaks with the coal, in which event it must 
be separated before the mine cars are loaded. The floor is firm and 
does not mix with the codl. The following section was measured 
where the sample was obtained: 

Section of Roslyn coal bed at Cle Elum No. S Extension mine. 

]ro.94M. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, carbonaceous, and bone 1 

*Coal 2 8J 

Shale \ 

*Coal 4 

♦Shale, hard 1 

*Coal 1 2J 

Shale. — — 

5 4^ 

Preparation jot marlcet, — Partings and impurities which separate 
readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the coal is 
used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Sample for analysis. — Sanaple 9408 was taken from the air course 
which parallels the incline, just below the sixth level, and does not 
include the upper parting of the bed. The analysis of the sample is 
given on page 61. 

CharOrCter and quality of the coal. — ^The coal is grayish black, mas- 
sive, and banded, and breaks with a splintery fracture. The bony 
layer in the bottom of the bed resembles the surrounding coal to such 
an extent that it was difficult to separate them and its presence does 
not seem to have materially increased the amount of ash in the sam- 
ple. This coal has a heating value a little lower than that of coal 
obtained from the same bed in the vicinity of Roslyn. 

CLE ELUM NO. 2 EXTENSION. 

Cle Elum No. 2 Extension, incline and drift mine about 1 mile north 
of Clealum. No. 48. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^The mine is located on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 
80*^ W. ajid dips 9° S. The coal is separated from massive sandstone 
by about 3 feet of shale, pieces of which ranging up to a foot in thick- 
ness break off after the coal is mined and are thrown into the gob- 
When they break with the coal, they must be separated from it be- 
*fore the mine cars are loaded. The floor is firm and does not mix with 
the coal. The section following was taken from the place where the 
sample was obtained. 



150 COALJ3 OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

SeeUon of Roalyn coal bedin CU Elum No. t Eztennon mine. 

Vo. MM. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

Shale, slightly carbonaceous 6 

*Coal 1 2i 

tShale, hard 1 

♦Coal 1 3 

♦Shale, hard J 

*Coal IJ 

Shale , i 

Coal 1 

Shale J 

♦Coal 4 

♦Shale, hard i 

♦Coal 1 5 

Shale, hard. 

5 2 

Preparation for market. — Partings and impurities that separate 
readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the coal is 
used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9409 was taken on the gangway of the 
eighth level about 50 feet east from the rope slope. Half the upper 
parting and the entire bench near the center of the bed was excluded 
from the sample. The analysis of this sample is given on page 61. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal is grayish black, mas- 
sive, and banded, and has a splintery fracture. It has a lower heating 
value than coal obtained from the same bed farther northwest. 

CLE ELUM NO. 2. 

Cle Elum No. 2, one-half mile north of Clealum. No. 48. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal led. — The mine is worked on the Roslyn bed, which strikes 
N. 55® W. and dips about 14° SW. The coal is separated from a 
massive sandstone by about 3 feet of shale, fragments of which 
ranging up to a foot in thickness break off after the coal is mined and 
are thrown into the gob. It occasionally breaks with the coal and 
must be separated before the mine cars are loaded. The floor is 
firm and does not mix with the coal. The following section was 
measured where the sample was obtained: 

Section of Roslyn coal bed in CU Elum No. t mine. 

Ho. 9478. 

Shale. Ft. la. 

Shale, soft 8J 

•Coal 1 1 

"Sulphur" band and coal 1 

. ♦Coal 6i 

*Coal, bony i 

♦Coal 7 

Shale and coal layers 3i 

•Coal 1 6i 

Shale. 

4 9} 



KITTITAS COUNTT. 



151 



Prepcaraiion for market. — ^Partings and impurities which separate 
readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all ihe coal is 
used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Sample far analysis. — Sample 9472 was taken at the face of the 
gangway of the sixth level east. The upper and the lower partings 
of the bed can be separated by careful picking and were not included 
in the sample. The analysis of the sample is given on page 62. 

Character and qualiiy of the coal. — ^The coal is grayish black, mas- 
sive, and banded, and has a splintery fracture. Bony layers in the 
coal resemble the cosl so much that tliey can be separated only with 
great care. 

CLE ELUM NO. 1. 

Cle Elum No. 1, a shaft mine 250 feet deep at Clealum, on the 
Northern Pacific Railway. No. 48. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bid. — ^This mine is on the Roslyn bed, which strikes N. 65*^ W. 
and dips 24^ S. in the west end of the workings, and strikes N. 55^ W. 
and dips 31^ S. in the east end of the workings. The coal is separated 
from a massive sandstone by about 3 feet of shale, of which fragments 
ranging up to a foot in thickness break off after the coal is mined and 
are thrown into the gob. Occasionally it breaks with the coal and 
must be separated before the mine cars are Igaded. The floor is firm 
and does not mix with the coal. The following sections were meas- 
ured at the points from wliich the samples were obtained: 

Sections of Roslyn coal bed in Cle Elum No. 1 mine. 



Vo.Ntf. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

Shale (gobbed) 9i 

•Coal 2 

Shale 1 

tCoal 1 

Shale i 

tCoal 2 

Shale i 

*Coal 5J 

•Shale,hard i 

•Coal 1 4 

♦Shale,hard i 

♦Coal 2 

♦Shale 1 

♦Coal 1 

Shale. 



3J 



Shale. 

Shale (gobbed) 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

. Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale. 



VO.MM. 



Ho. M47. 



Shale (poor roof). 

Clay, Boft 

♦Coal 

Shale, upper part hard 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 



Ft. 


in. 




5 


1 


4 




i 


1 


2i 




h 




3 




1 




5i 




1 


1 


24 


4 


10 


Ft. 


in. 




1 


2 


54 




1 




6 




1 


1 




1 


1 



5 3i 



152 COALS OP THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

Prepamdon for market, — ^Partings and impurities which separate 
readily from the coal are removed in the mine, and as all the coal is 
used for locomotives it needs no further picking at the tipple. 

Samples for amdysis. — Sample 9445 was taken from the gangway 
on the first level southwest between rooms 32 and 33. Only about 
half of the coal between the three upper partings could be removed 
by careful picking, and therefore the partings, with the remaining half 
of the coal, were not included in the sample. Sample 9446 was taken 
from the gangway of the first level southwest, 100 feet from the slope. 
The upper and the two lower partings can be separated from the coal 
by picking, and were not included in the sample. Sample 9447 was 
taken at the east end of the gangway on the first level southeast. 
The upper parting can be separated by picking and was, therefore, 
not included in the sample. Analysis 9467 was made of a composite 
sample containing equal parts of the samples obtained from this mine. 
The analyses of these samples are given on page 62. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal is grayish black, mas- 
sive, and banded, and has a splintery fracture. The bed contains 
some partings of bony coal, which are banded and which can be 
separated only with difficulty from the coal. The heating value of 
the coal is lower than that of coal obtained from the mines on the same 
bed farther northwest. 

• LEWIS COUNTY. 

The samples collected in Lewis County were obtained from three 
fields — the anthracite field on the headwaters of CowUtz River, the 
bituminous field at Ladd, and the subbituminous field near Centralia 
and Chehalis. The geologic relations of these fields to one another 
has not yet been determined, except that the coal-bearing rocks in 
all three fields belong to the Puget formation of the Tertiary system.* 
The samples upon which this report is based were collected during 
August and September, 1909, and February, 1910. Several samples 
obtained during 1908 by J. B. XJmpleby, of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, at Ladd and in the vicinity of Glenavon have also been 
included in tliis report. 

Gas is said to occur in the Primrose bed along Summit Creek, in 
the antliracite district, and has been seen by the writer bubbUng from 
some of the coal beds in the bottom of the creek. In the mine at 
Ladd the beds have been cut by igneous rocks in several places, and 
gas is especially abundant where these intrusions occur. Li bed 
No. 2 gas is found in small quantities throughout the entire workings. 

PBOSPECT NOBTH OF CARLTON CBEEK. 

Prospect on tliQ north side of valley, about 500 feet vertically above 
Carlton Creek, in SE. i NW. i sec. 29, T. 15 N., R. 11 E. No. 49. 
Kind of coal: Carbonaceous shale. 

1 Willis, Bailey, Tacoma (olio (No. 54), Geol. Atlas U. S., U. S. Oeol. Survey, 1899. 



LEWIS COUNTY. 168 

Coal ied. — ^This coal bed occurs in the lower coal group of the 
Carlton Pass coal field. An open cut has been made across the face 
of the bed| exposing a total thickness between hanging and foot walls 
of about 9 feet. The bed is composed almost entirely of black shale 
containing very thin stringers of bright coal and several layers of 
very badly crushed graphitic shale. The following is a section of 
the bed: 

Section of coal (?) bed in SE. J NW. } sec. 29, T. 15 N,, R. 11 E, 

Ho MM. 

Shale, sandy, carbonaceous. Ft» to- 

*Shale, graphitic 1 6 

Shale, hard, black 7 

Shale, graphitic Zi 

Shale, black, thin stringers of pure coal 2 

Shale, black, hard 8i 

Shale, graphitic 1 7 

Shale, carbonaceous, with thin stringers of bright coal 1 11 

Sandstone and shale, with thin layers of carbonaceous shale. 

8 7 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9093 was taken from the graphitic 
shale layer 1 foot 6 inches thick near the top of the bed. 

Chmuder and quality of the coal, — The material is badly broken 
and shows considerable movement in the bed. When wet, the sUck- 
ensided faces are very bright and give the appearance of anthracite 
coal. This bench was thought by the writer to contain a high per- 
centage of graphite, and has been considered generally by coal pros- 
pectors who visited this field to be a high-grade coal. The analysis 
in the accompanying table (p. 62) shows that the bench is hardly 
better than carbonaceous shale. 

PROSPECT SOUTH OF CARLTON CREEK. 

Prospect on hillside south of Carlton Creek in SE. { sec. 1, T. 14 N., 
R. 10 E., about 1,100 feet above the bed of the creek. No. 50. 

Kind of coal: Semibituminous. 

Coal bed. — ^A gangway 90 feet in length has been driven on this bed 
which strikes north and south and dips 60^ W. At the end of the 
gangway the following section was measured: 

Section of coal bed in prospect in SE. i «ec. 1, T. 14 N,, R. 10 E. 

Vo. 9M1. 
Shale. Ft. ixL 

Shale,black 3 2i 

Coal, partly graphitic 7 

Shale, black, carbonaceous 1 

♦Coal 3 6 

Coal, impure 1 6 

Sandstone. 

9 9i 



164 COAIJ3 OF THE BTATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Sample far analysis, — Sample 9091 was taken from the bed of good 
coal 3 feet 6 inches thick, and its analysis is given in the table (p. 62). 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal is Tery hard and bright, 
but contains a few thin stringera of dull coal. It bums on a forge 
with a short blue flame and has the appearance of anthracite coal. 
Analysis shows that it is very high in ash. It is massive and banded, 
and breaks with a conchoidal fracture. 

PROSPECT A, SUMMTT CREEK. 

Prospect on Summit Creek in SE. i NW. i sec. 13, T. 14 N., R. 10 
E. No. 51. 

Kind of coal: Semibituminous and semianthracite. 

Coal bed. — ^This bed, which is known ds the Primrose bed, is 
about 20 feet in thickness between hanging and foot walls. A gang- 
way has been driven about 50 feet in the lower part of the bed, 
which is slightly overturned, dipping 82^ and striking north and 
south. The following section shows the details of the bed: 

Section of Primrose coal bed in prosped m 8E, J NW, J «c. IS, T. 14 N., R. 10 E. 

Shale, hanging wall. Ft fak 

*(1) Coal, with thin layers of bone (sample 9101) 2 %\ 

(2) Goal, bony, with tome graphitic shale 2 6 

*(3) Shale, graphitic (sample 9097) i 5 

(4) Shale, black 8J 

*(5) Coal and layers of bony coal (sample 9102) 2 1 

*(6) Coal (sample 9099).. 4 11 

(7) Coal and graphitic shale in alternating layers 3 11 

(8) Shale, black 2 

Sandstone, footwall. 

20 3 

Samples for analysis. — The section was measured and the samples 
taken from the face of an open cut across the bed at the entrance to 
the gangway. Bench No. 1, from wliich sample 9101 was taken, 
contains a large percentage of hard, bright coal resembling that from 
bench No. 6, but the numerous tlun layers of bony coal scattered 
through the bed can be separated from pure coal only with extreme 
difficulty, and will increase the percentage of ash in the bed very 
considerably. No sample of bench No. 2 was taken, but the coal 
resembles that sampled in bench No. 5. Sample 9097, taken from 
the graphitic shale of bench No. 3, shows on analysis that this bench 
is too high in ash to be of economic value. Sample 9102, taken from 
bench No. 5, contains a large amount of ash, and is too impure to be 
of commercial value at the present time. Sample 9099 was taken 
from bench No. 6, and represents the best coal in the bed. Sample 
9100 was obtained from a layer of the best coal near the center of 



I«EWI8 COUNTY. 155 

bench No. 6, and repiescnts the best picked coal from the bed. The 
analyse^ of these samples are given on page 63. 

Chameter and quality of (he coal. — ^llie coal from bench No. 6 is 
pitch black, bright, and very hard. It is massive and breaks with an 
irregular conchoidal fracture. In the other benches the coal is not 
so pure, is banded and laminated, and breaks with an irregular, 
splintery fracture. The coal bums in an open fire with a short blue 
flame and, in general, leaves a fairly large amount of ash, though a 
sample taken from the best layer in the center of bench No. 6 has a 
fuel ratio of 11 and a relatively small percentage of Bsh. The analy- 
sis (No. 9100) of this sample compares favorably with the analyses of 
some of the anthracite coals of Pennsylvania. The percentage of 
volatile matter is somewhat higher than in the average Pennsyl- 
vania anthracite, but lower than that of the semianthracite coal of 
Sullivan County, Pa., which is sold in the market as anthracite. 

FBOSPEOT B, SUHHrr GBEEK. 

Prospect on Summit Creek, in SE. i NW. i sec. 13, T. 14 N., 
R 10 E. No. 51. 

Kind of coal : Semianthracite. 

Coal bed. — ^The bed is slightly overturned at this place, and has the 
same dip and strike as that given for the Primrose bed in the pre- 
ceding description. It is separated from the Primrose by 25 feet of 
shale. The following section was measured at the face of a drift 
run along this bed 35 feet: 

, Sectum of coal bed in protpeet in SE. J NW. J see. 13, T. U N., R. 10 E. 

Vo. MM. 

Shftle. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 2 9i 

Coal, poor • 7 

Shale, black 3 

Coal, bony 2 2J 

Shale. 

8 7 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9098 was taken from the best bench 
of coal in the section noted above. The coal was more or less crushed 
and mixed with carbonaceous shale. The analysis of this sample is 
given on page 63. 

CharacUr and qualUy of the coal. — ^The coal is pitch black, bright, 
and hard. It is massive and dense, and breaks with a conchoidal 
fracture. Analysis shows that the coal contains a very high percent- 
age of ash, and although it is classed as a good grade of semianthra^ 
cite, the percentage of ash in the entire bed is so high that it would 
be of little value commercially unless the carbonaceous shale could be 
tejiarated thoroughly by crushing and washing. 



156 COALS OF THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 

PBOSPECT 0, SUMMIT CREEK. 

Prospect on Summit Creek, in SE. } NW. } sec. 13, T. 14 N., R. 
10 E., about 350 feet west of the opening on the Primrose bed pre- 
viously described. No. 51. 

Kind of coal : Anthracite. 

Coal hed, — ^The coal bed, which belongs to the same group as the 
Primrose bed, outcrops very near the level of the creek, and only the 
middle of it was exposed in the prospect. It is sUghtly overturned, 
and has a dip and strike practically the same as that of the Primrose. 
The following section was measured: 

Seetion of coal bed in prospect in SE. J NW, J wc. 13, T. 14 N., J?. 10 E. 

Ho. MM. 

Feet. 

Coal, bony l-h 

*Coal : 1 

Coal, bony 1+ 

3-h 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9092 was taken from the 1-foot bench 
of good coal. The analysis is given on page 63. 

CharaxiieT and quality of the- coal, — ^The coal, which is very bright, 
pitch black, and hard, is massive and dense, and breaks with a con- 
choidal fracture. It contains a low percentage of ash and has a high 
calorific value. The coal is an anthracite and compares favorablj'^ 
with much of the Pennsylvania anthracite. 

SUBFACE EXPOSURE EAST OF COWLITZ RIVER. 

Surface exposure in SE. } sec. 7, T. 13 N., R. 10 E., about 2 miles 
east of CowUtz River. No. 52. 

Kind of coal: Anthracite. 

Coal bed. — ^The coal bed outcropping near the summit of the hill 
strikes N. 5® E. and dips 32 "^ W. The bed has a total thickness of 
about 18 feet, only 3 feet of which was thought to be pure enough 
to be of any commercial value. The remainder of the bed is composed 
almost entirely of a hard black shale containing thin stringers of coal. 

A drift was run about 20 years ago on a bed outcropping on the 
opposite side of the hill, about 200 feet below the outcrop described 
above, and it has always been supposed that the drift and the surface 
exposure are on the same bed. It was reported that a sample taken 
from the drift and analyzed at the New Orleans exposition showed 
92 per cent of fixed carbon. It is very clear from the analysis and 
physical character of the coal from the surface exposure that the 
drift must be on a different bed. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9090 was taken from the 3-foot bench 
of bony coal after removing about 6 inches of coal from the face of 
the exposure. The analysis of the coal is given on page 63. 



LEWIS COUNTY. 



157 



Character and qwHity of the coal, — The small stringers of coml, which 
are very hafd and jet black, and break with a conchoidaLfracture, 
should probably be considered as anthracite. It would be innpossible 
to separate them from the bony coal in which they are embedded, and 
the marketable coal would have about the same percentage of ash as 
that contained in this sample. 

PROSPECTS NEAR LADD AND OLENAYON. 

Prospects in the vicinity of Ladd and Glenavon, Washington. 
Nos. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, and 87. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous and anthracite. 

Coal beds, — On account of the heavy forest covering, the exposures 
are very small and the relation of the beds in each part of the field 
can not be definitely worked out from the surface. J. B. Umpleby 
examined this area in 1908 and measured the following sections, from 
which he obtamed the samples. 



Sections of coal beds in the vicinity of Ladd and Glenavon. 

Vo. 6488. Vo. 8488. 



Hanging wall. 

Goal, shaly 

Parting 

♦Coal :.... 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting..: 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Coal, slaty 

Clay, plastic. 
Footwall. 

iro.64B0. 

Gay, hanging wall. 

♦Coal 

Volcanic ash 

♦Coal..... 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Shale, footwall. 



Ft. In. 

1 1 

^ 
11 

2 

5 

1 

7 

li 
1 

9 



1 
1 



Ft. In. 

1 6 
1 

8i 
9i 



1 

3i 

1 

1 
6 



1 
1 



7 U 



Hanging wall. 

Coal, very bony 

Clay, sandy 

Coal, very bony 

Clay 

Coal and bone in alternating 

bands 

Clay :.. 

♦Coal, bony, dull layers 

Clay 

♦Coal, hard, dull layers 

Clay 

♦Coal, bony 

Footwall. 

Ho. 6488. 

Clay, hanging wall. 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Clay, footwall. 

io. 6496. 

Clay, hanging wall. 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting 

Coal, bony 

Clay. 
Shale and coal, bony, footwall. 



Ft. In. 
1 4 
5 
11 



10 
i 

^ 

8 
1 
8 

5 9 

Ft. In. 
3 6 



5i 

7 
3 
8 



6 bi 

Ft. in- 
1 1 

1 11 

2 6 
1 

2i 



6 7i 



158 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

SamjIUsfor cmalytw. — Sample 6488 was taken from a drift 60 feet 
long in the SE. i see. 14, T. 13 N., R. 4 K All the partings yfmx% 
remoyed in sampling. Sample 6489 was taken from a 33-foat drift 
in the northeast comer of the SW. \ N£. \ sec. 26, T. 14 N., R 4 K 
Sample 6490 was taken from an open cot 10 feet deep in the NE. \ sec 
10, T. 13 N., R. 4 E., all partings being csduded. Sample 6495 was 
taken from an open cut near some small faults in the SE. \ sec. 34, 
T. 14 N., R. 4 E. It is not certain that the bed is normal at- this 
point. Both partings were excluded from the sample. Samjde 6496 
was obtained from a 26-foot drift in the NW. J sec. 14, T. 13 N., 
R. 4 E. The part sampled contained one {Murtmg which was excluded 
from the sample. The analyses of these samples are given on 
pages 63-64. 

Character and quality of Ae coal. — The physical character of the 
coal is not known to the writer. Analyses show moderate to rerj 
high amoimt of ash; the amount of moisture given off is somewhat 
high, due probably to moisture on the surface of the coal, which was 
not removed before the samples were sealed. The coal does not 
slack on exposure to the air. The percentage of fixed carbon is con- 
siderably higher than that of volatile matter, in which respect the 
coals compare with that from mine No. 1 at Ravensdale. Sample 
6496 shows a remarkably small amount of volatile matter, and the 
analysis indicates either that the coal is anthracite or natural coke. 
With this exception, the samples indicate that this is an impure 
bituminous coal. 

EAST CREEK-LADD. 

East Creek-Ladd, a tunnel and drift mine at Ladd, on the Tacoma 
Eastern Railroad. No. 53. 

Operator: East Creek Coal Co.; W. M. Ladd and J. Bagley, Ladd, 
Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (coking and noncoking). 

Coal beds. — Two coal beds, Nos. 2 and 3, were being developed 
conunercially at the time of sampling and a third bed, lying above 
Nos. 2 and 3 and called No. 4, was being prospected. The beds 
strike N. 86° W- s^^d dip 40® SW. Bed No. 2, the main commercial 
bed and the lowest in the group, is being worked on the property of 
the East Creek Coal Co., and coal is brought to the surface by a 
gangway and a rock tunnel through the property of W. M. Ladd 
and J. Bagley. Bed No. 3 Hes 590 feet west of bed No. 2 and is being 
developed in the valley of a small creek southwest of the main entrance 
to No. 2. A gangway 250 feet long has been driven on this bed. 
A short gangway has been driven on bed No. 4, which is 160 feet 
west of bed No. 3, near the entrance to the gangway on No. 3. Sec- 
tions of these coal beds at the places where the samples were taken 
are as follows: 



liEWIS COUNTY. 



159 



Stetiom of eoal htdi in East Crett^Ladd mi/u. 



6 



Vo. Ma, Wd W; S. 

Sandstone. Ft. in. 

S»^« {to 1 

Shftle, carbonaceous, soft 

•Coal 

Shale, clayey 

•Coal, "sulphur" in joints ] 

Shale, carbonaceouB 

*Coal, calcite veins 



7 

10 
1 
9 

4 
11 



Coal bed 3 11 

Vo. M80, lowwr bcnoli of bod Vo. 8. 

Coal. Ft. to. 

Shale and bony coal 6^ 

•Coal 3 6) 

Coal, bony. 



Vo. MSI, vppor beneh of bod Vo. S. 

Shale. Ft. to. 

♦Coal 1 8 

Bhale and bony coal ^ 



Vowail»,bodVow4. 



Ft. 



Coal, bony, and shale 2 

•Coal 1 

Shale 

♦Coal 1 

Shale 

Coal, bony 

Shale 

♦Coal 1 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

Sliale. 
Shale, and coal, bony. — 



2i 
to. 

^ 

8 
1 

3 

^ 



The following sections were measured in this mine by J. B. 
Omplebyin 1908: 

SecdonB of coal beds in Ea»t Creek-Ladd mine. 



VowM0a.bodVo.S. 



Ft. 



Clay. 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 1 

Parting 

♦Coal 1 

Clay. 



to. 

94 
1 

11 

1 

5 



Vo. 64Mi bod Vo. S. 



Ft. to. 
1 6 
1 



Coal 

Parting 

Coal Si 

Bone Si 

♦Coal 4 1 

Parting 11 

Coal 1 8i 

Shale. 



9 3i 



4 3i 
V*.M0a.bodVo.4. 

Ft. to. 

Coal,bony 16 6 

♦Coal 1 11 

Bone 2i 

♦Coal 2 3i 

Shale. 

20 11 

Preparation for market — The coal from bed No. 2 is picked at the 
bunker and washed through a Howe tub washer. The coal from No. 
3 is picked at the entrance of the gangway and then flumed to the 
washer at the entrance to bed No. 2, where it is mixed with the coal 
from No. 2 and passed through the washer. 

Samples for analysis. — A sample (No. 9882) of bed No. 2 was taken 
60 feet up chute 62 from the first water-level gangway. The two 
ahale partings given in the section can be separated from the bed 



160 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

by careful picking and washing, and were not included in the sample. 
Two samples were taken at the face of the gangway on bed No. 3 — 
No. 9881 from the upper bench and No. 9880 from the lower bench. 
These benches are separated by 6^ inches of shale and bony coal 
which is removed from the coal by picking. Sample 9879 was 
obtained from the face of the gangway on bed No. 4. The bed con- 
tains several partings of shale and bony coal. It will probably be 
somewhat difficult to separate the bony coal from the commercial 
parts of the bed, but inasmuch as the lower shale parting in the bed 
was not removed in the sampling it was thought that by removing 
all the bony coal the resulting amount of ash in the sample would 
represent that obtained in the ordinary commercial coal from this 
bed. Sample 6493 was taken from bed No. 2, the two partings of 
which were not included in the sample. None of the partings were 
included in sample 6494, taken from bed No. 3. Sample 6492 was 
taken from the short drift on bed No. 4 where No. 9879 was taken. 
The parting was not included in the sample. Sample 6491, consisting 
of two samples of about 300 pounds each of washed coal from bed 
No. 2, was taken at the bunker as it came from the washer. Each 
sample was reduced and quartered in the usual manner until 100 
pounds were obtained. The two samples were then mixed, ground, 
and quartered until the final sample was about 4 pounds. It was 
sealed in the can while still wet. 

Analyses of the samples will be found on pages 64-65. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal from bed No. 2 is 
bright, has a cubical fracture, and is of better quality than that from 
either bed No. 3 or No. 4. It is rather high in ash and produces 
coke of fairly good quality. The joints in the coal are very close 
together, and are, in the lower portion of the bed, filled with calcite, 
pyrite, and free sulphur. The coal from bed No. 3 is banded and is 
heavier than that from bed No. 2, but not nearly so bright or well 
jointed. Both benches of this bed contain coal of similar quality. 
The coal, though high in ash, is considered fairly good for railroad and 
domestic use. The coal from bed No. 4 resembles very much the coal 
from bed No. 3, but it is higher in ash and therefore lower in heating 
value. The coal from all three beds contains a small percentage of 
moisture, does not slack during transportation to the market, and 
may be classed as bituminous. 

MENDOTA. 

Mendota, a slope mine at Mendota, about 6 miles east of Centralia 
on the Centralia Eastern Railroad. No. 54. 

Operator: Mendota Coal & Coke Co., Centralia, Wash. 
Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 



LEWIS COUNTY. 161 

Coal bed. — Several coal beds are exposed on the property of the 
company, but only the one upon which the mine was working was 
sampled. The bed strikes north and south and dips 12° W. The 
following sections were measured at the places at which the samples 
were taken: 

Sections of coal bed in Mendota mine. 



HO.10B94. 

Ft. In. 

•Coal 2 2i 

Shale, sandy 2} 

•Coal 1 1 

Shale, sandy ^ 

♦Coal 2 

Shale, yellow-brown 1 

♦Coal.! 2i 

Shale I 

•Coal, little stringers of bone 9i 

Shale, yellow-brown J 

♦Coal 3 



9 Si 



Ho. 10S88. 



•Coal 

fShale, sandy. 

•Coal 

t Shale, sandy. 
♦Coal 

Shale 

•Coal 

Shale 

•Coal 



Ft. 


In. 


1 


4 




i 




64 




i 


3 


6 




1 




3 




i 


4 


2J 



10 



Preparation far market — ^When the partings are large and separate 
easily from the coal they are removed in the mine. The coal is 
picked and sized at the tipple over a shaking screen with 2-inch 
perforations. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 10324 was collected 80 feet above 
the gangway at the first level north in room No. 2. At this place aU 
of the partings in the bed can be separated by careful picking, and 
hence they were not included in the sample. Sample 10323 was taken 
at the foot of the slope, 850 feet from the entrance of the mine. 
The bed contains four partings. It would be difficult to separate all 
the material in upper two partings from the coal, and therefore about 
one-half of each was included in the sample. The analyses of these 
samples are given on page 65. 

Character and qtudity of Hie coal, — The coal is grayish black and 
has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded, and breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. It slacks readily upon exposure to the 
air, owing to the large amoynt of moisture it contains — an amount 
about equal to that of the coal from the Hannaford mine. It has, 
however, less fixed carbon than this coal, a greater amount of ash 
and sulphur, and a lower heating value. It has considerably less 
moisture than the coal in the vicinity of ChehaHs and will probably 
stand transportation better. It should be classed as low-grade sub- 
bitummous. 

Irregular lenses of a soft cannel-like coal occur in places in tliis 
mine. When first exposed these lenses are black and give a yellow- 
ish brown streak, but they turn- brown very soon. The percentage 

91320°— Bull. 474—11 11 



162 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

of volatile matter in them is* very high, for large pieces can be easily 
ignited in the hand with a match, and they bum much more readily 
than any cannel with which the writer is familiar, with a long, smoky, 
yellow flame. 

BICHMOND. 

Richmond, a slope mine 1} miles northeast of Centralia. No. 55. 

Operator: Centralia Coal Co., CentraUa, Wash. 

Bind of coal : Subbituminous. 

Coal bed. — Only one coal bed is developed at tliis mine. It strikes 
N. 40° W. and dips 40° SW. The following section was measured at 
the face of the north gangway, just beyond chute No. 10 on the first 
level: 

Section of coal bed in Richmond mine. 

Ho. 9177. 

rt. In. 

Coal 1 

Shale, hard 6 

Coal (used as roof) 8} 

♦Coal 7 8} 

Coal and shale, Carbonaceous 6 

Coal 1-f- 

11 6+ 

Preparation for market. — ^The coal is passed over a f-inch screen 
and then picked. Only the lump coal is placed on the market. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9177 was cut at the place where the 
above section was measured. The analysis of the coal is given on 
page 65. 

Cliaracter and quality of the coal. — The coal is brownish black in 
color, and has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded, 
and breaks with an irregular conclioidal fracture. It contains a very 
higli percentage of moisture and weathers very readily on exposure 
to the air. It should be classed as a very low-grade subbituminous 
coal. • 

SUPERIOR NO. 1. 

Superior No. 1, a water-level mine 1 mile northeast of ChehaUs. 
No. 56. 

Operator: Superior Coal Co., Chehalis, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal led. — Tliis coal bed is about 11 feet in thickness. It strikes 
N. 70° W. and dips 40° SW. The entire bed of coal, which is the 
same bed as that mined in the Twin City mine of the Twin City 
Light & Traction Co. about one-fourth mile west, is mined, but as the 
sample from the Twin City mine was taken from the lower bench 
very near this mine it was considered that a sample from the upper 
bench to supplement the Twin City mine sample was all that was 



LEWIS COUNTY. 163 

necessary. The following is a section of the upper portion of the bed 
at this mine and that from which the sample was taken : 

Section of upper part of coal bed in Superior No. 1 mine. 

Ho. 994S. 
Sandstone. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 7 

Shale, aandy i 

•Coal 3 

Shale, aandy } 

♦CoaL 2 

Shale : 1 

♦Coal 6 

Shale, hard. 

Shale. • 4 6 

PreparcUionfor market, — The coal is passed over a 1-incli bar screen 
at the bunker, picked, and dumped into the bin. 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9942 was taken 10 feet east of the 
entrance to the tunnel to the bed. The analysis of the coal is given 
on page 65. 

Chamcter and quality of the coal. — The coal is brownish black and 
has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded and breaks 
with an irregular conchoidal fracture. Owing to its high percentage 
of moisture, it slacks very readily upon exposure to the air. It is 
probably on the border line between low-grade subbituminous and 
high-grade Ugnite. 

SUPERIOR NO. 2. 

Superior No. 2, a slope mine one-fourth mile north of the station 
at Chehalis, on the main line of the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 57. 

Operator: Superior Coal Co., Chehalis, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal bed. — The coal bed is nearly 10 feet in thickness. It strikes 
N. 80° W. and dips 54° S. The following section was measured 
where the sample was taken: 

Section of coal bed in Superior No. 2 minr. 

No. 9M). 

Sandstone, soft. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 3 11 

♦Coal 4 6 

♦Coal, slightly bony and soft 5i 

Shale, carbonaceous, soft. '. 1 

♦Coal 9 

Coal, bony 2 

Sandstone. 

9 lOi 

Preparation for marTcet. — ^The coal is passed over a 1-inch bar screen 
at the bunkers and then picked. 



164 COALB OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9941 was obtained in chute 5 about 
50 feet above the first level gangway. The bed contains one carbo- 
naceous shale parting near the bottom, which can be separated by 
picking, and was not therefore included in the sample. The analysis 
of the ooal is given on page 65. 

Character and qxudity of the coal. — ^The coal has a brownish-black 
color, a reddish-brown streak, massive and banded structure, and a 
conchoidal fracture. It contains a high percentage of moisture, 
slacks very easily upon exposure to the air, and is a very low-grade 
subbituminous coal. 

TWIN CITY. 

Twin City, a slope mine 1 mile nort)ieast of Chehalis. No. 58. 

Operator: Twin City Light & Traction Co., ChehaUs, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal bed, — The coal bed worked in this mine is the lower part of 
the bed worked at the Superior No. 1 mine about one-fourth mile 
east. (See p. — .) It strikes No. 70° W. and dips 40"^ SW. The 
following section was measured where the sample was taken: 

Section of lower part of coal bed in Twin City mine. 

IXo. 994S. 
Shale. Ft. In. 

Coal, with thin irre:;ular bands of ehale 4 

Shale 6 

♦Coal , 1 7 

Shale 3i 

♦Coal 2 6 

Shale : 1 

♦Coal 7 

* Shale, thin lens .* J 

♦Coal 3i 

Shale i 

*Coal 9J 

Shale. 

10 Si 

Preparation for marlcet. — The coal is passed over a bar screen and 
picked. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9945 was taken at the east end of 
the first level gangway about 300 feet from the sloj)e. The bed con- 
tains several shale j)artings which can be easily separated by picking 
and wasliing, and these were therefore not included in the sample. 
The analysis of the coal is given on page 65. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal is brownish black and 
gives a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded, and breaks 
with an irregular conchoidal fracture. Its percentage of moisture is 
high and it slacks very readily upon exposure to the air. It is probably 
on the border line between low-grade subbituminous and high-grade 
Ugnite. 



LEWIS COtJKTt. 166 

GHEHALIS. 

Chehalis, a drift mine 2 miles east of Chehalis. No. 59. 

Operator: Chehalis Coal Co., Chehalis, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal 6ed.— The coal bed strikes N. 30° E. and dips 30^* SE. The 
following section was measured at the place where the sample was 
obtained : 

Section of coal bed in ChehaUa mine. 

No. 9944. 
Shale. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 2 10 

Shale, soft "mining*' 9) 

 Coal 2 9i 

Shale. 

6 5 

Preparation for markeL — The coal is screened and picked at the 
bunker. 

Sample for aruilysis, — Sample 9944 was obtained in the first watCT- 
level gangway 250 feet from the entrance of the mine from a stump 
pillar which was then being drawn and which had probably been 
exposed in the mine air for some time. A parting of soft shale near 
the center of the bed is used as *' mining" and is separated from the 
coal by picking. The analysis is given on page 66. 

CJuira>€ter and quality of the coal. — The coal is brownish black and 
has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded, and breaks 
with an irregular conchoidal fracture. It contains a high percentage 
of moisture and slacks very readily on exposure to tlie air. This 
coal is on the border line between low-grade subbituminous and high- 
grade lignite. 

SHELDON. 

Sheldon, a slope mine 3 miles east of Chehahs, Wash. No. 60. 
Operator:, Sheldon Coal Co., Chehalis, Wash. 
Eand of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal bed. — The coal bed worked at this slope is about 6 feet thick. 
The section measured is as follows: 

Section of coal bed in Sheldon mine. 

No. 9948. 

Ft. In. 

Coal 2-f- 

♦Coal 2 

Shale, carbonaceous 2i 

Coal 6 

Shale, carbonaceous 2 

*Coal 3 5i 

Shale. ~: 



166 COAlfi OP THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Preparaiion for market — The coal is screened over a l-inch bar 
screen and then picked. 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9943 was taken 250 feet east of the 
slope and 40 feet up the rise from the first level. The bed contains 
near the middle a parting of 10^ inches of carbonaceous shale and coal, 
which can be separated from the remainder of the bed by careful 
picking and washing, and this portion of the bed was not included in 
the sample. The analysis is given on page 66. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is brownish black and 
has a reddisli-brown streak. The structure is massive and banded, 
and the fracture conchoidal. The high percentage of moisture 
causes the coal to slack very readily upon exposure to the air. The 
coal should be classed as low-grade subbituminous. 

CRESCENT. 

Crescent, a water-level mine 4 miles northwest of Ijittell, on logging 
road. No. 61. 

Operator: Union Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Subbituminous. 

Coal hed, — Several coal beds have been opened at this mine, but 
a sample could be obtained only from the main bed. This bed 
strikes N. 85° W. and dips 40° S. A bench of coal 1 foot 6 inches 
thick is left as a roof to support the sand overlying it. Wherever 
this roof is broken and the rocks are moist the sand flows into the 
mine in large quantities and makes the conditions of operating very 
unsafe. Tliis mine was not being operated at the time it was visited. 
The following section was measured at. chute 17, between chutes 18 
and 19, and about 800 feet from the entrance to the first water-level 
gangway. 

Section of coal bed in Crescent mine. 

No. 9940. 
Sand. Ft. In. 

(\)al 1 6 

* ( Oal 9i 

Shale, hard 4 

* Coal 1 6 

* Shale 1 

*Coal ^ 

Shale, hard 6 

Shale, vellow 1 

Shale, carbonaceous 9^ 

* Coal 1 5 

Shale i 

*Coal 1 3J 

Shale, carbonaceoufl. 

9 ^ 



PIERCE COUNTY. 167 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9940 was taken where the section 
given above was measured. The bench of sliale 2 feet 3 J inches thick 
near Ihe center and small partings of shale in both the upper and 
lower benches of the bed should be removed in preparation for the 
market, and these were not included in the sample. The large 
amount of foreign material included in the bed, together with that 
which mixes with the coal from the floor and the roof, will increase 
the amount of ash in the marketable coal above that shown in the 
analysis very greatly unless it is very carefully removed. The 
analysis of the sample is given on page 66. 

Character and qy^lUy of tlie coal. — ^The coal is brownish black in 
color, and has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded, 
and breaks with a conchoidal fracture. It contains a higher percent- 
age of moisture than any other coal sampled in the State, and slacks 
very readily on exposure to the air. This coal should be classed as 
subbituminous. 

PIEBCE COUNTY. 

The coal fields of Pierce County have been studied by Bailey 
WiUis and George Otis Smith.^ The beds of the north end of the 
field were correlated by them on the data available in 1899, and the 
extension of the mines since then has essentially borne out their 
conclusions. The field has been developed to some extent farther 
south, at Melmont and Fairfax, but the relation of the beds worked 
in these places to those in the other mines farther north have not been 
definitely established. 

The work of sampling was done in this county during December, 
1909, and January, 1910. Two samples were taken from the Carbon 
Hill mine by M. R. Campbell in 1905, and a mine sample and a car 
sample were taken from the same mine by K. M. Way in 1908. A 
sample was taken in 1908 by J. B. Umpleby from a prospect about 7 
miles east of Ashford. Descriptions of these samples and their 
analyses are here given for piffposes of comparison. 

Gas is present in considerable quantities in some of the mines. At 
Burnett and Carbonado safety lamps are used in many of the work- 
ings. At the south end of the levels from slope No. 1 on the Wingate 
bed at Carbonado so much gas is encountered along a well-defined 
zone which cuts diagonally across the workings that operations 
must be discontinued when tliis zone is reached. 

1 WiUis, Bailey, Report on the coal fields of Washington Territory: Mining industries, Tenth Census 
IT. 8., Tol. 15, 1886, pp. 75»-771. 

Willis, Bailey, Some coal fields in Puget Sound (Wash.): Eighteenth Ann. Kept., U. S. Oeol. Survey, 
pt. 3, 1896, pp. 399-436. 

WUUs, Bailey, and Smith, 0. O., Tacoma folio (No. 54), Geol. Atla'; U. S., U. S. Oeol. Survey, 1899. 



168 



C0A16 OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



BURNETT. 

Burnett, a slope mine at Burnett, on the Northern Pacific Kail- 
way. No. 62. 

Operator: Pacific Coast Coal Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (coking). 

Coal beds. — Two coal beds are beiiig worked in the mine — bed 
No. 2, which is believed to be the same as the Wingate bed at Car- 
bonado, and another believed to be bed No. 3 of the old workings 
and referred to by that number in this report. The southern end 
of this bed in the second water level is bounded by a fault and its 
relation to the other beds is not definitely known. The beds strike 
about N. 20° W. and dip 45° NE. Bed No. 2 varies somewhat in 
thickness in diflFerent parts of the mine. Bed No. 3 holds a fairly 
constant thickness, but the partings vary. The foUowing sections 
were measured where the samples were taken: 

Sections of coal beds in Burnett mine. 



Ho. 9891, bed Ho. 8. 

Shale. 

Shale, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

Shale, soft, carbonaceous 

*Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous 



Ft. in. 

4i 
2 2i 

5i 
1 6i 

8i 



Shale, hard 6-|- 



Coal bed 4 

Ho. 9889. upper bench of bed Ho. 8. 



2i 



Shale, carbonaceous, poor roof. Ft. In. 

*Coal 1 6 

Shale 5 

Coal with irregular lenses of 
shale 5 7 

Shale. 



Ho. 9890, bed Ho. 8. 



Ft. in. 
5i 



Shale 

♦Coal 1 

Shale 

Shale, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 1 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale.... 

♦Coal. 

Coal bed 4 9 

Ho. 9888, lower beneh of bed Ho. 8. 

Shale, carbonaceous, poor roof. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 6 

Shale 5 

♦Coal, with irregular lenses of 
shale 5 7 

Shale. 



4 

5i 

2 

3 

8 

i 

4 

h 

h 

4 

1 



Preparation for marJcet. — No attempt is made to separate the 
impurities from the coal in the mine, but at the bunker (PI. VII, B, 
p. 84) the coal is passed over a shaking screen having IJ-inch pei^ 
forations, after which the oversize is picked on a Unk-belt picking 
table by six men and repicked over a IJ-inch bar screen before being 



PIERCE COUNTY. 



PIEBCE COUNTY. 169 

dumped into the bin. The undersize is washed in a Howe-Robinson 
tub washer. 

Samples for analysis, — All the samples taken from the mine were 
obtained from the second level. Sample 9891 was taken from bed 
No. 2 on the first crosscut 2,200 feet south of the rock tunnel to 
bed No. 3. The bed contains a layer of soft carbonaceous shale 
w^hich can be separated by careful picking and washing and was not 
included in the sample. The bed is overlain by 5 inches of car- 
bonaceoys shale which breaks with the coal and must be removed 
at the bunker. Sample 9890 was taken 15 feet above the gangway 
on bed No. 3 from the first manway south of the rock tunnel from 
bed No. 2. The bed contains six layers of shale, which can be sepa- 
rated from the coal by careful picking and washing and which were 
not included in the sample. It is overlain by about 6 inches of 
shale, more or less crushed, which mixes with the coal in mining 
and must be removed at the bunker. The lower part of the bed as 
exposed in this manway was still in the coal. Sample 9898 was 
taken from the north end of the gangway on bed No. 3 at a point 
1,650 feet north of the rock tunnel from bed No. 2. The sample was 
taken on the upper bench of coal, which, together wdth the 5 inches 
of shale underlying it, is frequently left as a roof for the lower bench. 
This bench is overlain by badly broken carbonaceous shale, which 
makes a very poor roof, for it mixes with the coal and must be re- 
moved at the bunker. Sample 9888 was taken from the place where 
sample 9889 was obtained but from the lower bench. The bed 
contains irregular lenses of shale, most of which can be removed by 
careful picking' and washing, and only a few of the thinnest were 
included in the sample. The shale underlying the bed is fairly firm 
and does not mix with the coal to any great extent. 

Sample 9887 was taken from the surface of storage bins in the 
bunkers by selecting about 75 pounds of small lumps at random 
over the surface of the coal. The coal of this sample was reduced 
to about J-inch mesh and then quartered. Opposite quarters wore 
discarded and the remaining coal mixed and ground to the size of 
a pea. It was then quartered and reduced in the usual way Until 
the final sample, about 4 pounds, was obtained. Sample 9886, 
which was taken from the surface of the bins and from a loaded 
50-ton railroad car, consisted of wet coal direct from the washer; 
it was prepared for analysis in the same way as sample 9887, but 
was sealed in the can while still moist. The analyses of these samples 
are given on pages 66-67. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal from bed No. 2 is pitch 
black, gives a dark-brown streak, and has a vitreous luster. It is 
massive and slightly banded, and breaks with an irregular, slightly 



170 C0AL6 OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

conchoidal fracture resembling that of the Wingate coal at Car- 
bonado and the McKay coal at Black Diamond. The coal contains 
a small amount of moisture and does not slack when exposed to the 
sun. its heating value is nearly as high as that of any coal obtained 
in the State, and it should be classed as a high-grade bituminous 
coal. The coal from bed No. 3 is pitch black, and has a dark-brown 
streak and a vitreous luster. It is massive and laminated, and 
breaks with an irregular splintery fracture. The amount of mois- 
ture present in it is small, and it does not weather on exposure to the 
sun, but its ash content is greater than that of the coal from bed 
No. 2, and its heating value is correspondingly lower. It is con- 
sidered a good grade of bituminous coal. Both these coals are 
coking coals and are used in the manufacture of gas. 

BLACK CARBON. 

Black Carbon, a drift mine on the Northern Pacific Railway 
about one-half mile west of Pittsburg, Wash. No. 63. 

Operator: Black Carbon Coal Co. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — Only one coal bed has been worked in this mine, and 
at the time of the visit the mine was not operating. The bed strikes 
N. 15° W. and dips 40° E. The following section was taken where 
the sample was obtained: 

Section of Black Carbon coal bed in Black Carbon mine. 

No. 9898. 

Shale. . Ft. In. 

*Coal ; 11 

♦Shale 1 

*Coal 8i 

Shale J 

♦Coal 5i 

Shale, lens i 

♦Coal 1 3i 

Shale i 

♦Coal 5 

Shale J 

♦Coal 9i 

Coal, bony 7 

Clay, yellow 3 

Shale, black. 

5 7 

Preparation for marlcet. — No attempt was made in working this 
bed to separate any of the impurities from the coal in the mine. It 
was picked at the bunker over a IJ-inch bar screen. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9892 was taken from chute 2^, 
about 6 feet above the gangway and 1,250 feet from the entrance 



PIEECE COUNTY. 171 

to the mine. The bed contains several shale partings, most of 
which can be separated by careful picking and washing; the upper 
parting, however, is too thin to be separated and was included in 
the sample, an analysis of which is given on page 67. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is pitch black, and 
has a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. The lower bench 
of the coal is massive and dense, and breaks with an irregular frac- 
ture; the other layers are banded and laminated, and break with an 
irregular splintery fracture. The coal contains a small amount of 
moisture and does not crumble when exposed to the sun. Although 
the percentage of ash contained in it is somewhat high,, it has a 
sufficiently high heating value to make it a fair commercial coal. 

PITTSBURG. 

Pittsburg, two slope mines at Pittsburg, on the Northern Pacific 
Railway. No. 64. 

Operator: Coast Coal Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — Two coal beds are worked in this mine, the Lady Wel- 
lington and the Pittsburg. They strike N. 15° W. and dip 58° to 
60° SW. The following sections were taken from the places where 
the samples were obtained : 

Sections of coal bed in PiUsbvrg mine. 



Ko. 9896, Lady WeUlngtOB coal bed. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

♦Coat 4 11 

Shale. 



No. 9894, PittabnTf coal bad. 



Shale. 

♦Coal 

♦Bone 

♦Coal 

Shale and bone. 
♦Coal 

Shale, lens 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Bone 



Ft. 


llL 




lOi 




} 


1 


2i 




4 




4 




1 




6i 




li 


1 


2i 


1 


()i 



6 3} 

• 

Preparation for marJcH. — No attempt is made to separate the 
impurities from the coal in the mine. Coal from the Pittsburg bed 
is hoisted and dumped immediately on a l^-inch bar screen, from 
which the oversize is hand-picked and the undersize is conve} ed by 
flume to a washer at the bunkers. Coal from the Lady Wellington 
bed is hauled directly to the bunkers, where the lump coal is picked 
by hand and the fine coal is washed through two Forrester jigs. 



Hi C0AL6 OF THE STATE OP WA6H1N0T0N. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9895 was taken from the first cross- 
cut between chutes 32^ and 33, on the first level of the Lady Wel- 
lington bed. Both roof and floor are firm and do not mix with the 
coal in mining. Sample 9894 was takeji at the face of the gangway 
just beyond chute 13^ on the first level of the Pittsburg bed. It 
contains several partings of shale and bone, most of which can be 
separated from the coal in preparation for market. The upper part- 
ing of bone was included in the sample. Both roof and floor of the 
bed are firm and do not mix with the coal. Sample 9893 was obtained 
by picking small quantities at intervals from the surface of the 
washed coal in the bins and on one of the railroad cars. The coal 
was still moist when the sample was taken and sealed in the can. 
The sample, containing about 65 pounds, was* reduced to about 
f-inch mesh and quartered. Opposite quarters were discarded and 
the remaining sample reduced to the size of a pea. This was again 
quartered and reduced in the usual way until about 4 pounds was 
left; this amount was sealed in the can and sent to the laboratory. 
The analyses of these samples are given on page 67. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal from both of these beds 
is nearly pitch black, gives a dark-brown streak, and has a vitreous 
luster. It is massive, banded, and laminated, and breaks with an 
irregular, splintery fracture. It contains a small amount of moisture 
and does not crumble when exposed to the sun during transportation. 
Although it contains a large amount of ash, its heating value is high 
enough to make it a fair commercial coal. In almost every respect 
it rpsemblos the coal from mine No. 1 at Ravensdale and the more 
mpure grades of coal in the vicinity of Bayne. 

WILKESON. 

Wilkeson, a water-level mine at Wilkeson, on the Northern Pacific 
Railway. No. 65. 

Operator: Wilkeson Coal & Coke Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (coking). 

Coal beds, — ^The coal beds worked in this mine are the same as 
beds Nos. 1, 2, and 3 (coking) at the Carbon Hill mine, Carbonado. 
The beds are folded along north-south axes so much that in some 
parts of the workings they dip to the east and in others to the west. 
They strike from due north-south to N. 30° W. and dip from 20° to 
60° E. in the parts of the mine worked at the present time. They are 
fairly uniform in thickness in different parts of the mine, but the 
partings are somewhat irregular. The sections following were meas- 
ured where the samples were obtained . 



PIEBCE COUNTY. 



178 



Sections of coal beds 
Vo. M06, bed Ko. S. 

Coal. 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal 



Ft. in. 

IJ 
1 

1 

9i 

3 



1 
6 
3 
2 3 
6 ± 



Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

Shale, •"mining," black 

Shale. 

4 lljdz 
No. 890S, lower part of bed Ko. 8. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 7 

Coal, bony 1 6 

Coal, bony and streaks of 

coal ' 1 5 

♦Coal 9i 

Coal, bony ^ 

•Coal 5 

Shale, hard 1 

•Coal 1 8J 

Coal, bony 5 

Shalr, hard. 

7 Hi 

Ko. 9001, lower part of bed Ko. 8. 

Shale, bony. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 

Shale 6 

Coal 1 6 

Shale, hard J 

Coal 81 

Shale, lense 1 

Coal 4 

♦Coal, bony 2 5 

Shale, hard. 

6 6f 



in Wilkeson mine. 

Ko. 9904, upper part of bed Ko. 8. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

Coal 1 7 

Coal, bony 1 6 

♦(^oal, bony and streaks of 

coal 1 5 

Coal 94 

Coal, bony 4 

Coal 5 

Shale, hard 1 

Coal 1 8i 

Coal, bony 5 

Shale, hard. 

7 IIJ 



Ko. 9008, upper part of bed Ko. 8. 

Shale, bony. Ft. 

♦Coal 1 

Shale 

♦Coal 1 

Shale, hard 

♦Coal 

Shale, lense 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony 2 

Shale, hard. 



in. 

6 
6 

i 
8i 

1 

4 

5 



6* 



Ko. 9900, bed Ko. 8. 

Shale, hard. 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony 

♦Coal 



Bone 

♦Coal 

♦Coal, impure 

'Coal, bony . . 



Ko. 9899, bed Ko. 7. 



Coal 

Shalo, hard 

♦Coal 

Coal, bony . 
Bone. 



Ft. In. 
11 
6 

1 
1 
6 

i 
7 

1 9i 

3i 

5 8i 

Ft. in. 
1 G 
G 
3 G 

7 

6 1 



174 COAUB OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

Preparation for market. — No attempt is made to separate the part- 
ings from the coal in the mine. At the bunkers the coal is passed 
over a shaking screen with 1 J-inch perforations, after which the best 
lump coal is sent through a crusher and mixed vdth the wcushed coal 
from the first set of jigs, while the poorer grade of lump is stored in a 
separate bin and used for steam coal. The screenings are passed 
through five Forrester jigs, and are then rewashed through another 
set of jigs before being used for coke. The tailings from the second 
set of washers are stored in a separate bin and are used for the boilers. 
The equipment in use is capable of handling about 400 tons of coal a 
day. A new bunker, with a revolving dump and a Shannon jig, was 
being installed at the time the workings were visited. In this bunker 
the coal will be passed over a bar screen having 5^inch spaces, from 
which the oversize will be picked and used for domestic coal and the 
undersize passed over a shaking screen with 3-inch perforations. 
The oversize from this second screen will be hand picked and con- 
veyed to the bin for steam coal; the undersize will be again passed 
over a screen with J-inch mesh. Oversize from the J-inch screen is 
to be washed through a Shannon jig and the concentrates used for 
steam coal, and undersize will be washed through an improved Howe 
tub washer and used for coke. When the bunker is completed the 
capacity of the plant will be about 800 tons a day. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9905 was taken from bed No. 2 about 
60 feet up chute 105, on the southeast gangway. The bed contains 
several shale partings which can be separated at the bunkers, and 
these were not included in the sample. Soft shale, which breaks very 
readily, overlies the bed and necessitates the use of a fairly firm layer 
of coal OS a roof. The bed is underlain by 6 inches of black shale, 
which is used as a ^* mining" and is removed by washing. Sample 
9904 was taken from the upper part of bed No. 2, at the face of the 
gangway on the east water level, wliich, on the day the sample was 
taken, was 1,200 feet west and 1,500 feet north of the southeast cor- 
ner of sec. 34, T. 19 N., R. 6 E. The bed is overlain by about 3 feet 
of bony coal and coal, which is badly crushed in tliis particular part 
of the mine and makes a very bad roof. Sample 9903 was taken from 
the bench underlying that from wliich No. 9904 was obtained, at the 
same place. This bed contains two layers of shale and bony coal that 
can be separated at the bunkers, and these were not included in the 
sample. It is underlain by 5 inches of bony coal, which mixes to 
some extent with the good coal in mining and must be removed at the 
bunkers. Sample 9902 was taken from the upper part of bed No. 3, 
about 50 feet up chute 19 on the southeast gangway. Three layers 
of shale are contained in the bed, but these impurities can be removed 
at the bunkers, and they were not included in the sample. Hard 
carbonaceous shale, which is crushed in some parts of the mine and 
mixes to some extent with the coal, overlies the bed, Sample 9901 



PIEBCE COUNTY. 175 

was taken from the lower part of bed No. 3 at the place from which 
sample 9902 was obtained. The bed is underlain by hard shale, 
which is broken to some extent in parts of the workings and mixes 
with the coal. Sample 9900 was taken from tlie south end of the east 
gangway on bed No. 3, at a point about 3,000 feet north and 1,650 
feet west of the southeast comer of sec. 34, T. 19 N., R. 6 E. The 
bed contains several layers of bone and shale which can be sepa- 
rated at the bunkers, and which were not included in the sample. 
Bony coal and shale, which mix to some'extent with the coal and are 
removed at the bunkers, lie both above and below the bed. Sample 
9899 was taken from a portion of bed No. 7 exposed in the roof of the 
gangway about 100 feet south of the rock tunnel from the west parting 
to the east gangways, and at a point about 650 feet west and 600 feet 
south of the north quarter corner of tlie section noted above. The 
bed is overlain by hard shale and coal, and underlain by bony coal, 
all of which are more or less crushesd and mix with the coal in mining. 
The layer of coal next above the bed would probably be worked with 
this bed in mining. Sample 9898, consisting of about 100 pounds, 
was taken in small quantities and at random from the surface of the 
storage bins containing the rewashed coal, which is used in the coke 
ovens. The coal in the sample was broken to about |-inch mesh and 
reduced by the usual method of quartering to a sample of about 
25 pounds, which was then ground to about the size of a pea and 
quartered by the usual method until the final sample of about 
4 pounds was obtained. The coal was wet when sealed in the can. 
The analyses of these samples are given on pages 67-68. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal from this mine is pitch 
black, gives a dark-brown streak, and has a vitreous luster. Most of 
the coal is minutely jointed and crumbles readily, so that the per- 
centage of lump is very small. The texture of the coal is dense, and 
it breaks with a cubical fracture sometimes slightly irregular. It 
contains a small amount of moisture, and does not slack on exposure 
to the sun. Pure coal from the mine is probably low in ash and high 
in fixed carbon, and should have a very high heating value. Some 
of the benches, however, have considerably more ash than others 
and correspondingly lower heating value. The washed coal is used 
as a blacksmithing coal and is considered one of the best blacksmithing 
and coking coals in the State. The coal is fair bituminous, of about 
the same quality as that obtained from bed No. 3 at Burnett. 

GALE CREEK. 

Gale Creek, a slope mine at Wilkeson, on the Northern Pacific 
Railway. No. 66. 
Operator: Gale Creek Coal & Coke Co., Tacpma, Wash, 
]BLind of coal: Bitmomou^, 



176 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

CocH beds. — The three coal beds at this mine strike about N. 10** W. 
and dip from 26** to 60** SW., are uniform in thickness throughout the 
mine, and belong to the same group as that worked at Wilkeson and 
Carbonado. The mine had not been in operation for several months 
previous to the writer's visit. The following sections were taken 
where the samples were obtained: 

Section* of coal beds in Gale Creek mine. 



So. 9MM, bed No. 1. • 

Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, slale-colored, fissile 1 

♦Coal 1 9 

*Coal, soft i 

♦Coal 1 6 

Shale, hard, black. 

No. 9908, bed No. 2. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

Bone, soft 1 

*Coal 3 

Shale, carbonaceous, * * mining " . . 6 
Shale, with bands of shale and 

coal. 



Ho. 9910, Queen ooal bed. 

Shale, hard. Ft. in. 

•Coal 1 11 

Shale, carbonaceous 3 

*Ck)al.... 1 4 

Shale. 

3 6 



Preparation for market. — No attempt was" made when the mine was 
operated to separate impurities in the mine. The coal was passed 
over a l^-incli bar screen at the bunkers, after which the lump coal 
was picked by hand and the screenings were washed in a Jeffery tub 
washer. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9908 was talcen from bed No. 1 about 
10 feet south of the auxiliary slope to the old No. 1 opening and in the 
first^level air course. . The bed has one parting of soft coal which can 
not be separated from the hard coal and was included in the sam- 
ple. The bed is overlain by about an inch of fissile shale which loosens 
from the roof after the coal has been drawn and mixes to some extent 
with it. The floor of the mine is a hard black shale, wliich is firm and 
does not mix with the coal. Sample 9909 was taken on the second level 
gangway of bed No. 2 in the new mine, about 100 feet south of the rock 
tunnel from this bed to the Queen. The bed is overlain by 1 inch of 
soft bone, wliich mixes more or less with the coal, and is underlain by 
6 inches of carbonaceous shale, used as a ** mining" and separated 
from tlie coal in preparation for the market. This bed has been con- 
sidered the same as bed No. 1, but the workings on the two beds have 
not been connected and the relations between them have not been 
definitely established. Sample 9910 was taken from the Queen bed 
on the pillar between chutes 3 and 4, on the second level gangway 
north. The bed contains a shale parting near the center which can 
be removed in preparing the coal for the market and which was not 



PIERCE COUNTY. 177 

included in the sample. Both the roof and the floor of the mine are 
firm and do not mix vrith the coal. Analyses of these samples are 
given on pages 68-69. 

Character and quality of the coal. — ^The coal from these beds is 
pitch black, with a dark-brown streak and a vitreous luster. It is 
massive and laminated and breaks vdth a. cubical fracture, occasion- 
ally slightly irregular. It contains a small amount of moisture and 
does not weather on exposure to the sim. All three beds have a 
fairly low percentage of moisture, but are somewhat higher in sul- 
phur content than the best coal in this region. They have high 
heating values and should be classed as bitimiinous coal of high 
grade. 

WILLIS. 

Willis, a slope and water level mine at South WiUis, on the North- 
em Pacific Railway, about 2 miles from Wilkeson. No. 67. 

Operator: Commonwealth Coal Co., Wilkeson, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — These coal beds parallel the beds worked at the Wil- 
keson and Gale Creek mines, but are higher in the series. They 
strike about N. 10® W. and dip about 56° E. Two beds were being 
worked at the time the writer visited the mine, but the higher bed, 
which is known as No. 1, is not in its normal position and was not 
sampled. The following section was taken where the mine sample 
was obtained: 

Section of Windsor coal bed in Willis mine. 

IXOm 9906. 
Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, carbonaceous 3 

♦Coal 4 4 

Coal, soft, impure 2J 

Shale 9i 

Shale, sandy 1 6 

Sandstone. 

7 1 

Preparation for marJcet. — The coal from both the Windsor bed and 
from bed No. 1 is passed over a l^-inch bar screen at the bunker. 
The oversize is picked and used solely as lump coal. The undersize 
is washed in a Robinson-Howe tub washer. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9906 was taken from the Windsor 
bed 25 feet beyond chute 11 on the lower water-level gangway. The 
bed is overlain by carbonaceous shale and underlain by soft impure 
coal, both of which mix more or less with the coal and must be sepa- 
rated at the bunkers. Sample 9907, which was taken from the 
bimker containing washed coal, was composed of about 60 pounds 
of coal taken in small quantities and at random from the surface of 

91320°— Bull. 474—11 12 



178 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

the coal in the bins. The coal in the sample was reduced to f-inch 
meslr and quartered. Opposite quarters were discarded, the remaining 
sample ground to the size of a pea, quartered, reduced in the usual 
way until the final sample of about 4 pounds was obtained. The 
analyses of these samples are given on page 69. 

Glmracter and quality of the coal, — The color of the coal is pitch 
black, the streak dark brown, and the luster vitreous. It is massive 
and somewhat banded, and breaks with an irregular fracture. Mois- 
ture is present only in small amount in this coal, which does not 
slack on exposure to the sun, but the ash content is high. In gen- 
eral, the coal has about the same heating value as that from Pitts- 
burg, which appears to be on beds of the same group. It is classed 
as a rather impure bituminous coal. 

BRIER HILL. 

Brier Hill, a water-level mine, about one-fourth mile west of 
Wilkeson, on the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 69. 

Operator: Brier Hill Coal & Coke Co., Wilkeson, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal bed. — The coal bed upon which this mine was worked belongs 
to the group which occurs at the Gale Creek workings, but lies near 
the crest of the anticline on the opposite side of the syncline. The 
bed strikes N. 5*^ E. and dips 20° W. No work was being done on 
it at the time it was visited by the writer. The following section 
was measured where the sample was obtained: 

Section of coal bed in Brier Hill mine. 

Ko. 9897. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, hard IJ 

♦Coal, banded 6 

♦Bone 2 

♦Coal, banded 6 

♦Shale, hard i 

 Coal, banded 2 

Shale, hard li 

 Coal, banded 3 1 J 

Shale. 

4 9 

Preparation for market, — The bed has a low dip, and some of the 
impurities can be separated in the mine. In preparation for ship- 
ment the coal has been picked at the bunker. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9897 was taken on the water-level 
gangway 500 feet south of the entrance of the mine. The bed con- 
tains several layers of hard shale and bony coal, much of which 
resembles the coal so closely that it can not be readily separated. 
Only the lowest parting in the bed was excluded from the sample. 
The analysis of this sample is given on page 69. 



PIEBCE COUNTY. 179 

Chara4ier and quality of the coal, — The coal from this bed is grayish 
black and has a dark-brown streak and a dull luster. It is massive, 
distinctly banded, and laminated and breaks with a splintery fracture. 
It contains a small amount of moisture and does not slack when 
exposed to the sim. On accoimt of the large amount of ash the 
heating value of the coal is about the same as that of an average 
subbituminous coal, but it should be classed as very impure bitumi- 
nous coal. 

8NELL. 

Snell, a slope mine about 2 miles southeast of Wilkeson. No. 68. 

Operator: Pacific Coal & Oil Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal hed. — One coal bed was worked at this mine when it was in 
operation. It had been closed for some time when the writer visited 
the place, and the slope was flooded nearly to the water level, and 
as most of the water-level gangway was caved in it was difficult to 
obtain a good sample. The bed strikes about N. 10^ W. and dips 
75° E., and is beUeved to underUe the beds worked at South Willis. 
The bed is somewhat disturbed where the sample was taken, and a 
full section could not be obtained. The section at this point is as 
follows: 

Section of coal bed in Snell mine. 

Vo. 9886. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, carbonaceous 2 J 

♦Coal 7 

Clay i 

 Coal 1 5 

Shale, black 1 

Sandstone. 

2 4 

Sample for analysis, — Sample 9896 was taken from the roof of the 
first water-level gangway 75 feet from the entrance and about 10 
feet beyond the slope. A layer of clay near the middle of the bed 
can be removed, and was not included in the sample. The bed is 
overlain by about 2 inches of carbonaceous shale, which mixes with 
the coal and must be separated from it in preparing it for the market. 
A thin parting of black shale separates the coal at this point from a 
bed of massive sandstone underlying it. This sandstone was re- 
ported to be a lens in the main coal bed which had increased from a 
thickness of a few inches in the northern part of the mine to several 
feet at this place so that only the upper bench could be worked. 
The analysis of the coal sample is given on page 69. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal in this bed is pitch 
black, gives a brown streak, and has a vitreous luster. It is minutely 
jointed, and can be readily crushed in the hand. The structu 



|f*^% -lr<i 



180 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

slightly banded and laminated, and the fracture irregular. Analysis 
shows a slightly high percentage of ash, but this may be due to 
impurities which were mixed with the bed during the movement 
which crushed the coal. It contains a small amount of moisture 
and does not weather on exposure to the sun. It is reported to be 
one of the best blacksmithing coals in the State, and should be 
classed as a bituminous coal of fair quality. 

CARBON HILL. 

Carbon Hill, a series of drift and slope mines at Carbonado, on 
the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 70. 

Operator: Carbon Hill Coal Co., San Francisco, Cal. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous. 

Coal beds. — More than a dozen coal beds have been worked at 
different times in this mine. Ten were being worked at the time 
of the writer's visit, and nine were sampled. Carbon River cuts 
diagonally across the beds, approximately along the line of a large 
fault which separates the more regular southern part of the forma- 
tion from the folded part on the north. The strike of the beds on 
the south side of the river is fairly uniform, nearly north and south, 
and they dip from 60° near the north end to about 20° at the south 
end. North of the river the beds are somewhat closely folded, and 
locally they are offset by small faults. The beds were not numbered 
in reference to their position in the formation. Three slopes have 
been driven; one on the Wingate bed on the southwest side of the 
river, known as the No. 1 slope; another on the Wingate bed on 
the north side of the river, known as the No. 6 slope; and a third, 
called the Electric slope, on bed No. 1 at the end of a long rock tunnel, 
known as Mine No. 1 North. All the remaining openings are slightly 
above the river, and are spoken of as water levels. The beds and 
their partings are fairly continuous throughout the workings, but 
about one-half mile south of slope No. 1 the Wingate bed is offset 
by a diagonal dike and shows a different section south of the dike. 
The following sections were measured where the samples were 
obtained : 

Sections of coal beds in Carbon Hill mines. 
No. 9670, bed No. 11. No. 9664, bed No. 6. 



Shale, black (poor roof). Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 1 

Shale 3i 

*Coal 1 i 

Shale 2i 

Shale, carbonaceous 2} 

*Coal 1 

Shale 4 

Coal 3 

Shale (poor floor). 

4 5 



Shale. Ft. In. 

*Coal 1 10 

Shale, irregular 2J 

Coal, impure 3J 

*Coal, crushed 2 2 J 

Shale, hard, and some coal 1 3^ 



5 10 



PIEECE COUNTY. 



181 



Ho. UttK bed Vo. 1. 



Ft. in. 



Coal, dirty 1 

Parting 

♦Coal 1 

Parting 

♦Coal 1 

Parting 

♦Coal 

Parting 

♦Coal 1 



i 



9 
7 
8 

8 
1 
2 



i 



7 i 
Ho. 9666, upper beach of ooldiic bed Ho. 8. 



Ft. in. 
1 5 
1 
2 

2i 
3 5 

7 



Shale, hard (poor roof). 

♦Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal 

Coal, bony 

Shale (poor floor). 

. 8 7i 
Ho. 669-D, ooUbc bed Ho. 8. 

Ft. In. 

♦Coal 1 10 

Shale 4 

♦Coal 1 10 

Shale H 

♦Coal 10 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 7 

Shale 2 

♦Coal 2 4 



8 li 
Ho. tM(67, coUbc bed Ho. 8. 

Shale (poor roof). Ft. in. 

♦Coal 2 7 

Shale, hard ^ 

♦Coal 1 6 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 3 

♦Coal, fine-grained metallic ... 2 J 

♦Coal 2i 

Shale, hard 1 

♦Coal, bright, minutely jointed Hi 

♦Shale J 

♦Coal, bright, minutely jointed 6J 

Shale 1 

♦Coal 2 2i 

Shale (poor floor). 

8 9i 



Ho. 9660. Wbicate bed. 

Shale, hard. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 4 6 

Shale, hard and vezy smooth. 



Ho. 9668, Wlncate bed. 

Shale, black. 

♦Coal 

Shale, black. 



Ft. in. 
5 1 



Ho. 9666, bed Ho. 9. 

Shale, black. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 3 7 

Shale. 

Ho. 9672, bed Ho. 1. 



Shale, black. 

♦Coal 

Shale and broken coal. 
♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard 



Ft. in. 

.... 2 94 

2i 

.... Hi 

i 

5 

2i 

3 

i 

♦Coal 2 

Coal, bony 5 

Shale. 



7 4 
Ho. 9668, bed Ho. 4. 

Shale, carbonaceous. Ft. in. 

♦Coal 1 7 

Shale 4 

♦Coal, impure 3 

Shale i 

♦Coal 1 54 

Shale, "sulphur" i 

♦Coal 6 

Shale, "sulphur" 1 

♦Coal 1 7 

Coal, bony 1 34 



6 104 
Ho. 9666, lower bench of ookiBf bed Ho. 8. ] 

Shale, hard (poor roof). rt. in. 

1 5 

1 

2 

24 

3 5 

7 



Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

*Coal, bony. 
Shale. 



8 74 



182 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



Ko. 9M0, ooUbc bed Ho. 1. 

Shale. 

*Coal, impure 

*Coal, finely jointed and 

crushed 

Shale, irregular 

^Coal, finely jointed and 

crushed 

Shale, black (poor floor). 



Ft. 


in 
3 


1 


3i 

1 




9i 



Vo. MOl, Wlacato bed In dope Vo. 1. 

Shale, hard. Ft. in. 
Shale, carbonaceous, thin streaks 

of coal 10 

*Coal ' 4 1 

Shale, hard. 

4 11 
Ko. 2tte, WtBcmte bed. 

Ft. in. 

♦Coal 4 11 



Preparation for marJcet. — ^The coal from this mine is prepared for 
the market by three processes. The first method is applied only to 
dry coal from the Wingate bed, wliich is passed over a 3-inch bar 
screen, the oversize being picked and dumped into the bin for lump. 
The undersize is picked by hand to remove fragments of mine timber 
and occasional pieces of shale from the floor or roof, which may mix 
with the coal, and is either sold as unwashed Wingate or flumed to 
the washer which handles the small coal from the wet Wingate dump. 
Coal from mine No. 6 and wet coal from mine No. 1 on the Wingate 
bed are handled by the second process, by which the coal is washed 
from the mine cars and passed over a bar screen having 2J-inch and 
IJ-inch openings; the oversize is picked twice to remove fragments 
of mine timber and impurities of shale and bone, and the undersize 
passed through two Robinson-Howe tub washers. Concentrates 
from the washer are carried by drags over draining screens having 
slits about 0.06 inch in width into bunkers for the washed Wingate 
coal, and the fine coal wliich passes through the slits is collected in a 
special settling tank constructed for the purpose. Tliis fine coal is 
drawn from the bottom of the settling tank and again carried by 
drags over a draining screen, having slits about 0.03 inch wide. The 
coal wliich passes over the end of the screen is called **birdseye," 
that wliich passes through the screen is separated in large settling 
tanks and is called coal dust. Both the coal dust and the birdseye 
are sold in Seattle and Tacoma for use in automatic stokers for large 
heating plants. About 50 tons a day of coal dust and birdseye are 
saved from a total output of 800 tons. The coal from the other beds, 
all of which is treated by the tliird method, is passed over bar screens 
having 2i-inch and IJ-inch spaces. The oversize is picked three 
times and the resulting lump is known as Douty lump. The under- 
size is passed through a Robinson-Howe washer and is treated in the 
same manner as the Wingate coal. 

A special set of Forrester jigs has been installed for the purpose of 
cleaning the coal for coking, but they were not in use at the time of the 
visit. Plate VIII, A^ shows the town of Carbonado and the new bee- 
hive coke ovens of this company. 



PIERCE COUNTY. 183 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9570 was taken 500 feet from the 
entrance to the gangway on bed No. 11, and about 40 feet above the 
gangway in chute 10. The coal bed is disturbed and considerably 
broken at this place. It contains three shale partings, which can be 
separated by careful picking and washing, and these were not included 
in the sample, but both the roof and floor, and the coal and shale 
which separate tlie bed from the floor, are badly broken and mix 
with the coal to a considerable extent in mining, constituting impuri- 
ties which must be removed from the coal in preparing it for the 
market. Sample 9556 was taken from the south end of the gangway 
about 400 feet from the entrance to the water level on bed No. 9. 
The bed is overlain by fairly firm black shale, wliich does not mix 
with the coal. Sample 9564 was taken at the south end of the water- 
level gangway of bed No. 5 about 3,200 feet from the entrance. The 
bed contains an irreguUr layer of shale and some impure coal near 
the center, but both can be fairly well separated in preparation for 
the market, and they were excluded in the sample. The bed is over- 
lain by shale and underlain by hard shale and thin layers of coal, all 
of which are fairly firm and do not mix with the coal. Sample 9572 
was taken from the first level on bed No. 1 about 100 feet up 
chute 13 and 600 feet north of the bottom of the Electric slope. The 
bed contains several partings wliich, as they can be separated in prep- 
aration for the market, were not included in the sample. The car- 
bonaceous shale overlying the bed and the bony coal underlying it are 
fairly firm, although locally they break and mix with the coal to some 
extent. Sample 2460 was taken by M. R. Campbell from bed No. 1 
on the east dip, halfway between the s3rnclinal point and the anti- 
clinal end. All four partings in the bed were removed in sampling. 
Sample 9562 was taken from bed No. 4 about 200 feet up chute 14, 
north of the entrance to the gangway. The bed contains several 
layers of shale, wliich can be separated from the coal in preparation 
for the market, and these were not included in the sample. The roof 
is of carbonaceous shale and the floor of bony coal, which mix only 
slightly with the coal and can be removed at the bunkers. Sample 
9565 was taken at the south end of the gangway on coking bed No. 3, 
at a point about 1,900 feet south and 100 feet west of the northeast 
comer of sec. 4, T. 18 N., R. 6 E. It was taken from the upper 
bench of the bed, wliich is overlain by hard shale — a veiy poor roof, 
which, in mining, mixes with the coal to a very considerable extent. 
Sample 9555 was taken from tlie lower bench of coking bed No. 3 
at the place from wliich sample 9565 was taken. The bed contains 
a layer of shale, but as this can be removed in preparing the coal for 
the market it was not included in the sample. The lower layer of the 
bench is somewhat bony, but is mined with it, and is included in the 



184 COALS OF THE STAtE OF WASHINGTON. 

sample. The coal in both samples from this bed was slightly moist^ 
owing to seepage from the surrounding rocks, and the samples for 
analyses were sealed in the can while still wet. Samples 552-D 
and 787-D were taken by K. M. Way. The first-named sample was 
taken from the face of the gangway of coking bed No. 3 in the north 
workings, about 14,000 feet from the entrance to the No. 1 north tun- 
nel. AJl the partings were separated from the sample. Analysis No. 
787-D was made from a car of run-of-mine coal from bed No. 3 north 
(coking), after it had been shipped to Denver and before it had been 
put through the washer. Sample 9557 was taken from the north end 
of the gangway on coking bed No. 2, about 3,200 feet south and 100 
feet west of the northeast comer of sec. 4, T. 18 N., R. 6 E. The bed 
contains several layers of shale, most of which can be separated when 
the coal is prepared for the market and were therefore not included in 
the sample. The second parting from the bottom, however, is very 
tliin, and was included in the sample. Both roof and floor of the bed are 
of badly broken shale ; they mix with the coal in mining to a consider- 
able extent, and must be separated at the bunkers. Sample 9569 was 
taken from coking bed No. 1 at the end of the rock tunnel from coking 
bed No. 2. Coking bed No. 1 is believed to be one of the beds 
worked at the Wilkeson mine, but it is very much thinner at this 
place, probably on account of local movement along the bedding 
planes. The bed contains an irregular layer of shale near the bot- 
tom, which, as it can be removed in preparing the coal for the market, 
was not included in the sample ; the upper part of the coal is some- 
what impure, but was included in the sample. The coal in the two 
benches is finely jointed and crushed, indicating considerable move- 
ment, and is underlain by a very poor floor of black shale, also badly 
broken, which mixes with the coal in mining. Sample 9560 is a 
composite of two samples taken from the Wingate bed near slope 
No. 1. Half of the sample was taken from the tliird level at the south 
end of the gangway about 40 feet south of the main slope, and the 
other half from the same level at the end of the gangway 280 feet 
north of the slope. Both roof and floor are hard and firm and do not 
mix with the coal. Sample 9558 was taken from the third level in 
mine No. 6 on the Wingate bed, about 20 feet north of the slope in 
the first crosscut. Roof and floor are firm and do not mix with the 
coal except where there has been local disturbance. Sample 9601 
was taken from slope No. 1 on the Wingate bed in the tenth crosscut 
between chutes 56 and 57 of the second level. The upper part of the 
coal bed in tliis part of the mine is replaced by soft carbonaceous shale 
containing thin streaks of coal, which breaks with the coal and must be 
separated at the 'bunkers. Along a definitely marked zone at the 
south end of the workings this shale contains a very large amount of 
gas under enormous pressure, which frequently blows out great masses 



merce counw. 185 

of coal. Sample 2459 was taken by M. R. Campbell from the Wingate 
bed on the level 700 feet below the river, near a small fault. 

The following samples were taken after the coal had been prepared 
for market by picking small lumps or small quantities at random from 
the surface of the bunkers or from the surface of railroad cars. In 
preparing each sample the coal was reduced to a |-inch mesh ^nd 
quartered until about 25 pounds was left, after which it was ground 
to the size of a pea and quartered in the usual manner until a final 
sample of about 4 pounds was obtained. Sample 9566 represents 
about 125 pounds of Wingate lump coal taken from the surface of a 
30-ton car. It was still moist when sealed in the can. Sample 9563 
consisted originally of 80 pounds of dry Wingate coal passed over a 
3-inch bar screen, sample 9567 of about 245 pounds of washed Wingate 
coal taken from the surface of the bunkers and from several railroad 
cars, and sample 9561 of 150 pounds of washed coal taken from the 
surface of 12 loaded railroad cars. It was raining at the time sample 
9561 was taken, and the coal was sealed in the can while still wet. 
This sample probably consists for the most part of coal from the Win- 
gate bed, but it may contain some of the Douty coal. Sample 9559 
represents about 215 pounds of Douty washed coal taken from the 
bunkers and the surface of several railroad cars, and sample 9571 about 
172 pounds of Douty lump coal taken from the Douty bin and from 
several cars which were being loaded. The coal in both samples was 
moist when sealed in the cans. For sample 9568, about 95 pounds of 
coal dust was taken from the surface of a railroad car containing about 
equal proportions of "birdseye" coal and coal dust just after it had 
been loaded. The sample was thoroughly mixed and quartered in the 
usual manner. The sample contained a very high percentage of mois- 
ture, most of which was retained after passing through the washer and 
was given oflf in air drying. The analyses of the samples from this 
mine are given on pages 69-72. 

Character and quality of the coal. — The coal from this mine is pitch 
black, gives a dark-brown to black streak, and has a vitreous luster. 
It is massive and dense, and breaks with an irregular, hackly fracture. 
The coal from the Wingate bed breaks with an irregular, slightly con- 
choidal fracture along the lines of minor joints, resembling in this re- 
spect the coal of the McKay bed. The coal has a small amount of 
moisture and does not slack when exposed to the sun. Coal from the 
Wingate bed has a fairly small amount of ash and a heating value nearly 
as high as that of any coal in the State; coal from the other beds con- 
tains generally a greater amount of ash and is somewhat lower in heat- 
ing value. All the coals are bituminous and of good grade, comparing 
favorably with many of the bituminous coals of the eastern part of the 
United States. 



186 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



MELMONT. 

Melmont, a slope and drift mine at Melmont, on the Northern 
Pacific Railway. No. 71. 

Operator: Northwestern Improvement Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal : Bituminous. 

Coal beds, — Three coal beds are exposed in the mine, and the lower 
two were being worked at the time the mine was visited. Bed No. 1, 
the highest in the group, is not now being worked. No. 2, the middle 
bed, is being mined on a short water-level gangway. No. 3, the 
main bed of the mine, is worked at the present time in the first level. 
The beds strike N. 30** W. and dip 42** SW. Bed No. 3 is fairly uni- 
form in thickness throughout the mine. The rocks of the entire 
region in which this mine is situated are very badly broken; joints 
occur close together and extend through both roof and floor, so that 
the blocks between the joints slide upon each other and cause a very 
strong squeeze in all parts of the workings. The following sections 
were made where the samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Melmont mine. 
No. 9079, bed Ho. 8. 



Shale (poor roof). Ft. in. 

*Coal, broken except lower 

1 foot 3i inches 5 5 

♦Shale i 

♦Coal Hi 



6 
No. 9576, upper bench of bed No. 2. 

Ft. 



Shale roof (poor). 
Shale, carbonaceous, soft 

♦Coal 

Dirt, black 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal. 



3 
5 



In. 

^ 

6 
4 

3i 
24± 



No. 9677. bed No. 1. 

Shale, hard. 

Shale, soft 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Coal, soft, clayey 

♦Coal 

Shale, with thin layers of bony 
coal. 



^: 



Ft. In. 

1 1 
7 
1 
6i 

1 5 

1 11 
1 
6 



No. 9078, bed No. 8. 

Sandstone. Ft. in. 

Shale (poor roof ) 4dz 

Shale, carbonaceous, soft 1 5^: 

♦Coal 4 

Coal 2 

Shale. 

No. 9080, lower bench of bed No. 8 

Shale roof (poor). 

Shale, soft, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

Dirt, black 

Coal 

Shale 

Coal. 

9 8J± 



11 


5:+: 


170.8. 




Ft. 


In. 




^ 


3 


6 




4 


5 


3i 




2i± 



6 2i 



PIERCE COUNTY. 187 

Preparation for marJcet, — No attempt is made to separate impuri- 
ties from the coal in the mine. At the bunkers the coal is passed 
over a shaking screen having perforations 2 inches in diameter, from 
which the oversize is picked on a link-belt picking table and conveyed 
to the bunkers, and the undersize sorted through a set of revolving 
screens. The different sizes from these screens are washed through 
a Forrester feldspar jig. 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9579 was taken from bed No. 3 on 
the first level north 50 feet above the gangway in chute 73. The bed 
contains a thin parting of shale which can not be readily removed in 
preparing the coal for the market, and it was therefore included in 
the sample. Both roof and floor are badly jointed at this place and 
mix with the coal to a considerable extent. Sample 9578 was taken 
from bed No. 3 on the first level north about 200 feet up the rise in 
the pillar between chutes 56 and 57. The workings were subjected 
to a very heavy squeeze at this point and only part of the bed could 
be sampled. The bed is overlain by IJ feet of carbonaceous shale, 
very badly broken, which mixes to a considerable extent with the 
coal. The cap rock of shale which overhes this carbonaceous shale 
is also very badly broken, and makes a very poor roof. The floor of 
the mine is of shale and is probably broken like the roof. Sample 

9576 was taken from the upper bench of bed No. 2 on the first water- 
level gangway north, 25 feet above the entrance to chute 2. The 
bed is overlain by an irregular layer of soft carbonaceous shale that 
mixes with the coal in mining and must be separated at the bunkers. 
The roof of the mine is also very poor and mixes to some extent with 
the coal. Sample 9580 was taken from the same place in the mine 
from which sample 9576 was obtained, from the low^er bench of bed 
No. 2, which is separated from the upper bench by about 4 inches 
of black dirt that must be removed at the bunkers. The lower bench 
is underlain by a thin layer of shale which mixes to some extent with 
the coal. Analysis 10412 was made of a composite sample consisting 
of equal parts of the samples taken from bed No. 2. Sample 9575 
represents about 200 pounds of coal taken from eight railroad cars, 
obtained by collecting small quantities at regular intervals from the 
surface of cars just loaded from the bunkers. The coal in this sample 
was reduced to }-inch mesh, and then quartered and reduced in the 
usual manner until about 25 pounds remained. This was ground to 
the size of a pea and quartered and reduced until the final sample of 
4 pounds was obtained. The coal was wet when taken from the sur- 
face of the cars, and was sealed in the cans while still moist. Sample 

9577 was taken from the north end of the first water-level gangway 
on bed No. 1 about 100 feet from the m^iin rock tunnel. The bed 
contains several partings of shale and impure coal which can be sepa- 
rated from the coal in preparation for the market, and which were not 
included in the sample. At this point the bed is overlain by about 



188 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

a foot of soft shale, which makes a poor roof, inasmuch as it mixes to 
a considerable extent with the coal. The analyses of these samples 
are given on pages 72-73. 

Character and quality of the coal, — ^The coal from bed No. 3 is pitch 
black, gives a black streak, and has a vitreous luster. It is dense 
and breaks with an irregular fracture. Joints break the bed very 
badly, so that it produces a very small amount of limip coal. The 
coal contains a small amount of moisture and does not weather on 
exposure to the air. It contains, however, a somewhat large amount 
of ash that can not be separated from the coal in preparation for 
the market. Coal from beds Nos. 2 and 3 is grayish black and 
dense, and breaks with an irregular fracture. It contains a greater 
amount of ash than bed No. 3 and a somewhat lower heating value. 
All these coals coke and are used as blacksmithing coal. They are 
of about the same quality as those at Carbonado, with the exception 
of the Wingate, and are regarded as a good grade of bituminous coal. 

FAIRFAX. 

Fairfax, a drift and slope mine at Fairfax, on the Northern Pacific 
Railway. No. 72. 

Operator: Tacoma Smelting Co., Tacoma, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Bituminous (coking). 

Coal beds, — Three beds were examined in the mine and sampled. 
The lower bed, known as the blacksmith bed, was not being worked 
at that time. The middle, or bed No. 3, was being worked on the 
first level, and the upper, or bed No. 7, was being worked on the water 
level. The beds strike N. 30° W. and dip about 75° NE. Bed No. 
3 is the only one at present worked to any considerable extent. Both 
the roof and floor of the bed are very firm, but they are not uniform. 
In some places the bed is only about a foot in thickness, and in other 
places it is nearly 4 feet. The following sections were taken where 
the samples were obtained: 

Sections of coal beds in Fairfax mine. 

Ko. 9609p blacksmith bed. 
[South end of gangway.] 



Ko. 9607, bed No 8. 

Shale, very hard. Ft. in. 

*Coal, slightly bony 3 

♦Coal 6 

Shale, hard 1 

*Coal 2 U\ 

Coal, bony 3 

Shale, hard, flinty. 

4 i 
No. 9608, bed No. 7. 

Shale (poor roof). 

*Coal, broken 5 3i 

Shale, hard 4 

*Coal 2 8i 

Shale (poor floor). 

8 4 



Shale. 

Shale, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale. 



Ft. 


hi. 




2i 


1 


9 



1 114 



PIEBCE COUNTY. 189 

Preparation for marJcet. — ^At the bunkers the coal is passed over a 
shaking screen having IJ-inch perforations. The oversize is hand 
picked to remove the shale partings and other impurities, then 
passed through a crusher, and thence conveyed to the washer. The 
undersize is washed through a Jeffery-Robinson washer and rewashed 
through two jigs. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9607 was taken from bed No. 3 
80 feet below the north water level in chute 8. The bed contains 
one shale parting, which can be removed in preparation for market 
and which was not included in tKe sample. Both roof and floor are 
very hard and do not mix with the coal in mining. Sample 9608 
was taken from bed No. 7 at the end of the water-level gangway, 
about 75 feet south of the rock tunnel from bed No. 3. It contains 
a parting of shale near the center, which can be removed and which 
was not included in the sample. Both roof and floor are very poor; 
they mix to considerable extent with the coal and must be removed 
at the bunkers. Sample 9609 was taken from the blacksmith bed 
at the south end of a short gangway from a rock tunnel about 500 
feet along the main gangway from slope No. 3. The bed varies in 
thickness and the coal for the sample was taken in two places within a 
few feet of each other. Both roof and floor are hard and do not mix 
with the coal except where local lenses of shale occur under the roof. 
Sample 9574 was made up from about 75 pounds of washed coal from 
the bunkers, which had stood in them under cover for some time. 
Small quantities of coal, all in fragments less than three-fourths of 
an inch in diameter, were taken at irregular intervals from the sur- 
face of the coal. The coal was thoroughly mixed and quartered in 
the usual manner until about 20 pounds were left; this was ground to 
the size of a pea and quartered until the final sample of 4 pounds was 
obtained. The analyses of these samples are given on page 73. 

Character and quality oj the coal. — The coal from this mine is pitch 
black, and has a black streak and a vitreous luster. It is massive 
and dense, and has a hackly fracture. It is very much broken in 
the bed and crumbles readily in the hand. Owing to its good coking 
qualities, nearly the entire output is coked in the ovens at the mine. 
A small amount, however, is sold occasionally for blacksmitliing coal, 
for which purpose it is considered one of the best coals mined in the 
State. All the Fairfax coal is low in moisture and does not slack 
when exposed to the air, but that from bed No. 7 contains so large 
an amount of ash that, unless it can be thoroughly removed by 
washing, the coal will be of httle value in the manufacture of coke. 
The coal from the blacksmith bed and from bed No. 3, however, have 
heating values nearly as high as any coal in the State. These coals 
are considered to be very good bituminous coal. 



190 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



MONTEZUMA. 

Montezuma, a number of drifts about 1 mile south of Fairfax, near 
the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 73. 

Operator: Evans Creek Coal & Coke Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Semibituminous (coking). 

Coal beds. — The four coal beds exposed in this mine are numbered 
in descending order. No. 1 is not being worked at the present time. 
All the beds are very thin, and if it were not for the steepness of the 
dip it would be very difficult to mine them. The beds strike nearly 
north and south and dip from 65° to 70° W. Most of the beds are 
fairly regular where they are not offset by faults. In a few places 
beneath some of the beds occur small lenses of coal, which can be 
mined with the rest of the bed. The following sections were measured 
where the samples were taken : 

Sections of coal beds in Montczitma mines. 
Ko. 860S, bed No. 1. 



Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, Boft 3i 

*Coal 9i 

Shale, hard 3i 

♦Coal 3 2i 

Clay, yellow, soft 6 

Shale. 



No. 8606, bed No. S. 

Sandstone, flinty. Ft. 

Shale, hard 1 

*Coal, bright 1 

*Coal, crushed 1 

*Coal, slightly bony 

Shale 

Coal and bone 1 rfc 

Sandstone. 



in. 
6 
6 

3i 
Si 



1 



No. M08, bed No. 8. 
Sandstone. Ft. In. 

Shale, hard, with streaks of coal. . 7 

Shale, soft, carbonaceous 

*Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, soft, carbonaceous. 

♦Coal 

Shale, hard. 



2 

4 
1 
1 1 



2i 
2J 



.> 8 
No. 9006, bed No. 4. 

Ft. in. 

Shale, carbonaceous 5 

♦Coal, small "niggerhead" 

near center (local) 1 11 

♦Coal, slightly bony 8J 

Shale 1 

Coal 4 



« 4 

Preparation for market. — Coal from beds Nos. 3 and 4 is washed 
and stored apart from the coal from bed No. 2. All coal is passed 
over a shaking screen having l^-inch perforations, from which the 
oversize is picked and used as domestic and steam coal, and the 
undersize washed through feldspar jigs and flumed to a bunker at 
the railroad track, where most of it is used in the manufacture of 
coke. A small percentage of the washed coal is sold for blacksmith- 
ing coal. 

Samples for analysis. — Sample 9602 was taken from bed No. 1 at 
the entrance to chute 4, on the north water level. At tliis place the 
bed contains one shale parting which can be removed in actual 
mining, and this parting was not included in the sample. The bed is 



PIERCE COUNTY. 191 

overlain by soft shale and underlain by soft clay, both of which inix 
with the coal in mining and must be separated at the bunkers. 
Sample 9603 was taken from bed No. 2, 5 feet above the first counter 
in chute 36. The bed contains two layers of shale, which can be 
removed without much difficulty and which were not included in the 
sample. It is overlain by bony coal and soft carbonaceous shale that 
mixes with the coal and must be separated from it at the bunkers. 
Sample 9604 was made up from 165 pounds of coal from bed No. 2 
collected in small quantities at random from the bunker at the rail- 
road track. It was thoroughly mixed and quartered and reduced 
until about 25 pounds was obtained; this was then ground to the 
size of a pea aad mixed, quartered, and reduced until the final 
sample of about 4 pounds was procured. Sample 9605 was taken 
from bed No. 3 about 5 feet above the gangway in chute 11. This 
bed contains a layer of slightly bony coal near the bottom which 
can not be separated, and the entire layer was included in the sample. 
The main bed at this place is separated by a parting of shale from a 
lower bench of coal and bone, which is mined in part of the workings. 
Sample 9606 was taken from bed No. 4 just above the second counter 
on chute 6, at which place the bed is underlain by a local pocket of 
coal about 4 feet thick, an enlargement of a layer normally about 
6 inches thick. The pocket coal was not included in the sample. 
Sample 9613 represents about 140 pounds of washed coal collected 
in small quantities at random from the surface of a bunker in which 
the coal from beds No. 3 and No. 4 is stored. The sample was pre- 
pared for the laboratory in the same manner as sample 9604. Analy- 
ses of these samples are given on pages 73-74. 

Character and quality erf the coal. — The coal from all four beds is 
pitch black, gives a black streak, and has a vitreous luster. It is 
massive and dense, and breaks with a hackly fracture. Because of 
its minute jointing it produces a very small amount of lump. It 
contains a very small percentage of moisture and does not weather 
when exposed to the sun. Bed No. 2 contains more ash than the 
other beds, and the amount of ash in the washed sample shows that 
this can be removed only with difficulty. The coal is considered a 
good coking coal and is used to a large extent as blacksmithing coal. 
Bed No. 3 is considered to be the best blacksmithing coal in the mine, 
and is reported to equal any blacksmithing coal in the State. The 
coal has a fairly high heating value and should be classed as a good 
grade of bituminous coal. 

MASHEL. 

Mashel, a tunnel mine located at Ashford, on the Tacoma Eastern 
Railroad. No. 74. 
Operator: Western Steel Corporation, Seattle, Wash. 
Kind of coal: Bituminous (coking). 



192 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



• 



Coal led, — Otie coal bed is worked ia this mine at the end of a long 
rock tunnel, which was driven to intercept the lower part of a bed 
known to outcrop along the crest of the ridge north of Ashford. The 
bed strikes N. 5** W. and dips about 38° E.; it is disturbed by a fault 
and the workings have not reached its normal position. The follow- 
ing section was taken at the end of the gangway about 4,400 feet 
from the entrance to the mine: 

Section of coal bed in Mtuhel mine. 
Shale, crushed. Ft. In. 

♦Coal (sample 9885) 9J 

Shale, black 5 

♦Coal (sample 9885) 7 6 

♦Coal, bony (sample 9885) 2i 

♦Coal (sample 9885) 1 3i 

Shale 3 

♦Coal, with few irregular layers of shale and bone (sample 

9884) 5 1 

Bone. 

15 61 

Samples for analysis, — Sample 9885 was taken from the upper 
bench of the bed, wliich contains one parting of black shale that can 
be removed by careful picking and washing and was not included in 
the sample, and a layer of bony coal that can not be easily separated 
and was included in the sample. The bed was overlain at this place 
by shale so badly crushed that several feet break during mining and 
mix with the coal. Sample 9884 was taken from the lower bench of 
the bed, which is separated from the upper bench by about 3 inches 
of bony shale that can be separated from the coal. The analyses of 
these samples are given on page 74. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The coal is pitch black, has a 
brown streak, and a vitreous luster. It is massive, and, in some parts 
of the bed, slightly banded. Most of the coal breaks with an irregular 
bright fracture. Although it contains a percentage of ash so high 
that the heating value of these two samples was greatly reduced, this 
impurity may possibly be removed by very careful and refined 
methods of wasliing. The coal appears to be a very good bituminous 
coal, and if a large percentage of the ash could be removed it would 
make good coke. 

PROSPECT EAST OF ASHFORD. 

An open cut in the SW. \ sec. 20, T. 15 N., R. 7 E., about 7 miles 
east of Ashford, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Semibituminous. 

Coal *«Zs.— The coal bed strikes N. 73° W. and dips 15** SW. 
The section measured by J. B. Umpleby is as follows: 



« 



THURSTON COUNTY. 198 

SectUm of coal bedin SW. } sec. 20, T. 15 N., R, 7 E, 

No. 6486. 

Shale. Ft. In. 

*Coal 6 

Parting 2 

♦Coal 8 

Parting 1 

♦Cod 4 

Parting 10 

♦Coal 1 9 

Shale 2 6 

6 10 

Sample for ancUysis, — Sample 6486 was taken by J. B. Umpleby 
in 1908 from the place where he measured the section given above. 
All the partings were separated from the sample, the analysis of 
which is given on page 74. 

Character and quality of the coal, — The physical properties of the 
coal are not known by the writer. The ratio of volatile matter to 
fixed carbon, however, is higher than in any coal commercially de- 
veloped in the State, and the amount of ash in the coal is so high as 
to reduce its heating value to that of a low-grade coal. 

SKAGIT COUNTY. 

Numerous coal prospects and several old mines occur in the vicinity 
of Cokedale and Hamilton, in Skagit County, but none are being 
developed commercially at the present time. Owing to the fact that 
funds for the investigation were limited, the writer was unable to 
visit this region to obtain samples. Two samples of the Fairhaven 
coal from Cokedale (No. 80) were analyzed by the Bureau of Equip- 
ment * of the Navy Department at Washington, D. C, and these 
analyses are given on page 76 of this report. Although the coal is 
reported to be a good cooking and steaming coal, the Cokedale mine 
has not been in operation for several years. Gas occurs in some of 
the beds and makes mining very dangerous. 

THUBSTON COUNTY. 

The coals of Thurston County are either subbituminous or on the 
border between subbituminous and lignite. All the mines worked at 
present are in the southern part of the county, between Tenino and 
Centralia. The rehef of the region is low, and the outcrops are ob- 
scured by gravel, soil, and dense undergrowth. The geology of the 
coal-bearing beds has not been worked out, and their extent and 

1 Reports of the elTlciency of Tsrious coals, 1896-1898, sections relating to coal from tbe annual reports of 
the Chief of the Bureau, 1902-3, and recent chemical analyses of coal at the navy yard, Washington, D. C, 
1906, pp. 97 and 98. 

91320**— Bull. 474—11 13 



■!»• 



194 



COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 



relations to each other are not known. Dips of the beds at all the 
mine$3 in this county visited by the writer are very low. The samples 
were collected during July and September, 1909, and February, 1910. 

HANNAFORD NO. 1. 

Hannaford No. 1-, a slope mine at Tono, Wash., on a spur of the 
Oregon- Washington Railroad and Navigation Co., off the main line 
near Centralia. No. 75. 

Operator: Washington Union Coal Co., Centralia, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal led. — ^Only one of the several coal beds exposed is mined at 
the present time. The bed is nearly horizontal, dipping only 4° NE. 
A slope has been driven about 1,500 feet in the lower portion of the 
bed, and two levels have been run to the north and three to the south. 
The mine has thus far been worked almost entirely in the lower 
bench of the bed, but the upper bench has been taken down in one 
or two rooms on the second level south and the company intends 
eventually to mine the entire upper bench. The following sections 
were measured at the places where the samples were taken: 

• 

Sections of coal bed in Hannaford No, 2, mine. 



Not. 9069 and 957S, iipp«r bench. 

Shale. Ft. in. 

*Coal 4 5 

Shale 1 



No. 9094* lower bench. 
Shale. 

*Coal 

Shale 

*Coal 

Clay 

♦Coal 

♦Shale, brown 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 



4 6 

Ft. in. 
1 3 

i 

1 8i 

1 
9J 

i 

1 8 

i 

5 11 



No. 90M, lower bench. 
Shale. 

♦Coal 

Shale, clayey 

♦Coal 

♦Clay, irreg^ular layer 

♦Coal 



No. 9090, lower bench. 

Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale, brown 

♦Coal 

Shale, carbonaceous 

♦Coal 

♦Shale 

♦Coal 

Shale 

♦Coal 



Ft. In. 
1 3i 

1 
1 9 

1 
3 2i 

6 5 

Ft. in. 
1 



1 
1 



2* 
1 

111 

i 
Hi 

i 

i 

4 



6 6} 



Preparation for market. — ^The coal from this mine is shipped as 
run-of-mine, and no attempt is made to separate the shale unless it 
parts readily from the coal in the mine or is of greater thickness than 
at any point from which the samples were taken. The entire output, 






THURSTON COUNTY. 195 

aside from the coal consumed at the mine and m the company town, 
is used for steam coal by the Oregon- Washington Eailroad & Navi- 
gation Co. and its connections. 

Samples for analysis, — Samples 9089 and 9573 were taken from the 
upper bench, about 150 feet up the slope, in room No. 7 of the second 
level south. The 1-inch shale at the bottom of the bed forms a part- 
ing between this bench and the lower bench, which is the one worked 
in other parts of the mine. Sample 9095 was taken 200 feet from 
the gangway in room No. 12, on the first level south. The upper 
parting of this bench, which is the more regular, can be separated by 
picking, and was not included in the sample. Sample 9094 was col- 
lected at the entrance of room No. 12, on the first level north. The 
coal was slightly moist, owing to seepage from the overlying rocks, 
and was sealed in the can before it had a chance to dry; the analysis 
of this sample should therefore show a slightly higher percentage of 
moisture than the analysis of a sample in a normal condition. The 
bench at this place contains four partings, of which most of the upper 
two and part of the lower two can be separated from the coal by 
careful picking. In order to obtain a representative amount of ash, 
only the lower two partings were included in the sample. Sample 
9096 was taken at the entrance to room No. 8, on the second level 
north, at which place the bed contains four distinct partings. In 
order to obtain a representative amount of ash in the sample, the 
third parting from the top was included. Analysis No. 8752 was 
made from a mixture of samples of run-of-mine coal from the lower 
bench of Hannaford No. 1 mine, taken at Pittsburg from two cars 
which had been on the road from three to five weeks. The analyses 
of these samples are given on pages 74-75. 

Character and qaality of the coal. — The coal is black in color and has 
a reddish-brown streak. It has a shghtly banded structure and 
breaks with a conchoidal fracture. Because of its high moisture con- 
tent, the coal weathers very readily when exposed to the sun, but it 
will stand transportation for some distance when shipped in closed 
cars. It should be classed as subbituminous coal. 

Samples 9089 and 9057 were taken from the same place in the 
mine, but tliere is a very notable difference in the heating value and 
the amount of moisture of the air-dried samples. Sample 9089 was 
taken on July 21, when the coal was being mined from the upper 
bench in this room, and was exposed for a few hours during trans- 
portation to the office, but it was sealed immediately thereafter and 
was forwarded to the laboratory in an air-tight can. Sample 9573 
was taken by removing the surface coal and cutting a fresh channel 
at the side of the old channel from which No. 9089 was taken. Pre- 
vious to the time when it was obtained, September 29, it had been 



196 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

exposed to the mine atmosphere for about nine weeks. A comparison 
of the amoimt of moisture in these two samples as received and in 
samples as received from the other parts of the mine indicates that 
only a httle moisture evaporated from either sample 9089 or sample 
9573 during exposure to the atmosphere. The moisture in these two 
coals; as shown in the samples as received and in the same samples 
air driedy indicates that, although the total amount of moisture was 
the same, its relation to the coal had been changed so that it could 
not be driven off at the ordinarv temperature used in the regular 
method of air drying. 

PERTH. 

Perth, a slope mine about 3 miles north of Centralia, on a logging 
road. No. 76. 

Operator: Perth Coal Mining Co., Centralia, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbitmninous. 

CocH bed. — ^Although several coal beds are exposed at this mine, 
the bed now being worked is the only one from which a sample could 
be obtained. This bed strikes N. 35** W. and dips 20^ SW. The 
section was measured at a point 120 feet north from the foot of the 
slope and 40 feet up the rise from the first level gangway. 

Section of coal bed in Perth mine. 

No. 9178. 

Shale, compact, elate colored. Ft. In. 

♦Coal 10 

Clay, yellow 3i 

♦Coal 3J 

Clay, yellow 3 

♦Coal 7 

Clay, yellow 5 

♦Coal 2 8i 

Shale, black, sandy. 

5 4i 

Preparation for marlceL — Shale from the roof is separated from the 
coal in the mine, and the coal is screened and picked by hand at the 
tipple. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9178 was taken where the section 
given above was measured. 

Three partings of yellow clay, all of considerable thickness, occur 
in the bed and must be separated in mining. Wlien exposed to the 
air for a short time they swell to about one and one-fourth times their 
original thickness and become very soft and spongy. All three part- 
ings were excluded from the sample. The roof is of compact shale, 
which breaks oflF in large irregular slabs and mixes with the cool. 
The analysis of the sample is given on page 76. 



THURSTON COUNTY. 197 

Chardder and quality of the coal, — The coal is brownish-black and 
has a reddish-brown streak; it is massive and banded, and breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. Owing to its high moisture content, which 
causes it to slack readily when exposed to the air, this coal should 
be classed as low-grade subbituminous coal. 

BLACK BEAR. 

• 

Black Bear, a slope mine about 2 miles southeast of Tenino, on a 
spur of the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 77. 

Operator: Tenino Coal & Iron Co., Tenino, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbitiuninous. 

Coal bed. — ^The coal bed from which the sample was taken was 
exposed in an abandoned mine east of the present slope. It was 
taken about 30 feet up the first room on the first level west pf a 
slope sunk about 150 feet from the portal of the old gangway. The 
face from which the coal was obtained had been exposed to the 
weather for several years. The section measured is as follows: 

Section of coal bed in Black Bear mine. 

No. N89. 
Shale. Ft. In. 

Shale, carbonaceous 3J 

*Coal 2 1 

Shale, spongy, varies from 1 to 2i inches 1 

♦Coal 8J 

Shale, spongy 2 

*Coal 5 

Shale J 

*Coa\ 2 5 

Shale. 

6 2i 

Preparation for marlcet, — The coal from this mine is prepared for 
market by screening and hand picking. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9939 was taken where the section 
given above was measured. All three shale partings can be separated 
from the coal and were therefore not included in the sample. The 
sample was taken from the old workings, because a fault had been 
encountered in the new slope. The section of the bed exposed there 
was not typical. The analysis of this sample is given on page 75. 

(7hara4:ter and quality of the coal, — The coal is brownish black and 
has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and laminated and breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. It contains a liigh percentage of mois- 
ture, and weathers on exposure to the air; probably 4 or 5 per cent 
of moisture had been removed from the coal by the circulation of 
mine air at the time it ^v'as taken, for it appeared to be slightly weath- 
ered. Like sample 9573, taken at the Hannaford mine, the condition 
of the moisture contained in the coal had apparently been modified 



198 COALS OF THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. 

in such a way that it could not be driven off by the usual method of 
air drying. This coal should probably be classed as low-grade sub- 
bituminous. 

KINO (OREAT WESTEBN). 

Eang, or Great Western, slope mine, 3 miles southwest of Tenino, 
on a branch of the Northern Pacific Railway. No. 78. 

Operator: King Coal Co., Tenino, Wash. 

Kind of coal: Subbituminous. 

Coal bed, — The coal bed hes very nearly horizontal. At the 
entrance to the main gangway it dips very sUghtly (1** to 2°) to the 
east, while at the far end of the gangway the bed has about the same 
dip in the opposite direction, so that the gangway passes through a 
syncline near the center of the workings. The bed is thin, and is 
subjected to considerable pressure, so that a great deal of rock work 
is necessary in the gangways to keep them open. The following sec- 
tion was measured at the place where the sample was taken: 

Section of coal bed in King mine. 

Ho. N87. 

Sandstone, white. Ft. in. 

Shale, hard 2i 

*Coal 7 

Shale, with irregular lenaes of coal 3J 

*Coal 4 

Shale 1 

*Coal 1 6 

Shale, brown 1 

*Coal 1 1 

Clay, yellow, soft 4 

Shale. 

4 6 

Preparation for marlcet — Impurities are for the most part removed 
at the bunker, where the coal is picked and washed. 

Sample for analysis. — Sample 9987 was taken in room 10, about 
100 feet up the rise from the twenty-fifth level north. Several part- 
ings of shale which occur in the bed may be separated from the coal 
by careful picking and washing, and they were, therefore, excluded 
from the sample. The analysis of the sample is given on page 75. 

Chamcter and quality of the coal. — The coal is brownish-black, and 
has a reddish-brown streak. It is massive and banded, and breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. Owing to its high percentage of moisture, 
it slacks on exposure to the air, although not so readily as some of the 
other coals from the same region. Minute lenses of pyrite are prob- 
ably responsible for a percentage of sulphur somewhat higher than 
that of other coals of this locality. The coal should be classed as 
low-grade subbituminous. 



COALS OP THE STATE OP WASHINGTON. 199 

WHATCOM COUNTY. 

The coals of Whatcom. CJounty have been mined in the vicinity of 
Lake Whatcom for many years. The only mine of commercial 
importance operating at the present time is the Blue Canyon mine 
(No. 79) at Park, near the shore of Lake Whatcom, which was not 
visited by the writer on account of the limited appropriation. The 
coal from this mine has been analyzed by the Bureau of Equipment 
of the Navy Department at Washington, D. C, and is given on page 
76 of this report. It has a fixed carbon content equal to that of any 
of the high grade bituminous coals of the State, and a small amount 
of ash and moisture. Unless it is too badly jointed, the coal should 
hold up well in transportation to market. 



f1 



V( 



INDEX. 



A. Page. 

A. & E. mine, ooal at, character of 142 

coal at, preparation of for market 142 

sample of, analjrsis of 59, 142 

section of 142 

Acknowledgments to those aiding 7 

Adherence of coals, plates showing 30,32 

Analyses, accuracy of 17-19 

discrepancies in, causes of. 30 

methods of making 16-17 

results of 41-76 

Anthracite coal, characteristic features of 8-9 

exposures of on Summit Creek, plate 

showing 78 

physical properties of 27 

Arrangement of mine descriptions, plan of. . . 76 

Ash, character, occurrence, and effect of 34-36 

effect of, on heating value 21 

variations in character and amount of 26-27 

Aahford, coal near, analyses of 74 

coal near, character and sections of 191-193 

coking tests of 33 

prospect near, coal of, analysis of 74 

coal of, section and character of 192-193 

Atmosphere, effect of, on coal 11-15 

B. 

Bagley drift, coal at, character of 85-88 

coal at, preparation of, for market 87 

samples of, analyses of 43-44, 87-88 

section of 86-87 

Bameston, prospect drift near, coal at, analy- 
sis of 53 

prospect drift near, coal at, section and 

character of 123 

Bayne, coal near, analyses of 50-52 

coal near, character of 1 12-120 

coking testa of 32-33 

forested area near, plate showing 80 

prospect drift near, coal at, analysis of 51 

coal at, section and character of 116 

undergrowth near, plate showing 80 

Bayne mine, coal at, character of 112-114 

coal at, preparation of for market 113 

samples of, analyses of 50-51, 113-114 

section of 113 

Bedding, variations in 23 

Beehive coke ovens, at Carbonado, plate 

showing 168 

Beekman, coal at. analyses of 55-56 

coal at, section and character of 131-135 

coal near, adherence of, plate showing. . . 30 

coking tests of 33 

Beekman mine, coal at, character of 132-135 

coal at, preparation of for market 134 

samples of, analyses of 55-56, 134 

section of 133 



Page. 

Big Six mine, coal at, character of 119-120 

coal at, ooldng test of 32 

sample of , analysis of 62,120 

section of 119 

Binder, definition of 8 

Bituminous coal , characteristic features of . . . 9 

physical properties of 27 

Black Bear mine, coal of, character, section, 

and preparation of 197-196 

coal of, sample of, analysis of 75, 197 

Black carbon mine, coal of, character, section, 

and preparation of 170-171 

coal of, coking test of 32 

sample of, analysis of 67, 170-171 

Black Diamond, coal near, analyses of 47-48 

coal near, character of 98-102 

coking tests of 33 

Black Diamond mine, coal at, character of. . .99-101 

coal at, preparation of for market 100 

samples of, analyses of. 47, 100 

section of 100 

Brier Hill mine, coal of, character, section, 

and preparation of 178-179 

ooal of, sample of, analysis of 69. 1^ 

Bunkers, plates showing 78.84 

Bureau of Naval Equipment, analyses by . . . 76 

work of. 18 

Burnett , bunker at, plate showing 84 

coal at, analyses of 66-67 

character and section of. 168-170 

coking tests of 33 

Burnett mine, coal at, character of 168-170 

coal at, preparation of for market 168-160 

samples of, analyses of 66-67, 160 

section of 168 

Busy Bee mine, coal at, character of . .- 135 

coal at, preparation for market of. 135 

sample of, analysis of 56, 135 

section of 135 

C. 

Campbell, M. R., on carload sampling 11-13 

on coals at the St. Louis Exposition 12-13 

work of 7-18 

Carbon, effect of, on heating value 20-21 

Carbonado, beehive coke ovens at, plate 

showing 168 

city, panoramic view of, plate showing. . 168 

coal near, analyses of G9-72 

character of 180-185 

coking tests of 32 

Carbon Ulll mine, coal at , character of 180-185 

ooal at, coking tests of 32 

preparation of for market 182 

samples of, analyses of 69-72, 183-185 

section of 180-182 

201 



202 



INDEX. 



i 



Page. 

Carbon mine, coal at, character of 114-116 

coal at, coking tests of 32 

preparation of for market 115 

samples of, analyses of. 51,115 

section of 115 

Oarload sampling, methods and advantages of lQ-15 
Carlton Creek, prospects near, coal at, analy- 
ses of 62 

prospects near, coal at, section and char- 

acterof 153-154 

Central Coal Co., Grand Ridge mine of, ooal 

of,analysesof 42 

Grand Ridge mine of, coal at, section 

and character of 81-83 

Centralia, ooal near, analyses of. 65,75 

ooal near, sections and character of. .. 100-162, 

106-197 
Centralia Coal Co. , Richmond mine of, coal at, 

analyses of 65 

Richmond mine of, coal at, section and 

characterof - 162 

Chehalis, ooal near, analyes of 65-66 

ooal near, sections and character of. 162-166 

Chehalis mine, ooal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 165 

ooal of, sample of, analysis of 66, 165 

ClaUam Coal Co. , bunker of, plate showing 78 

Fuca mine of, ooal of, character and seo* 

tipnof. 77-78 

coal of, diemical analysis of 41 

Qallam County, coal of, analyses of. 41 

ooal of, distribution and character of. 77-78 

See also partkuUiT minet, loeaJities, etc. 
Clealum, ooal near, adherence of, plate show- 

ing X 

ooal near, analyses of 61-62 

coking, tests of 33 

sections and diaracter of 146-152 

Qe Elum No. 1 mine, ooal at, character of. . . 151-152 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 152 

samples of, analyses of 62,152 

section of 151 

Cle Elum No. 2 extension, ooal at, charac- 
ter of 149-150 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 150 

sample of, analyses of. 61,150 

section of 150 

Cle Elum No. 2 mine, coal at, characterof. . . 150-151 

coal at, preparation of, for market 151 

samples of, analyses of 62. 151 

section of 150 

Qe Elum No. 3 extension, ooal at, charac- 
ter of 148-149 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 149 

samples of, analyses of 61, 149 

section of <>. . . 149 

Coal, character and quality of. 16-40 

chemical analyses of, methods of 16-17 

results of 17-19,41-76 

tables showing 41-76 

chemical properties of 16-22 

classification of. Geological Survey meth- 
ods of. 8-10 

coking, results of Plshel test for 31-33 

commercial use of 38-40 

oomparative quality and distribution of. 37-^ 



Pace. 

Coal,oonstltaents of, effects of. 19-21 

detailed descriptions of varieties of. 76-190 

exposure,effectof, upon 11-13,28-^ 

ignitfonof 21-22 

impurities of , effect of 34-36 

mineral ash of , effect of 34-36 

moisture of , effect of 31 

physical properties of 23-33 

physical tests on, results of 22-27 

sampling of, methods of 10-15 

sulphur of, effect of 34 

See dUo particular minei, protpetU, and 
loealUiet. 

Coal Creek, ooal near, analyses of. 43-44 

ooal near, character of 79,8fr-88 

mine near, character of ooal of 79 

Coal mines, method of fixing location of lS-16 

Coast Coal Co., PitUbuig mine of, ooal at, 

analysesof. S7 

Pittsburg mine of, ooal at, section and 

characterof 171-172 

Coherence, variation In degree of 2S 

Coking, Plshel test for 31-<33 

Pishel test for, results of, tables showing. 33-^ 
results of, with particular ooals, plates 

showing 30,32 

Color, variations of 22 

Commercial sampling, disadvantages of 10-12 

Commonwealth Coal Co., Willis mine of, 

ooal of , analyses of 69 

Willis mine of, ooal of, character and seo* 

tlonof 177-178 

ooel of , coking test of 32 

Consolidated Coal Co., Lakedale mine of, 

ooal at, analysis of S5 

Lakedale mine of, ooal at, faction and 

diaracter of 131-132 

Constlioents, of ooal, affect of, on heating 

value 19-21 

Cooperation, plan of 7 

Cowlitz County, ooal of, analyses of 41 

coal of, distribut ion and character of 79 

Cowlits River, surface exjxnure near, coal 

at, analysis of. 63 

surface exposure near, ooal at, section and 

character of. 156-157 

Crescent mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 166-167 

coal of, sample of, analysis of 66 

Cumberland, coal at, analyses of 49^50 

ooal at, diaracter and section of 106-111 

coking tests of 33-33 

D. 

Danville, coal near, analjrses of 45 

ooal near, character of 93 

Danville mine, coal at, character of 93 

ooal at, sample of, analjTses of 45,93 

section of 93 

Denny-Renton Clay & Coal Co., ooal of, 

ooldng tests of 82 

Kummer mine of, ooal at, analyses of . . . 48 
coal at, character and section of. . . 103-104 

coal of , coking test of 32 

Denny-Renton mine near Renton, coal at, 

character of flO^^X) 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 89 



INDEX. 



203 



Page. 
Denny-Renton mine near Renton, ooal at, 

samples of, analyses of. 44,89-00 

ooal at, section of 89 

Denny-Renton mine near Taylor, ooal at, 

character of 123-128 

ooal at, coking tests of 32 

preparation of , for market 125 

samples of , analyses of. 63-64,126 

section of ..: 124 

Description, order of 76 

Diller, J. S., on coal of Cowlitx County 79 

work of. 17 

Discrepandes, in analyses, causes of 30 



£. 



East Creek-Ladd mine, coal at, character of. 16S-160 

coal at, coking tests of 32 

preparation of, for market 160 

samples of, analyses of. 64-66, 160-160 

section at, near 160 

Elasticity, variations in degree of 26 

Eureka mine, ooal at, character of.' 111-112 

ooal at, sample of, analysis of 60,112 

section of 112 

Evans Creek Coal A Coke Co., lionteiuma 

mine of, coal of, analyses of 73-74 

ooal of, character and section of 190-101 

coking tests of 32 

Evans, O W., work of 7,18 

Exposure, effect of, on coal 11-16,28 

F. 

Fairfax, coal near, analyses of 73-74 

ooal near, character and section of 188-101 

coking tests of 33 

Fairfax mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 188-180 

ooal of, samples of, analyses of 73, 180 

Flame, variations in character of 26 

Ford mine, ooal at, character of. 86-^ 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 87 

samples of, analyses of 43,87-88 

section of 86-87 

Fracture, variations of. 24-25 

Franklin, ooal near, analyses of 48 

coal near, character of 102-106 

coking tests of 33 

glacial bowlders and exposures of Puget 

formation near, plates showing. . 82 
sur&oe exposures at, coal of, analyses of. . 48 

ooal of, character of 102-103, 105-106 

Puca, bunker at, plate showing 78 

Fuca mine, ooal at, character of. 78 

coal at, preparation of, for market 78 

sample of, analysis of 41,78 

section of 77 

O. 

Gale Creek mine, coal of, character of 176-177 

ooal of , coking tests of 32 

prciparation of , for market 176 

samples of, analyses of. 68-69, 176-177 

section of 176 



Page. 

Oem mine, ooal at, character of 105 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 106 

sample of , analyses of 48,105 

section of 105 

Glacial bowldera near Franklin, plate show- 
ing 82 

Olenavon, prospects near, ooal at, analyses of. 63-64 
prospects near, ooal at, character, and sec- 
tion ol. 1 57-1 68 

Grand Ridge mine, ooal at, character of. 81-<83 

coal at, preparation of , for market 82 

samples of , analyses of. 42,82 

section of 81-82 

Great Western mine, ooal of, character, sec- 
tion and preparation of 196 

ooal of, sample of, analysis of 75, 108 

Green River, glacial bowlders and exposures 
of Puget formation near, plates 

showing 82 

Green River Coal Co., Bayne mine of, analy- 
ses of 60-51 

Bayne mine of, ooal at, section and charac- 
ter of 112-114 

H. 

Hannal6rdNo.lmine,coalat,eharaeterof. 104-100 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 104-105 

samples of, analyses of 74-75,106 

section of 194 

Hardness, variations in. 25 

Heatingva]ue,eflectofconstituentsofooalon. 10-21 
Hydrocarbons, effect of, on heating value. ... 20 
Hydrogen, effect of, on heating value 20 

I. 

Ignition, ease of 21-22 

Impact, variations in character of 25 

Independent mine, ooal of, character of 107-108 

coal of , coking tests of 32 

samples of , analyses of 49,108 

section of 1 08 

Issaquah, bunker at, plate showing 84 

coal near, analj^ses of 41-43 

oharacterof 80-86 

prospects near, coal of , analysis of 41,54 

coal of, character of 80-81, 127 

I ssa qu a h mine, coal at, character of 83-84 

coal at, preparation of, for market 83 

sample of, analysis of 42-43,83-84 

section of 83 

J. 
Jointing, variation in 23-24 

K. 

Kelso, ooal near, character of 70 

King Coal Co., King or Great Western mine 

of, ooal at, analysis of. 75 

King or Great Western mine of, ooal at, 

section and character of 108 

King County, ooal of, analyses of 41^55 

coal of, distribution and character of 80-129 

See alto particular minetf localUiet, etc. 
King mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparationof 108 

ooal of, sample of, analysis of . . . • 



204 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Kittitas County ooal of, analyses of 56-62 

coal of, distribution and character of. . . 129-152 
See also particular mhut, loealUiett etc. 

Kummer, coal near, analyses of 48 

ooal near, character of 103-104 

coking test of 32 

Kununer mine, coal at, character of 103-104 

coal at, coking test of 32 

preparation of, for market 103-104 

samples of, analyses of 48, 104 

section of 108 

L. 

Laboratory, preparation of samples for 16-16 

Ladd, coal near, analyses of 63-65 

coal near, character of 158-160 

coking tests of 82 

prospects near, coal of, analyses of 63-64 

ooal of, character of 157-158 

Lakedale mine, ooal at, character of 131-132 

ooal at, preparation of for market 132 

sample of, analyses of 55, 132 

section of 132 

Landes, Henry, State geologist of Washing- 
ton, cooperation by 7 

Lawson mine, ooal at, character of 101-102 

ooal at, preparation of for market 101 

samples of, analyses of 48, 101-102 

section of 101 

Lewis County, coal of, analyses of 62-66 

coal of, distribution and character of. . . 152-167 
See also particular mines, localitie*, etc. 

Lignite, characteristic features of 10 

physical properites of 28 

Liiard Mountain, forested area near, plate 

showing 80 

Locations, of ooal mines, method of fixing. . . 16-16 
Luster, variations of 23 

M. 

McKay mine, ooal at, character of 96-98 

ooal at, preparation of for market 97 

samples of, analyses of 47, 97 

section of 97 

Mashel mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 191-192 

ooal of, samples of, analyses of 74, 192 

Melroont, coal at, analyses of 72-73 

coal at, character and section of 186-188 

coking tests of 32 

Melmont mine, ooal of, character of 186-188 

coal of, coking test of 32 

preparation of for market 187 

samples of, analyses of 72-73, 187-18S 

sections of 18(3 

Mendota mine, coal at, character of 160-162 

coal at , preparation of for market 161 

samples of, analyses of 65, 161 

section of 161 

Mineral accessories, occurrence of 26 

Mine sampling, methods of 10-15 

Mining terms, explanation of 7-10 

Moisture, occurrence of, in coal 34 

of coal, discrepancies In analyses of, 

causes of 30 

effect of exposure upon 28^33 



Page. 

Moisture of ooal, extraneous, effect of, on 

heatlngvalue 19 

inherent, effect of, on heating value 19 

Montesunaa mine, ooal of, character, section. 

and preparation of lM-191 

ooal of , ooUng tests of 32 

sainples of, analyses of 73-74 

Morgan mine, ooal at, character of 98-09 

ooal at, preparation of for market 96 

samples of, analyses of 47«99 

section of 98 

N. 

Naval mine, ooal at, character of 110-111 

ooal at, coking tests, of 32 

preparation of for market Ill 

samples of , analyses of. 4iHS0.1il 

section of 110 

Niblock mine, character of 128-129 

ooal at, preparation of for market 128 

samples of, analyses of 55. 12^129 

section of 1 28 

Niggerheads, definition of 8 

Nitrogen, effect of, on heating value 30 

North Coast Colliery Co., Danville mine of, 

ooal at, analjrses of 45 

Danville mine of, coal at, section and 

character of 93 

Northwestern Improvement Co., properties of 

ooal from, analyses of .^ 45-47, 

67-«2, 73-73 

properties of, coal from, character of 9^96, 

137-152,185-188 

coal from, coking tests of 33-33 

See particular mine* — Melmont, Raveua- 
dale, Cle Elum mine No. 1, No. 2, 
No. 2 extension, No. 3 extension, 
Roslyn mine No. 2, No. 3 slope, 
No. 3, No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, and 
No. 7. 

Occidental mines, coal at, character of 117-119 

coal at, coking tests of 33 

preparation of, for market 118 

samples of, analyses of 51-52, 118-119 

section of 117 

Odor, variations in 26 

Oxygen, effect of, on heating value 30 

P. 

Pacific Coal <Sc Oil Co., Snell mine of, coal at, 

analyses of 69 

Sncll mine of, coal at, character and sec- 
tion of 179-180 

coal at, coking tt^^t of 33 

Pacific Coast Coal Co., Black Diam<Mad mine 

of, coal at, analyses of. 47 

Black Diamond mine of, coal at, section 

and character of 99-101 

Burnett mine of, coal at, analyses of 66-67 

coal at, character and section of 168-170 

Ford and Bagley mines of, coal at, analy- 
ses of 43-44 

coal at, character and section of 

Lawson mine of, coal at, analyses of 48 

ooal at, section and character of 101-102 



INDEX. 



205 



PaRe. 
Padflc Coast Coal Co., Morgan mine of, coal 

at, analyses of 47 

ICorgan mine of, coal at, section and char- 
acter of 98-99 

properties of, coal from , coking tests of . . . 33 

Palmer.coal near, coking test of 32 

Palmer Junction, prospect at, coal at, analy- 
sis of 48 

prospect at, ooal at, section and character 

of 12Q-122 

surface exposure near, coal of, coking 

testof 33 

Patrick-McKay mine, coal at, character of. . 138-137 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 136 

samples of, analyses of 56-^7, 136-137 

section of 136 

Perth mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 196-197 

coal of, sample of, analysis of 75, 196 

Pierce County, coal of, analyses of 66-74 

coal of, distribution and character of 167-193 

See alto partieulaT minea, JoealUieM, etc. 
Philippine Islands, weathered subbituminous 

coal from, plate showing 7 

Physical properties of coals, variations in 22-33 

Pishel, M. A., coking test determined by 31-33 

Pittsburg, coal near, analyses of 67 

coal near, cbaxacter and section of 170-172 

coking tests of 32 

Pittsburg mine, coal of, character, section, 

and preparation of 171-172 

coal of. samples of, analyses of 67, 172 

Pocahontas (W.Va.) coal, coking test of 32 

structure of , plate showing 7 

test for adherence of, plate showing 32 

Powder, variations of 23 

Preston, prospect near, coal at, analysis of 54 

prospect near, coal at, section and charac- 
ter of 127 

Producer gas, effect of , on use of lignite 40 

Puget formation, exposures of near Franklin, 

plate showing 82 

R. 

Railways, use of coal by 39 

Ravensdale, coal near, analyses of 45-47 

coal near, character of 94-99 

coking tests of 32-33 

prospect at, coal at, analysis of 53 

ooal at, section and character of. 122 

Ravensdale mine, ooal at, character of 94-96 

ooal at, preparation of for market 95 

samples of, analyses of 45-46, 97 

section of 94-95 

Renton, coal near, analyses of 44-45 

coal near, character of 89-93 

Renton mine, ooal at, character of 90-93 

coal at, preparation of for market 91 

samples of, analyses of 44-45, 91-92 

section of 90-91 

Richmond mine, coal of, character, section, 

and preparation of 162 

coal of, sample of, analysis of 65, 162 

Ronald, coal near, coking tests of 33 

Rosc^Marshall mine, coal from, character of. 106-107 

coal from, coking test of 33 

preparation of for market 107 

samples of, analyses of 49, 107 

section of. 107 



Page. 
Roslyn, ooal near, adherence of, plate show- 
ing 30 

ooal near, analyses of 56-61 

character of 135-146 

coking tests of 33 

Rosljm No. 2 mine, coal at, character of 140-141 

coal at, preparation of, for market 141 

samples of, analyses of 58-^, 141 

section of 141 

Roslyn No. 2 slope, coal at, character of 139-140 

coal at, preptfation of, for market 140 

samples of, analyses of 58, 140 

section of 139 

Roslyn No. 3 mine, coal at, character of 137-139 

coal at, preparation of, for market 138 

samples of, analyses of 57, 138-139 

section of 138 

Roslyn No. 4 mine, coal at, character of 144-145 

ooal at, preparation of, for market 144 

samples of, analyses of 59-60, 144 

section of 144 

Roslyn No. 5 mine, coal at, character of 145-146 

coal at, preparation of, for market 146 

samples of, analyses of 60-61, 146 

section of 145 

Roslyn No. 6 mine, coal at, character of 142-143 

coal at, preparation of, for market 143 

samples of, analyses of 59, 143 

section of 143 

Roslyn No. 7 mine, ooal at, character of 146-148 

coal at, preparation of, for market 147 

samples of, analyses of 61, 147-148 

section of 147 

Roslyn-Cascade Coal Co., Patrick-McKay 

mine of, coal of, analyses of 56-57 

Patrick-McKay mine of, coal of, character 

of 136-137 

coal of, coking tests of 33 

Roslyn Fuel Co., Beekman mine of, coal at, 

analyses of 55-56 

Beekman mine of, coal at, character and 

section of 132-135 

ooal at, coking test of 33 

8. 

Samples, methods of taking 14-15 

preparation of, for laboratory 15-16 

Sampling, methods of, classification of 10-15 

methods of, comparison of 10-14 

factors determining selection of 14-15 

Schaller, W. T., on coal of Cowlits County. . . 79 

work of 17 

Seattle Electric Co., Renton mine of, coal of, 

analyses of 44-45 

Renton mine of, coal at, section and char- 
acter of 90-93 

Semianthracite coal , characteristic features of. 9 
Semibituminous ooal, characteristic fea- 
tures of 9 

Sheldon mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 165-166 

coal of, sample of, analysis of 66, 166 

Skagit County, coal of, analyses of 76 

ooal of, distribution and character of 193 

Smith, E. E., work of 7 

Snell mine, coal of, character, section, and 

preparation of 179-180 

ooal of, sample of, analysis of 09, 179 



I 



1 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY 

aXORQE OTIB SKtTH, DiBKTOB 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 
THROUGH FULLER'S EARTH 

NOTES ON ITS GEOUKJIC SIGNIFICANCE 



BY 



J. ELLIOTT GILPIN 

AMD 

OSCAR K BRANSKY 



WASHINGTON 

OOTEBNMENT PBIMTINQ OFFIOH 
1911 



I 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 5 

Object of this investigation 12 

Preliminary experiments 12 

Relative amounts of oil lost in heated and ucheated fuller's earth 12 

The diffusion of benzene in solution through fuller's earth 15 

Fractionation of petroleum 28 

First fractionation — crude petroleum 28 

Specific gravity - 34 

Color 34 

Odor 84 

Volume of oil retained by the fuller's earth 34 

Second fractionation 36 

Specific gravity 38 

Color 38 

• Odor 38 

Volume of oil retained by the fuller's earth 38 

Third fractionation 38 

Specific gravity 41 

Color 41 

Odor 41 

Prolonged diffusion 41 

Volume of oil retained by the fuller's earth 41 

Fourth fractionation 42 

Specific gravity 43 

Color 43 

Odor 43 

Volume of oil retained 43 

Deposition of paraffin 43 

Chemical examination of fractionated oils 44 

Unsaturated hydrocarbons 44 

Action of concentrated sulphuric acid « 44 

Action of bromine <•- 44 

Sulphur compounds .—..." 46 

Selective action of fuller's earth 47 

Chemical examination of the oils extracted by ether 48 

Unsaturated hydrocarbons 48 

Action of concentrated sulphuric acid 48 

Action of bromine 49 

Sulphur compounds 49 

Summary i 50 

3 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Figure 1. Airangement of tliffusion tubee 13 

2. Curves bowing results of diffiision of benzene and paraffin oil 

through fuller's earth, series 2 22 

3. Curves showing ret^ults of diffusion of benzene and paraffin oil 

through fuller's earth, series 3 and 4 23 

4. Cur\'es showing results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin oil 

through fuller's earth, series 5 and 6 24 

5. Curves showing results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin oil 

through fuller's earth, series 7and 8 25 

6. Curves showing results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin oil 

through fuller's earth, series 9 and 10 26 

7. Curves showing results of diffusion of l)enzene and paraffin oil 

through fuller's earth 27 

4 



THE DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM THROUGH 

FULLER'S EARTH. 



By J. Elliott Gilpin and Oscar E. Bransky.* 



INTRODUCTION. 

It is well established that the petroleum obtained from the sand- 
stones of the Upper Devonian and Mississippian epochs, generally 
known as Pennsylvania oil, differs markedly from the natural oil 
found in the Trenton limestone, usually designated Ohio oil and 
Trenton limestone oil. Both of these oils, in turn, are distinctly 
different from the petroleum occurring in the loose sands and soft 
shales of California. The unconsolidated Tertiary clays, sands, and 
gravels in the southern United States, particularly in Texas, yield still 
another variety of petroleum, characterized by properties more or less 
different from those of any of the other oils. 

Not only do these differences exist in oils found in separate regions, 
but there are extreme variations in color and specific gravity, as well 
as in chemical composition, in many oils occurring in neighboring 
localities. On the other hand, close resemblances are often found 
between petroleums of widely separated regions. Some of the South 
American and many of the European oils, for instance, have been 
found to. possess properties very similar to those of the oils of the 
southern United States, while the oil from the ''Corniferous" lime- 
stone of Canada closely resembles the Ohio petroleum. 

These variations in the oils of the United States and other coimtries 
have been carefully studied by many investigators. Warren, Storer, 
Mabery, Pelouze, Cahours, Schorlemmer, Beilstein, Markownikoff, 
Engler, and Kurbatoff have devoted their lives to the subject. The 
questions that naturally arise in connection with the variations are, 
Are these differences fundamental? Is the Pennsylvania petroleum 
as distinctly different from the Ohio oil as one chemical compound is 
from another? In answer to these questions, the following extract 

1 Dissertation submitted to the Johns Hopkins University by Oscar E. Bransky for the degree of doctor 
of philosophy. This research was aided by a grant received from the C. H. Warren committee of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

5 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



from a paper read by Mabery* in 1903 before the American Philo- 
sophical Society is of considerable importance: 



Not^, after years of arduous labor, I have reached the concluBion that petroleum 

whatever source is one and the same substance, capable of a simple definition sl 

mixture in variable proportions of a few series of hydrocarbons, the product of 
particular field differing from that of any other only in the proportion of the 
and the members of the series. 

The evidence supporting this declaration has been and is accumu- 
lating constantly, and at the present time the view is generally 
accepted. 

If petroleum, then, is everywhere one and the same substance, hoi^ 
can the extreme variations between the American oils be explained ? 
Were the causes operating in the formation of the Pennsylvania oil, 
which is almost barren of sulphur and nitrogenous bodies, different 
from those acting in the production of the sulphur-bearing oils of Ohio 
or the heavy sulphur and nitrogenous oils of California ?, 

To account for the formation of crude petroleum, two theories, the 
organic and inorganic, have been advanced. The Pennsylvania oil, 
according to these theories, may have been formed from either organic 
or inorganic substances, or from both. It is as yet impossible, how- 
ever, to state conclusively from which of these sources the oil was 
derived. It is apparent, therefore, that the differences between the 
Pennsylvania and the Ohio, Texas, and California oils can not be 
explained on the assumption that the former was derived from organic 
remains and the latter from inorganic matter, or vice versa. If, how- 
ever, the oils under discussion are organic in origin, they may have 
been formed either from vegetable or from animal remains. The 
following discussion is based on the assumption that these oils were 
derived from an organic source. 

It has been suggested that the differences between these oils may 
be accounted for by assigning a vegetable origin to the Pennsylvania 
oil and an animal origin to the others. Mabery* states that — 

It would seem that the small proportion of these bodies [sulphur, nitrogen, and 
oxygen compounds] in the Pennsylvania oil, as compared with the larger proportions 
in the limestone oils and California oil, should be strong evidence in favor of a different 
origin, that the Pennsylvania oil came from organic vegetable remains, which should 
permit of the small amounts of sulphur and nitrogen compounds from this class of oils. 

Newberry, Peckham, Orton, and other geologists also favor the 
view that the Pennsylvania oil is of vegetable origin and is derived 
from the organic matter of the bituminous shales of the Devonian 
period. 

The association of this oil with a vegetable source has been com- 
pelled, it seems, first, by the fact that the oil is of a different character 
from the limestone oils of Ohio and those of Texas and California; 

> Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 1903. 



THKOUGH FULiLEb's EARTH. 7 

second, by the fact that the Pennsylvania petroleum is found in strata 
that bear but few fossils; third, by the belief that the Chemung and 
immediately overlying formations are barren in animal organic 
remains; and fourth, by the existence of large quantities of micro- 
scopic fossils, whose origin many believe is vegetable, in the black 
shales of the Lower and Middle Devonian formations to which many 
investigators are inclined to refer the origin of the Pennsylvania oil. 
Pennsylvania oil differs markedly from the Ohio, Texas, and 
California oils. Investigation has shown that it contains a much 
larger proportion of the paraffin hydrocarbons and a much smaller 
percentage of benzene, unsaturated hydrocarbons, sulphur, and 
nitrogenous bodies. It is further generally admitted that the Penn- 
sylvania oil was not formed in place. These two facts aided strongly 
in assigning a vegetable origin to this oil. 

To what strata should the source of the oil be referred? The 
great coal formations of Pennsylvania, lying above the Chemung, 
seem at first glance to offer a solution. It is a notable fact, however, 
that these formations have not, up to the present time, been con- 
nected, either chemically or geologically, with the Pennsylvania oil. 
The possibility exists that it may have been formed from vegetable 
remains in the Carboniferous formations above and reached its 
present position in the Chemung by downward diffusion. This 
view rests on the physical fact that a liquid diffuses by the force of 
capillarity in all directions, downward as well as upward. Little 
attention has been given to this possibility, but it seems to deserve 
a careful study. Owing, however, to the universal association of 
water under hydrostatic pressure with natural oil and gas, the migra- 
tion of the latter is generally upward. This fact is attested by the 
accumulation of oil in anticlinal folds when water is present and by 
the existence of the remarkable gushing oil wells. That the Penn- 
sylvania oil, if not formed in place, ascended to its present location 
seems, therefore, more probable. 

In what strata below the Chemung, then, was the oil originally 
produced ? It has been previously mentioned that a number of inves- 
tigators refer the source of the oil to the black shales of the Lower 
and Middle Devonian. The organic matter of these shales is com- 
posed largely of microscopic sporangites, which suggest the existence, 
according to Orton, of masses of floating vegetation, or sargasso seas. 
According to this view the Pennsylvania oil is of vegetable origin 
and its primitive abode was in the shales of Devonian age lying below 
the Chemung formation, to which it ascended under the influence of 
natural agencies. A second view, which assigns an animal origin to 
the oil, is that it was formed in the fossil-bearing strata of Chemung 
age and diffused to the sandstone reservoirs in which it is now found, 
and that during such a diffusion its original character was changed. 



8 DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 

Prof. C. K. Swartz, of Johns Hopkins University, who has made a 
critical study ot the Chemung strata in Maryland, states that fossil 
remains exist in considerable abundance in the strata of this age in 
Maryland and adjoining areas. In Pennsylvania the corresponding 
strata have been found to bear many fossils. It is possible, there- 
fore, that the oil may have formed in these strata and then diffused 
to strata barren of fossil remains, where it now exists. 

The evidence accumulated in this investigation seems to show that 
it is not necessary to assign a vegetable origin to the Pennsylvania 
oil to explain the differences between it and the oils of Ohio and CaU- 
fomia. It is clear from the results of this and other investigations 
that when such oils as those of Ohio, California, and Texas, which 
seem to be animal in origin, are allowed to diffuse through such 
porous media as fuller's earth, they yield oils very similar to those 
of Pennsylvania. By assuming, therefore, that the Pennsylvania oil 
migrated from some primitive source, in which it may have been formed 
from animal remains, through shales, limestones, and sandstones, its 
peculiar character can be understood. 

Wherever the original home of the oil may have been, it seems 
probable that it migrated to its present location from below. It is 
with the changes occurring in crude petroleum as a result of such a 
migration through porous strata that the present investigation is 
primarily concerned. 

In- 1897 David T. Day,Von his own observations and those of 
John N. MacGonigle, proposed the view that the Pennsylvania oil, 
at some past time, possessed properties very similar to those of the 
Ohio oil, but that in its migration to its present abode from strata 
below its character was changed. Guided by this view. Day con- 
ducted, in the laboratories of the United States Geological Survey, 
an investigation into the changes occurring in crude petroleum when 
allowed to diffuse through porous media, such as fuller's earth. He 
demonstrated clearly that an oil resembhng the light Pennsylvania 
oil could be readily produced in the laboratory from the heavier 
crude Ohio oil. Glass tubes were packed firmly with the dry earth, 
through which the crude oil diffused by its own force of capillarity. 
From the earth of the upper sections of the tubes very light, even 
colorless, oils were liberated by treatment with water; from the 
earth of the lower sections of the tubes much darker and heavier oils 
were obtained. 

The fractionation, it will be observed, is effected entirely by capil- 
larity; oils with different surface tensions rise with different veloci- 
ties through the capillary openings, such as the fine interstice and 
minute pores of the fuller's earth. A separation of the various 
constituents making up the complex of any one oil is thus brought 

1 Proo. Am. Pliik». Soe.» 1897. 



THBOUGH FUIXEB's EARTH. 9 

about. The view once held that this phenomenon is chemical was 
clearly disproved by Engler and Albrecht * in 1901 , and later by other 
investigators. 

Any medium, therefore, sufficiently fine grained and porous to 
afford capillary spaces, causes a separation of the constituents of any 
mixture, provided they possess different surface tensions. The com- 
pact sandstones, shales, and limestones that recur in many cycles 
throughout the earth's crust present an excellent medium for the sep- 
aration of the constituents of so complex a mixture as petroleum. 
The force of capillarity, assisted by the hydrostatic pressure of the 
water occurring in the interior of the earth, acting over vast periods 
of time, is, it seems safe to state, sufficiently powerful to transport 
the oil from the lower strata to those above. That the conditions, 
therefore, to cause such a migration, with the consequent fractiona- 
tion of the original oil, are abundantly present appears extremely 
probable. 

The members composing the natural oil may be grouped under the 
following general heads: Paraffin; aromatic, unsaturated hydrocar- 
bons; and sulphur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds. The behavior 
of the paraffin and unsaturated hydrocarbons when subjected to 
fractionation will be considered first. 

Day early observed that the unsaturated hydrocarbons are less 
diffusible than the paraffin hydrocarbons. Later, Gilpin and Cram* 
demonstrated that when petroleum is allowed to diffuse through tubes 
packed with fuller's earth, the unsaturated hydrocarbons collect in 
the earth of lower sections of the tubes, while the paraffins tend to 
accumulate in the lightest fraction at the top of the tube. In the 
present investigation these results have been fully confirmed. On 
pages 44-45 are given the bromine absorption values and the per- 
centages by volume absorbed by concentrated sulphuric acid of the 
various oils obtained from definite sections of a tube. These figures 
indicate conclusively that the amount of unsaturated hydrocarbons 
is much greater in the oils from the lower sections of the tube than in 
the lightest fractions at the top of the tube. Furthermore, the bro- 
mine absorption values for the oils of similar fractions of the first, 
second, and thivd fractionation, given on page 46, show that in the 
progress of the fractioDalion more and more of the unsaturated 
hydrocarbons are removed. Herr,' in Russia, has likewise observed 
that these hydrocarbons ate less diffusible than the paraffins. 

An interesting confirmation of these experiments in nature has been 
recently presented .by Clifford Richardson and K. G. MacKenzie.^ 
Thegr found that a colorless natural naphtha from the Province of 

> Zdtiehr. angew. Cbonie, IWl, p. 889. > Petroleum, August, 1900. 

I Bull. U. S. Oeol. Surrey No. 966, 19(». « Am. Jour. Scl., May, 19ia 



10 DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 

Santa Clara, Cuba, contained practically no unsaturated hydrocar- 
bons but was almost entirely a mixture of naphthenes and paraflSns. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid absorbed but 0.76 per cent by volume, 
wliile fuming sulphuric acid absorbed only 1.8 per cent. With the 
naphtha were obtained water and an emulsion of water, oil, and clay. 
These investigators are of the opinion that the naphtha was " undoubt- 
edly formed by the upward filtration of heavy petroleum through the 
clay stratum, similar to the fuller's earth filtrations of Gilpin and 
Cram, and the light naphtha in the upper part of the stratum was 
afterwards partly liberated by saline waters, the oil remaining in the 
clay forming, with water, the emulsion.'' 

A comparison of the proportions of the unsaturated hydrocarbons 
in the Ohio and Pennsylvania oils shows that the latter contain a much 
smaller percentage of these hydrocarbons. By assuming that the 
Pennsylvania oil diffused upward through such porous media as shales 
and limestones to its present location in the sandstones, it is possible 
to account for the smaller amounts of the olefines in it on the basis of 
the experimental work described above. In its passage through the 
capillary interstices of the clays, limestones, and sandstones, a frac- 
tionation, resulting in the removal of the unsaturated hydrocarbons, 
probably occurred. It is reasonable to conclude, tlierefore, that the 
variation in the content of unsaturated hydrocarbons between the 
Ohio, Texas, and California oils, on the one hand, and the Pennsyl- 
vania oil, on the other, can probably be accounted for by assuming 
that the Pennsylvania oil was subjected to capillary diffusion at some 
time in its career. That the light-colored naphthas occurring in 
different parts of the world were originally darker and heavier oils, 
and that their primitive character was changed by diffusion tlirough 
media possessing the power of fractionation seems very probable. 

The behavior of the aromatic hydrocarbons, in particular benzene, 
in passhig through fuller's earth constitutes one of the subjects of 
this investigation. The results of this study, given in detail on pages 
15-28, indicate clearly that benzene, like the olefines, tends to collect 
in the lower sections of a tube of fuller's earth through which the 
benzene, in solution, is allowed to diffuse. That the aromatic 
hydrocarbons in the natural oU behave in a similar manner has not 
yet been decided. The proportion of these hydrocarbons in the Illi- 
nois oil investigated was too small to enable us to determine accu- 
rately their amounts in the fractions obtained by the capillary diffu- 
sion of the crude oil. The ordinary methods, such as nitration with 
the mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, and sulphonation, employed 
for the quantitative determination of the aromatic hydrocarbons, 
could not be used in this work, owing to the fact that these reagents 
readily affect the unsaturated hydrocarbons as well. A study of 
the conduct of the aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural oil contain- 



THBOUGH FUIXER's EABTH. 11 

ing large amounts of them will be undertaken in the near future. 
It is probable, however, that the benzene and homologous compounds 
in crude petroleum behave like the unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

The presence of larger amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in the 
Ohio than in the Pennsylvania petroleum, and of still larger amounts 
in the California and Texas oils, seems to afford further evidence in 
favor of the view that the Pennsylvania oil has undergone much 
greater diffusion, and consequently greater fractionation, than any 
of the other oils. 

The conduct of the sulphur compounds in petroleum in the process 
of diffusion is similar to that of the unsaturated hydrocarbons. On 
page 46 the percentages of sulphur present in the oils from different 
parts of the tube and different stages of fractionation are tabulated. 
One series of figures will be given here to show the behavior of the 
sulphur compounds. 

Behavior of sulphur compounds in fractionation. 

Per cent 
First fractionation (lot 6) : of sulphur. 

Fraction A 0.04 

Fractions 05 

Fraction D 09 

Fraction E 16 

Second fractionation: Fraction A 04 

Third fractionation: Fraction A 003 

It is clear from these figures that the sulphur compounds, like the 
unsaturated hydrocarbons, tend to collect in the lower sections of a 
layer of fuller's earth through which petroleum is allowed to diffuse. 

In 1902 Clifford Richardson and E. C. Wallace,^ in an investigation 
on the occurrence of free sulphur in Beaumont petroleum, passed 
the oil upward through a fuller's earth filter similar to one described 
by Day at the petroleum congress in Paris in 1900, and obtained 
distinct fractionation. The percentages of sulphur in the crude oil 
and in the oils obtained by this fractionation were determined. The 
results are given in the following table: 

Percentages of sulphur in crude oil and after fractioruition. 



Specific 
gravity 

25* 



Crude oil 0.9140 

Plret fraction 8776 

Second fraction 8986 

Third fracUon 9038 



Per cent 
of sul- 
phur. 



1.75 
.80 
.01 

1.04 



I Jour. 8oc. Chem. Ind., March, 1902. 



12 DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 

It seems reasonable to assume from these results that the varia- 
tions in the sulphur content between the Pennsylvania and Ohio 
oils may be satisfactorily explained by the view that the former oil, 
as previously stated, diffused from other strata to its present location, 
and in its migration a large part of its original content of sulphur 
was removed. Further work on this point will be imdertaken in the 
Johns Hopkins University laboratory. 

No careful study. of the behavior of the nitrogen and oxygen com- 
pounds in petroleum diffusing through a porous medium has yet 
been undertaken, but such an investigation will be pursued in the 
same laboratory later. It is probable that such an investigation 
will show that the nitrogen compoimds act like the sulphur and 
unsaturated compounds. 

OBJECT OF THIS INVESTIGATION. 

The present investigation was undertaken for the immediate pur- 
pose of studying the changes occurring in the crude Illinois oil when 
allowed to diffuse through fuller's earth. The more distant but 
more fundamental object was to gain further insight into the causes 
of the variations among the oils of- this country. 

PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS. 

RELATIVE AMOT7NT8 OF OIL LOST IN HEATED AND TJNHEATED 

FTJLLEE'S EABTH. 

Before the actual investigation of the Illinois oil was undertaken, 
experiments were made to determine the relative amounts of oil 
lost in heated and unheated fuller's earth.^ In the work of Gilpin 
and Cram the earth was always heated until geysers ceased to form 
and then allowed to cool for several hours. The purpose of heating 
the earth was to obtain larger yields of oil, but toward the close of 
their investigation it became apparent that the amount of oil lost 
in unheated fuller's earth was not as large as they had supposed it 
to be. As much time and labor is consumed in the process of heating 
and then cooling the earth, it seemed advisable to settle this point 
at the outset. 

The apparatus employed for the present investigation was essen- 
tially the same as that used by Gilpin and Cram. Figure 1 shows the 
arrangement of the diffusion tubes. A, A, A, A are tin reservoirs 
made to hold somewhat more than a liter. Tlie tin tube§ B, B, B, B, 
5 J feet long and IJ inch in diameter, rest upon narrow tin supports 
placed upon the bottom of the reservoirs, and are connected with the 
branched glass tube F by suction tubing fitted with pinclicocks at 

I The fuller's earth employed in this work was generously supplied by the Atlantic R^nlng Co., of 
Philadelphia. 



« 



THBOUGH FUUlrER S EAETH. 



13 



E, E, E, E. The branched glass tube is connected with the large 
tank C, which serves to maintain fairly constant pressures; C is in 
turn joined by the glass tube D to a manometer^ and the latter is 
connected witii the Chapman pump. Any number of tubes may be 
set up in series imder the same diminished pressure. 

After the tubes are closed at their lower ends with grooved corks 
covered with muslin to prevent the earth from sifting out, they are 
packed to the desired firmness with the fuller's earth. Each tube is 
then placed in its own reservoir, containing tlie oil to be fractionated. 
When they are connected to the branched tube F, the pressure in the 
system of tubes is reduced by tlie suction pump. The oil rises at 
first rapidly ; then its diffusion gradually diminishes in power. When 
the reservoirs are almost exhausted, tlie tubes are disconnected and 




To pump 



FiGUKB 1.— Arrangement of diffusion tubes. See text for explanation. 

clamped with the bottom ends up above shorter tubes of the same 
diameter, into which the oil-laden earth is allowed to slide. These 
shorter tubes are made of two curved pieces, joined at the bottom by 
a cap and held together at the top by a ring. The cylinders are 
opened by slipping off the ring and cap and removing one of the curved 
pieces, and the earth is divided into the desired sections. WTien 
water is added in portions to the eartli and the two mixed thoroughly, 
the oil is displaced and is drawn off in separate portions. 

Six tubes packed with heated fuller's earth were set up alternately 
with six tubes filled with the unlieated earth. Each tube was placed 
in its own reservoir containing 950 cubic centimeters of crude oil. 
The oil was allowed to diffuse upward through the tubes under dimin- 
ished pressure. The oil in the reservoirs was not A^>^«"a^^d ur 



14 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PBTBOLEUM 



16 hours had elapsed. As the tubes did not rest directly upon the 
bottoms of the reservoirs, a small amount of oil remained in each; 
the volumes were subtracted from the volumes originally supplied. 
The eartli from each tube was shaken into a bucket, and the oil was 
recovered by displacement with water, as described above. The 
results of these experiments are arranged in the following table: 

Penruylvania oil lost on heated and unkeated fuller^ 8 earth. 

EMted fnUtr'i earth. 





Tube. 


Weight 
of fuller's 

earth 
(grams). 


on ab- 
sorbed 
by earth 
(cubic 
centi- 
meters). 


OU re- 
covered 
(cubic 
centi- 
meters). 


OiUost. 




Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 




Percent. 


1 


1,005 
1,000 
1,035 
1,070 
1,035 
1.045 


850 
792 
850 

865 
813 

885 

5.055 


450 
460 
500 
450 
430 
530 


390 
332 
350 
415 
383 
355 


46 


3 


41 


5 


41 


7 


48 


9 


47 


11 


41 












2,830 


2,225 


44 









Unheated fuller's earth. 



2 , 1,075 

4 1 1,095 

6 1 1,065 

8 1 1,045 

10 1 1,035 

12 ' 1.055 



917 


585 


332 


853 


562 


291 


840 


500 


340 


814 


435 


379 


873 


510 


363 


850 


485 


365 


5,147 


3,077 


2.070 



36 
34 
42 
46 

41 
41 



40 



The petroleum employed in the above-described experiments was 
a dark-green oil from Venango County, Pa., possessing a specific 
gravity of 0.810. As the Illinois oil which was used in the fractiona- 
tion proper, described later, difl'ers materially from the Pennsylvania 
petroleum, further experiments were undertaken to determine the 
relative amounts of this oil retained bv heated and unheated earth. 

Ten tubes, of which five were packed as uniformly as possible with 
fuller's earth that had been heated until geysers ceased to form and 
the other five with unheated earth, wore placed in reservoirs, each 
containing 950 cubic centimeters of Illinois oil, having a specific 
gravity of 0.8375. When the oil was entirely absorbed, the tubes 
were taken down, the oil-laden earth was shaken into two breakable 
cylinders, and divided into six sections — A, 10 centimeters in length, 
measured downward from the level to which the oil had ascended; 
B, the next 15 centimeters; C, 20 centimeters; D, 30 centimeters; 
E, 35 centimeters; F, the remainder of the earth to the bottom of 
the tube. Section F was entirely discarded. 

The earth was then treated with separate portions of water. The 
oils displaced by the successive additions of water were collected 
separately and are designated in the table below as A*, A^, B^, B*, 



I 

1 



THBOUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



15 



and so on; A' is the oil first displaced, A- the oil next expelled by 
further additions of water. The volumes and specific gravities of 
the recovered oils were determined. The results are expressed in 
the following table: 

Fractions of Illinois oil recovered after diffusion through fuller^ s earth. 





Heated fuller's 
earth. 


Unheated fuller's 
earth. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Volume 
(cubic 
centi- 
me ters). 


Specific 
gravity. 


Volume 
(cubic 
cp.ntl- 

meters). 


A» 


0.8287 


100 


0.8320 
.8352 
.8405 
.8451 
.8443 
.8495 
.8483 
.8517 
.8500 
.8560 


72 


A« 


22 


B> 


.8390 
.8486 
.8441 
.8507 
.8450 
.8490 
.8537 
.8564 


167 
36 
280 
67 
393 
132 
339 
174 

1,701 


184 


B« 


124 


C» 


270 


C« 


147 


D> 


368 


Dt 


210 


E> 


360 


E« .* 


186 








1,942 



In these experiments the percentage of oil lost in the unheated 
earth is less than the percentage of oil lost in the heated earth. 
Gilpin and Cram, employing heated earth, recovered in one test 
5,951 cubic centimeters from 9,070 cubic centimeters, and in another 
5,415 cubic centimeters from 8,915 cubic ceYitimeters, the amount of 
oil lost in the earth in the first test corresponding to 34 per cent and 
in the second to 39 per cent. It is clear, therefore, that there is not 
sufficient compensation, if any, for the time and labor spent in heat- 
ing the earth. In the investigations that followed the unheated 
fuller's earth was always used. 

THB DEFFTJSION OF BENZENE IN 80LT7TION THBOUGH FTTLLEB'8 



In order to deal more intelligently with the fractionation of the 
crude Illinois petroleum, it seemed advisable to study the behavior 
of the individual aromatic hydrocarbons, especially benzene, both 
alone and mixed with paraffin hydrocarbons, when allowed to dif- 
fuse upward through fuUer^s earth. Gilpin and Cram established 
the fact that the paraffin hydrocarbons tend to collect in the lightest 
fractions at the top of the tube. Their method consisted in distilling 
by heat six samples of oils of different specific gravities, each 300 
cubic centimeters in volume, and collecting 10 fractions between 
definite intervals. Five of these samples consisted of oil partly 
fractionated by fuller's earth and the other sample consisted of the 
crude oil. The specific gravity and viscosity of each fraction w 
determined; then to 30 cubic centimeters, or to all there was 



oro 



16 DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 

the amount was less than 30 cubic centimeters, an equal volume of 
concentrated sulphuric acid (specific gravity 1.84) was added, and 
the two were shaken by a machine for half an hour or longer. The 
volume of the oil unaffected by the acid was measured, and by sub- 
traction the volume of oil absorbed was calculated. This latter 
volume represents only approximately the percentage of unsatu- 
rated hydrocarbons present in the oil, because sulphuric acid of 
this strength readily dissolves benzene when the two are thoroughly 
shaken. 

In this investigation various solutions of benzene and a refined 
paraffin oil, boiling between 160° and 240° and only slightly attacked 
by sulphuric acid, were made up and allowed to rise in tubes packed 
with unheated fuller's earth. The pressure in the system was 
reduced very little, because the liquid, under a greatly diminished 
pressure, rose too rapidly. About 24 hours elapsed before the oil 
in the reservoirs was exhausted. 

The earth in each tube was shaken out -and divided into six sec- 
tions. Beginning at the uppermost point to which the oil had 
ascended grade A consisted of the first 8 centimeters, grade B of 
the next 8 centimeters, grade C of 18 centimeters, grade D of 30 
centimeters, grade E of 35 centimeters, and grade F of the remainder 
of the earth, depending on the height to which the oil had ascended. 
This division is the same as that used by Gilpin and Cram. The 
oil in the earth was displaced by water and drawn off. 

The specific gravity of each fraction was determined by means of 
the Mohr-Westphal balance at exactly 20° C. The fourth decimal 
place is not to be considered as strictly accurate, but gives a closer 
approximation to the truth than if it were entirely discarded. 

The viscosity was determined by means of the viscosmeter described 
by Ostwald and Luther and modified by Jones and Veazey.* The 
time taken for measured volumes of the oils to drain from the small 
bulb, whose capacity was 4.5 cubic centimeters, was compared with 
the time required for a similar amount of water to run through. 
These values were substituted in the equation — 

TS 



^"^•^ToSo 



in which — 



Yo =coeflScient of viscosity of water. For this, 0.01002, the value obtained by 

Thorpe and Rodger,' was used. 
T ^tirne of flow of liquid under examination. 

S ^specific gravity, measured at 20° C, of liquid under examination. 
To =time of flow of water. 
So =8pecific gravity of water. Since the balance was calibrated for water 

20® C, the value for S is unity, 
y =coefficient of viscosity of oil under examination. 



1 Zeltachr. physlkal. Chemle, vol. 61, p. 651. * Phllos. Trans., vol. 185A, 1804, p. 307. 



THBOUOH FULLER S EABTH. 



17 



The amount of benzene present in each fraction was determined 
by shaking the oil with an excess of ordinary concentrated sulphuric 
acid (specific gravity 1.84) for periods of time varying from 30 to 
60 minutes, until there was no further diminution in the volume of 
the oil. 

The results of the experiments tabulated below demonstrate the 
power of this acid to dissolve benzene, forming benzene-sulphonic 
acid: 

Action of concentrated gulphttric add (specific gravity 1.84) on benzene when shaken by 

machine. 



Benzene 
taken 
(cubic 
centi- 
meters). 


Acid 

taken 

(oubic 

oenti- 

metere). 


Time 
shaken 
(min- 
utes). 


Benzene dissolved. 


C^bic 
centi- 
meters. 


Percent. 


25 
25 
25 


25 30 
50 30 
75 30 


7 1 28 
18 72 
25 100 



The reagents usually employed for removing benzene are a mix- 
ture of fuming nitric and concentrated sulphuric acid. The work of 
Worstall,* Francis and Young,* and others shows that such a mix- 
ture readily attacks the paraffin hydrocarbons, especially at higher 
temperatures, forming nitro-derivatiyes and also oxidizing them to 
a considerable extent. Furthermore, in working with this mixture 
the oil must be kept at a low temperature to prevent a violent reac- 
tion, which results usually in the decomposition of the oil. In this 
work, therefore, in order to avoid the danger of attacking the paraffin 
hydrocarbons and for the sake of convenience concentrated sulphuric 
acid was used. 

It seems advisable, at this point, to call attention to the fact that 
the power of ordinary concentrated sulphuric acid to remove benzene 
and homologous hydrocarbons has been generally overlooked. In 
order to determine the percentages of these hydrocarbons it is cus- 
tomary to shake the oils to be analyzed with concentrated sulphuric 
acid and then to nitrate the unaffected oil. It is assumed that the 
acid removes such substances as the unsaturated hydrocarbons and 
does not attack the aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, P. Poni,* in deter- 
mining the presence and percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in 
Roumanian petroleum, collected fractions between 35*^ and 70® C, 
distilled under diminished pressure. These were purified by shaking 
with sulphuric acid, and each was nitrated with a mixture of 1 part 

1 Am. Chem. Jour., vol. 20, p. 202; vol. 21, p. 210. 

> Jour. Cbem. Soc., 1896, p. 928. 

* Annales sd. Univ. Jassy, 1907, pp. 192-202. (Abstracted in Jour. Cb^m. Soc., vol. 92, 1907.) 

89823°— Bull. 475—11 2 



18 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



of nit'ric acid (specific gravity, 1 .52) and 2 parts sulphuric acid (specific 
gravity, 1.8). The recovered oils were assumed to be parafRns and 
naphthenes, while the proportions of benzene and unsaturated hydro- 
carbons were calculated from the nitro-products obtaine<l. It is 
obvious from the results obtained in the present work that some of 
the benzene was removed in the process of purifying the fractions. 
The amount dissolved depended on the vigor of the shaking and its 
duration, as well as the strength of the sulphuric acid. It is highly 
probable, therefore, that Ponies percentage of benzene is too lovr. 

In the study of the mLxture of benzene and paraffin hydrocarbons 
25 cubic centimeters of each fraction, or all there was when the amount 
was less, was shaken vigorously with three times the volume of con- 
centrated sulphuric acid for 30 minutes. The amount unabsorbed 
was measured over the acid in a burette, after sufficient time had been 
allowed for most of the oil mechanically held in suspension to rise. 
The oil was then reshaken with a little more acid for 15 minutes and 
the volume again read. When the benzene was present in small qudh- 
tities one shaking was sufficient; when larger amounts were present 
shaking was repeated. 

The paraffin oil employed (specific gravity, 0.797) was shaken sev- 
eral times with fresh portions of concentrated sulphuric acid until 
the coloration of the acid disap|)eared, and only a slight diminution 
in volume occurred w^hen a small sample of the oil was thoroughly 
shaken by machine for some time with the acid. The oil was then 
washed with water and sodium hydroxide and dried over calcium 
chloride. The specific gravity decreased to 0.792. 

When this oil was mixed with benzene in various proportions and 
allowed to diffuse upward through fuller's earth the following results, 
arranged in series, were obtained: 

Results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin hydrocarbons through fuller^ a earth. 

. Series 1. oil alone. 

[Specific gravity. 0.792. Level of oil. 2S centimeters.] 





Grade. 

• 


Volume 
of oil 
(cubic 
«mti- 

melers). 

11 

17 

60 

100 

150 

139 


Specific 
gravity. 


Viscosity. 


Per cent of 
bentene. 


X 




0.789 
.792 
.7912 
.7915 
.7913 
.7915 




(») 


B 






C 





0.0154 
.0140 
.0134 
.0134 




D 







E 







F 















Original volume «> 


477 
778 





a In this series the percentages of benzene a>e not given, because the paraffin oil alone was used. 

^ The original volumes of solution vary with each series, owing to the fact That more or less always remained 
behind in the reservoir below the level of the tin support. In series 1, 2, 3, and 4, 9S0 cubic centimeters 
was supplied to each raservoir; in the rest ol the series each reservoir contained originally 1,000 cubic ocd« 
Umetersw 



THBOUOH FULLER S EARTH. 



19 



Remits of diffusion of benzene and paraffin hydrocarbons through fuller's earth — Contd. 

SexiM 8» 90 per oent oil (0.798), 10 per cent bensene (0.8776). 
[Specific gravity, 0.7963. Level of oil, 22 centimeters. 1 



OrAde. 


Volume 
of oil 
(cubic 
centi- 
meters). 


Specific 
gravity. 


Viscosity. 


Per oent of 
benzene. 


A 


11 

16 

56 

109 

145 

245 


p 




10.0 


B 




13.3 


C 


0.0131 
.0123 
.0120 
.0116 


11.6 


D 


14.8 


E 


14.4 


F 


14.8 






OrfaHnai volume . _ . . . , . 


582 
»72 









Sertoi 8, 80 per cent oil (0.798), 80 per cent bensene (0.8775). 
[Specific gravity, 0.806. Level of oil, 25 centimeters.] 



A 


25 

35 

78 

128 

166 

146 


0.7948 
.7981 
.8017 
.8005 
.801 
.798 


0.0147 
.0130 
.0117 
.0105 
.0107 
.0110 


15.3 


B 


16 


C 


22.4 


D 


21.6 


E 


22.4 


F 


20.8 






Oriffinal voUinie , . , ^ , , r - . - - - - 


576 
892 









Serlei 4, 76 per cent oil (0.798), 85 per cent bensene (0.8775). 
[Specific gravity, 0.810. Level of oil, 33 centimeters.] 



A 


16 

35 

74 

128 

152 

120 


0.800 
.803 
.8077 
.805 
.80(')8 
.8065 


(«) 

0.0129 
.0126 
.0114 
.0102 
.0105 


22 


B 


23.3 


c 


24 


D 


24 


E 


26 


f" :::::::::.: 


28 






OrlirinAl volnme. , 


525 
655 









Series 5, 75 per cent oil (0.794 '>), 85 per cent bensene (0.8775). 
[Specific gravity, 0.8115. Level of oil, 24 centimeters.] 



A 


25 

28 

70 

140 

172 

144 


0.7942 
.8048 
.8105 
.8100 
.8100 
.8093 


0. 0123 
.0104 
.0094 
.0094 
.0094 
.0095 


14 


B 


21.2 


c 


3L2 


D 


27.6 


E 


32 


F 


27.6 






• 

Oriffinal volume. 


579 
875 









a The visooeities of grades A and B in a few of the tables are not given, because in these series, the first 
made, the decision to determine the viscosities was reached only after the fractions had been treated with 
acid. As A and B were small in amount, all the oil was used in this treatment. 

f> As the quantity of oil of specific gravity 0.792 was not sumeient (or all the series, a second quantity 
with the specific gravity 0.794 was prepared. This oil w^as used in series 5, 8, 9, and l(k 



20 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



Results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin hydrocarbons through fulUr* s earth — Contd. 

SerlM 6» 76 per cent oU (O.TM), M per cent beaaeB* (0.8776). 

(Speciftc gravity, 0.8063. Level of oil, 27 centimeters.] 





r.rade. 


Volume 
ofoU 
(cubic 
centi- 
meters). 


Specific 
gravity. 

0.7995 
.8055 
.8052 
.8085 
.8085 
.8063 


Viscosity. 

0.0106 
.0099 
.0100 
.0093 
.0093 
.0096 


Per cent of 
benxene. 


A 




22 
32 
82 
155 
190 
93 


17.5 


B 


24.4 


r 


24 


I) 


2».S 


E 


31.2 


F.: ..- 


2n8 








Original voiiinie... 


574 
923 











Series 7, 69.6 per cent oil (0.792), 40.6 per cent benaene (0.6776). 
(Spetiflc pruvlty, 0.8223. Level of oil, 9 centimeters.) 



Series 9» 60 per cent oil (0.794), 60 per cent b^nsene (0.8776). 
(Spofifu' jn"ttvit y. O.Kilo. Level of oil, 18 centimeters.] 



A 


18 


0.816 
.8210 
.8275 
. »2Ki 
.8293 
.8277 


0.0091 
.0085 
.0078 
.0077 
.0076 
.0078 


26 


B •- 


24 


34.5 


c 


76 


47.6 


I) 


136 


50 


E 


174 


49.2 


F 


144 


40 








( )ri^nnal volume 


572 1 
923 





Series 10, 60 per cent oil (0.794), 60 per cent b«oaene (0.8776). 
[Spoclfic Kravity, 0.8295. Level of oil, 16 centimeters.] 



A 


31 


0.8135 
.8251 
.8290 
.8280 
.8285 
.8272 


0.0097 
.0081 
.0076 
.0077 
.0076 
.0076 


31.6 


B 


45 , 


43.6 


c 


85 


46.4 


1) 


140 ' 


47.6 


E 


175 ' 


49.6 


F 


137 1 


50 








Original volume 


1 613 ; 

972 ; 





A 


1 a 9 

15 




:. 1 


B 


0.8060 




14 
22.4 
31.2 
31.6 


C 

I) 

E 


48 

96 

160 


.816 
.8182 
.820 
.8185 


0.0103 
.0086 
.0062 
.0063 


F 


255 


29.6 


Original volume.. 


583 
922 






Series 8, 60 per cent oil (0.794), 60 per cent b«nsene (0.8776). 
[Spet-ifk' gravity, 0.x2<tt. Level of oil, 17 centimeters.] 


« 


A 

B 


22 0.8122 

32 : .819 




24.5 
28.4 


(' 

D 

E 


78 

Ill 

155 


.8287 
.8275 
.827 
.8256 


0.0077 
.0077 
.0077 
.0079 


44.8 
47.6 
39.2 


F 


192 


36.4 


Oriiriiial voliune.. 


: 590 

»« 


• 







o In series 7 the volume of grade A recovered was so small that bo measurements could be made. 



THBOUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



21 



Results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin hydrocarbons through fuller's earth — Contd. 

Series 11, 76 per cent crude oil (0.810), 25 per cent bensene (0.8776). 
(SpeciAc gravity, 0.8312. Level of oil, 18 centimeters.] 



Grade. 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 

Original volume 



Volume 
of oil 
(cubic 
centi- 
meters). 


Specific 
gravity. 


Viscosity. 


12 
22 
52 
76 
140 
186 


0.8255 
.8268 
.8280 
.8290 
.8300 
.8320 


0.0445 
.0423 
.0300 
.0208 
.0263 
.0276 


488 
890 



Per cent of 
benzene. 



(°) 



Seriei 18, beasene alone. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8775. Level of oil, 33 centimeters.] 



A. 
B. 
C. 
D. 
E. 
F. 



Original volume. 



16 
15 
68 
128 
157 
89 



473 
888 



0.8765 
.877 
.878 
.8778 
.8775 
.8771 



0.0066 
.0066 
.0066 
.0066 



«The percentages of benzene in serira 11, in which crude oil was emploved, are not recorded, because, 
owing to the formation of heavy black emulsions, the loss in volume coufd not be determined with any 
degree of accuracy. 

The results tabulated for series 2 to 10 are expressed diagram- 
jnatically in the curves shown in figures 2 to 6. The ordinates 
represent the different grades of oil, and the abscissas the percentages 
of benzene and the specific gravities. The curves in figure 7 represent 
as a whole the results of the experimental work on the diffusion of 
benzene in solution through fuller's earth. The ordinates of these 
curves represent the percentages of benzene, and the abscissas the 
various mixtures of benzene and oil that were allowed to diffuse 
through the earth. 

An examination of these shows condusively that benzene tends to 
collect in the lower portions of the tube. The specific gravities and 
viscosities confirm the results obtained by determining the per- 
centages of benzene present by removing the benzene with concen- 
trated .sulphuric acid. The specific gravities of grades F to C run 
very close together and are all much greater than those of grades 
A and B. As benzene possesses a high specific gravity — in this work 
the specimen had a specific gravity of 0.8775 — the larger values for 
the lower grades indicate the presehce of larger amounts of benzene. 
The specific gravity of the paraffin oil was only 0.792, showing that 
the higher specific gravities were due to larger percentages of be^^ 



22 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETBOLEUM 



I 



zene. Moreover, as the viscosity of the benzene used was 0.00^6 
and that of the paraflin oil about 0.0150, the viscosities of the frac- 
tions containing higher percentages of benzene ought to be much 
smaller than those of the fractions containing less benzene. The 
results show tliat the viscosities of grades F to C are much smaller 
than those of A and B. 

It will be observed that the maximum in specific gravity is not at 
F, as may be expected in the fractionation of the crude oil, but 



B 



(9 









Serl 


es 2 




















• 


\ 


\ 














- 






\ 




* 






\ 


• 
















• 


















 



















































K) 



20 

Per Cent 



30 40 

Benzene 



.7800 .7900 .8000 .BlOO .6200 

Specific Qravity 
Figure 2.— Curve showing results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin oji through fuller's earth, series 2. 



between C and D. Between B and C there is a marked decrease. 
This sudden break is found also in the viscosities and in the per- 
centages of benzene. Wliile the sharp breaks in the curves represent 
the marked change in the proportion of benzene and tlie height to 
whicli it rises in the tube, no satisfactory explanation has yet been 
obtained as to why it should occur at these points. This action 
will be studied more carefullv later. 



THROUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



23 



A 

a 

c 








1 

Seri 


es 3 




. 










1 








\ 












\ 


\ 


1 




\ 


\' 




t 




e 

F 




• 


















• 
























/ 






/ 


/ 




























Grade 
1 o o q > 








Seri 


es 4- 
















1 








\ 




















\ 


































\ 








1 










F 






\ 







































10 



20 



30 



Per Cent Benzene 



Figure 3. 



3 .790O .6000 .8IOO .8200 .8300 

Specific Gravtt.y 

'urves showing results of diflusion of benzene and paniflin oil through fuller's earth, series 

3 and 4. 



24 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROl^UM 



A 








Sen 


es 5 












B 




\ 


V 






\ 


\ 








c 




% 


\ 


s 






\ 


\ 






1. 






/ 


I 














6° 

r 






\ 


\ 














f 






/ 


/ 




- 




, 










 


















A 








Seri 


es 6 












a 




\ 


\ 








\ 








r 
















' 


- 






















\ 




m 


o 

r 






\ 


\ 














r 






1 


1 








1 





























10 20 30 4.0 

Per Cent Benzene 



.7900 .aooo .eioo .ezoo dB300 
Specific Gravity 



FiOTTKE 4.— Curves showing results of diffusion of bensene and paraffin oil through fuller's earth, series 

6 and 6. 



THBOUQH FULiiEB S EARTH. 



25 



A 








Seric 


s 7 












B 




















• 


c 




\ 


\, 








\ 


\ 






0) 

a 

^ D 






\ 










\ 














1 


• 






\ 


• 




■r 








/ 








1 
























. 




A 








Serie 


s e 












n 






\ 










\ 






c 








\ 


X 






^ 


\ 












A 








I 




o 

E 
F 








/ 


/ 


















/ 



































lO 20 30 40 

Per Cent Benzene 



.7900 .aooo . .8100 .azoo .6300 
Specific Gravity 



FiouBE 6.— Curves showtng results of diffusion of benxene and paraffin oil through fuller's earth, series 

7 and 8. 



26 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



A 








Sen 


1 

r^s 9 












• 






\ 


\ 




• 




\ 






c 








\ 


\ 












(- D 










\ 










\ 


r 










1 


• 










f 










/ 








/' 






















- 


A 








Sen 


es 10 












R 








\ 








\ 


• 

\ 




c 










\ 






• 


\ 




So 










\ 












r 










\ 












P 










\ 








1 












. 










• 





lO 20 30 ^q 

Per Cent Benzene 



.790O .eOOO .8100 .8200 .B300 

specific Gravity 



Figure 6.— Curves showing results of diffusion of benzene and paraffin oil through fuller's earth, series 

9 and la 



THROUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



27 



In order to determine the degree of exactness of tlie percentages 
of benzene obtained , known amounts of benzene were added to the 



so 






• 


0/ 

i 


40 








Grad« ^-N ^/ 










~rt^/ 










nl / 










^/ll / 










V / 




















# f m m M M 










/ 11/ / 










/ // 4^/ 


?30 






y 


K "&/ 


N 






/ 


// <v 


C 






/ > 


ti / 


• 






/ y. 


f / J 


flO 






/ ^ 


/ / 


t 


1 




/^ 


/ V 


• 

o 




y 


V^ / 


\i 


• 




y^r 


< / 




Q.20 




jy\i^ 


/ 


/ 


lO 


/ 


^ 


• 






/ 









10% Benzene 20% Benzene 25X Benzene 50% Benzene 
90% Oil 80% Oil 75% Oil 50% Oil 

Mixtures Fractionated 

FiouBX 7.~€iirve3 showing results of diflusion of benzene and paraffin oU through fuller's earth. 

oil nntil the specific gravity corresponded closely to that obtained by 
fractionation. 

The amount of benzene thus added and the amount actually 
removed by the acid agree very closely, as the following results show 

 Results of tests to determine accuraof of benzene percentages. 



Benzene in 25 cubic 
centimeters of mix- 
ture. 


Benzene found in series 8. 


Cubic cen- 
timeters. 

7.3 

9.4 
11.1 
11.3 
11.9- 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic centimeters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


0.8143 

.8213 
.8274 
.8287 
.8293 


Grade A, 7.9 
Grade B, 10. 9 
Grade F, 12.5 
Grade E. 12. 4 
Grade C, 11. 6 


0.8135 
.8251 
.8272 
.8287 
.8290 



28 DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 

The variations in the specific gravities of the prepared mixtures 
and those of grades A to F are due to tlie fact that in the latter some 
fractionation had taken place in the paraffin oils, while in the mix- 
tures the same paraffin oil was used each time. The parafiins found 
in grades A to F, therefore, exhibited slight gradations not common to 
the unfractionated paraffin oil used in preparing the mixtures. 

FRACTIONATION OF PETROLEUM. 

FIBST FBACTIONATION— CBXTDB PBTBOLET71C. 

The petroleum employed for the fractionation was an oil obtained 
by the United Statas Geological Survey from tlie E. E. Newlin farm, 
2i miles west of Robinson, Crawford County, 111. The specific 
gravity of the oil was 0.8375 at 20° C; its color was dark brown. 

The fractionation of the oil was effected by upward diffusion 
thro\igh tubes packed with fuller^s earth. In order to shorten the 
time required for the oil to diffuse by capillarity to the upper parts 
of the tube, the fine interstices and pores of the earth were evacuated 
by applying diminished pressure at the top of the tube. By this 
aid the time required for the oil to reach the top of a tube was reduced 
from several weeks to one or two days. 

The apparatus employed is the same as that described on page 12. 

The tin tubes, 5^ feet long and 1 i inches in diameter, were packed 
as uniformly as possible by introducing definite amounts of earth 
and ramming solidly with rods tipped with rubber stoppers. The 
degree of compactness depended on the kind of oil to be used. For 
the crude oil about 1^ feet of the tube was filled at a time, and the 
earth packed as firmly as possible; for the lighter oils, 1 foot of the 
tube was filled at a time; for the oils heavier than the crude, between 
2 and 3 feet of the tube was filled at one time. 

The tubes were then placed individually in reservoirs containing 
950 cubic centimeters of the crude oil, after which diminished pressure 
was applied at the top of the tubes. The oil rose rapidly at first, 
tlien diffused more and more slowly as it approached the tops of the 
tubes. When the oil in the reservoirs was completely exhausted the 
tubes were disconnected from the branced glass tube (see fig. 1, 
p. 13), and the oil-laden earth was shaken into two breakable cylin- 
ders. The following divisions of the eartli were made: Fraction A, 
the first 10 centimeters measured downward from the level to which 
the oil had ascended; fraction B, the next 15 centimeters; C, 20 
centimeters; D, 30 centimeters; E, 35 centimeters; and F, the remain- 
der to the bottom of the tube. In the first fractionation up to lot 28, 
fraction F was discarded; from lot 28 to the end of the first fractiona- 
tion, E and F were collected together. 

After the earth was thus divided the several portions were placed 
in separate receptacles and treated with water. After each addition 
of water each portion was thoroughly mixed with it. The earth, 



THBOUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



29 



when the oil first appeared, was granular; as more water was added, 
liberating more oil, the earth became muddy, and when as much oil 
as possible had been expelled by the water, the earth had the con- 
sistency of glue. 

The portions of oil hberated by successive additions of water were 
collected separately. As Gilpin and Cram * pointed out, the oil that 
is first expelled, if not very small in volume as compared with the 
succeeding portions, possesses a lower specific gravity than the oil 
hberated by further additions of water; the latter in turn is lighter 
than the next succeeding oil. The oil that is liberated last, there- 
fore, possesses a higher specific gravity than any of the portions pre- 
ceding it. Sometimes, however, the specific gravity remains constant 
after the second or third extraction. This fractionation by means 
of water was combined with the fractionation effected by the fuller's 
earth. In the tables that follow A* represents the oil first liberated, 
A* the oil next hberated, etc. In the lower fractions (C, D, and E), 
three and sometimes four extractions were made before all the oil 
that could possibly be liberated by water was recovered. 

The specific gravity of the oils was determined by means of the 
Mohr-Westphal balance. As mentioned before, the fourth decimal is 
not to be considered as rigidly accurate, but it gives a closer approxi- 
mation to the truth than if it were entirely discarded. The tem- 
perature at which the specific gravity was measured was exactly 20® C. 

Results of first fractionation. 





1 


8 


8 


Number of tubes 


15 


5 


10 


Hours required a 


18, 14 tubes; 23. 1 
tube. 


16 


17, 8 tubes. 


45, 2 tubes. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters b 


Specific 
gravity. 

0.82a5 
.8310 

.8370 
.8408 

.8440 
.8442 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 

73 
59 

218 

78 

272 
136 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A» 


0.8250 
.8287 

.8367 
.8392 

.8413 

.84(i0 
.8488 

.8470 
.8495 
.8514 
.8555 

.8527 
.8540 
.8570 


312 
90 

485 
250 

828 

228 
120 

1.014 
375 
200 
172 

720 
430 
400 


0.8223 
.8270 

.8372 
.8400 

.8442 
.8455 

.8488 
.8500 
.8540 


138 
54 

258 
200 

290 
235 
148 

538 
295 
115 


0.8233 


50 


A" 




B« 


.8405 


130 


B« 




c» 


.8505 
.8535 


120 


c« 

c» 


65 


D» 

D» 


.8430 

.84('>4 
.8500 


313 
150 
112 


.8546 
.8619 


235 
30 


D» 




D« 






E» 

El 


.8475 
.8509 
.8540 


285 
135 
118 


.8537 
.8550 
.8570 


380 
245 
170 


.8615 


172 


E* 













a Chapman pump was run day and night. Manometer indicated pressures ranging from 30 to 80 milU- 
maters. 
> In lots 1 to 6, 1,000 cubic centimeters of crude oil was supplied to each tube. 



I Am. Cham. Jour.« toI. 40, 1908. 



30 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



Results of first fractionation — Continued. 





4 


5 


6 


Number of tubes 


10 


8 


10> 


Hours required 


16 


17, 7 tubes; 24, 1 
tube. 


17. 1 tube;» 40, 3 
tubes; 96,1 tube. 


17, 3 tubes: 40. I 
tube; 150. 1 tube. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

oenU- 

meters. 


A> 


0.8295 
.8315 

.8375 
.8413 

.8418 
.8442 
.8495 

.8455 
.8490 

.8500 
.8510 
.8567 


170 
100 

327 
250 

505 

223 

74 

495 
328 
260 

545 
295 
170 


0.8313 
.8357 

.8392 
.8453 

.8419 
.8439 
.8465 

.8454 

.8500 
.8509 

.8495 
.8513 
.8555 


130 
66 

358 
92 

425 
138 
130 

640 
.167 
195 

575 
185 
130 


0.8320 
.8352 

.8405 
.8451 

.8443 
.8495 


e72 
22 

184 
124 

270 
147 


0.8287 


'85 


A« 




B» 


.8390 
.8485 

.8441 
.8607 


1S4 


B« : 


35 


C« 


218 


C« 


67 


C> 




D« 


. oVSS 

.8517 


368 
210 


.8480 
.8480 


303 


D" 


132 


D» 




E» 


.8500 
.8560 


360 
185 


.8537 
.8564 


215 


E« 


174 


E» 



















7 


8 


9 


Number of tubes 


9 


10 


10 


Hours required 


20,7 1 


Lubes. 

Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 

66 
30 

164 
140 


20, 1 tube; 24, 1 
tube. 


19, 8 tubes; 22, 2 
tul>es. 


24, 2 tubes; 40, 8 
tubes. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Specific 
gravity. 

0.8175 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A» 


0.&325 
.8356 

.8395 
.8418 


45 


0.8364 
.8365 

.8400 
.8420 


88 
64 

215 
240 


P 


145 


A» 


90 


B» 


.8333 


110 


397 


B« 


155 


B« 






87 


C> 


.8468 


475 
123 


.8417 
.8500 


132 
22 


.8445 
.8467 
.8495 

.8465 
.8478 
.8500 

.8490 
.8495 
.8521 


368 

225 

82 

460 
260 
260 

450 
354 
233 


350 


C« 


255 


C 


dieo 


D» 


.8449 
.8487 


500 
270 


.8468 
.8498 


110 
106 


607 


D« 


280 


D« 


347 


E» 


.8500 
.8524 


483 
318 


.8533 


228 


313 


E« ;.. 


275 


E» 






375 















a Beginning with lot 6, 950 cubic centimeters of crude oil was supplied to each tube. 

t> The pressure in the tubes was diminished intermittently. 

cSee nafire 14. 

tf Several cubic centimeters of this firaction were mixed, accidentally, with firaction B*. 



THROUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



31 



Results of first fractioTuUion — Continued. 



Number of tubes. 



Hoars required. 



Fraction. 



A» 

A« 

Bi 

B« 

C» 

C« 

C» 

D» 

D« 

D» 

E» 

E« 

E« 

Number of tubes 
Hours required . 



10 



8 



17 



Specific 
gravity. 



0.8273 
.8288 

.8396 
.8418 

.8423 
.8440 
.8500 

.8460 
.8475 
.8500 

.8532 
.8535 
.8550 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



130 
76 

220 
160 

2^ 
105 
150 

410 
210 
348 

320 
282 
215 



11 



10 



17 



Specific 
gravity. 



0.8258 
.8318 

.8370 
.8480 

.8422 
.8450 



.8465 
.8490 
.8530 

.8510 
.8520 
.8533 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



215 
70 

340 
180 

488 
206 



565 
310 
187 

297 
405 
155 



18 



42 



Specific 
gravil;y. 



0.8325 
.8345 

.8430 
.8467 

.8470 
.8487 



.8405 
.8322 



.8505 
.8533 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



125 

87 

235 

120 

278 
288 



'452 
306 



475 
490 



18 



10 



24, 8 tubes; 40, 2 
tubes. 



Specific 
gravity. 



0.8323 
.8352 

.8438 
.8470 

. o404 

.8505 



.8500 
.8492 
.8518 

.8506 
.8489 
.8518 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



122 
96 

245 
180 

317 
235 



312 
375 
150 

450 
396 
180 



Fraction. 



A». 
A«. 

B^ 
B«. 



a. 



D'. 

D». 

E». 
E«. 
E*. 



14 



24a 



Spedflo 
gravity. 



0.8355 



.8470 



,8565 
,8560 



8523 
8550 



.8540 
.8532 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



132 



236 



96 
150 



170 
205 



150 
325 



15 



6 



26, 3 tubes. 



Specific 
gravity. 



0.8381 



8487 



.8430 
.8480 



8475 
8517 



.8467 
.8502 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



26, 3 tubes. 



16 



15 



40, 11 tubes; 64,4 
tubes. 



Specific 
gravity. 



60 



94 



0.8305 



.8452 



110 
57 



.8465 
.8509 



212 
104 



.8506 
.8522 



184 
152 



.8561 
.8585 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



Specific 
gravity. 



73 



143 



138 

88 



158 
178 



192 
140 



0.8370 
.8357 

.8449 
.8445 

.8475 
.8509 
.8562 

.8540 
.8530 
.8575 

.8538 
.8562 
.8595 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



200 
106 

490 
226 

635 

235 

90 

825 
495 
150 

775 
620 
206 



a When the pressure in the tubes was diminished the oil rose rapidly, and in a short time the reservoirs 
were nearly two-thirds exhausted. The pump was stopped and ^e remainder of the oil was allowed to 
diffuse dunng the nif^t under normal pressure. 



32 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



Remits of first fraetionatum — Continued . 



Number of tubes. 



17 



Hours required. 



40 



Fraction. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



B. 

O. 
C«. 



D>. 
D*. 

E«. 
E«. 



0.8258 
.8432 
.8480 

. 0*100 

.8530 
.8550 

.8585 
.8598 



225 

452 

450 
168 

520 
350 

385 
460 



18 



8 



24, 5 tubes; 48, 2 
tubes; 64, 1 tube. 



19 



10 



10 



40, 8 tubes; 64, 2 20, 6 tubes; 30, 4 
tubes. tubes. 



Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


0.8322 

.8435 

.8496 
.8500 

.8530 
.8540 

.8547 
.8526 


112 

335 

250 
250 

320 
350 

a90 
640 


a832U 

.8438 

.8480 
.8472 

.8509 
.8'»6 

.8492 
.8500 


146 

385 

300 
315 

422 
355 

680 
415 


a8281 

.8413 

.8450 
.8496 

.8506 
.8538 

.8513 
.8540 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



518 

350 
300 

325 
460 

445 

550 





81 


88 


SS 


84 


Number of iubea 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Hours required 6 


24. 6 tubes: 40. 2 
tub s; 64, 2 tubes. 


40, 6 tubes; 64, 4 
tubes. 


48, 6 tubes; 72, 6 
tubes. 


40, 4 tubes: 64, 6 
tubes. 


• 

Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific, 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


0.82'/5 
.8410 

.8452 

.8488 

.8512 
.8.'>35 

.8557 
.8625 


245 

615 

520 
226 

533 
415 

375 
282 


0.8281 

.8405 

.8469 
.8472 

.8505 
.8523 

.8615 
.8585 


210 

508 

265 
410 

435 
450 

385 
365 


0.8241 

.8395 

.8448 
.8470 

.8533 
.8541 

.8650 
.8624 


330 

615 

420 
305 

400 
465 

305 
350 


0.8250 

.84& 

.8463 
.86a'» 

.8540 
.8540 

.8623 
.8645 


287 


B 


535 


C> 


475 


C« 


186 


D» 


525 


D* 


360 


E> 


393 


E« 


335 







a This Irregularity— that is, the liberation of oil with a speciflc gravity higher ttian those of the oils imme- 
diately following— is observed when an amount of water is added sufficient to replace a very small amount 
of oil for the first fraction. 

f> Pressure m the tubes was diminished intermittently. 



THBOTTQH FULLEB S EARTH. 



33 



Results of first fractumation — Gontinned. 







86 


87 


88 


Number of tubes 


9 


10 


10 


10 


Hours required a 


48, 8 tubes; 73, 1 
tube. 


17, 2 tubes; 24, 4 
tubes; 41, 4 tubes. 


17, 4 tubes; 29, 6 
tubes. 


24, 7 tubes; 28, 3 
tulws. 


FractlozL 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

oenU- 

meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
oeatl- 

metpits. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

cnnti- 

m^eters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


0.82*^) 

.8425 

.8406 
.8492 

.8500 
.8510 

.8556 
.8570 


226 

410 

6 75 
250 

320 
480 

335 


0.8284 

.8422 

.8473 
.8.'i08 

.8516 
.8640 

.SSBO 


316 

660 

520 
178 

600 
230 

490 
135 


0.8312 

.8440 

.8460 
.8478 

:8482 
.8500 

.8520 
.8566 


230 

370 

400 
232 

436 
420 

465 
335 


0.8333 

.8440 

.8468 
.8600 

.8470 

QJQQ 

.8492 
.8505 


240 


B 


410 


C» 


415 


C« 


177 


D> 


387 


D« 


400 


E> 


e600 


E» 


385 1 .8586 


600 






1 







89 


SO 


81 


88 


Number of tubes 


10 


15 


10 


15 


Hours required <> 


18, 5 tubes; 40, 5 
tubes. 


20. 7 tubes; 41, 6 
tubes; 63, 2 tubes. 


44, 4 tubes; 89, 6 
tubes. 


40. 7 tubes; 80, 4 
tubes; 103, 4 tubes. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
metars. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


0.8262 

.8305 

.8463 
.8488 

.8520 
.8543 

.8550 
.8559 


300 

505 

390 
270 

510 
290 

417 
645 


0.8348 

.8468 

.8490 
.8505 

.8485 
.8502 

.8520 
.8528 


335 
630 

660 

277 

750 
640 

1,125 
880 


0.8292 

.8489 

.8496 
.8523 

.8617 
.8552 

.8555 
.8610 


245 
576 

466 

205 

670 
210 

805 
360 


0.8270 

.8423 

.8600 
.8600 

.8646 
.8543 

.8580 
.8508 


446 


B 


726 


C» 


730 


C* 


220 


D« 


760 


D« 


640 


EF« 


870 


EF« 


910 








3,327 


5,097 


3,536 


5,191 



a Pressure in the tubes was diminished intermittently. 

6 Some oil of this fraction was lost. 

e Beginning with lot 28, fractions £ and F were collected together. 



89823°— Bull. 476—11- 



34 



DIFFUSION OF CBUDE PETBOIJiUM 



Results of first fractionation — Continued. 





88 


M 


M 


Number of tubes 


10 


10 


9 






Hours reauired o 


41, 4 tubes; 65, 4 
tubes; 89, 2 tubes. 


44. 6 tubes; 68. 4 


48. 6 tubes: 72. 3 




tubes. 


tubes. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

oentl- 

meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

centi- 

metora. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

oenti> 

meters. 


A J. 


0.8330 

.8440 

.8462 

.8502 
.8540 

.8555 
.8562 

.8575 

.8585 


290 

365 
165 

500 
160 

655 
250 

735 
480 


0.8355 
.8475 


320 
525 


0.8380 
.8460 


235 


B» 


452 


B« 




C» 


.8508 
.8543 

.8575 
.8585 

.8535 
.8555 


470 
190 

530 
325 

895 
405 


.8508 
.8525 

.8549 
.8573 

.8557 
.8570 


345 


c« 


245 


D> 


580 


D« 


335 


EF» 


645 


EF« 


492 








3,600 


3,660 


3,329 



a Pressure in the tubes was diminished intermittently. 

Specific gravity. — The range of the specific gravity extended from 0.8175, the value 
of fraction A* of lot 7, to 0.8650, the value of fraction E* of lot 13. The specific gravity 
of the crude oil itself was 0.8375. The range of the specific gravities of the individual 
lots averted from 0.820 to 0.860. The specific gravity decreases gradually from 
E to B, but in most of the lots the decrease between B and A is much greater than 
between any two consecutive lower fractions. This marked change was also observed 
in the study of the diffusion of benzene in solution. A detailed investigation of the 
cause will be undertaken in the near future. 

Color. — The color of the fractions obtained ranged from green to black. The lighter 
oils possessed a beautiful green fluorescent color, which shaded gradually to brown 
and then to the deep black of the heavier oiLs. 

Odor. — The unpleasant odor of the crude petroleum disappeared almost entirely 
in the oils of fractions A and B; but the other fractions still possessed to a greater or 
less extent the odor of the natural oil. 

Volume of oil retained by the fuller's earth. — The amount of oil retained by the earth 
averaged about 55 per cent of the amount supplied. In the first fractionation of the 
crude Pennsylvania oil, specific gravity 0.810, Gilpin and Cram found that approxi- 
mately 40 per cent of the oil was retained by the earth. It is evident, therefore, that 
the amount of oil remaining in the earth depends chiefly on the character of the oil. 
The Pennsylvania petroleum contains a much smaller percentage of unsaturated 
hydrocarbons, sulphur, and asphaltic substances than the Illinois oil employed in 
this investigation. Inasmuch as the fuller's earth readily removes these substances 
in the process of fractionation, as will be shown later, the large percentage of Illinois 
oil retained by the earth is thus clearly explained. It is safe to conclude that if the 
heavy Texas or California oil was allowed to diffuse through fuller's earth, the amount 
of oil retained would exceed the amounts of either of the above-mentioned oils loet 
in the earth. 



THROUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



SECOND FBACTIONATION. 



35 



The products obtained from the first fractionation were united 
according to the following arrangeinent: 

Specific gravity of oils united for second fractionation. 



Lot. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Specific gravity 
of the oils iinitea. 


36 
37 
38 
39 
40-43 
44-50 


0.8293 
.8390 
.8433 
.8433 
.8490 
.8543 


a 8250^0. 8350 
.8350-. 8400 
.8400- .8450 
.8400- .8450 
.8450- .8500 
.8500- .8(300 



The oils thus combined were subjected to chilling and filtration 
for the purpose of removing as much dissolved paraffin as possible. 
The procedure was as follows: The oils were first chilled at tempera- 
tures ranging from 0** to 10° C, and then filtered through plaited 
filter papers. When the oil ceased to drip from the funnel, the 
residue upon the filter paper was placed in a larger filter press, and 
the remaining oil was separated by pressure from the paraffin. 
The filter press was simple in construction. A piston, fitted closely 
in an iron cylinder, was gradually forced down upon the oil-laden 
paraffin, which rested upon a membrane of cotton duck, fastened 
between perforated tin supports. The retained oil was forced 
through the membrane and was collected from the outlet below. 
The lighter oils deposited very little paraffin; somewhat more paraffin 
was separated from the heavier ones. Owing to the high viscosity 
of the heavier oils, the filtration proceeded very slowly, and as too 
much time was consumed in this process, the paraffin of some of the 
oils of fraction E was not removed. A slight change in specific 
gravity occurred in the oils from which the paraffin was removed. 

The final specific gravities of the united oils were as follows: 

Final specific gravity of oils for second fractionation. 



Lot. 


specific 


Paraffin 


gravity. 


removed. 


36 


8305 


•Yes. 


37 


.8415 


Yes. 


38 


.8433 


No. 


39 


.8455 


Yes. 


40-42 


.8515 


Yes. 


43 


.8540 


Yes. 


44-18 


.8543 


No. 


49-50 


.8557 


Yes. 



36 



DIFFU»OX OF CSUDE PETBOLXCM 



When these oils were again allowed to diffuse upward through 
fuller's earth, the following fractionation was obtained: 

RenUU of aeeondJraetionaHon. 



Specific grsvity. 



OAKS 



OJMB 



aM33« 



0l84»» 



Number of tuljes. 



I 



8 



8 



Hours required c  44, 3 tubes; 48, 2 

tubes. 



51 



C>. 
C«. 



D'. 



EF«. 



Fraction. 



48, 7 tobes: 64, 1 29L 4 tobes: 45. i 
tobe. Intac; 64. 1 tabe. 



Specific 
graiity. 



0.8272 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



lUO 



Specific 
gravity. 



0.8292 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



I 



Spedflc 
gravity. 



Cubic 
oentl- 



Cut^ 



T 



paTity. 



u- 



135 



asssi 



180 



afflw 



.8315 
.8331 


21 « 
58 . 


.8421 


215 


.8447 
.8455 


176 
210 


.802 
.8458 


lie 


.8334 ' 

.83^5 


350 


.8467 1 


2»5 


.8490 
.8505 


305 
175 


.8«C 
.8513 


43iS 
isu 


.83W ' 
.8339 


360 
320 


.8468 
.8485 • 


340 
152 


.8482 
.8509 • 


400 
295 


.8505 - 
.8527 


740 
275 


.8347 

.8:^.56 


730 
320 


.84S0 
.8489 . 


53.5 
215 


.8506 
.8518 ' 


no 

355 


.8546 ' 
.f&SO 


l.lrtO 

3r*> 



2.589 



1.887 



3,886 



2.»C5 



1 
I 



40 



41 



Sfjoclfic f?ravity. 



NurnlMrr of tulx». 



0.8515 



9 



0.8515 



0.8515 



0.8540 



Hours required 



B». 
Ba. 

C«. 






EF«. 
EF«. 



Fraction. 



48, 5tul)es; 72, 4 
tulws. 



f Specific 
I gravity. 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



40 



Specific 
gravity. 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



0.8305 


380 


0.8316 


235 


. 84.38 
.8453 


515 
155 


.8460 
.8480 


290 
65 


. 8.W9 


iiOO 
170 


.8523 
.8540 


375 

100 


. 85('>0 


685 
330 


. HfJOo 
. 8571 


470 
110 


.86a'i 

. WiiO 


780 

m) 


.8620 
.8622 


580 



4.215 



2,545 



69 



10 days. 2 tubes; 17 
days, 2 tubes. 



Specific 
gravity. 

0.8325 

.8487 
.8515 

.H.'>40 
.8567 

. 8.')72 
.8582 

.8«i40 
. 8ti.'»0 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Spedflc 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


210 

265 
54 

335 

56 

420 
175 

675 
200 


0.8435 
.8546 


1*5 
115 


.8575 


200 


.8605 
.8640 

.8650 
.8615 


220 
.50 

225 

78 


2.420 


953 



o Parafiin was removed from the oil. 

b Paraffin wii8 qot removed from tlie oil. 

c Id this aeries, as well as those following, the pressure in the tubes was diminished intermittently. 



THBOUQH FULLER 8 EARTH. 



37 



RetulU of seoovd fractionation — Continued. 



Specific gravity a. 



Xumber of tubes. 



Hours required. 



Fractton. 



B«. 

C». 
C«. 

D» 



EF» 
EF« 



44 



0.8543 



48, 2 tubes; 96, 1 
tube. 



SpecUlc 
gravity. 



a8380 
.8SD5 



.8582 
.8605 

.8B0S 
.8620 

.8672 
.8080 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



86 
176 



155 
65 

195 
120 

240 
176 



1,210 



46 



0.8543 



5 



66 



Spedflc 

gravity. 



0.8362 

.8510 
.&522 

.8562 
.8585 



' Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



.8567 I 
.8580 

.8659 
.8670 



170 

210 

80 

265 
50 

425 

100 

615 
150 



46 



0.8543 



93 



Spedflc 
gravity. 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



2,065 



0.8332 

.8480 
.8505 

.8554 

.8567 

.8600 
.8613 

.8666 
.8680 



210 

200 

50 

300 
95 

370 
120 

610 
130 



47 



0.8543 



13 day8.fr 



Spedflc 
gravity. 



Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 



0.8340 
.8500 



2,145 



8553 
.8576 

.8595 

.8618 

.8665 
.8670 



145 
275 



320 
50 

430 

70 

330 
215 



1,835 





48 


49 


50 




0.8543 a 


0.8567 « 


0.8557 e 






Number of tubes 


5 


7 


5 






Hours reauixtBd 


14 days.' 


48 


72. 4 tubes: 89. 1 




tube. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 

0.8385 
.8630 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Spedfic 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Spedflc 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


125 
275 


0.8841 

.8505 
.8520 

.8560 
.8572 

.8620 
.8625 

.8706 
.8705 


258 

395 
95 

380 
230 

500 
290 

500 

580 


0.8320 

.8485 
.8500 

.8565 
.8577 

.8609 
.8626 

.8685 
.8700 


170 


B» 


230 


B« 




70 


r> 


.8508 


39n 


300 


C» 


.8586 fin 


100 


D» 

D« 

EF« 

KF« 


.8610 
.8623 

.8605 
.8700 


325 
115 

330 
80 


480 
125 

640 
2.35 




) 


1,660 


3,225 


2,350 



a ParaiBii was not removed from the oil. 

(^ Owing to the weakness of the water pressure, the pressure In the tubes was only slightly diminished. 
Tb6 tubes were taken down before the reser%*oirs were completely exhausted. The distances to which 
the oil had risen were 35, 2.5, 30, 20, and 10 centimeters from tne tops of the tubes. 

« Paraffin was semovad'ffoin'ihe oH. 

d Owing to the weakness of the water pressure, the prefsure In the tiil^es was diminished but slightly 
during this time. The tubes were taken down Yiefore the reservoirs were completely exhausted. The 
distances to which the oil had risen were 50, 35, 30, €0, and 55 centimeters from the tops of the tubes. 



38 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



Specific gravity. — The range of the specific gravities grows smaller as the oils to be 
fractionated become lighter and less complex. Thus, in lot 36, the range of specific 
gravity extends from 0.8272, the value of fraction A, to 0.8356, the value of EF^, the 
difference between them being 0.0084. In lot 38, the mother oil, specific gravity 
0.8433, yielded fractions whose specific gravities ranged from 0.8331 to 0.8518. 
amounting to a difference of 0.0187. This fact appears to be general throughout the 
various lots, and points to the gradual formations of mixtures which will pass through 
the earth unaltered, just as the fractionation by distillation tends to produce eom- 
pounds with definite boiling points. 

Color. — The color of the oils in this fractionation shaded from a very light yellow t« 
greenish black. 

Odor. — ^The odor of the crude petroleum vanished completely from the oils of this 
fractionation. 

Volume of oil retained by the fuller^ 9 earth. — ^The oil retained by the earth in this frac- 
tionation amounted to approximately 50 per cent, a smaller percentage, as is naturally 
to be expected, than in the fractionation of the crude petroleum. 



THIKD FBACTIONATION. 

The following oils obtained from the second fractionation were 
united for the third fractionation. 

Oils used for third fractionation. 



Lot 51. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8316.] 



Lot. 



36 
39 
37 
40 
36 
41 
fiO 
42 
44 
36 
38 
46 
36 
49 



Fraction. 


SpeoiHc 
gravity. 


A 


0.8272 


A 


.82<K) 


A 


.8292 


A 


.8305 


B» 


.8315 


A 


.8316 


A 


.8320 


A 


. 8325 


A 


. 8330 


B» 


.8331 


A 


.8331 


A 


. 8332 


n 


.8334 


^ 


.8341 



Lot 58. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8343.] 



36 
36 
47 
36 
36 
86 



D» 


0.8330 


D« 


.83J9 


A 


.8340 


EF» 


.8347 


EF« 


. K156 


C« 


.8355 



Cubic 
centi- 
meter. 



2.899 



360 
320 
145 
720 
320 
85 

1.950 



160 
255 
135 

380 
216 > 
235 

170 I 
210 I 

85 

58 ! 
180 I 
210 I 
350 : 
255 



Lot n. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8433.1 



Lot. 


Fraction. 


Spedflo 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meter. 


45 


A 

A 

B» 

B» 

B> 

B» 

B» 

B« 

B» 


0.8362 
.8385 
.8421 
.8432 
.8438 
.8447 
.8453 
.8455 
.8458 

• 


170 


48 


125 


37 


215 


39 


355 


40 


515 


38 


175 


40 


155 


3S 


210 


39 


50 








1.970 



Lot 54. 



[Specific gravity, 0.8473.] 



39 
41 
37 
41 
50 
42 
39 
38 



B' 


0.8458 


B> 


.8460 


C» 


.8467 


B« 


.8480 


B' 


.8485 


B> 


.8487 


r» 


.8492 


C» 


.8490 

1 

1 



60 
290 
295 

65 
230 
265 
455 
305 

1,965 



THBOUGH FULLiEB S EABTH. 



39 



OiU used far third fractumation— Continued. 



Lot 65. 
[Specific gravity, 0.8485.] 



Lot. 


Fraction. 


Spedflc 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meter. 


37 


D» 

D« 

EF» 

EF« 

D» 

B» 


0.8468 
.8485 
.8480 
.8480 
.8492 
.8500 


340 


37 


152 


37 


535 


37 


215 


38 


400 


47 


275 








1,917 



Lot M. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8508.] 



50 


B« 

B» 

B» 

B« 

C» 

B» 

C« 

B« 

C» 


a8500 
.8506 
.8505 
.8505 
.8505 
.8510 
.8513 
.8515 
.8518 


70 


49 


395 


44 


175 


46 


50 


38 


175 


45 


210 


39 


180 


42 


54 


40 


600 








1,900 



Lot 67. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8500.] 



39 
38 
38 
38 




0.8506 
.8508 
.8509 

.8518 



Lot 68. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8558.] 



40 
46 
41 

48 
40 
42 
41 
47 
46 
49 
45 
50 
42 
46 
48 
49 
43 



B«. 

B>. 

C».. 

B». 

C«.. 

Ct.. 

C«. 

C». 

O. 

C. 

C>'. 

O. 

C«. 

C«. 

O. 

C*. 



).8520 
.8522 
.8523 
.8530 
.8539 
.8540 
.8540 
.8553 
.8554 
.8560 
.8562 
.8565 
.8567 
.8567 
.8568 
.8572 
.8575 



740 
710 
295 
355 



2,100 



95 
80 
375 
275 
170 
335 
100 
320 
300 
380 
265 
300 
56 
95 
320 
230 
200 



Lot 69. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8563.] 



Lot. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meter. 


39 


EPJ 

D» 

D» 

EF« 

D« 

D> 

D« 

D» 

D« 

D« 

C 

Di 


0.8546 
.8550 
.8558 
.8660 
.8660 
.8567 
.8571 
.8572 
.8580 
.8682 
.8686 
.8605 


1,166 
685 


40 


41 


470 


39 


350 


40 


330 


45 ^ 

41 


425 
110 


42 


420 


45 


100 


42 


176 


48 :.:.:.: 


90 


47 


430 








4,760 



Lot 00. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8616.] 



46 


D» 

EF» 

Di 

Di 

D» 

D» 

D« 

D« 

EF» 

EF» 

D« 

D» 

EF« 

D« 

D« 

D« 

E» 


0.8600 
.8605 
.8606 
.8606 
.8609 
.8610 
.8613 
.8618 
.8620 
.8620 
.8620 
.8620 
.8622 
.8623 
.8625 
.8626 
.8640 


370 


49 


780 


43 


220 


44 


196 


50 


480 


48 


326 


46 


120 


47 


70 


40 


600 


41 


580 


44 


120 


49 


600 


41 


320 


48 


116 


49 


290 


50 


126 


42 


676 








6,880 



Lot 61. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8680.] 



42 
43 
45 
47 
46 
47 
45 
44 
46 
44 
50 
48 
50 
49 
49 



EF«.... 
EF».... 
EF».... 
E¥K... 
EF».... 
EF«.... 
EF«.... 
EF».... 
EF«.... 
EF«.... 
EF».... 
EF».... 
EF«.... 
EF»..,. 
EF«..>. 



0.8650 


200 


.8650 


225 


.8650 


616 


.8665 


330 


.8666 


610 


.8670 


216 


.8670 


150 


.8672 


240 


.8680 


130 


.8680 


176 


.8685 


640 


.8695 


330 


.8700 


235 


.8705 


500 


.8705 


580 



4.975 



40 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETBOLiEUM 



The oils thus united were fractionated by fuller's earth again, 
with the results given below. 

Results of third fractionation. 





SI 


M 


38 


34 


Specific gravity 


0.8316 


0.8843 


0.8483 


0.8473 


Number of tobv 


8a 


2o 


2 


2 


Hoots requind 


60 


60 


48 


48 


Fracttan. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cable 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


ill 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cable 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


0.8213 

.8303 

.8387 
.8345 

.8353 
.8856 

.83A6 


02 

185 

165 
90 

210 
170 

385 


0.8219 
.8333 
.8375 


65 
143 
190 


0.8286 
.8431 
.8464 


73 
115 
175 


0.8303 

. atoo 

.8618 


66 


B 


115 


C* 


175 


C« 




D» 


.8388 
.8893 

.8403 

.8411 

.8431 


188 
90 

175 
92 

88 


.8468 
.8474 

.8473 
.8488 

.8496 


145 
115 

202 

73 

170 


.8523 

.8528 

.8530 
.8648 

.8548 


18D 


D« 


105 


B> 


246 


K» 


00 


F 


.8373 


190 


145 








1,487 


1,031 


1,068 


1,091 





33 


36 


ST 


36 


Specific gravity 


0.8486 


0.8508 


0.8509 


0.8658 


Number of tiiboe 


2 


2 


2 


4 


Hours required 6 


48, 1 tube; 72, 
1 tube. 


96 


96 


72, 3 tubes; 90, 
Itube. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 

0.8336 
.8491 
.8528 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


0.8283 5A 


0.8313 
.8546 


75 
135 
170 


55 
130 
180 


0.8318 

.8531 

.8578 
.8592 

.8588 

.8593 

.8603 
.8613 

.8628 


170 


B 


.8457 
.8515 


100 
155 


260 


k? 

0». 


206 
106 


D» 


.8521 
.8543 

.8540 


220 
50 

270 


.8500 

.8553 

.8563 

.8675 


150 
92 

145 
90 

130 


.8551 
.8573 

.85r^ 

.8588 
.8611 


185 
45 

170 
70 

170 


206 


D» 


340 


E» 


325 


Rl 


170 


F 


.8806 


180 


275 








1,033 


987 




1,006 


2.066 



oThe tin tubes used in these lots were U inches in diameter, 
fr The pressure in the tubes was diminished intermittently. 



THSOUQH FUIiliER S* KARTH. 



41 



ResulU of third fraaiioTifUion — Continued. 





M 


60 


•1 


Specific KTavity 


0.8fi63 


0.8615 


0.8680 






Number of tubes 


5 


6 


5 






Hours required 


72 


72 


5 days, a 




Fnction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

oeotl- 

meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 

oeoti- 

meters.b 


A 


a8328 

' .8566 

.8578 
.8688 

.8606 
.8623 

.8628 
.8633 

.8673 


195 

340 

325 
112 

490 
135 

476 
155 

330 


P 


195 

330 

290 
130 

440 

85 

425 
140 

310 


0.8413 
.8601 
.8683 


» 


B 




C«.... 




C« 




D« 


.8709 




I>« 




E» 


.8688 




E« 




F 


.8691 










2,557 


2.348 









a See below. 



b T!le volumes of tbese oUs were not reeorded. 



Specific gmvity, — ^The decrease in the range of specific gravity aa the oils supplied 
become lighter was observed in this fractionation as in the preceding ones. 

Color, — ^The lightest oils were almost colorless; the heavier oils wi^^ dark brown to 
green. 

Odor. — Most of the oils possessed an agreeable odor. 

Prolonged diffunon. — In lot 61 the time required for the oils to reach the tops of the 
tubes waa five days. No fractionation, as is evident from an examination of the 
specific gravities, occurred in the lower parts of the tubes. The heavier oils of frac- 
tions D, E, and P were exceedingly viscous. 

Volume of oil retained by the fuller* a earth. — The volume of oil retained by the earth 
in this fractionation amounted to approximately 45 per cent. The increase in the 
yield of oil indicates, therefore, a process of purification, in which, as will be shown 
later, such compounds as the unsatuiated hydrocarbons are. removed. 



42 



DIFFUSION OF CBtTDE PETROLEUM 



\ 



FdUBTH FBACTIONATION. 

The following fractions obtained from the third fractionation were 
united for the fourth fractionation: 

Oils lued /or fourth fractionation. 



Lot es. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8298.] 



Lot 68. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8343.] 



62 

57 


S::::::: 

Ci 

A 

C« 

Di 

Da 


0.8333 
.8336 
.8337 
.8343 
.8345 
.8353 
.8356 


143 
55 


61 


185 


60 


195 


51 


90 


61 


210 


51 


170 






• 


1,040 



Lot 64. 

(Specific gravity, 0.8368.] 



51 


!e. 


0.8366 


388 


51 


F 


.8372 


190 


52 


Ci 


. 8375 


I9U 


52 


Di 


.8388 


188 


• 


950 



Lot 66. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8430.] 



52 
62 
52 
63 
52 
65 
63 
63 



D« 
El 
E« 
Bi 
F. 
B» 
C». 
Di 



0.8393 


90 


.8403 


175 


.8411 


92 


.8431 


115 


.8431 


88 


.8457 


100 


 o404 


175 


.8468 


145 



980 



Lot. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


61 


A 

A 

A 

A 

A 

B 

A 

A 

A 


0.8213 
.8219 
.8266 
.8283 
.8303 
.8303 
.8313 
.8318 
.8328 


02 

65 

73 

66 

58 

185 

75 

170 

195 


62 


63 


55 


64 


61 


66 


58 


69 






979 



Lot 66. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8483.] 



Lot. 



53 
53 
54 
56 
53 
59 



Fraction. 



El 
D« 
Bi 
Bi 
E« 
Bi 



Specific 
gravity. 



a 8473 
.8474 

HAM. 

.8508 



Lot 67. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8513.] 



Lot 66. 



Lot 60. 

[Specific gravity, 0.8556.] 



55 
55 
56 
54 
54 
57 
56 
56 
56 
56 
55 
57 
57 
56 



E» 


0.8540 


D« 


.8543 


C» 


.8546 


E* 


.8548 


F 


• o04o 


D» 


.8551 


D« 


.8553 


El 


.8553 


D> 


.8560 


E« 


.8563 


F 


.8566 


El 


.8568 


D« 


.8573 


F 


.8575 



Cable 

oenti- 

meters. 



202 
115 
115 
135 
73 
330 



970 



57 


Bi 

B» 

C» 

Ci 

Di 

B» 


0.8401 
.8506 
.8616 
.8518 
.8521 
.8531 


IX 


59 


10 


55 


155 


54 


175 


55 


220 


58 


260 








050 



1 
1 


[Specific gravity. 


0.8533.] 




54 


Di 

D> 

Ci 

El 

B 


a 8523 
.8528 
.8528 
.8530 
.8540 


180 


1 54 


105 


1 57 


180 


54 


?46 
330 


1 00 










1,040 



270 

50 

170 

60 

145 

185 

150 

145 

02 

90 

180 

170 

45 

130 

1.882 



THBOUQH FVVLERS EABTH. 



43 



Oils used far fourth fractionation — Continued. 



Lot 70. 

[Spedflc gravity, 0.8596.] 


Lot 71. 

• 

[Specific gravity, 0.8638.] 


Lot. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gOavlty. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Lot. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


58 


d 

C» 

Di 

C» 

E» 

C» 

D> 

01 

El 

D» 

F 

E« 

C« 


0.8578 
.8678 
.8588 
.8588 
.8588 
.8592 
.8503 
.8601 
.8603 
.8608 
.8611 
.8613 
.8618 


205 
325 
205 

112 
70 
105 
340 
290 
325 
490 
170 
170 
130 


SO 


D« 

Di 

El 

F 

D> 

E> 

El 


0.8623 
.8628 
.8628 
.8628 
.8638 
.8633 
.8664 


135 


59 


60 


440 


58 


59 


475 


50 


58 


375 


67 


60 


85 


58 


59 


155 


58 


60 


425 


60 






58 


1,990 


50 


57 




58 




eo 










2,937 





Results of fourth fractionation. 





88 


68 


64 


66 


Specific gravity 


0.8298 


0.8343 


0.8368 


0.8430 


Number of tubes 


 

1 


1 


1 


1 


Hours required. 


72 

« 


72 


90 


48 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Cubic 
centi- 
meters. 


A 


0.8243 
.8298 
.8323 
.8330 
.8333 
.8341 


32 

71 

90 

115 

130 

75 


0.8273 
.8357 
.8378 
.8383 
.8388 
.8393 


45 
75 
95 
130 
98 
95 


a 8297 
.8378 
.8401 
.8406 
.8413 
.8418 


41 
57 
81 
115 
135 
70 


0.8308 
.8428 
.8463 
.8473 
.8471 
.8483 


42 


B 


70 


C 


92 


D 


130 


E 


130 


F 


80 










513 


538 


499 


544 



Specific gravity. — As in the preceding fractionations, the decrease in the range of 
specific gravity as the mother oils became lighter was again observed in this fraction- 
ation. It was evident, moreover, that there was a constant forward accumulation 
toward definite and constant mixtures. The lighter oils of one lot were found to 
possess specific gravities closely approaching those of the heavier oils of the pre- 
ceding lot. 

Color. — The oils of fraction A were almost colorless; the color of the heavier oils 
ranged from green to light brown. 

Odor. — All the oils of this fractionation ]X)S8es8ed agreeable odors. 

Volume of oil retained. — The volume of oil retained by the earth amounted to approx- 
imately 40 per cent. 

Deposition of paraffin. — In fractions A and B of several of the lots a fine crystalline 
deposit separated out and collected upon the bottom of the bottles containing the oi^ 
When the oils were warmed, this deposit dissolved completely, showing it tr 
paxBffin. 



44 DIFFUSION OF C«UDE PETROLEUM 

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF FRACTIONATED OILS. 

X7N8ATUBATBD HYDROCABBON8. 

ACTION OF CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID. 

The percentage by volume of oil absorbed by concentrated sulphuric 
acid (specific gravity 1.84) was determined according to the following 
procedure. Ten cubic centimeters of the oil to be examined was 
measured into a glass-stoppered bottle, and 30 cubic centimeters of 
concentrated sulphuric acid was added. The mixture was thoroughly 
shaken by a machine for 30 minutes and then poured into a burette. 
After sufficient time had been allowed for any oil that might be 
mechanically absorbed in the acid to rise to the top, the volume of 
unabsorbed oil was read directly over the acid. Owing to the forma- 
tion of heavy emulsions, no attempt was made to neutralize and 
wash the oil. The results of the analyses are given in the following 
table: 

Oil absorbed by concentrated sulphuric acid, lot 51. 

Peroeot 
by volume. 

Fraction A 2.3 

B 6.1 

C» 9. 1 

C« 10. 2 

D> 11.5 

D« 12.0 

E 12.5 

F 14. 5 

ACTION OF BROMIXE. 

The following method was employed for determining the amount of 
bromine absorbed by the oils. Between 0.5 and 0.9 gram of the oil to 
be examined was dissolved in 10 to 15 cubic centimeters of carbon 
tetrachloride. Five cubic centimeters of a standard solution of bro- 
mine in carbon tetrachloride was then introduced, and the solution 
allowed to remain, with occasional shaking, in a dark place for 30 
minutes. Ten cubic centimeters of a 10 per cent solution of potassium 
iodide was then added, and the amount of iodine liberated was deter- 
mined immediately by titrating with a standard solution of sodium 
thiosulphate. A few drops of a starch solution were introduced to 
mark accurately the end of the titration. The separate amounts of 
bromine absorbed by addition and substitution were not estimated. 
The amounts of bromine absorbed, expressed in the table below, are 
calculated on the basis of 100 grams of oil. 



THBOUQH fuller's £ABTH. 45 

Bromine abtorhed by qU. 

Fmt ftaottoBAtlon. 

Per cent. 

Lot 32, fraction A 5.02. 

B 6.96 

C 7.40 

D 7.87 

E 8.00 

Crude oil 7.64 

Second fractlonatloa. 

Lot 36, fraction A 4.74 

B* 5.40 

B» 5.66 

C 5.56 

C 6.18 

D» 6.81 

D» 6.28 • 

EF» 6.49 

EPa 7. 18 

Third taictionatioii. 

Lot 51, fraction A 3.27 

B 4.36 

C 4.47 

D 4.92 

E 4.71 

F 5. 86 

Fonrtb faactioaatlon. 

Lot 62, fraction A 2.86 

E 3.73 

These results demonstrate conclusively that the unsaturated hydro- 
carbons tend to collect in the lower sections of a layer of fuller's earth 
through which the oil is allowed to diflFuse. The figures confirm the 
results obtained by Gilpin and Cram in their work on Pennsylvania 
petroleum. In their investigation distillation by heat was employed 
in order to obtain fractions that could be readily studied. In the 
work here reported the relative amounts of the unsaturated hydro- 
carbons in the oils were determined directly as they came from the 
earth. 

• The percentages by volume of oil absorbed by concentrated sul* 
phuric acid represent only approximately the percentages of unsat- 
urated hydrocarbons, for, as was shown previously, any benzene which 
may have been present in the oils was also removed by the concen- 
trated acid. This fact rendered impossible a quantitative separation 
of the aromatic from the unsaturated hydrocarbons. As no other 
methods besides nitration and sulphonation, neither of which could 
be here employed, were available, no results as to the relative amounts 
of the aromatic hydrocarbons in the various fractions could be 
obtained. 



46 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM 



It is evident from the results of the bromine determinations that 
as the fractionation proceeds the amounts of unsaturated hydro- 
carbons become smaller and smaller. A comparison of the amoiints 
of bromine absorbed by fraction A of the first, second, third, and 
fourth fractionations is given below for the purpose of bringing out 
this point more clearly. 

Bromine absorbed by fraction A. 
^ Percent. 

First fractionation 5. 02 

Second fractionation 4. 74 

Third fractionation 3. 27 

Fourth fractionation 2. 86 



STJLPHUB COMPOUNDS. 



The amount of sulphur in the oils was determined by the usual 
method of combustion. For these determinations the oils obtained 
from one tube of lot 6 were employed. The results are given in the 



following table: 


Sulphur in oils of lot 6. 








Specific 
gravity. 


Percent 

of 
sulphur. 


FrEkction A 


0.8105 
.8362 
.8440 
.8510 
.8600 


0.04 


B 


.05 


C . . . 


Lost. 


D 


.09 


E 


.16 







The percentage of sulphur in fractions A, C, and E of lot 51 was 
also determined. The results were as follows: 

Sulphur in oils of lot 51. 

Per cent. 

Fraction A 0. 003 

C 040 

E 006 

These results show that the sulphur tends to collect in the oils in 
lower sections of the tube. As the fractionation proceeds the pro- 
portion of sulphur becomes smaller. The figures below indicate that 
as the oil is subjected to repeated filtrations the sulphur is gradually 
removed. 

Sulphur remaining after firsts second^ and third fractionations. 





First. 


Second. 


Third. 


Fraction A 


0.04 




0.003 


C 


0.08 


.040 


E 


.16 


.006 









THROUGH FULLMER 8 EABTH, 



47 



SELECTIVE ACTION OF FITLLBR'S EARTH. 

When the earth from which as much oil as possible has been 
extracted by prolonged treatment with water is dried and digested 
-with ether, oils of surprisingly high specific gravity and viscosity 
are obtained. 

In the experiments undertaken to study the selective action of 
fuller's earth, the following method of procedure was adopted. 
The earth under examination was treated with water until no more 
oil appeared. This muddy earth, of the consistency of thin liquid 
paste, was spread upon porous plates and allowed to dry at room 
tenjperature. Several weeks usually elapsed before the earth became 
completely dry. It was then pulverized, and after being thoroughly 
soaked and shaken with ether, the mixtiu^e was allowed to remain 
undisturbed for 24 hours or more. The mixture was then filtered 
and the dissolved oil recovered by distilling oflF the ether from the 
filtrate. The residual earth was then digested with ether for some 
time by means of an electric stove that completely surrounded the 
flask. The oil thus extracted was added to the oil first obtained. In 
several cases the residual earth was treated further with ether in 
the Soxhlet extractor. The results of these extractions are given in 
the following table: 

Oils extracted by ether. 



Lot. 


Fraction. 


Specific 
gravity 
at 50* C. 


Lot. 


Fractioo. 


Spcclflc 
gravity 
af-dO"C. 


7 


A 

A 

A» 

A« 

A»...... 

A> 

A» 

A> 

AS 


0.8470 
.8502 
.8119 
.8400 
.8495 
.8496 
.8600 
.8363 
.8381 


25 


A» 

B 

A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

F 


0.8391 


8 


25 


.8489 


18 


61 


.8368 


18 


51 


.8473 


19 


51 


.8491 


19 


51 


.8566 


19 


51 


.8518 


25 


51 


.8553 


25 











The specific gravity of none of the ether-extracted oils of the first 
and second fractionation, except those of lot 19, could be determined 
at 20° C. All were extremely viscous; those of lot 25 were so vis- 
cous at this temperature that they would not flow when the bottles 
containing them were inclined. The color of the oils ranged from 
brown to black. The ethereal solutions, however, of many of the 
oils were very light in color. 

It is interesting to compare the specific gravities of the ether- 
extracted oils with those of the corresponding water-extracted oils. 
For this purpose, the oils extracted by water and by ether from the 
earth of lot 51 are chosen. In the following table the specific gravi- 
ties of these oils at the same temperature (20° C.) are given. 



48 



DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETBOLEUM 





Oompanton o/ipee^ graviHes. 








Bther- 

extracted 

Oils. 


Water- 
extracted 
oUs. 


Lot 51, fraction A 


0.8363 
.8473 
.8491 
.8568 

.8518 
.8553 


0.8213 


B 


.8303 


C 


.8337 


D 


.8353 


E 


. 8366 


r 


.8373 







As the figures indieate, the specific gravities of ether-extracted 
oik are much higher than those of the corresponding water-extracted 
oils. The presence of such heavy and viscous oils in the upp«* sec- 
tions of the tube can be explained only by assuming that they were 
carried to these heights in solution with the lighter oils and were then 
removed by the earth. As such viscous oils are totally unable to 
diffuse by capillarity to any appreciable extent, it is not probable 
that their transportation to the upper parts of the tube was effected 
by capillary diffusion. 

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE OILS EXTRACTED 

BY ETHER. 

TJNSATTJBATED HTDROCABBON8. 

ACTION OF CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID. 

The percentage by volume of oil absorbed by concentrated sul- 
phuric acid (specific gravity 1.84) was determined according to the 
following procedure: Ten cubic centimeters of the oil to be exam- 
ined was measured into a glass-stoppered bottle, and 30 cubic 
centimeters of concentrated sulphuric acid w^as added. The mixture 
was thoroughly shaken by a machine for 30 minutes and then poured 
into a burette. After sufficient time had been allowed for any 
oil that might be mechanically absorbed in the acid to rise to the 
top, the volume of unabsorbed oil w^as read directly over the acid. 
Owing to the formation of heavy emulsions, no attempt was made to 
neutralize and wash the oil. The oils selected for examination were 
those extracted by ether from the earth of lots 36 and 51. The 
results of the analyses are expressed in the following table: 

Action of sulphuric acid on oils ertracted by ether and by water. 

[Per cent by volume absorbed.] 



Water- 
extracted 
oils. 



Lot 36, fraction A 
B 

Lot 51, fraction A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 




3 

10.4 

2.3 

6.1 

9.1 

1L5 

12.5 

14.5 



THROUGH FULLER S EARTH. 



49 



ACTION OF BROMINE. 

The method employed for determining the amount of bromine 
absorbed by the oils was as follows: Between 0.5 and 0.9 gram of 
the oil to be examined was dissolved in 10 to 15 cubic centimeters 
of carbon tetrachloride. Five cubic centimeters of a standard solu- 
tion of bromine in carbon tetracliloride was then introduced, and the 
solution allowed to remain, with occasional shaking, in a dark place 
for 30 minutes. Ten cubic centimeters of a 10 per cent solution of 
potassium iodide was then added, and the amount of iodine liber- 
ated was determined immediately by titrating wdth a standard solu- 
tion of sodium tliiosulphate. A few drops of a starch solution was 
introduced to mark accurately the end of the titration. The sepa- 
rate amounts of bromine absorbed by addition and substitution 
were not estimated. 

The amounts of bromine absorbed, expressed in the following 
table, are calculated on the basis of 100 grams of oil. The values 
for the corresponding water-extracted oils are also given for com- 
parison. 

Bromine absorbed by oil extracted by ether and water. 



Water- 
extracted 
oils. 




Per cent. Per cent. 



Lot 32, fraction A 


5.30 
7.39 
5.7*2 
6.10 
6.72 
3.27 
4.45 
6.27 
6.09 
5.98 
5.20 


5.02 


B 


6.96 


Lot 36, fraction A 


4.74 


B 


5.40 


C 


5.56 


Lot 51, fraction A 


3.27 


B 


4.36 


C 


5.03 


D.. .:.... :::.:::.:::...:.: : ::::..:.:.:::....::: 


4.92 


E 


4.71 


F 


5.36 







As these results clearly demonstrate, one of the properties of 
fuller's earth is to retain the unsaturated hydrocarbons, thus exer* 
icsing a selective action. 

SULPHUB COMPOUNDS. 

The sulphur in the oils obtained by extraction with ether was 
determined by the usual method of combustion. The results are 
given in the table below. 

Sulphur in oils extracted by ether and water. 





Ether- 

extnuted 

oils. 


Lot 61, fraction A 


Per crnt. 
0. 004 


B 


.Oil 


C 


.050 
.(HiO 
.080 
.080 


D 




E 


F 




89823** Bull. 475 11 


—4 





Water- 

exlnicted 
oils. 



Per cent. 
0.003 

.046 



in suc^^eeding frartumotioiis becomes smaller, indicating a move- 
ment toward llie prodiiotion of mixtures which will finally pass 
tlirough the earth unnltere(!. 

In the fractionation of jictroleum by capillary diffusion through 
fuller's earth the amounts of unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulphur 
compounds in tlic resulting fractions increase gradually from the 
lightest oils at the top t<) the heavier oils at the bottom of the tube. 

Fuller's earth tends to retain the unsaturated hydrocarbons and 
sulphur compounds in petroleum, thus exercising a selective action 
uixin the oil. 

o 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

OEORGR OTIS SMITH, DiBKCroB 

BiTZ.LiEnN 476 



RESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVELING 
IN OHIO 

1909 AND 1910 



R. B. MARSHALL, Chief Geographer 



WOBK DONE IN COOPEHATION WITH THE STATE OF OHIO 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1911 



\ 

50 DIFFUSION OF CRUDE PETEOLEUM i 

The selective action of the earth, in regard to the sulphur com- 
pounds, is indicated by these results. This fact was also pointed 
out by Richardson and Wallace. It is very probable that the earth 
also retains largely the nitrogen compounds in the oil, and it may 
also remove to a greater or less extent the benzene hydrocarbons. 

These results seem to furnish evidence in favor of the view that 
the Illinois oil at some time in its history diffused through porous 
media, which exercised a selective action upon it, removing a large 
part of the unsaturated and sulphur compounds and probably the 
benzene and nitrogen compounds. 

SUMMARY. 

When a solution of benzene and a paraffin oil is allowed to diffuse 
upward through a tube packed with fuller's earth, the benzene 
tends to collect in the lower sections and the parafl'm oil in the upper 
sections of the tube. 

When crude petroleum diffuses upward through a tube packed 
with fuller's earth a fractionation of the oil occurs. The oil tliat is 
displaced by water from the earth from the top of the tube possesses 
a lower specific gravity than the oil obtained from the earth at the 
bottom of the tube. 

As the fractionation proceeds the range of specific gravity covered 
in succeeding fractionations becomes smaller, indicating a move- 
ment toward the production of mixtures which will finally pass 
tlu'ough the earth unaltered. 

In the fractionation of petroleum by capillary diffusion tlirough 
fuller's earth the amounts of unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulphur 
compounds in the resulting fractions increase gradually from the 
lightest oils at the top to tlie heavier oils at the bottom of the tube. 

Fuller's earth tends to retain the unsaturated hydrocarbons and 
sulphur compounds in petroleum, thus exercising a selective action 
upon the oil. 

o 



I 



I 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

aEORGR OTIS SMITH, DtHunuB 

BVJJ^BTitt 476 



RESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVELING 
m OHIO 

1909 AND 1910 



R. B. MARSHALL, Chief Geographer 



WORK DONE IN COOPEUATION WITH THE STATE OF OHIO 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFIOB 
1911 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 6 

Previous publication 6 

Personnel ? 6 

Classification 6 

Bench marks 6 

Datum 7 

Topographic maps 7 

Primary leveling 9 

Brinkhaven, Canal Dover, Carrollton, Coshocton, Millersburg, Navarre, 
New Comerstown, Plimpton, Uhrichsville, and Wooster quadrangles 
(Carroll, Columbiana, Coshocton, Holmes, Knox, Stark, Tuscarawas, and 

Wayne counties) 9 

Jackson, Laurel ville, and Oakhill quadrangles (Hocking, Jackson, and 

Vinton counties ) 24 

Bainbridge, Georgetown, Greenup, Hillsboro, Manchester, Maysville, 
Otway, Peebles, Portsmouth, Scioto, Vanceburg, and West Union quad- 
rangles (Adams, Brown, Pike, and Scioto counties) 28 

Continental, Covington, Delphos, Lima, Loramie, Sidney, Spencerville, 
and Troy quadrangles ( Allen, Auglaize, Darke, Miami, Putnam, Shelby, 

and Van Wert counties) 38 

Appendix 45 

Precise leveling 45 

Akron, Alliance, Athens, Batavia, BlancBester, Bowling Green, Colum- 
bus Grove, Dayton, Deshler, East Cincinnati, Findlay, Fostoria, Green- 
field, Hamilton, Jackson, Lima, Lisbon, McClure, Mason, Massillon, 
Medina, Miamisburg, Navarre, New London, Norwalk, Ottawa, Par- 
kersburg, Roxabell, Siam, Sidney, Tifl^n, Toledo, Troy, Warren, 
Waynes ville, Wellington, West Cincinnati, Wooster, Uhrichsville 
and Youngstown quadrangles (Allen, Ashland, Athens, Auglaize, 
Butler, Clinton, Clermont, Hamilton, Henry, Highland, Huron, Jack- 
eon, Lucas, Mahoning, Medina, Miami, Montgomery, Putnam, Ross, 
Seneca, Shelby, Stark, Summit, Trumbull, Tuscarawas, Warren, Wash- 
ington, Wayne, and Wood counties) 45 

Index 76 



ILLUSTRATION. 



Plate I. Geological Survey l)ench marks 



RESULTS OF SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 



R. B. Marshajll, Chief Geographer. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Previous publication. — The following results of spirit leveling are 
supplemental to and accord with the elevations contained in Bulletin 
411 and are in agreement with the 1907 adjustment of precise level- 
ing. Corrections to Bulletin 411 should be noted as follows: 

Page 29, Hiram ; aluminum tablet in northwest comer of foundation of brick 
store building opposite Y. M. C. A. ; the elevation of this marlc has been changed 
and now is 1^69.617 feet above mean sea level. 

Page 39, Zoar; bench mark is now 600 feet north of station, south side of 
track, in abutment of iron bridge 15^D over mill race, in coping stone; 
aluminum tablet stami)ed **893 STEUBENVILLE," elevation taken as 898.21 
feet. The accuracy of this elevation is not known. 

Page 55, Little Hocking; old bench mark on top of southwest abutment of 
pier of bridge over Little Hocking River has been destroyed. A new bench 
mark has been established in the northeast comer of the east pier of Balti- 
more & Ohio Southwestern Railroad water tank at Little Hocking River, the 
elevation of which is taken as 620.095 feet. The reliability of this elevation is 
not known. 

Page 66, Madison; elevation of bench mark near south end of rock cnt on 
curve should be 686.321 feet 

Page 66, Mabee; 4.5 miles west of, in center of foundation stone of Freed- 
man Church ; bronze tablet stamped " 678 I." The elevation of this mark should 
be 679.856 feet. 

Page 66, Harrison Township; copper bolt stamped "788 I" in sandstone 
ledge 8 feet east of center of road (in narrow ravine). The elevation of this 
mark should be 789.945 feet. 

Page 68, Odell ; 6 miles north of, aluminum tablet in south side of foundation 
of west end of spring house owned by Albert White. This bench mark is in 
the Cambridge quadrangle. 

Page 83, Claylick; aluminum tablet in sandstone abutment of county bridge 
over canal. This tablet is reported to be stamped 799 Instead of 790, as given 
in the bulletin. 

Page 105, Africa; 0.25 mile west of, bronze tablet in top of south wing W8^' 
of iron bridge over Alum Creek. This mark has been destroyed. 

Page 112, Grand Rapids; 2.8 miles north of, aluminum tablet in stone ' 
of school house at southwest comer of road crossing. Rei)orted to have 
destroyed. 



12 SPIKIT LEVEUNG IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 



Mineral City, 3 miles northeast of. crossinf? of private road to honse 
on west side of railroad. 50 feet west of public road, in top of stone Feet 
of retaining wall on west side of track at crossing ; chiseled square. 968. 89 
Magnolia, 100 feet went of station, on north railroad right of way 
line, west of public road, 30 feet northwest of crossing, at foot 

of telegraph pole; iron post stamped " 972 " 971. 796 

Magnolia, in front of station ; top of rail 973. 6 

Milepost 13; center of steel i)ost (Pennsylvania R. R. bench mark).. 1,1100.0 
Waynesburg, at north edge of town, opiK>site Fennel vanla R. R. sta- 
tion, in southwest corner of 8t. Paul's Reformed Church lawn, 3 
feet from northwest comer of dwelling house and 3 feet from 

sidewalk; iron post stamped "903" 993.644 

Waynesburg, street crossing at station ; top of high rail 982. 6 

Waynesburg, center of town, in southwest corner of crossroads, on 
top of steel post; paint mark 1,002.50 

Xineral City north &lonf B&ltlmore k Ohio B. B. to point 8 miles eouth of 

C&nton. 

Mineral City, 150 feet northwest of Baltimore & Ohio R. R. station, 
at street crossing; top of rail 952.7 

Sandyville, in front of station ; top of rail 938, 5 

Sandy ville. 100 feet north of station, 30 feet west of tracks, under 
northeast corner of water tank ; iron i)ost stanii)ed " 939 " 930. 037 

Eiist Sparta, 100 feet southwest of station, 40 feet south of lumber 
shed, north side of private road west to house, In fence comer; 
iron post stamped "OHO" 958.985 

East Sparta. 2.3 miles north of, at northeast corner of road crossing, 
on east railroad right of way Hue, 30 feet north of public road, 
30 feet east of railroad, 35 feet northwest of northwest corner 
of highway bridge over Nimischillen Creek; iron post stamped 
" D65 " 964. 916 

North Industry, 0.7 mile southeast of. COO feet west of railroad cross- 
ing, northwest comer of bridge abutment of steel highway bridge 
over Nimischillen Creek ; iron post stami>ed *' 981 " , 981. 612 

North Industry, in front of station; top of rail 1'^, 1,000.1 

North Industry, northeast corner of concrete platform around sta- 
tion, 200 feet south of road crossing, in top of curbing; chiseled 
square 1, 000. 91 

CARBOLLTOK QTTADBANOLE. 

Wayneiborg northeast along Pennsylvania B. B. to Bayard, thence east to 

point 8 miles east of East Bochester. 

Waynesburg, 0.6 mile northeast of station, at road crossing in south 
abutment of east wing of steel highway bridge over Sandy Creek, 
in top stone; chiseled square 973.05 

Malver, 0.3 mile west of Pennsylvania R. R. station, 150 feet north 
of road crossing, on west side of public road, at fence corner ; iron 
post stamped "992" 992.474 

Malvemi in front of Pennsylvania R. R. station ; top of rail 998. 4 

Oneida, Pennsylvania R. R. and Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. cross- 
ing; top of rail 1,013.7 

Oneida, 75 feet northeast of Pennsylvania R. R. station, in west 
wing of south abutment of steel highway bridge over Sandy Creek ; 
chiseled square 1,013.56 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

 

steel dies on the tablets or post caps, to the left of the word " Feet.'" 
T'he office adjustment of the notes and the reduction to mean sea 
level datum may so change some of the figures that the original 
markings are 1 or 2 feet in error. It is assumed that engineers and 
others who have occasion to use the bench-mark elevations will ap- 
ply to the Director of the United States Geological Survey, at 
Washington, D. C., for the adjusted values, and will use the mark- 
ings as identification numbers only. 

Datum. — All United States Geological Survey elevations are re- 
ferred to mean sea level, which is the level that the sea would assume 
if the influence of winds and tides were eliminated. This level is not 
the elevation determined from the mean of the highest and the 
lowest tides, nor is it the lialf sum of the mean of all the high tides 
and the mean of all the low tides, which is called the half -tide level. 
Mean sea level is the average height of the water^ all stages of the 
tide being considered. It is determined from observations made by 
means of tidal gages placed at stations where local conditions, such 
as long, narrow bays, rivers, and like features, will not affect the 
height of the water. To obtain even approximately correct results 
these observations must extend over at least one lunar month, and 
if accuracy is desired they must extend over several years. At ocean 
stations the half-tide level and the mean sea level usually differ 
but little. It is assumed that there is no difference between the mean 
sea level as determined from observations in the Atlantic Ocean, 
the Gulf of Mexico, or the Pacific Ocean. 

The connection with tidal stations for bench marks in certain 
areas that lie at some distance from the seacoast is still uncertain, 
and this fact is indicated by the addition of a letter or word to the 
right of the word " Datum " on tablets or posts. For such areas 
corrections for published results will be made from time to time as 
the precise-level lines of the United States Geological Survey or 
other Government organizations are extended. 

Topographic maps. — Maps of the following quadrangles, wholly or 
partly in Ohio, have been published by the United States Geological 
Survey up to May 1, 1911. They may be obtained, except as noted, 
for 5 cents each or $3 a hundred on application to the Director of 
the Survey, at Washington, D. C. : 

Akron. Athens. 

AUiance. BeUevlHe ( W. Va.-Ohlo ) . 

Andover (Ohio-Pa.). Bellevue. 

Antrim. Berea.* 

Arlington. BIdwell. 

Ashland. Blanchester. 

Ashtabula. Bliiffton. 

Athalia ( Ohio- W. Va. ) . Bowling Green. 

* Cleveland and yicinlty map Includes parts of Cleveland, Euclid, and Berca sbec 



8 



SPIHIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 



Bristolville.* 

BrookviUe. 

Cadiz. 

CamertMl ( W. Va.-Ohio-Pa.). 

Canton. 

rha grill Falls. 

Cliardon. 

Chesterliill.* 
Chillicotbe. 

Cincinnati ( OUio-Ky . ) double 
Hi) cents.)' . , 

Clariugton (Oliio-W. Va.). 
Cleveland.* 

Cleveland and vicinity.' 
Columbiana (Ohio-Pa.). 
Columbus Grove. 
Cones V file. 

Conneaut (Ohio.-Pa.). 
Continental. 
Dayton.* 
Defiance. 
Delaware. 
Desbler. 
Dublin. 

East Cincinnati (Ohio-Ky.).' 
East Columbus. 
Elmore. 
Euclid." 
Findlaj'. 
Flushing. 
Fostoria. 
Frazeysburg. 
Fremont. 
Garrettsville. 
Glenwood (W. Va.-Ohio). 
Granville. 
Greenville. 

Guyandot (W. Va.-Obio).* 
Hamilton. 

Huntington (W. Va.-Obio-Ky.).* 
I ronton (Ohio-Ky.). 
Jefferson.* 

Keno'(Obio-W. Va.). 
Kenova (Ky.-W. Va.-Obio). 
Kent. 

Kinsman (Ohio-Pa.). 
Lancaster. 
Lima. 
Lisbon. 



sheet 



f • 



Logan. 

London. 

McClure. 

McConnellsville. 

Macksburg. 

Marietta (Ohlo-W. Va.). 

Marion. 

Mason. 

Massillon. 

Maumee Bay (Ohlo-Mlcli.)- 

Medlna. 

Mentor. 

Miamisburg. 

Mount Sterling. 

Napoleon. 

Newark. 

New Lexington. 

New London. 

New Martinsville (W. Va.-Ohlo.) 

New Matamoras (Ohlo-W. Va.). 

Oak Harbor. 

Oberlin. 

Ottawa. 

Parkersburg (Ohlo-W. Va.). 

l*erry. 

Philo. 

Point Pleasant (W. Va.-Ohio). 

Pomeroy (Ohio-W. Va.). 

Putin-Bay. 

Ilavenna. 

Kavenswood (W. Va.-Ohlo). 

St. Clairsville. 

St. Henry. 

St. Marys (W. Va.-Ohlo).* 

Salinevllle. 

Sandusky. 

Scio. 

South Charleston. 

Springfield. 

Steuben vine (Ohio-W. Va.-Pa.). 

Sycamore. 

Thomville. 

Thurston. 

Tiffin. 

Toledo (Ohio-Mich.). 

Tipper Sandusky. 

Vermilion. 

Warren. 

Waverly. 



1 Shows wooded areas. 

« Cincinnati double sheet includes East Cincinnati and West Cincinnati sheets. 

* Cleveland and vicinity map includes part of Cleveland, Euclid, and Berea sheets. 

* Guyandot sheet shows part of Huntington quadrangle on larger scale. 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 



9 



"Wellington. Wheeling (W. Va.-Ohio-Pa.). 

AVellsville (Ohlo-W. Va.-Pa.). Wilkesville. 

West Cincinnati (Ohio-Ky.).* Woodsfleld. 

West 0)lumbus. Wooster. 

Westerville. Youngstown (Ohlo-Pa.). 

West Manchester. Zaleski.* 

West Salem. Zanesville. 

PRIMARY liEVELING. 

BrinkhaTen, Canal Dover, CarroUton, Coshocton, Xillersbnrg, Navarre, New 
Comerstown, Plimpton, Vhrichsville, and Wooster Quadrangles. 

GABBOLIh GOLVHBUNA, COSHOCTON, HOLHEg, KNOX, 8TABK, T178GARAWA8, AND WiTNE 
• COUNTIES. 

The leveling was done in the Brinkhaven quadrangle in 1909 by 
S. R. Archer, and in 1910 by E. C. Bibbee; in the Canal Dover quad- 
rangle in 1901 by J. B. Maguire and J. H. Wetzel, and in 1909 by 
S. R. Archer and C. B. Mincks; in the CarroUton quadrangle in 1900 
by R. G. Defrees, and in 1909 by S. R. Arqher and C. B. Mincks; in 
the C!oshocton quadrangle in 1908 by C. H. Semper, and in 1909 by 
S. R. Archer; in the Millersburg quadrangle in 1909 by S. R. Archer, 
and in 1910 by E. C. Bibbee; in the Navarre quadrangle in 1910 by 
E. C. Bibbee; in the New Comerstown quadrangle in 1908 by C. H. 
Semper, in 1909 by S. R. Archer and C. B. Mincks, and in 1910 by 
E. C. Bibbee; in the Plimpton quadrangle in 1910 by E. C. Bibbee; 
in the Uhrichsville quadrangle in 1901 by J. H. Wetzel, in 1902 by 
B. J. Green, and in 1909 by C. B. Mincks; and in the Wooster quad- 
rangle in 1910 by E. C. Bibbee. 

BRIKXHAVEN QTTADRANOLE. 

Point 8 miles southwest of Olenmont southwest and southeast alonf railroad to 

Warsaw. 

Baddow Pass, 0.9 mile west of, on Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry., 
400 feet wesi ctf T road west, at bridge 64 over wagon road, 20 feet Feet, 
north of road; iron post stamped "1050" 1,049.861 

Brinkhaven, 1.^ miles east of, 35 feet west of railroad crossing, on 
north end of stone culvert under railroad ; chiseled square 962. 12 

Brinkhaven, 25 feet north of main track, on northeast corner of sta- 
tion platform, Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry. ; chiseled square. 874. 25 

Brinkhaven, in northeast comer of schoolhouse yard; iron post 
stamped " 896 " ^ 896. 313 

Brinkhaven, 1.2 miles south of, on south abutment, east side of over- 
head bridge 21 ; Pennsylvania R. R. bench mark 883. 727 

Brinkhaven, 2.4 miles south of, on Pennsylvania R. R., on concrete on 
south end, west side of abutment; chiseled square 867.71 

Wintergreen (Cavallo Station), 25 feet west of post oflice, 75 feet east 
of railroad, in northwest comer of C. H. Summon*s front yard; 
iron post stamped " 878 " 878. 190 

Wintergreen, 1.8 miles south of, on large, flat, sandstone rock on west 
side of railroad at private crossing; chiseled square 859. 11 

1 Cincinnati double sheet Includes East Cincinnati and West Clnclnna*' 
■Shows wooded areas. 



12 SPIRIT LEVEUNG IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Mineral City, 3 miles northeast of. crossinj? of private road to house 
on west side of railroad, 50 feet west of public road, in top of stone Ftet. 
of retaining wall on west side of track at crossing ; chiseled square. 968. 89 
Magnolia, 100 feet wet<t of station, on north railroad right of way 
line, west of public road, 30 feet northwest of crossing, at foot 

of telegraph pole; iron iwst stamped " 972 " 971. 796 

Magnolia, in front of station; top of rail 973.6 

Milepost 13; center of steel iwst (Pennsylvania R. R. bench mark).. 1,<I00. 
Waynesburg, at north edge of town, opposite Penn^lvania R. R. sta- 
tion, in southwest corner of St. Paul's Reformed Church lawn, 3 
feet from northwest comer of dwelling house and 3 feet from 

sidewalk ; iron post stami)ed " 003 " 993. 6*4 

Waynesburg, street crossing at station ; top of high rail 9S2. 6 

Waynesburg, center of town, in southwest corner of crossroads, on 
top of steel post; paint mark 1,002.50 

Xineral City north &lonf Baltimore k Ohio B. B. to point 8 miles eonth of 

C&nton. 

Mineral City, 150 feet northwest of Baltimore & Ohio R. R. station, 
at street crossing; top of rail 952.7 

Sandyville, in front of station; top of rail 938.5 

Sandy ville, 160 feet north of station, 30 feet west of tracks, under 
northeast corner of water tank; iron i)ost stami>ed "939" 939.037 

Eiist Sparta, 100 feet southwest of station, 40 feet south of lumber 
shed, north side of private road west to house, in f^ice comer; 
iron post stamped " 959 " 958. 985 

East Si)arta, 2.3 miles north of, at northeast corner of road crossing, 
on east railroad right of way line, 30 feet north of public road, 
30 feet east of railroad, 35 feet northwest of northwest comer 
of highway bridge over Nlmischillen Creek; iron post stamped 
" 965 " 9W. 916 

North Industry, 0.7 mile southeast of. 600 feet west of railroad cross- 
ing, northwest corner of bridge abutment of steel highway bridge 
over Nlmischillen Creek ; iron post stamped *' 981 " ^ 981. 612 

North Industry, in front of station; top of rail 1^— 1,000.1 

North Industry, northeast corner of concrete platform around sta- 
tion, 200 feet south of road crossing, in top of curbing; chiseled 
square 1.. 1, 000. 91 

CABBOLLTOK QTIADBANOLE. 

Waynesburg northeast along Pennsylvania B. B. to Bayard, thence east to 

point 8 miles east of East Bochester. 

Waynesburg, 0.6 mile northeast of station, at road crossing in south 
abutment of east wing of steel highway bridge over Sandy Creek, 
In top stone; chiseled square 973.06 

Malver, 0.3 mile west of Pennsylvania R. R. station, 150 feet north 
of road crossing, on west side of public road, at fence corner ; Iron 
post stami^ed "992" 992.474 

Malvern, In front of Pennsylvania R. R. station; top of rail 998.4 

Oneida, Pennsylvania R. R. and Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. cross- 
ing; top of rail 1,013.7 

Oneida, 75 feet northeast of Pennsylvania R. R. station, in west 
wing of south abutment of steel highway bridge over Sandy Creek ; 
chiseled square 1,013.66 



PRIMAKY LiEVELING. 13 

Oneida, 0.6 mile northeast of railroad station, southeast comer of Feet. 

road crossing, 90 feet south of railroad ; iron ix)st stamped " 1040 ". 1, 040. 050 
Minerva, Pennsylvania R. R. and Lake Erie, Alliance & Wheeling 

R. R. crossing; top of rail « 1,052.0 

Minerva, 100 feet east of Pennsylvania R. R. station, east side of 

street, 40 feet north of railroad, foot of telephone anchor pole at 

street crossing; iron post stamped "1053" 1,058.708 

Bayard, 0.4 mile southwest of, 50 feet north of center of road forks at 

schoolhouse, east end of stone culvert, in top ; chiseled square 1, 071. 20 

Bayard, 0.4 mile southwest, T at road south, southwest corner of road 

forks, inside fence comer; iron post stamped "1079" 1,079.455 

Bayard, 1 mile southeast of, Pennsylvania R. R. crossing, in base of 

warning post at northeast corner of crossing; spike 1,094.04 

East Rochester, in front of Pennsylvania R. R. station; top of rail—. 1, 092. 
East Rochester, 1.7 miles east of station, at southwest corner of road 

crossing, west side of public road, 50 feet south of railroad, 20 feet 

south of Pennsylvftnia R. R. right of way line, at fence line; iron 

post stamped **1095" 1,094.603 

8]i«rodi¥lUe north and eait alonf Wheelinf k Lake Erie B. &. and Uf hway 

to Carrollton trlangulatlon station. 

Atwood, 1.2 miles south of, 40 feet south and 10 feet east of road 
crossing, near telephone pole; iron post stamped "945" 945.231 

Dellroy, 200 feet east of station, 15 feet north of railroad ; iron post 

stamped " 926 " 925. 781 

Scott, 1.6 miles north of, 15 feet west of railroad, at railroad culvert 
30-C; iron post stamped "953" 952.699 

Scott, 1.8 miles north of, in culvert 30-B ; aluminum tablet stamped 
"Prim. Trav. 1906, 955" 954.963 

Deckman Duty brick plant, 0.8 mile north of, overhead railroad cross- 
ing, in stone abutment; cut mark, painted 1,052.06 

Carrollton, courthouse, in front steps of south side, between pillars 
and walls of building; aluminum tablet 1, 130. 397 

Carrollton, 2.6 miles east of, T road northeast of Washington Hall 
schoolhouse, on southeast abutment of iron bridge ; chiseled square. 1, 064. 82 

Carrollton, 3.7 miles east of, on farm formerly owned by Mr. Camp- 
bell, now owned by George Ray, in marble slab at triangulation 
station ; bronze tablet stamped " 1377 " 1, 376. 478 

Oneida lonth along Wheelinf k lAke Erie R. B. to Carrollton. 

Oneida, 1.1 miles south of, 75 feet north of road crossing, top of east 

wing of south abutment of bridge 17-A ; chiseled square 1, 018. 67 

Oneida, 2.3 miles southeast of, northeast corner of road crossing, at 

fence comer; iron post stamped "1023" 1,023.672 

Hibbetts, 2.2 miles southeast of, 40 feet northwest of the northwest 

comer of Stemples crossing, at fence corner of right of way line 

and north fence line of public road ; iron post stamiied " 1051 " 1, 051. 526 

Carrollton, in front of Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. station ; top of 

rail 1, 131.8 

Carrollton, front entrance of courthouse, south side of steps, in top of 

stone base of mafble columns, about 10 feet above pavement; 

aluminum tablet stamped "1130" 1,130.397 



14 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

MtiMrrE alonir hiclivmyt Mutheast to Bpeeht, thenoe MiithwMt to BtomplM 

Orostiiif on Whoeliaff k Lake Erie B. &. 

Minerva, in front of Lake Erie, Alliajice & Wheeling R. R. station; F«et 
top of rail 1,046.0 

Minerva, 4.3 miles southeast of. 90 feet east of track, at road cross- 
ing, north side of public highway; iron post stamped **1049".. 1,049.413 

Watheys, road crossing at, iron highway bridge, west side of rail- 
road, in top of stone of south wing of east abutment; chiseled 
square 1 1, 050. 35 

Watheys, 0.5 mile southeast of, 0.1 mile south of old Specht post 
office, at road crossing, north of railroad right of way line, west 
side of public highway, 40 feet north of track ; Iron post 8t»mi)ed 
" 1049 " 1, 040. 603 

Specht, 2.2 miles southwest of, 0.25 mile west of Eckley, 3.2 miles 
east of Stemples crossing, northwest corner of crossroads, inside 
of fence line near maple tree 6 inches in diameter; iron |)08t 
stamped " 1199 " 1. 19a 773 

Stemples crossing, 2.3 miles east of, T road southeast, at point 6 feet 
above level of road, north of road at forks, in top of stone ; chiseled 
square 1, 144. 69 

Stemples crossing, 1.1 miles east of, in northwest comer of cross- 
roads, in top of stone culvert; chiseled stiuare 1,231.12 

Hibbetts, 2.2 miles southwest of, 3.0 miles nortliwest of Cjirrollton, 
northwest corner of Stemi)les crossing, at fence comer on west 
railroad right of way line. 40 feet northwest of crossing; iron post 
stamped "1051 " 1,051.526 

Waynesburg ■outheait along highway to DeUroy. 

Waynesburg, 2.1 miles southeast of, east of road, in top stone of 
culvert; chiseled square 1,160.83 

Waynesburg, 2.5 miles southeast of, in southeast corner of cross- 
roads, at fence corner ; iron i)<)st stamped ** 1101 " 1, 161. 333 

Waynesburg, 3.5 miles southeast of, at tive-i)oints, in center of south 
crossroads, in top of stone: chiseled s(iuare ^ 1.221.40 

Waynesburg, 3.5 miles southeast l)y 1.2 miles s<iuth of. T road east, 

in top of stone at southeast corner; chiseled square 1,204.90 

Waynesburg, 3.5 miles southeast of, T road west, near house east of 
road at forks in southwest corner of yard, inside fence corner; 
iron post stamped "1193" 1,193.790 

DeUroy, 0.2 mile north of Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. station, iron 
highway bridge, in top stone of approach to west wing of north 
abutment; chiseled square 926.02 

Dellroy, 200 feet east of Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. station, 15 
feet north of tracks, inside fence corner at northeast corner of 
crossing; iron post stamped "920'* 925.781 

COBHOCTOV aXTADRAKOLE. 
Ooahooton eait to Weot Lafayette. 

Coshocton, in front of station; top of rail 777.0 

Coshocton, southeast comer of courthouse; aluminum tablet stami)ed 

Prim.Trav.Sta.No. 57 777' 776.868 



u 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 16 

Ck>8taocton, 3.2 miles east of, 900 feet west of milepost " P 119," In 
front face of concrete foundation of semaphore i>ole; aluminum Feet, 
tablet stamped "767" 767.632 

Coshocton, 4 miles east of, crossing of Wheeling & I^ake Erie R. R. 
and Pennsylvania R. R. ; top of rail 709.5 

Cblll nortli along highway to Charm. 

Chili, 0.1 mile north of, 150 feet south of crossroads, in top of east 
wing of north abutment of steel highway bridge over White Eyes 
Creek; chiseled square 813.64 

Chili, 2.1 miles northwest of, 0.2 mile east and 0.3 mile south of sec- 
tion comer of sees. 14, 17, 13, and 18, Crawford Township, south- 
west corner at T road west ; iron post stamiied " 857 " 856. 689 

New Bedford, 0.3 mile southwest of, southwest comer at T road 
southwest, in top of stone; chiseled square 1,123.42 

New Bedford, south part of town, at road forks, in west end of stone 

culvert, at top; chiseled square 1,136.16 

New Bedford, general store 400 feet east of crossroads, north side 
of Main Street, in southeast corner of stone foundation ; aluminum 
tablet stamped "1155" 1,154.958 

New Bedford, 0.1 mile north of. In southwest corner at T road west, 
county line between Holmes and Coshocton Counties, in top of 
stone step; chiseled square 1,181.94 

New Bedford, 2.8 miles north of, northwest comer at T road west ; 

iron post stamped ••1194" 1,193.742 

Charm, 1.5 miles southwest of. four corners at, northeast comer of 

north road forks, in top of stone; chiseled square 1,208.63 

Coihooton northwest along Pennsylvania B. B. to Warsaw. 

Coshocton, in southeast corner of courthouse; aluminum tablet 
stamped " Prlni.Trav.Sta.Xo. 57 777" 776.868 

Roscoe, in center of crossroads, in top of foundation of well ; chiseled 
square . 774. 24 

Coshocton, 3.7 miles northwest of, 116 feet north of railroad, in east 
wing of north abutment of swing bridge at road crossing; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "776" 776.400 

Warsaw Junction, 2.4 miles ejist of, in top of south end of south wing 
of concrete dam in Walhonding River; aluminum tablet stamped 
" 787 " 786. 869 

Warsaw Junction, 1.4 miles east of, in top of west abutment, north 
wing, railroad bridge over highway; chiseled square 797.28 

Warsaw north along Cleveland, Akron k Columhns By. to Killbuck. 

Warsaw Junction, 3 miles northeast of, fJO feet west of railroad, at 
road crossing, in northeast comer of yard of W. H^ Darling's resi- 
dence, at foot of telephone iwle; iron post stamped "704" 793.984 

Warsaw Junction, 4 miles northeast of, in west wing of south abut- 
ment of railroad bridge over Killbuck River, in top stone; chiseled 
square 788. 27 

Metham, in front of station; top of rail 794.6 

Metham, 0.1 mile north of station, northeast corner of road forks, 40 
feet east of railroad, at railroad crossing; iron post stamped 
" 793 " 792. 720 



16 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Metbam, 1.7 miles north of, east wing of north abutment of railroad F^et 
bridge 121 over Killbucli River; chiseled square 794.17 

Bllssfleld, 175 feet west of station, south side of Main Street, 40 feet 
northeast of crossing, in northwest comer of yard; iron post 
stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 17 1907 796" 796.106 

Bllssfleld, 1.1 miles northeast of, in north wing of west abutment of 
railroad bridge 120 over Killbuck River, In top stone; chiseled 
square 706.36 

Helmiclc, in front of station; top of rail 797.0 

Lay land, 1.2 miles south of, south end of switch to sand mill, west 
right of way line, 50 feet west of track, 580 feet south of sand 
mill; Iron post stamped "795" 794.622 

Layland, in front of station : top of rail ! 798. 9 

Lay land, 1.3 miles north of, in east wing of south abutment of rail- 
road bridge 118 over Killbuck River; chiseled square 804.52 

Layland, 2.1 miles north of, 0.8 mile south of Carpenter's switch, 0.8 
mile north of railroad bridge over Killbuck River, east right of way 
line, 30 feet west of center of public road, 300 feet north of bend in 
public road to east ; iron post stamped " 804 " 803. 497 

Grade south alonf liighw&ys to Coshocton. 

Clark (Bloomfield), 0.8 mile north of post office, southwest comer at 
second-class road west; iron post stamped "941" 941.347 

Clark, 0.3 mile north of, 200 feet south of T road east, in west wing 
of north abutment of small Iron bridge; chiseled square 823.93 

Clark, 2.5 miles south of, west side of Coshocton and Millersburg 
road, northeast corner of yard on proi)erty line, residence of D. C. 
Miley; iron post stamped "1127" 1,126.671 

Clark, 4.5 miles southwest of, 1.3 miles northwest of Mound, T road 
southwest, 25 feet south of center of road forks, in top of west end 
of plank drain ; copper nail 1,023.79 

Mound, northeast corner of crossroads, 25 feet southwest of west end 
of steel bridge over Mill Creek ; iron post stamped " 817 " 816. 897 

Mound, 2 miles south by 0.7 mile southeast of, southeast comer of 
road forks, 25 feet north of large maple tree, 60 feet northeast of 
small steel bridge over Little Mill Creek ; iron post stamped " 805 "_ 805. 366 

Keene, 1.6 miles southeast of, north side of road forks at T road 
south, inside fence line, 50 feet north of center of road forks: iron 
post stamped "770" 769.687 

Canal Lewlsville, 2 miles north of, northeast comer at T road east, 

in top of stone; chiseled square 782.43 

Canal lewlsville, 175 feet south of crossroads, In east wing of west 
abutment of steel highway bridge over canal; aluminum tablet 
stamped " 774 " 774. 255 

Coshocton, in northeast corner of courthouse; aluminum tablet 
stamped "Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 57 777" 776.868 

mXEBSBTTBO aTTADBAKOLE. 

Killbnek west along railro&d 1.8 mUes. 

Killbuck. 1.2 miles west of, on coping stone of stone culvert under 
railroad at railroad crossing; chiseled square , — ^ 807.12 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 17 

Xount Hope sonthwest &lonf ro&d to Millenlmrf , thence east to W&lnnt Greek. 

Mount Hope, 1.6 miles east of, on large rock on south plde of road ; Feet, 
chiseled square painted " 1124.7 " 1, 124. 63 

Mount Hope, 15 feet southwest of southwest corner of Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, 5 feet north of public road; Iron post stamped 
" 1285 " . 1, 285. 063 

Benton, southwest corner of crossroads, 2 feet east of property line 
of B. B. Farver ; iron post stamped " 991 " .._ 990. 910 

Benton, 1.8 miles west of, southwest side of T road north, on stone 

ledge ; chiseled square painted *' 1192.7 " 1, 192. 52 

Benton, 2.7 miles west of, south side of road at T road north ; chiseled 
square painted "1103.6" 1,103.47 

Benton, 2.8 miles west of, southwest side of T road west, in front of 
residence of W. H. Gindlesburger ; iron post stamped " 1128 " 1, 128. 48 

Millersburg, 1.5 miles east of, on west abutment, east side of bridge 
over Honey Run ; chiseled square painted " 879.204 " 879. 070 

Millersburg, curb in front of courthouse; chiseled square 900. 84 

Millersburg, west side of courthouse, along wing wall of steps; 
iron post stamped "904," painted "904.3" 904.164 

Millersburg, 1.1 miles east of, east end of small rock culvert under 
wagon road at T road east; chiseled square 976.640 

Millersburg, 3.8 miles east of, southwest comer of crossroads at guide- 
post marked " Millersburg 4 miles, Berlin 3 miles, Benton 4 miles, 
Salbillo 2i miles;" iron post stamped "1202" 1,202.102 

Berlin, 1.6 miles west of, on top of large stone at T road south, oppo- 
site residence of Fred Mast; chiseled square painted " 1062.8" 1,002. 068 

Berlin, in center of town, northwest comer of crossroads; Iron post 
stamped " 1292 " 1, 292. 303 

Walnut Creek, 2.5 miles west of, at southeast comer of T road 
south, in corner of field owned by E. M. Beachy ; iron post stamped 
" 1259 " 1, 258. 716 

Walnut Creek, 1.7 miles west of, on southwest comer of first step 
from bottom at schoolhouse at northeast comer of crossroads; 
chiseled square painted " 1273.3 " 1, 273. 134 

Apple Creek southwest aloiif railro&d to point 1.1 miles south of Holmesville. 

Apple Creek, 2.3 miles south of, southeast comer of crossroads, 100 
feet east of railroad, at guidepost marked " Maysville 5 miles, 
Fredericksburg 2i miles, Apple Creek 3i miles ; " iron post stamped 
" 1034 " 1, 033. 517 

Fredericksburg, 1.1 miles north of, 100 feet north of railroad crossing, 
on south abutment, east side of bridge over Salt Creek, at mile- 
post; chiseled square marked " H 50 C 94 " 998. 18 

Fredericksburg, east side of schoolhouse yard, in front of church; 
iron post stamped " 974 " -' 973. 874 

Fredericksburg, 2.4 miles south of, 35 feet south of railroad at rail- 
road crossing, on north end of bridge abutment on east side of Twin 
Bridge over Salt Creek; chiseled square 894.87 

Holmesville, 500 feet north of station, 25 feet north of railroad, near 
right of way at railroad crossing; Iron post stamped " 871 " 870. 409 

•— Bull 476—11 2 



Charm nortbuit alone hlcbwa;i to point 3.1 mllei lonthWMt of Vklnst Oretk. 

OUarin, cpiilcr of town, opposite post office, nt soatbwest comer of 
yard on enst siilc i)f rond nt T nwid piist, 130 feet northwest of road 
forks; ir<m ih)rI Ktnnii>p<l "1047" 1,046.S2S 

Walnut Creek. 3.1 miles soiitiiwest of, ri5(> feet enst of Shelter school- 

hoTise: Inm [xrat stamped ■' l>riin.Trav.Sto.No.40, 1040" 1,040.01S 

Walniil Ci-eek, a.l miles wontbwest of, about 000 feet east of Shelter 
ST 1 moll ion KP. on sonth libutment. west side of bridge at T road 
nortli; cliiseli-d sciiuiit- piiinttil "lOSS.S" 1,028.34 

KlUbach w*t nlong higbway to Chami. 

Killbnek, 450 feet west of stnlion, steel brld^ on main line Cleveland, 
Akrim & Coliniibns Ity. over KIDliiick iliver, in north wing of east 
Hliiitment; jiliiiiiinnni tablet staini«xl "rriiii.Trav.Sta.No.ie, 1907, 
SOT" 807.29 

Kitllini'k, in front of CievelamI, Akron & Colnnibus Ry. station; top 
of mil _ - 810.fi 

Killbnck. .S miles east of. 2S0 feet ocmth of Hard.r's switch, southeast 
comer of forks of road; Iron post stomped '■ 811 " 810. 5&1 

Grade, O.Zi mile west of, road forks at o)d txtst olflce, west side of 
road: Iron post stamped "1162" 1,162.14B 

Fialtillo. northeast corner of crossroads, inside fence line; Iron post 
stampe<l "Prim. Trav. Stu. No. 24. 1907, 1217 ' 1,216.898 

Charm, ].2.'i miles northwest by 1.2.'i nilleB west of, four corners, 
southwest corner of north road forks. In top of stone; chiseled 
square 1,214.22 



PRIMAKY LiEVEUNG. 19 

Charm, east part of town, T road southwest at schoolhouse, 90 feet 

northwest of road forks, in top of west wing of south abutment of Feet, 
small iron bridge; chiseled square 1,030.61 

VAYABBE QTTADBAirOLE. 
Wilmot northwest along hiffhway to Kldron. 

Wilmot, south side of Maple Street at T road west to Winesburg, 75 
feet east of Methodist Episcopal Church; iron post stamped 
" 1024 " 1,023. 496 

Wilmot, 1.1 miles northwest of, on east abutment, south side of bridge 

over Little Sugar Creek at Y road; chiseled square 1,000.46 

Wilmot, 2.4 miles northwest of, south of Mount EUiton Road at T 

road north; iron post stamped "1184" 1,184.168 

Wilmot, 3.1 miles northwest of, on south abutment west side of 

bridge over creek; chiseled square . 1,026.33 

West Lebanon (Pem Station), 0.7 mile east of, on north abutment, 

east side of bridge 300 feet south of railroad; chiseled square 986. 30 

West Lebanon (Pem Station), north side of railroad, on right of way, 

25 feet east of wagon road; iron post stamped "988" 988.126 

West Lebanon, 1.1 miles west of, 50 feet north of railroad at railroad 
crossing; on south abutment, east side of bridge over Little Sugar 
Creek ; chiseled square 1, 001. 64 

West Lebanon, 1.7 miles west of, on south abutment, west side of 
bridge over Little Sugar Creek, at railroad crossing; chiseled 
square 1, 013. 08 

West Lebanon, 3.4 miles west of, 60 feet north of railroad at rail- 
road crossing, on north abutment, east side of bridge over Little 
Sugar Creek, chiseled square 1,077.004 

Kidron, center of town, southwest comer of crossroads; iron post 

stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 38, 1104 " 1, 103. 849 

CtauiAl Dover weet along hlffhway to Sugar Greek, thence north along railroad 

to Beach City. 

Canal Dover, 3.5 miles west of, north of road at T road south ; iron 
post stami>ed " 932 " 932. 005 

Canal Dover. 6.4 miles west of, northwest corner of T road north; 

iron post stami)e<i ** 10.38" 1,037.508 

Canal Dover, 7.2 miles west of, southwest comer of crossrods; iron 

post 8tami>ed " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 41, 1003 " 1, 002. 574 

Sugar Creek, 175 feet north of station, 15 feet east of public road; 

Iron post stamped "992" 992.000 

Sugar Creek, south end of station platform ; top of east rail 990. 7 

Sugar Creek, 2.1 miles north of, west side of public road, 15 feet east 

of railroad crossing, on stone; chiseled mark painted "980.2" 980.03 

Barrs Mills, 150 feet south of railroad crossing, on north abutment 

west side of railroad bridge; chiseled square 975.41 

Barrs Mills, 490 feet north of railroad station at railroad crossing, 

25 feet west of Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R on railroad right of 

way; iron i)Ost stamped "909" 968.407 

Barrs Mills, 1 mile north of, 9 feet east of railroad at whistle post; 

chiseled square on large rock, marked " Barrs Mills 1 mile " on 

whistle post 972. 42 



nbont TiOO feet wost iif sclnidllioiist' ; iron post stamped "Prim. 

Truv. Sta, No. :i!K lisii- 1,180.423 

VlDeiburg aoathwoit alODK hlchwa; to Obkna. 

WldefibntE, 1.3 miles wntitli of, piist ptid of stone culvert; chiseled 

sqUHre imiiitiil " ltl2('..3'" 1. 026.14 

AViilnut Creek. 2.S miles north of, imrtliwest compr of crossronds. at 

BiildeiHisl miirkt'd '■Imudec 4! miles, Itcrnii 4 miles. Trail 1 mile. 

Wnlmit Civek 3 miles;" Iron post slnmi>eil " lllVi" 1, ISA. 825 

Wnlniit Creek, 1.0 miles north <if, on iKirlli end of eoncrete culvert at 

T roii.l eiiBI: clilseleil wiimre ]«ilrite<l "lOM.R" l,05i.e8 

Uiilniil Cni'k. fumllieiiMt (iiriier of criHiBriirtdM. on curb opimsite [lost 

oHii^e; rhiseled W|iiiire 1,190.375 

Wnlnitl I 'reek. In front of M'lioolhonse, west side of ynrd: irOD post 

slnrnjieil -IIOS"— 1, 1»7.458 

Wnltiiil Creek, 'Mi mile soiitli of, sniitbn-esl corner ot cr<)ssroadS, OQ 

stone: chiseled wjimre iiniiir,..! " i)!)i;,r> " 096.403 

NEV COHEBSTOWN aUADEAHOLE. 
W8«t Laf»rette 8«»t via Mow Cotnantown to Bcrnloe. 

WePt r-iifnyetle. In front of stalion; lop of rnll 802.0 

West I.iifiiyette, northwest corner of pnlillc school grounds, 120 feet 

snnth of renns.vlviinin R. H. ; iron post Rtflmpod " Prim. Trav. Sta. 

No. rA SOi) ■• 809. 391 

Isletii. in front of station; top of rnil 792.1 

IsletH, '2l>ri feet enst of station, 2.'i feet north of track. In rflllroad 
culvert; aluminum tablet stamped "791" 7B0. 087 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 21 

Feet. 

New ComerBtown, in front of station ; top of rail 802. 9 

New Ctomerstown, in front step of Fountain Hotel, northwest comer, 

1 foot from sidewalk; aluminum tablet stamped "805" 805.191 

New Comerstown, in foundation of high school building, 6 feet south 

of entrance from College Street ; aluminum tablet stamped " 809 "_ 808. 623 
Bemice, 2 miles west of, in north abutment, east side of iron bridge 

over Dunlap Creek; aluminum table stamped "802" 803.178 

Bemice, 0.6 mile west of, on west abutment, north side of iron 

bridge; chiseled square, painted "811.9" 812.88 

V«w Ckimentown north along FenntyWania B. R. to Joyce (the error dlitrib- 

uted in this line Is exoeuive). 

New Comerstown, 2.4 miles northeast of, about 0.1 mile east of road 
forks at road crossing, in top of south wing of east abutment of 
steel bridge; chiseled square 815.50 

New Comerstown, 3 miles northeast of, 550 feet east of Pennsyl- 
vania R. R., west side of road, at T road east; iron post stamped 
" 827 " 826. 953 

Wolf, 2.6 miles north of, 30 feet east by 10 feet south of overhead 

railroad crossing; iron post stamped "890" 889.652 

Stone Creek, 1.9 miles north of, at road crossing, in north abutment 
of bridge over stream ; chiseled square 905. 82 

Stone Creek, 3.1 miles north of, 20 feet east of railroad, at private 
road crossing; iron post stamped "901" 900.880 

West Lafayette north along Wheeling ft Lake Erie R. R. to Chili. 

West Lafayette, east of Pennsylvania R. R. station, at center of road 
crossing; top of north rail of north track 802.4 

West I^afayette, 1.4 miles north of, in top of west wing of north abut- 
ment of steel highway bridge over Tuscarawas River; chiseled 
square 778. 73 

West Lafayette, in front of Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. station, at 
road crossing; top of rail 777 

West Lafayette, 2.3 miles north of, on Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. 
east right of way line, north side of road at road crossing, inside 
fence comer; iron i)ost stami)ed "779" 779.269 

Fresno, in front of station; top of rail 788.4 

Fresno, 110 feet west of Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R., in southeast 
comer of schoolhouse grounds ; iron iK>st stami)ed " Prim.Trav. 
Sta.No.27 1907 785" 784.999 

Chili, south end of station platform, 35 feet east of track, 50 feet 
west of crossroads; iron post stami)ed " PrlmTrav.Sta.No. 26 1907 
823 " 822. 757 

Chili, 0.9 mile west of, southwest corner of crossroads, at foot of 
mail-box post, 15 feet west of fence comer; iron post stamped 
993 " 993. 143 



« 



Sugar Greek louthwett along railroad to Kew Redford. 

Sugar Creek, 3.4 miles south of, 25 feet west of railroad, 10 feet 
south of wagon road; iron post stamped " 998," painted " 998.4 "__ 998. 226 

Baltic, in yard at Bixler Hotel ; iron post stamped " 1041 " 1, 041. 305 

Baltic, 2.6 miles west of, at Y road ; iron post stamped " 1151 " 1, 150. 916 



miles, SUrevt; D uillos. Welcome 1 uiUo," at iiortliweat comer of 

T road; Inm juift Btaiii|i«l " KHIl " ],000.S33 

Wolcdiup, 2.1 uilleB DortL of, in crnler of T niiHl, on cornerstone 

rwk; chls»l<>d squnre [Kiliited "1102"_ 1,101.98 

Slireve. (i.S miles soulli of, ;it iiiirtLwest corner of T rojid north: 

Iron jiost srnnii>e.l '■lIKiD" _ 1.02S.521 

Slireve, t!.4 miles sonth of, at m)rilin-est niriicr of T rond at guide- 

lH..st. miirkiNl "Slireve 4 iiiil''M, IMIiii \iilli..v :i lulu's, Nnshvllle 5 

miles, Holnii'i'1-llle ti niilcw:" in'ii i>>>Bt siiimi>cd " I»rlni.Trav.Sta. 

No. 23, 11S7" - 1.187.003 

Slirfve, 3.-1 iiiilow soiiHi of, nortlitvesr corner of cTiissrcmd.s at giiide- 

jiOBt marked ■" Holmi'svilU- 11, Wckonu' ^. Slnvic ;il ; " Iron |)ost 

RtamiHil ■■113U" -_.- 1,138.6!I7 

Slireve, 1 mile south of, noi(liw.'t.t corinr ■<{ T ii>iid iiorili. on rock; 

clilseled sqniirp niS.4 

Shivve, under tickot-oHici" ivinilow; .'^niiilje.isT ■■,.nn-y of wuter tiible-, 5117. 0« 

Polot l.£ m!l>i wait of SlUbuck west along- ralliORd to point S mllot lonthvait 
of OloDmont. 

Killbnck. 3.1 miles mst of, on ricvoliiml, Akron & r,.lnoil.iiK R.v,, 60 
feet sonlh of niileiiowt marked " C 74 II 7«.'" on iioiilie.ist conier 
of stone cnlvei-1 under railrcHidL cliiwkil siiniirc 825.49 

Gleumoiit. 2 niiles east of, IWi feet sonlh of i-iillro:nl. 25 fwt west 
of n-UKon roiid, l.(">0 fwt cast of mileiKisl innrkeil - C 73 H 71;" 
Iron iiost stamijed "tJUti" 836.748 



PBIMABY L.EVELJNG. 23 

Glenmont, 40 feet north of center of main track, in northeast comer Feet. 
of grass plot; iron post stamped " Prim.Trav.Sta.No.17 868" 868.268 

Glenmont, 2 miles west of, 25 feet north of railroad, at private cross- 
ing 200 feet south of T road north, on sandstone rocli; chiseled 
square • 988. 09 

Olenmont louth along hishway toward Warsaw. 

Glenmont, 0.6 mile south of, west of road on top of hill, on large 

stone at gatepost; chiseled square 1,192.47 

VHBIOHSTILLE QTTADBAVOLE. 
At Station 16 post ofioe. 

Station 15 post office, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. 
stone bridge 86, on northeast coping of northeast wing wall ; alumi- 
num tablet stamped " 868 STEUBENVILLB " 868. 622 

Tennett*s tunnel north to Tippecanoe and east. 

Tippecanoe, southwest comer of Daviess and Spencer Streets, north 
foundation wall of dwelling; bronze tablet stamped "882 STEU- 
BENVILLB " 881. 736 

Tippecanoe, 0.8 mile east of, covered bridge over Brushy Forlt, on 
south-wing wall of east abutment; chiseled square 860.62 

Jojoe north alony Pennsylvania B.. B.. to near Oanal Dover (part of adjusted Une 
Hew Oomerstown to Oanal Dover, the closure error of whioh was 
ezoesslve). 

Joyce, 1.1 miles north of, 25 feet west and 10 feet south of road 
crossing; iron post stamped "873" .^ 872.644 

W008TE& aTTADRAHOLE. 
Sldron northwest along highway to point 1.9 miles north of Apple Greek. 

Kidron, 2.2 miles west of, 25 feet south of railroad on west side of • 
public road at crossing, on right of way ; iron post stamped " 1128 "_ 1, 127. 471 

Apple Creek, 1.9 miles north of, on Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry., 
350 feet north of switch leading to Kidron, on southeast corner, 
east end of small concrete culvert under railroad at railroad 
crossing; chiseled cross •_ 1,089.80 

Apple Greek north along Gleveland, Akron ft Golumbua By. to OrrTille. 

Apple Creek, 300 feet south of station, at railroad crossing, in south- 
east corner of park; iron post stamped "1029" 1,028.294 

Apple Creek, 1.9 miles north of, southeast corner, east end of small 
concrete culvert under railroad at railroad crossing, 350 feet north 
of switch to Kidron; chiseled cross 1,089.80 

East Union, 1.2 miles south of, 895 feet south of milepost marked 
" C 102 H 92 ; " chiseled square on southeast comer east side of 
small stone culvert under railroad 1, 116. 032 



PBIMARY LEVELING. 25 

Oibsonville, 1.5 miles south of, in center of road forks a T road south- Feet. 
east, in top of stone; chiseled square 1,075.52 

Oibsonville, 1.5 miles south by 0.8 mile southeast of, in front of 
Scheik's residence, in center of road, in top of stone; chiseled 
square ^ 1, 071. 38 

Gibsonville, 1.5 miles south by 1.6 miles southeast of, west of road 
south, 100 feet south of road forks and 30 feet south of southwest 
comer of steel highway bridge over Pine Creek; iron post stamped 
" 702 " 761. 419 

Gibsonville, 1.5 miles south by 2.3 miles southeast of, spike in base 

of tree on east side of road at top of hill 1,060. 14 

Cedar Grove Church, 350 feet southwest of, southwest comer of T 

road south; iron post stamiied "897" 897.084 

Wesley Chapel, about 1 mile east of, on south side of east abut- 
ment of small iron bridge; chiseled square 829.78 

South Bloomingville, 3.8 miles east of, 0.2 mile north of Wesley 

Chapel, west of road at forks; iron post stamped "1066" 1,066.013 

lAnrelville alony Oolnmbui ft Soatliem By. to Boutli Bloomlagville, thenoe by 

public road to Wesley ChapeL 

lAurelville, northwest corner of public square, on top of concrete 

curbing at comer; painted square ^ 739.58 

Jjaurelville, 2.3 miles southeast of, 400 feet southeast of Karshner 

schoolhouse, 500 feet east of railroad, northwest corner of private 

road west; iron post stamped "733" 733.272 

Haynes, southeast comer of T road northeast, 60 feet east of road 

forks; iron post stampeii "694" 694.020 

Reeds, northwest comer of road crossing, 75 feet north of railroad, 

in southwest comer of yard ; iron post stamped " 682 " 682. 076 

South BloomingA'llle, road crossing at station; top of rail 690.7 

South Bloomingville, 1.6 miles northeast of, south side of road at T 

road north, painted square on root of stump of tree 1, 020. 51 

South Blooming\'l]le, 3.1 miles east of, in southeast comer of T 

road south ; chisel mark on stone 1, 050. 23 

Oos via Eaffle Xms, Walnut Orove Churoh, Bosral, Btella, and Hue to Wesley 

ChapeL 

Cox, 1 mile east of, south side of road at T road north, on stone; 
chiseled square 630. 71 

Cox, 1.25 miles east by northeast, west end of culvert at northwest 
comer of road forks ; chiseled square painted " 636.17 " 630. 11 

Eagle Mills, 0.1 mile north of iwst office, southeast comer of road 
forks, inside of fence, south side of wooden bridge and about 10 feet 
from road; iron post stamped "648 OHIO" 647.945 

Eagle Mills, 2.9 miles east by 1 mile west of, 3 feet north of telephone 
pole, about 50 feet south of creek, west of Vauder school ; iron post 
stamped "678 OHIO" 677.804 

Vander school, 0.5 mile southeast of, Ural post office, at southwest 
comer of road forks, about 75 feet from intersection ; spike in root 
of oak tree painted " 740.585 " 740. 47 

Royal, 60 feet east of covered bridge, at road forks ; iron post stamped 

" 726 " 72r 

Royal, 3.4 miles northeast of. Low Gap, northwest corner of cross- 
roads ; spike in root of oak tree imlnted " 994.052 " 91 



26 SPmiT LEVELING IK OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Stella^ oatslde sootbeftst comer of eesoetery fence, about 10 feet nortli 
ct telephone pole and 100 feet fanutta of church at northweat comer Feet 
of crof»sroada; Iron post stauijied '•KKie OHIO" 1.053.412 

MilboQ school, Oj8 mile northeast of Stella, at road forks* spike in 
root of large oak tree: [tainted •'lOiLSSS" 1,071.73 

Stella, 2.6 miles northeast of, at northeast comer of road forks, spike 

In root of hickory tree; painted '*1045.UJ9'' 1,045.00 

Stella, 3.4 miles northeast of. about O.S mile scmlhwest of Hue, at 
southwest comer of road forks, siiike in root of tree; iialnted 
" 1036.381 " 1,036.29 

Hue, about 0.8 mile west of, in northwest comer of H. S. Honnold^s 
yard, outside fence sit road forks; iruu jiost stam[)ed ** Prim. Trav. 
Sta. 1906. 865 OHIO " 865. 354 

StollA to CraoU. 

Creola, Kirkendall^s store and post office, 7 feet from east wall 
(front) of store in top stoue of south foundation wall; bronze tab- 
let stamiied "760 OHIO" 760.159 

Allemrllle to Eoyal. 

AUensvIlle, 75 feet west of Darby*8 store, south of road, inside hitch 

rack ; iron post stami)ed " 082 OHIO " 681. 426 

7A0S80V QTTADRAHOLE. 

Beeeher along Baltimore ft Ohio Southwettem B.. B. to Hamilen. 

Beecher, 2.7 miles east of, north of Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 
R. R. track, 20 feet n(»rth of and 75 feet west of bridge abutment, 
50 f(*et east of road crossing, bridge 115-25; iron post stamped 
" on OHIO " 610. 59G 

Ray, 0.4 mile east of, about 20 feet north of railroad track, east side 
of road at forks; iron i)ost staniijed " 022 OHIO '' 621. 503 

Byer, In front of station; top of rail 615 

Byer, 75 feet east of Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. station, 50 
feet north of track, on east side of road at road crossing; Iron post 
stamped "040 OHIO" 630.686 

Byer, junction of Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern R. R. and Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. ; top of north rail 644 

Richland, 75 feet southwest of station, south side of track and 25 feet 
east of road; iron iwst 8tami>ed **701 OHIO" 701.011 

Humniit, 75 feet south of track. 20 feet west of road near fence 
corner at road crossing; iron post 8tanii)ed " 7S6 OHIO" 785.496 

Hamden, In front of Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern R. R. station; 
top of rail 713 

Hamden, 0.5 mile east of, on coping of Baltimore & Ohio Southwest- 
ern R. R, culvert; cut (Coast and (Geodetic Survey bench mark 
III) 705.481 

Byer north via Ox to AllentTille. 

Byer, 0.3 mile mirth of, top of stone at road Intersection ; paint mark 

"644.506" 644.47 



PRIMARY L.EVEUNG. 27 

Byer, 3.8 miles north of, 5 feet northwest of mail-box post, near 
walnut tree to southwest at northwest comer of road forks; iron Feet, 
post stamped " 826 OHIO " ^ 825. 926 

Ox, 0.3 mile noi*th of, southwest corner of road forks, on top of stone ; 

paint mark "748.855" 748.72 

Olade along Detroit, Toledo ft Ironton By. to Jackson. 

Glade, 435 feet south of station, east of road in wood lot; iron post 
stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 20, 687 " 686. 862 

Glade, road crossing at station; top of rail 689.6 

Cove, rear of post office, 25 feet west of railroad; iron post stamped 

" 691 " 690. 581 

Cove, 2.6 miles northeast of, Cochran switch, southeast side of track, 

1 foot from right-of-way fence; iron post stamped " 674 " 674. 269 

Cove, 5.1 miles northeast of, northwest comer of Sunshine mine 
switch, 30 feet north of north main line of Detroit, Toledo & Iron- 
ton Ry., and 500 feet west of switch stand; iron post stamped 
" 650 " 650. 284 

Jackson. Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Ry. station, northeast comer of 

platform, on stone curbing; chiseled mark painted "649.63" 649.668 

Jackson, northeast comer of crossing of Main and Portsmouth 
Streets, southwest corner of public square, southeast comer of 
county surveyor's office building; iron i)ost stamped "700" 699.822 

Jackson along Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton Ry. to Byer. 

Jackson, crossing of Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Ry. and Hocking 

Valley Ry 648. 60 

Chapman, road crossing at station, north side of road, west side 

of railroad, in southeast comer of yard ; iron i)ost stamped " 678 "__ 677. 717 
Coalton, 500 feet east of Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. station, 

northeast comer of crossroads, at road crossing, near warning post ; 

iron post stamped "702" 702.379 

Coalton, in front of Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. station; 

top of rail 698.13 

Coalton, 2.5 miles northwest of, road crossing at Glenn Hall, 15 feet 

north of road and 20 feet west of railroad, 3 feet from warning 

post; iron post stamped "667" 666.555 

Coalton, 3.9 niik»s northwest of, 30 feet south of road crossing, 

west side of track; bolt head in north end of bridge No. 152; 

painted " 653.4 " 653. 41 

Suithlne mine switch north via Oakland Church and Leach to Ray. 

.lackson, 2.0 miles west by 2.4 miles northwest of, road forks at Oak- 
land Church and school house, northeast corner of forks, 5 feet 
from row of mail boxes: iron post stamped "835" 885.220 

I.<each, 1.3jniles southeast of, southeast corner of T road, south, 15 
feet south of Chillicothe-Jackson pike, on stone; chisel mark 709.48 

Leach, 0.8 mile southeast of, top, north end of west abutment of Iron 
bridge over Salt Creek at T road northeast ; chiseled cross painted 
622.24 " ^- 622. 36 



« 



28 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Leadi^' 0.3 mile southeast of, 300 feet west of iron bridge over Salt 
Creek, in center of road forks, on stone; chisel mark painted 
" 625v5^" «7. 67 

Leach, in front of Georpe H. Greene's house, opposite store, 150 feet 
northwest of T road, east ; iron post stami)ed " 621 " 620. S9S 

Ivy, 2.^ miles south of Ray, 200 feet west of store at southeast 
comer of T road, north ; iron post stamped " 958 OHIO " 957. 636 

0A3CKILL aTTADRAHOLE. 
Edmnndt gwitch along Baltimore ft Ohio Sontliweitam B. &. to Koyitone. 

South Webster, in concrete curbing, east end of station platform, 
10 feet west of road crossing; chiseled square 702.47 

Bloom, 0.2 mile south of, 20 feet north of road and 15 feet east of 
railroad at road crossing; iron post atami)ed "633"_-_ 633.170 

Eifort, on north end of concrete curbing of station platform; 
chiseled square painted "6G5.5" 665.50 

Eifort, 1.1 miles northeast of, 60 feet north of milepost "H 31- 
P 25," 10 feet south of road, 10 feet west of railroad, at road 
crossing; iron jwst stamped "676" 075.857 

Black Fork, center of concrete curbing of station platform ; chiseled 
square 687.06 

Black Fork, 10 feet north of northeast corner of station, 20 feet west 
of railroad; iron post stamped "687" 686.8?^t 

Oakhill, 35 feet west of railroad, 15 feet south of center of road, 
road crossing at Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern R, R. station; 
iron post stamped "707" 707.417 

Clay, 40 feet south of railroad and 20 feet east of road at road cross- 
ing near station; iron post stamped "605" 694.964 

Camba, 25 feet south of station, 20 feet east of track, under overhead 
highway bridge; iron post stamped "728" 728.538 

Bainbridge, Georgetown, Greenup, Hlllsboro, Manchester, KaysTille, Otway, 
Peebles, Portsmouth, Scioto, Vanceburg, and West Union Qnadrangles. 

ADAMS, BBOWT«, PIKE, AND SCIOTO COUXTIES. 

The elevations in the following list were determined in 1910, the 
field work being done by C. B. Shaw, J. W. Janssen, Howard Clark, 
and C. E. Mills. Results of additional work done in the Scioto 
quadrangle by E. L. McXair in 1897 and in the Scioto and Otway 
quadrangles by W. H. Monahan in 1906 have been published in Bul- 
letin 411. 

SCIOTO QTrADRAKOLE. 
New Bolton along Baltimore ft Ohio Southweatem B. B. to Edmunda awitcli. 

New Boston, 1 foot east of stiition sign post; iron post stamped Feet. 
" 534 " . 533. 728 

ScIotoviUe, about 360 feet north of Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern 
station. 30 feet west of track; iron post stamped "Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No. 26, 548 " 547. 899 

Seiotoville, 30 feet east of southeast comer of station platform, 15 
feet north of railroad ; iron post stamped " 545 " 545. 394 



PEIMABY LiEVEUNG. 29 

Sclotoville, 1 mile northeast of, in base of switch stand on east side Feet 
of track at south end of switch ; spike head 550. 04 

Slocums, 0.8 mile northeast of, southwest comer of road crossing, 

near telegraph pole; iron post stamped "554" 554.291 

Gepharts, 400 feet southwest of station, 50 feet south of road cross- 
ing, 60 feet east of trestle; iron post stamped " 671 " 670. 806 

Scioto Furnace, 10 feet from north end of concrete curbing of station 

platform; chiseled square 602.98 

Scioto Furnace, 0.7 mile northeast of, at Edmunds switch, trestle 374 
over creek and road, in north end of east guard rail; bolthead 605.51 

BSmunds switch, at sign post between switch and main line of Balti- 
more & Ohio Southwestern R. R.; iron post stamped "608" 607.562 

Fortimoutli nortli alonr Norfolk ft Wettem By. (Oinclnnati divliion). 

Portsmouth, 3.5 miles northwest of, north end of switch at Wharton 
Station, 50 feet west of railroad, 25 feet southwest of southwest 
corner of canal bridge, 15 feet south of private road east and 20 
feet east of Portsmouth and Galena Pike ; iron post stamped " 529 "« 528. 775 

Davis, northeast along pnbllo roadi via Scioto (HarrlaonviUe) to Xanie. 

Davis, 1.1 miles north of, about 5 miles north of Portsmouth, west 
side of track in south abutment of iron bridge over Portsmouth 
and Chillicothe Pike; aluminum tablet stamped "559" 557.869 

Portsmouth, about 5 miles north by 0.6 mile east of, west side of Fort 

Hill, on stone, north side of road ; chisel mark painted " 798.1 " 797. 94 

Crone, 1.2 miles southwest of post office, on Portsmouth-Harrison- 
ville Pike, at T road northVest, 0.25 mile east of Long Run Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church and 850 feet south of Long Run United 
Brethren Church, northwest corner of road forks; iron post 
stamped " 747 " 747. 108 

Crone, 0.6 mile northeast of, T road northwest, 50 feet north of road 
forks, north abutment, west side of small wooden bridge over 
creek ; chiseledisquare painted " aS4.4 " 684. 31 

Scioto ( Harrison ville), 3.1 miles southwest of, on Portsmouth-Harrl- « 
sonville Pike, northeast comer of road forks, at A. Oertal's farm ; 
iron post staibped " 685 " 685. 150 

Scioto (Harrisot Ville), in sandstone foundation under southwest cor- 
ner of Knights of Pythias two-story building, west side of street; 
bronze tablet stamped "654 I" 650.793 

Scioto, 3.8 miles northeast of, on Jackson Pike, at southeast corner of 
T road southeast, about 0.2 mile west of White schoolhouse (dis- 
trict 10), Madison Township; iron post stamped "728" 727.013 

Scioto, 4.8 miles northeast of, T road southwest, in southwest comer 
of top of stone; chiseled cross 589.90 

MasBie, near, 7.4 miles northeast of Scioto, 120 feet northwest of 
schoolhouse (district 12), ea?t side of road, 75 feet higher than 
main road, in sandstone ledge of hillside; bronze tablet stamped 
" 678 I " 679. 856 

Bonoh marks near Lucaaville. 

Davis, 0.09 mile south of station, on southeast comer of south abut- 
ment of railroad bridge over highway, in stone; chiseled circular 
mark ^ 564.7 



MCDerniott, 121) feet enst of station, 15 feel west of road at cross- 
ing; Iron jiost Btfliiipwi "575" : 574, OW 

Arloii. .tr> feet sinitli iif riiilroiiil, op[>oslte Ktiilioii. Ifi f^et eiiBt of road. 

1 foot west of jiosl-office ImlUlinc; iron post f:tiiin|)ed "587" 5S7.091 

Henley, roati eroBxiiiK nt Ktation, 30 feet north of railroad nnd 10 

feet east of ronri; iron jiost »tniii|)e<i "574" 574. 25fi 

Otn-ny, nortli s(<le of Hinllon filalfoiin. 20 feet west of gtntloo: iron 
post stillli|)ed " riS6 " 6S5. 740 

Young. 0.3 mile northwest of, iihont liiO feet west of road eroBslng, 

5 feet BOiitli of hlgliway; Irnn post atnniiieil ■TiO.I" 5nS.3S2 

Karden, 175 feet wckI of station, north of track. 75 feet west of creek. 
oil north side of right of wn.v liiiei inni post staiii|ied "filS" 612. 7M 

'Vakeflsld wcit alone public roada tIr Camp and Ladd to Daks, thence louth 
to Hard an. 

Wdkefleld. a little norlli of town. 2.2 miles s.nith of Sargents. on 
west side of north abntnient of railroad liridge over ereeh; alumi- 
num tablet stamped " 551 " 550. ifil " 

Coo|iersville, 2.2 miles west of, northeast corner of T road north. BO 
feet from center of road ; Iron iKist stam[>ei1 " 5,S2 " 681. 627 

Cnnip, 1.2 miles west of. southwest corner of crossroads, near fence 
corner, .'iO feet west of road north; iron ix)st stamped "Prim. 
Trav. Sta. No. «0. l!)Ofl. OHIO. 0<to" fi65. IM 

Camp, 2.7 miles west of, top of stone on north side of roail; chiseled 
croea painted "TTO.S" 779.26 

Ladd. southwest corner of crossroads. .10 feet from center of roads; 
Jron post stamped "1105" - 1,104.770 



PRIMABY L.EVELING. ' 31 

Duke, 200 feet east of road forks in center of town, south side of road Feet 
opposite schoolhouse ; iron post 8tami)ed " 1237 " 1, 237. 149 

Duke, 3.2 miles southwest of, west of road on south side of large hill, 

In base of stump; spike painted "1107.5" 1,107.47 

Duke, 3.8 miles southwest of, 2.7 miles northwest of Rarden, at foot 
of Wallace Hill, 250 feet northwest of Clark Foster's residence, 20 
feet west of center of road ; Iron post stamped " 705 " 705. 190 

Baptiit Ohuroli on Pond Creek north alony public road via Arion and Orabtree 

to Oamp. 

Pond Creek Baptist Church, first road crossing west of, T road at 
Pond Creek, about 20 feet south of road rnnniug east-west and 10 
feet west of road running north-south ; iron post stamped " 725 " 724. 772 

Pond Creek, second road fork T\est of Baptist Church, In root of syca- 
more tree; spike marked "781.111" 781.01 

Arion, 2.6 miles south of, road crossing at Flats school, on Galena- 
Portsmouth Pike, in comer of field belonging to Frank Johnley, 
south* of road running east- west and east of road running north- 
south ; iron post stamped " 722 " 721. 387 

Arion, 1.3 miles south of, east of road on summit of hill, 679 feet 
north of residence belonging to James Castor, in root of small black 
oak tree ; spike painted " 925.128 " 924. 97 

Arion, 1 mile north of, at road crossing, about- 30 feet west of road 
running north-south and 6 feet south of road running east- west, on 
stone; chiseled square painted " 703.004 " 702. 84 

Arion, 2.4 miles north of, on east side of road, 589 feet north of resi- 
dence and about halfway down large hill, on rock; chisel mark 
painted " 764.005 " 763. 85 

Crabtree post office, 0.9 mile north of, at Y road; iron post stamped 

" 767 " 767. 028 

Sedan, 1 mile south of, west of road and about 20 feet north of mail 
box at lane, on small rock ; chiseled square painted " 824.490 " 824. 89 

Sedan, 0.4 mile west of, at T road, north side of road running east- 
west and about 15 feet west of road running north-south ; iron post 
stamped " 801 " 800. 908 

PORTSMOTTTH QXrADRANOLE. 
Portimouth alony Obio River to McOaw. 

Portsmouth, southeast comer of post-offlce building, in first course 

of foundation, 1 foot above ground; chiseled square (U. -8. Army 

Engineers* bench mark) 535.129 

Portsmouth, 3.2 miles southwest of, at northwest comer of T road 

north, about 100 feet west of stone arch bridge over Carys Run; 

iron post stamped " 516 " 516. 102 

Dennis, northeast corner of road forks, near telephone pole and 

fence; iron post stamped "529" - 529.07 

Pondrum, southwest corner of T road northwest, 40 feet west of 

center of T road ; iron post stamped " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 8, 1910, 

522" 522.461 

Pondrum, 2.1 miles west of, north side of road, 40 feet from center of 

lane to south; iron post stamped "528" hT 

Pondrum, 6 miles west of, about 3 miles east of Buena Vista, on south 

side of road near telephone pole, at Elm Tree schoolhouse; iron 

post stamped "566 



It 



PEEBLES aVASaANaLS. 
SirSao to point K mllsi wcat of L>wah« k]oD| Norfolk A Vntan St. 

Itnnieii. 2.1 niUes west of. nillei'ost " C W-P 27," side of trnck, on 

to[i »f sliine culvert ; clilseJ«l square painted " 816.2 " 616. 31 

Jaybird (Miiienil Springs stiillou), soiitlieiiet coruer of road (.toss- 
liiK at stiitloii, D feet simtlieost of warning post; Iron poet stamped 
■■ifja  6211.061 

]'oel)li!s, 2.4 miles nnrtiieast of, 15 feet north of rnllrond. 10 feet east 
iif roiid, lit m;irle-t>ii]ik switch rmul crossing; Iron |>o9t stam|>ed 
-TOI)" 760.315 

rei'l.les. r*K} fcot east of Ktiitloii. 2.'". feet east of center of r«rid and 10 
ff>et nortb of railroiid nt road crossing: Irou post stamped "813",. 813. JSi) 

Lunshe. 2riO feet east of sintloii, 75 feet west of road and 20 feet 

soutli iif rnllroad at nmd crosshiK: Iron i>osl stumped "648" 648.310 

JiTblrd Tim Iflnard Springi. W»naler, hni Blae Ci«Bk to Pink. 

Mineral Sprincs. 1.3 miles northeast of, sotilli of road at bend, north 
kIiIp of iilU near bottom, on top of slone; clilsel mark painted 

Mineral Sprinp". 1 mile norllu-ast of. In northwest comer of road 
forks on top of lilll. at private road nortUwest; iron post stamped 
■' 1127 " 1. 127. 2(;^i 

Mineral Siirings. 300 feet norili of Mineral Springs Hotel, 20 feet east 
of forks, siintli end of west stone .nbulment of bridge in top: 
clilsel mark jialnted "758.780" 758.05 

Mineral .'Jprlngs. 2.1 miles southeast of. southeast corner of T road 
south. ;!0 foe! east of forks, sonlh of road, opposite Antloch Church 
aad scboot: Iron iwst stamped "■ftll"....,,- 671.208 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 33 

Mineral Springs, 2.6 miles southeast of, on stone south of road; Feet, 
chisel mark painted "640" 640.10 

Wamsley. 1.3 miles southwest of. west of road, 20 feet north of Mc- 
Clellan Jones's store, 150 feet north of T road west; iron post 
stamped " 619 " 618. 934 

Blue Creek. W. S. Newman's store, 15 feet north of road forks, east 

of road and at T road east; iron post stamped " 641 " 641. 679 

Pink, 75 feet east of stone, north of road, in fence comer; iron post 

stamped "899 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 10, 1910" 898.683 

Pink, 0.2 mile east of. 50 feet northwest of Kidder's store, in south- 
west corner of forks, on stone; chiseled mark painted "874.8" 875.00 

Wamiley via Cedar Xilli to West Union. 

Cedar Mills, T road. Peebles and Wamsley pikes, north side of road, 
opposite fork; iron iwst stamped "564" 564.509 

Cedar Mills, 2.3 miles west of, northeast corner of T road, east, in 
root of hackberry tree; nail head painted "5S5.600" 536.03 

Cedar Mills, 3.6 miles west of, at road crossing, in root of red oak at 
northeast corner; nail head iminted "606.828" 607.33 

Cedar Mills, 5.3 miles west of, opposite Blue Creek Pike, near tele- 
phone pole; iron i)ost stampe<l "1)05" 905.590 

Peebles via Fawcett and Cedar Xillg to Tnlip. 

Peebles. 2.7 miles southeast of, 0.25 mile north of school building, 
on northwest corner of stone abutment of culvert at T road; 
chiseled circle 827. 18 

Peebles, 3.1 miles southeast of, east of pike and about 0.25 mile south 
of school building, on rock at T road, east side of pike; chiseled 
circle 825. 80 

Fawcett, 2.3 miles north of, 40 feet south of pilvC at T road, on north- 
west comer of stone abutment of building; chiseled circle 804.17 

Fawcett, about 30 feet west of store, near telephone iiole at road 
crossing; iron post stamped "837" 836.870 

Cedar Mills, 1 mile north of, on east side of highway, in front of Cedar 
school building, in root of large white oak tree; spike 787.08 

Cedar Mills, 3.6 miles south of, northeast corner of stone abutment of 
iron bridge on pike, west of Linx store ; chiseled circle 716. 58 

Tulip, 3.1 miles north of, west of highway at road forks, about 0.25 

mile north of house, mark on limestone rock; chiseled circle 765.58 

Blue Creek to Tulip. 

Blue Creek, 3.1 miles west of, southwest corner of roads, in base of 

sycamore tree; nail head 686.24 

Blue Creek, 5.9 miles west of, on high hill, junction with lane passing 
through farm to road leading to Tulip, in base of pignut tree 
at northwest comer; top of nail head 1,150.79 

WEST UNION QUADRANGLE. 

Mayhlll vi% Tranquility and Unity to West Union and Beasleys Fork. 

Mayhill, 1.7 miles southwest of, about 15 feet north of mail boK at 
T road, in front of W. S. Moore's residence, on stone In pike; 
chiseled circle \,<^'n.*l^ 

8&809 '—Bull 476—11 3 



luit- aimui ii.il mill' smillj iif Wllsuii scIhk)! building, on lliueetone 

ri«-k: c-liis..| n.iirl; iHrclel 1.023.11 

ICnicriilit. 4.2 nilii-s s<iiil1nv»"Pt of. at T ronil. iiortb of bigliwny In 
front of I..iiiis ,Iiiliii-N residence: N|ilke in niof of wild cherr.v tree, 1,021.5S 

Kiiieriild, ri.7 iiill,.s si.nllnvcst of. 2(> fei't mirtli of Norfolk & Western 
rty. trnck iiiirl I.' fi-i'l vvesi of MI).'liw;i)' iit rnllrond crossing; iron 
IHiBt KliiniiH'.! •' ia-4  _ l.OW-Or 

Kinei-nlit. ".:! iiiilcs SiJUllmoKi of. rt( T rond, In front of J. L. Watson's 
residence, iiliiml ',! miles nortlicnsr of Carlisle, on limestone rock 
nc:ir niiii! ho.v ; cbiseled circnlar iiiark »75. 7i) 

Knieriitd. '■>> miles soutliwest of, nl T road, at base of small white 
oak ti'ee still iilinj; in middle of iTiad forks near old cemeter.v, on 
rock; clilsi-leil circle..- -. 1.017.84 

ICmonild. r2.7. inlliw I'ouiii of, on west side of pike at V road, about 
0.23 mile north of Itiiii-d school, on limestone rock: chiseled circu- 
lar mark _ 312.87 

rCnicrald. 13 miles somb of, at Baird school on RnssellvlUe Plka 
aljout 2.0 miles easi of Itussellvlllc. in corner of schoolhouse lot: 
Iron post st.nmped " I'rini. Trav. Sta. Xo. 22, 947" »46.9S4 

Decatur, 4.2 miles northwest of. 2 miles enst of Russelville. in coping 
lit noitlie.fiBt corner of covered brk!ge over Eagle Creek; bolthead. «14. 22 

Decatur, at street crossing. In middle of village; Iron post stumped 

'■024 '■ - 924.320 

Decatur. 1.7 miles south of, on Decntia- iiiid Aberdeen Pike, in coping 
at northwest corner of covered bridge over Eagle Creek at road 
forks west of old mill; bolthead 653.38 

Maddox, 1.4 miles north of, east end of stone culiert near road forks 

8t Suck Run school building; chiseled cItciVht nwiTt 731.79 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 35 

Maddox, about 60 feet east of store on south side of pike ; Iron post Feet. 

stamped " 963 " 963. 110 

Bentonville, about 60 feet east of road crossing, In center of town, 

west of pike, back of teleplione pole; iron \x)st stamped " 914 " 914. 544 

Benton ville. 1.3 miles northeast of, 200 feer east of Riffle's residence 

at North Liberty Pike, at base of telephone iK)le, on limestone rock ; 

chiseled circular mark 882.13 

OEORGETOWK QITADRAKOLE. 
Sardinia via Biohn, Ruiiellville, and Red Oak to Ripley. 

Sardinia, about 3 miles east of, 0.8 mile east of Five Points or Biehn 
|)ost office, Norfolk & Western Ky. milepost "C r)()-|-2467 ft.", on 
southwest comer of cover stone, south end of stone box culvert; 
cross cut 998. 964 

Sardinia, 2.5 miles east of, at Five Points (Biehn post office), cross- 
roads at; iron post stamped '^KXH)" ^ 1,000.984 

Carlisle, about 1.5 miles northwest of, on Arqheim Pike, in northwest 

corner of T road north; iron post stamped "104')" 1,046.252 

Russellville, east side of public square, 2 feet north of Jail and voting 

house, 35 feet west of Klpley IMke; Iron post stami>ed ** 975 " 975. 473 

Russellville, 2.8 miles south of, northeast corner of crossroads, 25 

feet from center of crossroads; iron post stamped "927" 928.002 

Ripley, 2.9 miles northeast of, southeast comer of T road east, 10 
feet north of east end of small wooden bridge ; iron post stamped 
" 602 " 6a3. 039 

Ripley, 2 miles north of, T road west at schoolhouse, northwest cor- 
ner of road forks, on large stone ; chiseled cross marked ** 543.7 "_ 544. 75 

Ripley, 1.3 miles north of, in center of road forks, on top of stone; 
chiseled cross marked ** 536.0" 537.02 

XAY8VILLE QUADRANGLE. 
Ripley along Ohio River to Aberdeen. 

Ripley, southwest comer of Main and Second Streets, 8 feet west 
of corner; chiseled square; curbing markeil ** 505.439 " 506. 42 

Ripley, 40 feet west of west end of steel bridge over Red Oak Creek, 
on East Second Street, 15 feet south of center of road; Iron post 
stamped " 501 " 501. 917 

Ripley. 6 miles southeast of, 20 feet east from center of road forks, 
on Threemlle Creek; Iron post stamped "514" 515.119 

Aberdeen, 0.5 mile north of, on Maysville and Zanesville Pike, at fork 
of road, 100 feet east of large steel bridge over Fishing Gut Creek, 
northwest corner of road forks ; Iron post stamped ** Prim. Trav. 
Sta. No. 20, 1910, 521 " 522. 055 

Maysville, Ky., southwest corner of Court and Second streets, Pearce 
& Walllngford building, occupied by State National Bank of Mays- 
ville, on water table on northwest comer about 4.5 feet above side- 
walk; chiseled square marked ** U.S.UB.M." (This bench mark is 
on checked spur line from Aberdeen). 524.498 

XAKCHESTER QUADRAKOLE. 
Aberdeen via Manchester to Wrightiville. 

Aberdeen, 4.4 miles east of, 160 feet east of small iron bridge over 
Little Threemlle Creek, In northwest corner of crossroads, on top 
of stone; chiseled cross marked "511.55" 



Tulip. II.-" mile soinl] of, im woRt bIiIc of higlnviiy nt T road, In front 
iif I.ii^lv S|iln''s ri'fiidPiice, iiii llmeslone nn-k ; c^liiseled circle 

Tiillii, 11,7 iiifii' Koiilli iif, lit T niiul: Iron |M>st Btami)ed "808" 

Tuli|i, l.x mill's siiiiUi "f, wcwl of liiu'liway at roiid torka toot ot 
Kii(li;wK mil, iiiL stoni': cbisi'led elrclo 

Itciiiie. ;j.l (Lilies ii.irth nf, west of rond, in front of school building, 
iltstricl '2, (irecn Towiisliiii. Adnius County, In root of lat^ elm 

ItiiiLH'. ii.s nilk' norili of, west eiiil of stone culvert under pike at road 
forljs ill fniui of W. Tracy's i-es-dpiicei chiseled circular mark 

Bunch mark n«r Bnsna Vista. 

Biii'Dii Vislji. O.n mile east of. nt nortliwcs^l comer of crossroada 30 . 
f(Tl «.>sl <if ii'Mtei' "f ci'.issni.iils: iron iK)S!t wtamiied "Prim. Trav. 



WdghtiTllle via Borne to BnCDa Tlata. 

WrlirlitKville. 3.0 miles cast <if. 0.."; mile imrtliweRi ot Inrge steel bridge 
over Oliio Brush Creel;, nortbensi eiirner of road forks; iron post 
stani[>ed "!tii" - 544.810 

Konic, crossing of Main and Second slreets, 50 feet Houtbeast of cen- 
ter of crossroads; Iron post siamjied " I'rlm. Trav. Sta. No. 16, 
1910. 524 '■- 524. T3T 

Rome. 4.S miles east of. near T road north and private road BOntb, 

center of road fork made by road north ; iron post staniiied " 579 "__ 580. 21 

Sflfldj' Sjirings, ojipoBite ViincelravR, Ky., \vi vJwVlicaM corner of T 
road south to Obio River ; spike Vn toov ol \\\c'feOT5 wee ^SOk^V. 



1>B1MARY LEVELING. 37 

Buena Vista, 1 mile west of, on north wing of east abutment at north- Feet, 
east comer of small iron bridge over Kock Run ; chiseled cross 513. 60 

- Tulip to Beasleyi Fork. 

Tulip, 2.8 miles southwest of, at Wagners Ripples, south of highway 

at Y road in front of old mill ; spike in root of large sycamore tree_ 516. 61 
Beasleys Fork, 4.3 miles east of, southwest corner of stone abutment 

of iron bridge over Black Run, about 400 feet east of road forks; 

chiseled circle 509. 93 

Beasleys Fork, 3 miles east of. Cedar College, at road forks; iron 

post stomped "550" 550.678 

Bandy Springi to Vanceburg (checked ipur line). 

Vanceburg, Ky., on south side of soldiers' monument in courthouse 

yard; chiseled square (U. S. Army engineer's elevation 528.242)— 527.742 

BAIKBBIDOE QITADBANOLE. 
Dnke via Poplar Grove to Maykill. 

Duke, 2.3 miles northwest of, north of highway opposite lane leading 

to W. V. Tompson's residence, on stone marking comer of Scioto 

and Pike Counties; chiseled circle 1,239.91 

Duke, 3.3 miles northwest of, at road crossing, 30 feet west of store 

belonging to Thomas Grooms; iron post stamped "1227" 1.227.178 

Poplar Grove, 5.9 miles northwest of Duke, 40 feet north of store; 

iron post stamped "1135" 1,134.652 

Poplar Grove, 5 miles west of, east of highway about 50 feet south of 

east-west road; iron post stamped "781" 781.000 

Ix)uden, 2.7 miles east of, north side of pike at T road, about 500 feet 

west of Anders school building, spike in root of large oak tree 772. 87 

T^uden, about 20 feet from northwest comer of store on north side of 

pike near telephone pole; iron i)ost stamped " 782 " 782. 310 

Louden, 1.6 miles west of. on stone abutment at southeast corner of 

iron bridge over Flat Run; chiseled circle 729.61 

HILLBBOSO QUADRANGLE. 
XayhiU to Emerald. 

Mayhill, at road crossing; iron post stamiHHl " Prim.Trav.Sta.No. 
82, OHIO 1909" 1,013.396 

Mayhill, 0.3 mile south of, enfit of pike, at road forks; nail in root 
of poplar tree 1,014. 84 

Mayhill, 0.8 mile west of, on north side of highway at road crossing, 
about 40 feet north of large oak tree, on limestone rock ; chiseled 
circle 846. 93 

Mayhill, 3.4 miles west of; spike in root of large oak tree at road 
forks ^ 940. 61 

Mayhill, 5.4 miles west of, at Buck Run, east of highway at T road, 
about 100 feet south of H. N. Barrackman's house; iron post 
stamped " 932 " 932. 427 

Emerald, 4.3 miles east of, at T road, in middle of highway, on lime- 
stone rock; chiseled circle 949.01 

Emerald, 2.8 miles northeast of. 10 feet south of highway east-west 
and 40 feet west of highway north-south, at road crossing, 300 feet 
north of Highland County line, on limestone rock; chiseled circle. 980.15 



38 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Emerald, 0.6 mile east of, east of highway where road turns squarely Feet 
to north ; Iron post 8tami)ed " Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 85 977 " 976. 950 

Continental, Coyin^on, Delphos, Lima, Loramie, Sidney, fipencerrlUe, and Troy 

Quadrangles. 

ALLEN, ArOLlIZE, DARKE, MIAMI, PUTNAM, RHELBT, AND TAN WEST COOmEg. 

The elevations in the following list are based upon the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey precise level line from Cincinnati to Toledo. 
The leveling was done in 1909 by H. B. Hoel. 

DELPKOB QUADSANOLE. 

Bimer along Northern Ohio By. to Delphoi, thence north to Muntanna along 

Toledo, St. Lonli ft Weitem B. B. 

Rushmore, southeast corner of yard of Herbert Thurston, 40 feet Feet. 

north of railroad crossing; Iron iwst stami>ed " 7G0'* 759.511 

Rushmore, 2.4 miles west of, at railroad crossing. In right of way, 40 

feet west of road, 40 feet north of railroad; Iron post stamped 

"765" 764.464 

Fort Jennings, 0.7 mile south of, at railroad crossing, 30 feet east of 

crossing, on right of way; Iron post stamped "755" 754.423 

Fort. Jennings, railroad crossing at station ; top of rail, painted 

"753.83" 753.6 

Douglass, 0.8 mile south of, at railroad crossing, 30 feet east of 

Toledo, St. Louis & Western R. R. track, 30 feet north of road, on 

right of way; Iron post stamped "746" 745.266 

Douglass, railroad crossing at station; top of rail, painted " 744.52 "_ 744.2 
Muntanna station, at railroad crossing, 40 feet west of, 35 feet north 

of highway, on right of way ; iron post stamped " 729 " 728. 839 

Delphoi weit 8 mllei along Pennaylvanla B. B., thenoe north along highway to 

Boielma. 

Delphos, in northeast comer of yard of tower house at crossing of 
Pennsylvania R. R. and Toleilo, St. Ix)uls & Western R. R. ; iron 
post stami)etl "780" 779.645 

Delphos. near; railroad bench mark (Pennsylvania R. R. levels, ad- 
justment of 1003, give elevation as 7S1.355) 781. 299 

Delphos, 3.2 miles west of, 30 feet west of road, 10 feet south of 
railroad, on right of way; iron post stamped "777" 776. 3<S 

Seamersville, 3 miles south of, in southwest corner of northeast field 
at crossroads; iron post stamped " 7<;3 " 762. S36 

Seamersville, in southwest comer of yard of John Dunlap at cross- 
roads; iron post stami>ed "745" 745.134 

Roselms, 3 miles south of, at crossroads, in southwest corner of yard 
of Elm Grove schoolhouse, subdistrict 1, Jackson township; Iron 
post stamiKHi "733 OHIO" 733.107 

Mlddlepolnt west 2 milei along Pennsylvania B. B., thence north to point 

3 miles south of Grove Hill along highway, 

Mlddlepolnt. west end of plank at railroad crossing at station; top 
of such rail, palnteil "782.3" 782.0 

MiddleiM)lnt, 0.5 mile west of, at railroad crossing, on right of way, 
50 feet west of road, 10 feet south of railroad ; iron iH)st stami)ed 
"785" 784.754 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 39 

Van Wert County Infirmary, 0.25 mile west of, southeast comer of Feet. 

crossroads; Iron post stami)e(l **777 Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 11" 777.213 

Middletx>lnt, 2.5 miles west by 5 miles north of, northeast corner of 

crossroads; Iron post stamped "752" 751.575 

Grove Hill, 3 miles south by 1 mile west of, northeast corner of 

crossroads; Iron post stamped "736" * 735.653 

Delphoi loath alon^ Cinoliiiuitl, Kamilton lb Dasrton Ry. to Southwortli. 

Uclphos, 2.9 miles south of, at railroad crossing, 30 feet south of 
. highway and 30 feet west of railroad, on right of way; Iron post 

stamped " 791 " 790. 414 

Southworth post office, north end of plank at railroad crossing; top 

of east rail, painted " 814.89 " 814. 7 

Southworth post office, 0.4 mile south of, northwest comer, north side 

of T road west, 50 feet west of canal, inside fence; iron jwst 

stamped " 813 " 813. 118. 

XlddlepolBt loutli ftlong highway to point 2.6 milei south of Venedocla. 

Middlepolnt, 0.5 mile west by 2.8 miles south of, at northwest corner 

of T road; iron ix)st stamped "791" 790.708 

Venedocla, 1 mile south of, at southeast comer of T road east; iron 

post stamped " 804 " 803. 998 

Venedocla eait to Southworth. 

Landeck, 2 miles south by 0.5 mile west of, southeast corner of cross- 
roads; Iron post stamped "813" 812.318 

BPENCERVILLE QITADRAKOLE. 
Bpencenrllle eaat along Erie R. R. to Kempton. 

Spencervllle. intersection of Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton R. R. and 
Erie R. R., 30 feet west of the former and 80 feet north of the lat- 
ter, on right of way; iron post stamped " 827 " 827. 127 

Conant post office, 30 feet we^t of road, 60 feet south of railroad, at 

railroad crossing, on right of way; iron post stamped "828" 828.034 

Bpencenrllle weit 6.6 mllei along Erie R. R., thence south to St. ICaryi* 

Spencervllle, In front of station; top of rail 828.0 

Spencervllle, 3 miles west of, 50 feet north of railroad, near crossing, 

40 feet west of road, on right of way; iron iwst stamped " S24 "___ 823. 366 
(^onverse, at west end of plank at railroad crossing; top of north rail, 

painted " 827.40 " 827. 

Venedocla, 3.5 miles south of, (JO Un^t north of Erie R. R., at crossing, 

35 feet west of road, on right of way ; iron post stamped " 816 " 810. 126 

Kossuth, 3 miles north by 4.5 miles west of. southwest corner of 

crossroads on county line; iron post stamped "843" 842.423 

Mendon, 3.8 miles east of, southeast corner of crossroads; iron post 

stamped " 829 " 828. 508 

St. Marys, 2 miles west by 6.5 miles north of, southeast corner of 

crossroads; Iron post stamped "833" 832.551 

St. Marys, 3.5 miles west by 3.5 miles north of, northeast corner of 

crossroads; Iron i)ost stamped " .S52 " 851. 807 



40 SPIBIT LEVELING IK OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

St. Marys, 3 miles west of, 30 feet west of highway and 10 feet south 
of railroad, near crossing, cu right of way; iron iwst staniiXHl Feet. 
" 1)03 " 902, 705 

St. Marys, in front of Lake Erie & Western R. R. station; top of 
rail 870.2 

St. Marys, 315 feet -east of Lake Erie & Western R. R. station, 115 
feet west of street, 28.4 feet south of south rail of main track, at 
railroad crossing of Wayne Street, on right of way; Iron post 
stamped " 871 " 870. 988 

Spencenrille Math via KoMath to St. ICaryt, thenoe eait to point 2 milei 

beyond Moulton. 

Kossuth, 1.1 miles northwest of. west side of north-south road, at T 

road east; iron post stami)ed *'H42" 841. 57C 

St. Marys, 6 miles north of, east side of Aorth-south road, at T road 

west; iron iwst stamped "828" 827.676 

•St. Marys, 3 miles north of, at southwest corner of crossroads ; iron 

I)ost stamped •* 859 " 858.975 

Moulton, 1.1 miles west of, 15 feet south of railroad at crossing, 40 

feel west of road, on right of way ; iron post stamped " 906 " 905. 447 

Moulton, 2 miles east of, 30 feet north of railroad at crossing, 30 feet 

east of highway, on right of way ; iron i)ost stami)ed " 882 " 882. 108 

Point 4 miles lontheait of Moulton via Xonlton to Oonnnt. 

Moulton, In front of station; top of rail 806.7 

Moulton, 2.25 miles north of, northwest corner of crossroads; Iron 

post stami)ed *' 873 " 873.430 

Moulton, 5.25 miles north of, southeast corner of T road south; iron 

I)ost stami)ed "848*' 848.107 

Conant, 3.5 miles south of, soutlieast corner of T road east; iron 

post stamped "S;«" 833.887 

LOHAXIE QUADBAKOLE. 

Point 2.6 milei lonth of St. Marys south via Minster and Loramie to Huffman 

schoolhouie. 

New Bremen, southeast corner of Zlon (Ueformetl) Church, midway 
between steps leading to south and west door of church ; iron post 
stanu)ed "941 " 94L103 

Minster, in yard In rear of Sommer Hotel, 15 feet south of south 
face of building and 4 feet west of sidewalk. Inside fence; iron 
post stamped " JMJS •' 967. 718 

Ijoramie, at nortli end of west abutment of iron bridge over canal 

and 60 feet southeast of V. (laier's store; Iron post stami)ed "959"_ 958. SIM 

Newi)ort, 1.5 miles north of, on east side of north-south road, at 
T road west. 1(K) feet northwest of brick s<'lioolhouse, district 4; 
iron post stami)ed **1()(M)" 1,005.7S2 

Newport. 1.25 miles south of. at southeast corner of diagonal road 

southeast; Iron post stamptnl "953'' 953.06t5 

Point 6 miles west of Bwuiders west via Loramie to YorksMre. 

I-ioramie. <».."» niile south by 4.5 miles east of, 50 fi^et south of and in 

front of residence of John Roman; iron post stami)etl ** l(KH)" 1,000. 2«M 



phimaHy leveling. 41 

Loramie, 0.5 mile south by 2 miles east of, at southeast corner of Feet. 

crossroads; iron post stamr)ed •*972" 972.290 

Lorumle, 3 miles west of, at Darke-Shelby County line, northeast 

comer of crossroads; Iron post stamped "955" 955.110 

Bench mark 8 milei east of New Knoxville. 

New Knoxville, 3 miles east by 1 mile south of, on Shelby-Auglaize 
County line, at southwest comer of crossroads; iron post stamped 
"Prim. Trav. Sta. No. 6 928" 928.344 

North HouetoB along Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago ft St. Lonli TLj, to Hardin. 

Houston, in front of station; top of rail 962.1 

Dawson, at station, in southwest corner of yard of residence of E. J. 
Griffis, 15 feet north of railroad and 40 feet west of station, at rail- 
road crossing; iron post stamped "943" 943.161 

Hardin Station, 1.5 miles east of, 30 feet south of railroad and 25 
feet west of road, at railroad crossing, on right of way ; iron post 
stamped " 989 " _. 988. 874 

Point 2 miles south of Kettlersyille west to Minster. 

Minster, 1 mile north by 4 miles east of, north side of east-west 

road at T road south; iron post stamped "974" 974.460 

Point 2 miles northwest of Chickasaw east along highway to Botk^. 

Chickasaw, 2 miles north by 0.8 mile east of, in concrete bridge seat 
at northwest comer of small iron bridge; aluminum tablet stamped 
"899 ADJ 1905" 898.712 

New Bremen, 3 miles north of, sec. 34, T. 6 S., R. 4 K., on traction 
line, at southeast comer of crossroads, in west face at northwest 
comer of brick schoolhouse; aluminum tablet stamped "902 ADJ 
1905 " 901. 558 

New Knoxville, 2 miles southwest of, north of center of sec. 36, T. 6 
S., R. 4 E., in north face of northeast corner of Berghorn school- 
house (subdistrlct 2) ; aluminum tablet stami)ed " 918 ADJ 1906 "_ 917. 560 

Botkins, 5 mile3 west of, southeast comer of sec. 33, T. 6 S., R. 5 E., 
at northwest comer of diagonal road to northwest, east side at 
southeast comer of schoolhouse, in stone under window ; aluminum 
tablet stamped "944 ADJ 1905" 943.731 

Botkins, 3 miles west of, at southwest corner of sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 5 
E., northeast corner of T road north, at southeast corner of school- 
house, east face, in stone under window ; aluminum tablet stamped 
" 965 ADJ 1905 " 964. 303 

Chickasaw sonth along Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dasrton By. to Yorkshire. 

Chickasaw, southwest corner of sec. 11, T. 7 S., R. 3 E., in southeast 
comer of store and dwelling of H. Gast, south face, in water table; 
aluminum tablet stami)ed "947 ADJ 1905" 946.731 

Maria Stein, northwest corner of sec. 26, T. 7 S., R. 3 E., west face, 
al)out 10 feet from northwest corner, of Myers & Patty'.** grain ele- 
vator; aluminum tablet stanii)ed "974 ADJ HK>5" 973.710 

Yorkshire, northeast comer of ^ec. 13. T. 12 X.. R. 3 E., at southwest 
corner of T road south. In north face at northwest corner of small 
brick store building; aluminum tablet stamjied " 9HS ADJ 19(^1 "___ 



42 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

TROY QTrADRANOLE. 
Troy ■ontbweit 1.6 miles. 

Troy, 1.8 miles fiouthwost of, extreme southeast comer of section 30, 

Concord Township, Miami County, northwest comer of crossroads; Feet. 
Iron post stamped "888" 888.128 

Lookington north Mlong highway to Newbum. 

Newbum, at northeast comer of T road east ; iron post stamped 

" 900 " 960. 337 

SIDNEY QirADRAKOLE, 

Point 4 milei east of New Knoxvllle Math alonir highway to Hardin, thence to 

Sidney. 

Kettlersville, 1 mile east of, southwest corner of T road south; iron 

post stamped **979" 978. H43 

McCartysville. 1 mile east of. northwest corner of crossroads; iron 

post stamped "980" 980.100 

Hardin, 4 miles noith of village, northwest comer of crossroads: iron 

post stami^ed "990" 990. 42S 

Hardin. 1 mile north of village, northwest comer of crossroads; iron 

post stamped "960" 9."V1>.41-J 

Hardin, 2 miles east of station, southwe>^t corner of T road east, 60 

feet north of railroad crossing: iron iK)8t stamped "1015" 1,015.219 

Si>airord, in front of power house : top of rail 1, 02s. 2 

Bwanden louthweit 6 miles. 

Swanders, in front of station; top of rail 1,018.3 

Swanders, 1 mile south by 2 miles west of, at southwest corner of 
crossroads; iron post stamiHKl "1028" 1.028.009 

COVINOTON QUADRANGLE. 

VenaiUei northeait alon^ Oleveland, Oincinnatl, Chicago ft St. Louli Ry. to 

point 1 mile east of Ruiiia. 

Versailles, east edge of sec. 24, T. 11 N.. R. 3 E.. west part of town, 
southwest corner of Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. 
bridge over Indian Creek, in back wall ; aluminum tablet stami)ed 
" 069 ADJ 1905 " 968. 659 

Versailles, northwest corner of tower house, at intersection of Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. and Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton & Dayton Ry., inside painted ring on concrete base of bell 
crank of Interlock switch; chiseled square juilnted "980.66" 980.46 

Versailles, 3 miles east of. 40 feet south of railroad and 25 feet west 
of public road, near railroad crossing, at Darke-Shelby County line, 
on right of way; Iron post stampe<l "978" 977.917 

Russia. 1.5 miles east of, at railroad crossing, southwest corner of 
school yard at HuflPnjan school house, (K) fwt north of railroad and 
25 feet east of road; iron jK^st stamped "969" 969.204 

Yenaillei alon^ Oincinnatl, Kamilton ft Dasrton Ry. to Oovin^n, thenoe via 
Pittaburg, Cincinnati, Chicago ft St. Louii Ry. to Fiqua. 

Bloomer iwst office, 25 feet east of road. 20 feet north of railroad, 
near crossing, at southwest corner of yard of residence of W. W. 
Sands, on right of way; Iron post stampe<l •* 1021 " 1,021.042 



PRIMABY LEVELING. 43 

Abe, at south end of plank at railroad crossing; top of west rail Feet, 
painted " 975.83 " 975. 6 

Abe, 0.5 mile south of, at railroad crossing, 10 feet west of railroad, 

25 feet north of public highway; Iron post stamped " 9(55 " 9G4. 385 

Covington, in public school yard, on comer of Pearl and Maple 
Streets, 15 feet south of west entrance to school building; Iron 
post stamped **933" 932.755 

Covington, 3 miles east of, 30 feet north of railroad at crossing, 30 
feet west of public highway, on right of way; Iron iK)St 8tami)ed 
" 972 " 971. 807 

Bloomer north alon^ highway to county line, thenoe eaat to Lockington. 

Bloomer. 0.0 mile north by 3 miles east of, northeast comer of cross- 
roads; Iron post stamped "981* J__ 980.863 

Bloomer. 0.6 mile north by 6 miles east of, 25 feet north of east- 
west road, at T road south. In southeast corner of field; Iron post 
stamped " 984 " 983. 729 

Locklngton, 0.5 mile south by 1 mile west of, at southwest corner of 
crossroads, on large rock. Inside painted ring; chiseled square, 
painted '* 910.58 " 910. 26 

Locklngton. 0.3 mile west of, on east side of north-south road, at 
T road east; Iron i^ost stami)ed •'884" . 883.848 

Covington weit along Pennsylvania R. R. via Bradford to Oakland. 

Bradford. 50 feet west of telegraph office. 25 feet north of Tx)gans- 
port division railroad track In railroad j^ard; Iron [H)st stami)ed 
*• 992 •' 991. 849 

Bradford lonth along highway to Laura. 

Bradford, 2.5 miles south of, southwest corner of Newberry Town- 
ship, Mlama County, southwest corner of yard of schoolhouse 14; 
Iron post stami>ed ** 9.S2 " 981.703 

Painter Creek, 2 miles east by 1 mile north of. northwest corner of 
crossroads, 50 feet east of residence of J. E. Hollacher, south- 
west border of sec. 10, T. 8 X., R. 4 E. ; Iron post stamped " 996 "_ 996. 089 

Painter Creek, 2 miles east by 1 mile south of, at northwest comer 
of T road north, center of S. W. i sec. 28. T. 8 X., R. 4 E. ; Iron 
I)Ost stamijed *'1005" 1,005.416 

Covington south along Cincinnati, Hamilton k Dayton Ry. to Ludlow Falli. 

Covington, 2.5 miles south of. near railroad crossing, 20 feet east of 
public highway. 30 feet south of railroad; Iron iM>st stami)e<l 
*' 925 " 924. 541 

Pleasant Hill, in front of station; top of east rail iK)7. 4 

Pleasant Hill, 1 mile south of, at railroad crossing, 20 feet west of 
railroad, 3i) feet W)uth of highway, on right of way; Iron post 
stamped ".S8(>" 879.794 

Ludlow*, 50 feet northesist of Cleveland, Cincinnati, ('hicago &. Ht. 
Ix)uls R. R. station, on south side of Ludlow Creek, In south face 
of pier of electric railroad overhead l)rl(lge. 3.5 f«'et from w<»Ht 
edge; aluminum tablet stamijed ** S93 AI>J 1{i05"-. 



44 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Covin^n loutheMt 4.6 milei along Troy Pike, thenoe ■outh to Fenner Pike, 

thenoe east to point 8.6 miles west of Troy. 

Covington, 4 miles southeast of, on north side of diagonal road at Feet. 

T road west; iron i)ost stanii)ed "958" 058. OW 

Pleasant Hill, 3 milQS east by 0.5 mile south of, at southeast corner 

of crossroads; Iron post stamiied **047" 946. 5SS 

LIMA QirADSAHOLE. 

At Wapakoneta. 

Wapakoneta, in front of Toledo & Ohio Central Ry. station; top of 
rail 895. 6 

CONTINENTAL QUADRANGLE. 

At Cloverdale. 

Cioverdale, Intersection of Toledo, St. I^ouls & Western R. R. and 
(Mnciunatl, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., in front of station; top of 
rail painted "724" 723.6 



APPENDIX. 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY THE COAST AND GEODETIC 

SURVEY FROM PRECISE liEVEUNG. 

Akron, Alliance, Athens, Blanchester, Batavla, Boy^ling Green, Colambns Grove, 
Dayton, Deshler, East Cincinnati, Flndlay, Fostorla, Greenfield, Hamilton, 
Jackson, Lima, Lisbon, HcClnre, Hason, Kasslllon, Hedlna, Xlamlsburg, 
Navarre, New London, Norwalk, Ottawa, Parkersburg, Bozabell, Slam, Sidney, 
Tiffin, Toledo, Troy, Warren, Waynesvllle, Wellington, West Cincinnati, 
Wooster, Uhrlchsvllle, and Youngstown Quadrangles. 

ALLEN, ASHLAND, ATHENS, AUGLAIZE, BUTLEB, CLINTON, CLEBHONT, HAMILTON, HENBT, 
HIGHLAND, HCBON, JACKSON, LUCAS, MAHONING, MEDINA, MIAMI, MONTGOMEBY, PUT- 
NAM, BOSS, SENECA, SHELBY, STABK, SUMMIT, TBUMBULL, TUSCABAWAS, WABBEN, 
WASHINGTON, WAYNE, AND WOOD COUNTIES. 

The following descriptions and elevations are taken from reports 
of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and are republished by permission 
of the superintendent of that bureau. The bench marks were estab- 
lished by the Coast and Geodetic Survey and by the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad Co. from precise levels, and were included in the 
1907 adjustment by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The elevations 
are likely to be changed only slightly by any future adjustment. For 
the line from Warwick to XJhrichsville, along the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, a modified adjustment has been adopted by the United 
States Geplogical Survey, as explained on page 17, Bulletin 411. 
The present accepted elevation of the bench mark at XJhrichsville is 
0.25 foot lower than that obtained by the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
adjustment. 

ALLIANCE QUADBANOLE. 

Alliance northeast alony Fenneylvania B.. R. to Snodee. 

Feet. 
Alliance, Stark County, about 1.5 miles east of, on Pennsylvania 

R. R. right of way, east abutment of bridge 66, on the northwest 

comer; square cut (C. & G. S. b. m. Bridge 66) 1,096.030 

Alliance, West Main Street, southeast corner of Knights of Pythias 
Hall, in south face of base stone, one-third meter above cement 
walk; red metal disk (C. & G. S. b. m. Q6) 1,102.991 

Alliance, northeast comer of Freedom and Main streets, south- 
west comer of the Lewis Block, about 2 Inches from north wall; 
iron bolt, anchored to foundation and extending slightly above the 
level of cement walk (C. & G. S. b. m. City) 1, K 



46 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Alliance, southeast corner of Freedom and Court Streets, in front 
face of city hall, about one-third meter from south side, on hori- 
zontal surface of water table ; chiseled square, marked " U. S." Feet. 
(C. & G. S. b. m. R6) 1,110.212 

Alliance, north side of Pennsylvania It. R. station, on northwest cor- 
ner of iron sill of lunch-room door; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. Lunchroom) 1,087.490 

Alliance, 1.5 miles east of, on Pennsylvania li. R. rij^ht of way, north- 
west corner of east abutment of bridge 65 : chiseled square, marked 
"U. S." (C. & G. S. b. m. Bridge G5, 19(J<>) 1.055.009 

Alliance, 1.7 miles east of, on Pennsylvania R. R. right of way ; north- 
east comer of the east back wall of bridge 64; chiseled square 
(C. & G. S. b. m. Bridge 64, 1900) 1,062.42S 

Sebring, Mahoning County, about 0.5 mile west of, on Pennsylvania 
R. R. right of way, northwest corner of east abutment of oi)en cul- 
vert; large square in outline, marked ** B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. 
West Culvert) 1, 109.031 

Sebring, 0.5 mile west of, on Pennsylvania R. R. right of way. north- 
west corner of east abutment of box culvert ; chiseled square marked 
"B. M.'' (C. & G. S. b. m. East Culvert) L 106. 040 

Snodes, 1 mile south of, on Pennsylvania R. R. right of way at mile- 
post 22, in middle of east coping of concrete culvert; chiseled 
square, marked *' U. S." (C. & G. S. b. m. S6) 1,090.454 

LISBON QITADRANGLE. 
Bonch marks near Berlin Center, Mahoning County. 

Berlin Center, about 2.5 miles south of, on Pennsylvania R. R. right 
of way, five telegraph poles north of milepost 20; middle of west 
end of north concrete abutment of bridge 26 (C. & G. S. b. m. 
T6) 1,0S9.01K) 

Berlin Center, about 2 miles south of, 17 telegraph poles south of 
milepost 24, at southwest corner of Western Reserve line crossing. 
15 meters west of track; reil metal cap on iron post (C. & (J. S. 
b. m. U6) 1,0S4.SGS 

WARREN QUADRANGLE. 

Berlin Center northeast along Pennsylvania R. R. to point near Nlles. 

Berlin Center, Mahoning County, 70 meters north of Pennsylvania 
R. R. station, 15 meters east of tracks, base of the southwest sup- 
port of railroad water tank; chiseled .square (C. & G. S. b. m. V6)_ 1, 106.152 

Ellsworth, about 90 meters south of Pennsylvania R. R. station, 
in northwest corner of large stone step of public school building; 
chiseled square marked " U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. ni. W6) 1,120.666 

Rosemont, southeast corner of Pennsylvania R. R. station, on curb- 
ing of platform, 5 centimeters from building: chisded square 
(C. & G. S. b. m. X6) 1.071.456 

Rosemont, 100 meters west of Pennsylvania R. R. station, on public 
highway, in middle of the north coping of the stone culvert; 
chiseled square marked "U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. Y6) 1,080.878 

Rosemont, about 0.3 mile west of station, at public road crossing, in 
northwest comer of public school grounds : red metal cap on iron 
post (C. & G. S. b. m. Z6) 1,065.557 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 47 

North Jackson, about 0.25 mile east of Pennsylvania R. R station, 

In southwest corner of east abutment of highway bridge; red metal Feet, 
disk (C. & G. S. b. m. A7) 1,014.652 

North Jackson, 45 meters southeast of station at corner of fence, 
40 meters east of railroad crossing; red metal cap on iron post 
<C. & G. S. b. m. B7) 1,024.622 

Xorth Jackson, 1.4 miles north of, on Pennsylvania R. R. right of 
way, one telegraph pole from mllepost 7, in middle of east coping 
of concrete arch bridge 10; chiseled square marked "U.S." (C. & 
G. S. b. m. C7) 1,001.462 

Lordstown, Trumbull County, northwest corner of road crossing, four 
telegraph poles north of mileiK)st 5, in corner of fence, on land 
belonging to Ada Horn; red metal cap on iron post (C. & G. S. 
b. m. D7) 940.010 

L.ordstown, about O.S mile north of, on Pennsylvania R. R. right of 
way, at milerwst 4, on west end of north abutment to bridge 6; 
chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. E7) 919.845 

Nlles, 2 miles southwest of, near Boenna Crossing, on Baltimore & 
Ohio R. R. right of way, 328 feet east of Pennsylvania R. R. track, 
on lower step of the undergrade crossing bridge 423; red metal 
disk (C. & G. S. b. m. F7) 899.342 

YOUKOSTOWN QUADRANGLE. 
Point near Nilet, Trumbull County, Mutheait to Struthert, Mahoning County. 

Xiles, about 1.5 miles southeast of, 2.8 miles east of Boenna Crossing, 
at southeast comer of road crossing, 49 feet from Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. tracks, in comer of fence, on land owned by John Dove: 
red metal cap on iron post (C. & G. S. b. m. G7) 816.968 

Girard, about 0.5 mile west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of 
way, culvert at telegmph pole 81/28^. in middle of south coping; 
chiseled square marked '* U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. H7) 817.327 

Youngstown, Mahoning County, about 3.5 miles northwest of new 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R. station, at telegraph ix)le 79/28^, west end 
of large cut, on side of hill, 82 feet south of Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. tracks, set in clay at an offset in the right-of-way fence: red 
metal cap on iron post (C. & G. S. b. m. 17) 883.860 

YoungstowTi, 1 mile west of new Baltimore & Ohio R. R. station, on 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, north end of the top step of 
east abutment of bridge 410; chiseled square marked " U.S.B.M." 
(C. & G. S. b. m. J7) 805.312 

Youngstown, 1 mile west of. at telegraph pole 76/23. on old line east 
of river, section of rail set vertically in ground beneath the sema- 
phore bridge: top (B. & O. b. m. 381) 842.004 

Youngstown, 200 feet east of old Baltimore & Oliio R. R. passenger 
station, on the old line east of river, in second course of masonry at 
west end of the retaining wall ; copi)er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 380) 843. 707 

Youngstown, near Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry. station, 
northwest comer of foundation of west beam supporting the over- 
head highway bridge, between Baltimore & Ohio R. R. and Pitts- 
burg A Lake Erie R. R. tracks; seat cut (C. & G. S. b. m. Railroad). 847. 118 

Hazelton, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way. at Andrews Bros, 
crossing, top course of north wing wall of east abutment to bridge 
24; aluminum tablet stamped "837 ADJ • 



48 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Strutbers, 1 mile west of, on Baltixuore & Ohio R. R. rijerht of way 
and south of tracks, on west abutment of bridge 22, In concrete Feet, 
flume; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 377) 847.135 

Struthers, north end of highway bridge over Tittsburg & Lake Erie 
R. R. tracks, in southwest comer of the bridge seat; copper bolt 
(B. & O. b. m. 376) 844.766 

AXBON aVADRAKOLE. 
Akron lonthweit to B&rberton. 

Akron. Sunmiit County. 600 feet east of I'uion Station, in east end 
of retaining wall on north side of tracks; copi>er bolt (B. & O. 
b. m. 441) l,00».ivj 

Akron, 1 mile southwest of Union Station, in southwest end of north- 
west coping of culvert along Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry. 
tracks; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 442) 093.911 

Akron, 3.5 miles southwest of, on Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry. 

bridge over old canal; cop[)er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 443) 97^9^ 

Barberton station; southeast comer of stone doorslll at entrance to 

ladies' waiting room (B. & O. b. m. 444) 968.109 

MASBILLON QTTADBANOLE. 
B&rberton louthwest to Clinton, thence northweit to Easton. 

Barberton, Summit County, 0.8 mile south of, sot in southwest abut- 
ment, north side of bridge 18, Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry. ; 
copper bolt (B. &. O. b. m. 445) 965.236 

Barberton, 2,5 miles west of, 0.6 mile south of milepost H 22. in east 
end of small culvert ; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 446) 971. 514 

Turkcj'foot Junction, near, 300 feet south of milepost H 24, set in 
west end of small Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry. culvert; coi>- 
por bolt (B. & O. b. m. 447) 96S, 52i; 

Messeufjer, about 2 miles east of Warwick; northeast comer of south 

\ner of water tauk (Pennsylvania R. R. b. m.) 960. 4l!> 

Clinton, 0.25 mile northeast of, 0.8 mile southwest of Clinton coaling 
station, in northwest end of small Cleveland, Akron & Columbus 
Ry. culvert; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 448) 945. 6S7 

Warwick, 0.25 mile northeast of, in southeast comer of small Cleve- 
land, Akron & Columbus Ry. culvert; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 
449) 958. 332 

Warwick, 0.8 mile northwest of, in northeast corner of old part of 
Culvert; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 450) 958.619 

Warwick, about 1.5 miles northwest of, 500 feet west of milepost 59, 
on east-bound track, in west end of north coping of culvert; copper 
bolt (B. & O. b. m. 451) 947.379 

Easton, Wayne County, 2.8 miles southeast of, 100 feet east of mile- 
post 58, on east-bound track, set in west end of north coping of cul- * 
vert; copper bolt (B, & O. b. m. 452) :_ 948.009 

Easton, 1.8 miles southeast of, opposite milepost 57; section of rail 
set vertically in ground (B. &-0. b. m. 453) 954. 32G 

Easton, 0.7 mile southeast of, opposite milepost 56; section of rail 
set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 454) 958.992 

Easton, 300 feet northwest of station, in north wing of wall of south- 
east abutment of bridge, on west-bound track ; copper bolt (U. & O. 
b. m. 455) 960.638 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 49 

Easton, 1.25 miles northwest of, at milepost 54; section of rail set Feet, 
vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 456) 955.414 

Warwick lonth along Baltimore ft Ohio R. R. to point 2.6 mllei south of 

KaaiiUon. 

Warwick, Summit County, 0.5 mile south of, between tracks on mud 

wall of south abutment of bridge ; chiseled point (B. & O. b. m. 1). 952. 372 
Warwick, 1.8 miles southeast of, at mileiwst 107; section of rail set 

vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 2) 948.759 

Warwick, 2.8 miles southeast of, at milepost 106; section of rail set 

vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 3) 949.890 

Canal Fulton, Stark County, 500 feet southeast of station at, between 

east-bound track and siding at milepost 105; rail section (B. & O. 

b. m. 4) '- - 947.220 

Canal Fulton, 1 mile southeast of, at milepost 104; section of rail 

set vertically in ground <B. & O. b. m. 5) 948.400 

Canal Fulton, 2 miles southeast of, at milepost 103; section of rail 

set vertically In ground (B. & O. b. m. 6) 944.570 

Pauls, at>out 1 mile northwest of, at milepost 102; section of rail 

set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 7) 939.088 

Crystal Spring, about 1 mile west of, near Pauls, near Coxey's white 

sand works, on northwest end of retaining wall on northeast side 

of tracks at milepost 101 ; chiseled point (B. & O. b. m. 8)—^ 942. 460 

Crystal Spring, about 0.25 mile west of, at milepost 100; section of 

rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 9) 940.405 

Crystal Spring, about 0.8 mile southeast of, at mileiwst 99; section 

of rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 10) 948.340 

Massillon, about 2 miles north of, 250 feet east of milepost 98, In 

south end of west coping of box culvert on west-tK>und tracks; 

square cut (B. & O. b. m. 11) 933.461 

Massillon, about 1 mile north of, at milepost 97; section of rail set 

vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m, 12) 934.109 

Massillon, 300 feet east of bridge 4 ; cut on northeast corner coping 

Pennsylvania R. U. arch bridge (Pennsylvania R. R, b. m.) 942.276 

Massillon, 0.25 mile northwest of, in north end of mud wall of east 

abutment of bridge at telegraph pole 96/10; copper bolt (B. & O. 

b. m. 13) 941.359 

Massillon, on north end of east back wall of Pennsylvania R. R. 

bridge 5; cut (Pennsylvania R. R. b. m.) 939.281 

Massillon, 0.5 mile southeast of, set in north end of west abutment 

of highway bridge over river; copi)er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 14) 935. 289 

Massillon, about 1.5 miles south of, at telegraph pole 94/4, set 

in southeast pedestal of water tank at Columbia; copper bolt 

(B. & O, b. m. 15) 933.357 

Massillon, about 2.5 miles south of. set in northeast end of northwest 

coping of culvert for pii)e drain at telegraph pole 93/7 ; copper bolt 

(B. & O. b. m. 16) 927.529 

WOOSTER QUADRANGLE. 
Point near Rittman northwest to point near Creston. 

Rlttman, Wayne County, 0.5 mile east of, at milepost 53; section of 

rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. ni. 457) 957. 103 

Rittman, 0.5 mile southwest of, at milepost 52; section of rail set 
vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 458) ^ 

89809''— Bull. 476—11 4 



rertioniiy iii cnnriKi i n. & u. n. m. iu< ( ;ieti.TNi 

Lixti, Mi'dliui ('Kiiiily. :S iiiili-s NOii1)ie:ist of. ut nille])ast 42; He<.>tii>n 

.if r.ul wl M-rtl.iilly hi cr.utiid (B. & O. b. ui. 4IW) 'j:o.2J2 

Ijiili. L'.r. iiiiJcs N'litlK'iist of. set In north end of smnll culvert at 

tclcf;ni]ih [".k" :i-l/17: foii[ier holt (B. & O. b. m. 469) SITi^.l.": 

I.iiill, 1 tiiih' Miiiihciist of. ill uiil[>|iost 40: section of rull set ver- 

tlriilly hi gronuil (It. & O. h. ni. 470)__ 931. S90 

I.,.Kli. soil fffi I'iist of. in iiiislnhle croiiud: section of rail ect ver- 

li.'jiiJy ill m-oiiiul (11. fc <). b. m. 471) 1113.791 

Lo<li. 1 mile soiilhwrat .if. nt inilc]io¥t SK; section of mil set ver- 

ticiiliy ill ground (B. & <>. Ii. ni. 472) 913.794 

WELLIKOTOM QVADKANOLE. 

FolnC 2 ntilen BOUthweit ot Lodi vait to point l.B mllae veat of Bnlltrui. 

I,(Hli. -M.'dimi ronnly. 2 miles souyuvpst of, in norlhwesl end of small 

.■ulverlai Icicsriiiih ih.Ic :t.S/2r.» : cor.]«.r hoU II!. S O. b. m. 473).. !il4.3i!fi 
I,<Hli. :! miles «nith«vst of. on hridKo lis. ;il tclenniiih |K»le 39/241; 

l■(}\^K■r holt (1!. &. O. b. 111. 474) !»4;i.rd3 

I-iull. 4 miles west of, in iinrtli corner of «vsl .ibnlnieiil on brklge 

im. lele(,Ta|ili ik.Ic 40/2T; co|i[mt bolt (B. & (). h. m. 475) 1(!>].217 

llomor, l,s miles i-nsi of. in soiitli end of sni:ill cnlvert at teiegrarih 

jxile 41 /IS: coi.ikt boll (B. & O. I), m. 476) 1,011.129 

Ilouicr, 0.25 mile east of, at mlIe|iosit S3; section of rail set vertlcnil.v 

hi Rrouml (B. & <). b. ni. 477) 1.074. ire 

Kewloiis. 5<I0 fi'Pt west of. nt telejii^ipl' I*"!^ 44/10; section of mil set 

verliciilly in gmuna (I). & O. b. m. 478) l,Oi)5.2S4 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 51 

Newtons, 1 mile west of, in south end of small culvert at tele- Feet. 

graph pole 45/10; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 479) 1,094.515 

Xewtons, 1.8 miles west of, set in north end of small culvert at 

milepost 30: copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 480) 1,101.007 

Sullivan, Ashland County, 1.5 miles east of, at milepost 29; section 

of rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 481) 1,119.297 

Sullivan, at southwest corner of schoolhouse, in vertical surface of 

water table; bronze tablet stamped "1136 Canton ADJ 1903*' 1,137.443 

Sullivan, about 300 feet east of station, on culvert at telegraph pole 

48/14. in the west end of north coping; copper bolt (B. & O; b. m. 

482) -__ 1,122.201 

Sullivan, about 1.5 miles west of, at milepost 26; section of rail set 

vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 483) 1,126.851 

NEW LONDON QUADRANGLE. 

Nova west along Baltimore ft Ohio R. R. to point about 0.8 mile eait of Green- 
wich. 

Nova. Ashland County, about 1.5 miles east of, on culvert at tele- 
graph pole 51/14. in the west end of south coping; copper bolt 
(B. & U. b. m. 484) . 1,1,34.659 

Nova, about 0.5 mile east of, north end of small culvert at telegraph 

I)ole 52/15; c-opi)er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 485) 1, 123. ;«7 

Nova, about 325 feet east of station on a small culvert, at top of bev- 
eled surface; northeast comer of north coping (B. & O. b. m. 
485A) 1, 111. 050 

Nova, T. 1 N., R. 19 W., in foundation wall of the United Brethren 
Church, on south face of southeast corner; aluminum tablet 
stamped '* 1127 ADJ 1903" 1,127. .']15 

Nova, about 0.6 mile west of, culvert at telegraph pole 53/17i, in west 

end of north coping; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 486) 1, 10;{. [HO 

Nova, about 2 miles northwest of, large arch bridge at telegraph polo 

55/1^, in east end of north coping; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 487 )_ 1, 071. 5.'i0 

Hereford, about 1.9 miles east of, small culvert at telegraph iK)le 

rAj/a, in west end of south coping; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 488 )_ 1,().')0. i:;r> 

Hereford, about 0.9 mile east of, bridge at telegraph pole 57/5, in 

south end of east abutment; copi)er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 489) l.OoT. 51)7 

Hereford, near, on north side of east abutment of a steel ginhn- 
bridge, about 800 feet west of station; copper bolt (B. & O. b. ui. 
400) 1,014. SIM 

Hereford, about 1.5 miles west of, on large arch bridge, in east end 

of north coping; copier bolt (B. & O. b. m. 491) !>ss. 4r>s 

Raniey. about 0.25 mile west of, on large arch bridge at telegraph polo 
t>0/lS, in east end of north coping; copper bolt (B. & O. b. ui. 
492) 1,(M)0. 7()7 

Greenwich. Huron County, about 2.8 miles east of, on arcli ciilvLMt at 
telegraph pole 61/21^, in east end of north coping: copiJer bolt 
(B. & O. b. m. 493) 1,012S. ns:^ 

Greenwich, about 1.8 miles east of, on arch culvert at telegraph polo 
62/21 i, in west end of north coping; copper bolt (B. & O. b. ni. 
494) 1,042.4,^8 

Greenwich, about 0.8 mile east of, on arch culvert at te\eftT\\v\v v<S\^ 
62/23J, in east end of north coping; copi)er bolt (,B. & 0.\>.m. 4^v>') - ^^Vi'i^.^^^ 



52 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 



NORWALX aXTADRAVOLE. 

Point 1 mUe weit of Oreenwich weit to point 1 mile east of ddoago Jnnetioa 
(bench mark! eitabliebed by Baltimore ft Ohio R. R. adjusted hj Ooaat and 
Geodetic Survey). 

Greenwich. Hurou County, 0.25 mile west of, in south end of east 
abutment of bridge for undergrade street crossing; copper bolt Feet. 
(B. & O. b. m. 496) l,029.fi23 

Greenwich, 1 mile west of, in east end of north coping of large arch 
at telegraph i)ole 05/1 7i ; copi)er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 497) 1,009.4:2:^ 

Greenwich, 1.6 miles west of, 20 feet north of tracks, by telegraph 
pole 65/5; vertical rail section (B. & O. b. m. 498) 1,017.477 

Greenwich, 2.8 miles west of, in east end of north coping of small 
culvert at telegrai)h pole 67/7i ; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 499) 1,035. 6SS 

Boughtonville, 1.5 miles east of, in east pedestal of highway bridge at 
telegraph pole 69/10, south of tracks; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 
500) 1, 020. 131 

Boughtonville, 300 feet east of, in west end of south coping of 
arch bridge; copi>er bolt (B. & O. b. m. 501) 1 9SS.324 

Boughtonville, 0.8 mile west of, in east end of south coping of cul- 
vert at telegraph pole 70/18; copi>er lw)lt (B. & O. b. m. 502) 964.39C» 

Boughtonville, about 1.8 miles west of, at telegraph pole 71/18, in 
south end of east abutment of an undergrade crossing bridge; coi>- 
per bolt (B. & O. b. m. 503) 953.727 

Chicago Junction, about 3 miles east of. 700 feet east of milepost 3; 
originally a cor>per bolt ^et In the south end of east abutment of an 
undergrade crossing bridge. In 1005 It was found that the copper 
bolt had been removed and the top surface of the stone close to 
the hole on the south side was used as the bench mark (B. & O. 
b. m. 504) 935.48.3 

Chicago Junction, 2 miles east of, opix)slte niilei)ost 2; section of rail 

set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. ."iOo) 937.9',>5 

Chicago Junction, about 1 mile east of, 500 feet west of milepost 1, 
set In the east end of south coi)lng of a culvert; copper bolt 
(B. & O. b. m. 5(X5) 92a 175 



SIAM QVADRANOLE. 

Obicago Junction west along Baltimore ft Obio R. R. to point 1 mile veit of 

Sclpio siding. 

Chicago Junction. Huron County, OiH) feot east of Baltimore & Ohio 
li. R. crossing: section of rail set vertically In ground (B. & O. 
b. m. 507) 914.793 

Chicago Junction, corner of Washington and First streets; cross 
cut In top surface of east end of toi) step of St. Francis Xavler 
Church (C. & G. S. b. m. F5) 918.142 

Chicago Junction, comer of Myrtle Avenue and Pearl Street, at 
southwest corner of the Sliiedley Hotel block, on the side facing 
Myrtle Avenue, in second course of brick above water table; copper 
bolt (C. & G. S. b. m. G5) 929.666 

Chicago Junction, about 650 feet south of Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
tracks, on west side of Myrtle Avenue, In east end of sandstone 
sill of the Home Savings & Banking Co.'s building; red metal 
disk (C. & G. S. b. m. H5) 925.867 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 53 

Chicago Junction, about 2.5 miles west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
right of way, at second telegraph pole west of milepost 269 (c), 
on a knoll 39 feet south of the track; red metal cap on Iron post Feet. 
(C. & G. S. b. m. 15) ^ 912.595 

Chicago Junction, about 3 miles west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
right of way, 3.5 telegraph poles east of mileiM)st 2CS, and IB feet 
north of track, in top surface of coping of a culvert; chiseled 
square marked " U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. J5) 910.939 

Chicago Junction, about 5 miles west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
right of way, 8 telegraph poles east of milepost 266, in center of 
top surface of the gray sandstone coping of a culvert ; copper bolt 
(C. & G. S. b. m. K5) 1 922.188 

Slam, Seneca County, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 246 
feet west of Pennsylvania R. R. crossing, about 6 feet south of 
track, in center of a concrete block, about 3 by 4 feet on the top 
surface, set level with the grade; red metal disk (C. & G. S. 
b. m. L5) 953. 179 

Siam, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 1,230 feet west of 
Pennsylvania R. R. crossing, about 48 feet north of track, in corner 
of fence at a road crossing; red metal cap on iron post (C. & G. 
S. b. m. M5) 955.386 

Siam, about 3 miles west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 
in the north end of west abutment of an undergrade crossing 
bridge; chiseled square marked '' U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. N5)-.- 954. 714 

Scipio siding, about 1 mile west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right 
of way, 3 telegraph poles east of signboard "1 mile to Scipio," 
in center of the top surface of the north end of a concrete culvert ; 
copper bolt (C. & G. S. b. m. 05) 928.730 

TIFFIN QTJADBANOLE. 

Bepnblio vest along B&ltiiiiore ft Ohio R. R. to point 2.6 milei west of Tiffln. 

Republic, Seneca County, about 0.25 mile east of, on Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. undergrade crossing bridge, over Marion State road, on the 
top surface of southernmost stone In the lower course; square cut 
in outUne, marked " 859 REPUBLIC " 860. 353 

Republic, in southwest corner of town hall, on west side. In vertical 

face of water table; aluminum tablet stnmi)ed ** SS3 COL." 884. 146 

Republic, near, 12 telegraph [loles west of milepost 255, on a knoll in 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 39 feet south of track; 
chiseled square on top of post lettered " U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m.) _ 872. 279 

Seneca, 0.5 mile west of signboard, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right 
of way, 547 feet south of track, at offset in right-of-way fence; red 
metal cap on iron post (C. & G. S, b. m. Q5) 822.517 

Tiffln, about 3 miles east of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 
in center of south coping of stone arch bridge 58; copper bolt (C. & 
G. S. b. m. R5) 790.612 

Tiffln, about 1 mile east of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 
0.25 mile west of milepost 248 and 984 feet east of junction of Balti- 
more & Ohio and Pennsylvania R. Rs., in center of south girder 
(concrete) of bridge 61 ; red metal disk (C. & (;. S. b. m. S5) 762. 468 

Tiffln, at southwest corner of courthouse, west face, in window sill ; 
tablet stamped "757 COL." 758.242 



^miiri). disk iil iicrilioiKt ciniier of Junction of roads; red metal 

ii[i oil iriiii iiosi ic, & (!. s. b. III. wri) rrs.241 

u'ciiu. iii'iir ('niiiiin's sluri-, Jit iiortbnent comer of crosaroads, 
1 li'iticiiii rif t'oiiiii! lioJe ill Ktom- useil for (.Tossiug; cross niiirked 
T7<1 ISASCOJl  - TT6.527 

ic'ciiii. (i.i: mill- soiilL of, simlli of ceinctery, <ii Bouttiwest abut- 
K'lit iif 1111 irciTi lii):1in'ny lu'idKC 'ivur cret^k; uluminum tabiet 

liiiii|H-<i "liiC. 'n)!.." - -- 767. 3«» 

^.'i.iii. ulHiiil 1> iiillos west of. cm llnltiiiiiire & Oliio R. It. riglit of 
■iiy. ni:ici n-ossiiic. ill uiilc|"i>:t T.IU. ](i.4 f(*t north of track, on 
>l> .>'li'|> of ciiKt side of ;i s!iii<lKl«iie culvert: red metal disk (C. & 

I. S. b. 111. Xr.l 768.370 

■■{.•r\:i. iiboiii 3 luilos CMst of. mi Knlliniore & Ohio R. R. riglit of 
ray. lii iiorlli oiiO of ivi'st aliiituietit of a steel i^lrder bridge over 
;iicTooii Cm'li: t-liis»'leii si|niire nmrliod " l".S.It.M." (C. & G, . 

uoi'iii. alHiiil L' iiiiU'i< east of. <.u Itiilliuiorc & Oliiu R. R. right of 
■iiy, on ucirl li Kicle of Inu-l; : fojipcT lioli in i-ciiUt of tlie cnpstone 

f ii culvoii («'. >'s i;. S. Ii. in. 7.T.) 7«.S.201 

Kurlii. uoriluvesi miner of Jones iiini Miiin wtreels; top surface 

7TS FOSTOHIA "_^ 779. ST^ 
soiitiiwest comer of 
Iter Street entrance. 
lal disl; <C, & G. S. 

1>. nl. .VI5) -_ 781.072 

fostr.riii, iit soiUbeiiKt ciir 
friim curli. In lop of stons 
(V. & O. S. b. m. lia)_- 



of din-k vn 


Iveof tlu-HIvn-iiter 


lihin. iiiavU.-il 


istorla. i-on 


i,.r of .Miiin nn.l Cen 


l.T Sli-wtx. ll 


Kirsl N.Hio 


ii.'il nmik KnlMIntf. < 


■asl Kliie of <■ 


in vortii'iil 


snrfni-'e of tlie ivntet 


 tabic ; reii ii 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 55 

FIKSZJLY aTJADRAVOLE. 

Bloomdide nortbwest along Baltimore ft Ohio R. R. to point 0.6 mila vest of 

North Baltimore. 

T. 3 N., R. 12 E., sec. 31, 1.5 miles east of Bloomdale, in south end of 
en St abutment of an iron highway bridge ; aluminum tablet stamped Feet. 
" 740 TOLEDO "_. 740. 625 

Bloomdale, Wood County, 0.8 mile east of, at city limits, at northeast 
comer of road Junction close to a rail fence; chiseled square on top 
of stone post lettered " U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. E6) 742. 974 

Bloomdale, southwest comer of Main Street and Second Street north 
of Baltimore & Ohio R. R. tracks, i^i brick building used ns hard- 
w^are store, in the north end of stone sill; square cut in outline 
marked •*749 BLOOMDALE" 749.771 

Bloomdale, at corner of Garfield and Mulberry streets, main entrance 
of Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, in top face of second step; 
red metal disk (C. & G. S. b. m. F6) 752.238 

Balrdstown, on Randolph Avenue, 328 feet south of Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. station, in the south doorstep of a double house belonging to 
E. Knodle; square cut (C. & G. S. b. m. H6) 739. 553 

Galatea, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. right of way, 492 feet east of 
Toledo & Ohio Central Ry. crossing, on upper step of the northwest 
abutment of a large culvert; chiseled square marked "U.S.B.M." 
(C. & G. S. b. m. 16) 727.458 

North Baltimore, west side of Main Street, 131 feet north of Balti- 
more & Ohio R. R. tracks, in- north end of the sill of the south part 
of double store marked "A. J. Steele, 1900"; red metal disk (C. & 
G. S. b. m. J6) 734.018 

North Baltimore, 0.5 mile south of, in southwest abutment of iron 

bridge over a creek ; bronze tablet stamped " 726 TOLEDO " 726. 640 

North Baltimore, 0.5 mile west of, at northeast corner of intersection 
of Broadway and street at city limits ; red metal cap on Iron post 
(C. & G. S. b. m. K6) 727. 559 

DEBHLER aUADRANOLE. 

Horth Baltimore weat along Baltimore ft Ohio R. E. to point 1 mile east of 

Deihler. 

North Baltimore, Wood County, about 1.5 miles west of, at road cross- 
ing, in south end of a culvert. In center of the top; copper bolt 
marked " U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. L6) 717.320 

North Baltimore, about 2.5 miles west of, on Baltimore & Ohio R. R. 
right 0/ way, at road crossing, in south end of concrete culvert; 
chiseled square marked "U.S.B.M." (C. & G. S. b. m. M6) 715.051 

Hoytvllle, about 1 mile east of, at road crossing 164 feet south of 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R. tracks, 33 feet south of the junction of 
highway, on west end of north abutment of a small Iron bridge; 
red metal disk (C. & G. S. b. m. N6) 707.577 

Hoytvllle, about 1 mile west of, at road crossing, 33 feet south of 

' Baltimore & Ohio R. R. tracks, on west end of small highway 
culvert, in middle stone, 3.2 inches from the west face; copper bolt 
(C. & G. S. b. m. 06) 709.289 

Deshler, Henry County, about 1 mile east of, on Baltimore & Ohio 
R. R. right of way, at a road crossing, in north end of concrete cul- 
vert ; red metal disk in center of top surface (C. & G. S. b. m. P6).. 711. 569 



NAVARBE aDADKAKOLC. 

Folnt *.2b mllei louth or Hmilllon aouth to point £ mllu nortbWMt of Caul 
Dover. 

.Mnssillrtii. siark rnimt;-, iilioui ■l.jr. miles souih of, in north end ot 
nest iiMiiii« <'f liiri.T cdinTHi' nivli ciiKert near where old line is 
(Tosstil I..V |in-s,-iil li\ic; .■.>|i!«.r liult ill. & (). b. ni. 17) iMO.OSii 

Naviirrt'. iilmnl (i,S mile rmiTtioiiwI of, in soiUliwest end of southeast 
eoiiliin i.f l;iri:t' sloiii' iuvli -ir^i fti'I sMiutliwesI of flrst Wheeling & 
I,iilii. Krie It. 11- .■ti.^siiit;: .-.iiiikt IhiII ) B. & O. b. ni. IS) <m\9U> 

NiLviiri-c, (!..*< mile sinilliwfst of Niivurre. ;it niilc|M>st SO; section of 

mil set vfrliwili.v in j;i'"iind (B. & U. h. m. ]!1| 1,003.4&S 

Justus. ».." mile norib «t. 30ti feet simili of Wheeling & Lake Erie 
IE. K. erossinp. in norili end of west oiiiiinc of small culvert at 
lelegrmih p..le JS^^T.; .-iiiiiht l.i.lt ili. & O. i), m. 2(1) 1,000. 364 

Justus. O.o mile soutli of. In west end vf soiilli iibutment of arch 

culvert iieiir milepost sT; co|i]H-r bolt iB. & O. b. m. 2n 976- 7U 

Justus, l.o miles south of. in west end of south ntrntment of arch 

culvert lit tele«riii)h |iole «H: euiii«T bolt (n. it O. b. in. 22) 074.910 

Bench ('lly, 1 mile north of. in sinith end of west coiilng of Stone 
culvprt for traction line iiciir niilroiid: coiii)er bolt (B, & O. 
h. 111. 23) 070.070 

Beiich City. .SOO feet north of stiilion, hi iveHt end of south abutment 
of bridge over creek; copiier bolt (B. & (). b. ni. 24 ( 900. 4S« 

Heach City, O.S mile southeast of. In southwest end of aoutheast abut- 
ment of bridee; coii[)er Iwlt (B. & O. b. m. 25) 961.937 

Beach City, 2 miles southeost of. In southwest end of back wall, 
northwest iihutmeut ot bridge; co[)per bolt l,B. & O. "o. m.^'i 944. 603 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 57 

Strasburg, Tuscarawas County, 2 miles northwest of, at mllepost 81 ; Feet, 
section of rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 27) 929. 665 

Strasburg, 1 mile northwest of, at mllepost 80; section of rail set 

vertically In ground (B. & O. b. m. 28) 924.741 

Strasburg, at mllepost 79; section of rail set vertically in ground 

(B. & O. b. m. 29) 914.099 

Strasburg, about 0.8 miles southeast of, in southwest end of back wall 

of southeast abutment of bridge; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 30).. 912.671 

Strasburg, about 1 mile southeast of, near milei)ost 78, in first course 
of masonry, southeast end of southwest abutment of trolley over- . 
head bridge; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 31) 909.698 

Strasburg, about 2 miles southeast of, 500 feet northwest of mlle- 
post 77, in southeast end of southwest coping of culvert; copper 
bolt (B. & O. b. m. 32) 901. na^ 

Strasburg, 3 miles southeast of, in south end of west coping of cul- 
vert, telegraph pole 76/6; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 33) 897. 046 

Canal r)o\er, 2 milos northwest of, at mileiwst 75; section of rail set 

vertically In ground (B. & O. b. m. 34) - 886.023 

CAVAL DOVER aVADRAVOLE. 
Bench marki eitabliihed by Baltimore ft Ohio R. R. near Canal Dover. 

Canal Dover, Tuscarawas County, 1 mile northwest of, set in south- 
west end of bridge seat of southeast abutment of culvert at tele- 
graph pole 74/4; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 35) 881.756 

Canal Dover, 0.25 mile west of station, in east pedestal of water 

tank, at telegraph pole 73/11 ; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 36) 874. 694 

Canal Dover, 0.5 mile southeast of, in northeast end of mud wall of 
northwest abutment of Tuscarawas River Bridge; copi)er bolt 
(B. & O. b. m. no. 37) 884. 847 

Canal Dover, 1.25 miles southeast of, at telegraph pole 72/1; sec- 
tion of rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 38) 892.905 

Canal Dover, about 1.25 miles southeast of, 200 feet southeast of 
telegraph pole 72/1 ; section of rail set vertically In ground 
(B. & O. b. m. 38A) 893.008 

TTHRIOHSVILLE QUADRANGLE. 
Vew Philadelphia eontheast to point 1 mile north of IThrichiville. 

New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas County, 1 mile northwest of, at mlle- 
post 71; section of rail set vertically in ground (B. & O. b. m. 39). 888. 193 

New Philadelphia, at mllepost 70; section of rail set vertically in 

ground (B. & O. b. m. 40) 878.525 

New Philadelphia, about 0.5 mile southeast of, in northwest end of 

southwest coping of culvert; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 41) 866. 580 

New Philadelphia, about 2 miles southeast of, on northeast side of 
tracks at mllepost 68; rail section (B. & O. b. m. 42) 859.046 

New Philadelphia, about 3 miles southeast of, in southwest end of 
southeast abutment of bridge at telegraph pole 67/1; copper bolt 
(B. & O. b. m. 43) 855.963 

Goshen, about 0.8 mile northwest of, in center of mud wall of south- 
east abutment of bridge at telegraph pole 66/18, northeast of pres- 
ent tracks; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 44) 855.682 

Goshen, 0.5 mile southeast of, northeast side of tracks at telegraph 
pole 65/15; rail section (B. & O. b. m. 45) 850.456 



58 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Mid vale, quarter mile west of, in south end of east abutment of Feet 
bridge at telegraph pole 64/15; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 46) 849. 84S 

Midvale, 0.5 mile southeast of, southwest of track in mud wall of 
southeast abutment of bridge at telegraph iwle 63/20 ; copper bolt 
(B. & O. b. m. 47) 853.141 

IThrichsville, about 1 mile north of, in west end of mud wall of south 
abutment of undergrade highway crossing bridge near mllepost 
62; copper bolt (B. & O. b. m. 48) 862.029 

PARKEKSBintO QTTADRANOLE. 
Belpre west along Baltimore ft Ohio Sonthweitem R. R. to Little HocUnff. 

Bel pre, on wing wall of second pier from west end of Baltimore & 
Ohio Southwestern R. R. bridge across Ohio River; chiseled 
square marked B M (C. & G. S. b. m. XL) 621.030 

Little Hocking, southwest corner of abutment of railroad bridge over 
Little Hocking Creek, near its junction with Ohio River; chiseled 
square marked B M (C. & G. S. b. m. XLI) 623.398 

KRKO aTTADRANOLE. 

Bench mark 0.6 mile eait of Coolville. 

Coolville, about 0.5 mile east of, on coping of abutment of a railroad 
bridge; chiseled square marked B M (C. & G. S. b, m. XLII) 633.272 

CHESTER HIZX aTTADRAKQLE. 

Coolville west along Baltimore ft Ohio Bonthwettem R. R. to Canaanville. 

Coolville, Athens County, about 3.8 miles west of, on east abutment 
of small railroad bridge; chiseled square marked B M (C. & G. S. 
b. m. XLIII) 606.153 

Guysville, about 1 mile west of, on east abutment of Baltimore & 
Ohio R. R. bridge; chiseled square marked B M (C. & G. S. b. m, 
XLIV) 617.345 

Guysville, about 2.5 miles west of, on west abutment of railroad 
bridge over Little Hocking River ; chiseled square marked " B M " 
(C. & G. S. b. m. XLV) 621.880 

Canaanville, about 492 feet east of Canaan Chai)el, on west abutment 
of small bridge; chiseled square marked "B M" (C. & G. S. 
b. m. XLVI) 623.767 

ATHENS QUADRANGLE. 
Stewart west along Baltimore ft Ohio Bonthwestem R. R. to Athene. 

Stewart, Athens County, about 0.8 mile west of, on west abutment of 
railroad bridge over Little Hocking River ; chiseled square marked 
"B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. XLVII) 616.420 

Stewart, 1.2 miles east of, on top of wall of west abutment of rail- 
road bridge; chiseled square marked ** B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. 
XLVIII) 615. 347 

Canaanville, about 1.5 miles west of, on coping of a railroad culvert; 
chiseled square marked " B M " (C. & G. S. b. m. XLIX) 630.325 



PRIMARY LEVELING. 59 

Athens, on south abutment (east side, fourth step from top) of road 
bridge over railroad and Hocking River; chiseled square marked Feet. 
"B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. L) 649.169 

Athens, on top of pier of the railroad bridge over the Hocking River : 

chiseled square marked " B M " (C. & G. S. b. m. P) 656. 105 

ZALESKI aVADBAKOLE. 

Athens vest along Baltimore ft Ohio Bonthwestern B. B. to Zalesld. 

Moonville, on east abutment of railroad bridge over Raccoon Creek; 

chiseled square marked " B M " (C. & G. S. b. m. LI) 712.160 

Zaleski, 1 mile south of, on south abutment of railroad bridge over 

Raccoon Creek; chiseled square marked "B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. 

Lill) 714.304 



/ 



JACKSON aUADBAKOLE. 

Hamden west along Baltimore ft Ohio Southwestern B. B. to Londonderry. 
» 
Hamden, about 0.5 mile east of, on coping of a small drain or culvert ; 

chiseled square marked "B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. LIII) 705.481 

Londonderry, about 1.5 miles east of, on east abutment of railroad 

bridge over Big Salt Creek; chiseled stiuare marked ** B M " (C. & 

G. S. b. m. LIV) 600.638 

CHILLIOOTHE QUADBAKOLE. 

Schooleys Station west along Baltimore ft Ohio Southwestern B. B. to 

OhiUicothe. 

Schooleys, 1.5 miles east of, on east abutment of railroad bridge over 
Walnut Creek; chiseled square marked "B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. 
LV) 657.572 

Chillicothe, on pedestal of lami)-iTost on the north side of steps of 
front entrance of the courthouse ; chiseled square marked " B M " 
(C. & G. S. b. m. Q) ^ 638. 001 

BOXABELL QUADBANOLE. 
Chillioothe west along Baltimore ft Ohio Southwestern B. B. to Musselman. 

Musselman, Ross County, about 1.25 miles east of, on west abutment 
of railroad bridge over branch of Paint Creek; chiseled square 
marked "B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. LVI) 099.646 

Musselman, about 0.25 mile west of, on ejist abutment of railroad 
bridge over branch of Paint Creek ; chiseled square marked " B M " 
(C. & G. S. b. m. LVII) i 712.186 

OBEENFIELD QTTADBANOLE. 
Bench mark 1 mile east of Lyndon. 

Lyndon, about 1 mile east of, on east abutment of railroad bridge; 

chiseled square marked " B M " (C. & G. S. b. m. LVIII) 911. 671 



60 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

BLAVOHSSTES aTTADEAVOLE. 
lUrtlniTiUe west aloiiff Baltimore ft Ohio Bouthweitern E. E. to Olintoa 

Martinsville, on east abutment of railroad bridge; chiseled square Feet. 

marked ** B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. LIX) 1,056.009 

Clinton Valley station, about 0.3 mile east of, on east abutment of 

railroad bridge; chiseled square marked "B M" (C. & G. S. 

b. m. LX) 990. (M7 

BATAVIA QUADEAKOLE. 

Bench mark oitabliihed 8.26 miles east of Loveland. 

Loveland, about 3.25 miles east of, on west abutment of railroad 
bridge; chiseled square marketl " B M " (C. & G. S. b. m. LXI) 692.924 

EAST OINCIHNATI QUADEAHOLE. 

Loveland southwest along Baltimore ft Ohio Bonthwestem E. E. to Oincionati. 

Loveland, on east abutment of railroad bridge over Little Miami 
River; chiseled square marked " B M " (C. &. G. S. b. m. R) 581. ^^2 

Remington, short distance west of, on pier of railroad bridge over 
Sycamore Ci'eek; chiseled square marked "B M," reported de- 
stroyed in 1899 (C.&G. S. b. m. LXII) 590. 861 

Cincinnati, courthouse at. on south face of pillar at south side of 
main entrance on Main Street, 3 inches above flagging; copi)er bolt 
projecting 1.5 inches from masonry on west side; flat surface which 
surrounds the bench mark is inscribed, *' B M No. 1 115' 25." (C. & 
G. S. b. m. T. or City b. m. No. 1) 546.537 

Olendale south to St. Beniard. 

Cincinnati, 12.3 miles north of, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. 
bridge 8 over Mill Crock, south abutment, east end, first step below 
bridge seat course, inches west of east face, 12 inches south of 
north face; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. J4) 573,305 

Lockland, Hamilton County, Collectors Lock, 10 feet north of north 
side of Lock Street on east wall of lock, on coping stone, 5.6 feet 
north of south gate, 4 inches east of west face of w^all; chiseled 
square (C. & G. S, b. m. T4) 574. 0S5 

Renssalaer, about 1 mile north of Carthage, on Cincinnati, Hamilton 
& Dayton Ry., at Intersection of Hamilton pike and Forest Avenue, 
on north abutment of viaduct, west end, first step below bridge seat 
course, on southwest quarter of stone, inches from face and 8 
inches from end of stone, 18.5 feet north of outside rail ; chiseled 
square (C. & G. S. b. m. K4) -^ 538.987 

Carthage, southeast comer of Jackson and Fourth streets, west side of 
Christian Church building (1879), on water table at base of tower, 
6 inches north of south angle of tower and 1.8 feet above ground; 
brass bolt marked with a horizontal line (O. & G. S. b. m. L4) 651.403 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 61 

Carthage, 10 miles north of Cincinnati on line of Miami & Erie Canal, 
on south abutment of Fourth Street Bridge over canal, west end, 
6.5 feet above towpath and 2.5 feet below floor of bridge on second 
step above retaining wall, on seventh step below coping, 2 inches 
from end and 6 inches from face of stone; chiseled square (C. & Feet. 
G. S. b. m. S4) 551. 264 

St. Bernard, about 8 miles north of Cincinnati, on Miami & Erie 
Canal and Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern R. R., on east face of 
west abutment of railroad bridge over canal, 4 feet above tow- 
path, in eighth course of masonry from top, 5.75 feet north of 
prominent comer in southwest bridge-seat stone ; horizontal groove 
in bottom of square cut three-eighths inch deep and 1 Inch square, 
lettered "U. S. C. & G. S." (C. & G. S. b. m. R4) 548. 352 

TOLEDO aTTADRAKOLE. 

Aloxis louthweit along lilffliw&TB and Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton Ry. to 

Roachton. 

Alexis, Lucas County, at intersection of Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Ry. and Ann Arbor R. R., west of I^ke Shore & Michigan 
Southern Ry. track, northeast of Ann Arbor R. R. track, on west 
abutment, south side, of long culvert of very large stone, first step 
below coping at northwest corner, 5 inches from either face; 
chiseled square, marked ** B M " (C. & G. S. b. m. U) 585.481 

Toledo, northern part of city near Maumee River, west side of Sum- 
mit Avenue and north comer of Columbus Avenue, on frame build- 
ing; copper nail on east side of sign (C. & G. S. b. m. Toledo City 
No. 165) 596. 419 

Toledo, north bank of Maumee River, 348 feet above River Place, 
4.38 feet south of south edge of flagging in River Park ; stone trlan- 
gulation monument set in ground. The i)oint taken is the east 
point of the triangle cut in stone (C. & G. S. b. m. Park A) 601. 119 

Toledo, north bank of the Maumee River, on north abutment of the 
Pennsylvania R. R. bridge, east side, on retaining wall, 15 inches 
west of the northwest corner of bridge-seat block and 3 feet above 
it; chiseled square, marked "B M" (C. & G. S. b. m. V) 589.117 

Toledo, northeast , comer of Water and Madison streets, on south- 
west corner of traction company's power house, on top of sjindstone 
water table just where brick begins, about 3 feet above sidewalk ; 
marked by a chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. power house) 582. 703 

Toledo, on United States custom office building, southeast comer of 
Madison and St. Clair Streets, 15 feet south of south side of en- 
trance on St. Clair Strei»t. on south face of pilaster angle, 6 Inches 
east of west face and 4.9 feet above ground ; brass bolt marked with 
horizontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. W) 603.888 

Toledo, northwest comer of customhouse building, cross cut on top 
of granite water table just where sandstone begins; outer quarter 
of cross (C. & G. S. b. m. post office) 602.560 

Toledo, southwest comer of Madison and Summit streets, on north- 
east comer of water table of Roberts's drug store; cross (C. & G. S. 
b. m. Toledo City No. 44) 596.370 

Toledo, on east abutment of Pennsylvania Railroad bridge over 
Maumee River, north of track, on coping stone, 9 inches north of 
north side of guard timber of track; highest point at northerly 
part of a cross (C. & G. S. b. m. Toledo City No. 296) 590.352 



ii<>r of Main nod Broad street)^ at west 
iMk sir.re. - IviM " In uorlliwesl comer of 
: i'i|i nf :i siirfiHv st'vcn-eifrbths Inch square 
.Id i-liiscl M'. & C. S. b. m. CI) 



McCLUBE QTTU>B ANGLE. 

>. \ri-y II. ill- -:.i|j|li .-.■iiHT .if S(V. JJTi. about 150 
ii!;|iL, ihiiiilltiiti .V Uiiyi..!! Ity. rmck. on south 
fl. ill i';l~i siile iif iMsI ontriin<.e on northeast 
Ifsiiil: t'lfi 'if siirfiL.v iiiiirknl Ij.v a square cut 

.11 .if Fiisi M.'ih.-li;.! niiir.li. prwtcd In 1KU5. 



tiil.lc .■..iirs*.. :: fi->t :il..nc j-Ti'iiiHl: lniii's li.ilt nijirkeil with horf- 
/.iiitiil liiif •(: ti C. K, h. in. i:il 

.'••sloii. :il.i>iil KHi foi-t ciisl of (-Iii<>liiii:iri. IIaiiilll.<n & Dayton Ry. 
tr;u-k. ii.irlh -iilp of Mjiln Sirci't. nurtlnvpst wniix ft the -Citizens' 
Itniik liiiil.iiiii.'; tnii .if .-..nuT si-me just Ih'I.hv t.rit-k (C. & G. S. 
h. ji:. \V..sti.ii VillaKf) 

[Kr.m C.-iitrT. I'list slilc cif Itiiilr.m.l Sln-pt, ;i( s.mth side of east 
iiii.1 w.-si iiUfv. Ill smiic l.iiildiiiii <if J..I111 KivtTstock. on north 
ciHl ..f l.ii«- (^ti.iif bck.w n-liid.'w: fliis..],,! wiiiiirc (C. & Q. S. 
h, m. Fl) 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SUBVEY. 63 

Custar, northwest comer of Superior and Linn Streets, in north- 
east corner of foundation of public school building, 1 foot 10 inches 
west of east face and 3 feet 8 inches above ground; brass bolt Feet, 
marked with. a horizontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. Gl) 696.637 

OTTAWA airADRAKGLE. 

Leipilo southwest alony Clxicinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton By. to Ottawa. 

Ottawa Township. Putnam County, on line of Cincinnati, Hamilton 
& Dayton Ry., about 0.5 mile below G. W. Miller's residence and 
492 feet north of milepost 50 T, on southeast quarter of stone 
culvert 54, on bridge seat course, 6 inches north of east end of 
stone above, and 2 feet 10 inches east of wing angle; chiseled 
square (C. & G. S. b. m. Ml) 743.696 

Ottawa, south side of Mainleron Street, about 170 feet west of rail- 
road, on large stone step of foundation, 5 feet east of east side of 
east pillar of stairway entrance; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. Nl) -— 729.338 

COLTTKBirS GBOVE QXTADBANGLE. 
Ottawa sonth along Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton By. to Lima. 

Columbus Grove, Mbout 3 miles north of, 110 fei*t above milepost 56, 
on the southwest quarter of abutment of Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton Ry. bridge 51, on second step .below bridge seat course, 
about 6 inches from face and 6 inches from edge. of stone; chiseled 
square (C. & G. S. b. m. 01) 746.442 

Columbus Grove, north side of Sycamore Street, about 33 feet east of 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton lly., on the A. H. Day Building, at 
the left side of east entrance (in 1899 occupied by post office), on 
southwest comer of Iron plate under Iron post ; square cut with a 
cold chisel (C. & G. S. b. m. PI) 770.993 

Columbus Grove, Theodore Kunneke Building, southwest comer of 
Sycamore and High Streets, In water table on the south side of 
Sycamore Street, about 24 feet west of east corner, at head of 
stair descending into basement; brass bolt marked with a hori- 
zontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. Ql) 775.919 

Monroe, Allen County, 2.5 miles north of, on Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton Ry.. 50 feet below public road crossing, on southeast 
quarter of culvert over Sycamore Run, southwest comer of second 
step; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. Rl)^ 790.435 

West Cairo, 410 feet west of Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. 
track, south side of main cross street, on the northwest comer of 
foundation of dwelling of Charles Wallis, in north face near west 
angle of water table; brass bolt with horizontal line (C. & G. S. 
b. m- SI) •- 814.618 

Bath township, midway between West Cairo and Lima, on Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., at east- west road on section line 
between sections 17 and 18, in front of Henry Boose's residence, in 
the northeast quarter of viaduct arch, under track, on south end of 
seventh step from top; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. Tl) 830.395 



s-imir^ -C. & G. S. b. m.. YH 

I- I'lunliiiiisc huililliic. IT twi fri«ni 
r Ih'1ih'«i haspDieDt wiodon's. 3 fe^t 
^■uiL of ibe uortb «ilge <.>f pillur: 

Ui[ line iC. & t:. S. b. ni- Zll 

i. Hamiltim & Dii.vton Ry., 2 miles 
iibttist ijiijirler of bridpe 44 i)ver 

e: fU-wiI«1 i">lnt circumaTibed by 
SCvi; S," IC. *: U. S. b. lu., Alll-- 



Solkini souih (lonj: CiDcinsiti, HaoiltaD k Dm 



ry. iinrrli siili' 'il main itosp sire^t i>ne-ffiiirlb 

i>r ]iiLlilii' s-'tiin<l biiiiiliiit:. in soiitb fncc. 2.r> 
rm-r, i;.:; f.'.'l iib..v.- vr.iiiii.l: l.niss bolt lUiirke:! 

iC. & i;. S, b, ni. 1VJ|._ _ 1.001- 

t <'biirib linililin^.'. mrni-r iif I'ike nnd SeoiHid 

siiii' .if sniull bnltn-ss mirlli "f fjiM doiir. ■.*.4 

ml (1.4!! fiK>l si.nlli iif n.irili nlgp of hntlrt'ss: 

lirb b<iriz..ntill lliif iC. k C- S. Ii. lu. C2l 1.030. 

"Til i.r. nortlicast iinartiT of tUhiv ciilviTt diilei) 

(i, Ilimiillim & Hiiyt.m Ky. inn-k. toi) iif iblnl 
I irii'bes from its siiiilb fiioi- nixl Ti inches from 
tt'T> iibove: C'blsplwl sqnnre (C. & G. S. b. m. 
_._' 1,013. 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 65 

Franklin township, on Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., halfway 
between mileposts 101 and 102 from Cincinnati, lowest point of 
grade, southeast quarter of culvert, on second step, about 4.3 feet Feet. 
below coping; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. E2) 1,006.033 

Sidney, on Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., at southwest quarter 
of bridge 40 over Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis Ry., on 
northwest corner of bridge seat course. 6 inches from north and 
west faces; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. F2) 1,000.761 

Sidney, northwest corner of courthouse square, 48^ feet above 
city zero iK>int. The mark was made by burying a sandstone 20 
inches square and 2 feet high with another stone 2 feet high and 
14 inches square at the bottom and 3 Inches square at the top, set 
on top of the sandstone. Both stones were firmly embedded in the 
ground up to the top of the second stone, above which is 4 inches 
of cemoit in which a cross is cut (C. & G. S. b. m. Sidney City)— 957.060 

Sidney, county courthouse, on west face of foundation of north vesti- 
bule 2 feet 1 inch south of north projecting edge of foundation and 
3 feet 5 inches above ground; brass bolt marked with horizontal 
line (C. & G. S. b. m. G2) 962.675 

Clinton township, 1.2 miles south of Sidney, on line of canal and 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., southwest quarter of bridge 
over canal, on northwest comer of large bridge seat stone 6 inches 
from each face; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. H2) 961.836 

TBOY airADBANOLE. 
Sidney south wlong Cinolnnatl, Hamilton ft Dayton By. to Troy. 

Klrkwood, Shelby County, on schoolhouse (Pontiac School), on east 
face, center of second pilaster from south end, on water table, 
about 2 feet above ground ; brass bolt, marked with horizontal line 
(C. & G. S. b. m. 12)- 986.092 

Springcreek township, Miami County, on line of Cincinnati, Hamilton 
& Dayton Ry., midway between Kirkwood and Piqua, on bridge 
over Bush Creek, east end of west abutment, bridge seat course, 
6 inches from east and south faces; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. J2) 934.258 

Piqua, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., culvert 26, over Albino 
Pike, northeast quarter, on center of east stone of bridge seat course ; 
highest point circumscribed by a l-lnch square lettered " U. S. C. & 
G. S." (C. & G. S. b. m. K2) 898.948 

Piqua, on Pennsylvania R. R., north end of east abutment of bridge 
over Miami River, top of bridge seat course, 14 inches north of 
truss and 8 inches back from face; highest point of 4-inch square 
on side (C. & G. S. b. m. Pennsylvania R. R.) 865.427 

Piqua, southwest corner of crossing of Downing Street and Pittsburg, 
Chicago, Cincinnati & St. I^ouis Ry., northeast comer of malt 
house of J. G. Schmidlapp (1889), on water table, 3.9 feet above 
the sidewalk and 3.28 feet south of comer ; brass bolt marked with a 
horizontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. L2) 876.864 

Farrington, on Miami & Erie Canal, 3 miles south of Piqua, lock built 
by Isaac Van Ness (1835), on west side of tumble on northwest 
comer of coping stone. 6 inches from either face; chiseled square 
* (C. & G. S. b. m. M2) 855.212 

89809**— Bull. 476—11 ^5 



ciirnerof slxtL step from top; cLlwled sqnnre (C. & O. S, b. in.82)_ 

Ti]>|ieciiiiue City- on Minml & P.rle (.'anal, eiiift side of Tlppecnnoe 
Lock, soiiib etiil. on cenler coi>liig stone of wing; cblseled square 
(C & r.. s. b. III. '1-2 _. 

Ttiii-o'imoe CUy. [lortb sUle of Mnln Street, on Qrst building east of 
cniiiil, iionpr lioiise of Tlpitecanoe Eieoiric Llglit & Water Co., 
Kuutlieiii't corner, !<oiitb face, on wnter tiible. Q inches below brick 
work nnd T Indies iiortb of comer ; brnsa bolt, oinrketl with a hori- 
zontal line (C.& <:. S. h. m. V2) 

Villi llnreii towiislii|i. on Miami & Erie Canal, 2.5 miles below Tlppe- 
eanw City, I'ii'aynne I.,ock, eiiHl jnw, on coping stone, 12 feet Boutb 
of sfinlh klng-iMits am! (1 Inches east of edge of wall ; cblseled square 
(C. & G. .S, 1). m. Vl'l 

Taduior, Moiitgouiery Connty, on Jliiuiii & Erie Cannl. east abutment 
of steel bowstring girder bridge over (-anal, northwest comer, on 
north face, 1 fool east of corner and .S.C feet aliove ground; brass 
bolt, marked wilb a lioriKi.iiial line (('. & G. S. b. ni. W2) 

Butler townsliiu, on Cincinnati, Hiiniliton & liaylon Ky.. 2.4 miles 
below Tndmor, on lirldne S over Poplar Creek, west side of north 
abulnieiit, drst ste|f helow bridice sent, S Inches east of west face of 
stone and 7 inches north of sonth face; chisele<l square (C & O. 8. 
b. m. X2) 

Harrison township, on line of tiie Cincinnati. Iliimllton & Dayton R7., 
flbonl 1 mile north of Dayton city limits, on north abutment of 
hrlilge over Jlliinii Itlver, west side of aliuinieiit, ti Inches south of 
north cdKe and 17 inches east of west edge; ehiseied square (C. & 
O. S. b. m. Y2) 



KLBVAXIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SUBVEY. 67 

DajtOQ* Cincinnati, HamQtoB h Dayton Ry. bridge 2 over Mad River, 
south abutment, east end, 22 f a e bro west of east end of stone and Feet. 
6 ID^BB south of north face ; chiseled sqpHun (C. & G. S. b. m. Z2) . 744. 420 

Dayton, northwest comer of Main and Sixth Streets (city work- 
house) ; point of pyramidal top of stone fence post 3J& feet above 
side walk (C. & Q. S» b. m. Dayton City) 743. 731 

Dayton, southwest corner of South Main and West Fifth streets^ 
southeast corner of post ofllGe» east face, on water table, 3.0 feet 
above pavement and 1 foot north of comer; brass holt» marked 
with a horizontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. A3) 743.435 

Dayton, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. bridge over Miami RIyot 
one-third mile south of union station, w*est pier, north end, on nose 
of coping stone of pier, midway between sides and 20 inches back 
from point; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. B3) 744.068 

WAYVESVILLE aTTADBAHOLE. 
Dayton south along Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton By. to Alexandria. 

Dayton, 2.5 miles south of, in Van Buren township, on Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry., viaduct bridge over highway, 
midway between Miami River bridge and canal bridge, on north 
abutment, southeast comer of bridge seat course. 9 inches from 
either face and 15 feet east of truss; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. E4) 736. 673 

Dayton, 4 miles south of, on Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., 
southwest quarter of culvert 39, west end of bridge seat course, 8 
Inches east of west end and 5 inches south of west face ; chiseled 
square (C. & Q. S. b. m. C3) 728.376 

KIAMIBBTrBG aiTADBAKGLE. 

Alexandria lonthwest along Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton By. and Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago ft St. Louis By. to Mlddletown. 

Alexandria, 0.7 mile south of, In Miami township, on line of Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis Ry., 300 feet north of street 
car power house, on pier of stone culvert over ditch, east end, 10 
inches west of east face and 18 Inches south of point; chiseled 
square (C. & G. S. b. m. D4) 722.157 

Whitfield, 0.8 mile north of, in Montgomery County, on line of Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., north abutment of bridge 36 over 
Parthin Creek, east end, on wing wall bridge seat coping. 4.9 feet 
east from chord and 9 inches from retaining wall ; chiseled square 
(C. & G. S. b. m. D3) 714.310 

Carrollton, on Miami & Erie Canal, on tumble of lower Carrollton 
lock, west side, south end, on second step below coping, 4 inches 
north of south face and 6 inches west of east face of stone; 
chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. C4) 1 711.425 

Miamlsburg, on line of Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Ry., in north end of town, 500 feet north of Enterprise Carriage 
Works, on bridge 250, over Sycamore Creek, north abutment, west 
end, on retaining wall, second step below coping, 14 inches east of 
west face and 6 Inches north of south face; chiseled square (C. & 
G. 8. b. m. B4) 707.*^ 



68 SPIRIT LEVELING IN OHIO, 1909 AND 1910. 

Miamisburg, 0.2 mile north of station, on Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton Ry., east end of nortli abutm^it of bridge over Bear Creek 
on bridge seat course at east end of wing wall. 6 inches from south 
face and 12 inches from east face; highest point in rounded square. Feet. 
lettered U. S. C. & G. S. (C. & G. S. b. m. E3) — 699.729 

Mlamisburg, on west abutment of road bridge over Miami River at 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. station, on south face of retain- 
ing wall, 7 feet west of angle in eighth course of masonry below the 
coping; brass bolt marked with horizontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. 
F3) 696. 1>^ 

Mlamisburg, south end of village, about 8 feet east of center of 
Third Street, north side of Smith Street, 6.72 feet west of center 
of Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis track, 2.4 feet below 
top of rail on bridge seat course of masonry; chiseled square 
(C. & G. S. b. m. A4) 705.123 

Mlamisburg, 2.2 miles south of, on Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., 
culvert 32, northeast quarter, fourth step below bridge seat course, 
3 inches west of east face and inches north of south face; 
chiseled square (C. & G. S, b. m. G3) i 693.755 

Franklin, 2 miles north of, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis 
Ry. culvert 223, over race from lock, south abutment, second stone 
from east end of bridge seat course, 7 inches south of north face 
and 6 inches west of east face ; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. Z3) _ 704. Ill 

Carlisle. 0.5 mile north of, Warren County, Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton Ry. culvert 31 over creek, north abutment, east end, on 
bridge seat course, 6 inches from east face, 12 inches north of south 
face; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. n3) 692.078 

Franklin, plant of Frnuklln Water Works, northwest comer of Sixth 
Street at Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. crossing, 
southeast corner of water table; highest point of rounded square 
exactly in angle (C. & G. S. b. m. 13) 688.965 

Carlisle, 2.2 miles south of, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. bridge 
,"^0 over Big Twin Creek, on south pier of two on east end, center 
of nose, 15 inches back from point; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. J3) . 677.055 

B'ranklin, 1 mile south of station, Miami County, Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago & St. I^uis Ry. bridge 254 over Clear Creek, south 
abntmcMt, west side on second course below top of retaining wall, 
3 feet above bridge seat course, 5 Inches from both west and north 
faces; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. Y3) 684.451 

Poast Town, 0.5 mile south of, Butler County, Cincinnati, Hamilton 
& Dayton Rj'. bridge 20 over Brown Run, on east end of wing wall, 
north abutment, first step below bridge seat course, southeast corner 
of stone; chlseld square (C. & G. S. b. m. K3) 658.288 

Mlddletown, 2.8 miles north of, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis Ry. culvert 270, south abutment, east end of bridge seat 
course, 13 Inches south of north face and 10 inches west of east 
face; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. X3) 674. G97 

Mlddletown. 400 feet north of station, in village of Keno, on Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., north abutment of culvert 21, east 
end, on first step below bridge seat course, 6 Inches west of east 
face and 6 Inches north of south face; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. L3) 643.037 



ELEVATIONS ADJUSTED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 69 

Middletown, eastern part of city, about 493 feet west of Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry. track, southwest comer of 
Third and Gcimes streets, on east face of Kimball block, 12 inches 
south of north corner and 3.5 feet above flagging ; brass bolt marked Feet, 
with a horizontal line (C. & G. S. b. m. M3) 066.502 

MA80H axrADEANGLE. 
Xiddletown southweit alonff Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton By. to Bookdale. 

Excello Mills, Butler County, on Miami & Erie Canal lock, west wall 
of tumble, north end, on end coping stone 6 inches from north face 
and 11 inches from east face; chiseled square (C. & G. S. 
b. m. W3) 638.232 

Trenton, 1 mile northeast of, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. 
bridge over Hill Creek, on east end of pier. In center of nose, 18 
inches back from point; chiseled square (C. & G. S. b. m. N3) 633.008 

Le Sourdsville, 328 feet southwest of, on line of Cincinnati, Hamilton 
& Dayton Ry., on north retaining wall, east end of aqueduct over 
canal, opposite north end of railway bridge over creek, on third 
stone from end, 16 inches from south face and 8 inches from east 
face; highest point in square lettered ** U.S.C.&G.S." (C. & G. S. 
b. m. V3) 624. 938 

Busenbark, % mile south of, 0.8 mile northeast of Overpeck, .on line 
of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry., on arch culvert about 
66 feet south of milepost C. 31, on northeast comer of stone, 
about 6 inches from either face; chiseled square (C. & G, S. 
b. m. 03) 635.355 

riookion soutlieaat along Cincinnati, Hamilton ft Dayton By. to Olendale. 

Elockton, 1,000 feet west of, on culvert 34, west abutment, north end ; 
highest point in square 2^ inches on a side (C. & G. S. b. m. 
Pennsylvania R. R. No. 23) 605.650 

Jones, 1.5 miles north of, on line of the Cincinnati, Hamilton &